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Sample records for national pesticide practice

  1. National Pesticide Information Center

    MedlinePlus

    ... Health Safe Use Practices Food Safety Environment Air Water Soil Wildlife Plants Pest Control Identify Your Pest Learn About Your Pest Control Your Pest Integrated Pest Management Pesticide Products NPRO: Pesticide Product Search Pesticide Ingredients ...

  2. National Pesticide Standard Repository

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA's National Pesticide Standards Repository collects and maintains an inventory of analytical “standards” of registered pesticides in the United States, as well as some that are not currently registered for food and product testing and monitoring.

  3. Watershed scale influence of pesticide reduction practices on pesticides and fishes within channelized agricultural headwater streams

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Implementation of pesticide reduction practices to reduce pesticide usage within agricultural watersheds has the potential to reduce pesticide concentrations within agricultural streams. The watershed scale influence of pesticide reduction practices on pesticides and the biota within agricultural he...

  4. Pesticide use practices in rural Armenia.

    PubMed

    Tadevosyan, Artashes; Tadevosyan, Natalya; Kelly, Kevin; Gibbs, Shawn G; Rautiainen, Risto H

    2013-01-01

    Pesticide use can have adverse effects on both human health and the environment. Inappropriate use of pesticides increases the health risk to those who work with or live around pesticides. Educational programs for agricultural workers on the proper use of pesticides and personal protective equipment coupled with pesticide regulations are important tools to reduce the associated health risks. The authors conducted a survey (N = 2336) on pesticide use practices in the Ararat Valley of Armenia in 2000-2006. This study was a cross-sectional design. A multistage sampling method was implemented in the selection of the study population. The authors developed a questionnaire containing 173 questions to evaluate demographic characteristics, health conditions, and details of pesticides use practices. The intensity of pesticide use was high; 82.8% of respondents used them. More than 150 brand names of pesticides were in use. Unregistered, obsolete, expired, and banned compounds were found in active use. Poor compliance with the basic rules of pesticide safety was found throughout the study population, with 21.3% using gloves and only 11% using respirators. The agricultural workers' knowledge of the toxic properties of these pesticides as well as basic hygienic norms was very low. In some instances, the number of agrichemical applications to crops, particularly cucumbers and melons, reached 40 applications during the growing season. Better protection and training of pesticide users in Armenia is needed.

  5. Labeling of Pesticide Products under the National Organic Program

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This notice describes how registrants can obtain EPA approval of label language indicating that all ingredients in a pesticide product and all uses of that pesticide meet the criteria defined in the USDA National Organic Program Rule.

  6. Pesticide use knowledge and practices: a gender differences in Nepal.

    PubMed

    Atreya, Kishor

    2007-06-01

    It is important to understand gender difference on pesticide use knowledge, attitude and practices for identifying pesticide risks by gender and to recommend more gender-sensitive programs. However, very few studies have been conducted so far in Nepal. This study, thus, interviewed a total of 325 males and 109 females during 2005 to assess gender differences on pesticide use knowledge, attitude and practices. More than 50% females had never been to school and only <8% individuals were found trained in Integrated Pest Management (IPM). Almost all males and females did not smoke, drink and eat during pesticides application and also believed that pesticides are harmful to human health, livestock, plant diversity and their environment. However, there were gender differences on household decision on pesticides to be used (p<0.001), care of wind direction during spraying (p=0.032), prior knowledge on safety measures (p=0.016), reading and understanding of pesticides labels (p<0.001), awareness of the labels (p<0.001) and protective covers. Almost all respondents were aware of negative impacts of pesticide use on human health and environment irrespective of gender; however, females were at higher risk due to lower level of pesticide use safety and awareness. It is strongly recommended to initiate gender-sensitive educational and awareness activities, especially on pesticide use practices and safety precautions.

  7. Pesticide use knowledge and practices: A gender differences in Nepal

    SciTech Connect

    Atreya, Kishor . E-mail: k.atreya@gmail.com

    2007-06-15

    It is important to understand gender difference on pesticide use knowledge, attitude and practices for identifying pesticide risks by gender and to recommend more gender-sensitive programs. However, very few studies have been conducted so far in Nepal. This study, thus, interviewed a total of 325 males and 109 females during 2005 to assess gender differences on pesticide use knowledge, attitude and practices. More than 50% females had never been to school and only <8% individuals were found trained in Integrated Pest Management (IPM). Almost all males and females did not smoke, drink and eat during pesticides application and also believed that pesticides are harmful to human health, livestock, plant diversity and their environment. However, there were gender differences on household decision on pesticides to be used (p<0.001), care of wind direction during spraying (p=0.032), prior knowledge on safety measures (p=0.016), reading and understanding of pesticides labels (p<0.001), awareness of the labels (p<0.001) and protective covers. Almost all respondents were aware of negative impacts of pesticide use on human health and environment irrespective of gender; however, females were at higher risk due to lower level of pesticide use safety and awareness. It is strongly recommended to initiate gender-sensitive educational and awareness activities, especially on pesticide use practices and safety precautions.

  8. Protecting ground water: pesticides and agricultural practices. Technical report (Final)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-02-01

    The booklet presents the results of a project conducted by EPA's Office of Ground-Water Protection to evaluate the potential impacts of various agronomic, irrigation, and pesticide application practices on ground water. The report provides State and local water quality and agricultural officials with technical information to help in the development of programs to protect ground water from pesticide contamination. The report explains the principles involved in reducing the risk of pesticide contamination and describes what is known about the impact of various agricultural practices on pesticide leaching. It is hoped that the information will be helpful to water-quality officials in developing and implementing ground-water protection programs.

  9. Effectiveness of cleaning practices in removing pesticides from home environments.

    PubMed

    McCauley, Linda A; Travers, Rachelle; Lasarev, Michael; Muniz, Juan; Nailon, Regina

    2006-01-01

    The deposition of agricultural pesticides in the homes of agricultural workers and residents of agricultural communities is a major environmental health concern. The effectiveness of home cleaning activities in removing pesticides from home surfaces has not been tested. An intervention study was conducted to assess the effectiveness of cleaning windowsills, floors and carpets in a sample of 10 farmworker homes. Baseline measures of organophosphorus (OP) pesticide residues were obtained, a standardized cleaning intervention was applied and follow-up measures of pesticide residues were obtained within 24-48 hours after the cleaning and 12 months later. House dust was analyzed for six OP pesticides. All homes had detectable baseline levels of OP pesticides on floors and windowsills. Cleaning of linoleum floors was ineffective in removing total pesticide residues and cleaning effectiveness varied among the pesticides. The cleaning of total OP pesticides on the windowsills was effective (median decrease was 0.0029 microg/cm(2), 1-sided p-value = 0.01). Steam cleaning carpets essentially reduced the amounts to non-detectable levels. In 12 months the levels in carpets had accumulated to one-third of the baseline levels. These results provide evidence that cleaning practices can reduce the amount of pesticides in agricultural homes; however the type of surface being cleaned and the pesticides present in the home may influence results.

  10. Taiwanese farm workers' pesticide knowledge, attitudes, behaviors and clothing practices.

    PubMed

    Weng, Chen-Yu; Black, Catherine

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess Taiwanese fruit farm workers' knowledge, attitudes, behaviours, and clothing practices regarding pesticide activities. Seventy-seven fruit farm workers from four districts of Tainan City, Taiwan completed the questionnaire. Results indicated that farmer workers had a good overall level of knowledge of the adverse effects of pesticides on human health and most had experienced symptoms of pesticide poisoning. Farm workers' attitudes toward pesticide use and handling indicated that they saw pesticides useful in controlling pests. Farm workers indicated the limited availability of comfortable clothing designed for a hot and humid climate while still providing sufficient protection was the main reason for not wearing personal protective clothing (PPC) and personal protective equipment (PPE). Emphasis on safety precautions is needed when using pesticides, and the importance of PPC and PPE is essential for the health of farm workers.

  11. Pesticides

    MedlinePlus

    ... and pets. Proper disposal of pesticides is also important - it can help protect the environment. Biologically-based pesticides are becoming more popular. They often are safer than traditional pesticides. Environmental Protection Agency

  12. Pesticides.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sherma, Joseph

    1989-01-01

    This review is devoted to methods for the determination of residues of pesticides and some related industrial chemicals. Topics include: residue methods, sampling, chromatography, organochlorine pesticides, organophosphorus pesticides, carbamate insecticides, herbicides, fungicides, pyrethrins, fumigants, and related chemicals. (MVL)

  13. Atmospheric deposition of current-use and historic-use pesticides in snow at National Parks in the Western United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hageman, K.J.; Simonich, S.L.; Campbell, D.H.; Wilson, G.R.; Landers, D.H.

    2006-01-01

    The United States (U.S.) National Park Service has initiated research on the atmospheric deposition and fate of semi-volatile organic compounds in its alpine, sub-Arctic, and Arctic ecosystems in the Western U.S. Results for the analysis of pesticides in seasonal snowpack samples collected in spring 2003 from seven national parks are presented herein. From a target analyte list of 47 pesticides and degradation products, the most frequently detected current-use pesticides were dacthal, chlorpyrifos, endosulfan, and ??- hexachlorocyclohexane, whereas the most frequently detected historic-use pesticides were dieldrin, ??-hexachlorocyclohexane, chlordane, and hexachlorobenzene. Correlation analysis with latitude, temperature, elevation, particulate matter, and two indicators of regional pesticide use reveal that regional current and historic agricultural practices are largely responsible for the distribution of pesticides in the national parks in this study. Pesticide deposition in the Alaskan parks is attributed to long-range transport because there are no significant regional pesticide sources. The percentage of total pesticide concentration due to regional transport (%RT) was calculated for the other parks. %RT was highest at parks with higher regional cropland intensity and for pesticides with lower vapor pressures and shorter half-lives in air. ?? 2006 American Chemical Society.

  14. Atmospheric deposition of current-use and historic-use pesticides in snow at national parks in the western United States.

    PubMed

    Hageman, Kimberly J; Simonich, Staci L; Campbell, Donald H; Wilson, Glenn R; Landers, Dixon H

    2006-05-15

    The United States (U.S.) National Park Service has initiated research on the atmospheric deposition and fate of semi-volatile organic compounds in its alpine, sub-Arctic, and Arctic ecosystems in the Western U.S. Results for the analysis of pesticides in seasonal snowpack samples collected in spring 2003 from seven national parks are presented herein. From a target analyte list of 47 pesticides and degradation products, the most frequently detected current-use pesticides were dacthal, chlorpyrifos, endosulfan, and gamma-hexachlorocyclohexane, whereas the mostfrequently detected historic-use pesticides were dieldrin, alpha-hexachlorocyclohexane, chlordane, and hexachlorobenzene. Correlation analysis with latitude, temperature, elevation, particulate matter, and two indicators of regional pesticide use reveal that regional current and historic agricultural practices are largely responsible for the distribution of pesticides in the national parks in this study. Pesticide deposition in the Alaskan parks is attributed to long-range transport because there are no significant regional pesticide sources. The percentage of total pesticide concentration due to regional transport (%RT) was calculated for the other parks. %RT was highest at parks with higher regional cropland intensity and for pesticides with lower vapor pressures and shorter half-lives in air.

  15. Pesticides

    MedlinePlus

    ... herbicides for destroying weeds and other unwanted vegetation, insecticides for controlling a wide variety of insects, fungicides ... Is It Safe? Movie (English & Spanish Versions) Some Natural Pesticide Alternatives (English) (114KB) Some Natural Pesticide Alternatives ( ...

  16. Pesticide Use and Prevention Practices of Tangerine Growers in Northern Thailand

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chalermphol, Juthathip; Shivakoti, Genesh P.

    2009-01-01

    To investigate pesticide use and prevention practices of tangerine growers in Fang district, Chiang Mai province in Northern Thailand. A questionnaire survey of 312 farmers in the study area, in-depth interviews and group discussions. Only 36% of the participants pursued the recommended prevention practices every time they used pesticides.…

  17. Gender Difference in Safe and Unsafe Practice of Pesticide Handling in Tobacco Farmers of Malaysia

    PubMed Central

    BIN NORDIN, Rusli; ARAKI, Shunichi; SATO, Hajime; YOKOYAMA, Kazuhito; BIN WAN MUDA, Wan Abdul Manan; WIN KYI, Daw

    2001-01-01

    To identify gender difference in safe and unsafe practice of pesticide handling in tobacco farmers of Malaysia, we conducted a 20-item questionnaire interview on storage of pesticide (4 questions), mixing of pesticide (3 questions), use of personal protective equipment and clothing while spraying pesticide (7 questions), activities during and after spraying of pesticide (5 questions), and maintenance of pesticide sprayer (1 question) in 496 tobacco farmers (395 males and 101 females) in Bachok District, Kelantan, Malaysia. Duration of employment was significantly longer in females than those in males (p<0.001). In addition, proportion with no formal education in females was significantly higher than those in males (p<0.05). The following eight common factors were extracted from the 20 questionnaires by principal components factor analysis after varimax rotation in all farmers: (1) use of personal protective equipment, (2) unsafe work habit, (3) reading and following instructions on pesticide label, (4) security, storage and disposal of pesticide container, (5) safe work habit, (6) proper handling of pesticide and maintenance of pesticide sprayer, (7) use of personal protective clothing, and (8) safe handling of pesticide. Results of analysis of covariance for the eight factor scores of all male and female farmers, controlling for educational level and duration of employment, showed that: (1) factor scores for use of personal protective equipment (p<0.001), use of personal protective clothing (p<0.001) and safe work habit (p<0.001) in females were significantly lower than those in males; (2) conversely, factor scores for reading and following instruction on pesticide label (p<0.001) and proper handling of pesticide and maintenance of pesticide sprayer (p<0.01) in males were significantly lower than those in females; and (3) there were no significant differences in other three factor scores (p>0.05). We therefore conclude that: (1) for female tobacco farmers, choice

  18. Pilot Study of Pesticide Knowledge, Attitudes, and Practices among Pregnant Women in Northern Thailand

    PubMed Central

    Lorenz, Alyson N.; Prapamontol, Tippawan; Narksen, Warangkana; Srinual, Niphan; Barr, Dana B.; Riederer, Anne M.

    2012-01-01

    An estimated 200,000 children born in Thailand each year are at risk of prenatal exposure to pesticides and associated neurodevelopmental outcomes because of their mothers’ agricultural occupations. Children born to non-agricultural workers may also be at risk of exposure from other pathways of maternal pesticide exposure, including exposure through home use, diet, and other environmental media. Pesticide exposure in Thailand has been linked to unsafe practices and beliefs about pesticides. However, limited information exists on pesticide knowledge, attitudes, and practices among pregnant women in Thailand or elsewhere. Obtaining this information is essential to understand the factors associated with prenatal pesticide exposure, identify populations potentially at risk, and ultimately protect pregnant women and their children. We administered surveys to 76 pregnant women in northern Thailand and used multivariable logistic regression to evaluate associations among pesticide-related knowledge, pregnancy trimester, and pesticide use behavior. In this pilot study, lower knowledge score and earliest trimester of pregnancy were marginally (p < 0.1) associated with unsafe practices in the home, but not at work. Women who worked in agriculture or applied pesticides before becoming pregnant, or who had a previous child were significantly (p < 0.05) more likely to engage in unsafe behaviors in the home during their current pregnancy. We preliminarily conclude that increasing pesticide-related knowledge among pregnant women may help promote safe practices and reduce prenatal exposure. Knowledge-based interventions may be most effective when implemented early in pregnancy and targeted to agricultural workers and other sub-populations at risk of pesticide exposure. PMID:23202693

  19. Pesticides

    MedlinePlus

    ... control. Examples of different kinds of pesticides include insecticides, rodenticides, and herbicides, to name a few. Top ... can lead to severe toxicity requiring hospitalization. Organophosphate insecticides also work by increasing the amount of acetylcholine ...

  20. [Providing studies quality for pesticides risk evaluation in their use according to proper laboratory practice rules].

    PubMed

    Rakitskiy, V N; Bereznyak, I V

    2016-01-01

    The article covers experience of proper laboratory practice in hygienic studies examining air and workers' skin for assessment of exposure levels of pesticides in natural conditions of agricultural production.

  1. Sensitivity analysis of the STICS-MACRO model to identify cropping practices reducing pesticides losses.

    PubMed

    Lammoglia, Sabine-Karen; Makowski, David; Moeys, Julien; Justes, Eric; Barriuso, Enrique; Mamy, Laure

    2017-02-15

    STICS-MACRO is a process-based model simulating the fate of pesticides in the soil-plant system as a function of agricultural practices and pedoclimatic conditions. The objective of this work was to evaluate the influence of crop management practices on water and pesticide flows in contrasted environmental conditions. We used the Morris screening sensitivity analysis method to identify the most influential cropping practices. Crop residues management and tillage practices were shown to have strong effects on water percolation and pesticide leaching. In particular, the amount of organic residues added to soil was found to be the most influential input. The presence of a mulch could increase soil water content so water percolation and pesticide leaching. Conventional tillage was also found to decrease pesticide leaching, compared to no-till, which is consistent with many field observations. The effects of the soil, crop and climate conditions tested in this work were less important than those of cropping practices. STICS-MACRO allows an ex ante evaluation of cropping systems and agricultural practices, and of the related pesticides environmental impacts.

  2. EVALUATING PESTICIDE USE AND SAFETY PRACTICES AMONG FARMWORKERS IN GALLIPOLI PENINSULA, TURKEY.

    PubMed

    Cevizci, Sibel; Babaoglu, Ulken Tunga; Bakar, Coskun

    2015-01-01

    Unsafe pesticide use among farmworkers is a major public health problem in Turkey. This study aimed to investigate pesticide use and safety practices of farmers in a village of Gallipoli Peninsula, Turkey. This cross sectional study was conducted with 117 farmers. The questionnaire included questions on demographic data, knowledge, attitudes, and safety practices concerning pesticides. The mean age of participants was 42.8 years, and 38.5% was female participants. Of the total 177 respondents, 77.8% reported that they prepared the chemical mixture at a public fountain, whereas 22.2% prepared it in their houses. Almost half (44.4%) reported that they experienced at least one health problem after pesticide application in the previous one year. Total scores for pesticide safety practices of the subjects, who declared that they experienced at least one health problem after the application in the previous one year, were statistically significantly lower (p < 0.001). Their responses about safe use of pesticides and storage conditions were very striking. Our findings indicated that there is a need to increase health promotion activities through training, and the local administrations should promote safe use of pesticides by farm workers.

  3. Variability in Pesticide Deposition and Source Contributions to Snowpack in Western US National Parks

    PubMed Central

    Hageman, Kimberly J.; Hafner, William D.; Campbell, Donald H.; Jaffe, Daniel A; Landers, Dixon H.; Simonic, Staci L. Massey

    2010-01-01

    Fifty-six seasonal snowpack samples were collected at remote alpine, sub-arctic, and arctic sites in eight Western US national parks during three consecutive years (2003–2005). Four current-use pesticides (CUPs) (dacthal (DCPA), chlorpyrifos, endosulfan, and γ-hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH)) and four historic-use pesticides (HUPs) (dieldrin, α-HCH, chlordane, and hexachlorobenzene (HCB)) were commonly measured at all sites, during all years. The mean coefficient of variation for pesticide concentrations was 15% for site replicate samples, 41% for intra-park replicate samples, and 59% for inter-annual replicate samples. The relative pesticide concentration profiles were consistent from year to year but unique for individual parks, indicating a regional source effect. HUP concentrations were well-correlated with regional cropland intensity when the effect of temperature on snow-air partitioning was considered. The mass of individual CUPs used in regions located one-day upwind of the parks was calculated using air mass back trajectories and this was used to explain the distribution of CUPs among the parks. The percent of the snowpack pesticide concentration due to regional transport was high (>75%) for the majority of pesticides in all parks. These results suggest that the majority of pesticide contamination in US national parks is due to pesticide use in North America. PMID:20499934

  4. Variability in pesticide deposition and source contributions to snowpack in Western U.S. national parks.

    PubMed

    Hageman, Kimberly J; Hafner, William D; Campbell, Donald H; Jaffe, Daniel A; Landers, Dixon H; Simonich, Staci L Massey

    2010-06-15

    Fifty-six seasonal snowpack samples were collected at remote alpine, subarctic, and arctic sites in eight Western U.S. national parks during three consecutive years (2003-2005). Four current-use pesticides (CUPs) (dacthal (DCPA), chlorpyrifos, endosulfans, and gamma-hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH)) and four historic-use pesticides (HUPs) (dieldrin, alpha-HCH, chlordanes, and hexachlorobenzene (HCB)) were commonly measured at all sites, during all years. The mean coefficient of variation for pesticide concentrations was 15% for site replicate samples, 41% for intrapark replicate samples, and 59% for interannual replicate samples. The relative pesticide concentration profiles were consistent from year to year but unique for individual parks, indicating a regional source effect. HUP concentrations were well-correlated with regional cropland intensity when the effect of temperature on snow-air partitioning was considered. The mass of individual CUPs used in regions located one-day upwind of the parks was calculated using air mass back trajectories, and this was used to explain the distribution of CUPs among the parks. The percent of the snowpack pesticide concentration due to regional transport was high (>75%) for the majority of pesticides in all parks. These results suggest that the majority of pesticide contamination in U.S. national parks is due to regional pesticide use in North America.

  5. Variability in pesticide deposition and source contributions to snowpack in western U.S. National Parks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hageman, Kimberly J.; Hafner, William D.; Campbell, Donald H.; Jaffe, Daniel A.; Landers, Dixon H.; Massey Simonich, Staci L.

    2010-01-01

    Fifty-six seasonal snowpack samples were collected at remote alpine, subarctic, and arctic sites in eight Western U.S. national parks during three consecutive years (2003−2005). Four current-use pesticides (CUPs) (dacthal (DCPA), chlorpyrifos, endosulfans, and γ-hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH)) and four historic-use pesticides (HUPs) (dieldrin, α-HCH, chlordanes, and hexachlorobenzene (HCB)) were commonly measured at all sites, during all years. The mean coefficient of variation for pesticide concentrations was 15% for site replicate samples, 41% for intrapark replicate samples, and 59% for interannual replicate samples. The relative pesticide concentration profiles were consistent from year to year but unique for individual parks, indicating a regional source effect. HUP concentrations were well-correlated with regional cropland intensity when the effect of temperature on snow-air partitioning was considered. The mass of individual CUPs used in regions located one-day upwind of the parks was calculated using air mass back trajectories, and this was used to explain the distribution of CUPs among the parks. The percent of the snowpack pesticide concentration due to regional transport was high (>75%) for the majority of pesticides in all parks. These results suggest that the majority of pesticide contamination in U.S. national parks is due to regional pesticide use in North America.

  6. Evaluation of core cultivation practices to reduce ecological risk of pesticides in runoff from Agrostis palustris.

    PubMed

    Rice, Pamela J; Horgan, Brian P; Rittenhouse, Jennifer L

    2010-06-01

    Pesticides associated with the turfgrass industry have been detected in storm runoff and surface waters of urban watersheds, invoking concern of their potential environmental effects and a desire to reduce their transport to nontarget locations. Quantities of chlorpyrifos, dicamba, dimethylamine salt of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D), flutolanil, and mecoprop-p (MCPP) transported in runoff from bentgrass (Agrostis palustris) fairway turf managed with solid tine (ST) or hollow tine (HT) core cultivation were compared to determine which cultivation practice is more efficient at mitigating environmental risk. Plots receiving HT core cultivation showed a 10 and 55% reduction in runoff volume and a 15 to 57% reduction in pesticide transport with runoff at 63 d and 2 d following core cultivation. Estimated environmental concentrations of the pesticides in a surface water receiving runoff from turf managed with ST core cultivation exceeded the median lethal concentration (LC50) or median effective concentration (EC50) of nine aquatic organisms evaluated. Replacing ST core cultivation with HT core cultivation reduced surface water concentrations of the pesticides to levels below the LC50 and EC50 for most these aquatic organisms, lessening risk associated with pesticides in runoff from the fairway turf. Results of the present research provide quantitative information that will allow for informed decisions on cultural practices that can maximize pesticide retention at the site of application, improving pest control in turf while minimizing environmental contamination and adverse effects associated with the off-site transport of pesticides.

  7. Farmers' knowledge, practices and injuries associated with pesticide exposure in rural farming villages in Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Pesticides in Tanzania are extensively used for pest control in agriculture. Their usage and unsafe handling practices may potentially result in high farmer exposures and adverse health effects. The aim of this study was to describe farmers’ pesticide exposure profile, knowledge about pesticide hazards, experience of previous poisoning, hazardous practices that may lead to Acute Pesticide Poisoning (APP) and the extent to which APP is reported. Methods The study involved 121 head- of-household respondents from Arumeru district in Arusha region. Data collection involved administration of a standardised questionnaire to farmers and documentation of storage practices. Unsafe pesticide handling practices were assessed through observation of pesticide storage, conditions of personal protective equipment (PPE) and through self-reports of pesticide disposal and equipment calibration. Results Past lifetime pesticide poisoning was reported by 93% of farmers. The agents reported as responsible for poisoning were Organophosphates (42%) and WHO Class II agents (77.6%). Storage of pesticides in the home was reported by 79% of farmers. Respondents with higher education levels were significantly less likely to store pesticides in their home (PRR High/Low = 0.3; 95% CI = 0.1-0.7) and more likely to practice calibration of spray equipment (PRR High/Low = 1.2; 95% CI = 1.03-1.4). However, knowledge of routes of exposure was not associated with safety practices particularly for disposal, equipment wash area, storage and use of PPE . The majority of farmers experiencing APP in the past (79%) did not attend hospital and of the 23 farmers who did so in the preceding year, records could be traced for only 22% of these cases. Conclusions The study found a high potential for pesticide exposure in the selected community in rural Tanzania, a high frequency of self-reported APP and poor recording in hospital records. Farmers’ knowledge levels appeared to be unrelated to their

  8. Evaluation of vegetable production management practices to reduce the ecological risk of pesticides.

    PubMed

    Rice, Pamela J; Hapeman, Cathleen J; McConnell, Laura L; Sadeghi, Ali M; Teasdale, John R; Coffman, C Benjamin; McCarty, Gregory W; Abdul-Baki, Aref A; Starr, James L

    2007-11-01

    The ability of agricultural management practices to reduce the ecological risks of pesticides was evaluated. Risk quotients, a mathematical description of the relationship between exposure and toxicity, and hazard ratings, a rank of the potential risk of pesticides to aquatic environments, were calculated for conventional and alternative cultivation practices for tomatoes: Poly-Bare, raised beds covered with polyethylene mulch with bare-soil furrows; Poly-Rye, raised beds covered with polyethylene mulch with cereal rye (Secale cereale) grown in the furrows; and Vetch, raised beds and furrows planted with hairy vetch seed (Vicia villosa). Evaluations were conducted using measured pesticide concentrations in runoff at the edge-of-field and estimated environmental concentrations in an adjacent creek and a theoretical pond receiving the runoff. Runoff from Poly-Bare presented the greatest risk to ecosystem health and to sensitive organisms, whereas the use of Vetch minimized these risks. Previous studies have shown that harvest yields were maintained and that runoff volume, soil loss, and off-site transport of pesticides measured in runoff were reduced using the alternative management practices (Poly-Rye and Vetch). Together, these results indicate that the alternative management practices (Poly-Rye and Vetch) have a less adverse impact on the environment than the conventional management practice (Poly-Bare) while providing growers with an acceptable economic return. In addition, the present study demonstrates the need to consider the management practice when assessing the potential risks and hazards for certain pesticides.

  9. Factors determining pesticide use practices by farmers in the Sultanate of Oman.

    PubMed

    Al Zadjali, Said; Morse, Stephen; Chenoweth, Jonathan; Deadman, Mike

    2014-04-01

    In a study of pesticide use on farms in Oman, over 200 respondents were surveyed from amongst owners of and workers on farms that belonged to a Farmers' Association (FA) and those that did not belong to the FA. A questionnaire was used to gauge attitudes to pesticide use whilst inventories of active ingredients were taken for all farms. The age profiles of the respondents were broadly similar, as was the distribution of nationalities amongst the workers. Workers and owners of FA farms were better educated than respondents from non-member farms. A majority of non-FA farm workers reported that they always used pesticides, fewer FA member farm workers and non-FA farm owners reported this behaviour with FA owners showing the lowest proportion of respondents who always used pesticides. Responses amongst farm owners to questions about frequency of pesticide use suggested that this was unaffected by age or education status, but for farm workers younger or less well educated respondents were more likely to respond by indicating that pesticides were always used. When asked to rate pesticides on a scale of 1 (bad) to 10 (good), high responses were most frequent amongst non-FA farm workers followed by FA member farm workers and non-FA farm owners. On average FA farm owners had the lowest average response, and responses by all groups were unaffected by age or education status. Prohibited pesticide use was higher on non-FA farms (4.9% of all pesticides) than on FA farms (1.3%). Pesticide products observed on FA member farms generally contained newer classes of active ingredients and were most frequently from major manufacturing companies in Europe, North America and Japan. Older, off-patent active ingredient-containing products were frequently observed on non-FA farms, often from so-called 'me-too' producing companies in Asia, the Middle East and North Africa.

  10. Practical Solutions for Pesticide Safety: A Farm and Research Team Participatory Model.

    PubMed

    Galvin, Kit; Krenz, Jen; Harrington, Marcy; Palmández, Pablo; Fenske, Richard A

    2016-01-01

    Development of the Practical Solutions for Pesticide Safety guide used participatory research strategies to identify and evaluate solutions that reduce pesticide exposures for workers and their families and to disseminate these solutions. Project principles were (1) workplace chemicals belong in the workplace, and (2) pesticide handlers and farm managers are experts, with direct knowledge of production practices. The project's participatory methods were grounded in self-determination theory. Practical solutions were identified and evaluated based on five criteria: practicality, adaptability, health and safety, novelty, and regulatory compliance. Research activities that had more personal contact provided better outcomes. The Expert Working Group, composed of farm managers and pesticide handlers, was key to the identification of solutions, as were farm site visits. Audience participation, hands-on testing, and orchard field trials were particularly effective in the evaluation of potential solutions. Small work groups in a Regional Advisory Committee provided the best direction and guidance for a "user-friendly" translational document that provided evidence-based practical solutions. The "farmer to farmer" format of the guide was endorsed by both the Expert Working Group and the Regional Advisory Committee. Managers and pesticide handlers wanted to share their solutions in order to "help others stay safe," and they appreciated attribution in the guide. The guide is now being used in educational programs across the region. The fundamental concept that farmers and farmworkers are innovators and experts in agricultural production was affirmed by this study. The success of this process demonstrates the value of participatory industrial hygiene in agriculture.

  11. Pesticide use and safety practices among Greek tobacco farmers: a survey.

    PubMed

    Damalas, Christos A; Georgiou, Eleni B; Theodorou, Maria G

    2006-10-01

    An attempt was made to explore knowledge, attitudes, and practices towards safety issues of pesticide handling among tobacco farmers of the rural area of Pieria in northern Greece. From the 310 survey questionnaires that were mailed out, 223 were received fully and correctly completed resulting in a quite satisfactory response rate of 72%. A large majority of the farmers (96%) viewed pesticides as a guarantee for high tobacco yields and high product quality. Almost all farmers (99%) thought that pesticides can have serious adverse effects on users' health. Skin contact was recognized as the most common route of exposure during pesticide use (58%). Despite awareness of potential health risks by pesticide handling, a significant proportion of the farmers (46%) reported not using any special protective equipment when spraying pesticides. From those who reported that they use protective equipment, most stated that they normally use a hat (47%) and boots (63%). Only few farmers reported using a face mask (3%), gloves (8%), and coveralls (7%) on a regular basis. The reasons for not using protective equipment during pesticide handling were that protective equipment is uncomfortable (68%), too expensive to buy (17%), time-consuming to use (8%), not available when needed (6%), and not necessary for each case (2%). A large majority of the farmers (84%) said that they replace work clothing when it wears out and a considerable part (48%) stated that they wash work clothing after several uses. Although farmers' knowledge of potential hazards by pesticide use was high, the reported safety measures were poor. Continuous emphasis on the basic safety precautions required when using pesticides and on the importance of protective equipment is essential for changing wrong habits of farmers which can be hazardous for their health.

  12. Reduction of the movement and persistence of pesticides in soil through common agronomic practices.

    PubMed

    Fenoll, José; Ruiz, Encarnación; Flores, Pilar; Hellín, Pilar; Navarro, Simón

    2011-11-01

    Laboratory and field studies were conducted in order to determine the leaching potential of eight pesticides commonly used during pepper cultivation by use of disturbed soil columns and field lysimeters, respectively. Two soils with different organic matter content (soils A and B) were used. Additionally, soil B was amended with compost (sheep manure). The tested compounds were cypermethrin, chlorpyrifos-methyl, bifenthrin, chlorpyrifos, cyfluthrin, endosulfan, malathion and tolclofos-methyl. In soil B (lower organic matter content), only endosulfan sulphate, malathion and tolclofos-methyl were found in leachates. For the soil A (higher organic matter content) and amended soil B, pesticide residues were not found in the leachates. In addition, this paper reports on the use of common agronomic practices (solarization and biosolarization) to enhance degradation of these pesticides from polluted soil A. The results showed that both solarization and biosolarization enhanced the degradation rates of endosulfan, bifenthrin and tolclofos-methyl compared with the control. Most of the studied pesticides showed similar behavior under solarization and biosolarization conditions. However, chlorpyrifos was degraded to a greater extent in the solarization than in biosolarization treatment. The results obtained point to the interest in the use of organic amendment in reducing the pollution of groundwater by pesticide drainage and in the use of solarization and biosolarization in reducing the persistence of pesticides in soil.

  13. Pesticides in the Nation's Streams and Ground Water, 1992-2001

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gilliom, Robert J.; Barbash, Jack E.; Crawford, Charles G.; Hamilton, Pixie A.; Martin, Jeffrey D.; Nakagaki, Naomi; Nowell, Lisa H.; Scott, Jonathan C.; Stackelberg, Paul E.; Thelin, Gail P.; Wolock, David M.

    2006-01-01

    This report is one of a series of publications, The Quality of Our Nation's Waters, that describe major findings of the NAWQA Program on water-quality issues of regional and national concern. This report presents evaluations of pesticides in streams and ground water based on findings for the first decadal cycle of NAWQA. 'Pesticides in the Nation's Streams and Ground Water, 1992-2001' greatly expands the analysis of pesticides presented in 'Nutrients and Pesticides,' which was the first report in the series and was based on early results from 1992 to 1995. Other reports in this series cover additional water-quality constituents of concern, such as volatile organic compounds and trace elements, as well as physical and chemical effects on aquatic ecosystems. Each report builds toward a more comprehensive understanding of regional and national water resources. The information in this series is intended primarily for those interested or involved in resource management, conservation, regulation, and policymaking at regional and national levels. In addition, the information might interest those at a local level who wish to know more about the general quality of streams and ground water in areas near where they live and how that quality compares with other areas across the Nation.

  14. Knowledge and practices of farmers with reference to pesticide management: implications on human health.

    PubMed

    Karunamoorthi, Kaliyaperumal; Mohammed, Mubarek; Wassie, Fantahun

    2012-01-01

    A study was conducted to assess the knowledge and practices of Ethiopian farmers about pesticide management: implications for human health. A pretested standardized questionnaire was administered. The results revealed that the great majority 174 (99.4%) farmers had ample awareness about pesticide impact on human health. However, various hazardous practices have also been documented. One hundred thirty-five (77.2%) farmers make use of the empty pesticide containers for various household purposes. The most frequent self-reported toxicity symptoms associated with pesticide use were headache (58.8%), salivation and vomiting (38.2%), nausea (36.5%), and sneezing (12.5%). Chi-square analysis revealed a strong association between the farmer's educational status and reported toxicity symptoms (p = .0001; χ(2) = 498.2; df = 30). Creating awareness about safe usage of pesticide is extremely vital by special orientation programs. Besides, promoting alternative pest control strategies such as use of biopesticides and integrated pest management (IPM) could be productive.

  15. THE EPA NATIONAL EXPOSURE RESEARCH LABORATORY CHILDREN'S PESTICIDE EXPOSURE MEASUREMENT PROGRAM

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. EPA's National Exposure Research Laboratory (NERL) conducts research in support of the Food Quality Protection Act (FQPA) of 1996. FQPA requires that children's risks to pesticide exposures be considered during the tolerance-setting process. The Act requires exposure...

  16. Variability in pesticide deposition and source contributions to snowpack in western U.S. national parks

    EPA Science Inventory

    Fifty-six seasonal snowpack samples were collected at remote alpine, subarctic, and arctic sites in eight Western U.S. national parks during three consecutive years (2003−2005). Four current-use pesticides (CUPs) (dacthal (DCPA), chlorpyrifos, endosulfans, and γ-hexachlorocyclohe...

  17. Pesticide fate and transport from farm fields adjacent to the Jobos Bay National Estuarine Research Reserve

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Agriculture is a primary land-use in the Jobos Bay National Estuarine Research Reserve (JBNERR) watershed located on Puerto Rico's southeast coast. Crop production in near-shore areas depends on pesticides for weed, disease and insect control. There are continuing concerns about their potential fo...

  18. Current and historical deposition of PBDEs, pesticides, PCBs, and PAHs to Rocky Mountain National Park.

    PubMed

    Usenko, Sascha; Landers, Dixon H; Appleby, Peter G; Simonich, Staci L

    2007-11-01

    An analytical method was developed for the trace analysis of 98 semivolatile organic compounds (SOCs) in remote, high-elevation lake sediment. Sediment cores from Lone Pine Lake (west of the Continental Divide) and Mills Lake (east of the Continental Divide) in Rocky Mountain National Park, CO, were dated using 210Pb and 137Cs and analyzed for polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), organochlorine pesticides, phosphorothioate pesticides, thiocarbamate pesticides, amide herbicides, triazine herbicides, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) using this method. SOC deposition profiles were reconstructed, and deposition half-lives and doubling times were calculated, for U.S. historic-use pesticides (HUPs) and current-use pesticides (CUPs) as well as PBDEs, PCBs, and PAHs. Sediment records indicate that the deposition of CUPs has increased in recent years, while the deposition of HUPs has decreased since U.S. restriction, but has not been eliminated. This is likely due to the revolatilization of HUPs from regional soils, atmospheric transport, and deposition. Differences in the magnitude of SOC sediment fluxes, flux profiles, time trends within those profiles, and isomeric ratios suggest that SOC deposition in high-elevation ecosystems is dependent on regional upslope wind directions and site location with respect to regional sources and topographic barriers.

  19. Evaluation of individual and combined management practices to reduce the off-site transport of pesticides from golf course turf.

    PubMed

    Rice, Pamela J; Horgan, Brian P; Hamlin, Jennifer L

    2017-04-01

    The detection of pesticides, associated with turfgrass management, in storm runoff and surface waters of urban watersheds has raised concerns regarding their source, potential environmental effects and a need for strategies to reduce their inputs. In previous research we discovered that hollow tine core cultivation (HTCC) was more effective than other management practices for reducing the off-site transport of pesticides with runoff from creeping bentgrass turf managed as a golf course fairway. This was primarily the result of enhanced infiltration and reduced runoff volumes associated with turf managed with hollow tines. In this study we evaluated the addition of verticutting (VC) to HTCC (HTCC+VC) in an attempt to further enhance infiltration and mitigate the off-site transport of pesticides with runoff from managed turf. Overall, greater or equal quantities of pesticides were transported with runoff from plots managed with HTCC+VC compared to HTCC or VC alone. For the pesticides evaluated HTCCpesticides while HTCC=VC=HTCC+VC for the low mobility pesticides. It is likely the addition of VC following HTCC further increased compaction and reduced availability of recently exposed soil sorptive sites produced from the HTCC. Results of this research provides guidance to golf course managers on selection of management practices that assure quality turf while minimizing off-site transport of pesticides, improving pesticide efficacy and the environmental stewardship of managed biological systems.

  20. Aquatic Trash Prevention National Great Practices Compendium

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The National Great Practice Compendium highlights outstanding activities, technologies, and programs that prevent trash from entering the aquatic environment and/or that reduce the overall volume of trash that is generated.

  1. Impact of intensive horticulture practices on groundwater content of nitrates, sodium, potassium, and pesticides.

    PubMed

    Melo, Armindo; Pinto, Edgar; Aguiar, Ana; Mansilha, Catarina; Pinho, Olívia; Ferreira, Isabel M P L V O

    2012-07-01

    A monitoring program of nitrate, nitrite, potassium, sodium, and pesticides was carried out in water samples from an intensive horticulture area in a vulnerable zone from north of Portugal. Eight collecting points were selected and water-analyzed in five sampling campaigns, during 1 year. Chemometric techniques, such as cluster analysis, principal component analysis (PCA), and discriminant analysis, were used in order to understand the impact of intensive horticulture practices on dug and drilled wells groundwater and to study variations in the hydrochemistry of groundwater. PCA performed on pesticide data matrix yielded seven significant PCs explaining 77.67% of the data variance. Although PCA rendered considerable data reduction, it could not clearly group and distinguish the sample types. However, a visible differentiation between the water samples was obtained. Cluster and discriminant analysis grouped the eight collecting points into three clusters of similar characteristics pertaining to water contamination, indicating that it is necessary to improve the use of water, fertilizers, and pesticides. Inorganic fertilizers such as potassium nitrate were suspected to be the most important factors for nitrate contamination since highly significant Pearson correlation (r = 0.691, P < 0.01) was obtained between groundwater nitrate and potassium contents. Water from dug wells is especially prone to contamination from the grower and their closer neighbor's practices. Water from drilled wells is also contaminated from distant practices.

  2. Agricultural pesticide use estimates for the USGS National Water Quality Network, 1992-2014

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Baker, Nancy T.

    2016-01-01

    The National Water Quality Network (NWQN) for Rivers and Streams includes 113 surface-water river and stream sites monitored by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) National Water Quality Program (NWQP). The NWQN represents the consolidation of four historical national networks: the USGS National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Project, the USGS National Stream Quality Accounting Network (NASQAN), the National Monitoring Network (NMN), and the Hydrologic Benchmark Network (HBN). The NWQN includes 22 large river coastal sites, 41 large river inland sites, 30 wadeable stream reference sites, 10 wadeable stream urban sites, and 10 wadeable stream agricultural sites. In addition to the 113 NWQN sites, 3 large inland river monitoring sites from the USGS Cooperative Matching Funds program are also included in this annual water-quality reporting Web site to be consistent with previous USGS studies of nutrient transport in the Mississippi-Atchafalaya River Basin. This data release provides estimated agricultural pesticide use for 83 NWQN watersheds for 110 pesticide compounds from 1992-2014. Pesticide use was not estimated for the 30 wadeable stream reference sites, or from 3 large river coastal sites (07381590, "Wax Lake Outlet at Calumet, LA3"; 07381600, "Lower Atchafalaya River at Morgan City, LA2"; or 15565477, "Yukon River at Pilot Station, AK"). Use was not estimated for reference sites because pesticides are not monitored at reference water-quality sampling sites. Pesticide use data are not available for Alaska and thus no data is available for the Yukon River site. The other two coastal sites (07381590 and 07381600) where use was not estimated are outflow distributaries into the Gulf of Mexico. This data release provides use estimates for the same pesticide parent compounds sampled in water and analyzed by USGS, National Water Quality Laboratory (NWQL), Schedule 2437: http://wwwnwql.cr.usgs.gov/USGS/catalog/index.cfm. Pesticide use data are not available for

  3. Knowledge, Attitudes, Practices and Biomonitoring of Farmers and Residents Exposed to Pesticides in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Oliveira Pasiani, Juliana; Torres, Priscila; Roniery Silva, Juciê; Zago Diniz, Bruno; Dutra Caldas, Eloisa

    2012-01-01

    In this study, the knowledge, attitudes and practices regarding pesticide use and the levels of exposure of farmers and residents to organophosphorous and/or carbamates pesticides were evaluated in two rural settings in Brazil. A questionnaire was completed by 112 farm workers aged ≥18 years. Almost all farmers acknowledged that pesticides were potentially harmful to their health (87.5%); however, over half rarely (48.2%) or never (7.2%) used personal protective devices (PPDs). An association was found (p = 0.001) between the work regimen and the use of PPDs, with more frequent equipment use among hired laborers than those involved in family agriculture. A significant correlation (p = 0.027) was found between the reporting of adverse symptoms and the use of backpack sprayers. Mean AChE activities of farmers (n = 64) and residents (n = 18) during the exposure and non-exposure periods were significantly lower than their control groups. Mean BChE activities of farmers and residents were significantly lower than their controls during the exposure period. Among the 60 farmers that had blood samples collected in both the exposure and non-exposure (baseline) periods, 10 (16.7%) had AChE depletion of over 30% during the exposure period compared with the baseline level. Six residents living on the same farms also presented this depletion. AChE was over 30% higher than the baseline level for 19 farmers (31.7%), indicating a reboot effect. Special education programs are needed in these regions to promote the safe use of pesticides in the field to decrease the risks from exposure to pesticides for farmers, and from secondary exposure to these compounds for their families. PMID:23202670

  4. Farmers Knowledge, Attitudes, Practices and Health Problems Associated with Pesticide Use in Rural Irrigation Villages, Southwest Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Gesesew, Hailay Abrha; Woldemichael, Kifle; Massa, Desalegn; Mwanri, Lillian

    2016-01-01

    Background In Ethiopia, pesticides are widely used for a variety of purposes. The occurrence of contamination and poisoning for farmers is highly reported due to unsafe handling practices and their usage. We assessed knowledge, attitudes and experiences of previous pesticide exposure, and related health problems among farmers who use irrigation in Jimma Zone, Southwest Ethiopia. Methods A community based cross-sectional study was conducted among farmers living in the zone. Respondents were 796 irrigation farmers from 20 kebeles (lowest administration unit) in Jimma Zone. Data were collected using a pretested and structured questionnaire via face-to-face interviews. Both descriptive and inferential statistics analysis were performed. A binary logistic regression was used to identify factors associated with attitudes of farmers towards the safe use of pesticides at P value of ≤ 0.05 in the final model. Results Among the participants, 54.4% (95%CI, 50.7–58%) knew at least one pesticide control method and 53.7% had positive attitudes towards safe use of pesticide. The mean score of attitudes was found to be 3.9(±0.4). Knowledge including each of the following: the names of the pesticides (AOR, 0.41; 95%CI, 0.25–0.67), methods of pest control and the use of gloves during pesticide exposure (AOR, 1.52; 95%CI, 1.07–2.16) was found to be independent predictor of the farmers’ attitudes about safe use of pesticides. Past exposure of pesticide was reported by 89.6% of farmers. Participants reported ingestion (88.9%) and inhalation (90.4%) as possible mechanisms of pesticide exposure. Nearly 42% of farmers had never used any personal protective equipment (PPE) to protect themselves against pesticide exposure. Farmers reported several health complications, which were perceived as complications of pesticide exposure, including: headache, nausea and vomiting, skin rash and irritation and abdominal pain. Conclusions The study exposed the existence of high probability of

  5. Assessments of aquifer sensitivity on Navajo Nation and adjacent lands and ground-water vulnerability to pesticide contamination on the Navajo Indian Irrigation Project, Arizona, New Mexico, and Utah

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Blanchard, Paul J.

    2002-01-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency requested that the Navajo Nation conduct an assessment of aquifer sensitivity on Navajo Nation lands and an assessment of ground-water vulnerability to pesticide contamination on the Navajo Indian Irrigation Project. Navajo Nation lands include about 17,000 square miles in northeastern Arizona, northwestern New Mexico, and southeastern Utah. The Navajo Indian Irrigation Project in northwestern New Mexico is the largest area of agriculture on the Navajo Nation. The Navajo Indian Irrigation Project began operation in 1976; presently (2001) about 62,000 acres are available for irrigated agriculture. Numerous pesticides have been used on the Navajo Indian Irrigation Project during its operation. Aquifer sensitivity is defined by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency as 'The relative ease with which a contaminant [pesticide] applied on or near a land surface can migrate to the aquifer of interest. Aquifer sensitivity is a function of the intrinsic characteristics of the geologic material in question, any underlying saturated materials, and the overlying unsaturated zone. Sensitivity is not dependent on agronomic practices or pesticide characteristics.' Ground-water vulnerability is defined by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency as 'The relative ease with which a contaminant [pesticide] applied on or near a land surface can migrate to the aquifer of interest under a given set of agronomic management practices, pesticide characteristics, and aquifer sensitivity conditions.' The results of the aquifer sensitivity assessment on Navajo Nation and adjacent lands indicated relative sensitivity within the boundaries of the study area. About 22 percent of the study area was not an area of recharge to bedrock aquifers or an area of unconsolidated deposits and was thus assessed to have an insignificant potential for contamination. About 72 percent of the Navajo Nation study area was assessed to be in the categories of most potential

  6. Training for general practice: a national survey.

    PubMed Central

    Crawley, H S; Levin, J B

    1990-01-01

    OBJECTIVES--(a) To compare current vocational training in general practice with that ascertained by a survey in 1980; (b) to compare the training of trainees in formal training schemes with that of trainees arranging their own hospital and general practice posts. DESIGN--National questionnaire survey of United Kingdom and armed services trainees who were in a training practice on 1 April 1989. Questionnaires were distributed by course organisers. SETTING--Research project set up after an ad hoc meeting of trainees at the 1988 national trainee conference. SUBJECTS--2132 Of the 2281 trainees (93%) known to be in a training practice on 1 April 1989. RESULTS--1657 Trainees returned the questionnaires, representing 73% of all trainees known to be in a training practice on 1 April 1989. Between 1980 and 1989 there were significant improvements in the trainee year, and there was also evidence of improvements in general practice study release courses. There was no evidence of improvement in other aspects of training. General practice trainees spent an average of three years in junior hospital posts, which provided very little opportunity for study related to general practice. Training received during tenure of hospital posts differed significantly between trainees in formal schemes and those arranging their own hospital posts. During the trainee year training was almost the same for those in formal schemes and those arranging their own posts. Regions varied significantly in virtually all aspects of general practice training. CONCLUSIONS--The trainee year could be improved further by enforcing the guidelines of the Joint Committee on Postgraduate Training for General Practice. The poor training in junior hospital posts reflected the low priority that training is generally given during tenure of these posts. A higher proportion of general practice trainees should be attached to vocational training schemes. More hospital trainees could attend general practice study release

  7. Household Survey of Pesticide Practice, Deliberate Self-Harm, and Suicide in the Sundarban Region of West Bengal, India

    PubMed Central

    Banerjee, Sohini; Chowdhury, Arabinda Narayan; Schelling, Esther; Weiss, Mitchell G.

    2013-01-01

    The toxicological impact and intentional ingestion of pesticides are major public health concerns globally. This study aimed to estimate the extent of deliberate self-harm (DSH) and suicides (suicidal behaviour) and document pesticide practices in Namkhana block of the Sundarban region, India. A cross-sectional study was conducted in 1680 households (21 villages) following a mixed random and cluster design sampling. The survey questionnaire (Household Information on Pesticide Use and DSH) was developed by the research team to elicit qualitative and quantitative information. The Kappa statistic and McNemar's test were used to assess the level of agreement and association between respondents' and investigators' opinions about safe storage of pesticides. Over five years, 1680 households reported 181 incidents of suicidal behaviour. Conflict with family members was the most frequently reported reason for suicidal behaviour (53.6%). The Kappa statistic indicated poor agreement between respondents and investigators about safe storage of pesticides. The pesticide-related annual DSH rate was 158.1 (95% CI 126.2–195.5), and for suicide it was 73.4 (95% CI 52.2–100.3) per 100,000. Unsafe pesticide practice and psychosocial stressors are related to the high rates of suicidal behaviour. An intersectoral approach involving the local governments, agricultural department and the health sector would help to reduce the magnitude of this public health problem. PMID:24224181

  8. Occurrence of pesticides in shallow groundwater of the United States: initial results from the National Water-Quality Assessment program

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kolpin, Dana W.; Barbash, Jack E.; Gilliom, Robert J.

    1998-01-01

    The first phase of intensive data collection for the National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) was completed during 1993−1995 in 20 major hydrologic basins of the United States. Groundwater land-use studies, designed to sample recently recharged groundwater (generally within 10 years) beneath specific land-use and hydrogeologic settings, are a major component of the groundwater quality as sessment for NAWQA. Pesticide results from the 41 land-use studies conducted during 1993−1995 indicate that pesticides were commonly detected in shallow groundwater, having been found at 54.4% of the 1034 sites sampled in agricultural and urban settings across the United States. Pesticide concentrations were generally low, with over 95% of the detections at concentrations less than 1 μg/L. Of the 46 pesticide compounds examined, 39 were detected. The compounds detected most frequently were atrazine (38.2%), deethylatrazine (34.2%), simazine (18.0%), metolachlor (14.6%), and prometon (13.9%). Statistically significant relations were observed between frequencies of detection and the use, mobility, and persistence of these compounds. Pesticides were commonly detected in both agricultural (56.4%; 813 sites) and urban (46.6%; 221 sites) settings. Frequent detections of pesticides in urban areas indicate that, as is the case with agricultural pesticide use in agricultural areas, urban and suburban pesticide use significantly contribute to pesticide occurrence in shallow groundwater. Although pesticides were detected in groundwater sampled in urban areas and all nine of the agricultural land-use categories examined, significant variations in occurrence were observed among these categories. Maximum contaminant levels (MCLs) established by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency for drinking water were exceeded for only one pesticide (atrazine, 3 μg/L) at a single location. However, MCLs have been established for only 25 of the 46 pesticide compounds examined, do not cover pesticide

  9. Pesticides in streams of the United States : initial results from the National Water-Quality Assessment Program

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Larson, Steven J.; Gilliom, Robert J.; Capel, Paul D.

    1999-01-01

    Water samples from 58 rivers and streams across the United States were analyzed for pesticides as part of the National Water-Quality Assessment Program of the U.S. Geological Survey. The sampling sites represent 37 diverse agricultural basins, 11 urban basins, and 10 basins with mixed land use. Forty-six pesticides and pesticide degradation products were analyzed in approximately 2,200 samples collected from 1992 to 1995. The target compounds account for approximately 70 percent of national agricultural use in terms of the mass of pesticides applied annually. All the target compounds were detected in one or more samples. Herbicides generally were detected more frequently and at higher concentrations than insecticides. Nationally, 11 herbicides, 1 herbicide degradation product, and 3 insecticides were detected in more than 10 percent of samples. The number of target compounds detected at each site ranged from 7 to 37. The herbicides atrazine, metolachlor, prometon, and simazine were detected most frequently; among the insecticides, carbaryl, chlorpyrifos, and diazinon were detected the most frequently. Distinct differences in pesticide occurrence were observed in streams draining the various agricultural settings. Relatively high levels of several herbicides occurred as seasonal pulses in corn-growing areas. Several insecticides were frequently detected in areas where the dominant crops consist of orchards and vegetables. The number of pesticides detected and their concentrations were lower in wheat-growing areas than in most other agricultural areas. In most urban areas, the herbicides prometon and simazine and the insecticides carbaryl, chlorpyrifos, diazinon, and malathion were commonly detected. Concentrations of pesticides rarely exceeded standards and criteria established for drinking water, but some pesticides commonly exceeded criteria established for the protection of aquatic life.

  10. National Water-Quality Assessment Program— Pesticides in the Trinity River Basin study unit, Texas, 1968-91

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ulery, R.L.

    1995-01-01

    The Trinity River Basin National Water Quality Assessment (NAWQA) study-unit staff began assessment activities in 1991, and in 1992, undertook a retrospective review of existing data on pesticides. The main purpose of this review was to aid in the design of a pesticide-sampling network for the study unit. The review consisted of the compilation, screening, and analysis of available pesticide-sample information. In addition, important environmental factors, which influence the occurrence and distribution of pesticides in the study unit, were identified and compiled. A report of this review and analysis will be released in 1995 (Ulery and Brown, in press). This fact sheet provides a brief overview of significant findings.

  11. Farmworker pesticide exposure and community-based participatory research: rationale and practical applications.

    PubMed Central

    Arcury, T A; Quandt, S A; Dearry, A

    2001-01-01

    The consequences of agricultural pesticide exposure continue to be major environmental health problems in rural communities. Community-based participatory research (CBPR) is an important approach to redressing health disparities resulting from environmental causes. In this article we introduce a collection of articles that describe projects using CBPR to address the health disparities resulting from pesticide exposure in agricultural communities, particularly the communities of migrant and seasonal farmworkers. The articles in this collection are based on a workshop convened at the 1999 American Public Health Association meeting. The goals in presenting this collection are to provide those endeavoring to initiate CBPR projects needed information, guidelines, and procedures to improve the quality of the CBPR experience; to increase the scientific validity of CBPR projects; and to reduce the potential difficulties and stress of these collaborations. In this introduction we discuss the context in which these projects operate, summarizing background information about farmworkers in the United States, what is known about farmworker pesticide exposure, and the concept of community-based participatory research. Finally, the articles in this collection are summarized, and major themes common to successful CBPR projects are identified. These common features are taking the time to interact with the community, using multiple approaches to engage the different parts of the community, understanding different participants often have different goals, appreciating each group's strengths, valuing community knowledge, and being flexible and creative in conducting research. The final article in this collection describes the translational research program at the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (NIEHS) highlighting activities pertinent to the health of rural communities, giving an overview of NIEHS-supported projects addressing health concerns of Native Americans

  12. Atmospheric deposition of nutrients, pesticides, and mercury in Rocky Mountain National Park, Colorado, 2002

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mast, M. Alisa; Campbell, Donald H.; Ingersoll, George P.; Foreman, William T.; Krabbenhoft, David P.

    2003-01-01

    Nutrients, current-use pesticides, and mercury were measured in atmospheric deposition during summer in Rocky Mountain National Park in Colorado to improve understanding of the type and magnitude of atmospheric contaminants being deposited in the park. Two deposition sites were established on the east side of the park: one at an elevation of 2,902 meters near Bear Lake for nutrients and pesticides, and one at an elevation of 3,159 meters in the Loch Vale watershed for mercury. Concentrations of nutrients in summer precipitation at Bear Lake ranged from less than 0.007 to 1.29 mg N/L (milligrams of nitrogen per liter) for ammonium and 0.17 to 4.59 mg N/L for nitrate and were similar to those measured at the Loch Vale National Atmospheric Deposition Network station, where nitrogen concentrations in precipitation are among the highest in the Rocky Mountains. Atrazine, dacthal, and carbaryl were the most frequently detected pesticides at Bear Lake, with carbaryl present at the highest concentrations (0.0079 to 0.0952 ?g/L (micrograms per liter), followed by atrazine (less than 0.0070 to 0.0604 ?g/L), and dacthal (0.0030 to 0.0093 ?g/L). Mercury was detected in weekly bulk deposition samples from Loch Vale in concentrations ranging from 2.6 to 36.2 ng/L (nanograms per liter). Concentrations in summer precipitation were combined with snowpack data from a separate study to estimate annual deposition rates of these contaminants in 2002. Annual bulk nitrogen deposition in 2002 was 2.28 kg N/ha (kilograms of nitrogen per hectare) at Bear Lake and 3.35 kg N/ha at Loch Vale. Comparison of wet and bulk deposition indicated that dry deposition may account for as much as 28 percent of annual nitrogen deposition, most of which was deposited during the summer months. Annual deposition rates for three pesticides were estimated as 45.8 mg/ha (milligrams per hectare) of atrazine, 14.2 mg/ha of dacthal, and 54.8 mg/ha of carbaryl. Because of much higher pesticide concentrations in

  13. Organic Pesticide Ingredients

    MedlinePlus

    ... W X Y Z A-Z Index Health & Environment Human Health Animal Health Safe Use Practices Food Safety ... Low-Risk Pesticides Organic Pesticide Ingredients Pesticide Incidents Human Exposure Pet Exposure Environmental Incident Illegal Pesticide Activity Problem With Labels or ...

  14. Longitudinal trends in organophosphate incidents reported to the National Pesticide Information Center, 1995–2007

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Regulatory decisions to phase-out the availability and use of common organophosphate pesticides among the general public were announced in 2000 and continued through 2004. Based on revised risk assessments, chlorpyrifos and diazinon were determined to pose unacceptable risks. To determine the impact of these decisions, organophosphate (OP) exposure incidents reported to the National Pesticide Information Center (NPIC) were analyzed for longitudinal trends. Methods Non-occupational human exposure incidents reported to NPIC were grouped into pre- (1995–2000) and post-announcement periods (2001–2007). The number of total OP exposure incidents, as well as reports for chlorpyrifos, diazinon and malathion, were analyzed for significant differences between these two periods. The number of informational inquiries from the general public was analyzed over time as well. Results The number of average annual OP-related exposure incidents reported to NPIC decreased significantly between the pre- and post-announcement periods (p < 0.001). A significant decrease in the number of chlorpyrifos and diazinon reports was observed over time (p < 0.001). No significant difference in the number of incident reports for malathion was observed (p = 0.4), which was not phased-out of residential use. Similar to exposure incidents, the number of informational inquiries received by NPIC declined over time following the phase-out announcement. Conclusion Consistent with other findings, the number of chlorpyrifos and diazinon exposure incidents reported to NPIC significantly decreased following public announcement and targeted regulatory action. PMID:19379510

  15. Atmospherically deposited PBDEs, pesticides, PCBs, and PAHs in Western US National Park fish: Concentrations and consumption guidelines

    EPA Science Inventory

    Concentrations of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons were measured in 136 fish from 14 remote lakes in 8 western U.S. National Parks/Preserves between 2003 and 2005 and compared to human and w...

  16. Pesticide application practices, pest knowledge, and cost-benefits of plantain production in the Bribri-Cabecar Indigenous Territories, Costa Rica

    SciTech Connect

    Polidoro, Beth A. Dahlquist, Ruth M.; Castillo, Luisa E.; Morra, Matthew J.; Somarriba, Eduardo; Bosque-Perez, Nilsa A.

    2008-09-15

    The use of pesticides in the cultivation of cash crops such as banana and plantain is increasing, in Costa Rica and worldwide. Agrochemical use and occupational and environmental exposures in export banana production have been documented in some parts of Central America. However, the extent of agrochemical use, agricultural pest knowledge, and economic components in plantain production are largely unknown in Costa Rica, especially in remote, high-poverty areas such as the Bribri-Cabecar Indigenous Territories. Our objective was to integrate a rapid rural appraisal of indigenous farmer pesticide application practices and pest knowledge with a cost-benefit analysis of plantain production in the Bribri-Cabecar Indigenous Territories, for the development of better agricultural management practices and improved regulatory infrastructure. Interviews conducted with 75 households in 5 indigenous communities showed that over 60% of participants grew plantain with agrochemicals. Of these plantain farmers, over 97% used the insecticide chlorpyrifos, and 84% applied nematicides, 64% herbicides, and 22% fungicides, with only 31% of participants reporting the use of some type of protective clothing during application. The banana weevil (Cosmopolites sordidus Germar) was ranked as the most important agricultural pest by 85% of participants, yet only 28% could associate the adult and larval form. A cost-benefit analysis conducted with a separate group of 26 plantain farmers identified several national markets and one export market for plantain production in the Indigenous Territories. Yearly income averaged US$6200/ha and yearly expenses averaged US$1872/ha, with an average cost-benefit ratio of 3.67 for plantain farmers. Farmers applied an average of 9.7 kg a.i./ha/yr of pesticide products and 375 kg/ha/yr of fertilizer, but those who sold their fruit to the national markets applied more nematicides, herbicides, and fertilizers than those who sold primarily to export markets

  17. Pesticide application practices, pest knowledge, and cost-benefits of plantain production in the Bribri-Cabécar Indigenous Territories, Costa Rica.

    PubMed

    Polidoro, Beth A; Dahlquist, Ruth M; Castillo, Luisa E; Morra, Matthew J; Somarriba, Eduardo; Bosque-Pérez, Nilsa A

    2008-09-01

    The use of pesticides in the cultivation of cash crops such as banana and plantain is increasing, in Costa Rica and worldwide. Agrochemical use and occupational and environmental exposures in export banana production have been documented in some parts of Central America. However, the extent of agrochemical use, agricultural pest knowledge, and economic components in plantain production are largely unknown in Costa Rica, especially in remote, high-poverty areas such as the Bribri-Cabécar Indigenous Territories. Our objective was to integrate a rapid rural appraisal of indigenous farmer pesticide application practices and pest knowledge with a cost-benefit analysis of plantain production in the Bribri-Cabécar Indigenous Territories, for the development of better agricultural management practices and improved regulatory infrastructure. Interviews conducted with 75 households in 5 indigenous communities showed that over 60% of participants grew plantain with agrochemicals. Of these plantain farmers, over 97% used the insecticide chlorpyrifos, and 84% applied nematicides, 64% herbicides, and 22% fungicides, with only 31% of participants reporting the use of some type of protective clothing during application. The banana weevil (Cosmopolites sordidus Germar) was ranked as the most important agricultural pest by 85% of participants, yet only 28% could associate the adult and larval form. A cost-benefit analysis conducted with a separate group of 26 plantain farmers identified several national markets and one export market for plantain production in the Indigenous Territories. Yearly income averaged US$6200/ha and yearly expenses averaged US$1872/ha, with an average cost-benefit ratio of 3.67 for plantain farmers. Farmers applied an average of 9.7 kg a.i./ha/yr of pesticide products and 375 kg/ha/yr of fertilizer, but those who sold their fruit to the national markets applied more nematicides, herbicides, and fertilizers than those who sold primarily to export markets

  18. Who's afraid of national laws? Pesticide corporations use trade negotiations to avoid bans and undercut public health protections in Central America.

    PubMed

    Rosenthal, Erika

    2005-01-01

    The agrochemical industry is using trade agreements to block proposed bans on pesticides identified as the worst occupational health hazards by a multi-country illness surveillance program in Central America. Through privileged access to closed-door negotiations, industry inserted deregulatory mechanisms, including a regional pesticide registry that invalidates national laws, investors' rights protection, and increased intellectual property protections, into the draft Central American Customs Union and the Central American Free Trade Agreement. These agreements undermine health-based national pesticide registration requirements; weaken health ministries' role in pesticide control; block marketing of cheaper, less toxic pesticides; and have a chilling effect on future pesticide regulatory activity. So long as corporations have privileged access to the trade negotiations and civil society is excluded, the resulting agreements will benefit special interests at the expense of public health.

  19. Pesticide residue analyses and biomarker responses of native Costa Rican fish of the Poeciliidae and Cichlidae families to assess environmental impacts of pesticides in Palo Verde National Park.

    PubMed

    Mena, F; Fernández San Juan, M; Campos, B; Sánchez-Avila, J; Faria, M; Pinnock, M; de la Cruz, E; Lacorte, S; Soares, A M V M; Barata, C

    2014-01-01

    Pesticide chemical residues in water samples and biomarker responses in transplanted fish were used to monitor environmental hazards of pesticides in Palo Verde National Park (Costa Rica). The Costarican fish, Parachromis dovii (Ciclhidae) and Poecilia gillii (Poecillidae), were selected as sentinel species. Contaminant analyses detected up to 15 different pesticide residues in water with hexachlobenzene (2261 ng l(-1)), phorate (473 ng l(-1)), epoxiconazole (314) and bromacil (117 ng l(-1)) being the compounds found in higher concentrations. Biomarker responses evidenced impacts on cholinesterase activities in transplanted fish at Barbudal site probably due to the presence of organophosphate insecticides such as phorate. High enzyme activities of glutathione S-transferase and catalase and elevated levels of lipid peroxides were also observed at a site impacted by rice fields (Cabuyo); those effects could be associated with the presence of hexachloro benzene and triazole fungicides. In general, P. dovii biomarkers were affected to a greater extent than those of P. gillii in fish transplanted to sites associated with agriculture, which suggests the former species is a good candidate for future surveys.

  20. Urinary Concentrations of Dialkylphosphate Metabolites of Organophosphorus Pesticides: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1999–2004

    PubMed Central

    Barr, Dana Boyd; Wong, Lee-Yang; Bravo, Roberto; Weerasekera, Gayanga; Odetokun, Martins; Restrepo, Paula; Kim, Do-Gyun; Fernandez, Carolina; Whitehead, Ralph D.; Perez, Jose; Gallegos, Maribel; Williams, Bryan L.; Needham, Larry L.

    2011-01-01

    Organophosphorus (OP) insecticides were among the first pesticides that EPA reevaluated as part of the Food Quality Protection Act of 1996. Our goal was to assess exposure to OP insecticides in the U.S. general population over a six-year period. We analyzed 7,456 urine samples collected as part of three two-year cycles of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) from 1999–2004. We measured six dialkylphosphate metabolites of OP pesticides to assess OP pesticide exposure. In NHANES 2003–2004, dimethylthiophosphate was detected most frequently with median and 95th percentile concentrations of 2.03 and 35.3 μg/L, respectively. Adolescents were two to three times more likely to have diethylphosphate concentrations above the 95th percentile estimate of 15.5 μg/L than adults and senior adults. Conversely, for dimethyldithiophosphate, senior adults were 3.8 times and 1.8 times more likely to be above the 95th percentile than adults and adolescents, respectively, while adults were 2.1 times more likely to be above the 95th percentile than the adolescents. Our data indicate that the most vulnerable segments of our population—children and older adults—have higher exposures to OP pesticides than other population segments. However, according to DAP urinary metabolite data, exposures to OP pesticides have declined during the last six years at both the median and 95th percentile levels. PMID:21909292

  1. Key parameters and practices controlling pesticide degradation efficiency of biobed substrates.

    PubMed

    Karanasios, Evangelos; Karpouzas, Dimitrios G; Tsiropoulos, Nikolaos G

    2012-01-01

    We studied the contribution of each of the components of a compost-based biomixture (BX), commonly used in Europe, on pesticide degradation. The impact of other key parameters including pesticide dose, temperature and repeated applications on the degradation of eight pesticides, applied as a mixture, in a BX and a peat-based biomixture (OBX) was compared and contrasted to their degradation in soil. Incubation studies showed that straw was essential in maintaining a high pesticide degradation capacity of the biomixture, whereas compost, when mixed with soil, retarded pesticide degradation. The highest rates of degradation were shown in the biomixture composed of soil/compost/straw suggesting that all three components are essential for maximum biobed performance. Increasing doses prolonged the persistence of most pesticides with biomixtures showing a higher tolerance to high pesticide dose levels compared to soil. Increasing the incubation temperature from 15 °C to 25 °C resulted in lower t(1/2) values, with biomixtures performing better than soil at the lower temperature. Repeated applications led to a decrease in the degradation rates of most pesticides in all the substrates, with the exception of iprodione and metalaxyl. Overall, our results stress the ability of biomixtures to perform better than soil under unfavorable conditions and extreme pesticide dose levels.

  2. (Pesticide chemistry)

    SciTech Connect

    Barnthouse, L.W.

    1990-09-04

    This report summarizes a trip by L. W. Barnthouse of the Environmental Sciences Division (ESD), Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), to Hamburg, Federal Republic of Germany (FRG), where he participated in the 7th International Congress of Pesticide Chemistry. He chaired a workshop on experimental systems for determining effects of pesticides on nontarget organisms and gave an oral presentation at a symposium on pesticide risk assessment. Before returning to the United States, Dr. Barnthouse visited the Netherlands Institute for Sea Research in Texel, the Netherlands.

  3. National Board Certification and Developmentally Appropriate Practices: Perceptions of Impact

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKenzie, Ellen Nancy

    2013-01-01

    The study investigated a relationship between National Board certification and perceived use of developmentally appropriate practices (DAP). A self-developed survey, the Early-childhood Teacher Inventory of Practices, was e-mailed to participants. Participants included 246 non-National Board-certified (non-NBCT) and 135 National Board-certified…

  4. Evaluation of Core Cultivation Practices to Reduce Ecological Risk of Pesticides in Runoff from Agrostis palustris

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Highly managed biotic systems such as golf courses and commercial landscapes often require multiple applications of pesticides that may be transported with runoff to areas beyond the intended site. Pesticides have been detected in surface waters of rural and urban watersheds raising questions conce...

  5. National agenda for advanced practice nursing: the practice doctorate.

    PubMed

    Clinton, Patricia; Sperhac, Arlene M

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this article was to provide the background and rationale for the practice doctorate in nursing. The American Association of Colleges of Nursing's Position Statement on the Practice Doctorate in Nursing, approved in October 2004, will be discussed. Outlined are some of the changes that will be needed in education, regulation, and advanced practice. Common questions and concerns that advanced practice nurses have, including titling, salary, and transitioning to the doctor of nursing practice degree, will be addressed.

  6. Organochlorine compounds and current-use pesticides in snow and lake sediment in Rocky Mountain National Park, Colorado, and Glacier National Park, Montana, 2002-03

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mast, M. Alisa; Foreman, William T.; Skaates, Serena V.

    2006-01-01

    Organochlorine compounds and current-use pesticides were measured in snow and lake-sediment samples from Rocky Mountain National Park in Colorado and Glacier National Park in Montana to determine their occurrence and distribution in high-elevation aquatic ecosystems. The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the National Park Service, collected snow samples at eight sites in Rocky Mountain National Park and at eight sites in Glacier National Park during spring of 2002 and 2003 just prior to the start of snowmelt. Surface sediments were collected from 11 lakes in Rocky Mountain National Park and 10 lakes in Glacier National Park during summer months of 2002 and 2003. Samples were analyzed for organochlorine compounds by gas chromatography with electron-capture detection and current-use pesticides by gas chromatography with electron-impact mass spectrometry. A subset of samples was reanalyzed using a third instrumental technique (gas chromatography with electron-capture negative ion mass spectrometry) to verify detected concentrations in the initial analysis and to investigate the presence of additional compounds. For the snow samples, the pesticides most frequently detected were endosulfan, dacthal, and chlorothalonil, all of which are chlorinated pesticides that currently are registered for use in North America. Concentrations of these pesticides in snow were very low, ranging from 0.07 to 2.36 nanograms per liter. Of the historical-use pesticides, hexachlorobenzene, dieldrin, and trans-nonachlor were detected in snow but only in one sample each. Annual deposition rates of dacthal, endosulfan, and chlorothalonil were estimated at 0.7 to 3.0 micrograms per square meter. These estimates are likely biased low because they do not account for pesticide deposition during summer months. For the lake-sediment samples, DDE (p,p'-dichlorodiphenyldichoroethene) and DDD (p,p'-dichlorodiphenyldichoroethane) were the most frequently detected organochlorine compounds. DDE

  7. National standards and guidelines for pesticides in water, sediment, and aquatic organisms: application to water-quality assessments.

    PubMed

    Nowell, L H; Resek, E A

    1994-01-01

    National standards and guidelines for pesticides can be useful tools in water-quality assessment for evaluating potential human health or ecological effects of measured pesticide residues in water, bed sediment, or aquatic organisms. However, valid use of a given standard or guideline requires an understanding of its technical basis and underlying assumptions. Each type of standard or guideline is specific for one sampling medium (water, bed sediment, and fish and shellfish tissue) and is aimed at protection of one or more beneficial uses of the hydrologic system (drinking water, fish and shellfish consumption, aquatic organisms, and wildlife). These characteristics can be used to identify which standards and guidelines are appropriate for comparison with measured pesticide concentrations in environmental samples from a given hydrologic system. A review of standards and guidelines can be restricted to the applicable sampling medium. Then, the beneficial uses of the hydrologic system need to be identified and the measured pesticide concentrations compared with standards and guidelines for all beneficial uses that apply to that system. Several key factors that must be considered when applying this general process to water-quality assessment are summarized below. Two precautions need to be considered regarding sampling media: 1. Standards and guidelines for water distinguish between finished drinking water (potable water, often treated) and ambient surface water. If standards and guidelines for drinking water (EPA primary drinking-water regulations and drinking-water health advisories) are applied to measured pesticide concentrations in ambient water samples, the effects of water treatment (such as filtration) need to be considered. 2. Standards and guidelines for fish and shellfish tissue distinguish between edible fish and shellfish tissue and whole fish tissue. Comparison of pesticide concentrations in whole fish tissue with standards or guidelines for edible fish

  8. Knowledge and Practices of In-Home Pesticide Use: A Community Survey in Uganda

    PubMed Central

    Nalwanga, Eva; Ssempebwa, John C.

    2011-01-01

    Many communities in low-income countries use in-home pesticides for the control of pests. Such use is often inadequately controlled. In this study, 100 households in Kireka ward, Wakiso district in Uganda were involved in a cross-sectional survey to assess pests, knowledge, and use patterns of pesticides. A structured pretested questionnaire was administered via personal interviews, and observational checklists were used. Mosquitoes were the most prevalent pests (83%), followed by cockroaches (69%) and rats (52%). Pesticides were the most preferred method for pest control (98%), with insecticide spray being the most common form of application (71.4%). Pesticide application was inappropriately done in many households mainly due to inadequate knowledge on use. Only 48% of the respondents read manufacturer's instructions for use. Information on what pesticide to use was obtained from friends (53.1%), points of sales (48%). Educational interventions particularly at points of sale would be a critical avenue for promoting safe use of pesticides in households. PMID:21776435

  9. Sources and fate of chiral organochlorine pesticides in western U.S. National Park ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Genualdi, Susan A; Hageman, Kimberly J; Ackerman, Luke K; Usenko, Sascha; Massey Simonich, Staci L

    2011-07-01

    The enantiomer fractions (EFs) of alpha-hexachlorocyclohexane (α-HCH), cis-, trans-, and oxychlordane, and heptachlor epoxide were measured in 73 snow, fish, and sediment samples collected from remote lake catchments, over a wide range of latitudes, in seven western U.S. National Parks/Preserves to investigate their sources, fate, accumulation and biotransformation in these ecosystems. The present study is novel because these lakes had no inflow or outflow, and the measurement of chiral organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) EFs in snowpack from these lake catchments provided a better understanding of the OCP sources in the western United States, whereas their measurement in fish and sediment provided a better understanding of their biotic transformations within the lake catchments. Nonracemic α-HCH was measured in seasonal snowpack collected from continental U.S. National Parks, and racemic α-HCH was measured in seasonal snowpack collected from the Alaskan parks, suggesting the influence of regional sources to the continental U.S. parks and long-range sources to the Alaskan parks. The α-HCH EFs measured in trout collected from the lake catchments were similar to the α-HCH EFs measured in seasonal snowpack collected from the same lake catchments, suggesting that these fish did not biotransform α-HCH enantioselectively. Racemic cis-chlordane was measured in seasonal snowpack and sediment collected from Sequoia, indicating that it had not undergone significant enantioselective biotransformation in urban soils since its use as a termiticide in the surrounding urban areas. However, nonracemic cis-chlordane was measured in seasonal snowpack and sediments from the Rocky Mountains, suggesting that cis-chlordane does undergo enantioselective biotransformation in agricultural soils. The trout from these lakes showed preferential biotransformation of the (+)-enantiomer of cis-chlordane and the (-)-enantiomer of trans-chlordane.

  10. Associations between organochlorine pesticides and cognition in U.S. elders: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1999-2002.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ki-Su; Lee, Yu-Mi; Lee, Ho-Won; Jacobs, David R; Lee, Duk-Hee

    2015-02-01

    There is limited evidence about whether background exposure to organochlorine pesticides is related to impairment of cognitive function in general populations. This study was performed to investigate cross-sectional associations between serum concentrations of organochlorine pesticides and cognitive function, a predictor of dementia, among U.S. elders without overt dementia. Study subjects were 644 elders aged 60-85, participating in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1999-2002. We selected 6 organochlorine pesticides (p,p'-dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT), p,p'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE), trans-nonachlor, oxychlordane, heptachlor epoxide, and β-hexachlorocyclohexane) which were commonly detected in current general population. Cognitive function was assessed with the Digit-Symbol Substitution Test. All 6 compounds showed statistically significant or marginally significant inverse associations with cognitive score after adjusting for covariates including education levels. The strongest association was observed with p,p'-DDT. With the outcome of low cognitive score defined as <25th percentile, elders in the highest quartile of p,p'-DDT, p,p'-DDE, and β-hexachlorocyclohexane had 2 to 3 times higher risks than those in the lowest quartile. In particular, when their concentrations were further divided with the cutoff points of 90th and 95th percentiles, p,p'-DDT in the highest 5th percentile showed 6.5 (95% confidence interval: 2.6-16.3) times higher risk of low cognitive score. On the other hand, non-persistent pesticides like organophosphates or pyrethroid showed little association with this cognitive score. The potential role of background exposure to organochlorine pesticides in the development of dementia should be explored in future prospective studies and in-vitro/in-vivo experimental studies.

  11. Maternal Occupational Pesticide Exposure and Risk of Congenital Heart Defects in the National Birth Defects Prevention Study

    PubMed Central

    Rocheleau, Carissa M.; Bertke, Stephen J.; Lawson, Christina C.; Romitti, Paul A.; Sanderson, Wayne T.; Malik, Sadia; Lupo, Philip J.; Desrosiers, Tania A.; Bell, Erin; Druschel, Charlotte; Correa, Adolfo; Reefhuis, Jennita

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND Congenital heart defects (CHDs) are common birth defects, affecting approximately 1% of live births. Pesticide exposure has been suggested as an etiologic factor for CHDs, but previous results were inconsistent. METHODS We examined maternal occupational exposure to fungicides, insecticides, and herbicides for 3328 infants with CHDs and 2988 unaffected control infants of employed mothers using data for 1997 through 2002 births from the National Birth Defects Prevention Study, a population-based multisite case-control study. Potential pesticide exposure from 1 month before conception through the first trimester of pregnancy was assigned by an expert-guided task-exposure matrix and job history details self-reported by mothers. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated using multivariable logistic regression. RESULTS Maternal occupational exposure to pesticides was not associated with CHDs overall. In examining specific CHD subtypes compared with controls, some novel associations were observed with higher estimated pesticide exposure: insecticides only and secundum atrial septal defect (OR =1.8; 95% CI, 1.3–2.7, 40 exposed cases); both insecticides and herbicides and hypoplastic left heart syndrome (OR =5.1; 95% CI, 1.7–15.3, 4 exposed cases), as well as pulmonary valve stenosis (OR =3.6; 95% CI, 1.3–10.1, 5 exposed cases); and insecticides, herbicides, and fungicides and tetralogy of Fallot (TOF) (OR =2.2; 95% CI, 1.2–4.0, 13 exposed cases). CONCLUSION Broad pesticide exposure categories were not associated with CHDs overall, but examining specific CHD subtypes revealed some increased odds ratios. These results highlight the importance of examining specific CHDs separately. Because of multiple comparisons, additional work is needed to verify these associations. PMID:26033688

  12. Trends of Pesticide Exposure and Related Cases in the Philippines

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Jinky Leilanie; Cosca, Katherine Z.; Del mundo, Jocelyn

    2010-01-01

    The study aims to provide a comprehensive trend of pesticide poisoning cases in the Philippines as well as pesticide exposures, and risk factors related to the adverse effects of pesticide. Records were gathered from the National Poison Control and Management Center (NPCMC), the Philippine General Hospital, De La Salle Medical Center, and other hospitals, and reviewed research studies conducted in the Philippines. Based on hospital surveys, the number of pesticide cases as well as mortality trends have been increasing. Studies from 2006 to 2010 showed that human health especially those of the farmers is at risk due to pesticide exposure. Illnesses and symptoms such as headache, skin abnormalities, fatigue, fever, and weaknesses were the common health complaints experienced by the farmers as reported in the research studies. Moreover, the studies showed risk factors to pesticide exposure, work practices, and pesticide residues in environmental media that could be contributory to pesticide poisoning cases. Government agencies should intensify their surveillance and regulation on both household and agricultural pesticides. The state of pesticide-related illnesses mirrors the poor safety practices among farmers as well as lack of necessary supervision from the government agencies. PMID:25649374

  13. Mortality from and incidence of pesticide poisoning in South Korea: findings from National Death and Health Utilization Data between 2006 and 2010.

    PubMed

    Cha, Eun Shil; Khang, Young-Ho; Lee, Won Jin

    2014-01-01

    Pesticide poisoning has been recognized as an important public health issue around the world. The objectives of this study were to report nationally representative figures on mortality from and the incidence of pesticide poisoning in South Korea and to describe their epidemiologic characteristics. We calculated the age-standardized rates of mortality from and the incidence of pesticide poisoning in South Korea by gender and region from 2006 through 2010 using registered death data obtained from Statistics Korea and national healthcare utilization data obtained from the National Health Insurance Review and Assessment Service of South Korea. During the study period of 2006 through 2010, a total of 16,161 deaths and 45,291 patients related to pesticide poisoning were identified, marking respective mortality and incidence rates of 5.35 and 15.37 per 100,000 population. Intentional self-poisoning was identified as the major cause of death due to pesticides (85.9%) and accounted for 20.8% of all recorded suicides. The rates of mortality due to and incidence of pesticide poisoning were higher in rural than in urban areas, and this rural-urban discrepancy was more pronounced for mortality than for incidence. Both the rate of mortality due to pesticide poisoning and its incidence rate increased with age and were higher among men than women. This study provides the magnitude and epidemiologic characteristics for mortality from and the incidence of pesticide poisoning at the national level, and strongly suggests the need for further efforts to prevent pesticide self-poisonings, especially in rural areas in South Korea.

  14. Academic practice partnerships: a national dialogue.

    PubMed

    Beal, Judy A; Alt-White, Anna; Erickson, Judith; Everett, Linda Q; Fleshner, Irene; Karshmer, Judith; Swider, Susan; Gale, Sharon

    2012-01-01

    Academic-practice partnerships are an important mechanism to strengthen nursing practice and help nurses become well positioned to lead change and advance health. Through implementing such partnerships, both academic institutions and practice settings will formally address the recommendations of the Institute of Medicine Future of Nursing Committee. Effective partnerships will create systems for nurses to achieve educational and career advancement, prepare nurses of the future to practice and lead, provide mechanisms for lifelong learning, and provide a structure for nurse residency programs. This paper details the work of the American Association of Colleges of Nursing-American Organization of Nurse Executives Task Force on Academic-Practice Partnerships that has identified hallmarks of successful partnership and produced tools and shared exemplars to assist nursing leaders in developing and sustaining partnerships for the future.

  15. Sustainable agricultural practices: energy inputs and outputs, pesticide, fertilizer and greenhouse gas management.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yue-Wen

    2009-01-01

    The food security issue was addressed by the development of "modern agriculture" in the last century. But food safety issues and environment degradation were the consequences suffered as a result. Climate change has been recognized as the result of release of stored energy in fossil fuel into the atmosphere. Homogeneous crop varieties, machinery, pesticides and fertilizers are the foundation of uniform commodities in modern agriculture. Fossil fuels are used to manufacture fertilizers and pesticides as well as the energy source for agricultural machinery, thus characterizes modern agriculture. Bio-fuel production and the possibility of the agriculture system as a form of energy input are discussed.

  16. Summary of national standards and guidelines for pesticides in water, bed sediment, and aquatic organisms and their application to water-quality assessments

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nowell, Lisa H.; Resek, Elizabeth A.

    1994-01-01

    Current (1993) national standards and guidelines pertaining to pesticide contaminants in water, bed sediment, and fish and shellfish tissues are summarized to provide a condensed reference source for definitions and current values applicable to pesticides in aquatic environmental media. This report facilitates comparison of measured concen- trations of pesticides in environmental samples with applicable standards and guidelines. For each standard or guideline, the following is provided: (1) Definition, including the underlying assumptions and mathematical derivation; (2) originating agency; (3) statutory authority; (4) regulatory status and, for standards, the agency responsible for enforcing the standard; (5) applicable sampling medium; (6) beneficial use and resource protected, and (7) full citations of published documentation. The report emphasizes the appropriate application on national standards and guidelines to water-quality data on pesticides to aid in assessing potential adverse effects on human health, aquatic organisms, and wildlife. (USGS)

  17. OPCW Proficiency Test: A Practical Approach Also for Interlaboratory Test on Detection and Identification of Pesticides in Environmental Matrices

    PubMed Central

    Śliwakowski, Maciej

    2014-01-01

    An overview of general strategy, standard procedures, and critical points, which may be found during carrying out an OPCW Proficiency Test concerning detection and identification of scheduled compounds relevant to Chemical Weapon Convention, has been presented. The observations have been illustrated following the case of the Eight OPCW Designated Laboratories Proficiency Test, which was performed in the OPCW Laboratory in Rijswijk in November and December 2000. Various useful hints, comments, and practical observations concerning the case study have been included as well. The same methodology and procedures may be also applied for detection, identification, and environmental analyses of pesticides and biocides, especially organophosphorus compounds. PMID:24578644

  18. Evaluating Cumulative OP Pesticide Body Burden of Children: A National Case Study

    PubMed Central

    Payne-Sturges, Devon; Cohen, Jonathan; Castorina, Rosemary; Axelrad, Daniel A.; Woodruff, Tracey J.

    2009-01-01

    Biomonitoring is a valuable tool for identifying exposures to chemicals that pose potential harm to human health. However, to date there has been little published on ways to evaluate the relative public health significance of biomonitoring data for different chemicals, and even less on cumulative assessment of multiple chemicals. The objectives of our study are to develop a methodology for a health risk interpretation of biomonitoring data, and to apply it using NHANES 1999–2002 body burden data for organophosphorus (OP) pesticides. OP pesticides present a particularly challenging case given the non-specificity of many metabolites monitored through NHANES. We back-calculate OP pesticide exposures from urinary metabolite data, and compare cumulative dose estimates with available toxicity information for a common mechanism of action (brain cholinesterase inhibition) using data from U.S. EPA. Our results suggest that approximately 40% of children in the United States may have had insufficient margins of exposure (MOEs) for neurological impacts from cumulative exposures to OP pesticides (MOE less than 1,000). Limitations include uncertainty related to assumptions about likely precursor pesticide compounds of the urinary metabolites, sources of exposure, and intra-individual and temporal variability. PMID:19921915

  19. Monitoring of Pesticide Disposal Practices, Iowa Army Ammunition Plant, Burlington, Iowa 52600, September 1974 - January 1975

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1976-10-15

    epoxide 7.5 .005 lindane 3.8 .0025 methoxychlor 120.0 .08 mirex 60.0 .04 toxaphene 1200.0 .80 chlorpyrifos 12.0 .008 diazinon 48.0 .032 malathion 75.0...polar fraction contains most of the common pesticides including toxaphene and 5442. 3. REAGENTS. a. Silicic acid - Mallinckrodt, Silicar CC-4 special for

  20. Evaluation of core cultivation practices to reduce ecological risk of pesticides in runoff from turf

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pesticides associated with the turfgrass industry have been detected in storm runoff and surface waters of urban watersheds; raising concern of their potential environmental effects and a desire to reduce their transport to non-target locations. Runoff studies were conducted to compare the effective...

  1. Evaluation of Core Cultivation Practices to Reduce Ecological Risk of Pesticides in Runoff from Agrostis palustris

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pesticides associated with the turfgrass industry have been detected in storm runoff and surface waters of urban watersheds; invoking concern of their potential environmental effects and a desire to reduce their transport to non-target locations. Quantities of chlorpyrifos, dicamba, dimethylamine s...

  2. Assessing the importance of agricultural management practices to reduce the ecological risk of pesticides

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The use of pesticides in agriculture, their potential to be transported beyond the intended target, and their possible risk to human and environmental health has been of public concern for many years. We utilized 5 years of field data from 3 vegetable production systems to evaluate the ability of ag...

  3. National Foreign Language Planning: Practices and Prospects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sajavaara, Kari, Ed.; And Others

    A selection of essays on foreign language planning at the national level contains articles on the language planning process, language choice, teacher education, testing and assessment, and transnational planning. Essays include the following: "Foreign Language Teaching Policy: Some Planning Issues" (Theo J. M. van Els); "Foreign…

  4. Obsolete pesticides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    Several hundred tons of obsolete pesticide stocks worldwide will pose a threat to humans and the environment until the year 2030 in some regions, unless funding for waste disposal is significantly increased, the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) said in a message directed to donor governments and industry on May 24.“Deadly chemicals are contaminating the soils, groundwater, irrigation, and drinking water,” said Amemayehu Wodageneh, senior expert on obsolete pesticides for FAO. “These ‘forgotten’ stocks are a serious risk, [and] they could cause an environmental tragedy in rural areas and big cities. There is hardly any developing country that is not affected by the hazards of obsolete pesticides.”

  5. Agricultural Exports and the Environment: A Cross-National Study of Fertilizer and Pesticide Consumption

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Longo, Stefano; York, Richard

    2008-01-01

    The mass consumption of agrochemicals, including manufactured fertilizers and pesticides, by industrialized agricultural systems worldwide threatens human health and the health of ecosystems. The production of these agricultural inputs is a highly energy- and capital-intensive process, and their application contributes to a variety of direct and…

  6. AMERICAN HEALTHY HOMES SURVEY: A NATIONAL STUDY OF RESIDENTIAL PESTICIDES MEASURED FROM FLOOR WIPES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The US Environmental Protection Agency and the US Department of Housing and Urban Development conducted the American Healthy Homes Survey (AHHS) in 2006 to assess environmental concentrations of lead, allergens, mold, pesticides, and arsenic in and around U.S. residences.

  7. Level 1 Water-Quality Inventory of Baseline Levels of Pesticides in Urban Creeks - Golden Gate National Recreation Area and the Presidio of San Francisco, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hladik, Michelle; Orlando, James L.

    2008-01-01

    To characterize baseline water-quality levels of pesticides in Golden Gate National Recreation Area and the Presidio of San Francisco, the U.S. Geological Survey collected and analyzed surface-water and bed-sediment samples at 10 creeks during February, April, and July 2006. Pesticide data were obtained using previously developed methods. Samples from sites in the Presidio were analyzed only for pyrethroid insecticides, whereas the remaining samples were analyzed for pyrethroids and additional current and historical-use pesticides. Pesticide concentrations were low in both the water (below 30 ng/L) and sediment (below 3 ng/g). The pyrethroid bifenthrin was detected in water samples from two sites at concentrations below 2 ng/L. Other compounds detected in water included the herbicides dacthal (DCPA) and prometryn, the insecticide fipronil, the insecticide degradates p,p'-DDE and fipronil sulfone, and the fungicides cyproconazole, myclobutanil and tetraconazole. The only pesticides detected in the sediment samples were p,p'-DDT and its degradates (p,p'-DDD and p,p'-DDE). Pesticide information from the samples collected can provide a reference point for future sampling and can help National Park Service managers assess the water quality of the urban creeks.

  8. Pesticide poisoning trend analysis of 13 years: a retrospective study based on telephone calls at the National Poisons Information Centre, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi.

    PubMed

    Peshin, Sharda Shah; Srivastava, Amita; Halder, Nabanita; Gupta, Yogendra Kumar

    2014-02-01

    The study was designed to analyze the incidence and pattern of pesticide poisoning calls reported to the National Poisons Information Centre (NPIC), AIIMS, New Delhi and highlight the common classes of pesticides involved in poisoning. The telephone calls received by the Centre during the thirteen year period (1999-2012) were entered into a preset proforma and then into a retrievable database. A total of 4929 calls of pesticide poisoning were recorded. The data was analyzed with respect to age, gender, mode and type of poisoning. The age ranged from 1 to 65 years with the preponderance of males (M = 62.19%, F = 37.80%). The age group mainly involved in poisoning was 18-35 years. While 59.38% calls pertained to household pesticides, 40.61% calls related to agricultural pesticides. The common mode of poisoning was intentional (64.60%) followed by accidental (34.40%) and unknown (1%). Amongst the household pesticides, the highest number of calls were due to pyrethroids (26.23%) followed by rodenticides (17.06%), organophosphates (6.26%), carbamates (4.95%) and others (4.86%). In agricultural pesticides group, the organophosphates (9.79%) ranked the first followed by, aluminium phosphide (9.65%), organochlorines (9.31%), pyrethroids (3.87%), herbicides, weedicides and fungicides (3.20%), ethylene dibromide (2.82%), and others (1.70%). The data analysis shows a high incidence of poisoning due to household pesticides as compared to agricultural pesticides, clearly emphasizing the need for creating awareness and education about proper use and implementation of prevention programmes.

  9. Integrated Pest Management Practices Reduce Insecticide Applications, Preserve Beneficial Insects, and Decrease Pesticide Residues in Flue-Cured Tobacco Production.

    PubMed

    Slone, Jeremy D; Burrack, Hannah J

    2016-09-22

    Integrated pest management (IPM) recommendations, including scouting and economic thresholds (ETs), are available for North Carolina flue-cured tobacco growers, although ETs for key pests have not been updated in several decades. Moreover, reported IPM adoption rates by flue-cured tobacco growers remain low, at < 40%, according to NC cooperative extension surveys conducted during the last four years. Previous research has suggested that timing insecticide treatments using currently available ETs can reduce the average number of applications to two or fewer per season. We conducted field-scale trials at nine commercial tobacco farms, three in 2104 and six in 2015, to quantify inputs associated with current scouting recommendations, to determine if current ETs were able to reduce insecticide applications as compared to grower standard practices, and to assess the impacts of reduced insecticide applications on end of season yield and pesticide residues. Two fields were identified at each farm and were scouted weekly for insects. One field was only treated with insecticides if pests reached ET (IPM), while the other field was managed per grower discretion (Grower Standard). IPM fields received an average of two fewer insecticide applications without compromising yield. More insecticide applications resulted in higher pesticide residues in cured leaf samples from Grower Standard fields than those from IPM fields. Reductions in insecticides and management intensity also resulted in larger beneficial insect populations in IPM fields.

  10. Pesticide and trace metals in surface waters and sediments of rivers entering the Corner Inlet Marine National Park, Victoria, Australia.

    PubMed

    Allinson, Graeme; Allinson, Mayumi; Bui, AnhDuyen; Zhang, Pei; Croatto, George; Wightwick, Adam; Rose, Gavin; Walters, Robert

    2016-03-01

    Water and sediment samples were collected from up to 17 sites in waterways entering the Corner Inlet Marine National Park monthly between November 2009 and April 2010, with the Chemcatcher passive sampler system deployed at these sites in November 2009 and March 2010. Trace metal concentrations were low, with none occurring at concentrations with the potential for adverse ecological effects. The agrochemical residues data showed the presence of a small number of pesticides at very low concentration (ng/L) in the surface waters of streams entering the Corner Inlet, and as widespread, but still limited contamination of sediments. Concentrations of pesticides detected were relatively low and several orders of magnitude below reported ecotoxicological effect and hazardous concentration values. The low levels of pesticides detected in this study indicate that agricultural industries were responsible agrochemical users. This research project is a rarity in aligning both agrochemical usage data obtained from chemical resellers in the target catchment with residue analysis of environmental samples. Based on frequency of detection and concentrations, prometryn is the priority chemical of concern for both the water and sediments studied, but this chemical was not listed in reseller data. Consequently, the risks may be greater than the field data would suggest, and priorities for monitoring different since some commonly used herbicides (such as glyphosate, phenoxy acid herbicides, and sulfonyl urea herbicides) were not screened. Therefore, researchers, academia, industry, and government need to identify ways to achieve a more coordinated land use approach for obtaining information on the use of chemicals in a catchment, their presence in waterways, and the longer term performance of chemicals, particularly where they are used multiple times in a year.

  11. PURE: a web-based decision support system to evaluate pesticide environmental risk for sustainable pest management practices in California.

    PubMed

    Zhan, Yu; Zhang, Minghua

    2012-08-01

    Farmers, policy makers, and other stakeholders seek tools to quantitatively assess pesticide risks for mitigating pesticide impacts on ecosystem and human health. This paper presents the Pesticide Use Risk Evaluation (PURE) decision support system (DSS) for evaluating site-specific pesticide risks to surface water, groundwater, soil, and air across pesticide active ingredient (AI), pesticide product, and field levels. The risk score is determined by the ratio of the predicted environmental concentrations (PEC) to the toxicity value for selected endpoint organism(s); except that the risk score for the air is calculated using the emission potential (EP), which is a pesticide product property for estimating potential volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions by California Environmental Protection Agency (CEPA). The risk scores range from 0 to 100, where 0 represents negligible risk while 100 means the highest risk. The procedure for calculating PEC in surface water was evaluated against monitoring data for 41 pesticide AIs, with a statistically significant correlation coefficient of r=0.82 (p<0.001). In addition, two almond fields in the Central Valley, California were evaluated for pesticide risks as a case study, where the commonly acknowledged high-risk pesticides gained high risk scores. Simazine, one of the most frequently detected pesticides in groundwater, was scored as 74 (the moderate high risk class) to groundwater; and chlorpyrifos, one of the frequently detected pollutants in surface water, was scored as 100 (the high risk class) to surface water. In support of pesticide risk quantitative assessment and use of reduced-risk pesticide selection, the PURE-DSS can be useful to assist growers, pesticide control advisors, and environmental protection organizations in mitigating pesticide use impacts on the environment.

  12. ATMOSPHERIC DEPOSITION OF CURRENT-USE AND HISTORIC-USE PESTICIDES IN SNOW AT NATIONAL PARKS IN THE WESTERN UNITED STATES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The United States (U.S.) National Park Service has initiated research on the atmospheric deposition and fate of semi-volatile organic compounds in its alpine, sub-Arctic, and Arctic ecosystems in the Western U.S. Results for the analysis of pesticides in seasonal snowpack samples...

  13. Who's using treatment manuals? A national survey of practicing therapists.

    PubMed

    Becker, Emily M; Smith, Ashley M; Jensen-Doss, Amanda

    2013-10-01

    Treatment manuals are currently the most common way treatments are disseminated to practicing clinicians, although little is known about the rates with which practicing therapists incorporate these manuals into their practice. In light of a widely acknowledged research-practice gap, understanding how often therapists are using manuals is important for shaping future dissemination efforts. This study collected data on rates of manual use among a national sample of mental health clinicians representative of those likely to be targeted in dissemination efforts (N = 756), as well as predictors of use. Results indicated that few clinicians (< 10%) routinely incorporated manuals into their practice, although most employed them to some degree. Predictors of manual use included greater openness to new treatments, younger age, and a cognitive-behavioral treatment orientation (ps < .05). Implications for future dissemination efforts are discussed.

  14. National Best Practices Manual for Building High Performance Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    US Department of Energy, 2007

    2007-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy's Rebuild America EnergySmart Schools program provides school boards, administrators, and design staff with guidance to help make informed decisions about energy and environmental issues important to school systems and communities. "The National Best Practices Manual for Building High Performance Schools" is a part of…

  15. National Education Practice File. Final Report. Evaluation Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clay, Katherine; Davis, James E.

    The purpose of the National Education Practice File (NEPF) was to find out from educational practitioners what types of materials would be of value to them; to locate the types of information identified; and to make this information available to them through the development of a computerized file of practitioner-oriented materials. The 2-year,…

  16. Assessment and Verification of National Vocational Qualifications: Policy and Practice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Konrad, John

    2000-01-01

    To overcome problems of assessment and verification of National Vocational Qualifications, the system should move from narrow quality control to total quality management. Situated learning in communities of practice, including assessors and assessees, should be developed. This requires radically different quality criteria and professional…

  17. Identifying Exemplary School Counseling Practices in Nationally Recognized High Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Militello, Matthew; Carey, John; Dimmitt, Carey; Lee, Vivian; Schweid, Jason

    2009-01-01

    The National Center for School Counseling Outcome Research (CSCOR) at the University of Massachusetts-Amherst studied exemplary practices of 18 high schools that received recognition for college preparation and placement in 2004 and 2005. Through interviews with key personnel at each of the high schools, the researchers generated a set of ten…

  18. One Size Does Not Fit All. Some Thoughts on Pesticides in the Diets of Infants and Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Richard J.

    1994-01-01

    National Academy of Sciences report, "Pesticides in the Diets of Infants and Children," recommends that legal limits of pesticide residues in food should be health-based standards with adequate safety margins for all consumers, including infants and children. Tolerances currently reflect "good agricultural practice." Children…

  19. National GLP programmes and implication of regulatory authorities for pharmaceuticals, pesticides and other chemicals.

    PubMed

    Nakashima, Nobumasa

    2008-01-01

    There are various kinds of good laboratory practice (GLP) monitoring authorities (MAs) in the world. Some countries have only one MA, while others, including Japan, have more than one MA. In addition, each MA has its own relationship with regulatory authorities (RAs), receiving authorities (RcAs) and industry based on the internal regulatory systems. There are eight GLP MAs in Japan. This number is probably the largest in the world. Efforts have been made to establish a close link among MAs and to apply and implement GLP programmes in an efficient, effective and consistent way, namely: i) interministerial meeting on GLP. It is essential to establish a system for information exchange and decision making when there are a number of MAs such as in Japan. To this end, the interministerial meeting on GLP has been set up as a means for MAs, RAs, and RcAs to share information on Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) and foreign countries and make national decisions as a whole country; ii) joint training programme. With the goal of training inspectors and minimizing differences in inspections among MAs, a joint training programme has been started including joint visits to test facilities (TFs) and participation in evaluation committees at other MAs. One of the purposes of this training programme is to get ready for the on-site evaluation visit (OEV) of the OECD by simulating it at MAs in Japan; iii) joint translation programme of the OECD documents. To avoid unnecessary confusion due to differences of interpretation and translation of OECD documents among MAs, these have been translated into Japanese in cooperation with industry. This has also other substantial merits such as cost reduction and time saving for all stakeholders in Japan. Some countries, both members and non-members of the OECD, have also established more than one GLP MA. It is hoped that the Japanese experience can be useful to them.

  20. Analytical methods for a national study of chemical residues in fish. 2. Pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls

    SciTech Connect

    Marquis, P.J.; Hanson, R.L.; Larsen, M.L.; DeVita, W.M.; Butterworth, B.C.

    1994-01-01

    Analytical methods and a quality assurance plan have been developed to determine the concentration of a select group of bioaccumulatable chemicals in fish tissue. The analytes include Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and 21 pesticides and industrial chemicals. The methodology has been used to conduct a survey of chemical contaminants in fish from nearly 400 major watersheds in the United States. The methodology consists of the preparation of a single extract via soxhlet extraction, gel permeation and silica gel chromatography and quantification by HRGC/LRMS. The minimum level of detection for most analytes is near 1 ng/g. Rigorous quality assurance/quality control criteria have been developed to assure the generation of high quality data.

  1. Pesticide Registration

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This site provides resources for an individual or company wanting to register a pesticide active ingredient or pesticide product in the United States. Features: a manual (blue book), other guidance, and coordinated lists of requirements by pesticide type.

  2. CHEER National Study of Chronic Rhinosinusitis Practice Patterns.

    PubMed

    Chapurin, Nikita; Pynnonen, Melissa A; Roberts, Rhonda; Schulz, Kristine; Shin, Jennifer J; Witsell, David L; Parham, Kourosh; Langman, Alan; Carpenter, David; Vambutas, Andrea; Nguyen-Huynh, Anh; Wolfley, Anne; Lee, Walter T

    2017-02-01

    Objectives (1) Describe national patterns of chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) care across academic and community practices. (2) Determine the prevalence of comorbid disorders in CRS patients, including nasal polyposis, allergic rhinitis, asthma, and cystic fibrosis. (3) Identify demographic, clinical, and practice type factors associated with endoscopic sinus surgery (ESS). Study Design Multisite cross-sectional study. Setting Otolaryngology's national research network CHEER (Creating Healthcare Excellence through Education and Research). Subjects and Methods A total of 17,828 adult patients with CRS were identified, of which 10,434 were seen at community practices (59%, n = 8 sites) and 7394 at academic practices (41%, n = 10 sites). Multivariate logistic regression was used to evaluate the association between demographic, practice type, and clinical factors and the odds of a patient undergoing ESS. Results The average age was 50.4 years; 59.5% of patients were female; and 88.3% were Caucasian. The prevalence of comorbid diseases was as follows: allergic rhinitis (35.1%), nasal polyposis (13.3%), asthma (4.4%), and cystic fibrosis (0.2%). In addition, 24.8% of patients at academic centers underwent ESS, as compared with 12.3% at community sites. In multivariate analyses, nasal polyposis (odds ratio [OR], 4.28), cystic fibrosis (OR, 2.42), and academic site type (OR, 1.86) were associated with ESS ( P < .001), while adjusting for other factors. Conclusions We describe practice patterns of CRS care, as well as demographic and clinical factors associated with ESS. This is the first study of practice patterns in CRS utilizing the CHEER network and may be used to guide future research.

  3. [Nursing practice within the French national gendarmerie intervention group].

    PubMed

    Fressancourt, Yves; Quémeneur, Éric; Bertho, Kilian; Dubourg, Olivier

    2016-11-01

    Intervening in the event of a major crisis in France and abroad, the national gendarmerie intervention group carries out complex and specific operations in varied conditions and environments. Due to the multiplicity and dangerousness of the missions, adapted and integrated medical support is essential. In this context, nurses provide operational medical assistance as close as possible to the intervention. This nursing practice in an exceptional environment requires specific knowledge and intensive training.

  4. Self-reported exposure to pesticides and radiation related to pregnancy outcome--results from National Natality and Fetal Mortality Surveys

    SciTech Connect

    Savitz, D.A.; Whelan, E.A.; Kleckner, R.C. )

    1989-09-01

    Although fetal development is known to be sensitive to environmental agents, relatively little epidemiologic research has addressed this concern. Effects on pregnancy outcome of self-reported parental exposure to pesticides and to radiation were examined using data from the National Natality and Fetal Mortality Surveys, large national probability samples of live births and stillbirths occurring in 1980. In case-control analyses, maternal exposure to pesticides at home or work was associated with increased risk of stillbirth (odds ratios (ORs) = 1.5-1.6). Paternal pesticide exposure was associated with stillbirth (ORs = 1.2-1.4) and delivery of small-for-gestational-age infants (ORs = 1.4-2.0). A small increased risk of stillbirth (OR = 1.3) was found in relation to either parent's reported exposure to radiation. In spite of limitations in the quality of exposure data and the possibility of biased recall related to pregnancy outcome, associations of reported pesticide exposure to either parent with risk of stillbirth and small-for-gestational-age infants warrant further evaluation.

  5. National Board Certification and Developmentally Appropriate Practices: Perceptions of Impact

    PubMed Central

    McKenzie, Ellen Nancy

    2013-01-01

    The study investigated a relationship between National Board certification and perceived use of developmentally appropriate practices (DAP). A self-developed survey, the Early-childhood Teacher Inventory of Practices, was e-mailed to participants. Participants included 246 non-National Board-certified (non-NBCT) and 135 National Board-certified (NBCT) early childhood teachers. Descriptives were reported for age, years of teaching experience, grade level currently teaching, ethnicity, degree type, certification type, and degree level. Inferential statistics were used to understand the differences between perceived use of DAP. NBCTs scored significantly higher than non-NBCTs in three of the four target areas and on the total of the scale. Pearson product-moment corelations were used to determine a relationship between years of experience or level of education and NBCTs’ perceived use of DAP. Years of experience were significantly related, but level of education was not. The findings indicate that NBCT teachers perceive they incorporate more developmentally appropriate practices into their teaching than do non-NBCT teachers. PMID:23626399

  6. Evaluation of Management Practices to Mitigate Pesticide Transport and Ecological Risk of Runoff from Agricultural and Turf Systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Highly managed biotic systems such as agricultural crops and golf courses often require multiple applications of pesticides that may be transported with runoff to surrounding surface waters. Pesticides have been detected in surface waters of rural and urban watersheds invoking concern of their sour...

  7. Mentoring for nurses in general practice: national issues and challenges.

    PubMed

    Heartfield, Marie; Gibson, Terri

    2005-04-01

    This paper reports the findings of a research project designed to identify national issues impacting on the development of a mentoring framework for nurses in general practice in Australia. The project comprised the first phase of a three-phase study commissioned by the Australian Government Department of Health and Ageing to develop a contemporary, flexible and sustainable mentoring framework that enhances the capacity of nurses to contribute to general practice outcomes. Key stakeholders and influential informants from around Australia were brought together via a national teleconference to identify issues surrounding the development of such a framework. Outcomes focussed on major themes concerning choice, relationships, structures and resources. Here, we consider the issues and challenges identified in light of some contemporary case studies from outside the field of nursing in the hope of sparking new ideas and strategies. A case study from an Australian practice nurse is included. No research has been conducted on mentoring for nurses in general practice in Australia to date, highlighting an urgent need for new models and their evaluation.

  8. Abortion and neonaticide: ethics, practice, and policy in four nations.

    PubMed

    Gross, Michael L

    2002-06-01

    Abortion, particularly later-term abortion, and neonaticide, selective non-treatment of newborns, are feasible management strategies for fetuses or newborns diagnosed with severe abnormalities. However, policy varies considerably among developed nations. This article examines abortion and neonatal policy in four nations: Israel, the US, the UK and Denmark. In Israel, late-term abortion is permitted while non-treatment of newborns is prohibited. In the US, on the other hand, later-term abortion is severely restricted, while treatment to newborns may be withdrawn. Policy in the UK and Denmark bridges some of these gaps with liberal abortion and neonatal policy. Disparate policy within and between nations creates practical and ethical difficulties. Practice diverges from policy as many practitioners find it difficult to adhere to official policy. Ethically, it is difficult to entirely justify perinatal policy in these nations. In each nation, there are elements of ethically sound policy, while other aspects cannot be defended. Ethical policy hinges on two underlying normative issues: the question of fetal/newborn status and the morality of killing and letting die. While each issue has been the subject of extensive debate, there are firm ethical norms that should serve as the basis for coherent and consistent perinatal policy. These include 1) a grant of full moral and legal status to the newborn but only partial moral and legal status to the late-term fetus 2) a general prohibition against feticide unless to save the life of the mother or prevent the birth of a fetus facing certain death or severe pain or suffering and 3) a general endorsement of neonaticide subject to a parent's assessment of the newborn's interest broadly defined to consider physical harm as well as social, psychological and or financial harm to related third parties. Policies in each of the nations surveyed diverging from these norms should be the subject of public discourse and, where possible

  9. American Healthy Homes Survey: A National Study of Residential Pesticides Measured from Floor Wipes.

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development in collaboration with the United States Environmental Protection Agency conducted a survey measuring lead, allergens, and insecticides in a randomly selected nationally representative sample of resodential homes. Multistage sa...

  10. A national survey of practical airway training in UK anaesthetic departments. Time for a national policy?

    PubMed

    Lindkaer Jensen, N H; Cook, T M; Kelly, F E

    2016-11-01

    The Fourth National Audit Project (NAP4) recommended airway training for trainee and trained anaesthetists. As the skills required for management of airway emergencies differ from routine skills and these events are rare, practical training is likely to require training workshops. In 2013, we surveyed all UK National Health Service hospitals to examine the current practices regarding airway training workshops. We received responses from 206 hospitals (62%) covering all regions. Regarding airway workshops, 16% provide none and 51% only for trainees. Of those providing workshops, more than half are run less than annually. Workshop content varies widely, with several Difficult Airway Society (DAS) guideline techniques not taught or only infrequently. Reported barriers to training include lack of time and departmental or individual interest. Workshop-based airway training is variable in provision, frequency and content, and is often not prioritised by departments or individual trainers. It could be useful if guidance on workshop organisation, frequency and content was considered nationally.

  11. Global Harmonization of Maximum Residue Limits for Pesticides.

    PubMed

    Ambrus, Árpád; Yang, Yong Zhen

    2016-01-13

    International trade plays an important role in national economics. The Codex Alimentarius Commission develops harmonized international food standards, guidelines, and codes of practice to protect the health of consumers and to ensure fair practices in the food trade. The Codex maximum residue limits (MRLs) elaborated by the Codex Committee on Pesticide Residues are based on the recommendations of the FAO/WHO Joint Meeting on Pesticides (JMPR). The basic principles applied currently by the JMPR for the evaluation of experimental data and related information are described together with some of the areas in which further developments are needed.

  12. Atmospherically deposited PBDEs, pesticides, PCBs, and PAHs in western U.S. National Park fish: Concentrations and consumption guidelines

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ackerman, L.K.; Schwindt, A.R.; Simonich, S.L.M.; Koch, D.C.; Blett, T.F.; Schreck, C.B.; Kent, M.L.; Landers, D.H.

    2008-01-01

    Concentrations of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons were measured in 136 fish from 14 remote lakes in 8 western U.S. National Parks/Preserves between 2003 and 2005 and compared to human and wildlife contaminant health thresholds. A sensitive (median detection limit, -18 pg/g wet weight), efficient (61% recovery at 8 ng/g), reproducible (4.1% relative standard deviation (RSD)), and accurate (7% deviation from standard reference material (SRM)) analytical method was developed and validated for these analyses. Concentrations of PCBs, hexachlorobenzene, hexachlorocyclohexanes, DDTs, and chlordanes in western U.S. fish were comparable to or lower than mountain fish recently collected from Europe, Canada, and Asia. Dieldrin and PBDE concentrations were higher than recent measurements in mountain fish and Pacific Ocean salmon. Concentrations of most contaminants in western U.S. fish were 1-6 orders of magnitude below calculated recreational fishing contaminant health thresholds. However, lake average contaminant concentrations in fish exceeded subsistence fishing cancer thresholds in 8 of 14 lakes and wildlife contaminant health thresholds for piscivorous birds in 1of 14 lakes. These results indicate that atmospherically deposited organic contaminants can accumulate in high elevation fish, reaching concentrations relevant to human and wildlife health. ?? 2008 American Chemical Society.

  13. Atmospherically Deposited PBDEs, Pesticides, PCBs, and PAHs in Western US National Park Fish: Concentrations and Consumption Guidelines

    PubMed Central

    Ackerman, Luke K.; Schwindt, Adam R.; Simonich, Staci L.; Koch, Dan C.; Blett, Tamara F.; Schreck, Carl B.; Kent, Michael L.; Landers, Dixon H.

    2014-01-01

    Concentrations of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons were measured in 136 fish from 14 remote lakes in 8 western US National Parks/Preserves between 2003 and 2005 and compared to human and wildlife contaminant health thresholds. A sensitive (median detection limit −18 pg/g wet weight), efficient (61% recovery at 8 ng/g), reproducible (4.1 %RSD), and accurate (7 % deviation from SRM) analytical method was developed and validated for these analyses. Concentrations of PCBs, hexachlorobenzene, hexachlorocyclohexanes, DDTs and chlordanes in western US fish were comparable to or lower than mountain fish recently collected from Europe, Canada, and Asia. Dieldrin and PBDE concentrations were higher than recent measurements in mountain fish and Pacific Ocean salmon. Concentrations of most contaminants in western US fish were 1–6 orders of magnitude below calculated recreational fishing contaminant health thresholds. However, contaminant concentrations exceeded subsistence fishing cancer screening values in 8 of 14 lakes. Average contaminant concentrations in fish exceeded wildlife contaminant health thresholds for piscivorous mammals in 5 lakes, and piscivorous birds in all 14 lakes. These results indicate that atmospherically deposited organic contaminants can accumulate in high elevation fish, reaching concentrations relevant to human and wildlife health. PMID:18504962

  14. 76 FR 57742 - National Registry of Evidence-Based Programs and Practices

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-16

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Registry of Evidence-Based Programs and Practices AGENCY: Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice Regarding Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration's National Registry of Evidence-based Programs and Practices (NREPP):...

  15. Preferential bromide and pesticide movement to tile drains under different cropping practices.

    PubMed

    Fortin, J; Gagnon-Bertrand, E; Vézina, L; Rompré, M

    2002-01-01

    Subsurface drainage systems are useful tools to study chemical leaching in soils. Our objective was to compare the breakthrough behavior of bromide, atrazine (2-chloro-4-ethylamino-6-isopropylamino-s-triazine) and metolachlor [2-chloro-N-(2-ethyl-6-methylphenyl)-N-(2-methoxy-1-methylethyl) acetamid] to tile drains under two fall tillage practices (conventional tillage [CT] with a moldboard plow, and reduced tillage [RT] with a chisel plow) in field plots cultivated with corn (Zea mays L.). Leachate volume were greater in RT than in CT, with no statistical differences. Soil analysis showed that bromide migrated deeper in the soil profile than both herbicides, with little tillage effect. All chemicals were detected in drainage water at the same time and followed an event-driven behavior. Tillage had no effect on atrazine and metolachlor found in drainage water, while bromide concentration peaks were higher in RT than in CT in 1999. Concentration peaks were recorded earlier for atrazine and metolachlor than for bromide. Plots of cumulative relative chemical mass (cumulative mass divided by total mass measured in drainage) as a function of cumulative drainage were mostly linear for bromide, while they were S-shaped for both herbicides. Drainage that corresponded to 50% of relative cumulative mass ranged from 40 to 55% for bromide and from 5 to 28% for both herbicides. Rapid chemical movement to tile drains suggested that preferential flow was important in both CT and RT, and that these tillage practices had little influence on this phenomena.

  16. Salary administration practices, Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-03-20

    This report concerns the Department of Energy's (Department) oversight of Sandia National Laboratories' (Sandia) salary administration practices for employees not covered by union agreements. Sandia is a management and operating (MandO) contractor responsible for research and development (RandD) relating to nuclear weapons and energy. Sandia's 1987 payroll was $319 million, $42 million for bargaining and $277 million for non-bargaining unit employees. For the period covered by the audit, Department policy required Headquarters monitoring and approval of the reasonableness of MandO contractor salary administration practices in cases where the annual non-bargaining payroll exceeded $75 million. The purpose of this audit was to determine whether Department oversight of Sandia employee compensation assured that contractor pay rates were consistent with Department policy.

  17. Human exposures to pesticides in the United States.

    PubMed

    Langley, Ricky L; Mort, Sandra Amiss

    2012-01-01

    Pesticides are used in most homes, businesses, and farms to control a variety of pests, including insects, weeds, fungi, rodents, and even microbial organisms. Inappropriate use of pesticides can lead to adverse effects to humans and the environment. This study provides updated information on the magnitude of adverse pesticide exposures in the United States. Data on pesticide exposure were obtained from calls to poison control centers (PCCs) reported by the American Association of Poison Control Centers. Estimates of emergency department visits, hospitalizations, and health care costs were reported by the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ), and deaths from pesticide poisonings reported by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) WONDER (Wide-ranging Online Data for Epidemiologic Research). An average of 23 deaths occur each year with pesticides as the underlying cause of death, most due to suicidal ingestions. An average of 130,136 calls to poison control centers were reported from 2006 to 2010, with an average of 20,116 cases (17.8%) treated in health care facilities annually. AHQR reported an annual average of 7385 emergency room visits during 2006 to 2008, and 1419 annual hospitalizations during 2005 to 2009. Excluding cost from lost work time, hospital physician fees, and pesticide-induced cancers, the annual national cost associated with pesticide exposures was estimated as nearly $200 million USD based on data from emergency department visits, hospitalizations, and for deaths. Pesticide exposures remain a significant public health issue. Health care providers, cooperative extension agents, and pesticide manufactures can help prevent exposures by increasing education of parents and workers, encourage use of less toxic agents, and encourage the practice of integrated pest management.

  18. Pesticide use, alternatives and workers' health in Cuba.

    PubMed

    Alexander, R; Anderson, P K

    1984-01-01

    Cuba provides a unique example of a country that is actively implementing a program to reduce its dependence on pesticides. This paper addresses Cuba's current efforts to develop and implement alternatives to pesticides and legislation to limit exposure and protect workers in the interim. In 1980 Cuba embarked on a national program to utilize alternatives to chemical pest control. This three-part program includes expansion of knowledge of Cuban agro-ecology in order to implement cultural control practices; research and implementation on biological control of pests; and research on plant resistance and development of resistant crop varieties. To date, the program has enabled Cuba to reduce pesticide usage in sugar cane, citrus, tobacco, corn, and vegetable crops, among others. While alternatives to chemical pest control are being developed, the Cubans are paying special attention to regulating pesticide use and the safety of workers and members of the public exposed to toxic chemicals. In addition to the Resolution on Health and Safety (1967) and the Safety and Health Law (1978) which cover all workers, including Cuba's 250,000 agricultural workers, the Ministry of Public Health promulgated Resolution 335 in 1967. This resolution addresses requirements and administration of structural pest control, production, importation, transport and storage of pesticides, as well as requirements for worker contact with pesticides, pesticides for domestic use, aerial application of pesticides, and violations of the regulations. The paper concludes with a description of how the system works on the provincial level, as exemplified by Villa Clara, and the steps that have been taken to eliminate worker exposure to pesticides, to utilize pesticides which pose less of a hazard to workers, and to assure early detection of ill effects.

  19. Summary and evaluation of pesticides in field blanks collected for the National Water-Quality Assessment Program, 1992-95

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Martin, Jeffrey D.; Gilliom, Robert J.; Schertz, Terry L.

    1999-01-01

    Field blanks did show evidence of contamination by some pesticides. Most of the pesticides detected in field blanks, however, were detected more frequently and at higher concentrations in environmental water samples. Two criteria were used to evaluate the need to consider contamination in water-quality assessments: (1) a ratio of the frequency of pesticide detection in environmental water samples to the frequency of detection in field blanks of 5.0 or less and (2) a ratio of the median concentration detected in environmental water samples to the maximum concentration detected in field blanks of 2.0 or less. These criteria indicate that contamination, for the majority of the pesticide data collected for the NAWQA Program, probably does not need to be considered in the analysis and interpretation of (1) the frequency of pesticide detection or (2) the median concentration of pesticides detected. Contamination must be considered, however, in detection frequency for cispermethrin, pronamide, p,p' -DDE, pebulate, propargite, ethalfluralin, and triallate in surface water and fenuron, benfluralin, pronamide, cis-permethrin, triallate, chlorpyrifos, trifluralin, propanil, p,p' -DDE, bromacil, dacthal, diazinon, and diuron in ground water. Contamination also must be considered in median concentrations detected for pronamide, p,p' -DDE, propargite, napropamide, and triallate in surface water and benfluralin, cis-permethrin, triallate, chlorpyrifos, trifluralin, p,p' -DDE, dacthal, and diazinon in ground water.

  20. Children's surgery: a national survey of consultant clinical practice

    PubMed Central

    Mason, David G; Shotton, Hannah; Wilkinson, Kathleen A; Gough, Michael J; Alleway, Robert; Freeth, Heather; Mason, Marisa

    2012-01-01

    Objectives To survey clinical practice and opinions of consultant surgeons and anaesthetists caring for children to inform the needs for training, commissioning and management of children's surgery in the UK. Design The National Confidential Enquiry into Patient Outcome and Death (NCEPOD) hosted an online survey to gather data on current clinical practice of UK consultant surgeons and anaesthetists caring for children. Setting The questionnaire was circulated to all hospitals and to Anaesthetic and Surgical Royal Colleges, and relevant specialist societies covering the UK and the Channel Islands and was mainly completed by consultants in District General Hospitals. Participants 555 surgeons and 1561 anaesthetists completed the questionnaire. Results 32.6% of surgeons and 43.5% of anaesthetists considered that there were deficiencies in their hospital's facilities that potentially compromised delivery of a safe children's surgical service. Almost 10% of all consultants considered that their postgraduate training was insufficient for current paediatric practice and 20% felt that recent Continued Professional Development failed to maintain paediatric expertise. 45.4% of surgeons and 39.2% of anaesthetists considered that the current specialty curriculum should have a larger paediatric component. Consultants in non-specialist paediatric centres were prepared to care for younger children admitted for surgery as emergencies than those admitted electively. Many of the surgeons and anaesthetists had <4 h/week in paediatric practice. Only 55.3% of surgeons and 42.8% of anaesthetists participated in any form of regular multidisciplinary review of children undergoing surgery. Conclusions There are significant obstacles to consultant surgeons and anaesthetists providing a competent surgical service for children. Postgraduate curricula must meet the needs of trainees who will be expected to include children in their caseload as consultants. Trusts must ensure appropriate

  1. Pesticide Volatilization

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    We consider the risks posed when pesticides volatilize during or after application. The movement of vapors through the air is not the same as pesticide movement by spray drift, erosion, or windblown soil particles.

  2. Antimicrobial Pesticides

    MedlinePlus

    Jump to main content US EPA United States Environmental Protection Agency Search Search Pesticides Share Facebook Twitter Google+ ... of antimicrobial pesticides (Part 158W) Antimicrobials play an important role in public health and safety. While providing ...

  3. Pesticide Tolerances

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA regulates pesticides used to protect crops and sets limits on the amount of pesticide remaining in or on foods in the U.S. The limits on pesticides on foods are called tolerances in the U.S. (maximum residue limits (MRLs) in many other countries).

  4. Metals, pesticides, and semivolatile organic compounds in sediment in Valley Forge National Historical Park, Montgomery County, Pennsylvania

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reif, Andrew G.; Sloto, Ronald A.

    1997-01-01

    The Schuylkill River flows through Valley Forge National Historical Park in Lower Providence and West Norriton Townships in Montgomery County, Pa. The concentration of selected metals, pesticides, semivolatile organic compounds, and total carbon in stream-bottom sediments from Valley Forge National Historical Park were determined for samples collected once at 12 sites in and around the Schuylkill River. Relatively low concentrations of arsenic, chromium, copper, and lead were detected in all samples. The concentrations of these metals are similar to concentrations in other stream-bottom sediment samples collected in the region. The concentrations of iron, manganese, and zinc were elevated in samples from four sites in the Schuylkill River, and the concentration of mercury was elevated in a sample from an impoundment along the river. The organophosphorus insecticide diazinon was detected in relatively low concentrations in half of the 12 samples analyzed. The organo-chlorine insecticide DDE was detected in all 12 samples analyzed; dieldrin was detected in 10 samples, chlordane, DDD, and DDT were detected in 9 samples, and heptachlor epoxide was detected in one sample. The concentrations of organo-chlorine and organophosphorus insecticides were relatively low and similar to concentrations in samples collected in the region. Detectable concentrations of 17 semivolatile organic compounds were measured in the 12 samples analyzed. The most commonly detected compounds were fluoranthene, phenanthrene, and pyrene. The maximum concentration detected was 4,800 micrograms per kilogram of phenanthrene. The highest concentrations of compounds were detected in Lamb Run, a small tributary to the Schuylkill River with headwaters in an industrial corporate center. The concentration of compounds in the Schuylkill River below Lamb Run is higher than the Schuylkill River above Lamb Run, indicating that sediment from Lamb Run is increasing the concentration of semivolatile organic

  5. Characterizing Exposures to Nonpersistent Pesticides during Pregnancy and Early Childhood in the National Children’s Study: A Review of Monitoring and Measurement Methodologies

    PubMed Central

    Bradman, Asa; Whyatt, Robin M.

    2005-01-01

    The National Children’s Study is a proposed longitudinal cohort study to evaluate the relationships between children’s health and the environment. Enrollment is estimated to begin in September 2005, and 100,000 children will be followed from preconception or early pregnancy until adulthood. Among multiple health outcomes, the study is proposing to investigate whether pre- and/or postnatal exposures to nonpersistent pesticides increase the risk of poor performance on neurobehavioral and cognitive exams during infancy and early childhood. Characterization of exposures will be challenging. Nonpersistent pesticides include many chemicals with biologic half-lives on the order of hours or days. Exposures can occur through multiple pathways (e.g., food and residential or agriculture pesticide use) and by multiple routes (inhalation, ingestion, dermal). Effects may depend on the developmental stage when exposure occurs. Sequential sampling is likely to be required and may involve a combination of environmental and biologic monitoring as well as collection of questionnaire data. In this article we review measurements that can be used to characterize exposures. These include biologic markers, personal and indoor air sampling techniques, collection of dust, surface and dermal wipe samples, and dietary assessment tools. Criteria for sample selection will necessitate evaluation of the time frame of exposure captured by the measurement in relationship to critical windows of susceptibility, the cost and validity of the measurements, participant burden, and variability in exposure routes across populations and at different age periods. PMID:16079084

  6. Evaluation of individual and combined management practices to reduce the off-site transport of pesticides from golf course turf

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The detection of pesticides, associated with turfgrass management, in storm runoff and surface waters of urban watersheds has raised concerns regarding their source, potential environmental effects and a need for strategies to reduce their inputs. In previous research we discovered that hollow tine ...

  7. 75 FR 51830 - National Cancer Institute's Best Practices for Biospecimen Resources

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-23

    ... Cancer Institute's Best Practices for Biospecimen Resources AGENCY: National Institutes of Health (NIH... commitment to maintaining current and scientifically accurate best practices, the National Cancer Institute (NCI) is seeking public comment on a revised version of the NCI Best Practices for...

  8. Methods of analysis and quality-assurance practices of the U.S. Geological Survey organic laboratory, Sacramento, California; determination of pesticides in water by solid-phase extraction and capillary-column gas chromatography/mass spectrometry

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Crepeau, Kathryn L.; Domagalski, Joseph L.; Kuivila, Kathryn

    1994-01-01

    Analytical method and quality-assurance practices were developed for a study of the fate and transport of pesticides in the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta and the Sacramento and San Joaquin River. Water samples were filtered to remove suspended parti- culate matter and pumped through C-8 solid-phase extraction cartridges to extract the pesticides. The cartridges were dried with carbon dioxide, and the pesticides were eluted with three 2-milliliter aliquots of hexane:diethyl ether (1:1). The eluants were analyzed using capillary-column gas chromatography/mass spectrometry in full-scan mode. Method detection limits for analytes determined per 1,500-milliliter samples ranged from 0.006 to 0.047 microgram per liter. Recoveries ranged from 47 to 89 percent for 12 pesticides in organic-free, Sacramento River and San Joaquin River water samples fortified at 0.05 and 0.26 microgram per liter. The method was modified to improve the pesticide recovery by reducing the sample volume to 1,000 milliliters. Internal standards were added to improve quantitative precision and accuracy. The analysis also was expanded to include a total of 21 pesticides. The method detection limits for 1,000-milliliter samples ranged from 0.022 to 0.129 microgram per liter. Recoveries ranged from 38 to 128 percent for 21 pesticides in organic-free, Sacramento River and San Joaquin River water samples fortified at 0.10 and 0.75 microgram per liter.

  9. Avian mortality events in the United States caused by anticholinesterase pesticides: A retrospective summary of National Wildlife Health Center records from 1980 to 2000

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fleischli, Margaret A.; Franson, J.C.; Thomas, N.J.; Finley, D.L.; Riley, Walter

    2004-01-01

    We reviewed the U.S. Geological Survey National Wildlife Health Center (NWHC) mortality database from 1980 to 2000 to identify cases of poisoning caused by organophosphorus and carbamate pesticides. From the 35,022 cases from which one or more avian carcasses were submitted to the NWHC for necropsy, we identified 335 mortality events attributed to anticholinesterase poisoning, 119 of which have been included in earlier reports. Poisoning events were classified as confirmed (n = 205) when supported by findings of ≥50% inhibition of cholinesterase (ChE) activity in brain tissue and the detection of a specific pesticide in the gastrointestinal contents of one or more carcasses. Suspected poisonings (n = 130) were defined as cases where brain ChE activity was ≥50% inhibited or a specific pesticide was identified in gastrointestinal contents. The 335 avian mortality events occurred in 42 states. Washington, Virginia, and Ohio had the highest frequency of events, with 24 (7.2%), 21 (6.3%), and 20 (6.0%) events, respectively. A total of 8877 carcasses of 103 avian species in 12 orders was recovered. Because carcass counts underestimate total mortality, this represents the minimum actual mortality. Of 24 different pesticides identified, the most frequent were famphur (n = 59; 18%), carbofuran (n = 52; 15%), diazinon (n = 40; 12%), and fenthion (n = 17; 5.1%). Falconiformes were reported killed most frequently (49% of all die-offs) but Anseriformes were found dead in the greatest numbers (64% of 8877 found dead). The majority of birds reported killed by famphur were Passeriformes and Falconiformes, with the latter found dead in 90% of famphur-related poisoning events. Carbofuran and famphur were involved in mortality of the greatest variety of species (45 and 33, respectively). Most of the mortality events caused by diazinon involved waterfowl.

  10. Avian mortality events in the United States caused by anticholinesterase pesticides: a retrospective summary of National Wildlife Health Center records from 1980 to 2000.

    PubMed

    Fleischli, M A; Franson, J C; Thomas, N J; Finley, D L; Riley, W

    2004-05-01

    We reviewed the U.S. Geological Survey National Wildlife Health Center (NWHC) mortality database from 1980 to 2000 to identify cases of poisoning caused by organophosphorus and carbamate pesticides. From the 35,022 cases from which one or more avian carcasses were submitted to the NWHC for necropsy, we identified 335 mortality events attributed to anticholinesterase poisoning, 119 of which have been included in earlier reports. Poisoning events were classified as confirmed (n = 205) when supported by findings of > or =50% inhibition of cholinesterase (ChE) activity in brain tissue and the detection of a specific pesticide in the gastrointestinal contents of one or more carcasses. Suspected poisonings (n = 130) were defined as cases where brain ChE activity was > or =50% inhibited or a specific pesticide was identified in gastrointestinal contents. The 335 avian mortality events occurred in 42 states. Washington, Virginia, and Ohio had the highest frequency of events, with 24 (7.2%), 21 (6.3%), and 20 (6.0%) events, respectively. A total of 8877 carcasses of 103 avian species in 12 orders was recovered. Because carcass counts underestimate total mortality, this represents the minimum actual mortality. Of 24 different pesticides identified, the most frequent were famphur (n = 59: 18%), carbofuran (n = 52; 15%), diazinon (n = 40; 12%), and fenthion (n = 17; 5.1%). Falconiformes were reported killed most frequently (49% of all die-offs) but Anseriformes were found dead in the greatest numbers (64% of 8877 found dead). The majority of birds reported killed by famphur were Passeriformes and Falconiformes, with the latter found dead in 90% of famphur-related poisoning events. Carbofuran and famphur were involved in mortality of the greatest variety of species (45 and 33, respectively). Most of the mortality events caused by diazinon involved waterfowl.

  11. Pesticides and other chemicals: minimizing worker exposures.

    PubMed

    Keifer, Matthew; Gasperini, Frank; Robson, Mark

    2010-07-01

    Pesticides, ammonia, and sanitizers, all used in agricultural production present ongoing risks for exposed workers. Pesticides continue to poison workers despite elimination of some of the most toxic older products. Obligatory reporting of pesticide poisonings exists in 30 states and surveillance of poisoning occurs in only 12. Estimates of poisoning numbers have been based on sampling but funding for this is scant and in constant jeopardy. There appears to be a downward trend in poisonings nationally based on SENSOR data. Newer more pest-specific pesticides are generally less toxic and present less health risks but may have unpredicted health effects in humans that may not emerge until used widely. Internationally, older cheaper chemicals continue to be used with serious consequences in many developing countries. Monitoring workers for overexposure to pesticides broadly is impractical with the exception of the cholinesterase inhibitors. We can learn much from monitoring systems. Unfortunately, monitoring tools are economically inaccessible for most other chemical groups. New technologies for toxicity testing will necessitate new biomonitoring tools that should be supplied by the producers of these chemicals and made available for protecting worker and the public. Protection of workers from pesticides is primarily based on personal protective equipment use, which presents significant hardship for workers in hot environments and is generally considered the least effective approach on the hierarchy of controls in worker protection. Isolation through the use of closed systems has been employed, though rarely studied as to effectiveness in field use. Substitution or replacing harmful substances with safer ones is underway as more pest specific chemicals enter the pesticide portfolio and older ones drop out. This paper summarizes the panel presentation, "Minimizing Exposures to Pesticides and Other Chemicals," at the Agricultural Safety and Health Council of America/National

  12. Integrating Communication Best Practices in the Third National Climate Assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hassol, S. J.

    2014-12-01

    Modern climate science assessments now have a history of nearly a quarter-century. This experience, together with important advances in relevant social sciences, has greatly improved our ability to communicate climate science effectively. As a result, the Third National Climate Assessment (NCA) was designed to be truly accessible and useful to all its intended audiences, while still being comprehensive and scientifically accurate. At a time when meeting the challenge of climate change is increasingly recognized as an urgent national and global priority, the NCA is proving to be valuable to decision-makers, the media, and the public. In producing this latest NCA, a communication perspective was an important part of the process from the beginning, rather than an afterthought as has often been the case with scientific reports. Lessons learned from past projects and science communications research fed into developing the communication strategy for the Third NCA. A team of editors and graphic designers worked closely with the authors on language, graphics, and photographs throughout the development of the report, Highlights document, and other products. A web design team helped bring the report to life online. There were also innovations in outreach, including a network of organizations intended to extend the reach of the assessment by engaging stakeholders throughout the process. Professional slide set development and media training were part of the preparation for the report's release. The launch of the NCA in May 2014 saw widespread and ongoing media coverage, continued references to the NCA by decision-makers, and praise from many quarters for its excellence in making complex science clear and accessible. This NCA is a professionally crafted report that exemplifies best practices in 21st century communications.

  13. Apply Pesticides Correctly: A Guide for Commercial Applicators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC.

    This document provides practical information needed by commercial pesticide applicators to meet the minimum Federal regulation requirements for the use of various pesticides. The text and accompanying illustrations cover the seven major topics of pests, pest control, pesticides, labels and labeling, using pesticides safely, application equipment,…

  14. Influence of pesticide regulation on acute poisoning deaths in Sri Lanka.

    PubMed Central

    Roberts, Darren M.; Karunarathna, Ayanthi; Buckley, Nick A.; Manuweera, Gamini; Sheriff, M. H. Rezvi; Eddleston, Michael

    2003-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To assess in a developing Asian country the impact of pesticide regulation on the number of deaths from poisoning. These regulations, which were implemented in Sri Lanka from the 1970s, aimed to reduce the number of deaths - the majority from self-poisoning - by limiting the availability and use of highly toxic pesticides. METHODS: Information on legislative changes was obtained from the Ministry of Agriculture, national and district hospital admission data were obtained from the Sri Lanka Health Statistics Unit, and individual details of deaths by pesticide poisoning were obtained from a manual review of patients' notes and intensive care unit records in Anuradhapura. FINDINGS: Between 1986 and 2000, the total national number of admissions due to poisoning doubled, and admissions due to pesticide poisoning increased by more than 50%. At the same time, the case fatality proportion (CFP) fell for total poisonings and for poisonings due to pesticides. In 1991_92, 72% of pesticide-induced deaths in Anuradhapura were caused by organophosphorus (OP) and carbamate pesticides - in particular, the WHO class I OPs monocrotophos and methamidophos. From 1991, the import of these pesticides was reduced gradually until they were banned for routine use in January 1995, with a corresponding fall in deaths. Unfortunately, their place in agricultural practice was taken by the WHO class II organochlorine endosulfan, which led to a rise in deaths from status epilepticus - from one in 1994 to 50 in 1998. Endosulfan was banned in 1998, and over the following three years the number of endosulfan deaths fell to three. However, at the end of the decade, the number of deaths from pesticides was at a similar level to that of 1991, with WHO class II OPs causing the most deaths. Although these drugs are less toxic than class I OPs, the management of class II OPs remains difficult because they are, nevertheless, still highly toxic, and their toxicity is exacerbated by the paucity

  15. Practices in Early Intervention for Children with Autism: A Comparison with the National Research Council Recommended Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Downs, Robyn Conley; Downs, Andrew

    2010-01-01

    The National Research Council (2001) report was reviewed to identify and document recommended practices for programs serving young children with autism spectrum disorder. Twenty seven surveys inquiring about program practices were sent to educational service districts, school districts, and neurodevelopmental centers in Oregon and Washington that…

  16. National Water-Quality Assessment Program; summary of pesticide data collected on East Fork Double Bayou, near Anahuac, Texas, March to September 1994

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    1995-01-01

    The Trinity River Basin study-unit assessment began in October 1991, with 2 years dedicated to planning, analyzing existing information, and designing data-collection networks, surveys, and studies. Then, a 3-year intensive data-collection program was initiated. The assessment followed guidelines provided by the National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program National Synthesis team and considered suggestions made by the study unit's liaison committee. One of the issues selected for study concerned the quality of runoff in the coastal prairie. The study includes collecting streamflow, water-quality and watershed data on three streams, each representing watersheds in different parts of the coastal prairie. This fact sheet presents a summary of the pesticide data collected on East Fork Double Bayou from March to September 1994.

  17. Citizen's Guide to Pesticides.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC. Office of Pesticide Programs.

    This guide provides suggestions on pest control and safety rules for pesticide use at home. Pest prevention may be possible by modification of pest habitat: removal of food and water sources, removal or destruction of pest shelter and breeding sites, and good horticultural practices that reduce plant stress. Nonchemical alternatives to pesticides…

  18. National cultures, performance appraisal practices, and organizational absenteeism and turnover: a study across 21 countries.

    PubMed

    Peretz, Hilla; Fried, Yitzhak

    2012-03-01

    Performance appraisal (PA) is a key human resource activity in organizations. However, in this global economy, we know little about how societal cultures affect PA practices. In this study, we address this gap by focusing on 2 complementary issues: (a) the influence of societal (national) cultural practices on PA practices adopted by organizations and (b) the contribution of the level of congruence between societal cultural practices and the characteristics of organizational PA practices to absenteeism and turnover. The results, based on a large data set across multiple countries and over 2 time periods, support the hypothesized effects of societal (national) cultural practices on particular PA practices and the interactive effects of societal cultural practices and PA practices on absenteeism and turnover. We discuss theoretical and practical implications of our findings.

  19. Pesticide Standards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shea, Kevin P.

    1976-01-01

    The Environmental Protection Agency chose the American Society of Testing and Materials to develop standardized guidelines for pesticide registration. Since the numbers and uses of pesticides is so wide, establishing ecological and public health guidelines may be difficult. Strong industry and government representation might also hamper the…

  20. 78 FR 65342 - National Advisory Council on Nurse Education and Practice; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-31

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Health Resources and Services Administration National Advisory Council on Nurse Education... Council on Nurse Education and Practice (NACNEP). Dates and Times: November 7, 2013, 9:00 a.m.-5:00 p.m... Jeanne Brown, Staff Assistant, National Advisory Council on Nurse Education and Practice,...

  1. 78 FR 22890 - National Advisory Council on Nurse Education and Practice; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-17

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Health Resources and Services Administration National Advisory Council on Nurse Education... Council on Nurse Education and Practice (NACNEP) Dates and Times: April 24 and 25, 2013, 9:00 a.m.-5:00 p... contact Jeanne Brown, Staff Assistant, National Advisory Council on Nurse Education and Practice,...

  2. 76 FR 64953 - National Advisory Council on Nurse Education and Practice; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-19

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Health Resources and Services Administration National Advisory Council on Nurse Education... Council on Nurse Education and Practice (NACNEP). Dates and Times: November 7, 2011, 8:30 a.m.-4 p.m..., National Advisory Council on Nurse Education and Practice, Parklawn Building, Room 9-61, 5600 Fishers...

  3. Current-use pesticides and organochlorine compounds in precipitation and lake sediment from two high-elevation national parks in the Western United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mast, M.A.; Foreman, W.T.; Skaates, S.V.

    2007-01-01

    Current-use pesticides (CUPs) and banned organochlorine compounds (OCCs) were measured in precipitation (snowpack and rain) and lake sediments from two national parks in the Western United States to determine their occurrence and distribution in high-elevation environments. CUPs frequently detected in snow were endosulfan, dacthal, and chlorothalonil in concentrations ranging from 0.07 to 2.4 ng/L. Of the OCCs, chlordane, hexachlorobenzene, and two polychlorinated biphenyl congeners were detected in only one snow sample each. Pesticides most frequently detected in rain were atrazine, carbaryl, and dacthal in concentrations from 3.0 to 95 ng/L. Estimated annual deposition rates in one of the parks were 8.4 ??g/m2 for atrazine, 9.9 ??g/m2 for carbaryl, and 2.6 ??g/m2 for dacthal, of which >85% occurred during summer. p,p'-DDE and p,p'-DDD were the most frequently detected OCCs in surface sediments from lakes. However, concentrations were low (0.12 to 4.7 ??g/kg) and below levels at which harmful effects for benthic organisms are likely to be observed. DDD and DDE concentrations in an age-dated sediment core suggest that atmospheric deposition of DDT and its degradates, and possibly other banned OCCs, to high-elevation areas have been decreasing since the 1970s. Dacthal and endosulfan sulfate were present in low concentrations (0.11 to 1.2 ??g/kg) and were the only CUPs detected in surface sediments. Both pesticides were frequently detected in snow, confirming that some CUPs entering high-elevation aquatic environments through atmospheric deposition are accumulating in lake sediments and potentially in aquatic biota as well. ?? 2007 Springer Science+Business Media, Inc.

  4. Aquatic risk assessment of pesticides in surface waters in and adjacent to the Everglades and Biscayne National Parks: II. Probabilistic analyses.

    PubMed

    Carriger, John F; Rand, Gary M

    2008-10-01

    A screening-level aquatic probabilistic risk assessment was completed to determine the potential risks of organic pesticides found in surface waters of the C-111 freshwater basin (11 sites at the east boundary of the Everglades National Park) and adjacent estuarine tidal zones (two sites in northeast Florida Bay, one site in south Biscayne Bay) in south Florida. It followed the US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) ecological risk framework and focused only on the acute and chronic risks of endosulfan and chlorpyrifos individually and jointly with atrazine, metolachlor, and malathion by comparing distributions of surface water exposure concentrations with the distributions of species toxicity data. The highest risk of acute effects was associated with endosulfan exposure to freshwater arthropods at S-178/site C on the C-111 system, followed by endosulfan effects to estuarine arthropods at Joe Bay in northeast Florida Bay. The highest risk of acute effects from joint toxicity of pesticides was to estuarine arthropods in Joe Bay followed by freshwater arthropods in S-178/site C. For fish, the highest acute risk was for endosulfan at S-178/site C. There was low potential for acute risk of endosulfan to fish at estuarine sites. Joint probability curves indicated that the majority of potential risks to arthropods and fish were due to endosulfan concentrations and not to chlorpyrifos, at S-178/site C. In addition, the highest risk of acute effects for saltwater organisms was in Joe Bay, which receives water from the C-111. The potential risk of chronic effects from pesticide exposures was minimal at fresh- and saltwater sites except at S-178/site C, where endosulfan concentrations showed the highest exceedence of species toxicity values. In general, potential risks were higher in February than June.

  5. Assessing the National School Social Work Practice Model: Findings from the Second National School Social Work Survey.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Michael S; Frey, Andy; Thompson, Aaron; Klemp, Heather; Alvarez, Michelle; Berzin, Stephanie Cosner

    2016-01-01

    The Second National School Social Work Survey in 2014 aimed to update knowledge of school social work practice by examining how practitioner characteristics, practice context, and practice choices have evolved since the last national survey in 2008. This second survey was also developed to assess how the new national school social work practice model created by the School Social Work Association of America aligns with early 21st century school social work practice realities. The second survey was conducted from February through April 2014 (3,769 total responses were collected) and represents the largest sample of American school social workers surveyed in two decades. Data from the Second National School Social Work Survey showed a field that still has not fully responded to calls to implement evidence-informed and data-driven practices. This article notes the need to better integrate pre- and postservice training in data-driven practices and provides recommendations for ways to overcome barriers that school social workers report facing.

  6. Ten-year assessment of agricultural management and land-use practices on pesticide loads and risk to aquatic biota of an oxbow lake in the Mississippi Delta, USA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The current chapter examined the combined influence of changing row crop production, implementation of agricultural Best Management Practices (BMPs), and enrollment of 112 ha into Conservation Reserve Program (CRP) on pesticide contamination and potential risk to lake aquatic biota in a 914-ha Beasl...

  7. 75 FR 75689 - National Advisory Council on Nurse Education and Practice; Notice for Request for Nominations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-06

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Health Resources and Services Administration National Advisory Council on Nurse Education... Administration (HRSA) is requesting nominations to fill eight vacancies on the National Advisory Council on Nurse... contact, Lakisha Smith, Executive Secretary, National Advisory Council on Nurse Education and Practice,...

  8. National Cultures, Performance Appraisal Practices, and Organizational Absenteeism and Turnover: A Study across 21 Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peretz, Hilla; Fried, Yitzhak

    2012-01-01

    Performance appraisal (PA) is a key human resource activity in organizations. However, in this global economy, we know little about how societal cultures affect PA practices. In this study, we address this gap by focusing on 2 complementary issues: (a) the influence of societal (national) cultural practices on PA practices adopted by organizations…

  9. National Center on Accessibility: Putting Research into Practice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowerman, Jennifer; Robb, Gary

    2001-01-01

    A collaborative program of Indiana University and the National Park Service, the National Center on Accessibility provides research, training, and technical assistance to link the needs and preferences of people with disabilities to practitioners designing facilities and planning programs in parks and recreation. Research and recommendations…

  10. National Best Practices Manual for Building High Performance Schools

    SciTech Connect

    2007-10-01

    The Best Practices Manual was written as a part of the promotional effort for EnergySmart Schools, provided by the US Department of Energy, to educate school districts around the country about energy efficiency and renewable energy.

  11. Pesticides in U.S. streams and groundwater

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gilliom, Robert J.

    2007-01-01

    A 10­-year study by the U.S. Geological Survey’s (USGS’s) National Water-­Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program provides a national-­scale view of pesticide occurrence in streams and groundwater. The 1992-2001 study builds upon a preliminary analysis from NAWQA’s first phase of studies during 1992-1996 (1, 2). Pesticide data available from various studies prior to 1992 did not allow national assessment because of limited and variable geographic coverage (usually focusing on individual states or regions), sparse and inconsistent inclusion of pesticides in use, and variable sampling designs (3-5). The expanded geographic coverage and improved data following 10 years of study (Figure 1) confirm and reinforce previously reported findings and enable more detailed analyses of each topic. This article summarizes selected findings from a comprehensive report (6), with a focus on the nature of pesticide occurrence and potential significance to human health and stream ecosystems. Information on study design and methods as well as additional analysis of geographic patterns and trends in relation to use and management practices are available in the full report (6).

  12. PRN 97-4: Consumer Access Numbers on Pesticide Labels

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This notice describes EPA policy on including telephone numbers and other access numbers or internet addresses, on pesticide product labeling. It also explains how the telephone number of the National Pesticide Information Center hotline may be used.

  13. Funding Opportunity Announcement: Pesticide Safety Education Funds Management Program

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA is soliciting proposals from eligible applicants to establish and administer a national subaward program in support of pesticide applicator education and training for certified applicators of restricted use pesticides.

  14. COLLECTING URINE SAMPLES FROM YOUNG CHILDREN FOR PESTICIDE STUDIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    To estimate pesticide exposure for young children wearing diapers, a method for collecting urine samples for analysis of pesticide metabolites is needed. To find a practical method, two possibilities were investigated: (1) analysis of expressed urine from cotton diaper inserts ...

  15. Introduction to Pesticide Labels

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Pesticide product labels provide critical information about how to safely and legally handle and use pesticide products. Unlike most other types of product labels, pesticide labels are legally enforceable. Learn about pesticide product labels.

  16. Pesticide Use Site Index

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Pesticide Use Site Index will help a company (or other applicant) identify which data requirements are needed to register a pesticide product. It provides information on pesticide use sites and pesticide major use patterns.

  17. National Best Practices Manual for Building High Performance Schools (Revised)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2007-10-01

    The Best Practices Manual was written as a part of the promotional effort for EnergySmart Schools, provided by the US Department of Energy, to educate school districts around the country about energy efficiency and renewable energy. Written specifically for architects and engineers, The Best Practices Manual is designed to help those who are responsible for designing or retrofitting schools, as well as their project managers. This manual will help design staff make informed decisions about energy and environmental issues important to the school systems and communities.

  18. Methods of analysis by the U.S. Geological Survey National Water Quality Laboratory; determination of organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls in bottom sediment by dual capillary-column gas chromatography with electron-capture detection

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Foreman, William T.; Connor, Brooke F.; Furlong, Edward T.; Vaught, Deborah G.; Merten, Leslie M.

    1995-01-01

    A method for the determination of 30 individual organochlorine pesticides, total toxaphene, and total polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in bottom sediment is described. The method isolates the pesticides and PCBs by solvent extraction with dichlorobenzene, removes inorganic sulfur, large naturally occurring molecules, and other unwanted interferences by gel permeation chromatography, and further cleans up and class fractionates the extract using adsorption chromatography. The com- pounds then are instrumentally determined using dual capillary-column gas chromatography with electron-capture detection. Reporting limits range from 1 to 5 micrograms per kilogram for 30 individual pesticides, 50 micrograms per kilogram for total PCBs, and 200 micrograms per kilogram for total toxaphene. The method also is designed to allow the simultaneous isolation of 79 other semivolatile organic compounds from the sediment, which are separately quantified using gas chromatography with mass spectrometric detection. The method was developed in support of the U.S. Geological Survey's National Water-Quality Assessment program.

  19. Multicultural Career Counseling: A National Survey of Competencies and Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vespia, Kristin M.; Fitzpatrick, Mary E.; Fouad, Nadya A.; Kantamneni, Neeta; Chen, Yung-Lung

    2010-01-01

    Career counselors' multicultural competence has not been widely investigated. In this study, a national sample of 230 career counselors completed an online survey that included measures of career counseling self-efficacy and multicultural counseling competence. Beyond these self-report instruments, counselors responded to open-ended items that…

  20. A National Survey of Revising Practices in the Primary Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saddler, Bruce; Saddler, Kristie; Befoorhooz, Bita; Cuccio-Slichko, Julie

    2014-01-01

    A random national sampling of primary grade teachers in the United States were surveyed to determine how they teach revising to writers in the elementary grades. Our findings suggest that in our sample of teachers, little time is dedicated in the school day to writing and especially revising. The teachers believed that more time spent revising did…

  1. Developing Inclusive Practice in Scotland: The National Framework for Inclusion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barrett, Louise; Beaton, Mhairi; Head, George; McAuliffe, Lisa; Moscardini, Lio; Spratt, Jennifer; Sutherland, Margaret

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports on the collaborative development of a "National Framework for Inclusion" under the auspices of the Scottish Teacher Education Committee by a working party representing each of the Scottish Universities providing initial teacher education. Recent research, international legislation and Scottish education policy have…

  2. The Significance of Constructivist Classroom Practice in National Curricular Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Booyse, Celia; Chetty, Rajendra

    2016-01-01

    Evidence of the value of constructivist theory in the classroom is especially important for educational practice in areas of poverty and social challenge. Research was undertaken in 2010 into the application of constructivist theory on instructional design. The findings of this research are particularly relevant to the current curricular crisis in…

  3. Selection Practices of Group Leaders: A National Survey.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riva, Maria T.; Lippert, Laurel; Tackett, M. Jan

    2000-01-01

    Study surveys the selection practices of group leaders. Explores methods of selection, variables used to make selection decisions, and the types of selection errors that leaders have experienced. Results suggest that group leaders use clinical judgment to make selection decisions and endorse using some specific variables in selection. (Contains 22…

  4. Undergraduate Psychological Writing: A Best Practices Guide and National Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ishak, Shaziela; Salter, Nicholas P.

    2017-01-01

    There is no comprehensive guide for teaching psychological writing, and little is known about how often instructors teach the topic. We present a best practices guide for teaching psychological writing beyond just American Psychological Association style, discuss psychology-specific writing assignments, and examine psychological writing…

  5. 78 FR 39738 - National Advisory Council on Nurse Education and Practice; Notice for Request for Nominations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-02

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Health Resources and Services Administration National Advisory Council on Nurse Education and Practice; Notice for Request for Nominations SUMMARY: The Health Resources and Services... of Health Professions (BHPr), Health Resources and Administration (HRSA), Parklawn Building, Room...

  6. Copernicus - Practice of Daily Life in a National Mapping Agency?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiatr, T.; Suresh, G.; Gehrke, R.; Hovenbitzer, M.

    2016-06-01

    Copernicus is an European system created for Earth observation and monitoring. It consists of a set of Earth observation satellites and in-situ sensors that provide geo-information that are used, through a set of Copernicus services, for applications related to the environment and global security. The main services of the Copernicus programme address six thematic areas: land, marine, atmosphere, climate change, emergency management and security. In Germany, there is a national service team of Copernicus service coordinators, who are responsible for the national development of the Copernicus services and for providing user-specific information about the Copernicus processes. These coordinators represent the contact points for all the programmes and services concerning their respective Copernicus theme. To publish information about Copernicus, national conferences and workshops are organised. Many people are involved in planning the continuous process of bringing the information to public authorities, research institutes and commercial companies. The Federal Agency for Cartography and Geodesy (Bundesamt für Kartographie und Geodäsie, BKG) is one such organisation, and is mainly responsible for the national land monitoring service of Copernicus. To make use of the freely available data from the Copernicus programme, the Federal Agency for Cartography and Geodesy is currently developing new applications and projects in the field of remote sensing and land monitoring. These projects can be used by other public authorities as examples on how to use the Copernicus data and services for their individual demands and requirements. Copernicus data and services are currently not very commonly used in the daily routine of the national mapping agencies, but they will soon be.

  7. Urinary concentrations of dichlorophenol pesticides and obesity among adult participants in the U.S. National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2005-2008.

    PubMed

    Wei, Yudan; Zhu, Jianmin; Nguyen, An

    2014-03-01

    Accumulating evidence from recent studies has suggested a possible link between exposure to environmental pesticides and obesity. In this study, we assessed the potential associations between exposure to dichlorophenol pesticides and obesity in adults. Study participants aged 20-85 years were selected from the 2005 to 2006 and 2007 to 2008 U.S. National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, and were categorized as obese and non-obese based on body mass index. Creatinine-corrected urinary concentrations of dichlorophenols were determined to assess level of exposure to environmental pesticides. Multivariate logistic regression was performed using SAS 9.3 to assess the association between 2,4-dichlorophenol (2,4-DCP) and 2,5-dichlorophenol (2,5-DCP) levels in urine and obesity with adjustment for potential confounders. Significantly higher geometric means of urinary concentrations of both 2,5-DCP (p<0.0001) and 2,4-DCP (p=0.0170) were seen in obese adults, compared to that in non-obese adults. A dose-dependent increase in the prevalence of obesity was observed in the study participants across increasing levels of urinary 2,5-DCP (p-trend<0.0001). Urinary concentrations of 2,5-DCP were significantly associated with obesity among the second (AOR: 1.47, 95% CI: 1.12, 1.93), third (AOR: 1.41, 95% CI: 1.07, 1.87), and fourth (AOR: 1.62, 95% CI: 1.21, 2.17) inter-quartiles after adjustment for age, gender, race, education, total fat intake, and physical activity. A statistically significant association was not seen between urinary 2,4-DCP and obesity. Our findings suggest a potential relationship between exposure to the fumigant insecticide paradichlorobenzene, measured as urinary concentrations of 2,5-DCP, and obesity in adults. Because we cannot rule out the possibility of reverse causality in our study, prospective studies measuring exposure during etiologically relevant periods are warranted.

  8. Effect of pesticide exposure on acetylcholinesterase activity in subsistence farmers from Campeche, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Rendón von Osten, Jaime; Epomex, Centro; Tinoco-Ojanguren, Rolando; Soares, Amadeu M V M; Guilhermino, Lucia

    2004-08-01

    The authors surveyed agricultural production methods and pesticide use among subsistence farmers (campesinos) in 4 rural communities of Campeche, Mexico. Self-reports of symptoms of poisoning resulting from occupational pesticide exposure were elicited by questionnaire (N = 121), and acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity during insecticide use was evaluated from blood samples (N = 127). In individuals from 2 of the 4 communities, AChE activity was significantly lower (p < 0.05) than the mean of activity determined for individuals in a reference group. Results of this study show that erythrocyte AChE inhibition provides a good biomarker of exposure to organophosphate pesticides in field studies with human populations. Carbamates, particularly carbofuran, seem to be more associated with exuberant and diversified symptomatology of pesticide exposure than organophosphates. Studies in field communities where both carbamates and organophosphates are suspected to exist should include blood AChE determinations, symptomatology surveys, and socioeconomic questionnaires. The authors recommend that the Mexican National Health Ministry authorities specify additional provisions regarding the use of protective equipment and the adoption of other safety practices during field work, increase information campaigns about the risks of pesticide use and the value of safety practices, and increase programs of medical monitoring and assistance for rural communities dealing with pesticides.

  9. Providing Assistance to the Victims of Adolescent Dating Violence: A National Assessment of School Nurses' Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khubchandani, Jagdish; Telljohann, Susan K.; Price, James H.; Dake, Joseph A.; Hendershot, Candace

    2013-01-01

    Background: This study assessed the perceptions and practices of school nurses regarding adolescent dating violence (ADV). Methods: The membership list of the National Association of School Nurses was used to identify a national random cross-sectional sample of high school nurses in the United States (N?=?750). A valid and reliable survey…

  10. Employing National Board Certification Practices with All Teachers: The Potential of Cognitive Coaching and Mentoring

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diaz, Kirsten Anne

    2013-01-01

    National Board Certification is an esteemed certification and professional learning and reflective opportunity for teachers. Cognitive coaching is also a method of support many teachers receive over the course of their National Board Certification journey. The certification process involves reflective practices and opportunities for teachers to…

  11. Organizations in America: Analyzing Their Structures and Human Resource Practices Based on the National Organizations Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kalleberg, Arne L.; Knoke, David; Marsden, Peter V.; Spaeth, Joe L.

    In 1991 the National Organizations Study (NOS) surveyed a number of U.S. businesses about their structure, context, and personnel practices to produce a database for answering questions about social behavior in work organizations. This book presents the results of that survey. The study aimed to create a national database on organizations--based…

  12. Changing Classroom Practice at Key Stage 2: The Impact of New Labour's National Strategies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Webb, Rosemary; Vulliamy, Graham

    2007-01-01

    The article examines the impact of New Labour policies--particularly the National Literacy and Numeracy Strategies and the subsequent Primary National Strategy--on classroom practice at Key Stage 2 in England. Evidence is drawn from fieldwork conducted in 2003-2005 from a sample of 50 schools, replicating a study conducted a decade previously in…

  13. 78 FR 2275 - National Advisory Council on Nurse Education and Practice; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-10

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Health Resources and Services Administration National Advisory Council on Nurse Education... on Nurse Education and Practice (NACNEP). Dates and Times: January 31, 2013, 9:30 a.m.-12:30 p.m... Nurse Education and Practice, Parklawn Building, Room 9-61, 5600 Fishers Lane, Rockville, Maryland...

  14. 76 FR 14033 - National Advisory Council on Nurse Education and Practice; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-15

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Health Resources and Services Administration National Advisory Council on Nurse Education... Council on Nurse Education and Practice (NACNEP). Dates and Times: April 11, 2011, 8:30 a.m.-4 p.m. April.... Purpose: The purpose of this meeting is to address diversity in nurse education and practice....

  15. 75 FR 64318 - National Advisory Council on Nurse Education and Practice; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-19

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Health Resources and Services Administration National Advisory Council on Nurse Education... Council on Nurse Education and Practice (NACNEP). Dates and Times: November 17, 2010, 1 p.m.-5 p.m...: The purpose of this meeting is to address diversity in nurse education and practice. The objectives...

  16. A National Survey of School Counselor Supervision Practices: Administrative, Clinical, Peer, and Technology Mediated Supervision

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perera-Diltz, Dilani M.; Mason, Kimberly L.

    2012-01-01

    Supervision is vital for personal and professional development of counselors. Practicing school counselors (n = 1557) across the nation were surveyed to explore current supervision practices. Results indicated that 41.1% of school counselors provide supervision. Although 89% receive some type of supervision, only 10.3% of school counselors receive…

  17. Assessment for Learning Practices and Competency among Malaysian University Lecturers: A National Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ahmad, Tunku Badariah Tunku; Zubairi, Ainol Madziah; Ibrahim, Mohd Burhan; Othman, Joharry; Rahman, Nik Suryani Abd; Rahman, Zainurin Abd; Nordin, Mohamad Sahari; Nor, Zainab Mohd

    2014-01-01

    This paper reports the findings of a national study involving 534 lecturers from 33 higher learning institutions in Malaysia to find out their self-reported practices and perceived competencies in assessment for learning. Data were collected using a 24-item assessment practice inventory drawn from five of the six standards stipulated in an…

  18. Assessment and Intervention Practices for Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD): A National Survey of School Psychologists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borick, Timothy J.

    2011-01-01

    This study examined school psychologists' assessment and intervention practices regarding ADHD. Five hundred school psychologists who practiced in a school setting and were regular members of the National Association of School Psychologists were randomly selected to complete and return a questionnaire titled Assessment and Intervention Practices…

  19. Photovoltaic power systems and the National Electrical Code: Suggested practices

    SciTech Connect

    Wiles, J.

    1996-12-01

    This guide provides information on how the National Electrical Code (NEC) applies to photovoltaic systems. The guide is not intended to supplant or replace the NEC; it paraphrases the NEC where it pertains to photovoltaic systems and should be used with the full text of the NEC. Users of this guide should be thoroughly familiar with the NEC and know the engineering principles and hazards associated with electrical and photovoltaic power systems. The information in this guide is the best available at the time of publication and is believed to be technically accurate; it will be updated frequently. Application of this information and results obtained are the responsibility of the user.

  20. Continuing education: a national imperative for school nursing practice.

    PubMed

    Vought-O'Sullivan, Victoria; Meehan, Nancy K; Havice, Pamela A; Pruitt, Rosanne H

    2006-02-01

    Competency-based continuing education is critical to the professional development of school nurses to ensure the application of timely, age-appropriate clinical knowledge and leadership skills in the school setting. School nurses are responsible for a large number of students with a variety of complex and diverse health care needs. Benner's theory of novice to expert provides a framework for the development of roles and competencies in the practice of school nursing. This manuscript synthesizes research reviewed in 15 articles. Common themes found in the articles include the importance of continuing education and identified barriers to attainment. In response, methods to access continuing education and financial resources are presented.

  1. American Society of Clinical Oncology National Census of Oncology Practices: preliminary report.

    PubMed

    Forte, Gaetano J; Hanley, Amy; Hagerty, Karen; Kurup, Anupama; Neuss, Michael N; Mulvey, Therese M

    2013-01-01

    In response to reports of increasing financial and administrative burdens on oncology practices and a lack of systematic information related to these issues, American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO) leadership started an effort to collect key practice-level data from all oncology practices in the United States. The result of the effort is the ASCO National Census of Oncology Practices (Census) launched in June 2012. The initial Census work involved compiling an inventory of oncology practices from existing lists of oncology physicians in the United States. A comprehensive, online data collection instrument was developed, which covered a number of areas, including practice characteristics (staffing configuration, organizational structure, patient mix and volume, types of services offered); organizational, staffing, and service changes over the past 12 months; and an assessment of the likelihood that the practice would experience organizational, staffing, and service changes in the next 12 months. More than 600 practices participated in the Census by providing information. In this article, we present preliminary highlights from the data gathered to date. We found that practice size was related to having experienced practice mergers, hiring additional staff, and increasing staff pay in the past 12 months, that geographic location was related to having experienced hiring additional staff, and that practices in metropolitan areas were more likely to have experienced practice mergers in the past 12 months than those in nonmetropolitan areas. We also found that practice size and geographic location were related to higher likelihoods of anticipating practice mergers, sales, and purchases in the future.

  2. Obstetrical brachial plexus injury (OBPI): Canada's national clinical practice guideline

    PubMed Central

    Coroneos, Christopher J; Voineskos, Sophocles H; Christakis, Marie K; Thoma, Achilleas; Bain, James R; Brouwers, Melissa C

    2017-01-01

    Objective The objective of this study was to establish an evidence-based clinical practice guideline for the primary management of obstetrical brachial plexus injury (OBPI). This clinical practice guideline addresses 4 existing gaps: (1) historic poor use of evidence, (2) timing of referral to multidisciplinary care, (3) Indications and timing of operative nerve repair and (4) distribution of expertise. Setting The guideline is intended for all healthcare providers treating infants and children, and all specialists treating upper extremity injuries. Participants The evidence interpretation and recommendation consensus team (Canadian OBPI Working Group) was composed of clinicians representing each of Canada's 10 multidisciplinary centres. Outcome measures An electronic modified Delphi approach was used for consensus, with agreement criteria defined a priori. Quality indicators for referral to a multidisciplinary centre were established by consensus. An original meta-analysis of primary nerve repair and review of Canadian epidemiology and burden were previously completed. Results 7 recommendations address clinical gaps and guide identification, referral, treatment and outcome assessment: (1) physically examine for OBPI in newborns with arm asymmetry or risk factors; (2) refer newborns with OBPI to a multidisciplinary centre by 1 month; (3) provide pregnancy/birth history and physical examination findings at birth; (4) multidisciplinary centres should include a therapist and peripheral nerve surgeon experienced with OBPI; (5) physical therapy should be advised by a multidisciplinary team; (6) microsurgical nerve repair is indicated in root avulsion and other OBPI meeting centre operative criteria; (7) the common data set includes the Narakas classification, limb length, Active Movement Scale (AMS) and Brachial Plexus Outcome Measure (BPOM) 2 years after birth/surgery. Conclusions The process established a new network of opinion leaders and researchers for further

  3. Acute pesticide poisoning and pesticide registration in Central America

    SciTech Connect

    Wesseling, Catharina . E-mail: cwesseli@una.ac.cr; Corriols, Marianela; Bravo, Viria

    2005-09-01

    The International Code of Conduct on the Distribution and Use of Pesticides of the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) of the United Nations has been for 20 years the most acknowledged international initiative for reducing negative impact from pesticide use in developing countries. We analyzed pesticide use and poisoning in Central America, particularly in Costa Rica and Nicaragua, and evaluated whether registration decisions are based on such data, in accordance with the FAO Code. Extensive use of very hazardous pesticides continues in Central America and so do poisonings with organophosphates, carbamates, endosulfan and paraquat as the main causative agents. Central American governments do not carry out or commission scientific risk assessments. Instead, guidelines from international agencies are followed for risk management through the registration process. Documentation of pesticide poisonings during several decades never induced any decision to ban or restrict a pesticide. However, based on the official surveillance systems, in 2000, the ministers of health of the seven Central American countries agreed to ban or restrict twelve of these pesticides. Now, almost 4 years later, restrictions have been implemented in El Salvador and in Nicaragua public debate is ongoing. Chemical and agricultural industries do not withdraw problematic pesticides voluntarily. In conclusion, the registration processes in Central America do not comply satisfactorily with the FAO Code. However, international regulatory guidelines are important in developing countries, and international agencies should strongly extend its scope and influence, limiting industry involvement. Profound changes in international and national agricultural policies, steering towards sustainable agriculture based on non-chemical pest management, are the only way to reduce poisonings.

  4. The National Practice Benchmark for Oncology: 2015 Report for 2014 Data

    PubMed Central

    Balch, Carla; Ogle, John D.

    2016-01-01

    The National Practice Benchmark (NPB) is a unique tool used to measure oncology practices against others across the country in a meaningful way despite variations in practice demographics, size, and setting. In today’s challenging economic environment, each practice positions service offerings and competitive advantages to attract patients. Although the data in the NPB report are primarily reported by community oncology practices, the business structure and arrangements with regional health care systems are also reflected in the benchmark report. The ability to produce detailed metrics is an accomplishment of excellence in business and clinical management. With these metrics, a practice should be able to measure and analyze its current business practices and make appropriate changes, if necessary. In this report, we build on the foundation initially established by Oncology Metrics (acquired by Flatiron Health in 2014) over years of data collection and refine definitions to deliver the NPB, which is uniquely meaningful in the oncology market. PMID:27006357

  5. Administrative, counseling and medical practices in National Abortion Federation facilities.

    PubMed

    Landy, U; Lewit, S

    1982-01-01

    A survey of members of the National Abortion Federation (NAF), most of them non-hospital facilities, responsible for performing almost half of the abortions in the United States, was carried out by the NAF in 1981. Among the principal findings were the following: Fifty-three percent of the NAF facilities are freestanding clinics operated for profit. Fifty-one percent are open more than 50 hours per week, and 77 percent are open six days a week; 86 percent are open on Saturdays. Seventy-five percent of the physicians performing abortions in these facilities are gynecologists. Counseling provided by specially trained abortion counselors is a unique contribution of abortion facilities to health-care delivery. Virtually all facilities employ counselors who are neither doctors nor nurses. Most NAF facilities have more counselors than nurses and more nurses than doctors. Counseling in virtually all facilities includes providing written as well as verbal information about the nature of the procedure and its medical risks; such information is given to the patient so that she can give informed consent for the abortion. Almost all facilities include information about contraception and about the options available to a woman with a problem pregnancy. Most offer counseling to the male, as well as the female partner, on the patient's request. Twenty-eight percent of facilities generally provide both individual and group counseling. Where only one type of counseling is provided, it is usually individual counseling.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  6. National Practice in Antibiotic Prophylaxis in Breast Cancer Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Eroglu, Aydan; Karasoy, Durdu; Kurt, Halil; Baskan, Semih

    2014-01-01

    Background Although breast cancer surgery is regarded as a “clean” surgery, surgical site infection (SSI) rates are higher than expected. There is no consensus regarding the use of antibiotic prophylaxis in elective breast surgery. The nationwide survey was conducted to determine the trend of antibiotic prophylaxis in breast cancer among Turkish surgeons. Methods The survey was sent to surgeons who are member of Turkish Surgical Association (TSA) via e-mail from TSA web address. A 15 item web-based survey consisted of surgeon demographics and the use of prophylactic antibiotic in patients with risk factors related to SSI. Results The number of completed questionnaires was 245. The most common antibiotic used was first generation of cephalosporins. A majority of respondents indicated that prophylaxis was preferred in patients with high risk of SSI including preoperative chemotherapy or radiotherapy, older age, diabetes mellitus, immunodeficiency, immediate reconstruction (P < 0.05). However, the use of drain did not significantly influence antibiotic prophylaxis (P = 0.091). Conclusions The use of prophylactic antibiotic was strongly dependent on the presence of some risk factors; however, the variation in current practice regarding antibiotic prophylaxis demonstrated a lack of its effect on preventing SSI after breast cancer surgery. PMID:24400029

  7. Pattern of use of personal protective equipments and measures during application of pesticides by agricultural workers in a rural area of Ahmednagar district, India

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Bhoopendra; Gupta, Mudit Kumar

    2009-01-01

    Background: Pesticides, despite their known toxicity, are widely used in developing countries for agricultural purposes. Objectives: To find various patterns of hardware use for spraying of insecticides, prevalent storage practice adopted by the user, types of personal protective equipments used for the handling of chemicals; to detect dangerous practices and the extent to which safety norms being followed by the users during the application/treatments, and finally their knowledge concerning the risks of pesticides. Materials and Methods: The agriculture workers who had been involved in pesticide application for agricultural purpose were interviewed face-to-face to gain information on the following determinants of pesticide exposure: Types, treatment equipment, use of personal protection and safety measures during the application/treatments and knowledge of the risks of pesticide exposure. Results: Hundred workers, aged between 21 and 60 years old, were included. Pesticides were mostly applied with manual equipment using Knapsack (70%) and only 5% farmers were using Tractor-mounted sprayer. Workers frequently performed tasks involving additional exposure to pesticides (mixing chemicals, 66%, or washing equipment, 65%). Majority of the workers/applicators used no personal protection measures or used it defectively/partially. Most of the workers/respondents (77%) did not bother for safety and health risks of pesticide exposure. Conclusions: Workers involved in pesticide application use personal protection measures very poorly and defectively. Almost half of the applicators were not following right direction with respect to wind direction while spraying, thus it increase the risk of exposure. There is a clear need to develop specific training and prevention programs for these workers. The determinants of pesticide exposure in agricultural workers described in this study should be properly assessed in epidemiological studies of the health effects of pesticides on

  8. Remedial investigation report, site 2-Pesticide Pit Burial Area, Stewart Air National Guard Base, Newburgh, New York. Volume 2. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1997-09-01

    Site 2-Pesticide Pit Burial Area was investigated under the Installation Restoration Program. A removal action was conducted in 1988, when pesticide containers and contaminated soil were excavated from the pit. The pit covered an area of approximately 1000 square feet and was approximately 12 feet deep. The report recommends no further action based on study results.

  9. Remedial investigation report, site 2-Pesticide Pit Burial Area, Stewart Air National Guard Base, Newburgh, New York. Volume 1. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1997-09-01

    Site 2-Pesticide Pit Burial Area was investigated under the Installation Restoration Program. A removal action was conducted in 1988, when pesticide containers and contaminated soil were excavated from the pit. The pit covered an area of approximately 1000 square feet and was approximately 12 feet deep. The report recommends no further action based on study results.

  10. Recovery practice in community mental health teams: national survey

    PubMed Central

    Leamy, M.; Clarke, E.; Le Boutillier, C.; Bird, V.; Choudhury, R.; MacPherson, R.; Pesola, F.; Sabas, K.; Williams, J.; Williams, P.; Slade, M.

    2016-01-01

    Background There is consensus about the importance of ‘recovery’ in mental health services, but the link between recovery orientation of mental health teams and personal recovery of individuals has been underresearched. Aims To investigate differences in team leader, clinician and service user perspectives of recovery orientation of community adult mental health teams in England. Method In six English mental health National Health Service (NHS) trusts, randomly chosen community adult mental health teams were surveyed. A random sample of ten patients, one team leader and a convenience sample of five clinicians were surveyed from each team. All respondents rated the recovery orientation of their team using parallel versions of the Recovery Self Assessment (RSA). In addition, service users also rated their own personal recovery using the Questionnaire about Processes of Recovery (QPR). Results Team leaders (n = 22) rated recovery orientation higher than clinicians (n = 109) or patients (n = 120) (Wald(2) = 7.0, P = 0.03), and both NHS trust and team type influenced RSA ratings. Patient-rated recovery orientation was a predictor of personal recovery (b = 0.58, 95% CI 0.31–0.85, P<0.001). Team leaders and clinicians with experience of mental illness (39%) or supporting a family member or friend with mental illness (76%) did not differ in their RSA ratings from other team leaders or clinicians. Conclusions Compared with team leaders, frontline clinicians and service users have less positive views on recovery orientation. Increasing recovery orientation may support personal recovery. PMID:27340113

  11. Soil column leaching of pesticides.

    PubMed

    Katagi, Toshiyuki

    2013-01-01

    In this review, I address the practical and theoretical aspects of pesticide soil mobility.I also address the methods used to measure mobility, and the factors that influence it, and I summarize the data that have been published on the column leaching of pesticides.Pesticides that enter the unsaturated soil profile are transported downwards by the water flux, and are adsorbed, desorbed, and/or degraded as they pass through the soil. The rate of passage of a pesticide through the soil depends on the properties of the pesticide, the properties of the soil and the prevailing environmental conditions.Because large amounts of many different pesticides are used around the world, they and their degradates may sometimes contaminate groundwater at unacceptable levels.It is for this reason that assessing the transport behavior and soil mobility of pesticides before they are sold into commerce is important and is one indispensable element that regulators use to assess probable pesticide safety. Both elementary soil column leaching and sophisticated outdoor lysimeter studies are performed to measure the leaching potential for pesticides; the latter approach more reliably reflects probable field behavior, but the former is useful to initially profile a pesticide for soil mobility potential.Soil is physically heterogeneous. The structure of soil varies both vertically and laterally, and this variability affects the complex flow of water through the soil profile, making it difficult to predict with accuracy. In addition, macropores exist in soils and further add to the complexity of how water flow occurs. The degree to which soil is tilled, the density of vegetation on the surface, and the type and amounts of organic soil amendments that are added to soil further affect the movement rate of water through soil, the character of soil adsorption sites and the microbial populations that exist in the soil. Parameters that most influence the rate of pesticide mobility in soil are

  12. Guidelines for performance standards of pesticides for safe use

    SciTech Connect

    Fan Defang; Cheng, H.

    1983-02-20

    This article discusses the efforts to conduct more overall and systematic tests of the dynamics of pesticide residue on agricultural crops in China. A national cooperation group for scientific research on pesticide residue was organized and placed under the direct leadership of the Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry. The ''National Standards for the Safe Use of Pesticides'' is applicable to 29 types of pesticides on 16 kinds of crops. Standards have also been established for the testing of pesticide residue on agricultural crops and in the soil. Topics considered include the selection of experimental pesticides and crops, the design of potted plants and field experiments, the design of simultaneous experiments, the design of test chemicals, the spot survey of residues, a design for testing the pesticide residue in soil, testing and measuring pesticide residue, and the method of gathering test samples.

  13. Accumulation of current-use pesticides in neotropical montane forests.

    PubMed

    Daly, Gillian L; Lei, Ying D; Teixeira, Camilla; Muir, Derek C G; Castillo, Luisa E; Wania, Frank

    2007-02-15

    In Central America, chemical-intensive tropical agriculture takes place in close proximity to highly valued and biologically diverse ecosystems, yet the potential for atmospheric transport of pesticides from plantations to national parks and other reserves is poorly characterized. The specific meteorological conditions of mountain ranges can lead to contaminant convergence at high altitudes, raising particular concern for montane forest ecosystems downwind from pesticide use areas. Here we show, based on a wide-ranging air and soil sampling campaign across Costa Rica, that soils in some neotropical montane forests indeed display much higher concentrations of currently used pesticides than soils elsewhere in the country. Specifically, elevated concentrations of the fungicide chlorothalonil, the herbicide dacthal, and the insecticide metabolite endosulfan sulfate on volcanoes Barva and Poas, lying directly downwind of the extensive banana plantations of the Caribbean lowland, indicate the occurrence of atmospheric transport and wet deposition of pesticides at high altitudes. Calculations with a contaminant fate model, designed for mountain regions and parametrized to the Costa Rican environment, show that chemicals with a log K(AW) between -3 and -5 have a greater potential for accumulation at high altitudes. This enrichment behavior is quantified by the Mountain Contamination Potential and is sensitive to contaminant degradability. The modeling work supports the hypothesis suggested by the field results that it is enhanced precipitation scavenging at high elevations (caused by lower temperatures and governed by K(AW)) that causes pesticides to accumulate in tropical montane areas. By providing for the first time evidence of significant transfer of currently used pesticides to Central American montane cloud forests, this study highlights the need to evaluate the risk that tropical agricultural practices place on the region's ecological reserves.

  14. Symptomatic Management of Fever in Children: A National Survey of Healthcare Professionals' Practices in France.

    PubMed

    Bertille, Nathalie; Pons, Gerard; Khoshnood, Babak; Fournier-Charrière, Elisabeth; Chalumeau, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Despite the production and dissemination of recommendations related to managing fever in children, this symptom saturates the practices of primary healthcare professionals (HPs). Data on parent practices related to fever are available, but data on HPs' practices are limited. We studied HPs' practices, determinants of practices and concordance with recommendations in France. We conducted a national cross-sectional observational study between 2007 and 2008 among French general practitioners, primary care pediatricians and pharmacists. HPs were asked to include 5 consecutive patients aged 1 month to 12 years with acute fever. HPs completed a questionnaire about their practices for the current fever episode. We used a multilevel logistic regression model to assess the joint effects of patient- and HP-level variables associated with this behavior. In all, 1,534 HPs (participation rate 13%) included 6,596 children (mean age 3.7 ± 2.7 years). Physicians measured the temperature of 40% of children. Primary HPs recommended drug treatment for 84% of children (including monotherapy for 92%) and physical treatment for 62% (including all recommended physical treatments for 7%). HPs gave written advice or a pamphlet for 13% of children. Significant practice variations were associated with characteristics of the child (age, fever level and diagnosis) and HP (profession and experience). In France, despite the production and dissemination of national recommendations for managing fever in children, primary HPs' observed practices differed greatly from current recommendations, which suggests potential targets for continuing medical education.

  15. Pesticide regulations and farm worker safety: the need to improve pesticide regulations in Viet Nam.

    PubMed

    Phung, Dung Tri; Connell, Des; Miller, Greg; Rutherford, Shannon; Chu, Cordia

    2012-06-01

    Agricultural pesticide use in Viet Nam has more than tripled since 1990. However, pesticide legislation and regulations have not been developed in response to this large increase in usage, as a result of which pesticides pose a serious threat to human health and the environment. This paper identifies the need to improve pesticide regulations in Viet Nam through a comparative analysis of pesticide regulations in Viet Nam and the United States of America, where the rate of acute poisoning among agricultural workers is much lower than in Viet Nam and where information pertaining to pesticide regulations is made accessible to the public. The analysis identified several measures that would help to improve Viet Nam's pesticide regulations. These include enhancing pesticide legislation, clarifying the specific roles and active involvement of both the environmental and health sectors; performing a comprehensive risk-benefit evaluation of pesticide registration and management practices; improving regulations on pesticide suspension and cancellation, transport, storage and disposal; developing import and export policies and enhancing pesticide-related occupational safety programmes.

  16. Management of the use of public health pesticides in the face of the increasing burden of vector-borne diseases in the Eastern Mediterranean region.

    PubMed

    Mnzava, A; Zaim, M; Yadav, R S; Elkhalifa, S; Mahjour, J

    2012-01-01

    The Eastern Mediterranean Region of the World Health Organization is facing an increasing burden of vector-borne diseases. Progress in controlling these diseases is compromised by the limited number of vector control interventions, most of which rely on the use of pesticides. Seventeen countries of the Region participated in a global survey that aimed to map and document registration and management practices for public health pesticides. This paper aims to draw the attention of policy- and decision-makers to the challenges the Region is facing in managing public health pesticides properly to control disease vectors and, based on the outcome of the survey, recommends a set of actions to guide national policy and to strengthen national capacity for the sound management and judicious use of public health pesticides.

  17. Introduction to Pesticide Incidents

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Pesticides incidents must be reported by pesticide registrants. Others, such as members of the public and environmental professionals, would like to report pesticide incidents. This website will explain and facilitate such incident reporting.

  18. Endangered Species: Pesticide Restrictions

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Our goal is to protect threatened and endangered species and their habitats, without placing unnecessary burden on agriculture and pesticide users. Pesticide limitations are developed to ensure safe use of pesticides in order to meet this goal.

  19. Pesticides and Human Health

    MedlinePlus

    ... Active Ingredients Other/Inert Ingredients Low-Risk Pesticides Organic Pesticide Ingredients Pesticide Incidents Human Exposure Pet Exposure ... toxic products , and those that are natural or organic , can cause health problems if someone is exposed ...

  20. Environmental aspects in plant protection practices of non-agricultural pesticide users: case study of communes and the ministry of public works and transport (MET) of the Walloon Region (Belgium).

    PubMed

    Godeaux, D; Schiffers, B; Culot, M

    2008-01-01

    In order to gain a better understanding of non-agricultural pesticide use and to prepare the legislative and technical dossiers required under the Water Framework Directive, between October 2006 and March 2007, two surveys were conducted of 97 Walloon communes and 65 districts of the Walloon Ministry of Public Works and Transport (MET) (General Directorates for Motorways and Roads and for Waterway Infrastructure). The questionnaire (26 questions on six topics) was sent by e-mail or fax, with a response rate of 60 out of 97 communes and 33 out of 65 districts. This article describes the environmental aspects of the surveys (health-related aspects are the subject of separate article). The surveys have brought to light a number of good practices (including zero pesticides) and a growing awareness of environmental issues among non-agricultural users. However, bad habits, legislation infringements and a failure to follow good plant protection practice are still a problem and pose major environmental risks (in the form of water pollution from pesticides). Information, awareness-raising and training therefore remain a priority for non-agricultural users.

  1. Pesticide Safety for Farmworkers = Uso Seguro de Pesticidas para los Trabajadores del Campo.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poli, Bonnie; Fluker, Sam S.

    A booklet for farmworkers and employers uses illustrations and simple text in English and Spanish to inform about the dangers, precautions, and use of pesticides. Topics covered include methods of pesticide absorption; signs/symptoms of pesticide poisoning; first aid; residues; appropriate work clothes; safe and unsafe pesticide practices; how to…

  2. Apply Pesticides Correctly: A Programmed Instruction Learning Program for Private Applicators. Revised Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meltzner, Joel R., Ed.

    This programed text on pesticide application provides practical information needed to meet the minimum Federal regulation requirements for the use of certain pesticides. The seven chapters cover pest and pest control, pesticides, labels and labeling, application equipment, use and maintenance of equipment, using pesticides safely, and the…

  3. Pesticide risk behaviors and factors influencing pesticide use among farmers in Kuwait.

    PubMed

    Jallow, Mustapha F A; Awadh, Dawood G; Albaho, Mohammed S; Devi, Vimala Y; Thomas, Binson M

    2017-01-01

    The widespread overuse of pesticides in agriculture has generated increasing concerns about the negative effects of pesticides on human health and the environment. Understanding farmers' perceptions of risk of pesticides and the determinants of pesticide overuse is important to modifying their behavior towards reducing pesticide use. A survey of 250 randomly selected smallholder vegetable farmers in Kuwait was conducted to quantify the extent of pesticide use, their pesticide risk perceptions and factors influencing their pesticide use behaviors. The majority of the farmers perceived pesticides pose some risk to the environment (65%) and human health (70.5%), while younger farmers were more likely to perceive this risk than older farmers. When asked to rate how risky pesticides were regarding several aspects of human health and the environment on a scale of 1(not risky) to 5 (extremely risky), concern was highest for the health of applicators (x̅=4.28) and lowest for air quality (x̅=2.32). The risk perceptions of the farmers did not have a positive influence on their pesticide use practices. A total of 76 pesticide active ingredients were found in use, and 9% of these belong to the WHO toxicity class II (moderately hazardous). On average, farmers applied 12.8kg of active ingredients per hectare per year, and 58% of the farmers were found to have overused pesticides, with an average overuse rate of 2.5kg. Pesticide application frequency ranged from two times a month up to once a week, depending on the crop. A binary probit model reveals that farmers' inadequate knowledge of pesticides, the influence of pesticide retailers and lack of access to non-synthetic methods of pest control are positively associated with pesticide overuse, while the propensity to overuse decreases with higher levels of education, training in Integrated Pest Management (IPM) and the safe use and handling of pesticides, and access to extension support. Comprehensive intervention measures for

  4. Pesticide trends in major rivers of the United States, 1992-2010

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ryberg, Karen R.; Vecchia, Aldo V.; Gilliom, Robert J.; Martin, Jeffrey D.

    2014-01-01

    This report is part of a series of pesticide trend assessments led by the National Water-Quality Assessment Program of the U.S. Geological Survey. This assessment focuses on major rivers of various sizes throughout the United States that have large watersheds with a range of land uses, changes in pesticide use, changes in management practices, and natural influences typical of the regions being drained. Trends were assessed at 59 sites for 40 pesticides and pesticide degradates during each of three overlapping periods: 1992–2001, 1997–2006, and 2001–10. In addition to trends in concentration, trends in agricultural-use intensity (agricultural use) were also assessed at 57 of the sites for 35 parent compounds with agricultural uses during the same three periods. The SEAWAVE-Q model was used to analyze trends in concentration, and parametric survival regression for interval-censored data was used to assess trends in agricultural use. All trends are provided in downloadable electronic files. A subset of 39 sites was chosen to represent non-nested, generally independent basins for a national analysis of pesticide and agricultural-use trends for the most prevalent pesticides (15 pesticides and 2 degradation products). Graphical and numerical results are presented to provide a national overview of concentration and use trends. As another perspective on understanding pesticide concentration trends in large rivers in relation to multiple tributary watersheds, this report also presents a detailed assessment of concentration and use trends for simazine, metolachlor, atrazine, deethylatrazine, and diazinon for a set of 17 nested sites in the Mississippi River Basin (including the Ohio and Missouri River Basins), for the second and third trend periods. Pesticides strongly dominated by agricultural use—cyanazine, metolachlor, atrazine, and alachlor—had widespread agreement between concentration trends and agricultural-use trends. Pesticides with substantial use in

  5. Associations among School Characteristics and Foodservice Practices in a Nationally Representative Sample of United States Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomson, Jessica L.; Tussing-Humphreys, Lisa M.; Martin, Corby K.; LeBlanc, Monique M.; Onufrak, Stephen J.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Determine school characteristics associated with healthy/unhealthy food service offerings or healthy food preparation practices. Design: Secondary analysis of cross-sectional data. Setting: Nationally representative sample of public and private elementary, middle, and high schools. Participants: Data from the 2006 School Health Policies…

  6. A National Study of Kindergarten Transition Practices for Children with Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daley, Tamara C.; Munk, Tom; Carlson, Elaine

    2011-01-01

    This study used data drawn from a large, national sample to describe transition practices provided to 1989 children with disabilities as they entered their kindergarten year, obtained through a survey administered to kindergarten teachers. Using path modeling, we examined the child and family, school, and district factors that predict which…

  7. Evidence-Based Reading Instruction: Putting the National Reading Panel Report into Practice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Reading Association, Newark, DE.

    This collection of articles from "The Reading Teacher" provides examples of the instructional practices which improve reading achievement, according to Reading First legislation. Each section offers a summary and discussion of the National Reading Panel Report findings, and presents several articles from "The Reading Teacher"…

  8. 75 FR 12554 - National Advisory Council on Nurse Education and Practice; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-16

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Health Resources and Services Administration National Advisory Council on Nurse Education... Council on Nurse Education and Practice (NACNEP). Dates and Times: April 22, 2010, 8:30 a.m.-4:30 p.m... meeting are to: (1) Delineate the variety of roles nurses play in primary care including health...

  9. A National Survey of Bibliotherapy Preparation and Practices of Professional Counselors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pehrsson, Dale-Elizabeth; McMillen, Paula S.

    2010-01-01

    A national survey of "Bibliotherapy Practices in Counseling" was conducted in 2008. This project was partially supported by an Association of Creativity in Counseling Research Award. Little research exists regarding preparation of professional counselors and their specific use of bibliotherapy interventions. Invitations and survey requests were…

  10. 76 FR 3853 - National Science Foundation Rules of Practice and Statutory Conflict-of-Interest Exemptions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-21

    ... 45 CFR Part 680 RIN 3145-AA51 National Science Foundation Rules of Practice and Statutory Conflict-of... Foundation (NSF) is amending its regulations to remove the provisions concerning statutory conflict-of... 45 CFR Part 680 Conflict of interests. Accordingly, 45 CFR part 680 is amended as follows: PART...

  11. Drama: Same Difference--Diversity and Mutuality of Process and Practice--National Drama Conference 2011

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gyokery, Lisa; Lam, Van Va; Hida, Norifumi; Kim, Su-yuon; Efthymiou, Antri; Frost, Wendy; Lewis, Janine; Broekman, Kirsten

    2012-01-01

    This article presents reviews of different conferences that focus on drama education. It first presents six perspectives on " Drama: same difference: diversity and mutuality of process and practice--National Drama Conference 2011," held in Swansea University, UK, 11-14 April 2011. Then it presents reviews of "2011 African Theatre…

  12. The Swedish National Diabetes Register in clinical practice and evaluation in primary health care.

    PubMed

    Hallgren Elfgren, Ing-Marie; Grodzinsky, Ewa; Törnvall, Eva

    2016-11-01

    Aim The purpose of this project is to describe the use of the Swedish National Diabetes Register (NDR) in clinical practice in a Swedish county and to specifically monitor the diabetes care routines at two separate primary health-care centres (PHCC) with a special focus on older patients.

  13. Marriage and Family Therapists and Psychotropic Medications: Practice Patterns from a National Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hernandez, Barbara Couden; Doherty, William J.

    2005-01-01

    A national sample of marriage and family therapists (MFTs) was used to describe practice patterns of MFTs whose clients use psychotropics and to compare medicated and nonmedicated clients. Marriage and Family Therapists (n = 283) reported on 195 medicated and 483 nonmedicated adult clients. Clients (n = 375) rated their improvement and…

  14. A National Study of Student Selection Practices in the Allied Health Professions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dietrich, Marie C.; Crowley, Judeth A.

    1982-01-01

    Reports the outcomes of a 1978 national survey of candidate selection practices in 4 baccalaureate level and 7 associate degree level allied health disciplines. Found that few programs conducted evaluation of their admissions activities and that physical therapy and dental hygiene programs were the most structured in student selection. (JOW)

  15. An Exploration of Program Director Leadership Practices in Nationally Accredited Paramedic Education Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kokx, Gordon A.

    2016-01-01

    The number of paramedic education programs participating in the national accreditation process has nearly tripled in the past several years. Although accreditation standards describe program director roles and responsibilities, nothing has been formally studied regarding their leadership practices. The purpose of this study was to explore…

  16. Exploring the Complex Interplay of National Learning and Teaching Policy and Academic Development Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Karen

    2016-01-01

    Academic developers are important interpreters of policy, yet little research has focussed on the interplay of policy and academic development practice. Using methods from critical discourse analysis, this article analyses a national learning and teaching policy, charts its development, and explores its interpretation by the academic development…

  17. Literacy for the Twenty-First Century: Research, Policy, Practices, and the National Adult Literacy Survey.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, M. Cecil, Ed.

    This book focuses on results from secondary analyses of the National Adult Literacy Survey (NALS) and implications of these analyses for policy, practice, and further research on adult literacy. Part I contains an introduction and three additional chapters that provide a substantive summary of the NALS and its purposes: "Introduction: Adult…

  18. Teaching and Assessment Practices at the National University of Lesotho: Some Critical Comments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tlali, Tebello; Jacobs, Lynette

    2015-01-01

    This paper explores the teaching and assessment practices of some lecturers at the National University of Lesotho in view of the negative perception that was created in the press and also suggested in limited research findings about quality-related issues. We adopted a qualitative approach and drew from Constructivism's theoretical lens to…

  19. Exploring the Practical Adequacy of the Normative Framework Guiding South Africa's National Curriculum Statement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lotz-Sisikta, Heila; Schudel, Ingrid

    2007-01-01

    This article examines the practical adequacy of the recent defining of a normative framework for the South African National Curriculum Statement that focuses on the relationship between human rights, social justice and a healthy environment. This politically framed and socially critical normative framework has developed in response to…

  20. National Culture in Practice: Its Impact on Knowledge Sharing in Global Virtual Collaboration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wei, Kangning

    2009-01-01

    Issues concerning global virtual collaboration have received considerable attention in both the academic and practical world; however, little research has been conducted on knowledge-sharing activities in global virtual collaboration, which is a key process to achieve collaboration effectiveness. Due to national culture having been seen as one of…

  1. The National Board as Professional Development: Technical, Practical, and Emancipatory Dimensions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rennert-Ariev, Peter

    2006-01-01

    This study investigates what teachers learn from a graduate-level course that prepares them to pursue an advanced form of professional teaching certification based on the National Board for Professional Teaching Standards (NBPTS). The study draws from Habermas's (1972, 1974) three knowledge constitutive interests--the technical, the practical, and…

  2. Teaching Excellence and Innovative Practices: A Case Study of National Awardee Teachers of India

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sengupta, Aparajita; Tyagi, Harish Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Aim: The study intended to identify the contributions of the National awardee teachers to the teaching learning process through their teaching excellence and innovative practices which can act as exemplary model for the entire teaching community. Method: Attempts has been made to carry out a qualitative study where two selected cases are based on…

  3. Biosafety Practices and Emergency Response at the Idaho National Laboratory and Los Alamos National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Frank F. Roberto; Dina M. Matz

    2008-03-01

    Strict federal regulations govern the possession, use, and transfer of pathogens and toxins with potential to cause harm to the public, either through accidental or deliberate means. Laboratories registered through either the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), the U.S. Dept. of Agriculture (USDA), or both, must prepare biosafety, security, and incident response plans, conduct drills or exercises on an annual basis, and update plans accordingly. At the Idaho National Laboratory (INL), biosafety, laboratory, and emergency management staff have been working together for 2 years to satisfy federal and DOE/NNSA requirements. This has been done through the establishment of plans, training, tabletop and walk-through exercises and drills, and coordination with local and regional emergency response personnel. Responding to the release of infectious agents or toxins is challenging, but through familiarization with the nature of the hazardous biological substances or organisms, and integration with laboratory-wide emergency response procedures, credible scenarios are being used to evaluate our ability to protect workers, the public, and the environment from agents we must work with to provide for national biodefense.

  4. Monitoring pesticides in wildlife

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dustman, E.H.; Martin, W.E.; Heath, R.G.; Reichel, W.L.

    1971-01-01

    Early in the development of the wildlife monitoring program, certain criteria were recognized as being important in the selection of species of wild animals suitable for pesticide monitoring purposes. Ideally, the forms selected should be geographically well distributed, and they should be reasonably abundant and readily available for sampling. In addition, animals occurring near the top of food chains have the capacity to reflect residues in organisms occurring at lower levels in the same food chains. Based on these criteria, species chosen for monitoring include the starling (Sturnus vulgaris), mallard (Anas platyrhynchos) and black ducks (Anas rubripes), and the bald eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus). The black duck is substituted for the mallard in States where suitable numbers of mallards cannot be obtained. The Bureau of Sport Fisheries and Wildlife is held responsible for the execution of the wildlife portion of the National Pesticide Monitoring Program. The primary objective is to ascertain on a nationwide basis and independent of specific treatments the levels and trends of certain pesticidal chemicals and other pollutants in the bodies of selected forms of wildlife. The program was first described by Johnson et al. (4) in 1967. The purpose of this report is to update and redescribe the wildlife monitoring program and briefly review accomplishments.

  5. Predictors of health practices within age-sex groups: National Survey of Personal Health Practices and Consequences, 1979.

    PubMed Central

    Rakowski, W

    1988-01-01

    Health promotion-disease prevention programs share with health behavior research the common objective of identifying population subgroups toward whom services can be targeted. For this report, six age-sex groups were examined to determine similarities and differences in the predictors of eight health practice indices. Data were from the 1979 National Survey of Personal Health Practices and Consequences. Results showed very little similarity of predictors across the three age cohorts (20-34, 35-49, 50-64), between men and women, and among the six age-sex groups. No predictor achieved significance consistently for several health practices in any of the six groups, although years of education made the best showing. The lack of overlap among predictors helps to explain why health promotion messages and recruitment strategies may not appeal to as diverse an audience as initially intended. Possible explanations for the absence of similar predictors include differences in the nature of the various practices themselves, absence of data on intentions behind a person's behavior, and the "over-determined" character of an individual person's behavior. PMID:3136496

  6. The National Shipbuilding Research Program. Environmental Training Modules Module 1 - Good Environmental Practices

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1999-05-01

    industrial activities as well as facilities treating domestic wastewater. NPDES permits usually contain limits on the quantities of specific pollutants...herbicides, rodenticides, fungicides, nematicides, acaricides , as well as disinfectants, fumigants, and plant growth regulators. FIFRA requires...pesticide manufacturers to register all active ingredients of pesticide formulations. Many types of antifoulant coatings applied to the underwater hulls of

  7. Pesticide burial grounds in Poland: a review.

    PubMed

    Gałuszka, Agnieszka; Migaszewski, Zdzisław M; Manecki, Piotr

    2011-10-01

    Obsolete pesticides were stored in Poland from the middle sixties until the late eighties of the 20th century mostly in underground disposal sites, called "pesticide burial grounds" or "pesticide tombs". The total amount of pesticide waste and packaging materials disposed of in these landfills exceeded 20000 Mg. Typically, the content of a pesticide tomb was dominated by organochlorine pesticides (comprising 10-100% of the total waste volume) with DDT as the prevailing compound. Other pesticide types, such as phosphoroorganic, carbamate insecticides, dinitrophenols, phenoxyacids, and inorganic compounds were stored in smaller quantities, usually not exceeding 10-20% of the total waste volume. With the growing awareness of the threats that these landfills posed to the environment, the first inventory for the whole country was made in 1993 and remediation was initiated in 1999. The total amount of waste, which had to be removed from the known pesticide tombs (hazardous substances, contaminated soils, construction materials etc.) was about 100000 Mg. According to the National Waste Management Plan, the reclamation of pesticide tombs was assumed to have been finished by the end of 2010, however, this goal has not been achieved. The aim of this review is to present a historical perspective of pesticide burial grounds in Poland with an emphasis on their creation, function, inventory, and remediation. Based on unpublished reports, and other published materials of limited availability written in Polish, this review may serve as a source of information for representatives of other countries, where remediation of pesticide burial grounds is still in progress. The experience gained over a ten-year period, when restoration of pesticide tombs was implemented in Poland, reveals that there are many obstacles to this action arising not only from technical, but also from economic and social issues.

  8. Methods of analysis by the U.S. Geological Survey National Water Quality Laboratory; determination of selected carbamate pesticides in water by high-performance liquid chromatography

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Werner, S.L.; Johnson, S.M.

    1994-01-01

    As part of its primary responsibility concerning water as a national resource, the U.S. Geological Survey collects and analyzes samples of ground water and surface water to determine water quality. This report describes the method used since June 1987 to determine selected total-recoverable carbamate pesticides present in water samples. High- performance liquid chromatography is used to separate N-methyl carbamates, N-methyl carbamoyloximes, and an N-phenyl carbamate which have been extracted from water and concentrated in dichloromethane. Analytes, surrogate compounds, and reference compounds are eluted from the analytical column within 25 minutes. Two modes of analyte detection are used: (1) a photodiode-array detector measures and records ultraviolet-absorbance profiles, and (2) a fluorescence detector measures and records fluorescence from an analyte derivative produced when analyte hydrolysis is combined with chemical derivatization. Analytes are identified and confirmed in a three-stage process by use of chromatographic retention time, ultraviolet (UV) spectral comparison, and derivatization/fluorescence detection. Quantitative results are based on the integration of single-wavelength UV-absorbance chromatograms and on comparison with calibration curves derived from external analyte standards that are run with samples as part of an instrumental analytical sequence. Estimated method detection limits vary for each analyte, depending on the sample matrix conditions, and range from 0.5 microgram per liter to as low as 0.01 microgram per liter. Reporting levels for all analytes have been set at 0.5 microgram per liter for this method. Corrections on the basis of percentage recoveries of analytes spiked into distilled water are not applied to values calculated for analyte concentration in samples. These values for analyte concentrations instead indicate the quantities recovered by the method from a particular sample matrix.

  9. Pesticides residues and metals in plant products from agricultural area of Belgrade, Serbia.

    PubMed

    Ethorđević, Tijana; Ethurović, Rada

    2012-03-01

    The objective of study was to assess the levels of selected metals and pesticides in plant products from agricultural area of Belgrade, Serbia in order to indicate their possible sources and risks of contamination and to evaluate their sanitary probity and safety. The concentrations of cadmium, copper, iron, manganese, nickel, lead and zinc were below limits established by national and international regulations (maximum found concentrations were 0.028, 1.91, 11.16, 1.77, 0.605, 0.073 and 1.76 mg kg(-1) respectively). Only residue of one of examined pesticides was found in amount below MRL (bifenthrin 2.46 μg kg(-1)) in only one of analysed samples, while others were below detection limits. Obtained results indicate that crops from examined agricultural areas are unpolluted by contaminants used for plant protection and nutrition, indicating good agricultural practice regarding pesticides and fertilizer usage as well as moderate industrial production within examined areas.

  10. [Dilemmas of the pharmacist, 7th edition of Hungarian National Formulary in practice].

    PubMed

    Pál, Szilárd

    2005-01-01

    Most important event of year 2004 of the history of Hungarian pharmacy was the release of the 7th edition of the National Formulary. The general part of the new formulary expanded, remarks on the preparations are more detailed and dispensing technologies are more elaborated. Knowledge base on pharmaceutical substances and incompatibility is inserted as novelty. Following the principles of modern pharmacy practice the new National Formulary excludes pills, though it is still accepted as an alternative dosage form. Usage of tablets, hard gelatine capsules and medication stick as a new dosage forms are introduced. The aim of my study was to prepare and examine some new compositions of the new edition of the National Formulary to help the pharmacist's work. Results confirmed the novel solutions of the new National Formulary.

  11. Agricultural pesticide use in California: pesticide prioritization, use densities, and population distributions for a childhood cancer study.

    PubMed Central

    Gunier, R B; Harnly, M E; Reynolds, P; Hertz, A; Von Behren, J

    2001-01-01

    Several studies have suggested an association between childhood cancer and pesticide exposure. California leads the nation in agricultural pesticide use. A mandatory reporting system for all agricultural pesticide use in the state provides information on the active ingredient, amount used, and location. We calculated pesticide use density to quantify agricultural pesticide use in California block groups for a childhood cancer study. Pesticides with similar toxicologic properties (probable carcinogens, possible carcinogens, genotoxic compounds, and developmental or reproductive toxicants) were grouped together for this analysis. To prioritize pesticides, we weighted pesticide use by the carcinogenic and exposure potential of each compound. The top-ranking individual pesticides were propargite, methyl bromide, and trifluralin. We used a geographic information system to calculate pesticide use density in pounds per square mile of total land area for all United States census-block groups in the state. Most block groups (77%) averaged less than 1 pound per square mile of use for 1991-1994 for pesticides classified as probable human carcinogens. However, at the high end of use density (> 90th percentile), there were 493 block groups with more than 569 pounds per square mile. Approximately 170,000 children under 15 years of age were living in these block groups in 1990. The distribution of agricultural pesticide use and number of potentially exposed children suggests that pesticide use density would be of value for a study of childhood cancer. PMID:11689348

  12. Scientists Probe Pesticide Dynamics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chemical and Engineering News, 1974

    1974-01-01

    Summarizes discussions of a symposium on pesticide environmental dynamics with emphases upon pesticide transport processes, environmental reactions, and partitioning in air, soil, water and living organisms. Indicates that the goal is to attain knowledge enough to predict pesticide behavior and describe pesticide distribution with models and…

  13. Pesticide poisonings in Costa Rica.

    PubMed

    Wesseling, C; Castillo, L; Elinder, C G

    1993-08-01

    A descriptive epidemiologic study, conducted in Costa Rica, investigated the incidence of pesticide poisonings with special attention to agricultural workers and occupational exposure. Information from three national registers (occupational accident and disease reports, hospitalizations, and deaths) were used. During 1986, 1800 occupational accidents caused by pesticides were reported; between 1980 and 1986 altogether 3330 persons were hospitalized and 429 died. Cholinesterase inhibitors caused 71% of the reported occupational accidents, 63% of the hospitalizations, and 36% of the deaths. Paraquat caused 21% of the occupational accidents, 24% of the hospitalizations, and 60% of the deaths. Hospitalizations and deaths were 13 and 11 times, respectively, more frequent among agricultural workers than among the rest of the population. High-risk groups for occupational poisonings included agricultural workers aged 15-29 years, female workers, and banana plantation workers. The yearly incidence of symptomatic occupational pesticide poisonings among agricultural workers was estimated at 4.5%.

  14. The National Practice Benchmark for oncology, 2014 report on 2013 data.

    PubMed

    Towle, Elaine L; Barr, Thomas R; Senese, James L

    2014-11-01

    The National Practice Benchmark (NPB) is a unique tool to measure oncology practices against others across the country in a way that allows meaningful comparisons despite differences in practice size or setting. In today's economic environment every oncology practice, regardless of business structure or affiliation, should be able to produce, monitor, and benchmark basic metrics to meet current business pressures for increased efficiency and efficacy of care. Although we recognize that the NPB survey results do not capture the experience of all oncology practices, practices that can and do participate demonstrate exceptional managerial capability, and this year those practices are recognized for their participation. In this report, we continue to emphasize the methodology introduced last year in which we reported medical revenue net of the cost of the drugs as net medical revenue for the hematology/oncology product line. The effect of this is to capture only the gross margin attributable to drugs as revenue. New this year, we introduce six measures of clinical data density and expand the radiation oncology benchmarks.

  15. Pesticide usage pattern in tea ecosystem, their retrospects and alternative measures.

    PubMed

    Gurusubramanian, G; Rahman, A; Sarmah, M; Ray, Somnath; Bora, S

    2008-11-01

    Tea is a perennial plantation crop grown under monoculture providing favorable conditions for a variety of pests. The concept of pest control has undergone a considerable change over the past few decades. In recent years there has been a greater dependence on the use of pesticides (7.35-16.75 kgha(-1)) with little importance laid on other safe control methods for the management of tea pests. Due to this practice, the tea pests showed a higher tolerance/ resistance status due to formation of greater amount of esterases, glutathione S-transferase and acetylcholinesterase. Thus, over reliance on pesticides end up with pesticide residue in made tea (DDT - 10.4-47.1%; endosulfan - 41.1-98.0%; dicofol- 0.0-82.4%; ethion - 0.0-36.2%; cypermethrin - 6.0- 45.1%). The growing concern about the pesticide residue in made tea, its toxicity hazards to consumers, the spiraling cost of pesticides and their application have necessitated a suitable planning which will ensure a safe, economic as well as effective pest management in tea. At present it is a global concern to minimize chemical residue in tea and European union and German law imposed stringent measures for the application of chemicals in tea and fixed MRL values at < or = 0. 1 mgkg(-1) for the most commonly used pesticides which will not be met out in the real practice and has been a major constraint to tea exporting countries like India. In order to regulate the situation of the Indian market at global level, central insecticide board and prevention of food adulteration regulation committee have reviewed the MRL position for tea and has recommended 10 insecticides, 5 acaricides, 9 herbicides and 5 fungicides for use in tea and issued the tea distribution and export control order 2005 which will help the country to limit the presence of undesirable substances in tea. This review attempts to provide the readers with a comprehensive account of pesticide use in North East in tea, surveillance report of the European

  16. Music therapy services in pediatric oncology: a national clinical practice review.

    PubMed

    Tucquet, Belinda; Leung, Maggie

    2014-01-01

    This article presents the results of a national clinical practice review conducted in Australia of music therapy services in pediatric oncology hospitals. Literature specifically related to music therapy and symptom management in pediatric oncology is reviewed. The results from a national benchmarking survey distributed to all music therapists working with children with cancer in Australian pediatric hospitals are discussed. Patient and family feedback provided from a quality improvement activity conducted at a major pediatric tertiary hospital is summarized, and considerations for future growth as a profession and further research is proposed.

  17. Pesticide Use Plan (PUP) for Pantex Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Schoenhals, M.G.

    1995-12-31

    Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act and its Worker Protection Standard, EPA authority, state regulations, and Texas Department of Agriculture authority make up a complex set of environment compliance requirements. The Pantex Plant northeast of Amarillo, Texas is currently dedicated to the disassembly of nuclear weapons. Ironically large areas of the Pantex Plant Site have been farmed for over 40 years. Pesticides are an integral part of agronomic production practices once economic thresholds for certain pests are exceeded. Horticulture and industrial operations also use pesticides. Pesticides can migrate to several playa lakes onsite, where they may threaten compliance with the Clean Water Act. Plant personnel are aware of the need to provide a chemically safe work environment, protect the public, and ensure an ecologically healthy environment. Thus a PUP has been developed to coordinate all pesticide use, ensure safety of agricultural and industrial workers, and protect the playa habitat. The PUP provides guidelines for pesticide use, notification, training, and safety.

  18. Pesticide residue in water--a challenging task in India.

    PubMed

    Agarwal, Akriti; Prajapati, Rajmani; Singh, Om Pal; Raza, S K; Thakur, L K

    2015-02-01

    Modern agriculture practices reveal an increase in use of pesticides to meet the food demand of increasing population which results in contamination of the environment. In India, crop production increased to 100 %, but the cropping area has increased marginally by 20 %. Pesticides have played a major role in achieving the maximum crop production but maximum usage and accumulation of pesticide residues is highly detrimental to aquatic and other ecosystem. Pesticide residues in drinking water have become a major challenge over the last few years. It has been monitored in public water supply resources in National capital territory, i.e., Delhi. Organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), mainly isomers of hexachlorohexane (HCH), dichloro-diphenyl-trichloroethane (DDT), endosulphan, endrin, aldrin, dieldrin, and heptachlore, were identified from potable water samples. Results suggested that continuous consumption of contaminated water can pose severe health threats to local residents of this area. Central Pollution Control Board (CPCB), Delhi, had found α and β isomers of endosulphan residues in the Yamuna river. High concentrations of γ-HCH (0.259 μg/l) and malathion (2.618 μg/l) were detected in the surface water samples collected from the river Ganga in Kanpur, Uttar Pradesh (UP). High concentration of methyl parathion, endosulfan, and DDT were observed in water samples collected from the river at Bhagalpur, Bihar. The Industrial Toxicology Research Centre (ITRC), Lucknow (UP) study also found 0.5671 ppb concentrations of endosulfan in the river at Allahabad, UP. Similar results were found in other water samples in India.

  19. Methods of analysis by the U.S. Geological Survey National Water Quality Laboratory; determination of pesticides in water by Carbopak-B solid-phase extraction and high-preformance liquid chromatography

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Werner, Stephen L.; Burkhardt, Mark R.; DeRusseau, Sabrina N.

    1996-01-01

    In accordance with the needs of the National Water-Quality Assessment Program (NAWQA), the U.S. Geological Survey has developed and implemented a graphitized carbon-based solid-phase extraction and high-performance liquid chromatographic analytical method. The method is used to determine 41 pesticides and pesticide metabolites that are not readily amenable to gas chromatography or other high-temperature analytical techniques. Pesticides are extracted from filtered environmental water samples using a 0.5-gram graphitized carbon-based solid-phase cartridge, eluted from the cartridge into two analytical fractions, and analyzed using high-performance liquid chromatography with photodiode-array detection. The upper concentration limit is 1.6 micrograms per liter (=B5g/L) for most compounds. Single-operator method detection limits in organic-free water samples ranged from 0.006 to 0.032 =B5g/L= Recoveries in organic-free water samples ranged from 37 to 88 percent. Recoveries in ground- and surface-water samples ranged from 29 to 94 percent. An optional on-site extraction procedure allows for samples to be collected and processed at remote sites where it is difficult to ship samples to the laboratory within the recommended pre-extraction holding time of 7 days.

  20. Algorithm linking patients and general practices in Denmark using the Danish National Health Service Register

    PubMed Central

    Kjaersgaard, Maiken Ina Siegismund; Vedsted, Peter; Parner, Erik Thorlund; Bech, Bodil Hammer; Vestergaard, Mogens; Flarup, Kaare Rud; Fenger-Grøn, Morten

    2016-01-01

    Background The patient list system in Denmark assigns virtually all residents to a general practice. Nevertheless, historical information on this link between patient and general practice is not readily available for research purposes. Objectives To develop, implement, and evaluate the performance of an algorithm linking individual patients to their general practice by using information from the Danish National Health Service Register and the Danish Civil Registration System. Materials and methods The National Health Service Register contains information on all services provided by general practitioners from 1990 and onward. On the basis of these data and information on migration history and death obtained from the Civil Registration System, we developed an algorithm that allocated patients to a general practice on a monthly basis. We evaluated the performance of the algorithm between 2002 and 2007. During this time period, we had access to information on the link between patients and general practices. Agreement was assessed by the proportion of months for which the algorithm allocated patients to the correct general practice. We also assessed the proportion of all patients in the patient list system for which the algorithm was able to suggest an allocation. Results The overall agreement between algorithm and patient lists was 98.6%. We found slightly higher agreement for women (98.8%) than for men (98.4%) and lower agreement in the age group 18–34 years (97.1%) compared to all other age groups (≥98.6%). The algorithm had assigned 83% of all patients in the patient list system after 1 year of follow-up, 91% after 2 years of follow-up, and peaked at 94% during the fourth year. Conclusion We developed an algorithm that enables valid and nearly complete linkage between patients and general practices. The algorithm performs better in subgroups of patients with high health care needs. The algorithm constitutes a valuable tool for primary health care research. PMID

  1. Surfactant effects on environmental behavior of pesticides.

    PubMed

    Katagi, Toshiyuki

    2008-01-01

    The potential effects of adjuvants, including surfactants used in pesticide formulation, have been extensively studied for many small organic chemicals, but similar investigation on pesticides is limited in most cases. Solubilizing effects leading to the apparently increased water solubility of a pesticide are commonly known through the preparation of formulations, but fundamental profiles, especially for a specific monodisperse surfactant, are not fully studied. Reduced volatilization of a pesticide from the formulation can be explained by analogy of a very simple organic chemical, but the actual mechanism for the pesticide is still obscure. In contrast, from the point of view of avoiding groundwater contamination with a pesticide, adsorption/desorption profiles in the presence of surfactants and adjuvants have been examined extensively as well as pesticide mobility in the soil column. The basic mechanism in micelle-catalyzed hydrolysis is well known, and theoretical approaches including the PPIE model have succeeded in explaining the observed effects of surfactants, but its application to pesticides is also limited. Photolysis, especially in an aqueous phase, is in the same situation. The dilution effect in the real environment would show these effects on hydrolysis and photolysis to be much less than expected from the laboratory basic studies, but more information is necessary to examine the practical extent of the effects in an early stage of applying a pesticide formulation to crops and soil. Many adjuvants, including surfactants, are biodegradable in the soil environment, and thus their effects on the biodegradation of a pesticide in soil and sediment may be limited, as demonstrated by field trials. Not only from the theoretical but also the practical aspect, the foliar uptake of pesticide in the presence of adjuvants has been investigated extensively and some prediction on the ease of foliar uptake can be realized in relation to the formulation technology

  2. Prevalence of Mindfulness Practices in the US Workforce: National Health Interview Survey

    PubMed Central

    Kachan, Diana; Olano, Henry; Tannenbaum, Stacey L.; Annane, Debra W.; Mehta, Ashwin; Arheart, Kristopher L.; Fleming, Lora E.; McClure, Laura A.; Lee, David J.

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Mindfulness-based practices can improve workers’ health and reduce employers’ costs by ameliorating the negative effect of stress on workers’ health. We examined the prevalence of engagement in 4 mindfulness-based practices in the US workforce. Methods We used 2002, 2007, and 2012 National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) data for adults (aged ≥18 y, n = 85,004) to examine 12-month engagement in meditation, yoga, tai chi, and qigong among different groups of workers. Results Reported yoga practice prevalence nearly doubled from 6.0% in 2002 to 11.0% in 2012 (P < .001); meditation rates increased from 8.0% in 2002 to 9.9% in 2007 (P < .001). In multivariable models, mindfulness practice was significantly lower among farm workers (odds ratio [OR] = 0.42; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.21–0.83]) and blue-collar workers (OR = 0.63; 95% CI, 0.54–0.74) than among white-collar workers. Conclusion Worker groups with low rates of engagement in mindfulness practices could most benefit from workplace mindfulness interventions. Improving institutional factors limiting access to mindfulness-based wellness programs and addressing existing beliefs about mindfulness practices among underrepresented worker groups could help eliminate barriers to these programs. PMID:28055821

  3. National nursing workforce survey of nursing attitudes, knowledge and practice in genomics

    PubMed Central

    Calzone, Kathleen A; Jenkins, Jean; Culp, Stacey; Bonham, Vence L; Badzek, Laurie

    2013-01-01

    Aim Genomics has the potential to improve personalized healthcare. Nurses are vital to the utilization of genomics in practice. This study assessed nursing attitudes, receptivity, confidence, competency, knowledge and practice in genomics to inform education efforts. Materials & methods Cross-sectional study of registered nurses who completed an online Genetic/Genomic Nursing Practice Survey posted on a national nursing organization website. Results A total of 619 registered nurses participated. The largest proportion of education level were nurses with a baccalaureate degree (39%). Most (67.5%) considered genomics very important to nursing practice. However, 57% reported their genomic knowledge base to be poor or fair. The mean total knowledge score correct response rate was 75%. Yet 60% incorrectly answered that diabetes and heart disease are caused by a single gene variant. Most (64%) had never heard of the Essential Nursing Competencies and Curricula Guidelines in Genomics. Higher academic education or post licensure genetic education increased family history collection in practice. Conclusion Most nurses are inadequately prepared to translate genomic information into personalized healthcare. Targeted genomic education is needed to assure optimal workforce preparation for genomics practice integration. PMID:24363765

  4. Framework for a National Testing and Evaluation Program Based Upon the National Stormwater Testing and Evaluation for Products and Practices (STEPP) Initiative (WERF Report INFR2R14)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Abstract:The National STEPP Program seeks to improve water quality by accelerating the effective implementation and adoption of innovative stormwater management technologies. Itwill attempt to accomplish this by establishing practices through highly reliable, and cost-effective S...

  5. Organochlorine Pesticides in the Environment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stickel, L.F.

    1968-01-01

    Each year for nearly 20 years, thousands of pounds of persistent organochlorine pesticides have been applied to outdoor areas in many countries. These compounds may last for a very long time in the environment, and be carried by wind, water, and animals to places far distant from where they are used. As a result, most living organisms now contain organochlorine residues. This paper constitutes a selective review of the literature concerning the occurrence, distribution, and effects of organochlorines in the environment. Highest concentrations generally occur in carnivorous species. Thus predatory and fish-eating birds ordinarily have higher residues than do herbivores; quantities are similar in birds of similar habits in different countries. Any segment of the ecosystem - marshland, pond, forest, or field - receives various amounts and kinds of pesticides at irregular intervals. The different animals absorb, detoxify, store, and excrete pesticides at different rates. Different degrees of magnification of pesticide residues by living organisms in an environment are the practical result of many interactions that are far more complex than implied by the statement of magnification up the food chain. These magnifications may be millions of times from water to mud or only a few times from food to first consumer. Direct mortality of wild animals as an aftermath of recommended pesticide treatments has been recorded in the literature of numerous countries. However, accidents and carelessness also accompany pesticide use on a percentage basis and are a part of the problem. More subtle effects on the size and species composition of populations are more difficult to perceive in time to effect remedies. The possibility of ecological effects being mediated through changes in physiology and behavior has received some attention and has resulted in some disquieting findings. These include discovery of the activity of organochlorines in stimulating the breakdown of hormones or in

  6. National programmes for validating physician competence and fitness for practice: a scoping review

    PubMed Central

    Horsley, Tanya; Lockyer, Jocelyn; Cogo, Elise; Zeiter, Jeanie; Bursey, Ford; Campbell, Craig

    2016-01-01

    Objective To explore and categorise the state of existing literature for national programmes designed to affirm or establish the continuing competence of physicians. Design Scoping review. Data sources MEDLINE, ERIC, Sociological Abstracts, web/grey literature (2000–2014). Selection Included when a record described a (1) national-level physician validation system, (2) recognised as a system for affirming competence and (3) reported relevant data. Data extraction Using bibliographic software, title and abstracts were reviewed using an assessment matrix to ensure duplicate, paired screening. Dyads included both a methodologist and content expert on each assessment, reflective of evidence-informed best practices to decrease errors. Results 45 reports were included. Publication dates ranged from 2002 to 2014 with the majority of publications occurring in the previous six years (n=35). Country of origin—defined as that of the primary author—included the USA (N=32), the UK (N=8), Canada (N=3), Kuwait (N=1) and Australia (N=1). Three broad themes emerged from this heterogeneous data set: contemporary national programmes, contextual factors and terminological consistency. Four national physician validation systems emerged from the data: the American Board of Medical Specialties Maintenance of Certification Program, the Federation of State Medical Boards Maintenance of Licensure Program, the Canadian Revalidation Program and the UK Revalidation Program. Three contextual factors emerged as stimuli for the implementation of national validation systems: medical regulation, quality of care and professional competence. Finally, great variation among the definitions of key terms was identified. Conclusions There is an emerging literature focusing on national physician validation systems. Four major systems have been implemented in recent years and it is anticipated that more will follow. Much of this work is descriptive, and gaps exist for the extent to which systems build

  7. EPA Awards $500,000 to Help Reduce Childrens Exposure to Pesticides

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    WASHINGTON-- U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) announced two grants to help reduce students', teachers' and staffs' exposure to pests and pesticides in our nation's schools, while saving money, energy and pesticide treatment costs.

  8. EPA Awards $500,000 to Help Reduce Childrens Exposure to Pesticides

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    (03/17/2016 - ATLANTA)-- U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) announced two grants to help reduce students', teachers' and staffs' exposure to pests and pesticides in our nation's schools, while saving money, energy and pesticide treatment cost

  9. Analysis of pesticide residues on museum objects repatriated to the Hupa tribe of California.

    PubMed

    Palmer, Peter T; Martin, Matthew; Wentworth, Gregory; Caldararo, Niccolo; Davis, Lee; Kane, Shawn; Hostler, David

    2003-03-15

    In the past, it was common practice for museum professionals and private collectors to apply a variety of pesticide agents to objects in their collections to preserve them from depredations by microorganisms, fungi, and other pests. The Native American Graves Repatriation and Protection Act allows federally recognized tribes to request that museums return objects taken from their ancestors. Given that poor records were kept on the treatment of individual objects, it is unknown whether specific objects are contaminated with these pesticide agents. Although chemical analysis represents the only reliable means to determine the types and levels of pesticides on these objects, surprisingly few publications document the extent of this contamination in museum collections. This paper reports on the determination of arsenic, mercury, and several organic pesticides on 17 objects that were recently repatriated to the Hupa tribe in northern California. Four samples were taken from each object: two for arsenic and mercury analysis via flame atomic absorption spectrophotometry and two for organic pesticide analysis via gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Percent levels (wt/wt) of mercury were detected on many samples, and 0.001 to 0.183% (wt/wt) levels of p-dichlorobenzene, naphthalene, thymol, lindane, and/or DDT were detected on many of the samples. These results indicate that Hupa tribal members should not wear these objects in religious ceremonies, proper precautions should be followed when dealing with potentially contaminated objects, and that more serious consideration should be given to this issue at a national level.

  10. Monitoring Pesticide Residues in Fruits and Vegetables at Two of the Biggest Fresh Produce Markets in Africa.

    PubMed

    Mutengwe, Mbulaheni T; Chidamba, Lizyben; Korsten, Lise

    2016-11-01

    In most countries, fresh produce sold at local markets is usually not analyzed for agricultural chemical residues as export products are, which raises concerns about the perceived safety levels of local food supplies in contrast with exported products. The aim of this study was to determine pesticide residue levels in fruits and vegetables sold at two of the biggest fresh produce markets in Africa. A total of 199 fruit and vegetable samples were collected between 2012 and 2014 and analyzed for 74 pesticides commonly used in the horticultural sector. Of the samples analyzed, 91% were compliant with set maximum residue levels (MRLs). The remaining samples either contained unregistered chemicals (8%) or exceeded set MRL values (1%). Products containing more than one pesticide residue constituted 4.02% of all samples tested. Imazalil and iprodione were found to be the most frequently detected pesticides (12 samples each). Boscalid, endosulfan, profenofos, and procymidone were associated with the most noncompliance, including exceeding MRL values or being unregistered for the specific crop. The establishment of a national pesticide monitoring program is essential for the country and would ensure that pesticides are used in accordance with good agricultural practices.

  11. The current practice trends in pediatric bone-anchored hearing aids in Canada: a national clinical and surgical practice survey

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Since the introduction of bone-anchored hearing aids (BAHAs) in the 1980s, the practices of surgeons who implant these hearing aids have become varied; different indications and surgical techniques are utilized depending on the surgeon and institution. The objective of the current study is to describe the clinical and surgical practices of otolaryngologists in Canada who perform pediatric BAHA operations. Methods A detailed practice questionnaire was devised and sent to all members of the Canadian Society of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery. Those who performed pediatric BAHA surgeries were asked to participate. Results Twelve responses were received (response rate of 80%). All of the respondents identified congenital aural atresia to be an indication for pediatric BAHAs. Other indications were chronic otitis externa or media with hearing loss (92%), allergic reactions to conventional hearing aids (75%), congenital fixation or anomaly of ossicular chain (67%), and unilateral deafness (25%). Minor complications, such as skin reactions, were reported in 25% of cases, while major complications were very rare. There was great variability with regards to surgical techinque and post-operative management. The extent of financial support for the BAHA hardware and device also varied between provinces, and even within the same province. Conclusion There is a lack of general consensus regarding pediatric BAHA surgeries in Canada. With such a small community of otolaryngologists performing this procedure, we are hopeful that this survey can serve as an impetus for a national collaboration to establish a set of general management principles and inspire multi-site research ventures. PMID:23815797

  12. PESTICIDE MEASUREMENTS FROM THE FIRST NATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH SURVEY OF CHILD CARE CENTERS USING A MULTI-RESIDUE GC/MS ANALYSIS METHOD

    EPA Science Inventory

    The US Department of Housing and Urban Development, in collaboration with the US Consumer Product Safety Commission and the US Environmental Protection Agency, characterized the environments of young children (<6 years) by measuring lead, allergens, and pesticides in a randomly-s...

  13. [Biomonitoring pesticides: a national need?].

    PubMed

    Ríos B, Juan Carlos; Solari G, Sandra

    2010-04-01

    The word biomarker is being used more frequently during the last decade. Currently, a great amount of research is directed to fnd toxicological biomarkers for several different chemical substances, since persons are more exposed now than decades before. For this reason, it is important to perform a biomonitoring of such substances in order to assess the possibility that low quantities could cause health problems. Obtaining toxicological values through biomonitoring is also useful to control the exposure. The markers of poisoning by chemicals available worldwide are numerous, but unfortunately in Chile only a few are being used. It is essential to have more toxicology and environmental laboratories to test the levels of exposure of our population.

  14. Fate and transport of pesticides in the ground water systems of southwest Georgia, 1993-2005

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dalton, M.S.; Frick, E.A.

    2008-01-01

    Modern agricultural practices in the United States have resulted in nearly unrivaled efficiency and productivity. Unfortunately, there is also the potential for release of these compounds to the environment and consequent adverse affects on wildlife and human populations. Since 1993, the National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) program of the U.S. Geological Survey has evaluated water quality in agricultural areas to address these concerns. The objective of this study is to evaluate trends in pesticide concentrations from 1993-2005 in the surficial and Upper Floridan aquifers of southwest Georgia using pesticide and pesticide degradate data collected for the NAWQA program. There were six compounds - five herbicides and one degradate - that were detected in more than 20% of samples: atrazine, deethylatrazine (DEA), metolachlor, alachlor, floumeturon, and tebuthiuron. Of the 128 wells sampled during the study, only eight wells had pesticide concentrations that either increased (7) or decreased (1) on a decadal time scale. Most of the significant trends were increasing concentrations of pesticides in older water; median pesticide concentrations did not differ between the surficial and Upper Floridan aquifers from 1993 and 2005. Deethylatrazine, in the Upper Floridan aquifer, was the only compound that had a significant change (increase) in concentration during the study. The limited number of wells with increases in pesticide concentrations suggest that ground-water sources of these compounds are not increasing in concentration over the time scale represented in this study. Copyright ?? 2008 by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America. All rights reserved.

  15. Suicide and Pesticide Use among Pesticide Applicators and Their Spouses in the Agricultural Health Study

    PubMed Central

    Beard, John D.; Umbach, David M.; Hoppin, Jane A.; Richards, Marie; Alavanja, Michael C. R.; Blair, Aaron; Sandler, Dale P.

    2011-01-01

    Background: An association may exist between pesticide exposure and suicide. Objective: We sought to evaluate the existence of an association between pesticide use and suicide using data from the Agricultural Health Study (AHS), a prospective cohort study of licensed pesticide applicators and their spouses in Iowa and North Carolina. Methods: Via linkage to state mortality files and the National Death Index, we identified 110 suicides occurring between enrollment in the AHS (from 1993 to 1997) and 31 May 2009, among 81,998 cohort members contributing 1,092,943 person-years of follow-up. The average length of follow-up was 13.3 years. AHS participants provided data on pesticide use and potential confounders via self-administered questionnaires at enrollment. We evaluated several measures of pesticide use: use of any pesticide, ever use of 50 specific pesticides, cumulative lifetime days of use and intensity-adjusted cumulative lifetime days of use of 22 specific pesticides, and ever use of 10 functional and chemical classes of pesticides. We used Cox proportional hazards regression models to estimate adjusted hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals. Results: After adjusting for age at enrollment, sex, number of children in family, frequency of alcohol consumption during the past 12 months, and smoking status, we found no association between prior pesticide use and suicide in applicators and their spouses. Results were the same for applicators and spouses together or for applicators alone and were consistent across several measures of pesticide use. Conclusions: Our findings do not support an association between moderate pesticide use and suicide. PMID:21749962

  16. The National Association of School Psychologists' Self-Assessment Tool for School Psychologists: Factor Structure and Relationship to the National Association of School Psychologists' Practice Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eklund, Katie; Rossen, Eric; Charvat, Jeff; Meyer, Lauren; Tanner, Nick

    2016-01-01

    The National Association of School Psychologists' Model for Comprehensive and Integrated School Psychological Services (2010a), often referred to as the National Association of School Psychologists' Practice Model, describes the comprehensive range of professional skills and competencies available from school psychologists across 10 domains. The…

  17. Hospital cardiac arrest resuscitation practice in the US: a nationally representative survey

    PubMed Central

    Edelson, Dana P.; Yuen, Trevor C; Mancini, Mary E; Davis, Daniel P; Hunt, Elizabeth A; Miller, Joseph A; Abella, Benjamin S

    2014-01-01

    Background In-hospital cardiac arrest (IHCA) outcomes vary widely between hospitals, even after adjusting for patient characteristics, suggesting variations in practice as a potential etiology. However, little is known about the standards of IHCA resuscitation practice among US hospitals. Objective To describe current US hospital practices with regard to resuscitation care. Design A nationally representative mail survey. Setting A random sample of 1,000 hospitals from the American Hospital Association database, stratified into nine categories by hospital volume tertile and teaching status (major teaching, minor teaching and non-teaching). Subjects Surveys were addressed to each hospital's CPR Committee Chair or Chief Medical/Quality Officer. Measurements A 27-item questionnaire. Results Responses were received from 439 hospitals with a similar distribution of admission volume and teaching status as the sample population (p=0.50). Of the 270 (66%) hospitals with a CPR committee, 23 (10%) were chaired by a Hospitalist. High frequency practices included having a Rapid Response Team (91%) and standardizing defibrillators (88%). Low frequency practices included therapeutic hypothermia and use of CPR assist technology. Other practices such as debriefing (34%) and simulation training (62%) were more variable and correlated with the presence of a CPR Committee and/or dedicated personnel for resuscitation quality improvement. The majority of hospitals (79%) reported at least one barrier to quality improvement, of which the lack of a resuscitation champion and inadequate training were the most common. Conclusions There is wide variability between hospitals and within practices for resuscitation care in the US with opportunities for improvement. PMID:24550202

  18. The Canadian National Dairy Study 2015-Adoption of milking practices in Canadian dairy herds.

    PubMed

    Belage, E; Dufour, S; Bauman, C; Jones-Bitton, A; Kelton, D F

    2017-03-16

    Several studies have investigated which management practices have the greatest effect on udder health, but little information is available on how broadly the recommended milking practices are adopted across Canada. The National Dairy Study 2015 was designed to gather dairy cattle health and management data on dairy farms across Canada. The objectives of the present study were to describe the current proportions of adoption of milking practices on Canadian dairy farms, and identify factors associated with their use on farms. A bilingual questionnaire measuring use of various practices, including an udder health-specific section, was developed and sent to all Canadian dairy farms. The questions in the udder health section of the questionnaire were adapted from a bilingual questionnaire previously validated and containing questions regarding general milking hygiene and routine, and on-farm mastitis management. Chi-squared tests were used to investigate simple associations between adoption of practices and various explanatory variables including region, milking system, herd size, and bulk tank somatic cell count. In total, 1,373 dairy producers completed the survey. The regional distribution of the participants was representative of the Canadian dairy farm population, and milk quality was, on average, similar to nonparticipants. Overall, Canadian dairy producers followed the recommendations for milking procedures, but some were more extensively used than others. Fore-stripping, cleaning teats, wiping teats dry, using single-cow towels, and use of postmilking teat disinfectant were widely adopted. Use of gloves and glove hygiene, use of a premilking teat disinfectant, and use of automatic takeoffs were not as extensively implemented. Adoption percentages for several practices, including use of gloves, use of a premilking teat disinfectant, teat drying methods, and use of automatic takeoffs were significantly associated with milking system, herd size, and region. It

  19. Environmental impact of pesticides in Egypt.

    PubMed

    Mansour, Sameeh A

    2008-01-01

    The first use of petroleum-derived pesticides in Egyptian agriculture was initiated in 1950. Early applications consisted of distributing insecticidal dusts containing DDT/BHC/S onto cotton fields. This practice was followed by use of toxaphene until 1961. Carbamates, organophosphates, and synthetic pyrethroids were subsequently used, mainly for applications to cotton. In addition to the use of about 1 million metric tons (t) of pesticides in the agricultural sector over a 50-yr period, specific health and environmental problems are documented in this review. Major problems represented and discussed in this review are human poisoning, incidental toxicity to farm animals, insect pest resistance, destruction of beneficial parasites and predators, contamination of food by pesticide residues, and pollution of environmental ecosystems. Several reports reveal that chlorinated hydrocarbon pesticide residues are still detectable in several environmental compartments; however, these residues are in decline. Since 1990, there is a growing movement toward reduced consumption of traditional pesticides and a tendency to expand use of biopesticides, including "Bt," and plant incorporated protectants (PIPs). On the other hand, DDT and lindane were used for indoor and hygienic purposes as early as 1952. Presently, indoor use of pesticides for pest control is widespread in Egypt. Accurate information concerning the types and amounts of Egyptian household pesticide use, or numbers of poisoning or contamination incidents, is unavailable. Generally, use of indoor pesticides is inadequately managed. The results of a survey of Egyptian farmers' attitudes toward pesticides and their behavior in using them garnered new insights as to how pesticides should be better controlled and regulated in Egypt.

  20. Pesticide Registration Information System

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    PRISM provides an integrated, web portal for all pesticide related data, communications, registrations and transactions for OPP and its stakeholders, partners and customers. PRISM supports Strategic Goal 4 by automating pesticide registration processes.

  1. The Pesticide Problem.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bosch, Van Den Robert

    1979-01-01

    Contains a discussion of insects' ability to survive, of the development of pesticides and the introduction of DDT, of the problems of pesticide use and resistance to insecticides, and of the advantages of integrated pest control. (BB)

  2. Exploring Pesticide Pollution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rillo, Thomas J.

    1974-01-01

    Examines environmental problems associated with the use of pesticides, and suggests thirty learning activities designed to give elementary school children a better understanding of the problem of pesticide pollution. (JR)

  3. Revoking Pesticide Tolerances

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA revokes pesticide tolerances when all registrations of a pesticide have been canceled in the U.S. and the tolerances are not needed for imported foods or when there are no registered uses for certain crops.

  4. Pesticides and Pregnancy

    MedlinePlus

    Pesticides and Pregnancy In every pregnancy, a woman starts out with a 3-5% chance of having ... risk. This sheet talks about whether exposure to pesticides may increase the risk for birth defects over ...

  5. Pesticide Labeling Questions & Answers

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Pesticide manufacturers, applicators, state regulatory agencies, and other stakeholders raise questions or issues about pesticide labels. The questions on this page are those that apply to multiple products or address inconsistencies among product labels.

  6. Chlorinated pesticides in stream sediments from organic, integrated and conventional farms.

    PubMed

    Shahpoury, Pourya; Hageman, Kimberly J; Matthaei, Christoph D; Magbanua, Francis S

    2013-10-01

    To determine if current sheep/beef farming practices affect pesticide residues in streams, current-use and legacy chlorinated pesticides were quantified in 100 sediment samples from 15 streams on the South Island of New Zealand. The study involved five blocks of three neighboring farms, with each block containing farms managed by organic, integrated and conventional farming practices. Significantly higher concentrations of dieldrin, ∑ endosulfans, ∑ current-use pesticides, and ∑ chlorinated pesticides were measured in sediments from conventional farms compared to organic and integrated farms. However, streams in the latter two farming categories were not pesticide-free and sometimes contained relatively high concentrations of legacy pesticides. Comparison of measured pesticide concentrations with sediment quality guidelines showed that, regardless of farming practice, mean pesticide concentrations were below the recommended toxicity thresholds. However, up to 23% of individual samples contained chlorpyrifos, endosulfan sulfate, ∑ DDT, dieldrin, or ∑ chlordane concentrations above these thresholds.

  7. Can physicians treat tuberculosis? Report on a national survey of physician practices.

    PubMed Central

    Sumartojo, E M; Geiter, L J; Miller, B; Hale, B E

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Researchers examined physicians' treatment strategies for tuberculosis to determine whether they would follow recommendations of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the American Thoracic Society. METHODS: A national survey sampled 1772 physicians. Analyses tested correlates of recommended treatment regimens. RESULTS: Among respondents, 59.4% described a recommended regimen. Specialists; physicians aware of professional publications, treatment recommendations, and reporting requirements; and those having more than 50% of patients in nursing homes were more likely to describe recommended regimens. Physicians who had been in practice longer, relied on personal experience, or had more than 50% of patients receiving Medicaid were less likely to describe recommended regimens. CONCLUSIONS: Physicians who treat tuberculosis require training and support. Policymakers should consider who should treat tuberculosis and how recommended practice should be ensured. PMID:9431292

  8. Practical Side of the Bibliographic Information Retrieval System in the National Museum of Ethnology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kondo, Katsuichi

    The information retrieval system of the National Museum of Ethnology made its debut in 1979 and now enables us to search the books not only in the Museum but in the country and abroad by means of JAPAN MARC & LC MARC. The author presents the outline and the development of the information managing system including the above briefly and secondly the practical case of using our retrieval system in particular. The problems to be solved in the course of the future plan are also mentioned.

  9. Regional cancer centre demonstrates voluntary conformity with the national Radiation Oncology Practice Standards.

    PubMed

    Manley, Stephen; Last, Andrew; Fu, Kenneth; Greenham, Stuart; Kovendy, Andrew; Shakespeare, Thomas P

    2015-06-01

    Radiation Oncology Practice Standards have been developed over the last 10 years and were published for use in Australia in 2011. Although the majority of the radiation oncology community supports the implementation of the standards, there has been no mechanism for uniform assessment or governance. North Coast Cancer Institute's public radiation oncology service is provided across three main service centres on the north coast of NSW. With a strong focus on quality management, we embraced the opportunity to demonstrate conformity with the Radiation Oncology Practice Standards. The Local Health District's Clinical Governance units were engaged to perform assessments of our conformity with the standards and this was signed off as complete on 16 December 2013. The process of demonstrating conformity with the Radiation Oncology Practice Standards has enhanced the culture of quality in our centres. We have demonstrated that self-assessment utilising trained auditors is a viable method for centres to demonstrate conformity. National implementation of the Radiation Oncology Practice Standards will benefit individual centres and the broader radiation oncology community to improve the service delivered to our patients.

  10. Regional cancer centre demonstrates voluntary conformity with the national Radiation Oncology Practice Standards

    SciTech Connect

    Manley, Stephen Last, Andrew; Fu, Kenneth; Greenham, Stuart; Kovendy, Andrew; Shakespeare, Thomas P

    2015-06-15

    Radiation Oncology Practice Standards have been developed over the last 10 years and were published for use in Australia in 2011. Although the majority of the radiation oncology community supports the implementation of the standards, there has been no mechanism for uniform assessment or governance. North Coast Cancer Institute's public radiation oncology service is provided across three main service centres on the north coast of NSW. With a strong focus on quality management, we embraced the opportunity to demonstrate conformity with the Radiation Oncology Practice Standards. The Local Health District's Clinical Governance units were engaged to perform assessments of our conformity with the standards and this was signed off as complete on 16 December 2013. The process of demonstrating conformity with the Radiation Oncology Practice Standards has enhanced the culture of quality in our centres. We have demonstrated that self-assessment utilising trained auditors is a viable method for centres to demonstrate conformity. National implementation of the Radiation Oncology Practice Standards will benefit individual centres and the broader radiation oncology community to improve the service delivered to our patients.

  11. Exploring knowledge, attitudes, and practices related to alcohol in Mongolia: a national population-based survey

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The leading cause of mortality in Mongolia is Non-Communicable Disease. Alcohol is recognised by the World Health Organization as one of the four major disease drivers and so, in order to better understand and triangulate recent national burden-of-disease surveys and to inform policy responses to alcohol consumption in Mongolia, a national Knowledge, Attitudes and Practices survey was conducted. Focusing on Non-Communicable Diseases and their risk factors, this publication explores the alcohol-related findings of this national survey. Methods A door-to-door, household-based questionnaire was conducted on 3450 people from across Mongolia. Participants were recruited using a multi-stage random cluster sampling technique, and eligibility was granted to permanent residents of households who were aged between 15 and 64 years. A nationally representative sample size was calculated, based on methodologies aligned with the WHO STEPwise approach to Surveillance. Results Approximately 50% of males and 30% of females were found to be current drinkers of alcohol. Moreover, nine in ten respondents agreed that heavy episodic drinking of alcohol is common among Mongolians, and the harms of daily alcohol consumption were generally perceived to be high. Indeed, 90% of respondents regarded daily alcohol consumption as either ‘harmful’ or ‘very harmful’. Interestingly, morning drinking, suggestive of problematic drinking, was highest in rural men and was associated with lower-levels of education and unemployment. Conclusion This research suggests that Mongolia faces an epidemiological challenge in addressing the burden of alcohol use and related problems. Males, rural populations and those aged 25-34 years exhibited the highest levels of risky drinking practices, while urban populations exhibit higher levels of general alcohol consumption. These findings suggest a focus and context for public health measures addressing alcohol-related harm in Mongolia. PMID

  12. Pesticides and the Environment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neufeld, Gaylen

    1973-01-01

    Consideration of the dangers of pesticides to the world ecosystem as well as the economic necessity which an affluent society has created are the two sides of the pesticide problem discussed in this issue. An attempt is made to clarify the issue, to recognize the ways that pesticides exert their effects, and to relate what measures can be taken to…

  13. The Pesticide Scorecard

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weber, Jerome B.

    1977-01-01

    A scheme for comparing the relative toxicities and environmental safety of agricultural pesticides is presented. It is based on the sum of four key factors: (1) oral toxicity to rats, (2) oral toxicity to fish, (3) longevity, and (4) bioaccumulation. Thirty-one pesticides are ranked by these factors. The ranking indicates that new pesticides are…

  14. Variability of pesticide detections and concentrations in field replicate water samples collected for the National Water-Quality Assessment Program, 1992-97

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Martin, Jeffrey D.

    2002-01-01

    Correlation analysis indicates that for most pesticides and concentrations, pooled estimates of relative standard deviation rather than pooled estimates of standard deviation should be used to estimate variability because pooled estimates of relative standard deviation are less affected by heteroscedasticity. The 2 Variability of Pesticide Detections and Concentrations in Field Replicate Water Samples, 1992–97 median pooled relative standard deviation was calculated for all pesticides to summarize the typical variability for pesticide data collected for the NAWQA Program. The median pooled relative standard deviation was 15 percent at concentrations less than 0.01 micrograms per liter (µg/L), 13 percent at concentrations near 0.01 µg/L, 12 percent at concentrations near 0.1 µg/L, 7.9 percent at concentrations near 1 µg/L, and 2.7 percent at concentrations greater than 5 µg/L. Pooled estimates of standard deviation or relative standard deviation presented in this report are larger than estimates based on averages, medians, smooths, or regression of the individual measurements of standard deviation or relative standard deviation from field replicates. Pooled estimates, however, are the preferred method for characterizing variability because they provide unbiased estimates of the variability of the population. Assessments of variability based on standard deviation (rather than variance) underestimate the true variability of the population. Because pooled estimates of variability are larger than estimates based on other approaches, users of estimates of variability must be cognizant of the approach used to obtain the estimate and must use caution in the comparison of estimates based on different approaches.

  15. Methods of analysis by the U.S. Geological Survey National Water Quality Laboratory; determination of organophosphate pesticides in filtered water by gas chromatography with flame photometric detection

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jha, Virendra K.; Wydoski, Duane S.

    2002-01-01

    A method for the isolation of 20 parent organophosphate pesticides and 5 pesticide degradates from filtered natural-water samples is described. Seven of these compounds are reported permanently with an estimated concentration because of performance issues. Water samples are filtered to remove suspended particulate matter, and then 1 liter of filtrate is pumped through disposable solid-phase extraction columns that contain octadecyl-bonded porous silica to extract the compounds. The C-18 columns are dried with nitrogen gas, and method compounds are eluted from the columns with ethyl acetate. The extract is analyzed by dual capillary-column gas chromatography with flame photometric detection. Single-operator method detection limits in all three water-matrix samples ranged from 0.004 to 0.012 microgram per liter. Method performance was validated by spiking all compounds into three different matrices at three different concentrations. Eight replicates were analyzed at each concentration level in each matrix. Mean recoveries of method compounds spiked in surface-water samples ranged from 39 to 149 percent and those in ground-water samples ranged from 40 to 124 percent for all pesticides except dimethoate. Mean recoveries of method compounds spiked in reagent-water samples ranged from 41 to 119 percent for all pesticides except dimethoate. Dimethoate exhibited reduced recoveries (mean of 43 percent in low- and medium-concentration level spiked samples and 20 percent in high-concentration level spiked samples) in all matrices because of incomplete collection on the C-18 column. As a result, concen-trations of dimethoate and six other compounds (based on performance issues) in samples are reported in this method with an estimated remark code.

  16. Methods of analysis by the U.S. Geological Survey National Water Quality Laboratory : determination of organophosphate pesticides in bottom sediment by gas chromatography with flame photometric detection

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jha, Virendra Kumar; Wydoski, Duane S.

    2003-01-01

    A method for the isolation of 20 parent organophosphate pesticides and 5 pesticide degradates from bottom-sediment samples is described. The compound O-ethyl-O-methyl-S-proplyphosphorothioate is reported as an estimated concentration because of variable performance. In this method, the sediment samples are centrifuged to remove excess waster mixed with anhydrous sodium sulfate and Soxhlet extracted overnight with dichloromethane (93 percent) and methanol (7 percent). The extract is concentrated and then filtered through a 0.2-micrometer polytetrafluoroethylene membrane syringe filter. An aliquot of the sample extract is quantitatively injected onto two polystyrene-divinylbenzene gel-permeation chromatographic columns connected in series. The compounds are eluted with dichloromethane and a fraction is collected for analysis, with some coextracted interferences, including elemental sulfur, separated and discarded. The aliquot is concentrated and solvent exchanged to ethyl acetate. The extract is analyzed by dual capillary-column gas chromatography with flame photometric detection. Single-operator method detection limits in sodium sulfate matrix samples ranged from 0.81 to 2 micrograms per kilogram. Method performance was validated by spiking all compounds into three different solid matrices (sodium sulfate, bed sediment from Clear Creek, and bed sediment from Evergreen Lake) at three different concentrations. Eight replicates were analyzed at each concentration in each matrix. Mean recoveries of method compounds spiked in Clear Creek samples ranged from 43 to 110 percent, and those in Evergreen Lake samples ranged from 62 to 118 percent for all pesticides. Mean recoveries of method compounds spiked in reagent sodium sulfate samples ranged from 41 to 101 percent for all pesticides. The only exception was O-ethyl-O-methyl-S-propylphosphorothioate, which had an average recovery of 35 percent, and, thus, sample concentration is reported as estimated ('E' remark code).

  17. Pesticide Program Dialogue Committee: Pesticide Incidents Workgroup

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA formed this workgroup to assist in meeting its long-term goal of creating a publically-available framework that improves the reporting, quality and efficient use of pesticide incident data to ensure high-quality, science-based pesticide decisions.

  18. Method of analysis and quality-assurance practices for determination of pesticides in water by solid-phase extraction and capillary-column gas chromatography/mass spectrometry at the U.S. Geological Survey California District Organic Chemistry Laboratory, 1996-99

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Crepeau, Kathryn L.; Baker, Lucian M.; Kuivila, Kathryn

    2000-01-01

    A method of analysis and quality-assurance practices were developed to study the fate and transport of pesticides in the San Francisco Bay-Estuary by the U.S. Geological Survey. Water samples were filtered to remove suspended-particulate matter and pumped through C-8 solid-phase extraction cartridges to extract the pesticides. The cartridges were dried with carbon dioxide and the pesticides were eluted with three cartridge volumes of hexane:diethyl ether (1:1) solution. The eluants were analyzed using capillary-column gas chromatography/mass spectrometry in full-scan mode. Method detection limits for pesticides ranged from 0.002 to 0.025 microgram per liter for 1-liter samples. Recoveries ranged from 44 to 140 percent for 25 pesticides in samples of organic-free reagent water and Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta and Suisun Bay water fortified at 0.05 and 0.50 microgram per liter. The estimated holding time for pesticides after extraction on C-8 solid-phase extraction cartridges ranged from 10 to 257 days.

  19. Exploring the meaning of practicing classroom inquiry from the perspectives of National Board Certified Science Teachers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karaman, Ayhan

    Inquiry has been one of the most prominent terms of the contemporary science education reform movement (Buck, Latta, & Leslie-Pelecky, 2007; Colburn, 2006; Settlage, 2007). Practicing classroom inquiry has maintained its central position in science education for several decades because science education reform documents promote classroom inquiry as the potential savior of science education from its current problems. Likewise, having the capabilities of teaching science through inquiry has been considered by National Board for Professional Teaching Standards [NBPTS] as one of the essential elements of being an accomplished science teacher. Successful completion of National Board Certification [NBC] assessment process involves presenting a clear evidence of enacting inquiry with students. Despite the high-profile of the word inquiry in the reform documents, the same is not true in schools (Crawford, 2007). Most of the science teachers do not embrace this type of approach in their everyday teaching practices of science (Johnson, 2006; Luera, Moyer, & Everett, 2005; Smolleck, Zembal-Saul, & Yoder, 2006; Trumbull, Scarano, & Bonney, 2006). And the specific meanings attributed to inquiry by science teachers do not necessarily match with the original intentions of science education reform documents (Matson & Parsons, 2006; Wheeler, 2000; Windschitl, 2003). Unveiling the various meanings held by science teachers is important in developing better strategies for the future success of science education reform efforts (Jones & Eick, 2007; Keys & Bryan, 2001). Due to the potential influences of National Board Certified Science Teachers [NBCSTs] on inexperienced science teachers as their mentors, examining inquiry conceptions of NBCSTs is called for. How do these accomplished practitioners understand and enact inquiry? The purpose of this dissertation research study was twofold. First, it investigated the role of NBC performance assessment process on the professional development

  20. Increasing pesticide-resistant ectoparasitic infections may increase pesticide poisoning risks in children.

    PubMed

    Diaz, James H

    2008-01-01

    Head louse and scabies mite infestations are common among pre-school and school-age children, and topical pesticides are frequently prescribed to treat such conditions. Ectoparasite resistance to the safest and most commonly prescribed pyrethrin/pyrethroid pesticides for ectoparasitic infections has, however, been increasing since the 1980s. The increasing resistance of these arthropods to the safest pesticides may lead to greater use of more toxic, alternative pesticides to control infestations and to prevent institutional outbreaks. MEDLINE and Cochrane searches, 1966-2008, were conducted to assess the impact of increasing pesticide resistance on prescribing practices for ectoparasitic infections and to describe the evolving global epidemiology of pediatric poisonings by more toxic pediculicides and miticides, including carbamates, organochlorines, and organophosphates. Pharmacists, physicians, and poison control personnel should be fully informed about increasing pesticide resistance among the most commonly encountered ectoparasites of children and the institutionalized and be prepared to prevent and to treat accidental home and institutional pesticide poisonings with more toxic pesticides.

  1. The Turning Point Social Marketing National Excellence Collaborative: integrating social marketing into routine public health practice.

    PubMed

    Pirani, Sylvia; Reizes, Tom

    2005-01-01

    Social marketing can be an effective tool for achieving public health goals. Social marketing uses concepts from commercial marketing to plan and implement programs designed to bring about behavior change that will benefit individuals and society. Although social marketing principles have been used to address public health problems, efforts have been dominated by message-based, promotion-only strategies, and effective implementation has been hampered by both lack of understanding of and use of all of the components of a social marketing approach and lack of training. The Turning Point initiative's Social Marketing National Excellence Collaborative (SMNEC) was established to promote social marketing principles and practices to improve public health across the nation. After 4 years, the Collaborative's work has resulted in improved understanding of social marketing among participating members and the development of new tools to strengthen the social marketing skills among public health practitioners. The Collaborative has also made advances in incorporating and institutionalizing the practice of social marketing within public health in participating states.

  2. Tailoring National Standards to Early Science Teacher Identities: Building on Personal Histories to Support Beginning Practice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eick, Charles J.

    2009-04-01

    Individual recommendation plans (IRP) for student teaching practice were co-constructed with two methods students based on the select application of National Science Teachers Association’s National Standards for Science Teacher Preparation. Methods students completed a resume, an interview on pedagogical preferences, and a learning styles survey to determine the reform-based standards and pedagogical approaches that better fit their personal histories and identity formation as science teachers. Each case was unique with one student better meeting the Standards of “Issues” and “Science in the Community” and the other student better meeting the standards of “Inquiry” and the “Nature of Science”. Student teachers planned and taught lessons based on their IRP and were mostly successful in meeting their prescribed standards and utilizing their preferred pedagogies. However, their success in use of specific strategies supporting their approach was highly dependent upon classroom context. The use of the IRP process as a reflective tool strengthening identity formation and early practice is discussed.

  3. Harm reduction and women in the Canadian national prison system: policy or practice?

    PubMed

    Rehman, Laurene; Gahagan, Jacqueline; DiCenso, Anne Marie; Dias, Giselle

    2004-01-01

    Applying the principles of harm reduction within the context of incarcerated populations raises a number of challenges. Although some access to harm reduction strategies has been promoted in general society, a divide between what is available and what is advocated continues to exist within the prison system. This paper explores the perceptions and lived experiences of a sample of nationally incarcerated women in Canada regarding their perceptions and experiences in accessing HIV and Hepatitis C prevention, care, treatment and support. In-depth interviews were conducted with 156 women in Canadian national prisons. Q.S.R. Nudist was used to assist with data management. A constant comparison method was used to derive categories, patterns, and themes. Emergent themes highlighted a gap between access to harm reduction in policy and in practice. Despite the implementation of some harm reduction techniques, women in Canadian prisons reported variable access to both education and methods of reducing HIV/HCV transmission. Concerns were also raised about pre-and post-test counseling for HIV/HCV testing. Best practices are suggested for implementing harm reduction strategies within prisons for women in Canada.

  4. Use and occurrence of pesticides in the Apalachicola-Chattahoochee-Flint River basin, Georgia, Alabama, and Florida, 1960-91

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stell, Susan M.; Hopkins, Evelyn H.; Buell, Gary R.; Hippe, Daniel J.

    1995-01-01

    The Apalachicola-Chattahoochee-Flint (ACF) River basin was one of the first 20 study units selected in 1991 by the U.S. Geological Survey for its National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) program. Because pesticide contamination of surface water and ground water is a concern nationwide, a major emphasis of the NAWQA program is to examine the occurrence and distribution of pesticides in the water resources of these study unit basins. An understanding of the types and distribution of land uses; pesticide properties, pest-control practices, and pesticide use; and an evaluation of the occurrence and distribution of pesticides in the water resources of the ACF are necessary to meet this objective of the NAWQA program. This report describes land use and pesticide use at a county level, and the occurrence and distribution of pesticides in the water resources of the ACF River basin on the basis of previously-collected data. About 33 percent of the ACF River basin is used for agriculture, 16 percent is used for silviculture, and about 5 percent of the basin is in urban and suburban settings; primarily the Columbus, Albany, and Atlanta Metropolitan areas. The remainder is in wetlands and non-silvicultural forest. A broad range of synthetic-organic herbicides, insecticides, and fungicides are applied to land in agricultural, silvicultural, urban, and suburban areas. The period of intensive pesticide applications extends from March to October. Pesticide data available for the period from 1971 through 1989 in the U.S. Geological Survey National Water Information System (NWIS) and for the period from 1960 through 1991 in the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Storage and Retrieval System (STORET) were analyzed to describe the occurrence and distribution of pesticides in water resources of the ACF River basin. Collectively, the NWIS and STORET databases contain about 19,600 individual analyses for pesticide concentration in the ACF River basin. Pesticide concentrations were at

  5. Developing a Best Practice Guide for Increasing High School Student Participation and Satisfaction in the National School Lunch Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Asperin, Amelia Estepa; Castillo, Alexandra

    2010-01-01

    Purpose/Objectives: The purpose of this project was to identify and confirm best practices for increasing high school student participation and satisfaction in school nutrition (SN) programs operating under the regulations of the National School Lunch Program (NSLP). Methods: Using a modified best practices research model (BPRM; Mold & Gregory,…

  6. 75 FR 51075 - National Registry of Evidence-Based Programs and Practices (NREPP): Open Submission Period for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-18

    ... Practices (NREPP): Open Submission Period for Fiscal Year 2011 Background The Substance Abuse and Mental... HUMAN SERVICES Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration National Registry of Evidence-Based Programs and Practices (NREPP): Open Submission Period for Fiscal Year 2011 AGENCY:...

  7. The Relationship between Sun Protection Policy and Associated Practices in a National Sample of Early Childhood Services in Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ettridge, Kerry A.; Bowden, Jacqueline A.; Rayner, Joanne M.; Wilson, Carlene J.

    2011-01-01

    Limiting exposure to sunlight during childhood can significantly reduce the risk of skin cancer. This was the first national study to assess the sun protection policies and practices of early childhood services across Australia. It also examined the key predictors of services' sun protection practices. In 2007, 1017 respondents completed a…

  8. Promising Partnership Practices, 2002: The 5th Annual Collection from Members of the National Network of Partnership Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jansorn, Natalie Rodriguez, Ed.; Salinas, Karen Clark, Ed.

    This publication highlights 93 exemplary practices of school, family, and community partnerships selected from members of the National Network of Partnerships Schools at Johns Hopkins University, Maryland. Network member sites represent 18 states and 2 Canadian provinces. The publication highlights six types of practices: parenting (e.g., parent…

  9. Estimation of agricultural pesticide use in drainage basins using land cover maps and county pesticide data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nakagaki, Naomi; Wolock, David M.

    2005-01-01

    A geographic information system (GIS) was used to estimate agricultural pesticide use in the drainage basins of streams that are studied as part of the U.S. Geological Survey?s National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program. Drainage basin pesticide use estimates were computed by intersecting digital maps of drainage basin boundaries with an enhanced version of the National Land Cover Data 1992 combined with estimates of 1992 agricultural pesticide use in each United States county. This report presents the methods used to quantify agricultural pesticide use in drainage basins using a GIS and includes the estimates of atrazine use applied to row crops, small-grain crops, and fallow lands in 150 watersheds in the conterminous United States. Basin atrazine use estimates are presented to compare and analyze the results that were derived from 30-meter and 1-kilometer resolution land cover and county pesticide use data, and drainage basin boundaries at various grid cell resolutions. Comparisons of the basin atrazine use estimates derived from watershed boundaries, county pesticide use, and land cover data sets at different resolutions, indicated that overall differences were minor. The largest potential for differences in basin pesticide use estimates between those derived from the 30-meter and 1-kilometer resolution enhanced National Land Cover Data 1992 exists wherever there are abrupt agricultural land cover changes along the basin divide. Despite the limitations of the drainage basin pesticide use data described in this report, the basin estimates provide consistent and comparable indicators of agricultural pesticide application in surface-water drainage basins studied in the NAWQA Program.

  10. Micronuclei and pesticide exposure.

    PubMed

    Bolognesi, Claudia; Creus, Amadeu; Ostrosky-Wegman, Patricia; Marcos, Ricard

    2011-01-01

    Micronucleus (MN) is a biomarker widely used in biomonitoring studies carried out to determine the genetic risk associated to pesticide exposure. Many in vitro and in vivo studies, as well as epidemiological approaches, have demonstrated the ability of certain chemical pesticides to produce genetic effects including cancer and other chronic pathologies in humans; thus, biomonitoring studies have been carried out to characterise the genetic risk associated to pesticide exposure. It must be noted that 'pesticide exposure' is a broad term covering complex mixtures of chemicals and many variables that can reduce or potentiate their risk. In addition, there are large differences in pesticides used in the different parts of the world. Although pesticides constitute a wide group of environmental pollutants, the main focus on their risk has been addressed to people using pesticides in their working places, at the chemical industry or in the crop fields. Here, we present a brief review of biomonitoring studies carried out in people occupationally exposed to pesticides and that use MN in lymphocytes or buccal cells as a target to determine the induction of genotoxic damage. Thus, people working in the chemical industry producing pesticides, people spraying pesticides and people dedicated to floriculture or agricultural works in general are the subject of specific sections. MN is a valuable genotoxic end point when clear exposure conditions exist like in pesticide production workers; nevertheless, better study designs are needed to overcome the uncertainty in exposure, genetic susceptibility and statistical power in the studies of sprayers and floriculture or agricultural workers.

  11. Modeling of pesticide emissions from agricultural ecosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Rong

    2012-04-01

    Pesticides are applied to crops and soils to improve agricultural yields, but the use of pesticides has become highly regulated because of concerns about their adverse effects on human health and environment. Estimating pesticide emission rates from soils and crops is a key component for risk assessment for pesticide registration, identification of pesticide sources to the contamination of sensitive ecosystems, and appreciation of transport and fate of pesticides in the environment. Pesticide emission rates involve processes occurring in the soil, in the atmosphere, and on vegetation surfaces and are highly dependent on soil texture, agricultural practices, and meteorology, which vary significantly with location and/or time. To take all these factors into account for simulating pesticide emissions from large agricultural ecosystems, this study coupled a comprehensive meteorological model with a dynamic pesticide emission model. The combined model calculates hourly emission rates from both emission sources: current applications and soil residues resulting from historical use. The coupled modeling system is used to compute a gridded (36 × 36 km) hourly toxaphene emission inventory for North America for the year 2000 using a published U.S. toxaphene residue inventory and a Mexican toxaphene residue inventory developed using its historical application rates and a cropland inventory. To my knowledge, this is the first such hourly toxaphene emission inventory for North America. Results show that modeled emission rates have strong diurnal and seasonal variations at a given location and over the entire domain. The simulated total toxaphene emission from contaminated agricultural soils in North America in 2000 was about 255 t, which compares reasonably well to a published annual estimate. Most emissions occur in spring and summer, with domain-wide emission rates in April, May and, June of 36, 51, and 35 t/month, respectively. The spatial distribution of emissions depends

  12. Pesticides and children.

    PubMed

    Garry, Vincent F

    2004-07-15

    Prevention and control of damage to health, crops, and property by insects, fungi, and noxious weeds are the major goals of pesticide applications. As with use of any biologically active agent, pesticides have unwanted side-effects. In this review, we will examine the thesis that adverse pesticide effects are more likely to occur in children who are at special developmental and behavioral risk. Children's exposures to pesticides in the rural and urban settings and differences in their exposure patterns are discussed. The relative frequency of pesticide poisoning in children is examined. In this connection, most reported acute pesticide poisonings occur in children younger than age 5. The possible epidemiological relationships between parental pesticide use or exposure and the risk of adverse reproductive outcomes and childhood cancer are discussed. The level of consensus among these studies is examined. Current concerns regarding neurobehavioral toxicity and endocrine disruption in juxtaposition to the relative paucity of toxicant mechanism-based studies of children are explored.

  13. Management of obstetric postpartum hemorrhage: a national service evaluation of current practice in the UK

    PubMed Central

    Al Wattar, Bassel H; Tamblyn, Jennifer A; Parry-Smith, William; Prior, Mathew; Van Der Nelson, Helen

    2017-01-01

    Background Postpartum hemorrhage (PPH) continues to be one of the major causes of maternal mortality and morbidity in obstetrics. Variations in practice often lead to adverse maternity outcomes following PPH. Our objective was to assess the current practice in managing PPH in the UK. Methods We performed a national multicenter prospective service evaluation study over one calendar month and compared the current performance to national standards for managing PPH. We used a standardized data collection tool and collected data on patients’ demographics, incidence of PPH, estimated blood loss (EBL), prophylactic and treatment measures, onset of labor, and mode of delivery. Results We collected data from 98 obstetric units, including 3663 cases of primary PPH. Fifty percent of cases were minor PPH (EBL 500–1000 mL, n=1900/3613, 52.6%) and the remaining were moderate PPH (EBL >1000 to <2000 mL, n=1424/3613, 39.4%) and severe PPH (EBL >2000 mL, n=289/3613, 8%). The majority of women received active management of the third stage of labor (3504/3613, 97%) most commonly with Syntometrine intramuscular (1479/3613, 40.9%). More than half required one additional uterotonic agent (2364/3613, 65.4%) most commonly with Syntocinon intravenous infusion (1155/2364, 48.8%). There was a poor involvement of consultant obstetricians and anesthetists in managing PPH cases, which was more prevalent when managing major PPH (p=0.0001). Conclusion There are still variations in managing PPH in the UK against national guidelines. More senior doctor involvement and regular service evaluation are needed to improve maternal outcomes following PPH. PMID:28176919

  14. Energy Audit Practices in China: National and Local Experiences and Issues

    SciTech Connect

    Shen, Bo; Price, Lynn; Lu, Hongyou

    2010-12-21

    China has set an ambitious goal of reducing its energy use per unit of GDP by 20% between 2006 and 2010. Since the industrial sector consumes about two-thirds of China's primary energy, many of the country's efforts are focused on improving the energy efficiency of this sector. Industrial energy audits have become an important part of China's efforts to improve its energy intensity. In China, industrial energy audits have been employed to help enterprises indentify energy-efficiency improvement opportunities for achieving the energy-saving targets. These audits also serve as a mean to collect critical energy-consuming information necessary for governments at different levels to supervise enterprises energy use and evaluate their energy performance. To better understand how energy audits are carried out in China as well as their impacts on achieving China's energy-saving target, researchers at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) conducted an in-depth study that combines a review of China's national policies and guidelines on energy auditing and a series of discussions with a variety of Chinese institutions involved in energy audits. This report consists of four parts. First, it provides a historical overview of energy auditing in China over the past decades, describing how and why energy audits have been conducted during various periods. Next, the report reviews current energy auditing practices at both the national and regional levels. It then discusses some of the key issues related to energy audits conducted in China, which underscore the need for improvement. The report concludes with policy recommendations for China that draw upon international best practices and aim to remove barriers to maximizing the potential of energy audits.

  15. Mapping the future of environmental health and nursing: strategies for integrating national competencies into nursing practice.

    PubMed

    Larsson, Laura S; Butterfield, Patricia

    2002-01-01

    :Nurses are increasingly the primary contact for clients concerned about health problems related to their environment. In response to the need for nursing expertise in the field of environmental health, the Institute of Medicine (IOM), Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR), and National Institute of Nursing Research (NINR) have designed core competencies for the nursing profession. The IOM competencies focus on four areas: (1) knowledge and concepts; (2) assessment and referral; advocacy, ethics, and risk communication; and (4) legislation and regulation. The competencies establish a baseline of knowledge and awareness in order for nurses to prevent and minimize health problems associated with exposure to environmental agents. To address the known difficulties of incorporating new priorities into established practice, nurses attending an environmental health short course participated in a nominal group process focusing on the question, "What specific actions can we take to bring environmental health into the mainstream of nursing practice?" This exercise was designed to bring the concepts of the national initiatives (IOM, NINR, ATSDR) to the awareness of individual nurses involved in the direct delivery of care. Results include 38 action items nurses identified as improving awareness and utilization of environmental health principles. The top five ideas were: (1) get environmental health listed as a requirement or competency in undergraduate nursing education; (2) improve working relationships with interdepartmental persons-a team approach; (3) strategically place students in essential organizations such as NIOSH, ATSDR, or CDC; (4) educate nurse educators; and (5) create environmental health awards in nursing. The 38 original ideas were also reorganized into a five-tiered conceptual model. The concepts of this model include: (1) developing partnerships; (2) strengthening publications; (3) enhancing continuing education; (4) updating nursing

  16. Oral Radiology Safety Standards Adopted by the General Dentists Practicing in National Capital Region (NCR)

    PubMed Central

    Jayaprakash, K.; Shivalingesh, K.K.; Agarwal, Vartika; Gupta, Bhuvandeep; Anand, Richa; Sharma, Abhinav; Kushwaha, Sumedha

    2016-01-01

    Introduction With advancement in diagnostic techniques, the utilization of radiologic examination has risen to many folds in the last two decades. Ionizing radiations from the radiographic examination carry the potential for harm by inducing carcino-genesis in addition to the diagnostic information extracted. Radiation doses utilized in the course of dental treatment might be low for individual examinations but patients are exposed to repeated examinations very often and many people are exposed during the course of dental care. Therefore, principles of radiation protection and safety are necessary for the dentists to follow to ensure minimum and inevitable exposure. Aim The aim of this study was to investigate the knowledge and behaviour of general dentists practicing in the National Capital Region (NCR) regarding radiation safety during oral radiographic procedures. Materials and Methods The study was a questionnaire based cross-sectional study. A total of 500 general dentists were contacted to participate in the study. The target population entailed of general dentists practicing in the National Capital Region. Data was computed and tabulated in Microsoft excel sheet and statistical analysis was performed with the help of SPSS version 21.0. Results The total response rate recovered was 70.6% and the respondents comprised of 59% and 41% males & females respectively. Only 64.8% of the general dentists contemplated thyroid to be the most important organ for radiation protection. Only 28.8% of the general dentists followed the position & distance rule appropriately. Conclusion The results showed that the knowledge and behaviour of the general dentists and the practices adopted by them regarding radiation safety is not satisfactory. To ensure the following of basic and necessary guidelines for radiation safety and protection, strict rules with penalties should be implemented by the state councils and new and interesting methods of education for this spectrum of the

  17. Ground water contamination and costs of pesticide restrictions in the southeastern coastal plain

    SciTech Connect

    Danielson, L.E.; Carlson, G.A.; Liu, S.; Weber, J.B.; Warren, R.

    1993-01-01

    The project developed new methodology for estimating: (1) groundwater contamination potential (GWCP) in the Southeast Coastal Plain, and (2) the potential economic impacts of selected policies that restrict pesticide use. The potential for ground water contamination was estimated by use of a simple matrix for combining ratings for both soil leaching potential and pesticide leaching potential. Key soil variables included soil texture, soil acidity and organic matter content. Key pesticide characteristics included Koc, pesticide half-life, the rate of application and the fraction of the pesticide hitting the soil. Comparisons of pesticide use from various farmer and expert opinion surveys were made for pesticide groups and for individual pesticide products. Methodology for merging the GWCP changes and lost benefits from selected herbicide cancellations was developed using corn production in the North Carolina Coastal Plain. Economic evaluations of pesticide cancellations for corn included national and Coastal Plain estimates for atrazine; metolachlor; dicamba; dicamba and atrazine; and dicamba, atrazine and metolachlor.

  18. Pesticide use and risk of end-stage renal disease among licensed pesticide applicators in the Agricultural Health Study

    PubMed Central

    Lebov, Jill F.; Engel, Lawrence S.; Richardson, David; Hogan, Susan L.; Hoppin, Jane A.; Sandler, Dale P.

    2017-01-01

    Objectives Experimental studies suggest a relationship between pesticide exposure and renal impairment, but epidemiological evidence is limited. We evaluated the association between exposure to 41 specific pesticides and end-stage renal disease (ESRD) incidence in the Agricultural Health Study (AHS), a prospective cohort study of licensed pesticide applicators in Iowa and North Carolina. Methods Via linkage to the United States Renal Data System, we identified 320 ESRD cases diagnosed between enrollment (1993-1997) and December 2011 among 55,580 male licensed pesticide applicators. Participants provided pesticide use information via self-administered questionnaires. Lifetime pesticide use was defined as the product of duration and frequency of use and then modified by an intensity factor to account for differences in pesticide application practices. Cox proportional hazards models, adjusted for age and state, were used to estimate associations between ESRD and: 1) ordinal categories of intensity-weighted lifetime use of 41 pesticides, 2) poisoning and high-level pesticide exposures, and 3) pesticide exposure resulting in a medical visit or hospitalization. Results Positive exposure-response trends were observed for the herbicides alachlor, atrazine, metolachlor, paraquat, and pendimethalin, and the insecticide chlordane. More than one medical visit due to pesticide use (HR = 2.13; 95% CI: 1.17, 3.89) and hospitalization due to pesticide use (HR = 3.05; 95% CI: 1.67, 5.58) were significantly associated with ESRD. Conclusions Our findings support an association between ESRD and chronic exposure to specific pesticides and suggest pesticide exposures resulting in medical visits may increase the risk of ESRD. PMID:26177651

  19. Methods of analysis by the U. S. Geological Survey National Water Quality Laboratory; determination of pesticides in water by graphitized carbon-based solid-phase extraction and high-performance liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Furlong, Edward T.; Anderson, Bruce D.; Werner, Stephen L.; Soliven, Paul P.; Coffey, Laura J.; Burkhardt, Mark R.

    2001-01-01

    In 1996, the U.S. Geological Survey National Water Quality Laboratory (NWQL) developed and implemented a graphitized carbon-based solid-phase extraction and high-performance liquid chromatographic analytical method to determine polar pesticide concentrations in surface- and ground-water samples. Subsequently, the NWQL developed a complementary analysis that uses high-performance liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry to detect, identify, and quantify polar pesticides and pesticide metabolites in filtered water at concentrations as low as 10 nanograms per liter. This new method was designed to improve sensitivity and selectivity over the prior method, and to reduce known interferences from natural organic matter. In this new method, pesticides are extracted from filtered water samples by useing a 0.5-gram graphitized carbon-based solid-phase extraction cartridge, eluted from the cartridge, and concentrations determined by using high-perforance liquid chromatography with elecrospray ionization-mass spectrometry. The upper concentratoin limit is 1.000 microgram per liter (ug/L) for most compounds. Single-operator method detection limits in organic-free water samples fortified with pesticdes at a concentration of 0.025 ug/L ranged from 0.0019 to 0.022 ug/L for all compunds in the method. The grand mean (mean of mean recoveries for individual compounds) recoveries in organic-free water samples ranged from 72 to 89 percent, fortified wit hpesticides at three concentrations between 0.025 and 0.5 ug/L. Grand mean recoveries in ground- and surface-water samples ranged from 46 to 119 percent, also fortified with pesticies at three concentrations between 0.025 and 0.5 ug/L. Long-term recoveries from reagent water spikes were used to demonstrate that 38 of 65 compounds can be reported without qualification of the quantitative result across the analytical range of the method. The remaining 27 are reported with qualified estimates of concentration because of greater variability

  20. 78 FR 26935 - Data Requirements for Antimicrobial Pesticides

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-08

    ...EPA is revising the data requirements for antimicrobial pesticide products to reflect current scientific and regulatory practice, and to provide the regulated community with clearer and transparent information about the data needed to support pesticide registration decisions for antimicrobial products. The updated data requirements also serve to further enhance EPA's ability to make regulatory......

  1. 40 CFR 1.43 - Office of Prevention, Pesticides and Toxic Substances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Toxic Substances. 1.43 Section 1.43 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GENERAL... the development of strategic plans for the control of the national environmental pesticide situation... pesticides; special review of pesticides suspected of posing unreasonable risks to human health or...

  2. 40 CFR 1.43 - Office of Prevention, Pesticides and Toxic Substances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Toxic Substances. 1.43 Section 1.43 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GENERAL... the development of strategic plans for the control of the national environmental pesticide situation... pesticides; special review of pesticides suspected of posing unreasonable risks to human health or...

  3. Pesticide residues in olive oil.

    PubMed

    Lentza-Rizos, C; Avramides, E J

    1995-01-01

    The attacks of pests and diseases and the presence of weeds make it necessary to apply pesticides to olive trees to ensure crop protection. Residues of these compounds may remain and contaminate the oil produced. For the analysis of pesticide residues in olive oil, the most common methods are multiresidue methods for fatty substrates, based on partitioning between hexane or light petroleum and acetonitrile. Recently, other methods have been applied, such as ready-to-use, disposable minicolumns or direct injection of oil into a capillary gas chromatograph equipped with a precolumn with an oil recovery tank. Although several pesticides are registered in oil-producing countries for use on olive trees, available literature on the level and fate of residues is very limited. However, it is clear that fat-soluble pesticides tend to concentrate in the oil, both after full coverage and bait spraying, and their use close to harvest should therefore be avoided. Because it is sometimes necessary to use such pesticides late in autumn because of their effectiveness in cases of severe attack, residue trials should be carried out to determine the residue concentration in oil and to set a reasonable preharvest safety interval. Data produced by such trials would permit the establishment of MRLs (tolerances) in olive oil to cover cases where the residues, although relatively high, are not of toxicological significance for consumers (risk assessment). Such is the case with corn oil and the fat-soluble insecticide methyl pirimiphos, registered in the U.S. for use on corn. The U.S. EPA tolerance for methyl pirimiphos in corn is 8 mg/kg, whereas it is 11 times higher (88 mg/kg) for corn oil because it is known to concentrate in the oil. Similar provisions for olive oil, based on data from residue trials according to Good Agricultural Practice, the long-term toxicity of each pesticide as expressed by its ADI for man, and olive oil consumption patterns, would facilitate international trade

  4. The United States National Center for Interprofessional Practice and Education: Integrating an informatics approach to interprofessional work.

    PubMed

    Brandt, Barbara F; Cerra, Frank B; Delaney, Connie White

    2015-01-01

    The National Center for Interprofessional Practice and Education, a United States public-private partnership, was formed to provide national leadership, scholarship, evidence, and coordination to advance interprofessional education (IPE) and practice. Many external drivers led to the creation of the partnership that culminated in the National Center: patient safety initiatives, the need for care coordination and transitions efforts, quality improvement imperatives, calls for teamwork and workforce optimization, newly defined national core competencies for interprofessional collaborative practice, practice redesign, escalating health care costs, and state and federal policies. The National Center principals who have served in a variety of senior leadership roles--a clinician, educationalist, and informaticist--recognized the opportunity to leverage the potential that informatics could bring not only to the center but also to the field of IPECP. An informatics approach focuses on collaborative processes and works to address information processing, communications, and data collection. To do so, the National Center created multiple platforms: informatics education, a resource exchange, communication strategy, incubator network, national data repository, and learning system.

  5. Neo-liberal economic practices and population health: a cross-national analysis, 1980-2004.

    PubMed

    Tracy, Melissa; Kruk, Margaret E; Harper, Christine; Galea, Sandro

    2010-04-01

    Although there has been substantial debate and research concerning the economic impact of neo-liberal practices, there is a paucity of research about the potential relation between neo-liberal economic practices and population health. We assessed the extent to which neo-liberal policies and practices are associated with population health at the national level. We collected data on 119 countries between 1980 and 2004. We measured neo-liberalism using the Fraser Institute's Economic Freedom of the World (EFW) Index, which gives an overall score as well as a score for each of five different aspects of neo-liberal economic practices: (1) size of government, (2) legal structure and security of property rights, (3) access to sound money, (4) freedom to exchange with foreigners and (5) regulation of credit, labor and business. Our measure of population health was under-five mortality. We controlled for potential mediators (income distribution, social capital and openness of political institutions) and confounders (female literacy, total population, rural population, fertility, gross domestic product per capita and time period). In longitudinal multivariable analyses, we found that the EFW index did not have an effect on child mortality but that two of its components: improved security of property rights and access to sound money were associated with lower under-five mortality (p = 0.017 and p = 0.024, respectively). When stratifying the countries by level of income, less regulation of credit, labor and business was associated with lower under-five mortality in high-income countries (p = 0.001). None of the EFW components were significantly associated with under-five mortality in low-income countries. This analysis suggests that the concept of 'neo-liberalism' is not a monolithic entity in its relation to health and that some 'neo-liberal' policies are consistent with improved population health. Further work is needed to corroborate or refute these findings.

  6. From training to practice: the impact of ENGAGE, Ireland's national men's health training programme.

    PubMed

    Osborne, Aoife; Carroll, Paula; Richardson, Noel; Doheny, Martin; Brennan, Lorcan; Lambe, Barry

    2016-12-24

    Ireland's National Men's Health Policy recommended developing training programmes tailored to the needs of those working in health and allied health professionals and ENGAGE was developed to meet that recommendation. This study evaluated the impact of ENGAGE on frontline service providers' self-reported knowledge, skills, capacity and practice up to 5-months post training. Between 2012 and 2015, ENGAGE Trainers (n = 57) delivered 62 1-day training programmes to 810 participants. This study was conducted on a subset of those training days (n = 26) and participants. Quantitative methodologies were used to collect pre (n = 295), post (n = 295) and 5-month post (n = 128) training questionnaire data. Overall, participants were highly satisfied with the training immediately post training (8.60 ± 1.60 out of 10) and at 5-month follow up (8.06 ± 1.43 out of 10). Participants' self-reported level of knowledge, skill and capacity in identifying priorities, engaging men and influencing practice beyond their own organisation increased immediately following training (P < 0.001) and, with the exception of improving capacity to engage men and influencing practice beyond their organisation, these improvements were sustained at 5-month post training (P < 0.001). The vast majority of service providers (93.4%) reported that ENGAGE had impacted their work practice up to 5-month post training. The findings suggest that ENGAGE has succeeded in improving service providers' capacity to engage and work with men; improving gender competency in the delivery of health and health related services may increase the utilisation of such services by men and thereby improve health outcomes for men.

  7. National Water-Quality Assessment Program; summary of pesticide data collected on Whites Bayou near Anahuac, Texas, March to September 1994

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    1995-01-01

    One water-quality monitoring site was established on Whites Bayou, at the downstream end of the study area. Sampling began in March 1994 and will continue for 1 year. Sampling frequency ranges from four times per month in May and June to once per month in July. Stream-stage measurements were made three times per week from April to September. Field measurements during sampling include stream stage and discharge, water temperature, pH, dissolved oxygen, and specific conductance. Laboratory analyses include major inorganic ions, nutrients, sediment, and pesticides.

  8. OptiPhy, a technical-economic optimisation model for improving the management of plant protection practices in agriculture: a decision-support tool for controlling the toxicity risks related to pesticides.

    PubMed

    Mghirbi, Oussama; LE Grusse, Philippe; Fabre, Jacques; Mandart, Elisabeth; Bord, Jean-Paul

    2017-03-01

    The health, environmental and socio-economic issues related to the massive use of plant protection products are a concern for all the stakeholders involved in the agricultural sector. These stakeholders, including farmers and territorial actors, have expressed a need for decision-support tools for the management of diffuse pollution related to plant protection practices and their impacts. To meet the needs expressed by the public authorities and the territorial actors for such decision-support tools, we have developed a technical-economic model "OptiPhy" for risk mitigation based on indicators of pesticide toxicity risk to applicator health (IRSA) and to the environment (IRTE), under the constraint of suitable economic outcomes. This technical-economic optimisation model is based on linear programming techniques and offers various scenarios to help the different actors in choosing plant protection products, depending on their different levels of constraints and aspirations. The health and environmental risk indicators can be broken down into sub-indicators so that management can be tailored to the context. This model for technical-economic optimisation and management of plant protection practices can analyse scenarios for the reduction of pesticide-related risks by proposing combinations of substitution PPPs, according to criteria of efficiency, economic performance and vulnerability of the natural environment. The results of the scenarios obtained on real ITKs in different cropping systems show that it is possible to reduce the PPP pressure (TFI) and reduce toxicity risks to applicator health (IRSA) and to the environment (IRTE) by up to approximately 50 %.

  9. Pesticide Exposure in the Caribbean: A Case From Nutmeg Processing.

    PubMed

    Akpinar-Elci, Muge; Nguyen, MyNgoc Thuy; Bidaisee, Satesh; Elci, Omur Cinai

    2016-01-01

    Many developed countries around the world have implemented regulations to phase out or greatly restrict the use of pesticides. Pesticides are still utilized with minimal restrictions, however, in fumigating agricultural commodities in developing countries such as Grenada. This special report presents the case of a nutmeg factory worker in Grenada who worked with various pesticides including methyl bromide, magnesium phosphide (magtoxin), and aluminum phosphide (phostoxin) without the proper awareness and utilization of health and safety measures. The nutmeg factory worker later developed metastatic bladder cancer, which may have been triggered by a combination of individual risk factors along with long-term occupational exposure to these pesticides. In this special report, the occupational health importance of prevention in a work environment with significant exposure to pesticides is highlighted as well as some of the fundamental deficiencies in awareness among workers in developing nations concerning the deleterious effects of frequent exposure to pesticides.

  10. Pesticides and childhood cancers.

    PubMed Central

    Daniels, J L; Olshan, A F; Savitz, D A

    1997-01-01

    To evaluate the possible association between pesticides and the risk of childhood cancers, epidemiologic studies published between 1970 and 1996 were critically reviewed. Thirty-one studies investigated whether occupational or residential exposure to pesticides by either parents or children was related to increased risk of childhood cancer. In general, the reported relative risk estimates were modest. Risk estimates appeared to be stronger when pesticide exposure was measured in more detail. Frequent occupational exposure to pesticides or home pesticide use was more strongly associated with both childhood leukemia and brain cancer than either professional exterminations or the use of garden pesticides. Occupational pesticide exposure was also associated with increased risk of Wilms' tumor, Ewing's sarcoma, and germ cell tumors. Residence on a farm, a proxy for pesticide exposure, was associated with increased risk of a number of childhood cancers. Although increased risk of some childhood cancers in association with pesticide exposure is suggested by multiple studies, methodological limitations common to many studies restrict conclusions; these include indirect exposure classification, small sample size, and potential biases in control selection. Opportunities for methodologic improvement in future studies of pesticides and childhood cancers are described. PMID:9349828

  11. Watershed Regressions for Pesticides (WARP) models for predicting stream concentrations of multiple pesticides

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stone, Wesley W.; Crawford, Charles G.; Gilliom, Robert J.

    2013-01-01

    Watershed Regressions for Pesticides for multiple pesticides (WARP-MP) are statistical models developed to predict concentration statistics for a wide range of pesticides in unmonitored streams. The WARP-MP models use the national atrazine WARP models in conjunction with an adjustment factor for each additional pesticide. The WARP-MP models perform best for pesticides with application timing and methods similar to those used with atrazine. For other pesticides, WARP-MP models tend to overpredict concentration statistics for the model development sites. For WARP and WARP-MP, the less-than-ideal sampling frequency for the model development sites leads to underestimation of the shorter-duration concentration; hence, the WARP models tend to underpredict 4- and 21-d maximum moving-average concentrations, with median errors ranging from 9 to 38% As a result of this sampling bias, pesticides that performed well with the model development sites are expected to have predictions that are biased low for these shorter-duration concentration statistics. The overprediction by WARP-MP apparent for some of the pesticides is variably offset by underestimation of the model development concentration statistics. Of the 112 pesticides used in the WARP-MP application to stream segments nationwide, 25 were predicted to have concentration statistics with a 50% or greater probability of exceeding one or more aquatic life benchmarks in one or more stream segments. Geographically, many of the modeled streams in the Corn Belt Region were predicted to have one or more pesticides that exceeded an aquatic life benchmark during 2009, indicating the potential vulnerability of streams in this region.

  12. Watershed Regressions for Pesticides (WARP) Models for Predicting Stream Concentrations of Multiple Pesticides.

    PubMed

    Stone, Wesley W; Crawford, Charles G; Gilliom, Robert J

    2013-11-01

    Watershed Regressions for Pesticides for multiple pesticides (WARP-MP) are statistical models developed to predict concentration statistics for a wide range of pesticides in unmonitored streams. The WARP-MP models use the national atrazine WARP models in conjunction with an adjustment factor for each additional pesticide. The WARP-MP models perform best for pesticides with application timing and methods similar to those used with atrazine. For other pesticides, WARP-MP models tend to overpredict concentration statistics for the model development sites. For WARP and WARP-MP, the less-than-ideal sampling frequency for the model development sites leads to underestimation of the shorter-duration concentration; hence, the WARP models tend to underpredict 4- and 21-d maximum moving-average concentrations, with median errors ranging from 9 to 38% As a result of this sampling bias, pesticides that performed well with the model development sites are expected to have predictions that are biased low for these shorter-duration concentration statistics. The overprediction by WARP-MP apparent for some of the pesticides is variably offset by underestimation of the model development concentration statistics. Of the 112 pesticides used in the WARP-MP application to stream segments nationwide, 25 were predicted to have concentration statistics with a 50% or greater probability of exceeding one or more aquatic life benchmarks in one or more stream segments. Geographically, many of the modeled streams in the Corn Belt Region were predicted to have one or more pesticides that exceeded an aquatic life benchmark during 2009, indicating the potential vulnerability of streams in this region.

  13. Emerging Land Use Practices in Two Year Colleges. A Report of a National Survey of Land Use Practices of Community, Junior and Technical Colleges.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bender, Louis W.

    A national survey was conducted to determine land use practices among a random sample of 192 two-year colleges and to compare findings with results from a 1978 study. The survey solicited a description of the institution; a description of all campus land together with estimates of acreage directly dedicated for educational programs, acreage…

  14. Clinical terminology support for a national ambulatory practice outcomes research network.

    PubMed

    Ricciardi, Thomas N; Lieberman, Michael I; Kahn, Michael G; Masarie, F E

    2005-01-01

    The Medical Quality Improvement Consortium (MQIC) is a nationwide collaboration of 74 healthcare delivery systems, consisting of 3755 clinicians, who contribute de-identified clinical data from the same commercial electronic medical record (EMR) for quality reporting, outcomes research and clinical research in public health and practice benchmarking. Despite the existence of a common, centrally-managed, shared terminology for core concepts (medications, problem lists, observation names), a substantial "back-end" information management process is required to ensure terminology and data harmonization for creating multi-facility clinically-acceptable queries and comparable results. We describe the information architecture created to support terminology harmonization across this data-sharing consortium and discuss the implications for large scale data sharing envisioned by proponents for the national adoption of ambulatory EMR systems.

  15. 78 FR 9688 - Pesticides; Draft Guidance for Pesticide Registrants on Antimicrobial Pesticide Products With...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-11

    ... AGENCY Pesticides; Draft Guidance for Pesticide Registrants on Antimicrobial Pesticide Products With Mold... for Antimicrobial Pesticide Products with Mold-Related Label Claims. This document extends the comment... guidance for antimicrobial pesticide products with mold-related claims. In response to comments...

  16. 75 FR 28012 - Pesticides; Draft Guidance for Pesticide Registrants on False or Misleading Pesticide Product...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-19

    ... AGENCY Pesticides; Draft Guidance for Pesticide Registrants on False or Misleading Pesticide Product... Agency is announcing the availability of and seeking public comment on a draft Pesticide Registration Notice (PR Notice) entitled ``False or Misleading Pesticide Product Brand Names.'' PR Notices are...

  17. 77 FR 74003 - Pesticides; Draft Guidance for Pesticide Registrants on Antimicrobial Pesticide Products With...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-12

    ... AGENCY Pesticides; Draft Guidance for Pesticide Registrants on Antimicrobial Pesticide Products With Mold.... SUMMARY: The Agency is announcing the availability of and seeking public comment on a draft Pesticide Registration Notice (PR Notice) titled ``Guidance on Antimicrobial Pesticide Products with Mold-Related...

  18. COMPARISON OF FIVE EXTRACTION METHODS ON INCURRED AND FORTIFIED PESTICIDES IN COMPOSITE DIETS: BLENDER, SOXHLET, ASE, MICROWAVE AND SFE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The USEPA National Exposure Research Laboratory studies dietary exposure to a diverse group of semi-volatile pesticides by analyzing 24 hour duplicate composite diets. The pesticides of interest include organochlorines, organophosphates, anilines, and triazines. Currently, there ...

  19. Pesticides in stream sediment and aquatic biota: distribution, trends, and governing factors

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nowell, Lisa H.; Capel, Peter D.

    1999-01-01

    More than 20 years after the ban of DDT and other organochlorine pesticides, pesticides continue to be detected in air, rain, soil, surface water, bed sediment, and aquatic and terrestrial biota throughout the world. Recent research suggests that low levels of some of these pesticides may have the potential to affect the development, reproduction, and behavior of fish and wildlife, and possibly humans. Pesticides in Stream Sediment and Aquatic Biota: Distribution, Trends, and Governing Factors assesses the occurrence and behavior of pesticides in bed sediment and aquatic biota-the two major compartments of the hydrologic system where organochlorine pesticides are most likely to accumulate. This book collects, for the first time, results from several hundred monitoring studies and field experiments, ranging in scope from individual sites to the entire nation. Comprehensive tables provide concise summaries of study locations, pesticides analyzed, and study outcomes. Comprehensive and extensively illustrated, Pesticides in Stream Sediment and Aquatic Biota: Distribution, Trends, and Governing Factors evaluates the sources, environmental fate, geographic distribution, and long-term trends of pesticides in bed sediment and aquatic biota. The book focuses on organochlorine pesticides, but also assesses the potential for currently used pesticides to be found in bed sediment and aquatic biota. Topics covered in depth include the effect of land use on pesticide occurrence, mechanisms of pesticide uptake and accumulation by aquatic biota, and the environmental significance of observed levels of pesticides in stream sediment and aquatic biota.

  20. Pesticide Product Label System

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Pesticide Product Label System (PPLS) provides a collection of pesticide product labels (Adobe PDF format) that have been approved by EPA under Section 3 of the Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act (FIFRA). New labels were added to PPLS on November 21, 2014. Pesticide product labels provide critical information about how to safely handle and use registered pesticide products. An approved pesticide product label represents the full content of EPAs registration decision regarding that product. Pesticide labels contain detailed information on the use, storage, and handling of a product. This information will be found on EPA stamped-approved labels and, in some cases, in subsequent related correspondence, which is also included in PPLS. You may need to review several PDF files for a single product to determine the complete current terms of registration.

  1. The opportunities and ethics of big data: practical priorities for a national Council of Data Ethics.

    PubMed

    Varley-Winter, Olivia; Shah, Hetan

    2016-12-28

    In order to generate the gains that can come from analysing and linking big datasets, data holders need to consider the ethical frameworks, principles and applications that help to maintain public trust. In the USA, the National Science Foundation helped to set up a Council for Big Data, Ethics and Society, of which there is no equivalent in the UK. In November 2015, the Royal Statistical Society convened a workshop of 28 participants from government, academia and the private sector, and discussed the practical priorities that might be assisted by a new Council of Data Ethics in the UK. This article draws together the views from that meeting. Priorities for policy-makers and others include seeking a public mandate and informing the terms of the social contract for use of data; building professional competence and due diligence on data protection; appointment of champions who are competent to address public concerns; and transparency, across all dimensions. For government data, further priorities include improvements to data access, and development of data infrastructure. In conclusion, we support the establishment of a national Data Ethics Council, alongside wider and deeper engagement of the public to address data ethics dilemmas.This article is part of the themed issue 'The ethical impact of data science'.

  2. National Cancer Institute Biospecimen Evidence-Based Practices: a novel approach to pre-analytical standardization.

    PubMed

    Engel, Kelly B; Vaught, Jim; Moore, Helen M

    2014-04-01

    Variable biospecimen collection, processing, and storage practices may introduce variability in biospecimen quality and analytical results. This risk can be minimized within a facility through the use of standardized procedures; however, analysis of biospecimens from different facilities may be confounded by differences in procedures and inferred biospecimen quality. Thus, a global approach to standardization of biospecimen handling procedures and their validation is needed. Here we present the first in a series of procedural guidelines that were developed and annotated with published findings in the field of human biospecimen science. The series of documents will be known as NCI Biospecimen Evidence-Based Practices, or BEBPs. Pertinent literature was identified via the National Cancer Institute (NCI) Biospecimen Research Database ( brd.nci.nih.gov ) and findings were organized by specific biospecimen pre-analytical factors and analytes of interest (DNA, RNA, protein, morphology). Meta-analysis results were presented as annotated summaries, which highlight concordant and discordant findings and the threshold and magnitude of effects when applicable. The detailed and adaptable format of the document is intended to support the development and execution of evidence-based standard operating procedures (SOPs) for human biospecimen collection, processing, and storage operations.

  3. New Labeling for Neonicotinoid Pesticides

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    These documents, a graphic of the bee advisory box and letters to pesticide registrants, describe steps by EPA to change pesticide labels to better protect pollinators by being clearer and more precise in their directions for pesticide application.

  4. Pesticide Worker Safety Cooperative Agreements

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The worker safety program cooperative agreements fund projects to educate pesticide applicators, handlers, and farmworkers on working safely with, and around, pesticides. Read about pesticide related grant opportunities and reports from previous grants.

  5. Models for Pesticide Risk Assessment

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA considers the toxicity of the pesticide as well as the amount of pesticide to which a person or the environments may be exposed in risk assessment. Scientists use mathematical models to predict pesticide concentrations in exposure assessment.

  6. Decontamination of spills and residues of some pesticides and of protective clothing worn during the handling of the pesticides

    SciTech Connect

    Armour, M.A.; Nelson, C.; Sather, P. Briker, Y.

    1996-12-31

    Users of pesticides may have waste or surplus quantities or spills for disposal. One alternative is to deactivate the pesticide at the handling site by using a straightforward chemical reaction. This option can be practical for those who use relatively small quantities of a large variety of pesticides, for example, greenhouse workers, small farmers, and agricultural researchers. This paper describes practical on-site methods for the disposal of spills or small waste quantities of five commonly used pesticides, Diazinon, Chlorpyrifos, Iprodione, 2,4-D, and Captan. These have been tested in the laboratory for the rate of disappearance of the pesticide, the degree of conversion to nontoxic products, the nature and identity of the products, the practicality of the method, and the ease of reproducibility. Methods selected were shown to be safe for the operator, reliable, and reproducible. Greater than 99% of the starting material had to be reacted under reasonable conditions and length of time. Detailed descriptions of the reactions are presented, so that they can be performed with reproducible results. Protective clothing worn during the handling and application of pesticides may become contaminated. Simple laundering does not always remove all of the pesticide residues. Thus, chronic dermal exposure may result from the pesticide-contaminated clothing. Appropriate methods of laundering using specific pretreatments have been determined. 7 refs.

  7. Pesticide Program Dialogue Committee (PPDC)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Pesticide Program Dialogue Committee, a permanent, broadly representative advisory committee, meets with EPA on a regular basis to discuss pesticide regulatory, policy, and program implementation issues.

  8. Pioneering a National Advanced Practice Leadership Council to Enhance Care Delivery in a Large 19-State Health System.

    PubMed

    Harms, Dixie; Ewen, Julianne Z; Metsker, Matt; Swanson, Jay; Oas, Kimberly H

    This article describes an innovative approach to enhancing the capacity of advanced practice clinicians (APCs) in a large faith-based health system consisting of multiple markets across the United States. With the challenges in health care today, promotion of advanced practice is vital to increasing quality and access to care while maintaining cost-effectiveness. The development of a national Advanced Practice Leadership Council led by the Vice President of Advanced Practice at Catholic Health Initiatives has been a progressive approach in mitigating the challenges facing APCs in today's health care arena. The success of the Council has led to its inclusion on the health system's national clinical governance structure. The authors discuss development of the Council along with specific information regarding various committee work, including APC state regulations, delineation of privileges, quality measures, and total compensation.

  9. An integrated approach for assessing influence of agricultural activities on pesticides in a shallow aquifer in south-eastern Norway.

    PubMed

    Kværner, Jens; Eklo, Ole Martin; Solbakken, Eivind; Solberg, Ivar; Sorknes, Stein

    2014-11-15

    The study examines the influence of agricultural activities on pesticides in groundwater in an area with fluvial deposits of sand with a top layer of sandy silt and silt, intensive cultivation of potatoes and cereals, and drinking water supplies of households from local groundwater wells. Information about local agricultural practice and washing sites for pesticide spraying equipment, properties of soils and deeper deposits, hydrogeology and groundwater flow, simulations of pesticide leaching, and contents of pesticides and nitrate in groundwater samples from drinking water wells was used to explore extension and reasons of pesticide contamination of groundwater. Pesticides were found in a majority of the sampled wells. Eight different pesticides and metabolites were detected in groundwater samples. The results demonstrate that on fluvial deposits diffuse pollution from spraying of fields with pesticides can result in groundwater contamination in Nordic climate. Higher concentrations of pesticides in some wells can be explained by point source contamination from washing sites. The occurrence of pesticides in drinking water wells touches up the question whether pesticides should be given general approvals, or approvals should include restrictions or recommendations regarding use on areas with high risk of groundwater contamination. Combination of washing sites for pesticide spraying equipment and groundwater wells for drinking water requires attention, proper equipment and practice, and knowledge about pesticides, soil and water to avoid contamination. Samples from wells adjacent to washing sites for pesticide equipment might overestimate average pesticide concentrations in groundwater bodies. In Nordic areas attention should be given to pesticide pollution of shallow groundwater in fluvial deposits. To provide basis for interpretation of results and planning of mitigation measures against pesticide contamination, an integrated approach using information about

  10. Pesticide toxicity index for freshwater aquatic organisms

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Munn, Mark D.; Gilliom, Robert J.

    2001-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey's National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program is designed to assess current water-quality conditions, changes in water quality over time, and the effects of natural and human factors on water quality for the Nation's streams and ground-water resources. For streams, one of the most difficult parts of the assessment is to link chemical conditions to effects on aquatic biota, particularly for pesticides, which tend to occur in streams as complex mixtures with strong seasonal patterns. A Pesticide Toxicity Index (PTI) was developed that combines pesticide exposure of aquatic biota (measured concentrations of pesticides in stream water) with toxicity estimates (standard endpoints from laboratory bioassays) to produce a single index value for a sample or site. The development of the PTI was limited to pesticide compounds routinely measured in NAWQA studies and to toxicity data readily available from existing databases. Qualifying toxicity data were found for one or more types of test organisms for 75 of the 83 pesticide compounds measured in NAWQA samples, but with a wide range of bioassays per compound (1 to 65). There were a total of 2,824 bioassays for the 75 compounds, including 287 48-hour EC50 values (concentration at which 50 percent of test organisms exhibit a nonlethal response) for freshwater cladocerans, 585 96-hour LC50 values (concentration lethal to 50 percent of test organisms) for freshwater benthic invertebrates, and 1,952 96-hour LC50 values for freshwater fish. The PTI for a particular sample is the sum of toxicity quotients (measured concentration divided by the median toxicity concentration from bioassays) for each detected pesticide. The PTI can be calculated for specific groups of pesticides and for specific taxonomic groups.While the PTI does not determine whether water in a sample is toxic, its values can be used to rank or compare the toxicity of samples or sites on a relative basis for use in further analysis or

  11. Knowledge, Attitude, Practice, and Perceived Barriers of Colorectal Cancer Screening among Family Physicians in National Guard Health Affairs, Riyadh

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. The objective of this study is to explore the current knowledge, attitude, and practice of family physicians working in family medicine clinics in National Guard Health Affairs (NGHA), Riyadh, toward colorectal cancer (CRC) screening and to identify the barriers of the screening. Methods. Data were collected using a validated self-administered questionnaire adopted from the National Cancer Institute in USA, customized by adding and eliminating questions to be in line with the institution (NGHA) characteristics. Results. Of the 130 physicians, 56.2% of the physicians were not practicing CRC screening although 94.6% considered CRC screening effective. Board certified physicians had higher knowledge score and were practicing CRC screening more when compared to other physicians. Physicians who reported practicing CRC screening scored more on the knowledge score than those not practicing. Male physicians scored better on attitude score than female physicians. The study found that barriers were cited in higher rates among physicians not practicing CRC screening compared with practicing physicians. Lack of patients' awareness was the most cited barrier. Conclusion. Large percentage of family physicians in this study do not practice CRC screening, despite the knowledge level and the positive attitude. PMID:25328703

  12. Fluorescence biosensing strategy based on mercury ion-mediated DNA conformational switch and nicking enzyme-assisted cycling amplification for highly sensitive detection of carbamate pesticide.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiuzhong; Hou, Ting; Dong, Shanshan; Liu, Xiaojuan; Li, Feng

    2016-03-15

    Pesticides are of great importance in agricultural and biological fields, but pesticide residues may harm the environment and human health. A highly sensitive fluorescent biosensor for the detection of carbamate pesticide has been developed based on acetylcholinesterase (AChE)-catalyzed hydrolysis product triggered Hg(2+) release coupled with subsequent nicking enzyme-induced cleavage of a duplex DNA for cycling amplification. In this protocol, two DNA probes, an unmodified single-stranded helper DNA probe 1 (HP1) and a quencher-fluorophore probe (QFP) are ingeniously designed. HP1 can be folded into hairpin configuration through T-Hg(2+)-T base pair formation. QFP, labeled with FAM and BHQ1 at its two terminals, contains the recognition sequence and the cleavage site of the nicking enzyme. In the presence of carbamate pesticide, the activity of AChE is inhibited, and the amount of the product containing the thiol group generated by the hydrolysis reaction of acetylthiocholine chloride (ACh) decreases, resulting in the release of a low concentration of Hg(2+). The number of HP1 that can be selectively unfolded would be reduced and the subsequent nicking enzyme-assisted cleavage processes would be affected, resulting in decreased fluorescence signals. The fluorescence intensity further decreases with the increase of the pesticide concentration. Therefore, the pesticide content can be easily obtained by monitoring the fluorescence signal change, which is inversely proportional to the logarithm of the pesticide concentration. The detection limit of aldicarb, the model analyte, is 3.3 μgL(-1), which is much lower than the Chinese National Standards or those previously reported. The as-proposed method has also been applied to detect carbamate pesticide residues in fresh ginger and artificial lake water samples with satisfactory results, which demonstrates that the method has great potential for practical application in biological or food safety field.

  13. Creating the Evidence through Comparative Effectiveness Research for Interprofessional Education and Collaborative Practice by Deploying a National Intervention Network and a National Data Repository

    PubMed Central

    Pechacek, Judith; Cerra, Frank; Brandt, Barbara; Lutfiyya, May Nawal; Delaney, Connie

    2015-01-01

    Background: There is currently a resurgence of interest in interprofessional education and collaborative practice (IPECP) and its potential to positively impact health outcomes at both the patient level and population level, healthcare delivery, and health professions education. This resurgence of interest led to the creation of the National Center on Interprofessional Collaborative Practice and Education in October 2012. Methods: This paper describes three intertwined knowledge generation strategies of the National Center on Interprofessional Practice and Education: (1) the development of a Nexus Incubator Network, (2) the undertaking of comparative effectiveness research, and (3) the creation of a National Center Data Repository. Results: As these strategies are implemented over time they will result in the production of empirically grounded knowledge regarding the direction and scope of the impact, if any, of IPECP on well-defined health and healthcare outcomes including the possible improvement of the patient experience of care. Conclusions: Among the motivating factors for the National Center and the three strategies adopted and addressed herein is the need for rigorously produced, scientifically sound evidence regarding IPECP and whether or not it has the capacity to positively affect the patient experience of care, the health of populations, and the per capita cost of healthcare. PMID:27417753

  14. THE EPA CHILDREN'S PESTICIDE EXPOSURE MEASUREMENT PROGRAM

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. EPA's National Exposure Research Laboratory conducts research in support of the Food Quality Protection Act (FQPA)) of 1996. FQPA requires that children's risks to pesticide exposures be considered during the tolerance-setting process. FQPA requires exposure assessme...

  15. DETERMINATION OF PESTICIDES IN COMPOSITE BEVERAGE SAMPLES

    EPA Science Inventory

    USEPA's National Exposure Research Laboratory conducts research to measure the exposure of individuals to chemical pollutants through the diet, as well as other media. In support of this research, methods are being evaluated for determination of pesticides in composite dietary s...

  16. EPA CHILDREN'S PESTICIDE EXPOSURE MEASUREMENT PROGRAM

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. EPA's National Exposure Research Laboratory conducts research in support of the Food Quality Protection Act (FQPA) of 1996. FQPA requires that children's risks to pesticide exposures be considered during the tolerance-setting process. FQPA requires exposure assessme...

  17. NEUROENDOCRINE AND REPRODUCTIVE EFFECTS OF PESTICIDES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Neuroendocrine and Reproductive Effects of Pesticides

    1Stoker, TE, Goldman 2, JM and Cooper 2, RL.

    1Gamete and Early Embryogenesis Biology Branch and 2 Endocrinology Branch, Reproductive Toxicology Division, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laborat...

  18. The Pesticide Problem: Is Any Amount Safe?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, Susan

    1991-01-01

    Discusses the use of integrated pest management to foster a safe school environment free from pesticides. This effective, environmentally sound system minimizes human exposure and reduces the toxicity of materials used to control pests. Parents, teachers, and students can educate themselves to improve school pest control practices. (SM)

  19. The power of poison: pesticide poisoning of Africa's wildlife.

    PubMed

    Ogada, Darcy L

    2014-08-01

    Poisons have long been used to kill wildlife throughout the world. An evolution has occurred from the use of plant- and animal-based toxins to synthetic pesticides to kill wildlife, a method that is silent, cheap, easy, and effective. The use of pesticides to poison wildlife began in southern Africa, and predator populations were widely targeted and eliminated. A steep increase has recently been observed in the intensity of wildlife poisonings, with corresponding population declines. However, the majority of poisonings go unreported. Under national laws, it is illegal to hunt wildlife using poisons in 83% of African countries. Pesticide regulations are inadequate, and enforcement of existing legislation is poor. Few countries have forensic field protocols, and most lack storage and testing facilities. Methods used to poison wildlife include baiting carcasses, soaking grains in pesticide solution, mixing pesticides to form salt licks, and tainting waterholes. Carbofuran is the most widely abused pesticide in Africa. Common reasons for poisoning are control of damage-causing animals, harvesting fish and bushmeat, harvesting animals for traditional medicine, poaching for wildlife products, and killing wildlife sentinels (e.g., vultures because their aerial circling alerts authorities to poachers' activities). Populations of scavengers, particularly vultures, have been decimated by poisoning. Recommendations include banning pesticides, improving pesticide regulations and controlling distribution, better enforcement and stiffer penalties for offenders, increasing international support and awareness, and developing regional pesticide centers.

  20. [Geognosy versus Geology: National Modes of Thought and Cultural Practices Concerning Space and Time in Competition].

    PubMed

    Klemun, Marianne

    2015-09-01

    Natural science investigators at the end of the eighteenth century made use of conflicting labels to position their respective preferred fields of activity in the Earth sciences. This mania for labelling marked their break with natural science and the umbrella term 'mineralogy'. In this conflict situation of specialist classifications and explanations, two terms in particular were established: geognosy and geology, which covered the very promising project of research in the areas of the 'origin of the Earth' and the 'formation of the Earth'. These and the associated research goals were subsequently accorded a dazzling career. Proceeding from the conceptual core-meaning in the formation of terms und its semantic spectrum and conceptual shifts in a time of change, my study will look at the identity and heterogeneity functions of geology and geognosy. For whereas in French and English speaking countries the term geology came to be used exclusively (geology, géologie), this was avoided in German, particularly because the term geognosy was preferred. These national differences may be explained with reference to the different cultural and national styles of science: for example the social embedding of geology in the culture of the English gentleman or the French museum culture, and the close connection of 'German' geognosy to mining. A further starting point in the analysis of the double use of both geology and geognosy in German speaking countries until 1840 is provided by the different references to temporalization and spatialization of the two terms. And we should also include the practical implications and the epistemic requirements that were bound up with the defence of geognosy in the German speaking world.

  1. Tuberculosis screening of migrants to low-burden nations: insights from evaluation of UK practice.

    PubMed

    Pareek, M; Abubakar, I; White, P J; Garnett, G P; Lalvani, A

    2011-05-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) primarily occurs in the foreign-born in European countries, such as the UK, where increasing notifications and the high proportion of foreign-born cases has refocused attention on immigrant (new entrant) screening. We investigated how UK primary care organisations (PCOs) screen new entrants and whether this differs according to TB burden in the PCOs (incidence < 20 or ≥ 20 cases per 100,000 per annum). An anonymous, 20-point questionnaire was sent to all 192 UK PCOs asking which new entrants are screened, who is screened for active TB/latent TB infection (LTBI) and the methods used. Descriptive analyses were undertaken. Categorical responses were compared using the Chi-squared test. 177 (92.2%) out of 192 PCOs responded; all undertook screening action in response to abnormal chest radiographs, but only 107 (60.4%) screened new entrants for LTBI. Few new entrants had active TB diagnosed (median 0.0%, interquartile range (IQR) 0.0-0.5%) but more were identified with LTBI (median 7.85%, IQR 4.30-13.50%). High-burden PCOs were significantly less likely to screen new entrants for LTBI (OR 0.26, 95% CI 0.12-0.54; p<0.0001). Among PCOs screening for LTBI, there was substantial deviation from national guidance in selection of new entrant subgroups and screening method. Considerable heterogeneity and deviation from national guidance exist throughout the UK new entrant screening process, with high-burden regions undertaking the least screening. Forming an accurate picture of current front-line practice will help to inform future development of European new entrant screening policy.

  2. Challenges in pancreatic adenocarcinoma surgery - National survey and current practice guidelines

    PubMed Central

    Dhayat, Sameer A.; Mirgorod, Philip; Lenschow, Christina; Senninger, Norbert

    2017-01-01

    Background Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) remains one of the most deadly cancers in Europe and the USA. There is consensus that radical tumor surgery is the only viable option for any long-term survival in patients with PDAC. So far, limited data are available regarding the routine surgical management of patients with advanced PDAC in the light of surgical guidelines. Methods A national survey on perioperative management of patients with PDAC and currently applied criteria on their tumor resectability in German university and community hospitals was carried out. Results With a response rate of 81.6% (231/283) a total of 95 (41.1%) participating departments practicing pancreatic surgery in Germany are certified as competence and reference centers for surgical diseases of the pancreas in 2016. More than 95% of them indicate to carry out structured and interdisciplinary therapies along with an interdisciplinary pre- and postoperative tumor board. The majority of survey respondents prefer the pylorus-preserving partial pancreatoduodenectomy (93.1%) with standard lymphadenectomy for cancer of the pancreatic head. Intraoperative histological evaluation of the resection margins is used regularly by 99% of the survey respondents. 98.7% of survey respondents carry out partial or complete vein resection, 126 respondents (54.5%) would resect tumor adjacent arteries, and 102 respondents (44.2%) would perform metastasectomy if complete PDAC resection (R0) is possible. Conclusion Evidence-based and standardized pancreatic surgery is practiced by a large number of hospitals in Germany. However, a significant number of survey respondents support an extended radical tumor resection in patients with advanced PDAC even when not indicated by current clinical guidelines. PMID:28267771

  3. Pesticide Use and Risk Perceptions among Small-Scale Farmers in Anqiu County, China

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Jianjun; Wang, Wenyu; He, Rui; Gong, Haozhou

    2016-01-01

    The unsafe use and misuse of pesticides in China are major threats to farmers’ health and the environment. The purpose of this study is to evaluate small-scale farmers’ practices with regard to pesticide use and identify the determinants of their behavior in Anqiu County, China. The results show that the frequency of pesticide application by local farmers is high and that the improper disposal of pesticides after use is common in the study area. Although most farmers felt that they were at some degree of risk when using pesticides, farmers were found to overuse pesticides in the study area. The probability of pesticide overuse significantly decreased with farmers’ risk perceptions, willingness to reduce pesticide use, better social relationships, and strict government monitoring. The perception of risk can thus be an important element in education and communication efforts. PMID:28042850

  4. Oregon Indigenous Farmworkers: Results of Promotor Intervention on Pesticide Knowledge and Organophosphate Metabolite Levels

    PubMed Central

    McCauley, Linda; Runkle, Jennifer D.; Samples, Julie; Williams, Bryan; Muniz, Juan F; Semple, Marie; Shadbeh, Nargess

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Examine changes in health beliefs, pesticide safety knowledge, and biomarkers of pesticide exposure in indigenous farmworker who received enhanced pesticide safety training compared to those receiving the standard training. Methods Farmworkers in Oregon were randomly assigned to either a promotores pesticide safety training program or a standard video-based training. Spot urine samples were analyzed for dialkylphosphate (DAP) urinary metabolites. Pre/post intervention questionnaires were used to measure pesticide safety knowledge, health beliefs and work practices. Results Baseline to follow-up improvements in total pesticide knowledge scores were higher in the promotor group compared to the video. Pairwise differences in mean concentrations of DAP metabolite levels showed declines from baseline to follow-up for both intervention groups. Conclusions Results showed reductions in pesticide exposure in indigenous-language speaking farmworkers who receive enhanced pesticide safety training. PMID:24064776

  5. Children, Pesticides and Cancer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Alison

    1998-01-01

    Young children receive higher doses of pesticides than any other age group. The younger a child is the more difficulty the body will have in coping with toxins in general. Maximum Residue Limits (MRL) do not adequately protect children. Evidence of harm from a pesticide often has to be overwhelmingly strong before anything is done about it.…

  6. The Pesticide Threat.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldman, Lynn R.

    1998-01-01

    The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) works to make communities aware of dangers posed by misused pesticides, which can be hazardous to the health of children and others. The EPA is involved in outreach to inform the public. People need information about safe and effective pest-control options. They should report suspected pesticide misuse to…

  7. Food and Pesticides

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA sets limits on how much of a pesticide may be used on food during growing and processing, and how much can remain on the food you buy. Learn about regulation of pesticides on food and how you can limit exposure.

  8. A case study in technology utilization: Industrial products and practices. [summary of benefits to national economy resulting from space programs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    In pursuit of such missions as Apollo, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration has called into being unique equipment that obviously has little direct application beyond the achievement of mission objectives. Yet, to assume that further direct application of space program hardware is somehow a measure of the industrial benefits accruing to the nation is to misunderstand how the creation of new technology affects modern industrial capability. This document presents a profile of the significant ways in which technological developments in response to aerospace mission requirements have been coupled into industrial practice, with the result being that improved products and processes are now being utilized to benefit the nation.

  9. Sandia National Laboratories Advanced Simulation and Computing (ASC) software quality plan : ASC software quality engineering practices Version 3.0.

    SciTech Connect

    Turgeon, Jennifer L.; Minana, Molly A.; Hackney, Patricia; Pilch, Martin M.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of the Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) Advanced Simulation and Computing (ASC) Software Quality Plan is to clearly identify the practices that are the basis for continually improving the quality of ASC software products. Quality is defined in the US Department of Energy/National Nuclear Security Agency (DOE/NNSA) Quality Criteria, Revision 10 (QC-1) as 'conformance to customer requirements and expectations'. This quality plan defines the SNL ASC Program software quality engineering (SQE) practices and provides a mapping of these practices to the SNL Corporate Process Requirement (CPR) 001.3.6; 'Corporate Software Engineering Excellence'. This plan also identifies ASC management's and the software project teams responsibilities in implementing the software quality practices and in assessing progress towards achieving their software quality goals. This SNL ASC Software Quality Plan establishes the signatories commitments to improving software products by applying cost-effective SQE practices. This plan enumerates the SQE practices that comprise the development of SNL ASC's software products and explains the project teams opportunities for tailoring and implementing the practices.

  10. Developing national best practice recommendations for harm reduction programmes: Lessons learned from a community-based project.

    PubMed

    Watson, Tara Marie; Strike, Carol; Challacombe, Laurel; Demel, Geoff; Heywood, Diana; Zurba, Nadia

    2017-03-01

    Through promotion of consistent, evidence-based policy and practice, best practice recommendations can improve service delivery. Nationally relevant best practice recommendations, including guidance for programmes that provide service to people who use drugs, are often created and disseminated by government departments or other national organisations. However, funding priorities do not always align with stakeholder- and community-identified needs for such recommendations, particularly in the case of harm reduction. We achieved success in developing and widely disseminating best practice documents for Canadian harm reduction programmes by bringing together a multi-stakeholder, cross-regional team of people with relevant and diverse experience and expertise. In this commentary, we summarise key elements of our experience to contribute to the literature more detailed and transparent dialogue about team processes that hold much promise for developing best practice resources. We describe our project's community-based principles and process of working together (e.g., regularly scheduled teleconferences to overcome geographic distance and facilitate engagement), and integrate post-project insights shared by our team members. Although we missed some opportunities for power-sharing with our community partners, overall team members expressed that the project offered them valuable opportunities to learn from each other. We aim to provide practical considerations for researchers, other stakeholders, and community members who are planning or already engaged in a process of developing best practice recommendations for programmes and interventions that address drug use.

  11. Pesticide exposure in children.

    PubMed

    Roberts, James R; Karr, Catherine J

    2012-12-01

    Pesticides are a collective term for a wide array of chemicals intended to kill unwanted insects, plants, molds, and rodents. Food, water, and treatment in the home, yard, and school are all potential sources of children's exposure. Exposures to pesticides may be overt or subacute, and effects range from acute to chronic toxicity. In 2008, pesticides were the ninth most common substance reported to poison control centers, and approximately 45% of all reports of pesticide poisoning were for children. Organophosphate and carbamate poisoning are perhaps the most widely known acute poisoning syndromes, can be diagnosed by depressed red blood cell cholinesterase levels, and have available antidotal therapy. However, numerous other pesticides that may cause acute toxicity, such as pyrethroid and neonicotinoid insecticides, herbicides, fungicides, and rodenticides, also have specific toxic effects; recognition of these effects may help identify acute exposures. Evidence is increasingly emerging about chronic health implications from both acute and chronic exposure. A growing body of epidemiological evidence demonstrates associations between parental use of pesticides, particularly insecticides, with acute lymphocytic leukemia and brain tumors. Prenatal, household, and occupational exposures (maternal and paternal) appear to be the largest risks. Prospective cohort studies link early-life exposure to organophosphates and organochlorine pesticides (primarily DDT) with adverse effects on neurodevelopment and behavior. Among the findings associated with increased pesticide levels are poorer mental development by using the Bayley index and increased scores on measures assessing pervasive developmental disorder, inattention, and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Related animal toxicology studies provide supportive biological plausibility for these findings. Additional data suggest that there may also be an association between parental pesticide use and adverse birth

  12. National Institutes of Health Center for Regenerative Medicine: putting science into practice.

    PubMed

    Rao, Mahendra

    2013-12-01

    The field of regenerative medicine has been revolutionized by breakthroughs in stem cell biology, gene engineering, and whole-genome sequencing. These advances are not only scientific or medical but have also advanced how we conceptualize regenerative medicine. The progenitive research that proceeded as well as a substantial part of the funding that supported these discoveries were provided by the National Institutes of Health (NIH). Now, perhaps more than ever, the NIH has a vital role to play in the translation of science into clinical practice. The NIH is uniquely positioned to coordinate interactions between the different institutes and other arms of the government, as well as international organizations. Efforts of researchers in the United States both within and without the NIH are supported by a number of mechanisms, including specialized workshops, and the support of developing small-scale industry. Additionally, the NIH has stepped up to provide necessary infrastructure in areas of regenerative medicine where the medical need might be apparent but might be currently infeasible or unattractive to private-sector investment. This article will discuss these perhaps lesser-known activities of the NIH, which I believe have continued and will continue to contribute to the role of stem cell research in translating science into regenerative medicine.

  13. Building a Thriving Nation: 21st-Century Vision and Practice to Advance Health and Equity.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Larry

    2016-04-01

    It is a great time for prevention. As the United States explores what health in our country should look like, it is an extraordinary time to highlight the role of prevention in improving health, saving lives, and saving money. The Affordable Care Act's investment in prevention has spurred innovation by communities and states to keep people healthy and safein the first place This includes growing awareness that community conditions are critical in determining health and that there is now a strong track record of prevention success. Community prevention strategies create lasting changes by addressing specific policies and practices in the environments and institutions that shape our lives and our health-from schools and workplaces to neighborhoods and government. Action at the community level also fosters health equity-the opportunity for every person to achieve optimal health regardless of identity, neighborhood, ability, or social status-and is often the impetus for national-level decisions that vitally shape the well-being of individuals and populations.

  14. Daylighting practices of the architectural industry (baseline results of a national survey)

    SciTech Connect

    Hattrup, M.P.

    1990-05-01

    A national survey of over 300 commercial design architects was conducted to develop baseline information on their knowledge, perceptions, and use of daylighting in commercial building designs. Pacific Northwest Laboratory conducted the survey for the US Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Building and Community Systems (BCS). In the survey daylighting was defined as the intentional use of natural light as a partial substitute for artificially generated light. The results suggested that architects need to be educated about the true benefits of daylighting and the impacts it can have on a building's energy performance. Educational programs that will increase the architects' understanding and awareness of modern daylighting technologies and practices should be developed by utilities, stage agencies, and the federal government. If more architects can be made aware of the true effectiveness and positive attributes of daylighting systems and technologies, daylighting may be used in more commercial buildings. The results of the survey show that the more familiar architects feel they are with daylighting, the more they use daylighting. 3 refs., 19 tabs.

  15. American Association of Colleges of Nursing essential values: national study of faculty perceptions, practices, and plans.

    PubMed

    Elfrink, V; Lutz, E M

    1991-01-01

    A representative national sample of bachelor's-degree nurse educators (N = 697) were surveyed about the seven professional values identified by the American Association of Colleges of Nursing (1986) in Essentials of College and University Education for Professional Nursing. Participants agreed that these values were representative of values nurses need to use in practice, and that educational opportunities related to these values should be included in the curriculum. Eighty-six per cent of the sample perceived that they included some or all of these values predominantly through the informal lesson plan. Esthetics was the most frequently mentioned value that was not considered in any form in the nursing curriculum. Nurse educators teaching at religious-affiliated institutions, and those who had educational preparation in values, already included these values in their formal teaching (P less than .04 and P less than .0001, respectively) and they had discussions about including them differently in the future more frequently (P less than .005 and P less than .006) than did other educators. Faculty members teaching at religious-affiliated institutions also established more plans for including these values within the curriculum than those who taught at public institutions (P less than .0004). One conclusion from this study was that values may continue to be treated differently than other nursing education content, ie, predominantly through the informal lesson plan.

  16. The Implications of the National Minimum Wage for Training Practices and Skill Utilisation in the United Kingdom Hospitality Industry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norris, Gill; Williams, Steve; Adam-Smith, Derek

    2003-01-01

    Two key issues thrown up by the 1999 introduction of the National Minimum Wage (NMW) in the United Kingdom are its likely impact on employers' training practices in low paying sectors of the economy and the implications for skills. Based on a study of the hospitality industry, this article assesses the limited significance of the differential,…

  17. Practising What They Preach? An Investigation into the Pedagogical Beliefs and Online Teaching Practices of National Teaching Fellows

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Owens, Tessa

    2015-01-01

    National Teaching Fellows (NTFs) in the UK are celebrated individuals who have made a successful claim for teaching excellence to the Higher Education Academy. This paper reports the results of an empirical study of NTFs with expertise in online learning, which measured their pedagogical beliefs and online teaching practices, using a…

  18. Learning More about Those Who Play in Session: The National Play Therapy in Counseling Practices Project (Phase I)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lambert, Simone F.; LeBlanc, Michael; Mullen, Jodi Ann; Ray, Dee; Baggerly, Jennifer; White, JoAnna; Kaplan, David

    2007-01-01

    Through a joint research committee sponsored by the Association for Play Therapy (APT) and the American Counseling Association (ACA), The National Play Therapy in Counseling Practices Project conducted the first phase of investigation. Findings offered a snapshot of mental health providers of play therapy, regarding the nature of who they are and…

  19. Views of Evidence-Based Practice among Faculty in Master of Social Work Programs: A National Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rubin, Allen; Parrish, Danielle

    2007-01-01

    Objective: A national online survey assessed the views of 973 faculty members in master of social work programs regarding their receptivity toward, definition of, and views of disparate sources of evidence pertinent to evidence-based practice (EBP) and the teaching of EBP. Method: Due to Internet-related technical difficulties, the response rate…

  20. Use of Evidence-Based Practice in School Nursing: Survey of School Nurses at a National Conference

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, Susan

    2009-01-01

    Primary and acute care settings are the focus of a concerted effort to implement evidence-based practice (EBP) in health care; yet, little attention has been given to use of EBP among school nurses. The aims of this study were to (a) describe current use of EBP among school nurses attending a national school nurse conference, (b) describe…

  1. 76 FR 77237 - U.S. National Authority for the WHO Global Code of Practice on the International Recruitment of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-12

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Health Resources and Services Administration U.S. National Authority for the WHO Global....S. Department of Health and Human Services, 200 Independence Ave. SW., Washington, DC 20201, (877... health systems'' ( http://www.who.int/hrh/migration/code/practice/en/ ). The United States Government...

  2. Rehabilitation-Related Research on Disability and Employer Practices Using Individual-Based National and Administrative Data Sets

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nazarov, Zafar E.; Erickson, William A.; Bruyère, Susanne M.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: It is useful to examine workplace factors influencing employment outcomes of individuals with disabilities and the interplay of disability, employment-related, and employer characteristics to inform rehabilitation practice. Design: A number of large national survey and administrative data sets provide information on employers and can…

  3. Child Injury Prevention in the Home: A National Survey of Safety Practices and Use of Safety Equipment in Deprived Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mulvaney, C. A.; Watson, M. C.; Smith, S.; Coupland, C.; Kendrick, D.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To determine the prevalence of home safety practices and use of safety equipment by disadvantaged families participating in a national home safety equipment scheme in England. Design: Cross-sectional postal survey sent to a random sample of 1,000 families. Setting: England, United Kingdom. Results: Half the families (51%) returned a…

  4. Simultaneous and Comparable Numerical Indicators of International, National and Local Collaboration Practices in English-Medium Astrophysics Research Papers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Méndez, David I.; Alcaraz, M. Ángeles

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: We report an investigation on collaboration practices in research papers published in the most prestigious English-medium astrophysics journals. Method: We propose an evaluation method based on three numerical indicators to study and compare, in absolute terms, three different types of collaboration (international, national and…

  5. Investing in Youth: A Compilation of Recommended Policies and Practices. National Conference (New Orleans, Louisiana, December 9-11, 1992).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Governors' Association, Washington, DC.

    These proceedings include 13 "perspectives from the field" and 9 selected papers (with abstracts) from a national conference on recommended policies and practices for investing in youth. The 13 perspectives papers are as follows: "Saving the Next Generation" (Berlin); "Effective Strategies for Investing in Youth"…

  6. A Squandered Opportunity?: A Review of SAMHSA's National Registry of Evidence-Based Programs and Practices for Offenders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Benjamin J.; Zhang, Sheldon X.; Farabee, David

    2012-01-01

    In the past decade, the push for evidence-based programs has taken on unprecedented prominence in the fields of substance abuse and correctional treatment as a key determinant for intervention funding. The National Registry of Evidence-based Programs and Practices (NREPP), managed and funded by the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services…

  7. A National Informatics Agenda for Nursing Education and Practice. Report to the Secretary of the Department of Health & Human Services.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Advisory Council on Nurse Education and Practice, Rockville, MD.

    Nursing informatics is a specialty whose activities center around information management and processing for the nursing profession. The Division of Nursing of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services and the National Advisory Council on Nurse Education and Practice (NACNEP) recognized a need to identify initiatives that would more…

  8. Method for estimating pesticide use for county areas of the conterminous United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thelin, Gail P.; Gianessi, Leonard P.

    2000-01-01

    Information on the amount and distribution of pesticide compounds used throughout the United States is essential to evaluate the relation between water quality and pesticide use. This information is the basis of the U.S. Geological Survey?s National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program studies of the effects of pesticides on water quality in 57 major hydrologic systems, or study units, located throughout the conterminous United States. To support these studies, a method was devised to estimate county pesticide use for the conterminous United States by combining (1) state-level information on pesticide use rates available from the National Center for Food and Agricultural Policy, and (2) county-level information on harvested crop acreage from the Census of Agriculture. The average annual pesticide use, the total amount of pesticides applied (in pounds), and the corresponding area treated (in acres) were compiled for the 208 pesticide compounds that are applied to crops in the conterminous United States. Pesticide use was ranked by compound and crop on the basis of the amount of each compound applied to 86 selected crops. Tabular summaries of pesticide use for NAWQA study units and for the Nation were prepared, along with maps that show the distribution of selected pesticides to agricultural land.

  9. The National United States Center Data Repository: Core essential interprofessional practice & education data enabling triple aim analytics

    PubMed Central

    Pechacek, Judith; Shanedling, Janet; Lutfiyya, May Nawal; Brandt, Barbara F.; Cerra, Frank B.; Delaney, Connie White

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Understanding the impact that interprofessional education and collaborative practice (IPECP) might have on triple aim patient outcomes is of high interest to health care providers, educators, administrators, and policy makers. Before the work undertaken by the National Center for Interprofessional Practice and Education at the University of Minnesota, no standard mechanism to acquire and report outcome data related to interprofessional education and collaborative practice and its effect on triple aim outcomes existed. This article describes the development and adoption of the National Center Data Repository (NCDR) designed to capture data related to IPECP processes and outcomes to support analyses of the relationship of IPECP on the Triple Aim. The data collection methods, web-based survey design and implementation process are discussed. The implications of this informatics work to the field of IPECP and health care quality and safety include creating standardized capacity to describe interprofessional practice and measure outcomes connecting interprofessional education and collaborative practice to the triple aim within and across sites/settings, leveraging an accessible data collection process using user friendly web-based survey design to support large data scholarship and instrument testing, and establishing standardized data elements and variables that can potentially lead to enhancements to national/international information system and academic accreditation standards to further team-based, interprofessional, collaborative research in the field. PMID:26652631

  10. Practice in Planning and Planning in Practice: Re-Assessing and Clarifying Action Research in a Multi-National Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kusch, Jim; Rebolledo, Geisha; Ryan, Charly

    2005-01-01

    This paper responds to a call seeking presenters for an action-research event for elementary-school science teachers in Venezuela. The authors planned on the assumption that the participants would wish to leave with plans for introducing action-research approaches into their practice. In previous writing on action research, the various protocols…

  11. Study of infectious intestinal disease in England: rates in the community, presenting to general practice, and reported to national surveillance

    PubMed Central

    Wheeler, Jeremy G; Sethi, Dinesh; Cowden, John M; Wall, Patrick G; Rodrigues, Laura C; Tompkins, David S; Hudson, Michael J; Roderick, Paul J

    1999-01-01

    Objective To establish the incidence and aetiology of infectious intestinal disease in the community and presenting to general practitioners. Comparison with incidence and aetiology of cases reaching national laboratory based surveillance. Design Population based community cohort incidence study, general practice based incidence studies, and case linkage to national laboratory surveillance. Setting 70 general practices throughout England. Participants 459 975 patients served by the practices. Community surveillance of 9776 randomly selected patients. Main outcome measures Incidence of infectious intestinal disease in community and reported to general practice. Results 781 cases were identified in the community cohort, giving an incidence of 19.4/100 person years (95% confidence interval 18.1 to 20.8). 8770 cases presented to general practice (3.3/100 person years (2.94 to 3.75)). One case was reported to national surveillance for every 1.4 laboratory identifications, 6.2 stools sent for laboratory investigation, 23 cases presenting to general practice, and 136 community cases. The ratio of cases in the community to cases reaching national surveillance was lower for bacterial pathogens (salmonella 3.2:1, campylobacter 7.6:1) than for viruses (rotavirus 35:1, small round structured viruses 1562:1). There were many cases for which no organism was identified. Conclusions Infectious intestinal disease occurs in 1 in 5 people each year, of whom 1 in 6 presents to a general practitioner. The proportion of cases not recorded by national laboratory surveillance is large and varies widely by microorganism. Ways of supplementing the national laboratory surveillance system for infectious intestinal diseases should be considered. Key messagesInfectious intestinal disease is common, with 9.4 million estimated cases each year in EnglandIn 1.5 million cases (1 in 6) patients present to their general practitionerOnly a fraction of these cases are reported to national laboratory

  12. Protective Clothing for Pesticide Users.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC.

    This brief, largely pictorial guide to protective clothing for pesticide users addresses moderately to highly toxic pesticides. The guide discusses the potential hazards of pesticides and the kinds of clothing and equipment that should be worn for personal protection. It also explains how the type of pesticide formulation affects an individual's…

  13. Best practices of hospital security planning for patient surge--a comparative analysis of three national systems.

    PubMed

    Downey, Erin; Hebert, Anjanette

    2010-01-01

    This paper examines three international healthcare security systems as they relate to patient surge in Canada, Israel, and the United States. Its purpose is to compare the systems, to highlight unique characteristics that define those systems, and to initiate the development of best practices that transcend national boundaries. Several significant national characteristics of demographics, healthcare systems, and political climate, among others, present challenges to translating best practices among these three countries. However, we have found that best practice strategies exist in areas of communications, coordination, building design, space adaptability, and patient routing (both from the community to the hospital, as well as within the hospital) that can be shared and incorporated into the healthcare preparedness efforts in all three countries.

  14. Pesticides in Streams in Central Nebraska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stamer, J.K.; Wieczorek, Michael

    1995-01-01

    Contamination of surface and ground water from non-point sources is a national issue. Examples of nonpoint-source contaminants from agricultural activities are pesticides, which include fungicides, herbicides, and insecticides; sediment; nutrients (nitrogen and phosphorus); and fecal bacteria. Of these contaminants, pesticides receive the most attention because of the potential toxicity to aquatic life and to humans. Most farmers use pesticides to increase crop yields and values. Herbicides prevent or inhibit the growth of weeds that compete for nutrients and moisture needed by the crops. Herbicides are applied before, during, or following planting. In addition to agricultural use, herbicides are used in urban areas, often in larger rates of application, for weed control such as among rights-of-way. Alachlor, atrazine, cyanazine, and metolachlor, which are referred to as organonitrogen herbicides, were the four most commonly applied herbicides (1991) in the Central Nebraska Basins (CNB). These herbicides are used for corn, sorghum, and soybean production. Atrazine was the most extensively applied pesticide (1991) in central Nebraska. Insecticides are used to protect the crop seeds in storage prior to planting and also to protect the plants from destruction once the seeds have germinated. Like herbicides, insecticides are also used in urban areas to protect lawns, trees, and ornamentals. Many of the 46 pesticides shown in the table have either a Maximum Contaminant Level (MCL) of Health Advisory Level (HAL) established by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) for public water supplies. The purposes of this Fact Sheet are to (1) to provide water-utility managers, water-resources planners and managers, and State regulators an improved understanding of the distributions of concentrations of pesticides in streams and their relation to respective drinking-water regulations or criteria, and (2) to describe concentrations of pesticides in streams draining a

  15. Disposal and degradation of pesticide waste.

    PubMed

    Felsot, Allan S; Racke, Kenneth D; Hamilton, Denis J

    2003-01-01

    Generation of pesticide waste is inevitable during every agricultural operation from storage to use and equipment cleanup. Large-scale pesticide manufacturers can afford sophisticated recovery, treatment, and cleanup techniques. Small-scale pesticide users, for example, single farms or small application businesses, struggle with both past waste problems, including contaminated soils, and disposal of unused product and equipment rinsewater. Many of these problems have arisen as a result of inability to properly handle spills during, equipment loading and rinsewater generated after application. Small-scale facilities also face continued problems of wastewater handling. Old, obsolete pesticide stocks are a vexing problem in numerous developing countries. Pesticide waste is characterized by high concentrations of a diversity of chemicals and associated adjuvants. Dissipation of chemicals at elevated concentrations is much slower than at lower concentrations, in part because of microbial toxicity and mass transfer limitations. High concentrations of pesticides may also move faster to lower soil depths, especially when pore water becomes saturated wish a compound. Thus, if pesticide waste is not properly disposed of, groundwater and surface water contamination become probable. The Waste Management Hierarchy developed as an Australian Code of Practice can serve as a guide for development of a sound waste management plan. In order of desirability, the course of actions include waste avoidance, waste reduction, waste recycling, waste treatment, and waste disposal. Proper management of pesticide stocks, including adequate storage conditions, good inventory practices, and regular turnover of products,. will contribute to waste avoidance and reduction over the long-term. Farmers can also choose to use registered materials that have the lowest recommended application rates or are applied in the least volume of water. Wastewater that is generated during equipment rinsing can be

  16. Best Practices for National Cyber Security: Building a National Computer Security Incident Management Capability, Version 2.0

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-04-01

    in estab- lishing such an organization. Industry groups are comprised of separate firms in the same industry, for instance the several electrical ... suppliers in a nation. These groups can provide valuable information about vulnerabili- ties and incidents in a particular industry and can be

  17. Pesticides and childhood cancer.

    PubMed Central

    Zahm, S H; Ward, M H

    1998-01-01

    Children are exposed to potentially carcinogenic pesticides from use in homes, schools, other buildings, lawns and gardens, through food and contaminated drinking water, from agricultural application drift, overspray, or off-gassing, and from carry-home exposure of parents occupationally exposed to pesticides. Parental exposure during the child's gestation or even preconception may also be important. Malignancies linked to pesticides in case reports or case-control studies include leukemia, neuroblastoma, Wilms' tumor, soft-tissue sarcoma, Ewing's sarcoma, non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, and cancers of the brain, colorectum, and testes. Although these studies have been limited by nonspecific pesticide exposure information, small numbers of exposed subjects, and the potential for case-response bias, it is noteworthy that many of the reported increased risks are of greater magnitude than those observed in studies of pesticide-exposed adults, suggesting that children may be particularly sensitive to the carcinogenic effects of pesticides. Future research should include improved exposure assessment, evaluation of risk by age at exposure, and investigation of possible genetic-environment interactions. There is potential to prevent at least some childhood cancer by reducing or eliminating pesticide exposure. PMID:9646054

  18. Pilot study on agricultural pesticide poisoning in Burkina Faso

    PubMed Central

    Ouedraogo, Mustapha; Ouedraogo, Richard; Ilboudo, Sylvain; Guissou, Pierre I.

    2013-01-01

    Epidemiologic data related to agricultural pesticide poisoning cases in Burkina Faso were collected. The study was carried out using retrospective (from January 2002 to June 2010) surveys conducted among farmers and healthcare centers. One hundred and fifty-three (153) pest control products were recorded during the survey and 56 active ingredients were identified. Out of the 153 pest control products, 49 (i.e. 32%) were authorized for sale in Burkina Faso. The main risk factors are socio-demographic characteristics of farmers, their low education level, and some attitudes and practices on using agricultural pesticides. Pesticide poisonings are relatively frequent and their management was not always efficacious. Actions are needed to reduce pesticide poisoning as a global public health problem and to improve management of pesticide poisoning. To this purpose, advanced investigations should be carried out over a longer period of time to complement the present pilot study. PMID:24678256

  19. Epidemiology and 'developing countries': writing pesticides, poverty and political engagement in Latin America.

    PubMed

    Brisbois, Ben W

    2014-08-01

    The growth of the field of global health has prompted renewed interest in discursive aspects of North-South biomedical encounters, but analysis of the role of disciplinary identities and writing conventions remains scarce. In this article, I examine ways of framing pesticide problems in 88 peer-reviewed epidemiology papers produced by Northerners and their collaborators studying pesticide-related health impacts in Latin America. I identify prominent geographic frames in which truncated and selective histories of Latin America are used to justify research projects in specific research sites, which nevertheless function rhetorically as generic 'developing country' settings. These frames legitimize health sector interventions as solutions to pesticide-related health problems, largely avoiding more politically charged possibilities. In contrast, some epidemiologists appear to be actively pushing the bounds of epidemiology's traditional journal article genre by engaging with considerations of political power, especially that of the international pesticide industry. I therefore employ a finer-grained analysis to a subsample of 20 papers to explore how the writing conventions of epidemiology interact with portrayals of poverty and pesticides in Latin America. Through analysis of a minor scientific controversy, authorial presence in epidemiology articles, and variance of framing strategies across genres, I show how the tension between 'objectivity' and 'advocacy' observed in Northern epidemiology and public health is expressed in North-South interaction. I end by discussing implications for postcolonial and socially engaged approaches to science and technology studies, as well as their relevance to the actual practice of global health research. In particular, the complicated interaction of the conflicted traditions of Northern epidemiology with Latin American settings on paper hints at a far more complex interaction in the form of public health programming involving

  20. Prediction of pesticide toxicity in Midwest streams

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Shoda, Megan E.; Stone, Wesley W.; Nowell, Lisa H.

    2016-01-01

    The occurrence of pesticide mixtures is common in stream waters of the United States, and the impact of multiple compounds on aquatic organisms is not well understood. Watershed Regressions for Pesticides (WARP) models were developed to predict Pesticide Toxicity Index (PTI) values in unmonitored streams in the Midwest and are referred to as WARP-PTI models. The PTI is a tool for assessing the relative toxicity of pesticide mixtures to fish, benthic invertebrates, and cladocera in stream water. One hundred stream sites in the Midwest were sampled weekly in May through August 2013, and the highest calculated PTI for each site was used as the WARP-PTI model response variable. Watershed characteristics that represent pesticide sources and transport were used as the WARP-PTI model explanatory variables. Three WARP-PTI models—fish, benthic invertebrates, and cladocera—were developed that include watershed characteristics describing toxicity-weighted agricultural use intensity, land use, agricultural management practices, soil properties, precipitation, and hydrologic properties. The models explained between 41 and 48% of the variability in the measured PTI values. WARP-PTI model evaluation with independent data showed reasonable performance with no clear bias. The models were applied to streams in the Midwest to demonstrate extrapolation for a regional assessment to indicate vulnerable streams and to guide more intensive monitoring.

  1. Prediction of Pesticide Toxicity in Midwest Streams.

    PubMed

    Shoda, Megan E; Stone, Wesley W; Nowell, Lisa H

    2016-11-01

    The occurrence of pesticide mixtures is common in stream waters of the United States, and the impact of multiple compounds on aquatic organisms is not well understood. Watershed Regressions for Pesticides (WARP) models were developed to predict Pesticide Toxicity Index (PTI) values in unmonitored streams in the Midwest and are referred to as WARP-PTI models. The PTI is a tool for assessing the relative toxicity of pesticide mixtures to fish, benthic invertebrates, and cladocera in stream water. One hundred stream sites in the Midwest were sampled weekly in May through August 2013, and the highest calculated PTI for each site was used as the WARP-PTI model response variable. Watershed characteristics that represent pesticide sources and transport were used as the WARP-PTI model explanatory variables. Three WARP-PTI models-fish, benthic invertebrates, and cladocera-were developed that include watershed characteristics describing toxicity-weighted agricultural use intensity, land use, agricultural management practices, soil properties, precipitation, and hydrologic properties. The models explained between 41 and 48% of the variability in the measured PTI values. WARP-PTI model evaluation with independent data showed reasonable performance with no clear bias. The models were applied to streams in the Midwest to demonstrate extrapolation for a regional assessment to indicate vulnerable streams and to guide more intensive monitoring.

  2. 78 FR 3418 - Pesticides; Draft Guidance for Pesticide Registrants on Web-Distributed Labeling for Pesticide...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-16

    ... AGENCY Pesticides; Draft Guidance for Pesticide Registrants on Web- Distributed Labeling for Pesticide... (PR Notice) titled ``Web-Distributed Labeling for Pesticide Products.'' PR Notices are issued by the... Internet. Web-distributed labeling would allow users to retrieve a streamlined version of the...

  3. Instructional Practices in Introductory Geoscience Courses: Results of a National Faculty Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacDonald, R.; Manduca, C. A.; Mogk, D. W.; Tewksbury, B. J.

    2004-12-01

    The NAGT professional development program "On the Cutting Edge" recently surveyed 7000 geoscience faculty in the United States to develop a snapshot of current instructional practices in undergraduate geoscience courses, faculty strategies for learning new content and new teaching approaches, and faculty involvement in the geoscience education community. Over 2200 faculty responded to the survey which was conducted by the American Institute of Physics. Results for introductory courses (814 responses) indicate that lecture is the most common teaching strategy used in courses of all sizes. Many faculty incorporate some interactive activities in their courses. Most commonly, they use questioning, demonstrations, discussions, and in-class exercises. Less common, but not rare, are small group discussion or think-pair-share and classroom debates or role-playing. Activities involving problem solving, using quantitative skills, working with data and primarily literature, and structured collaboration are incorporated by many faculty in introductory courses, suggesting efforts to teach the process of science. Activities in which students address a problem of national or local interest, analyze their own data, or address problems of their own design are less common but not rare. Field experiences are common but not ubiquitous for students in introductory courses. A wide variety of assessment strategies are used in introductory courses of all sizes, including exams, quizzes, problem sets, papers, oral presentations, and portfolios. While papers are used for assessment more extensively in small classes, a significant number of faculty use papers in large classes (greater than 81 students). A majority of faculty use rubrics in grading. Faculty report that in the past two years, approximately one-third have made changes in the content of their introductory courses while just under half have changed the teaching methods they use. While faculty learn about both new content and

  4. Pesticides and pesticide degradation products in stormwater runoff: Sacramento River Basin, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Domagalski, J.

    1996-01-01

    Pesticides in stormwater runoff, within the Sacramento River Basin, California, were assessed during a storm that occurred in January 1994. Two organophosphate insecticides (diazinon and methidathion), two carbamate pesticides (molinate and carbofuran), and one triazine herbicide (simazine) were detected. Organophosphate pesticide concentrations increased with the rising stage of the hydrographs; peak concentrations were measured near peak discharge. Diazinon oxon, a toxic degradation product of diazinon, made up approximately 1 to 3 percent of the diazinon load. The Feather River was the principal source of organophosphate pesticides to the Sacramento River during this storm. The concentrations of molinate and carbofuran, pesticides applied to rice fields during May and June, were relatively constant during and after the storm. Their presence in surface water was attributed to the flooding and subsequent drainage, as a management practice to degrade rice stubble prior to the next planting. A photodegradation product of molinate, 4-keto molinate, was in all samples where molinate was detected and made up approximately 50 percent of the total molinate load. Simazine, a herbicide used in orchards and to control weeds along the roadways, was detected in the storm runoff, but it was not possible to differentiate the two sources of that pesticide to the Sacramento River.

  5. Degradation of pesticides in biobeds: the effect of concentration and pesticide mixtures.

    PubMed

    Fogg, Paul; Boxall, Alistair B A; Walker, Allan

    2003-08-27

    Biobeds aim to create an environment whereby any pesticide spills are retained and then degraded, thus reducing the potential for surface or groundwater contamination. Biobeds may receive high concentrations of relatively complex mixtures of pesticides. The effects of concentration and pesticide interaction on degradation rate were therefore investigated. At concentrations up to 20 times the maximum recommended application rate for isoproturon and chlorothalonil, the rate of degradation in topsoil and biomix decreased with increasing concentration. With the exception of isoproturon at concentrations above 11 mg kg(-1), degradation was quicker in biomix (a composted mixture of topsoil, compost, and wheat straw) than in topsoil. One possible explanation for faster isoproturon degradation in topsoil as compared to biomix may be that previous treatments of isoproturon applied to the field soil as part of normal agricultural practices had resulted in proliferation of microbial communities specifically adapted to use isoproturon as an energy source. Such microbial adaptation could enhance the performance of a biobed. Studies with a mixture of isoproturon and chlorothalonil showed that interactions between pesticides are possible. In biomix, the degradation of either isoproturon or chlorothalonil was unaffected by the presence of the other pesticide, whereas in topsoil, isoproturon DT(50) values increased from 18.5 to 71.5 days in the presence of chlorothalonil. These studies suggest that biobeds appear capable of treating high concentrations of more than one pesticide.

  6. Application of the Web-based Interspecies Correlation Estimation (Web-ICE) tool to assess risks of national pesticide registrations to federally listed (threatened and endangered) species

    EPA Science Inventory

    The National Academy of Science (NAS) recently recommended exploration of predictive tools, such as interspecies correlation estimation (ICE), to estimate acute toxicity values for listed species and support development of species sensitivity distributions (SSDs). We explored the...

  7. Trace elements and pesticides in Salton Sea area, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schroeder, Roy A.; Setmire, James G.; Wolfe, John C.

    1988-01-01

    Concentrations of numerous potentially toxic trace elements and pesticides were determined in water, sediment, and biota from the Salton Sea area in southestern California. Comparison of results with data from other studies in this area and from other areas, and with various water-quality standards or criteria, indicate that selenium probably is the principal contaminant of concern in the Salton Sea basin and that it probably is related to agricultural practices. Selenium is mobilized in the subsurface drainwater produced by agricultural irrigation and transported in ditches and rivers, some of which pass through or near the Salton Sea National Wildlife Refuge before entering the Salton Sea. Some selenium apparently is incorporated into the food chain. In response to the finding of elevated selenium residues in fish from the area by State agencies, the Imperial County Health Department has issued a health advisory restricting or prohibiting human consumption of fish from the Salton Sea and drains.

  8. FY 2015 National Water Program Performance, Trends and Best Practices Report

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This Report includes final FY 2015 performance data for all U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) National Water Program measures included in EPA's 2014-2018 Strategic Plan and the FY 2015 National Water Program Guidance Addendum.

  9. Total diet study on pesticide residues in France: levels in food as consumed and chronic dietary risk to consumers.

    PubMed

    Nougadère, Alexandre; Sirot, Véronique; Kadar, Ali; Fastier, Antony; Truchot, Eric; Vergnet, Claude; Hommet, Frédéric; Baylé, Joëlle; Gros, Philippe; Leblanc, Jean-Charles

    2012-09-15

    Chronic dietary exposure to pesticide residues was assessed for the French population using a total diet study (TDS) to take into account realistic levels in foods as consumed at home (table-ready). Three hundred and twenty-five pesticides and their transformation products, grouped into 283 pesticides according to their residue definition, were sought in 1235 composite samples corresponding to 194 individual food items that cover 90% of the adult and child diet. To make up the composite samples, about 19,000 food products were bought during different seasons from 2007 to 2009 in 36 French cities and prepared according to the food preparation practices recorded in the individual and national consumption survey (INCA2). The results showed that 37% of the samples contained one or more residues. Seventy-three pesticides were detected and 55 quantified at levels ranging from 0.003 to 8.7mg/kg. The most frequently detected pesticides, identified as monitoring priorities in 2006, were the post-harvest insecticides pirimiphos-methyl and chlorpyrifos-methyl-particularly in wheat-based products-together with chlorpyrifos, iprodione, carbendazim and imazalil, mainly in fruit and fruit juices. Dietary intakes were estimated for each subject of INCA2 survey, under two contamination scenarios to handle left-censored data: lower-bound scenario (LB) where undetected results were set to zero, and upper-bound (UB) scenario where undetected results were set to the detection limit. For 90% of the pesticides, exposure levels were below the acceptable daily intake (ADI) under the two scenarios. Under the LB scenario, which tends to underestimate exposure levels, only dimethoate intakes exceeded the ADI for high level consumers of cherry (0.6% of children and 0.4% of adults). This pesticide, authorised in Europe, and its metabolite were detected in both cherries and endives. Under the UB scenario, that overestimates exposure, a chronic risk could not be excluded for nine other pesticides

  10. Prioritizing pesticide compounds for analytical methods development

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Norman, Julia E.; Kuivila, Kathryn; Nowell, Lisa H.

    2012-01-01

    compounds are high priority as new analytes. The objective for analytical methods development is to design an integrated analytical strategy that includes as many of the Tier 1 pesticide compounds as possible in a relatively few, cost-effective methods. More than 60 percent of the Tier 1 compounds are high priority because they are anticipated to be present at concentrations approaching levels that could be of concern to human health or aquatic life in surface water or groundwater. An additional 17 percent of Tier 1 compounds were frequently detected in monitoring studies, but either were not measured at levels potentially relevant to humans or aquatic organisms, or do not have benchmarks available with which to compare concentrations. The remaining 21 percent are pesticide degradates that were included because their parent pesticides were in Tier 1. Tier 1 pesticide compounds for water span all major pesticide use groups and a diverse range of chemical classes, with herbicides and their degradates composing half of compounds. Many of the high priority pesticide compounds also are in several national regulatory programs for water, including those that are regulated in drinking water by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency under the Safe Drinking Water Act and those that are on the latest Contaminant Candidate List. For sediment, a total of 175 pesticide compounds were classified as Tier 1 and, thus, are high priority for inclusion in analytical methods available for monitoring and studies. More than 60 percent of these compounds are included in some USGS analytical method; however, some are spread across several research methods that are expensive to perform, and monitoring data are not extensive for many compounds. The remaining Tier 1 compounds for sediment are high priority as new analytes. The objective for analytical methods development for sediment is to enhance an existing analytical method that currently includes nearly half of the pesticide compounds in Tier 1

  11. Fertility preservation in cancer survivors: a national survey of oncologists' current knowledge, practice and attitudes

    PubMed Central

    Adams, E; Hill, E; Watson, E

    2013-01-01

    Background: Around 1 in 10 of all cancer cases occur in adults of reproductive age. Cancer and its treatments can cause long-term effects, such as loss of fertility, which can lead to poor emotional adjustment. Unmet information needs are associated with higher levels of anxiety. US research suggests that many oncologists do not discuss fertility. Very little research exists about fertility information provision in the United Kingdom. This study aimed to explore current knowledge, practice and attitudes among oncologists in the United Kingdom regarding fertility preservation in patients of child-bearing age. Methods: A national online survey of 100 oncologists conducted online via medeconnect, a company which has exclusive access to the doctors.net.uk membership of GMC registered doctors. Results: Oncologists saw fertility preservation (FP) as mainly a women's issue, and yet only felt knowledgeable about sperm storage, not other methods of FP; 87% expressed a need for more information. Most reported discussing the impact of treatment on fertility with patients, but only 38% reported routinely providing patients with written information, and 1/3 reported they did not usually refer patients who had questions about fertility to a specialist fertility service. Twenty-three per cent had never consulted any FP guidelines. The main barriers to initiating discussions about FP were lack of time, lack of knowledge, perceived poor success rates of FP options, poor patient prognosis and, to a lesser extent, if the patient already had children, was single, or could not afford FP treatment. Conclusion: The findings from this study suggest a deficiency in UK oncologist's knowledge about FP options and highlights that the provision of information to patients about FP may be sub-optimal. Oncologists may benefit from further education, and further research is required to establish if patients perceive a need for further information about FP options. PMID:23579214

  12. Programming in C at NMFECC (National Magnetic Fusion Energy Computing Center): A practical guide

    SciTech Connect

    Haney, S.W.; Crotinger, J.A.

    1989-07-26

    Despite its popularity elsewhere, C has not been extensively used for scientific programming on supercomputers. There are a number of reasons for this but perhaps the most compelling has been the lack of C compilers. However, this situation has recently begun to change at the National Magnetic Fusion Energy Computing Center (NMFECC) where two C development platforms --- the Hybrid C Compiler (HCC) written at the Livermore Computer Center and the Portable C Compiler (CC version 4.1) distributed by Cray Research, Inc. (CRI) --- have become available for use. These compilers produce object code for all of the Cray models at NMFECC and, in addition, possess good scalar optimization capabilities along with rudimentary vectorization capabilities. With the advent of the Cray C compilers, it is possible to consider physics code development in C at NMFECC. However, when one actually attempts to pursue this goal, one is quickly faced with a number of practical problems. For instance, How do I compile, link, and debug C codes What special features of C are useful to me as a scientific programmer Are there things I currently can't do in C programs How do I interface my C program to existing Fortran code Can I make use of the Basis code development system from C Over the last three years we have incorporated C into numerous physics codes written at NMFECC and, in the course of this work, we have had to develop solutions to all of the above problems. This turned out to be a surprisingly frustrating and time-consuming venture requiring some rather subtle techniques and hacks. This guide is an attempt to document these techniques.

  13. Work and Home: Data from the National Health Interview Survey on Disability. Research/Practice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilmore, Dana Scott; Butterworth, John

    This issue brief provides a national profile of individuals with developmental disabilities based on the National Health Interview Survey on Disability, Phase 1. This in-depth survey of 107,400 individuals uses a complex sampling strategy which is designed to provide national incidence estimates for each survey item. Data are reported which were…

  14. Networking for Digital Preservation: Current Practice in 15 National Libraries. IFLA Publications 119

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Verheul, Ingeborg

    2006-01-01

    In 2004-2005, The National Library of the Netherlands (Koninklijke Bibliotheek) conducted a survey for the IFLA-CDNL Alliance for Bibliographic Standards (ICABS)--an alliance founded jointly by the International Federation of Library Associations (IFLA), the Conference of Directors of National Libraries (CDNL) and the national libraries of…

  15. The Working Practices and Clinical Experiences of Paediatric Speech and Language Therapists: A National UK Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pring, Tim; Flood, Emma; Dodd, Barbara; Joffe, Victoria

    2012-01-01

    Background: The majority of speech and language therapists (SLTs) work with children who have speech, language and communication needs. There is limited information about their working practices and clinical experience and their views of how changes to healthcare may impact upon their practice. Aims: To investigate the working practices and…

  16. Pesticides in ground water of the United States, 1992-1996

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kolpin, Dana W.; Barbash, Jack E.; Gilliom, Robert J.

    2000-01-01

    During the first cycle of the National Water Quality Assessment (1992–1996), ground water in 20 of the nation's major hydro-logic basins was analyzed for 90 pesticide compounds (pesticides and degradates). One or more of the pesticide compounds examined were detected at 48.4% of the 2485 ground water sites sampled. However, approximately 70% of the sites where pesticides were detected, two or more pesticide compounds analyzed were present–documenting the prevalence of pesticide mixtures in ground water. The pesticide concentrations encountered were generally low, with the median total concentration (summation of concentrations for the 90 pesticide compounds) being 0.046 μg/L. Pesticides were commonly detected in shallow ground water beneath both agricultural (60.4%) and urban (48.5%) areas. This is an important finding because, although agricultural activities have long been associated with pesticide contamination, urban areas have only recently been recognized as a potential source of these types of compounds. Pesticides with higher frequencies of detection were generally those with more extensive use, greater environmental persistence, and greater mobility in ground water (lower soil-water partition coefficients).

  17. Agricultural and residential pesticides in wipe samples from farmworker family residences in North Carolina and Virginia.

    PubMed Central

    Quandt, Sara A; Arcury, Thomas A; Rao, Pamela; Snively, Beverly M; Camann, David E; Doran, Alicia M; Yau, Alice Y; Hoppin, Jane A; Jackson, David S

    2004-01-01

    Children of farmworkers can be exposed to pesticides through multiple pathways, including agricultural take-home and drift as well as residential applications. Because farmworker families often live in poor-quality housing, the exposure from residential pesticide use may be substantial. We measured eight locally reported agricultural pesticides and 13 pesticides commonly found in U.S. houses in residences of 41 farmworker families with at least one child < 7 years of age in western North Carolina and Virginia. Wipe samples were taken from floor surfaces, toys, and children's hands. We also collected interview data on possible predictors of pesticide presence, including characteristics of the household residents, cleaning practices, and characteristics of the home. All families were Spanish-speaking, primarily from Mexico. Results indicate that six agricultural and 11 residential pesticides were found in the homes, with agricultural, residential, or both present in 95% of homes sampled. In general, residential pesticides were more commonly found. Presence of both types of pesticides on the floor was positively associated with detection on toys or hands. Agricultural pesticide detection was associated with housing adjacent to agricultural fields. Residential pesticide detection was associated with houses judged difficult to clean. Although the likelihood of agricultural pesticide exposure has been considered high for farmworker families, these results indicate that residential pesticide use and exposure in this population merit further study. PMID:14998757

  18. Types of Pesticide Ingredients

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Pesticide active ingredients are described by the types of pests they control or how they work. For example, algicides kill algae, biopesticides are derived from natural materials, and insecticides kill insects.

  19. Pesticide-Exposure Matrix

    Cancer.gov

    The "Pesticide-exposure Matrix" was developed to help epidemiologists and other researchers identify the active ingredients to which people were likely exposed when their homes and gardens were treated for pests in past years.

  20. Pesticide Emergency Exemptions

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    A state or federal agency can request an emergency exemptions when a serious pest problem jeopardizes production of agricultural goods or public health but no pesticides are currently registered for that situation. Learn how to request emergency exemption.

  1. What are Antimicrobial Pesticides?

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Antimicrobial pesticides are substances or mixtures of substances used to destroy or suppress the growth of harmful microorganisms such as bacteria, viruses, or fungi on inanimate objects and surfaces.

  2. Why We Review Pesticides

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    As required by the Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act (FIFRA), EPA periodically reviews existing registered pesticides to ensure they can be used safely, without unreasonable risks to human health and the environment.

  3. Insights of private general practitioners in group practice on the introduction of National Health Insurance in South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Luiz, John; Carmichael, Teresa; Peersman, Wim; Derese, Anselme

    2016-01-01

    Background The South African government intends to contract with ‘accredited provider groups’ for capitated primary care under National Health Insurance (NHI). South African solo general practitioners (GPs) are unhappy with group practice. There is no clarity on the views of GPs in group practice on contracting to the NHI. Objectives To describe the demographic and practice profile of GPs in group practice in South Africa, and evaluate their views on NHI, compared to solo GPs. Methods This was a descriptive survey. The population of 8721 private GPs in South Africa with emails available were emailed an online questionnaire. Descriptive statistical analyses and thematic content analysis were conducted. Results In all, 819 GPs responded (568 solo GPs and 251 GPs in groups). The results are focused on group GPs. GPs in groups have a different demographic practice profile compared to solo GPs. GPs in groups expected R4.86 million ($0.41 million) for a hypothetical NHI proposal of comprehensive primary healthcare (excluding medicines and investigations) to a practice population of 10 000 people. GPs planned a clinical team of 8 to 12 (including nurses) and 4 to 6 administrative staff. GPs in group practices saw three major risks: patient, organisational and government, with three related risk management strategies. Conclusions GPs can competitively contract with NHI, although there are concerns. NHI contracting should not be limited to groups. All GPs embraced strong teamwork, including using nurses more effectively. This aligns well with the emergence of family medicine in Africa. PMID:27380785

  4. Pesticides in the atmosphere; distribution, trends, and governing factors

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Majewski, Michael S.; Capel, Paul D.

    1995-01-01

    A comprehensive review of existing literature on the occurrence and distribution of pesticides in the atmosphere of the United States and adjoining Canadian provinces showed that the atmosphere is an important part of the hydrologic cycle that acts to distribute and deposit pesticides in areas far removed from their application sites. A compilation of existing data shows that pesticides have been detected in the atmosphere throughout the nation. Most of the available information on pesticides in the atmosphere is from small-scale, short-term studies that seldom lasted more than one year. Only two national-scale, multi-year studies were done since the late 1960's that analyzed for a wide variety of pesticides in air that were in current use at the time. Another large-scale study was done during 1990-91, but was limited to the midwestern and northeastern United States and only analyzed for two classes of herbicides in wet deposition. Most of the pesticides analyzed for were detected in either air or rain, and represent about 25 percent of the total number of insecticides, herbicides, and fungicides in current use. The geographical distribution of studies, and the type of sampling and analysis were highly variable with most of the historical study efforts concentrated in the Great Lakes area and California. Air and rain were the main atmospheric matrices sampled, but pesticides were also detected in fog and snow. Reported pesticide concentrations in air and rain were frequently positively correlated to their regional agricultural use. Deviations from this relation could usually be explained by non-agricultural use of pesticides, sampling and analytical difficulties, and environmental persistence. High concentrations of locally used pesticides were found to occur seasonally, usually in conjunction with spring planting of row crops and warm temperatures, but high concentrations also occurred during winter months in those areas where dormant orchards were sprayed. The

  5. The National Drug Abuse Treatment Clinical Trials Network: forging a partnership between research knowledge and community practice

    PubMed Central

    Tai, Betty; Sparenborg, Steven; Liu, David; Straus, Michele

    2011-01-01

    The National Drug Abuse Treatment Clinical Trials Network (CTN) has faced many challenges over its first eleven years. This review explores some of these challenges and the paths the CTN took to meet these challenges, including: designing clinical trials that reflect the CTN’s mission and changing public health needs, finding the synergies in the varied expertise of clinical treatment providers and academic researchers, promoting evidence-based practices and expanding the Network into mainstream medical practices to reach a broader patient population. Included in this exploration are specific examples from CTN clinical trials. PMID:24474852

  6. Photochemical Attenuation of Pesticides in Prairie Potholes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, T.; Arnold, W. A.

    2013-12-01

    DOM appeared to exert the largest effects on the overall photodegradation. Furthermore, a suite of second-order rate constants for reactions of pesticides with PPRIs were derived based on the quenching effect on observed reaction rate constants and measured steady-state concentrations of PPRIs. These rate constants may find practical utility for estimating DOM photochemical reaction rates in addition to data traditionally estimated from model compounds. Overall, our work contributed to a systematic evaluation of the potential for photochemical attenuation of pesticides in near-surface pothole water. Given recent incentives to expand agriculture in the PPR for production of organic crops and corn-based biofuels, this research also calls for the need to properly conserve prairie potholes and to develop regionally-specific, sustainable water resource management and land use strategies.

  7. Pesticides in ground-water data base: 1988 interim report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-12-01

    One of EPA's priorities is to determine the extent of pesticides occurring in the nation's ground water. While many individual, localized ground-water monitoring studies have been conducted across the country, there has been no comprehensive compilation of these results. In response to this, the EPA's Office of Pesticide Programs has developed the Pesticides in Ground Water Data Base. The data base contains information derived from monitoring studies conducted by pesticide registrants, universities, and government agencies. The data base identifies the pesticides that have been looked for in ground water, the areas that have been monitored, and the pesticides that have been detected. The data base was developed in the first quarter of 1988, and at the same time, a public docket was established so interested parties could have access to the source information. Following the development of the data base, the EPA has been conducting a program to assess the validity of the information it contains. At this time, the authors believe they have gathered sufficient information to provide the public with an interim report on the national status of pesticide residues in ground water.

  8. Earthworms, pesticides and sustainable agriculture: a review.

    PubMed

    Datta, Shivika; Singh, Joginder; Singh, Sharanpreet; Singh, Jaswinder

    2016-05-01

    The aim of this review is to generate awareness and understand the importance of earthworms in sustainable agriculture and effect of pesticides on their action. The natural resources are finite and highly prone to degradation by the misuse of land and mismanagement of soil. The world is in utter need of a healthy ecosystem that provides with fertile soil, clean water, food and other natural resources. Anthropogenic activities have led to an increased contamination of land. The intensification of industrial and agricultural practices chiefly the utilization of pesticides has in almost every way made our natural resources concave. Earthworms help in a number of tasks that support many ecosystem services that favor agrosystem sustainability but are degraded by exhaustive practices such as the use of pesticides. The present review assesses the response of earthworm toward the pesticides and also evaluates the relationship between earthworm activity and plant growth. We strictly need to refresh and rethink on the policies and norms devised by us on sustainable ecology. In an equivalent way, the natural resources should be utilized and further, essential ways for betterment of present and future livelihood should be sought.

  9. Calculation of pesticide degradation in decaying cotton gin trash.

    PubMed

    Crossan, Angus N; Kennedy, Ivan R

    2008-10-01

    Pesticide residues were measured in stockpiled cotton gin trash (CGT) over a 2-year period. Samples were analysed by GC/MS/MS and interpretation of the results was aided by the presence of DDE residues, remnant from prior DDT use. Fourteen pesticide residues from current agricultural practice were detected in CGT. Several of these, including indoxacarb, profenofos, chlorpyrifos, propargite, bifenthrin, ethion and cyhalothrin, were more persistent than expected on the basis of published data for soil dissipation. The results showed a complex pattern of pesticide residue decay over time because of the simultaneous decomposition of the CGT matrix.

  10. Exporting DBCP and other banned pesticides: consideration of ethical issues.

    PubMed

    Lowry, L K; Frank, A L

    1999-01-01

    Many developed countries permit the export of pesticides that are banned, restricted, or unregistered within their own borders. This practice, which leads to the exposure of agricultural workers in developing countries to high levels of pesticides that are not permitted in the country of manufacture, raises many ethical issues as well as economic, social, political, and public health issues. Worldwide attempts to control export of such pesticides, through the FAO/UNEP Prior Informed Consent program, moves this issue in the right direction. This article explores the current U.S. and international practices, using the specific example of export of DBCP to banana-producing countries. The actions taken by multinational corporations, manufacturers of the pesticides, and public health officials in both the exporting and importing countries are explored, along with the impacts on workers, local economies, governments, and the environment.

  11. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration's Earth Science Applications Program: Exploring Partnerships to Enhance Decision Making in Public Health Practice

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vann, Timi S.; Venezia, Robert A.

    2002-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), Earth Science Enterprise is engaged in applications of NASA Earth science and remote sensing technologies for public health. Efforts are focused on establishing partnerships with those agencies and organizations that have responsibility for protecting the Nation's Health. The program's goal is the integration of NASA's advanced data and technology for enhanced decision support in the areas of disease surveillance and environmental health. A focused applications program, based on understanding partner issues and requirements, has the potential to significantly contribute to more informed decision making in public health practice. This paper intends to provide background information on NASA's investment in public health and is a call for partnership with the larger practice community.

  12. Best practices in developing a national palliative care policy in resource limited settings: lessons from five African countries.

    PubMed

    Luyirika, Emmanuel Bk; Namisango, Eve; Garanganga, Eunice; Monjane, Lidia; Ginindza, Ntombi; Madonsela, Gugulethu; Kiyange, Fatia

    2016-01-01

    Given the high unmet need for palliative care in Africa and other resource limited settings, it is important that countries embrace the public health approach to increasing access through its integration within existing healthcare systems. To give this approach a strong foundation that would ensure sustainability, the World Health Organisation urges member states to ensure that policy environments are suitable for this intervention. The development, strengthening, and implementation of national palliative care policies is a priority. Given the lack of a critical mass of palliative care professionals in the region and deficiency in documenting and sharing best practices as part of information critical for regional development, policy development becomes a complex process. This article shares experiences with regard to best practices when advocating the national palliative care policies. It also tells about policy development process, the important considerations, and cites examples of policy content outlines in Africa.

  13. Best practices in developing a national palliative care policy in resource limited settings: lessons from five African countries

    PubMed Central

    Luyirika, Emmanuel BK; Namisango, Eve; Garanganga, Eunice; Monjane, Lidia; Ginindza, Ntombi; Madonsela, Gugulethu; Kiyange, Fatia

    2016-01-01

    Given the high unmet need for palliative care in Africa and other resource limited settings, it is important that countries embrace the public health approach to increasing access through its integration within existing healthcare systems. To give this approach a strong foundation that would ensure sustainability, the World Health Organisation urges member states to ensure that policy environments are suitable for this intervention. The development, strengthening, and implementation of national palliative care policies is a priority. Given the lack of a critical mass of palliative care professionals in the region and deficiency in documenting and sharing best practices as part of information critical for regional development, policy development becomes a complex process. This article shares experiences with regard to best practices when advocating the national palliative care policies. It also tells about policy development process, the important considerations, and cites examples of policy content outlines in Africa. PMID:27563347

  14. National Guard Weapons of Mass Destruction Civil Support Teams: How Practical is Cost Saving Reduction?

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-06-14

    SCIENCE Homeland Security Studies by SPENCER W. GILES, MAJ, U.S. ARMY NATIONAL GUARD B.S., Chadron State College, Nebraska, 1998 B.S...created ten National Guard Weapons of Mass Destruction-Civil Support Teams in 1998 to provide rapid support to local and state emergency responders during...national coverage. Following the 11 September 2011 attacks, the program expanded to add teams in every state and territory with 57 teams currently

  15. [Practices of caregivers and national recommendations for treatment of malaria in Benin in 2009].

    PubMed

    Robin, S; Bruneton, C; Guévart, E

    2017-01-31

    New treatments against malaria (artemisinin-based combination therapies, ACT) resulted in profound changes in the therapeutic behaviours in Africa. This study aims to evaluate the practices adaptation to the new strategies in Benin in 2009. In three southern areas of the country, 14 private pharmacies, 10 public health centers and 10 private health centers were audited. Between July and October 2009, 36 providers and 93 prescribers were interviewed, 127 dispensations for self-medication were observed, 210 prescriptions were analyzed according to the WHO recommendations, 251 patients with complaints of malaria and 50 healthy women were interviewed and 34 physical inventories were conducted in pharmacies. Knowledge and trainings were inadequate, especially in the private sector and for the providers, as 41.6% of requests for antimalarial drugs were without prescription in private pharmacies. Only 28% of prescribers and 47% of providers knew the national recommendations of 1st line treatment for uncomplicated malaria. 53% of prescribers treated patients by ACT without prior parasitological examination in the case of uncomplicated malaria and no Rapid Diagnostic Test (RDT) was carried out or requested during the dispensation. Pharmaceutical advices were absent in 78.7% of cases and population acknowledged a lack of knowledge about use of the treatment. Private pharmacies were structures where the variability of available antimalarial drugs was the largest, up to 70 different specialities and where unit prices were highest, up to 7.7 times those charged in public health centers. In the field, the difficulties of application of recommendations, given at the scientific or political level, show the necessity of accompanying policy change by prior training activities of all health stakeholders and of adapting the previous regulations to facilitate implementation of the new rules. The number of authorizations issued for the ACT should be limited; authorization to chloroquine

  16. A national survey of practicing psychologists' attitudes toward psychotherapy treatment manuals.

    PubMed

    Addis, M E; Krasnow, A D

    2000-04-01

    There has been considerable debate and little empirical data on the role of psychotherapy treatment manuals in clinical practice. Attitudes toward treatment manuals are a potentially important determinant of how likely practitioners are to use manual-based treatments in clinical practice. A total of 891 practicing psychologists nationwide were surveyed about their attitudes toward treatment manuals and their ideas about the content of manuals. Practitioners held widely varying attitudes toward treatment manuals, and ideas about what constitutes a manual were associated with attitudes in a predictable way. Recommendations are made for how to gather more useful information about practitioners' attitudes toward the many changes affecting current models of clinical practice.

  17. Audit of clinical-laboratory practices in haematology and blood transfusion at Muhimbili National Hospital in Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Makubi, Abel N; Meda, Collins; Magesa, Alex; Minja, Peter; Mlalasi, Juliana; Salum, Zubeda; Kweka, Rumisha E; Rwehabura, James; Quaresh, Amrana; Magesa, Pius M; Robert, David; Makani, Julie; Kaaya, Ephata

    2012-10-01

    In Tanzania, there is paucity of data for monitoring laboratory medicine including haematology. This therefore calls for audits of practices in haematology and blood transfusion in order to provide appraise practice and devise strategies that would result in improved quality of health care services. This descriptive cross-sectional study which audited laboratory practice in haematology and blood transfusion at Muhimbili National Hospital (MNH) aimed at assessing the pre-analytical stage of laboratory investigations including laboratory request forms and handling specimen processing in the haematology laboratory and assessing the chain from donor selection, blood component processing to administration of blood during transfusion. A national standard checklist was used to audit the laboratory request forms (LRF), phlebotomists' practices on handling and assessing the from donor selection to administration 6f blood during transfusion. Both interview and observations were used. A total of 195 LRF were audited and 100% of had incomplete information such as patients' identification numbers, time sample ordered, reason for request, summary of clinical assessment and differential diagnoses. The labelling of specimens was poorly done by phlebotomists/clinicians in 82% of the specimens. Also 65% (132/202) of the blood samples delivered in the haematology laboratory did not contain the recommended volume of blood. There was no laboratory request form specific for ordering blood and there were no guidelines for indication of blood transfusion in the wards/ clinics. The blood transfusion laboratory section was not participating in external quality assessment and the hospital transfusion committee was not in operation. It is recommended that a referral hospital like MNH should have a transfusion committee to provide an active forum to facilitate communication between those involved with transfusion, monitor, coordinate and audit blood transfusion practices as per national

  18. Trends in Contraceptive Practice: United States, 1965-76. Vital & Health Statistics. Data from the National Survey of Family Growth, Series 23, No. 10.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mosher, William D.

    This report presents findings based on interviews with three nationally representative samples of currently married women between the ages of 15 and 44 years, as documented in 1965 National Fertility Study and the 1973 and 1976 National Surveys of Family Growth. Statistics from these surveys are presented on the contraceptive practice of…

  19. Thinking Globally, Planning Nationally and Acting Locally: Nested Organizational Fields and the Adoption of Environmental Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vasi, Ion Bogdan

    2007-01-01

    The study of the adoption of activities to protect the natural environment has tended to focus on the role of organizational fields. This article advances existing research by simultaneously examining conflicting processes that operate in nested organizational fields at local, national and supra-national levels. It examines the recent spread of an…

  20. National Safe Schools Framework: Policy and Practice to Reduce Bullying in Australian Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cross, Donna; Epstein, Melanie; Hearn, Lydia; Slee, Phillip; Shaw, Therese; Monks, Helen

    2011-01-01

    In 2003 Australia was one of the first countries to develop an integrated national policy, called the National Safe Schools Framework (NSSF), for the prevention and management of violence, bullying, and other aggressive behaviors. The effectiveness of this framework has not yet been formally evaluated. Cross-sectional data collected in 2007 from…

  1. Clinical Supervision for School Psychologists: National Practices, Trends and Future Implications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fischetti, Barbara A.; Crespi, Tony D.

    1999-01-01

    Survey assesses current practice trends in the clinical supervision of school psychologists. Data indicates that while ten percent of practicing school psychologists were participating in individual and/or group clinical supervision nationwide, respondents were receiving less supervision than recommended by APA or NASP professional standards.…

  2. Importance of Practices: A National Study of General and Special Early Childhood Educators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kilgo, Jennifer L.; Johnson, Larry; Lamontagne, Maggie; Stayton, Vicky; Cook, Martha; Cooper, Carolyn

    1999-01-01

    A study examined the perceptions of 169 early childhood educators and 238 early childhood special educators on the importance of practices when applied to young children with and without disabilities. Findings indicate that few differences existed between the two professional groups' perceptions of the importance of these practices. (Author/CR)

  3. Practices that Support the Transition to Public Preschool Programs: Results from a National Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rous, Beth; Hallam, Rena; McCormick, Katherine; Cox, Megan

    2010-01-01

    The number of children participating in public school preschool programs has steadily increased over the last two decades. While the use of specific practices to support the transition to kindergarten has received a great deal of attention, there are little data on the use of transition practices by public school preschool teachers to support…

  4. The Emerging Practices of the National Writing Project's New Teacher Initiative

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Houghton, Nina; Heenan, Barbara

    2006-01-01

    This report describes the teaching practices that emerged from the planning, implementing and refining of the New Teacher Initiative (NTI) programs over the first three years of the initiative. During this period, the 18 New Teacher Initiative (NTI) sites developed a repertoire of practices for educating and supporting beginning teachers. As an…

  5. Practical Child Safety Education in England: A National Survey of the Child Safety Education Coalition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mulvaney, Caroline A.; Watson, Michael C.; Walsh, Patrick

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To examine the provision of practical safety education by Child Safety Education Coalition (CSEC) organizations in England. Design: A postal survey. Setting: Providers of child practical safety education who were also part of CSEC. Methods: In February 2010 all CSEC organizations were sent a self-completion postal questionnaire which…

  6. A national audit of Australian dental practice distribution: do all Australians get a fair deal?

    PubMed

    Tennant, Marc; Kruger, Estie

    2013-08-01

    Australia is the sixth biggest (by area) country in the world, having a total area of about 7.5 million km(2) (3 million square miles). This study located every dental practice in the country (private and public) and mapped these practices against population. The total population of Australia (21.5 million) is distributed across 8,529 suburbs. On average about one-third of the population from each State lives in suburbs without practices and 46% live in suburbs with one to five dentists. Of those living within the study frameset, 86.6% live within 5 km of a private practice and 84.4% live within 10 km of a government practice. Australia's dental practices are distributed in a very uneven fashion across its vast area. Three-quarters of suburbs have no dental practice and over one-third of the population live in these suburbs. This research clearly identified that in a vast and uneven socio-geographically distributed country, service planning, if left to market forces, will end with a practice distribution that is fixed by economic drivers of scale and not that of disease burden. A more population health-driven approach to future design and construction of government safety net services is needed to address these disparities.

  7. General Dentists’ Use of Isolation Techniques During Root Canal Treatment: from the National Dental Practice-Based Research Network

    PubMed Central

    Lawson, Nathaniel C.; Gilbert, Gregg H.; Funkhouser, Ellen; Eleazer, Paul D.; Benjamin, Paul L.; Worley, Donald C.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction A preliminary study done by a National Dental Practice-Based Research Network precursor observed that 44% of general dentists (GDs) reported always using a rubber dam (RD) during root canal treatment (RCT). This full-scale study quantified use of all isolation techniques, including RD use. Methods Network practitioners completed a questionnaire about isolation techniques used during RCT. Network Enrollment Questionnaire data provided practitioner characteristics. Results 1,490 of 1,716 eligible GDs participated (87%); 697 (47%) reported always using a RD. This percentage varied by tooth type. These GDs were more likely to always use a RD: do not own a private practice; perform less than 10 RCT/month; have postgraduate training. Conclusions Most GDs do not use a RD all the time. Ironically, RDs are used more frequently by GDs who do not perform molar RCT. RD use varies with tooth type and certain dentist, practice, and patient characteristics. PMID:26015159

  8. Silicone wristbands detect individuals' pesticide exposures in West Africa

    PubMed Central

    Scott, Richard P.; Blaustein, Kathy L.; Halbleib, Mary L.; Sarr, Makhfousse; Jepson, Paul C.

    2016-01-01

    We detected between 2 and 10 pesticides per person with novel sampling devices worn by 35 participants who were actively engaged in farming in Diender, Senegal. Participants were recruited to wear silicone wristbands for each of two separate periods of up to 5 days. Pesticide exposure profiles were highly individualized with only limited associations with demographic data. Using a 63-pesticide dual-column gas chromatography–electron capture detector (GC-ECD) method, we detected pyrethoid insecticides most frequently, followed by organophosphate pesticides which have been linked to adverse health outcomes. This work provides the first report of individualized exposure profiles among smallholder farmers in West Africa, where logistical and practical constraints have prevented the use of more traditional approaches to exposure assessment in the past. The wristbands and associated analytical method enabled detection of a broad range of agricultural, domestic, legacy and current-use pesticides, including esfenvalerate, cypermethrin, lindane, DDT and chlorpyrifos. Participants reported the use of 13 pesticide active ingredients while wearing wristbands. All six of the pesticides that were both reportedly used and included in the analytical method were detected in at least one wristband. An additional 19 pesticide compounds were detected beyond those that were reported to be in use, highlighting the importance of measuring exposure in addition to collecting surveys and self-reported use records. The wristband method is a candidate for more widespread use in pesticide exposure and health monitoring, and in the development of evidence-based policies for human health protection in an area where food security concerns are likely to intensify agricultural production and pesticide use in the near future. PMID:27853621

  9. Pediatric fasting times before surgical and radiologic procedures: benchmarking institutional practices against national standards.

    PubMed

    Williams, Catherine; Johnson, Pat A; Guzzetta, Cathie E; Guzzetta, Philip C; Cohen, Ira Todd; Sill, Anne M; Vezina, Gilbert; Cain, Sherry; Harris, Christine; Murray, Jodi

    2014-01-01

    Prolonged preoperative fasting can be associated with adverse outcomes, particularly in children. Our aims were to assess the time pediatric patients fasted prior to surgical or radiologic procedures and evaluate whether fasting (NPO) orders complied with national guidelines. We measured NPO start time, time of last intake, and time test or surgery was scheduled, took place, or was cancelled in 219 pediatric patients. Findings demonstrate that pediatric patients experienced prolonged fasting before procedures and that the majority of NPO orders were non-compliant with national guidelines. We have developed strategies to reduce fasting times and ensure compliance with recommended national fasting standards.

  10. Antimicrobial Pesticide Use Site Index

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This Use Site Index provides guidance to assist applicants for antimicrobial pesticide registration by helping them identify the data requirements necessary to register a pesticide or support their product registrations.

  11. Pesticide Data Submitters List (PDSL)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Pesticide Data Submitters List is a compilation of names and addresses of registrants who wish to be notified and offered compensation for use of their data. It was developed to assist pesticide applicants in fulfilling their obligation under FIFRA.

  12. Requirements for Monitoring Pesticide Handlers

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    To ensure safety, someone must monitor pesticide handlers in certain situations, including when the most toxic pesticides are used and when fumigants are used in greenhouses. Find out about these requirements.

  13. Toward Safer Use of Pesticides

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moats, Sheila; Moats, William A.

    1970-01-01

    Gives information on costs and benefits of pesticides, and on specific injurious effects on humans and fish and wild life. Suggests restriction of use of certain pesticides and acceleration of research on biological control. (EB)

  14. Common Causes of Pesticide Incidents

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    There are many types of pesticide incidents. EPA staff analyze pesticide incident reports involving people (including children and farm workers), pets, domestic animals, wildlife including bees and other pollinators, and the environment.

  15. Pesticides (Environmental Health Student Portal)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Pollutants Natural Disasters Drinking Water Waterborne Diseases & Illnesses Water Cycle Water Treatment Videos Games Experiments For Teachers Home ... Pollutants Natural Disasters Drinking Water Waterborne Diseases & Illnesses Water Cycle Water Treatment Pesticides The Basics Pesticides are substances ...

  16. Pesticide exposure and health conditions of terrestrial pesticide applicators in Córdoba Province, Argentina.

    PubMed

    Butinof, Mariana; Fernandez, Ricardo Antorio; Stimolo, María Inés; Lantieri, María Josefina; Blanco, Marcelo; Machado, Ana Lia; Franchini, Germán; Díaz, María del Pilar

    2015-03-01

    Agricultural workers represent a population that is highly vulnerable to the toxic effects of pesticide exposure. This cross sectional study aimed to describe the health conditions of terrestrial pesticide applicators in Córdoba Province, Argentina, their work practices and socio-demographic characteristics, by means of a standardized self-administered questionnaire (n = 880). A descriptive analysis reported a high prevalence of occasional or frequent symptoms: 47.4% had symptoms of irritation, 35.5% fatigue, 40.4% headache and 27.6% nervousness or depression. Using logistic regression models, risk and protective factors were found for symptoms of irritation, medical consultation and hospitalization. Among the occupational exposure variables, marital status, length of time in the job, low level of protection with regard to the use of personal protective equipment, combined use of different pesticides and the application of the insecticide endosulfan, were associated with a higher frequency of reported symptoms and higher consultation rates and hospitalization.

  17. Clinical Training and Practice Patterns of Medical Family Therapists: A National Survey.

    PubMed

    Zubatsky, Max; Harris, Steven M; Mendenhall, Tai J

    2017-04-01

    Medical family therapy (MedFT) has gained momentum as a framework in healthcare for individuals and families. However, little is known about what background training and clinical experiences Medical Family Therapists (MedFTs) have in everyday practice. This study investigated the clinical training of MedFTs and their practices in a variety of care settings. A survey was completed by 80 participants who use a MedFT framework in practice, with descriptive data on curriculum, clinical training, and treatment characteristics. Results reflect that many MedFTs lack formal coursework in key content areas of their graduate training and work primarily with psychological and relational concerns. Future research is needed to explore how MedFTs practice around specific mental health and chronic health conditions.

  18. Grassroots origins, national engagement: exploring the professionalization of practicing healthcare ethicists in Canada.

    PubMed

    Frolic, Andrea

    2012-09-01

    Canadian ethicists have a long legacy of leadership in advocating for standards and quality in healthcare ethics. Continuing this tradition, a grassroots organization of practicing healthcare ethicists (PHEs) concerned about the lack of standardization in the field recently formed to explore potential options related to professionalization. This group calls itself "practicing healthcare ethicists exploring professionalization" (PHEEP). This paper provides a description of the process by which PHEEP has begun to engage the Canadian PHE community in the development of practice standards and related projects. By making our process and its ethical and cultural underpinnings transparent, we hope to prompt PHEs around the world to reflect on the importance of context, process and principles (not just outcomes) in the exploration of and possible movement towards professionalization. By sharing some of our key successes and challenges, we also hope to inspire our colleagues to recognize the value in developing practice standards and to contribute to this endeavor.

  19. Adjustment of pesticide concentrations for temporal changes in analytical recovery, 1992–2010

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Martin, Jeffrey D.; Eberle, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Recovery is the proportion of a target analyte that is quantified by an analytical method and is a primary indicator of the analytical bias of a measurement. Recovery is measured by analysis of quality-control (QC) water samples that have known amounts of target analytes added ("spiked" QC samples). For pesticides, recovery is the measured amount of pesticide in the spiked QC sample expressed as a percentage of the amount spiked, ideally 100 percent. Temporal changes in recovery have the potential to adversely affect time-trend analysis of pesticide concentrations by introducing trends in apparent environmental concentrations that are caused by trends in performance of the analytical method rather than by trends in pesticide use or other environmental conditions. This report presents data and models related to the recovery of 44 pesticides and 8 pesticide degradates (hereafter referred to as "pesticides") that were selected for a national analysis of time trends in pesticide concentrations in streams. Water samples were analyzed for these pesticides from 1992 through 2010 by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Recovery was measured by analysis of pesticide-spiked QC water samples. Models of recovery, based on robust, locally weighted scatterplot smooths (lowess smooths) of matrix spikes, were developed separately for groundwater and stream-water samples. The models of recovery can be used to adjust concentrations of pesticides measured in groundwater or stream-water samples to 100 percent recovery to compensate for temporal changes in the performance (bias) of the analytical method.

  20. Dermal Exposure Associated with Occupational End Use of Pesticides and the Role of Protective Measures

    PubMed Central

    MacFarlane, Ewan; Carey, Renee; Keegel, Tessa; El-Zaemay, Sonia; Fritschi, Lin

    2013-01-01

    Background Occupational end users of pesticides may experience bodily absorption of the pesticide products they use, risking possible health effects. The purpose of this paper is to provide a guide for researchers, practitioners, and policy makers working in the field of agricultural health or other areas where occupational end use of pesticides and exposure issues are of interest. Methods This paper characterizes the health effects of pesticide exposure, jobs associated with pesticide use, pesticide-related tasks, absorption of pesticides through the skin, and the use of personal protective equipment (PPE) for reducing exposure. Conclusions Although international and national efforts to reduce pesticide exposure through regulatory means should continue, it is difficult in the agricultural sector to implement engineering or system controls. It is clear that use of PPE does reduce dermal pesticide exposure but compliance among the majority of occupationally exposed pesticide end users appears to be poor. More research is needed on higher-order controls to reduce pesticide exposure and to understand the reasons for poor compliance with PPE and identify effective training methods. PMID:24106643

  1. Pesticide health and safety and the work and impact of international agencies: partial successes and major failures.

    PubMed

    Watterson, A

    2001-01-01

    The paper explores aspects of the international role and impact of key agencies in informing regulators and users about pesticides and controlling and preventing pesticide poisoning worldwide. The WHO, IPCS, ILO, World Bank, and related organizations such as ICPS, for instance, all have effects. Particular attention is paid to the IPCS environmental health criteria documents on pesticides. Political and economic influences affect decisions about whether or not to use pesticides, and the risk assessments and data used to assess pesticides. This has significant influence on the selection and use of particular pesticides and hence on both acute and chronic pesticide poisoning cases globally. Progress has been made to correct these covert and damaging influences and imbalances, but more needs to be done to ensure proper accountability and transparency in pesticide health and safety policy and practice.

  2. Pesticides: A Community Action Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bumstead, Cynthia, Ed.; And Others

    Developed to provide an introduction to the issues surrounding the use of chemical pesticides, this booklet encourages individuals and communities to become active in determining the safe use and regulation of pesticides. The major components of the guide include: (1) an explanation of the issue; (2) pesticides and their effect on human health;…

  3. Pesticide Use and Water Quality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reneau, Fred

    This publication describes in nontechnical language the problem of pesticide use and how it affects water quality. It provides information on laws affecting pesticide use and the reasons for them, as well as giving directions for the proper use of pesticides. The booklet is divided into five chapters, each of which concludes with a list of study…

  4. Pesticide Product Information System (PPIS)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Pesticide Product Information System contains information concerning all pesticide products registered in the United States. It includes registrant name and address, chemical ingredients, toxicity category, product names, distributor brand names, site/pest uses, pesticidal type, formulation code, and registration status.

  5. Religion, Sense of Calling, and the Practice of Medicine: Findings from a National Survey of Primary Care Physicians and Psychiatrists

    PubMed Central

    Yoon, John D.; Shin, Jiwon H.; Nian, Andy L.; Curlin, Farr A.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives A sense of calling is a concept with religious and theological roots; however, it is unclear whether contemporary physicians in the United States still embrace this concept in their practice of medicine. This study assesses the association between religious characteristics and endorsing a sense of calling among practicing primary care physicians (PCPs) and psychiatrists. Methods In 2009, we surveyed a stratified random sample of 2016 PCPs and psychiatrists in the United States. Physicians were asked whether they agreed with the statement, “For me, the practice of medicine is a calling.” Primary predictors included demographic and self-reported religious characteristics, including attendance, affiliation, importance of religion, intrinsic religiosity) and spirituality. Results Among eligible respondents, the response rate was 63% (896/1427) for PCPs and 64% (312/487) for psychiatrists. A total of 40% of PCPs and 42% of psychiatrists endorsed a strong sense of calling. PCPs and psychiatrists who were more spiritual and/or religious as assessed by all four measures were more likely to report a strong sense of calling in the practice of medicine. Nearly half of Muslim (46%) and Catholic (45%) PCPs and the majority of evangelical Protestant PCPs (60%) report a strong sense of calling in their practice, and PCPs with these affiliations were more likely to endorse a strong sense of calling than those with no affiliation (26%, bivariate P < 0.001). We found similar trends for psychiatrists. Conclusions In this national study of PCPs and psychiatrists, we found that PCPs who considered themselves religious were more likely to report a strong sense of calling in the practice of medicine. Although this cross-sectional study cannot be used to make definitive causal inferences between religion and developing a strong sense of calling, PCPs who considered themselves religious are more likely to embrace the concept of calling in their practice of medicine. PMID

  6. Organochlorine pesticides residue in breast milk: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Pirsaheb, Meghdad; Limoee, Mojtaba; Namdari, Farideh; Khamutian, Razieh

    2015-01-01

    Background: Chlorinated pesticides have been used in pest control for several decades in the world. These compounds are still applied in many regions, and their continuous usage has resulted in their bioaccumulation and residue in the food chain. These residues could transfer to food products and accumulate in fat tissues. Undoubtedly, the breast milk could be a significant biomarker for estimation of these residues in the human body. This study was conducted to review and compile the results of the studies undertaken in the world which surveyed the organochlorine pesticides residue in breast milk. Methods: A total of 710 national and international articles and texts related to the focused subject were extracted from the virtual databases using the following key words: Chlorinated pesticides, residue and breast milk. Thirty articles published between 1980 and 2013 were selected and reviewed. Results: The majority of the reviewed articles indicated the presence of two or more organochlorine pesticides in the collected samples of breast milk. Based on the reviewed studies, dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) had the highest level of concentration in the collected samples of breast milk. Moreover, there was a statistically significant positive correlation between mother’s age, her multiparty and concentration of chlorinated pesticides in breast milk. Conclusion: The organochlorine pesticides are still applied in some developing countries including some regions of Iran. Thus, it seems essential to inform the community about the adverse effects of this class of pesticides; and most importantly the governments should also ban the use of such compounds. PMID:26478886

  7. Inventory of pesticide emissions into the air in Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarigiannis, D. A.; Kontoroupis, P.; Solomou, E. S.; Nikolaki, S.; Karabelas, A. J.

    2013-08-01

    Creation of a reliable and comprehensive emission inventory of the pesticides used in Europe is a key step towards quantitatively assessing the link between actual pesticide exposure and adverse health effects. An inventory of pesticide emissions was generated at a 1 × 1 km grid, for the year 2000. The emission model comprises three components: estimates of active substance (AS) wind drift taking into account crop type, volatilization during pesticide application and volatilization from the crop canopy. Results show that atmospheric emission of pesticides varies significantly across Europe. Different pesticide families are emitted from different parts of Europe as a function of the main crop(s) cultivated, agro-climatic conditions and production intensity. The pesticide emission inventory methodology developed herein is a valuable tool for assessing air quality in rural and peri-urban Europe, furnishing the necessary input for atmospheric modelling at different scales. Its estimates have been tested using global sensitivity and Monte Carlo analysis for uncertainty assessment and they have been validated against national and local surveys in four European countries; the results demonstrate the robustness and reliability of the inventory. The latter may therefore be readily used for exposure and health risk assessment studies targeting farmers, applicators, but also bystanders and the general population in Europe.

  8. The impact of pesticide regulations on suicide in Sri Lanka

    PubMed Central

    Gunnell, D; Fernando, R; Hewagama, M; Priyangika, WDD; Konradsen, F; Eddleston, M

    2010-01-01

    Summary Background Between 1950 and 1995 suicide rates in Sri Lanka increased eight fold to a peak of 47 per 100,000 in 1995. By 2005 rates had halved. Our aim was to evaluate whether Sri Lanka’s regulatory controls on the import and sale of pesticides that are particularly toxic to humans were responsible for these changes in suicide. Methods Ecological analysis using graphical and descriptive approaches to identify times trends in suicide and risk factors for suicide in Sri Lanka, 1975-2005. Results Restrictions on the import and sales of WHO Class I toxicity pesticides in 1995 and endosulfan in 1998, coincided with reductions in suicide in both men and women of all ages. 19,800 fewer suicides occurred in 1996-2005 compared to 1986 – 1995. Secular trends in unemployment, alcohol misuse, divorce, pesticide use and the years associated with Sri Lanka’s Civil war did not appear to be associated with these declines. Conclusion These data indicate that in countries where pesticides are commonly used in acts of self-poisoning, import controls on the most toxic pesticides may have a favourable impact on suicide. In Asia there are an estimated 300,000 deaths from pesticide self-poisoning annually. National and international policies restricting the sales of pesticides that are most toxic to humans may have a major impact on suicides in the region. PMID:17726039

  9. Aquatic risk assessment of pesticides in surface waters in and adjacent to the Everglades and Biscayne National Parks: I. Hazard assessment and problem formulation.

    PubMed

    Carriger, John F; Rand, Gary M

    2008-10-01

    An aquatic risk assessment under the U.S. Environment Protection Agency (EPA) ecological risk framework was conducted for atrazine, metolachlor, malathion, chlorpyrifos, and endosulfan in the C-111 freshwater basin (eastern boundary of the Everglades National Park), northeast Florida Bay, and south Biscayne Bay in South Florida. Based on the use of the hazard quotient approach, measured concentrations of chlorpyrifos and endosulfan in surface waters suggest potential hazards to aquatic organisms and were, therefore, considered as chemicals of potential ecological concern (COPECs). The problem formulation included an overview of the physical/chemical and environmental fate characteristics and aquatic toxicology of the COPECs. Background surface water exposure concentrations of endosulfan and toxicity data from laboratory and field studies indicate that fish and invertebrate mortality may be a concern when endosulfan is applied in agricultural areas near aquatic ecosystems.

  10. A Comparative Analysis of Ethnomedicinal Practices for Treating Gastrointestinal Disorders Used by Communities Living in Three National Parks (Korea)

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hyun; Song, Mi-Jang; Brian, Heldenbrand; Choi, Kyoungho

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to comparatively analyze the ethnomedicinal practices on gastrointestinal disorders within communities in Jirisan National Park, Gayasan National Park, and Hallasan National Park of Korea. Data was collected through participant observations and indepth interviews with semistructured questionnaires. Methods for comparative analysis were accomplished using the informant consensus factor, fidelity level, and internetwork analysis. A total of 490 ethnomedicinal practices recorded from the communities were classified into 110 families, 176 genera, and 220 species that included plants, animals, fungi, and alga. The informant consensus factor values in the disorder categories were enteritis, and gastralgia (1.0), followed by indigestion (0.94), constipation (0.93), and abdominal pain and gastroenteric trouble (0.92). In terms of fidelity levels, 71 plant species showed fidelity levels of 100%. The internetwork analysis between disorders and all medicinal species are grouped in the center by the four categories of indigestion, diarrhea, abdominal pain, and gastroenteric trouble, respectively. Regarding the research method of this study, the comparative analysis methods will contribute to the availability of orally transmitted ethnomedicinal knowledge. Among the methods of analysis, the use of internetwork analysis as a tool for analysis in this study provides imperative internetwork maps between gastrointestinal disorders and medicinal species. PMID:25202330

  11. Pharmacists and technicians can enhance patient care even more once national policies, practices, and priorities are aligned.

    PubMed

    Maine, Lucinda L; Knapp, Katherine K; Scheckelhoff, Douglas J

    2013-11-01

    In the past thirty to forty years, new clinically oriented roles have emerged for pharmacists, commensurate with their training and consistent with national goals to improve the safety of, access to, and cost of health care. Pharmacists in all settings spend an increasing portion of their time filling these roles, as evidenced more recently in the community pharmacy sector by the success of pharmacy-based immunization programs and such new venues as retail pharmacy clinics. Pharmacy technicians are also assuming new roles and responsibilities, providing services previously delivered only by pharmacists. However, both trends are hindered by current policy. Of particular concern are inconsistent state-level scope-of-practice laws, the lack of mechanisms to reimburse pharmacists for services provided, the need to recognize pharmacists as health care providers, and the need to establish national standards for the preparation of pharmacy technicians. The optimal deployment of the pharmacy workforce will require the closer alignment of pharmacy practice and policy with each other and with the nation's health care priorities.

  12. A comparative analysis of ethnomedicinal practices for treating gastrointestinal disorders used by communities living in three national parks (Korea).

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyun; Song, Mi-Jang; Brian, Heldenbrand; Choi, Kyoungho

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to comparatively analyze the ethnomedicinal practices on gastrointestinal disorders within communities in Jirisan National Park, Gayasan National Park, and Hallasan National Park of Korea. Data was collected through participant observations and indepth interviews with semistructured questionnaires. Methods for comparative analysis were accomplished using the informant consensus factor, fidelity level, and internetwork analysis. A total of 490 ethnomedicinal practices recorded from the communities were classified into 110 families, 176 genera, and 220 species that included plants, animals, fungi, and alga. The informant consensus factor values in the disorder categories were enteritis, and gastralgia (1.0), followed by indigestion (0.94), constipation (0.93), and abdominal pain and gastroenteric trouble (0.92). In terms of fidelity levels, 71 plant species showed fidelity levels of 100%. The internetwork analysis between disorders and all medicinal species are grouped in the center by the four categories of indigestion, diarrhea, abdominal pain, and gastroenteric trouble, respectively. Regarding the research method of this study, the comparative analysis methods will contribute to the availability of orally transmitted ethnomedicinal knowledge. Among the methods of analysis, the use of internetwork analysis as a tool for analysis in this study provides imperative internetwork maps between gastrointestinal disorders and medicinal species.

  13. Pesticide reregistration progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-01-01

    The report is produced by the Special Review and Reregistration Division (SRRD), Office of Pesticide Programs, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), on progress towards pesticide reregistration as mandated under 1988 amendments to the Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act. The report shows the status of reregistration through the first quarter of the 1993 fiscal year. SRRD is in the process of re-evaluating the format and information in the Progress Report, as a result of the October 1992 Customer Survey sent to the recipients of the report. Results of the survey will be incorporated in the April 1993 issue of the report.

  14. Effect of household and industrial processing on the levels of pesticide residues and degradation products in melons.

    PubMed

    Bonnechère, A; Hanot, V; Bragard, C; Bedoret, T; van Loco, J

    2012-01-01

    Two varieties of melons (Cucumis melo) were treated with two fungicides (carbendazim and maneb) and four insecticides (acetamiprid, cyromazin, imazalil and thiamethoxam) to quantify the effect of household processing on the pesticide residues. To ensure sufficiently high levels of residues in flesh and peel, the most concentrated formulations were applied observing good agricultural practice. The peeling step decreased the concentration of pesticide residues for maneb, imazalil and acetamiprid by more than 90%. Cyromazin, carbendazim and thiamethoxam were reduced by approximately 50%. The reduction of the pesticides could not be fully explained by the systemic character of the pesticides. However, the agricultural practices (time of application), solubility and mode of action (systemic versus contact pesticide) of the pesticides could be used to explain the difference in processing factors for the studied pesticides. Degradation products (melamine and ethylenethiourea) were also investigated in this study, but were not detected.

  15. Preparing students to be moral agents in clinical nursing practice. Report of a national study.

    PubMed

    Cassells, J M; Redman, B K

    1989-06-01

    Various types of teaching and learning strategies can be effectively employed to assist students' professional development in ethical decision-making skills. To be prepared to act as a moral agent in clinical practice, a terminal goal upon completion of the baccalaureate program is the student's ability to develop and consistently use a systematic approach/framework when confronted by an ethical dilemma. Eleven skill steps not necessarily exclusive or in sequence were outlined as selected activities that can be considered for the ethical decision process. Specific ethical issues that are germane and applicable to many patient care situations were investigated and identified as frequently occurring in clinical practice. Course work about these issues prior to completion of their nursing programs may be beneficial in preparing students with basic knowledge and skill about them as they enter or return to clinical practice.

  16. Pesticides in ground water: distribution, trends, and governing factors

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barbash, Jack; Resek, Elizabeth A.

    1997-01-01

    improvements in understanding and predicting the occurrence and fate of pesticides in ground water are likely to depend on: (1) greater coordination of ground-water sampling across the nation to ensure consistency of study design, and thus comparability of results; (2) more extensive analyses for pesticide transformation products during ground-water monitoring studies; (3) substantially enhanced communication among investigators conducting laboratory experiments, small-scale field studies and large-scale monitoring studies; and (4) more routine testing of predictions of pesticide behavior and ground-water vulnerability against actual field observations of pesticide occurrence in ground water

  17. Assessing the effectiveness of the Pesticides and Farmworker Health Toolkit: a curriculum for enhancing farmworkers' understanding of pesticide safety concepts.

    PubMed

    LePrevost, Catherine E; Storm, Julia F; Asuaje, Cesar R; Arellano, Consuelo; Cope, W Gregory

    2014-01-01

    Among agricultural workers, migrant and seasonal farmworkers have been recognized as a special risk population because these laborers encounter cultural challenges and linguistic barriers while attempting to maintain their safety and health within their working environments. The crop-specific Pesticides and Farmworker Health Toolkit (Toolkit) is a pesticide safety and health curriculum designed to communicate to farmworkers pesticide hazards commonly found in their working environments and to address Worker Protection Standard (WPS) pesticide training criteria for agricultural workers. The goal of this preliminary study was to test evaluation items for measuring knowledge increases among farmworkers and to assess the effectiveness of the Toolkit in improving farmworkers' knowledge of key WPS and risk communication concepts when the Toolkit lesson was delivered by trained trainers in the field. After receiving training on the curriculum, four participating trainers provided lessons using the Toolkit as part of their regular training responsibilities and orally administered a pre- and post-lesson evaluation instrument to 20 farmworker volunteers who were generally representative of the national farmworker population. Farmworker knowledge of pesticide safety messages significantly (P<.05) increased after participation in the lesson. Further, items with visual alternatives were found to be most useful in discriminating between more and less knowledgeable farmworkers. The pilot study suggests that the Pesticides and Farmworker Health Toolkit is an effective, research-based pesticide safety and health intervention for the at-risk farmworker population and identifies a testing format appropriate for evaluating the Toolkit and other similar interventions for farmworkers in the field.

  18. Major trends in public health law and practice: a network national report.

    PubMed

    Hodge, James G; Barraza, Leila; Bernstein, Jennifer; Chu, Courtney; Collmer, Veda; Davis, Corey; Griest, Megan M; Hammer, Monica S; Krueger, Jill; Lowrey, Kerri McGowan; Orenstein, Daniel G

    2013-01-01

    Since its inception in September 2010, the Network for Public Health Law has responded to hundreds of public health legal technical assistance claims from around the country. Based on a review of these data, a series of major trends in public health practice and the law are analyzed, including issues concerning: the Affordable Care Act, tobacco control, emergency legal preparedness, health information privacy, food policy, vaccination, drug overdose prevention, sports injury law, public health accreditation, and maternal breastfeeding. These and other emerging themes in public health law demonstrate the essential role of law and practice in advancing the public's health.

  19. Pesticide exports from U.S. ports, 2001-2003.

    PubMed

    Smith, Carl; Kerr, Kathleen; Sadripour, Ava

    2008-01-01

    Analysis of U.S. Custom Service records for 2001-2003 indicates that nearly 1.7 billion pounds of pesticide products were exported from U.S. ports, a rate >32 tons/hour. Exports included >27 million pounds of pesticides whose use is forbidden in the United States. WHO Class 1a and 1b pesticides were exported at an average rate of >16 tons/day. Pesticide exports included >500,000 pounds of known or suspected carcinogens, with most going to developing countries; pesticides associated with endocrine disruption were exported at an average rate of >100 tons/day. Although the rate of export of banned products declined, as did exports of pesticides included in global conventions on Prior Informed Consent and Persistent Organic Pollutions, substantial quantities of hazardous products remain in trade. These products pose unacceptable risks in countries where unsafe use and storage practices are prevalent. Policy makers, growers, and scientists must undertake more aggressive efforts to foster sustainable agricultural practices globally.

  20. Modelling pesticide volatilization after soil application using the mechanistic model Volt'Air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bedos, Carole; Génermont, Sophie; Le Cadre, Edith; Garcia, Lucas; Barriuso, Enrique; Cellier, Pierre

    Volatilization of pesticides participates in atmospheric contamination and affects environmental ecosystems including human welfare. Modelling at relevant time and spatial scales is needed to better understand the complex processes involved in pesticide volatilization. Volt'Air-Pesticides has been developed following a two-step procedure to study pesticide volatilization at the field scale and at a quarter time step. Firstly, Volt'Air-NH 3 was adapted by extending the initial transfer of solutes to pesticides and by adding specific calculations for physico-chemical equilibriums as well as for the degradation of pesticides in soil. Secondly, the model was evaluated in terms of 3 pesticides applied on bare soil (atrazine, alachlor, and trifluralin) which display a wide range of volatilization rates. A sensitivity analysis confirmed the relevance of tuning to K h. Then, using Volt'Air-Pesticides, environmental conditions and emission fluxes of the pesticides were compared to fluxes measured under 2 environmental conditions. The model fairly well described water temporal dynamics, soil surface temperature, and energy budget. Overall, Volt'Air-Pesticides estimates of the order of magnitude of the volatilization flux of all three compounds were in good agreement with the field measurements. The model also satisfactorily simulated the decrease in the volatilization rate of the three pesticides during night-time as well as the decrease in the soil surface residue of trifluralin before and after incorporation. However, the timing of the maximum flux rate during the day was not correctly described, thought to be linked to an increased adsorption under dry soil conditions. Thanks to Volt'Air's capacity to deal with pedo-climatic conditions, several existing parameterizations describing adsorption as a function of soil water content could be tested. However, this point requires further investigation. Practically speaking, Volt'Air-Pesticides can be a useful tool to make

  1. Pesticides and human diabetes: a link worth exploring?

    PubMed

    Swaminathan, K

    2013-11-01

    It is no exaggeration to claim that the 'diabetes epidemic' has become a 'runaway train' causing huge health and economic consequences, especially in the developing nations. Traditionally, the risk factors for diabetes have largely focused on genetics and lifestyle. Great emphasis is placed on lifestyle measures and finding novel pharmacological treatment options to combat diabetes, but there is increasing evidence linking environmental pollutants, especially pesticides, to the development of insulin resistance and Type 2 diabetes. Pesticide use has increased dramatically worldwide and the effects of pesticides on glucose metabolism are too significant for a possible diabetogenic link to be dismissed. The aim of this review article was to assess the links between pesticides and human diabetes with the goal of stimulating further research in this area.

  2. The 1st National Clinical audit for Rheumatoid and Early Inflammatory Arthritis: findings and implications for nursing practice

    PubMed Central

    Firth, J; Snowden, N; Ledingham, J; Rivett, A; Galloway, J; Dennison, EM; MacPhie, E; Ide, Z; Rowe, I; Kandala, N; Jameson, K

    2016-01-01

    The first national audit for rheumatoid and early inflammatory arthritis has benchmarked care for the first three months of follow up activity from first presentation to a rheumatology service. Access to care, management of early RA and support for self care were measured against NICE quality standards and impact of early arthritis and experience of care were measured using patient reported outcome and experience measures. The results demonstrate delays in referral and accessing specialist care and the need for service improvement in treating to target, suppression of high levels of disease activity and support for self-care. Improvements in patient -reported outcomes within three months and high levels of overall satisfaction were reported but these results were affected by low response rates. Here we present a summary of the national data from the audit and discuss the implications for nursing practice. PMID:27281595

  3. The national post-baccalaureate graduate nurse residency program: a model for excellence in transition to practice.

    PubMed

    Krugman, Mary; Bretschneider, Joan; Horn, Phyllis B; Krsek, Cathleen A; Moutafis, Roxanne A; Smith, Marion Oare

    2006-01-01

    The Chief Nursing Officers (CNOs) of the University HealthSystems Consortium (UHC) of Academic Hospitals desired to increase the numbers of baccalaureate graduate nurses hired by their facilities and provide a more consistent, uniform transition into practice for these graduate nurses. A partnership between the UHC CNOs and the American Association of Colleges of Nursing (AACN) led to establishing a National Post-Baccalaureate Graduate Nurse Residency Program. The structure, curriculum, and outcomes measures were developed and the program was implemented, with growth from six original pilot sites to 34 academic hospitals. Outcomes from the first year of program operation at these six sites show a high rate of retention, decreased stress by graduate nurses over time, improved organization and prioritization of care, and increased satisfaction in the first year of practice.

  4. Pesticides use by smallholder farmers in vegetable production in Northern Tanzania.

    PubMed Central

    Ngowi, A.V.F.; Mbise, T.J.; Ijani, A.S.M.; London, L.; Ajayi, O. C.

    2007-01-01

    Small-scale farmers in Northern Tanzania grow vegetables that include tomatoes, cabbages and onions and use many types of pesticides to control pests and diseases that attack these crops. Based on the use of questionnaires and interviews that were conducted in Arumeru, Monduli, Karatu, and Moshi rural districts, this study investigates farmers’ practices on vegetable pest management using pesticides and related cost and health effects. The types of pesticides used by the farmers in the study areas were insecticides (59%), fungicides (29%) and herbicides (10%) with the remaining 2% being rodenticides. About a third of the farmers applied pesticides in mixtures. Up to 90% had a maximum of 3 pesticides in a mixture. In all cases there were no specific instructions either from the labels or extension workers regarding these tank mixtures. Fifty three percent of the farmers reported that the trend of pesticide use was increasing, while 33% was constant and 14% was decreasing. More than 50 percent of the respondents applied pesticides up to 5 times or more per cropping season depending on the crop. Insecticides and fungicides were routinely applied by 77% and 7%, respectively by these farmers. Sixty eight percent of farmers reported having felt sick after routine application of pesticides. Pesticide-related health symptoms that were associated with pesticides use included skin problems and neurological system disturbances (dizziness, headache). Sixty one percent of farmers reported spending no money on health due to pesticides. These results can be used to develop a tool to quantify the cost of pesticide use in pest management by small-scale vegetable farmers in Northern Tanzania and contribute to the reformation of pesticide policy for safe and effective use of pesticides. PMID:18528532

  5. Needs assessment for reducing pesticide risk: a case study with farmers in Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Phung, Dung Tri; Connell, Des; Miller, Greg; Rutherford, Shannon; Chu, Cordia

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to identify the needs for and solutions to pesticide risk reduction for farmers in Vietnam, using a comprehensive needs assessment model applied for evaluating community needs and policy development. Four kinds of needs were evaluated using qualitative research methods. A comparative analysis of pesticide regulations was used to identify comparative needs. In-depth interviews with authorities and experts were conducted to identify normative needs. Observations on farmer's practice were used to identify expressed needs, and focus group discussions among farmers were implemented to identify felt needs. The needs for pesticide regulations obtained from comparative analysis and experts include enhancement of pesticide legislation; multisectoral involvement in pesticide regulations; improvement of capacity for sectors involving in pesticide regulations; risk-benefit guidance for pesticide registration; reforms of pesticide regulations relating to the restriction, cancellation, suspension, transport, storage, and disposal of pesticides; and the development of occupational hygiene and safety policy and programs for agricultural activities. The expressed needs based on field observations comprise improvement in knowledge and behavior of farmers about pesticide safety with specific areas, and supports in safety facilities and personal protective equipment. The key request from farmers include needs about technical training for occupational safety and hygiene of pesticide application, and support for safety facilities for pesticide application and protective equipment. The results of comprehensive needs assessment were useful in the development of a range of strategies in legislative improvement, workplace and personal hygiene, information and training, and medical surveillance and pesticide poisoning first aids for pesticide risk reduction for Vietnamese farmers.

  6. National Reports in Literacy: Building a Scientific Base for Practice and Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pearson, P. David; Hiebert, Elfrieda H.

    2010-01-01

    The authors examine the National Early Literacy Panel (NELP; 2008) report from two complementary vantage points: (a) the historical tradition of research syntheses in reading research, beginning with Chall and extending through the NELP report, and (b) other recent attempts to examine or synthesize early reading development. While acknowledging…

  7. National Board Certification: Impact on Student Achievement and Teacher Practices. Information Capsule. Volume 0917

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blazer, Christie

    2010-01-01

    The combination of difficult economic times and increased accountability has led policymakers to call for evidence that students taught by National Board of Professional Teaching Standards (NBPTS)-certified teachers make greater achievement gains than those taught by non-NBPTS-certified teachers. Overall, studies show mixed results regarding the…

  8. National Trends in Concomitant Psychotropic Medication with Stimulants in Pediatric Visits: Practice versus Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bhatara, Vinod; Feil, Michael; Hoagwood, Kimberly; Vitiello, Benedetto; Zima, Bonnie

    2004-01-01

    Objectives: (1) To examine U.S. national trends in the use of concomitant pharmacotherapy with the stimulant class of psychotropic drugs in youth; and (2) to present these trends in the context of (a) extant safety and efficacy data, and (b) overall trends in concomitant pharmacotherapy with psychotropic drugs for youth. Methods: Prescribing data…

  9. Changing Practice: The National Literacy Strategy and the Politics of Literacy Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moss, Gemma

    2004-01-01

    Drawing on a recent ESRC-funded research project, this paper will explore some of the contradictory structural features of the National Literacy Strategy (NLS), which have helped shape its evolution over time, and reflect on some of the tension points which have arisen at different levels of implementation as the Strategy unfolds. In the process,…

  10. Professional Higher Education in Europe. Characteristics, Practice Examples and National Differences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Camilleri, Anthony F.; Delplace, Stefan; Frankowicz, Marek; Hudak, Raimund; Tannhäuser, Anne-Christin

    2014-01-01

    Chapter 1 starts out with a short historical view on "academisation" and "professionalisation," illustrating how much professional higher education (PHE) in Europe has been in flux in the past years. With examples from France and Ireland, the chapter argues how a new spectrum of missions, differences in national organization of…

  11. Developing Accessible Cyberinfrastructure-Enabled Knowledge Communities in the National Disability Community: Theory, Practice, and Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Myhill, William N.; Cogburn, Derrick L.; Samant, Deepti

    2008-01-01

    Since publication of the Atkins Commission report 2003, the national scientific community has placed significant emphasis on developing cyberinfrastructure-enabled knowledge communities, which are designed to facilitate enhanced efficiency and collaboration in geographically distributed networks of researchers. This article suggests that the new…

  12. Best Practices in Marine and Coastal Science Education: Lessons Learned from a National Estuarine Research Reserve.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDonnell, Janice D.

    The Jacques Cousteau National Estuarine Research Reserve (JC NERR) program has successfully capitalized on human fascination with the ocean by using the marine environment to develop interest and capability in science. The Institute of Marine & Coastal Sciences, as the managing agency of the JC NERR, makes its faculty, staff resources, and…

  13. The NIOSH Construction Program: research to practice, impact, and developing a National Construction Agenda.

    PubMed

    Gillen, Matt

    2010-06-01

    The U.S. National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) conducts research to improve and protect the health and safety of workers. This paper describes the experience of the NIOSH Construction Program with two recent program planning initiatives intended to improve the program: (a) an independent external review of work over the past decade and (b) the development of strategic goals organized into a "National Construction Agenda" to guide a decade of future work. These goals, developed with input from construction industry stakeholders and researchers, are a part of the NIOSH National Occupational Research Agenda (NORA) initiative. The NORA goals are intended to provide an ambitious set of goals for all construction stakeholders to work together on. Both efforts relate to insuring the relevance and impact of research, reflecting an emerging policy perspective that research programs should be judged not just by the quality and quantity of science produced, but by the industry impact and tangible benefit resulting from the research. This paper describes how views on research planning have evolved to incorporate lessons learned about how research leads to improved safety and health for workers. It also describes the process used to develop the goals and the resulting strategic and intermediate goals that comprise the National Construction Agenda.

  14. The Impact of Field Experiences in Yellowstone National Park on Practice in Secondary Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGrew, Christopher N.

    2012-01-01

    The current study focused on how six participants of a 2009 professional development activity at Yellowstone National Park described their experience and classroom instructional impact. The author focused on words and phrases illustrating perspective gathering, reflection and public performance to determine the impact of both the experience at…

  15. National Survey of STEM High Schools' Curricular and Instructional Strategies and Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forman, Jennifer; Gubbins, Elizabeth Jean; Villanueva, Merzili; Massicotte, Cindy; Callahan, Carolyn; Tofel-Grehl, Colby

    2015-01-01

    A limited number of highly selective high schools specializing in science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) education have existed for many decades, encouraging youth with identified STEM talent to pursue careers as STEM leaders and innovators. As members of the National Consortium for Specialized Secondary Schools of Mathematics,…

  16. Why Applied Baccalaureates Appeal to Working Adults: From National Results to Promising Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bragg, Debra; Ruud, Collin

    2012-01-01

    Looking beyond institutional strategies, the National Commission on Adult Literacy (2008) called for legislation that would make workforce preparation the primary goal of adult education, including addressing education for unemployed and lower-skilled workers, and other adult groups historically underserved by higher education. Further, state…

  17. National Board Certification: The Impact on Teaching Practices of Three Elementary Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Amy W.

    2012-01-01

    During the past century the educational reform movements focused on the need for highly qualified teachers based on research surrounding the effects on student achievement related to the quality of the teacher (Busatto, 2004). The National Board for Professional Teaching Standards (NBPTS) was created in 1987 in response to the increasing focus…

  18. A Practical Model of Development for China's National Quality Course Plan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Long, Wang; Haklev, Stian

    2012-01-01

    The Chinese National Quality Course Plan is a large-scale project by the Ministry of Education, which has led to the production of more than 12,000 courses from some 700 universities since 2003. This paper describes in detail the purpose of the project and how it is organized at all levels, including how individual courses get selected at…

  19. Linking Diversity and Civic-Minded Practices with Student Outcomes: New Evidence from National Surveys

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hurtado, Sylvia; DeAngelo, Linda

    2012-01-01

    The conversation in higher education has shifted, moving from a focus on what students know to a focus on whether they know how to think and, more importantly, toward the goal of providing skills needed for living and working in the twenty-first century. In this article, the authors present national evidence regarding the impact of intentional…

  20. Developing Culturally Responsive Teaching Practices in First Nations Communities: Learning Anishnaabemowin and Land-Based Teachings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oskineegish, Melissa

    2014-01-01

    First Nations schools in northern Ontario have the dual responsibility of providing students with the skills and foundation to thrive in their community as well as in higher education outside of their community. This responsibility requires teachers to be capable of developing and implementing lessons that support academic excellence and cultural…

  1. Toward a National Research Agenda on Violence Against Women: Continuing the Dialogue on Research and Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jordan, Carol E.

    2004-01-01

    This two-part special issue does not presume to set the nation's research agenda on violence against women (VAW), nor is it the first attempt to contribute to how that agenda might be informed. Instead, this issue continues the dialogue about the empirical study of VAW started by and participated in by many others before. Any attempt at something…

  2. National Trends in Child and Adolescent Psychotropic Polypharmacy in Office-Based Practice, 1996-2007

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Comer, Jonathan S.; Olfson, Mark; Mojtabai, Ramin

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To examine patterns and recent trends in multiclass psychotropic treatment among youth visits to office-based physicians in the United States. Method: Annual data from the 1996-2007 National Ambulatory Medical Care Surveys were analyzed to examine patterns and trends in multiclass psychotropic treatment within a nationally…

  3. Standards of Professional Practice for Accomplished Teaching in Australian Classrooms. A National Discussion Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Australian Coll. of Education, Curtin.

    This discussion paper provides a rationale for the development of professional teaching standards in Australia. It is the result of a 2000 national forum on professional teaching standards held in Melbourne, Australia, which included 150 educators who explored contemporary issues associated with such standards and constructed a framework for…

  4. Grading Practice as Valid Measures of Academic Achievement of Secondary Schools Students for National Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chiekem, Enwefa

    2015-01-01

    Assigning grades is probably the most important measurement decision that classroom teachers makes. When teachers are provided with some measurement instruction, they still use subjective value judgments when assigning grades to students. This paper therefore, examines the grading practice as valid measures of academic achievement in secondary…

  5. Targeting Erosion Control: Adoption of Erosion Control Practices. A Report from a National Research Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    West, Peter; And Others

    Research analyzed adoption of erosion control practices by farm operators in two counties in each of four states: Alabama, Missouri, Tennessee, and Washington. Analysis was based on farm survey data and technical and financial assistance information from county Soil Conservation Service (SCS) and Agricultural Stabilization and Conservation Service…

  6. Instructional Leadership Practices and Teacher Efficacy Beliefs: Cross-National Evidence from TALIS

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rew, W. Joshua

    2013-01-01

    School principals have a small to moderate influence on student achievement; however, this influence is largely indirect via the behaviors, beliefs, knowledge, practices, and competencies of their teachers. Despite a growing number of studies examining the indirect influence of school principals on student achievement, there is still much to know…

  7. Reading Aloud to Students: A National Probability Study of Classroom Reading Practices of Elementary School Teachers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobs, James S.; Morrison, Timothy G.; Swinyard, William R.

    2000-01-01

    Determines how often 1,874 elementary teachers read to their students. Reports how many of the last 10 school days they read to their students. Concludes that teachers reading aloud to students is a practice that is more common in primary-grade classrooms than in the intermediate grades, and that older teachers read less often to their students…

  8. Third and Fourth Grade Teacher's Classroom Practices in Writing: A National Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brindle, Mary; Graham, Steve; Harris, Karen R.; Hebert, Michael

    2016-01-01

    A random sample of teachers in grades 3 and 4 (N = 157) from across the United States were surveyed about their use of evidence-based writing practices, preparation to teach writing, and beliefs about writing. Teachers' beliefs included their efficacy to teach writing, their orientations to teach writing, their attitude about teaching writing, and…

  9. Practice in Computer-Based Testing and Performance on the National Certification Examination for Nurse Anesthetists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dosch, Michael P.

    2010-01-01

    The general aim of the present retrospective study was to examine the test mode effect, that is, the difference in performance when tests are taken on computer (CBT), or by paper and pencil (PnP). The specific purpose was to examine the degree to which extensive practice in CBT in graduate students in nurse anesthesia would raise scores on a…

  10. A National Investigation of School Psychology Trainers' Attitudes and Beliefs about Evidence- Based Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reddy, Linda A.; Forman, Susan G.; Stoiber, Karen C.; Gonzalez, Jorge E.

    2017-01-01

    The present investigation examined 460 school psychology trainers' attitudes and beliefs about the conditions for the education and training of evidence-based practices (i.e., assessments and interventions) in training programs in the United States and Canada using an online survey. Trainer attitudes and beliefs about education and training in…

  11. [The National Disease Management Guideline for Asthma--what's new from the point of view of general practice].

    PubMed

    Schneider, Antonius; Niebling, Wilhelm

    2006-01-01

    The National Disease Management Guideline for Asthma was developed through a consensus process that involved different medical societies, thus constituting a novelty in the improvement of the care for asthma patients in Germany. The German Association of General Practitioners (DEGAM) also participated in the development of the asthma guideline. The implementability of this new guideline in general practice will be discussed on the basis of the chapters that are most important to primary care physicians. The guideline offers many relevant aspects for the management of asthma in general practice. In future editions, the levels of evidence underlying the statements about diagnosis and therapy should be more elaborate, thus providing more concise decision aids for physicians in daily practice. In particular, the implementation aids on the guideline's website could be used to translate the content of the guidelines into practice. Continuous quality improvement and the further development of the implementation process would be most important in overcoming the cross-sectoral barriers of the German healthcare system and thus optimizing the quality of care.

  12. Associations among School Characteristics and Foodservice Practices in a Nationally Representative Sample of U.S. Schools

    PubMed Central

    Thomson, Jessica L.; Tussing-Humphreys, Lisa M.; Martin, Corby K.; LeBlanc, Monique M.; Onufrak, Stephen J.

    2012-01-01

    Objective Determine school characteristics associated with healthy/unhealthy foodservice offerings or healthy food preparation practices. Design Retrospective analysis of cross-sectional data. Setting Nationally representative sample of public and private elementary, middle and high schools. Participants 526 and 520 schools with valid data from the 2006 School Health Policies and Practices Study (SHPPS) Food Service School Questionnaire. Main Outcome Measure(s) Scores for healthy/unhealthy foodservice offerings and healthy food preparation practices. Analysis Multivariable regression to determine significant associations among school characteristics and offerings/preparation practices. Results Public schools and schools participating in USDA Team Nutrition reported more healthy offerings and preparation than private or non-participating schools, respectively. Elementary schools reported less unhealthy offerings than middle or high schools; middle schools reported less unhealthy offerings than high schools. Schools requiring foodservice managers to have a college education reported more healthy preparation while those requiring completion of a foodservice training program reported less unhealthy offerings and more healthy preparation than schools without these requirements. Conclusions and Implications Results suggest the school nutrition environment may be improved by requiring foodservice managers to hold a nutrition-related college degree and/or successfully pass a foodservice training program, and by participating in a school-based nutrition program, such as USDA Team Nutrition. PMID:22963956

  13. Methods of analysis by the U.S. Geological Survey National Water Quality Laboratory; determination of pesticides in water by C-18 solid-phase extraction and capillary-column gas chromatography/mass spectrometry with selected-ion monitoring

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zaugg, Steven D.; Sandstrom, Mark W.; Smith, Steven G.; Fehlberg, Kevin M.

    1995-01-01

    A method for the isolation of 41 pesticides and pesticide metabolites in natural-water samples using C-18 solid-phase extraction and determination by capillary-column gas chromatography/mass spectrometry with selected-ion monitoring is described. Water samples are filtered to remove suspended particulate matter and then are pumped through disposable solid-phase extraction columns containing octadecyl-bonded porous silica to extract the pesticides. The columns are dried using carbon dioxide or nitrogen gas, and adsorbed pesticides are removed from the columns by elution with 3.0 milliliters of hexane-isopropanol (3:1). Extracted pesticides are determined by capillary- column gas chromatography/mass spectrometry with selected-ion monitoring of three characteristic ions. The upper concentration limit is 4 micrograms per liter (g/L) for most pesticides, with the exception of widely used corn herbicides--atrazine, alachlor, cyanazine, and metolachlor--which have upper concentration limits of 20 g/L. Single- operator method detection limits in reagent-water samples range from 0.001 to 0.018 g/L. Average short-term single-operator precision in reagent- water samples is 7 percent at the 0.1- and 1.0-g/L levels and 8 percent at the 0.01-g/L level. Mean recoveries in reagent-water samples are 73 percent at the 0.1- and 1.0-g/L levels and 83 percent at the 0.01-g/L level. The estimated holding time for pesticides after extraction on the solid-phase extraction columns was 7 days. An optional on-site extraction procedure allows for samples to be collected and processed at remote sites where it is difficult to ship samples to the laboratory within the recommended pre-extraction holding time.

  14. Epigenetics and pesticides.

    PubMed

    Collotta, M; Bertazzi, P A; Bollati, V

    2013-05-10

    Pesticides, a wide class of environmental contaminants, may cause both acute and delayed health effects in exposed subjects. These effects can range from simple irritation of the skin and eyes to more severe effects such as affecting the nervous system, the reproductive system and cancer. The molecular mechanisms underlying such effects are still under investigation. Epigenetics is the study of heritable changes in gene expression that occur without a change in the DNA sequence. Several epigenetic mechanisms, including DNA methylation, histone modifications and microRNA expression, can be triggered by environmental factors. We review current evidences indicating that epigenetic modifications may mediate pesticide effects on human health. In vitro, animal, and human investigations have identified several classes of pesticides that modify epigenetic marks, including endocrine disruptors, persistent organic pollutants, arsenic, several herbicides and insecticides. Several investigations have examined the effects of environmental exposures and epigenetic markers, and identified toxicants that modify epigenetic states. These modifications are similar to the ones found in pathological tissue samples. In spite of the current limitations, available evidence supports the concept that epigenetics holds substantial potential for furthering our understanding of the molecular mechanisms of pesticides health effects, as well as for predicting health-related risks due to conditions of environmental exposure and individual susceptibility.

  15. Pesticide use in agriculture.

    PubMed Central

    Ridgway, R L; Tinney, J C; MacGregor, J T; Starler, N J

    1978-01-01

    During the last three decades, the use of modern organic synthetic pesticides has increased about 40-fold. Total U.S. production, for domestic and expert use, in 1976 was about 1.4 million pounds. Crops receiving the most intensive application of various pesticides were cotton for insecticides, corn for herbicides, and fruits and vegetables for fungicides. Examination of use trends of pesticides indicates that the volume in pounds of herbicides used on crops is increasing, whereas the quantities of insecticides and fungicides remain stable. New chemical classes of compounds such as the synthetic pyrethroid insecticides are being introduced, but are not yet significant in terms of their share of the market. The increased usage of pesticides, together with knowledge of some of their adverse effects, has alerted the public to the need for regulation. To assist in the regulatory decision-making process, emphasis is being placed on benefit-cost analyses. Additional and improved biological inputs and methodologies are needed to provide accurate analyses. PMID:104870

  16. A Test House Study of Pesticides and PesticideDegradation Products Following an Indoor Application

    EPA Science Inventory

    Preexisting pesticide degradates are a concern for pesticide biomonitoring studies as exposure to them may result in overestimation of pesticide exposure. The purpose of this research was to determine whether there was significant formation and movement, of pesticide degradates o...

  17. Evaluation of pesticide toxicities with differing mechanisms using Caenorhabditis elegans.

    PubMed

    Ruan, Qin-Li; Ju, Jing-Juan; Li, Yun-Hui; Liu, Ran; Pu, Yue-Pu; Yin, Li-Hong; Wang, Da-Yong

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to (1) determine whether model organism Caenorhabditis elegans was sensitive to pesticides at the maximum concentration limits regulated by national agency standards, and (2) examine the multi-biological toxicities occurring as a result of exposure to pesticides. Five pesticides, namely, chlorpyrifos, imibacloprid, buprofezin, cyhalothrin, and glyphosate, with four different mechanisms of action were selected for the investigation. In accordance with national agency requirements, 4 exposed groups were used for each tested pesticide with the concentration scales ranging from 1.0 x 10(-3) to 1 mg/L. L4 larvae were exposed for 24 and 72 h, respectively. Endpoints of locomotion, propagation, and development were selected for the assay as parameters of toxicity. After exposure for 24 h, both the body bend frequency and head thrash frequency of nematodes exposed to chlorpyrifos, imibacloprid, and cyhalothrin decreased in a concentration-dependent manner, and there were significant differences between exposed groups at maximum concentration level (MCL) compared to control. The generation time of nematodes exposed to buprofezin 24 h significantly increased in a concentration-dependent manner in the highest exposed group. When exposed for 72 h, the body bend frequency and head thrash frequency of nematodes exposed to cyhalothrin markedly decreased at MCL. The generation time and brood size of nematodes exposed to buprofezin were reduced in a concentration-dependent manner. The behavior of nematodes was sensitive to pesticides with neurotoxic properties, while pesticides affecting insect growth modified the reproductive system. The effects of pesticides on nematodes exposed for 24 h appeared more sensitive than with exposure for 72 h. Caenorhabditis elegans may thus be used for assessing the adverse effects of pesticide residues in aquatic environment.

  18. TEMPORAL VARIATION IN PESTICIDE LEVELS IN SURFACE WATERS OF THE SOUTHERN NEVADA, CALIFORNIA

    EPA Science Inventory

    We sampled surface waters in Sequoia and Kings Canyon National Parks in the Sierra Nevada of California from mid June to mid October 2003. Two pesticides found commonly in previous studies of pesticides in Sierra Nevada waters, chlorpyrifos and diazinon, were found only rarely.

  19. 75 FR 66084 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Pesticide...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-27

    ... from pests and pesticides through use of integrated pest management (IPM). IPM is an approach that involves making best choices from among a series of pest management practices, and allows for managing... Office of Management and Budget (OMB). This ICR is entitled: ``Pesticide Environmental...

  20. Sample preparation approaches for the analysis of pesticide residues in olives and olive oils

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Agricultural practices generally require the use of pesticides by olive growers for the best olive and olive oil production. Thus, analytical methods are needed to identify and quantify the pesticide residues that may be present, and ensure that the product complies with regulatory requirements. I...