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Sample records for national pesticide practice

  1. National Pesticide Standard Repository

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA's National Pesticide Standards Repository collects and maintains an inventory of analytical “standards” of registered pesticides in the United States, as well as some that are not currently registered for food and product testing and monitoring.

  2. Watershed scale influence of pesticide reduction practices on pesticides and fishes within channelized agricultural headwater streams

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Implementation of pesticide reduction practices to reduce pesticide usage within agricultural watersheds has the potential to reduce pesticide concentrations within agricultural streams. The watershed scale influence of pesticide reduction practices on pesticides and the biota within agricultural he...

  3. National Pesticide Information Center

    MedlinePlus

    ... Safe Use Practices Food Safety Environment Air Water Soil Wildlife Plants Pest Control Identify Your Pest Learn ... NPIC is a cooperative agreement between Oregon State University and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (cooperative agreement # ...

  4. Pesticide use practices in rural Armenia.

    PubMed

    Tadevosyan, Artashes; Tadevosyan, Natalya; Kelly, Kevin; Gibbs, Shawn G; Rautiainen, Risto H

    2013-01-01

    Pesticide use can have adverse effects on both human health and the environment. Inappropriate use of pesticides increases the health risk to those who work with or live around pesticides. Educational programs for agricultural workers on the proper use of pesticides and personal protective equipment coupled with pesticide regulations are important tools to reduce the associated health risks. The authors conducted a survey (N = 2336) on pesticide use practices in the Ararat Valley of Armenia in 2000-2006. This study was a cross-sectional design. A multistage sampling method was implemented in the selection of the study population. The authors developed a questionnaire containing 173 questions to evaluate demographic characteristics, health conditions, and details of pesticides use practices. The intensity of pesticide use was high; 82.8% of respondents used them. More than 150 brand names of pesticides were in use. Unregistered, obsolete, expired, and banned compounds were found in active use. Poor compliance with the basic rules of pesticide safety was found throughout the study population, with 21.3% using gloves and only 11% using respirators. The agricultural workers' knowledge of the toxic properties of these pesticides as well as basic hygienic norms was very low. In some instances, the number of agrichemical applications to crops, particularly cucumbers and melons, reached 40 applications during the growing season. Better protection and training of pesticide users in Armenia is needed.

  5. The quality of our nation's waters; nutrients and pesticides

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    1999-01-01

    This report is the first in a series of nontechnical publications, 'The quality of our nation's waters,' designed to describe major findings of the National Water-Quality Assessment Program regarding water-quality issues of regional and national concern. Sources, seasonal and geographic patterns of occurrence, and long-term trends are evaluated for nutrients and pesticides in streams and ground water and for pesticides in bed sediment and fish tissue from 20 major river basins and (or) aquifer systems across the conterminous United States. Implications of these national findings relative to water policies and strategies are presented. Issues discussed include relationships of nutrients and pesticides to natural features, land and chemical use, and resource-management practices; effects on human and aquatic health; considerations for development of water-quality standards; and approaches to modeling.

  6. Pesticides

    MedlinePlus

    ... This agency determines how pesticides are applied during farming and how much pesticide residue can remain in ... al, eds. Rosen's Emergency Medicine: Concepts and Clinical Practice . 8th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2014:chap ...

  7. Labeling of Pesticide Products under the National Organic Program

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This notice describes how registrants can obtain EPA approval of label language indicating that all ingredients in a pesticide product and all uses of that pesticide meet the criteria defined in the USDA National Organic Program Rule.

  8. Pesticide use knowledge and practices: A gender differences in Nepal

    SciTech Connect

    Atreya, Kishor . E-mail: k.atreya@gmail.com

    2007-06-15

    It is important to understand gender difference on pesticide use knowledge, attitude and practices for identifying pesticide risks by gender and to recommend more gender-sensitive programs. However, very few studies have been conducted so far in Nepal. This study, thus, interviewed a total of 325 males and 109 females during 2005 to assess gender differences on pesticide use knowledge, attitude and practices. More than 50% females had never been to school and only <8% individuals were found trained in Integrated Pest Management (IPM). Almost all males and females did not smoke, drink and eat during pesticides application and also believed that pesticides are harmful to human health, livestock, plant diversity and their environment. However, there were gender differences on household decision on pesticides to be used (p<0.001), care of wind direction during spraying (p=0.032), prior knowledge on safety measures (p=0.016), reading and understanding of pesticides labels (p<0.001), awareness of the labels (p<0.001) and protective covers. Almost all respondents were aware of negative impacts of pesticide use on human health and environment irrespective of gender; however, females were at higher risk due to lower level of pesticide use safety and awareness. It is strongly recommended to initiate gender-sensitive educational and awareness activities, especially on pesticide use practices and safety precautions.

  9. Pesticide use knowledge and practices: a gender differences in Nepal.

    PubMed

    Atreya, Kishor

    2007-06-01

    It is important to understand gender difference on pesticide use knowledge, attitude and practices for identifying pesticide risks by gender and to recommend more gender-sensitive programs. However, very few studies have been conducted so far in Nepal. This study, thus, interviewed a total of 325 males and 109 females during 2005 to assess gender differences on pesticide use knowledge, attitude and practices. More than 50% females had never been to school and only <8% individuals were found trained in Integrated Pest Management (IPM). Almost all males and females did not smoke, drink and eat during pesticides application and also believed that pesticides are harmful to human health, livestock, plant diversity and their environment. However, there were gender differences on household decision on pesticides to be used (p<0.001), care of wind direction during spraying (p=0.032), prior knowledge on safety measures (p=0.016), reading and understanding of pesticides labels (p<0.001), awareness of the labels (p<0.001) and protective covers. Almost all respondents were aware of negative impacts of pesticide use on human health and environment irrespective of gender; however, females were at higher risk due to lower level of pesticide use safety and awareness. It is strongly recommended to initiate gender-sensitive educational and awareness activities, especially on pesticide use practices and safety precautions.

  10. Protecting ground water: pesticides and agricultural practices. Technical report (Final)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-02-01

    The booklet presents the results of a project conducted by EPA's Office of Ground-Water Protection to evaluate the potential impacts of various agronomic, irrigation, and pesticide application practices on ground water. The report provides State and local water quality and agricultural officials with technical information to help in the development of programs to protect ground water from pesticide contamination. The report explains the principles involved in reducing the risk of pesticide contamination and describes what is known about the impact of various agricultural practices on pesticide leaching. It is hoped that the information will be helpful to water-quality officials in developing and implementing ground-water protection programs.

  11. Effectiveness of cleaning practices in removing pesticides from home environments.

    PubMed

    McCauley, Linda A; Travers, Rachelle; Lasarev, Michael; Muniz, Juan; Nailon, Regina

    2006-01-01

    The deposition of agricultural pesticides in the homes of agricultural workers and residents of agricultural communities is a major environmental health concern. The effectiveness of home cleaning activities in removing pesticides from home surfaces has not been tested. An intervention study was conducted to assess the effectiveness of cleaning windowsills, floors and carpets in a sample of 10 farmworker homes. Baseline measures of organophosphorus (OP) pesticide residues were obtained, a standardized cleaning intervention was applied and follow-up measures of pesticide residues were obtained within 24-48 hours after the cleaning and 12 months later. House dust was analyzed for six OP pesticides. All homes had detectable baseline levels of OP pesticides on floors and windowsills. Cleaning of linoleum floors was ineffective in removing total pesticide residues and cleaning effectiveness varied among the pesticides. The cleaning of total OP pesticides on the windowsills was effective (median decrease was 0.0029 microg/cm(2), 1-sided p-value = 0.01). Steam cleaning carpets essentially reduced the amounts to non-detectable levels. In 12 months the levels in carpets had accumulated to one-third of the baseline levels. These results provide evidence that cleaning practices can reduce the amount of pesticides in agricultural homes; however the type of surface being cleaned and the pesticides present in the home may influence results.

  12. Taiwanese farm workers' pesticide knowledge, attitudes, behaviors and clothing practices.

    PubMed

    Weng, Chen-Yu; Black, Catherine

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess Taiwanese fruit farm workers' knowledge, attitudes, behaviours, and clothing practices regarding pesticide activities. Seventy-seven fruit farm workers from four districts of Tainan City, Taiwan completed the questionnaire. Results indicated that farmer workers had a good overall level of knowledge of the adverse effects of pesticides on human health and most had experienced symptoms of pesticide poisoning. Farm workers' attitudes toward pesticide use and handling indicated that they saw pesticides useful in controlling pests. Farm workers indicated the limited availability of comfortable clothing designed for a hot and humid climate while still providing sufficient protection was the main reason for not wearing personal protective clothing (PPC) and personal protective equipment (PPE). Emphasis on safety precautions is needed when using pesticides, and the importance of PPC and PPE is essential for the health of farm workers.

  13. Pesticide regulations for agriculture: Chemically flawed regulatory practice.

    PubMed

    Gamble, Donald S; Bruccoleri, Aldo G

    2016-08-02

    Two categories of pesticide soil models now exist. Government regulatory agencies use pesticide fate and transport hydrology models, including versions of PRZM.gw. They have good descriptions of pesticide transport by water flow. Their descriptions of chemical mechanisms are unrealistic, having been postulated using the universally accepted but incorrect pesticide soil science. The objective of this work is to report experimental tests of a pesticide soil model in use by regulatory agencies and to suggest possible improvements. Tests with experimentally based data explain why PRZM.gw predictions can be wrong by orders of magnitude. Predictive spreadsheet models are the other category. They are experimentally based, with chemical stoichiometry applied to integral kinetic rate laws for sorption, desorption, intra-particle diffusion, and chemical reactions. They do not account for pesticide transport through soils. Each category of models therefore lacks what the other could provide. They need to be either harmonized or replaced. Some preliminary tests indicate that an experimental mismatch between the categories of models will have to be resolved. Reports of pesticides in the environment and the medical problems that overlap geographically indicate that government regulatory practice needs to account for chemical kinetics and mechanisms. Questions about possible cause and effect links could then be investigated.

  14. Pesticides.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sherma, Joseph

    1989-01-01

    This review is devoted to methods for the determination of residues of pesticides and some related industrial chemicals. Topics include: residue methods, sampling, chromatography, organochlorine pesticides, organophosphorus pesticides, carbamate insecticides, herbicides, fungicides, pyrethrins, fumigants, and related chemicals. (MVL)

  15. Pesticides.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sherma, Joseph

    1989-01-01

    This review is devoted to methods for the determination of residues of pesticides and some related industrial chemicals. Topics include: residue methods, sampling, chromatography, organochlorine pesticides, organophosphorus pesticides, carbamate insecticides, herbicides, fungicides, pyrethrins, fumigants, and related chemicals. (MVL)

  16. PRN 2003-1: Labeling of Pesticide Products under the National Organic Program

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This notice describes how registrants can obtain EPA approval of label language indicating that all ingredients (active and inert) in a pesticide product and all uses of that pesticide meet the criteria defined in the USDA's National Organic Program Rule.

  17. Pesticides

    MedlinePlus

    ... or cause harm to crops, people, or animals. Pesticides can help get rid of them. Pesticides are not just insect killers. They also include ... mildew, germs, and more. Many household products contain pesticides. Pesticides can protect your health by killing germs, ...

  18. Atmospheric deposition of current-use and historic-use pesticides in snow at National Parks in the Western United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hageman, K.J.; Simonich, S.L.; Campbell, D.H.; Wilson, G.R.; Landers, D.H.

    2006-01-01

    The United States (U.S.) National Park Service has initiated research on the atmospheric deposition and fate of semi-volatile organic compounds in its alpine, sub-Arctic, and Arctic ecosystems in the Western U.S. Results for the analysis of pesticides in seasonal snowpack samples collected in spring 2003 from seven national parks are presented herein. From a target analyte list of 47 pesticides and degradation products, the most frequently detected current-use pesticides were dacthal, chlorpyrifos, endosulfan, and ??- hexachlorocyclohexane, whereas the most frequently detected historic-use pesticides were dieldrin, ??-hexachlorocyclohexane, chlordane, and hexachlorobenzene. Correlation analysis with latitude, temperature, elevation, particulate matter, and two indicators of regional pesticide use reveal that regional current and historic agricultural practices are largely responsible for the distribution of pesticides in the national parks in this study. Pesticide deposition in the Alaskan parks is attributed to long-range transport because there are no significant regional pesticide sources. The percentage of total pesticide concentration due to regional transport (%RT) was calculated for the other parks. %RT was highest at parks with higher regional cropland intensity and for pesticides with lower vapor pressures and shorter half-lives in air. ?? 2006 American Chemical Society.

  19. Atmospheric deposition of current-use and historic-use pesticides in snow at national parks in the western United States.

    PubMed

    Hageman, Kimberly J; Simonich, Staci L; Campbell, Donald H; Wilson, Glenn R; Landers, Dixon H

    2006-05-15

    The United States (U.S.) National Park Service has initiated research on the atmospheric deposition and fate of semi-volatile organic compounds in its alpine, sub-Arctic, and Arctic ecosystems in the Western U.S. Results for the analysis of pesticides in seasonal snowpack samples collected in spring 2003 from seven national parks are presented herein. From a target analyte list of 47 pesticides and degradation products, the most frequently detected current-use pesticides were dacthal, chlorpyrifos, endosulfan, and gamma-hexachlorocyclohexane, whereas the mostfrequently detected historic-use pesticides were dieldrin, alpha-hexachlorocyclohexane, chlordane, and hexachlorobenzene. Correlation analysis with latitude, temperature, elevation, particulate matter, and two indicators of regional pesticide use reveal that regional current and historic agricultural practices are largely responsible for the distribution of pesticides in the national parks in this study. Pesticide deposition in the Alaskan parks is attributed to long-range transport because there are no significant regional pesticide sources. The percentage of total pesticide concentration due to regional transport (%RT) was calculated for the other parks. %RT was highest at parks with higher regional cropland intensity and for pesticides with lower vapor pressures and shorter half-lives in air.

  20. Status of pesticide management in the practice of vector control: a global survey in countries at risk of malaria or other major vector-borne diseases.

    PubMed

    van den Berg, Henk; Hii, Jeffrey; Soares, Agnes; Mnzava, Abraham; Ameneshewa, Birkinesh; Dash, Aditya P; Ejov, Mikhail; Tan, Soo Hian; Matthews, Graham; Yadav, Rajpal S; Zaim, Morteza

    2011-05-14

    It is critical that vector control pesticides are used for their acceptable purpose without causing adverse effects on health and the environment. This paper provides a global overview of the current status of pesticides management in the practice of vector control. A questionnaire was distributed to WHO member states and completed either by the director of the vector-borne disease control programme or by the national manager for vector control. In all, 113 countries responded to the questionnaire (80% response rate), representing 94% of the total population of the countries targeted. Major gaps were evident in countries in pesticide procurement practices, training on vector control decision making, certification and quality control of pesticide application, monitoring of worker safety, public awareness programmes, and safe disposal of pesticide-related waste. Nevertheless, basic conditions of policy and coordination have been established in many countries through which the management of vector control pesticides could potentially be improved. Most countries responded that they have adopted relevant recommendations by the WHO. Given the deficiencies identified in this first global survey on public health pesticide management and the recent rise in pesticide use for malaria control, the effectiveness and safety of pesticide use are being compromised. This highlights the urgent need for countries to strengthen their capacity on pesticide management and evidence-based decision making within the context of an integrated vector management approach.

  1. Status of pesticide management in the practice of vector control: a global survey in countries at risk of malaria or other major vector-borne diseases

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background It is critical that vector control pesticides are used for their acceptable purpose without causing adverse effects on health and the environment. This paper provides a global overview of the current status of pesticides management in the practice of vector control. Methods A questionnaire was distributed to WHO member states and completed either by the director of the vector-borne disease control programme or by the national manager for vector control. In all, 113 countries responded to the questionnaire (80% response rate), representing 94% of the total population of the countries targeted. Results Major gaps were evident in countries in pesticide procurement practices, training on vector control decision making, certification and quality control of pesticide application, monitoring of worker safety, public awareness programmes, and safe disposal of pesticide-related waste. Nevertheless, basic conditions of policy and coordination have been established in many countries through which the management of vector control pesticides could potentially be improved. Most countries responded that they have adopted relevant recommendations by the WHO. Conclusions Given the deficiencies identified in this first global survey on public health pesticide management and the recent rise in pesticide use for malaria control, the effectiveness and safety of pesticide use are being compromised. This highlights the urgent need for countries to strengthen their capacity on pesticide management and evidence-based decision making within the context of an integrated vector management approach. PMID:21569601

  2. Simulating Effects of Forest Management Practices on Pesticide.

    Treesearch

    M.C. Smith; W.G. Knisel; J.L. Michael; D.G. Neary

    1993-01-01

    The GLEAMS model pesticide component was modified to simulate up to 245 pesticides simultaneously, and the revised model was used to pesticide pesticide application windows for forest site preparation and pine release. Five herbicides were made for soils representing four hydrologic soil groups in four climatic regions of the southeastern United States. Five herbicides...

  3. Pesticide Knowledge and Safety Practices among Farm Workers in Kuwait: Results of a Survey.

    PubMed

    Jallow, Mustapha F A; Awadh, Dawood G; Albaho, Mohammed S; Devi, Vimala Y; Thomas, Binson M

    2017-03-24

    The unsafe and indiscriminate use of pesticides in agriculture represents a major hazard to the environment and human health. The aim of this study was to assess the levels of knowledge, attitude and practices of Kuwaiti farmers regarding the safe use of pesticides. A total of 250 farmers participated in this study through in-depth interviews and observations on-farm. The majority of the farmers acknowledged that pesticides were harmful to their health (71%) and the environment (65%). However, farmers' level of knowledge of pesticide safety is insufficient. Over 70% of the farmers did not read or follow pesticide label instructions, and 58% did not use any personal protective equipment (PPE) when handling pesticides. Educated farmers were significantly more likely to use PPE compared with famers with limited formal education (χ² = 9.89, p < 0.05). Storage of pesticides within living areas was reported by 20% of farmers. When disposing of pesticide wastes, respondents adopted unsafe practices such as discarding, incinerating, or burying empty pesticide containers on-farm, or reusing the containers. Farmers also reported disposing leftover pesticide solution or old pesticide stocks on-farm or in the sewer. A significant number (82%) of the farmers reported at least one symptom of acute pesticide poisoning. Although farmers' knowledge of pesticide hazards was high, the reported safety measures were poor. Comprehensive intervention measures to reduce the health and environmental risks of pesticides are needed, including pesticide safety training programs for farmers, stringent enforcement of pesticide laws, and promoting integrated pest management and non-synthetic methods of pest control.

  4. Pesticide Use and Prevention Practices of Tangerine Growers in Northern Thailand

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chalermphol, Juthathip; Shivakoti, Genesh P.

    2009-01-01

    To investigate pesticide use and prevention practices of tangerine growers in Fang district, Chiang Mai province in Northern Thailand. A questionnaire survey of 312 farmers in the study area, in-depth interviews and group discussions. Only 36% of the participants pursued the recommended prevention practices every time they used pesticides.…

  5. Pesticide Use and Prevention Practices of Tangerine Growers in Northern Thailand

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chalermphol, Juthathip; Shivakoti, Genesh P.

    2009-01-01

    To investigate pesticide use and prevention practices of tangerine growers in Fang district, Chiang Mai province in Northern Thailand. A questionnaire survey of 312 farmers in the study area, in-depth interviews and group discussions. Only 36% of the participants pursued the recommended prevention practices every time they used pesticides.…

  6. Improving the consideration of hydrogeological characteristics to assess the contamination groundwater by pesticides at national scale (France)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Auterives, Chrystelle; Baran, Nicole; Surdyk, Nicolas

    2017-04-01

    According to the European Water Framework Directive, Member States have to conduct study of anthropogenic pressure and its impact on the status of water bodies, and to implement programs of measures in order to reverse any significant and sustained upward trend in the concentration of any pollutant. Focused on pesticides in groundwater, the aim of this work is to propose new tools to the stakeholders to identifying groundwater bodies presenting a risk of not achieving « good chemical status ». Several parameters control the transfer of a pesticide from the soil to the groundwater: climate conditions (i.e. recharge), soil and hydrogeological characteristics, pesticides physico-chemical properties. The issues of this study are (1) to take account of hydrogeology context, besides soil and pesticide physico-chemical properties relatively well studied as in registration procedure; (2) to work at national scale which involve to consider variability of land uses and practices, (hydro)geology and climate conditions. To overcome difficulties, this study proposes to identify, when data make it possible, the main driver (hydrogeology or pesticides properties) which explains transfer of pesticides into groundwater at the water body scale. This aspect is particularly innovative as, to date, hydrogeology contexts are usually not considered. Thus, for instance, timeframe of transfer in the unsaturated zone is also considered. Despite work being performed for several substances with contrasted physico-chemical properties, the outcome will be a classification of substances in different groups according to their chemical properties and their potential occurrence in groundwater. The work is based on existing data only. From French databases, BNVD (French national database of the sales of pesticides) and ADES (national French data base on groundwater resources gathering), we are able to link pesticides use and groundwater impact. As a first step, several specific pesticides were

  7. Gender Difference in Safe and Unsafe Practice of Pesticide Handling in Tobacco Farmers of Malaysia

    PubMed Central

    BIN NORDIN, Rusli; ARAKI, Shunichi; SATO, Hajime; YOKOYAMA, Kazuhito; BIN WAN MUDA, Wan Abdul Manan; WIN KYI, Daw

    2001-01-01

    To identify gender difference in safe and unsafe practice of pesticide handling in tobacco farmers of Malaysia, we conducted a 20-item questionnaire interview on storage of pesticide (4 questions), mixing of pesticide (3 questions), use of personal protective equipment and clothing while spraying pesticide (7 questions), activities during and after spraying of pesticide (5 questions), and maintenance of pesticide sprayer (1 question) in 496 tobacco farmers (395 males and 101 females) in Bachok District, Kelantan, Malaysia. Duration of employment was significantly longer in females than those in males (p<0.001). In addition, proportion with no formal education in females was significantly higher than those in males (p<0.05). The following eight common factors were extracted from the 20 questionnaires by principal components factor analysis after varimax rotation in all farmers: (1) use of personal protective equipment, (2) unsafe work habit, (3) reading and following instructions on pesticide label, (4) security, storage and disposal of pesticide container, (5) safe work habit, (6) proper handling of pesticide and maintenance of pesticide sprayer, (7) use of personal protective clothing, and (8) safe handling of pesticide. Results of analysis of covariance for the eight factor scores of all male and female farmers, controlling for educational level and duration of employment, showed that: (1) factor scores for use of personal protective equipment (p<0.001), use of personal protective clothing (p<0.001) and safe work habit (p<0.001) in females were significantly lower than those in males; (2) conversely, factor scores for reading and following instruction on pesticide label (p<0.001) and proper handling of pesticide and maintenance of pesticide sprayer (p<0.01) in males were significantly lower than those in females; and (3) there were no significant differences in other three factor scores (p>0.05). We therefore conclude that: (1) for female tobacco farmers, choice

  8. Pesticide safety training and practices in women working in small-scale agriculture in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Naidoo, S; London, L; Rother, H-A; Burdorf, A; Naidoo, R N; Kromhout, H

    2010-12-01

    Unregulated use of pesticides continues in developing countries in the presence of illiteracy and limited safety training and practices. This paper describes training and safety practices when mixing and spraying pesticides, and acetylcholinesterase levels among women farmers in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. A cross-sectional study conducted in women working in small-scale agriculture in rural KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa in 2006 assessed pesticide training and safety practices using a questionnaire survey and measured acetylcholinesterase levels in 803 women. Three components of safety behaviour were identified through principle component analysis and described. The mean age of participants was 41.8 years (range 18-82 years) with a mean of 6.9 years (range 1-12 years) of education among school attendees. Among the 803 women included, 366 (45.6%) were the primary sprayers on their farm. Only 16.4% of the sprayers had ever attended a pesticide training course and only 18.0% reported ever reading pesticide labels. Of the women using some form of protective equipment, 56.7% and 54.9% reported doing so when mixing and spraying pesticides, respectively. The mean acetylcholinesterase level corrected for haemoglobin among study participants was 28.9 U/g Hb (95% CI 28.4 to 29.4). Women working in small-scale agriculture in rural KwaZulu-Natal with limited access to pesticide training observe few safety practices when mixing and spraying pesticides.

  9. Pilot Study of Pesticide Knowledge, Attitudes, and Practices among Pregnant Women in Northern Thailand

    PubMed Central

    Lorenz, Alyson N.; Prapamontol, Tippawan; Narksen, Warangkana; Srinual, Niphan; Barr, Dana B.; Riederer, Anne M.

    2012-01-01

    An estimated 200,000 children born in Thailand each year are at risk of prenatal exposure to pesticides and associated neurodevelopmental outcomes because of their mothers’ agricultural occupations. Children born to non-agricultural workers may also be at risk of exposure from other pathways of maternal pesticide exposure, including exposure through home use, diet, and other environmental media. Pesticide exposure in Thailand has been linked to unsafe practices and beliefs about pesticides. However, limited information exists on pesticide knowledge, attitudes, and practices among pregnant women in Thailand or elsewhere. Obtaining this information is essential to understand the factors associated with prenatal pesticide exposure, identify populations potentially at risk, and ultimately protect pregnant women and their children. We administered surveys to 76 pregnant women in northern Thailand and used multivariable logistic regression to evaluate associations among pesticide-related knowledge, pregnancy trimester, and pesticide use behavior. In this pilot study, lower knowledge score and earliest trimester of pregnancy were marginally (p < 0.1) associated with unsafe practices in the home, but not at work. Women who worked in agriculture or applied pesticides before becoming pregnant, or who had a previous child were significantly (p < 0.05) more likely to engage in unsafe behaviors in the home during their current pregnancy. We preliminarily conclude that increasing pesticide-related knowledge among pregnant women may help promote safe practices and reduce prenatal exposure. Knowledge-based interventions may be most effective when implemented early in pregnancy and targeted to agricultural workers and other sub-populations at risk of pesticide exposure. PMID:23202693

  10. Knowledge attitude and practice of pesticide use among agricultural workers in Puducherry, South India.

    PubMed

    Mohanty, Manoj Kumar; Behera, Basanta Kumar; Jena, Saubhagya Kumar; Srikanth, S; Mogane, C; Samal, Soumya; Behera, Anugya Aparajita

    2013-11-01

    To study the level of knowledge and practice related to pesticides and their adverse effects among agricultural workers. A cross sectional study among 100 randomly selected agricultural workers, using or ever used pesticide within last one year was conducted in Puducherry, South India. The questionnaire was adapted from WHO field surveys of 'Exposure to Pesticides Standard Protocol' and similar studies. Data were collected by face to face interview. All the participants were male with mean age of 54.3 yrs. While 70% of respondents perceived pesticide spraying affects a person's health, only 40% were aware that it affects the environment. Two thirds of the respondents (62%) were aware that pesticide enters the body through nose and affects lungs. Awareness on other modes of entry was less. Majority (76%) of them was aware of training programs conducted by government agriculture department on pest management. About 42% of farmers had good knowledge regarding pesticide. Between 40% and 70% of respondents were not using any protective equipments during pesticide spraying. Around 68% of farmers indiscriminately disposed empty containers while 48% buried the leftover pesticides. Significant association (p < 0.05) was observed between knowledge of the farmers and their practices related to pesticides. Overall awareness of agricultural workers on pesticide was inadequate. Improper disposal of pesticides and its container can produce harm to the environment. The findings of the study emphasize the need to educate agricultural workers regarding safe and adequate use of pesticides to prevent health and environmental hazards. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd and Faculty of Forensic and Legal Medicine. All rights reserved.

  11. Pesticide retailers' knowledge and handling practices in selected towns of Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Lekei, Elikana E; Ngowi, Aiwerasia V; London, Leslie

    2014-10-07

    Approximately 300 pesticide retailers are currently registered in Tanzania. Inadequate knowledge and unsafe handling practices among retailers may contribute to human pesticide exposure and environmental contamination. This study investigated pesticide retailers' qualifications, work experience, safety practices and the products distributed so as to identify opportunities for preventing Acute Pesticide Poisoning (APP). In 2005, employees of pesticide retail firms in six Tanzanian towns were surveyed using a semi-structured questionnaire and physical inspection of premises. In addition, information on products distributed in 2004 and 2005 was collected from Arusha and Arumeru firms to assess potential risk posed for end-users. More than half of the participating firms (58.6%) were not registered. Most agents on sale in Arusha and Arumeru were hazardous products including WHO Class I and II products (61.7%) and the mean number of cholinesterase inhibiting agents was 5.8 (range 2-8). Major deficiencies found included semi-trained staff (52%), lack of first-aid kits (38.6%), repacking and decanting of pesticides into smaller unlabelled containers (25.3%), lack of fire-fighting equipment (22.6%) and distribution of unregistered products (9.3%). Compared to unregistered companies, those companies that were registered were more likely to report practicing safe container disposal (40% versus 19%; p = 0.06) and to have an absence of leaking containers (36% versus 15%; p = 0.04). Pesticide distribution in Tanzania was accompanied by many unsafe practices that may contribute to the burden from APP, not only affecting the distributors but also farmers who buy and use these products. Market pressures appear to be encouraging decanting of pesticides to enable retailers to make profits. Registration of firms appears to be associated with safer practices. Comprehensive interventions to strengthen enforcement mechanisms by increasing the number of pesticide inspectors

  12. Notification: National Pesticide Information Center Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act Enforcement Referrals

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Project #OPE-FY14-0035, March 21, 2014. The Office of Inspector General is starting preliminary research on the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's oversight of the National Pesticide Information Center program.

  13. Pesticide fate modeling in soils with the crop model STICS: Feasibility for assessment of agricultural practices.

    PubMed

    Queyrel, Wilfried; Habets, Florence; Blanchoud, Hélène; Ripoche, Dominique; Launay, Marie

    2016-01-15

    Numerous pesticide fate models are available, but few of them are able to take into account specific agricultural practices, such as catch crop, mixing crops or tillage in their predictions. In order to better integrate crop management and crop growth in the simulation of diffuse agricultural pollutions, and to manage both pesticide and nitrogen pollution, a pesticide fate module was implemented in the crop model STICS. The objectives of the study were: (i) to implement a pesticide fate module in the crop model STICS; (ii) to evaluate the model performance using experimental data from three sites with different pedoclimatic contexts, one in The Netherlands and two in northern France; (iii) to compare the simulations with several pesticide fate models; and (iv) to test the impact of specific agricultural practices on the transfer of the dissolved fraction of pesticides. The evaluations were carried out with three herbicides: bentazone, isoproturon, and atrazine. The strategy applied in this study relies on a noncalibration approach and sensitivity test to assess the operating limits of the model. To this end, the evaluation was performed with default values found in the literature and completed by sensitivity tests. The extended version of the STICS named STICS-Pest, shows similar results with other pesticide fate models widely used in the literature. Moreover, STICS-Pest was able to estimate realistic crop growth and catch crop dynamic, which thus illustrate agricultural practices leading to a reduction of nitrate and a change in pesticide leaching. The dynamic plot-scale model, STICS-Pest is able to simulate nitrogen and pesticide fluxes, when the hydrologic context is in the validity range of the reservoir (or capacity) model. According to these initial results, the model may be a relevant tool for studying the effect of long-term agricultural practices on pesticide residue dynamics in soil and the associated diffuse pollution transfer. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier

  14. [Providing studies quality for pesticides risk evaluation in their use according to proper laboratory practice rules].

    PubMed

    Rakitskiy, V N; Bereznyak, I V

    2016-01-01

    The article covers experience of proper laboratory practice in hygienic studies examining air and workers' skin for assessment of exposure levels of pesticides in natural conditions of agricultural production.

  15. Variability in Pesticide Deposition and Source Contributions to Snowpack in Western US National Parks

    PubMed Central

    Hageman, Kimberly J.; Hafner, William D.; Campbell, Donald H.; Jaffe, Daniel A; Landers, Dixon H.; Simonic, Staci L. Massey

    2010-01-01

    Fifty-six seasonal snowpack samples were collected at remote alpine, sub-arctic, and arctic sites in eight Western US national parks during three consecutive years (2003–2005). Four current-use pesticides (CUPs) (dacthal (DCPA), chlorpyrifos, endosulfan, and γ-hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH)) and four historic-use pesticides (HUPs) (dieldrin, α-HCH, chlordane, and hexachlorobenzene (HCB)) were commonly measured at all sites, during all years. The mean coefficient of variation for pesticide concentrations was 15% for site replicate samples, 41% for intra-park replicate samples, and 59% for inter-annual replicate samples. The relative pesticide concentration profiles were consistent from year to year but unique for individual parks, indicating a regional source effect. HUP concentrations were well-correlated with regional cropland intensity when the effect of temperature on snow-air partitioning was considered. The mass of individual CUPs used in regions located one-day upwind of the parks was calculated using air mass back trajectories and this was used to explain the distribution of CUPs among the parks. The percent of the snowpack pesticide concentration due to regional transport was high (>75%) for the majority of pesticides in all parks. These results suggest that the majority of pesticide contamination in US national parks is due to pesticide use in North America. PMID:20499934

  16. Variability in pesticide deposition and source contributions to snowpack in Western U.S. national parks.

    PubMed

    Hageman, Kimberly J; Hafner, William D; Campbell, Donald H; Jaffe, Daniel A; Landers, Dixon H; Simonich, Staci L Massey

    2010-06-15

    Fifty-six seasonal snowpack samples were collected at remote alpine, subarctic, and arctic sites in eight Western U.S. national parks during three consecutive years (2003-2005). Four current-use pesticides (CUPs) (dacthal (DCPA), chlorpyrifos, endosulfans, and gamma-hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH)) and four historic-use pesticides (HUPs) (dieldrin, alpha-HCH, chlordanes, and hexachlorobenzene (HCB)) were commonly measured at all sites, during all years. The mean coefficient of variation for pesticide concentrations was 15% for site replicate samples, 41% for intrapark replicate samples, and 59% for interannual replicate samples. The relative pesticide concentration profiles were consistent from year to year but unique for individual parks, indicating a regional source effect. HUP concentrations were well-correlated with regional cropland intensity when the effect of temperature on snow-air partitioning was considered. The mass of individual CUPs used in regions located one-day upwind of the parks was calculated using air mass back trajectories, and this was used to explain the distribution of CUPs among the parks. The percent of the snowpack pesticide concentration due to regional transport was high (>75%) for the majority of pesticides in all parks. These results suggest that the majority of pesticide contamination in U.S. national parks is due to regional pesticide use in North America.

  17. Variability in pesticide deposition and source contributions to snowpack in western U.S. National Parks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hageman, Kimberly J.; Hafner, William D.; Campbell, Donald H.; Jaffe, Daniel A.; Landers, Dixon H.; Massey Simonich, Staci L.

    2010-01-01

    Fifty-six seasonal snowpack samples were collected at remote alpine, subarctic, and arctic sites in eight Western U.S. national parks during three consecutive years (2003−2005). Four current-use pesticides (CUPs) (dacthal (DCPA), chlorpyrifos, endosulfans, and γ-hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH)) and four historic-use pesticides (HUPs) (dieldrin, α-HCH, chlordanes, and hexachlorobenzene (HCB)) were commonly measured at all sites, during all years. The mean coefficient of variation for pesticide concentrations was 15% for site replicate samples, 41% for intrapark replicate samples, and 59% for interannual replicate samples. The relative pesticide concentration profiles were consistent from year to year but unique for individual parks, indicating a regional source effect. HUP concentrations were well-correlated with regional cropland intensity when the effect of temperature on snow-air partitioning was considered. The mass of individual CUPs used in regions located one-day upwind of the parks was calculated using air mass back trajectories, and this was used to explain the distribution of CUPs among the parks. The percent of the snowpack pesticide concentration due to regional transport was high (>75%) for the majority of pesticides in all parks. These results suggest that the majority of pesticide contamination in U.S. national parks is due to regional pesticide use in North America.

  18. Sensitivity analysis of the STICS-MACRO model to identify cropping practices reducing pesticides losses.

    PubMed

    Lammoglia, Sabine-Karen; Makowski, David; Moeys, Julien; Justes, Eric; Barriuso, Enrique; Mamy, Laure

    2017-02-15

    STICS-MACRO is a process-based model simulating the fate of pesticides in the soil-plant system as a function of agricultural practices and pedoclimatic conditions. The objective of this work was to evaluate the influence of crop management practices on water and pesticide flows in contrasted environmental conditions. We used the Morris screening sensitivity analysis method to identify the most influential cropping practices. Crop residues management and tillage practices were shown to have strong effects on water percolation and pesticide leaching. In particular, the amount of organic residues added to soil was found to be the most influential input. The presence of a mulch could increase soil water content so water percolation and pesticide leaching. Conventional tillage was also found to decrease pesticide leaching, compared to no-till, which is consistent with many field observations. The effects of the soil, crop and climate conditions tested in this work were less important than those of cropping practices. STICS-MACRO allows an ex ante evaluation of cropping systems and agricultural practices, and of the related pesticides environmental impacts. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. EVALUATING PESTICIDE USE AND SAFETY PRACTICES AMONG FARMWORKERS IN GALLIPOLI PENINSULA, TURKEY.

    PubMed

    Cevizci, Sibel; Babaoglu, Ulken Tunga; Bakar, Coskun

    2015-01-01

    Unsafe pesticide use among farmworkers is a major public health problem in Turkey. This study aimed to investigate pesticide use and safety practices of farmers in a village of Gallipoli Peninsula, Turkey. This cross sectional study was conducted with 117 farmers. The questionnaire included questions on demographic data, knowledge, attitudes, and safety practices concerning pesticides. The mean age of participants was 42.8 years, and 38.5% was female participants. Of the total 177 respondents, 77.8% reported that they prepared the chemical mixture at a public fountain, whereas 22.2% prepared it in their houses. Almost half (44.4%) reported that they experienced at least one health problem after pesticide application in the previous one year. Total scores for pesticide safety practices of the subjects, who declared that they experienced at least one health problem after the application in the previous one year, were statistically significantly lower (p < 0.001). Their responses about safe use of pesticides and storage conditions were very striking. Our findings indicated that there is a need to increase health promotion activities through training, and the local administrations should promote safe use of pesticides by farm workers.

  20. Evaluation of core cultivation practices to reduce ecological risk of pesticides in runoff from Agrostis palustris.

    PubMed

    Rice, Pamela J; Horgan, Brian P; Rittenhouse, Jennifer L

    2010-06-01

    Pesticides associated with the turfgrass industry have been detected in storm runoff and surface waters of urban watersheds, invoking concern of their potential environmental effects and a desire to reduce their transport to nontarget locations. Quantities of chlorpyrifos, dicamba, dimethylamine salt of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D), flutolanil, and mecoprop-p (MCPP) transported in runoff from bentgrass (Agrostis palustris) fairway turf managed with solid tine (ST) or hollow tine (HT) core cultivation were compared to determine which cultivation practice is more efficient at mitigating environmental risk. Plots receiving HT core cultivation showed a 10 and 55% reduction in runoff volume and a 15 to 57% reduction in pesticide transport with runoff at 63 d and 2 d following core cultivation. Estimated environmental concentrations of the pesticides in a surface water receiving runoff from turf managed with ST core cultivation exceeded the median lethal concentration (LC50) or median effective concentration (EC50) of nine aquatic organisms evaluated. Replacing ST core cultivation with HT core cultivation reduced surface water concentrations of the pesticides to levels below the LC50 and EC50 for most these aquatic organisms, lessening risk associated with pesticides in runoff from the fairway turf. Results of the present research provide quantitative information that will allow for informed decisions on cultural practices that can maximize pesticide retention at the site of application, improving pest control in turf while minimizing environmental contamination and adverse effects associated with the off-site transport of pesticides. Copyright 2010 SETAC.

  1. Pesticide practices and suicide among farmers of the sundarban region in India.

    PubMed

    Chowdhury, Arabinda N; Banerjee, Sohini; Brahma, Arabinda; Weiss, M G

    2007-06-01

    Deliberate self-poisoning by ingesting pesticides is a serious health problem among farmers, especially in low- and middle-income countries. Preventing these suicides is a priority for a public mental health agenda. To examine the role of pesticide poisoning in suicide and nonfatal deliberate self-harm, and clarify awareness of risks, safe practices concerning storage and use of pesticides, and associated self-injury, both unintentional and intentional, within farmer households of the Sundarban region, India. Retrospective record review of adult cases of deliberate self-poisoning at the Block Primary Health Centres of 13 Sundarban Blocks was performed to analyze the relative roles of various methods of self-harm and their lethality. Focus group discussions, questionnaires, and in-depth interviews were undertaken in a community study of farmer households to examine pesticide-related views and practices, with particular attention to storage, use, and health impact. Pesticide poisoning was the most common method of deliberate self-harm in both men and women. Pesticide storage in most households was unsafe and knowledge was inadequate concerning adverse effects of pesticides on health, crops, and the environment. An intersectoral approach linking the interests of public health, mental health, and agriculture is well suited to serve the collective interests of all three agendas better than each in isolation. Such an approach is needed to reduce morbidity and mortality from unintentional and intentional self-injury in low-income agricultural communities like those of the Sundarban region.

  2. Farmers' knowledge, practices and injuries associated with pesticide exposure in rural farming villages in Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Pesticides in Tanzania are extensively used for pest control in agriculture. Their usage and unsafe handling practices may potentially result in high farmer exposures and adverse health effects. The aim of this study was to describe farmers’ pesticide exposure profile, knowledge about pesticide hazards, experience of previous poisoning, hazardous practices that may lead to Acute Pesticide Poisoning (APP) and the extent to which APP is reported. Methods The study involved 121 head- of-household respondents from Arumeru district in Arusha region. Data collection involved administration of a standardised questionnaire to farmers and documentation of storage practices. Unsafe pesticide handling practices were assessed through observation of pesticide storage, conditions of personal protective equipment (PPE) and through self-reports of pesticide disposal and equipment calibration. Results Past lifetime pesticide poisoning was reported by 93% of farmers. The agents reported as responsible for poisoning were Organophosphates (42%) and WHO Class II agents (77.6%). Storage of pesticides in the home was reported by 79% of farmers. Respondents with higher education levels were significantly less likely to store pesticides in their home (PRR High/Low = 0.3; 95% CI = 0.1-0.7) and more likely to practice calibration of spray equipment (PRR High/Low = 1.2; 95% CI = 1.03-1.4). However, knowledge of routes of exposure was not associated with safety practices particularly for disposal, equipment wash area, storage and use of PPE . The majority of farmers experiencing APP in the past (79%) did not attend hospital and of the 23 farmers who did so in the preceding year, records could be traced for only 22% of these cases. Conclusions The study found a high potential for pesticide exposure in the selected community in rural Tanzania, a high frequency of self-reported APP and poor recording in hospital records. Farmers’ knowledge levels appeared to be unrelated to their

  3. Farmers' knowledge, practices and injuries associated with pesticide exposure in rural farming villages in Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Lekei, Elikana E; Ngowi, Aiwerasia V; London, Leslie

    2014-04-23

    Pesticides in Tanzania are extensively used for pest control in agriculture. Their usage and unsafe handling practices may potentially result in high farmer exposures and adverse health effects.The aim of this study was to describe farmers' pesticide exposure profile, knowledge about pesticide hazards, experience of previous poisoning, hazardous practices that may lead to Acute Pesticide Poisoning (APP) and the extent to which APP is reported. The study involved 121 head- of-household respondents from Arumeru district in Arusha region. Data collection involved administration of a standardised questionnaire to farmers and documentation of storage practices. Unsafe pesticide handling practices were assessed through observation of pesticide storage, conditions of personal protective equipment (PPE) and through self-reports of pesticide disposal and equipment calibration. Past lifetime pesticide poisoning was reported by 93% of farmers. The agents reported as responsible for poisoning were Organophosphates (42%) and WHO Class II agents (77.6%).Storage of pesticides in the home was reported by 79% of farmers. Respondents with higher education levels were significantly less likely to store pesticides in their home (PRR High/Low = 0.3; 95% CI = 0.1-0.7) and more likely to practice calibration of spray equipment (PRR High/Low = 1.2; 95% CI = 1.03-1.4). However, knowledge of routes of exposure was not associated with safety practices particularly for disposal, equipment wash area, storage and use of PPE . The majority of farmers experiencing APP in the past (79%) did not attend hospital and of the 23 farmers who did so in the preceding year, records could be traced for only 22% of these cases. The study found a high potential for pesticide exposure in the selected community in rural Tanzania, a high frequency of self-reported APP and poor recording in hospital records. Farmers' knowledge levels appeared to be unrelated to their risk. Rather than simply focusing on knowledge

  4. Pesticides.

    PubMed

    Cabrera, Laura Y

    2017-10-01

    There is growing evidence about the influence of chemical exposures on specific molecular systems and mechanisms involved in cognitive and mental function. Evidence is also emerging about the negative impact of these chemical exposures on mental health, including depression, suicide, and other risks. Despite the growing appreciation of these factors, however, little attention has been paid to the ethical and social implications of their interactions. Drawing on recent work that argues for an environmental neuroethics approach that explicitly brings together ethics, environment, and conditions of the central nervous system, this article focuses on these critical issues for pesticides specifically.

  5. Factors determining pesticide use practices by farmers in the Sultanate of Oman.

    PubMed

    Al Zadjali, Said; Morse, Stephen; Chenoweth, Jonathan; Deadman, Mike

    2014-04-01

    In a study of pesticide use on farms in Oman, over 200 respondents were surveyed from amongst owners of and workers on farms that belonged to a Farmers' Association (FA) and those that did not belong to the FA. A questionnaire was used to gauge attitudes to pesticide use whilst inventories of active ingredients were taken for all farms. The age profiles of the respondents were broadly similar, as was the distribution of nationalities amongst the workers. Workers and owners of FA farms were better educated than respondents from non-member farms. A majority of non-FA farm workers reported that they always used pesticides, fewer FA member farm workers and non-FA farm owners reported this behaviour with FA owners showing the lowest proportion of respondents who always used pesticides. Responses amongst farm owners to questions about frequency of pesticide use suggested that this was unaffected by age or education status, but for farm workers younger or less well educated respondents were more likely to respond by indicating that pesticides were always used. When asked to rate pesticides on a scale of 1 (bad) to 10 (good), high responses were most frequent amongst non-FA farm workers followed by FA member farm workers and non-FA farm owners. On average FA farm owners had the lowest average response, and responses by all groups were unaffected by age or education status. Prohibited pesticide use was higher on non-FA farms (4.9% of all pesticides) than on FA farms (1.3%). Pesticide products observed on FA member farms generally contained newer classes of active ingredients and were most frequently from major manufacturing companies in Europe, North America and Japan. Older, off-patent active ingredient-containing products were frequently observed on non-FA farms, often from so-called 'me-too' producing companies in Asia, the Middle East and North Africa.

  6. Evaluation of vegetable production management practices to reduce the ecological risk of pesticides.

    PubMed

    Rice, Pamela J; Hapeman, Cathleen J; McConnell, Laura L; Sadeghi, Ali M; Teasdale, John R; Coffman, C Benjamin; McCarty, Gregory W; Abdul-Baki, Aref A; Starr, James L

    2007-11-01

    The ability of agricultural management practices to reduce the ecological risks of pesticides was evaluated. Risk quotients, a mathematical description of the relationship between exposure and toxicity, and hazard ratings, a rank of the potential risk of pesticides to aquatic environments, were calculated for conventional and alternative cultivation practices for tomatoes: Poly-Bare, raised beds covered with polyethylene mulch with bare-soil furrows; Poly-Rye, raised beds covered with polyethylene mulch with cereal rye (Secale cereale) grown in the furrows; and Vetch, raised beds and furrows planted with hairy vetch seed (Vicia villosa). Evaluations were conducted using measured pesticide concentrations in runoff at the edge-of-field and estimated environmental concentrations in an adjacent creek and a theoretical pond receiving the runoff. Runoff from Poly-Bare presented the greatest risk to ecosystem health and to sensitive organisms, whereas the use of Vetch minimized these risks. Previous studies have shown that harvest yields were maintained and that runoff volume, soil loss, and off-site transport of pesticides measured in runoff were reduced using the alternative management practices (Poly-Rye and Vetch). Together, these results indicate that the alternative management practices (Poly-Rye and Vetch) have a less adverse impact on the environment than the conventional management practice (Poly-Bare) while providing growers with an acceptable economic return. In addition, the present study demonstrates the need to consider the management practice when assessing the potential risks and hazards for certain pesticides.

  7. Practical Solutions for Pesticide Safety: A Farm and Research Team Participatory Model.

    PubMed

    Galvin, Kit; Krenz, Jen; Harrington, Marcy; Palmández, Pablo; Fenske, Richard A

    2016-01-01

    Development of the Practical Solutions for Pesticide Safety guide used participatory research strategies to identify and evaluate solutions that reduce pesticide exposures for workers and their families and to disseminate these solutions. Project principles were (1) workplace chemicals belong in the workplace, and (2) pesticide handlers and farm managers are experts, with direct knowledge of production practices. The project's participatory methods were grounded in self-determination theory. Practical solutions were identified and evaluated based on five criteria: practicality, adaptability, health and safety, novelty, and regulatory compliance. Research activities that had more personal contact provided better outcomes. The Expert Working Group, composed of farm managers and pesticide handlers, was key to the identification of solutions, as were farm site visits. Audience participation, hands-on testing, and orchard field trials were particularly effective in the evaluation of potential solutions. Small work groups in a Regional Advisory Committee provided the best direction and guidance for a "user-friendly" translational document that provided evidence-based practical solutions. The "farmer to farmer" format of the guide was endorsed by both the Expert Working Group and the Regional Advisory Committee. Managers and pesticide handlers wanted to share their solutions in order to "help others stay safe," and they appreciated attribution in the guide. The guide is now being used in educational programs across the region. The fundamental concept that farmers and farmworkers are innovators and experts in agricultural production was affirmed by this study. The success of this process demonstrates the value of participatory industrial hygiene in agriculture.

  8. Agricultural pesticide use in coastal areas: A national summary. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Pait, A.S.; De Souza, A.E.; Farrow, D.R.G.

    1992-09-01

    The information in the report can be used to help target areas for additional monitoring, research, assessment, and management efforts that appear most likely to be affected by the agricultural application of the inventoried pesticides. The use estimates and seasonal application can help managers and researchers to decide which pesticides to monitor, and the time of year the pesticides and associated impacts are more likely to be found. Although agriculturally applied pesticides are only one type of stress to which estuarine systems are exposed, it is important to identify and understand the significance of these contaminants in the estuarine environment. By making the best use of the available data, informed decisions regarding resource management and research priorities can be made to protect and restore the Nation's estuarine resources.

  9. Knowledge and practices of pesticide use among farm workers in the West Bank, Palestine: safety implications

    PubMed Central

    Sawalha, Ansam F.; Sweileh, Waleed M.; Awang, Rahmat; Al-Khalil, Suleiman I.; Al-Jabi, Samah W.; Bsharat, Nihaia M.

    2010-01-01

    Objectives The objectives of this study were to assess the knowledge and practices associated with pesticide use in an agricultural community in Palestine, and to determine the prevalence of self-reported health symptoms related to pesticide exposure. Methods In this cross-sectional questionnaire study, agricultural farm workers in Nablus district, Palestine, were interviewed on their knowledge and practices of pesticide use. Comparisons of knowledge and practices of pesticide use between various groups were performed using the Mann–Whitney U-test or the Kruskal–Wallis rank test of variance. The program of the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 15 was used for data analysis. Results The questionnaire was completed by 381 farm workers. The mean age ± SD of the participants was 38.8 ± 11.8 years. The majority (97.9%) of the participants were male. The mean participant scores for knowledge and safety procedures were 2.8 ± 3.2 out of 8 and 9.8 ± 2.4 out of 15, respectively. There was a significant positive correlation (r = 0.323; P < 0.001) between the knowledge and safety procedure scores. Unsafe behaviors were identified as the storage of pesticide products at home, the preparation of pesticides in the kitchen, inadequate disposal of empty pesticide containers, eating and drinking during pesticide application, and using inadequate protective clothing. The most frequent self-reported toxicity symptoms associated with pesticide use were skin rash (37.5%), headache (37%), excessive sweating (24.9%), and diarrhea (21.3%). There was a strong significant negative correlation (r = −0.83; P < 0.001) between self-reported toxicity symptoms and scores for protective measures. Conclusion The results of this study indicate that most farm workers in this district need more educational programs regarding the safety and use of pesticides. Legislation promoting the use of safer pesticides is also needed. PMID:21432553

  10. Pesticide use and safety practices among Greek tobacco farmers: a survey.

    PubMed

    Damalas, Christos A; Georgiou, Eleni B; Theodorou, Maria G

    2006-10-01

    An attempt was made to explore knowledge, attitudes, and practices towards safety issues of pesticide handling among tobacco farmers of the rural area of Pieria in northern Greece. From the 310 survey questionnaires that were mailed out, 223 were received fully and correctly completed resulting in a quite satisfactory response rate of 72%. A large majority of the farmers (96%) viewed pesticides as a guarantee for high tobacco yields and high product quality. Almost all farmers (99%) thought that pesticides can have serious adverse effects on users' health. Skin contact was recognized as the most common route of exposure during pesticide use (58%). Despite awareness of potential health risks by pesticide handling, a significant proportion of the farmers (46%) reported not using any special protective equipment when spraying pesticides. From those who reported that they use protective equipment, most stated that they normally use a hat (47%) and boots (63%). Only few farmers reported using a face mask (3%), gloves (8%), and coveralls (7%) on a regular basis. The reasons for not using protective equipment during pesticide handling were that protective equipment is uncomfortable (68%), too expensive to buy (17%), time-consuming to use (8%), not available when needed (6%), and not necessary for each case (2%). A large majority of the farmers (84%) said that they replace work clothing when it wears out and a considerable part (48%) stated that they wash work clothing after several uses. Although farmers' knowledge of potential hazards by pesticide use was high, the reported safety measures were poor. Continuous emphasis on the basic safety precautions required when using pesticides and on the importance of protective equipment is essential for changing wrong habits of farmers which can be hazardous for their health.

  11. Pesticides in the Nation's Streams and Ground Water, 1992-2001

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gilliom, Robert J.; Barbash, Jack E.; Crawford, Charles G.; Hamilton, Pixie A.; Martin, Jeffrey D.; Nakagaki, Naomi; Nowell, Lisa H.; Scott, Jonathan C.; Stackelberg, Paul E.; Thelin, Gail P.; Wolock, David M.

    2006-01-01

    This report is one of a series of publications, The Quality of Our Nation's Waters, that describe major findings of the NAWQA Program on water-quality issues of regional and national concern. This report presents evaluations of pesticides in streams and ground water based on findings for the first decadal cycle of NAWQA. 'Pesticides in the Nation's Streams and Ground Water, 1992-2001' greatly expands the analysis of pesticides presented in 'Nutrients and Pesticides,' which was the first report in the series and was based on early results from 1992 to 1995. Other reports in this series cover additional water-quality constituents of concern, such as volatile organic compounds and trace elements, as well as physical and chemical effects on aquatic ecosystems. Each report builds toward a more comprehensive understanding of regional and national water resources. The information in this series is intended primarily for those interested or involved in resource management, conservation, regulation, and policymaking at regional and national levels. In addition, the information might interest those at a local level who wish to know more about the general quality of streams and ground water in areas near where they live and how that quality compares with other areas across the Nation.

  12. Reduction of the movement and persistence of pesticides in soil through common agronomic practices.

    PubMed

    Fenoll, José; Ruiz, Encarnación; Flores, Pilar; Hellín, Pilar; Navarro, Simón

    2011-11-01

    Laboratory and field studies were conducted in order to determine the leaching potential of eight pesticides commonly used during pepper cultivation by use of disturbed soil columns and field lysimeters, respectively. Two soils with different organic matter content (soils A and B) were used. Additionally, soil B was amended with compost (sheep manure). The tested compounds were cypermethrin, chlorpyrifos-methyl, bifenthrin, chlorpyrifos, cyfluthrin, endosulfan, malathion and tolclofos-methyl. In soil B (lower organic matter content), only endosulfan sulphate, malathion and tolclofos-methyl were found in leachates. For the soil A (higher organic matter content) and amended soil B, pesticide residues were not found in the leachates. In addition, this paper reports on the use of common agronomic practices (solarization and biosolarization) to enhance degradation of these pesticides from polluted soil A. The results showed that both solarization and biosolarization enhanced the degradation rates of endosulfan, bifenthrin and tolclofos-methyl compared with the control. Most of the studied pesticides showed similar behavior under solarization and biosolarization conditions. However, chlorpyrifos was degraded to a greater extent in the solarization than in biosolarization treatment. The results obtained point to the interest in the use of organic amendment in reducing the pollution of groundwater by pesticide drainage and in the use of solarization and biosolarization in reducing the persistence of pesticides in soil.

  13. Representations of pesticides and social practices: the case of French farmers.

    PubMed

    Zouhri, Bouchra; Feliot-Rippeault, M; Michel-Guillou, E; Weiss, K

    2016-01-01

    Pesticides and their use in agriculture are important social issues. We conducted research to study the construction of this sensitive social object through the lens of social representations (study of the structural organisation of the social representations of pesticides) and their anchoring in three contexts that differ in terms of farming practices (Martinique, Brittany and Southern France). Our research was composed of two phases: hierarchical associations (n = 213) and a context independence test questionnaire (n = 124), conducted among farmers from the three study sites. The results indicate three representational fields that reflect salient issues in each agricultural territory. These illustrate the heuristic nature of social representations in the analysis of agricultural practices and pesticide use among French farmers.

  14. Variability in pesticide deposition and source contributions to snowpack in western U.S. national parks

    EPA Science Inventory

    Fifty-six seasonal snowpack samples were collected at remote alpine, subarctic, and arctic sites in eight Western U.S. national parks during three consecutive years (2003−2005). Four current-use pesticides (CUPs) (dacthal (DCPA), chlorpyrifos, endosulfans, and γ-hexachlorocyclohe...

  15. Variability in pesticide deposition and source contributions to snowpack in western U.S. national parks

    EPA Science Inventory

    Fifty-six seasonal snowpack samples were collected at remote alpine, subarctic, and arctic sites in eight Western U.S. national parks during three consecutive years (2003−2005). Four current-use pesticides (CUPs) (dacthal (DCPA), chlorpyrifos, endosulfans, and γ-hexachlorocyclohe...

  16. THE EPA NATIONAL EXPOSURE RESEARCH LABORATORY CHILDREN'S PESTICIDE EXPOSURE MEASUREMENT PROGRAM

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) National Exposure Research Laboratory (NERL) is performing research in support of the Food Quality Protection Act (FQPA) of 1996. This act requires that pesticide exposure assessments to be conducted for all potential sources, rou...

  17. THE EPA NATIONAL EXPOSURE RESEARCH LABORATORY CHILDREN'S PESTICIDE EXPOSURE MEASUREMENT PROGRAM

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. EPA's National Exposure Research Laboratory (NERL) conducts research in support of the Food Quality Protection Act (FQPA) of 1996. FQPA requires that children's risks to pesticide exposures be considered during the tolerance-setting process. The Act requires exposure...

  18. THE EPA NATIONAL EXPOSURE RESEARCH LABORATORY CHILDREN'S PESTICIDE EXPOSURE MEASUREMENT PROGRAM

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. EPA's National Exposure Research Laboratory (NERL) conducts research in support of the Food Quality Protection Act (FQPA) of 1996. FQPA requires that children's risks to pesticide exposures be considered during the tolerance-setting process. The Act requires exposure...

  19. Pesticide fate and transport from farm fields adjacent to the Jobos Bay National Estuarine Research Reserve

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Agriculture is a primary land-use in the Jobos Bay National Estuarine Research Reserve (JBNERR) watershed located on Puerto Rico's southeast coast. Crop production in near-shore areas depends on pesticides for weed, disease and insect control. There are continuing concerns about their potential fo...

  20. FATE & EFFECTS OF AGRICULTURAL PESTICIDES WITHIN WEEKS BAY WATERSHED, A NATIONAL ESTUARINE RESEARCH RESERVE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Lytle, J.S., T.F. Lytle and M.A. Lewis. In press. Fate and Effects of Agricultural Pesticides Within Weeks Bay Watershed, a National Estuarine Research Preserve. To be presented at the 24th Annual Meeting in North America of the Society of Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry: ...

  1. Knowledge and practices of farmers with reference to pesticide management: implications on human health.

    PubMed

    Karunamoorthi, Kaliyaperumal; Mohammed, Mubarek; Wassie, Fantahun

    2012-01-01

    A study was conducted to assess the knowledge and practices of Ethiopian farmers about pesticide management: implications for human health. A pretested standardized questionnaire was administered. The results revealed that the great majority 174 (99.4%) farmers had ample awareness about pesticide impact on human health. However, various hazardous practices have also been documented. One hundred thirty-five (77.2%) farmers make use of the empty pesticide containers for various household purposes. The most frequent self-reported toxicity symptoms associated with pesticide use were headache (58.8%), salivation and vomiting (38.2%), nausea (36.5%), and sneezing (12.5%). Chi-square analysis revealed a strong association between the farmer's educational status and reported toxicity symptoms (p = .0001; χ(2) = 498.2; df = 30). Creating awareness about safe usage of pesticide is extremely vital by special orientation programs. Besides, promoting alternative pest control strategies such as use of biopesticides and integrated pest management (IPM) could be productive.

  2. Knowledge, attitude, practice, and toxicity symptoms associated with pesticide use among farm workers in the Gaza Strip

    PubMed Central

    Yassin, M; Abu, M; Safi, J

    2002-01-01

    Aims: To assess knowledge, attitude, practice, and toxicity symptoms associated with pesticide use and exposure among 189 farm workers in the Gaza Strip. Methods: A cross section of agricultural farm workers in the Gaza Strip were asked to fill in a questionnaire on knowledge, attitudes, practice towards pesticide use, and associated toxicity symptoms. Results: Farm workers reported high levels of knowledge on the health impact of pesticides (97.9%). Moderate to high levels of knowledge were recorded on toxicity symptoms related to pesticides. Most farm workers were aware of the protective measures to be used during applying pesticides. However, no one took precautions unless they knew about the measures. Burning sensation in eyes/face was the commonest symptom (64.3%). The prevalence of self reported toxicity symptoms was dependent on mixing and use of high concentrations of pesticides. The highest percentage of self reported toxicity symptoms was found among the farm workers who returned to sprayed fields within one hour of applying pesticides. Conclusions: Farm workers in the Gaza Strip used pesticides extensively. Despite their knowledge about the adverse health impact of the pesticides, the use of protective measures was poor. Most had self reported toxicity symptoms, particularly the younger workers. It would be useful to minimise the use of pesticides and encourage alternative measures. Prevention and intervention programmes regarding the use of protective measures and monitoring the health status of farm workers should be implemented. PMID:12040114

  3. Current and historical deposition of PBDEs, pesticides, PCBs, and PAHs to Rocky Mountain National Park.

    PubMed

    Usenko, Sascha; Landers, Dixon H; Appleby, Peter G; Simonich, Staci L

    2007-11-01

    An analytical method was developed for the trace analysis of 98 semivolatile organic compounds (SOCs) in remote, high-elevation lake sediment. Sediment cores from Lone Pine Lake (west of the Continental Divide) and Mills Lake (east of the Continental Divide) in Rocky Mountain National Park, CO, were dated using 210Pb and 137Cs and analyzed for polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), organochlorine pesticides, phosphorothioate pesticides, thiocarbamate pesticides, amide herbicides, triazine herbicides, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) using this method. SOC deposition profiles were reconstructed, and deposition half-lives and doubling times were calculated, for U.S. historic-use pesticides (HUPs) and current-use pesticides (CUPs) as well as PBDEs, PCBs, and PAHs. Sediment records indicate that the deposition of CUPs has increased in recent years, while the deposition of HUPs has decreased since U.S. restriction, but has not been eliminated. This is likely due to the revolatilization of HUPs from regional soils, atmospheric transport, and deposition. Differences in the magnitude of SOC sediment fluxes, flux profiles, time trends within those profiles, and isomeric ratios suggest that SOC deposition in high-elevation ecosystems is dependent on regional upslope wind directions and site location with respect to regional sources and topographic barriers.

  4. Pesticide regulation, utilization, and retailers' selling practices in Trinidad and Tobago, West Indies: current situation and needed changes.

    PubMed

    Pinto Pereira, Lexley M; Boysielal, Kim; Siung-Chang, Avril

    2007-08-01

    To explore pesticide regulation in Trinidad and Tobago, and to ascertain pesticide utilization and retailers' selling practices on Trinidad, which is the larger of twin islands that constitute the republic of Trinidad and Tobago. Between February and June 2005, agrochemical retailers in Trinidad were surveyed about the most frequently sold pesticides and their knowledge and practices of pesticide sale. The Poisons and Toxic Chemicals Control Board of the Ministry of Health informed on legislature. Of 107 actively trading licensed pesticide outlets, 97 participated (91% response rate) in the survey. Currently only 2.9% (21) of 720 registered products from four chemical classes are frequently utilized. Paraquat, methomyl, and alpha-cypermethrin (respective trade names are Gramoxone, Lannate, and Fastac) from World Health Organization (WHO) Hazard Classes I and II, and glyphosate isopropylamine (Swiper, Class U) are the most frequently purchased pesticides. Pet shops constitute 39.2% (38) of retail shops selling pesticides. No regulations guide pesticide sale to agriculturists, and children may purchase them. Inadequate human and technical resources render legislative controls ineffective and disciplinary action against offenders is weak. Extensive governmental resources are employed in legislative procedures and product approval for the very low, 2.9% utilization rate, negatively impacting on monitoring pesticide sales. The Poisons Information Centre (PIC) does not liaise with the Poisons and Toxic Chemicals Control Board or provide educational interventions for the community. As a result of this survey, it was possible to develop the first database to include the chemical, brand, and colloquial names of pesticides used in Trinidad and Tobago; WHO classification of approved pesticides; manufacturers; packaging; and antidotes and their availability for use by the Board and health professionals in Trinidad. Urgent critical evaluation of legislation regarding pesticide

  5. Evaluation of individual and combined management practices to reduce the off-site transport of pesticides from golf course turf.

    PubMed

    Rice, Pamela J; Horgan, Brian P; Hamlin, Jennifer L

    2017-04-01

    The detection of pesticides, associated with turfgrass management, in storm runoff and surface waters of urban watersheds has raised concerns regarding their source, potential environmental effects and a need for strategies to reduce their inputs. In previous research we discovered that hollow tine core cultivation (HTCC) was more effective than other management practices for reducing the off-site transport of pesticides with runoff from creeping bentgrass turf managed as a golf course fairway. This was primarily the result of enhanced infiltration and reduced runoff volumes associated with turf managed with hollow tines. In this study we evaluated the addition of verticutting (VC) to HTCC (HTCC+VC) in an attempt to further enhance infiltration and mitigate the off-site transport of pesticides with runoff from managed turf. Overall, greater or equal quantities of pesticides were transported with runoff from plots managed with HTCC+VC compared to HTCC or VC alone. For the pesticides evaluated HTCCpesticides while HTCC=VC=HTCC+VC for the low mobility pesticides. It is likely the addition of VC following HTCC further increased compaction and reduced availability of recently exposed soil sorptive sites produced from the HTCC. Results of this research provides guidance to golf course managers on selection of management practices that assure quality turf while minimizing off-site transport of pesticides, improving pesticide efficacy and the environmental stewardship of managed biological systems.

  6. Agricultural pesticide use estimates for the USGS National Water Quality Network, 1992-2014

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Baker, Nancy T.

    2016-01-01

    The National Water Quality Network (NWQN) for Rivers and Streams includes 113 surface-water river and stream sites monitored by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) National Water Quality Program (NWQP). The NWQN represents the consolidation of four historical national networks: the USGS National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Project, the USGS National Stream Quality Accounting Network (NASQAN), the National Monitoring Network (NMN), and the Hydrologic Benchmark Network (HBN). The NWQN includes 22 large river coastal sites, 41 large river inland sites, 30 wadeable stream reference sites, 10 wadeable stream urban sites, and 10 wadeable stream agricultural sites. In addition to the 113 NWQN sites, 3 large inland river monitoring sites from the USGS Cooperative Matching Funds program are also included in this annual water-quality reporting Web site to be consistent with previous USGS studies of nutrient transport in the Mississippi-Atchafalaya River Basin. This data release provides estimated agricultural pesticide use for 83 NWQN watersheds for 110 pesticide compounds from 1992-2014. Pesticide use was not estimated for the 30 wadeable stream reference sites, or from 3 large river coastal sites (07381590, "Wax Lake Outlet at Calumet, LA3"; 07381600, "Lower Atchafalaya River at Morgan City, LA2"; or 15565477, "Yukon River at Pilot Station, AK"). Use was not estimated for reference sites because pesticides are not monitored at reference water-quality sampling sites. Pesticide use data are not available for Alaska and thus no data is available for the Yukon River site. The other two coastal sites (07381590 and 07381600) where use was not estimated are outflow distributaries into the Gulf of Mexico. This data release provides use estimates for the same pesticide parent compounds sampled in water and analyzed by USGS, National Water Quality Laboratory (NWQL), Schedule 2437: http://wwwnwql.cr.usgs.gov/USGS/catalog/index.cfm. Pesticide use data are not available for

  7. Farm Family Exposure Study: methods and recruitment practices for a biomonitoring study of pesticide exposure.

    PubMed

    Baker, Beth A; Alexander, Bruce H; Mandel, Jack S; Acquavella, John F; Honeycutt, Richard; Chapman, Pamela

    2005-11-01

    The Farm Family Exposure Study was initiated to characterize pesticide exposure to farm family members around the time of one pesticide application in a manner that will facilitate exposure assessment in epidemiologic studies of pesticides. A sample of farm families with children was recruited by randomly selecting farmers from lists of licensed pesticide applicators in Minnesota and South Carolina. Eligible families were selected from among those who planned to apply one of three chemicals, glyphosate, 2,4-D, or chlorpyrifos, as part of their normal operations. The applicator, spouse, and all children in the family ages 4-17 years were included in the study. The applicator and spouse completed self-administered questionnaires addressing demographics, farming practices and potential exposures to them and their children. Field observers documented the application, recorded application practices, equipment, potential exposures, and the presence of children or spouses in the immediate vicinity of pesticide activities. All study participants were asked to collect each urine void for 5 days, 1 day before through 3 days after the application. Pesticides were measured in 24-h composite urine samples with a one part per billion limit of detection. Of 11,164 applicators screened, 994 families met the inclusion criteria. Of these, 95 families were enrolled. Enrollees were similar in most characteristics to their peers who were not participants in the study. In total, there were 106 applications, 10 of which involved more than one chemical. This resulted in urinary data for 48 farmers and spouses and their 79 children for glyphosate, 34 farmers and spouses and their 50 children for chlorpyrifos, and 34 farmers and spouses and their 53 children for 2,4-D. Compliance with the 24-h urine collection was particularly good for the adult participants. There were more missing samples for children than for adults, but overall compliance was high. The Farm Family Exposure Study should

  8. Impact of intensive horticulture practices on groundwater content of nitrates, sodium, potassium, and pesticides.

    PubMed

    Melo, Armindo; Pinto, Edgar; Aguiar, Ana; Mansilha, Catarina; Pinho, Olívia; Ferreira, Isabel M P L V O

    2012-07-01

    A monitoring program of nitrate, nitrite, potassium, sodium, and pesticides was carried out in water samples from an intensive horticulture area in a vulnerable zone from north of Portugal. Eight collecting points were selected and water-analyzed in five sampling campaigns, during 1 year. Chemometric techniques, such as cluster analysis, principal component analysis (PCA), and discriminant analysis, were used in order to understand the impact of intensive horticulture practices on dug and drilled wells groundwater and to study variations in the hydrochemistry of groundwater. PCA performed on pesticide data matrix yielded seven significant PCs explaining 77.67% of the data variance. Although PCA rendered considerable data reduction, it could not clearly group and distinguish the sample types. However, a visible differentiation between the water samples was obtained. Cluster and discriminant analysis grouped the eight collecting points into three clusters of similar characteristics pertaining to water contamination, indicating that it is necessary to improve the use of water, fertilizers, and pesticides. Inorganic fertilizers such as potassium nitrate were suspected to be the most important factors for nitrate contamination since highly significant Pearson correlation (r = 0.691, P < 0.01) was obtained between groundwater nitrate and potassium contents. Water from dug wells is especially prone to contamination from the grower and their closer neighbor's practices. Water from drilled wells is also contaminated from distant practices.

  9. Assessments of aquifer sensitivity on Navajo Nation and adjacent lands and ground-water vulnerability to pesticide contamination on the Navajo Indian Irrigation Project, Arizona, New Mexico, and Utah

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Blanchard, Paul J.

    2002-01-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency requested that the Navajo Nation conduct an assessment of aquifer sensitivity on Navajo Nation lands and an assessment of ground-water vulnerability to pesticide contamination on the Navajo Indian Irrigation Project. Navajo Nation lands include about 17,000 square miles in northeastern Arizona, northwestern New Mexico, and southeastern Utah. The Navajo Indian Irrigation Project in northwestern New Mexico is the largest area of agriculture on the Navajo Nation. The Navajo Indian Irrigation Project began operation in 1976; presently (2001) about 62,000 acres are available for irrigated agriculture. Numerous pesticides have been used on the Navajo Indian Irrigation Project during its operation. Aquifer sensitivity is defined by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency as 'The relative ease with which a contaminant [pesticide] applied on or near a land surface can migrate to the aquifer of interest. Aquifer sensitivity is a function of the intrinsic characteristics of the geologic material in question, any underlying saturated materials, and the overlying unsaturated zone. Sensitivity is not dependent on agronomic practices or pesticide characteristics.' Ground-water vulnerability is defined by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency as 'The relative ease with which a contaminant [pesticide] applied on or near a land surface can migrate to the aquifer of interest under a given set of agronomic management practices, pesticide characteristics, and aquifer sensitivity conditions.' The results of the aquifer sensitivity assessment on Navajo Nation and adjacent lands indicated relative sensitivity within the boundaries of the study area. About 22 percent of the study area was not an area of recharge to bedrock aquifers or an area of unconsolidated deposits and was thus assessed to have an insignificant potential for contamination. About 72 percent of the Navajo Nation study area was assessed to be in the categories of most potential

  10. Farmers Knowledge, Attitudes, Practices and Health Problems Associated with Pesticide Use in Rural Irrigation Villages, Southwest Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Gesesew, Hailay Abrha; Woldemichael, Kifle; Massa, Desalegn; Mwanri, Lillian

    2016-01-01

    In Ethiopia, pesticides are widely used for a variety of purposes. The occurrence of contamination and poisoning for farmers is highly reported due to unsafe handling practices and their usage. We assessed knowledge, attitudes and experiences of previous pesticide exposure, and related health problems among farmers who use irrigation in Jimma Zone, Southwest Ethiopia. A community based cross-sectional study was conducted among farmers living in the zone. Respondents were 796 irrigation farmers from 20 kebeles (lowest administration unit) in Jimma Zone. Data were collected using a pretested and structured questionnaire via face-to-face interviews. Both descriptive and inferential statistics analysis were performed. A binary logistic regression was used to identify factors associated with attitudes of farmers towards the safe use of pesticides at P value of ≤ 0.05 in the final model. Among the participants, 54.4% (95%CI, 50.7-58%) knew at least one pesticide control method and 53.7% had positive attitudes towards safe use of pesticide. The mean score of attitudes was found to be 3.9(±0.4). Knowledge including each of the following: the names of the pesticides (AOR, 0.41; 95%CI, 0.25-0.67), methods of pest control and the use of gloves during pesticide exposure (AOR, 1.52; 95%CI, 1.07-2.16) was found to be independent predictor of the farmers' attitudes about safe use of pesticides. Past exposure of pesticide was reported by 89.6% of farmers. Participants reported ingestion (88.9%) and inhalation (90.4%) as possible mechanisms of pesticide exposure. Nearly 42% of farmers had never used any personal protective equipment (PPE) to protect themselves against pesticide exposure. Farmers reported several health complications, which were perceived as complications of pesticide exposure, including: headache, nausea and vomiting, skin rash and irritation and abdominal pain. The study exposed the existence of high probability of pesticide exposure, the low safe use of

  11. Farmers Knowledge, Attitudes, Practices and Health Problems Associated with Pesticide Use in Rural Irrigation Villages, Southwest Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Gesesew, Hailay Abrha; Woldemichael, Kifle; Massa, Desalegn; Mwanri, Lillian

    2016-01-01

    Background In Ethiopia, pesticides are widely used for a variety of purposes. The occurrence of contamination and poisoning for farmers is highly reported due to unsafe handling practices and their usage. We assessed knowledge, attitudes and experiences of previous pesticide exposure, and related health problems among farmers who use irrigation in Jimma Zone, Southwest Ethiopia. Methods A community based cross-sectional study was conducted among farmers living in the zone. Respondents were 796 irrigation farmers from 20 kebeles (lowest administration unit) in Jimma Zone. Data were collected using a pretested and structured questionnaire via face-to-face interviews. Both descriptive and inferential statistics analysis were performed. A binary logistic regression was used to identify factors associated with attitudes of farmers towards the safe use of pesticides at P value of ≤ 0.05 in the final model. Results Among the participants, 54.4% (95%CI, 50.7–58%) knew at least one pesticide control method and 53.7% had positive attitudes towards safe use of pesticide. The mean score of attitudes was found to be 3.9(±0.4). Knowledge including each of the following: the names of the pesticides (AOR, 0.41; 95%CI, 0.25–0.67), methods of pest control and the use of gloves during pesticide exposure (AOR, 1.52; 95%CI, 1.07–2.16) was found to be independent predictor of the farmers’ attitudes about safe use of pesticides. Past exposure of pesticide was reported by 89.6% of farmers. Participants reported ingestion (88.9%) and inhalation (90.4%) as possible mechanisms of pesticide exposure. Nearly 42% of farmers had never used any personal protective equipment (PPE) to protect themselves against pesticide exposure. Farmers reported several health complications, which were perceived as complications of pesticide exposure, including: headache, nausea and vomiting, skin rash and irritation and abdominal pain. Conclusions The study exposed the existence of high probability of

  12. Knowledge, Attitudes, Practices and Biomonitoring of Farmers and Residents Exposed to Pesticides in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Oliveira Pasiani, Juliana; Torres, Priscila; Roniery Silva, Juciê; Zago Diniz, Bruno; Dutra Caldas, Eloisa

    2012-01-01

    In this study, the knowledge, attitudes and practices regarding pesticide use and the levels of exposure of farmers and residents to organophosphorous and/or carbamates pesticides were evaluated in two rural settings in Brazil. A questionnaire was completed by 112 farm workers aged ≥18 years. Almost all farmers acknowledged that pesticides were potentially harmful to their health (87.5%); however, over half rarely (48.2%) or never (7.2%) used personal protective devices (PPDs). An association was found (p = 0.001) between the work regimen and the use of PPDs, with more frequent equipment use among hired laborers than those involved in family agriculture. A significant correlation (p = 0.027) was found between the reporting of adverse symptoms and the use of backpack sprayers. Mean AChE activities of farmers (n = 64) and residents (n = 18) during the exposure and non-exposure periods were significantly lower than their control groups. Mean BChE activities of farmers and residents were significantly lower than their controls during the exposure period. Among the 60 farmers that had blood samples collected in both the exposure and non-exposure (baseline) periods, 10 (16.7%) had AChE depletion of over 30% during the exposure period compared with the baseline level. Six residents living on the same farms also presented this depletion. AChE was over 30% higher than the baseline level for 19 farmers (31.7%), indicating a reboot effect. Special education programs are needed in these regions to promote the safe use of pesticides in the field to decrease the risks from exposure to pesticides for farmers, and from secondary exposure to these compounds for their families. PMID:23202670

  13. Aquatic Trash Prevention National Great Practices Compendium

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The National Great Practice Compendium highlights outstanding activities, technologies, and programs that prevent trash from entering the aquatic environment and/or that reduce the overall volume of trash that is generated.

  14. Household Survey of Pesticide Practice, Deliberate Self-Harm, and Suicide in the Sundarban Region of West Bengal, India

    PubMed Central

    Banerjee, Sohini; Chowdhury, Arabinda Narayan; Schelling, Esther; Weiss, Mitchell G.

    2013-01-01

    The toxicological impact and intentional ingestion of pesticides are major public health concerns globally. This study aimed to estimate the extent of deliberate self-harm (DSH) and suicides (suicidal behaviour) and document pesticide practices in Namkhana block of the Sundarban region, India. A cross-sectional study was conducted in 1680 households (21 villages) following a mixed random and cluster design sampling. The survey questionnaire (Household Information on Pesticide Use and DSH) was developed by the research team to elicit qualitative and quantitative information. The Kappa statistic and McNemar's test were used to assess the level of agreement and association between respondents' and investigators' opinions about safe storage of pesticides. Over five years, 1680 households reported 181 incidents of suicidal behaviour. Conflict with family members was the most frequently reported reason for suicidal behaviour (53.6%). The Kappa statistic indicated poor agreement between respondents and investigators about safe storage of pesticides. The pesticide-related annual DSH rate was 158.1 (95% CI 126.2–195.5), and for suicide it was 73.4 (95% CI 52.2–100.3) per 100,000. Unsafe pesticide practice and psychosocial stressors are related to the high rates of suicidal behaviour. An intersectoral approach involving the local governments, agricultural department and the health sector would help to reduce the magnitude of this public health problem. PMID:24224181

  15. Occurrence of pesticides in shallow groundwater of the United States: initial results from the National Water-Quality Assessment program

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kolpin, Dana W.; Barbash, Jack E.; Gilliom, Robert J.

    1998-01-01

    The first phase of intensive data collection for the National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) was completed during 1993−1995 in 20 major hydrologic basins of the United States. Groundwater land-use studies, designed to sample recently recharged groundwater (generally within 10 years) beneath specific land-use and hydrogeologic settings, are a major component of the groundwater quality as sessment for NAWQA. Pesticide results from the 41 land-use studies conducted during 1993−1995 indicate that pesticides were commonly detected in shallow groundwater, having been found at 54.4% of the 1034 sites sampled in agricultural and urban settings across the United States. Pesticide concentrations were generally low, with over 95% of the detections at concentrations less than 1 μg/L. Of the 46 pesticide compounds examined, 39 were detected. The compounds detected most frequently were atrazine (38.2%), deethylatrazine (34.2%), simazine (18.0%), metolachlor (14.6%), and prometon (13.9%). Statistically significant relations were observed between frequencies of detection and the use, mobility, and persistence of these compounds. Pesticides were commonly detected in both agricultural (56.4%; 813 sites) and urban (46.6%; 221 sites) settings. Frequent detections of pesticides in urban areas indicate that, as is the case with agricultural pesticide use in agricultural areas, urban and suburban pesticide use significantly contribute to pesticide occurrence in shallow groundwater. Although pesticides were detected in groundwater sampled in urban areas and all nine of the agricultural land-use categories examined, significant variations in occurrence were observed among these categories. Maximum contaminant levels (MCLs) established by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency for drinking water were exceeded for only one pesticide (atrazine, 3 μg/L) at a single location. However, MCLs have been established for only 25 of the 46 pesticide compounds examined, do not cover pesticide

  16. Pesticides in streams of the United States : initial results from the National Water-Quality Assessment Program

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Larson, Steven J.; Gilliom, Robert J.; Capel, Paul D.

    1999-01-01

    Water samples from 58 rivers and streams across the United States were analyzed for pesticides as part of the National Water-Quality Assessment Program of the U.S. Geological Survey. The sampling sites represent 37 diverse agricultural basins, 11 urban basins, and 10 basins with mixed land use. Forty-six pesticides and pesticide degradation products were analyzed in approximately 2,200 samples collected from 1992 to 1995. The target compounds account for approximately 70 percent of national agricultural use in terms of the mass of pesticides applied annually. All the target compounds were detected in one or more samples. Herbicides generally were detected more frequently and at higher concentrations than insecticides. Nationally, 11 herbicides, 1 herbicide degradation product, and 3 insecticides were detected in more than 10 percent of samples. The number of target compounds detected at each site ranged from 7 to 37. The herbicides atrazine, metolachlor, prometon, and simazine were detected most frequently; among the insecticides, carbaryl, chlorpyrifos, and diazinon were detected the most frequently. Distinct differences in pesticide occurrence were observed in streams draining the various agricultural settings. Relatively high levels of several herbicides occurred as seasonal pulses in corn-growing areas. Several insecticides were frequently detected in areas where the dominant crops consist of orchards and vegetables. The number of pesticides detected and their concentrations were lower in wheat-growing areas than in most other agricultural areas. In most urban areas, the herbicides prometon and simazine and the insecticides carbaryl, chlorpyrifos, diazinon, and malathion were commonly detected. Concentrations of pesticides rarely exceeded standards and criteria established for drinking water, but some pesticides commonly exceeded criteria established for the protection of aquatic life.

  17. National Water-Quality Assessment Program— Pesticides in the Trinity River Basin study unit, Texas, 1968-91

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ulery, R.L.

    1995-01-01

    The Trinity River Basin National Water Quality Assessment (NAWQA) study-unit staff began assessment activities in 1991, and in 1992, undertook a retrospective review of existing data on pesticides. The main purpose of this review was to aid in the design of a pesticide-sampling network for the study unit. The review consisted of the compilation, screening, and analysis of available pesticide-sample information. In addition, important environmental factors, which influence the occurrence and distribution of pesticides in the study unit, were identified and compiled. A report of this review and analysis will be released in 1995 (Ulery and Brown, in press). This fact sheet provides a brief overview of significant findings.

  18. Training for general practice: a national survey.

    PubMed Central

    Crawley, H S; Levin, J B

    1990-01-01

    OBJECTIVES--(a) To compare current vocational training in general practice with that ascertained by a survey in 1980; (b) to compare the training of trainees in formal training schemes with that of trainees arranging their own hospital and general practice posts. DESIGN--National questionnaire survey of United Kingdom and armed services trainees who were in a training practice on 1 April 1989. Questionnaires were distributed by course organisers. SETTING--Research project set up after an ad hoc meeting of trainees at the 1988 national trainee conference. SUBJECTS--2132 Of the 2281 trainees (93%) known to be in a training practice on 1 April 1989. RESULTS--1657 Trainees returned the questionnaires, representing 73% of all trainees known to be in a training practice on 1 April 1989. Between 1980 and 1989 there were significant improvements in the trainee year, and there was also evidence of improvements in general practice study release courses. There was no evidence of improvement in other aspects of training. General practice trainees spent an average of three years in junior hospital posts, which provided very little opportunity for study related to general practice. Training received during tenure of hospital posts differed significantly between trainees in formal schemes and those arranging their own hospital posts. During the trainee year training was almost the same for those in formal schemes and those arranging their own posts. Regions varied significantly in virtually all aspects of general practice training. CONCLUSIONS--The trainee year could be improved further by enforcing the guidelines of the Joint Committee on Postgraduate Training for General Practice. The poor training in junior hospital posts reflected the low priority that training is generally given during tenure of these posts. A higher proportion of general practice trainees should be attached to vocational training schemes. More hospital trainees could attend general practice study release

  19. Comparison of pesticide levels in carpet dust and self-reported pest treatment practices in four US sites.

    PubMed

    Colt, Joanne S; Lubin, Jay; Camann, David; Davis, Scott; Cerhan, James; Severson, Richard K; Cozen, Wendy; Hartge, Patricia

    2004-01-01

    Epidemiologic studies have used both questionnaires and carpet dust sampling to assess residential exposure to pesticides. The consistency of the information provided by these two approaches has not been explored. In a population-based case-control study of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, carpet dust samples were collected from the homes of 513 control subjects in Detroit, Iowa, Los Angeles, and Seattle. The samples were taken from used vacuum cleaner bags and analyzed for 30 pesticides. Interviewers queried subjects about the types of pests treated in their home using a detailed questionnaire accompanied by visual aids. Geographic variations in pesticide levels were generally consistent with geographic differences in pest treatment practices. Los Angeles residents reported the most treatment for crawling insects, fleas/ticks, and termites, and Los Angeles dust samples had the highest levels of propoxur, chlorpyrifos, diazinon, permethrin, and chlordane. Iowa had the most treatment for lawn/garden weeds, and also the highest levels of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid and dicamba. Although Seattle had the highest proportion of subjects treating for lawn/garden insects, the lawn/garden insecticides were higher in other sites. Multivariate linear regression revealed several significant associations between the type of pest treated and dust levels of specific pesticides. The strongest associations were between termite treatment and chlordane, and flea/tick treatment and permethrin. Most of the significant associations were consistent with known uses of the pesticides; few expected associations were absent. The consistency between the questionnaire data and pesticide residues measured in dust lends credibility to both methods for assessing residential exposure to pesticides. The combined techniques appear promising for epidemiologic studies. Interviewing is the only way to assess pesticide exposures before current carpets were in place. Dust sampling provides an objective measure

  20. Atmospheric deposition of nutrients, pesticides, and mercury in Rocky Mountain National Park, Colorado, 2002

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mast, M. Alisa; Campbell, Donald H.; Ingersoll, George P.; Foreman, William T.; Krabbenhoft, David P.

    2003-01-01

    Nutrients, current-use pesticides, and mercury were measured in atmospheric deposition during summer in Rocky Mountain National Park in Colorado to improve understanding of the type and magnitude of atmospheric contaminants being deposited in the park. Two deposition sites were established on the east side of the park: one at an elevation of 2,902 meters near Bear Lake for nutrients and pesticides, and one at an elevation of 3,159 meters in the Loch Vale watershed for mercury. Concentrations of nutrients in summer precipitation at Bear Lake ranged from less than 0.007 to 1.29 mg N/L (milligrams of nitrogen per liter) for ammonium and 0.17 to 4.59 mg N/L for nitrate and were similar to those measured at the Loch Vale National Atmospheric Deposition Network station, where nitrogen concentrations in precipitation are among the highest in the Rocky Mountains. Atrazine, dacthal, and carbaryl were the most frequently detected pesticides at Bear Lake, with carbaryl present at the highest concentrations (0.0079 to 0.0952 ?g/L (micrograms per liter), followed by atrazine (less than 0.0070 to 0.0604 ?g/L), and dacthal (0.0030 to 0.0093 ?g/L). Mercury was detected in weekly bulk deposition samples from Loch Vale in concentrations ranging from 2.6 to 36.2 ng/L (nanograms per liter). Concentrations in summer precipitation were combined with snowpack data from a separate study to estimate annual deposition rates of these contaminants in 2002. Annual bulk nitrogen deposition in 2002 was 2.28 kg N/ha (kilograms of nitrogen per hectare) at Bear Lake and 3.35 kg N/ha at Loch Vale. Comparison of wet and bulk deposition indicated that dry deposition may account for as much as 28 percent of annual nitrogen deposition, most of which was deposited during the summer months. Annual deposition rates for three pesticides were estimated as 45.8 mg/ha (milligrams per hectare) of atrazine, 14.2 mg/ha of dacthal, and 54.8 mg/ha of carbaryl. Because of much higher pesticide concentrations in

  1. [Comparison and anylisis on national quality control examination results of pesticides residues in food in 2009 and 2011].

    PubMed

    Qu, Pengfeng; Yang, Dajin; Li, Yepeng; Jiang, Dingguo; Zhao, Kai; Fang, Congrong

    2013-09-01

    To find out and compare the professionals proficiency of monitoring and inspection agencies on pesticide residue in food, and identify the main factors affecting the quality of result to provide references for improving the quality of the monitoring and inspection results. Compare the national quality control examination results of pesticides residues in food of 2009 with 2011. The submission rates of examination results in 2011 were much higher than in 2009. They were respectively 100% and 83.6%. With the exception of few pesticides, the qualitative qualification rate and quantitative satisfaction rate of other pesticides were also relatively higher, and the qualitative qualification rate and quantitative satisfaction rate in 2011 were all higher than the same examination pesticides in 2009. For instance, the qualitative qualification rate of chlorpyrifos were respectively 99.4% and 96.8% in 2011 and 2009. The qualitative qualification rate of triazophos were respectively 100% and 97.1% in 2011 and 2009. The quantitative satisfaction rate of chlorpyrifos were respectively 93.8% and 90.2% in 2011 and 2009. The quantitative satisfaction rate of triazophos were respectively 91.9% and 87.2% in 2011 and 2009. The general testing levels of monitoring and inspection agencies on pesticide residue in food were sufficient, and their testing proficiency increased year by year, but some institutions still need to improve the testing proficiency.

  2. Farmworker pesticide exposure and community-based participatory research: rationale and practical applications.

    PubMed Central

    Arcury, T A; Quandt, S A; Dearry, A

    2001-01-01

    The consequences of agricultural pesticide exposure continue to be major environmental health problems in rural communities. Community-based participatory research (CBPR) is an important approach to redressing health disparities resulting from environmental causes. In this article we introduce a collection of articles that describe projects using CBPR to address the health disparities resulting from pesticide exposure in agricultural communities, particularly the communities of migrant and seasonal farmworkers. The articles in this collection are based on a workshop convened at the 1999 American Public Health Association meeting. The goals in presenting this collection are to provide those endeavoring to initiate CBPR projects needed information, guidelines, and procedures to improve the quality of the CBPR experience; to increase the scientific validity of CBPR projects; and to reduce the potential difficulties and stress of these collaborations. In this introduction we discuss the context in which these projects operate, summarizing background information about farmworkers in the United States, what is known about farmworker pesticide exposure, and the concept of community-based participatory research. Finally, the articles in this collection are summarized, and major themes common to successful CBPR projects are identified. These common features are taking the time to interact with the community, using multiple approaches to engage the different parts of the community, understanding different participants often have different goals, appreciating each group's strengths, valuing community knowledge, and being flexible and creative in conducting research. The final article in this collection describes the translational research program at the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (NIEHS) highlighting activities pertinent to the health of rural communities, giving an overview of NIEHS-supported projects addressing health concerns of Native Americans

  3. Longitudinal trends in organophosphate incidents reported to the National Pesticide Information Center, 1995–2007

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Regulatory decisions to phase-out the availability and use of common organophosphate pesticides among the general public were announced in 2000 and continued through 2004. Based on revised risk assessments, chlorpyrifos and diazinon were determined to pose unacceptable risks. To determine the impact of these decisions, organophosphate (OP) exposure incidents reported to the National Pesticide Information Center (NPIC) were analyzed for longitudinal trends. Methods Non-occupational human exposure incidents reported to NPIC were grouped into pre- (1995–2000) and post-announcement periods (2001–2007). The number of total OP exposure incidents, as well as reports for chlorpyrifos, diazinon and malathion, were analyzed for significant differences between these two periods. The number of informational inquiries from the general public was analyzed over time as well. Results The number of average annual OP-related exposure incidents reported to NPIC decreased significantly between the pre- and post-announcement periods (p < 0.001). A significant decrease in the number of chlorpyrifos and diazinon reports was observed over time (p < 0.001). No significant difference in the number of incident reports for malathion was observed (p = 0.4), which was not phased-out of residential use. Similar to exposure incidents, the number of informational inquiries received by NPIC declined over time following the phase-out announcement. Conclusion Consistent with other findings, the number of chlorpyrifos and diazinon exposure incidents reported to NPIC significantly decreased following public announcement and targeted regulatory action. PMID:19379510

  4. Atmospherically deposited PBDEs, pesticides, PCBs, and PAHs in Western US National Park fish: Concentrations and consumption guidelines

    EPA Science Inventory

    Concentrations of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons were measured in 136 fish from 14 remote lakes in 8 western U.S. National Parks/Preserves between 2003 and 2005 and compared to human and w...

  5. Atmospherically deposited PBDEs, pesticides, PCBs, and PAHs in Western US National Park fish: Concentrations and consumption guidelines

    EPA Science Inventory

    Concentrations of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons were measured in 136 fish from 14 remote lakes in 8 western U.S. National Parks/Preserves between 2003 and 2005 and compared to human and w...

  6. Who's afraid of national laws? Pesticide corporations use trade negotiations to avoid bans and undercut public health protections in Central America.

    PubMed

    Rosenthal, Erika

    2005-01-01

    The agrochemical industry is using trade agreements to block proposed bans on pesticides identified as the worst occupational health hazards by a multi-country illness surveillance program in Central America. Through privileged access to closed-door negotiations, industry inserted deregulatory mechanisms, including a regional pesticide registry that invalidates national laws, investors' rights protection, and increased intellectual property protections, into the draft Central American Customs Union and the Central American Free Trade Agreement. These agreements undermine health-based national pesticide registration requirements; weaken health ministries' role in pesticide control; block marketing of cheaper, less toxic pesticides; and have a chilling effect on future pesticide regulatory activity. So long as corporations have privileged access to the trade negotiations and civil society is excluded, the resulting agreements will benefit special interests at the expense of public health.

  7. Pesticide residue analyses and biomarker responses of native Costa Rican fish of the Poeciliidae and Cichlidae families to assess environmental impacts of pesticides in Palo Verde National Park.

    PubMed

    Mena, F; Fernández San Juan, M; Campos, B; Sánchez-Avila, J; Faria, M; Pinnock, M; de la Cruz, E; Lacorte, S; Soares, A M V M; Barata, C

    2014-01-01

    Pesticide chemical residues in water samples and biomarker responses in transplanted fish were used to monitor environmental hazards of pesticides in Palo Verde National Park (Costa Rica). The Costarican fish, Parachromis dovii (Ciclhidae) and Poecilia gillii (Poecillidae), were selected as sentinel species. Contaminant analyses detected up to 15 different pesticide residues in water with hexachlobenzene (2261 ng l(-1)), phorate (473 ng l(-1)), epoxiconazole (314) and bromacil (117 ng l(-1)) being the compounds found in higher concentrations. Biomarker responses evidenced impacts on cholinesterase activities in transplanted fish at Barbudal site probably due to the presence of organophosphate insecticides such as phorate. High enzyme activities of glutathione S-transferase and catalase and elevated levels of lipid peroxides were also observed at a site impacted by rice fields (Cabuyo); those effects could be associated with the presence of hexachloro benzene and triazole fungicides. In general, P. dovii biomarkers were affected to a greater extent than those of P. gillii in fish transplanted to sites associated with agriculture, which suggests the former species is a good candidate for future surveys.

  8. Role of Sample Processing Strategies at the European Union National Reference Laboratories (NRLs) Concerning the Analysis of Pesticide Residues.

    PubMed

    Hajeb, Parvaneh; Herrmann, Susan S; Poulsen, Mette E

    2017-07-19

    The guidance document SANTE 11945/2015 recommends that cereal samples be milled to a particle size preferably smaller than 1.0 mm and that extensive heating of the samples should be avoided. The aim of the present study was therefore to investigate the differences in milling procedures, obtained particle size distributions, and the resulting pesticide residue recovery when cereal samples were milled at the European Union National Reference Laboratories (NRLs) with their routine milling procedures. A total of 23 NRLs participated in the study. The oat and rye samples milled by each NRL were sent to the European Union Reference Laboratory on Cereals and Feedingstuff (EURL) for the determination of the particle size distribution and pesticide residue recovery. The results showed that the NRLs used several different brands and types of mills. Large variations in the particle size distributions and pesticide extraction efficiencies were observed even between samples milled by the same type of mill.

  9. Organochlorine residues in fish: National Pesticide Monitoring Program, 1970-74.

    PubMed

    Schmitt, C J; Ludke, J L; Walsh, D F

    1981-03-01

    As part of the National Pesticide Monitoring Program, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service analyzed organochlorine contaminant residues in fish samples collected from about 100 stations each year from 1970 to 1974. During this period, mean residues of DDT and its metabolites declined nationally but remained widespread, and high concentrations continued to be present in areas where DDT use was extensive. Results of interlaboratory crosscheck analyses supported these conclusions, despite interpretation problems posed by intercompound analytical interferences in 1970 and 1971. Temporal trends in PCB residues were less obvious. Highest PCB residues were found in the industrialized areas of the Northwest and Midwest, and traces were present at most stations. Dieldrin and endrin residues remained essentially unchanged during this period; dieldrin residues were widespread and were highest in Hawaii and in areas of the Midwest where aldrin was used extensively. Toxaphene occurrence increased; it was formerly found only in fish from streams draining cotton-farming regions, but residues were detected in 1974 samples from other areas. According to the recommendation of the National Academy of Sciences' Water Quality Criteria, organochlorine residues in freshwater fish may have represented a hazard to piscivorous fish and wildlife at 71 percent of the stations sampled in 1970 and 66 percent in 1974.

  10. (Pesticide chemistry)

    SciTech Connect

    Barnthouse, L.W.

    1990-09-04

    This report summarizes a trip by L. W. Barnthouse of the Environmental Sciences Division (ESD), Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), to Hamburg, Federal Republic of Germany (FRG), where he participated in the 7th International Congress of Pesticide Chemistry. He chaired a workshop on experimental systems for determining effects of pesticides on nontarget organisms and gave an oral presentation at a symposium on pesticide risk assessment. Before returning to the United States, Dr. Barnthouse visited the Netherlands Institute for Sea Research in Texel, the Netherlands.

  11. Urinary Concentrations of Dialkylphosphate Metabolites of Organophosphorus Pesticides: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1999–2004

    PubMed Central

    Barr, Dana Boyd; Wong, Lee-Yang; Bravo, Roberto; Weerasekera, Gayanga; Odetokun, Martins; Restrepo, Paula; Kim, Do-Gyun; Fernandez, Carolina; Whitehead, Ralph D.; Perez, Jose; Gallegos, Maribel; Williams, Bryan L.; Needham, Larry L.

    2011-01-01

    Organophosphorus (OP) insecticides were among the first pesticides that EPA reevaluated as part of the Food Quality Protection Act of 1996. Our goal was to assess exposure to OP insecticides in the U.S. general population over a six-year period. We analyzed 7,456 urine samples collected as part of three two-year cycles of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) from 1999–2004. We measured six dialkylphosphate metabolites of OP pesticides to assess OP pesticide exposure. In NHANES 2003–2004, dimethylthiophosphate was detected most frequently with median and 95th percentile concentrations of 2.03 and 35.3 μg/L, respectively. Adolescents were two to three times more likely to have diethylphosphate concentrations above the 95th percentile estimate of 15.5 μg/L than adults and senior adults. Conversely, for dimethyldithiophosphate, senior adults were 3.8 times and 1.8 times more likely to be above the 95th percentile than adults and adolescents, respectively, while adults were 2.1 times more likely to be above the 95th percentile than the adolescents. Our data indicate that the most vulnerable segments of our population—children and older adults—have higher exposures to OP pesticides than other population segments. However, according to DAP urinary metabolite data, exposures to OP pesticides have declined during the last six years at both the median and 95th percentile levels. PMID:21909292

  12. Pesticide application practices, pest knowledge, and cost-benefits of plantain production in the Bribri-Cabecar Indigenous Territories, Costa Rica

    SciTech Connect

    Polidoro, Beth A. Dahlquist, Ruth M.; Castillo, Luisa E.; Morra, Matthew J.; Somarriba, Eduardo; Bosque-Perez, Nilsa A.

    2008-09-15

    The use of pesticides in the cultivation of cash crops such as banana and plantain is increasing, in Costa Rica and worldwide. Agrochemical use and occupational and environmental exposures in export banana production have been documented in some parts of Central America. However, the extent of agrochemical use, agricultural pest knowledge, and economic components in plantain production are largely unknown in Costa Rica, especially in remote, high-poverty areas such as the Bribri-Cabecar Indigenous Territories. Our objective was to integrate a rapid rural appraisal of indigenous farmer pesticide application practices and pest knowledge with a cost-benefit analysis of plantain production in the Bribri-Cabecar Indigenous Territories, for the development of better agricultural management practices and improved regulatory infrastructure. Interviews conducted with 75 households in 5 indigenous communities showed that over 60% of participants grew plantain with agrochemicals. Of these plantain farmers, over 97% used the insecticide chlorpyrifos, and 84% applied nematicides, 64% herbicides, and 22% fungicides, with only 31% of participants reporting the use of some type of protective clothing during application. The banana weevil (Cosmopolites sordidus Germar) was ranked as the most important agricultural pest by 85% of participants, yet only 28% could associate the adult and larval form. A cost-benefit analysis conducted with a separate group of 26 plantain farmers identified several national markets and one export market for plantain production in the Indigenous Territories. Yearly income averaged US$6200/ha and yearly expenses averaged US$1872/ha, with an average cost-benefit ratio of 3.67 for plantain farmers. Farmers applied an average of 9.7 kg a.i./ha/yr of pesticide products and 375 kg/ha/yr of fertilizer, but those who sold their fruit to the national markets applied more nematicides, herbicides, and fertilizers than those who sold primarily to export markets

  13. Pesticide application practices, pest knowledge, and cost-benefits of plantain production in the Bribri-Cabécar Indigenous Territories, Costa Rica.

    PubMed

    Polidoro, Beth A; Dahlquist, Ruth M; Castillo, Luisa E; Morra, Matthew J; Somarriba, Eduardo; Bosque-Pérez, Nilsa A

    2008-09-01

    The use of pesticides in the cultivation of cash crops such as banana and plantain is increasing, in Costa Rica and worldwide. Agrochemical use and occupational and environmental exposures in export banana production have been documented in some parts of Central America. However, the extent of agrochemical use, agricultural pest knowledge, and economic components in plantain production are largely unknown in Costa Rica, especially in remote, high-poverty areas such as the Bribri-Cabécar Indigenous Territories. Our objective was to integrate a rapid rural appraisal of indigenous farmer pesticide application practices and pest knowledge with a cost-benefit analysis of plantain production in the Bribri-Cabécar Indigenous Territories, for the development of better agricultural management practices and improved regulatory infrastructure. Interviews conducted with 75 households in 5 indigenous communities showed that over 60% of participants grew plantain with agrochemicals. Of these plantain farmers, over 97% used the insecticide chlorpyrifos, and 84% applied nematicides, 64% herbicides, and 22% fungicides, with only 31% of participants reporting the use of some type of protective clothing during application. The banana weevil (Cosmopolites sordidus Germar) was ranked as the most important agricultural pest by 85% of participants, yet only 28% could associate the adult and larval form. A cost-benefit analysis conducted with a separate group of 26 plantain farmers identified several national markets and one export market for plantain production in the Indigenous Territories. Yearly income averaged US$6200/ha and yearly expenses averaged US$1872/ha, with an average cost-benefit ratio of 3.67 for plantain farmers. Farmers applied an average of 9.7 kg a.i./ha/yr of pesticide products and 375 kg/ha/yr of fertilizer, but those who sold their fruit to the national markets applied more nematicides, herbicides, and fertilizers than those who sold primarily to export markets

  14. Pesticide knowledge, practice and attitude and how it affects the health of small-scale farmers in Uganda: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Oesterlund, Anna H; Thomsen, Jane F; Sekimpi, Deogratias K; Maziina, James; Racheal, Apio; Jørs, Erik

    2014-06-01

    Over the past years there has been an increase in the use of pesticides in developing countries. This study describes pesticide use among small-scale farmers in Uganda and analyses predictors of pesticide poisoning (intoxication) symptoms. A cross-sectional study was conducted using a standardized questionnaire. Some 317 small-scale farmers in two districts in Uganda were interviewed about pesticide use, knowledge and attitude, symptoms of intoxication, personal protective equipment (PPE) and hygiene. The risk of reporting symptoms was analysed using logistic regression analysis. The most frequently used pesticides belonged to WHO class II. The farmers had poor knowledge about pesticide toxicity, and the majority did not use appropriate PPE nor good hygiene when handling pesticides. There was no significant association between the number of times of spraying with pesticides and self-reported symptoms of pesticide poisoning. The only significant association was between blowing and sucking the nozzle of the knapsack sprayer and self-reported symptoms of pesticide intoxication (OR: 2.13. 95% CI: 1.09 - 4.18). Unlike the practice in several other developing countries, small-scale farmers in Uganda do not use the most hazardous pesticides (WHO class 1a and 1b). However use of WHO class II pesticides and those of lower toxicity is seen in combination with inadequate knowledge and practice among the farmers. This poses a danger of acute intoxications, chronic health problems and environmental pollution. Training of farmers in Integrated Pest Management (IPM) methods, use of proper hygiene and personal protective equipment when handling pesticides should be promoted.

  15. Key parameters and practices controlling pesticide degradation efficiency of biobed substrates.

    PubMed

    Karanasios, Evangelos; Karpouzas, Dimitrios G; Tsiropoulos, Nikolaos G

    2012-01-01

    We studied the contribution of each of the components of a compost-based biomixture (BX), commonly used in Europe, on pesticide degradation. The impact of other key parameters including pesticide dose, temperature and repeated applications on the degradation of eight pesticides, applied as a mixture, in a BX and a peat-based biomixture (OBX) was compared and contrasted to their degradation in soil. Incubation studies showed that straw was essential in maintaining a high pesticide degradation capacity of the biomixture, whereas compost, when mixed with soil, retarded pesticide degradation. The highest rates of degradation were shown in the biomixture composed of soil/compost/straw suggesting that all three components are essential for maximum biobed performance. Increasing doses prolonged the persistence of most pesticides with biomixtures showing a higher tolerance to high pesticide dose levels compared to soil. Increasing the incubation temperature from 15 °C to 25 °C resulted in lower t(1/2) values, with biomixtures performing better than soil at the lower temperature. Repeated applications led to a decrease in the degradation rates of most pesticides in all the substrates, with the exception of iprodione and metalaxyl. Overall, our results stress the ability of biomixtures to perform better than soil under unfavorable conditions and extreme pesticide dose levels.

  16. Use of Chemical Pesticides in Ethiopia: A Cross-Sectional Comparative Study on Knowledge, Attitude and Practice of Farmers and Farm Workers in Three Farming Systems.

    PubMed

    Negatu, Beyene; Kromhout, Hans; Mekonnen, Yalemtshay; Vermeulen, Roel

    2016-06-01

    Chemical pesticides, regardless of their inherent hazard, are used intensively in the fast changing agricultural sector of Ethiopia. We conducted a cross-sectional pesticide Knowledge, Attitude and Practice (KAP) survey among 601 farmers and farm workers (applicators and re-entry workers) in three farming systems [large-scale closed greenhouses (LSGH), large-scale open farms (LSOF), and small-scale irrigated farms (SSIF)]. Main observations were that 85% of workers did not attain any pesticide-related training, 81% were not aware of modern alternatives for chemical pesticides, 10% used a full set of personal protective equipment, and 62% did not usually bath or shower after work. Among applicators pesticide training attendance was highest in LSGH (35%) and was lowest in SSIF (4%). None of the female re-entry farm workers had received pesticide-related training. Personal protective equipment use was twice as high among pesticide applicators as among re-entry workers (13 versus 7%), while none of the small-scale farm workers used personal protection equipment. Stockpiling and burial of empty pesticide containers and discarding empty pesticide containers in farming fields were reported in both LSOF and by 75% of the farm workers in SSIF. Considerable increment in chemical pesticide usage intensity, illegitimate usages of DDT and Endosulfan on food crops and direct import of pesticides without the formal Ethiopian registration process were also indicated. These results point out a general lack of training and knowledge regarding the safe use of pesticides in all farming systems but especially among small-scale farmers. This in combination with the increase in chemical pesticide usage in the past decade likely results in occupational and environmental health risks. Improved KAP that account for institutional difference among various farming systems and enforcement of regulatory measures including the available occupational and environmental proclamations in Ethiopia are

  17. 76 FR 68750 - Final National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) Pesticide General Permit for Point...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-07

    ... human health and the environment. All new pesticides must undergo a rigorous registration procedure under FIFRA during which EPA assesses a variety of potential human health and environmental effects associated with use of the product. Under FIFRA, EPA is required to consider the effects of pesticides on the...

  18. National standards and guidelines for pesticides in water, sediment, and aquatic organisms: application to water-quality assessments.

    PubMed

    Nowell, L H; Resek, E A

    1994-01-01

    National standards and guidelines for pesticides can be useful tools in water-quality assessment for evaluating potential human health or ecological effects of measured pesticide residues in water, bed sediment, or aquatic organisms. However, valid use of a given standard or guideline requires an understanding of its technical basis and underlying assumptions. Each type of standard or guideline is specific for one sampling medium (water, bed sediment, and fish and shellfish tissue) and is aimed at protection of one or more beneficial uses of the hydrologic system (drinking water, fish and shellfish consumption, aquatic organisms, and wildlife). These characteristics can be used to identify which standards and guidelines are appropriate for comparison with measured pesticide concentrations in environmental samples from a given hydrologic system. A review of standards and guidelines can be restricted to the applicable sampling medium. Then, the beneficial uses of the hydrologic system need to be identified and the measured pesticide concentrations compared with standards and guidelines for all beneficial uses that apply to that system. Several key factors that must be considered when applying this general process to water-quality assessment are summarized below. Two precautions need to be considered regarding sampling media: 1. Standards and guidelines for water distinguish between finished drinking water (potable water, often treated) and ambient surface water. If standards and guidelines for drinking water (EPA primary drinking-water regulations and drinking-water health advisories) are applied to measured pesticide concentrations in ambient water samples, the effects of water treatment (such as filtration) need to be considered. 2. Standards and guidelines for fish and shellfish tissue distinguish between edible fish and shellfish tissue and whole fish tissue. Comparison of pesticide concentrations in whole fish tissue with standards or guidelines for edible fish

  19. Evaluation of Core Cultivation Practices to Reduce Ecological Risk of Pesticides in Runoff from Agrostis palustris

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Highly managed biotic systems such as golf courses and commercial landscapes often require multiple applications of pesticides that may be transported with runoff to areas beyond the intended site. Pesticides have been detected in surface waters of rural and urban watersheds raising questions conce...

  20. Organochlorine compounds and current-use pesticides in snow and lake sediment in Rocky Mountain National Park, Colorado, and Glacier National Park, Montana, 2002-03

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mast, M. Alisa; Foreman, William T.; Skaates, Serena V.

    2006-01-01

    Organochlorine compounds and current-use pesticides were measured in snow and lake-sediment samples from Rocky Mountain National Park in Colorado and Glacier National Park in Montana to determine their occurrence and distribution in high-elevation aquatic ecosystems. The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the National Park Service, collected snow samples at eight sites in Rocky Mountain National Park and at eight sites in Glacier National Park during spring of 2002 and 2003 just prior to the start of snowmelt. Surface sediments were collected from 11 lakes in Rocky Mountain National Park and 10 lakes in Glacier National Park during summer months of 2002 and 2003. Samples were analyzed for organochlorine compounds by gas chromatography with electron-capture detection and current-use pesticides by gas chromatography with electron-impact mass spectrometry. A subset of samples was reanalyzed using a third instrumental technique (gas chromatography with electron-capture negative ion mass spectrometry) to verify detected concentrations in the initial analysis and to investigate the presence of additional compounds. For the snow samples, the pesticides most frequently detected were endosulfan, dacthal, and chlorothalonil, all of which are chlorinated pesticides that currently are registered for use in North America. Concentrations of these pesticides in snow were very low, ranging from 0.07 to 2.36 nanograms per liter. Of the historical-use pesticides, hexachlorobenzene, dieldrin, and trans-nonachlor were detected in snow but only in one sample each. Annual deposition rates of dacthal, endosulfan, and chlorothalonil were estimated at 0.7 to 3.0 micrograms per square meter. These estimates are likely biased low because they do not account for pesticide deposition during summer months. For the lake-sediment samples, DDE (p,p'-dichlorodiphenyldichoroethene) and DDD (p,p'-dichlorodiphenyldichoroethane) were the most frequently detected organochlorine compounds. DDE

  1. Knowledge, attitude, and practice of Indonesian farmers regarding the use of personal protective equipment against pesticide exposure.

    PubMed

    Yuantari, Maria G C; Van Gestel, Cornelis A M; Van Straalen, Nico M; Widianarko, Budi; Sunoko, Henna R; Shobib, Muhammad N

    2015-03-01

    The use of synthetic pesticides in tropical countries has increased over the years, following the intensification of agriculture. However, awareness among farmers of the importance of protecting themselves from hazards associated with pesticide application is still lacking, especially in Indonesia. This paper reports results of an inventory on knowledge and attitudes regarding pesticide use by melon farmers of a village in Central Java, Indonesia. The importance of using personal protective equipment such as hats, masks, goggles, boots, and gloves on agricultural land is known and well understood by the farmers. However, in practice, only 3.8 % were wearing glasses and 1.9 % were using boots. In fact, the masks used only consisted of a part of their shirt tied around the mouth. The farmers were not wearing long pants and shirts with long sleeves and used the same clothes for more than 1 day without washing. Almost no farmers used personal protective equipment that was standard, in good condition, and complete. Based on the results of statistical analysis, no significant relationship was found between knowledge and attitude on the required practices on the one hand and the use of personal protective equipment in practice on the other hand. This shows that improved knowledge and attitudes are not enough to change the behavior of farmers to work in a healthy and safe way. The gap between knowledge and practice needs to be bridged by a more interactive and participatory training model. It is therefore of paramount importance to develop a special toolkit for pesticide risk reduction which is developed in a participatory manner involving the farmers as the main actors through a series of focus group discussions and field simulations.

  2. Sources and fate of chiral organochlorine pesticides in western U.S. National Park ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Genualdi, Susan A; Hageman, Kimberly J; Ackerman, Luke K; Usenko, Sascha; Massey Simonich, Staci L

    2011-07-01

    The enantiomer fractions (EFs) of alpha-hexachlorocyclohexane (α-HCH), cis-, trans-, and oxychlordane, and heptachlor epoxide were measured in 73 snow, fish, and sediment samples collected from remote lake catchments, over a wide range of latitudes, in seven western U.S. National Parks/Preserves to investigate their sources, fate, accumulation and biotransformation in these ecosystems. The present study is novel because these lakes had no inflow or outflow, and the measurement of chiral organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) EFs in snowpack from these lake catchments provided a better understanding of the OCP sources in the western United States, whereas their measurement in fish and sediment provided a better understanding of their biotic transformations within the lake catchments. Nonracemic α-HCH was measured in seasonal snowpack collected from continental U.S. National Parks, and racemic α-HCH was measured in seasonal snowpack collected from the Alaskan parks, suggesting the influence of regional sources to the continental U.S. parks and long-range sources to the Alaskan parks. The α-HCH EFs measured in trout collected from the lake catchments were similar to the α-HCH EFs measured in seasonal snowpack collected from the same lake catchments, suggesting that these fish did not biotransform α-HCH enantioselectively. Racemic cis-chlordane was measured in seasonal snowpack and sediment collected from Sequoia, indicating that it had not undergone significant enantioselective biotransformation in urban soils since its use as a termiticide in the surrounding urban areas. However, nonracemic cis-chlordane was measured in seasonal snowpack and sediments from the Rocky Mountains, suggesting that cis-chlordane does undergo enantioselective biotransformation in agricultural soils. The trout from these lakes showed preferential biotransformation of the (+)-enantiomer of cis-chlordane and the (-)-enantiomer of trans-chlordane.

  3. Sources and Fate of Chiral Organochlorine Pesticides in Western U.S. National Park Ecosystems

    PubMed Central

    Genualdi, Susan A.; Hageman, Kimberly J.; Ackerman, Luke K.; Usenko, Sascha; Simonich, Staci L. Massey

    2011-01-01

    The enantiomer fractions (EFs) of alpha-hexachlorocyclohexane (α-HCH), cis-, trans-, and oxychlordane, and heptachlor epoxide were measured in 73 snow, fish, and sediment samples collected from remote lake catchments, over a wide range of latitudes, in seven western U.S. National Parks/Preserves in order to investigate their sources, fate, accumulation and biotransformation in these ecosystems. The present study is novel because these lakes had no inflow or outflow and the measurement of chiral organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) EFs in snowpack from these lake catchments provided a better understanding of the OCP sources in the Western U.S., while their measurement in fish and sediment provided a better understanding of their biotic transformations within the lake catchments. Non-racemic α-HCH was measured in seasonal snowpack collected from continental U.S. National Parks, while racemic α-HCH was measured in seasonal snowpack collected from the Alaskan parks, suggesting the influence of regional sources to the continental U.S. parks and long-range sources to the Alaskan parks. The α-HCH EFs measured in trout collected from the lake catchments were similar to the α-HCH EFs measured in seasonal snowpack collected from the same lake catchments, suggesting that these fish did not biotransform α-HCH enantioselectively. Racemic cis-chlordane was measured in seasonal snowpack and sediment collected from Sequoia, indicating that it had not undergone significant enantioselective biotransformation in urban soils since its use as a termiticide in the surrounding urban areas. However, non-racemic cis-chlordane was measured in seasonal snowpack and sediments from Rocky Mountain, suggesting cis-chlordane does undergo enantioselective biotransformation in agricultural soils. The trout from these lakes showed preferential biotransformation of the (+)-enantiomer of cis-chlordane and the (−)-enantiomer of trans-chlordane. PMID:21462235

  4. Trends of Pesticide Exposure and Related Cases in the Philippines

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Jinky Leilanie; Cosca, Katherine Z.; Del mundo, Jocelyn

    2010-01-01

    The study aims to provide a comprehensive trend of pesticide poisoning cases in the Philippines as well as pesticide exposures, and risk factors related to the adverse effects of pesticide. Records were gathered from the National Poison Control and Management Center (NPCMC), the Philippine General Hospital, De La Salle Medical Center, and other hospitals, and reviewed research studies conducted in the Philippines. Based on hospital surveys, the number of pesticide cases as well as mortality trends have been increasing. Studies from 2006 to 2010 showed that human health especially those of the farmers is at risk due to pesticide exposure. Illnesses and symptoms such as headache, skin abnormalities, fatigue, fever, and weaknesses were the common health complaints experienced by the farmers as reported in the research studies. Moreover, the studies showed risk factors to pesticide exposure, work practices, and pesticide residues in environmental media that could be contributory to pesticide poisoning cases. Government agencies should intensify their surveillance and regulation on both household and agricultural pesticides. The state of pesticide-related illnesses mirrors the poor safety practices among farmers as well as lack of necessary supervision from the government agencies. PMID:25649374

  5. Trends of pesticide exposure and related cases in the Philippines.

    PubMed

    Lu, Jinky Leilanie; Cosca, Katherine Z; Del Mundo, Jocelyn

    2010-01-01

    The study aims to provide a comprehensive trend of pesticide poisoning cases in the Philippines as well as pesticide exposures, and risk factors related to the adverse effects of pesticide. Records were gathered from the National Poison Control and Management Center (NPCMC), the Philippine General Hospital, De La Salle Medical Center, and other hospitals, and reviewed research studies conducted in the Philippines. Based on hospital surveys, the number of pesticide cases as well as mortality trends have been increasing. Studies from 2006 to 2010 showed that human health especially those of the farmers is at risk due to pesticide exposure. Illnesses and symptoms such as headache, skin abnormalities, fatigue, fever, and weaknesses were the common health complaints experienced by the farmers as reported in the research studies. Moreover, the studies showed risk factors to pesticide exposure, work practices, and pesticide residues in environmental media that could be contributory to pesticide poisoning cases. Government agencies should intensify their surveillance and regulation on both household and agricultural pesticides. The state of pesticide-related illnesses mirrors the poor safety practices among farmers as well as lack of necessary supervision from the government agencies.

  6. Associations between organochlorine pesticides and cognition in U.S. elders: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1999-2002.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ki-Su; Lee, Yu-Mi; Lee, Ho-Won; Jacobs, David R; Lee, Duk-Hee

    2015-02-01

    There is limited evidence about whether background exposure to organochlorine pesticides is related to impairment of cognitive function in general populations. This study was performed to investigate cross-sectional associations between serum concentrations of organochlorine pesticides and cognitive function, a predictor of dementia, among U.S. elders without overt dementia. Study subjects were 644 elders aged 60-85, participating in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1999-2002. We selected 6 organochlorine pesticides (p,p'-dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT), p,p'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE), trans-nonachlor, oxychlordane, heptachlor epoxide, and β-hexachlorocyclohexane) which were commonly detected in current general population. Cognitive function was assessed with the Digit-Symbol Substitution Test. All 6 compounds showed statistically significant or marginally significant inverse associations with cognitive score after adjusting for covariates including education levels. The strongest association was observed with p,p'-DDT. With the outcome of low cognitive score defined as <25th percentile, elders in the highest quartile of p,p'-DDT, p,p'-DDE, and β-hexachlorocyclohexane had 2 to 3 times higher risks than those in the lowest quartile. In particular, when their concentrations were further divided with the cutoff points of 90th and 95th percentiles, p,p'-DDT in the highest 5th percentile showed 6.5 (95% confidence interval: 2.6-16.3) times higher risk of low cognitive score. On the other hand, non-persistent pesticides like organophosphates or pyrethroid showed little association with this cognitive score. The potential role of background exposure to organochlorine pesticides in the development of dementia should be explored in future prospective studies and in-vitro/in-vivo experimental studies.

  7. Maternal Occupational Pesticide Exposure and Risk of Congenital Heart Defects in the National Birth Defects Prevention Study

    PubMed Central

    Rocheleau, Carissa M.; Bertke, Stephen J.; Lawson, Christina C.; Romitti, Paul A.; Sanderson, Wayne T.; Malik, Sadia; Lupo, Philip J.; Desrosiers, Tania A.; Bell, Erin; Druschel, Charlotte; Correa, Adolfo; Reefhuis, Jennita

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND Congenital heart defects (CHDs) are common birth defects, affecting approximately 1% of live births. Pesticide exposure has been suggested as an etiologic factor for CHDs, but previous results were inconsistent. METHODS We examined maternal occupational exposure to fungicides, insecticides, and herbicides for 3328 infants with CHDs and 2988 unaffected control infants of employed mothers using data for 1997 through 2002 births from the National Birth Defects Prevention Study, a population-based multisite case-control study. Potential pesticide exposure from 1 month before conception through the first trimester of pregnancy was assigned by an expert-guided task-exposure matrix and job history details self-reported by mothers. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated using multivariable logistic regression. RESULTS Maternal occupational exposure to pesticides was not associated with CHDs overall. In examining specific CHD subtypes compared with controls, some novel associations were observed with higher estimated pesticide exposure: insecticides only and secundum atrial septal defect (OR =1.8; 95% CI, 1.3–2.7, 40 exposed cases); both insecticides and herbicides and hypoplastic left heart syndrome (OR =5.1; 95% CI, 1.7–15.3, 4 exposed cases), as well as pulmonary valve stenosis (OR =3.6; 95% CI, 1.3–10.1, 5 exposed cases); and insecticides, herbicides, and fungicides and tetralogy of Fallot (TOF) (OR =2.2; 95% CI, 1.2–4.0, 13 exposed cases). CONCLUSION Broad pesticide exposure categories were not associated with CHDs overall, but examining specific CHD subtypes revealed some increased odds ratios. These results highlight the importance of examining specific CHDs separately. Because of multiple comparisons, additional work is needed to verify these associations. PMID:26033688

  8. Mortality from and incidence of pesticide poisoning in South Korea: findings from National Death and Health Utilization Data between 2006 and 2010.

    PubMed

    Cha, Eun Shil; Khang, Young-Ho; Lee, Won Jin

    2014-01-01

    Pesticide poisoning has been recognized as an important public health issue around the world. The objectives of this study were to report nationally representative figures on mortality from and the incidence of pesticide poisoning in South Korea and to describe their epidemiologic characteristics. We calculated the age-standardized rates of mortality from and the incidence of pesticide poisoning in South Korea by gender and region from 2006 through 2010 using registered death data obtained from Statistics Korea and national healthcare utilization data obtained from the National Health Insurance Review and Assessment Service of South Korea. During the study period of 2006 through 2010, a total of 16,161 deaths and 45,291 patients related to pesticide poisoning were identified, marking respective mortality and incidence rates of 5.35 and 15.37 per 100,000 population. Intentional self-poisoning was identified as the major cause of death due to pesticides (85.9%) and accounted for 20.8% of all recorded suicides. The rates of mortality due to and incidence of pesticide poisoning were higher in rural than in urban areas, and this rural-urban discrepancy was more pronounced for mortality than for incidence. Both the rate of mortality due to pesticide poisoning and its incidence rate increased with age and were higher among men than women. This study provides the magnitude and epidemiologic characteristics for mortality from and the incidence of pesticide poisoning at the national level, and strongly suggests the need for further efforts to prevent pesticide self-poisonings, especially in rural areas in South Korea.

  9. Mortality from and Incidence of Pesticide Poisoning in South Korea: Findings from National Death and Health Utilization Data between 2006 and 2010

    PubMed Central

    Cha, Eun Shil; Khang, Young-Ho; Lee, Won Jin

    2014-01-01

    Pesticide poisoning has been recognized as an important public health issue around the world. The objectives of this study were to report nationally representative figures on mortality from and the incidence of pesticide poisoning in South Korea and to describe their epidemiologic characteristics. We calculated the age-standardized rates of mortality from and the incidence of pesticide poisoning in South Korea by gender and region from 2006 through 2010 using registered death data obtained from Statistics Korea and national healthcare utilization data obtained from the National Health Insurance Review and Assessment Service of South Korea. During the study period of 2006 through 2010, a total of 16,161 deaths and 45,291 patients related to pesticide poisoning were identified, marking respective mortality and incidence rates of 5.35 and 15.37 per 100,000 population. Intentional self-poisoning was identified as the major cause of death due to pesticides (85.9%) and accounted for 20.8% of all recorded suicides. The rates of mortality due to and incidence of pesticide poisoning were higher in rural than in urban areas, and this rural-urban discrepancy was more pronounced for mortality than for incidence. Both the rate of mortality due to pesticide poisoning and its incidence rate increased with age and were higher among men than women. This study provides the magnitude and epidemiologic characteristics for mortality from and the incidence of pesticide poisoning at the national level, and strongly suggests the need for further efforts to prevent pesticide self-poisonings, especially in rural areas in South Korea. PMID:24743877

  10. Distribution mode and environmental risk of POP pesticides such as endosulfan under the agricultural practice of straw incorporating.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jie; Li, Li; Liu, Jianguo; Ti, Bowen

    2017-01-01

    The practice of incorporating post-harvest crop waste is widely used because it maintains soil fertility and avoids environmental pollution from straw burning. However, the practice of straw incorporation may also retain the pesticides that are applied to crop plants, which may pose a potential long term risk to local and regional environments if the applied pesticide is a Persistent, Bioaccumulative, and Toxic (PBT) substance or a Persistent Organic Pollutant (POP). Here we investigate the influence of the "receiving-retention-release" route on the distribution of a POP pesticide (endosulfan) and the associated environmental risk among different environmental compartments. Our study indicates that most endosulfan enters the atmosphere (φatmosphere = 64.5-72.5%), which is dominated by the indirect route of volatilization from crop plants (φatmosphere, indirect = 54.7-70.3%). In contrast, soil releases are minor (φsoil = 10.8-20.5%), and are dominated by direct release during application (φsoil, direct = 8.0-18.0%). Under the practice of straw incorporation, the use of endosulfan posed an environmental risk to agricultural soil. In addition, the atmospheric deposition of endosulfan also posed an environmental risk to sediment. The study highlights the significance of the "receiving-retention-release" route by crop plants in determining the fate of POP pesticides associated with straw incorporation; hence complementing the current methodology for assessing the environmental risk of these compounds. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. National Board Certification and Developmentally Appropriate Practices: Perceptions of Impact

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKenzie, Ellen Nancy

    2013-01-01

    The study investigated a relationship between National Board certification and perceived use of developmentally appropriate practices (DAP). A self-developed survey, the Early-childhood Teacher Inventory of Practices, was e-mailed to participants. Participants included 246 non-National Board-certified (non-NBCT) and 135 National Board-certified…

  12. Knowledge and Practices of In-Home Pesticide Use: A Community Survey in Uganda

    PubMed Central

    Nalwanga, Eva; Ssempebwa, John C.

    2011-01-01

    Many communities in low-income countries use in-home pesticides for the control of pests. Such use is often inadequately controlled. In this study, 100 households in Kireka ward, Wakiso district in Uganda were involved in a cross-sectional survey to assess pests, knowledge, and use patterns of pesticides. A structured pretested questionnaire was administered via personal interviews, and observational checklists were used. Mosquitoes were the most prevalent pests (83%), followed by cockroaches (69%) and rats (52%). Pesticides were the most preferred method for pest control (98%), with insecticide spray being the most common form of application (71.4%). Pesticide application was inappropriately done in many households mainly due to inadequate knowledge on use. Only 48% of the respondents read manufacturer's instructions for use. Information on what pesticide to use was obtained from friends (53.1%), points of sales (48%). Educational interventions particularly at points of sale would be a critical avenue for promoting safe use of pesticides in households. PMID:21776435

  13. National agenda for advanced practice nursing: the practice doctorate.

    PubMed

    Clinton, Patricia; Sperhac, Arlene M

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this article was to provide the background and rationale for the practice doctorate in nursing. The American Association of Colleges of Nursing's Position Statement on the Practice Doctorate in Nursing, approved in October 2004, will be discussed. Outlined are some of the changes that will be needed in education, regulation, and advanced practice. Common questions and concerns that advanced practice nurses have, including titling, salary, and transitioning to the doctor of nursing practice degree, will be addressed.

  14. Summary of national standards and guidelines for pesticides in water, bed sediment, and aquatic organisms and their application to water-quality assessments

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nowell, Lisa H.; Resek, Elizabeth A.

    1994-01-01

    Current (1993) national standards and guidelines pertaining to pesticide contaminants in water, bed sediment, and fish and shellfish tissues are summarized to provide a condensed reference source for definitions and current values applicable to pesticides in aquatic environmental media. This report facilitates comparison of measured concen- trations of pesticides in environmental samples with applicable standards and guidelines. For each standard or guideline, the following is provided: (1) Definition, including the underlying assumptions and mathematical derivation; (2) originating agency; (3) statutory authority; (4) regulatory status and, for standards, the agency responsible for enforcing the standard; (5) applicable sampling medium; (6) beneficial use and resource protected, and (7) full citations of published documentation. The report emphasizes the appropriate application on national standards and guidelines to water-quality data on pesticides to aid in assessing potential adverse effects on human health, aquatic organisms, and wildlife. (USGS)

  15. Evaluating Cumulative OP Pesticide Body Burden of Children: A National Case Study

    PubMed Central

    Payne-Sturges, Devon; Cohen, Jonathan; Castorina, Rosemary; Axelrad, Daniel A.; Woodruff, Tracey J.

    2009-01-01

    Biomonitoring is a valuable tool for identifying exposures to chemicals that pose potential harm to human health. However, to date there has been little published on ways to evaluate the relative public health significance of biomonitoring data for different chemicals, and even less on cumulative assessment of multiple chemicals. The objectives of our study are to develop a methodology for a health risk interpretation of biomonitoring data, and to apply it using NHANES 1999–2002 body burden data for organophosphorus (OP) pesticides. OP pesticides present a particularly challenging case given the non-specificity of many metabolites monitored through NHANES. We back-calculate OP pesticide exposures from urinary metabolite data, and compare cumulative dose estimates with available toxicity information for a common mechanism of action (brain cholinesterase inhibition) using data from U.S. EPA. Our results suggest that approximately 40% of children in the United States may have had insufficient margins of exposure (MOEs) for neurological impacts from cumulative exposures to OP pesticides (MOE less than 1,000). Limitations include uncertainty related to assumptions about likely precursor pesticide compounds of the urinary metabolites, sources of exposure, and intra-individual and temporal variability. PMID:19921915

  16. Obsolete pesticides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    Several hundred tons of obsolete pesticide stocks worldwide will pose a threat to humans and the environment until the year 2030 in some regions, unless funding for waste disposal is significantly increased, the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) said in a message directed to donor governments and industry on May 24.“Deadly chemicals are contaminating the soils, groundwater, irrigation, and drinking water,” said Amemayehu Wodageneh, senior expert on obsolete pesticides for FAO. “These ‘forgotten’ stocks are a serious risk, [and] they could cause an environmental tragedy in rural areas and big cities. There is hardly any developing country that is not affected by the hazards of obsolete pesticides.”

  17. Antimicrobial Pesticides

    MedlinePlus

    ... EPA United States Environmental Protection Agency Search Search Pesticides Share Facebook Twitter Google+ Pinterest Contact Us Antimicrobial Pesticides EPA regulates pesticides under the statutory authority of ...

  18. Pesticide knowledge and practice among horticultural workers in the Lâm Đồng region, Vietnam: A case study of chrysanthemum and strawberries.

    PubMed

    Houbraken, Michael; Bauweraerts, Ingvar; Fevery, Davina; Van Labeke, Marie-Christine; Spanoghe, Pieter

    2016-04-15

    In Vietnam, large amounts of pesticides are being used in agriculture. Next to benefits for agriculture, pesticides impose a huge threat to the environment when they are used in the wrong way. The objective of this work was to determine the level of knowledge and awareness of the smallholder farmers towards the use of pesticides in Vietnam, Dà Lat region. Based on the collected data, an occupational and environmental risk assessment was performed. The results indicate that the majority of the pesticide operators in the strawberry and chrysanthemum crops have a rather high education. Pesticide knowledge, on the other hand, is usually gained through experience with pests and diseases. Only 30% of the farmers consulted a pesticide specialist or government stewardship for information on (new) pesticide products. Pesticide usage is rather high with application frequencies up to once every three days during the wet season. Pesticide packages are stored to be incinerated (51%) or to be thrown away with the garbage/taken to the landfill (37%). Only a small percentage disposes the packages into the local river (2%). The use of personal protection equipment is well established. Occupational risk assessment showed that the re-entry worker is exposed to a high risk. While a general awareness of the hazard of pesticides to human health and the environment is present, practical implementation of this awareness, however, is still limited in strawberry and chrysanthemum crop. The environmental risk evaluation indicated plant protection products of which the use should be limited. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Sustainable agricultural practices: energy inputs and outputs, pesticide, fertilizer and greenhouse gas management.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yue-Wen

    2009-01-01

    The food security issue was addressed by the development of "modern agriculture" in the last century. But food safety issues and environment degradation were the consequences suffered as a result. Climate change has been recognized as the result of release of stored energy in fossil fuel into the atmosphere. Homogeneous crop varieties, machinery, pesticides and fertilizers are the foundation of uniform commodities in modern agriculture. Fossil fuels are used to manufacture fertilizers and pesticides as well as the energy source for agricultural machinery, thus characterizes modern agriculture. Bio-fuel production and the possibility of the agriculture system as a form of energy input are discussed.

  20. Nutrient and pesticide data collected from the USGS National Water Quality Network and previous networks, 1980-2015

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Deacon, Jeffrey R.; Lee, Casey; Norman, Julia E.; Reutter, David C.

    2016-01-01

    The National Water Quality Network (NWQN) for Rivers and Streams includes 113 surface-water river and stream sites monitored by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) National Water Quality Program, National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Project. The NWQN includes 19 large river coastal sites, 44 large river inland sites, 30 wadeable stream reference sites, 10 wadeable stream urban sites, and 10 wadeable stream agricultural sites. In addition to the 113 NWQN sites, 3 large inland river monitoring sites from the USGS Cooperative Water Program are also included in this annual water-quality reporting Web site to be consistent with previous USGS studies of nutrient transport in the Mississippi-Atchafalaya River Basin. This data release provides streamflow, nutrient, pesticide and sediment data collected and analyzed by NWQN and other historical water-quality networks from 1980-2015. Data from this release are presented at the USGS Tracking Water Quality page: http://cida.usgs.gov/quality/rivers/home.

  1. OPCW Proficiency Test: A Practical Approach Also for Interlaboratory Test on Detection and Identification of Pesticides in Environmental Matrices

    PubMed Central

    Śliwakowski, Maciej

    2014-01-01

    An overview of general strategy, standard procedures, and critical points, which may be found during carrying out an OPCW Proficiency Test concerning detection and identification of scheduled compounds relevant to Chemical Weapon Convention, has been presented. The observations have been illustrated following the case of the Eight OPCW Designated Laboratories Proficiency Test, which was performed in the OPCW Laboratory in Rijswijk in November and December 2000. Various useful hints, comments, and practical observations concerning the case study have been included as well. The same methodology and procedures may be also applied for detection, identification, and environmental analyses of pesticides and biocides, especially organophosphorus compounds. PMID:24578644

  2. AMERICAN HEALTHY HOMES SURVEY: A NATIONAL STUDY OF RESIDENTIAL PESTICIDES MEASURED FROM FLOOR WIPES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The US Environmental Protection Agency and the US Department of Housing and Urban Development conducted the American Healthy Homes Survey (AHHS) in 2006 to assess environmental concentrations of lead, allergens, mold, pesticides, and arsenic in and around U.S. residences.

  3. 78 FR 38591 - National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System Regulation Revision: Removal of the Pesticide...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-27

    ... (includes 221 Utilities....... Provide electric utilities). power, natural gas, steam supply, water supply... States to control pests that are present in the water, and when the application of the pesticide is made... is available for inspection and copying at the Water Docket, located at the EPA Docket Center (EPA...

  4. Agricultural Exports and the Environment: A Cross-National Study of Fertilizer and Pesticide Consumption

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Longo, Stefano; York, Richard

    2008-01-01

    The mass consumption of agrochemicals, including manufactured fertilizers and pesticides, by industrialized agricultural systems worldwide threatens human health and the health of ecosystems. The production of these agricultural inputs is a highly energy- and capital-intensive process, and their application contributes to a variety of direct and…

  5. 75 FR 31775 - Draft National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) Pesticide General Permit for Point...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-04

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... Source Discharges From the Application of Pesticides AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA.... Mail to: Water Docket, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Mail Code: 2822T, 1200 Pennsylvania Avenue...

  6. Agricultural Exports and the Environment: A Cross-National Study of Fertilizer and Pesticide Consumption

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Longo, Stefano; York, Richard

    2008-01-01

    The mass consumption of agrochemicals, including manufactured fertilizers and pesticides, by industrialized agricultural systems worldwide threatens human health and the health of ecosystems. The production of these agricultural inputs is a highly energy- and capital-intensive process, and their application contributes to a variety of direct and…

  7. Evaluation of Core Cultivation Practices to Reduce Ecological Risk of Pesticides in Runoff from Agrostis palustris

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Pesticides associated with the turfgrass industry have been detected in storm runoff and surface waters of urban watersheds; invoking concern of their potential environmental effects and a desire to reduce their transport to non-target locations. Quantities of chlorpyrifos, dicamba, dimethylamine s...

  8. Monitoring of Pesticide Disposal Practices, Iowa Army Ammunition Plant, Burlington, Iowa 52600, September 1974 - January 1975

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1976-10-15

    epoxide 7.5 .005 lindane 3.8 .0025 methoxychlor 120.0 .08 mirex 60.0 .04 toxaphene 1200.0 .80 chlorpyrifos 12.0 .008 diazinon 48.0 .032 malathion 75.0...polar fraction contains most of the common pesticides including toxaphene and 5442. 3. REAGENTS. a. Silicic acid - Mallinckrodt, Silicar CC-4 special for

  9. Evaluation of core cultivation practices to reduce ecological risk of pesticides in runoff from turf

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Pesticides associated with the turfgrass industry have been detected in storm runoff and surface waters of urban watersheds; raising concern of their potential environmental effects and a desire to reduce their transport to non-target locations. Runoff studies were conducted to compare the effective...

  10. Assessing the importance of agricultural management practices to reduce the ecological risk of pesticides

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The use of pesticides in agriculture, their potential to be transported beyond the intended target, and their possible risk to human and environmental health has been of public concern for many years. We utilized 5 years of field data from 3 vegetable production systems to evaluate the ability of ag...

  11. Level 1 Water-Quality Inventory of Baseline Levels of Pesticides in Urban Creeks - Golden Gate National Recreation Area and the Presidio of San Francisco, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hladik, Michelle; Orlando, James L.

    2008-01-01

    To characterize baseline water-quality levels of pesticides in Golden Gate National Recreation Area and the Presidio of San Francisco, the U.S. Geological Survey collected and analyzed surface-water and bed-sediment samples at 10 creeks during February, April, and July 2006. Pesticide data were obtained using previously developed methods. Samples from sites in the Presidio were analyzed only for pyrethroid insecticides, whereas the remaining samples were analyzed for pyrethroids and additional current and historical-use pesticides. Pesticide concentrations were low in both the water (below 30 ng/L) and sediment (below 3 ng/g). The pyrethroid bifenthrin was detected in water samples from two sites at concentrations below 2 ng/L. Other compounds detected in water included the herbicides dacthal (DCPA) and prometryn, the insecticide fipronil, the insecticide degradates p,p'-DDE and fipronil sulfone, and the fungicides cyproconazole, myclobutanil and tetraconazole. The only pesticides detected in the sediment samples were p,p'-DDT and its degradates (p,p'-DDD and p,p'-DDE). Pesticide information from the samples collected can provide a reference point for future sampling and can help National Park Service managers assess the water quality of the urban creeks.

  12. Pesticide poisoning trend analysis of 13 years: a retrospective study based on telephone calls at the National Poisons Information Centre, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi.

    PubMed

    Peshin, Sharda Shah; Srivastava, Amita; Halder, Nabanita; Gupta, Yogendra Kumar

    2014-02-01

    The study was designed to analyze the incidence and pattern of pesticide poisoning calls reported to the National Poisons Information Centre (NPIC), AIIMS, New Delhi and highlight the common classes of pesticides involved in poisoning. The telephone calls received by the Centre during the thirteen year period (1999-2012) were entered into a preset proforma and then into a retrievable database. A total of 4929 calls of pesticide poisoning were recorded. The data was analyzed with respect to age, gender, mode and type of poisoning. The age ranged from 1 to 65 years with the preponderance of males (M = 62.19%, F = 37.80%). The age group mainly involved in poisoning was 18-35 years. While 59.38% calls pertained to household pesticides, 40.61% calls related to agricultural pesticides. The common mode of poisoning was intentional (64.60%) followed by accidental (34.40%) and unknown (1%). Amongst the household pesticides, the highest number of calls were due to pyrethroids (26.23%) followed by rodenticides (17.06%), organophosphates (6.26%), carbamates (4.95%) and others (4.86%). In agricultural pesticides group, the organophosphates (9.79%) ranked the first followed by, aluminium phosphide (9.65%), organochlorines (9.31%), pyrethroids (3.87%), herbicides, weedicides and fungicides (3.20%), ethylene dibromide (2.82%), and others (1.70%). The data analysis shows a high incidence of poisoning due to household pesticides as compared to agricultural pesticides, clearly emphasizing the need for creating awareness and education about proper use and implementation of prevention programmes.

  13. Academic practice partnerships: a national dialogue.

    PubMed

    Beal, Judy A; Alt-White, Anna; Erickson, Judith; Everett, Linda Q; Fleshner, Irene; Karshmer, Judith; Swider, Susan; Gale, Sharon

    2012-01-01

    Academic-practice partnerships are an important mechanism to strengthen nursing practice and help nurses become well positioned to lead change and advance health. Through implementing such partnerships, both academic institutions and practice settings will formally address the recommendations of the Institute of Medicine Future of Nursing Committee. Effective partnerships will create systems for nurses to achieve educational and career advancement, prepare nurses of the future to practice and lead, provide mechanisms for lifelong learning, and provide a structure for nurse residency programs. This paper details the work of the American Association of Colleges of Nursing-American Organization of Nurse Executives Task Force on Academic-Practice Partnerships that has identified hallmarks of successful partnership and produced tools and shared exemplars to assist nursing leaders in developing and sustaining partnerships for the future.

  14. Association between workplace and housing conditions and use of pesticide safety practices and personal protective equipment among North Carolina farmworkers in 2010.

    PubMed

    Levesque, D L; Arif, A A; Shen, J

    2012-04-01

    There are inconsistencies about the effects of farmworker housing and workplace conditions and use of self-protective behavior practices and personal protective equipment (PPE). To investigate the association between workplace and housing conditions and farmworker use of pesticide safety practices and PPE. This study was conducted in 4 counties in North Carolina, USA, from July to October, 2010, during the agricultural growing season. Farmworkers working in agriculture aged 18 to 62 (n = 187) were administered a structured questionnaire to collect self-reported measures on housing and workplace conditions. Use of pesticide safety and PPE were examined by asking questions about wearing gloves, wearing socks, and wearing a hat. Chi-square and multiple logistic regression analyses were used for statistical analyses. Farmworkers reporting availability of enough hot and cold water for bathing and doing laundry were 13.6 times more likely to use pesticide safety practices (adjusted OR: 13.6, 95% CI: 1.4-135.4), whereas, those who reported that soap for handwashing was always or usually available while doing agricultural work were 7.8 times more likely to use pesticide safety practices (adjusted OR: 7.8, 95% CI: 3.3-18.5). Farmworkers that reported access to water to wash their hands with while performing agricultural work were more likely to use PPE (adjusted OR: 3.4, 95% CI: 1.3-9.2). Some migrant farmworker labor camps are not supplying acceptable housing conditions such as 1 handwashing sink per 6 people (n = 10, 5.4%). Use of pesticide safety practices and PPE is greater when farmers provide decontamination supplies. Improvement of housing and workplace conditions are crucial to increase use of pesticide safety practices and PPE.

  15. Pesticide and trace metals in surface waters and sediments of rivers entering the Corner Inlet Marine National Park, Victoria, Australia.

    PubMed

    Allinson, Graeme; Allinson, Mayumi; Bui, AnhDuyen; Zhang, Pei; Croatto, George; Wightwick, Adam; Rose, Gavin; Walters, Robert

    2016-03-01

    Water and sediment samples were collected from up to 17 sites in waterways entering the Corner Inlet Marine National Park monthly between November 2009 and April 2010, with the Chemcatcher passive sampler system deployed at these sites in November 2009 and March 2010. Trace metal concentrations were low, with none occurring at concentrations with the potential for adverse ecological effects. The agrochemical residues data showed the presence of a small number of pesticides at very low concentration (ng/L) in the surface waters of streams entering the Corner Inlet, and as widespread, but still limited contamination of sediments. Concentrations of pesticides detected were relatively low and several orders of magnitude below reported ecotoxicological effect and hazardous concentration values. The low levels of pesticides detected in this study indicate that agricultural industries were responsible agrochemical users. This research project is a rarity in aligning both agrochemical usage data obtained from chemical resellers in the target catchment with residue analysis of environmental samples. Based on frequency of detection and concentrations, prometryn is the priority chemical of concern for both the water and sediments studied, but this chemical was not listed in reseller data. Consequently, the risks may be greater than the field data would suggest, and priorities for monitoring different since some commonly used herbicides (such as glyphosate, phenoxy acid herbicides, and sulfonyl urea herbicides) were not screened. Therefore, researchers, academia, industry, and government need to identify ways to achieve a more coordinated land use approach for obtaining information on the use of chemicals in a catchment, their presence in waterways, and the longer term performance of chemicals, particularly where they are used multiple times in a year.

  16. National Foreign Language Planning: Practices and Prospects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sajavaara, Kari, Ed.; And Others

    A selection of essays on foreign language planning at the national level contains articles on the language planning process, language choice, teacher education, testing and assessment, and transnational planning. Essays include the following: "Foreign Language Teaching Policy: Some Planning Issues" (Theo J. M. van Els); "Foreign…

  17. Practice educators in the United Kingdom: A national job description.

    PubMed

    Rowe, John

    2008-11-01

    Much is known about the purpose of practice educators in the United Kingdom, but how their role is implemented is subject to conflicting expectations, partly created by the structure in which they work. Joint appointments between universities and practice are an opportunity for both organisations to collaborate in a partnership to enhance practice learning and fulfill one of the main aims of the practice educator role: to narrow the theory-practice gap. However tensions exist. This paper advocates a national (UK) job description for practice educators to reduce some of the tensions and conflict between the expectations of collaborating partners in practice learning. This would enable practice educators to concentrate on their obligations while employers concentrate on enabling practice educators to fulfill their obligations by upholding their rights to proper preparation, support and career structure.

  18. Pesticides in the nation's rivers, 1975-1980, and implications for future monitoring

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gilliom, Robert J.; Alexander, Richard B.; Smith, Richard A.

    1985-01-01

    Water samples were taken four times per year and bed-sediment samples two times per year during 1975-80 at 160 to 180 stations on major rivers of the United States. Samples were analyzed for 18 insecticides and 4 herbicides, which together accounted for about one-third of the total amount of all pesticides applied to major crops during 1975-80. Fewer than 10 percent of almost 3,000 water samples and fewer than 20 percent of almost 1,000 bed-sediment samples contained reportable concentrations of any of the compounds. The patterns of detection result from a combination of widely variable detection capabilities, chemical properties, and use. Most detections in water samples were of relatively persistent yet soluble compounds: atrazine (4.8 percent of samples), diazinon (1.2), and lindane (1.1). Most detections in bed-sediment samples were of the hydrophobic and persistent insecticides: DDE (17 percent of samples), DDD (12), dieldrin (12), chlordane (9.9), and DDT (8.5). Only for atrazine in water, and for DDE, DDD, DDT, and chlordane in bed sediments, were geographic patterns of detection correlated (pH<0.10) with use on farms. Detections of organochlorine insecticides in both water and bed sediments appear to have erratically but gradually decreased during 1975-80. For the 1975-79 period, more stations had downtrends than had uptrends in bed-sediment levels of organochlorines. No clear trends were evident in concentrations of organophosphate insecticides or herbicides in either water or bed sediments. Findings suggest that future pesticide monitoring efforts must be responsive to changes in pesticides used and to geographic patterns of use. Different types of monitoring approaches are necesssary for chemicals having different chemical and physical properties. Before an effective dynamic monitoring effort can be designed, however, selected case studies are needed to characterize and refine sampling and analytical capabilities for different types of chemicals, river

  19. Integrated Pest Management Practices Reduce Insecticide Applications, Preserve Beneficial Insects, and Decrease Pesticide Residues in Flue-Cured Tobacco Production.

    PubMed

    Slone, Jeremy D; Burrack, Hannah J

    2016-09-22

    Integrated pest management (IPM) recommendations, including scouting and economic thresholds (ETs), are available for North Carolina flue-cured tobacco growers, although ETs for key pests have not been updated in several decades. Moreover, reported IPM adoption rates by flue-cured tobacco growers remain low, at < 40%, according to NC cooperative extension surveys conducted during the last four years. Previous research has suggested that timing insecticide treatments using currently available ETs can reduce the average number of applications to two or fewer per season. We conducted field-scale trials at nine commercial tobacco farms, three in 2104 and six in 2015, to quantify inputs associated with current scouting recommendations, to determine if current ETs were able to reduce insecticide applications as compared to grower standard practices, and to assess the impacts of reduced insecticide applications on end of season yield and pesticide residues. Two fields were identified at each farm and were scouted weekly for insects. One field was only treated with insecticides if pests reached ET (IPM), while the other field was managed per grower discretion (Grower Standard). IPM fields received an average of two fewer insecticide applications without compromising yield. More insecticide applications resulted in higher pesticide residues in cured leaf samples from Grower Standard fields than those from IPM fields. Reductions in insecticides and management intensity also resulted in larger beneficial insect populations in IPM fields.

  20. Pesticides (Environmental Health Student Portal)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Town - National Library of Medicine) - Introduction to the health effects associated with exposure to pesticides and where they can be found in the ... and Pesticides (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency) - Information on health ... food; links to pesticides and detrimental environmental risks. Healthy ...

  1. ATMOSPHERIC DEPOSITION OF CURRENT-USE AND HISTORIC-USE PESTICIDES IN SNOW AT NATIONAL PARKS IN THE WESTERN UNITED STATES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The United States (U.S.) National Park Service has initiated research on the atmospheric deposition and fate of semi-volatile organic compounds in its alpine, sub-Arctic, and Arctic ecosystems in the Western U.S. Results for the analysis of pesticides in seasonal snowpack samples...

  2. ATMOSPHERIC DEPOSITION OF CURRENT-USE AND HISTORIC-USE PESTICIDES IN SNOW AT NATIONAL PARKS IN THE WESTERN UNITED STATES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The United States (U.S.) National Park Service has initiated research on the atmospheric deposition and fate of semi-volatile organic compounds in its alpine, sub-Arctic, and Arctic ecosystems in the Western U.S. Results for the analysis of pesticides in seasonal snowpack samples...

  3. PURE: a web-based decision support system to evaluate pesticide environmental risk for sustainable pest management practices in California.

    PubMed

    Zhan, Yu; Zhang, Minghua

    2012-08-01

    Farmers, policy makers, and other stakeholders seek tools to quantitatively assess pesticide risks for mitigating pesticide impacts on ecosystem and human health. This paper presents the Pesticide Use Risk Evaluation (PURE) decision support system (DSS) for evaluating site-specific pesticide risks to surface water, groundwater, soil, and air across pesticide active ingredient (AI), pesticide product, and field levels. The risk score is determined by the ratio of the predicted environmental concentrations (PEC) to the toxicity value for selected endpoint organism(s); except that the risk score for the air is calculated using the emission potential (EP), which is a pesticide product property for estimating potential volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions by California Environmental Protection Agency (CEPA). The risk scores range from 0 to 100, where 0 represents negligible risk while 100 means the highest risk. The procedure for calculating PEC in surface water was evaluated against monitoring data for 41 pesticide AIs, with a statistically significant correlation coefficient of r=0.82 (p<0.001). In addition, two almond fields in the Central Valley, California were evaluated for pesticide risks as a case study, where the commonly acknowledged high-risk pesticides gained high risk scores. Simazine, one of the most frequently detected pesticides in groundwater, was scored as 74 (the moderate high risk class) to groundwater; and chlorpyrifos, one of the frequently detected pollutants in surface water, was scored as 100 (the high risk class) to surface water. In support of pesticide risk quantitative assessment and use of reduced-risk pesticide selection, the PURE-DSS can be useful to assist growers, pesticide control advisors, and environmental protection organizations in mitigating pesticide use impacts on the environment. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Dichlorophenol-containing pesticides and allergies: results from the US National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2005-2006.

    PubMed

    Jerschow, Elina; McGinn, Aileen P; de Vos, Gabriele; Vernon, Natalia; Jariwala, Sunit; Hudes, Golda; Rosenstreich, David

    2012-12-01

    Epidemiologic studies support the hypothesis that reduced microbial exposure in westernized societies promotes atopy. Dichlorophenols are widely used as pesticides and for chlorination of water. They have a strong bactericidal effect that could affect microflora in the environment. However, it is unknown whether their use is associated with a higher prevalence of allergies. To test the association between exposure to environmental pesticides represented by dichlorophenols and allergic sensitization measured by allergen-specific serum IgE levels in a US nationally representative sample of 2,211 persons 6 years and older in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2005-2006. Exposure to dichlorophenols was defined as high if their levels in urine were present at the 75th percentile and above. Association of the high exposure to dichlorophenols with sensitization to food and environmental allergens was assessed in logistic regression models after adjustment for sample weights and potential confounders. Sensitizations to 1 or more food allergens were more common in those with exposure to 2 dichlorophenol metabolites. After multivariable adjustment, urine dichlorophenol levels at the 75th percentile and above were associated with the presence of sensitization to foods (odds ratio, 1.8; 95% confidence interval, 1.2-2.5; P = .003). No significant association was found between dichlorophenol exposure and sensitization to aeroallergens alone. High urine levels of dichlorophenols are associated with the presence of sensitization to foods in a US population. Excessive use of dichlorophenols may contribute to the increasing incidence of food allergies in westernized societies. Copyright © 2012 American College of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. One Size Does Not Fit All. Some Thoughts on Pesticides in the Diets of Infants and Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Richard J.

    1994-01-01

    National Academy of Sciences report, "Pesticides in the Diets of Infants and Children," recommends that legal limits of pesticide residues in food should be health-based standards with adequate safety margins for all consumers, including infants and children. Tolerances currently reflect "good agricultural practice." Children…

  6. One Size Does Not Fit All. Some Thoughts on Pesticides in the Diets of Infants and Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Richard J.

    1994-01-01

    National Academy of Sciences report, "Pesticides in the Diets of Infants and Children," recommends that legal limits of pesticide residues in food should be health-based standards with adequate safety margins for all consumers, including infants and children. Tolerances currently reflect "good agricultural practice." Children…

  7. Pesticide Registration

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This site provides resources for an individual or company wanting to register a pesticide active ingredient or pesticide product in the United States. Features: a manual (blue book), other guidance, and coordinated lists of requirements by pesticide type.

  8. Adverse health effects of pesticides in agrarian populations of developing countries.

    PubMed

    Kesavachandran, Chandrasekharan Nair; Fareed, Mohammad; Pathak, Manoj Kumar; Bihari, Vipin; Mathur, Neeraj; Srivastava, Anup Kumar

    2009-01-01

    Developing countries use only 20% of the world's agrochemicals, yet they suffer 99% of deaths from pesticide poisoning. Pesticide poisoning is a significant problem in developing countries primarily because of unsafe pesticide application and handling practices. Safety is further exacerbated by the illiteracy and poverty that prevails in most farming communities of developing countries. Pesticides classified as being extremely or highly hazardous by FAO and WHO, including those banned by other countries, continue to be used in developing countries. Many farmers in developing countries continue to be exposed to pesticides from either storing them in or near their residences, or from inadequate or unsafe application or handling practices. Farming populations exposed to pesticides suffer from several health problems, primarily neurological abnormalities, respiratory ailments, and reproductive, endocrinological, and dermal problems. In developing countries, the scientific literature (including the Indian Institute of Toxicology Research, India) have taken the initiative to monitor health problems resulting from pesticide exposure in agrarian communities. The welfare fund for agricultural laborers could institute a special program for pesticide applicators in developing countries. The primary need, currently, in such countries is creation and implementation of sound national policies to effectively articulate appropriate guidelines for managing farm pest control activities. Such policies should be aimed at both limiting pesticide exposure and usage, but doing so without damaging the yields of food production. If such steps are taken, it is fully expected that the incidence of adverse health consequences for agrarian populations from pesticide toxicity will decrease, and the health of farmers improve.

  9. Analytical methods for a national study of chemical residues in fish. 2. Pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls

    SciTech Connect

    Marquis, P.J.; Hanson, R.L.; Larsen, M.L.; DeVita, W.M.; Butterworth, B.C.

    1994-01-01

    Analytical methods and a quality assurance plan have been developed to determine the concentration of a select group of bioaccumulatable chemicals in fish tissue. The analytes include Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and 21 pesticides and industrial chemicals. The methodology has been used to conduct a survey of chemical contaminants in fish from nearly 400 major watersheds in the United States. The methodology consists of the preparation of a single extract via soxhlet extraction, gel permeation and silica gel chromatography and quantification by HRGC/LRMS. The minimum level of detection for most analytes is near 1 ng/g. Rigorous quality assurance/quality control criteria have been developed to assure the generation of high quality data.

  10. National GLP programmes and implication of regulatory authorities for pharmaceuticals, pesticides and other chemicals.

    PubMed

    Nakashima, Nobumasa

    2008-01-01

    There are various kinds of good laboratory practice (GLP) monitoring authorities (MAs) in the world. Some countries have only one MA, while others, including Japan, have more than one MA. In addition, each MA has its own relationship with regulatory authorities (RAs), receiving authorities (RcAs) and industry based on the internal regulatory systems. There are eight GLP MAs in Japan. This number is probably the largest in the world. Efforts have been made to establish a close link among MAs and to apply and implement GLP programmes in an efficient, effective and consistent way, namely: i) interministerial meeting on GLP. It is essential to establish a system for information exchange and decision making when there are a number of MAs such as in Japan. To this end, the interministerial meeting on GLP has been set up as a means for MAs, RAs, and RcAs to share information on Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) and foreign countries and make national decisions as a whole country; ii) joint training programme. With the goal of training inspectors and minimizing differences in inspections among MAs, a joint training programme has been started including joint visits to test facilities (TFs) and participation in evaluation committees at other MAs. One of the purposes of this training programme is to get ready for the on-site evaluation visit (OEV) of the OECD by simulating it at MAs in Japan; iii) joint translation programme of the OECD documents. To avoid unnecessary confusion due to differences of interpretation and translation of OECD documents among MAs, these have been translated into Japanese in cooperation with industry. This has also other substantial merits such as cost reduction and time saving for all stakeholders in Japan. Some countries, both members and non-members of the OECD, have also established more than one GLP MA. It is hoped that the Japanese experience can be useful to them.

  11. Self-reported exposure to pesticides and radiation related to pregnancy outcome--results from National Natality and Fetal Mortality Surveys

    SciTech Connect

    Savitz, D.A.; Whelan, E.A.; Kleckner, R.C. )

    1989-09-01

    Although fetal development is known to be sensitive to environmental agents, relatively little epidemiologic research has addressed this concern. Effects on pregnancy outcome of self-reported parental exposure to pesticides and to radiation were examined using data from the National Natality and Fetal Mortality Surveys, large national probability samples of live births and stillbirths occurring in 1980. In case-control analyses, maternal exposure to pesticides at home or work was associated with increased risk of stillbirth (odds ratios (ORs) = 1.5-1.6). Paternal pesticide exposure was associated with stillbirth (ORs = 1.2-1.4) and delivery of small-for-gestational-age infants (ORs = 1.4-2.0). A small increased risk of stillbirth (OR = 1.3) was found in relation to either parent's reported exposure to radiation. In spite of limitations in the quality of exposure data and the possibility of biased recall related to pregnancy outcome, associations of reported pesticide exposure to either parent with risk of stillbirth and small-for-gestational-age infants warrant further evaluation.

  12. Sandia National Laboratories ASCI Applications Software Quality Engineering Practices

    SciTech Connect

    ZEPPER, JOHN D.; ARAGON, KATHRYN MARY; ELLIS, MOLLY A.; BYLE, KATHLEEN A.; EATON, DONNA SUE

    2003-04-01

    This document provides a guide to the deployment of the software verification activities, software engineering practices, and project management principles that guide the development of Accelerated Strategic Computing Initiative (ASCI) applications software at Sandia National Laboratories (Sandia). The goal of this document is to identify practices and activities that will foster the development of reliable and trusted products produced by the ASCI Applications program. Document contents include an explanation of the structure and purpose of the ASCI Quality Management Council, an overview of the software development lifecycle, an outline of the practices and activities that should be followed, and an assessment tool.

  13. Who's using treatment manuals? A national survey of practicing therapists.

    PubMed

    Becker, Emily M; Smith, Ashley M; Jensen-Doss, Amanda

    2013-10-01

    Treatment manuals are currently the most common way treatments are disseminated to practicing clinicians, although little is known about the rates with which practicing therapists incorporate these manuals into their practice. In light of a widely acknowledged research-practice gap, understanding how often therapists are using manuals is important for shaping future dissemination efforts. This study collected data on rates of manual use among a national sample of mental health clinicians representative of those likely to be targeted in dissemination efforts (N = 756), as well as predictors of use. Results indicated that few clinicians (< 10%) routinely incorporated manuals into their practice, although most employed them to some degree. Predictors of manual use included greater openness to new treatments, younger age, and a cognitive-behavioral treatment orientation (ps < .05). Implications for future dissemination efforts are discussed.

  14. Assessment and Verification of National Vocational Qualifications: Policy and Practice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Konrad, John

    2000-01-01

    To overcome problems of assessment and verification of National Vocational Qualifications, the system should move from narrow quality control to total quality management. Situated learning in communities of practice, including assessors and assessees, should be developed. This requires radically different quality criteria and professional…

  15. National Best Practices Manual for Building High Performance Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    US Department of Energy, 2007

    2007-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy's Rebuild America EnergySmart Schools program provides school boards, administrators, and design staff with guidance to help make informed decisions about energy and environmental issues important to school systems and communities. "The National Best Practices Manual for Building High Performance Schools" is a part of…

  16. National Education Practice File. Final Report. Evaluation Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clay, Katherine; Davis, James E.

    The purpose of the National Education Practice File (NEPF) was to find out from educational practitioners what types of materials would be of value to them; to locate the types of information identified; and to make this information available to them through the development of a computerized file of practitioner-oriented materials. The 2-year,…

  17. Identifying Exemplary School Counseling Practices in Nationally Recognized High Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Militello, Matthew; Carey, John; Dimmitt, Carey; Lee, Vivian; Schweid, Jason

    2009-01-01

    The National Center for School Counseling Outcome Research (CSCOR) at the University of Massachusetts-Amherst studied exemplary practices of 18 high schools that received recognition for college preparation and placement in 2004 and 2005. Through interviews with key personnel at each of the high schools, the researchers generated a set of ten…

  18. American Healthy Homes Survey: A National Study of Residential Pesticides Measured from Floor Wipes.

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development in collaboration with the United States Environmental Protection Agency conducted a survey measuring lead, allergens, and insecticides in a randomly selected nationally representative sample of resodential homes. Multistage sa...

  19. Identifying advanced practice: A national survey of a nursing workforce.

    PubMed

    Gardner, Glenn; Duffield, Christine; Doubrovsky, Anna; Adams, Margaret

    2016-03-01

    The size and flexibility of the nursing workforce has positioned nursing as central to the goals of health service improvement. Nursing's response to meeting these goals has resulted in proliferation of advanced practice nursing with a confusing array of practice profiles, titles and roles. Whilst numerous models and definitions of advanced practice nursing have been developed there is scant published research of significant scope that supports these models. Consequently there is an ongoing call in the literature for clarity and stability in nomenclature, and confusion in the health industry on how to optimise the utility of advanced practice nursing. To identify and delineate advanced practice from other levels of nursing practice through examination of a national nursing workforce. A cross-sectional electronic survey of nurses using the validated Advanced Practice Role Delineation tool based on the Strong Model of Advanced Practice. Study participants were registered nurses employed in a clinical service environment across all states and territories of Australia. A sample of 5662 registered nurses participated in the study. Domain means for each participant were calculated then means for nursing position titles were calculated. Position titles were grouped by delineation and were compared with one-way analysis of variance on domain means. The alpha for all tests was set at 0.05. Significant effects were examined with Scheffe post hoc comparisons to control for Type 1 error. The survey tool was able to identify position titles where nurses were practicing at an advanced level and to delineate this cohort from other levels of nursing practice, including nurse practitioner. The results show that nurses who practice at an advanced level are characterised by high mean scores across all Domains of the Strong Model of Advanced Practice. The mean scores of advanced practice nurses were significantly different from nurse practitioners in the Direct Care Domain and

  20. Evaluation of Management Practices to Mitigate Pesticide Transport and Ecological Risk of Runoff from Agricultural and Turf Systems

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Highly managed biotic systems such as agricultural crops and golf courses often require multiple applications of pesticides that may be transported with runoff to surrounding surface waters. Pesticides have been detected in surface waters of rural and urban watersheds invoking concern of their sour...

  1. Atmospherically deposited PBDEs, pesticides, PCBs, and PAHs in western U.S. National Park fish: Concentrations and consumption guidelines

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ackerman, L.K.; Schwindt, A.R.; Simonich, S.L.M.; Koch, D.C.; Blett, T.F.; Schreck, C.B.; Kent, M.L.; Landers, D.H.

    2008-01-01

    Concentrations of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons were measured in 136 fish from 14 remote lakes in 8 western U.S. National Parks/Preserves between 2003 and 2005 and compared to human and wildlife contaminant health thresholds. A sensitive (median detection limit, -18 pg/g wet weight), efficient (61% recovery at 8 ng/g), reproducible (4.1% relative standard deviation (RSD)), and accurate (7% deviation from standard reference material (SRM)) analytical method was developed and validated for these analyses. Concentrations of PCBs, hexachlorobenzene, hexachlorocyclohexanes, DDTs, and chlordanes in western U.S. fish were comparable to or lower than mountain fish recently collected from Europe, Canada, and Asia. Dieldrin and PBDE concentrations were higher than recent measurements in mountain fish and Pacific Ocean salmon. Concentrations of most contaminants in western U.S. fish were 1-6 orders of magnitude below calculated recreational fishing contaminant health thresholds. However, lake average contaminant concentrations in fish exceeded subsistence fishing cancer thresholds in 8 of 14 lakes and wildlife contaminant health thresholds for piscivorous birds in 1of 14 lakes. These results indicate that atmospherically deposited organic contaminants can accumulate in high elevation fish, reaching concentrations relevant to human and wildlife health. ?? 2008 American Chemical Society.

  2. Atmospherically Deposited PBDEs, Pesticides, PCBs, and PAHs in Western US National Park Fish: Concentrations and Consumption Guidelines

    PubMed Central

    Ackerman, Luke K.; Schwindt, Adam R.; Simonich, Staci L.; Koch, Dan C.; Blett, Tamara F.; Schreck, Carl B.; Kent, Michael L.; Landers, Dixon H.

    2014-01-01

    Concentrations of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons were measured in 136 fish from 14 remote lakes in 8 western US National Parks/Preserves between 2003 and 2005 and compared to human and wildlife contaminant health thresholds. A sensitive (median detection limit −18 pg/g wet weight), efficient (61% recovery at 8 ng/g), reproducible (4.1 %RSD), and accurate (7 % deviation from SRM) analytical method was developed and validated for these analyses. Concentrations of PCBs, hexachlorobenzene, hexachlorocyclohexanes, DDTs and chlordanes in western US fish were comparable to or lower than mountain fish recently collected from Europe, Canada, and Asia. Dieldrin and PBDE concentrations were higher than recent measurements in mountain fish and Pacific Ocean salmon. Concentrations of most contaminants in western US fish were 1–6 orders of magnitude below calculated recreational fishing contaminant health thresholds. However, contaminant concentrations exceeded subsistence fishing cancer screening values in 8 of 14 lakes. Average contaminant concentrations in fish exceeded wildlife contaminant health thresholds for piscivorous mammals in 5 lakes, and piscivorous birds in all 14 lakes. These results indicate that atmospherically deposited organic contaminants can accumulate in high elevation fish, reaching concentrations relevant to human and wildlife health. PMID:18504962

  3. Sandia National Laboratories ASCI Applications Software Quality Engineering Practices

    SciTech Connect

    ZEPPER, JOHN D.; ARAGON, KATHRYN MARY; ELLIS, MOLLY A.; BYLE, KATHLEEN A.; EATON, DONNA SUE

    2002-01-01

    This document provides a guide to the deployment of the software verification activities, software engineering practices, and project management principles that guide the development of Accelerated Strategic Computing Initiative (ASCI) applications software at Sandia National Laboratories (Sandia). The goal of this document is to identify practices and activities that will foster the development of reliable and trusted products produced by the ASCI Applications program. Document contents include an explanation of the structure and purpose of the ASCI Quality Management Council, an overview of the software development lifecycle, an outline of the practices and activities that should be followed, and an assessment tool. These sections map practices and activities at Sandia to the ASCI Software Quality Engineering: Goals, Principles, and Guidelines, a Department of Energy document.

  4. Global Harmonization of Maximum Residue Limits for Pesticides.

    PubMed

    Ambrus, Árpád; Yang, Yong Zhen

    2016-01-13

    International trade plays an important role in national economics. The Codex Alimentarius Commission develops harmonized international food standards, guidelines, and codes of practice to protect the health of consumers and to ensure fair practices in the food trade. The Codex maximum residue limits (MRLs) elaborated by the Codex Committee on Pesticide Residues are based on the recommendations of the FAO/WHO Joint Meeting on Pesticides (JMPR). The basic principles applied currently by the JMPR for the evaluation of experimental data and related information are described together with some of the areas in which further developments are needed.

  5. Pesticide use, alternatives and workers' health in Cuba.

    PubMed

    Alexander, R; Anderson, P K

    1984-01-01

    Cuba provides a unique example of a country that is actively implementing a program to reduce its dependence on pesticides. This paper addresses Cuba's current efforts to develop and implement alternatives to pesticides and legislation to limit exposure and protect workers in the interim. In 1980 Cuba embarked on a national program to utilize alternatives to chemical pest control. This three-part program includes expansion of knowledge of Cuban agro-ecology in order to implement cultural control practices; research and implementation on biological control of pests; and research on plant resistance and development of resistant crop varieties. To date, the program has enabled Cuba to reduce pesticide usage in sugar cane, citrus, tobacco, corn, and vegetable crops, among others. While alternatives to chemical pest control are being developed, the Cubans are paying special attention to regulating pesticide use and the safety of workers and members of the public exposed to toxic chemicals. In addition to the Resolution on Health and Safety (1967) and the Safety and Health Law (1978) which cover all workers, including Cuba's 250,000 agricultural workers, the Ministry of Public Health promulgated Resolution 335 in 1967. This resolution addresses requirements and administration of structural pest control, production, importation, transport and storage of pesticides, as well as requirements for worker contact with pesticides, pesticides for domestic use, aerial application of pesticides, and violations of the regulations. The paper concludes with a description of how the system works on the provincial level, as exemplified by Villa Clara, and the steps that have been taken to eliminate worker exposure to pesticides, to utilize pesticides which pose less of a hazard to workers, and to assure early detection of ill effects.

  6. Human exposures to pesticides in the United States.

    PubMed

    Langley, Ricky L; Mort, Sandra Amiss

    2012-01-01

    Pesticides are used in most homes, businesses, and farms to control a variety of pests, including insects, weeds, fungi, rodents, and even microbial organisms. Inappropriate use of pesticides can lead to adverse effects to humans and the environment. This study provides updated information on the magnitude of adverse pesticide exposures in the United States. Data on pesticide exposure were obtained from calls to poison control centers (PCCs) reported by the American Association of Poison Control Centers. Estimates of emergency department visits, hospitalizations, and health care costs were reported by the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ), and deaths from pesticide poisonings reported by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) WONDER (Wide-ranging Online Data for Epidemiologic Research). An average of 23 deaths occur each year with pesticides as the underlying cause of death, most due to suicidal ingestions. An average of 130,136 calls to poison control centers were reported from 2006 to 2010, with an average of 20,116 cases (17.8%) treated in health care facilities annually. AHQR reported an annual average of 7385 emergency room visits during 2006 to 2008, and 1419 annual hospitalizations during 2005 to 2009. Excluding cost from lost work time, hospital physician fees, and pesticide-induced cancers, the annual national cost associated with pesticide exposures was estimated as nearly $200 million USD based on data from emergency department visits, hospitalizations, and for deaths. Pesticide exposures remain a significant public health issue. Health care providers, cooperative extension agents, and pesticide manufactures can help prevent exposures by increasing education of parents and workers, encourage use of less toxic agents, and encourage the practice of integrated pest management.

  7. Paternal and joint parental occupational pesticide exposure and spina bifida in the National Birth Defects Prevention Study, 1997 to 2002.

    PubMed

    Pettigrew, Stacy M; Bell, Erin M; Van Zutphen, Alissa R; Rocheleau, Carissa M; Shaw, Gary M; Romitti, Paul A; Olshan, Andrew; Lupo, Philip J; Soim, Aida; Makelarski, Jennifer A; Michalski, Adrian M; Sanderson, Wayne

    2016-11-01

    Because of persistent concerns over the association between pesticides and spina bifida, we examined the role of paternal and combined parental occupational pesticide exposures in spina bifida in offspring using data from a large population-based study of birth defects. Occupational information from fathers of 291 spina bifida cases and 2745 unaffected live born control infants with estimated dates of delivery from 1997 to 2002 were collected by means of maternal report. Two expert industrial hygienists estimated exposure intensity and frequency to insecticides, herbicides, and fungicides. Multivariable logistic regression models were used to estimate adjusted odds ratios (aOR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for exposure to any pesticide and to any class of pesticide (yes/no; and by median), and exposure to combinations of pesticides (yes/no) and risk of spina bifida. Adjusted odds ratios were also estimated by parent exposed to pesticides (neither, mother only, father only, both parents). Joint parental occupational pesticide exposure was positively associated with spina bifida (aOR, 1.5; 95% CI, 0.9-2.4) when compared with infants with neither maternal nor paternal exposures; a similar association was not observed when only one parent was exposed. There was a suggested positive association between combined paternal insecticide and fungicide exposures and spina bifida (aOR, 1.5; 95% CI, 0.8-2.8), however, nearly all other aORs were close to unity. Overall, there was little evidence paternal occupational pesticide exposure was associated with spina bifida. However, the small numbers make it difficult to precisely evaluate the role of pesticide classes, individually and in combination. Birth Defects Research (Part A) 106:963-971, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. CHEER National Study of Chronic Rhinosinusitis Practice Patterns.

    PubMed

    Chapurin, Nikita; Pynnonen, Melissa A; Roberts, Rhonda; Schulz, Kristine; Shin, Jennifer J; Witsell, David L; Parham, Kourosh; Langman, Alan; Carpenter, David; Vambutas, Andrea; Nguyen-Huynh, Anh; Wolfley, Anne; Lee, Walter T

    2017-02-01

    Objectives (1) Describe national patterns of chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) care across academic and community practices. (2) Determine the prevalence of comorbid disorders in CRS patients, including nasal polyposis, allergic rhinitis, asthma, and cystic fibrosis. (3) Identify demographic, clinical, and practice type factors associated with endoscopic sinus surgery (ESS). Study Design Multisite cross-sectional study. Setting Otolaryngology's national research network CHEER (Creating Healthcare Excellence through Education and Research). Subjects and Methods A total of 17,828 adult patients with CRS were identified, of which 10,434 were seen at community practices (59%, n = 8 sites) and 7394 at academic practices (41%, n = 10 sites). Multivariate logistic regression was used to evaluate the association between demographic, practice type, and clinical factors and the odds of a patient undergoing ESS. Results The average age was 50.4 years; 59.5% of patients were female; and 88.3% were Caucasian. The prevalence of comorbid diseases was as follows: allergic rhinitis (35.1%), nasal polyposis (13.3%), asthma (4.4%), and cystic fibrosis (0.2%). In addition, 24.8% of patients at academic centers underwent ESS, as compared with 12.3% at community sites. In multivariate analyses, nasal polyposis (odds ratio [OR], 4.28), cystic fibrosis (OR, 2.42), and academic site type (OR, 1.86) were associated with ESS ( P < .001), while adjusting for other factors. Conclusions We describe practice patterns of CRS care, as well as demographic and clinical factors associated with ESS. This is the first study of practice patterns in CRS utilizing the CHEER network and may be used to guide future research.

  9. Current clinical practices in Aphasia Therapy in Finland: challenges in moving towards national best practice.

    PubMed

    Klippi, A; Sellman, J; Heikkinen, P; Laine, M

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this article is to discover and document the state of clinical practices for aphasia therapy in Finland and to gather information for developing national best practice. Two surveys were administered in Finland that explored current clinical practices in aphasia rehabilitation and the resources available to speech and language therapists (SLTs). We integrated and compared the results of these surveys. The results are based on the responses of the 88 (45 + 43) returned questionnaires from SLTs. Four principle themes were identified: planning the aphasia therapy, measures and assessment methods, current therapy service provision, and development suggestions and barriers to change. The results of this study showed considerable consistency in clinical practices among the respondents to the surveys. However, we noticed that there are some discrepancies between the recent research findings and present clinical practices. The findings from this study indicate that there are many challenges in clinical decision-making at the moment in Finland. The article helps clinicians to evaluate the practices they use and to execute justified modifications in order to implement more effective models of practice. It is evident that national best practice guidelines for aphasia therapy would support SLTs in clinical decision-making. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  10. [Nursing practice within the French national gendarmerie intervention group].

    PubMed

    Fressancourt, Yves; Quémeneur, Éric; Bertho, Kilian; Dubourg, Olivier

    2016-11-01

    Intervening in the event of a major crisis in France and abroad, the national gendarmerie intervention group carries out complex and specific operations in varied conditions and environments. Due to the multiplicity and dangerousness of the missions, adapted and integrated medical support is essential. In this context, nurses provide operational medical assistance as close as possible to the intervention. This nursing practice in an exceptional environment requires specific knowledge and intensive training.

  11. A National Survey of Physician Practices Regarding Influenza Vaccine

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Matthew M; McMahon, Shawn R; Santoli, Jeanne M; Schwartz, Benjamin; Clark, Sarah J

    2002-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To characterize U.S. physicians' practices regarding influenza vaccine, particularly regarding the capacity to identify high-risk patients, the use of reminder systems, and the typical period of administration of vaccine. DESIGN Cross-sectional mail survey administered in October and November 2000. PARTICIPANTS National random sample of internists and family physicians (N = 1,606). RESULTS Response rate was 60%. Family physicians are significantly more likely than internists to administer influenza vaccine in their practices (82% vs 76%; P < .05). Eighty percent of physicians typically administer influenza vaccine for 3 to 5 months, but only 27% continue administering vaccine after the typical national peak of influenza activity. Only one half of physicians said their practices are able to generate lists of patients with chronic illnesses at high risk for complications of influenza, and only one quarter had used mail or telephone reminder systems to contact high-risk patients. Physicians working in a physician network (including managed care organizations) are more than twice as likely to use reminders as physicians in other practice settings (odds ratio, 2.04; 95% confidence interval, 1.17 to 3.55). CONCLUSIONS Over three quarters of U.S. internists and family physicians routinely administer influenza vaccine, but few continue immunization efforts past the typical national peak of influenza activity. Many physicians may be limited by their practice data systems' capacity to identify high-risk patients. Despite the known effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of reminder systems, few physicians use reminders for influenza vaccination efforts. These findings raise concerns about meeting domestic influenza vaccination goals—especially for individuals with chronic illness and during periods of delayed vaccine availability—and the possibility of increased morbidity and mortality attributable to influenza as a result. PMID:12220362

  12. National Board Certification and Developmentally Appropriate Practices: Perceptions of Impact

    PubMed Central

    McKenzie, Ellen Nancy

    2013-01-01

    The study investigated a relationship between National Board certification and perceived use of developmentally appropriate practices (DAP). A self-developed survey, the Early-childhood Teacher Inventory of Practices, was e-mailed to participants. Participants included 246 non-National Board-certified (non-NBCT) and 135 National Board-certified (NBCT) early childhood teachers. Descriptives were reported for age, years of teaching experience, grade level currently teaching, ethnicity, degree type, certification type, and degree level. Inferential statistics were used to understand the differences between perceived use of DAP. NBCTs scored significantly higher than non-NBCTs in three of the four target areas and on the total of the scale. Pearson product-moment corelations were used to determine a relationship between years of experience or level of education and NBCTs’ perceived use of DAP. Years of experience were significantly related, but level of education was not. The findings indicate that NBCT teachers perceive they incorporate more developmentally appropriate practices into their teaching than do non-NBCT teachers. PMID:23626399

  13. Pesticide Volatilization

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    We consider the risks posed when pesticides volatilize during or after application. The movement of vapors through the air is not the same as pesticide movement by spray drift, erosion, or windblown soil particles.

  14. Mentoring for nurses in general practice: national issues and challenges.

    PubMed

    Heartfield, Marie; Gibson, Terri

    2005-04-01

    This paper reports the findings of a research project designed to identify national issues impacting on the development of a mentoring framework for nurses in general practice in Australia. The project comprised the first phase of a three-phase study commissioned by the Australian Government Department of Health and Ageing to develop a contemporary, flexible and sustainable mentoring framework that enhances the capacity of nurses to contribute to general practice outcomes. Key stakeholders and influential informants from around Australia were brought together via a national teleconference to identify issues surrounding the development of such a framework. Outcomes focussed on major themes concerning choice, relationships, structures and resources. Here, we consider the issues and challenges identified in light of some contemporary case studies from outside the field of nursing in the hope of sparking new ideas and strategies. A case study from an Australian practice nurse is included. No research has been conducted on mentoring for nurses in general practice in Australia to date, highlighting an urgent need for new models and their evaluation.

  15. Abortion and neonaticide: ethics, practice, and policy in four nations.

    PubMed

    Gross, Michael L

    2002-06-01

    Abortion, particularly later-term abortion, and neonaticide, selective non-treatment of newborns, are feasible management strategies for fetuses or newborns diagnosed with severe abnormalities. However, policy varies considerably among developed nations. This article examines abortion and neonatal policy in four nations: Israel, the US, the UK and Denmark. In Israel, late-term abortion is permitted while non-treatment of newborns is prohibited. In the US, on the other hand, later-term abortion is severely restricted, while treatment to newborns may be withdrawn. Policy in the UK and Denmark bridges some of these gaps with liberal abortion and neonatal policy. Disparate policy within and between nations creates practical and ethical difficulties. Practice diverges from policy as many practitioners find it difficult to adhere to official policy. Ethically, it is difficult to entirely justify perinatal policy in these nations. In each nation, there are elements of ethically sound policy, while other aspects cannot be defended. Ethical policy hinges on two underlying normative issues: the question of fetal/newborn status and the morality of killing and letting die. While each issue has been the subject of extensive debate, there are firm ethical norms that should serve as the basis for coherent and consistent perinatal policy. These include 1) a grant of full moral and legal status to the newborn but only partial moral and legal status to the late-term fetus 2) a general prohibition against feticide unless to save the life of the mother or prevent the birth of a fetus facing certain death or severe pain or suffering and 3) a general endorsement of neonaticide subject to a parent's assessment of the newborn's interest broadly defined to consider physical harm as well as social, psychological and or financial harm to related third parties. Policies in each of the nations surveyed diverging from these norms should be the subject of public discourse and, where possible

  16. Summary and evaluation of pesticides in field blanks collected for the National Water-Quality Assessment Program, 1992-95

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Martin, Jeffrey D.; Gilliom, Robert J.; Schertz, Terry L.

    1999-01-01

    Field blanks did show evidence of contamination by some pesticides. Most of the pesticides detected in field blanks, however, were detected more frequently and at higher concentrations in environmental water samples. Two criteria were used to evaluate the need to consider contamination in water-quality assessments: (1) a ratio of the frequency of pesticide detection in environmental water samples to the frequency of detection in field blanks of 5.0 or less and (2) a ratio of the median concentration detected in environmental water samples to the maximum concentration detected in field blanks of 2.0 or less. These criteria indicate that contamination, for the majority of the pesticide data collected for the NAWQA Program, probably does not need to be considered in the analysis and interpretation of (1) the frequency of pesticide detection or (2) the median concentration of pesticides detected. Contamination must be considered, however, in detection frequency for cispermethrin, pronamide, p,p' -DDE, pebulate, propargite, ethalfluralin, and triallate in surface water and fenuron, benfluralin, pronamide, cis-permethrin, triallate, chlorpyrifos, trifluralin, propanil, p,p' -DDE, bromacil, dacthal, diazinon, and diuron in ground water. Contamination also must be considered in median concentrations detected for pronamide, p,p' -DDE, propargite, napropamide, and triallate in surface water and benfluralin, cis-permethrin, triallate, chlorpyrifos, trifluralin, p,p' -DDE, dacthal, and diazinon in ground water.

  17. Preferential bromide and pesticide movement to tile drains under different cropping practices.

    PubMed

    Fortin, J; Gagnon-Bertrand, E; Vézina, L; Rompré, M

    2002-01-01

    Subsurface drainage systems are useful tools to study chemical leaching in soils. Our objective was to compare the breakthrough behavior of bromide, atrazine (2-chloro-4-ethylamino-6-isopropylamino-s-triazine) and metolachlor [2-chloro-N-(2-ethyl-6-methylphenyl)-N-(2-methoxy-1-methylethyl) acetamid] to tile drains under two fall tillage practices (conventional tillage [CT] with a moldboard plow, and reduced tillage [RT] with a chisel plow) in field plots cultivated with corn (Zea mays L.). Leachate volume were greater in RT than in CT, with no statistical differences. Soil analysis showed that bromide migrated deeper in the soil profile than both herbicides, with little tillage effect. All chemicals were detected in drainage water at the same time and followed an event-driven behavior. Tillage had no effect on atrazine and metolachlor found in drainage water, while bromide concentration peaks were higher in RT than in CT in 1999. Concentration peaks were recorded earlier for atrazine and metolachlor than for bromide. Plots of cumulative relative chemical mass (cumulative mass divided by total mass measured in drainage) as a function of cumulative drainage were mostly linear for bromide, while they were S-shaped for both herbicides. Drainage that corresponded to 50% of relative cumulative mass ranged from 40 to 55% for bromide and from 5 to 28% for both herbicides. Rapid chemical movement to tile drains suggested that preferential flow was important in both CT and RT, and that these tillage practices had little influence on this phenomena.

  18. Microbial pesticides

    Treesearch

    Michael L. McManus

    1991-01-01

    Interest in the use of microbial pesticides has intensified because of public concern about the safety of chemical pesticides and their impact in the environment. Characteristics of the five groups of entomopathogens that have potential as microbial pesticides are briefly discussed and an update is provided on research and development activities underway to enhance the...

  19. Pesticide Tolerances

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA regulates pesticides used to protect crops and sets limits on the amount of pesticide remaining in or on foods in the U.S. The limits on pesticides on foods are called tolerances in the U.S. (maximum residue limits (MRLs) in many other countries).

  20. A national survey of practical airway training in UK anaesthetic departments. Time for a national policy?

    PubMed

    Lindkaer Jensen, N H; Cook, T M; Kelly, F E

    2016-11-01

    The Fourth National Audit Project (NAP4) recommended airway training for trainee and trained anaesthetists. As the skills required for management of airway emergencies differ from routine skills and these events are rare, practical training is likely to require training workshops. In 2013, we surveyed all UK National Health Service hospitals to examine the current practices regarding airway training workshops. We received responses from 206 hospitals (62%) covering all regions. Regarding airway workshops, 16% provide none and 51% only for trainees. Of those providing workshops, more than half are run less than annually. Workshop content varies widely, with several Difficult Airway Society (DAS) guideline techniques not taught or only infrequently. Reported barriers to training include lack of time and departmental or individual interest. Workshop-based airway training is variable in provision, frequency and content, and is often not prioritised by departments or individual trainers. It could be useful if guidance on workshop organisation, frequency and content was considered nationally.

  1. Variations in tobacco control in National Dental PBRN practices: the role of patient and practice factors.

    PubMed

    Ray, Midge N; Allison, Jeroan J; Coley, Heather L; Williams, Jessica H; Kohler, Connie; Gilbert, Gregg H; Richman, Joshua S; Kiefe, Catarina I; Sadasivam, Rajani S; Houston, Thomas K

    2013-01-01

    We engaged dental practices enrolled in The National Dental Practice-Based Research Network to quantify tobacco screening (ASK) and advising (ADVISE); and to identify patient and practice -characteristics associated with tobacco control. Dental practices (N = 190) distributed patient surveys that measured ASK and ADVISE. Twenty-nine percent of patients were ASKED about tobacco use during visit, 20% were identified as tobacco users, and 41% reported being ADVISED. Accounting for clustering of patients within practices, younger age and male gender were positively associated with ASK and ADVISE. Adjusting for patient age and gender, a higher proportion of non-whites in the practice, preventive services and proportion on public assistance were positively associated with ASK. Proportion of tobacco users in the practice and offering other preventive services were more strongly associated with ASK and ADVISE than other practice characteristics. Understanding variations in performance is an important step toward designing strategies for improving tobacco control in dentistry. ©2012 Special Care Dentistry Association and Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Metals, pesticides, and semivolatile organic compounds in sediment in Valley Forge National Historical Park, Montgomery County, Pennsylvania

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reif, Andrew G.; Sloto, Ronald A.

    1997-01-01

    The Schuylkill River flows through Valley Forge National Historical Park in Lower Providence and West Norriton Townships in Montgomery County, Pa. The concentration of selected metals, pesticides, semivolatile organic compounds, and total carbon in stream-bottom sediments from Valley Forge National Historical Park were determined for samples collected once at 12 sites in and around the Schuylkill River. Relatively low concentrations of arsenic, chromium, copper, and lead were detected in all samples. The concentrations of these metals are similar to concentrations in other stream-bottom sediment samples collected in the region. The concentrations of iron, manganese, and zinc were elevated in samples from four sites in the Schuylkill River, and the concentration of mercury was elevated in a sample from an impoundment along the river. The organophosphorus insecticide diazinon was detected in relatively low concentrations in half of the 12 samples analyzed. The organo-chlorine insecticide DDE was detected in all 12 samples analyzed; dieldrin was detected in 10 samples, chlordane, DDD, and DDT were detected in 9 samples, and heptachlor epoxide was detected in one sample. The concentrations of organo-chlorine and organophosphorus insecticides were relatively low and similar to concentrations in samples collected in the region. Detectable concentrations of 17 semivolatile organic compounds were measured in the 12 samples analyzed. The most commonly detected compounds were fluoranthene, phenanthrene, and pyrene. The maximum concentration detected was 4,800 micrograms per kilogram of phenanthrene. The highest concentrations of compounds were detected in Lamb Run, a small tributary to the Schuylkill River with headwaters in an industrial corporate center. The concentration of compounds in the Schuylkill River below Lamb Run is higher than the Schuylkill River above Lamb Run, indicating that sediment from Lamb Run is increasing the concentration of semivolatile organic

  3. Metals, pesticides, and semivolatile organic compounds in sediment in Valley Forge National Historical Park, Montgomery County, Pennsylvania

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reif, Andrew G.; Sloto, Ronald A.

    1997-01-01

    The Schuylkill River flows through Valley Forge National Historical Park in Lower Providence and West Norriton Townships in Montgomery County, Pa. The concentration of selected metals, pesticides, semivolatile organic compounds, and total carbon in stream-bottom sediments from Valley Forge National Historical Park were determined for samples collected once at 12 sites in and around the Schuylkill River. Relatively low concentrations of arsenic, chromium, copper, and lead were detected in all samples. The concentrations of these metals are similar to concentrations in other stream-bottom sediment samples collected in the region. The concentrations of iron, manganese, and zinc were elevated in samples from four sites in the Schuylkill River, and the concentration of mercury was elevated in a sample from an impoundment along the river. The organophosphorus insecticide diazinon was detected in relatively low concentrations in half of the 12 samples analyzed. The organo-chlorine insecticide DDE was detected in all 12 samples analyzed; dieldrin was detected in 10 samples, chlordane, DDD, and DDT were detected in 9 samples, and heptachlor epoxide was detected in one sample. The concentrations of organo-chlorine and organophosphorus insecticides were relatively low and similar to concentrations in samples collected in the region. Detectable concentrations of 17 semivolatile organic compounds were measured in the 12 samples analyzed. The most commonly detected compounds were fluoranthene, phenanthrene, and pyrene. The maximum concentration detected was 4,800 micrograms per kilogram of phenanthrene. The highest concentrations of compounds were detected in Lamb Run, a small tributary to the Schuylkill River with headwaters in an industrial corporate center. The concentration of compounds in the Schuylkill River below Lamb Run is higher than the Schuylkill River above Lamb Run, indicating that sediment from Lamb Run is increasing the concentration of semivolatile organic

  4. Salary administration practices, Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-03-20

    This report concerns the Department of Energy's (Department) oversight of Sandia National Laboratories' (Sandia) salary administration practices for employees not covered by union agreements. Sandia is a management and operating (MandO) contractor responsible for research and development (RandD) relating to nuclear weapons and energy. Sandia's 1987 payroll was $319 million, $42 million for bargaining and $277 million for non-bargaining unit employees. For the period covered by the audit, Department policy required Headquarters monitoring and approval of the reasonableness of MandO contractor salary administration practices in cases where the annual non-bargaining payroll exceeded $75 million. The purpose of this audit was to determine whether Department oversight of Sandia employee compensation assured that contractor pay rates were consistent with Department policy.

  5. Characterizing Exposures to Nonpersistent Pesticides during Pregnancy and Early Childhood in the National Children’s Study: A Review of Monitoring and Measurement Methodologies

    PubMed Central

    Bradman, Asa; Whyatt, Robin M.

    2005-01-01

    The National Children’s Study is a proposed longitudinal cohort study to evaluate the relationships between children’s health and the environment. Enrollment is estimated to begin in September 2005, and 100,000 children will be followed from preconception or early pregnancy until adulthood. Among multiple health outcomes, the study is proposing to investigate whether pre- and/or postnatal exposures to nonpersistent pesticides increase the risk of poor performance on neurobehavioral and cognitive exams during infancy and early childhood. Characterization of exposures will be challenging. Nonpersistent pesticides include many chemicals with biologic half-lives on the order of hours or days. Exposures can occur through multiple pathways (e.g., food and residential or agriculture pesticide use) and by multiple routes (inhalation, ingestion, dermal). Effects may depend on the developmental stage when exposure occurs. Sequential sampling is likely to be required and may involve a combination of environmental and biologic monitoring as well as collection of questionnaire data. In this article we review measurements that can be used to characterize exposures. These include biologic markers, personal and indoor air sampling techniques, collection of dust, surface and dermal wipe samples, and dietary assessment tools. Criteria for sample selection will necessitate evaluation of the time frame of exposure captured by the measurement in relationship to critical windows of susceptibility, the cost and validity of the measurements, participant burden, and variability in exposure routes across populations and at different age periods. PMID:16079084

  6. Avian mortality events in the United States caused by anticholinesterase pesticides: a retrospective summary of National Wildlife Health Center records from 1980 to 2000.

    PubMed

    Fleischli, M A; Franson, J C; Thomas, N J; Finley, D L; Riley, W

    2004-05-01

    We reviewed the U.S. Geological Survey National Wildlife Health Center (NWHC) mortality database from 1980 to 2000 to identify cases of poisoning caused by organophosphorus and carbamate pesticides. From the 35,022 cases from which one or more avian carcasses were submitted to the NWHC for necropsy, we identified 335 mortality events attributed to anticholinesterase poisoning, 119 of which have been included in earlier reports. Poisoning events were classified as confirmed (n = 205) when supported by findings of > or =50% inhibition of cholinesterase (ChE) activity in brain tissue and the detection of a specific pesticide in the gastrointestinal contents of one or more carcasses. Suspected poisonings (n = 130) were defined as cases where brain ChE activity was > or =50% inhibited or a specific pesticide was identified in gastrointestinal contents. The 335 avian mortality events occurred in 42 states. Washington, Virginia, and Ohio had the highest frequency of events, with 24 (7.2%), 21 (6.3%), and 20 (6.0%) events, respectively. A total of 8877 carcasses of 103 avian species in 12 orders was recovered. Because carcass counts underestimate total mortality, this represents the minimum actual mortality. Of 24 different pesticides identified, the most frequent were famphur (n = 59: 18%), carbofuran (n = 52; 15%), diazinon (n = 40; 12%), and fenthion (n = 17; 5.1%). Falconiformes were reported killed most frequently (49% of all die-offs) but Anseriformes were found dead in the greatest numbers (64% of 8877 found dead). The majority of birds reported killed by famphur were Passeriformes and Falconiformes, with the latter found dead in 90% of famphur-related poisoning events. Carbofuran and famphur were involved in mortality of the greatest variety of species (45 and 33, respectively). Most of the mortality events caused by diazinon involved waterfowl.

  7. Avian mortality events in the United States caused by anticholinesterase pesticides: A retrospective summary of National Wildlife Health Center records from 1980 to 2000

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fleischli, Margaret A.; Franson, J.C.; Thomas, N.J.; Finley, D.L.; Riley, Walter

    2004-01-01

    We reviewed the U.S. Geological Survey National Wildlife Health Center (NWHC) mortality database from 1980 to 2000 to identify cases of poisoning caused by organophosphorus and carbamate pesticides. From the 35,022 cases from which one or more avian carcasses were submitted to the NWHC for necropsy, we identified 335 mortality events attributed to anticholinesterase poisoning, 119 of which have been included in earlier reports. Poisoning events were classified as confirmed (n = 205) when supported by findings of ≥50% inhibition of cholinesterase (ChE) activity in brain tissue and the detection of a specific pesticide in the gastrointestinal contents of one or more carcasses. Suspected poisonings (n = 130) were defined as cases where brain ChE activity was ≥50% inhibited or a specific pesticide was identified in gastrointestinal contents. The 335 avian mortality events occurred in 42 states. Washington, Virginia, and Ohio had the highest frequency of events, with 24 (7.2%), 21 (6.3%), and 20 (6.0%) events, respectively. A total of 8877 carcasses of 103 avian species in 12 orders was recovered. Because carcass counts underestimate total mortality, this represents the minimum actual mortality. Of 24 different pesticides identified, the most frequent were famphur (n = 59; 18%), carbofuran (n = 52; 15%), diazinon (n = 40; 12%), and fenthion (n = 17; 5.1%). Falconiformes were reported killed most frequently (49% of all die-offs) but Anseriformes were found dead in the greatest numbers (64% of 8877 found dead). The majority of birds reported killed by famphur were Passeriformes and Falconiformes, with the latter found dead in 90% of famphur-related poisoning events. Carbofuran and famphur were involved in mortality of the greatest variety of species (45 and 33, respectively). Most of the mortality events caused by diazinon involved waterfowl.

  8. Determinants of parental discipline practices: a national sample from primary care practices.

    PubMed

    Barkin, Shari; Scheindlin, Benjamin; Ip, Edward H; Richardson, Irma; Finch, Stacia

    2007-01-01

    National guidelines urge pediatricians to address discipline as part of anticipatory guidance, yet pediatricians know little about what leads parents to use different discipline approaches. Parents seen in Pediatric Research in Office Settings practices participated in an office-based survey before the well-child visit for children 2 to 11 years old (N = 2134). Parents reported using the following discipline approaches frequently: time-outs (42%), removal of privileges (41%), sent to bedroom (27%), yelling (13%), and spanking (9%). A third of parents believe their discipline approach to be ineffective. This directs the pediatric provider to help families develop effective discipline practices tailored to their context.

  9. Pest and pesticide management on southern forests

    Treesearch

    James H. Miller; Ken L. McNabb; Brad Barber; Larry M. Bishop; Michael L. Thompson; John W. Taylor

    1994-01-01

    Federal law requires certification for all commercial pesticide applicators. The law also requires private applicator certification for the purchase or application of "restricted use" pesticides. The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has set minimum competency standards for certification of pesticide applicators. These standards include a practical...

  10. Nutrition practices of nurseries in England. Comparison with national guidelines.

    PubMed

    Neelon, Sara E Benjamin; Burgoine, Thomas; Hesketh, Kathryn R; Monsivais, Pablo

    2015-02-01

    Recent national guidelines call for improved nutrition within early years settings. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to describe foods and beverages served in nurseries, assess provider behaviors related to feeding, and compare these practices to national guidelines. We administered a mailed survey to a random sample of nurseries across England, stratifying by tertile of deprivation. A total of 851 nurseries returned the survey (54.3% response rate). We fitted separate multivariate logistic regression models to estimate the association of deprivation with each of the 13 food and beverage guidelines and the seven provider behavior guidelines. We also conducted a joint F-test for any deprivation effect, to evaluate the effect of the guidelines combined. After adjusting for confounders, we observed differences in the frequency of nurseries that reported serving healthier foods across the tertiles of deprivation (p = 0.02 for joint F test). These adjusted results were driven mainly by nurseries in more deprived areas serving more whole grains (OR 1.57 (95% CI 1.00, 2.46)) and legumes, pulses, and lentils (1.40 (1.01, 2.14)). We also observed differences in the frequency of nurseries reporting more provider behaviors consistent with national guidelines across the tertiles of deprivation (p = 0.01 for joint F test). Nurseries in more deprived areas were more likely to dilute juice with water (2.35 (1.48, 3.73)), allow children to select their own portions (1.09 (1.06, 1.58)), and sit with children during meals (1.84 (1.07, 3.15)). While nurseries in the most deprived areas reported serving more healthy foods, a large percentage were still not meeting national guidelines. Policy and intervention efforts may increase compliance with national guidelines in nurseries in more deprived areas, and across England. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  11. Pesticides and other chemicals: minimizing worker exposures.

    PubMed

    Keifer, Matthew; Gasperini, Frank; Robson, Mark

    2010-07-01

    Pesticides, ammonia, and sanitizers, all used in agricultural production present ongoing risks for exposed workers. Pesticides continue to poison workers despite elimination of some of the most toxic older products. Obligatory reporting of pesticide poisonings exists in 30 states and surveillance of poisoning occurs in only 12. Estimates of poisoning numbers have been based on sampling but funding for this is scant and in constant jeopardy. There appears to be a downward trend in poisonings nationally based on SENSOR data. Newer more pest-specific pesticides are generally less toxic and present less health risks but may have unpredicted health effects in humans that may not emerge until used widely. Internationally, older cheaper chemicals continue to be used with serious consequences in many developing countries. Monitoring workers for overexposure to pesticides broadly is impractical with the exception of the cholinesterase inhibitors. We can learn much from monitoring systems. Unfortunately, monitoring tools are economically inaccessible for most other chemical groups. New technologies for toxicity testing will necessitate new biomonitoring tools that should be supplied by the producers of these chemicals and made available for protecting worker and the public. Protection of workers from pesticides is primarily based on personal protective equipment use, which presents significant hardship for workers in hot environments and is generally considered the least effective approach on the hierarchy of controls in worker protection. Isolation through the use of closed systems has been employed, though rarely studied as to effectiveness in field use. Substitution or replacing harmful substances with safer ones is underway as more pest specific chemicals enter the pesticide portfolio and older ones drop out. This paper summarizes the panel presentation, "Minimizing Exposures to Pesticides and Other Chemicals," at the Agricultural Safety and Health Council of America/National

  12. Pesticide exposure--Egyptian scene.

    PubMed

    Mansour, Sameeh A

    2004-05-20

    Pesticides have contributed to dramatic increases in crop yields and in the quantity and variety of the diet. Also, they have helped to limit the spread of certain diseases. But pesticides have harmful effects; they can cause injury to human health as well as to the environment. The range of these adverse health effects includes acute and persistent injury to the nervous system, lung damage, injury to the reproductive organs, dysfunction of the immune and endocrine systems, birth defects, and cancer. Problems associated with pesticide hazards to man and the environment are not confined to the developing countries. Developed nations have already suffered these problems, and still facing some problems in certain locations. For many reasons, the severity of pesticide hazards is much pronounced in Third World Countries. A number of long persistent organochlorines and highly toxic organophosphates, which have been banned or severely restricted, are still marketed and used in many developing countries. The misuse of pesticides by concerned individuals, in addition to lack of or weak national controlling plans are behind the outbreak of adverse effects in developing countries. Since about 25 years, the use of DDT and many other organochlorine pesticides in Egyptian agriculture has been banned. However, these long persistent compounds are still detectable in many different types of environmental samples (e.g., water, fish, sediment, vegetables, fruits, milk, foodstuffs, etc.). Large number of compounds known as "extremely hazardous", "highly hazardous", "probable human carcinogenic", and "possible human carcinogenic", are listed among the pesticides registered and recommended for use in Egypt during the season of 2001/2002. The present article deals with: trends and patterns of pesticide use, impact of pesticides on human health, factors contributing to pesticide risks, environmental impacts of pesticides, and bioaccumulation of pesticide residues in food; giving special

  13. Methods of analysis and quality-assurance practices of the U.S. Geological Survey organic laboratory, Sacramento, California; determination of pesticides in water by solid-phase extraction and capillary-column gas chromatography/mass spectrometry

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Crepeau, Kathryn L.; Domagalski, Joseph L.; Kuivila, Kathryn

    1994-01-01

    Analytical method and quality-assurance practices were developed for a study of the fate and transport of pesticides in the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta and the Sacramento and San Joaquin River. Water samples were filtered to remove suspended parti- culate matter and pumped through C-8 solid-phase extraction cartridges to extract the pesticides. The cartridges were dried with carbon dioxide, and the pesticides were eluted with three 2-milliliter aliquots of hexane:diethyl ether (1:1). The eluants were analyzed using capillary-column gas chromatography/mass spectrometry in full-scan mode. Method detection limits for analytes determined per 1,500-milliliter samples ranged from 0.006 to 0.047 microgram per liter. Recoveries ranged from 47 to 89 percent for 12 pesticides in organic-free, Sacramento River and San Joaquin River water samples fortified at 0.05 and 0.26 microgram per liter. The method was modified to improve the pesticide recovery by reducing the sample volume to 1,000 milliliters. Internal standards were added to improve quantitative precision and accuracy. The analysis also was expanded to include a total of 21 pesticides. The method detection limits for 1,000-milliliter samples ranged from 0.022 to 0.129 microgram per liter. Recoveries ranged from 38 to 128 percent for 21 pesticides in organic-free, Sacramento River and San Joaquin River water samples fortified at 0.10 and 0.75 microgram per liter.

  14. Pesticides and Human Health

    MedlinePlus

    ... Control a pest Integrated Pest Management What are pesticides? Herbicides Disinfectants Fungicides Insecticides Natural and Biological Pesticides ... Rodenticides Other types of pesticides Disponible en español Pesticides and Human Health Pesticides have a specific purpose ...

  15. Organic Pesticide Ingredients

    MedlinePlus

    ... Control a pest Integrated Pest Management What are pesticides? Herbicides Disinfectants Fungicides Insecticides Natural and Biological Pesticides ... Other types of pesticides Disponible en español Organic Pesticide Ingredients Organic foods are not necessarily pesticide-free. ...

  16. Evaluation of individual and combined management practices to reduce the off-site transport of pesticides from golf course turf

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The detection of pesticides, associated with turfgrass management, in storm runoff and surface waters of urban watersheds has raised concerns regarding their source, potential environmental effects and a need for strategies to reduce their inputs. In previous research we discovered that hollow tine ...

  17. Children's surgery: a national survey of consultant clinical practice

    PubMed Central

    Mason, David G; Shotton, Hannah; Wilkinson, Kathleen A; Gough, Michael J; Alleway, Robert; Freeth, Heather; Mason, Marisa

    2012-01-01

    Objectives To survey clinical practice and opinions of consultant surgeons and anaesthetists caring for children to inform the needs for training, commissioning and management of children's surgery in the UK. Design The National Confidential Enquiry into Patient Outcome and Death (NCEPOD) hosted an online survey to gather data on current clinical practice of UK consultant surgeons and anaesthetists caring for children. Setting The questionnaire was circulated to all hospitals and to Anaesthetic and Surgical Royal Colleges, and relevant specialist societies covering the UK and the Channel Islands and was mainly completed by consultants in District General Hospitals. Participants 555 surgeons and 1561 anaesthetists completed the questionnaire. Results 32.6% of surgeons and 43.5% of anaesthetists considered that there were deficiencies in their hospital's facilities that potentially compromised delivery of a safe children's surgical service. Almost 10% of all consultants considered that their postgraduate training was insufficient for current paediatric practice and 20% felt that recent Continued Professional Development failed to maintain paediatric expertise. 45.4% of surgeons and 39.2% of anaesthetists considered that the current specialty curriculum should have a larger paediatric component. Consultants in non-specialist paediatric centres were prepared to care for younger children admitted for surgery as emergencies than those admitted electively. Many of the surgeons and anaesthetists had <4 h/week in paediatric practice. Only 55.3% of surgeons and 42.8% of anaesthetists participated in any form of regular multidisciplinary review of children undergoing surgery. Conclusions There are significant obstacles to consultant surgeons and anaesthetists providing a competent surgical service for children. Postgraduate curricula must meet the needs of trainees who will be expected to include children in their caseload as consultants. Trusts must ensure appropriate

  18. Apply Pesticides Correctly: A Guide for Commercial Applicators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC.

    This document provides practical information needed by commercial pesticide applicators to meet the minimum Federal regulation requirements for the use of various pesticides. The text and accompanying illustrations cover the seven major topics of pests, pest control, pesticides, labels and labeling, using pesticides safely, application equipment,…

  19. Residential environmental measurements in the national human exposure assessment survey (NHEXAS) pilot study in Arizona: preliminary results for pesticides and VOCs.

    PubMed

    Gordon, S M; Callahan, P J; Nishioka, M G; Brinkman, M C; O'Rourke, M K; Lebowitz, M D; Moschandreas, D J

    1999-01-01

    A major objective of the National Human Exposure Assessment Survey (NHEXAS) performed in Arizona was to conduct residential environmental and biomarker measurements of selected pesticides (chlorpyrifos, diazinon), volatile organic compounds (VOCs; benzene, toluene, trichloroethene, formaldehyde, 1,3-butadiene), and metals for total human exposure assessments. Both personal (e.g., blood, urine, dermal wipes, 24 h duplicate diet) and microenvironmental (e.g., indoor and outdoor air, house dust, foundation soil) samples were collected in each home in order to describe individual exposure via ingestion, inhalation, and dermal pathways, and to extrapolate trends to larger populations. This paper is a preliminary report of only the microenvironmental and dermal wipe data obtained for the target pesticides and VOCs, and provides comparisons with results from similar studies. Evaluations of total exposure from all sources and pathways will be addressed in future papers. The pesticides and VOCs all showed log-normal distributions of concentrations in the Arizona population sampled, and in most cases were detected with sufficient frequency to allow unequivocal description of the concentration by media at the 90th, 75th, and 50th (median) percentiles. Those combinations of pollutant and media, in which a large fraction of the measurements were below the detection limit of the analysis method used, included trichloroethene, 1,3-butadiene, and formaldehyde in outdoor air; chlorpyrifos and diazinon in outdoor air; and diazinon in dermal and window sill wipes. In general, indoor air concentrations were higher than outdoor air concentrations for all VOCs and pesticides investigated, and VOC levels were in good agreement with levels reported in other studies. In addition, the agreement obtained between co-located VOC samplers indicated that the low-cost diffusional badges used to measure concentrations are probably adequate for use in future monitoring studies. For the pesticides

  20. Influence of pesticide regulation on acute poisoning deaths in Sri Lanka.

    PubMed Central

    Roberts, Darren M.; Karunarathna, Ayanthi; Buckley, Nick A.; Manuweera, Gamini; Sheriff, M. H. Rezvi; Eddleston, Michael

    2003-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To assess in a developing Asian country the impact of pesticide regulation on the number of deaths from poisoning. These regulations, which were implemented in Sri Lanka from the 1970s, aimed to reduce the number of deaths - the majority from self-poisoning - by limiting the availability and use of highly toxic pesticides. METHODS: Information on legislative changes was obtained from the Ministry of Agriculture, national and district hospital admission data were obtained from the Sri Lanka Health Statistics Unit, and individual details of deaths by pesticide poisoning were obtained from a manual review of patients' notes and intensive care unit records in Anuradhapura. FINDINGS: Between 1986 and 2000, the total national number of admissions due to poisoning doubled, and admissions due to pesticide poisoning increased by more than 50%. At the same time, the case fatality proportion (CFP) fell for total poisonings and for poisonings due to pesticides. In 1991_92, 72% of pesticide-induced deaths in Anuradhapura were caused by organophosphorus (OP) and carbamate pesticides - in particular, the WHO class I OPs monocrotophos and methamidophos. From 1991, the import of these pesticides was reduced gradually until they were banned for routine use in January 1995, with a corresponding fall in deaths. Unfortunately, their place in agricultural practice was taken by the WHO class II organochlorine endosulfan, which led to a rise in deaths from status epilepticus - from one in 1994 to 50 in 1998. Endosulfan was banned in 1998, and over the following three years the number of endosulfan deaths fell to three. However, at the end of the decade, the number of deaths from pesticides was at a similar level to that of 1991, with WHO class II OPs causing the most deaths. Although these drugs are less toxic than class I OPs, the management of class II OPs remains difficult because they are, nevertheless, still highly toxic, and their toxicity is exacerbated by the paucity

  1. National Water-Quality Assessment Program; summary of pesticide data collected on East Fork Double Bayou, near Anahuac, Texas, March to September 1994

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    1995-01-01

    The Trinity River Basin study-unit assessment began in October 1991, with 2 years dedicated to planning, analyzing existing information, and designing data-collection networks, surveys, and studies. Then, a 3-year intensive data-collection program was initiated. The assessment followed guidelines provided by the National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program National Synthesis team and considered suggestions made by the study unit's liaison committee. One of the issues selected for study concerned the quality of runoff in the coastal prairie. The study includes collecting streamflow, water-quality and watershed data on three streams, each representing watersheds in different parts of the coastal prairie. This fact sheet presents a summary of the pesticide data collected on East Fork Double Bayou from March to September 1994.

  2. Pesticide Standards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shea, Kevin P.

    1976-01-01

    The Environmental Protection Agency chose the American Society of Testing and Materials to develop standardized guidelines for pesticide registration. Since the numbers and uses of pesticides is so wide, establishing ecological and public health guidelines may be difficult. Strong industry and government representation might also hamper the…

  3. Pesticide Standards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shea, Kevin P.

    1976-01-01

    The Environmental Protection Agency chose the American Society of Testing and Materials to develop standardized guidelines for pesticide registration. Since the numbers and uses of pesticides is so wide, establishing ecological and public health guidelines may be difficult. Strong industry and government representation might also hamper the…

  4. Japanese Practicing Physicians' Relationships with Pharmaceutical Representatives: A National Survey

    PubMed Central

    Saito, Sayaka; Mukohara, Kei; Bito, Seiji

    2010-01-01

    Background Previous surveys on the relationship between physicians and pharmaceutical representatives (PRs) have been of limited quality. The purpose of our survey of practicing physicians in Japan was to assess the extent of their involvement in pharmaceutical promotional activities, physician characteristics that predict such involvement, attitudes toward relationships with PRs, correlations between the extent of involvement and attitudes, and differences in the extent of involvement according to self-reported prescribing behaviors. Methods and Findings From January to March 2008, we conducted a national survey of 2621 practicing physicians in seven specialties: internal medicine, general surgery, orthopedic surgery, pediatrics, obstetrics-gynecology, psychiatry, and ophthalmology. The response rate was 54%. Most physicians met with PRs (98%), received drug samples (85%) and stationery (96%), and participated in industry-sponsored continuing medical education (CME) events at the workplace (80%) and outside the workplace (93%). Half accepted meals outside the workplace (49%) and financial subsidies to attend CME events (49%). Rules at the workplace banning both meetings with PRs and gifts predicted less involvement of physicians in promotional activities. Physicians valued information from PRs. They believed that they were unlikely to be influenced by promotional activities, but that their colleagues were more susceptible to such influence than themselves. They were divided about the appropriateness of low-value gifts. The extent of physician involvement in promotional activities was positively correlated with the attitudes that PRs are a valuable source of information and that gifts are appropriate. The extent of such involvement was higher among physicians who prefer to ask PRs for information when a new medication becomes available, physicians who are not satisfied with patient encounters ending only with advice, and physicians who prefer to prescribe brand

  5. Japanese practicing physicians' relationships with pharmaceutical representatives: a national survey.

    PubMed

    Saito, Sayaka; Mukohara, Kei; Bito, Seiji

    2010-08-13

    Previous surveys on the relationship between physicians and pharmaceutical representatives (PRs) have been of limited quality. The purpose of our survey of practicing physicians in Japan was to assess the extent of their involvement in pharmaceutical promotional activities, physician characteristics that predict such involvement, attitudes toward relationships with PRs, correlations between the extent of involvement and attitudes, and differences in the extent of involvement according to self-reported prescribing behaviors. From January to March 2008, we conducted a national survey of 2621 practicing physicians in seven specialties: internal medicine, general surgery, orthopedic surgery, pediatrics, obstetrics-gynecology, psychiatry, and ophthalmology. The response rate was 54%. Most physicians met with PRs (98%), received drug samples (85%) and stationery (96%), and participated in industry-sponsored continuing medical education (CME) events at the workplace (80%) and outside the workplace (93%). Half accepted meals outside the workplace (49%) and financial subsidies to attend CME events (49%). Rules at the workplace banning both meetings with PRs and gifts predicted less involvement of physicians in promotional activities. Physicians valued information from PRs. They believed that they were unlikely to be influenced by promotional activities, but that their colleagues were more susceptible to such influence than themselves. They were divided about the appropriateness of low-value gifts. The extent of physician involvement in promotional activities was positively correlated with the attitudes that PRs are a valuable source of information and that gifts are appropriate. The extent of such involvement was higher among physicians who prefer to ask PRs for information when a new medication becomes available, physicians who are not satisfied with patient encounters ending only with advice, and physicians who prefer to prescribe brand-name medications. Involvement in

  6. Citizen's Guide to Pesticides.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC. Office of Pesticide Programs.

    This guide provides suggestions on pest control and safety rules for pesticide use at home. Pest prevention may be possible by modification of pest habitat: removal of food and water sources, removal or destruction of pest shelter and breeding sites, and good horticultural practices that reduce plant stress. Nonchemical alternatives to pesticides…

  7. 75 FR 51830 - National Cancer Institute's Best Practices for Biospecimen Resources

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-23

    ... Cancer Institute's Best Practices for Biospecimen Resources AGENCY: National Institutes of Health (NIH... commitment to maintaining current and scientifically accurate best practices, the National Cancer Institute (NCI) is seeking public comment on a revised version of the NCI Best Practices for...

  8. Current-use pesticides and organochlorine compounds in precipitation and lake sediment from two high-elevation national parks in the Western United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mast, M.A.; Foreman, W.T.; Skaates, S.V.

    2007-01-01

    Current-use pesticides (CUPs) and banned organochlorine compounds (OCCs) were measured in precipitation (snowpack and rain) and lake sediments from two national parks in the Western United States to determine their occurrence and distribution in high-elevation environments. CUPs frequently detected in snow were endosulfan, dacthal, and chlorothalonil in concentrations ranging from 0.07 to 2.4 ng/L. Of the OCCs, chlordane, hexachlorobenzene, and two polychlorinated biphenyl congeners were detected in only one snow sample each. Pesticides most frequently detected in rain were atrazine, carbaryl, and dacthal in concentrations from 3.0 to 95 ng/L. Estimated annual deposition rates in one of the parks were 8.4 ??g/m2 for atrazine, 9.9 ??g/m2 for carbaryl, and 2.6 ??g/m2 for dacthal, of which >85% occurred during summer. p,p'-DDE and p,p'-DDD were the most frequently detected OCCs in surface sediments from lakes. However, concentrations were low (0.12 to 4.7 ??g/kg) and below levels at which harmful effects for benthic organisms are likely to be observed. DDD and DDE concentrations in an age-dated sediment core suggest that atmospheric deposition of DDT and its degradates, and possibly other banned OCCs, to high-elevation areas have been decreasing since the 1970s. Dacthal and endosulfan sulfate were present in low concentrations (0.11 to 1.2 ??g/kg) and were the only CUPs detected in surface sediments. Both pesticides were frequently detected in snow, confirming that some CUPs entering high-elevation aquatic environments through atmospheric deposition are accumulating in lake sediments and potentially in aquatic biota as well. ?? 2007 Springer Science+Business Media, Inc.

  9. Aquatic risk assessment of pesticides in surface waters in and adjacent to the Everglades and Biscayne National Parks: II. Probabilistic analyses.

    PubMed

    Carriger, John F; Rand, Gary M

    2008-10-01

    A screening-level aquatic probabilistic risk assessment was completed to determine the potential risks of organic pesticides found in surface waters of the C-111 freshwater basin (11 sites at the east boundary of the Everglades National Park) and adjacent estuarine tidal zones (two sites in northeast Florida Bay, one site in south Biscayne Bay) in south Florida. It followed the US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) ecological risk framework and focused only on the acute and chronic risks of endosulfan and chlorpyrifos individually and jointly with atrazine, metolachlor, and malathion by comparing distributions of surface water exposure concentrations with the distributions of species toxicity data. The highest risk of acute effects was associated with endosulfan exposure to freshwater arthropods at S-178/site C on the C-111 system, followed by endosulfan effects to estuarine arthropods at Joe Bay in northeast Florida Bay. The highest risk of acute effects from joint toxicity of pesticides was to estuarine arthropods in Joe Bay followed by freshwater arthropods in S-178/site C. For fish, the highest acute risk was for endosulfan at S-178/site C. There was low potential for acute risk of endosulfan to fish at estuarine sites. Joint probability curves indicated that the majority of potential risks to arthropods and fish were due to endosulfan concentrations and not to chlorpyrifos, at S-178/site C. In addition, the highest risk of acute effects for saltwater organisms was in Joe Bay, which receives water from the C-111. The potential risk of chronic effects from pesticide exposures was minimal at fresh- and saltwater sites except at S-178/site C, where endosulfan concentrations showed the highest exceedence of species toxicity values. In general, potential risks were higher in February than June.

  10. Integrating Communication Best Practices in the Third National Climate Assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hassol, S. J.

    2014-12-01

    Modern climate science assessments now have a history of nearly a quarter-century. This experience, together with important advances in relevant social sciences, has greatly improved our ability to communicate climate science effectively. As a result, the Third National Climate Assessment (NCA) was designed to be truly accessible and useful to all its intended audiences, while still being comprehensive and scientifically accurate. At a time when meeting the challenge of climate change is increasingly recognized as an urgent national and global priority, the NCA is proving to be valuable to decision-makers, the media, and the public. In producing this latest NCA, a communication perspective was an important part of the process from the beginning, rather than an afterthought as has often been the case with scientific reports. Lessons learned from past projects and science communications research fed into developing the communication strategy for the Third NCA. A team of editors and graphic designers worked closely with the authors on language, graphics, and photographs throughout the development of the report, Highlights document, and other products. A web design team helped bring the report to life online. There were also innovations in outreach, including a network of organizations intended to extend the reach of the assessment by engaging stakeholders throughout the process. Professional slide set development and media training were part of the preparation for the report's release. The launch of the NCA in May 2014 saw widespread and ongoing media coverage, continued references to the NCA by decision-makers, and praise from many quarters for its excellence in making complex science clear and accessible. This NCA is a professionally crafted report that exemplifies best practices in 21st century communications.

  11. Pesticides in U.S. streams and groundwater

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gilliom, Robert J.

    2007-01-01

    A 10­-year study by the U.S. Geological Survey’s (USGS’s) National Water-­Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program provides a national-­scale view of pesticide occurrence in streams and groundwater. The 1992-2001 study builds upon a preliminary analysis from NAWQA’s first phase of studies during 1992-1996 (1, 2). Pesticide data available from various studies prior to 1992 did not allow national assessment because of limited and variable geographic coverage (usually focusing on individual states or regions), sparse and inconsistent inclusion of pesticides in use, and variable sampling designs (3-5). The expanded geographic coverage and improved data following 10 years of study (Figure 1) confirm and reinforce previously reported findings and enable more detailed analyses of each topic. This article summarizes selected findings from a comprehensive report (6), with a focus on the nature of pesticide occurrence and potential significance to human health and stream ecosystems. Information on study design and methods as well as additional analysis of geographic patterns and trends in relation to use and management practices are available in the full report (6).

  12. Ten-year assessment of agricultural management and land-use practices on pesticide loads and risk to aquatic biota of an oxbow lake in the Mississippi Delta, USA

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The current chapter examined the combined influence of changing row crop production, implementation of agricultural Best Management Practices (BMPs), and enrollment of 112 ha into Conservation Reserve Program (CRP) on pesticide contamination and potential risk to lake aquatic biota in a 914-ha Beasl...

  13. Pesticide Use Site Index

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Pesticide Use Site Index will help a company (or other applicant) identify which data requirements are needed to register a pesticide product. It provides information on pesticide use sites and pesticide major use patterns.

  14. Introduction to Pesticide Labels

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Pesticide product labels provide critical information about how to safely and legally handle and use pesticide products. Unlike most other types of product labels, pesticide labels are legally enforceable. Learn about pesticide product labels.

  15. PRN 97-4: Consumer Access Numbers on Pesticide Labels

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This notice describes EPA policy on including telephone numbers and other access numbers or internet addresses, on pesticide product labeling. It also explains how the telephone number of the National Pesticide Information Center hotline may be used.

  16. Funding Opportunity Announcement: Pesticide Safety Education Funds Management Program

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA is soliciting proposals from eligible applicants to establish and administer a national subaward program in support of pesticide applicator education and training for certified applicators of restricted use pesticides.

  17. COLLECTING URINE SAMPLES FROM YOUNG CHILDREN FOR PESTICIDE STUDIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    To estimate pesticide exposure for young children wearing diapers, a method for collecting urine samples for analysis of pesticide metabolites is needed. To find a practical method, two possibilities were investigated: (1) analysis of expressed urine from cotton diaper inserts ...

  18. COLLECTING URINE SAMPLES FROM YOUNG CHILDREN FOR PESTICIDE STUDIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    To estimate pesticide exposure for young children wearing diapers, a method for collecting urine samples for analysis of pesticide metabolites is needed. To find a practical method, two possibilities were investigated: (1) analysis of expressed urine from cotton diaper inserts ...

  19. Practices in Early Intervention for Children with Autism: A Comparison with the National Research Council Recommended Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Downs, Robyn Conley; Downs, Andrew

    2010-01-01

    The National Research Council (2001) report was reviewed to identify and document recommended practices for programs serving young children with autism spectrum disorder. Twenty seven surveys inquiring about program practices were sent to educational service districts, school districts, and neurodevelopmental centers in Oregon and Washington that…

  20. National cultures, performance appraisal practices, and organizational absenteeism and turnover: a study across 21 countries.

    PubMed

    Peretz, Hilla; Fried, Yitzhak

    2012-03-01

    Performance appraisal (PA) is a key human resource activity in organizations. However, in this global economy, we know little about how societal cultures affect PA practices. In this study, we address this gap by focusing on 2 complementary issues: (a) the influence of societal (national) cultural practices on PA practices adopted by organizations and (b) the contribution of the level of congruence between societal cultural practices and the characteristics of organizational PA practices to absenteeism and turnover. The results, based on a large data set across multiple countries and over 2 time periods, support the hypothesized effects of societal (national) cultural practices on particular PA practices and the interactive effects of societal cultural practices and PA practices on absenteeism and turnover. We discuss theoretical and practical implications of our findings.

  1. Methods of analysis by the U.S. Geological Survey National Water Quality Laboratory; determination of organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls in bottom sediment by dual capillary-column gas chromatography with electron-capture detection

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Foreman, William T.; Connor, Brooke F.; Furlong, Edward T.; Vaught, Deborah G.; Merten, Leslie M.

    1995-01-01

    A method for the determination of 30 individual organochlorine pesticides, total toxaphene, and total polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in bottom sediment is described. The method isolates the pesticides and PCBs by solvent extraction with dichlorobenzene, removes inorganic sulfur, large naturally occurring molecules, and other unwanted interferences by gel permeation chromatography, and further cleans up and class fractionates the extract using adsorption chromatography. The com- pounds then are instrumentally determined using dual capillary-column gas chromatography with electron-capture detection. Reporting limits range from 1 to 5 micrograms per kilogram for 30 individual pesticides, 50 micrograms per kilogram for total PCBs, and 200 micrograms per kilogram for total toxaphene. The method also is designed to allow the simultaneous isolation of 79 other semivolatile organic compounds from the sediment, which are separately quantified using gas chromatography with mass spectrometric detection. The method was developed in support of the U.S. Geological Survey's National Water-Quality Assessment program.

  2. National survey of the levels of persistent organochlorine pesticides in the breast milk of mothers in China.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Pingping; Wu, Yongning; Yin, Shian; Li, Jingguang; Zhao, Yunfeng; Zhang, Lei; Chen, Huijing; Liu, Yinping; Yang, Xin; Li, Xiaowei

    2011-02-01

    The occurrence of persistent organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in breast milk samples collected from mothers from twelve provinces in mainland China was investigated. Dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethanes (DDTs) were the most prevalent agent, followed by HCHs and HCB, whereas levels of chlordane compounds, drins and mirex were lower. The relatively lower DDE/DDT ratio in the Fujian rural area suggested more recent exposure to DDT than in other areas. The mean level of DDTs in breast milk from the southern China was higher than those from northern China (p < 0.05). A positive correlation was observed between concentration of DDTs in human milk and consumption of animal-origin food, suggesting that this parameter could play an important part in influencing OCPs burdens in lactating women. The mean estimated daily intakes of different OCPs for breastfed infants were lower than the tolerable daily intake. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. 78 FR 65342 - National Advisory Council on Nurse Education and Practice; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-31

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Health Resources and Services Administration National Advisory Council on Nurse Education... Council on Nurse Education and Practice (NACNEP). Dates and Times: November 7, 2013, 9:00 a.m.-5:00 p.m... Jeanne Brown, Staff Assistant, National Advisory Council on Nurse Education and Practice,...

  4. 78 FR 22890 - National Advisory Council on Nurse Education and Practice; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-17

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Health Resources and Services Administration National Advisory Council on Nurse Education... Council on Nurse Education and Practice (NACNEP) Dates and Times: April 24 and 25, 2013, 9:00 a.m.-5:00 p... contact Jeanne Brown, Staff Assistant, National Advisory Council on Nurse Education and Practice,...

  5. Assessing the National School Social Work Practice Model: Findings from the Second National School Social Work Survey.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Michael S; Frey, Andy; Thompson, Aaron; Klemp, Heather; Alvarez, Michelle; Berzin, Stephanie Cosner

    2016-01-01

    The Second National School Social Work Survey in 2014 aimed to update knowledge of school social work practice by examining how practitioner characteristics, practice context, and practice choices have evolved since the last national survey in 2008. This second survey was also developed to assess how the new national school social work practice model created by the School Social Work Association of America aligns with early 21st century school social work practice realities. The second survey was conducted from February through April 2014 (3,769 total responses were collected) and represents the largest sample of American school social workers surveyed in two decades. Data from the Second National School Social Work Survey showed a field that still has not fully responded to calls to implement evidence-informed and data-driven practices. This article notes the need to better integrate pre- and postservice training in data-driven practices and provides recommendations for ways to overcome barriers that school social workers report facing.

  6. Urinary concentrations of dichlorophenol pesticides and obesity among adult participants in the U.S. National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2005-2008.

    PubMed

    Wei, Yudan; Zhu, Jianmin; Nguyen, An

    2014-03-01

    Accumulating evidence from recent studies has suggested a possible link between exposure to environmental pesticides and obesity. In this study, we assessed the potential associations between exposure to dichlorophenol pesticides and obesity in adults. Study participants aged 20-85 years were selected from the 2005 to 2006 and 2007 to 2008 U.S. National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, and were categorized as obese and non-obese based on body mass index. Creatinine-corrected urinary concentrations of dichlorophenols were determined to assess level of exposure to environmental pesticides. Multivariate logistic regression was performed using SAS 9.3 to assess the association between 2,4-dichlorophenol (2,4-DCP) and 2,5-dichlorophenol (2,5-DCP) levels in urine and obesity with adjustment for potential confounders. Significantly higher geometric means of urinary concentrations of both 2,5-DCP (p<0.0001) and 2,4-DCP (p=0.0170) were seen in obese adults, compared to that in non-obese adults. A dose-dependent increase in the prevalence of obesity was observed in the study participants across increasing levels of urinary 2,5-DCP (p-trend<0.0001). Urinary concentrations of 2,5-DCP were significantly associated with obesity among the second (AOR: 1.47, 95% CI: 1.12, 1.93), third (AOR: 1.41, 95% CI: 1.07, 1.87), and fourth (AOR: 1.62, 95% CI: 1.21, 2.17) inter-quartiles after adjustment for age, gender, race, education, total fat intake, and physical activity. A statistically significant association was not seen between urinary 2,4-DCP and obesity. Our findings suggest a potential relationship between exposure to the fumigant insecticide paradichlorobenzene, measured as urinary concentrations of 2,5-DCP, and obesity in adults. Because we cannot rule out the possibility of reverse causality in our study, prospective studies measuring exposure during etiologically relevant periods are warranted.

  7. Effect of pesticide exposure on acetylcholinesterase activity in subsistence farmers from Campeche, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Rendón von Osten, Jaime; Epomex, Centro; Tinoco-Ojanguren, Rolando; Soares, Amadeu M V M; Guilhermino, Lucia

    2004-08-01

    The authors surveyed agricultural production methods and pesticide use among subsistence farmers (campesinos) in 4 rural communities of Campeche, Mexico. Self-reports of symptoms of poisoning resulting from occupational pesticide exposure were elicited by questionnaire (N = 121), and acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity during insecticide use was evaluated from blood samples (N = 127). In individuals from 2 of the 4 communities, AChE activity was significantly lower (p < 0.05) than the mean of activity determined for individuals in a reference group. Results of this study show that erythrocyte AChE inhibition provides a good biomarker of exposure to organophosphate pesticides in field studies with human populations. Carbamates, particularly carbofuran, seem to be more associated with exuberant and diversified symptomatology of pesticide exposure than organophosphates. Studies in field communities where both carbamates and organophosphates are suspected to exist should include blood AChE determinations, symptomatology surveys, and socioeconomic questionnaires. The authors recommend that the Mexican National Health Ministry authorities specify additional provisions regarding the use of protective equipment and the adoption of other safety practices during field work, increase information campaigns about the risks of pesticide use and the value of safety practices, and increase programs of medical monitoring and assistance for rural communities dealing with pesticides.

  8. 75 FR 75689 - National Advisory Council on Nurse Education and Practice; Notice for Request for Nominations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-06

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Health Resources and Services Administration National Advisory Council on Nurse Education... Administration (HRSA) is requesting nominations to fill eight vacancies on the National Advisory Council on Nurse... contact, Lakisha Smith, Executive Secretary, National Advisory Council on Nurse Education and Practice,...

  9. National Center on Accessibility: Putting Research into Practice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowerman, Jennifer; Robb, Gary

    2001-01-01

    A collaborative program of Indiana University and the National Park Service, the National Center on Accessibility provides research, training, and technical assistance to link the needs and preferences of people with disabilities to practitioners designing facilities and planning programs in parks and recreation. Research and recommendations…

  10. National Center on Accessibility: Putting Research into Practice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowerman, Jennifer; Robb, Gary

    2001-01-01

    A collaborative program of Indiana University and the National Park Service, the National Center on Accessibility provides research, training, and technical assistance to link the needs and preferences of people with disabilities to practitioners designing facilities and planning programs in parks and recreation. Research and recommendations…

  11. Human Health Benchmarks for Pesticides

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Advanced testing methods now allow pesticides to be detected in water at very low levels. These small amounts of pesticides detected in drinking water or source water for drinking water do not necessarily indicate a health risk. The EPA has developed human health benchmarks for 363 pesticides to enable our partners to better determine whether the detection of a pesticide in drinking water or source waters for drinking water may indicate a potential health risk and to help them prioritize monitoring efforts.The table below includes benchmarks for acute (one-day) and chronic (lifetime) exposures for the most sensitive populations from exposure to pesticides that may be found in surface or ground water sources of drinking water. The table also includes benchmarks for 40 pesticides in drinking water that have the potential for cancer risk. The HHBP table includes pesticide active ingredients for which Health Advisories or enforceable National Primary Drinking Water Regulations (e.g., maximum contaminant levels) have not been developed.

  12. National Cultures, Performance Appraisal Practices, and Organizational Absenteeism and Turnover: A Study across 21 Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peretz, Hilla; Fried, Yitzhak

    2012-01-01

    Performance appraisal (PA) is a key human resource activity in organizations. However, in this global economy, we know little about how societal cultures affect PA practices. In this study, we address this gap by focusing on 2 complementary issues: (a) the influence of societal (national) cultural practices on PA practices adopted by organizations…

  13. National Cultures, Performance Appraisal Practices, and Organizational Absenteeism and Turnover: A Study across 21 Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peretz, Hilla; Fried, Yitzhak

    2012-01-01

    Performance appraisal (PA) is a key human resource activity in organizations. However, in this global economy, we know little about how societal cultures affect PA practices. In this study, we address this gap by focusing on 2 complementary issues: (a) the influence of societal (national) cultural practices on PA practices adopted by organizations…

  14. Acute pesticide poisoning and pesticide registration in Central America

    SciTech Connect

    Wesseling, Catharina . E-mail: cwesseli@una.ac.cr; Corriols, Marianela; Bravo, Viria

    2005-09-01

    The International Code of Conduct on the Distribution and Use of Pesticides of the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) of the United Nations has been for 20 years the most acknowledged international initiative for reducing negative impact from pesticide use in developing countries. We analyzed pesticide use and poisoning in Central America, particularly in Costa Rica and Nicaragua, and evaluated whether registration decisions are based on such data, in accordance with the FAO Code. Extensive use of very hazardous pesticides continues in Central America and so do poisonings with organophosphates, carbamates, endosulfan and paraquat as the main causative agents. Central American governments do not carry out or commission scientific risk assessments. Instead, guidelines from international agencies are followed for risk management through the registration process. Documentation of pesticide poisonings during several decades never induced any decision to ban or restrict a pesticide. However, based on the official surveillance systems, in 2000, the ministers of health of the seven Central American countries agreed to ban or restrict twelve of these pesticides. Now, almost 4 years later, restrictions have been implemented in El Salvador and in Nicaragua public debate is ongoing. Chemical and agricultural industries do not withdraw problematic pesticides voluntarily. In conclusion, the registration processes in Central America do not comply satisfactorily with the FAO Code. However, international regulatory guidelines are important in developing countries, and international agencies should strongly extend its scope and influence, limiting industry involvement. Profound changes in international and national agricultural policies, steering towards sustainable agriculture based on non-chemical pest management, are the only way to reduce poisonings.

  15. Practice-Based Evidence to Evidence-Based Practice: Building the National Radiation Oncology Registry

    PubMed Central

    Efstathiou, Jason A.; Nassif, Deborah S.; McNutt, Todd R.; Bogardus, C. Bob; Bosch, Walter; Carlin, Jeffrey; Chen, Ronald C.; Chou, Henry; Eggert, Dave; Fraass, Benedick A.; Goldwein, Joel; Hoffman, Karen E.; Hotz, Ken; Hunt, Margie; Kessler, Marc; Lawton, Colleen A.F.; Mayo, Charles; Michalski, Jeff M.; Mutic, Sasa; Potters, Louis; Rose, Christopher M.; Sandler, Howard M.; Sharp, Gregory; Tomé, Wolfgang; Tran, Phuoc T.; Wall, Terry; Zietman, Anthony L.; Gabriel, Peter E.; Bekelman, Justin E.

    2013-01-01

    The National Radiation Oncology Registry (NROR), sponsored by the Radiation Oncology Institute and the American Society for Radiation Oncology, is designed to collect standardized information on cancer care delivery among patients treated with radiotherapy in the United States and will focus on patients with prostate cancer. Stakeholders were engaged through a forum that emphasized the need for patient-centered outcomes, minimal data burden, and maximal connectivity to existing registries and databases. An electronic infrastructure is under development to provide connectivity across radiation oncology and hospital information systems. The NROR Gateway features automatic abstraction as well as aggregation of treatment and outcome data. The prostate cancer data dictionary provides standardized elements in four domains: facility, physician, patient, and treatment. The pilot phase will consist of clinical centers chosen to provide a representative mix of radiation treatment modalities, facility types, population-based settings, and regional locations. The initial set of radiation practice metrics includes physician board certification and maintenance, ordering of staging scans, active surveillance discussion, dose prescriptions for low-risk/high-risk disease, radiation fields for low-risk/high-risk disease, image-guided radiation therapy use, androgen deprivation therapy use, post-brachytherapy implant computed tomography dosimetry, collection of toxicity assessments, and longitudinal patient follow-up. The NROR pilot study will provide the framework for expansion to a nationwide electronic registry for radiation oncology. PMID:23942508

  16. National Best Practices Manual for Building High Performance Schools

    SciTech Connect

    2007-10-01

    The Best Practices Manual was written as a part of the promotional effort for EnergySmart Schools, provided by the US Department of Energy, to educate school districts around the country about energy efficiency and renewable energy.

  17. Pattern of use of personal protective equipments and measures during application of pesticides by agricultural workers in a rural area of Ahmednagar district, India.

    PubMed

    Singh, Bhoopendra; Gupta, Mudit Kumar

    2009-12-01

    Pesticides, despite their known toxicity, are widely used in developing countries for agricultural purposes. To find various patterns of hardware use for spraying of insecticides, prevalent storage practice adopted by the user, types of personal protective equipments used for the handling of chemicals; to detect dangerous practices and the extent to which safety norms being followed by the users during the application/treatments, and finally their knowledge concerning the risks of pesticides. The agriculture workers who had been involved in pesticide application for agricultural purpose were interviewed face-to-face to gain information on the following determinants of pesticide exposure: Types, treatment equipment, use of personal protection and safety measures during the application/treatments and knowledge of the risks of pesticide exposure. Hundred workers, aged between 21 and 60 years old, were included. Pesticides were mostly applied with manual equipment using Knapsack (70%) and only 5% farmers were using Tractor-mounted sprayer. Workers frequently performed tasks involving additional exposure to pesticides (mixing chemicals, 66%, or washing equipment, 65%). Majority of the workers/applicators used no personal protection measures or used it defectively/partially. Most of the workers/respondents (77%) did not bother for safety and health risks of pesticide exposure. Workers involved in pesticide application use personal protection measures very poorly and defectively. Almost half of the applicators were not following right direction with respect to wind direction while spraying, thus it increase the risk of exposure. There is a clear need to develop specific training and prevention programs for these workers. The determinants of pesticide exposure in agricultural workers described in this study should be properly assessed in epidemiological studies of the health effects of pesticides on agricultural workers at national level.

  18. Pattern of use of personal protective equipments and measures during application of pesticides by agricultural workers in a rural area of Ahmednagar district, India

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Bhoopendra; Gupta, Mudit Kumar

    2009-01-01

    Background: Pesticides, despite their known toxicity, are widely used in developing countries for agricultural purposes. Objectives: To find various patterns of hardware use for spraying of insecticides, prevalent storage practice adopted by the user, types of personal protective equipments used for the handling of chemicals; to detect dangerous practices and the extent to which safety norms being followed by the users during the application/treatments, and finally their knowledge concerning the risks of pesticides. Materials and Methods: The agriculture workers who had been involved in pesticide application for agricultural purpose were interviewed face-to-face to gain information on the following determinants of pesticide exposure: Types, treatment equipment, use of personal protection and safety measures during the application/treatments and knowledge of the risks of pesticide exposure. Results: Hundred workers, aged between 21 and 60 years old, were included. Pesticides were mostly applied with manual equipment using Knapsack (70%) and only 5% farmers were using Tractor-mounted sprayer. Workers frequently performed tasks involving additional exposure to pesticides (mixing chemicals, 66%, or washing equipment, 65%). Majority of the workers/applicators used no personal protection measures or used it defectively/partially. Most of the workers/respondents (77%) did not bother for safety and health risks of pesticide exposure. Conclusions: Workers involved in pesticide application use personal protection measures very poorly and defectively. Almost half of the applicators were not following right direction with respect to wind direction while spraying, thus it increase the risk of exposure. There is a clear need to develop specific training and prevention programs for these workers. The determinants of pesticide exposure in agricultural workers described in this study should be properly assessed in epidemiological studies of the health effects of pesticides on

  19. Towards best practice in national health workforce planning.

    PubMed

    McCarty, Maureen V; Fenech, Bethany J

    2013-09-02

    Health Workforce Australia (HWA) was established by the Council of Australian Governments through its 2008 National Partnership Agreement on Hospital and Health Workforce Reform, as the national agency to progress health workforce reform and address the challenges of providing a skilled, innovative and flexible health workforce in Australia. The Australian Health Ministers' Conference commissioned HWA to undertake a workforce planning exercise for doctors, nurses and midwives over a planning horizon to 2025. Health Workforce 2025 (HW 2025) was conducted in two phases: developing projections for the size and type of the health workforce (doctors, nurses and midwives) needed to meet future service requirements from 2012 to 2025; and modelling the training pipeline necessary to meet the size and type of this health workforce. HWA has used a number of key principles in developing HW 2025 to ensure the projections are robust and able to be applied nationally. HW 2025 is not a one-off project. Projections will be updated as new data become available, and methodology and assumptions underpinning the projections will be periodically reviewed. To also ensure the continued improvement of national health workforce planning, HWA is pursuing other areas for improvement, including better national data collections and improved estimation methodology for demand. Results of HW 2025 were presented to the Australian Health Ministers (through the Standing Council on Health) in April 2012.

  20. Soil column leaching of pesticides.

    PubMed

    Katagi, Toshiyuki

    2013-01-01

    In this review, I address the practical and theoretical aspects of pesticide soil mobility.I also address the methods used to measure mobility, and the factors that influence it, and I summarize the data that have been published on the column leaching of pesticides.Pesticides that enter the unsaturated soil profile are transported downwards by the water flux, and are adsorbed, desorbed, and/or degraded as they pass through the soil. The rate of passage of a pesticide through the soil depends on the properties of the pesticide, the properties of the soil and the prevailing environmental conditions.Because large amounts of many different pesticides are used around the world, they and their degradates may sometimes contaminate groundwater at unacceptable levels.It is for this reason that assessing the transport behavior and soil mobility of pesticides before they are sold into commerce is important and is one indispensable element that regulators use to assess probable pesticide safety. Both elementary soil column leaching and sophisticated outdoor lysimeter studies are performed to measure the leaching potential for pesticides; the latter approach more reliably reflects probable field behavior, but the former is useful to initially profile a pesticide for soil mobility potential.Soil is physically heterogeneous. The structure of soil varies both vertically and laterally, and this variability affects the complex flow of water through the soil profile, making it difficult to predict with accuracy. In addition, macropores exist in soils and further add to the complexity of how water flow occurs. The degree to which soil is tilled, the density of vegetation on the surface, and the type and amounts of organic soil amendments that are added to soil further affect the movement rate of water through soil, the character of soil adsorption sites and the microbial populations that exist in the soil. Parameters that most influence the rate of pesticide mobility in soil are

  1. Guidelines for performance standards of pesticides for safe use

    SciTech Connect

    Fan Defang; Cheng, H.

    1983-02-20

    This article discusses the efforts to conduct more overall and systematic tests of the dynamics of pesticide residue on agricultural crops in China. A national cooperation group for scientific research on pesticide residue was organized and placed under the direct leadership of the Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry. The ''National Standards for the Safe Use of Pesticides'' is applicable to 29 types of pesticides on 16 kinds of crops. Standards have also been established for the testing of pesticide residue on agricultural crops and in the soil. Topics considered include the selection of experimental pesticides and crops, the design of potted plants and field experiments, the design of simultaneous experiments, the design of test chemicals, the spot survey of residues, a design for testing the pesticide residue in soil, testing and measuring pesticide residue, and the method of gathering test samples.

  2. Remedial investigation report, site 2-Pesticide Pit Burial Area, Stewart Air National Guard Base, Newburgh, New York. Volume 2. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1997-09-01

    Site 2-Pesticide Pit Burial Area was investigated under the Installation Restoration Program. A removal action was conducted in 1988, when pesticide containers and contaminated soil were excavated from the pit. The pit covered an area of approximately 1000 square feet and was approximately 12 feet deep. The report recommends no further action based on study results.

  3. Remedial investigation report, site 2-Pesticide Pit Burial Area, Stewart Air National Guard Base, Newburgh, New York. Volume 1. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1997-09-01

    Site 2-Pesticide Pit Burial Area was investigated under the Installation Restoration Program. A removal action was conducted in 1988, when pesticide containers and contaminated soil were excavated from the pit. The pit covered an area of approximately 1000 square feet and was approximately 12 feet deep. The report recommends no further action based on study results.

  4. Organochlorine pesticides contamination in surface soils from two pesticide factories in Southeast China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lifei; Dong, Liang; Shi, Shuangxin; Zhou, Li; Zhang, Ting; Huang, Yeru

    2009-10-01

    The present article attempts to investigate organochlorine pesticides' (OCPs) contamination in soils from polluted sites and to assess the soil quality in the study area. HCHs and eight other persistent organic pollutants (POPs) pesticides were studied in surface soil samples collected from a new (F) and an old (G) pesticide factory in Southeast China. According to the measured results, surface soils from F and G were contaminated with HCHs, DDTs, HCB, and chlordane, with beta-HCH and p,p'-DDT being the two dominant substances. The total OCPs concentrations of surface soils from F and G were 0.84 and 166mgkg(-1) respectively. Cluster analysis was performed to group the soil sites in terms of their total OCPs contamination levels. The ratios of alpha-HCH/gamma-HCH, o,p'-DDT/p,p'-DDT, and trans-/cis- chlordane in some of the soil samples are similar to their technical products in the study area which indicates the lack of hazardous waste management practices of the pesticide production and transportation. According to GB 15618-1995, the HCHs could be classified as light pollution and little pollution for F and G, whereas DDTs levels of F and G could be defined as little pollution and heavy pollution, respectively. This study indicates that surface soils, especially residential area soils from F and G were facing varying degrees of pollutions. The situation is more hazardous due to the continuous exposure of the population that lives in the surroundings. Therefore, on-site remediation technologies and the best available techniques/best environmental practices (BAT/BEP) should be carried out on these factories with the national implementation of the Stockholm Convention.

  5. National Best Practices Manual for Building High Performance Schools (Revised)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2007-10-01

    The Best Practices Manual was written as a part of the promotional effort for EnergySmart Schools, provided by the US Department of Energy, to educate school districts around the country about energy efficiency and renewable energy. Written specifically for architects and engineers, The Best Practices Manual is designed to help those who are responsible for designing or retrofitting schools, as well as their project managers. This manual will help design staff make informed decisions about energy and environmental issues important to the school systems and communities.

  6. Multicultural Career Counseling: A National Survey of Competencies and Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vespia, Kristin M.; Fitzpatrick, Mary E.; Fouad, Nadya A.; Kantamneni, Neeta; Chen, Yung-Lung

    2010-01-01

    Career counselors' multicultural competence has not been widely investigated. In this study, a national sample of 230 career counselors completed an online survey that included measures of career counseling self-efficacy and multicultural counseling competence. Beyond these self-report instruments, counselors responded to open-ended items that…

  7. A National Survey of Revising Practices in the Primary Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saddler, Bruce; Saddler, Kristie; Befoorhooz, Bita; Cuccio-Slichko, Julie

    2014-01-01

    A random national sampling of primary grade teachers in the United States were surveyed to determine how they teach revising to writers in the elementary grades. Our findings suggest that in our sample of teachers, little time is dedicated in the school day to writing and especially revising. The teachers believed that more time spent revising did…

  8. Developing Inclusive Practice in Scotland: The National Framework for Inclusion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barrett, Louise; Beaton, Mhairi; Head, George; McAuliffe, Lisa; Moscardini, Lio; Spratt, Jennifer; Sutherland, Margaret

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports on the collaborative development of a "National Framework for Inclusion" under the auspices of the Scottish Teacher Education Committee by a working party representing each of the Scottish Universities providing initial teacher education. Recent research, international legislation and Scottish education policy have…

  9. Adult Education and National Development: Concepts and Practices in India.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ministry of Education and Social Welfare, New Delhi (India).

    The importance of eradicating adult illiteracy in developing countries as a part of promoting community participation in democracy and in accelerating the rate of national development is treated in the study of adult education in India. Attempts have been made to: link adult education to major developmental and productive activities through…

  10. A National Survey of Revising Practices in the Primary Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saddler, Bruce; Saddler, Kristie; Befoorhooz, Bita; Cuccio-Slichko, Julie

    2014-01-01

    A random national sampling of primary grade teachers in the United States were surveyed to determine how they teach revising to writers in the elementary grades. Our findings suggest that in our sample of teachers, little time is dedicated in the school day to writing and especially revising. The teachers believed that more time spent revising did…

  11. Developing Inclusive Practice in Scotland: The National Framework for Inclusion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barrett, Louise; Beaton, Mhairi; Head, George; McAuliffe, Lisa; Moscardini, Lio; Spratt, Jennifer; Sutherland, Margaret

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports on the collaborative development of a "National Framework for Inclusion" under the auspices of the Scottish Teacher Education Committee by a working party representing each of the Scottish Universities providing initial teacher education. Recent research, international legislation and Scottish education policy have…

  12. Accumulation of current-use pesticides in neotropical montane forests.

    PubMed

    Daly, Gillian L; Lei, Ying D; Teixeira, Camilla; Muir, Derek C G; Castillo, Luisa E; Wania, Frank

    2007-02-15

    In Central America, chemical-intensive tropical agriculture takes place in close proximity to highly valued and biologically diverse ecosystems, yet the potential for atmospheric transport of pesticides from plantations to national parks and other reserves is poorly characterized. The specific meteorological conditions of mountain ranges can lead to contaminant convergence at high altitudes, raising particular concern for montane forest ecosystems downwind from pesticide use areas. Here we show, based on a wide-ranging air and soil sampling campaign across Costa Rica, that soils in some neotropical montane forests indeed display much higher concentrations of currently used pesticides than soils elsewhere in the country. Specifically, elevated concentrations of the fungicide chlorothalonil, the herbicide dacthal, and the insecticide metabolite endosulfan sulfate on volcanoes Barva and Poas, lying directly downwind of the extensive banana plantations of the Caribbean lowland, indicate the occurrence of atmospheric transport and wet deposition of pesticides at high altitudes. Calculations with a contaminant fate model, designed for mountain regions and parametrized to the Costa Rican environment, show that chemicals with a log K(AW) between -3 and -5 have a greater potential for accumulation at high altitudes. This enrichment behavior is quantified by the Mountain Contamination Potential and is sensitive to contaminant degradability. The modeling work supports the hypothesis suggested by the field results that it is enhanced precipitation scavenging at high elevations (caused by lower temperatures and governed by K(AW)) that causes pesticides to accumulate in tropical montane areas. By providing for the first time evidence of significant transfer of currently used pesticides to Central American montane cloud forests, this study highlights the need to evaluate the risk that tropical agricultural practices place on the region's ecological reserves.

  13. Copernicus - Practice of Daily Life in a National Mapping Agency?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiatr, T.; Suresh, G.; Gehrke, R.; Hovenbitzer, M.

    2016-06-01

    Copernicus is an European system created for Earth observation and monitoring. It consists of a set of Earth observation satellites and in-situ sensors that provide geo-information that are used, through a set of Copernicus services, for applications related to the environment and global security. The main services of the Copernicus programme address six thematic areas: land, marine, atmosphere, climate change, emergency management and security. In Germany, there is a national service team of Copernicus service coordinators, who are responsible for the national development of the Copernicus services and for providing user-specific information about the Copernicus processes. These coordinators represent the contact points for all the programmes and services concerning their respective Copernicus theme. To publish information about Copernicus, national conferences and workshops are organised. Many people are involved in planning the continuous process of bringing the information to public authorities, research institutes and commercial companies. The Federal Agency for Cartography and Geodesy (Bundesamt für Kartographie und Geodäsie, BKG) is one such organisation, and is mainly responsible for the national land monitoring service of Copernicus. To make use of the freely available data from the Copernicus programme, the Federal Agency for Cartography and Geodesy is currently developing new applications and projects in the field of remote sensing and land monitoring. These projects can be used by other public authorities as examples on how to use the Copernicus data and services for their individual demands and requirements. Copernicus data and services are currently not very commonly used in the daily routine of the national mapping agencies, but they will soon be.

  14. 78 FR 39738 - National Advisory Council on Nurse Education and Practice; Notice for Request for Nominations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-02

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Health Resources and Services Administration National Advisory Council on Nurse Education and Practice; Notice for Request for Nominations SUMMARY: The Health Resources and Services... of Health Professions (BHPr), Health Resources and Administration (HRSA), Parklawn Building, Room...

  15. Undergraduate Psychological Writing: A Best Practices Guide and National Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ishak, Shaziela; Salter, Nicholas P.

    2017-01-01

    There is no comprehensive guide for teaching psychological writing, and little is known about how often instructors teach the topic. We present a best practices guide for teaching psychological writing beyond just American Psychological Association style, discuss psychology-specific writing assignments, and examine psychological writing…

  16. Undergraduate Psychological Writing: A Best Practices Guide and National Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ishak, Shaziela; Salter, Nicholas P.

    2017-01-01

    There is no comprehensive guide for teaching psychological writing, and little is known about how often instructors teach the topic. We present a best practices guide for teaching psychological writing beyond just American Psychological Association style, discuss psychology-specific writing assignments, and examine psychological writing…

  17. Nanosafety practices: results from a national survey at research facilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Díaz-Soler, Beatriz María; López-Alonso, Mónica; Martínez-Aires, María Dolores

    2017-05-01

    The exposure to engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) is a new emerging risk at work due to an increase in the number of workers potentially exposed to them and the current lack of data on their health and safety risks. This paper reports the findings of a survey designed to study the safety practices employed by workers in Spanish research facilities performing tasks involving the use of ENMs at research level. A questionnaire pretested and validated by an expert panel was sent by e-mail to the target audience. The 425 surveys completed show that most of the respondents handled up to 5 different ENMs, in suspension, in small amounts during short periods of exposure. The implementation of common hygienic practices, such as the use of protection for hands and the implementation of fume hoods, is widely indicated. The selection of the preventive and protective measures does not depend on the characteristics of ENMs handled. Also, the risks posed by ENMs are widely ignored. Besides the performance of risk assessment, hygienic monitoring and the conducting of a specific health surveillance are practically non-existent although some accidents relating to ENMs were identified. In conclusion, workers' exposure to ENMs seems to be low. Even though the best practices and preventive and protective measures reported were employed, most of the respondents could not be correctly protected. Moreover, workers do not associate the measures implemented with the nanorisks. Finally, there is a lack of proactive action underway to protect the workers, and concerns about safety are weakly evidenced.

  18. Academic Advising Assessment Practices: Results of a National Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powers, Keith L.; Carlstrom, Aaron H.

    2014-01-01

    Best practices of academic advising assessment involve identification of student learning outcomes, the development and use of multiple measures of student learning, and sound professional judgment to understand the information gathered and to improve student learning. However, the assessment results often come from minimal, narrow, and…

  19. Selection Practices of Group Leaders: A National Survey.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riva, Maria T.; Lippert, Laurel; Tackett, M. Jan

    2000-01-01

    Study surveys the selection practices of group leaders. Explores methods of selection, variables used to make selection decisions, and the types of selection errors that leaders have experienced. Results suggest that group leaders use clinical judgment to make selection decisions and endorse using some specific variables in selection. (Contains 22…

  20. The Significance of Constructivist Classroom Practice in National Curricular Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Booyse, Celia; Chetty, Rajendra

    2016-01-01

    Evidence of the value of constructivist theory in the classroom is especially important for educational practice in areas of poverty and social challenge. Research was undertaken in 2010 into the application of constructivist theory on instructional design. The findings of this research are particularly relevant to the current curricular crisis in…

  1. Selection Practices of Group Leaders: A National Survey.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riva, Maria T.; Lippert, Laurel; Tackett, M. Jan

    2000-01-01

    Study surveys the selection practices of group leaders. Explores methods of selection, variables used to make selection decisions, and the types of selection errors that leaders have experienced. Results suggest that group leaders use clinical judgment to make selection decisions and endorse using some specific variables in selection. (Contains 22…

  2. Introduction to Pesticide Incidents

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Pesticides incidents must be reported by pesticide registrants. Others, such as members of the public and environmental professionals, would like to report pesticide incidents. This website will explain and facilitate such incident reporting.

  3. Endangered Species: Pesticide Restrictions

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Our goal is to protect threatened and endangered species and their habitats, without placing unnecessary burden on agriculture and pesticide users. Pesticide limitations are developed to ensure safe use of pesticides in order to meet this goal.

  4. Pesticide regulations and farm worker safety: the need to improve pesticide regulations in Viet Nam.

    PubMed

    Phung, Dung Tri; Connell, Des; Miller, Greg; Rutherford, Shannon; Chu, Cordia

    2012-06-01

    Agricultural pesticide use in Viet Nam has more than tripled since 1990. However, pesticide legislation and regulations have not been developed in response to this large increase in usage, as a result of which pesticides pose a serious threat to human health and the environment. This paper identifies the need to improve pesticide regulations in Viet Nam through a comparative analysis of pesticide regulations in Viet Nam and the United States of America, where the rate of acute poisoning among agricultural workers is much lower than in Viet Nam and where information pertaining to pesticide regulations is made accessible to the public. The analysis identified several measures that would help to improve Viet Nam's pesticide regulations. These include enhancing pesticide legislation, clarifying the specific roles and active involvement of both the environmental and health sectors; performing a comprehensive risk-benefit evaluation of pesticide registration and management practices; improving regulations on pesticide suspension and cancellation, transport, storage and disposal; developing import and export policies and enhancing pesticide-related occupational safety programmes.

  5. First-trimester medical abortion practices in Canada: National survey.

    PubMed

    Guilbert, Edith R; Hayden, Althea S; Jones, Heidi E; White, Katharine O'Connell; Steven Lichtenberg, E; Paul, Maureen; Norman, Wendy V

    2016-04-01

    To understand the current availability and practice of first-trimester medical abortion (MA) in Canada. Using public sources and professional networks, abortion facilities across Canada were identified for a cross-sectional survey on medical and surgical abortion. English and French surveys were distributed by surface or electronic mail between July and November 2013. Canada. A total of 94 abortion facilities were identified. Descriptive statistics on MA practice and facility and provider characteristics, as well as comparisons of MA practice by facility and provider characteristics using χ(2) and t tests. A total of 78 of 94 (83.0%) facilities responded. Medical abortion represented 3.8% of first-trimester abortions reported (2706 of 70 860) in 2012. Among the facilities offering MA, 45.0% performed fewer than 500 first-trimester abortions a year, while 35.0% performed more than 1000. More MAs were performed in private offices or ambulatory health centres than in hospitals. Sixty-two physicians from 28 of 78 facilities reported providing first-trimester MA; 87.1% also provided surgical abortion. More than three-quarters of MA physicians were female and 56.5% were family physicians. A preponderance (85.2%) of providers offered methotrexate with misoprostol. Nearly all physicians (90.3%) required patients to have an ultrasound before MA, and 72.6% assessed the completion of the abortion with ultrasonography. Most physicians (74.2%) offered MA through 49 days after the onset of the last menstrual period, and 21.0% offered MA through 50 to 56 days; 37.1% reported providing MA to patients who lived more than 2 hours away. Four physicians from 1 site provided MA via telemedicine. In Canada, MA provision using methotrexate and misoprostol is consistent with best-practice guidelines, but MA is rare and its availability is unevenly distributed. Copyright© the College of Family Physicians of Canada.

  6. Changing Classroom Practice at Key Stage 2: The Impact of New Labour's National Strategies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Webb, Rosemary; Vulliamy, Graham

    2007-01-01

    The article examines the impact of New Labour policies--particularly the National Literacy and Numeracy Strategies and the subsequent Primary National Strategy--on classroom practice at Key Stage 2 in England. Evidence is drawn from fieldwork conducted in 2003-2005 from a sample of 50 schools, replicating a study conducted a decade previously in…

  7. Providing Assistance to the Victims of Adolescent Dating Violence: A National Assessment of School Nurses' Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khubchandani, Jagdish; Telljohann, Susan K.; Price, James H.; Dake, Joseph A.; Hendershot, Candace

    2013-01-01

    Background: This study assessed the perceptions and practices of school nurses regarding adolescent dating violence (ADV). Methods: The membership list of the National Association of School Nurses was used to identify a national random cross-sectional sample of high school nurses in the United States (N?=?750). A valid and reliable survey…

  8. Employing National Board Certification Practices with All Teachers: The Potential of Cognitive Coaching and Mentoring

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diaz, Kirsten Anne

    2013-01-01

    National Board Certification is an esteemed certification and professional learning and reflective opportunity for teachers. Cognitive coaching is also a method of support many teachers receive over the course of their National Board Certification journey. The certification process involves reflective practices and opportunities for teachers to…

  9. Employing National Board Certification Practices with All Teachers: The Potential of Cognitive Coaching and Mentoring

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diaz, Kirsten Anne

    2013-01-01

    National Board Certification is an esteemed certification and professional learning and reflective opportunity for teachers. Cognitive coaching is also a method of support many teachers receive over the course of their National Board Certification journey. The certification process involves reflective practices and opportunities for teachers to…

  10. Organizations in America: Analyzing Their Structures and Human Resource Practices Based on the National Organizations Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kalleberg, Arne L.; Knoke, David; Marsden, Peter V.; Spaeth, Joe L.

    In 1991 the National Organizations Study (NOS) surveyed a number of U.S. businesses about their structure, context, and personnel practices to produce a database for answering questions about social behavior in work organizations. This book presents the results of that survey. The study aimed to create a national database on organizations--based…

  11. Providing Assistance to the Victims of Adolescent Dating Violence: A National Assessment of School Nurses' Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khubchandani, Jagdish; Telljohann, Susan K.; Price, James H.; Dake, Joseph A.; Hendershot, Candace

    2013-01-01

    Background: This study assessed the perceptions and practices of school nurses regarding adolescent dating violence (ADV). Methods: The membership list of the National Association of School Nurses was used to identify a national random cross-sectional sample of high school nurses in the United States (N?=?750). A valid and reliable survey…

  12. Assessment for Learning Practices and Competency among Malaysian University Lecturers: A National Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ahmad, Tunku Badariah Tunku; Zubairi, Ainol Madziah; Ibrahim, Mohd Burhan; Othman, Joharry; Rahman, Nik Suryani Abd; Rahman, Zainurin Abd; Nordin, Mohamad Sahari; Nor, Zainab Mohd

    2014-01-01

    This paper reports the findings of a national study involving 534 lecturers from 33 higher learning institutions in Malaysia to find out their self-reported practices and perceived competencies in assessment for learning. Data were collected using a 24-item assessment practice inventory drawn from five of the six standards stipulated in an…

  13. 78 FR 2275 - National Advisory Council on Nurse Education and Practice; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-10

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Health Resources and Services Administration National Advisory Council on Nurse Education... on Nurse Education and Practice (NACNEP). Dates and Times: January 31, 2013, 9:30 a.m.-12:30 p.m... Nurse Education and Practice, Parklawn Building, Room 9-61, 5600 Fishers Lane, Rockville, Maryland...

  14. 76 FR 14033 - National Advisory Council on Nurse Education and Practice; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-15

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Health Resources and Services Administration National Advisory Council on Nurse Education... Council on Nurse Education and Practice (NACNEP). Dates and Times: April 11, 2011, 8:30 a.m.-4 p.m. April.... Purpose: The purpose of this meeting is to address diversity in nurse education and practice....

  15. 75 FR 64318 - National Advisory Council on Nurse Education and Practice; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-19

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Health Resources and Services Administration National Advisory Council on Nurse Education... Council on Nurse Education and Practice (NACNEP). Dates and Times: November 17, 2010, 1 p.m.-5 p.m...: The purpose of this meeting is to address diversity in nurse education and practice. The objectives...

  16. Assessment and Intervention Practices for Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD): A National Survey of School Psychologists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borick, Timothy J.

    2011-01-01

    This study examined school psychologists' assessment and intervention practices regarding ADHD. Five hundred school psychologists who practiced in a school setting and were regular members of the National Association of School Psychologists were randomly selected to complete and return a questionnaire titled Assessment and Intervention Practices…

  17. Management of the use of public health pesticides in the face of the increasing burden of vector-borne diseases in the Eastern Mediterranean region.

    PubMed

    Mnzava, A; Zaim, M; Yadav, R S; Elkhalifa, S; Mahjour, J

    2012-01-01

    The Eastern Mediterranean Region of the World Health Organization is facing an increasing burden of vector-borne diseases. Progress in controlling these diseases is compromised by the limited number of vector control interventions, most of which rely on the use of pesticides. Seventeen countries of the Region participated in a global survey that aimed to map and document registration and management practices for public health pesticides. This paper aims to draw the attention of policy- and decision-makers to the challenges the Region is facing in managing public health pesticides properly to control disease vectors and, based on the outcome of the survey, recommends a set of actions to guide national policy and to strengthen national capacity for the sound management and judicious use of public health pesticides.

  18. Pesticide Safety for Farmworkers = Uso Seguro de Pesticidas para los Trabajadores del Campo.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poli, Bonnie; Fluker, Sam S.

    A booklet for farmworkers and employers uses illustrations and simple text in English and Spanish to inform about the dangers, precautions, and use of pesticides. Topics covered include methods of pesticide absorption; signs/symptoms of pesticide poisoning; first aid; residues; appropriate work clothes; safe and unsafe pesticide practices; how to…

  19. Apply Pesticides Correctly: A Programmed Instruction Learning Program for Private Applicators. Revised Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meltzner, Joel R., Ed.

    This programed text on pesticide application provides practical information needed to meet the minimum Federal regulation requirements for the use of certain pesticides. The seven chapters cover pest and pest control, pesticides, labels and labeling, application equipment, use and maintenance of equipment, using pesticides safely, and the…

  20. Photovoltaic power systems and the National Electrical Code: Suggested practices

    SciTech Connect

    Wiles, J.

    1996-12-01

    This guide provides information on how the National Electrical Code (NEC) applies to photovoltaic systems. The guide is not intended to supplant or replace the NEC; it paraphrases the NEC where it pertains to photovoltaic systems and should be used with the full text of the NEC. Users of this guide should be thoroughly familiar with the NEC and know the engineering principles and hazards associated with electrical and photovoltaic power systems. The information in this guide is the best available at the time of publication and is believed to be technically accurate; it will be updated frequently. Application of this information and results obtained are the responsibility of the user.

  1. Continuing education: a national imperative for school nursing practice.

    PubMed

    Vought-O'Sullivan, Victoria; Meehan, Nancy K; Havice, Pamela A; Pruitt, Rosanne H

    2006-02-01

    Competency-based continuing education is critical to the professional development of school nurses to ensure the application of timely, age-appropriate clinical knowledge and leadership skills in the school setting. School nurses are responsible for a large number of students with a variety of complex and diverse health care needs. Benner's theory of novice to expert provides a framework for the development of roles and competencies in the practice of school nursing. This manuscript synthesizes research reviewed in 15 articles. Common themes found in the articles include the importance of continuing education and identified barriers to attainment. In response, methods to access continuing education and financial resources are presented.

  2. Pesticide risk behaviors and factors influencing pesticide use among farmers in Kuwait.

    PubMed

    Jallow, Mustapha F A; Awadh, Dawood G; Albaho, Mohammed S; Devi, Vimala Y; Thomas, Binson M

    2017-01-01

    The widespread overuse of pesticides in agriculture has generated increasing concerns about the negative effects of pesticides on human health and the environment. Understanding farmers' perceptions of risk of pesticides and the determinants of pesticide overuse is important to modifying their behavior towards reducing pesticide use. A survey of 250 randomly selected smallholder vegetable farmers in Kuwait was conducted to quantify the extent of pesticide use, their pesticide risk perceptions and factors influencing their pesticide use behaviors. The majority of the farmers perceived pesticides pose some risk to the environment (65%) and human health (70.5%), while younger farmers were more likely to perceive this risk than older farmers. When asked to rate how risky pesticides were regarding several aspects of human health and the environment on a scale of 1(not risky) to 5 (extremely risky), concern was highest for the health of applicators (x̅=4.28) and lowest for air quality (x̅=2.32). The risk perceptions of the farmers did not have a positive influence on their pesticide use practices. A total of 76 pesticide active ingredients were found in use, and 9% of these belong to the WHO toxicity class II (moderately hazardous). On average, farmers applied 12.8kg of active ingredients per hectare per year, and 58% of the farmers were found to have overused pesticides, with an average overuse rate of 2.5kg. Pesticide application frequency ranged from two times a month up to once a week, depending on the crop. A binary probit model reveals that farmers' inadequate knowledge of pesticides, the influence of pesticide retailers and lack of access to non-synthetic methods of pest control are positively associated with pesticide overuse, while the propensity to overuse decreases with higher levels of education, training in Integrated Pest Management (IPM) and the safe use and handling of pesticides, and access to extension support. Comprehensive intervention measures for

  3. American Society of Clinical Oncology National Census of Oncology Practices: preliminary report.

    PubMed

    Forte, Gaetano J; Hanley, Amy; Hagerty, Karen; Kurup, Anupama; Neuss, Michael N; Mulvey, Therese M

    2013-01-01

    In response to reports of increasing financial and administrative burdens on oncology practices and a lack of systematic information related to these issues, American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO) leadership started an effort to collect key practice-level data from all oncology practices in the United States. The result of the effort is the ASCO National Census of Oncology Practices (Census) launched in June 2012. The initial Census work involved compiling an inventory of oncology practices from existing lists of oncology physicians in the United States. A comprehensive, online data collection instrument was developed, which covered a number of areas, including practice characteristics (staffing configuration, organizational structure, patient mix and volume, types of services offered); organizational, staffing, and service changes over the past 12 months; and an assessment of the likelihood that the practice would experience organizational, staffing, and service changes in the next 12 months. More than 600 practices participated in the Census by providing information. In this article, we present preliminary highlights from the data gathered to date. We found that practice size was related to having experienced practice mergers, hiring additional staff, and increasing staff pay in the past 12 months, that geographic location was related to having experienced hiring additional staff, and that practices in metropolitan areas were more likely to have experienced practice mergers in the past 12 months than those in nonmetropolitan areas. We also found that practice size and geographic location were related to higher likelihoods of anticipating practice mergers, sales, and purchases in the future.

  4. Pesticide trends in major rivers of the United States, 1992-2010

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ryberg, Karen R.; Vecchia, Aldo V.; Gilliom, Robert J.; Martin, Jeffrey D.

    2014-01-01

    This report is part of a series of pesticide trend assessments led by the National Water-Quality Assessment Program of the U.S. Geological Survey. This assessment focuses on major rivers of various sizes throughout the United States that have large watersheds with a range of land uses, changes in pesticide use, changes in management practices, and natural influences typical of the regions being drained. Trends were assessed at 59 sites for 40 pesticides and pesticide degradates during each of three overlapping periods: 1992–2001, 1997–2006, and 2001–10. In addition to trends in concentration, trends in agricultural-use intensity (agricultural use) were also assessed at 57 of the sites for 35 parent compounds with agricultural uses during the same three periods. The SEAWAVE-Q model was used to analyze trends in concentration, and parametric survival regression for interval-censored data was used to assess trends in agricultural use. All trends are provided in downloadable electronic files. A subset of 39 sites was chosen to represent non-nested, generally independent basins for a national analysis of pesticide and agricultural-use trends for the most prevalent pesticides (15 pesticides and 2 degradation products). Graphical and numerical results are presented to provide a national overview of concentration and use trends. As another perspective on understanding pesticide concentration trends in large rivers in relation to multiple tributary watersheds, this report also presents a detailed assessment of concentration and use trends for simazine, metolachlor, atrazine, deethylatrazine, and diazinon for a set of 17 nested sites in the Mississippi River Basin (including the Ohio and Missouri River Basins), for the second and third trend periods. Pesticides strongly dominated by agricultural use—cyanazine, metolachlor, atrazine, and alachlor—had widespread agreement between concentration trends and agricultural-use trends. Pesticides with substantial use in

  5. Monitoring pesticides in wildlife

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dustman, E.H.; Martin, W.E.; Heath, R.G.; Reichel, W.L.

    1971-01-01

    Early in the development of the wildlife monitoring program, certain criteria were recognized as being important in the selection of species of wild animals suitable for pesticide monitoring purposes. Ideally, the forms selected should be geographically well distributed, and they should be reasonably abundant and readily available for sampling. In addition, animals occurring near the top of food chains have the capacity to reflect residues in organisms occurring at lower levels in the same food chains. Based on these criteria, species chosen for monitoring include the starling (Sturnus vulgaris), mallard (Anas platyrhynchos) and black ducks (Anas rubripes), and the bald eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus). The black duck is substituted for the mallard in States where suitable numbers of mallards cannot be obtained. The Bureau of Sport Fisheries and Wildlife is held responsible for the execution of the wildlife portion of the National Pesticide Monitoring Program. The primary objective is to ascertain on a nationwide basis and independent of specific treatments the levels and trends of certain pesticidal chemicals and other pollutants in the bodies of selected forms of wildlife. The program was first described by Johnson et al. (4) in 1967. The purpose of this report is to update and redescribe the wildlife monitoring program and briefly review accomplishments.

  6. Methods of analysis by the U.S. Geological Survey National Water Quality Laboratory; determination of pesticides in water by graphitized carbon-based solid-phase extraction and high-performance liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Furlong, Edward T.; Anderson, Bruce D.; Werner, Stephen L.; Soliven, Paul P.; Coffey, Laura J.; Burkhardt, Mark R.

    2001-01-01

    In 1996, the U.S. Geological Survey National Water Quality Laboratory (NWQL) developed and implemented a graphitized carbon-based solid-phase extraction and high-performance liquid chromatographic analytical method to determine polar pesticide concentrations in surface- and ground-water samples. Subsequently, the NWQL developed a complementary analysis that uses high-performance liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry to detect, identify, and quantify polar pesticides and pesticide metabolites in filtered water at concentrations as low as 10 nanograms per liter. This new method was designed to improve sensitivity and selectivity over the prior method, and to reduce known interferences from natural organic matter.In this new method, pesticides are extracted from filtered water samples by useing a 0.5-gram graphitized carbon-based solid-phase extraction cartridge, eluted from the cartridge, and concentrations determined by using high-performance liquid chromatography with electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry. The upper concentration limit is 1.000 microgram per liter (μg/L) for most compounds. Single-operator method detection limits in organic-free water samples fortified with pesticides at a concentration of 0.025 μg/L ranged from 0.0019 to 0.022 μg/L for all compounds in the method. The grand mean (mean of mean recoveries for individual compounds) recoveries in organic-free water samples ranged from 72 to 89 percent, fortified with pesticides at three concentrations between 0.025 and 0.5 μg/L. Grand mean recoveries in ground- and surface-water samples ranged from 46 to 119 percent, also fortified with pesticides at three concentrations between 0.025 and 0.5 μg/L. Long-term recoveries from reagent water spikes were used to demonstrate that 38 of 65 compounds can be reported without qualification of the quantitative result across the analytical range of the method. The remaining 27 are reported with qualified estimates of concentration because of greater

  7. Obstetrical brachial plexus injury (OBPI): Canada's national clinical practice guideline

    PubMed Central

    Coroneos, Christopher J; Voineskos, Sophocles H; Christakis, Marie K; Thoma, Achilleas; Bain, James R; Brouwers, Melissa C

    2017-01-01

    Objective The objective of this study was to establish an evidence-based clinical practice guideline for the primary management of obstetrical brachial plexus injury (OBPI). This clinical practice guideline addresses 4 existing gaps: (1) historic poor use of evidence, (2) timing of referral to multidisciplinary care, (3) Indications and timing of operative nerve repair and (4) distribution of expertise. Setting The guideline is intended for all healthcare providers treating infants and children, and all specialists treating upper extremity injuries. Participants The evidence interpretation and recommendation consensus team (Canadian OBPI Working Group) was composed of clinicians representing each of Canada's 10 multidisciplinary centres. Outcome measures An electronic modified Delphi approach was used for consensus, with agreement criteria defined a priori. Quality indicators for referral to a multidisciplinary centre were established by consensus. An original meta-analysis of primary nerve repair and review of Canadian epidemiology and burden were previously completed. Results 7 recommendations address clinical gaps and guide identification, referral, treatment and outcome assessment: (1) physically examine for OBPI in newborns with arm asymmetry or risk factors; (2) refer newborns with OBPI to a multidisciplinary centre by 1 month; (3) provide pregnancy/birth history and physical examination findings at birth; (4) multidisciplinary centres should include a therapist and peripheral nerve surgeon experienced with OBPI; (5) physical therapy should be advised by a multidisciplinary team; (6) microsurgical nerve repair is indicated in root avulsion and other OBPI meeting centre operative criteria; (7) the common data set includes the Narakas classification, limb length, Active Movement Scale (AMS) and Brachial Plexus Outcome Measure (BPOM) 2 years after birth/surgery. Conclusions The process established a new network of opinion leaders and researchers for further

  8. Pesticide burial grounds in Poland: a review.

    PubMed

    Gałuszka, Agnieszka; Migaszewski, Zdzisław M; Manecki, Piotr

    2011-10-01

    Obsolete pesticides were stored in Poland from the middle sixties until the late eighties of the 20th century mostly in underground disposal sites, called "pesticide burial grounds" or "pesticide tombs". The total amount of pesticide waste and packaging materials disposed of in these landfills exceeded 20000 Mg. Typically, the content of a pesticide tomb was dominated by organochlorine pesticides (comprising 10-100% of the total waste volume) with DDT as the prevailing compound. Other pesticide types, such as phosphoroorganic, carbamate insecticides, dinitrophenols, phenoxyacids, and inorganic compounds were stored in smaller quantities, usually not exceeding 10-20% of the total waste volume. With the growing awareness of the threats that these landfills posed to the environment, the first inventory for the whole country was made in 1993 and remediation was initiated in 1999. The total amount of waste, which had to be removed from the known pesticide tombs (hazardous substances, contaminated soils, construction materials etc.) was about 100000 Mg. According to the National Waste Management Plan, the reclamation of pesticide tombs was assumed to have been finished by the end of 2010, however, this goal has not been achieved. The aim of this review is to present a historical perspective of pesticide burial grounds in Poland with an emphasis on their creation, function, inventory, and remediation. Based on unpublished reports, and other published materials of limited availability written in Polish, this review may serve as a source of information for representatives of other countries, where remediation of pesticide burial grounds is still in progress. The experience gained over a ten-year period, when restoration of pesticide tombs was implemented in Poland, reveals that there are many obstacles to this action arising not only from technical, but also from economic and social issues.

  9. Improving poisoning diagnosis and surveillance of street pesticides.

    PubMed

    Rother, Hanna-Andrea

    2012-03-23

    An effective surveillance system is required to reduce pesticide exposures and poisonings, especially from street pesticides (illegal, unlabelled, and decanted agricultural pesticides used predominately for urban household purposes). Poisoning from any pesticide class, not only organophosphates, constitutes a medically notifiable condition in South Africa. Current practice, however, is to report only organophosphate cases, resulting in severe under-reporting. The lack of data concerning the link between poisonings and street pesticides has led to the mistaken assumption that urban populations are not at risk from significant pesticide exposures and poisonings. Without accurate statistics, healthcare professionals and policy makers are unaware of the contribution of street pesticide poisonings to the overall health burden. Accurate diagnosis is a prerequisite for notification and subsequent surveillance. An algorithm has been developed to enable healthcare professionals to improve the diagnosis and notification of pesticide poisonings.

  10. The National Practice Benchmark for Oncology: 2015 Report for 2014 Data

    PubMed Central

    Balch, Carla; Ogle, John D.

    2016-01-01

    The National Practice Benchmark (NPB) is a unique tool used to measure oncology practices against others across the country in a meaningful way despite variations in practice demographics, size, and setting. In today’s challenging economic environment, each practice positions service offerings and competitive advantages to attract patients. Although the data in the NPB report are primarily reported by community oncology practices, the business structure and arrangements with regional health care systems are also reflected in the benchmark report. The ability to produce detailed metrics is an accomplishment of excellence in business and clinical management. With these metrics, a practice should be able to measure and analyze its current business practices and make appropriate changes, if necessary. In this report, we build on the foundation initially established by Oncology Metrics (acquired by Flatiron Health in 2014) over years of data collection and refine definitions to deliver the NPB, which is uniquely meaningful in the oncology market. PMID:27006357

  11. Administrative, counseling and medical practices in National Abortion Federation facilities.

    PubMed

    Landy, U; Lewit, S

    1982-01-01

    A survey of members of the National Abortion Federation (NAF), most of them non-hospital facilities, responsible for performing almost half of the abortions in the United States, was carried out by the NAF in 1981. Among the principal findings were the following: Fifty-three percent of the NAF facilities are freestanding clinics operated for profit. Fifty-one percent are open more than 50 hours per week, and 77 percent are open six days a week; 86 percent are open on Saturdays. Seventy-five percent of the physicians performing abortions in these facilities are gynecologists. Counseling provided by specially trained abortion counselors is a unique contribution of abortion facilities to health-care delivery. Virtually all facilities employ counselors who are neither doctors nor nurses. Most NAF facilities have more counselors than nurses and more nurses than doctors. Counseling in virtually all facilities includes providing written as well as verbal information about the nature of the procedure and its medical risks; such information is given to the patient so that she can give informed consent for the abortion. Almost all facilities include information about contraception and about the options available to a woman with a problem pregnancy. Most offer counseling to the male, as well as the female partner, on the patient's request. Twenty-eight percent of facilities generally provide both individual and group counseling. Where only one type of counseling is provided, it is usually individual counseling.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  12. Recovery practice in community mental health teams: national survey.

    PubMed

    Leamy, M; Clarke, E; Le Boutillier, C; Bird, V; Choudhury, R; MacPherson, R; Pesola, F; Sabas, K; Williams, J; Williams, P; Slade, M

    2016-10-01

    There is consensus about the importance of 'recovery' in mental health services, but the link between recovery orientation of mental health teams and personal recovery of individuals has been underresearched. To investigate differences in team leader, clinician and service user perspectives of recovery orientation of community adult mental health teams in England. In six English mental health National Health Service (NHS) trusts, randomly chosen community adult mental health teams were surveyed. A random sample of ten patients, one team leader and a convenience sample of five clinicians were surveyed from each team. All respondents rated the recovery orientation of their team using parallel versions of the Recovery Self Assessment (RSA). In addition, service users also rated their own personal recovery using the Questionnaire about Processes of Recovery (QPR). Team leaders (n = 22) rated recovery orientation higher than clinicians (n = 109) or patients (n = 120) (Wald(2) = 7.0, P = 0.03), and both NHS trust and team type influenced RSA ratings. Patient-rated recovery orientation was a predictor of personal recovery (b = 0.58, 95% CI 0.31-0.85, P<0.001). Team leaders and clinicians with experience of mental illness (39%) or supporting a family member or friend with mental illness (76%) did not differ in their RSA ratings from other team leaders or clinicians. Compared with team leaders, frontline clinicians and service users have less positive views on recovery orientation. Increasing recovery orientation may support personal recovery. © The Royal College of Psychiatrists 2016.

  13. Environmental aspects in plant protection practices of non-agricultural pesticide users: case study of communes and the ministry of public works and transport (MET) of the Walloon Region (Belgium).

    PubMed

    Godeaux, D; Schiffers, B; Culot, M

    2008-01-01

    In order to gain a better understanding of non-agricultural pesticide use and to prepare the legislative and technical dossiers required under the Water Framework Directive, between October 2006 and March 2007, two surveys were conducted of 97 Walloon communes and 65 districts of the Walloon Ministry of Public Works and Transport (MET) (General Directorates for Motorways and Roads and for Waterway Infrastructure). The questionnaire (26 questions on six topics) was sent by e-mail or fax, with a response rate of 60 out of 97 communes and 33 out of 65 districts. This article describes the environmental aspects of the surveys (health-related aspects are the subject of separate article). The surveys have brought to light a number of good practices (including zero pesticides) and a growing awareness of environmental issues among non-agricultural users. However, bad habits, legislation infringements and a failure to follow good plant protection practice are still a problem and pose major environmental risks (in the form of water pollution from pesticides). Information, awareness-raising and training therefore remain a priority for non-agricultural users.

  14. Electroconvulsive Therapy Practice in Spain: A National Survey.

    PubMed

    Vera, Ignacio; Sanz-Fuentenebro, Javier; Urretavizcaya, Mikel; Verdura, Ernesto; Soria, Virginia; Martínez-Amorós, Erika; Bernardo, Miquel

    2016-03-01

    The use of electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) in Spain has not been systematically evaluated since 2000 to 2001. The aim of this study is to assess the current use of ECT in Spain. A cross-sectional survey was conducted covering every psychiatric unit in Spain as of December 31, 2012. About 93.2% of the centers answered the questionnaire. About 54.9% of the psychiatric units applied ECT at a rate of 0.66 patients per 10,000 inhabitants. Wide variations existed among the different autonomous communities and provinces. Written informed consent was obtained in all the facilities. About 38.2% of ECT-treated patients were 65 years or older. About 55.7% were women. Depressive episodes were the main indication for ECT (80.2%). All the facilities applied modified ECT. No sine wave current devices are currently used in Spain. Bifrontotemporal ECT was elective in 85% of the hospitals, bifrontal in 13.3%, and unilateral in 1.8%. Stimulus titration methods were elective in 8.6% of the centers. The decision to end ECT relied on the psychiatrist's clinical impression in 89.4% of the centers and on rating scales in 10.6%. The ECT training was mandatory in 56.5% of the centers. The ECT practice has significantly improved in Spain in recent years. Overall, Spanish facilities seem to comply with established clinical guidelines; however, specific concerns were identified, meaning there is still further scope for improvement.

  15. National Practice in Antibiotic Prophylaxis in Breast Cancer Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Eroglu, Aydan; Karasoy, Durdu; Kurt, Halil; Baskan, Semih

    2014-01-01

    Background Although breast cancer surgery is regarded as a “clean” surgery, surgical site infection (SSI) rates are higher than expected. There is no consensus regarding the use of antibiotic prophylaxis in elective breast surgery. The nationwide survey was conducted to determine the trend of antibiotic prophylaxis in breast cancer among Turkish surgeons. Methods The survey was sent to surgeons who are member of Turkish Surgical Association (TSA) via e-mail from TSA web address. A 15 item web-based survey consisted of surgeon demographics and the use of prophylactic antibiotic in patients with risk factors related to SSI. Results The number of completed questionnaires was 245. The most common antibiotic used was first generation of cephalosporins. A majority of respondents indicated that prophylaxis was preferred in patients with high risk of SSI including preoperative chemotherapy or radiotherapy, older age, diabetes mellitus, immunodeficiency, immediate reconstruction (P < 0.05). However, the use of drain did not significantly influence antibiotic prophylaxis (P = 0.091). Conclusions The use of prophylactic antibiotic was strongly dependent on the presence of some risk factors; however, the variation in current practice regarding antibiotic prophylaxis demonstrated a lack of its effect on preventing SSI after breast cancer surgery. PMID:24400029

  16. Recovery practice in community mental health teams: national survey

    PubMed Central

    Leamy, M.; Clarke, E.; Le Boutillier, C.; Bird, V.; Choudhury, R.; MacPherson, R.; Pesola, F.; Sabas, K.; Williams, J.; Williams, P.; Slade, M.

    2016-01-01

    Background There is consensus about the importance of ‘recovery’ in mental health services, but the link between recovery orientation of mental health teams and personal recovery of individuals has been underresearched. Aims To investigate differences in team leader, clinician and service user perspectives of recovery orientation of community adult mental health teams in England. Method In six English mental health National Health Service (NHS) trusts, randomly chosen community adult mental health teams were surveyed. A random sample of ten patients, one team leader and a convenience sample of five clinicians were surveyed from each team. All respondents rated the recovery orientation of their team using parallel versions of the Recovery Self Assessment (RSA). In addition, service users also rated their own personal recovery using the Questionnaire about Processes of Recovery (QPR). Results Team leaders (n = 22) rated recovery orientation higher than clinicians (n = 109) or patients (n = 120) (Wald(2) = 7.0, P = 0.03), and both NHS trust and team type influenced RSA ratings. Patient-rated recovery orientation was a predictor of personal recovery (b = 0.58, 95% CI 0.31–0.85, P<0.001). Team leaders and clinicians with experience of mental illness (39%) or supporting a family member or friend with mental illness (76%) did not differ in their RSA ratings from other team leaders or clinicians. Conclusions Compared with team leaders, frontline clinicians and service users have less positive views on recovery orientation. Increasing recovery orientation may support personal recovery. PMID:27340113

  17. National survey of pediatric anesthesia practice in Thailand.

    PubMed

    Suraseranivongse, Suwannee; Attachoo, Anchalee; Leelanukrom, Ruenreong; Chareonsawan, Usa; Horatanaruang, Duenpen

    2011-04-01

    To assess current pediatric anesthesia practice for further education from Royal College of Anesthesiologists of Thailand. A questionnaire was sent to 500 anesthetists in public hospitals in January 2010 to investigate preoperative data, intraoperative data, postoperative pain management, ambulatory anesthesia, and pediatric anesthesia training requirement. Response rate was 30.6%. Preoperative fasting and infective endocarditis (IE) prophylaxis were appropriate except that half the anesthesiologists preferred giving antibiotics in non-cyanotic heart diseases and ordering complete blood count as a routine investigation in healthy patients undergoing minor surgery. Premedication was preferred in children and adolescents. Parental presence during induction was most often selected in children (74.5%). Modified Ayre T-piece was the most popular breathing circuit used during induction while circle circuit was more likely used during maintenance period. Manual ventilation was preferred in neonates. Scavenging system was rarely used Intraoperative fluid was given based on Holliday & Segar Law (> 90%). Isotonic fluid without glucose was preferred for replacement of third space loss and hypotonic fluid with glucose was preferred for maintenance fluid. Transfusion trigger was inversely correlated with age. Postoperative pain scales were more often used in children and adolescents. Fentanyl was more popular in younger age group. Intermittent intravenous administration was the most preferred route. Age group of infants and older were predominantly accepted to be anaesthetized on an ambulatory basis. Pediatric advanced life support was seldom performed. Intermittent training was more popular than certified fellowship training. Routine investigation in healthy patients, IE prophylaxis in non-cyanotic patients, intraoperative fluid replacement, and pediatric advanced life support and postoperative pain management were the issues recommended for further education.

  18. Agricultural pesticide use in California: pesticide prioritization, use densities, and population distributions for a childhood cancer study.

    PubMed Central

    Gunier, R B; Harnly, M E; Reynolds, P; Hertz, A; Von Behren, J

    2001-01-01

    Several studies have suggested an association between childhood cancer and pesticide exposure. California leads the nation in agricultural pesticide use. A mandatory reporting system for all agricultural pesticide use in the state provides information on the active ingredient, amount used, and location. We calculated pesticide use density to quantify agricultural pesticide use in California block groups for a childhood cancer study. Pesticides with similar toxicologic properties (probable carcinogens, possible carcinogens, genotoxic compounds, and developmental or reproductive toxicants) were grouped together for this analysis. To prioritize pesticides, we weighted pesticide use by the carcinogenic and exposure potential of each compound. The top-ranking individual pesticides were propargite, methyl bromide, and trifluralin. We used a geographic information system to calculate pesticide use density in pounds per square mile of total land area for all United States census-block groups in the state. Most block groups (77%) averaged less than 1 pound per square mile of use for 1991-1994 for pesticides classified as probable human carcinogens. However, at the high end of use density (> 90th percentile), there were 493 block groups with more than 569 pounds per square mile. Approximately 170,000 children under 15 years of age were living in these block groups in 1990. The distribution of agricultural pesticide use and number of potentially exposed children suggests that pesticide use density would be of value for a study of childhood cancer. PMID:11689348

  19. National health insurance in America--can we practice with it? Can we continue to practice without it?

    PubMed Central

    Grumbach, K

    1989-01-01

    Health insurance in the United States is failing patients and physicians alike. In this country 37 million uninsured face economic barriers to care, and the health of many suffers as a result. The "corporatization" of medical care threatens professional values with an unprecedented administrative and commercial intrusion into the daily practice of medicine. Competitive strategies have also failed their most ostensible goal--cost control. In contrast, Canada offers a model of a national health insurance plan that provides universal and comprehensive coverage, succeeds at restraining health care inflation, and does little to abrogate the clinical autonomy of physicians in private practice. I propose that American physicians relent in their historical opposition to national health insurance and participate in the development of a universal, public insurance plan responsive to the needs of both patients and physicians. Images PMID:2672604

  20. Methods of analysis by the U.S. Geological Survey National Water Quality Laboratory; determination of selected carbamate pesticides in water by high-performance liquid chromatography

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Werner, S.L.; Johnson, S.M.

    1994-01-01

    As part of its primary responsibility concerning water as a national resource, the U.S. Geological Survey collects and analyzes samples of ground water and surface water to determine water quality. This report describes the method used since June 1987 to determine selected total-recoverable carbamate pesticides present in water samples. High- performance liquid chromatography is used to separate N-methyl carbamates, N-methyl carbamoyloximes, and an N-phenyl carbamate which have been extracted from water and concentrated in dichloromethane. Analytes, surrogate compounds, and reference compounds are eluted from the analytical column within 25 minutes. Two modes of analyte detection are used: (1) a photodiode-array detector measures and records ultraviolet-absorbance profiles, and (2) a fluorescence detector measures and records fluorescence from an analyte derivative produced when analyte hydrolysis is combined with chemical derivatization. Analytes are identified and confirmed in a three-stage process by use of chromatographic retention time, ultraviolet (UV) spectral comparison, and derivatization/fluorescence detection. Quantitative results are based on the integration of single-wavelength UV-absorbance chromatograms and on comparison with calibration curves derived from external analyte standards that are run with samples as part of an instrumental analytical sequence. Estimated method detection limits vary for each analyte, depending on the sample matrix conditions, and range from 0.5 microgram per liter to as low as 0.01 microgram per liter. Reporting levels for all analytes have been set at 0.5 microgram per liter for this method. Corrections on the basis of percentage recoveries of analytes spiked into distilled water are not applied to values calculated for analyte concentration in samples. These values for analyte concentrations instead indicate the quantities recovered by the method from a particular sample matrix.

  1. Pesticides and Pregnancy

    MedlinePlus

    ... To minimize your exposure to pesticides found on food, thoroughly wash produce and your hands before eating. What if I am exposed to pesticides while breastfeeding? Pesticides may be found in breast milk, but studies on the effects of these pesticides have not been done. When ...

  2. Scientists Probe Pesticide Dynamics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chemical and Engineering News, 1974

    1974-01-01

    Summarizes discussions of a symposium on pesticide environmental dynamics with emphases upon pesticide transport processes, environmental reactions, and partitioning in air, soil, water and living organisms. Indicates that the goal is to attain knowledge enough to predict pesticide behavior and describe pesticide distribution with models and…

  3. Scientists Probe Pesticide Dynamics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chemical and Engineering News, 1974

    1974-01-01

    Summarizes discussions of a symposium on pesticide environmental dynamics with emphases upon pesticide transport processes, environmental reactions, and partitioning in air, soil, water and living organisms. Indicates that the goal is to attain knowledge enough to predict pesticide behavior and describe pesticide distribution with models and…

  4. Pesticides residues and metals in plant products from agricultural area of Belgrade, Serbia.

    PubMed

    Ethorđević, Tijana; Ethurović, Rada

    2012-03-01

    The objective of study was to assess the levels of selected metals and pesticides in plant products from agricultural area of Belgrade, Serbia in order to indicate their possible sources and risks of contamination and to evaluate their sanitary probity and safety. The concentrations of cadmium, copper, iron, manganese, nickel, lead and zinc were below limits established by national and international regulations (maximum found concentrations were 0.028, 1.91, 11.16, 1.77, 0.605, 0.073 and 1.76 mg kg(-1) respectively). Only residue of one of examined pesticides was found in amount below MRL (bifenthrin 2.46 μg kg(-1)) in only one of analysed samples, while others were below detection limits. Obtained results indicate that crops from examined agricultural areas are unpolluted by contaminants used for plant protection and nutrition, indicating good agricultural practice regarding pesticides and fertilizer usage as well as moderate industrial production within examined areas.

  5. [An Archive for Science, State and Nation : Climatological Data Practices in Switzerland, 1860-1914].

    PubMed

    Hupfer, Franziska

    2017-09-27

    In the second half of the nineteenth century, most European countries began to finance weather observation networks. As a result, climatological data practices changed fundamentally. Using the example of Switzerland, this paper examines the political, institutional and methodological dimensions of national data archives. The institutionalization of data collection within the national framework meant, on the one hand, that more observations were systematically made and published. On the other hand, it also meant that the monitoring was connected to state boundaries. However, based on their universalistic conception of science, this did not preclude national institutions from striving for international data standardization. The national framework also shaped the process of transforming weather observations into statistical data. This information formed the basis for national climatographies and thus had a nation-building effect. According to the Swiss Meteorological Institute, climate data were practically useful and had great potential for research work. However, the epistemic status of data collection was uncertain, since physical approaches to climatology had gained in importance. The anticipation of scientific and practical potential benefits played a central role for the continuation of data production. The Swiss case study presented here illustrates that climatology was transformed by the process of nation-building, affecting its institutional structure, spatial references, and epistemology.

  6. Medication Reconciliation Practices in Canadian Emergency Departments: A National Survey

    PubMed Central

    Wanbon, Richard; Lyder, Catherine; Villeneuve, Eric; Shalansky, Stephen; Manuel, Leslie; Harding, Melanie

    2015-01-01

    Background: As of 2015, Accreditation Canada’s Qmentum program expects emergency departments (EDs) to initiate medication reconciliation for 2 groups of patients: (1) those with a decision to admit and (2) those without a decision to admit who meet the criteria of a risk-based, health care organization–defined selection process. Pharmacist-led best possible medication histories (BPMHs) obtained in the ED are considered more complete and accurate than BPMHs obtained by other ED providers, with pharmacy technicians obtaining BPMHs as effectively as do pharmacists. A current assessment of the role of pharmacy in BPMH processes in Canadian EDs is lacking. Objectives: To identify and describe BPMH and medication reconciliation practices in Canadian EDs, including those performed by members of the ED pharmacy team. Methods: All Canadian hospitals with an ED and at least 50 acute care beds were contacted to identify the presence of dedicated ED pharmacy services (defined as at least a 0.5 full-time equivalent position). Different electronic surveys were then distributed to ED pharmacy team members (where available) and ED managers (all hospitals). Results: Survey responses were obtained from 60 (63%) of 95 ED pharmacy teams and 128 (53%) of 243 ED managers. Only 38 (30%) of the 128 ED managers believed that their current BPMH processes were adequate to obtain a BPMH for all admissions. Fifty-nine (98%) of the ED pharmacy personnel reported obtaining BPMHs (most commonly 6–10 per day), with priority given to admitted patients. Only 14 (23%) of the 60 ED pharmacy teams reported that their EDs had adequate staffing to comply with Accreditation Canada’s requirements for obtaining BPMHs. This result is supported by the 104 (81%) out of 128 ED managers who reported that additional ED staffing would be needed to comply with the requirements. Numerous ED managers identified the need to expand ED pharmacy services and improve information technology support. Conclusions

  7. Substituted judgment in principle and practice: a national physician survey.

    PubMed

    Combs, Michael P; Rasinski, Kenneth A; Yoon, John D; Curlin, Farr A

    2013-07-01

    To describe the extent to which US physicians endorse substituted judgments in principle or accommodate them in practice. We surveyed a stratified, random sample of 2016 physicians by mail from June 25, 2010, to September 3, 2010. Primary outcome measures were agreement with 2 in-principle statements about substituted judgment and, after an experimental vignette that varied the basis used by a patient's surrogate to refuse life-saving treatment, responses indicating how appropriate it would be to overrule the surrogate's decision. Our response rate was 62% (1156 of 1875 respondents). When there is a conflict between what a surrogate believes a patient would have wanted (substituted judgment) and what the surrogate believes is in the patient's best interest, 4 of 5 physicians (78%) agreed that the surrogate should base their decision on substituted judgment. Yet we also found that 2 of 5 physicians (40%) agree that surrogates should make decisions they believe are in the patient's best interest, even if those seem to contradict the patient's prior wishes. In the experimental vignette, physicians were much more likely to oppose overruling a surrogate's refusal of life-sustaining medical treatment when that refusal was made on the basis of substituted judgment compared with when the refusal was made on the basis of the patient's best interest (50% vs 20%; odds ratio, 4.2; 95% CI, 2.7-6.3). Responses to the in-principle items about substituted judgment were not consistently associated with responses to the experimental vignette. US physicians largely agree, in principle, that surrogates should prioritize what the patient would have wanted over what they believe is in the patient's best interest, although many physicians are ambivalent in cases in which the 2 norms conflict. Even physicians who reject the principle of substituted judgment tend to treat substituted judgment as the preferred norm for surrogate decision making when responding to a clinical vignette

  8. Medication Reconciliation Practices in Canadian Emergency Departments: A National Survey.

    PubMed

    Wanbon, Richard; Lyder, Catherine; Villeneuve, Eric; Shalansky, Stephen; Manuel, Leslie; Harding, Melanie

    2015-01-01

    As of 2015, Accreditation Canada's Qmentum program expects emergency departments (EDs) to initiate medication reconciliation for 2 groups of patients: (1) those with a decision to admit and (2) those without a decision to admit who meet the criteria of a risk-based, health care organization-defined selection process. Pharmacist-led best possible medication histories (BPMHs) obtained in the ED are considered more complete and accurate than BPMHs obtained by other ED providers, with pharmacy technicians obtaining BPMHs as effectively as do pharmacists. A current assessment of the role of pharmacy in BPMH processes in Canadian EDs is lacking. To identify and describe BPMH and medication reconciliation practices in Canadian EDs, including those performed by members of the ED pharmacy team. All Canadian hospitals with an ED and at least 50 acute care beds were contacted to identify the presence of dedicated ED pharmacy services (defined as at least a 0.5 full-time equivalent position). Different electronic surveys were then distributed to ED pharmacy team members (where available) and ED managers (all hospitals). Survey responses were obtained from 60 (63%) of 95 ED pharmacy teams and 128 (53%) of 243 ED managers. Only 38 (30%) of the 128 ED managers believed that their current BPMH processes were adequate to obtain a BPMH for all admissions. Fifty-nine (98%) of the ED pharmacy personnel reported obtaining BPMHs (most commonly 6-10 per day), with priority given to admitted patients. Only 14 (23%) of the 60 ED pharmacy teams reported that their EDs had adequate staffing to comply with Accreditation Canada's requirements for obtaining BPMHs. This result is supported by the 104 (81%) out of 128 ED managers who reported that additional ED staffing would be needed to comply with the requirements. Numerous ED managers identified the need to expand ED pharmacy services and improve information technology support. BPMH processes in Canadian EDs were variable and inadequately

  9. Organochlorine pesticides

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Blus, Lawrence J.; Hoffman, David J.; Rattner, Barnett A.; Burton, G. Allen; Cairns, John

    1995-01-01

    the discovery of the insecticidal properties of DDT, which led to its subsequent use in pest control,w as hailed as a tremendous scientiffic achievement. Initial success with DDT in controlling human health pests during World War II, and subsequent success in agricultural pest control, stimulated the synthesis and development of related organochlorine pestidices; their use increased exponentially following the war.1 At first, evidence slowly accumulated that nearly all of these compounds were having widespread adverse effects on nontarget organisms. Later, a veritable mountain of evidence was amassed relating to their toxicity, persistence, and lipophilic characteristics, which resulted in accumulation of residues, mortality, lowered reproductive success, and decline - even extirpation - of certain populations of wildlife.2,3 Ecotoxicological data for organochlorine pesticides are limited in much of the world because most research has been conducted in relatively few countries. It is likely that no other group of contaminants of anthropogenic origin has exacted such a heavy toll on the environment as have the organochlorine pesticide.

  10. Pesticide poisonings in Costa Rica.

    PubMed

    Wesseling, C; Castillo, L; Elinder, C G

    1993-08-01

    A descriptive epidemiologic study, conducted in Costa Rica, investigated the incidence of pesticide poisonings with special attention to agricultural workers and occupational exposure. Information from three national registers (occupational accident and disease reports, hospitalizations, and deaths) were used. During 1986, 1800 occupational accidents caused by pesticides were reported; between 1980 and 1986 altogether 3330 persons were hospitalized and 429 died. Cholinesterase inhibitors caused 71% of the reported occupational accidents, 63% of the hospitalizations, and 36% of the deaths. Paraquat caused 21% of the occupational accidents, 24% of the hospitalizations, and 60% of the deaths. Hospitalizations and deaths were 13 and 11 times, respectively, more frequent among agricultural workers than among the rest of the population. High-risk groups for occupational poisonings included agricultural workers aged 15-29 years, female workers, and banana plantation workers. The yearly incidence of symptomatic occupational pesticide poisonings among agricultural workers was estimated at 4.5%.

  11. Sustaining practice change one year after completion of the national depression management leadership initiative.

    PubMed

    Chung, Henry; Duffy, Farifteh Firoozmand; Katzelnick, David J; Williams, Mark D; Trivedi, Madhukar H; Rae, Donald S; Regier, Darrel A

    2013-07-01

    This report describes the sustainability of quality improvement interventions for depression care in psychiatric practice one year after the completion of the National Depression Management Leadership Initiative (NDMLI) in 2006. The main intervention involved continued use of the nine-item depression scale of the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9) for routine care of patients with depressive disorders. One year after project completion, lead psychiatrists from the 17 participating practices were surveyed about the sustainability of key practice interventions and dissemination of the interventions. All 14 practices that provided baseline and follow-up data reported sustained use of the PHQ-9 for screening, diagnosis, or monitoring purposes. Moreover, practices reported dissemination of this approach to clinicians within and outside their practices. Psychiatrists reported sustainability and dissemination of PHQ-9 use one year after the conclusion of the NDMLI. The model has potential as a depression care improvement strategy and is worthy of additional study.

  12. Pesticide Use Plan (PUP) for Pantex Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Schoenhals, M.G.

    1995-12-31

    Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act and its Worker Protection Standard, EPA authority, state regulations, and Texas Department of Agriculture authority make up a complex set of environment compliance requirements. The Pantex Plant northeast of Amarillo, Texas is currently dedicated to the disassembly of nuclear weapons. Ironically large areas of the Pantex Plant Site have been farmed for over 40 years. Pesticides are an integral part of agronomic production practices once economic thresholds for certain pests are exceeded. Horticulture and industrial operations also use pesticides. Pesticides can migrate to several playa lakes onsite, where they may threaten compliance with the Clean Water Act. Plant personnel are aware of the need to provide a chemically safe work environment, protect the public, and ensure an ecologically healthy environment. Thus a PUP has been developed to coordinate all pesticide use, ensure safety of agricultural and industrial workers, and protect the playa habitat. The PUP provides guidelines for pesticide use, notification, training, and safety.

  13. Pesticide usage pattern in tea ecosystem, their retrospects and alternative measures.

    PubMed

    Gurusubramanian, G; Rahman, A; Sarmah, M; Ray, Somnath; Bora, S

    2008-11-01

    Tea is a perennial plantation crop grown under monoculture providing favorable conditions for a variety of pests. The concept of pest control has undergone a considerable change over the past few decades. In recent years there has been a greater dependence on the use of pesticides (7.35-16.75 kgha(-1)) with little importance laid on other safe control methods for the management of tea pests. Due to this practice, the tea pests showed a higher tolerance/ resistance status due to formation of greater amount of esterases, glutathione S-transferase and acetylcholinesterase. Thus, over reliance on pesticides end up with pesticide residue in made tea (DDT - 10.4-47.1%; endosulfan - 41.1-98.0%; dicofol- 0.0-82.4%; ethion - 0.0-36.2%; cypermethrin - 6.0- 45.1%). The growing concern about the pesticide residue in made tea, its toxicity hazards to consumers, the spiraling cost of pesticides and their application have necessitated a suitable planning which will ensure a safe, economic as well as effective pest management in tea. At present it is a global concern to minimize chemical residue in tea and European union and German law imposed stringent measures for the application of chemicals in tea and fixed MRL values at < or = 0. 1 mgkg(-1) for the most commonly used pesticides which will not be met out in the real practice and has been a major constraint to tea exporting countries like India. In order to regulate the situation of the Indian market at global level, central insecticide board and prevention of food adulteration regulation committee have reviewed the MRL position for tea and has recommended 10 insecticides, 5 acaricides, 9 herbicides and 5 fungicides for use in tea and issued the tea distribution and export control order 2005 which will help the country to limit the presence of undesirable substances in tea. This review attempts to provide the readers with a comprehensive account of pesticide use in North East in tea, surveillance report of the European

  14. Best practices: A national mental health learning collaborative on supported employment.

    PubMed

    Becker, Deborah R; Drake, Robert E; Bond, Gary R; Nawaz, Saira; Haslett, William R; Martinez, Rick A

    2011-07-01

    This column describes a best practice for dissemination and implementation used by the Johnson & Johnson-Dartmouth Program: a national learning collaborative among community mental health programs on supported employment. In this two-tiered learning collaborative, researchers meet regularly with mental health and vocational rehabilitation leaders in 12 states and the District of Columbia, and state leaders oversee more than 130 individual programs in their respective states. Participants share educational programs, implementation and intervention strategies, practice experiences, outcome data, and research projects. The national learning collaborative facilitates implementation, dissemination, standardization, and sustainability of supported employment.

  15. Purpose, structure, and function of the United States National Dental Practice-Based Research Network.

    PubMed

    Gilbert, Gregg H; Williams, O Dale; Korelitz, James J; Fellows, Jeffrey L; Gordan, Valeria V; Makhija, Sonia K; Meyerowitz, Cyril; Oates, Thomas W; Rindal, D Brad; Benjamin, Paul L; Foy, Patrick J

    2013-11-01

    Following a successful 2005-2012 phase with three regional practice-based research networks (PBRNs), a single, unified national network called "The National Dental PBRN" was created in 2012 in the United States to improve oral health by conducting practice-based research and serving dental professionals through education and collegiality. Central administration is based in Alabama. Regional centres are based in Alabama, Florida, Minnesota, Oregon, New York and Texas, with a Coordinating Centre in Maryland. Ideas for studies are prioritized by the Executive Committee, comprised mostly of full-time clinicians. To date, 2763 persons have enrolled, from all six network regions; enrollment continues to expand. They represent a broad range of practitioners, practice types, and patient populations. Practitioners are actively improving every step of the research process, from idea generation, to study development, field testing, data collection, and presentation and publication. Practitioners from diverse settings are partnering with fellow practitioners and academics to improve clinical practice and meet the needs of clinicians and their patients. This "nation's network" aims to serve as a precious national resource to improve the scientific basis for clinical decision-making and foster movement of the latest evidence into routine practice. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Symptomatic Management of Fever in Children: A National Survey of Healthcare Professionals' Practices in France.

    PubMed

    Bertille, Nathalie; Pons, Gerard; Khoshnood, Babak; Fournier-Charrière, Elisabeth; Chalumeau, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Despite the production and dissemination of recommendations related to managing fever in children, this symptom saturates the practices of primary healthcare professionals (HPs). Data on parent practices related to fever are available, but data on HPs' practices are limited. We studied HPs' practices, determinants of practices and concordance with recommendations in France. We conducted a national cross-sectional observational study between 2007 and 2008 among French general practitioners, primary care pediatricians and pharmacists. HPs were asked to include 5 consecutive patients aged 1 month to 12 years with acute fever. HPs completed a questionnaire about their practices for the current fever episode. We used a multilevel logistic regression model to assess the joint effects of patient- and HP-level variables associated with this behavior. In all, 1,534 HPs (participation rate 13%) included 6,596 children (mean age 3.7 ± 2.7 years). Physicians measured the temperature of 40% of children. Primary HPs recommended drug treatment for 84% of children (including monotherapy for 92%) and physical treatment for 62% (including all recommended physical treatments for 7%). HPs gave written advice or a pamphlet for 13% of children. Significant practice variations were associated with characteristics of the child (age, fever level and diagnosis) and HP (profession and experience). In France, despite the production and dissemination of national recommendations for managing fever in children, primary HPs' observed practices differed greatly from current recommendations, which suggests potential targets for continuing medical education.

  17. Defining inappropriate practices in prescribing for elderly people: a national consensus panel

    PubMed Central

    McLeod, P J; Huang, A R; Tamblyn, R M; Gayton, D C

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To develop a consensus-based list of inappropriate practices in prescribing for elderly people. DESIGN: Mail survey of a 32-member national panel. SETTING: Academic medical centres across Canada. PARTICIPANTS: Thirty-two specialists selected arbitrarily, including 7 clinical pharmacologists, 9 geriatricians, 8 family practitioners and 8 pharmacists. OUTCOME MEASURES: Consensus that the practice would introduce a substantial and significant increase in the risk of serious adverse effect and is common enough that its curtailment would decrease morbidity among elderly people, ranking of clinical importance of the risk, and availability of equally or more effective and less risky alternative therapy. RESULTS: The 32-member national panel developed a list of 71 practices in prescribing for elderly people and rated the clinical significance of each on a scale of 1 (not significant) to 4 (highly significant). The practices in prescribing identified fell into 3 categories: drugs generally contraindicated for elderly people, drug-disease interactions and drug-drug interactions. The mean significance rating was greater than 3 for 39 practices. For each practice, alternative therapies were recommended. There was surprising congruence among the specialists on the significance rating and the suggested alternative therapies. CONCLUSION: The authors have developed a valid, relevant list of inappropriate practices in prescribing for elderly people, to be used in a practice-based intervention study. PMID:9033421

  18. Defining inappropriate practices in prescribing for elderly people: a national consensus panel.

    PubMed

    McLeod, P J; Huang, A R; Tamblyn, R M; Gayton, D C

    1997-02-01

    To develop a consensus-based list of inappropriate practices in prescribing for elderly people. Mail survey of a 32-member national panel. Academic medical centres across Canada. Thirty-two specialists selected arbitrarily, including 7 clinical pharmacologists, 9 geriatricians, 8 family practitioners and 8 pharmacists. Consensus that the practice would introduce a substantial and significant increase in the risk of serious adverse effect and is common enough that its curtailment would decrease morbidity among elderly people, ranking of clinical importance of the risk, and availability of equally or more effective and less risky alternative therapy. The 32-member national panel developed a list of 71 practices in prescribing for elderly people and rated the clinical significance of each on a scale of 1 (not significant) to 4 (highly significant). The practices in prescribing identified fell into 3 categories: drugs generally contraindicated for elderly people, drug-disease interactions and drug-drug interactions. The mean significance rating was greater than 3 for 39 practices. For each practice, alternative therapies were recommended. There was surprising congruence among the specialists on the significance rating and the suggested alternative therapies. The authors have developed a valid, relevant list of inappropriate practices in prescribing for elderly people, to be used in a practice-based intervention study.

  19. Pesticide residue in water--a challenging task in India.

    PubMed

    Agarwal, Akriti; Prajapati, Rajmani; Singh, Om Pal; Raza, S K; Thakur, L K

    2015-02-01

    Modern agriculture practices reveal an increase in use of pesticides to meet the food demand of increasing population which results in contamination of the environment. In India, crop production increased to 100 %, but the cropping area has increased marginally by 20 %. Pesticides have played a major role in achieving the maximum crop production but maximum usage and accumulation of pesticide residues is highly detrimental to aquatic and other ecosystem. Pesticide residues in drinking water have become a major challenge over the last few years. It has been monitored in public water supply resources in National capital territory, i.e., Delhi. Organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), mainly isomers of hexachlorohexane (HCH), dichloro-diphenyl-trichloroethane (DDT), endosulphan, endrin, aldrin, dieldrin, and heptachlore, were identified from potable water samples. Results suggested that continuous consumption of contaminated water can pose severe health threats to local residents of this area. Central Pollution Control Board (CPCB), Delhi, had found α and β isomers of endosulphan residues in the Yamuna river. High concentrations of γ-HCH (0.259 μg/l) and malathion (2.618 μg/l) were detected in the surface water samples collected from the river Ganga in Kanpur, Uttar Pradesh (UP). High concentration of methyl parathion, endosulfan, and DDT were observed in water samples collected from the river at Bhagalpur, Bihar. The Industrial Toxicology Research Centre (ITRC), Lucknow (UP) study also found 0.5671 ppb concentrations of endosulfan in the river at Allahabad, UP. Similar results were found in other water samples in India.

  20. Methods of analysis by the U.S. Geological Survey National Water Quality Laboratory; determination of pesticides in water by Carbopak-B solid-phase extraction and high-preformance liquid chromatography

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Werner, Stephen L.; Burkhardt, Mark R.; DeRusseau, Sabrina N.

    1996-01-01

    In accordance with the needs of the National Water-Quality Assessment Program (NAWQA), the U.S. Geological Survey has developed and implemented a graphitized carbon-based solid-phase extraction and high-performance liquid chromatographic analytical method. The method is used to determine 41 pesticides and pesticide metabolites that are not readily amenable to gas chromatography or other high-temperature analytical techniques. Pesticides are extracted from filtered environmental water samples using a 0.5-gram graphitized carbon-based solid-phase cartridge, eluted from the cartridge into two analytical fractions, and analyzed using high-performance liquid chromatography with photodiode-array detection. The upper concentration limit is 1.6 micrograms per liter (=B5g/L) for most compounds. Single-operator method detection limits in organic-free water samples ranged from 0.006 to 0.032 =B5g/L= Recoveries in organic-free water samples ranged from 37 to 88 percent. Recoveries in ground- and surface-water samples ranged from 29 to 94 percent. An optional on-site extraction procedure allows for samples to be collected and processed at remote sites where it is difficult to ship samples to the laboratory within the recommended pre-extraction holding time of 7 days.

  1. Surfactant effects on environmental behavior of pesticides.

    PubMed

    Katagi, Toshiyuki

    2008-01-01

    The potential effects of adjuvants, including surfactants used in pesticide formulation, have been extensively studied for many small organic chemicals, but similar investigation on pesticides is limited in most cases. Solubilizing effects leading to the apparently increased water solubility of a pesticide are commonly known through the preparation of formulations, but fundamental profiles, especially for a specific monodisperse surfactant, are not fully studied. Reduced volatilization of a pesticide from the formulation can be explained by analogy of a very simple organic chemical, but the actual mechanism for the pesticide is still obscure. In contrast, from the point of view of avoiding groundwater contamination with a pesticide, adsorption/desorption profiles in the presence of surfactants and adjuvants have been examined extensively as well as pesticide mobility in the soil column. The basic mechanism in micelle-catalyzed hydrolysis is well known, and theoretical approaches including the PPIE model have succeeded in explaining the observed effects of surfactants, but its application to pesticides is also limited. Photolysis, especially in an aqueous phase, is in the same situation. The dilution effect in the real environment would show these effects on hydrolysis and photolysis to be much less than expected from the laboratory basic studies, but more information is necessary to examine the practical extent of the effects in an early stage of applying a pesticide formulation to crops and soil. Many adjuvants, including surfactants, are biodegradable in the soil environment, and thus their effects on the biodegradation of a pesticide in soil and sediment may be limited, as demonstrated by field trials. Not only from the theoretical but also the practical aspect, the foliar uptake of pesticide in the presence of adjuvants has been investigated extensively and some prediction on the ease of foliar uptake can be realized in relation to the formulation technology

  2. Serum levels of organochlorine pesticides in the French adult population: the French National Nutrition and Health Study (ENNS), 2006-2007.

    PubMed

    Saoudi, Abdessattar; Fréry, Nadine; Zeghnoun, Abdelkrim; Bidondo, Marie-Laure; Deschamps, Valérie; Göen, Thomas; Garnier, Robert; Guldner, Laurence

    2014-02-15

    Although most organochlorine (OC) pesticides were banned in France in the 1970s and 1980s, they remain a source of public concern. Because of their high persistence in the environment, they are still detected in foodstuffs, leading to continued human exposure. The purpose of this study was to assess the distribution of serum organochlorine (OC) pesticides in the French adult population and to identify the main risk factors for p,p'-dichlorodiphenyl dichlorethylene (DDE), β-hexachlorocyclohexane (β-HCH) and hexachlorobenzene (HCB). The selected OC pesticides (HCB, DDE, DDT, α-HCH, β-HCB and γ-HCH) were measured in serum samples collected in 2006-2007 from 386 persons (aged 18-74 years) randomly selected among the participants in the clinical and biological component of the French Nutrition and Health Survey (Etude Nationale Nutrition Santé [ENNS]), a cross-sectional survey carried out in the general population. Collected data included biological samples, socio-demographic characteristics, and data about environmental and occupational exposure factors. Of the six OC pesticides investigated, the highest concentrations were observed for HCB, β-HCH and DDE. Median serum concentrations were as follows: 22.8 ng/g lipid for HCB, 0.74 and 27.0 ng/g lipid, respectively, for α- and ß-HCH, and 3.8 and 104.6 ng/g lipid, respectively, for DDT and DDE. Lindane (γ-HCH) was detected in approximately 10% of the sample. OC pesticide levels in serum in French adults were higher (except for DDT and DDE) than those observed in American, Canadian and German populations and generally lower than or in the same range as those observed in other European countries. The low serum DDT/DDE ratio in the present study (3.7%) would suggest that the concentrations observed for these two OC pesticides were mainly the result of past exposure. The most important predictors of serum DDE, HCB and β-HCH concentrations among the French adult population included individual factors (age, gender

  3. The National Shipbuilding Research Program. Environmental Training Modules Module 1 - Good Environmental Practices

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1999-05-01

    industrial activities as well as facilities treating domestic wastewater. NPDES permits usually contain limits on the quantities of specific pollutants...herbicides, rodenticides, fungicides, nematicides, acaricides , as well as disinfectants, fumigants, and plant growth regulators. FIFRA requires...pesticide manufacturers to register all active ingredients of pesticide formulations. Many types of antifoulant coatings applied to the underwater hulls of

  4. Biosafety Practices and Emergency Response at the Idaho National Laboratory and Los Alamos National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Frank F. Roberto; Dina M. Matz

    2008-03-01

    Strict federal regulations govern the possession, use, and transfer of pathogens and toxins with potential to cause harm to the public, either through accidental or deliberate means. Laboratories registered through either the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), the U.S. Dept. of Agriculture (USDA), or both, must prepare biosafety, security, and incident response plans, conduct drills or exercises on an annual basis, and update plans accordingly. At the Idaho National Laboratory (INL), biosafety, laboratory, and emergency management staff have been working together for 2 years to satisfy federal and DOE/NNSA requirements. This has been done through the establishment of plans, training, tabletop and walk-through exercises and drills, and coordination with local and regional emergency response personnel. Responding to the release of infectious agents or toxins is challenging, but through familiarization with the nature of the hazardous biological substances or organisms, and integration with laboratory-wide emergency response procedures, credible scenarios are being used to evaluate our ability to protect workers, the public, and the environment from agents we must work with to provide for national biodefense.

  5. The national occupational therapy practice analysis: findings and implications for competence.

    PubMed

    Dunn, W; Cada, E

    1998-10-01

    This article reports some of the findings from a national study of occupational therapy practice conducted by the National Board for Certification in Occupational Therapy (NBCOT) as part of its fiduciary responsibility to ensure that its entry-level certification examination is formulated on the basis of current practice. The NBCOT developed a survey with input from approximately 200 occupational therapy leaders and then used it to solicit information about current practice from 4,000 occupational therapists and 3,000 occupational therapy assistants. The sample included geographical location, experience level, and practice area distributions. Approximately 50% of the sample responded to the survey. Data indicate similarities and differences in occupational therapist and occupational therapy assistant practice (e.g., occupational therapists spend more time conducting evaluations, planning interventions, and supervising, whereas occupational therapy assistants spend more time providing interventions), an increased emphasis on population-based services (e.g., serving a business or industry rather than an individual worker), and an emphasis on occupation as a core knowledge base for practice. From a continuing competency perspective, the data can be useful to the profession; we can plan continuing education to address topics that practitioners have indicated are critical to their practice. The findings will be useful for revising the entry-level certification examination and may guide thinking about the parameters of continuing competence because the responses represent a cross-section of the profession.

  6. Organochlorine Pesticides in the Environment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stickel, L.F.

    1968-01-01

    Each year for nearly 20 years, thousands of pounds of persistent organochlorine pesticides have been applied to outdoor areas in many countries. These compounds may last for a very long time in the environment, and be carried by wind, water, and animals to places far distant from where they are used. As a result, most living organisms now contain organochlorine residues. This paper constitutes a selective review of the literature concerning the occurrence, distribution, and effects of organochlorines in the environment. Highest concentrations generally occur in carnivorous species. Thus predatory and fish-eating birds ordinarily have higher residues than do herbivores; quantities are similar in birds of similar habits in different countries. Any segment of the ecosystem - marshland, pond, forest, or field - receives various amounts and kinds of pesticides at irregular intervals. The different animals absorb, detoxify, store, and excrete pesticides at different rates. Different degrees of magnification of pesticide residues by living organisms in an environment are the practical result of many interactions that are far more complex than implied by the statement of magnification up the food chain. These magnifications may be millions of times from water to mud or only a few times from food to first consumer. Direct mortality of wild animals as an aftermath of recommended pesticide treatments has been recorded in the literature of numerous countries. However, accidents and carelessness also accompany pesticide use on a percentage basis and are a part of the problem. More subtle effects on the size and species composition of populations are more difficult to perceive in time to effect remedies. The possibility of ecological effects being mediated through changes in physiology and behavior has received some attention and has resulted in some disquieting findings. These include discovery of the activity of organochlorines in stimulating the breakdown of hormones or in

  7. EPA Awards $500,000 to Help Reduce Childrens Exposure to Pesticides

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    (03/17/2016 - ATLANTA)-- U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) announced two grants to help reduce students', teachers' and staffs' exposure to pests and pesticides in our nation's schools, while saving money, energy and pesticide treatment cost

  8. EPA Awards $500,000 to Help Reduce Childrens Exposure to Pesticides

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    WASHINGTON-- U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) announced two grants to help reduce students', teachers' and staffs' exposure to pests and pesticides in our nation's schools, while saving money, energy and pesticide treatment costs.

  9. A National Study of Student Selection Practices in the Allied Health Professions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dietrich, Marie C.; Crowley, Judeth A.

    1982-01-01

    Reports the outcomes of a 1978 national survey of candidate selection practices in 4 baccalaureate level and 7 associate degree level allied health disciplines. Found that few programs conducted evaluation of their admissions activities and that physical therapy and dental hygiene programs were the most structured in student selection. (JOW)

  10. Associations among School Characteristics and Foodservice Practices in a Nationally Representative Sample of United States Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomson, Jessica L.; Tussing-Humphreys, Lisa M.; Martin, Corby K.; LeBlanc, Monique M.; Onufrak, Stephen J.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Determine school characteristics associated with healthy/unhealthy food service offerings or healthy food preparation practices. Design: Secondary analysis of cross-sectional data. Setting: Nationally representative sample of public and private elementary, middle, and high schools. Participants: Data from the 2006 School Health Policies…

  11. Best Practices of National Blue Ribbon Schools: A Collection from Distinguished Catholic Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Annette; Gallagher, Gabrielle

    2017-01-01

    Of the 50 private schools recognized each year as National Blue Ribbon Schools, 75 percent of them are Catholic schools. These are the stories of many of the award-winning schools and the best practices that define them. Learn marketing strategies that can highlight a school's academic success as well as its strong faith formation and make it a…

  12. Literacy for the Twenty-First Century: Research, Policy, Practices, and the National Adult Literacy Survey.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, M. Cecil, Ed.

    This book focuses on results from secondary analyses of the National Adult Literacy Survey (NALS) and implications of these analyses for policy, practice, and further research on adult literacy. Part I contains an introduction and three additional chapters that provide a substantive summary of the NALS and its purposes: "Introduction: Adult…

  13. Evidence-Based Reading Instruction: Putting the National Reading Panel Report into Practice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Reading Association, Newark, DE.

    This collection of articles from "The Reading Teacher" provides examples of the instructional practices which improve reading achievement, according to Reading First legislation. Each section offers a summary and discussion of the National Reading Panel Report findings, and presents several articles from "The Reading Teacher"…

  14. Teaching and Assessment Practices at the National University of Lesotho: Some Critical Comments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tlali, Tebello; Jacobs, Lynette

    2015-01-01

    This paper explores the teaching and assessment practices of some lecturers at the National University of Lesotho in view of the negative perception that was created in the press and also suggested in limited research findings about quality-related issues. We adopted a qualitative approach and drew from Constructivism's theoretical lens to…

  15. Authentic Assessment as "Best Practice" for Early Childhood Intervention: National Consumer Social Validity Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bagnato, Stephen J.; Goins, Deborah D.; Pretti-Frontczak, Kristie; Neisworth, John T.

    2014-01-01

    The early childhood professionals recognize the limitations of conventional testing with young children. This recognition has given rise to Authentic Assessment, now recognized officially as best practice by the major professional organizations. However, no national studies have been conducted to document the comparative qualities of either…

  16. National Association of Diversity Officers in Higher Education Standards of Professional Practice for Chief Diversity Officers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Worthington, Roger L.; Stanley, Christine A.; Lewis, William T., Sr.

    2014-01-01

    The National Association of Diversity Officers in Higher Education (NADOHE) have developed and approved Standards of Professional Practice for Chief Diversity Officers (CDOs). The standards established in this document are a formative advancement toward the increased professionalization of the CDO in institutions of higher education. These…

  17. An Exploration of Program Director Leadership Practices in Nationally Accredited Paramedic Education Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kokx, Gordon A.

    2016-01-01

    The number of paramedic education programs participating in the national accreditation process has nearly tripled in the past several years. Although accreditation standards describe program director roles and responsibilities, nothing has been formally studied regarding their leadership practices. The purpose of this study was to explore…

  18. An Exploration of Program Director Leadership Practices in Nationally Accredited Paramedic Education Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kokx, Gordon A.

    2016-01-01

    The number of paramedic education programs participating in the national accreditation process has nearly tripled in the past several years. Although accreditation standards describe program director roles and responsibilities, nothing has been formally studied regarding their leadership practices. The purpose of this study was to explore…

  19. Bringing Theory into Practice: A Study of Effective Leadership at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khoury, Anne

    2006-01-01

    Leadership development, a component of HRD, is becoming an area of increasingly important practice for all organizations. When companies such as Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory rely on knowledge workers for success, leadership becomes even more important. This research paper tests the hypothesis that leadership credibility and the courage…

  20. The Swedish National Diabetes Register in clinical practice and evaluation in primary health care.

    PubMed

    Hallgren Elfgren, Ing-Marie; Grodzinsky, Ewa; Törnvall, Eva

    2016-11-01

    Aim The purpose of this project is to describe the use of the Swedish National Diabetes Register (NDR) in clinical practice in a Swedish county and to specifically monitor the diabetes care routines at two separate primary health-care centres (PHCC) with a special focus on older patients.

  1. 76 FR 3853 - National Science Foundation Rules of Practice and Statutory Conflict-of-Interest Exemptions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-21

    ... 45 CFR Part 680 RIN 3145-AA51 National Science Foundation Rules of Practice and Statutory Conflict-of... Foundation (NSF) is amending its regulations to remove the provisions concerning statutory conflict-of... 45 CFR Part 680 Conflict of interests. Accordingly, 45 CFR part 680 is amended as follows: PART 680...

  2. Exploring the Complex Interplay of National Learning and Teaching Policy and Academic Development Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Karen

    2016-01-01

    Academic developers are important interpreters of policy, yet little research has focussed on the interplay of policy and academic development practice. Using methods from critical discourse analysis, this article analyses a national learning and teaching policy, charts its development, and explores its interpretation by the academic development…

  3. 75 FR 12554 - National Advisory Council on Nurse Education and Practice; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-16

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Health Resources and Services Administration National Advisory Council on Nurse Education... Council on Nurse Education and Practice (NACNEP). Dates and Times: April 22, 2010, 8:30 a.m.-4:30 p.m... meeting are to: (1) Delineate the variety of roles nurses play in primary care including health...

  4. A National Study of Kindergarten Transition Practices for Children with Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daley, Tamara C.; Munk, Tom; Carlson, Elaine

    2011-01-01

    This study used data drawn from a large, national sample to describe transition practices provided to 1989 children with disabilities as they entered their kindergarten year, obtained through a survey administered to kindergarten teachers. Using path modeling, we examined the child and family, school, and district factors that predict which…

  5. A National Survey of Bibliotherapy Preparation and Practices of Professional Counselors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pehrsson, Dale-Elizabeth; McMillen, Paula S.

    2010-01-01

    A national survey of "Bibliotherapy Practices in Counseling" was conducted in 2008. This project was partially supported by an Association of Creativity in Counseling Research Award. Little research exists regarding preparation of professional counselors and their specific use of bibliotherapy interventions. Invitations and survey requests were…

  6. Drama: Same Difference--Diversity and Mutuality of Process and Practice--National Drama Conference 2011

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gyokery, Lisa; Lam, Van Va; Hida, Norifumi; Kim, Su-yuon; Efthymiou, Antri; Frost, Wendy; Lewis, Janine; Broekman, Kirsten

    2012-01-01

    This article presents reviews of different conferences that focus on drama education. It first presents six perspectives on " Drama: same difference: diversity and mutuality of process and practice--National Drama Conference 2011," held in Swansea University, UK, 11-14 April 2011. Then it presents reviews of "2011 African Theatre…

  7. Marriage and Family Therapists and Psychotropic Medications: Practice Patterns from a National Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hernandez, Barbara Couden; Doherty, William J.

    2005-01-01

    A national sample of marriage and family therapists (MFTs) was used to describe practice patterns of MFTs whose clients use psychotropics and to compare medicated and nonmedicated clients. Marriage and Family Therapists (n = 283) reported on 195 medicated and 483 nonmedicated adult clients. Clients (n = 375) rated their improvement and…

  8. Evidence-Based Reading Instruction: Putting the National Reading Panel Report into Practice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Reading Association, Newark, DE.

    This collection of articles from "The Reading Teacher" provides examples of the instructional practices which improve reading achievement, according to Reading First legislation. Each section offers a summary and discussion of the National Reading Panel Report findings, and presents several articles from "The Reading Teacher"…

  9. Strategies for Improving Fidelity in the National Evidence-Based Practices Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bond, Gary R.; Drake, Robert E.; McHugo, Gregory J.; Rapp, Charles A.; Whitley, Rob

    2009-01-01

    Background: The National Evidence-Based Practices (EBPs) Project developed and tested a model for facilitating the implementation of five psychosocial EBPs for adults with severe mental illness in the United States. Methods: The implementation model was tested in 53 sites in 8 states. In each site, one of the five EBPs was adopted for…

  10. A National Study of Kindergarten Transition Practices for Children with Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daley, Tamara C.; Munk, Tom; Carlson, Elaine

    2011-01-01

    This study used data drawn from a large, national sample to describe transition practices provided to 1989 children with disabilities as they entered their kindergarten year, obtained through a survey administered to kindergarten teachers. Using path modeling, we examined the child and family, school, and district factors that predict which…

  11. A National Survey of Bibliotherapy Preparation and Practices of Professional Counselors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pehrsson, Dale-Elizabeth; McMillen, Paula S.

    2010-01-01

    A national survey of "Bibliotherapy Practices in Counseling" was conducted in 2008. This project was partially supported by an Association of Creativity in Counseling Research Award. Little research exists regarding preparation of professional counselors and their specific use of bibliotherapy interventions. Invitations and survey requests were…

  12. Associations among School Characteristics and Foodservice Practices in a Nationally Representative Sample of United States Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomson, Jessica L.; Tussing-Humphreys, Lisa M.; Martin, Corby K.; LeBlanc, Monique M.; Onufrak, Stephen J.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Determine school characteristics associated with healthy/unhealthy food service offerings or healthy food preparation practices. Design: Secondary analysis of cross-sectional data. Setting: Nationally representative sample of public and private elementary, middle, and high schools. Participants: Data from the 2006 School Health Policies…

  13. Literacy for the Twenty-First Century: Research, Policy, Practices, and the National Adult Literacy Survey.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, M. Cecil, Ed.

    This book focuses on results from secondary analyses of the National Adult Literacy Survey (NALS) and implications of these analyses for policy, practice, and further research on adult literacy. Part I contains an introduction and three additional chapters that provide a substantive summary of the NALS and its purposes: "Introduction: Adult…

  14. Exploring the Practical Adequacy of the Normative Framework Guiding South Africa's National Curriculum Statement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lotz-Sisikta, Heila; Schudel, Ingrid

    2007-01-01

    This article examines the practical adequacy of the recent defining of a normative framework for the South African National Curriculum Statement that focuses on the relationship between human rights, social justice and a healthy environment. This politically framed and socially critical normative framework has developed in response to…

  15. National Culture in Practice: Its Impact on Knowledge Sharing in Global Virtual Collaboration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wei, Kangning

    2009-01-01

    Issues concerning global virtual collaboration have received considerable attention in both the academic and practical world; however, little research has been conducted on knowledge-sharing activities in global virtual collaboration, which is a key process to achieve collaboration effectiveness. Due to national culture having been seen as one of…

  16. Exploring the Complex Interplay of National Learning and Teaching Policy and Academic Development Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Karen

    2016-01-01

    Academic developers are important interpreters of policy, yet little research has focussed on the interplay of policy and academic development practice. Using methods from critical discourse analysis, this article analyses a national learning and teaching policy, charts its development, and explores its interpretation by the academic development…

  17. Knowledge and practices regarding iodine supplementation: A national survey of healthcare providers.

    PubMed

    Guess, Kimberly; Malek, Lenka; Anderson, Amanda; Makrides, Maria; Zhou, Shao J

    2017-02-01

    Little is known of healthcare providers' awareness and implementation of the National Health and Medical Research Council's recommendation regarding iodine supplementation during pre-conception, pregnancy and lactation. To assess knowledge and practices of Australian healthcare providers in relation to the National Health and Medical Research Council's iodine supplement recommendation. Obstetricians, gynaecologists, general practitioners, dietitians and midwives were recruited through their relevant professional bodies to participate in an online survey. The survey was completed by 396 healthcare providers Australia-wide. While 71% of healthcare providers' were aware of the National Health and Medical Research Council's recommendation for iodine supplementation, fewer were aware of the recommended dose (38%) or duration (44%). Seventy-three percent of healthcare providers recommended iodine supplements in pregnancy, 56% when planning pregnancy and 52% during lactation. The main reasons for not recommending iodine supplements included belief there was no need for iodine supplements due to mandatory iodine fortification of food (28%) and unawareness of the recommendation (25%). Awareness of the recommendation was positively associated with recommending iodine supplements while length of practice, time spent per consultation, age or area of practice were not associated with recommending iodine supplements. There is a need to improve healthcare providers' knowledge of and adherence to the National Health and Medical Research Council's iodine supplement recommendation. Strategies within antenatal and postnatal services, as well as public health initiatives, are required to improve the knowledge and practices of healthcare providers. Copyright © 2016 Australian College of Midwives. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. The National Board as Professional Development: Technical, Practical, and Emancipatory Dimensions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rennert-Ariev, Peter

    2006-01-01

    This study investigates what teachers learn from a graduate-level course that prepares them to pursue an advanced form of professional teaching certification based on the National Board for Professional Teaching Standards (NBPTS). The study draws from Habermas's (1972, 1974) three knowledge constitutive interests--the technical, the practical, and…

  19. Teaching Excellence and Innovative Practices: A Case Study of National Awardee Teachers of India

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sengupta, Aparajita; Tyagi, Harish Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Aim: The study intended to identify the contributions of the National awardee teachers to the teaching learning process through their teaching excellence and innovative practices which can act as exemplary model for the entire teaching community. Method: Attempts has been made to carry out a qualitative study where two selected cases are based on…

  20. Current Transition Practices in Pediatric IBD: Findings from a National Survey of Pediatric Providers.

    PubMed

    Gray, Wendy N; Maddux, Michele H

    2016-02-01

    Although practice guidelines have been published for transition to adult care among general chronic illness populations and specific to pediatric inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), little is known about current transition practices in IBD care. This study presents data characterizing current transition practices as reported by a national sample of pediatric providers in the United States. One hundred forty-one pediatric providers completed an online survey designed to assess current transition practices, barriers and challenges to developing and maintaining transition programming, and desired resources to improve transition services. Practices varied greatly in terms of when providers begin discussing transition and transfer, age at transfer to adult care, and patient supports provided to facilitate transition. Multiple disciplines were often involved in transition programming and 75.9% reported using objective assessment of patient transition readiness. Knowledge and application of published transition practice guidelines was limited, and few respondents reported having a written transition policy at their institution (14.2%). 99.3% of respondents reported barriers to their transition programming efforts. Additional time and instrumental supports were the most common desired resources to support transition efforts. Variability in IBD transition programming, practices, and policies reflect the emerging nature of clinical practice in this area. Understanding the current state of transition programming can inform future programming. Efforts to identify evidence-based practices in transition to adult care are needed.

  1. The structure of nursing: a national examination of titles and practice profiles.

    PubMed

    Gardner, G; Duffield, C; Doubrovsky, A; Bui, U T; Adams, M

    2017-06-01

    To identify the practice patterns of the Australian registered nurse workforce according to position title and to map these disparate titles across all jurisdictions of the country. Effective nursing workforce planning can contribute to improved patient care and increased effectiveness and efficiency of healthcare systems. The prevailing approach to nursing workforce planning focuses on number of nursing staff needed in relation to the number of patients. The level of expertise and skill mix of registered nurses as a variable in workforce planning is rarely considered. A national cross-sectional electronic survey of registered nurses in Australia was conducted using the validated Advanced Practice Role Delineation tool developed from the Strong Model of Advanced Practice. The study involved a sample of 5599 registered nurses. Sixty-six nursing position titles nationally were mapped using cluster analysis technique and gave rise to seven clusters of equivalent Australian jurisdictional nursing position titles and practice profiles. Effective workforce policy and planning is reliant upon access to reliable evidence. This research is an international first in that it has provided comprehensive knowledge of the clinical level and practice profiles of a national nursing workforce. Effective, patient-centred workforce planning must consider both the numerical and expertise mix of a nursing workforce. This research provides Australian health service and policy planners with evidence-base knowledge of the nursing workforce. Internationally, this research establishes a platform from which to develop validated tools and established processes to support replication of this research. © 2017 International Council of Nurses.

  2. Purpose, structure, and function of the United States National Dental Practice-Based Research Network

    PubMed Central

    Gilbert, Gregg H.; Williams, O. Dale; Korelitz, James J.; Fellows, Jeffrey L.; Gordan, Valeria V.; Makhija, Sonia K.; Meyerowitz, Cyril; Oates, Thomas W.; Rindal, D. Brad; Benjamin, Paul L.; Foy, Patrick J.

    2013-01-01

    Objective Following a successful2005–2012 phase with three regional practice-based research networks (PBRNs), a single, unified national network called “The National Dental PBRN” was created in 2012 in the United States to improve oral health by conducting practice-based research and serving dental professionals through education and collegiality. Methods Central administration is based in Alabama. Regional centres are based in Alabama, Florida, Minnesota, Oregon, New York and Texas, with a Coordinating Centre in Maryland. Ideas for studies are prioritized by the Executive Committee, comprised mostly of full-time clinicians. Results To date, 2736 persons have enrolled, from all six network regions; enrollment continues to expand. They represent a broad range of practitioners, practice types, and patient populations. Practitioners are actively improving every step of the research process, from idea generation, to study development, field testing, data collection, and presentation and publication. Conclusions Practitioners from diverse settings are partnering with fellow practitioners and academics to improve clinical practice and meet the needs of clinicians and their patients. Clinical significance This “nation’s network” aims to serve as a precious national resource to improve the scientific basis for clinical decision-making and foster movement of the latest evidence into routine practice. PMID:23597500

  3. Suicide and Pesticide Use among Pesticide Applicators and Their Spouses in the Agricultural Health Study

    PubMed Central

    Beard, John D.; Umbach, David M.; Hoppin, Jane A.; Richards, Marie; Alavanja, Michael C. R.; Blair, Aaron; Sandler, Dale P.

    2011-01-01

    Background: An association may exist between pesticide exposure and suicide. Objective: We sought to evaluate the existence of an association between pesticide use and suicide using data from the Agricultural Health Study (AHS), a prospective cohort study of licensed pesticide applicators and their spouses in Iowa and North Carolina. Methods: Via linkage to state mortality files and the National Death Index, we identified 110 suicides occurring between enrollment in the AHS (from 1993 to 1997) and 31 May 2009, among 81,998 cohort members contributing 1,092,943 person-years of follow-up. The average length of follow-up was 13.3 years. AHS participants provided data on pesticide use and potential confounders via self-administered questionnaires at enrollment. We evaluated several measures of pesticide use: use of any pesticide, ever use of 50 specific pesticides, cumulative lifetime days of use and intensity-adjusted cumulative lifetime days of use of 22 specific pesticides, and ever use of 10 functional and chemical classes of pesticides. We used Cox proportional hazards regression models to estimate adjusted hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals. Results: After adjusting for age at enrollment, sex, number of children in family, frequency of alcohol consumption during the past 12 months, and smoking status, we found no association between prior pesticide use and suicide in applicators and their spouses. Results were the same for applicators and spouses together or for applicators alone and were consistent across several measures of pesticide use. Conclusions: Our findings do not support an association between moderate pesticide use and suicide. PMID:21749962

  4. Pesticide hazard trends in orchard fruit production in Great Britain from 1992 to 2008: a time-series analysis.

    PubMed

    Cross, Paul

    2013-06-01

    Attempts to mitigate pesticide hazard in horticulture present policy makers and industry with complex challenges at both the national and European scale. The impact of policy initiatives and industry practice on reducing hazard is contingent upon effective monitoring of a broad spectrum of non-target endpoints. This study used the environmental impact quotient to evaluate changes in orchard fruit pesticide hazard in Great Britain. The study period corresponded to the introduction of European Directive 91/414 in 1991 and extended to 2008, the last pesticide survey year prior to the implementation of the new European Directive 2009/128/EC and regulation (EC) No. 1107/2009. Overall, pesticide hazard declined for each of the measures reported, with the environmental impact per hectare per tonne of produce declining by -21%. The UK orchard fruit industry appears to have improved efficiencies in pesticide use and is now harvesting more produce per hectare while simultaneously reducing the associated environmental impact of pesticides. The removal of toxic substances and their replacement with more benign products as a consequence of legislation appears to have played an important role in facilitating the reduction. © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry.

  5. Monitoring Pesticide Residues in Fruits and Vegetables at Two of the Biggest Fresh Produce Markets in Africa.

    PubMed

    Mutengwe, Mbulaheni T; Chidamba, Lizyben; Korsten, Lise

    2016-11-01

    In most countries, fresh produce sold at local markets is usually not analyzed for agricultural chemical residues as export products are, which raises concerns about the perceived safety levels of local food supplies in contrast with exported products. The aim of this study was to determine pesticide residue levels in fruits and vegetables sold at two of the biggest fresh produce markets in Africa. A total of 199 fruit and vegetable samples were collected between 2012 and 2014 and analyzed for 74 pesticides commonly used in the horticultural sector. Of the samples analyzed, 91% were compliant with set maximum residue levels (MRLs). The remaining samples either contained unregistered chemicals (8%) or exceeded set MRL values (1%). Products containing more than one pesticide residue constituted 4.02% of all samples tested. Imazalil and iprodione were found to be the most frequently detected pesticides (12 samples each). Boscalid, endosulfan, profenofos, and procymidone were associated with the most noncompliance, including exceeding MRL values or being unregistered for the specific crop. The establishment of a national pesticide monitoring program is essential for the country and would ensure that pesticides are used in accordance with good agricultural practices.

  6. Analysis of pesticide residues on museum objects repatriated to the Hupa tribe of California.

    PubMed

    Palmer, Peter T; Martin, Matthew; Wentworth, Gregory; Caldararo, Niccolo; Davis, Lee; Kane, Shawn; Hostler, David

    2003-03-15

    In the past, it was common practice for museum professionals and private collectors to apply a variety of pesticide agents to objects in their collections to preserve them from depredations by microorganisms, fungi, and other pests. The Native American Graves Repatriation and Protection Act allows federally recognized tribes to request that museums return objects taken from their ancestors. Given that poor records were kept on the treatment of individual objects, it is unknown whether specific objects are contaminated with these pesticide agents. Although chemical analysis represents the only reliable means to determine the types and levels of pesticides on these objects, surprisingly few publications document the extent of this contamination in museum collections. This paper reports on the determination of arsenic, mercury, and several organic pesticides on 17 objects that were recently repatriated to the Hupa tribe in northern California. Four samples were taken from each object: two for arsenic and mercury analysis via flame atomic absorption spectrophotometry and two for organic pesticide analysis via gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Percent levels (wt/wt) of mercury were detected on many samples, and 0.001 to 0.183% (wt/wt) levels of p-dichlorobenzene, naphthalene, thymol, lindane, and/or DDT were detected on many of the samples. These results indicate that Hupa tribal members should not wear these objects in religious ceremonies, proper precautions should be followed when dealing with potentially contaminated objects, and that more serious consideration should be given to this issue at a national level.

  7. Fate and transport of pesticides in the ground water systems of southwest Georgia, 1993-2005

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dalton, M.S.; Frick, E.A.

    2008-01-01

    Modern agricultural practices in the United States have resulted in nearly unrivaled efficiency and productivity. Unfortunately, there is also the potential for release of these compounds to the environment and consequent adverse affects on wildlife and human populations. Since 1993, the National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) program of the U.S. Geological Survey has evaluated water quality in agricultural areas to address these concerns. The objective of this study is to evaluate trends in pesticide concentrations from 1993-2005 in the surficial and Upper Floridan aquifers of southwest Georgia using pesticide and pesticide degradate data collected for the NAWQA program. There were six compounds - five herbicides and one degradate - that were detected in more than 20% of samples: atrazine, deethylatrazine (DEA), metolachlor, alachlor, floumeturon, and tebuthiuron. Of the 128 wells sampled during the study, only eight wells had pesticide concentrations that either increased (7) or decreased (1) on a decadal time scale. Most of the significant trends were increasing concentrations of pesticides in older water; median pesticide concentrations did not differ between the surficial and Upper Floridan aquifers from 1993 and 2005. Deethylatrazine, in the Upper Floridan aquifer, was the only compound that had a significant change (increase) in concentration during the study. The limited number of wells with increases in pesticide concentrations suggest that ground-water sources of these compounds are not increasing in concentration over the time scale represented in this study. Copyright ?? 2008 by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America. All rights reserved.

  8. PESTICIDE MEASUREMENTS FROM THE FIRST NATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH SURVEY OF CHILD CARE CENTERS USING A MULTI-RESIDUE GC/MS ANALYSIS METHOD

    EPA Science Inventory

    The US Department of Housing and Urban Development, in collaboration with the US Consumer Product Safety Commission and the US Environmental Protection Agency, characterized the environments of young children (<6 years) by measuring lead, allergens, and pesticides in a randomly-s...

  9. PESTICIDE MEASUREMENTS FROM THE FIRST NATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH SURVEY OF CHILD CARE CENTERS USING A MULTI-RESIDUE GC/MS ANALYSIS METHOD

    EPA Science Inventory

    The US Department of Housing and Urban Development, in collaboration with the US Consumer Product Safety Commission and the US Environmental Protection Agency, characterized the environments of young children (<6 years) by measuring lead, allergens, and pesticides in a randomly-s...

  10. Predictors of health practices within age-sex groups: National Survey of Personal Health Practices and Consequences, 1979.

    PubMed Central

    Rakowski, W

    1988-01-01

    Health promotion-disease prevention programs share with health behavior research the common objective of identifying population subgroups toward whom services can be targeted. For this report, six age-sex groups were examined to determine similarities and differences in the predictors of eight health practice indices. Data were from the 1979 National Survey of Personal Health Practices and Consequences. Results showed very little similarity of predictors across the three age cohorts (20-34, 35-49, 50-64), between men and women, and among the six age-sex groups. No predictor achieved significance consistently for several health practices in any of the six groups, although years of education made the best showing. The lack of overlap among predictors helps to explain why health promotion messages and recruitment strategies may not appeal to as diverse an audience as initially intended. Possible explanations for the absence of similar predictors include differences in the nature of the various practices themselves, absence of data on intentions behind a person's behavior, and the "over-determined" character of an individual person's behavior. PMID:3136496

  11. [Biomonitoring pesticides: a national need?].

    PubMed

    Ríos B, Juan Carlos; Solari G, Sandra

    2010-04-01

    The word biomarker is being used more frequently during the last decade. Currently, a great amount of research is directed to fnd toxicological biomarkers for several different chemical substances, since persons are more exposed now than decades before. For this reason, it is important to perform a biomonitoring of such substances in order to assess the possibility that low quantities could cause health problems. Obtaining toxicological values through biomonitoring is also useful to control the exposure. The markers of poisoning by chemicals available worldwide are numerous, but unfortunately in Chile only a few are being used. It is essential to have more toxicology and environmental laboratories to test the levels of exposure of our population.

  12. Environmental impact of pesticides in Egypt.

    PubMed

    Mansour, Sameeh A

    2008-01-01

    The first use of petroleum-derived pesticides in Egyptian agriculture was initiated in 1950. Early applications consisted of distributing insecticidal dusts containing DDT/BHC/S onto cotton fields. This practice was followed by use of toxaphene until 1961. Carbamates, organophosphates, and synthetic pyrethroids were subsequently used, mainly for applications to cotton. In addition to the use of about 1 million metric tons (t) of pesticides in the agricultural sector over a 50-yr period, specific health and environmental problems are documented in this review. Major problems represented and discussed in this review are human poisoning, incidental toxicity to farm animals, insect pest resistance, destruction of beneficial parasites and predators, contamination of food by pesticide residues, and pollution of environmental ecosystems. Several reports reveal that chlorinated hydrocarbon pesticide residues are still detectable in several environmental compartments; however, these residues are in decline. Since 1990, there is a growing movement toward reduced consumption of traditional pesticides and a tendency to expand use of biopesticides, including "Bt," and plant incorporated protectants (PIPs). On the other hand, DDT and lindane were used for indoor and hygienic purposes as early as 1952. Presently, indoor use of pesticides for pest control is widespread in Egypt. Accurate information concerning the types and amounts of Egyptian household pesticide use, or numbers of poisoning or contamination incidents, is unavailable. Generally, use of indoor pesticides is inadequately managed. The results of a survey of Egyptian farmers' attitudes toward pesticides and their behavior in using them garnered new insights as to how pesticides should be better controlled and regulated in Egypt.

  13. [Dilemmas of the pharmacist, 7th edition of Hungarian National Formulary in practice].

    PubMed

    Pál, Szilárd

    2005-01-01

    Most important event of year 2004 of the history of Hungarian pharmacy was the release of the 7th edition of the National Formulary. The general part of the new formulary expanded, remarks on the preparations are more detailed and dispensing technologies are more elaborated. Knowledge base on pharmaceutical substances and incompatibility is inserted as novelty. Following the principles of modern pharmacy practice the new National Formulary excludes pills, though it is still accepted as an alternative dosage form. Usage of tablets, hard gelatine capsules and medication stick as a new dosage forms are introduced. The aim of my study was to prepare and examine some new compositions of the new edition of the National Formulary to help the pharmacist's work. Results confirmed the novel solutions of the new National Formulary.

  14. Pesticide Labeling Questions & Answers

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Pesticide manufacturers, applicators, state regulatory agencies, and other stakeholders raise questions or issues about pesticide labels. The questions on this page are those that apply to multiple products or address inconsistencies among product labels.

  15. Revoking Pesticide Tolerances

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA revokes pesticide tolerances when all registrations of a pesticide have been canceled in the U.S. and the tolerances are not needed for imported foods or when there are no registered uses for certain crops.

  16. Exploring Pesticide Pollution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rillo, Thomas J.

    1974-01-01

    Examines environmental problems associated with the use of pesticides, and suggests thirty learning activities designed to give elementary school children a better understanding of the problem of pesticide pollution. (JR)

  17. The Pesticide Problem.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bosch, Van Den Robert

    1979-01-01

    Contains a discussion of insects' ability to survive, of the development of pesticides and the introduction of DDT, of the problems of pesticide use and resistance to insecticides, and of the advantages of integrated pest control. (BB)

  18. Exploring Pesticide Pollution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rillo, Thomas J.

    1974-01-01

    Examines environmental problems associated with the use of pesticides, and suggests thirty learning activities designed to give elementary school children a better understanding of the problem of pesticide pollution. (JR)

  19. The Pesticide Problem.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bosch, Van Den Robert

    1979-01-01

    Contains a discussion of insects' ability to survive, of the development of pesticides and the introduction of DDT, of the problems of pesticide use and resistance to insecticides, and of the advantages of integrated pest control. (BB)

  20. Pesticide Label Review Training

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This training will help ensure that reviewers evaluate labels according to four core principles. It also will help pesticide registrants developing labels understand what EPA expects of pesticide labels, and what the Agency generally finds acceptable.

  1. Pesticides and Pregnancy

    MedlinePlus

    Pesticides and Pregnancy In every pregnancy, a woman starts out with a 3-5% chance of having ... risk. This sheet talks about whether exposure to pesticides may increase the risk for birth defects over ...

  2. Pesticide Registration Information System

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    PRISM provides an integrated, web portal for all pesticide related data, communications, registrations and transactions for OPP and its stakeholders, partners and customers. PRISM supports Strategic Goal 4 by automating pesticide registration processes.

  3. Potential health effects related to pesticide use on athletic fields.

    PubMed

    Gilden, Robyn; Friedmann, Erika; Sattler, Barbara; Squibb, Katherine; McPhaul, Kathleen

    2012-01-01

    Children come in contact with athletic fields on a daily basis. How these fields are maintained may have an impact on children's potential exposure to pesticides and associated health effects. This is a cross-sectional, descriptive study that utilized a survey to assess playing field maintenance practices regarding the use of pesticides. Athletic fields (N = 101) in Maryland were stratified by population density and randomly selected. A survey was administered to field managers (n = 33) to assess maintenance practices, including the use of pesticides. Analysis included descriptive statistics and generalized estimating equations. Managers of 66 fields (65.3%) reported applying pesticides, mainly herbicides (57.4%). Managers of urban and suburban fields were less likely to apply pesticides than managers of rural fields. Combined cultivation practice was also a significant predictor of increased pesticide use. The use of pesticides on athletic fields presents many possible health hazards. Results indicate that there is a significant risk of exposure to pesticide for children engaged in sports activities. Given that children are also often concurrently exposed to pesticides as food residues and from home pest management, we need to examine opportunities to reduce their exposures. Both policy and practice questions are raised. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. [Experience of the Mexican National Health System in the development of clinical practice guidelines].

    PubMed

    Sosa-García, Jesús Ojino; Nieves-Hernández, Pedro; Puentes-Rosas, Esteban; Pineda-Pérez, Dayana; Viniegra-Osorio, Arturo; Torres-Arreola, Laura del Pilar; Valenzuela-Flores, Adriana Abigail; Barragán-Padilla, Sergio Baltazar; Díaz-González, Ruth; Chávez-Valdez, Lizbeth; Ramírez-López, Juan Carlos

    2016-01-01

    Clinical practice guidelines are tools that have been able to streamline decisions made in health issues and to decrease the gap between clinical action and scientific evidence. The objective of the study is to share the experience in the development and to update the guidelines by the National Health System of Mexico. The methodology in the development of the guidelines consists of 5 phases: prioritisation, establishment of work groups, development by adoption of international guidelines of de novo, validation and integration in the Master catalogue of clinical practice guidelines for its dissemination. The Master catalogue of clinical practice guidelines contains 664 guidelines, distributed in 42% Internal Medicine, 22% Surgery, 24% Pediatrics and 12% Gynecology. From the total of guidelines coverage is granted at an 85% of the Universal catalogue of health services, an 84% of the Catastrophic expenses protection fund and a 61% of the XXI Century Medical Insurance of the National Commission of Social Protection in Health. The result is the sum of a great effort of coordination and cooperation between the institutions of the National Health System, political wills and a commitment of 3,477 health professionals that participate in guidelines' development and update. Master catalogue guidelines' integration, diffusion and implantation improve quality of attention and security of the users of the National Health System. Copyright © 2015 Academia Mexicana de Cirugía A.C. Published by Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.

  5. National Academy of Clinical Biochemistry Laboratory Medicine Practice Guidelines for Use of Tumor Markers in Clinical Practice: Quality Requirements*

    PubMed Central

    Sturgeon, Catharine M.; Hoffman, Barry R.; Chan, Daniel W.; Ch’ng, Soo-Ling; Hammond, Elizabeth; Hayes, Daniel F.; Liotta, Lance A.; Petricoin, Emmanuel F.; Schmitt, Manfred; Semmes, O. John; Söletormos, Györg; van der Merwe, Elena; Diamandis, Eleftherios P.

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND This report presents updated National Academy of Clinical Biochemistry Laboratory Medicine Practice Guidelines summarizing quality requirements for the use of tumor markers. METHODS One subcommittee developed guidelines for analytical quality relevant to serum and tissue-based tumor markers in current clinical practice. Two other subcommittees formulated recommendations particularly relevant to the developing technologies of microarrays and mass spectrometry. RESULTS Prerequisites for optimal use of tumor markers in routine practice include formulation of the correct clinical questions to ensure selection of the appropriate test, adherence to good clinical and laboratory practices (e.g., minimization of the risk of incorrect patient and/or specimen identification, tube type, or timing), use of internationally standardized and well-characterized methods, careful adherence to manufacturer instructions, and proactive and timely reactions to information derived from both internal QC and proficiency-testing specimens. Highly desirable procedures include those designed to minimize the risk of the reporting of erroneous results attributable to interferences such as heterophilic antibodies or hook effects, to facilitate the provision of informative clinical reports (e.g., cumulative and/or graphical reports, appropriately derived reference intervals, and interpretative comments), and when possible to integrate these reports with other patient information through electronic health records. Also mandatory is extensive validation encompassing all stages of analysis before introduction of new technologies such as microarrays and mass spectrometry. Provision of high-quality tumor marker services is facilitated by dialogue involving researchers, diagnostic companies, clinical and laboratory users, and regulatory agencies. CONCLUSIONS Implementation of these recommendations, adapted to local practice, should encourage optimization of the clinical use of tumor markers

  6. The Pesticide Scorecard

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weber, Jerome B.

    1977-01-01

    A scheme for comparing the relative toxicities and environmental safety of agricultural pesticides is presented. It is based on the sum of four key factors: (1) oral toxicity to rats, (2) oral toxicity to fish, (3) longevity, and (4) bioaccumulation. Thirty-one pesticides are ranked by these factors. The ranking indicates that new pesticides are…

  7. Pesticides and the Environment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neufeld, Gaylen

    1973-01-01

    Consideration of the dangers of pesticides to the world ecosystem as well as the economic necessity which an affluent society has created are the two sides of the pesticide problem discussed in this issue. An attempt is made to clarify the issue, to recognize the ways that pesticides exert their effects, and to relate what measures can be taken to…

  8. The Pesticide Scorecard

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weber, Jerome B.

    1977-01-01

    A scheme for comparing the relative toxicities and environmental safety of agricultural pesticides is presented. It is based on the sum of four key factors: (1) oral toxicity to rats, (2) oral toxicity to fish, (3) longevity, and (4) bioaccumulation. Thirty-one pesticides are ranked by these factors. The ranking indicates that new pesticides are…

  9. Music therapy services in pediatric oncology: a national clinical practice review.

    PubMed

    Tucquet, Belinda; Leung, Maggie

    2014-01-01

    This article presents the results of a national clinical practice review conducted in Australia of music therapy services in pediatric oncology hospitals. Literature specifically related to music therapy and symptom management in pediatric oncology is reviewed. The results from a national benchmarking survey distributed to all music therapists working with children with cancer in Australian pediatric hospitals are discussed. Patient and family feedback provided from a quality improvement activity conducted at a major pediatric tertiary hospital is summarized, and considerations for future growth as a profession and further research is proposed. © 2014 by Association of Pediatric Hematology/Oncology Nurses.

  10. Donation after circulatory death: a national survey of current practice in England in 2012.

    PubMed

    Patel, Sameer; Martin, Jonathan R; Marino, Philip S

    2014-10-01

    In recent years, England has seen renewed interest in donation after circulatory death. Many national and local initiatives have been implemented to encourage and support donation after circulatory death. To assess whether practice is in line with published guidance, we conducted a national survey with regard to current donation after circulatory death practices, local guidelines, and views on the need to further develop a national standardized protocol for donation after circulatory death. Online survey. Lead physicians for intensive care or organ donation for every acute National Health Service trust in England delivering adult care between April and June 2012. Physicians were e-mailed a link to a structured online questionnaire regarding their experience and practice of donation after circulatory death, including local protocols, use of organ optimization, and the need for a national protocol. We received replies from 119 of 156 eligible trusts (76.3%) in England. Of these, 112 trusts (94%) have performed donation after circulatory death. Ninety-three trusts (78.1%) have a local donation after circulatory death protocol, and 89 trusts (74.7%) felt there should be a national donation after circulatory death protocol. All responding transplant centers had performed donation after circulatory death, 14 of 17 (82.3%) had a donation after circulatory death protocol with 14 of 17 respondents (82.3%) supporting a national protocol. Regarding organ optimization, 92 institutions (77.3%) used vasoactive drugs to achieve a target mean arterial blood pressure with 82 centers (68.9%) employing positive end-expiratory pressure and FIO2 to optimize oxygenation. Eight centers (6.7%) used heparin premortem compared with two of 17 transplant centers (11.8%). Two centers have used phentolamine to facilitate organ retrieval, with another five centers (4.2%) cannulating vessels premortem. Our survey revealed varying approaches and views toward donation after circulatory death across

  11. The National Practice Benchmark for oncology, 2014 report on 2013 data.

    PubMed

    Towle, Elaine L; Barr, Thomas R; Senese, James L

    2014-11-01

    The National Practice Benchmark (NPB) is a unique tool to measure oncology practices against others across the country in a way that allows meaningful comparisons despite differences in practice size or setting. In today's economic environment every oncology practice, regardless of business structure or affiliation, should be able to produce, monitor, and benchmark basic metrics to meet current business pressures for increased efficiency and efficacy of care. Although we recognize that the NPB survey results do not capture the experience of all oncology practices, practices that can and do participate demonstrate exceptional managerial capability, and this year those practices are recognized for their participation. In this report, we continue to emphasize the methodology introduced last year in which we reported medical revenue net of the cost of the drugs as net medical revenue for the hematology/oncology product line. The effect of this is to capture only the gross margin attributable to drugs as revenue. New this year, we introduce six measures of clinical data density and expand the radiation oncology benchmarks. Copyright © 2014 by American Society of Clinical Oncology.

  12. Pesticide Program Dialogue Committee: Pesticide Incidents Workgroup

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA formed this workgroup to assist in meeting its long-term goal of creating a publically-available framework that improves the reporting, quality and efficient use of pesticide incident data to ensure high-quality, science-based pesticide decisions.

  13. Chlorinated pesticides in stream sediments from organic, integrated and conventional farms.

    PubMed

    Shahpoury, Pourya; Hageman, Kimberly J; Matthaei, Christoph D; Magbanua, Francis S

    2013-10-01

    To determine if current sheep/beef farming practices affect pesticide residues in streams, current-use and legacy chlorinated pesticides were quantified in 100 sediment samples from 15 streams on the South Island of New Zealand. The study involved five blocks of three neighboring farms, with each block containing farms managed by organic, integrated and conventional farming practices. Significantly higher concentrations of dieldrin, ∑ endosulfans, ∑ current-use pesticides, and ∑ chlorinated pesticides were measured in sediments from conventional farms compared to organic and integrated farms. However, streams in the latter two farming categories were not pesticide-free and sometimes contained relatively high concentrations of legacy pesticides. Comparison of measured pesticide concentrations with sediment quality guidelines showed that, regardless of farming practice, mean pesticide concentrations were below the recommended toxicity thresholds. However, up to 23% of individual samples contained chlorpyrifos, endosulfan sulfate, ∑ DDT, dieldrin, or ∑ chlordane concentrations above these thresholds.

  14. Variability of pesticide detections and concentrations in field replicate water samples collected for the National Water-Quality Assessment Program, 1992-97

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Martin, Jeffrey D.

    2002-01-01

    Correlation analysis indicates that for most pesticides and concentrations, pooled estimates of relative standard deviation rather than pooled estimates of standard deviation should be used to estimate variability because pooled estimates of relative standard deviation are less affected by heteroscedasticity. The 2 Variability of Pesticide Detections and Concentrations in Field Replicate Water Samples, 1992–97 median pooled relative standard deviation was calculated for all pesticides to summarize the typical variability for pesticide data collected for the NAWQA Program. The median pooled relative standard deviation was 15 percent at concentrations less than 0.01 micrograms per liter (µg/L), 13 percent at concentrations near 0.01 µg/L, 12 percent at concentrations near 0.1 µg/L, 7.9 percent at concentrations near 1 µg/L, and 2.7 percent at concentrations greater than 5 µg/L. Pooled estimates of standard deviation or relative standard deviation presented in this report are larger than estimates based on averages, medians, smooths, or regression of the individual measurements of standard deviation or relative standard deviation from field replicates. Pooled estimates, however, are the preferred method for characterizing variability because they provide unbiased estimates of the variability of the population. Assessments of variability based on standard deviation (rather than variance) underestimate the true variability of the population. Because pooled estimates of variability are larger than estimates based on other approaches, users of estimates of variability must be cognizant of the approach used to obtain the estimate and must use caution in the comparison of estimates based on different approaches.

  15. Methods of analysis by the U.S. Geological Survey National Water Quality Laboratory; determination of organophosphate pesticides in filtered water by gas chromatography with flame photometric detection

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jha, Virendra K.; Wydoski, Duane S.

    2002-01-01

    A method for the isolation of 20 parent organophosphate pesticides and 5 pesticide degradates from filtered natural-water samples is described. Seven of these compounds are reported permanently with an estimated concentration because of performance issues. Water samples are filtered to remove suspended particulate matter, and then 1 liter of filtrate is pumped through disposable solid-phase extraction columns that contain octadecyl-bonded porous silica to extract the compounds. The C-18 columns are dried with nitrogen gas, and method compounds are eluted from the columns with ethyl acetate. The extract is analyzed by dual capillary-column gas chromatography with flame photometric detection. Single-operator method detection limits in all three water-matrix samples ranged from 0.004 to 0.012 microgram per liter. Method performance was validated by spiking all compounds into three different matrices at three different concentrations. Eight replicates were analyzed at each concentration level in each matrix. Mean recoveries of method compounds spiked in surface-water samples ranged from 39 to 149 percent and those in ground-water samples ranged from 40 to 124 percent for all pesticides except dimethoate. Mean recoveries of method compounds spiked in reagent-water samples ranged from 41 to 119 percent for all pesticides except dimethoate. Dimethoate exhibited reduced recoveries (mean of 43 percent in low- and medium-concentration level spiked samples and 20 percent in high-concentration level spiked samples) in all matrices because of incomplete collection on the C-18 column. As a result, concen-trations of dimethoate and six other compounds (based on performance issues) in samples are reported in this method with an estimated remark code.

  16. Methods of analysis by the U.S. Geological Survey National Water Quality Laboratory : determination of organophosphate pesticides in bottom sediment by gas chromatography with flame photometric detection

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jha, Virendra Kumar; Wydoski, Duane S.

    2003-01-01

    A method for the isolation of 20 parent organophosphate pesticides and 5 pesticide degradates from bottom-sediment samples is described. The compound O-ethyl-O-methyl-S-proplyphosphorothioate is reported as an estimated concentration because of variable performance. In this method, the sediment samples are centrifuged to remove excess waster mixed with anhydrous sodium sulfate and Soxhlet extracted overnight with dichloromethane (93 percent) and methanol (7 percent). The extract is concentrated and then filtered through a 0.2-micrometer polytetrafluoroethylene membrane syringe filter. An aliquot of the sample extract is quantitatively injected onto two polystyrene-divinylbenzene gel-permeation chromatographic columns connected in series. The compounds are eluted with dichloromethane and a fraction is collected for analysis, with some coextracted interferences, including elemental sulfur, separated and discarded. The aliquot is concentrated and solvent exchanged to ethyl acetate. The extract is analyzed by dual capillary-column gas chromatography with flame photometric detection. Single-operator method detection limits in sodium sulfate matrix samples ranged from 0.81 to 2 micrograms per kilogram. Method performance was validated by spiking all compounds into three different solid matrices (sodium sulfate, bed sediment from Clear Creek, and bed sediment from Evergreen Lake) at three different concentrations. Eight replicates were analyzed at each concentration in each matrix. Mean recoveries of method compounds spiked in Clear Creek samples ranged from 43 to 110 percent, and those in Evergreen Lake samples ranged from 62 to 118 percent for all pesticides. Mean recoveries of method compounds spiked in reagent sodium sulfate samples ranged from 41 to 101 percent for all pesticides. The only exception was O-ethyl-O-methyl-S-propylphosphorothioate, which had an average recovery of 35 percent, and, thus, sample concentration is reported as estimated ('E' remark code).

  17. Algorithm linking patients and general practices in Denmark using the Danish National Health Service Register

    PubMed Central

    Kjaersgaard, Maiken Ina Siegismund; Vedsted, Peter; Parner, Erik Thorlund; Bech, Bodil Hammer; Vestergaard, Mogens; Flarup, Kaare Rud; Fenger-Grøn, Morten

    2016-01-01

    Background The patient list system in Denmark assigns virtually all residents to a general practice. Nevertheless, historical information on this link between patient and general practice is not readily available for research purposes. Objectives To develop, implement, and evaluate the performance of an algorithm linking individual patients to their general practice by using information from the Danish National Health Service Register and the Danish Civil Registration System. Materials and methods The National Health Service Register contains information on all services provided by general practitioners from 1990 and onward. On the basis of these data and information on migration history and death obtained from the Civil Registration System, we developed an algorithm that allocated patients to a general practice on a monthly basis. We evaluated the performance of the algorithm between 2002 and 2007. During this time period, we had access to information on the link between patients and general practices. Agreement was assessed by the proportion of months for which the algorithm allocated patients to the correct general practice. We also assessed the proportion of all patients in the patient list system for which the algorithm was able to suggest an allocation. Results The overall agreement between algorithm and patient lists was 98.6%. We found slightly higher agreement for women (98.8%) than for men (98.4%) and lower agreement in the age group 18–34 years (97.1%) compared to all other age groups (≥98.6%). The algorithm had assigned 83% of all patients in the patient list system after 1 year of follow-up, 91% after 2 years of follow-up, and peaked at 94% during the fourth year. Conclusion We developed an algorithm that enables valid and nearly complete linkage between patients and general practices. The algorithm performs better in subgroups of patients with high health care needs. The algorithm constitutes a valuable tool for primary health care research. PMID

  18. Algorithm linking patients and general practices in Denmark using the Danish National Health Service Register.

    PubMed

    Kjaersgaard, Maiken Ina Siegismund; Vedsted, Peter; Parner, Erik Thorlund; Bech, Bodil Hammer; Vestergaard, Mogens; Flarup, Kaare Rud; Fenger-Grøn, Morten

    2016-01-01

    The patient list system in Denmark assigns virtually all residents to a general practice. Nevertheless, historical information on this link between patient and general practice is not readily available for research purposes. To develop, implement, and evaluate the performance of an algorithm linking individual patients to their general practice by using information from the Danish National Health Service Register and the Danish Civil Registration System. The National Health Service Register contains information on all services provided by general practitioners from 1990 and onward. On the basis of these data and information on migration history and death obtained from the Civil Registration System, we developed an algorithm that allocated patients to a general practice on a monthly basis. We evaluated the performance of the algorithm between 2002 and 2007. During this time period, we had access to information on the link between patients and general practices. Agreement was assessed by the proportion of months for which the algorithm allocated patients to the correct general practice. We also assessed the proportion of all patients in the patient list system for which the algorithm was able to suggest an allocation. The overall agreement between algorithm and patient lists was 98.6%. We found slightly higher agreement for women (98.8%) than for men (98.4%) and lower agreement in the age group 18-34 years (97.1%) compared to all other age groups (≥98.6%). The algorithm had assigned 83% of all patients in the patient list system after 1 year of follow-up, 91% after 2 years of follow-up, and peaked at 94% during the fourth year. We developed an algorithm that enables valid and nearly complete linkage between patients and general practices. The algorithm performs better in subgroups of patients with high health care needs. The algorithm constitutes a valuable tool for primary health care research.

  19. Evaluation of dietary practices of National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I football players.

    PubMed

    Cole, Constance R; Salvaterra, George F; Davis, Joseph E; Borja, Marianne E; Powell, Loreen M; Dubbs, Elizabeth C; Bordi, Peter L

    2005-08-01

    The objective of this study is to evaluate the dietary practices of 28 football athletes on a National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) Division I team using 3-day diet records. Student athletes completed 3-day diet records at 2 individual points of time, when no training table was available. Diet records were evaluated and were compared with the Third National Health and Nutrition Survey (NHANES III) data for the same ages and gender group. No differences in dietary practices of collegiate football athletes were observed when compared with data for the same ages and gender group culled from NHANES III. Inadequacies in energy intake for activity level were significant (p < 0.05). Influences of fad dieting trends were noted when the diets were mapped onto the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) food guide pyramid. Changes in diet would be necessary to sustain the activity level of these athletes.

  20. Framework for a National Testing and Evaluation Program Based Upon the National Stormwater Testing and Evaluation for Products and Practices (STEPP) Initiative (WERF Report INFR2R14)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Abstract:The National STEPP Program seeks to improve water quality by accelerating the effective implementation and adoption of innovative stormwater management technologies. Itwill attempt to accomplish this by establishing practices through highly reliable, and cost-effective S...

  1. Framework for a National Testing and Evaluation Program Based Upon the National Stormwater Testing and Evaluation for Products and Practices (STEPP) Initiative (WERF Report INFR2R14)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Abstract:The National STEPP Program seeks to improve water quality by accelerating the effective implementation and adoption of innovative stormwater management technologies. Itwill attempt to accomplish this by establishing practices through highly reliable, and cost-effective S...

  2. Increasing pesticide-resistant ectoparasitic infections may increase pesticide poisoning risks in children.

    PubMed

    Diaz, James H

    2008-01-01

    Head louse and scabies mite infestations are common among pre-school and school-age children, and topical pesticides are frequently prescribed to treat such conditions. Ectoparasite resistance to the safest and most commonly prescribed pyrethrin/pyrethroid pesticides for ectoparasitic infections has, however, been increasing since the 1980s. The increasing resistance of these arthropods to the safest pesticides may lead to greater use of more toxic, alternative pesticides to control infestations and to prevent institutional outbreaks. MEDLINE and Cochrane searches, 1966-2008, were conducted to assess the impact of increasing pesticide resistance on prescribing practices for ectoparasitic infections and to describe the evolving global epidemiology of pediatric poisonings by more toxic pediculicides and miticides, including carbamates, organochlorines, and organophosphates. Pharmacists, physicians, and poison control personnel should be fully informed about increasing pesticide resistance among the most commonly encountered ectoparasites of children and the institutionalized and be prepared to prevent and to treat accidental home and institutional pesticide poisonings with more toxic pesticides.

  3. Use and occurrence of pesticides in the Apalachicola-Chattahoochee-Flint River basin, Georgia, Alabama, and Florida, 1960-91

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stell, Susan M.; Hopkins, Evelyn H.; Buell, Gary R.; Hippe, Daniel J.

    1995-01-01

    The Apalachicola-Chattahoochee-Flint (ACF) River basin was one of the first 20 study units selected in 1991 by the U.S. Geological Survey for its National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) program. Because pesticide contamination of surface water and ground water is a concern nationwide, a major emphasis of the NAWQA program is to examine the occurrence and distribution of pesticides in the water resources of these study unit basins. An understanding of the types and distribution of land uses; pesticide properties, pest-control practices, and pesticide use; and an evaluation of the occurrence and distribution of pesticides in the water resources of the ACF are necessary to meet this objective of the NAWQA program. This report describes land use and pesticide use at a county level, and the occurrence and distribution of pesticides in the water resources of the ACF River basin on the basis of previously-collected data. About 33 percent of the ACF River basin is used for agriculture, 16 percent is used for silviculture, and about 5 percent of the basin is in urban and suburban settings; primarily the Columbus, Albany, and Atlanta Metropolitan areas. The remainder is in wetlands and non-silvicultural forest. A broad range of synthetic-organic herbicides, insecticides, and fungicides are applied to land in agricultural, silvicultural, urban, and suburban areas. The period of intensive pesticide applications extends from March to October. Pesticide data available for the period from 1971 through 1989 in the U.S. Geological Survey National Water Information System (NWIS) and for the period from 1960 through 1991 in the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Storage and Retrieval System (STORET) were analyzed to describe the occurrence and distribution of pesticides in water resources of the ACF River basin. Collectively, the NWIS and STORET databases contain about 19,600 individual analyses for pesticide concentration in the ACF River basin. Pesticide concentrations were at

  4. Improved management of drugs, hormones and pesticides in Africa.

    PubMed

    Mitema, E S

    2009-03-01

    Drugs, hormones and pesticides are chemical compounds used for alleviation of various diseases in animals. There are many classes of drugs which have been used and in the case of natural steroid hormones these have been used to increase mass gain by stimulating protein anabolism. Pesticides have been used for many years in the control of ectoparasites which transmit important human and livestock diseases. The purpose of the present article is to review procedures for management of veterinary products to facilitate national and international trade. These compounds and/or their metabolites have the potential to cause undesirable health effects to either target animals or consumers. Most African countries do not have competent authorities to conduct risk analysis for veterinary drug and pesticide residues in edible tissues. Because of the possible undesirable health effects from residues of veterinary compounds, the FAO/WHO established expert groups to establish acceptable daily intake and maximum residue levels (MRLs) for each drug or pesticide. In the case of natural steroids like oestradiol, progesterone and testosterone implants, no withdrawal period is required since there is no risk to the consumer. Bulls can have levels of testosterone ranging from 535-10,950 pg/g, heifers 92-250 and treated steers 100 pg/g, respectively. Data to enable approval of drugs and pesticides is to a large extent similar and include toxicity studies, reproductive studies, stability studies, safety, efficacy, tissue residue depletion studies and environmental impact. Good practice in the use of acaricides as indicated on the label is inevitable so that residue levels of these compounds remain below the specified MRL. Enactment and enforcement of legislations by various countries for the control of registration, sale, distribution and usage of ethical products should be enforced including use of prescriptions by veterinarians. Good practice in the use of veterinary drugs is the

  5. Estimation of agricultural pesticide use in drainage basins using land cover maps and county pesticide data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nakagaki, Naomi; Wolock, David M.

    2005-01-01

    A geographic information system (GIS) was used to estimate agricultural pesticide use in the drainage basins of streams that are studied as part of the U.S. Geological Survey?s National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program. Drainage basin pesticide use estimates were computed by intersecting digital maps of drainage basin boundaries with an enhanced version of the National Land Cover Data 1992 combined with estimates of 1992 agricultural pesticide use in each United States county. This report presents the methods used to quantify agricultural pesticide use in drainage basins using a GIS and includes the estimates of atrazine use applied to row crops, small-grain crops, and fallow lands in 150 watersheds in the conterminous United States. Basin atrazine use estimates are presented to compare and analyze the results that were derived from 30-meter and 1-kilometer resolution land cover and county pesticide use data, and drainage basin boundaries at various grid cell resolutions. Comparisons of the basin atrazine use estimates derived from watershed boundaries, county pesticide use, and land cover data sets at different resolutions, indicated that overall differences were minor. The largest potential for differences in basin pesticide use estimates between those derived from the 30-meter and 1-kilometer resolution enhanced National Land Cover Data 1992 exists wherever there are abrupt agricultural land cover changes along the basin divide. Despite the limitations of the drainage basin pesticide use data described in this report, the basin estimates provide consistent and comparable indicators of agricultural pesticide application in surface-water drainage basins studied in the NAWQA Program.

  6. Micronuclei and pesticide exposure.

    PubMed

    Bolognesi, Claudia; Creus, Amadeu; Ostrosky-Wegman, Patricia; Marcos, Ricard

    2011-01-01

    Micronucleus (MN) is a biomarker widely used in biomonitoring studies carried out to determine the genetic risk associated to pesticide exposure. Many in vitro and in vivo studies, as well as epidemiological approaches, have demonstrated the ability of certain chemical pesticides to produce genetic effects including cancer and other chronic pathologies in humans; thus, biomonitoring studies have been carried out to characterise the genetic risk associated to pesticide exposure. It must be noted that 'pesticide exposure' is a broad term covering complex mixtures of chemicals and many variables that can reduce or potentiate their risk. In addition, there are large differences in pesticides used in the different parts of the world. Although pesticides constitute a wide group of environmental pollutants, the main focus on their risk has been addressed to people using pesticides in their working places, at the chemical industry or in the crop fields. Here, we present a brief review of biomonitoring studies carried out in people occupationally exposed to pesticides and that use MN in lymphocytes or buccal cells as a target to determine the induction of genotoxic damage. Thus, people working in the chemical industry producing pesticides, people spraying pesticides and people dedicated to floriculture or agricultural works in general are the subject of specific sections. MN is a valuable genotoxic end point when clear exposure conditions exist like in pesticide production workers; nevertheless, better study designs are needed to overcome the uncertainty in exposure, genetic susceptibility and statistical power in the studies of sprayers and floriculture or agricultural workers.

  7. Prevalence of Mindfulness Practices in the US Workforce: National Health Interview Survey

    PubMed Central

    Kachan, Diana; Olano, Henry; Tannenbaum, Stacey L.; Annane, Debra W.; Mehta, Ashwin; Arheart, Kristopher L.; Fleming, Lora E.; McClure, Laura A.; Lee, David J.

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Mindfulness-based practices can improve workers’ health and reduce employers’ costs by ameliorating the negative effect of stress on workers’ health. We examined the prevalence of engagement in 4 mindfulness-based practices in the US workforce. Methods We used 2002, 2007, and 2012 National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) data for adults (aged ≥18 y, n = 85,004) to examine 12-month engagement in meditation, yoga, tai chi, and qigong among different groups of workers. Results Reported yoga practice prevalence nearly doubled from 6.0% in 2002 to 11.0% in 2012 (P < .001); meditation rates increased from 8.0% in 2002 to 9.9% in 2007 (P < .001). In multivariable models, mindfulness practice was significantly lower among farm workers (odds ratio [OR] = 0.42; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.21–0.83]) and blue-collar workers (OR = 0.63; 95% CI, 0.54–0.74) than among white-collar workers. Conclusion Worker groups with low rates of engagement in mindfulness practices could most benefit from workplace mindfulness interventions. Improving institutional factors limiting access to mindfulness-based wellness programs and addressing existing beliefs about mindfulness practices among underrepresented worker groups could help eliminate barriers to these programs. PMID:28055821

  8. Prevalence of Mindfulness Practices in the US Workforce: National Health Interview Survey.

    PubMed

    Kachan, Diana; Olano, Henry; Tannenbaum, Stacey L; Annane, Debra W; Mehta, Ashwin; Arheart, Kristopher L; Fleming, Lora E; Yang, Xuan; McClure, Laura A; Lee, David J

    2017-01-05

    Mindfulness-based practices can improve workers' health and reduce employers' costs by ameliorating the negative effect of stress on workers' health. We examined the prevalence of engagement in 4 mindfulness-based practices in the US workforce. We used 2002, 2007, and 2012 National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) data for adults (aged ≥18 y, n = 85,004) to examine 12-month engagement in meditation, yoga, tai chi, and qigong among different groups of workers. Reported yoga practice prevalence nearly doubled from 6.0% in 2002 to 11.0% in 2012 (P < .001); meditation rates increased from 8.0% in 2002 to 9.9% in 2007 (P < .001). In multivariable models, mindfulness practice was significantly lower among farm workers (odds ratio [OR] = 0.42; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.21-0.83]) and blue-collar workers (OR = 0.63; 95% CI, 0.54-0.74) than among white-collar workers. Worker groups with low rates of engagement in mindfulness practices could most benefit from workplace mindfulness interventions. Improving institutional factors limiting access to mindfulness-based wellness programs and addressing existing beliefs about mindfulness practices among underrepresented worker groups could help eliminate barriers to these programs.

  9. National nursing workforce survey of nursing attitudes, knowledge and practice in genomics

    PubMed Central

    Calzone, Kathleen A; Jenkins, Jean; Culp, Stacey; Bonham, Vence L; Badzek, Laurie

    2013-01-01

    Aim Genomics has the potential to improve personalized healthcare. Nurses are vital to the utilization of genomics in practice. This study assessed nursing attitudes, receptivity, confidence, competency, knowledge and practice in genomics to inform education efforts. Materials & methods Cross-sectional study of registered nurses who completed an online Genetic/Genomic Nursing Practice Survey posted on a national nursing organization website. Results A total of 619 registered nurses participated. The largest proportion of education level were nurses with a baccalaureate degree (39%). Most (67.5%) considered genomics very important to nursing practice. However, 57% reported their genomic knowledge base to be poor or fair. The mean total knowledge score correct response rate was 75%. Yet 60% incorrectly answered that diabetes and heart disease are caused by a single gene variant. Most (64%) had never heard of the Essential Nursing Competencies and Curricula Guidelines in Genomics. Higher academic education or post licensure genetic education increased family history collection in practice. Conclusion Most nurses are inadequately prepared to translate genomic information into personalized healthcare. Targeted genomic education is needed to assure optimal workforce preparation for genomics practice integration. PMID:24363765

  10. Pesticides and children.

    PubMed

    Garry, Vincent F

    2004-07-15

    Prevention and control of damage to health, crops, and property by insects, fungi, and noxious weeds are the major goals of pesticide applications. As with use of any biologically active agent, pesticides have unwanted side-effects. In this review, we will examine the thesis that adverse pesticide effects are more likely to occur in children who are at special developmental and behavioral risk. Children's exposures to pesticides in the rural and urban settings and differences in their exposure patterns are discussed. The relative frequency of pesticide poisoning in children is examined. In this connection, most reported acute pesticide poisonings occur in children younger than age 5. The possible epidemiological relationships between parental pesticide use or exposure and the risk of adverse reproductive outcomes and childhood cancer are discussed. The level of consensus among these studies is examined. Current concerns regarding neurobehavioral toxicity and endocrine disruption in juxtaposition to the relative paucity of toxicant mechanism-based studies of children are explored.

  11. Caring for the underserved: current practice of alumni of the National Health Service Corps.

    PubMed

    Porterfield, Deborah S; Konrad, Thomas R; Porter, Carol Q; Leysieffer, Kirsten; Martinez, Rose M; Niska, Richard; Wells, Barbara; Potter, Frank

    2003-05-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the number and characteristics of National Health Service Corps (NHSC) alumni who currently practice with an underserved population. The study design was a cross-sectional survey mailed in 1998 to a sample of 2,160 alumni. The response rate was 58.9 percent; overall, 52.5 percent of respondents reported currently working with the underserved. In bivariate analyses, retention in practice with the underserved was associated with several clinician and service experience variables. In a logistic regression model, higher initial desire to work with the underserved, older age, job satisfaction, and higher salary were associated with current service. The authors conclude that more than half of the NHSC alumni responding to the survey reported working with an underserved population in 1998. Associations between clinician and service experience characteristics and retention in practice with the underserved can inform policy and research to improve retention.

  12. Modeling of pesticide emissions from agricultural ecosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Rong

    2012-04-01

    Pesticides are applied to crops and soils to improve agricultural yields, but the use of pesticides has become highly regulated because of concerns about their adverse effects on human health and environment. Estimating pesticide emission rates from soils and crops is a key component for risk assessment for pesticide registration, identification of pesticide sources to the contamination of sensitive ecosystems, and appreciation of transport and fate of pesticides in the environment. Pesticide emission rates involve processes occurring in the soil, in the atmosphere, and on vegetation surfaces and are highly dependent on soil texture, agricultural practices, and meteorology, which vary significantly with location and/or time. To take all these factors into account for simulating pesticide emissions from large agricultural ecosystems, this study coupled a comprehensive meteorological model with a dynamic pesticide emission model. The combined model calculates hourly emission rates from both emission sources: current applications and soil residues resulting from historical use. The coupled modeling system is used to compute a gridded (36 × 36 km) hourly toxaphene emission inventory for North America for the year 2000 using a published U.S. toxaphene residue inventory and a Mexican toxaphene residue inventory developed using its historical application rates and a cropland inventory. To my knowledge, this is the first such hourly toxaphene emission inventory for North America. Results show that modeled emission rates have strong diurnal and seasonal variations at a given location and over the entire domain. The simulated total toxaphene emission from contaminated agricultural soils in North America in 2000 was about 255 t, which compares reasonably well to a published annual estimate. Most emissions occur in spring and summer, with domain-wide emission rates in April, May and, June of 36, 51, and 35 t/month, respectively. The spatial distribution of emissions depends

  13. National programmes for validating physician competence and fitness for practice: a scoping review

    PubMed Central

    Horsley, Tanya; Lockyer, Jocelyn; Cogo, Elise; Zeiter, Jeanie; Bursey, Ford; Campbell, Craig

    2016-01-01

    Objective To explore and categorise the state of existing literature for national programmes designed to affirm or establish the continuing competence of physicians. Design Scoping review. Data sources MEDLINE, ERIC, Sociological Abstracts, web/grey literature (2000–2014). Selection Included when a record described a (1) national-level physician validation system, (2) recognised as a system for affirming competence and (3) reported relevant data. Data extraction Using bibliographic software, title and abstracts were reviewed using an assessment matrix to ensure duplicate, paired screening. Dyads included both a methodologist and content expert on each assessment, reflective of evidence-informed best practices to decrease errors. Results 45 reports were included. Publication dates ranged from 2002 to 2014 with the majority of publications occurring in the previous six years (n=35). Country of origin—defined as that of the primary author—included the USA (N=32), the UK (N=8), Canada (N=3), Kuwait (N=1) and Australia (N=1). Three broad themes emerged from this heterogeneous data set: contemporary national programmes, contextual factors and terminological consistency. Four national physician validation systems emerged from the data: the American Board of Medical Specialties Maintenance of Certification Program, the Federation of State Medical Boards Maintenance of Licensure Program, the Canadian Revalidation Program and the UK Revalidation Program. Three contextual factors emerged as stimuli for the implementation of national validation systems: medical regulation, quality of care and professional competence. Finally, great variation among the definitions of key terms was identified. Conclusions There is an emerging literature focusing on national physician validation systems. Four major systems have been implemented in recent years and it is anticipated that more will follow. Much of this work is descriptive, and gaps exist for the extent to which systems build

  14. Ground water contamination and costs of pesticide restrictions in the southeastern coastal plain

    SciTech Connect

    Danielson, L.E.; Carlson, G.A.; Liu, S.; Weber, J.B.; Warren, R.

    1993-01-01

    The project developed new methodology for estimating: (1) groundwater contamination potential (GWCP) in the Southeast Coastal Plain, and (2) the potential economic impacts of selected policies that restrict pesticide use. The potential for ground water contamination was estimated by use of a simple matrix for combining ratings for both soil leaching potential and pesticide leaching potential. Key soil variables included soil texture, soil acidity and organic matter content. Key pesticide characteristics included Koc, pesticide half-life, the rate of application and the fraction of the pesticide hitting the soil. Comparisons of pesticide use from various farmer and expert opinion surveys were made for pesticide groups and for individual pesticide products. Methodology for merging the GWCP changes and lost benefits from selected herbicide cancellations was developed using corn production in the North Carolina Coastal Plain. Economic evaluations of pesticide cancellations for corn included national and Coastal Plain estimates for atrazine; metolachlor; dicamba; dicamba and atrazine; and dicamba, atrazine and metolachlor.

  15. Method of analysis and quality-assurance practices for determination of pesticides in water by solid-phase extraction and capillary-column gas chromatography/mass spectrometry at the U.S. Geological Survey California District Organic Chemistry Laboratory, 1996-99

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Crepeau, Kathryn L.; Baker, Lucian M.; Kuivila, Kathryn

    2000-01-01

    A method of analysis and quality-assurance practices were developed to study the fate and transport of pesticides in the San Francisco Bay-Estuary by the U.S. Geological Survey. Water samples were filtered to remove suspended-particulate matter and pumped through C-8 solid-phase extraction cartridges to extract the pesticides. The cartridges were dried with carbon dioxide and the pesticides were eluted with three cartridge volumes of hexane:diethyl ether (1:1) solution. The eluants were analyzed using capillary-column gas chromatography/mass spectrometry in full-scan mode. Method detection limits for pesticides ranged from 0.002 to 0.025 microgram per liter for 1-liter samples. Recoveries ranged from 44 to 140 percent for 25 pesticides in samples of organic-free reagent water and Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta and Suisun Bay water fortified at 0.05 and 0.50 microgram per liter. The estimated holding time for pesticides after extraction on C-8 solid-phase extraction cartridges ranged from 10 to 257 days.

  16. Pesticide use and risk of end-stage renal disease among licensed pesticide applicators in the Agricultural Health Study

    PubMed Central

    Lebov, Jill F.; Engel, Lawrence S.; Richardson, David; Hogan, Susan L.; Hoppin, Jane A.; Sandler, Dale P.

    2017-01-01

    Objectives Experimental studies suggest a relationship between pesticide exposure and renal impairment, but epidemiological evidence is limited. We evaluated the association between exposure to 41 specific pesticides and end-stage renal disease (ESRD) incidence in the Agricultural Health Study (AHS), a prospective cohort study of licensed pesticide applicators in Iowa and North Carolina. Methods Via linkage to the United States Renal Data System, we identified 320 ESRD cases diagnosed between enrollment (1993-1997) and December 2011 among 55,580 male licensed pesticide applicators. Participants provided pesticide use information via self-administered questionnaires. Lifetime pesticide use was defined as the product of duration and frequency of use and then modified by an intensity factor to account for differences in pesticide application practices. Cox proportional hazards models, adjusted for age and state, were used to estimate associations between ESRD and: 1) ordinal categories of intensity-weighted lifetime use of 41 pesticides, 2) poisoning and high-level pesticide exposures, and 3) pesticide exposure resulting in a medical visit or hospitalization. Results Positive exposure-response trends were observed for the herbicides alachlor, atrazine, metolachlor, paraquat, and pendimethalin, and the insecticide chlordane. More than one medical visit due to pesticide use (HR = 2.13; 95% CI: 1.17, 3.89) and hospitalization due to pesticide use (HR = 3.05; 95% CI: 1.67, 5.58) were significantly associated with ESRD. Conclusions Our findings support an association between ESRD and chronic exposure to specific pesticides and suggest pesticide exposures resulting in medical visits may increase the risk of ESRD. PMID:26177651

  17. Pesticide use and risk of end-stage renal disease among licensed pesticide applicators in the Agricultural Health Study.

    PubMed

    Lebov, Jill F; Engel, Lawrence S; Richardson, David; Hogan, Susan L; Hoppin, Jane A; Sandler, Dale P

    2016-01-01

    Experimental studies suggest a relationship between pesticide exposure and renal impairment, but epidemiological evidence is limited. We evaluated the association between exposure to 39 specific pesticides and end-stage renal disease (ESRD) incidence in the Agricultural Health Study, a prospective cohort study of licensed pesticide applicators in Iowa and North Carolina. Via linkage to the US Renal Data System, we identified 320 ESRD cases diagnosed between enrolment (1993-1997) and December 2011 among 55 580 male licensed pesticide applicators. Participants provided information on use of pesticides via self-administered questionnaires. Lifetime pesticide use was defined as the product of duration and frequency of use and then modified by an intensity factor to account for differences in pesticide application practices. Cox proportional hazards models, adjusted for age and state, were used to estimate associations between ESRD and: (1) ordinal categories of intensity-weighted lifetime use of 39 pesticides, (2) poisoning and high-level pesticide exposures and (3) pesticide exposure resulting in a medical visit or hospitalisation. Positive exposure-response trends were observed for the herbicides alachlor, atrazine, metolachlor, paraquat, and pendimethalin, and the insecticide permethrin. More than one medical visit due to pesticide use (HR=2.13; 95% CI 1.17 to 3.89) and hospitalisation due to pesticide use (HR=3.05; 95% CI 1.67 to 5.58) were significantly associated with ESRD. Our findings support an association between ESRD and chronic exposure to specific pesticides, and suggest pesticide exposures resulting in medical visits may increase the risk of ESRD. Clinicaltrials.gov NCT00352924. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  18. The National Association of School Psychologists' Self-Assessment Tool for School Psychologists: Factor Structure and Relationship to the National Association of School Psychologists' Practice Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eklund, Katie; Rossen, Eric; Charvat, Jeff; Meyer, Lauren; Tanner, Nick

    2016-01-01

    The National Association of School Psychologists' Model for Comprehensive and Integrated School Psychological Services (2010a), often referred to as the National Association of School Psychologists' Practice Model, describes the comprehensive range of professional skills and competencies available from school psychologists across 10 domains. The…

  19. The National Association of School Psychologists' Self-Assessment Tool for School Psychologists: Factor Structure and Relationship to the National Association of School Psychologists' Practice Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eklund, Katie; Rossen, Eric; Charvat, Jeff; Meyer, Lauren; Tanner, Nick

    2016-01-01

    The National Association of School Psychologists' Model for Comprehensive and Integrated School Psychological Services (2010a), often referred to as the National Association of School Psychologists' Practice Model, describes the comprehensive range of professional skills and competencies available from school psychologists across 10 domains. The…

  20. Amnesty day experiences in various states. [Pesticide disposal in USA

    SciTech Connect

    Gilmore, M.E.

    1991-01-01

    The Tennessee Valley Authority's National Fertilizer and Environmental Research Center hosted a pesticide amnesty day. This document discusses the topics of liability, funding, and goals of the disposal of pesticides and household hazardous wastes. A state by state listing of disposal means along with the results of a questionnaire concerning the individual methods used is given.

  1. The current practice trends in pediatric bone-anchored hearing aids in Canada: a national clinical and surgical practice survey

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Since the introduction of bone-anchored hearing aids (BAHAs) in the 1980s, the practices of surgeons who implant these hearing aids have become varied; different indications and surgical techniques are utilized depending on the surgeon and institution. The objective of the current study is to describe the clinical and surgical practices of otolaryngologists in Canada who perform pediatric BAHA operations. Methods A detailed practice questionnaire was devised and sent to all members of the Canadian Society of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery. Those who performed pediatric BAHA surgeries were asked to participate. Results Twelve responses were received (response rate of 80%). All of the respondents identified congenital aural atresia to be an indication for pediatric BAHAs. Other indications were chronic otitis externa or media with hearing loss (92%), allergic reactions to conventional hearing aids (75%), congenital fixation or anomaly of ossicular chain (67%), and unilateral deafness (25%). Minor complications, such as skin reactions, were reported in 25% of cases, while major complications were very rare. There was great variability with regards to surgical techinque and post-operative management. The extent of financial support for the BAHA hardware and device also varied between provinces, and even within the same province. Conclusion There is a lack of general consensus regarding pediatric BAHA surgeries in Canada. With such a small community of otolaryngologists performing this procedure, we are hopeful that this survey can serve as an impetus for a national collaboration to establish a set of general management principles and inspire multi-site research ventures. PMID:23815797

  2. Pesticide residues in olive oil.

    PubMed

    Lentza-Rizos, C; Avramides, E J

    1995-01-01

    The attacks of pests and diseases and the presence of weeds make it necessary to apply pesticides to olive trees to ensure crop protection. Residues of these compounds may remain and contaminate the oil produced. For the analysis of pesticide residues in olive oil, the most common methods are multiresidue methods for fatty substrates, based on partitioning between hexane or light petroleum and acetonitrile. Recently, other methods have been applied, such as ready-to-use, disposable minicolumns or direct injection of oil into a capillary gas chromatograph equipped with a precolumn with an oil recovery tank. Although several pesticides are registered in oil-producing countries for use on olive trees, available literature on the level and fate of residues is very limited. However, it is clear that fat-soluble pesticides tend to concentrate in the oil, both after full coverage and bait spraying, and their use close to harvest should therefore be avoided. Because it is sometimes necessary to use such pesticides late in autumn because of their effectiveness in cases of severe attack, residue trials should be carried out to determine the residue concentration in oil and to set a reasonable preharvest safety interval. Data produced by such trials would permit the establishment of MRLs (tolerances) in olive oil to cover cases where the residues, although relatively high, are not of toxicological significance for consumers (risk assessment). Such is the case with corn oil and the fat-soluble insecticide methyl pirimiphos, registered in the U.S. for use on corn. The U.S. EPA tolerance for methyl pirimiphos in corn is 8 mg/kg, whereas it is 11 times higher (88 mg/kg) for corn oil because it is known to concentrate in the oil. Similar provisions for olive oil, based on data from residue trials according to Good Agricultural Practice, the long-term toxicity of each pesticide as expressed by its ADI for man, and olive oil consumption patterns, would facilitate international trade

  3. Methods of analysis by the U. S. Geological Survey National Water Quality Laboratory; determination of pesticides in water by graphitized carbon-based solid-phase extraction and high-performance liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Furlong, Edward T.; Anderson, Bruce D.; Werner, Stephen L.; Soliven, Paul P.; Coffey, Laura J.; Burkhardt, Mark R.

    2001-01-01

    In 1996, the U.S. Geological Survey National Water Quality Laboratory (NWQL) developed and implemented a graphitized carbon-based solid-phase extraction and high-performance liquid chromatographic analytical method to determine polar pesticide concentrations in surface- and ground-water samples. Subsequently, the NWQL developed a complementary analysis that uses high-performance liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry to detect, identify, and quantify polar pesticides and pesticide metabolites in filtered water at concentrations as low as 10 nanograms per liter. This new method was designed to improve sensitivity and selectivity over the prior method, and to reduce known interferences from natural organic matter. In this new method, pesticides are extracted from filtered water samples by useing a 0.5-gram graphitized carbon-based solid-phase extraction cartridge, eluted from the cartridge, and concentrations determined by using high-perforance liquid chromatography with elecrospray ionization-mass spectrometry. The upper concentratoin limit is 1.000 microgram per liter (ug/L) for most compounds. Single-operator method detection limits in organic-free water samples fortified with pesticdes at a concentration of 0.025 ug/L ranged from 0.0019 to 0.022 ug/L for all compunds in the method. The grand mean (mean of mean recoveries for individual compounds) recoveries in organic-free water samples ranged from 72 to 89 percent, fortified wit hpesticides at three concentrations between 0.025 and 0.5 ug/L. Grand mean recoveries in ground- and surface-water samples ranged from 46 to 119 percent, also fortified with pesticies at three concentrations between 0.025 and 0.5 ug/L. Long-term recoveries from reagent water spikes were used to demonstrate that 38 of 65 compounds can be reported without qualification of the quantitative result across the analytical range of the method. The remaining 27 are reported with qualified estimates of concentration because of greater variability

  4. Health effects of common home, lawn, and garden pesticides.

    PubMed

    Karr, Catherine J; Solomon, Gina M; Brock-Utne, Alice C

    2007-02-01

    Children encounter pesticide products and their residues where they live and play and in the food supply. Pesticide exposure affects pediatric health both acutely and chronically; effects range from mild and subtle to severe. Pediatricians play an important role in identifying and reducing significant pesticide exposure in their patients by taking an exposure history to clarify the extent and types of exposures that may have occurred during acute care and preventive care visits. Developing knowledge about the toxicity of various chemicals, identifying reliable resources for pesticide information, and providing a common-sense approach toward recommending the safest practical alternatives is necessary.

  5. Pesticide Exposure in the Caribbean: A Case From Nutmeg Processing.

    PubMed

    Akpinar-Elci, Muge; Nguyen, MyNgoc Thuy; Bidaisee, Satesh; Elci, Omur Cinai

    2016-01-01

    Many developed countries around the world have implemented regulations to phase out or greatly restrict the use of pesticides. Pesticides are still utilized with minimal restrictions, however, in fumigating agricultural commodities in developing countries such as Grenada. This special report presents the case of a nutmeg factory worker in Grenada who worked with various pesticides including methyl bromide, magnesium phosphide (magtoxin), and aluminum phosphide (phostoxin) without the proper awareness and utilization of health and safety measures. The nutmeg factory worker later developed metastatic bladder cancer, which may have been triggered by a combination of individual risk factors along with long-term occupational exposure to these pesticides. In this special report, the occupational health importance of prevention in a work environment with significant exposure to pesticides is highlighted as well as some of the fundamental deficiencies in awareness among workers in developing nations concerning the deleterious effects of frequent exposure to pesticides.

  6. Inadequate prenatal care use and breastfeeding practices in Canada: a national survey of women.

    PubMed

    Costanian, Christy; Macpherson, Alison K; Tamim, Hala

    2016-05-05

    Previous studies have demonstrated that prenatal care (PNC) has an effect on women's breastfeeding practices. This study aims to examine the influence of adequacy of PNC initiation and services use on breastfeeding practices in Canada. Data for this secondary analysis was drawn from the Maternity Experiences Survey (MES), a cross sectional, nationally representative study that investigated the peri-and post-natal experiences of mothers, aged 15 and above, with singleton live births between 2005 and 2006 in the Canadian provinces and territories. Adequacy of PNC initiation and services use were measured by the Adequacy of Prenatal Care Utilization Index. The main outcomes were mother's intent to breastfeed, initiate breastfeeding, exclusively breastfeed, and terminate breastfeeding at 6 months. Multivariate logistic regression analysis assessed the adequacy of PNC initiation and service use on breastfeeding practices, while adjusting for socioeconomic, demographic, maternal, pregnancy and delivery related variables. Bootstrapping was performed to account for the complex sampling design. Around 75.0% of women intended to only breastfeed their child, with 90.0% initiating breastfeeding, while 6 month termination and exclusive breastfeeding rates were at 52.0% and 14.3%, respectively. Regression analysis showed no association between adequate PNC initiation or services use, and any breastfeeding practice. Mothers with either a family doctor or a midwife as PNC provider were significantly more likely to have better breastfeeding practices compared to an obstetrician. In Canada, provider type impacts a mother's breastfeeding decision and behavior rather than quantity and timing of PNC.

  7. Sexual practices at last heterosexual encounter and occurrence of orgasm in a national survey.

    PubMed

    Richters, Juliet; Visser, Richard de; Rissel, Chris; Smith, Anthony

    2006-08-01

    In order to examine factors associated with orgasm in heterosexual encounters, we analyzed data from the Australian Study of Health and Relationships, a national telephone survey of sexual behavior and attitudes and sexual health knowledge carried out in 2001-2002 with a representative sample of 19,307 Australians aged 16 to 59. Respondents were asked whether at their last sexual encounter they gave or received manual stimulation and oral sex, had vaginal intercourse or anal intercourse, and whether they had an orgasm. Vaginal intercourse was the dominant practice: 95% of encounters included it. Of the 64 possible combinations of these practices, 13 account for 93% of encounters: vaginal intercourse alone (12%), vaginal + manual stimulation of the man's and/or woman's genitals (49%), and vaginal intercourse + manual + oral (32%). Encounters may also have included other practices. Men had an orgasm in 95% of encounters and women in 69%. Generally, the more practices engaged in, the higher a woman's chance of having an orgasm. Women were more likely to reach orgasm in encounters including cunnilingus. This is the first large-scale empirical study worldwide to link specific practices with orgasm. Demographic and sexual history variables were comparatively weakly associated with orgasm.

  8. Pesticide Exposure and Health Problems Among Female Horticulture Workers in Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    Mrema, Ezra Jonathan; Ngowi, Aiwerasia Vera; Kishinhi, Stephen Simon; Mamuya, Simon Henry

    2017-01-01

    Commercialization of horticulture farming, expansion of farms, and the practice of monoculture favor the proliferation of pests, which in turn increases the need for pesticides. Increased exposure to pesticides is associated with inadequate knowledge on the hazardous nature of pesticides, poor hygiene practices, lack of availability of washing facilities, and insufficient adherence to precautionary instructions on pesticide labels. Mitigating the risks posed by pesticides is considered a less compelling interest than alleviating poverty. Women working in horticulture in Tanzania usually have low levels of education and income and lack decision-making power even on matters relating to their own health. This contributes to pesticide exposure and other health challenges. Because of multiple factors, some of which act as study confounders, few studies on exposure to pesticides and health effects have been conducted among women. This review identified factors that contribute to the increased health effects among women working in the horticultural industry and how these effects relate to pesticide exposure. PMID:28690397

  9. Pesticide Exposure and Health Problems Among Female Horticulture Workers in Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Mrema, Ezra Jonathan; Ngowi, Aiwerasia Vera; Kishinhi, Stephen Simon; Mamuya, Simon Henry

    2017-01-01

    Commercialization of horticulture farming, expansion of farms, and the practice of monoculture favor the proliferation of pests, which in turn increases the need for pesticides. Increased exposure to pesticides is associated with inadequate knowledge on the hazardous nature of pesticides, poor hygiene practices, lack of availability of washing facilities, and insufficient adherence to precautionary instructions on pesticide labels. Mitigating the risks posed by pesticides is considered a less compelling interest than alleviating poverty. Women working in horticulture in Tanzania usually have low levels of education and income and lack decision-making power even on matters relating to their own health. This contributes to pesticide exposure and other health challenges. Because of multiple factors, some of which act as study confounders, few studies on exposure to pesticides and health effects have been conducted among women. This review identified factors that contribute to the increased health effects among women working in the horticultural industry and how these effects relate to pesticide exposure.

  10. Pesticides and childhood cancers.

    PubMed Central

    Daniels, J L; Olshan, A F; Savitz, D A

    1997-01-01

    To evaluate the possible association between pesticides and the risk of childhood cancers, epidemiologic studies published between 1970 and 1996 were critically reviewed. Thirty-one studies investigated whether occupational or residential exposure to pesticides by either parents or children was related to increased risk of childhood cancer. In general, the reported relative risk estimates were modest. Risk estimates appeared to be stronger when pesticide exposure was measured in more detail. Frequent occupational exposure to pesticides or home pesticide use was more strongly associated with both childhood leukemia and brain cancer than either professional exterminations or the use of garden pesticides. Occupational pesticide exposure was also associated with increased risk of Wilms' tumor, Ewing's sarcoma, and germ cell tumors. Residence on a farm, a proxy for pesticide exposure, was associated with increased risk of a number of childhood cancers. Although increased risk of some childhood cancers in association with pesticide exposure is suggested by multiple studies, methodological limitations common to many studies restrict conclusions; these include indirect exposure classification, small sample size, and potential biases in control selection. Opportunities for methodologic improvement in future studies of pesticides and childhood cancers are described. PMID:9349828

  11. Watershed Regressions for Pesticides (WARP) Models for Predicting Stream Concentrations of Multiple Pesticides.

    PubMed

    Stone, Wesley W; Crawford, Charles G; Gilliom, Robert J

    2013-11-01

    Watershed Regressions for Pesticides for multiple pesticides (WARP-MP) are statistical models developed to predict concentration statistics for a wide range of pesticides in unmonitored streams. The WARP-MP models use the national atrazine WARP models in conjunction with an adjustment factor for each additional pesticide. The WARP-MP models perform best for pesticides with application timing and methods similar to those used with atrazine. For other pesticides, WARP-MP models tend to overpredict concentration statistics for the model development sites. For WARP and WARP-MP, the less-than-ideal sampling frequency for the model development sites leads to underestimation of the shorter-duration concentration; hence, the WARP models tend to underpredict 4- and 21-d maximum moving-average concentrations, with median errors ranging from 9 to 38% As a result of this sampling bias, pesticides that performed well with the model development sites are expected to have predictions that are biased low for these shorter-duration concentration statistics. The overprediction by WARP-MP apparent for some of the pesticides is variably offset by underestimation of the model development concentration statistics. Of the 112 pesticides used in the WARP-MP application to stream segments nationwide, 25 were predicted to have concentration statistics with a 50% or greater probability of exceeding one or more aquatic life benchmarks in one or more stream segments. Geographically, many of the modeled streams in the Corn Belt Region were predicted to have one or more pesticides that exceeded an aquatic life benchmark during 2009, indicating the potential vulnerability of streams in this region.

  12. Watershed Regressions for Pesticides (WARP) models for predicting stream concentrations of multiple pesticides

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stone, Wesley W.; Crawford, Charles G.; Gilliom, Robert J.

    2013-01-01

    Watershed Regressions for Pesticides for multiple pesticides (WARP-MP) are statistical models developed to predict concentration statistics for a wide range of pesticides in unmonitored streams. The WARP-MP models use the national atrazine WARP models in conjunction with an adjustment factor for each additional pesticide. The WARP-MP models perform best for pesticides with application timing and methods similar to those used with atrazine. For other pesticides, WARP-MP models tend to overpredict concentration statistics for the model development sites. For WARP and WARP-MP, the less-than-ideal sampling frequency for the model development sites leads to underestimation of the shorter-duration concentration; hence, the WARP models tend to underpredict 4- and 21-d maximum moving-average concentrations, with median errors ranging from 9 to 38% As a result of this sampling bias, pesticides that performed well with the model development sites are expected to have predictions that are biased low for these shorter-duration concentration statistics. The overprediction by WARP-MP apparent for some of the pesticides is variably offset by underestimation of the model development concentration statistics. Of the 112 pesticides used in the WARP-MP application to stream segments nationwide, 25 were predicted to have concentration statistics with a 50% or greater probability of exceeding one or more aquatic life benchmarks in one or more stream segments. Geographically, many of the modeled streams in the Corn Belt Region were predicted to have one or more pesticides that exceeded an aquatic life benchmark during 2009, indicating the potential vulnerability of streams in this region.

  13. National Water-Quality Assessment Program; summary of pesticide data collected on Whites Bayou near Anahuac, Texas, March to September 1994

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    1995-01-01

    One water-quality monitoring site was established on Whites Bayou, at the downstream end of the study area. Sampling began in March 1994 and will continue for 1 year. Sampling frequency ranges from four times per month in May and June to once per month in July. Stream-stage measurements were made three times per week from April to September. Field measurements during sampling include stream stage and discharge, water temperature, pH, dissolved oxygen, and specific conductance. Laboratory analyses include major inorganic ions, nutrients, sediment, and pesticides.

  14. Confirming the validity of Part II of the National Board Dental Examinations: a practice analysis.

    PubMed

    Kramer, Gene A; Neumann, Laura M

    2003-12-01

    Successful completion of Part II of the National Board Dental Examinations is a part of the licensure process for dentists. Good testing practice requires that the content of a high stakes examination like Part II be based on a strong relationship between the content and the judgments of practicing dentists on what is important to their practice of dentistry. In an effort to demonstrate this relationship for Part II, the Joint Commission conducted a practice analysis, which involved a two-dimensional model. The sixty-three Competencies of the New Dentist, developed and promulgated by the American Dental Education Association, were used for one dimension, and the current content specifications were used for the other. A survey of 520 practicing dentists was conducted to determine the importance of each of the competencies for patient care. These dentists were recent graduates of accredited programs and passed Part II three to five years prior to the conduct of the practice analysis. The survey directed the respondents to rate the importance of the competencies on a scale from 1 to 5. Of the 520 in the sample, 244 dentists responded. The reliability index was above 0.90. The importance rating for each competency was translated into the associated number of items. The number of items devoted to each competency was allocated to the current content elements that are related to the knowledge and problem-solving skills that support each competency. The findings specified revisions in the relative number of items dedicated to the various elements in the specifications. These findings indicate that the items on the examination under the current distribution adequately reflected practice. In general, there were relatively small changes in the content specifications. The total number of changes in items was forty-eight, which represents changes in slightly less than 10 percent of the overall number of items.

  15. Hospital cardiac arrest resuscitation practice in the US: a nationally representative survey

    PubMed Central

    Edelson, Dana P.; Yuen, Trevor C; Mancini, Mary E; Davis, Daniel P; Hunt, Elizabeth A; Miller, Joseph A; Abella, Benjamin S

    2014-01-01

    Background In-hospital cardiac arrest (IHCA) outcomes vary widely between hospitals, even after adjusting for patient characteristics, suggesting variations in practice as a potential etiology. However, little is known about the standards of IHCA resuscitation practice among US hospitals. Objective To describe current US hospital practices with regard to resuscitation care. Design A nationally representative mail survey. Setting A random sample of 1,000 hospitals from the American Hospital Association database, stratified into nine categories by hospital volume tertile and teaching status (major teaching, minor teaching and non-teaching). Subjects Surveys were addressed to each hospital's CPR Committee Chair or Chief Medical/Quality Officer. Measurements A 27-item questionnaire. Results Responses were received from 439 hospitals with a similar distribution of admission volume and teaching status as the sample population (p=0.50). Of the 270 (66%) hospitals with a CPR committee, 23 (10%) were chaired by a Hospitalist. High frequency practices included having a Rapid Response Team (91%) and standardizing defibrillators (88%). Low frequency practices included therapeutic hypothermia and use of CPR assist technology. Other practices such as debriefing (34%) and simulation training (62%) were more variable and correlated with the presence of a CPR Committee and/or dedicated personnel for resuscitation quality improvement. The majority of hospitals (79%) reported at least one barrier to quality improvement, of which the lack of a resuscitation champion and inadequate training were the most common. Conclusions There is wide variability between hospitals and within practices for resuscitation care in the US with opportunities for improvement. PMID:24550202

  16. The Canadian National Dairy Study 2015-Adoption of milking practices in Canadian dairy herds.

    PubMed

    Belage, E; Dufour, S; Bauman, C; Jones-Bitton, A; Kelton, D F

    2017-03-16

    Several studies have investigated which management practices have the greatest effect on udder health, but little information is available on how broadly the recommended milking practices are adopted across Canada. The National Dairy Study 2015 was designed to gather dairy cattle health and management data on dairy farms across Canada. The objectives of the present study were to describe the current proportions of adoption of milking practices on Canadian dairy farms, and identify factors associated with their use on farms. A bilingual questionnaire measuring use of various practices, including an udder health-specific section, was developed and sent to all Canadian dairy farms. The questions in the udder health section of the questionnaire were adapted from a bilingual questionnaire previously validated and containing questions regarding general milking hygiene and routine, and on-farm mastitis management. Chi-squared tests were used to investigate simple associations between adoption of practices and various explanatory variables including region, milking system, herd size, and bulk tank somatic cell count. In total, 1,373 dairy producers completed the survey. The regional distribution of the participants was representative of the Canadian dairy farm population, and milk quality was, on average, similar to nonparticipants. Overall, Canadian dairy producers followed the recommendations for milking procedures, but some were more extensively used than others. Fore-stripping, cleaning teats, wiping teats dry, using single-cow towels, and use of postmilking teat disinfectant were widely adopted. Use of gloves and glove hygiene, use of a premilking teat disinfectant, and use of automatic takeoffs were not as extensively implemented. Adoption percentages for several practices, including use of gloves, use of a premilking teat disinfectant, teat drying methods, and use of automatic takeoffs were significantly associated with milking system, herd size, and region. It

  17. Healthcare-associated pathogens and nursing home policies and practices: results from a national survey.

    PubMed

    Ye, Zhiqiu; Mukamel, Dana B; Huang, Susan S; Li, Yue; Temkin-Greener, Helena

    2015-07-01

    OBJECTIVE To examine the prevalence of healthcare-associated pathogens and the infection control policies and practices in a national sample of nursing homes (NHs). METHODS In 2012, we conducted a national survey about the extent to which NHs follow suggested infection control practices with regard to 3 common healthcare-associated pathogens: methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, Clostridium difficile, and extended-spectrum β-lactamase producers, and their prevalence in NHs. We adapted a previously used and validated NH infection control survey, including questions on prevalence, admission and screening policies, contact precautions, decolonization, and cleaning practices. RESULTS A total of 1,002 surveys were returned. Of the responding NHs, 14.2% were less likely to accept residents with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, with the principal reason being lack of single or cohort rooms. NHs do not routinely perform admission screening (96.4%) because it is not required by regulation (56.2%) and would not change care provision (30.7%). Isolation strategies vary substantially, with gloves being most commonly used. Most NHs (75.1%) do not decolonize carriers of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, but some (10.6%) decolonize more than 90% of residents. Despite no guidance on how resident rooms on contact precautions should be cleaned, 59.3% of NHs report enhanced cleaning for such rooms. CONCLUSION Overall, NHs tend to follow voluntary infection control guidelines only if doing so does not require substantial financial investment in new or dedicated staff or infrastructure.

  18. 78 FR 3418 - Pesticides; Draft Guidance for Pesticide Registrants on Web-Distributed Labeling for Pesticide...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-16

    ... AGENCY Pesticides; Draft Guidance for Pesticide Registrants on Web- Distributed Labeling for Pesticide... (PR Notice) titled ``Web-Distributed Labeling for Pesticide Products.'' PR Notices are issued by the... Internet. Web-distributed labeling would allow users to retrieve a streamlined version of the pesticide...

  19. 78 FR 9688 - Pesticides; Draft Guidance for Pesticide Registrants on Antimicrobial Pesticide Products With...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-11

    ... AGENCY Pesticides; Draft Guidance for Pesticide Registrants on Antimicrobial Pesticide Products With Mold... for Antimicrobial Pesticide Products with Mold-Related Label Claims. This document extends the comment... guidance for antimicrobial pesticide products with mold-related claims. In response to comments...

  20. 77 FR 74003 - Pesticides; Draft Guidance for Pesticide Registrants on Antimicrobial Pesticide Products With...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-12

    ... AGENCY Pesticides; Draft Guidance for Pesticide Registrants on Antimicrobial Pesticide Products With Mold... Registration Notice (PR Notice) titled ``Guidance on Antimicrobial Pesticide Products with Mold-Related Label... (efficacy) data and labeling for ``mold-related'' pesticide products. EPA believes that the label...

  1. COMPARISON OF FIVE EXTRACTION METHODS ON INCURRED AND FORTIFIED PESTICIDES IN COMPOSITE DIETS: BLENDER, SOXHLET, ASE, MICROWAVE AND SFE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The USEPA National Exposure Research Laboratory studies dietary exposure to a diverse group of semi-volatile pesticides by analyzing 24 hour duplicate composite diets. The pesticides of interest include organochlorines, organophosphates, anilines, and triazines. Currently, there ...

  2. COMPARISON OF FIVE EXTRACTION METHODS ON INCURRED AND FORTIFIED PESTICIDES IN COMPOSITE DIETS: BLENDER, SOXHLET, ASE, MICROWAVE AND SFE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The USEPA National Exposure Research Laboratory studies dietary exposure to a diverse group of semi-volatile pesticides by analyzing 24 hour duplicate composite diets. The pesticides of interest include organochlorines, organophosphates, anilines, and triazines. Currently, there ...

  3. Pesticides in stream sediment and aquatic biota: distribution, trends, and governing factors

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nowell, Lisa H.; Capel, Peter D.

    1999-01-01

    More than 20 years after the ban of DDT and other organochlorine pesticides, pesticides continue to be detected in air, rain, soil, surface water, bed sediment, and aquatic and terrestrial biota throughout the world. Recent research suggests that low levels of some of these pesticides may have the potential to affect the development, reproduction, and behavior of fish and wildlife, and possibly humans. Pesticides in Stream Sediment and Aquatic Biota: Distribution, Trends, and Governing Factors assesses the occurrence and behavior of pesticides in bed sediment and aquatic biota-the two major compartments of the hydrologic system where organochlorine pesticides are most likely to accumulate. This book collects, for the first time, results from several hundred monitoring studies and field experiments, ranging in scope from individual sites to the entire nation. Comprehensive tables provide concise summaries of study locations, pesticides analyzed, and study outcomes. Comprehensive and extensively illustrated, Pesticides in Stream Sediment and Aquatic Biota: Distribution, Trends, and Governing Factors evaluates the sources, environmental fate, geographic distribution, and long-term trends of pesticides in bed sediment and aquatic biota. The book focuses on organochlorine pesticides, but also assesses the potential for currently used pesticides to be found in bed sediment and aquatic biota. Topics covered in depth include the effect of land use on pesticide occurrence, mechanisms of pesticide uptake and accumulation by aquatic biota, and the environmental significance of observed levels of pesticides in stream sediment and aquatic biota.

  4. Pesticide Product Label System

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Pesticide Product Label System (PPLS) provides a collection of pesticide product labels (Adobe PDF format) that have been approved by EPA under Section 3 of the Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act (FIFRA). New labels were added to PPLS on November 21, 2014. Pesticide product labels provide critical information about how to safely handle and use registered pesticide products. An approved pesticide product label represents the full content of EPAs registration decision regarding that product. Pesticide labels contain detailed information on the use, storage, and handling of a product. This information will be found on EPA stamped-approved labels and, in some cases, in subsequent related correspondence, which is also included in PPLS. You may need to review several PDF files for a single product to determine the complete current terms of registration.

  5. New Labeling for Neonicotinoid Pesticides

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    These documents, a graphic of the bee advisory box and letters to pesticide registrants, describe steps by EPA to change pesticide labels to better protect pollinators by being clearer and more precise in their directions for pesticide application.

  6. Pesticide Worker Safety Cooperative Agreements

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The worker safety program cooperative agreements fund projects to educate pesticide applicators, handlers, and farmworkers on working safely with, and around, pesticides. Read about pesticide related grant opportunities and reports from previous grants.

  7. Models for Pesticide Risk Assessment

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA considers the toxicity of the pesticide as well as the amount of pesticide to which a person or the environments may be exposed in risk assessment. Scientists use mathematical models to predict pesticide concentrations in exposure assessment.

  8. The National Criminal Justice Treatment Practices survey: Multilevel survey methods and procedures⋆

    PubMed Central

    Taxman, Faye S.; Young, Douglas W.; Wiersema, Brian; Rhodes, Anne; Mitchell, Suzanne

    2007-01-01

    The National Criminal Justice Treatment Practices (NCJTP) survey provides a comprehensive inquiry into the nature of programs and services provided to adult and juvenile offenders involved in the justice system in the United States. The multilevel survey design covers topics such as the mission and goals of correctional and treatment programs; organizational climate and culture for providing services; organizational capacity and needs; opinions of administrators and staff regarding rehabilitation, punishment, and services provided to offenders; treatment policies and procedures; and working relationships between correctional and other agencies. The methodology generates national estimates of the availability of programs and services for offenders. This article details the methodology and sampling frame for the NCJTP survey, response rates, and survey procedures. Prevalence estimates of juvenile and adult offenders under correctional control are provided with externally validated comparisons to illustrate the veracity of the methodology. Limitations of the survey methods are also discussed. PMID:17383548

  9. Pathways to fitness for practice: National Vocational Qualifications as a foundation of competence in nurse education.

    PubMed

    Grundy, L

    2001-05-01

    Nurse education is currently undergoing major change. This article seeks to examine how National Vocational Qualifications (NVQs) are contributing to the future of nurse education. Criticisms of Project 2000 (P2K) include failure of the programme to produce nurses who are 'fit for practice' at the point of registration. A major criticism was that there is not enough skills-based training included. Following a recent report, recommendations were made which included a move to introduce a competence-based approach in nurse education. This approach is becoming more evident in both pre- and post-registration nurse education. A mapping exercise demonstrated that many of the UKCC competencies for pre-registration nurse education could be mapped to care NVQs. The article concludes that the positive aspects of care NVQs and P2K education should be embraced to enable programmes of nurse education to prepare nurses who are 'fit for practice'. Copyright 2001 Harcourt Publishers Ltd.

  10. Can physicians treat tuberculosis? Report on a national survey of physician practices.

    PubMed Central

    Sumartojo, E M; Geiter, L J; Miller, B; Hale, B E

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Researchers examined physicians' treatment strategies for tuberculosis to determine whether they would follow recommendations of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the American Thoracic Society. METHODS: A national survey sampled 1772 physicians. Analyses tested correlates of recommended treatment regimens. RESULTS: Among respondents, 59.4% described a recommended regimen. Specialists; physicians aware of professional publications, treatment recommendations, and reporting requirements; and those having more than 50% of patients in nursing homes were more likely to describe recommended regimens. Physicians who had been in practice longer, relied on personal experience, or had more than 50% of patients receiving Medicaid were less likely to describe recommended regimens. CONCLUSIONS: Physicians who treat tuberculosis require training and support. Policymakers should consider who should treat tuberculosis and how recommended practice should be ensured. PMID:9431292

  11. Practical Side of the Bibliographic Information Retrieval System in the National Museum of Ethnology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kondo, Katsuichi

    The information retrieval system of the National Museum of Ethnology made its debut in 1979 and now enables us to search the books not only in the Museum but in the country and abroad by means of JAPAN MARC & LC MARC. The author presents the outline and the development of the information managing system including the above briefly and secondly the practical case of using our retrieval system in particular. The problems to be solved in the course of the future plan are also mentioned.

  12. Relaxation Practice and Physiologic Regulation in a National Sample of Older Taiwanese

    PubMed Central

    Goldman, Noreen; Lin, Yu-Hsuan; Weinstein, Maxine

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Objectives To compare the effects of relaxation practice and other exercise on a multisystem measure of physiologic dysregulation in a national sample of older Taiwanese. Design The study was a cross-sectional survey. Settings/location The study was conducted in Taiwan. Subjects A population-based sample of 1036 adults aged 53 and older completed an in-home interview and in-hospital physical examination. The final model is based on 934 respondents with complete data. Outcome measures The outcome measures were overall dysregulation, based on 26 biomarkers, and subscores for cardiovascular/metabolic risk factors and inflammatory markers. Results After adjustment for age and sex, overall dysregulation is 0.35 of a standard deviation (SD) lower for practitioners of relaxation techniques compared with nonpractitioners. The effect of exercise is smaller: 0.19 SD difference between those who exercise regularly and those who do not exercise. Similar effects of relaxation practice and regular exercise were found on inflammation, but smaller effects for cardiovascular/metabolic risk factors. In the presence of controls for sociodemographic characteristics, medication use, and a wide range of self-reported and interviewer-assessed health indicators, the effect of relaxation practice is attenuated but remains sizable (-0.19 of a SD for overall dysregulation); regular exercise has a comparable effect (-0.16 of a SD). The effects are similar for the inflammation subscore, but not significant for cardiovascular/metabolic risk factors after adjusting for health status. Conclusions The physiologic benefits of relaxation practice that have been demonstrated in small experimental studies are also evident in the general population of older Taiwanese who practice these techniques in everyday life. Relaxation practice is associated with lower levels of physiologic dysregulation, particularly with respect to inflammation. Among this sample of older adults, the effect appears to

  13. Supporting near-peer teaching in general practice: a national survey.

    PubMed

    van de Mortel, Thea F; Silberberg, Peter L; Ahern, Christine M; Pit, Sabrina W

    2016-05-12

    Training bodies see teaching by junior doctors and vocational trainees in general practice (family medicine) as integral to a doctor's role. While there is a body of literature on teacher training programs, and on peer and near-peer teaching in hospitals and universities, there has been little examination of near-peer teaching in general practice. Near-peer teaching is teaching to those close to oneself but not at the same level in the training continuum. This study investigated the perceptions of key stakeholders on near-peer teaching in general practice, their current near-peer teaching activities, and methods of recruitment and support. A national anonymous online survey was used to obtain data on Australian stakeholders' perceptions of, and processes related to, near-peer teaching in general practice. Recruitment occurred via electronic invitations sent by training providers and stakeholder associations. Separate questionnaires, which were validated via several cycles of review and piloting, were developed for supervisors and learners. The survey included both fixed response and open response questions. Responses (n = 1,122) were obtained from 269 general practitioner supervisors, 221 general practice registrars, 319 prevocational trainees, and 313 medical students. All stakeholder groups agreed that registrars should teach learners in general practice, and 72% of registrars, 68% of prevocational trainees, and 33% of medical students reported having done some teaching in this setting. Three-quarters of supervisors allowed learners to teach. Having another learner observe their consultations was the most common form of teaching for registrars and prevocational trainees. Eight percent of registrars received some remuneration for teaching. The approach used to determine teaching readiness and quality varied greatly between supervisors. Near-peer teaching was supported by the majority of stakeholders, but is underutilised and has poor structural support

  14. Exploring knowledge, attitudes, and practices related to alcohol in Mongolia: a national population-based survey

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The leading cause of mortality in Mongolia is Non-Communicable Disease. Alcohol is recognised by the World Health Organization as one of the four major disease drivers and so, in order to better understand and triangulate recent national burden-of-disease surveys and to inform policy responses to alcohol consumption in Mongolia, a national Knowledge, Attitudes and Practices survey was conducted. Focusing on Non-Communicable Diseases and their risk factors, this publication explores the alcohol-related findings of this national survey. Methods A door-to-door, household-based questionnaire was conducted on 3450 people from across Mongolia. Participants were recruited using a multi-stage random cluster sampling technique, and eligibility was granted to permanent residents of households who were aged between 15 and 64 years. A nationally representative sample size was calculated, based on methodologies aligned with the WHO STEPwise approach to Surveillance. Results Approximately 50% of males and 30% of females were found to be current drinkers of alcohol. Moreover, nine in ten respondents agreed that heavy episodic drinking of alcohol is common among Mongolians, and the harms of daily alcohol consumption were generally perceived to be high. Indeed, 90% of respondents regarded daily alcohol consumption as either ‘harmful’ or ‘very harmful’. Interestingly, morning drinking, suggestive of problematic drinking, was highest in rural men and was associated with lower-levels of education and unemployment. Conclusion This research suggests that Mongolia faces an epidemiological challenge in addressing the burden of alcohol use and related problems. Males, rural populations and those aged 25-34 years exhibited the highest levels of risky drinking practices, while urban populations exhibit higher levels of general alcohol consumption. These findings suggest a focus and context for public health measures addressing alcohol-related harm in Mongolia. PMID

  15. Regional cancer centre demonstrates voluntary conformity with the national Radiation Oncology Practice Standards

    SciTech Connect

    Manley, Stephen Last, Andrew; Fu, Kenneth; Greenham, Stuart; Kovendy, Andrew; Shakespeare, Thomas P

    2015-06-15

    Radiation Oncology Practice Standards have been developed over the last 10 years and were published for use in Australia in 2011. Although the majority of the radiation oncology community supports the implementation of the standards, there has been no mechanism for uniform assessment or governance. North Coast Cancer Institute's public radiation oncology service is provided across three main service centres on the north coast of NSW. With a strong focus on quality management, we embraced the opportunity to demonstrate conformity with the Radiation Oncology Practice Standards. The Local Health District's Clinical Governance units were engaged to perform assessments of our conformity with the standards and this was signed off as complete on 16 December 2013. The process of demonstrating conformity with the Radiation Oncology Practice Standards has enhanced the culture of quality in our centres. We have demonstrated that self-assessment utilising trained auditors is a viable method for centres to demonstrate conformity. National implementation of the Radiation Oncology Practice Standards will benefit individual centres and the broader radiation oncology community to improve the service delivered to our patients.

  16. Associations among school characteristics and foodservice practices in a nationally representative sample of United States schools.

    PubMed

    Thomson, Jessica L; Tussing-Humphreys, Lisa M; Martin, Corby K; LeBlanc, Monique M; Onufrak, Stephen J

    2012-01-01

    Determine school characteristics associated with healthy/unhealthy food service offerings or healthy food preparation practices. Secondary analysis of cross-sectional data. Nationally representative sample of public and private elementary, middle, and high schools. Data from the 2006 School Health Policies and Practices Study Food Service School Questionnaire, n = 526 for Healthy and Unhealthy Offerings analysis; n = 520 for Healthy Preparation analysis. Scores for healthy/unhealthy foodservice offerings and healthy food preparation practices. Multivariable regression to determine significant associations among school characteristics and offerings/preparation practices. Public schools and schools participating in the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) Team Nutrition reported more healthy offerings and preparation than private or nonparticipating schools, respectively. Elementary schools reported fewer unhealthy offerings than middle or high schools; middle schools reported fewer unhealthy offerings than high schools. Schools requiring foodservice managers to have a college education reported more healthy preparation, whereas those requiring completion of a foodservice training program reported fewer unhealthy offerings and more healthy preparation than schools without these requirements. Results suggest the school nutrition environment may be improved by requiring foodservice managers to hold a nutrition-related college degree and/or successfully pass a foodservice training program, and by participating in a school-based nutrition program, such as USDA Team Nutrition. Copyright © 2012 Society for Nutrition Education and Behavior. All rights reserved.

  17. Regional cancer centre demonstrates voluntary conformity with the national Radiation Oncology Practice Standards.

    PubMed

    Manley, Stephen; Last, Andrew; Fu, Kenneth; Greenham, Stuart; Kovendy, Andrew; Shakespeare, Thomas P

    2015-06-01

    Radiation Oncology Practice Standards have been developed over the last 10 years and were published for use in Australia in 2011. Although the majority of the radiation oncology community supports the implementation of the standards, there has been no mechanism for uniform assessment or governance. North Coast Cancer Institute's public radiation oncology service is provided across three main service centres on the north coast of NSW. With a strong focus on quality management, we embraced the opportunity to demonstrate conformity with the Radiation Oncology Practice Standards. The Local Health District's Clinical Governance units were engaged to perform assessments of our conformity with the standards and this was signed off as complete on 16 December 2013. The process of demonstrating conformity with the Radiation Oncology Practice Standards has enhanced the culture of quality in our centres. We have demonstrated that self-assessment utilising trained auditors is a viable method for centres to demonstrate conformity. National implementation of the Radiation Oncology Practice Standards will benefit individual centres and the broader radiation oncology community to improve the service delivered to our patients.

  18. Regional cancer centre demonstrates voluntary conformity with the national Radiation Oncology Practice Standards

    PubMed Central

    Manley, Stephen; Last, Andrew; Fu, Kenneth; Greenham, Stuart; Kovendy, Andrew; Shakespeare, Thomas P

    2015-01-01

    Radiation Oncology Practice Standards have been developed over the last 10 years and were published for use in Australia in 2011. Although the majority of the radiation oncology community supports the implementation of the standards, there has been no mechanism for uniform assessment or governance. North Coast Cancer Institute's public radiation oncology service is provided across three main service centres on the north coast of NSW. With a strong focus on quality management, we embraced the opportunity to demonstrate conformity with the Radiation Oncology Practice Standards. The Local Health District's Clinical Governance units were engaged to perform assessments of our conformity with the standards and this was signed off as complete on 16 December 2013. The process of demonstrating conformity with the Radiation Oncology Practice Standards has enhanced the culture of quality in our centres. We have demonstrated that self-assessment utilising trained auditors is a viable method for centres to demonstrate conformity. National implementation of the Radiation Oncology Practice Standards will benefit individual centres and the broader radiation oncology community to improve the service delivered to our patients. PMID:26229680

  19. Case-Logging Practices in Otolaryngology Residency Training: National Survey of Residents and Program Directors.

    PubMed

    Dermody, Sarah M; Gao, William; McGinn, Johnathan D; Malekzadeh, Sonya

    2017-06-01

    Objective (1) Evaluate the consistency and manner in which otolaryngology residents log surgical cases. (2) Assess the extent of instruction and guidance provided by program directors on case-logging practices. Study Design Cross-sectional national survey. Setting Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education otolaryngology residency programs in the United States. Subjects and Methods US otolaryngology residents, postgraduate year 2 through graduating chiefs as of July 2016, were recruited to respond to an anonymous questionnaire designed to characterize surgical case-logging practices. Program directors of US otolaryngology residency programs were recruited to respond to an anonymous questionnaire to elucidate how residents are instructed to log cases. Results A total of 272 residents and 53 program directors completed the survey, yielding response rates of 40.6% and 49.5%, respectively. Perceived accuracy of case logs is low among residents and program directors. Nearly 40% of residents purposely choose not to log certain cases, and 65.1% of residents underreport cases performed. More than 80% of program directors advise residents to log procedures performed outside the operating room, yet only 16% of residents consistently log such cases. Conclusion Variability in surgical case-logging behaviors and differences in provided instruction highlight the need for methods to improve consistency of logging practices. It is imperative to standardize practices across otolaryngology residency programs for case logs to serve as an accurate measure of surgical competency. This study provides a foundation for reform efforts within residency programs and for the Resident Case Log System.

  20. AWARENESS AND PRACTICE ON BIOMEDICAL WASTE MANAGEMENT AMONG HEALTH CARE PERSONNEL IN KENYATTA NATIONAL HOSPITAL.

    PubMed

    Njiru, M W; Mutai, C; Gikunju, J

    2013-02-01

    The proper handling and disposal of Bio-medical waste (BMW) is very imperative. There are well defined set rules for handling BMW worldwide. Unfortunately, laxity and lack of adequate training and awareness in execution of these rules leads to staid health and environment apprehension. To assessthe awareness and practice regarding biomedical waste management among health care personnel in Kenyatta National Hospital (KNH) DESIGN: A cross sectional study design. Kenyatta National Hospital Doctors, Nurses and support staff who have worked in the institution for more than six months and consented were evaluated. The total level of awareness on biomedical waste management among health care personnel was found to be 60%. The doctors scored 51% which was the lowest score the nurses scored 65% which was the highest score while the support staff scored 55%. As for the practices, the results showed that most of the healthcare personnel were aware of the biomedical waste management practices in the hospital with the lowest scores emerging from doctors and this shows no association between knowledge on biomedical waste management and education. When asked how they would describe the control of waste management in the institution 59% said good and 40% said fair while 1% said poor. The present study therefore outlines the gap between biomedical waste management rules and inadequate state of execution and awareness in practice. It is recommended that enhancement be done to the already existing Hospital Infection Control Committee to supervise all the aspects of biomedical waste management. Periodical training programmes for biomedical waste handling and disposal to the staff with focus on doctors is highlighted.

  1. A National Survey of Primary Care Practice-Based Research Networks

    PubMed Central

    Tierney, William M.; Oppenheimer, Caitlin C.; Hudson, Brenda L.; Benz, Jennifer; Finn, Amy; Hickner, John M.; Lanier, David; Gaylin, Daniel S.

    2007-01-01

    PURPOSE Increasing numbers of primary care practice-based research networks (PBRNs) are being developed in the United States to perform research relevant to everyday practice. To assess the current status and potential value of this resource, we surveyed US primary care PBRNs in operation from late 2003 to early 2004. METHODS We performed a Web-based survey and structured interviews with PBRN directors and administrative officers, assessing PBRNs’ history, size, location, organization, resources, operations, and productivity (funding obtained, studies performed, and articles published). RESULTS Of 111 primary care PBRNs identified, 89 (80%) responded to the survey. The 86 (77%) meeting the criteria for primary care PBRNs contained 1,871 practices, 12,957 physicians (mean 152 per PBRN, median 100), and 14.7 million patients (mean 229,880 per PBRN, median 105,000). Minority and underinsured patients were overrepresented. The average PBRN was young (4.4 ± 5.7 years): one-half had performed 3 or fewer studies. Three-quarters were affiliated with universities. Common research foci included prevention, diabetes, cardiovascular risk factors, and mental health. Respondent PBRNs had published more than 600 articles in peer-reviewed journals. PBRNs studying questions posed by outside researchers had more federal funding (84% vs 27%, P=.006). PBRNs citing funding as a weakness relied more on local resources to fund research projects (70% vs 40%, P=.036). CONCLUSIONS American primary care PBRNs are mainly young, diverse, and pursuing a variety of research foci. Most have university links and provide a dynamic town-gown relationship that could be a vital national resource for improving primary care, translating research into practice, and meeting the National Institutes of Health Roadmap goals. PBRNs merit further attention from both private and public funding agencies and researchers interested in studying the delivery of primary care. PMID:17548852

  2. Exploring the meaning of practicing classroom inquiry from the perspectives of National Board Certified Science Teachers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karaman, Ayhan

    Inquiry has been one of the most prominent terms of the contemporary science education reform movement (Buck, Latta, & Leslie-Pelecky, 2007; Colburn, 2006; Settlage, 2007). Practicing classroom inquiry has maintained its central position in science education for several decades because science education reform documents promote classroom inquiry as the potential savior of science education from its current problems. Likewise, having the capabilities of teaching science through inquiry has been considered by National Board for Professional Teaching Standards [NBPTS] as one of the essential elements of being an accomplished science teacher. Successful completion of National Board Certification [NBC] assessment process involves presenting a clear evidence of enacting inquiry with students. Despite the high-profile of the word inquiry in the reform documents, the same is not true in schools (Crawford, 2007). Most of the science teachers do not embrace this type of approach in their everyday teaching practices of science (Johnson, 2006; Luera, Moyer, & Everett, 2005; Smolleck, Zembal-Saul, & Yoder, 2006; Trumbull, Scarano, & Bonney, 2006). And the specific meanings attributed to inquiry by science teachers do not necessarily match with the original intentions of science education reform documents (Matson & Parsons, 2006; Wheeler, 2000; Windschitl, 2003). Unveiling the various meanings held by science teachers is important in developing better strategies for the future success of science education reform efforts (Jones & Eick, 2007; Keys & Bryan, 2001). Due to the potential influences of National Board Certified Science Teachers [NBCSTs] on inexperienced science teachers as their mentors, examining inquiry conceptions of NBCSTs is called for. How do these accomplished practitioners understand and enact inquiry? The purpose of this dissertation research study was twofold. First, it investigated the role of NBC performance assessment process on the professional development

  3. Pesticide Program Dialogue Committee (PPDC)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Pesticide Program Dialogue Committee, a permanent, broadly representative advisory committee, meets with EPA on a regular basis to discuss pesticide regulatory, policy, and program implementation issues.

  4. OptiPhy, a technical-economic optimisation model for improving the management of plant protection practices in agriculture: a decision-support tool for controlling the toxicity risks related to pesticides.

    PubMed

    Mghirbi, Oussama; LE Grusse, Philippe; Fabre, Jacques; Mandart, Elisabeth; Bord, Jean-Paul

    2017-03-01

    The health, environmental and socio-economic issues related to the massive use of plant protection products are a concern for all the stakeholders involved in the agricultural sector. These stakeholders, including farmers and territorial actors, have expressed a need for decision-support tools for the management of diffuse pollution related to plant protection practices and their impacts. To meet the needs expressed by the public authorities and the territorial actors for such decision-support tools, we have developed a technical-economic model "OptiPhy" for risk mitigation based on indicators of pesticide toxicity risk to applicator health (IRSA) and to the environment (IRTE), under the constraint of suitable economic outcomes. This technical-economic optimisation model is based on linear programming techniques and offers various scenarios to help the different actors in choosing plant protection products, depending on their different levels of constraints and aspirations. The health and environmental risk indicators can be broken down into sub-indicators so that management can be tailored to the context. This model for technical-economic optimisation and management of plant protection practices can analyse scenarios for the reduction of pesticide-related risks by proposing combinations of substitution PPPs, according to criteria of efficiency, economic performance and vulnerability of the natural environment. The results of the scenarios obtained on real ITKs in different cropping systems show that it is possible to reduce the PPP pressure (TFI) and reduce toxicity risks to applicator health (IRSA) and to the environment (IRTE) by up to approximately 50 %.

  5. Decontamination of spills and residues of some pesticides and of protective clothing worn during the handling of the pesticides

    SciTech Connect

    Armour, M.A.; Nelson, C.; Sather, P. Briker, Y.

    1996-12-31

    Users of pesticides may have waste or surplus quantities or spills for disposal. One alternative is to deactivate the pesticide at the handling site by using a straightforward chemical reaction. This option can be practical for those who use relatively small quantities of a large variety of pesticides, for example, greenhouse workers, small farmers, and agricultural researchers. This paper describes practical on-site methods for the disposal of spills or small waste quantities of five commonly used pesticides, Diazinon, Chlorpyrifos, Iprodione, 2,4-D, and Captan. These have been tested in the laboratory for the rate of disappearance of the pesticide, the degree of conversion to nontoxic products, the nature and identity of the products, the practicality of the method, and the ease of reproducibility. Methods selected were shown to be safe for the operator, reliable, and reproducible. Greater than 99% of the starting material had to be reacted under reasonable conditions and length of time. Detailed descriptions of the reactions are presented, so that they can be performed with reproducible results. Protective clothing worn during the handling and application of pesticides may become contaminated. Simple laundering does not always remove all of the pesticide residues. Thus, chronic dermal exposure may result from the pesticide-contaminated clothing. Appropriate methods of laundering using specific pretreatments have been determined. 7 refs.

  6. A prospective study of the practical issues of local involvement in national audit of COPD.

    PubMed

    Roberts, C M; Lowe, D; Barnes, S; Pearson, M G

    2004-05-01

    Variation in quality of local services is of great concern to the government and public. National audit is an important means of providing data of comparative performance but is hampered at local level by poor methodology including audit design, standard setting and data collection tools. A pilot audit of the hospital care of patients admitted with acute chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) was performed in preparation for a national audit programme and was designed and supported by experts. It was hoped to overcome these barriers. We report a prospective evaluation of the practical issues involved in local participation of hospital audit of COPD care within a national framework. Hospitals were recruited to the study by random selection and voluntary participation. A clinical audit study was completed over an 8-week period immediately followed by a survey of clinicians and audit staff to identify positive and negative issues of participation and the process required to achieve a successful outcome. Forty-one hospitals were invited to participate, 26 (63%) accepted, and four others volunteered to meet the target of 30 enrolled centres. Reasons cited for non-participation were of inadequate resources amongst either clinicians or audit departments or prior engagement in other national or local audit schemes. Following completion of the audit most (81%) participating units reported it was a useful exercise and were willing to be involved in future audits. Negative aspects of involvement included the lack of dedicated time and manpower for audit, poor information technology and inadequate systems for identifying patient diagnoses either at admission or at discharge and incomplete case note entries. Methodological issues such as study design and data collection tools were not cited as important barriers to participation. There is local willingness to be involved in national audit of hospital care of COPD and central provision of expert design of methods and tools

  7. Pesticide toxicity index for freshwater aquatic organisms

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Munn, Mark D.; Gilliom, Robert J.

    2001-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey's National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program is designed to assess current water-quality conditions, changes in water quality over time, and the effects of natural and human factors on water quality for the Nation's streams and ground-water resources. For streams, one of the most difficult parts of the assessment is to link chemical conditions to effects on aquatic biota, particularly for pesticides, which tend to occur in streams as complex mixtures with strong seasonal patterns. A Pesticide Toxicity Index (PTI) was developed that combines pesticide exposure of aquatic biota (measured concentrations of pesticides in stream water) with toxicity estimates (standard endpoints from laboratory bioassays) to produce a single index value for a sample or site. The development of the PTI was limited to pesticide compounds routinely measured in NAWQA studies and to toxicity data readily available from existing databases. Qualifying toxicity data were found for one or more types of test organisms for 75 of the 83 pesticide compounds measured in NAWQA samples, but with a wide range of bioassays per compound (1 to 65). There were a total of 2,824 bioassays for the 75 compounds, including 287 48-hour EC50 values (concentration at which 50 percent of test organisms exhibit a nonlethal response) for freshwater cladocerans, 585 96-hour LC50 values (concentration lethal to 50 percent of test organisms) for freshwater benthic invertebrates, and 1,952 96-hour LC50 values for freshwater fish. The PTI for a particular sample is the sum of toxicity quotients (measured concentration divided by the median toxicity concentration from bioassays) for each detected pesticide. The PTI can be calculated for specific groups of pesticides and for specific taxonomic groups.While the PTI does not determine whether water in a sample is toxic, its values can be used to rank or compare the toxicity of samples or sites on a relative basis for use in further analysis or

  8. Variation in Partnership Health general practice enrolment data related to need and hospital and national records on ethnicity.

    PubMed

    Malcolm, Laurence; Barnett, Ross

    2009-12-01

    To compare enrolment data for ethnicity and deprivation and other classifications in Partnership Health Primary Health Organisation (PHO) general practices with the National Health Index (NHI) data set and hospital discharge data and to analyse use of special access funding. NHI-linked practice data were obtained through Partnership Health and sent directly to New Zealand Health Information Service (NZHIS). The database was linked with the hospital discharge data for the two years ending June 2007, with the NHIs encrypted. Data were analysed for a range of variables and relationships especially related to ethnicity. Data was obtained from atotal of 345 247 patients in 103 practices. Practices varied widely in their data completion including ethnicity, the latter being unavailable in 7.2% of patients. Ethnicity recording in Partnership Health practice was substantially more complete than national NHI records. Maori in the hospital records was 6.1% compared with 7.0% in the Partnership Health records relating to discharged patients (p < .001). Practice use of special access funding varied widely and was unrelated to need. Despite substantial practice database development, findings point to the need for further collaborative and innovative strategies to improve data recording. Issues needing to be addressed nationally include regular updating and correction of the national NHI set from PHO records. PHO data could, with improvements, become the basis for District Health Board databases. The findings support the current national review of the use of special access funding which appears to be seriously inequitable and inefficient.

  9. National survey and point prevalence study of sedation practice in UK critical care.

    PubMed

    Richards-Belle, Alvin; Canter, Ruth R; Power, G Sarah; Robinson, Emily J; Reschreiter, Henrik; Wunsch, Hannah; Harvey, Sheila E

    2016-10-27

    The present study was designed to (1) establish current sedation practice in UK critical care to inform evidence synthesis and potential future primary research and (2) to compare practice reported via a survey with actual practice assessed in a point prevalence study (PPS). UK adult general critical care units were invited to participate in a survey of current sedation practice, and a representative sample of units was invited to participate in a PPS of sedation practice at the patient level. Survey responses were compared with PPS data where both were available. Survey responses were received from 214 (91 %) of 235 eligible critical care units. Of these respondents, 57 % reported having a written sedation protocol, 94 % having a policy of daily sedation holds and 94 % using a sedation scale to assess depth of sedation. In the PPS, across units reporting a policy of daily sedation holds, a median of 50 % (IQR 33-75 %) of sedated patients were considered for a sedation hold. A median of 88 % (IQR 63-100 %) of patients were assessed using the same sedation scale as reported in the survey. Both the survey and the PPS indicated propofol as the preferred sedative and alfentanil, fentanyl and morphine as the preferred analgesics. In most of the PPS units, all patients had received the unit's reported first-choice sedative (median across units 100 %, IQR 64-100 %), and a median of 80 % (IQR 67-100 %) of patients had received the unit's reported first-choice analgesic. Most units (83 %) reported in the survey that sedatives are usually administered in combination with analgesics. Across units that participated in the PPS, 69 % of patients had received a combination of agents - most frequently propofol combined with either alfentanil or fentanyl. Clinical practice reported in the national survey did not accurately reflect actual clinical practice at the patient level observed in the PPS. Employing a mixed methods approach provided a more complete picture of

  10. An integrated approach for assessing influence of agricultural activities on pesticides in a shallow aquifer in south-eastern Norway.

    PubMed

    Kværner, Jens; Eklo, Ole Martin; Solbakken, Eivind; Solberg, Ivar; Sorknes, Stein

    2014-11-15

    The study examines the influence of agricultural activities on pesticides in groundwater in an area with fluvial deposits of sand with a top layer of sandy silt and silt, intensive cultivation of potatoes and cereals, and drinking water supplies of households from local groundwater wells. Information about local agricultural practice and washing sites for pesticide spraying equipment, properties of soils and deeper deposits, hydrogeology and groundwater flow, simulations of pesticide leaching, and contents of pesticides and nitrate in groundwater samples from drinking water wells was used to explore extension and reasons of pesticide contamination of groundwater. Pesticides were found in a majority of the sampled wells. Eight different pesticides and metabolites were detected in groundwater samples. The results demonstrate that on fluvial deposits diffuse pollution from spraying of fields with pesticides can result in groundwater contamination in Nordic climate. Higher concentrations of pesticides in some wells can be explained by point source contamination from washing sites. The occurrence of pesticides in drinking water wells touches up the question whether pesticides should be given general approvals, or approvals should include restrictions or recommendations regarding use on areas with high risk of groundwater contamination. Combination of washing sites for pesticide spraying equipment and groundwater wells for drinking water requires attention, proper equipment and practice, and knowledge about pesticides, soil and water to avoid contamination. Samples from wells adjacent to washing sites for pesticide equipment might overestimate average pesticide concentrations in groundwater bodies. In Nordic areas attention should be given to pesticide pollution of shallow groundwater in fluvial deposits. To provide basis for interpretation of results and planning of mitigation measures against pesticide contamination, an integrated approach using information about

  11. The Turning Point Social Marketing National Excellence Collaborative: integrating social marketing into routine public health practice.

    PubMed

    Pirani, Sylvia; Reizes, Tom

    2005-01-01

    Social marketing can be an effective tool for achieving public health goals. Social marketing uses concepts from commercial marketing to plan and implement programs designed to bring about behavior change that will benefit individuals and society. Although social marketing principles have been used to address public health problems, efforts have been dominated by message-based, promotion-only strategies, and effective implementation has been hampered by both lack of understanding of and use of all of the components of a social marketing approach and lack of training. The Turning Point initiative's Social Marketing National Excellence Collaborative (SMNEC) was established to promote social marketing principles and practices to improve public health across the nation. After 4 years, the Collaborative's work has resulted in improved understanding of social marketing among participating members and the development of new tools to strengthen the social marketing skills among public health practitioners. The Collaborative has also made advances in incorporating and institutionalizing the practice of social marketing within public health in participating states.

  12. Tailoring National Standards to Early Science Teacher Identities: Building on Personal Histories to Support Beginning Practice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eick, Charles J.

    2009-04-01

    Individual recommendation plans (IRP) for student teaching practice were co-constructed with two methods students based on the select application of National Science Teachers Association’s National Standards for Science Teacher Preparation. Methods students completed a resume, an interview on pedagogical preferences, and a learning styles survey to determine the reform-based standards and pedagogical approaches that better fit their personal histories and identity formation as science teachers. Each case was unique with one student better meeting the Standards of “Issues” and “Science in the Community” and the other student better meeting the standards of “Inquiry” and the “Nature of Science”. Student teachers planned and taught lessons based on their IRP and were mostly successful in meeting their prescribed standards and utilizing their preferred pedagogies. However, their success in use of specific strategies supporting their approach was highly dependent upon classroom context. The use of the IRP process as a reflective tool strengthening identity formation and early practice is discussed.

  13. Harm reduction and women in the Canadian national prison system: policy or practice?

    PubMed

    Rehman, Laurene; Gahagan, Jacqueline; DiCenso, Anne Marie; Dias, Giselle

    2004-01-01

    Applying the principles of harm reduction within the context of incarcerated populations raises a number of challenges. Although some access to harm reduction strategies has been promoted in general society, a divide between what is available and what is advocated continues to exist within the prison system. This paper explores the perceptions and lived experiences of a sample of nationally incarcerated women in Canada regarding their perceptions and experiences in accessing HIV and Hepatitis C prevention, care, treatment and support. In-depth interviews were conducted with 156 women in Canadian national prisons. Q.S.R. Nudist was used to assist with data management. A constant comparison method was used to derive categories, patterns, and themes. Emergent themes highlighted a gap between access to harm reduction in policy and in practice. Despite the implementation of some harm reduction techniques, women in Canadian prisons reported variable access to both education and methods of reducing HIV/HCV transmission. Concerns were also raised about pre-and post-test counseling for HIV/HCV testing. Best practices are suggested for implementing harm reduction strategies within prisons for women in Canada.

  14. [Selective termination of pregnancy for monochorionic twins: a national survey of professional practice].

    PubMed

    Arlicot, C; Potin, J; Simon, E; Perrotin, F

    2014-06-01

    Selective Termination of Pregnancy (STOP) for discordant fetal condition in monochorionic twin pregnancy is a rarely performed procedure raising technical and ethical considerations. There are no epidemiological data available in France concerning STOP and no guideline or scientific consensus on how or when to perform has been published. We conducted a study of national practice using a declarative questionnaire sent by e-mail to each medical coordinator of every 48 Multidisciplinary Center for Prenatal Diagnosis in France. The questions focused on the issues of 2010 and 2011. Two reminders were sent in case of no answer. The response rate to the questionnaire was 56 %; 81 % of centers have experienced at least once during the two years 2010-2011 a discordant fetal anomaly in monochorionic twin pregnancy. Only 59 % of centers perform all the techniques of STOP. When interruption of the umbilical blood flow is considered, bipolar forceps coagulation is the most used (75 %). Achieving STOP during a cesarean section is a common practice (75 % of centers). Locoregional anesthesia is the preferred mode of anesthesia for STOP. STOP on monochorionic twin pregnancy is not practiced in all Multidisciplinary Center for Prenatal Diagnosis in France. The most widely practiced and most studied technique is bipolar forceps coagulation. The option of an expectant management should always be considered and its risks should be balanced with those of STOP. The practice of STOP during cesarean section is not unusual. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  15. National practices regarding payment to research subjects for participating in pediatric research.

    PubMed

    Weise, Kathryn L; Smith, Martin L; Maschke, Karen J; Copeland, H Liesel

    2002-09-01

    Payment to subjects for participation in research is reportedly common, but no published data documents the nature of this practice. Institutional review boards (IRBs) are responsible for ensuring both the safety and voluntary participation of research subjects, yet guidance from federal and expert pediatric sources regarding appropriate payment approaches is conflicting. Ethical issues of payment for participation of adult versus pediatric research subjects may differ. This empirical study sought to examine current payment practices for participation in pediatric research as reported by IRBs. An 18-question survey regarding payment practices for participation in pediatric research was sent to IRB chairs at member institutions of the National Association of Children's Hospitals and Related Institutions, and to a systematic random sample of IRB chairs listed with the Office for Protection From Research Risks. Descriptive, nonparametric, and qualitative analyses were used to describe institution types, payment practices, and correlations among responses. Data from 128 institutions that conduct pediatric research revealed that payment for participation in pediatric research was allowed by 66% of responding institutions, and practices varied widely among institutions. Most responding IRBs that allowed payment required disclosure of payment before enrollment (during the consent process), following federal guidelines more closely than American Academy of Pediatrics guidelines. An IRB's perception of potential benefits or harms of a study correlated with the amount of payment approved. IRBs must balance the need to recruit pediatric research subjects against the risk of undue influence during the recruitment process. Federal guidelines and expert pediatric opinion differ in recommendations regarding payment; responding IRBs appeared to follow federal guidelines more closely than guidelines proposed by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  16. ASHP national survey of pharmacy practice in hospital settings: Prescribing and transcribing-2016.

    PubMed

    Pedersen, Craig A; Schneider, Philip J; Scheckelhoff, Douglas J

    2017-09-01

    The results of the 2016 ASHP national survey of pharmacy practice in hospital settings are presented. A stratified random sample of pharmacy directors at 1,315 general and children's medical-surgical hospitals in the United States were surveyed using a mixed-mode method offering a choice of completing a paper survey or an online survey. IMS Health supplied data on hospital characteristics; the survey sample was drawn from IMS's hospital database. The survey response rate was 29.8%. Drug policy development by pharmacy and therapeutics committees continues to be an important strategy for improving prescribing. Strict formulary systems are maintained in 63.0% of hospitals, and 89.7% of hospitals use clinical practice guidelines that include medications. Pharmacists have the authority to order laboratory tests in 89.9% of hospitals and order medications in 86.8% of hospitals. Therapeutic interchange policies are used in 89.2% of hospitals. Electronic health records (EHRs) have been implemented partially or completely in most hospitals (99.1%). Computerized prescriber-order-entry systems with clinical decision support are used in 95.6% of hospitals, and 92.6% of hospitals have barcode-assisted medication administration systems. Transitions-of-care programs are increasing in number, with 34.6% of hospitals now offering discharge prescription services. Pharmacists practice in 39.5% of hospital ambulatory or primary care clinics. The most common service offered by pharmacists to outpatients is anticoagulation management (26.0%). When pharmacists practice in ambulatory care clinics, 64.5% have prescribing authority through collaborative practice agreements. Pharmacists continue to expand their role in improving the prescribing of medications in both hospital and outpatient settings. The adoption of EHRs and medication-use technologies has contributed to this growth. Copyright © 2017 by the American Society of Health-System Pharmacists, Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. 76 FR 19971 - Notice of Proposed Changes to the National Handbook of Conservation Practices for the Natural...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-11

    ... all proposed revisions to conservation practice standards used to carry out HEL and wetland provisions... Natural Resources Conservation Service Notice of Proposed Changes to the National Handbook of Conservation Practices for the Natural Resources Conservation Service AGENCY: Natural Resources Conservation Service...

  18. Developing a Best Practice Guide for Increasing High School Student Participation and Satisfaction in the National School Lunch Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Asperin, Amelia Estepa; Castillo, Alexandra

    2010-01-01

    Purpose/Objectives: The purpose of this project was to identify and confirm best practices for increasing high school student participation and satisfaction in school nutrition (SN) programs operating under the regulations of the National School Lunch Program (NSLP). Methods: Using a modified best practices research model (BPRM; Mold & Gregory,…

  19. Developing a Best Practice Guide for Increasing High School Student Participation and Satisfaction in the National School Lunch Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Asperin, Amelia Estepa; Castillo, Alexandra

    2010-01-01

    Purpose/Objectives: The purpose of this project was to identify and confirm best practices for increasing high school student participation and satisfaction in school nutrition (SN) programs operating under the regulations of the National School Lunch Program (NSLP). Methods: Using a modified best practices research model (BPRM; Mold & Gregory,…

  20. The Relationship between Sun Protection Policy and Associated Practices in a National Sample of Early Childhood Services in Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ettridge, Kerry A.; Bowden, Jacqueline A.; Rayner, Joanne M.; Wilson, Carlene J.

    2011-01-01

    Limiting exposure to sunlight during childhood can significantly reduce the risk of skin cancer. This was the first national study to assess the sun protection policies and practices of early childhood services across Australia. It also examined the key predictors of services' sun protection practices. In 2007, 1017 respondents completed a…

  1. The Relationship between Sun Protection Policy and Associated Practices in a National Sample of Early Childhood Services in Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ettridge, Kerry A.; Bowden, Jacqueline A.; Rayner, Joanne M.; Wilson, Carlene J.

    2011-01-01

    Limiting exposure to sunlight during childhood can significantly reduce the risk of skin cancer. This was the first national study to assess the sun protection policies and practices of early childhood services across Australia. It also examined the key predictors of services' sun protection practices. In 2007, 1017 respondents completed a…

  2. Promising Partnership Practices, 2002: The 5th Annual Collection from Members of the National Network of Partnership Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jansorn, Natalie Rodriguez, Ed.; Salinas, Karen Clark, Ed.

    This publication highlights 93 exemplary practices of school, family, and community partnerships selected from members of the National Network of Partnerships Schools at Johns Hopkins University, Maryland. Network member sites represent 18 states and 2 Canadian provinces. The publication highlights six types of practices: parenting (e.g., parent…

  3. The power of poison: pesticide poisoning of Africa's wildlife.

    PubMed

    Ogada, Darcy L

    2014-08-01

    Poisons have long been used to kill wildlife throughout the world. An evolution has occurred from the use of plant- and animal-based toxins to synthetic pesticides to kill wildlife, a method that is silent, cheap, easy, and effective. The use of pesticides to poison wildlife began in southern Africa, and predator populations were widely targeted and eliminated. A steep increase has recently been observed in the intensity of wildlife poisonings, with corresponding population declines. However, the majority of poisonings go unreported. Under national laws, it is illegal to hunt wildlife using poisons in 83% of African countries. Pesticide regulations are inadequate, and enforcement of existing legislation is poor. Few countries have forensic field protocols, and most lack storage and testing facilities. Methods used to poison wildlife include baiting carcasses, soaking grains in pesticide solution, mixing pesticides to form salt licks, and tainting waterholes. Carbofuran is the most widely abused pesticide in Africa. Common reasons for poisoning are control of damage-causing animals, harvesting fish and bushmeat, harvesting animals for traditional medicine, poaching for wildlife products, and killing wildlife sentinels (e.g., vultures because their aerial circling alerts authorities to poachers' activities). Populations of scavengers, particularly vultures, have been decimated by poisoning. Recommendations include banning pesticides, improving pesticide regulations and controlling distribution, better enforcement and stiffer penalties for offenders, increasing international support and awareness, and developing regional pesticide centers. © 2014 New York Academy of Sciences.

  4. Fluorescence biosensing strategy based on mercury ion-mediated DNA conformational switch and nicking enzyme-assisted cycling amplification for highly sensitive detection of carbamate pesticide.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiuzhong; Hou, Ting; Dong, Shanshan; Liu, Xiaojuan; Li, Feng

    2016-03-15

    Pesticides are of great importance in agricultural and biological fields, but pesticide residues may harm the environment and human health. A highly sensitive fluorescent biosensor for the detection of carbamate pesticide has been developed based on acetylcholinesterase (AChE)-catalyzed hydrolysis product triggered Hg(2+) release coupled with subsequent nicking enzyme-induced cleavage of a duplex DNA for cycling amplification. In this protocol, two DNA probes, an unmodified single-stranded helper DNA probe 1 (HP1) and a quencher-fluorophore probe (QFP) are ingeniously designed. HP1 can be folded into hairpin configuration through T-Hg(2+)-T base pair formation. QFP, labeled with FAM and BHQ1 at its two terminals, contains the recognition sequence and the cleavage site of the nicking enzyme. In the presence of carbamate pesticide, the activity of AChE is inhibited, and the amount of the product containing the thiol group generated by the hydrolysis reaction of acetylthiocholine chloride (ACh) decreases, resulting in the release of a low concentration of Hg(2+). The number of HP1 that can be selectively unfolded would be reduced and the subsequent nicking enzyme-assisted cleavage processes would be affected, resulting in decreased fluorescence signals. The fluorescence intensity further decreases with the increase of the pesticide concentration. Therefore, the pesticide content can be easily obtained by monitoring the fluorescence signal change, which is inversely proportional to the logarithm of the pesticide concentration. The detection limit of aldicarb, the model analyte, is 3.3 μgL(-1), which is much lower than the Chinese National Standards or those previously reported. The as-proposed method has also been applied to detect carbamate pesticide residues in fresh ginger and artificial lake water samples with satisfactory results, which demonstrates that the method has great potential for practical application in biological or food safety field.

  5. DETERMINATION OF PESTICIDES IN COMPOSITE BEVERAGE SAMPLES

    EPA Science Inventory

    USEPA's National Exposure Research Laboratory conducts research to measure the exposure of individuals to chemical pollutants through the diet, as well as other media. In support of this research, methods are being evaluated for determination of pesticides in composite dietary s...

  6. NEUROENDOCRINE AND REPRODUCTIVE EFFECTS OF PESTICIDES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Neuroendocrine and Reproductive Effects of Pesticides

    1Stoker, TE, Goldman 2, JM and Cooper 2, RL.

    1Gamete and Early Embryogenesis Biology Branch and 2 Endocrinology Branch, Reproductive Toxicology Division, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laborat...

  7. NEUROENDOCRINE AND REPRODUCTIVE EFFECTS OF PESTICIDES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Neuroendocrine and Reproductive Effects of Pesticides

    1Stoker, TE, Goldman 2, JM and Cooper 2, RL.

    1Gamete and Early Embryogenesis Biology Branch and 2 Endocrinology Branch, Reproductive Toxicology Division, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laborat...

  8. THE EPA CHILDREN'S PESTICIDE EXPOSURE MEASUREMENT PROGRAM

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. EPA's National Exposure Research Laboratory conducts research in support of the Food Quality Protection Act (FQPA)) of 1996. FQPA requires that children's risks to pesticide exposures be considered during the tolerance-setting process. FQPA requires exposure assessme...

  9. EPA CHILDREN'S PESTICIDE EXPOSURE MEASUREMENT PROGRAM

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. EPA's National Exposure Research Laboratory conducts research in support of the Food Quality Protection Act (FQPA) of 1996. FQPA requires that children's risks to pesticide exposures be considered during the tolerance-setting process. FQPA requires exposure assessme...

  10. DETERMINATION OF PESTICIDES IN COMPOSITE BEVERAGE SAMPLES

    EPA Science Inventory

    USEPA's National Exposure Research Laboratory conducts research to measure the exposure of individuals to chemical pollutants through the diet, as well as other media. In support of this research, methods are being evaluated for determination of pesticides in composite dietary s...

  11. THE EPA CHILDREN'S PESTICIDE EXPOSURE MEASUREMENT PROGRAM

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. EPA's National Exposure Research Laboratory conducts research in support of the Food Quality Protection Act (FQPA)) of 1996. FQPA requires that children's risks to pesticide exposures be considered during the tolerance-setting process. FQPA requires exposure assessme...

  12. EPA CHILDREN'S PESTICIDE EXPOSURE MEASUREMENT PROGRAM

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. EPA's National Exposure Research Laboratory conducts research in support of the Food Quality Protection Act (FQPA) of 1996. FQPA requires that children's risks to pesticide exposures be considered during the tolerance-setting process. FQPA requires exposure assessme...

  13. Energy Audit Practices in China: National and Local Experiences and Issues

    SciTech Connect

    Shen, Bo; Price, Lynn; Lu, Hongyou

    2010-12-21

    China has set an ambitious goal of reducing its energy use per unit of GDP by 20% between 2006 and 2010. Since the industrial sector consumes about two-thirds of China's primary energy, many of the country's efforts are focused on improving the energy efficiency of this sector. Industrial energy audits have become an important part of China's efforts to improve its energy intensity. In China, industrial energy audits have been employed to help enterprises indentify energy-efficiency improvement opportunities for achieving the energy-saving targets. These audits also serve as a mean to collect critical energy-consuming information necessary for governments at different levels to supervise enterprises energy use and evaluate their energy performance. To better understand how energy audits are carried out in China as well as their impacts on achieving China's energy-saving target, researchers at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) conducted an in-depth study that combines a review of China's national policies and guidelines on energy auditing and a series of discussions with a variety of Chinese institutions involved in energy audits. This report consists of four parts. First, it provides a historical overview of energy auditing in China over the past decades, describing how and why energy audits have been conducted during various periods. Next, the report reviews current energy auditing practices at both the national and regional levels. It then discusses some of the key issues related to energy audits conducted in China, which underscore the need for improvement. The report concludes with policy recommendations for China that draw upon international best practices and aim to remove barriers to maximizing the potential of energy audits.

  14. Management of obstetric postpartum hemorrhage: a national service evaluation of current practice in the UK

    PubMed Central

    Al Wattar, Bassel H; Tamblyn, Jennifer A; Parry-Smith, William; Prior, Mathew; Van Der Nelson, Helen

    2017-01-01

    Background Postpartum hemorrhage (PPH) continues to be one of the major causes of maternal mortality and morbidity in obstetrics. Variations in practice often lead to adverse maternity outcomes following PPH. Our objective was to assess the current practice in managing PPH in the UK. Methods We performed a national multicenter prospective service evaluation study over one calendar month and compared the current performance to national standards for managing PPH. We used a standardized data collection tool and collected data on patients’ demographics, incidence of PPH, estimated blood loss (EBL), prophylactic and treatment measures, onset of labor, and mode of delivery. Results We collected data from 98 obstetric units, including 3663 cases of primary PPH. Fifty percent of cases were minor PPH (EBL 500–1000 mL, n=1900/3613, 52.6%) and the remaining were moderate PPH (EBL >1000 to <2000 mL, n=1424/3613, 39.4%) and severe PPH (EBL >2000 mL, n=289/3613, 8%). The majority of women received active management of the third stage of labor (3504/3613, 97%) most commonly with Syntometrine intramuscular (1479/3613, 40.9%). More than half required one additional uterotonic agent (2364/3613, 65.4%) most commonly with Syntocinon intravenous infusion (1155/2364, 48.8%). There was a poor involvement of consultant obstetricians and anesthetists in managing PPH cases, which was more prevalent when managing major PPH (p=0.0001). Conclusion There are still variations in managing PPH in the UK against national guidelines. More senior doctor involvement and regular service evaluation are needed to improve maternal outcomes following PPH. PMID:28176919

  15. Oral Radiology Safety Standards Adopted by the General Dentists Practicing in National Capital Region (NCR)

    PubMed Central

    Jayaprakash, K.; Shivalingesh, K.K.; Agarwal, Vartika; Gupta, Bhuvandeep; Anand, Richa; Sharma, Abhinav; Kushwaha, Sumedha

    2016-01-01

    Introduction With advancement in diagnostic techniques, the utilization of radiologic examination has risen to many folds in the last two decades. Ionizing radiations from the radiographic examination carry the potential for harm by inducing carcino-genesis in addition to the diagnostic information extracted. Radiation doses utilized in the course of dental treatment might be low for individual examinations but patients are exposed to repeated examinations very often and many people are exposed during the course of dental care. Therefore, principles of radiation protection and safety are necessary for the dentists to follow to ensure minimum and inevitable exposure. Aim The aim of this study was to investigate the knowledge and behaviour of general dentists practicing in the National Capital Region (NCR) regarding radiation safety during oral radiographic procedures. Materials and Methods The study was a questionnaire based cross-sectional study. A total of 500 general dentists were contacted to participate in the study. The target population entailed of general dentists practicing in the National Capital Region. Data was computed and tabulated in Microsoft excel sheet and statistical analysis was performed with the help of SPSS version 21.0. Results The total response rate recovered was 70.6% and the respondents comprised of 59% and 41% males & females respectively. Only 64.8% of the general dentists contemplated thyroid to be the most important organ for radiation protection. Only 28.8% of the general dentists followed the position & distance rule appropriately. Conclusion The results showed that the knowledge and behaviour of the general dentists and the practices adopted by them regarding radiation safety is not satisfactory. To ensure the following of basic and necessary guidelines for radiation safety and protection, strict rules with penalties should be implemented by the state councils and new and interesting methods of education for this spectrum of the

  16. An evaluation of nurse rostering practices in the National Health Service.

    PubMed

    Silvestro, R; Silvestro, C

    2000-09-01

    An evaluation of nurse rostering practices in the National Health Service The scheduling of nursing time on hospital wards is critical to the delivery of patient care, resource utilization and employee satisfaction. Over the past decade many hospital wards in the United Kingdom (UK) have moved away from the traditional planning of rosters by a single manager, towards more participative processes known as self-rostering and team rostering. This paper tests the hypothesis, developed from the literature, that the three types of rostering approach may be positioned along a continuum. Self-rostering at one extreme, is conducive to staff empowerment, motivation and roster effectiveness, whilst departmental rostering, at the other, leads to perceived autocracy, reduced empowerment, lower levels of staff motivation and roster effectiveness. Team rostering is positioned mid-way on this continuum. This paper reports the findings of an empirical study of nurse rostering practices in the UK National Health Service (NHS), with a view to developing an understanding of the implications of implementing these three rostering approaches and testing the above hypothesis. The survey of rostering practices in 50 NHS wards, and in-depth case studies of seven wards, revealed that each of the three rostering approaches has benefits and limitations and a picture emerges quite different from that implied by the research hypothesis. Whilst the literature suggests that the choice of rostering approach determines the level of perceived autocracy, staff motivation and roster effectiveness, it is proposed in this paper that selection of rostering approach should be contingent upon operational context. The paper concludes with a framework which stipulates that the choice of rostering approach for a ward should be determined on the basis of four contingent variables, namely, ward size, demand variability, demand predictability, and complexity of skill mix. It is recommended that departmental

  17. Mapping the future of environmental health and nursing: strategies for integrating national competencies into nursing practice.

    PubMed

    Larsson, Laura S; Butterfield, Patricia

    2002-01-01

    :Nurses are increasingly the primary contact for clients concerned about health problems related to their environment. In response to the need for nursing expertise in the field of environmental health, the Institute of Medicine (IOM), Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR), and National Institute of Nursing Research (NINR) have designed core competencies for the nursing profession. The IOM competencies focus on four areas: (1) knowledge and concepts; (2) assessment and referral; advocacy, ethics, and risk communication; and (4) legislation and regulation. The competencies establish a baseline of knowledge and awareness in order for nurses to prevent and minimize health problems associated with exposure to environmental agents. To address the known difficulties of incorporating new priorities into established practice, nurses attending an environmental health short course participated in a nominal group process focusing on the question, "What specific actions can we take to bring environmental health into the mainstream of nursing practice?" This exercise was designed to bring the concepts of the national initiatives (IOM, NINR, ATSDR) to the awareness of individual nurses involved in the direct delivery of care. Results include 38 action items nurses identified as improving awareness and utilization of environmental health principles. The top five ideas were: (1) get environmental health listed as a requirement or competency in undergraduate nursing education; (2) improve working relationships with interdepartmental persons-a team approach; (3) strategically place students in essential organizations such as NIOSH, ATSDR, or CDC; (4) educate nurse educators; and (5) create environmental health awards in nursing. The 38 original ideas were also reorganized into a five-tiered conceptual model. The concepts of this model include: (1) developing partnerships; (2) strengthening publications; (3) enhancing continuing education; (4) updating nursing

  18. Characteristics of medicine-pediatrics practices: results from the national ambulatory medical care survey.

    PubMed

    Fortuna, Robert J; Ting, David Y; Kaelber, David C; Simon, Steven R

    2009-03-01

    Combined medicine-pediatrics (med-peds) training has existed for 40 years, yet little is known about national med-peds practices. A more comprehensive understanding of med-peds practices is important to inform medical students and guide evolving curricula and accreditation standards. The authors used data from the National Ambulatory Medical Care Survey from 2000 to 2006 to characterize the age distribution and types of visits seen by med-peds, internal medicine, pediatric, and family physicians. Forty-three percent of visits to med-peds physicians were from children < or = 18 years of age. Compared with family physicians, med-peds physicians saw a higher proportion of infants and toddlers < or = 2 years of age (21.0% versus 3.7%; P = .002) and children < or = 18 years of age (42.9% versus 15.5%; P = .002), but they treated fewer adults age 65 or older (13.8% versus 21.3%; P = .013). Compared with internists, med-peds physicians saw a greater percentage of visits from adults 19 to 64 years of age (75.8% versus 61.2%) and fewer visits from patients age 65 or older (24.2% versus 38.8%; P = .006). Med-peds physicians, like family physicians and pediatricians, most commonly treated patients for acute problems and reported high levels of continuity of care for patients-pediatric (93.6%) and adult (94.6%). Med-peds physicians care for a considerable proportion of pediatric patients while maintaining high levels of continuity of care for adult and pediatric patients. Within their practices, med-peds physicians treat a larger percentage of pediatric patients than do family physicians, but they see a smaller percentage of elderly patients.

  19. Children, Pesticides and Cancer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Alison

    1998-01-01

    Young children receive higher doses of pesticides than any other age group. The younger a child is the more difficulty the body will have in coping with toxins in general. Maximum Residue Limits (MRL) do not adequately protect children. Evidence of harm from a pesticide often has to be overwhelmingly strong before anything is done about it.…

  20. The Pesticide Threat.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldman, Lynn R.

    1998-01-01

    The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) works to make communities aware of dangers posed by misused pesticides, which can be hazardous to the health of children and others. The EPA is involved in outreach to inform the public. People need information about safe and effective pest-control options. They should report suspected pesticide misuse to…