Science.gov

Sample records for national radiobiology archives

  1. National Radiobiology Archives distributed access programmer's guide

    SciTech Connect

    Prather, J. C.; Smith, S. K.; Watson, C. R.

    1991-12-01

    The National Radiobiology Archives is a comprehensive effort to gather, organize, and catalog original data, representative specimens, and supporting materials related to significant radiobiology studies. This provides researchers with information for analyses which compare or combine results of these and other studies and with materials for analysis by advanced molecular biology techniques. This Programmer's Guide document describes the database access software, NRADEMO, and the subset loading script NRADEMO/MAINT/MAINTAIN, which comprise the National Laboratory Archives Distributed Access Package. The guide is intended for use by an experienced database management specialist. It contains information about the physical and logical organization of the software and data files. It also contains printouts of all the scripts and associated batch processing files. It is part of a suite of documents published by the National Radiobiology Archives.

  2. National Radiobiology Archives Distributed Access user's manual

    SciTech Connect

    Watson, C.; Smith, S. ); Prather, J. )

    1991-11-01

    This User's Manual describes installation and use of the National Radiobiology Archives (NRA) Distributed Access package. The package consists of a distributed subset of information representative of the NRA databases and database access software which provide an introduction to the scope and style of the NRA Information Systems.

  3. Operation and Maintenance of the National Radiobiology Archives

    SciTech Connect

    Dr. Anthony C. James; Stacey L. McCord

    2012-03-07

    The National Radiobiology Archives (NRA) are an archival program, started in 1989, to collect, organize and maintain data, laboratory notebooks, and animal tissue specimens from government (Department of Energy and its predecessor agencies) sponsored radiobiology life-span animal studies. These unique records, histopathology slides and paraffin embedded tissue blocks are maintained in a central facility and are available for further research study. The materials include electronic and paper records for each of more than 6,000 life-span-observations on dogs as well as details of major studies involving nearly 30,000 mice. Although these studies were performed over many years and at different laboratories with differing data management systems, the NRA has translated them into a standardized set of relational database tables. These can be distributed to interested individuals on written request. Specific Aims are: (1) To Maintain the Archive of Written Records from the Animal Experiments - The USTUR continued to maintain the NRA archives which consist of approximately 175 storage boxes containing laboratory notebooks, animal exposure records, animal pathologic records, and radiographs. These were stored in a 6,000 square foot leased facility in Richland, WA. Additionally, through a collaboration with Pacific Northwest National Laboratory's (PNNL) Low Dose Program, many of these records were scanned into digital files. These totaled 34 GB of data, which are saved in 2,407 separate PDF files that are organized by box number and animal identification number. (2) To Maintain the Archive of Animal Tissues at Washington State University - The USTUR continued to house the NRA dog tissue collection in the leased facility. The NRA tissue collection consisted of pathology slides and tissue blocks. Approximately 25% of the laboratory facility was dedicated to the storage of the NRA materials. (3) To Organize the Datasets of These Animals in the Context of Other Datasets so That

  4. Beagle Dog Tissue Archive (previously part of National Radiobiology Archives): from the Janus Tissue Archive at Northwestern University

    DOE Data Explorer

    Watson, Charles R.

    Following the advent of the atomic age, many nations have investigated the effects of radioactive exposure in animal models. Some of these investigations involved costly and unique experiments that produced tissue and data archives which are unlikely to be reproduced. In an effort to extract the value from these collections, programs have started in Japan, Europe, and America to preserve and make public the data and tissues from these studies for further investigation. The Beagle Dog Experiments, carried out at Argonne National Laboratory from 1952 to 1991 by Thomas Fritz, William Norris, and Tom Seed and supported by grants from the Atomic Energy Commission, investigated the effects of Cobalt-60 radiation on beagle dogs. Documentation from these studies is availible in pdf form. This web portal seeks to make accessible the animal tissues and study data from the Beagle Dog Experiments using data organized by Charles Watson. Use the search form to the left to look for dog data from particular experimental conditions. Click a dog number to return the full dog record. Use the dog record to find tissues of interest and make a sample tissue request. These tissue samples and the data were known until recently as the the U.S. National Radiobiology Archives (NRA) and were maintained as the United States Transuranium and Uranium Registries (USTUR) at Washington State University. Life-span studies using beagle dogs were done at the Argonne National Laboratory, University of California at Davis, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Inhalation Toxicology Research Institute, and the University of Utah. The results and many microscope slides from these life-span studies, totaling some 6000 dogs, are now available to researchers. A seminal work included in the Archive is The Atlas of Experimentally-Induced Neoplasia in the Beagle Dog (Watson et al, 1997).

  5. Past and Future Work on Radiobiology Mega-Studies: A Case Study At Argonne National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Haley, Benjamin; Wang, Qiong; Wanzer, Beau; Vogt, Stefan; Finney, Lydia; Yang, Ping Liu; Paunesku, Tatjana; Woloschak, Gayle

    2011-09-06

    Between 1952 and 1992, more than 200 large radiobiology studies were conducted in research institutes throughout Europe, North America, and Japan to determine the effects of external irradiation and internal emitters on the lifespan and tissue toxicity development in animals. At Argonne National Laboratory, 22 external beam studies were conducted on nearly 700 beagle dogs and 50,000 mice between 1969 and 1992. These studies helped to characterize the effects of neutron and gamma irradiation on lifespan, tumorigenesis, and mutagenesis across a range of doses and dosing patterns. The records and tissues collected at Argonne during that time period have been carefully preserved and redisseminated. Using these archived data, ongoing statistical work has been done and continues to characterize quality of radiation, dose, dose rate, tissue, and gender-specific differences in the radiation responses of exposed animals. The ongoing application of newly-developed molecular biology techniques to the archived tissues has revealed gene-specific mutation rates following exposure to ionizing irradiation. The original and ongoing work with this tissue archive is presented here as a case study of a more general trend in the radiobiology megastudies. These experiments helped form the modern understanding of radiation responses in animals and continue to inform development of new radiation models. Recent archival efforts have facilitated open access to the data and materials produced by these studies, and so a unique opportunity exists to expand this continued research.

  6. National Radiobiology Archives Distributed Access User's Manual, Version 1. 1

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, S.K.; Prather, J.C.; Ligotke, E.K.; Watson, C.R.

    1992-06-01

    This supplement to the NRA Distributed Access User's manual (PNL-7877), November 1991, describes installation and use of Version 1.1 of the software package; this is not a replacement of the previous manual. Version 1.1 of the NRA Distributed Access Package is a maintenance release. It eliminates several bugs, and includes a few new features which are described in this manual. Although the appearance of some menu screens has changed, we are confident that the Version 1.0 User's Manual will provide an adequate introduction to the system. Users who are unfamiliar with Version 1.0 may wish to experiment with that version before moving on to Version 1.1.

  7. The National Archives at College Park.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pacifico, Michele F.

    1996-01-01

    Describes the design and construction of a new National Archives facility at College Park, Maryland. Dubbed "Archives II" and identified as the largest archives facility in the world, the building features a five-level research room center, conservation and special media laboratories, and a day care center. Contains 11 photographs of the…

  8. The Archival Back Burner: Manuscript Collections and the National Archives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Purcell, Aaron D.

    2004-01-01

    Greater access to archival materials remains a significant challenge to archivists, librarians, and researchers. In addition to official records documenting governmental activities and agencies, the National Archives and Records Administration (NARA) has significant collections of donated personal papers. Some are processed, some are in the…

  9. The Archival Back Burner: Manuscript Collections and the National Archives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Purcell, Aaron D.

    2004-01-01

    Greater access to archival materials remains a significant challenge to archivists, librarians, and researchers. In addition to official records documenting governmental activities and agencies, the National Archives and Records Administration (NARA) has significant collections of donated personal papers. Some are processed, some are in the…

  10. The National Archives and Electronic Data.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hedlin, Edie; Harrison, Donald F.

    1988-01-01

    Discusses the events that led to the National Archives policy of preserving magnetic tapes of data generated by federal agencies and accumulating these databases as research tools. The current methods of preservation and access are described, and technical problems and archival concerns about standards are identified. (12 notes with references)…

  11. Standing on the Record: The National Archives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crowley, Carolyn

    1984-01-01

    Profiles National Archives established by Congress in 1934 to collect and organize federal documents of permanent historic value. Types of materials included in archives, the Washington building and regional centers, the "Declaration of Independence," arrangement and preservation of materials, declassification of documents, and archives…

  12. 36 CFR 1253.2 - National Archives at College Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false National Archives at College Park. 1253.2 Section 1253.2 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL ARCHIVES AND RECORDS... Archives at College Park. The National Archives at College Park is located at 8601 Adelphi Road, College...

  13. 36 CFR 1253.2 - National Archives at College Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false National Archives at College Park. 1253.2 Section 1253.2 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL ARCHIVES AND RECORDS... Archives at College Park. The National Archives at College Park is located at 8601 Adelphi Road, College...

  14. 36 CFR 1253.2 - National Archives at College Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false National Archives at College Park. 1253.2 Section 1253.2 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL ARCHIVES AND RECORDS... Archives at College Park. The National Archives at College Park is located at 8601 Adelphi Road, College...

  15. Use of the NASA Space Radiation Laboratory at Brookhaven National Laboratory to Conduct Charged Particle Radiobiology Studies Relevant to Ion Therapy.

    PubMed

    Held, Kathryn D; Blakely, Eleanor A; Story, Michael D; Lowenstein, Derek I

    2016-06-01

    Although clinical studies with carbon ions have been conducted successfully in Japan and Europe, the limited radiobiological information about charged particles that are heavier than protons remains a significant impediment to exploiting the full potential of particle therapy. There is growing interest in the U.S. to build a cancer treatment facility that utilizes charged particles heavier than protons. Therefore, it is essential that additional radiobiological knowledge be obtained using state-of-the-art technologies and biological models and end points relevant to clinical outcome. Currently, most such ion radiotherapy-related research is being conducted outside the U.S. This article addresses the substantial contributions to that research that are possible at the NASA Space Radiation Laboratory (NSRL) at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), which is the only facility in the U.S. at this time where heavy-ion radiobiology research with the ion species and energies of interest for therapy can be done. Here, we briefly discuss the relevant facilities at NSRL and how selected charged particle biology research gaps could be addressed using those facilities.

  16. 36 CFR 1253.2 - National Archives at College Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false National Archives at College Park. 1253.2 Section 1253.2 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL ARCHIVES AND RECORDS... College Park. (a) The National Archives at College Park is located at 8601 Adelphi Road, College Park, MD...

  17. 36 CFR 1253.1 - National Archives Building.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false National Archives Building... PUBLIC AVAILABILITY AND USE LOCATION OF RECORDS AND HOURS OF USE § 1253.1 National Archives Building. (a) The National Archives Building is located at 700 Pennsylvania Avenue, NW., Washington, DC...

  18. 36 CFR 1280.66 - May I use the National Archives Library?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Archives Library? 1280.66 Section 1280.66 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL ARCHIVES AND RECORDS... the Washington, DC, Area? § 1280.66 May I use the National Archives Library? The National Archives Library facilities in the National Archives Building and in the National Archives at College Park...

  19. 36 CFR 1280.66 - May I use the National Archives Library?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Archives Library? 1280.66 Section 1280.66 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL ARCHIVES AND RECORDS... the Washington, DC, Area? § 1280.66 May I use the National Archives Library? The National Archives Library facilities in the National Archives Building and in the National Archives at College Park...

  20. 36 CFR 1280.66 - May I use the National Archives Library?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Archives Library? 1280.66 Section 1280.66 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL ARCHIVES AND RECORDS... the Washington, DC, Area? § 1280.66 May I use the National Archives Library? The National Archives Library facilities in the National Archives Building and in the National Archives at College Park...

  1. 36 CFR 1280.66 - May I use the National Archives Library?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Archives Library? 1280.66 Section 1280.66 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL ARCHIVES AND RECORDS... the Washington, DC, Area? § 1280.66 May I use the National Archives Library? The National Archives Library facilities in the National Archives Building and in the National Archives at College Park...

  2. 36 CFR 1280.66 - May I use the National Archives Library?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Archives Library? 1280.66 Section 1280.66 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL ARCHIVES AND RECORDS... the Washington, DC, Area? § 1280.66 May I use the National Archives Library? The National Archives Library facilities in the National Archives Building and in the National Archives at College Park...

  3. National Satellite Land Remote Sensing Data Archive

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Faundeen, John L.; Kelly, Francis P.; Holm, Thomas M.; Nolt, Jenna E.

    2013-01-01

    The National Satellite Land Remote Sensing Data Archive (NSLRSDA) resides at the U.S. Geological Survey's (USGS) Earth Resources Observation and Science (EROS) Center. Through the Land Remote Sensing Policy Act of 1992, the U.S. Congress directed the Department of the Interior (DOI) to establish a permanent Government archive containing satellite remote sensing data of the Earth's land surface and to make this data easily accessible and readily available. This unique DOI/USGS archive provides a comprehensive, permanent, and impartial observational record of the planet's land surface obtained throughout more than five decades of satellite remote sensing. Satellite-derived data and information products are primary sources used to detect and understand changes such as deforestation, desertification, agricultural crop vigor, water quality, invasive plant species, and certain natural hazards such as flood extent and wildfire scars.

  4. 36 CFR § 1253.1 - National Archives Building.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2013-07-01 2012-07-01 true National Archives Building. Â... Archives Building. The National Archives Building is located at 700 Pennsylvania Avenue, NW., Washington... admission to the exhibit areas of the building will be no later than 30 minutes before the stated closing...

  5. National Human Radiobiological Tissue Repository (NHRTR) at the United States Transuranium and Uranium Registries

    DOE Data Explorer

    The NHRTR, one component of the USTUR, contains frozen tissues, tissue solutions, microscope slides, and paraffin blocks that were collected by the USTUR at the autopsy of workers with documented intakes of plutonium, americium, uranium, and thorium. The samples are available to qualified scientists for further research. Thousands of frozen, ashed, dried, and plastic embedded bone samples from the radium studies carried out by Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne Cancer Research Hospital, the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, and the New Jersey Radium Research Project are available and linked by case number to de-identified, published case data. These data include the person's source of exposure (dial painter, therapeutic injection, etc.), estimated body burden, radiochemical results, and medical history. Other samples, including organs and whole body donations, have come from volunteer donors who were impacted by elements such as plutonium, throium, etc. See the USTUR website for information on how to apply for research samples or how to become a volunteer donor. [Information taken from http://www.ustur.wsu.edu/NHRTR/index.html#

  6. Radiobiology of Hadrons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Streit-Bianchi, Marilena

    2008-08-01

    Radiobiological studies of hadrons beams are essential for optimizing tumour treatments. Whit hadrons when clinical facilities are running radiobiological studies are also done to ensure beam optimization and quality control as well as for the understanding of tumour and normal tissue reactions and late effects. Beam characteristic determinations nowadays are carried out according to well established radiobiological standard parameters and using well established biological reference systems. Some of the most recent studies on the topic are reported here.

  7. Radiobiology of Hadrons

    SciTech Connect

    Streit-Bianchi, Marilena

    2008-08-11

    Radiobiological studies of hadrons beams are essential for optimizing tumour treatments. Whit hadrons when clinical facilities are running radiobiological studies are also done to ensure beam optimization and quality control as well as for the understanding of tumour and normal tissue reactions and late effects. Beam characteristic determinations nowadays are carried out according to well established radiobiological standard parameters and using well established biological reference systems. Some of the most recent studies on the topic are reported here.

  8. National Radiobiology Archives Distributed Access User`s Manual, Version 1.1. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, S.K.; Prather, J.C.; Ligotke, E.K.; Watson, C.R.

    1992-06-01

    This supplement to the NRA Distributed Access User`s manual (PNL-7877), November 1991, describes installation and use of Version 1.1 of the software package; this is not a replacement of the previous manual. Version 1.1 of the NRA Distributed Access Package is a maintenance release. It eliminates several bugs, and includes a few new features which are described in this manual. Although the appearance of some menu screens has changed, we are confident that the Version 1.0 User`s Manual will provide an adequate introduction to the system. Users who are unfamiliar with Version 1.0 may wish to experiment with that version before moving on to Version 1.1.

  9. Photocopies of original drawings (from National Archives, Cartographic Division, Record ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photocopies of original drawings (from National Archives, Cartographic Division, Record Group 156) Delineator unknown. - Benicia Arsenal, Shop Buildings, Tyler Street, Benicia Industrial Park, Benicia, Solano County, CA

  10. National Geophysical Data Center Tsunami Data Archive

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stroker, K. J.; Dunbar, P. K.; Brocko, R.

    2008-12-01

    NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) and co-located World Data Center for Geophysics and Marine Geology long-term tsunami data archive provides data and derived products essential for tsunami hazard assessment, forecast and warning, inundation modeling, preparedness, mitigation, education, and research. As a result of NOAA's efforts to strengthen its tsunami activities, the long-term tsunami data archive has grown from less than 5 gigabyte in 2004 to more than 2 terabytes in 2008. The types of data archived for tsunami research and operation activities have also expanded in fulfillment of the P.L. 109-424. The archive now consists of: global historical tsunami, significant earthquake and significant volcanic eruptions database; global tsunami deposits and proxies database; reference database; damage photos; coastal water-level data (i.e. digital tide gauge data and marigrams on microfiche); bottom pressure recorder (BPR) data as collected by Deep-ocean Assessment and Reporting of Tsunamis (DART) buoys. The tsunami data archive comes from a wide variety of data providers and sources. These include the NOAA Tsunami Warning Centers, NOAA National Data Buoy Center, NOAA National Ocean Service, IOC/NOAA International Tsunami Information Center, NOAA Pacific Marine Environmental Laboratory, U.S. Geological Survey, tsunami catalogs, reconnaissance reports, journal articles, newspaper articles, internet web pages, and email. NGDC has been active in the management of some of these data for more than 50 years while other data management efforts are more recent. These data are openly available, either directly on-line or by contacting NGDC. All of the NGDC tsunami and related databases are stored in a relational database management system. These data are accessible over the Web as tables, reports, and interactive maps. The maps provide integrated web-based GIS access to individual GIS layers including tsunami sources, tsunami effects, significant earthquakes

  11. Interim report on Landsat national archive activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boyd, John E.

    1993-01-01

    The Department of the Interior (DOI) has the responsibility to preserve and to distribute most Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) and Multispectral Scanner (MSS) data that have been acquired by the five Landsat satellites operational since July 1972. Data that are still covered by exclusive marketing rights, which were granted by the U.S. Government to the commercial Landsat operator, cannot be distributed by the DOI. As the designated national archive for Landsat data, the U.S. Geological Survey's EROS Data Center (EDC) has initiated two new programs to protect and make available any of the 625,000 MSS scenes currently archived and the 200,000 TM scenes to be archived at EDC by 1995. A specially configured system has begun converting Landsat MSS data from obsolete high density tapes (HDT's) to more dense digital cassette tapes. After transcription, continuous satellite swaths are (1) divided into standard scenes defined by a world reference system, (2) geographically located by latitude and longitude, and (3) assessed for overall quality. Digital browse images are created by subsampling the full-resolution swaths. Conversion of the TM HDT's will begin in the fourth quarter of 1992 and will be conducted concurrently with MSS conversion. Although the TM archive is three times larger than the entire MSS archive, conversion of data from both sensor systems and consolidation of the entire Landsat archive at EDC will be completed by the end of 1994. Some MSS HDT's have deteriorated, primarily as a result of hydrolysis of the pigment binder. Based on a small sample of the 11 terabytes of post-1978 MSS data and the 41 terabytes of TM data to be converted, it appears that to date, less than 2 percent of the data have been lost. The data loss occurs within small portions of some scenes; few scenes are lost entirely. Approximately 10,000 pre-1979 MSS HDT's have deteriorated to such an extent, as a result of hydrolysis, that the data cannot be recovered without special treatment of

  12. Interim report on Landsat national archive activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boyd, John E.

    1993-01-01

    The Department of the Interior (DOI) has the responsibility to preserve and to distribute most Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) and Multispectral Scanner (MSS) data that have been acquired by the five Landsat satellites operational since July 1972. Data that are still covered by exclusive marketing rights, which were granted by the U.S. Government to the commercial Landsat operator, cannot be distributed by the DOI. As the designated national archive for Landsat data, the U.S. Geological Survey's EROS Data Center (EDC) has initiated two new programs to protect and make available any of the 625,000 MSS scenes currently archived and the 200,000 TM scenes to be archived at EDC by 1995. A specially configured system has begun converting Landsat MSS data from obsolete high density tapes (HDT's) to more dense digital cassette tapes. After transcription, continuous satellite swaths are (1) divided into standard scenes defined by a world reference system, (2) geographically located by latitude and longitude, and (3) assessed for overall quality. Digital browse images are created by subsampling the full-resolution swaths. Conversion of the TM HDT's will begin in the fourth quarter of 1992 and will be conducted concurrently with MSS conversion. Although the TM archive is three times larger than the entire MSS archive, conversion of data from both sensor systems and consolidation of the entire Landsat archive at EDC will be completed by the end of 1994. Some MSS HDT's have deteriorated, primarily as a result of hydrolysis of the pigment binder. Based on a small sample of the 11 terabytes of post-1978 MSS data and the 41 terabytes of TM data to be converted, it appears that to date, less than 2 percent of the data have been lost. The data loss occurs within small portions of some scenes; few scenes are lost entirely. Approximately 10,000 pre-1979 MSS HDT's have deteriorated to such an extent, as a result of hydrolysis, that the data cannot be recovered without special treatment of

  13. 36 CFR 1253.1 - National Archives Building.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false National Archives Building... Building. The National Archives Building is located at 700 Pennsylvania Avenue, NW., Washington, DC 20408... exhibit areas of the building will be no later than 30 minutes before the stated closing hour. The...

  14. 36 CFR 1253.1 - National Archives Building.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false National Archives Building... Building. The National Archives Building is located at 700 Pennsylvania Avenue, NW., Washington, DC 20408... exhibit areas of the building will be no later than 30 minutes before the stated closing hour. The phone...

  15. 36 CFR 1253.1 - National Archives Building.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false National Archives Building... Building. The National Archives Building is located at 700 Pennsylvania Avenue, NW., Washington, DC 20408... exhibit areas of the building will be no later than 30 minutes before the stated closing hour. The phone...

  16. The UK National Arts Education Archive: Ideas and Imaginings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, Jeff; Bailey, Rowan; Walton, Neil

    2017-01-01

    The National Arts Education Archive (NAEA) is housed and maintained by the Yorkshire Sculpture Park (YSP), and managed by YSP coordinators and educators with a well-established volunteer programme. This year, 2017, as part of the celebrations of the YSP's 40th anniversary, the Archive will hold its own exhibition entitled "Treasures…

  17. Material of Geographic Import in the National Anthropological Archives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glenn, James R.

    Presenting specific examples of the manuscripts, cartographic materials, and pictorial materials found in the National Anthropological Archives, this paper describes Archive holdings (in such areas as archeology, linguistics, physical anthropology, and various branches of ethnology) which are dated from 1850 to the present and are representative…

  18. Photocopy of drawing located at National Archives, San Bruno, California ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photocopy of drawing located at National Archives, San Bruno, California (Navy # 253-A-2). Mill work; October 1918. - Mare Island Naval Shipyard, Supply Building, Walnut Avenue, southeast corner of Walnut Avenue & Fifth Street, Vallejo, Solano County, CA

  19. Photocopy of drawing located at National Archives, San Bruno, California ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photocopy of drawing located at National Archives, San Bruno, California (Navy # P-A-4). Alterations; June 6, 1941. - Mare Island Naval Shipyard, Quarters P, Walnut Avenue, northwest corner of Walnut Avenue & Fifth Street, Vallejo, Solano County, CA

  20. Photocopy of drawing located at National Archives, San Bruno, California ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photocopy of drawing located at National Archives, San Bruno, California (Navy # 253-A-1). Plans elevations, sections and details; September 1918. - Mare Island Naval Shipyard, Supply Building, Walnut Avenue, southeast corner of Walnut Avenue & Fifth Street, Vallejo, Solano County, CA

  1. 9. Photocopy of drawing (Original in possession of National Archives ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. Photocopy of drawing (Original in possession of National Archives and Record Service, Record Group 92) Delineator unknown, Date unknown FIRST FLOOR PLAN - Omaha Quartermaster Depot Historic District, Twenty-second & Woolworth Streets, Omaha, Douglas County, NE

  2. 10. Photocopy of drawing (Original in possession of National Archives ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. Photocopy of drawing (Original in possession of National Archives and Record Service, Record Group 92) Delineator unknown, Date unknown SECOND FLOOR PLAN - Omaha Quartermaster Depot Historic District, Twenty-second & Woolworth Streets, Omaha, Douglas County, NE

  3. 8. Photocopy of drawing (Original in possession of National Archives ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. Photocopy of drawing (Original in possession of National Archives and Record Service, Record Group 92) Delineator unknown, Date unknown BASEMENT FLOOR PLAN - Omaha Quartermaster Depot Historic District, Twenty-second & Woolworth Streets, Omaha, Douglas County, NE

  4. 22. Photocopy of measured drawing (from National Archives) A. B. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    22. Photocopy of measured drawing (from National Archives) A. B. Mullett, architect ca. 1868 'LONGITUDINAL SECTION. ON CENTERLINE. NO. 8' - U. S. Customs House, 312 Fore Street, Portland, Cumberland County, ME

  5. Photocopy of drawing located at National Archives, San Bruno, California ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photocopy of drawing located at National Archives, San Bruno, California (Navy # H-72-A-8). Cross sections; N.D. - Mare Island Naval Shipyard, Hospital Wards, Cedar Avenue, eat side between Fourteenth Avenue & Cossey Street, Vallejo, Solano County, CA

  6. Photocopy of drawing located at National Archives, San Bruno, California ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photocopy of drawing located at National Archives, San Bruno, California (Navy # 680-A-3). Roof plan - skylight and gutter details; 1938. - Mare Island Naval Shipyard, Machine Shop, California Avenue, southwest corner of California Avenue & Thirteenth Street, Vallejo, Solano County, CA

  7. Photocopy of drawing located at National Archives, San Bruno, California ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photocopy of drawing located at National Archives, San Bruno, California (Navy # 680-A-1). Part of ground floor as built; 1936. - Mare Island Naval Shipyard, Machine Shop, California Avenue, southwest corner of California Avenue & Thirteenth Street, Vallejo, Solano County, CA

  8. Photocopy of drawing located at National Archives, San Bruno, California ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photocopy of drawing located at National Archives, San Bruno, California (Navy # 680-A-11). Window schedule and details; 1938. - Mare Island Naval Shipyard, Machine Shop, California Avenue, southwest corner of California Avenue & Thirteenth Street, Vallejo, Solano County, CA

  9. Photocopy of drawing located at National Archives, San Bruno, California ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photocopy of drawing located at National Archives, San Bruno, California (Navy # 680-A-7. Mezzanine floor plan details; 1938. - Mare Island Naval Shipyard, Machine Shop, California Avenue, southwest corner of California Avenue & Thirteenth Street, Vallejo, Solano County, CA

  10. 6. Historic American Buildings Survey, From National Archives Record Group ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. Historic American Buildings Survey, From National Archives Record Group 77, Fortifications File, Drawer 47, Sheet 45-4, PHOTOCOPY OF WEST VIEW, 1915. - Fort Mifflin, Guard House, Mud Island, Marine & Penrose Ferry Roads, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  11. 16. Historic American Buildings Survey, From National Archives Record Group ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    16. Historic American Buildings Survey, From National Archives Record Group 77, Fortifications File, Drawer 47, Sheet 45-14 PHOTOCOPY OF SOUTH CORNER, JULY, 1915. - Fort Mifflin, Officers' Quarters, Mud Island, Marine & Penrose Ferry Roads, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  12. 72. Historic American Buildings Survey, National Archives Record Group 77, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    72. Historic American Buildings Survey, National Archives Record Group 77, Fortifications File, Drawer 47, Sheet 45-9, Undated, PHOTOCOPY DETAIL OF CASEMATE GATES, EAST BASTION, JULY, 1915. - Fort Mifflin, Mud Island, Marine & Penrose Ferry Roads, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  13. 14. Historic American Buildings Survey, From the National Archives Record ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. Historic American Buildings Survey, From the National Archives Record Group 77, Fortifications File, Drawer 47, Sheet 45-12, PHOTOCOPY OF NORTH VIEW, JULY, 1915. - Fort Mifflin, Soldiers' Barracks, Mud Island, Marine & Penrose Ferry Roads, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  14. 17. Historic American Buildings Survey, From National Archives Record Group ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    17. Historic American Buildings Survey, From National Archives Record Group 77, Fortifications File, Drawer 47, Sheet 45-15 PHOTOCOPY OF SOUTHEAST ELEVATION, JULY, 1915. - Fort Mifflin, Officers' Quarters, Mud Island, Marine & Penrose Ferry Roads, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  15. Photocopies of original drawings (from National Archives, Cartographic Division, Record ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photocopies of original drawings (from National Archives, Cartographic Division, Record Group 156) Delineator unknown. (From Folder 5) 'BLACKMITH'S SHOP AT BENICIA ARSENAL, TRANSVERSE SECTION' - Benicia Arsenal, Shop Buildings, Tyler Street, Benicia Industrial Park, Benicia, Solano County, CA

  16. Photocopies of original drawings (from National Archives, Cartographic Division, Record ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photocopies of original drawings (from National Archives, Cartographic Division, Record Group 156) Delineator unknown. (From Folder 2) "SHOPS AT BENICIA, SECTIONS'* - Benicia Arsenal, Shop Buildings, Tyler Street, Benicia Industrial Park, Benicia, Solano County, CA

  17. Photocopies of original drawings (from National Archives, Cartographic Division, Record ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photocopies of original drawings (from National Archives, Cartographic Division, Record Group 156) Delineator unknown. (From Folder 5) 'BLACKSMITH'S SHOP AT BENICIA ARSENAL, FRONT ELEVATION' - Benicia Arsenal, Shop Buildings, Tyler Street, Benicia Industrial Park, Benicia, Solano County, CA

  18. Photocopies of original drawings (from National Archives, Cartographic Division, Record ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photocopies of original drawings (from National Archives, Cartographic Division, Record Group 156) Delineator unknown. (From Folder 4) 'MACHINE SHOP' PLAN, TRANSVERSE SECTION, LONGITUDINAL SECTION, DETAILS - Benicia Arsenal, Shop Buildings, Tyler Street, Benicia Industrial Park, Benicia, Solano County, CA

  19. Photocopies of original drawings (from National Archives, Cartographic Division, Record ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photocopies of original drawings (from National Archives, Cartographic Division, Record Group 156) Delineator unknown 7. May 20, 1881 (From Folder 2) 'SHOPS AT BENICIA, ELEVATION' - Benicia Arsenal, Shop Buildings, Tyler Street, Benicia Industrial Park, Benicia, Solano County, CA

  20. Photocopy of drawing located at National Archives, San Bruno, California ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photocopy of drawing located at National Archives, San Bruno, California (Navy #733-A-5). Details; October, 1943 - Mare Island Naval Shipyard, WAVES Officers Quarters, Cedar Avenue, west side between Tisdale Avenue & Eighth Street, Vallejo, Solano County, CA

  1. Photocopy of drawing located at National Archives, San Bruno, California ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photocopy of drawing located at National Archives, San Bruno, California (Navy #733-A-1). Plans; October, 1943 - Mare Island Naval Shipyard, WAVES Officers Quarters, Cedar Avenue, west side between Tisdale Avenue & Eighth Street, Vallejo, Solano County, CA

  2. Photocopy of drawing located at National Archives, San Bruno, California ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photocopy of drawing located at National Archives, San Bruno, California (Navy #733-A-6). Details; October, 1943 - Mare Island Naval Shipyard, WAVES Officers Quarters, Cedar Avenue, west side between Tisdale Avenue & Eighth Street, Vallejo, Solano County, CA

  3. Photocopy of drawing located at National Archives, San Bruno, California ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photocopy of drawing located at National Archives, San Bruno, California (Navy #733-A-4). Details; October, 1943 - Mare Island Naval Shipyard, WAVES Officers Quarters, Cedar Avenue, west side between Tisdale Avenue & Eighth Street, Vallejo, Solano County, CA

  4. Photocopy of drawing located at National Archives, San Bruno, California ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photocopy of drawing located at National Archives, San Bruno, California (Navy #733-A-2). Elevations; October, 1943. - Mare Island Naval Shipyard, WAVES Officers Quarters, Cedar Avenue, west side between Tisdale Avenue & Eighth Street, Vallejo, Solano County, CA

  5. Photocopy of drawing located at National Archives, San Bruno, California ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photocopy of drawing located at National Archives, San Bruno, California (Navy #733-A-3). Sections; October, 1943 - Mare Island Naval Shipyard, WAVES Officers Quarters, Cedar Avenue, west side between Tisdale Avenue & Eighth Street, Vallejo, Solano County, CA

  6. Photocopy of drawing located at National Archives, San Bruno, California ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photocopy of drawing located at National Archives, San Bruno, California (Navy # 505-A-3). Floor plan; October, 1938. - Mare Island Naval Shipyard, Defense Electronics Equipment Operating Center, I Street, terminus west of Cedar Avenue, Vallejo, Solano County, CA

  7. Photocopy of drawing located at National Archives, San Bruno, California ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photocopy of drawing located at National Archives, San Bruno, California (Navy # 505-A-16). Window details (as built); October, 1938. - Mare Island Naval Shipyard, Defense Electronics Equipment Operating Center, I Street, terminus west of Cedar Avenue, Vallejo, Solano County, CA

  8. Photocopy of drawing located at National Archives, San Bruno, California ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photocopy of drawing located at National Archives, San Bruno, California (Navy # 505-A-11). Tower and stair details; October, 1938. - Mare Island Naval Shipyard, Defense Electronics Equipment Operating Center, I Street, terminus west of Cedar Avenue, Vallejo, Solano County, CA

  9. Photocopy of drawing located at National Archives, San Bruno, California ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photocopy of drawing located at National Archives, San Bruno, California (Navy # 505-A-10). Exterior details; October, 1938. - Mare Island Naval Shipyard, Defense Electronics Equipment Operating Center, I Street, terminus west of Cedar Avenue, Vallejo, Solano County, CA

  10. Photocopy of drawing located at National Archives, San Bruno, California ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photocopy of drawing located at National Archives, San Bruno, California (Navy # 505-A-6). Elevations and sections; October 1938. - Mare Island Naval Shipyard, Defense Electronics Equipment Operating Center, I Street, terminus west of Cedar Avenue, Vallejo, Solano County, CA

  11. Photocopy of drawing located at National Archives, San Bruno, California ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photocopy of drawing located at National Archives, San Bruno, California (Navy # 505-A-9). Entrance details; October, 1938. - Mare Island Naval Shipyard, Defense Electronics Equipment Operating Center, I Street, terminus west of Cedar Avenue, Vallejo, Solano County, CA

  12. Photocopy of drawing located at National Archives, San Bruno, California ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photocopy of drawing located at National Archives, San Bruno, California (Navy # 505-A-14). Door schedule and details; October, 1938 - Mare Island Naval Shipyard, Defense Electronics Equipment Operating Center, I Street, terminus west of Cedar Avenue, Vallejo, Solano County, CA

  13. 6. Photocopy of map (from National Archives, Cartographic Division, Record ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. Photocopy of map (from National Archives, Cartographic Division, Record Group 77) Delineator unknown 1863 'MAP OF THE U.S. MILITARY RESERVE AT BENICIA CAL' - Benicia Arsenal, Benicia Industrial Park, Benicia, Solano County, CA

  14. Photocopy of drawing located at National Archives, San Bruno, California ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photocopy of drawing located at National Archives, San Bruno, California (Navy # 680-A-10). Machine shop door as built, details; 1938. - Mare Island Naval Shipyard, Machine Shop, California Avenue, southwest corner of California Avenue & Thirteenth Street, Vallejo, Solano County, CA

  15. 36 CFR § 1253.2 - National Archives at College Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2013-07-01 2012-07-01 true National Archives at College Park. § 1253.2 Section § 1253.2 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL ARCHIVES AND RECORDS... Archives at College Park. The National Archives at College Park is located at 8601 Adelphi Road, College...

  16. The long hold: Storing data at the National Archives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thibodeau, Kenneth

    1992-01-01

    The National Archives is, in many respects, in a unique position. For example, I find people from other organizations describing an archival medium as one which will last for three to five years. At the National Archives, we deal with the centuries, not years. From our perspective, there is no archival medium for data storage, and we do not expect there will ever be one. Predicting the long-term future of information technology beyond a mere five or ten years approaches the occult arts. But one prediction is probably safe. It is that the technology will continue to change, at least until analysts start talking about the post-information age. If we did have a medium which lasted a hundred years or longer, we probably would not have a device capable of reading it. The issue of obsolescence, as opposed to media stability, is more complex and more costly. It is especially complex at the National Archives because of two other aspects of our peculiar position. The first aspect is that we deal with incoherent data. The second is that we are charged with satisfying unknown and unknowable requirements. A brief overview of these aspects is presented.

  17. NASA's astrophysics archives at the National Space Science Data Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vansteenberg, M. E.

    1992-01-01

    NASA maintains an archive facility for Astronomical Science data collected from NASA's missions at the National Space Science Data Center (NSSDC) at Goddard Space Flight Center. This archive was created to insure the science data collected by NASA would be preserved and useable in the future by the science community. Through 25 years of operation there are many lessons learned, from data collection procedures, archive preservation methods, and distribution to the community. This document presents some of these more important lessons, for example: KISS (Keep It Simple, Stupid) in system development. Also addressed are some of the myths of archiving, such as 'scientists always know everything about everything', or 'it cannot possibly be that hard, after all simple data tech's do it'. There are indeed good reasons that a proper archive capability is needed by the astronomical community, the important question is how to use the existing expertise as well as the new innovative ideas to do the best job archiving this valuable science data.

  18. Photocopy of drawing located at National Archives, San Bruno, California ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photocopy of drawing located at National Archives, San Bruno, California (Navy # P-A-3.) Navy yard mare island, cal quarters P. conditions as of 3-22-27; March 22, 1937. - Mare Island Naval Shipyard, Quarters P, Walnut Avenue, northwest corner of Walnut Avenue & Fifth Street, Vallejo, Solano County, CA

  19. Photocopy of drawing located at National Archives, San Bruno, California ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photocopy of drawing located at National Archives, San Bruno, California (Navy # P-A-2). Quarters P U.S. Navy Yard Mare Island Cal elevations, porch and screening, October, 1911. - Mare Island Naval Shipyard, Quarters P, Walnut Avenue, northwest corner of Walnut Avenue & Fifth Street, Vallejo, Solano County, CA

  20. Photocopy of drawing located at National Archives, San Bruno, California ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photocopy of drawing located at National Archives, San Bruno, California (Navy # 87-A-7). Minsy PW record floor plan building 87; N.D. - Mare Island Naval Shipyard, Boiler Shop, Waterfront Avenue, west side between A Street & Third Street, Vallejo, Solano County, CA

  1. Photocopy of drawing located at National Archives, San Bruno, California ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photocopy of drawing located at National Archives, San Bruno, California (Navy # 47-A-33). Public works minsy "building no. 47 and 47A record 1st floor plan; " October 30, 1970. - Mare Island Naval Shipyard, Old Administrative Offices, Eighth Street, north side between Railroad Avenue & Walnut Avenue, Vallejo, Solano County, CA

  2. Photocopy of drawing located at National Archives, San Bruno, California ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photocopy of drawing located at National Archives, San Bruno, California (Navy # 47-A-32). Public works minsy "building no. 47 and 47A record basement plan;" July 9, 1956. - Mare Island Naval Shipyard, Old Administrative Offices, Eighth Street, north side between Railroad Avenue & Walnut Avenue, Vallejo, Solano County, CA

  3. Photocopy of original drawings (original located at the National Archives, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photocopy of original drawings (original located at the National Archives, San Bruno, California, Navy # 104-A-22), showing current floor plan. Department of the Navy, Bureau of Yards and Docks, "Record drawing, N.D. - Mare Island Naval Shipyard, St. Peter's Chapel, Walnut Street & Cedar Parkway, Vallejo, Solano County, CA

  4. Photocopy of drawing located at National Archives, San Bruno, California ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photocopy of drawing located at National Archives, San Bruno, California (Navy # 87-A-7). Minsy PW record floor plan building 87; N.D. - Mare Island Naval Shipyard, Machine Shop, Waterfront Avenue, west side between A Street & Third Street, Vallejo, Solano County, CA

  5. Photocopy of drawing located at National Archives, San Bruno, California ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photocopy of drawing located at National Archives, San Bruno, California (Navy # 88-A-3). PW Building 88-records for apprentice school; October 8, 1940. - Mare Island Naval Shipyard, Stables, Cedar Avenue, east side Cedar Avenue, north of Fourteenth Street, Vallejo, Solano County, CA

  6. Photocopy of drawing located at National Archives, San Bruno, California ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photocopy of drawing located at National Archives, San Bruno, California (Navy # 47-A-35). Public works minsy "building no. 47 and 47A record 3rd floor plan;" June 23, 1951. - Mare Island Naval Shipyard, Old Administrative Offices, Eighth Street, north side between Railroad Avenue & Walnut Avenue, Vallejo, Solano County, CA

  7. Photocopy of original drawings (original located at the National Archives, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photocopy of original drawings (original located at the National Archives, San Bruno, California, Navy # 104-A-25) William Jeffries Associates, A.I.A., "Repair to stained glass window, building 104, elevation & details," September 1952. - Mare Island Naval Shipyard, St. Peter's Chapel, Walnut Street & Cedar Parkway, Vallejo, Solano County, CA

  8. Photocopy of drawing located at National Archives, San Bruno, California ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photocopy of drawing located at National Archives, San Bruno, California (Navy # 106-A-5). Plan proposed for boat shop building no. 106 US Navy Yard Mare Island, Cal details of mortar details; February, 1902. - Mare Island Naval Shipyard, Boat Shop, California Avenue, west side between Ninth & Tenth Streets, Vallejo, Solano County, CA

  9. Photocopy of drawing located at National Archives, San Bruno, California ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photocopy of drawing located at National Archives, San Bruno, California (Navy # H-1-A-28). PW Dept, US Navy Yard Mare Island Cal U.S. Naval Hospital reconstruction - building H-1 plans of basement & first floor, January, 1924. - Mare Island Naval Shipyard, Hospital Headquarters, Johnson Lane, west side at intersection of Johnson Lane & Cossey Street, Vallejo, Solano County, CA

  10. Photocopy of drawing located at National Archives, San Bruno, California ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photocopy of drawing located at National Archives, San Bruno, California (Navy # 106-A-6). Plan proposed for boat shop building No. 106 US Navy Yard Mare Island, Cal details of mortar woodwork; February, 1902. - Mare Island Naval Shipyard, Boat Shop, California Avenue, west side between Ninth & Tenth Streets, Vallejo, Solano County, CA

  11. Photocopy of drawing located at National Archives, San Bruno, California ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photocopy of drawing located at National Archives, San Bruno, California (Navy # H-1-A-29). PW Dept. US Navy Yard Mare Island Cal. U.S. Naval Hospital reconstruction - building H-1 plans of 2nd and 3rd floors, January, 1924. - Mare Island Naval Shipyard, Hospital Headquarters, Johnson Lane, west side at intersection of Johnson Lane & Cossey Street, Vallejo, Solano County, CA

  12. Photocopy of drawing located at National Archives, San Bruno, California ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photocopy of drawing located at National Archives, San Bruno, California (Navy # 106-A-3). Plan proposed for boat shop building no. 106 US Navy Yard Mare Island, Cal details of elevations plans and sections; February, 1902. - Mare Island Naval Shipyard, Boat Shop, California Avenue, west side between Ninth & Tenth Streets, Vallejo, Solano County, CA

  13. Photocopy of drawing located at National Archives, San Bruno, California ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photocopy of drawing located at National Archives, San Bruno, California (Navy # U-A-2). Dept. PW, US Navy Yard Mare Island, Calif. Radio station Mare Island alternate quarters for officers in charge plans elevations and sections; May, 1921. - Mare Island Naval Shipyard, Quarters U, Cedar Avenue, west side between Tenth Street & Walnut Avenue, Vallejo, Solano County, CA

  14. Photocopy of drawing located at National Archives, San Bruno, California ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photocopy of drawing located at National Archives, San Bruno, California ( Navy # M37-A-20). Budocks porch screens and sash sums barracks, US Navy Yard Mare Island, Cal. May, 1916. - Mare Island Naval Shipyard, Marine Barracks, Cedar Avenue, west side between Twelfth & Fourteenth Streets, Vallejo, Solano County, CA

  15. Photocopy of drawing located at National Archives, San Bruno, California ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photocopy of drawing located at National Archives, San Bruno, California (Navy # A 45-6). US Navy Yard Mare Island Cal additions to quarters for gunner magazine reservation; August, Ca. 1910. - Mare Island Naval Shipyard, Gunner's House, Maseda Road, west side near intersection of Imhoff Road, Vallejo, Solano County, CA

  16. Photocopy of drawing located at National Archives, San Bruno, California ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photocopy of drawing located at National Archives, San Bruno, California {Navy #29-A-3). "PLAN PROPOSED FOR COTTAGE FOR ELECTRICIAN AT THE US NAVY YARD MARE ISLAND;" N.D, - Mare Island Naval Shipyard, Quarters 29, Walnut Avenue, west side between Third & Fifth Streets, Vallejo, Solano County, CA

  17. Photocopy of drawing located at National Archives, San Bruno, California ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photocopy of drawing located at National Archives, San Bruno, California (Navy # A45-3). US Navy Yard Mare Island Cal ammunition depot quarters A45 new porch & stair to 2nd floor plans, elevations and details; May 5, 1939. - Mare Island Naval Shipyard, Gunner's House, Maseda Road, west side near intersection of Imhoff Road, Vallejo, Solano County, CA

  18. Photocopy of drawing located at National Archives, San Bruno, California ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photocopy of drawing located at National Archives, San Bruno, California (Navy # U-A-1). Dept PW, US Navy Yard Mare Island, Calif. alternative quarters for officers in charge plans, plans elevations, and sections; May 1921. - Mare Island Naval Shipyard, Quarters U, Cedar Avenue, west side between Tenth Street & Walnut Avenue, Vallejo, Solano County, CA

  19. Photocopy of drawing located at National Archives, San Bruno, California ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photocopy of drawing located at National Archives, San Bruno, California (Navy # 106-A-4). Plan proposed for boat shop building no. 106 US Navy Yard Mare Island, Cal details of exterior details; February, 1902. - Mare Island Naval Shipyard, Boat Shop, California Avenue, west side between Ninth & Tenth Streets, Vallejo, Solano County, CA

  20. Photocopy of drawing located at National Archives, San Bruno. California ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photocopy of drawing located at National Archives, San Bruno. California (Navy #231-A-1). DEPT. PW US NAVY YARD MARE ISLAND CAL "STABLE - U.S. NAVY YARD MARE ISLAND CAL;" DECEMBER, 1917. - Mare Island Naval Shipyard, Transportation Building & Gas Station, Third Street, south side between Walnut Avenue & Cedar Avenue, Vallejo, Solano County, CA

  1. Photocopy of drawing located at National Archives, San Bruno, California ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photocopy of drawing located at National Archives, San Bruno, California ( Navy # U-A-3). U.S. Navy Yard Mare Island Radio Station Mare Island quarters U additions; July 13, 1926. - Mare Island Naval Shipyard, Quarters U, Cedar Avenue, west side between Tenth Street & Walnut Avenue, Vallejo, Solano County, CA

  2. Photocopy of drawing located at National Archives, San Bruno, California ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photocopy of drawing located at National Archives, San Bruno, California (Navy # 121-A-15). Building 121 sta-b central power plant switch gear and office annex elevations; July, 1942. - Mare Island Naval Shipyard, Central Power Plant, California Avenue, norhtwest corner of California Avenue & Seventh Street, Vallejo, Solano County, CA

  3. Photocopy of original drawings (original located at the National Archives, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photocopy of original drawings (original located at the National Archives, San Bruno, California, Navy # 104-A-14). Dept. of yards and docks, "Chapel amplifier support," October 1945. - Mare Island Naval Shipyard, St. Peter's Chapel, Walnut Street & Cedar Parkway, Vallejo, Solano County, CA

  4. 7. Photographic copy of photograph (Source: National Archives, Rocky Mountain ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. Photographic copy of photograph (Source: National Archives, Rocky Mountain Region, Denver, Salt River Project History, Final History to 1916. p. 506) Interior view of transformer house. No date. CA. 1916. - Theodore Roosevelt Dam, Transformer House, Salt River, Tortilla Flat, Maricopa County, AZ

  5. 7. Photographic copy of photograph (Source: National Archives, Rocky Mountain ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. Photographic copy of photograph (Source: National Archives, Rocky Mountain Region, Denver, Salt River Project History, Final History to 1916. p. 504) Inside Roosevelt power plant showing size of valve. CA. 1916. - Theodore Roosevelt Dam, Power Plant, Salt River, Tortilla Flat, Maricopa County, AZ

  6. Photocopy of drawing located at National Archives, San Bruno, California ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photocopy of drawing located at National Archives, San Bruno, California (Navy #23l-A-3). MINSY "BUILDING 231 ALTERATIONS AND ADDITION PLANS, ELEVATION AND SECTIONS;" OCTOBER 12, 1961 - Mare Island Naval Shipyard, Transportation Building & Gas Station, Third Street, south side between Walnut Avenue & Cedar Avenue, Vallejo, Solano County, CA

  7. Photocopy of drawing located at National Archives, San Bruno, California ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photocopy of drawing located at National Archives, San Bruno, California (Navy #231-A-2). DEPT. PW US NAVY YARD MARE ISLAND, CAL "BUILDING 231 STABLE - DETAILS OF DOORS AND WINDOWS;" DECEMBER, 1918 - Mare Island Naval Shipyard, Transportation Building & Gas Station, Third Street, south side between Walnut Avenue & Cedar Avenue, Vallejo, Solano County, CA

  8. Photocopy of drawing located at National Archives, San Bruno, California ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photocopy of drawing located at National Archives, San Bruno, California (Navy # M37-A-5). Marine barracks, US Navy Yard Mare Island, Cal second floor right half; July 30, 1915. - Mare Island Naval Shipyard, Marine Barracks, Cedar Avenue, west side between Twelfth & Fourteenth Streets, Vallejo, Solano County, CA

  9. Photocopy of drawing located at National Archives, San Bruno, California ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photocopy of drawing located at National Archives, San Bruno, California (Navy # M37-A-7). Marine barracks, US Navy Yare Mare Island, Cal front block left half, July 30, 1915. - Mare Island Naval Shipyard, Marine Barracks, Cedar Avenue, west side between Twelfth & Fourteenth Streets, Vallejo, Solano County, CA

  10. Photocopy of drawing located at National Archives, San Bruno, California ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photocopy of drawing located at National Archives, San Bruno, California (Navy # M37-A-3). Marine barracks, US Navy Yard Mare Island, Cal first floor left half, July 30, 1915. - Mare Island Naval Shipyard, Marine Barracks, Cedar Avenue, west side between Twelfth & Fourteenth Streets, Vallejo, Solano County, CA

  11. Photocopy of drawing located at National Archives, San Bruno, California ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photocopy of drawing located at National Archives, San Bruno, California (Navy # M37-A-6). Marine Barracks, US Navy Yard Mare Island, Cal third floor left half, July 30, 1915. - Mare Island Naval Shipyard, Marine Barracks, Cedar Avenue, west side between Twelfth & Fourteenth Streets, Vallejo, Solano County, CA

  12. Photocopy of drawing located at National Archives, San Bruno, California ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photocopy of drawing located at National Archives, San Bruno, California (Navy # M37-A-4). Marine barracks, US Navy Yard Mare Island, Cal first floor right half, July 30, 1915. - Mare Island Naval Shipyard, Marine Barracks, Cedar Avenue, west side between Twelfth & Fourteenth Streets, Vallejo, Solano County, CA

  13. Photocopy of drawing located at National Archives, San Bruno, California ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photocopy of drawing located at National Archives, San Bruno, California (Navy # MI-A-E-5). Dept PW, US Navy Yard Mare Island Calif. U.S. Marine reconstruction remodeling, rebuilding quarters M-1 plans and elevations; April, 1922. - Mare Island Naval Shipyard, Quarters M1, Preston Street, south side adjacent to Marine Parade Grounds, Vallejo, Solano County, CA

  14. Photocopy of drawing located at National Archives, San Bruno, California ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photocopy of drawing located at National Archives, San Bruno, California (Navy # M37-A-2). Marine barracks, US Navy Yard Mare Island, Cal basement plan right half, July 30, 1915. - Mare Island Naval Shipyard, Marine Barracks, Cedar Avenue, west side between Twelfth & Fourteenth Streets, Vallejo, Solano County, CA

  15. Photocopy of drawing located at National Archives, San Bruno, California ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photocopy of drawing located at National Archives, San Bruno, California (Navy # MI-A-6). Dept. PW, US Navy Yard Mare Island, Calif. US Marine reconstruction, remodeling and rebuilding quarters M-1 details, N.D. - Mare Island Naval Shipyard, Quarters M1, Preston Street, south side adjacent to Marine Parade Grounds, Vallejo, Solano County, CA

  16. Photocopy of drawing located at National Archives, San Bruno, California ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photocopy of drawing located at National Archives, San Bruno, California (Navy # M1-A-3). Dept PW, US Navy Yard Mare Island, Calif. US Marines Reconstruction officers quarters no. 1 additions and alterations, plans, sections, details, March 26, 1920. - Mare Island Naval Shipyard, Quarters M1, Preston Street, south side adjacent to Marine Parade Grounds, Vallejo, Solano County, CA

  17. Photocopy of drawing located at National Archives, San Bruno, California ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photocopy of drawing located at National Archives, San Bruno, California (Navy # 106-A-18). NAVFAC, relocate sail, loft, building 106 1st floor plan, boat shop. August 2, 1977. - Mare Island Naval Shipyard, Boat Shop, California Avenue, west side between Ninth & Tenth Streets, Vallejo, Solano County, CA

  18. Photocopy of drawing located at National Archives, San Bruno, California ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photocopy of drawing located at National Archives, San Bruno, California (Navy # 106-A-17). NAVFAC relocated sail loft building 106 1st floor plan; sail loft area, August 1, 1977. - Mare Island Naval Shipyard, Boat Shop, California Avenue, west side between Ninth & Tenth Streets, Vallejo, Solano County, CA

  19. Photocopy of drawing located at National Archives, San Bruno, California ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photocopy of drawing located at National Archives, San Bruno, California (Navy # 65-A-4). Minsy building no. 65 first floor alterations; November 15, 1950. - Mare Island Naval Shipyard, Printing Plant, California Avenue, northwest corner of California Avenue & Eighth Street, Vallejo, Solano County, CA

  20. Photocopy of drawing located at National Archives, San Bruno, California ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photocopy of drawing located at National Archives, San Bruno, California (Navy # 46-A-17). Department Navy Navfac minsy "building 46 - north (inside of "U") and south elevations;" June 30, 1972. - Mare Island Naval Shipyard, Smithery, California Avenue, west side at California Avenue & Eighth Street, Vallejo, Solano County, CA

  1. Photocopy of drawing located at National Archives, San Bruno, California ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photocopy of drawing located at National Archives, San Bruno, California (Navy # 121-A-9). Navy Yard Mare Island, Cal building 121 central power plant, power plant extension elevations; November 2, 1938. - Mare Island Naval Shipyard, Central Power Plant, California Avenue, norhtwest corner of California Avenue & Seventh Street, Vallejo, Solano County, CA

  2. Photocopy of drawing located at National Archives, San Bruno, California ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photocopy of drawing located at National Archives, San Bruno, California (Navy # 46-A-1). Public works Navy Yard Mare Island California "remodeling building 36, 40, 42, and 48 for pipe and copper shop, general plan building 46;" November 13, 1931. - Mare Island Naval Shipyard, Smithery, California Avenue, west side at California Avenue & Eighth Street, Vallejo, Solano County, CA

  3. Photocopy of drawing located at National Archives, San Bruno, California ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photocopy of drawing located at National Archives, San Bruno, California (Navy # 680-A-5). Part east and west elevations, south elevation and alteration A&B; N.D. - Mare Island Naval Shipyard, Machine Shop, California Avenue, southwest corner of California Avenue & Thirteenth Street, Vallejo, Solano County, CA

  4. Photocopy of drawing located at National Archives, San Bruno, California ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photocopy of drawing located at National Archives, San Bruno, California (Navy # 121-A-42). Window repair to Shimuru and Oweill Architects building 12); June 16, 1962. - Mare Island Naval Shipyard, Central Power Plant, California Avenue, norhtwest corner of California Avenue & Seventh Street, Vallejo, Solano County, CA

  5. Photocopy of drawing located at National Archives, San Bruno, California ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photocopy of drawing located at National Archives, San Bruno, California (Navy # 46-A-16). Department Navy NAVFAC minsy "building 46-north and west elevations; June 30, 1977. - Mare Island Naval Shipyard, Smithery, California Avenue, west side at California Avenue & Eighth Street, Vallejo, Solano County, CA

  6. Photocopy of drawing located at National Archives, San Bruno, California ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photocopy of drawing located at National Archives, San Bruno, California (Navy # 680-A-2). Part of ground floor, optical shop and roof periscope testing tower; 1936. - Mare Island Naval Shipyard, Machine Shop, California Avenue, southwest corner of California Avenue & Thirteenth Street, Vallejo, Solano County, CA

  7. Photocopy of drawing located at National Archives, San Bruno, California ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photocopy of drawing located at National Archives, San Bruno, California (Navy # 121-A-43). Shimuru & Oweill Architects east and south elevations; N.D. - Mare Island Naval Shipyard, Central Power Plant, California Avenue, norhtwest corner of California Avenue & Seventh Street, Vallejo, Solano County, CA

  8. Photocopy of drawing located at National Archives, San Bruno, California ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photocopy of drawing located at National Archives, San Bruno, California (Navy # 65-A-8). Plan proposed for storehouse for equipment materials at U.S. Navy Yard Mare Island Cal., building 65; January, 1900 - Mare Island Naval Shipyard, Printing Plant, California Avenue, northwest corner of California Avenue & Eighth Street, Vallejo, Solano County, CA

  9. Photocopy of drawing located at National Archives, San Bruno, California ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photocopy of drawing located at National Archives, San Bruno, California (Navy # 680-A-4). North part east and west, elevations and sections A-A, N.D. - Mare Island Naval Shipyard, Machine Shop, California Avenue, southwest corner of California Avenue & Thirteenth Street, Vallejo, Solano County, CA

  10. Photocopy of drawing located at National Archives, San Bruno, California ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photocopy of drawing located at National Archives, San Bruno, California (Navy # 121-A-10). Navy Yard Mare Island, Cal Building 121 central power plant power plant extension-details; November 2, 1938 - Mare Island Naval Shipyard, Central Power Plant, California Avenue, norhtwest corner of California Avenue & Seventh Street, Vallejo, Solano County, CA

  11. Photocopy of drawing located at National Archives, San Bruno, California ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photocopy of drawing located at National Archives, San Bruno, California (Navy # 84-A-20). Navy Yard Mare Island prison extension building no. 84 washing and drying room - architectural and electrical plan, elevations and details; October 12, 1942. - Mare Island Naval Shipyard, Marine Prison, Suisun Avenue, west side between Mesa Road & San Pablo, Vallejo, Solano County, CA

  12. Photocopy of drawing located at National Archives, San Bruno, California ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photocopy of drawing located at National Archives, San Bruno, California (Navy # 253-A-3). (6079235) 76-C-8977 sealing & painting bldg. 253, architectural-exterior, elevations & key plan; August 10, 1976. - Mare Island Naval Shipyard, Supply Building, Walnut Avenue, southeast corner of Walnut Avenue & Fifth Street, Vallejo, Solano County, CA

  13. Photocopy of original drawings (original located at the National Archives, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photocopy of original drawings (original located at the National Archives, San Bruno, California, Navy # A-21). Dept. of the Navy District Public Works Office, "additions, floor plan, elevations & details; architectural, mechanical & electrical," May 1963. - Mare Island Naval Shipyard, St. Peter's Chapel, Walnut Street & Cedar Parkway, Vallejo, Solano County, CA

  14. Photocopy of drawing located at National Archives, San Bruno, California ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photocopy of drawing located at National Archives, San Bruno, California (Navy # 46-A-11). Dept. Navy Navfac Minsy "Building no. 46 extension of office, architectural; October 12, 1968. - Mare Island Naval Shipyard, Smithery, California Avenue, west side at California Avenue & Eighth Street, Vallejo, Solano County, CA

  15. Photocopy of drawing located at National Archives, San Bruno, California ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photocopy of drawing located at National Archives, San Bruno, California (Navy # 121-A-37). Minsy building 121 fallout shelter area generator floor plan; N.D. - Mare Island Naval Shipyard, Central Power Plant, California Avenue, norhtwest corner of California Avenue & Seventh Street, Vallejo, Solano County, CA

  16. Photocopy of drawing located at National Archives, San Bruno, California ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photocopy of drawing located at National Archives, San Bruno, California (Navy #926-A-12). Exterior stairs on ends on wings-details; N.D. - Mare Island Naval Shipyard, Wilderman Hall, Johnson Lane, north side adjacent to (south of) Hospital Complex, Vallejo, Solano County, CA

  17. Photocopy of drawing located at National Archives, San Bruno, California ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photocopy of drawing located at National Archives, San Bruno, California (Navy 271-A-17). Minsy building 271 record 1st floor plan; N.D. - Mare Island Naval Shipyard, Mechanics Shop, Waterfront Avenue, west side between A Street & Third Street, Vallejo, Solano County, CA

  18. 10. Historic American Buildings Survey, From National Archives Record Group ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. Historic American Buildings Survey, From National Archives Record Group 77, Fortifications file, Drawer 47, Sheet 9, See Catalog of Graphic Material #71, PHOTOCOPY OF 1839 PLAN OF FORT MIFFLIN, BUILDINGS, ETC. - Fort Mifflin, Mud Island, Marine & Penrose Ferry Roads, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  19. 70. Historic American Buildings Survey, National Archives Record Group 77, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    70. Historic American Buildings Survey, National Archives Record Group 77, Fortifications File, Drawer 47, Sheet 45-8, PHOTOCOPY OF GENERAL VIEW OF SOUTHEAST SALLY PORT AND THE EAST BASTION, JULY, 1915. - Fort Mifflin, Mud Island, Marine & Penrose Ferry Roads, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  20. 14. Historic American Buildings Survey, From National Archives Record Group ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. Historic American Buildings Survey, From National Archives Record Group 77; Fortifications File, Drawer 251, Sheet 15-24, See Catalog of Graphic Material #130, PHOTOCOPY OF 1901 PLAN OF FORT MIFFLIN, 'STATE OF ARMAMENT'. - Fort Mifflin, Mud Island, Marine & Penrose Ferry Roads, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  1. 8. Historic American Buildings Survey, From National Archives Record Group ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. Historic American Buildings Survey, From National Archives Record Group 77, Fortifications file, Drawer 47, Sheet 4, See Catalog of Graphic Material #64, PHOTOCOPY OF 1815 PLAN OF FORT MIFFLIN. - Fort Mifflin, Mud Island, Marine & Penrose Ferry Roads, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  2. 11. Historic American Buildings Survey, From National Archives Record Group ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. Historic American Buildings Survey, From National Archives Record Group 77, Fortifications file, Drawer 47, Sheet 10, See Catalog of Graphic Material #71, PHOTOCOPY OF 1839 PLANS OF 'BUILDINGS OF FORT MIFFLIN'. - Fort Mifflin, Mud Island, Marine & Penrose Ferry Roads, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  3. 69. Historic American Buildings Survey, National Archives Record Group 77, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    69. Historic American Buildings Survey, National Archives Record Group 77, Fortifications File, Drawer 47, Sheet 45-11, Undated, PHOTOCOPY DETAIL VIEW OF THE PARADE ELEVATION OF THE SOUTHEAST SALLY PORT, JULY, 1915. - Fort Mifflin, Mud Island, Marine & Penrose Ferry Roads, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  4. 22. Photocopy of drawings from National Archives, Record Group 77, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    22. Photocopy of drawings from National Archives, Record Group 77, Fortifications File, Drawer 76, sheet 132 Delineator unknown, 1861 PLANS, SECTIONS, ELEVATIONS AND DETAILS OF ADVANCED TOWERS No. 1 and No. 2 - Fort Taylor, Whitehead Spit Vicinity, Key West, Monroe County, FL

  5. Photocopy of drawing located at National Archives, San Bruno, California ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photocopy of drawing located at National Archives, San Bruno, California (Navy # 121-A-23). PW Minsy Building 121 record ground floor plan; N.D. - Mare Island Naval Shipyard, Central Power Plant, California Avenue, norhtwest corner of California Avenue & Seventh Street, Vallejo, Solano County, CA

  6. National Archives and Records Administration Community College Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Archives and Records Service (GSA), Washington, DC.

    Information is provided on the U.S. National Archives' Community College Program (CCP). First, a program announcement is provided, which indicates that the CCP provides reproductions of primary sources to community, technical and junior college instructors teaching occupational and transfer degree programs. This announcement lists the kinds of…

  7. Photocopy of drawing located at National Archives, San Bruno, California ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photocopy of drawing located at National Archives, San Bruno, California (Navy #733-A-7). (Record drawing) First and second floor plans; N.D. - Mare Island Naval Shipyard, WAVES Officers Quarters, Cedar Avenue, west side between Tisdale Avenue & Eighth Street, Vallejo, Solano County, CA

  8. Photocopies of original drawings (from National Archives, Cartographic Division, Record ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photocopies of original drawings (from National Archives, Cartographic Division, Record Group 156) Delineator unknown. (From Folder 2) MACHINE SHOP, PORTION OF 'SIDE ELEVATION' (Right half of CA-1833-12) - Benicia Arsenal, Shop Buildings, Tyler Street, Benicia Industrial Park, Benicia, Solano County, CA

  9. Photocopies of original drawings (from National Archives, Cartographic Division, Record ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photocopies of original drawings (from National Archives, Cartographic Division, Record Group 156) Delineator unknown. 14. May 12, 1875 (From Folder 1) 'NEW SHOP BENICIA ARSENAL, SIDE ELEVATION' (Left half of CA-1833-15) 15. (From Folder 1) 'NEW SHOP BENICIA ARSENAL, FRONT ELEVATION' (Right half of CA-1833-14) - Benicia Arsenal, Shop Buildings, Tyler Street, Benicia Industrial Park, Benicia, Solano County, CA

  10. Photocopies of original drawings (from National Archives, Cartographic Division, Record ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photocopies of original drawings (from National Archives, Cartographic Division, Record Group 156) Delineator unknown. July 25, 1874 (From Folder 5) 'BLACKSMITH'S SHOP AT BENICIA ARSENAL' PLAN AND ELEVATIONS - Benicia Arsenal, Shop Buildings, Tyler Street, Benicia Industrial Park, Benicia, Solano County, CA

  11. 9. Photocopy of original drawings (from National Archives, Cartographic Division, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. Photocopy of original drawings (from National Archives, Cartographic Division, Record Group 156, Folder 3) Delineator and date unknown 'DESIGNS FOR OFFICERS QUARTERS AT BENICIA ARSENAL CAL, C.O. QUARTERS, LIEUT'S QUARTERS' PLANS AND ELEVATIONS - Benicia Arsenal, Commanding Officer's Quarters, Benicia, Solano County, CA

  12. Photocopies of original drawings (from National Archives, Cartographic Division, Record ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photocopies of original drawings (from National Archives, Cartographic Division, Record Group 156) Delineator unknown. (From Folder 1) 'NEW SHOP BENICIA ARSENAL, FRONT ELEVATION' AND PORTION OF SIDE (Left half of CA-1833-13) - Benicia Arsenal, Shop Buildings, Tyler Street, Benicia Industrial Park, Benicia, Solano County, CA

  13. Photocopy of drawing located at National Archives, San Bruno, California ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photocopy of drawing located at National Archives, San Bruno, California (Navy # A43-9). Concrete trench and piping; February 23, 1933. - Mare Island Naval Shipyard, Quarters A43, Maseda Road, cul-de-sac east of intersection of Imhoff Road, Vallejo, Solano County, CA

  14. Photocopy of drawing located at National Archives, San Bruno, California ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photocopy of drawing located at National Archives, San Bruno, California (Navy # 88-A-2). PW U.S. Navy Yard Mare Island Building 88 traced from original drawing former stables now used by supply depot for storage and target material; July, 1923. - Mare Island Naval Shipyard, Stables, Cedar Avenue, east side Cedar Avenue, north of Fourteenth Street, Vallejo, Solano County, CA

  15. 3. Photocopy of architectural drawings (from National Archives, Cartographic Division, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. Photocopy of architectural drawings (from National Archives, Cartographic Division, Record Group 156, Folder 1) Delineator unknown January, 1869 'U.S. OFFICES BENICIA ARSENAL, ROOF PLAN, SECOND FLOOR PLAN, GROUND PLAN, BASEMENT PLAN' - Benicia Arsenal, Office Building, M Street vicinity, Benicia, Solano County, CA

  16. 9. Photocopy of architectural drawing (from National Archives Architectural and ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. Photocopy of architectural drawing (from National Archives Architectural and Cartographic Branch, Alexandria, Va.) Annotated lithograph on paper. Standard plan used for construction of Commissary Sergeants Quarters, 1876. PLAN, FRONT AND SIDE ELEVATIONS, SECTION - Fort Myer, Commissary Sergeant's Quarters, Washington Avenue between Johnson Lane & Custer Road, Arlington, Arlington County, VA

  17. 11. Photocopy of architectural drawing (from National Archives Architectural and ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. Photocopy of architectural drawing (from National Archives Architectural and Cartographic Branch Alexandria, Va.) 'Non-Com-Officers Qrs.' Quartermaster General's Office Standard Plan 82, sheet 1. Lithograph on linen architectural drawing. April 1893 3 ELEVATIONS, 3 PLANS AND A PARTIAL SECTION - Fort Myer, Non-Commissioned Officers Quarters, Washington Avenue between Johnson Lane & Custer Road, Arlington, Arlington County, VA

  18. 12. Photocopy of architectural drawing (from National Archives Architectural and ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. Photocopy of architectural drawing (from National Archives Architectural and Cartographic Branch, Alexandria, Va.) 'Non-Com-Officers Qrs.' Quartermaster Generals Office Standard Plan 82, sheet 2, April 1893. Lithograph on linen architectural drawing. DETAILS - Fort Myer, Non-Commissioned Officers Quarters, Washington Avenue between Johnson Lane & Custer Road, Arlington, Arlington County, VA

  19. Photocopy of drawing located at National Archives, San Bruno, California ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photocopy of drawing located at National Archives, San Bruno, California (Navy # 52-A-1). Design for iron plating shop at Navy Yard, Mare Island; floor plan; N.D. - Mare Island Naval Shipyard, No. 70 Iron Platers, California Avenue, west side across from Drydock 1 near Ninth Street, Vallejo, Solano County, CA

  20. 7. Historic American Buildings Survey, From National Archives Record Group ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. Historic American Buildings Survey, From National Archives Record Group 77, Buell Collection, Document 58510/111, See Catalog of Graphic Material #61 PHOTOCOPY OF 'SKETCH OF THE WALLS AND DITCHES OF FORT MIFFLIN', 1807. - Fort Mifflin, Mud Island, Marine & Penrose Ferry Roads, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  1. Photocopy of drawing located at National Archives, San Bruno, California ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photocopy of drawing located at National Archives, San Bruno, California (Navy #926-A-4). Second floor plan, plan of typical nurses room; N.D. - Mare Island Naval Shipyard, Wilderman Hall, Johnson Lane, north side adjacent to (south of) Hospital Complex, Vallejo, Solano County, CA

  2. Photocopy of drawing located at National Archives, San Bruno, California ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photocopy of drawing located at National Archives, San Bruno, California (Navy # 84-A-5). Proposed toilets for the Naval prison at the Navy Yard, Mare Island, Calif., plans, sections, elevation. August 18, 1902. - Mare Island Naval Shipyard, Marine Prison, Suisun Avenue, west side between Mesa Road & San Pablo, Vallejo, Solano County, CA

  3. Photocopy of drawing located at National Archives, San Bruno, California ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photocopy of drawing located at National Archives, San Bruno, California (Navy # 84-A-2). Budocks additions to naval prison U.S. Navy Yard Mare Island Cal, elevations; April, 1909. - Mare Island Naval Shipyard, Marine Prison, Suisun Avenue, west side between Mesa Road & San Pablo, Vallejo, Solano County, CA

  4. Photocopy of drawing located at National Archives, San Bruno, California ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photocopy of drawing located at National Archives, San Bruno, California (Navy # 84-A-8). Department of yards and docks, U.S. Navy Yard Mare Island, Cal prison at barracks plans and elevations; December 1907. - Mare Island Naval Shipyard, Marine Prison, Suisun Avenue, west side between Mesa Road & San Pablo, Vallejo, Solano County, CA

  5. Photocopy of drawing located at National Archives, San Bruno, California ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photocopy of drawing located at National Archives, San Bruno, California (Navy # 84-A-3). Additional to Naval prison - U.S. Navy Yard Mare Island Cal plans and cross section; April, 1901. - Mare Island Naval Shipyard, Marine Prison, Suisun Avenue, west side between Mesa Road & San Pablo, Vallejo, Solano County, CA

  6. Photocopy of drawing located at National Archives, San Bruno, California ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photocopy of drawing located at National Archives, San Bruno, California (Navy # 84-A-21). Mare Island Naval shipyard, Vallejo California building no. 84 and 84-A layout plan for print shop, July 3, 1953. - Mare Island Naval Shipyard, Marine Prison, Suisun Avenue, west side between Mesa Road & San Pablo, Vallejo, Solano County, CA

  7. Photocopy of drawing located at National Archives, San Bruno, California ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photocopy of drawing located at National Archives, San Bruno, California (Navy # 84-A-7). Proposed additional cells for naval prison bldg. no 84 at the U.S. Navy Yard Mare Island, Cal. Plan and section; October 28, 1902. - Mare Island Naval Shipyard, Marine Prison, Suisun Avenue, west side between Mesa Road & San Pablo, Vallejo, Solano County, CA

  8. Photocopy of drawing located at National Archives, San Bruno, California ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photocopy of drawing located at National Archives, San Bruno, California (Navy # 84-A-14). PW Navy Yard Mare Island. Cal building 84A - prison extension for mess hall and galley, elevations and window details; October 18, 1938. - Mare Island Naval Shipyard, Marine Prison, Suisun Avenue, west side between Mesa Road & San Pablo, Vallejo, Solano County, CA

  9. Photocopy of drawing located at National Archives, San Bruno, California ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photocopy of drawing located at National Archives, San Bruno, California (Navy # 84-A-9). Dept of Y & D U.S. Navy Yard Mare Island, Cal prison extension bldg. 84, plans; April 4, 1908. - Mare Island Naval Shipyard, Marine Prison, Suisun Avenue, west side between Mesa Road & San Pablo, Vallejo, Solano County, CA

  10. Photocopy of drawing located at National Archives, San Bruno, California ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photocopy of drawing located at National Archives, San Bruno, California (Navy # 84-A-11). Dept of Y & D U.S. Navy Yard Mare Island, Cal prison extension bldg 84, elevations; April 4, 1908. - Mare Island Naval Shipyard, Marine Prison, Suisun Avenue, west side between Mesa Road & San Pablo, Vallejo, Solano County, CA

  11. Photocopy of drawing located at National Archives, San Bruno, California ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photocopy of drawing located at National Archives, San Bruno, California (Navy # 84-A-1). Plan of naval prison at the U.S. Navy Yard, Mare Island, Cal plans and elevations; CA. 1870. - Mare Island Naval Shipyard, Marine Prison, Suisun Avenue, west side between Mesa Road & San Pablo, Vallejo, Solano County, CA

  12. Photocopy of original drawings (original located at the National Archives, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photocopy of original drawings (original located at the National Archives, San Bruno, California, Navy # 104-A-9). (Signed) Ralph Whitman, public works officer, "Yard chapel addition to house organ, etc., plans, elevations, details," September 1929. - Mare Island Naval Shipyard, St. Peter's Chapel, Walnut Street & Cedar Parkway, Vallejo, Solano County, CA

  13. Photocopy of original drawings (original located at the National Archives, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photocopy of original drawings (original located at the National Archives, San Bruno, California, Navy # 104-A-13). (Signed) Ralph Whitman, public works officer, "Yard chapel organ addition mill details, exterior window," September 1929. - Mare Island Naval Shipyard, St. Peter's Chapel, Walnut Street & Cedar Parkway, Vallejo, Solano County, CA

  14. Photocopy of drawing located at National Archives, San Bruno, California ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photocopy of drawing located at National Archives, San Bruno, California (Navy # 459-A-12). MARBLE AND TILE DETAILS; DECEMBER, 1930 - Mare Island Naval Shipyard, Bachelor Enlisted Quarters & Offices, Walnut Avenue, east side between D Street & C Street, Vallejo, Solano County, CA

  15. Photocopy of drawing located at National Archives, San Bruno, California ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photocopy of drawing located at National Archives, San Bruno, California (Navy # H-70-A-8). Window details; April 10, 1930. - Mare Island Naval Shipyard, Hospital Ward, Johnson Lane, west side at intersection of Johnson Lane & Cossey Street, Vallejo, Solano County, CA

  16. 7. Photocopy of map (from National Archives, Cartographic Division, Record ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. Photocopy of map (from National Archives, Cartographic Division, Record Group 156, Folder 3) 'Surveyed and Drawn by Hugo Hochholzer' 1868 'TOPOGRAPHICAL MAP OF THE U.S. MILITARY RESERVE AT BENICIA CAL.' - Benicia Arsenal, Benicia Industrial Park, Benicia, Solano County, CA

  17. 5. Photocopy of map (from National Archives, Cartographic Division, Record ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. Photocopy of map (from National Archives, Cartographic Division, Record Group 77, Dr. 124, sht. 19-1) 'Drawn and sketched by Robt. Redmayne' February 20th, 1856 'A MAP OF THE U.S. MILITARY RESERVE AT BENICIA CAL.' - Benicia Arsenal, Benicia Industrial Park, Benicia, Solano County, CA

  18. Photocopy of drawing located at National Archives, San Bruno, California ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photocopy of drawing located at National Archives, San Bruno, California (Navy # NUM), showing 680-A-9. Machine shop expansion joint and details; 1938. - Mare Island Naval Shipyard, Machine Shop, California Avenue, southwest corner of California Avenue & Thirteenth Street, Vallejo, Solano County, CA

  19. Photocopy of drawing (original located at the National Archives, San ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photocopy of drawing (original located at the National Archives, San Bruno, California, Navy # A1-3). Ordnance Dept. of Navy Yard Mare Island "Magazine no. 1 - general plan of proposal. September, 1901 - Mare Island Naval Shipyard, Magazine No. 1, Railroad Avenue, west side near Maseda Road, Vallejo, Solano County, CA

  20. Photocopy of drawing located at National Archives, San Bruno, California ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photocopy of drawing located at National Archives, San Bruno, California (Navy #A-A-A-5). SERVANTS HOUSE (AA) QUARTERS A; DECEMBER 28, 1936, AND JULY 7, 1950. - Mare Island Naval Shipyard, Quarters A-A, Walnut Avenue behind Quarters A, west side near Eighth Street, Vallejo, Solano County, CA

  1. Sound Recordings in the Audiovisual Archives Division of the National Archives. Preliminary Draft.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bray, Mayfield S.; Waffen, Leslie C.

    Some 47,000 sound recordings dating from the turn of the century have been collected in the National Archives. These recordings, consisting of recordings of press conferences, panel discussions, interviews, speeches, court and conference proceedings, entertainment programs, and news broadcasts, are listed in this paper by government agency. The…

  2. In Vivo Radiobiological Characterization of Proton Beam at the National Cancer Center in Korea: Effect of the Chk2 Mutation

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Sang Soo; Choo, Dong Wan; Shin, Dongho; Baek, Hye Jung; Kim, Tae Hyun; Motoyama, Noboru; De Coster, Blanche M.; Gueulette, John; Furusawa, Yoshiya; Ando, Koichi; Cho, Kwan Ho

    2011-02-01

    Purpose: The relative biological effectiveness (RBE) in the presence or absence of CHK2 was estimated at the Korean National Cancer Center Proton Therapy Center (NCCPTC). Methods and Materials: The proton beam was fixed at 210 MeV with 6-cm spread-out Bragg peaks (SOBPs) because this is expected to be the most frequently used clinical setting. X-rays were obtained using a 6-MV conventional linear accelerator. The RBE was estimated from the survival of jejunal crypt in C3H/He and Chk2{sup -/-} mice. Results: The estimated RBEs of the NCCPTC at the middle of the SOBP were 1.10 and 1.05 in the presence and absence of CHK2, respectively. The doses that reduced the number of regenerated crypt per jejunal circumference to 20 (D{sub 20}) in C3H/He mice were 14.8 Gy (95% confidence interval [CI], 13.7-15.9) for X-rays and 13.5 Gy (95% CI, 14.5-15.5) for protons. By contrast, the doses of D{sub 20} in Chk2{sup -/-} mice were 15.7 Gy (95% CI, 15.0-16.4) and 14.9 Gy (95% CI, 14.0-15.8) for X-rays and protons, respectively. Conclusions: The RBE of the NCCPTC is clearly within the range of RBEs determined at other facilities and is consistent with the generic RBE value of 1.10 for 150- to 250-MeV beams. The mutation of Chk2 gave rise to radioresistance but exhibited similar RBE.

  3. CRC handbook of radiobiology

    SciTech Connect

    Prasad, K.N.

    1984-01-01

    The author presents Development of Radiobiology. A Review. Basic Cell Biology. Physics of Radiation Biology. Cellular Radiation Damage. Modifications of Cellular Radiation Damage. Repair of Radiation Damage. Molecular Radiation Biology. Radiation Syndromes and their Modifications. Radiation Damage of Skin and Mucous Membrane. Radiation Damage of Nervous Tissue. Radiation Damage of Reproductive Organs. Radiation Damage of Other Organ Systems. Radiation Immunology. Background, Medical and Commercial Sources. Radiation Injuries to Human Fetuses. Radiation-Induced Genetic Damage. Radiation Carcinogenesis: Tissue Culture Model. Radiation Carcinogenesis: Animal Model. Radiation Carcinogenesis: Human Model. Radiation Carcinogenesis: Secondary Neoplasms. After Therapy of Tumors. Other Late Effects: Aging, Cataract, Aplastic Anemia. Maximum Permissible Dose (MPD). Radiation Response of Human Tumor. Radioisotopes in Biology and Medicine.

  4. Non-extensive radiobiology

    SciTech Connect

    Sotolongo-Grau, O.; Rodriguez-Perez, D.; Antoranz, J. C.; Sotolongo-Costa, O.

    2011-03-14

    The expression of survival factors for radiation damaged cells is based on probabilistic assumptions and experimentally fitted for each tumor, radiation and conditions. Here we show how the simplest of these radiobiological models can be derived from the maximum entropy principle of the classical Boltzmann-Gibbs expression. We extend this derivation using the Tsallis entropy and a cutoff hypothesis, motivated by clinical observations. A generalization of the exponential, the logarithm and the product to a non-extensive framework, provides a simple formula for the survival fraction corresponding to the application of several radiation doses on a living tissue. The obtained expression shows a remarkable agreement with the experimental data found in the literature, also providing a new interpretation of some of the parameters introduced anew. It is also shown how the presented formalism may have direct application in radiotherapy treatment optimization through the definition of the potential effect difference, simply calculated between the tumour and the surrounding tissue.

  5. Photocopy of drawing located at National Archives, San Bruno, California ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photocopy of drawing located at National Archives, San Bruno, California (Navy # 110-A-1 1 of 5. Scofiled Construction Company Mafre Island Office, Mare Island Cal. Details of skylight for pump house stone and concrete dry-dock for US Navy Yard Mare Island Cal, contract no. 257; September 2, 1908. - Mare Island Naval Shipyard, Pump House, California Avenue, east side between Dry Dock 1 & Dry Dock 2, near Ninth Street, Vallejo, Solano County, CA

  6. 9. Photographic copy of photograph. (Source: National Archives Photo Collection, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. Photographic copy of photograph. (Source: National Archives Photo Collection, Denver, NN-366-114, Box 12, Photo 4464) Rebuilt Rock Creek Diversion Dam. Intake structure for canal is at left with suliceway and overflow section to right. April 24, 1950. - Bitter Root Irrigation Project, Rock Creek Diversion Dam, One mile east of Como Dam, west of U.S. Highway 93, Darby, Ravalli County, MT

  7. Photocopy of drawing located at National Archives, San Bruno, California ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photocopy of drawing located at National Archives, San Bruno, California (Navy # 47-A-3). "Proposed alteration of office building at The U.S. Navy Yard Mare Island Cal proposed alterations of 1st and 2nd stories to accompany the report of the board of which pay director bacon is the senior member;" September, 1901. - Mare Island Naval Shipyard, Old Administrative Offices, Eighth Street, north side between Railroad Avenue & Walnut Avenue, Vallejo, Solano County, CA

  8. Radiobiology challenges for ELIMED

    SciTech Connect

    Schettino, G.

    2013-07-26

    Laser driven accelerators have been proposed for possible clinical applications facilities with the clear aim to reduce the facilities overall cost and complexity of at least one order of magnitude compared to currently employed accelerators. While significant efforts is on-going in the physics community to achieve the required ion beam parameters for medical applications and design suitable radiotherapy facilities, radiobiological investigations of the effects of such beams is also mandatory in order to validate their future therapeutic use. The main aim of these investigations has been initially to establish a procedure for cell handling, irradiation and dosimetry compatible with the mixed beam, continuous energy spread and ultra-high dose rate of the pulsed particle beams produced by high power lasers. Moreover, ions are emitted in bursts of picosecond duration at the source and their therapeutic use may result in dose rates exceeding 10{sup 9} Gy/sec and the biological effects at these ultra-high dose rates are virtually unknown.

  9. Radiobiological studies using gamma and x rays.

    SciTech Connect

    Potter, Charles Augustus; Longley, Susan W.; Scott, Bobby R.; Lin, Yong; Wilder, Julie; Hutt, Julie A.; Padilla, Mabel T.; Gott, Katherine M.

    2013-02-01

    There are approximately 500 self-shielded research irradiators used in various facilities throughout the U.S. These facilities use radioactive sources containing either 137Cs or 60Co for a variety of biological investigations. A report from the National Academy of Sciences[1] described the issues with security of particular radiation sources and the desire for their replacement. The participants in this effort prepared two peer-reviewed publications to document the results of radiobiological studies performed using photons from 320-kV x rays and 137Cs on cell cultures and mice. The effectiveness of X rays was shown to vary with cell type.

  10. The radiobiology of hypofractionation.

    PubMed

    Nahum, Alan E

    2015-05-01

    If the α/β ratio is high (e.g. 10 Gy) for tumour clonogen killing, but low (e.g. 3 Gy) for late normal tissue complications, then delivering external beam radiotherapy in a large number (20-30) of small (≈2 Gy) dose fractions should yield the highest 'therapeutic ratio'; this is demonstrated via the linear-quadratic model of cell killing. However, this 'conventional wisdom' is increasingly being challenged, partly by the success of stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) or stereotactic ablative radiotherapy (SABR) extreme hypofractionation regimens of three to five large fractions for early stage non-small cell lung cancer and partly by indications that for certain tumours (prostate, breast) the α/β ratio may be of the same order or even lower than that characterising late complications. It is shown how highly conformal dose delivery combined with quasi-parallel normal tissue behaviour (n close to 1) enables 'safe' hypofractionation; this can be predicted by the (α/β)eff concept for normal tissues. Recent analyses of the clinical outcomes of non-small cell lung cancer radiotherapy covering 'conventional' hyper- to extreme hypofractionation (stereotactic ablative radiotherapy) regimens are consistent with linear-quadratic radiobiology, even at the largest fraction sizes, despite there being theoretical reasons to expect 'LQ violation' above a certain dose. Impairment of re-oxygenation between fractions and the very high (α/β) for hypoxic cells can complicate the picture regarding the analysis of clinical outcomes; it has also been suggested that vascular damage may play a role for very large dose fractions. Finally, the link between high values of (α/β)eff and normal-tissue sparing for quasi-parallel normal tissues, thereby favouring hypofractionation, may be particularly important for proton therapy, but more generally, improved conformality, achieved by whatever technique, can be translated into individualisation of both prescription dose and fraction

  11. 10. Photocopy of map (from National Archives Architectural and Cartographic ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. Photocopy of map (from National Archives Architectural and Cartographic Branch, Alexandria, Va.) 'Fort Myer Virginia', 'Quartermaster Generals Office, Dec. 1894' MAP SHOWS (upper center) BUILDING 42, (labeled 5) BUILDING 43 (labeled 6), PROPOSED OFFICERS QUARTERS, (not built, but later site of Building 44 moved from NE of this group, and labeled on map 37), BUILDING 45 (labeled 29) (added to map at time of construction, 1895) BUILDING 46 (labeled 51) MAP SHOWS HISTORICAL PERIOD LAYOUT, BUILDINGS, STREETS, TROLLEY LINE AND WATER AND SEWER LINES - Fort Myer, Commissary Sergeant's Quarters, Washington Avenue between Johnson Lane & Custer Road, Arlington, Arlington County, VA

  12. 36 CFR 1280.76 - When are the public areas available for private events in the National Archives Building?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Rules Apply to Use NARA Public Areas in the Washington, DC, Area? National Archives Building, Washington, Dc § 1280.76 When are the public areas available for private events in the National Archives...

  13. 36 CFR 1280.78 - Does NARA charge fees for the use of public areas in the National Archives Building?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Rules Apply to Use NARA Public Areas in the Washington, DC, Area? National Archives Building, Washington, Dc § 1280.78 Does NARA charge fees for the use of public areas in the National Archives Building?...

  14. 36 CFR 1280.76 - When are the public areas available for private events in the National Archives Building?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Rules Apply to Use NARA Public Areas in the Washington, DC, Area? National Archives Building, Washington, Dc § 1280.76 When are the public areas available for private events in the National Archives...

  15. 36 CFR 1280.78 - Does NARA charge fees for the use of public areas in the National Archives Building?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Rules Apply to Use NARA Public Areas in the Washington, DC, Area? National Archives Building, Washington, Dc § 1280.78 Does NARA charge fees for the use of public areas in the National Archives Building?...

  16. 36 CFR 1280.76 - When are the public areas available for private events in the National Archives Building?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Rules Apply to Use NARA Public Areas in the Washington, DC, Area? National Archives Building, Washington, Dc § 1280.76 When are the public areas available for private events in the National Archives...

  17. 36 CFR 1280.78 - Does NARA charge fees for the use of public areas in the National Archives Building?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Rules Apply to Use NARA Public Areas in the Washington, DC, Area? National Archives Building, Washington, Dc § 1280.78 Does NARA charge fees for the use of public areas in the National Archives Building?...

  18. 36 CFR 1280.76 - When are the public areas available for private events in the National Archives Building?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Rules Apply to Use NARA Public Areas in the Washington, DC, Area? National Archives Building, Washington, Dc § 1280.76 When are the public areas available for private events in the National Archives...

  19. 36 CFR 1280.78 - Does NARA charge fees for the use of public areas in the National Archives Building?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Rules Apply to Use NARA Public Areas in the Washington, DC, Area? National Archives Building, Washington, Dc § 1280.78 Does NARA charge fees for the use of public areas in the National Archives Building?...

  20. 36 CFR 1280.78 - Does NARA charge fees for the use of public areas in the National Archives Building?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Rules Apply to Use NARA Public Areas in the Washington, DC, Area? National Archives Building, Washington, Dc § 1280.78 Does NARA charge fees for the use of public areas in the National Archives Building?...

  1. 36 CFR 1280.76 - When are the public areas available for private events in the National Archives Building?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Rules Apply to Use NARA Public Areas in the Washington, DC, Area? National Archives Building, Washington, Dc § 1280.76 When are the public areas available for private events in the National Archives...

  2. 36 CFR 1280.60 - Where do I enter the National Archives Building in Washington, DC?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Archives Building in Washington, DC? 1280.60 Section 1280.60 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL... for Using NARA Facilities in the Washington, DC, Area? § 1280.60 Where do I enter the National Archives Building in Washington, DC? (a) To conduct research or official business, you must enter...

  3. 36 CFR 1280.60 - Where do I enter the National Archives Building in Washington, DC?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Archives Building in Washington, DC? 1280.60 Section 1280.60 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL... for Using NARA Facilities in the Washington, DC, Area? § 1280.60 Where do I enter the National Archives Building in Washington, DC? (a) To conduct research or official business, you must enter...

  4. 36 CFR 1280.60 - Where do I enter the National Archives Building in Washington, DC?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Archives Building in Washington, DC? 1280.60 Section 1280.60 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL... for Using NARA Facilities in the Washington, DC, Area? § 1280.60 Where do I enter the National Archives Building in Washington, DC? (a) To conduct research or official business, you must enter...

  5. 36 CFR 1280.60 - Where do I enter the National Archives Building in Washington, DC?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Archives Building in Washington, DC? 1280.60 Section 1280.60 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL... for Using NARA Facilities in the Washington, DC, Area? § 1280.60 Where do I enter the National Archives Building in Washington, DC? (a) To conduct research or official business, you must enter...

  6. 36 CFR 1280.60 - Where do I enter the National Archives Building in Washington, DC?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Archives Building in Washington, DC? 1280.60 Section 1280.60 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL... for Using NARA Facilities in the Washington, DC, Area? § 1280.60 Where do I enter the National Archives Building in Washington, DC? (a) To conduct research or official business, you must enter...

  7. 36 CFR 1280.62 - When are the exhibit areas in the National Archives Building open?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false When are the exhibit areas in the National Archives Building open? 1280.62 Section 1280.62 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL ARCHIVES AND RECORDS ADMINISTRATION NARA FACILITIES USE OF NARA FACILITIES What Are the Additional...

  8. 36 CFR 1280.62 - When are the exhibit areas in the National Archives Building open?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false When are the exhibit areas in the National Archives Building open? 1280.62 Section 1280.62 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL ARCHIVES AND RECORDS ADMINISTRATION NARA FACILITIES USE OF NARA FACILITIES What Are the Additional...

  9. 36 CFR 1280.62 - When are the exhibit areas in the National Archives Building open?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false When are the exhibit areas in the National Archives Building open? 1280.62 Section 1280.62 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL ARCHIVES AND RECORDS ADMINISTRATION NARA FACILITIES USE OF NARA FACILITIES What Are the Additional...

  10. 36 CFR 1280.62 - When are the exhibit areas in the National Archives Building open?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false When are the exhibit areas in the National Archives Building open? 1280.62 Section 1280.62 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL ARCHIVES AND RECORDS ADMINISTRATION NARA FACILITIES USE OF NARA FACILITIES What Are the Additional...

  11. A National Survey on Manpower in Libraries, Information Centers and Archives in Thailand.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siriwongworawat, Suwakhon

    This report presents the results of a national survey on manpower in libraries, information centers, and archives in Thailand in both Thai and English. On November 26, 1987, 2,350 questionnaires were sent to 8 types of libraries, information centers, and archives: public libraries, national libraries, university libraries, college libraries,…

  12. Another New Frontier: Archives and Manuscripts in the National Park Service.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowling, Mary B.

    1985-01-01

    Archival collections of Edison, Olmsted, Morristown, and Longfellow National Historic Sites offer examples of how documentary collections have been handled in the past, and of ways in which National Park Service is beginning to address cultural resource management issues (arrangement, preservation, cataloging, research use) of archives and…

  13. National Archives and Records Service Resources for the Study of Native Americans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grim, Ronald E.

    Serving as an introduction to the various resources currently available in the National Archives and Records Service for geographic study of Native Americans, this paper describes the arrangement of National Archives records, identifies the major records pertaining to Native Americans, and presents an annotated bibliography of pertinent published…

  14. 21 CFR 21.31 - Records stored by the National Archives and Records Administration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Records stored by the National Archives and Records Administration. 21.31 Section 21.31 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... § 21.31 Records stored by the National Archives and Records Administration. (a) Food and...

  15. 21 CFR 21.31 - Records stored by the National Archives and Records Administration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Records stored by the National Archives and Records Administration. 21.31 Section 21.31 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... § 21.31 Records stored by the National Archives and Records Administration. (a) Food and...

  16. 21 CFR 21.31 - Records stored by the National Archives and Records Administration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Records stored by the National Archives and Records Administration. 21.31 Section 21.31 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... § 21.31 Records stored by the National Archives and Records Administration. (a) Food and...

  17. 21 CFR 21.31 - Records stored by the National Archives and Records Administration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Records stored by the National Archives and Records Administration. 21.31 Section 21.31 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... § 21.31 Records stored by the National Archives and Records Administration. (a) Food and...

  18. 21 CFR 21.31 - Records stored by the National Archives and Records Administration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Records stored by the National Archives and Records Administration. 21.31 Section 21.31 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... § 21.31 Records stored by the National Archives and Records Administration. (a) Food and...

  19. 36 CFR § 1280.64 - What entrance should I use to enter the National Archives at College Park?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2013-07-01 2012-07-01 true What entrance should I use to enter the National Archives at College Park? § 1280.64 Section § 1280.64 Parks, Forests, and Public... to enter the National Archives at College Park? You may enter the National Archives at College Park...

  20. 36 CFR 1280.64 - What entrance should I use to enter the National Archives at College Park?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false What entrance should I use to enter the National Archives at College Park? 1280.64 Section 1280.64 Parks, Forests, and Public Property... enter the National Archives at College Park? You may enter the National Archives at College Park...

  1. 36 CFR 1280.64 - What entrance should I use to enter the National Archives at College Park?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What entrance should I use to enter the National Archives at College Park? 1280.64 Section 1280.64 Parks, Forests, and Public Property... enter the National Archives at College Park? You may enter the National Archives at College Park...

  2. 36 CFR 1280.64 - What entrance should I use to enter the National Archives at College Park?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false What entrance should I use to enter the National Archives at College Park? 1280.64 Section 1280.64 Parks, Forests, and Public Property... enter the National Archives at College Park? You may enter the National Archives at College Park...

  3. 36 CFR 1280.64 - What entrance should I use to enter the National Archives at College Park?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false What entrance should I use to enter the National Archives at College Park? 1280.64 Section 1280.64 Parks, Forests, and Public Property... enter the National Archives at College Park? You may enter the National Archives at College Park...

  4. 36 CFR § 1280.14 - May I use the shuttle bus to travel to the National Archives at College Park or to the National...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2013-07-01 2012-07-01 true May I use the shuttle bus to travel to the National Archives at College Park or to the National Archives Building in Washington, DC? § 1280.14 Section § 1280.14 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL ARCHIVES AND RECORDS...

  5. 36 CFR 1280.14 - May I use the shuttle bus to travel to the National Archives at College Park or to the National...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false May I use the shuttle bus to travel to the National Archives at College Park or to the National Archives Building in Washington, DC? 1280.14 Section 1280.14 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL ARCHIVES AND RECORDS...

  6. 36 CFR 1280.14 - May I use the shuttle bus to travel to the National Archives at College Park or to the National...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false May I use the shuttle bus to travel to the National Archives at College Park or to the National Archives Building in Washington, DC? 1280.14 Section 1280.14 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL ARCHIVES AND RECORDS...

  7. 36 CFR 1280.14 - May I use the shuttle bus to travel to the National Archives at College Park or to the National...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false May I use the shuttle bus to travel to the National Archives at College Park or to the National Archives Building in Washington, DC? 1280.14 Section 1280.14 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL ARCHIVES AND RECORDS...

  8. 36 CFR 1280.14 - May I use the shuttle bus to travel to the National Archives at College Park or to the National...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false May I use the shuttle bus to travel to the National Archives at College Park or to the National Archives Building in Washington, DC? 1280.14 Section 1280.14 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL ARCHIVES AND RECORDS...

  9. The NOAA National Operational Model Archive and Distribution System (NOMADS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rutledge, G. K.; Toth, Z.

    2007-05-01

    To address a growing need for retrospective Global Climate Model (GCM) and NWP input and output data, the National Climatic Data Center (NCDC) along with the National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) and the Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory (GFDL) initiated the highly collaborative NOAA National Operational Model Archive and Distribution System (NOMADS). NOMADS (http:nomads.ncdc.noaa.gov) provides real-time and retrospective access to model and observational data by a wide variety of users using the Internet. The NOMADS system is one of the first operational systems of its kind and filled a gap in the geosciences community for retrospective model data access. Low bandwidth users will discover the NOMADS sub-setting capability for high volume datasets particularly useful. NOMADS provides model input and output data and products and other associated data and is an inter-operable network architecture with fully integrated data access and manipulation tools using a distributed, Web-services based format independent methodology. NOMADS allows temporal, spatial, and variable sub-setting to address the ever increasing spatial resolution of models and therefore volume and varied formats of data presented for archive and access at NCDC. This paper will describe the benefits of using NOMADS, and its most recent advances including a new Ensemble probabilities interface, the Live Access Server implementation across two NOAA Line Offices (NESDIS and NMFS); the model forecast aggregation capability being developed at Unidata and now installed on the NCDC NOMADS THREDDS Data Server; and other new services and products available on the NOMADS server at NCDC. Finally, this paper will describe the new operational National Weather Service (NWS) NOMADS capability currently being developed for deployment across the U.S.

  10. Polvere di Stelle (Stardust) : The national historical archives for astronomy on the web.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gargano, Mauro; Gasperini, Antonella; Mandrino, Agnese

    In 2009, the International Year of Astronomy, the four hundredth anniversary of the first Galilean observation of the Moon and of the Jupiter \\emph{medicei} satellites, the Archive and Library Service of INAF - National Institute for Astrophysics - has realized a web portal of the national historical archives for astronomy. In this paper we present and describe the web pages collecting the information about all twelve Italian astronomical archives. It is the first Italian project to show in a complete and homogeneous way the treasures hiding in folders and sheets. Each archive presents on the web pages an analytic abstract and the index of the papers with a wide gallery of images.

  11. BNL ACCELERATOR-BASED RADIOBIOLOGY FACILITIES

    SciTech Connect

    LOWENSTEIN,D.I.

    2000-05-28

    For the past several years, the Alternating Gradient Synchrotron (AGS) at Brookhaven National Laboratory (USA) has provided ions of iron, silicon and gold, at energies from 600 MeV/nucleon to 10 GeV/nucleon, for the US National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) radiobiology research program. NASA has recently funded the construction of a new dedicated ion facility, the Booster Applications Facility (BAF). The Booster synchrotron will supply ion beams ranging from protons to gold, in an energy range from 40--3,000 MeV/nucleon with maximum beam intensities of 10{sup 10} to 10{sup 11} ions per pulse. The BAF Project is described and the future AGS and BAF operation plans are presented.

  12. BNL accelerator-based radiobiology facilities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lowenstein, D. I.

    2001-01-01

    For the past several years, the Alternating Gradient Synchrotron (AGS) at Brookhaven National Laboratory (USA) has provided ions of iron, silicon and gold, at energies from 600 MeV/nucleon to 10 GeV/nucleon, for the US National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) radiobiology research program. NASA has recently funded the construction of a new dedicated ion facility, the Booster Applications Facility (BAF). The Booster synchrotron will supply ion beams ranging from protons to gold, in an energy range from 40-3000 MeV/nucleon with maximum beam intensities of 10(10) to 10(11) ions per pulse. The BAF Project will be described and the future AGS and BAF operation plans will be presented.

  13. The long hold: Storing data at the National Archives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thibodeau, Kenneth

    1991-01-01

    A description of the information collection and storage needs of the National Archives and Records Administration (NARA) is presented. The unique situation of NARA is detailed. Two aspects which make the issue of obsolescence especially complex and costly are dealing with incoherent data and satisfying unknown and unknowable requirements. The data is incoherent because it comes from a wide range of independent sources, covers unrelated subjects, and is organized and encoded in ways that are not only not controlled but often unknown until received. NARA's mission to preserve and provide access to records with enduring value makes NARA, in effect, the agent of future generations. NARA's responsibility to the future places itself is a perpetual quandary of devotion to serving needs which are unknown.

  14. EAC and the Development of National and European Gateways to Archives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ottosson, Per-Gunnar

    2005-01-01

    In the development of gateways to archives there are two different approaches, one focusing on the descriptions of the material and the other on the creators. Search and retrieval with precision and quality require controlled access points and name authority control. National registries of private archives have a long tradition in implementing the…

  15. EAC and the Development of National and European Gateways to Archives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ottosson, Per-Gunnar

    2005-01-01

    In the development of gateways to archives there are two different approaches, one focusing on the descriptions of the material and the other on the creators. Search and retrieval with precision and quality require controlled access points and name authority control. National registries of private archives have a long tradition in implementing the…

  16. Photographic Plate Archive of Astronomical Observatory of Ivan Franko National University of Lviv

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Virun, N.; Pakuliak, L.; Kazantseva, L.

    2012-05-01

    The project of Ukrainian Virtual Observatory is based on the digitization of photographic plate archives, collected during more than 100 years, which together with CCD archieves are expected to form the Joint Digital Archive. The paper presents the description of archieves the historical photographical collections of astronomical observatories of Kyiv and Lviv national universities. The application of flatbed scanners for plate digitization is discussed.

  17. World Data Center / National Geophysical Data Center's Tsunami Data Archive

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dunbar, P. K.; Brantley, K.; Stroker, K.

    2005-12-01

    The WDC for Solid Earth Geophysics (including tsunamis) is operated by NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC). NGDC is one of three environmental data centers within the National Environmental Satellite, Data and Information Service (NESDIS). Operating both World and National Data Centers, WDC/NGDC is now providing the long-term archive, data management, and access to national and global tsunami data for research and mitigation of tsunami hazards. Archive responsibilities include the global historic tsunami event and runup database, the bottom pressure recorder data, and access to event-specific tide-gauge data, as well as other related hazards and bathymetric data and information. The WDC/NGDC Worldwide Tsunami Database includes more than 2,400 events since 2,000 BC and more than 7,200 locations where tsunamis were observed. Times of generating earthquakes, tsunami arrival times, travel times, first motion of the wave, and wave periods are included in the database. The WDC/NGDC Worldwide Significant Earthquake Database includes information for more than 6,600 destructive earthquakes from 2,000 B.C. to the present. In the 1980s, NOAA's Pacific Marine Environmental Laboratory (PMEL) developed deep ocean tsunameters for the early detection, measurement, and real-time reporting of tsunamis in the open ocean. The tsunameters were developed by PMEL's Project DART (Deep-ocean Assessment and Reporting of Tsunamis). A DART system consists of a seafloor bottom pressure recording (BPR) system capable of detecting tsunamis as small as 1 cm, and a moored surface buoy for real-time communications. An acoustic link is used to transmit data from the BPR on the seafloor to the surface buoy. The data are then relayed via a GOES satellite link to ground stations for immediate dissemination to NOAA's Tsunami Warning Centers and PMEL. These systems were deployed near regions with a history of tsunami generation, to ensure measurement of the waves as they propagate towards

  18. Enriching Great Britain's National Landslide Database by searching newspaper archives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, Faith E.; Malamud, Bruce D.; Freeborough, Katy; Demeritt, David

    2015-11-01

    Our understanding of where landslide hazard and impact will be greatest is largely based on our knowledge of past events. Here, we present a method to supplement existing records of landslides in Great Britain by searching an electronic archive of regional newspapers. In Great Britain, the British Geological Survey (BGS) is responsible for updating and maintaining records of landslide events and their impacts in the National Landslide Database (NLD). The NLD contains records of more than 16,500 landslide events in Great Britain. Data sources for the NLD include field surveys, academic articles, grey literature, news, public reports and, since 2012, social media. We aim to supplement the richness of the NLD by (i) identifying additional landslide events, (ii) acting as an additional source of confirmation of events existing in the NLD and (iii) adding more detail to existing database entries. This is done by systematically searching the Nexis UK digital archive of 568 regional newspapers published in the UK. In this paper, we construct a robust Boolean search criterion by experimenting with landslide terminology for four training periods. We then apply this search to all articles published in 2006 and 2012. This resulted in the addition of 111 records of landslide events to the NLD over the 2 years investigated (2006 and 2012). We also find that we were able to obtain information about landslide impact for 60-90% of landslide events identified from newspaper articles. Spatial and temporal patterns of additional landslides identified from newspaper articles are broadly in line with those existing in the NLD, confirming that the NLD is a representative sample of landsliding in Great Britain. This method could now be applied to more time periods and/or other hazards to add richness to databases and thus improve our ability to forecast future events based on records of past events.

  19. Polvere di Stelle — Stardust: The National Historical Archive for Astronomy on the Web

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gargano, M.; Gasperini, A.; Mandrino, A.

    2010-10-01

    In the International Year of Astronomy, the four-hundredth anniversary of the first Galilean observation of the Moon and the Jupiter medicei satellites, the Italian astronomical observatories libraries of the INAF (National Institute for Astrophysics) created a web portal for the national historical archive for astronomy. In this paper, we present and describe the web pages that collect information from all twelve of the Italian astronomical archives. It is the first Italian project to show in a complete and homogeneous way the treasures hiding in folders and sheets. Each archive presents analytic abstracts, an index of papers and an extensive gallery of images.

  20. [Systemic approach to radiobiological studies].

    PubMed

    Bulanova, K Ia; Lobanok, L M

    2004-01-01

    The principles of information theory were applied for analysis of radiobiological effects. The perception of ionizing radiations as a signal enables living organism to discern their benefits or harm, to react to absolute and relatively small deviations, to keep the logic and chronicle of events, to use the former experience for reacting in presence, to forecast consequences. The systemic analysis of organism's response to ionizing radiations allows explaining the peculiarities of effects of different absorbed doses, hormesis, apoptosis, remote consequences and other post-radiation effects.

  1. Guide to the Archives of International Organizations. Part I. The United Nations System. Preliminary Version.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Paris (France).

    The preliminary UNESCO directory to archival resources of international organizations that are part of United Nations Organization is intended to help overcome obstacles to research and information transfer. This provisional first part presents information on agencies belonging to the United Nations Organization itself, 14 specialized agencies and…

  2. Role and Justification of Web Archiving by National Libraries: A Questionnaire Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shiozaki, Ryo; Eisenschitz, Tamara

    2009-01-01

    This paper reports on a questionnaire survey of 16 national libraries designed to clarify how national libraries attempt to justify their web archiving activities. Results indicate they envisage that a) the benefits brought about by their initiatives are greater than the overall costs, b) the costs imposed on libraries are greater than the costs…

  3. Role and Justification of Web Archiving by National Libraries: A Questionnaire Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shiozaki, Ryo; Eisenschitz, Tamara

    2009-01-01

    This paper reports on a questionnaire survey of 16 national libraries designed to clarify how national libraries attempt to justify their web archiving activities. Results indicate they envisage that a) the benefits brought about by their initiatives are greater than the overall costs, b) the costs imposed on libraries are greater than the costs…

  4. 3 CFR - Designation of Officers of the National Archives and Records Administration To Act as Archivist...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 3 The President 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Designation of Officers of the National Archives and Records Administration To Act as Archivist of the United States Presidential Documents Other Presidential...) Director, National Personnel Records Center; and (d) Director, George W. Bush Library. Sec. 2. Exceptions...

  5. 36 CFR 1280.86 - When are the public areas available for events in the National Archives at College Park?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false When are the public areas available for events in the National Archives at College Park? 1280.86 Section 1280.86 Parks, Forests, and... Rules Apply to Use NARA Public Areas in the Washington, DC, Area? National Archives at College Park, Md...

  6. 36 CFR 1280.86 - When are the public areas available for events in the National Archives at College Park?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false When are the public areas available for events in the National Archives at College Park? 1280.86 Section 1280.86 Parks, Forests, and... Rules Apply to Use NARA Public Areas in the Washington, DC, Area? National Archives at College Park, Md...

  7. 36 CFR 1280.86 - When are the public areas available for events in the National Archives at College Park?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false When are the public areas available for events in the National Archives at College Park? 1280.86 Section 1280.86 Parks, Forests, and... Rules Apply to Use NARA Public Areas in the Washington, DC, Area? National Archives at College Park, Md...

  8. 36 CFR 1280.86 - When are the public areas available for events in the National Archives at College Park?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false When are the public areas available for events in the National Archives at College Park? 1280.86 Section 1280.86 Parks, Forests, and... Rules Apply to Use NARA Public Areas in the Washington, DC, Area? National Archives at College Park, Md...

  9. 36 CFR 1280.82 - How will NARA handle my request to use public areas in the National Archives Building?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false How will NARA handle my request to use public areas in the National Archives Building? 1280.82 Section 1280.82 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL ARCHIVES AND RECORDS ADMINISTRATION NARA FACILITIES USE OF NARA FACILITIES What...

  10. 36 CFR § 1280.62 - When are the exhibit areas in the National Archives Building open?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2013-07-01 2012-07-01 true When are the exhibit areas in the National Archives Building open? § 1280.62 Section § 1280.62 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL ARCHIVES AND RECORDS ADMINISTRATION NARA FACILITIES USE OF NARA FACILITIES What Are the Additional...

  11. 36 CFR 1280.82 - How will NARA handle my request to use public areas in the National Archives Building?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false How will NARA handle my request to use public areas in the National Archives Building? 1280.82 Section 1280.82 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL ARCHIVES AND RECORDS ADMINISTRATION NARA FACILITIES USE OF NARA FACILITIES What...

  12. 36 CFR 1280.82 - How will NARA handle my request to use public areas in the National Archives Building?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false How will NARA handle my request to use public areas in the National Archives Building? 1280.82 Section 1280.82 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL ARCHIVES AND RECORDS ADMINISTRATION NARA FACILITIES USE OF NARA FACILITIES What...

  13. 36 CFR 1280.82 - How will NARA handle my request to use public areas in the National Archives Building?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false How will NARA handle my request to use public areas in the National Archives Building? 1280.82 Section 1280.82 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL ARCHIVES AND RECORDS ADMINISTRATION NARA FACILITIES USE OF NARA FACILITIES What...

  14. "The Glory and Romance of Our History Are Here Preserved." An Introduction to the Records of the National Archives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Archives and Records Administration, Washington, DC. Office of Public Programs.

    This publication is intended for teachers bringing a class to visit the National Archives in Washington, D.C., for a workshop on primary documents. The National Archives serves as the repository for all federal records of enduring value. Primary sources are vital teaching tools because they actively engage the student's imagination so that he or…

  15. 31 CFR 1.29 - Records transferred to Federal Records Center or National Archives of the United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Records Center or National Archives of the United States. 1.29 Section 1.29 Money and Finance: Treasury... Federal Records Center or National Archives of the United States. (a) Records transferred to the Administrator of General Services for storage in the Federal Records Center. Records pertaining to...

  16. Radiobiologically guided optimisation of the prescription dose and fractionation scheme in radiotherapy using BioSuite.

    PubMed

    Uzan, J; Nahum, A E

    2012-09-01

    Radiobiological models provide a means of evaluating treatment plans. Keeping in mind their inherent limitations, they can also be used prospectively to design new treatment strategies which maximise therapeutic ratio. We propose here a new method to customise fractionation and prescription dose. To illustrate our new approach, two non-small cell lung cancer treatment plans and one prostate plan from our archive are analysed using the in-house software tool BioSuite. BioSuite computes normal tissue complication probability and tumour control probability using various radiobiological models and can suggest radiobiologically optimal prescription doses and fractionation schemes with limited toxicity. Dose-response curves present varied aspects depending on the nature of each case. The optimisation process suggests doses and fractionation schemes differing from the original ones. Patterns of optimisation depend on the degree of conformality, the behaviour of the normal tissue (i.e. "serial" or "parallel"), the volume of the tumour and the parameters of clonogen proliferation. Individualising the prescription dose and number of fractions with the help of BioSuite results in improved therapeutic ratios as evaluated by radiobiological models.

  17. Expert Systems Technology and Its Implication for Archives. National Archives Technical Information Paper No. 9.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michelson, Avra

    This report introduces archivists to the potential of expert systems for improving archives administration and alerts them to ways in which they can expect intelligent technologies to impact federal record-keeping systems and scholarly research methods. The report introduces the topic by describing expert systems used in three Fortune 500…

  18. Characterization and performances of DOSION, a dosimetry equipment dedicated to radiobiology experiments taking place at GANIL

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boissonnat, Guillaume; Fontbonne, Jean-Marc; Balanzat, Emmanuel; Boumard, Frederic; Carniol, Benjamin; Cassimi, Amine; Colin, Jean; Cussol, Daniel; Etasse, David; Fontbonne, Cathy; Frelin, Anne-Marie; Hommet, Jean; Salvador, Samuel

    2017-06-01

    Currently, radiobiology experiments using heavy ions at GANIL (Grand Accélérateur National d‧Ions Lourds) are conducted under the supervision of the CIMAP (Center for research on Ions, MAterials and Photonics). In this context, a new beam monitoring equipment named DOSION has been developed. It allows to perform measurements of accurate fluence and dose maps in near real time for each biological sample irradiated. In this paper, we present the detection system, its design, performances, calibration protocol and measurements performed during radiobiology experiments. This setup is currently available for any radiobiology experiments if one wishes to correlate one's own sample analysis to state-of-the-art dosimetric references.

  19. Building a National Strategy for Digital Preservation: Issues in Digital Media Archiving.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Council on Library and Information Resources, Washington, DC.

    The United States Congress in December 2000 appropriated funds to the Library of Congress (LC) to spearhead an effort to develop a national strategy for the preservation of digital information. LC staff scheduled a series of conversations with representatives from the technology, business, entertainment, academic, legal, archival, and library…

  20. Audiovisual Records in the National Archives Relating to Black History. Preliminary Draft.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waffen, Leslie; And Others

    A representative selection of the National Archives and Records Services' audiovisual collection relating to black history is presented. The intention is not to provide an exhaustive survey, but rather to indicate the breadth and scope of materials available for study and to suggest areas for concentrated research. The materials include sound…

  1. Guide to Records in the National Archives of the United States Relating to American Indians.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Edward E., Comp.

    To be used by researchers, this specialized supplement to the general "Guide to the National Archives of the United States" (1974) employs an historical approach to describe pre-federal, federal, and non-federal holdings relating to American Indians. Included are Continental Congress and Revolutionary War records. Records of the Bureau…

  2. The preservation of LANDSAT data by the National Land Remote Sensing Archive

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boyd, John E.

    1992-01-01

    Digital data, acquired by the National Landsat Remote Sensing Program, document nearly two decades of global agricultural, environmental, and sociological change. The data were widely applied and continue to be essential to a variety of geologic, hydrologic, agronomic, and strategic programs and studies by governmental, academic, and commercial researchers. Landsat data were acquired by five observatories that use primarily two digital sensor systems. The Multispectral Scanner (MSS) was onboard all five Landsats, which have orbited over 19 years; the higher resolution Thematic Mapper (TM) sensor acquired data for the last 9 years on Landsats 4 and 5 only. The National Land Remote Sensing Archive preserves the 800,000 scenes, which total more than 60 terabytes of data, on master tapes that are steadily deteriorating. Data are stored at two terabytes of data, on master tapes that are steadily deteriorating. Data are stored at two locations (Sioux Falls, South Dakota and Landover, Maryland), in three archive formats. The U.S. Geological Survey's EROS Data Center has initiated a project to consolidate and convert, over the next 4 years, two of the archive formats from antiquated instrumentation tape to rotary-recorded cassette magnetic tape. The third archive format, consisting of 300,000 scenes of MSS data acquired from 1972 through 1978, will not be converted because of budgetary constraints. This data preservation project augments EDC's experience in data archiving and information management, expertise that is critical to EDC's role as a Distributed Active Archive Center for the Earth Observing System, a new and much larger national earth science program.

  3. UK National Data Centre archive of seismic recordings of (presumed) underground nuclear tests 1964-1996

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Young, John; Peacock, Sheila

    2016-04-01

    The year 1996 has particular significance for forensic seismologists. This was the year when the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT) was signed in September at the United Nations, setting an international norm against nuclear testing. Blacknest, as a long time seismic centre for research into detecting and identifying underground explosions using seismology, provided significant technical advice during the CTBT negotiations. Since 1962 seismic recordings of both presumed nuclear explosions and earthquakes from the four seismometer arrays Eskdalemuir, Scotland (EKA), Yellowknife, Canada (YKA), Gauribidanur, India (GBA), and Warramunga, Australia (WRA) have been copied, digitised, and saved. There was a possibility this archive would be lost. It was decided to process the records and catalogue them for distribution to other groups and institutions. This work continues at Blacknest but the archive is no longer under threat. In addition much of the archive of analogue tape recordings has been re-digitised with modern equipment, allowing sampling rates of 100 rather than 20 Hz.

  4. Advocacy for the Archives and History Office of the SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory: Stages and Methods

    SciTech Connect

    Deken, Jean Marie; /SLAC

    2009-06-19

    Advocating for the good of the SLAC Archives and History Office (AHO) has not been a one-time affair, nor has it been a one-method procedure. It has required taking time to ascertain the current and perhaps predict the future climate of the Laboratory, and it has required developing and implementing a portfolio of approaches to the goal of building a stronger archive program by strengthening and appropriately expanding its resources. Among the successful tools in the AHO advocacy portfolio, the Archives Program Review Committee has been the most visible. The Committee and the role it serves as well as other formal and informal advocacy efforts are the focus of this case study My remarks today will begin with a brief introduction to advocacy and outreach as I understand them, and with a description of the Archives and History Office's efforts to understand and work within the corporate culture of the SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory. I will then share with you some of the tools we have employed to advocate for the Archives and History Office programs and activities; and finally, I will talk about how well - or badly - those tools have served us over the past decade.

  5. 36 CFR 1280.80 - How do I request to use NARA public areas in the National Archives Building?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Apply to Use NARA Public Areas in the Washington, DC, Area? National Archives Building, Washington, Dc... Administration, 700 Pennsylvania Avenue, NW., Room G-9, Washington, DC 20408. Request by telephone at...

  6. 36 CFR 1280.80 - How do I request to use NARA public areas in the National Archives Building?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Apply to Use NARA Public Areas in the Washington, DC, Area? National Archives Building, Washington, Dc... Administration, 700 Pennsylvania Avenue, NW., Room G-9, Washington, DC 20408. Request by telephone at...

  7. 36 CFR 1280.80 - How do I request to use NARA public areas in the National Archives Building?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Apply to Use NARA Public Areas in the Washington, DC, Area? National Archives Building, Washington, Dc... Administration, 700 Pennsylvania Avenue NW., Washington, DC 20408; or request by email to...

  8. 36 CFR 1280.80 - How do I request to use NARA public areas in the National Archives Building?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Apply to Use NARA Public Areas in the Washington, DC, Area? National Archives Building, Washington, Dc... Administration, 700 Pennsylvania Avenue, NW., Room G-9, Washington, DC 20408. Request by telephone at...

  9. 36 CFR 1280.80 - How do I request to use NARA public areas in the National Archives Building?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Apply to Use NARA Public Areas in the Washington, DC, Area? National Archives Building, Washington, Dc... Administration, 700 Pennsylvania Avenue, NW., Room G-9, Washington, DC 20408. Request by telephone at...

  10. The Evolution of Weather Records Archival at NOAA's National Climatic Data Center

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cooper, J.

    2011-12-01

    Long-term datasets are among the most essential tools for climate research. As these datasets grow, weather and climate archives face a significant challenge. The research community expects records to be retained in perpetuity, necessitating the vast accumulation of original records to support the longterm datasets. NOAA's National Climatic Data Center (NCDC) is meeting this expectation. NCDC is communicating the importance of permanent retention to the National Archives and Records Administration (NARA), and ensuring that permanent retention is a reasonable and practical requirement. Antiquated retention requirements based on the limitations of the pre-digital age will be discussed, as will the need to ensure that digital data remains readable and independently understandable.

  11. Federal Agency and Federal Library Reports. Library of Congress; Center for the Book; Federal Library and Information Center Committee; National Commission on Libraries and Information Science; National Agricultural Library; National Library of Medicine;United States Government Printing Office; National Technical Information Service; National Archives and Records Administration; National Center for Education Statistics Library Statistics Program; National Library of Education; Educational Resources Information Center.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fischer, Audrey; Cole, John Y.; Tarr, Susan M.; Vlach, Rosalie B.; Carey, Len; Mehnert, Robert; Sherman, Andrew M.; Davis, Linda; Vecchiarelli, Marion H.; Chute, Adrienne; Dunn, Christina

    2002-01-01

    Includes reports from Library of Congress, Center for the Book, Federal Library and Information Center Committee, National Commission on Libraries and Information Science, National Agricultural Library, National Library of Medicine, Government Printing Office, National Technical Information Service, National Archives and Records Administration,…

  12. Federal Agency and Federal Library Reports. Library of Congress; Center for the Book; Federal Library and Information Center Committee; National Commission on Libraries and Information Science; National Agricultural Library; National Library of Medicine;United States Government Printing Office; National Technical Information Service; National Archives and Records Administration; National Center for Education Statistics Library Statistics Program; National Library of Education; Educational Resources Information Center.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fischer, Audrey; Cole, John Y.; Tarr, Susan M.; Vlach, Rosalie B.; Carey, Len; Mehnert, Robert; Sherman, Andrew M.; Davis, Linda; Vecchiarelli, Marion H.; Chute, Adrienne; Dunn, Christina

    2002-01-01

    Includes reports from Library of Congress, Center for the Book, Federal Library and Information Center Committee, National Commission on Libraries and Information Science, National Agricultural Library, National Library of Medicine, Government Printing Office, National Technical Information Service, National Archives and Records Administration,…

  13. Digital information management: a progress report on the National Digital Mammography Archive

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beckerman, Barbara G.; Schnall, Mitchell D.

    2002-05-01

    Digital mammography creates very large images, which require new approaches to storage, retrieval, management, and security. The National Digital Mammography Archive (NDMA) project, funded by the National Library of Medicine (NLM), is developing a limited testbed that demonstrates the feasibility of a national breast imaging archive, with access to prior exams; patient information; computer aids for image processing, teaching, and testing tools; and security components to ensure confidentiality of patient information. There will be significant benefits to patients and clinicians in terms of accessible data with which to make a diagnosis and to researchers performing studies on breast cancer. Mammography was chosen for the project, because standards were already available for digital images, report formats, and structures. New standards have been created for communications protocols between devices, front- end portal and archive. NDMA is a distributed computing concept that provides for sharing and access across corporate entities. Privacy, auditing, and patient consent are all integrated into the system. Five sites, Universities of Pennsylvania, Chicago, North Carolina and Toronto, and BWXT Y12, are connected through high-speed networks to demonstrate functionality. We will review progress, including technical challenges, innovative research and development activities, standards and protocols being implemented, and potential benefits to healthcare systems.

  14. Building digital archives by the National Diet Library : Toward knowledge sharing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakayama, Masaki

    This article shows the current situation of construction of the National Diet Library (NDL)'s digital archive and the direction of activities for “creating and reproducing new knowledge” which “knowledge sharing” aims at. The NDL, as a deposit library has a responsibility to acquire and preserve not only paper materials but also digital contents, and needs to make them accessible anytime and anywhere. The NDL acquires and preserves digital contents to a maximum extent to build the NDL digital archive. However, it is impossible to collect all of them, so the NDL plans to accumulate all knowledge in cooperation with other institutions to build distributed digital archives. The NDL plays a data provider role to navigate all the distributed digital archival information and make it available as semantically-related knowledge to build “NDL Search”. The NDL will make it possible to create new knowledge reusing the existing information as knowledge to build up the knowledge infrastructure.

  15. Toward public volume database management: a case study of NOVA, the National Online Volumetric Archive

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fletcher, Alex; Yoo, Terry S.

    2004-04-01

    Public databases today can be constructed with a wide variety of authoring and management structures. The widespread appeal of Internet search engines suggests that public information be made open and available to common search strategies, making accessible information that would otherwise be hidden by the infrastructure and software interfaces of a traditional database management system. We present the construction and organizational details for managing NOVA, the National Online Volumetric Archive. As an archival effort of the Visible Human Project for supporting medical visualization research, archiving 3D multimodal radiological teaching files, and enhancing medical education with volumetric data, our overall database structure is simplified; archives grow by accruing information, but seldom have to modify, delete, or overwrite stored records. NOVA is being constructed and populated so that it is transparent to the Internet; that is, much of its internal structure is mirrored in HTML allowing internet search engines to investigate, catalog, and link directly to the deep relational structure of the collection index. The key organizational concept for NOVA is the Image Content Group (ICG), an indexing strategy for cataloging incoming data as a set structure rather than by keyword management. These groups are managed through a series of XML files and authoring scripts. We cover the motivation for Image Content Groups, their overall construction, authorship, and management in XML, and the pilot results for creating public data repositories using this strategy.

  16. Public Discourse on HIV and AIDS: An Archival Analysis of National Newspaper Reporting in Uganda, 1996-2011

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lagone, Elizabeth; Mathur, Sanyukta; Nakyanjo, Neema; Nalugoda, Fred; Santelli, John

    2014-01-01

    Uganda is recognised as an early success story in the HIV epidemic at least in part due to an open and vigorous national dialogue about HIV prevention. This study examined the national discourse about HIV, AIDS, and young people in New Vision, Uganda's leading national newspaper between 1996 and 2011, building from a previous archival analysis of…

  17. Public Discourse on HIV and AIDS: An Archival Analysis of National Newspaper Reporting in Uganda, 1996-2011

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lagone, Elizabeth; Mathur, Sanyukta; Nakyanjo, Neema; Nalugoda, Fred; Santelli, John

    2014-01-01

    Uganda is recognised as an early success story in the HIV epidemic at least in part due to an open and vigorous national dialogue about HIV prevention. This study examined the national discourse about HIV, AIDS, and young people in New Vision, Uganda's leading national newspaper between 1996 and 2011, building from a previous archival analysis of…

  18. Workshop on radiobiological effectiveness of neutrons

    SciTech Connect

    Stapleton, G.E.; Thomas, R.G.; Thiessen, J.W.

    1985-09-01

    The radiobiological effectiveness (RBE) of neutrons has become the subject of some heated discussions in both scientific and radiation-protection oriented communities. This has become especially so since the realization that neutron exposures of A-bomb survivors in Hiroshima were considerably lower than previously assumed, thus ''devaluating'' the importance of what we thought was a solid human data base. At the same time, more recent data from radiobiological research appeared to indicate that, at least for some biological endpoints, the RBE of neutrons at low doses and low dose rates was increased dramatically compared to the RBE at higher dose and dose rates. As a consequence, the protection of health against neutrons became a subject of some urgency. The objective of this workshop was to evaluate the existing data base in order to determine the need for additional research in this field. 22 refs., 3 figs., 6 tabs.

  19. Therapeutic Radionuclides: Biophysical and Radiobiologic Principles

    PubMed Central

    Kassis, Amin I.

    2008-01-01

    Although the general radiobiologic principles underlying external beam therapy and radionuclide therapy are the same, there are significant differences in the biophysical and radiobiologic effects from the two types of radiation. In addition to the emission of particulate radiation, targeted radionuclide therapy is characterized by (i) extended exposures and, usually, declining dose rates; (ii) nonuniformities in the distribution of radioactivity and, thus, absorbed dose; and (iii) particles of varying ionization density and, hence, quality. This chapter explores the special features that distinguish the biologic effects consequent to the traversal of charged particles through mammalian cells. It also highlights what has been learned when these radionuclides and radiotargeting pharmaceuticals are used to treat cancers. PMID:18662557

  20. Dosimetry for radiobiology experiments at GANIL

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Durantel, Florent; Balanzat, Emmanuel; Cassimi, Amine; Chevalier, François; Ngono-Ravache, Yvette; Madi, Toiammou; Poully, Jean-Christophe; Ramillon, Jean-Marc; Rothard, Hermann; Ropars, Frédéric; Schwob, Lucas; Testard, Isabelle; Saintigny, Yannick

    2016-04-01

    Mainly encouraged by the increasing application of ion beams for cancer treatment (hadron-therapy) including carbon beams, the use of heavy ion facilities for radiobiology is expanding rapidly today. As an alternative to dedicated centers for treatment and medical research, accelerators like GANIL offer the possibility to undertake such experiments. Since 20 years, CIMAP, reinforced 15 years ago by the biological host laboratory LARIA, has been receiving researchers in radiobiology and assisted them in performing experiments in different fields such as hadron-therapy, space radioprotection and fundamental biological and physico-chemical mechanisms. We present here a short description of the beam line and the on-line equipments that allow the automatic irradiation of up to 24 biological samples at once. We also developed an original on-line beam monitoring procedure for low ion flux (low dose rates) based on the measurement of the K-shell X-rays emitted from a thin iron foil. This detector is calibrated on an absolute scale before each experiment by counting etched tracks on an irradiated CR39 polymer plate. We present the performances and limits of this method and finally give typical fluence (dose) uncertainties for a standard irradiation in radiobiology.

  1. The National Petroleum Reserve-Alaska (NPRA) data archive

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bird, K.J.

    2001-01-01

    The area currently known as the National Petroleum ReserveAlaska was originally designated in 1923 as Naval Petroleum Reserve No. 4 (NPR4). It was one of four U.S. regions thought to contain significant amounts of oil that were to be reserved for national crises. Geographic and geologic knowledge of the NPR4 was only superficial in 1923. Earlier exploration, however, had shown that the region contained the ingredients necessary for oil accumulations to exist: source rocks, reservoir rocks, and geologic structures that could trap petroleum. Oil seeps on the coast and the size of the area (some 37,000 square miles, about the size of Indiana) reinforced the notion that significant quantities of petroleum were present.

  2. Twenty years of Landsat data accessible through the national satellite land remote sensing data archive

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Larsen, Dana M.

    1993-01-01

    The EROS Data Center has managed to National Satellite Land Remote Sensing Data Archive's (NSLRSDA) Landsat data since 1972. The NSLRSDA includes Landsat MSS data from 1972 through 1991 and T M data from 1982 through 1993. In response to many requests from multi-disciplined users for an enhanced insight into the availability and volume of Landsat data over specific worldwide land areas, numerous world plots and corresponding statical overviews have been prepared. These presentations include information related to image quality, cloud cover, various types of data overage (i.e. regions, countries, path, rows), acquisition station coverage areas, various archive media formats (i.e. wide band video tapes, computer compatible tapes, high density tapes, etc.) and acquisition time periods (i.e. years, seasons). Plans are to publish this information in a paper sample booklet at the Pecora 12 Symposium, in a USGS circular and on a Landsat CD-ROM; the data will be also be incorporated into GLIS.

  3. Building a National Heritage Registry for the Sudan: the Friedrich W. Hinkel Archive Digitization Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lawrenz, S.

    2017-08-01

    The Republic of the Sudan is home to outstanding and diverse cultural heritage ranging from Neolithic sites of human activity and settlement to historic sites of the 19th and 20th century. While certain phases of the Sudan's cultural heritage such as the period of Egyptian influence during the second and first millennium B.C. have been the focus of archaeological research since the 19th century, other aspects of the country's rich history have remained largely unknown locally and internationally due to a lack of documentation and registration of such sites. Since 2014, the German Archaeological Institute (DAI) has been engaged in an effort to support the creation of a national heritage registry in close cooperation with the National Corporation for Antiquities and Museums (NCAM) by digitizing the archive of German architect Friedrich W. Hinkel and engaging in capacity building measures focusing on analog and digital data curation. The archive contains structured information (photos, drawings, maps and assembled written documentation) regarding over 14,000 archaeological and historical sites in the Sudan using an alphanumeric coding system that allows for easy integration of data in a digital environment such as the DAI's IT infrastructure, the iDAI.world. As such the data assembled by Hinkel will serve as the basis of the national heritage registry currently in development.

  4. [An Archive for Science, State and Nation : Climatological Data Practices in Switzerland, 1860-1914].

    PubMed

    Hupfer, Franziska

    2017-09-27

    In the second half of the nineteenth century, most European countries began to finance weather observation networks. As a result, climatological data practices changed fundamentally. Using the example of Switzerland, this paper examines the political, institutional and methodological dimensions of national data archives. The institutionalization of data collection within the national framework meant, on the one hand, that more observations were systematically made and published. On the other hand, it also meant that the monitoring was connected to state boundaries. However, based on their universalistic conception of science, this did not preclude national institutions from striving for international data standardization. The national framework also shaped the process of transforming weather observations into statistical data. This information formed the basis for national climatographies and thus had a nation-building effect. According to the Swiss Meteorological Institute, climate data were practically useful and had great potential for research work. However, the epistemic status of data collection was uncertain, since physical approaches to climatology had gained in importance. The anticipation of scientific and practical potential benefits played a central role for the continuation of data production. The Swiss case study presented here illustrates that climatology was transformed by the process of nation-building, affecting its institutional structure, spatial references, and epistemology.

  5. 36 CFR 1280.74 - What spaces in the National Archives Building are available for use by non-NARA groups and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... FACILITIES What Rules Apply to Use NARA Public Areas in the Washington, DC, Area? National Archives Building, Washington, Dc § 1280.74 What spaces in the National Archives Building are available for use by non-NARA..., Washington, DC: Area Capacity Rotunda Galleries 250 persons. William G. McGowan Theater 290...

  6. 36 CFR 1280.74 - What spaces in the National Archives Building are available for use by non-NARA groups and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... FACILITIES What Rules Apply to Use NARA Public Areas in the Washington, DC, Area? National Archives Building, Washington, Dc § 1280.74 What spaces in the National Archives Building are available for use by non-NARA..., Washington, DC: Area Capacity Rotunda Galleries 250 persons. William G. McGowan Theater 290...

  7. 36 CFR 1280.74 - What spaces in the National Archives Building are available for use by non-NARA groups and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... FACILITIES What Rules Apply to Use NARA Public Areas in the Washington, DC, Area? National Archives Building, Washington, Dc § 1280.74 What spaces in the National Archives Building are available for use by non-NARA..., Washington, DC: Area Capacity Rotunda Galleries 250 persons. William G. McGowan Theater 290...

  8. 36 CFR 1280.74 - What spaces in the National Archives Building are available for use by non-NARA groups and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... FACILITIES What Rules Apply to Use NARA Public Areas in the Washington, DC, Area? National Archives Building, Washington, Dc § 1280.74 What spaces in the National Archives Building are available for use by non-NARA..., Washington, DC: Area Capacity Rotunda Galleries 250 persons. William G. McGowan Theater 290...

  9. 36 CFR 1280.74 - What spaces in the National Archives Building are available for use by non-NARA groups and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... FACILITIES What Rules Apply to Use NARA Public Areas in the Washington, DC, Area? National Archives Building, Washington, Dc § 1280.74 What spaces in the National Archives Building are available for use by non-NARA..., Washington, DC: Area Capacity Rotunda Galleries 250 persons. William G. McGowan Theater 290...

  10. 36 CFR 1280.87 - Does NARA charge fees for the use of public areas in the National Archives at College Park?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Does NARA charge fees for the use of public areas in the National Archives at College Park? 1280.87 Section 1280.87 Parks, Forests... College Park, Md § 1280.87 Does NARA charge fees for the use of public areas in the National Archives at...

  11. 36 CFR 1280.85 - What space in the National Archives at College Park is available for use by non-NARA groups and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false What space in the National Archives at College Park is available for use by non-NARA groups and organizations? 1280.85 Section 1280.85 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL ARCHIVES AND RECORDS ADMINISTRATION NARA FACILITIES USE OF...

  12. 36 CFR 1280.89 - How will NARA handle my request to use public areas in the National Archives at College Park?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false How will NARA handle my request to use public areas in the National Archives at College Park? 1280.89 Section 1280.89 Parks... College Park, Md § 1280.89 How will NARA handle my request to use public areas in the National Archives at...

  13. 36 CFR 1280.88 - How do I request to use NARA public areas in the National Archives at College Park?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false How do I request to use NARA public areas in the National Archives at College Park? 1280.88 Section 1280.88 Parks, Forests, and Public... Apply to Use NARA Public Areas in the Washington, DC, Area? National Archives at College Park, Md § 1280...

  14. 36 CFR 1280.89 - How will NARA handle my request to use public areas in the National Archives at College Park?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false How will NARA handle my request to use public areas in the National Archives at College Park? 1280.89 Section 1280.89 Parks... College Park, Md § 1280.89 How will NARA handle my request to use public areas in the National Archives at...

  15. 36 CFR 1280.87 - Does NARA charge fees for the use of public areas in the National Archives at College Park?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Does NARA charge fees for the use of public areas in the National Archives at College Park? 1280.87 Section 1280.87 Parks, Forests... College Park, Md § 1280.87 Does NARA charge fees for the use of public areas in the National Archives at...

  16. 36 CFR 1280.85 - What space in the National Archives at College Park is available for use by non-NARA groups and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false What space in the National Archives at College Park is available for use by non-NARA groups and organizations? 1280.85 Section 1280.85 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL ARCHIVES AND RECORDS ADMINISTRATION NARA FACILITIES USE OF...

  17. 36 CFR 1280.88 - How do I request to use NARA public areas in the National Archives at College Park?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false How do I request to use NARA public areas in the National Archives at College Park? 1280.88 Section 1280.88 Parks, Forests, and Public... Apply to Use NARA Public Areas in the Washington, DC, Area? National Archives at College Park, Md § 1280...

  18. 36 CFR 1280.89 - How will NARA handle my request to use public areas in the National Archives at College Park?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false How will NARA handle my request to use public areas in the National Archives at College Park? 1280.89 Section 1280.89 Parks... College Park, Md § 1280.89 How will NARA handle my request to use public areas in the National Archives at...

  19. 36 CFR 1280.89 - How will NARA handle my request to use public areas in the National Archives at College Park?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false How will NARA handle my request to use public areas in the National Archives at College Park? 1280.89 Section 1280.89 Parks... College Park, Md § 1280.89 How will NARA handle my request to use public areas in the National Archives at...

  20. 36 CFR 1280.87 - Does NARA charge fees for the use of public areas in the National Archives at College Park?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Does NARA charge fees for the use of public areas in the National Archives at College Park? 1280.87 Section 1280.87 Parks, Forests... College Park, Md § 1280.87 Does NARA charge fees for the use of public areas in the National Archives at...

  1. 36 CFR 1280.85 - What space in the National Archives at College Park is available for use by non-NARA groups and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false What space in the National Archives at College Park is available for use by non-NARA groups and organizations? 1280.85 Section 1280.85 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL ARCHIVES AND RECORDS ADMINISTRATION NARA FACILITIES USE OF...

  2. 36 CFR 1280.88 - How do I request to use NARA public areas in the National Archives at College Park?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false How do I request to use NARA public areas in the National Archives at College Park? 1280.88 Section 1280.88 Parks, Forests, and Public... Apply to Use NARA Public Areas in the Washington, DC, Area? National Archives at College Park, Md § 1280...

  3. 36 CFR 1280.88 - How do I request to use NARA public areas in the National Archives at College Park?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false How do I request to use NARA public areas in the National Archives at College Park? 1280.88 Section 1280.88 Parks, Forests, and Public... Apply to Use NARA Public Areas in the Washington, DC, Area? National Archives at College Park, Md § 1280...

  4. 36 CFR 1280.85 - What space in the National Archives at College Park is available for use by non-NARA groups and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What space in the National Archives at College Park is available for use by non-NARA groups and organizations? 1280.85 Section 1280.85 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL ARCHIVES AND RECORDS ADMINISTRATION NARA FACILITIES USE OF...

  5. 36 CFR 1280.87 - Does NARA charge fees for the use of public areas in the National Archives at College Park?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Does NARA charge fees for the use of public areas in the National Archives at College Park? 1280.87 Section 1280.87 Parks, Forests... College Park, Md § 1280.87 Does NARA charge fees for the use of public areas in the National Archives at...

  6. 36 CFR § 1280.85 - What space in the National Archives at College Park is available for use by non-NARA groups and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2013-07-01 2012-07-01 true What space in the National Archives at College Park is available for use by non-NARA groups and organizations? § 1280.85 Section § 1280.85 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL ARCHIVES AND RECORDS ADMINISTRATION NARA...

  7. 36 CFR 1254.86 - May I use a personal paper-to-paper copier at the National Archives at College Park?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Public Property NATIONAL ARCHIVES AND RECORDS ADMINISTRATION PUBLIC AVAILABILITY AND USE USING RECORDS... be made in writing to the chief of the Research Support Branch (NWCC2), National Archives and Records Administration, 8601 Adelphi Rd., College Park, MD 20740-6001. Requests must identify the records you wish to...

  8. 36 CFR § 1280.82 - How will NARA handle my request to use public areas in the National Archives Building?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2013-07-01 2012-07-01 true How will NARA handle my request to use public areas in the National Archives Building? § 1280.82 Section § 1280.82 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL ARCHIVES AND RECORDS ADMINISTRATION NARA FACILITIES USE OF NARA...

  9. 36 CFR 1235.46 - What electronic media may be used for transferring records to the National Archives of the United...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false What electronic media may be... Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL ARCHIVES AND RECORDS ADMINISTRATION RECORDS MANAGEMENT... is are sound and free from defects for transfers to the National Archives of the United States....

  10. ArchiVISTA: A New Horizon in Providing Access to Visual Records of the National Archives of Canada.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stone, Gerald; Sylvain, Philip

    1990-01-01

    Describes ArchiVISTA, an optical disk image retrieval system that provides access to cartoons and caricatures in the National Archives of Canada. Planning, evaluation, design and image capture, and retrieval are explained, as well as how the system developed from earlier efforts of bibliographic control and imaging technology. (10 references) (EAM)

  11. The Face of War: A Study Guide for the Exhibition at the National Archives. March 1994 - September 1995.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Archives and Records Administration, Washington, DC.

    This document is a study guide to "The Face of War," an exhibition of documents and photographs from the vast World War II holdings of the National Archives. This brochure contains reproductions of selected documents from the exhibit as well as discussion questions. The guide can be used by individuals, families, or school groups while…

  12. Early Learnings from the National Library of New Zealand's National Digital Heritage Archive Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knight, Steve

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to provide a brief description of the digital preservation programme at the National Library of New Zealand. Design/methodology/approach: Following a description of the legislative and strategic context for digital preservation in New Zealand, details are provided of the system for the National Digital…

  13. Early Learnings from the National Library of New Zealand's National Digital Heritage Archive Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knight, Steve

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to provide a brief description of the digital preservation programme at the National Library of New Zealand. Design/methodology/approach: Following a description of the legislative and strategic context for digital preservation in New Zealand, details are provided of the system for the National Digital…

  14. 3-D Imaging Based, Radiobiological Dosimetry

    PubMed Central

    Sgouros, George; Frey, Eric; Wahl, Richard; He, Bin; Prideaux, Andrew; Hobbs, Robert

    2008-01-01

    Targeted radionuclide therapy holds promise as a new treatment against cancer. Advances in imaging are making it possible to evaluate the spatial distribution of radioactivity in tumors and normal organs over time. Matched anatomical imaging such as combined SPECT/CT and PET/CT have also made it possible to obtain tissue density information in conjunction with the radioactivity distribution. Coupled with sophisticated iterative reconstruction algorithims, these advances have made it possible to perform highly patient-specific dosimetry that also incorporates radiobiological modeling. Such sophisticated dosimetry techniques are still in the research investigation phase. Given the attendant logistical and financial costs, a demonstrated improvement in patient care will be a prerequisite for the adoption of such highly-patient specific internal dosimetry methods. PMID:18662554

  15. The National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) Research Data Archive: a Data Education Center

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, G. S.; Schuster, D.

    2015-12-01

    The National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) Research Data Archive (RDA), rda.ucar.edu, is not just another data center or data archive. It is a data education center. We not only serve data, we TEACH data. Weather and climate data is the original "Big Data" dataset and lessons learned while playing with weather data are applicable to a wide range of data investigations. Erroneous data assumptions are the Achilles heel of Big Data. It doesn't matter how much data you crunch if the data is not what you think it is. Each dataset archived at the RDA is assigned to a data specialist (DS) who curates the data. If a user has a question not answered in the dataset information web pages, they can call or email a skilled DS for further clarification. The RDA's diverse staff—with academic training in meteorology, oceanography, engineering (electrical, civil, ocean and database), mathematics, physics, chemistry and information science—means we likely have someone who "speaks your language." Data discovery is another difficult Big Data problem; one can only solve problems with data if one can find the right data. Metadata, both machine and human-generated, underpin the RDA data search tools. Users can quickly find datasets by name or dataset ID number. They can also perform a faceted search that successively narrows the options by user requirements or simply kick off an indexed search with a few words. Weather data formats can be difficult to read for non-expert users; it's usually packed in binary formats requiring specialized software and parameter names use specialized vocabularies. DSs create detailed information pages for each dataset and maintain lists of helpful software, documentation and links of information around the web. We further grow the level of sophistication of the users with tips, tutorials and data stories on the RDA Blog, http://ncarrda.blogspot.com/. How-to video tutorials are also posted on the NCAR Computational and Information Systems

  16. STP K Basin Sludge Sample Archive at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory FY2014

    SciTech Connect

    Fiskum, Sandra K.; Smoot, Margaret R.; Schmidt, Andrew J.

    2014-06-01

    The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) currently houses 88 samples (~10.5 kg) of K Basin sludge (81 wet and seven dry samples) on behalf of the Sludge Treatment Project (STP), which is managed for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) by the CH2M Hill Plateau Remediation Company (CHPRC). Selected samples are intended to serve, in part, as sentinels to enhance understanding of sludge properties after long-term storage, and thus enhance understanding of sludge behavior following transfer to sludge transfer and storage containers (STSCs) and storage at the Hanford 200 Area central plateau. In addition, remaining samples serve in contingency for future testing requirements. At PNNL, the samples are tracked and maintained under a prescriptive and disciplined monthly sample-monitoring program implemented by PNNL staff. This report updates the status of the K Basin archive sludge sample inventory to April 2014. The previous inventory status report, PNNL 22245 (Fiskum et al. 2013, limited distribution report), was issued in February of 2013. This update incorporates changes in the inventory related to repackaging of 17 samples under test instructions 52578 TI052, K Basin Sludge Sample Repackaging for Continued Long Term Storage, and 52578 TI053, K Basin Sludge Sample Repackaging Post-2014 Shear Strength Measurements. Note that shear strength measurement results acquired in 2014 are provided separately. Specifically, this report provides the following: • a description of the K Basin sludge sample archive program and the sample inventory • a summary and images of the samples that were repackaged in April 2014 • up-to-date images and plots of the settled density and water loss from all applicable samples in the inventory • updated sample pedigree charts, which provide a roadmap of the genesis and processing history of each sample in the inventory • occurrence and deficiency reports associated with sample storage and repackaging

  17. Data archiving

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pitts, David

    1991-01-01

    The viewgraphs of a discussion on data archiving presented at the National Space Science Data Center (NSSDC) Mass Storage Workshop is included. The mass storage system at the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) is described. Topics covered in the presentation include product goals, data library systems (DLS), client system commands, networks, archival devices, DLS features, client application systems, multiple mass storage devices, and system growth.

  18. 36 CFR 1254.86 - May I use a personal paper-to-paper copier at the National Archives at College Park?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false May I use a personal paper-to-paper copier at the National Archives at College Park? 1254.86 Section 1254.86 Parks, Forests, and... § 1254.86 May I use a personal paper-to-paper copier at the National Archives at College Park? (a) At the...

  19. 36 CFR § 1280.89 - How will NARA handle my request to use public areas in the National Archives at College Park?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2013-07-01 2012-07-01 true How will NARA handle my request to use public areas in the National Archives at College Park? § 1280.89 Section § 1280.89 Parks... College Park, MD § 1280.89 How will NARA handle my request to use public areas in the National Archives at...

  20. 36 CFR § 1254.86 - May I use a personal paper-to-paper copier at the National Archives at College Park?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2013-07-01 2012-07-01 true May I use a personal paper-to-paper copier at the National Archives at College Park? § 1254.86 Section § 1254.86 Parks, Forests, and... § 1254.86 May I use a personal paper-to-paper copier at the National Archives at College Park? (a) At the...

  1. 36 CFR 1254.86 - May I use a personal paper-to-paper copier at the National Archives at College Park?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false May I use a personal paper-to-paper copier at the National Archives at College Park? 1254.86 Section 1254.86 Parks, Forests, and... § 1254.86 May I use a personal paper-to-paper copier at the National Archives at College Park? (a) At the...

  2. 36 CFR 1254.86 - May I use a personal paper-to-paper copier at the National Archives at College Park?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false May I use a personal paper-to-paper copier at the National Archives at College Park? 1254.86 Section 1254.86 Parks, Forests, and... § 1254.86 May I use a personal paper-to-paper copier at the National Archives at College Park? (a) At the...

  3. 36 CFR § 1280.87 - Does NARA charge fees for the use of public areas in the National Archives at College Park?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2013-07-01 2012-07-01 true Does NARA charge fees for the use of public areas in the National Archives at College Park? § 1280.87 Section § 1280.87 Parks... College Park, MD § 1280.87 Does NARA charge fees for the use of public areas in the National Archives at...

  4. 36 CFR § 1280.88 - How do I request to use NARA public areas in the National Archives at College Park?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2013-07-01 2012-07-01 true How do I request to use NARA public areas in the National Archives at College Park? § 1280.88 Section § 1280.88 Parks, Forests, and... Rules Apply to Use NARA Public Areas in the Washington, DC, Area? National Archives at College Park, MD...

  5. 36 CFR § 1280.86 - When are the public areas available for events in the National Archives at College Park?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2013-07-01 2012-07-01 true When are the public areas available for events in the National Archives at College Park? § 1280.86 Section § 1280.86 Parks, Forests... College Park, MD § 1280.86 When are the public areas available for events in the National Archives at...

  6. Biophysical and biomathematical adventures in radiobiology

    SciTech Connect

    Scott, B.R.

    1991-01-01

    Highlights of my biophysical and biomathematical adventures in radiobiology is presented. Early adventures involved developing state-vector models'' for specific harmful effects (cell killing, life shortening) of exposure to radiation. More recent adventures led to developing hazard-function models'' for predicting biological effects (e.g., cell killing, mutations, tumor induction) of combined exposure to different toxicants. Hazard-function models were also developed for predicting harm to man from exposure to large radiation doses. Major conclusions derived from the modeling adventures are as follows: (1) synergistic effects of different genotoxic agents should not occur at low doses; (2) for exposure of the lung or bone marrow to large doses of photon radiation, low rates of exposure should be better tolerated than high rates; and (3) for some types of radiation (e.g., alpha particles and fission neutrons), moderate doses delivered at a low rate may be more harmful than the same dose given at a high rate. 53 refs., 7 figs.

  7. Radiobiological considerations in magna-field irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Evans, R.G.

    1983-12-01

    Radiobiological considerations are described for total body irradiation (TBI) as given to patients undergoing bone marrow transplantation (BMT). Although much progress has been made in the use of BMT for refractory leukemias, many patients still die from interstitial pneumonia and relapse. Fractionated TBI has been introduced in order to improve leukemic cell kill, while increasing the degree of normal tissue tolerance. Traditionally, bone marrow stem cells, leukemic cells and immunocytes have been considered as having a limited ability to repair radiation damage while cells of lung tissue and intestinal epithelial cells have a greater capacity. During fractionated radiation therapy or continuous low-dose rate exposure, repair of sublethal damage between fractions allows greater recovery in the cells of lung tissue to those in the bone marrow. Clinically, the potential benefit of six fractions over one fraction or low dose-rate TBI has yet to be proved, although there is suggestive evidence for a reduced incidence of interstitial pneumonitis. However, other extraneous factors such as doses to the lung, differences in conditioning regimens, effect of increased delay in BMT for patients receiving fractionated TBI, and the unmeasurable differences between institutions make definite conclusions impossible. Despite this, a consensus for dose fractionation has developed and most centers are moving away from the use of large single dose TBI.

  8. Monte Carlo role in radiobiological modelling of radiotherapy outcomes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El Naqa, Issam; Pater, Piotr; Seuntjens, Jan

    2012-06-01

    Radiobiological models are essential components of modern radiotherapy. They are increasingly applied to optimize and evaluate the quality of different treatment planning modalities. They are frequently used in designing new radiotherapy clinical trials by estimating the expected therapeutic ratio of new protocols. In radiobiology, the therapeutic ratio is estimated from the expected gain in tumour control probability (TCP) to the risk of normal tissue complication probability (NTCP). However, estimates of TCP/NTCP are currently based on the deterministic and simplistic linear-quadratic formalism with limited prediction power when applied prospectively. Given the complex and stochastic nature of the physical, chemical and biological interactions associated with spatial and temporal radiation induced effects in living tissues, it is conjectured that methods based on Monte Carlo (MC) analysis may provide better estimates of TCP/NTCP for radiotherapy treatment planning and trial design. Indeed, over the past few decades, methods based on MC have demonstrated superior performance for accurate simulation of radiation transport, tumour growth and particle track structures; however, successful application of modelling radiobiological response and outcomes in radiotherapy is still hampered with several challenges. In this review, we provide an overview of some of the main techniques used in radiobiological modelling for radiotherapy, with focus on the MC role as a promising computational vehicle. We highlight the current challenges, issues and future potentials of the MC approach towards a comprehensive systems-based framework in radiobiological modelling for radiotherapy.

  9. An Online National Archive of Multiple-Choice Questions for Astro 101 and the Development of the Question Complexity Rubric

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cormier, S.; Prather, E.; Brissenden, G.

    2011-09-01

    We are developing a national archive of multiple-choice questions for use in the Astronomy 101 classroom. These questions are intended to supplement an instructor's implementation of Think-Pair-Share or for their assessment purposes (i.e., exams and homework). We are also developing the Question Complexity Rubric (QCR) to guide members of the Astro 101 teaching and learning community in assisting us with hierarchically ranking questions in this archive based on their conceptual complexity. Using the QCR, a score is assigned to differentiate each question based on the cognitive steps necessary to comprehensively explain the reasoning pathway to the correct answer. The lowest QCR score is given to questions with a reasoning pathway requiring only declarative knowledge. The highest QCR score is given to questions with a reasoning pathway that requires multiple connected cognitive steps. When completed, the online question archive will provide users with the utility to 1) use the QCR to score questions 2) search for and download questions based on topic and/or QCR score, and 3) add their own questions to the archive. Stop by our poster to test your skills at determining question complexity by trying out the QCR with our sample questions.

  10. Airborne microorganisms cultivable on naturally ventilated document repositories of the National Archive of Cuba.

    PubMed

    Borrego, Sofía; Perdomo, Ivette

    2016-02-01

    The quality of the indoor air can provide very useful information for the artwork conservation. The aim of the study was to evaluate the microbial concentration inside six document repositories of the National Archive of the Republic of Cuba in two months of 1 year. The repositories are large, high, and have a natural cross-ventilation system. The microbial sampling was done in July 2010 (summer or rainy month) and February 2011 (winter or dry month) using the SAS Super 100 biocollector at 100 L/min. An appropriate selective culture media were used to isolate fungi and bacteria. A high total microbial concentration on the north side of the building in two studied months was observed. The fungal concentrations were significantly higher in July 2010 in all repositories, while the bacterial concentrations were significantly higher mostly in February 2011 only in repositories located on the first and second floor of the building. Eight fungal genera in the indoor air of all environments were isolated. Regardless of the side of the analyzed building, Penicillium, Aspergillus, and Cladosporium were the predominant genera. Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus niger were the species isolated in almost all of the analyzed repositories in the studied months. Gram-positive bacteria prevailed among bacterial groups isolated from indoor air repositories, and some percentages corresponded to the genera Bacillus and Streptomyces. In Cuba, the temperature and relative humidity are high during the whole year but the natural ventilation plays an important role in retarding microbial growth on materials.

  11. [Characterization of air mycobiota in two repositories of the National Archives of the Republic of Cuba].

    PubMed

    Borrego Alonso, Sofía; Perdomo Amistad, Ivette

    2014-01-01

    The high relative humidity and temperatures in tropical countries create favorable conditions for development of fungi that are not only a risk to human health but they can also colonize documentary support. To study the concentration of the airborne fungi in two repositories of the National Archives of the Republic of Cuba, the mycobiota deposited on different photographic supports and maps preserved in these repositories, and to determine the taxonomic characterization of the fungi isolated. The air sampling was performed using a sedimentation method, and the supports (6 pictures and 7 maps) were analyzed using moistened sterile swabs. The Cladosporium genus was predominant, followed by Aspergillus and Penicillium genera. Filamentous fungi were isolated in all the photos and maps, and yeasts were only isolated from a photographic supports and a map. We identified several species of Aspergillus and Penicillium genera, but Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus flavus predominated. Candida and Rhodotorula were the yeast genera isolated. The fungal concentration of the air demonstrated that the environments were not contaminated. From the 26 species of filamentous fungi isolated only 5 were detected in the indoor air of the repositories and on one or more of the document supports analyzed (representing a 19.3%). This shows that there is a low ecological relationship between the fungi detected in the indoor air and those that were isolated from the supports studied. Copyright © 2012 Revista Iberoamericana de Micología. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  12. Radiobiological basis of SBRT and SRS.

    PubMed

    Song, Chang W; Kim, Mi-Sook; Cho, L Chinsoo; Dusenbery, Kathryn; Sperduto, Paul W

    2014-08-01

    Stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) and stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) have been demonstrated to be highly effective for a variety of tumors. However, the radiobiological principles of SBRT and SRS have not yet been clearly defined. It is well known that newly formed tumor blood vessels are fragile and extremely sensitive to ionizing radiation. Various lines of evidence indicate that irradiation of tumors with high dose per fraction, i.e. >10 Gy per fraction, not only kills tumor cells but also causes significant damage in tumor vasculatures. Such vascular damage and ensuing deterioration of the intratumor environment then cause ischemic or indirect/secondary tumor cell death within a few days after radiation exposure, indicating that vascular damage plays an important role in the response of tumors to SBRT and SRS. Indications are that the extensive tumor cell death due to the direct effect of radiation on tumor cells and the secondary effect through vascular damage may lead to massive release of tumor-associated antigens and various pro-inflammatory cytokines, thereby triggering an anti-tumor immune response. However, the precise role of immune assault on tumor cells in SBRT and SRS has not yet been clearly defined. The "4 Rs" for conventional fractionated radiotherapy do not include indirect cell death and thus 4 Rs cannot account for the effective tumor control by SBRT and SRS. The linear-quadratic model is for cell death caused by DNA breaks and thus the usefulness of this model for ablative high-dose SBRT and SRS is limited.

  13. Alpha-particle fluence in radiobiological experiments.

    PubMed

    Nikezic, Dragoslav; Yu, Kwan Ngok

    2016-11-03

    Two methods were proposed for determining alpha-particle fluence for radiobiological experiments. The first involved calculating the probabilities of hitting the target for alpha particles emitted from a source through Monte Carlo simulations, which when multiplied by the activity of the source gave the fluence at the target. The second relied on the number of chemically etched alpha-particle tracks developed on a solid-state nuclear track detector (SSNTD) that was irradiated by an alpha-particle source. The etching efficiencies (defined as percentages of latent tracks created by alpha particles from the source that could develop to become visible tracks upon chemical etching) were computed through Monte Carlo simulations, which when multiplied by the experimentally counted number of visible tracks would also give the fluence at the target. We studied alpha particles with an energy of 5.486 MeV emitted from an (241)Am source, and considered the alpha-particle tracks developed on polyallyldiglycol carbonate film, which is a common SSNTD. Our results showed that the etching efficiencies were equal to one for source-film distances of from 0.6 to 3.5 cm for a circular film of radius of 1 cm, and for source-film distances of from 1 to 3 cm for circular film of radius of 2 cm. For circular film with a radius of 3 cm, the etching efficiencies never reached 1. On the other hand, the hit probability decreased monotonically with increase in the source-target distance, and fell to zero when the source-target distance was larger than the particle range in air.

  14. Molecular and cellular radiobiological effects of Auger emitting radionuclides

    PubMed Central

    Kassis, Amin I.

    2011-01-01

    Although the general radiobiologic principles underlying external beam therapy and radionuclide therapy are similar, significant differences in the biophysical and radiobiologic effects from the two types of radiation continue to accumulate. Here, I will address the unique features that distinguish the molecular and cellular radiobiological effects of Auger electron-emitting radionuclides consequent to (1) the physical characteristics of the decaying atom and its subcellular localisation, (2) DNA topology and (3) the bystander effect. Based on these experimental findings, I postulate that the ability of track structural simulations as primary tools in modelling DNA damage and cellular survival at the molecular level would be greatly enhanced when these contributions are factored in. PMID:21106639

  15. Radiobiological evaluation of low dose-rate prostate brachytherapy implants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knaup, Courtney James

    Low dose-rate brachytherapy is a radiation therapy treatment for men with prostate cancer. While this treatment is common, the use of isotopes with varying dosimetric characteristics means that the prescription level and normal organ tolerances vary. Additionally, factors such as prostate edema, seed loss and seed migration may alter the dose distribution within the prostate. The goal of this work is to develop a radiobiological response tool based on spatial dose information which may be used to aid in treatment planning, post-implant evaluation and determination of the effects of prostate edema and seed migration. Aim 1: Evaluation of post-implant prostate edema and its dosimetric and biological effects. Aim 2: Incorporation of biological response to simplify post-implant evaluation. Aim 3: Incorporation of biological response to simplify treatment plan comparison. Aim 4: Radiobiologically based comparison of single and dual-isotope implants. Aim 5: Determine the dosimetric and radiobiological effects of seed disappearance and migration.

  16. The Question Complexity Rubric: Development and Application for a National Archive of Astro 101 Multiple-Choice Questions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cormier, Sebastien; Prather, E. E.; Brissenden, G.; Collaboration of Astronomy Teaching Scholars CATS

    2011-01-01

    For the last two years we have been developing an online national archive of multiple-choice questions for use in the Astro 101 classroom. These questions are intended to either supplement an instructor's implementation of Think-Pair-Share or be used for assessment purposes (i.e. exams and homework). In this talk we will describe the development, testing and implementation of the Question Complexity Rubric (QCR), which is designed to guide the ranking of questions in this archive based on their conceptual complexity. Using the QCR, a score is assigned to differentiate each question based on the cognitive steps necessary to comprehensively explain the reasoning pathway to the correct answer. The lowest QCR score is given to questions with a reasoning pathway requiring only declarative knowledge whereas the highest QCR score is given to questions that require multiple pathways of multi-step reasoning. When completed, the online question archive will provide users with the utility to 1) search for and download questions based on subject and average QCR score, 2) use the QCR to score questions, and 3) add their own questions to the archive. We will also discuss other potential applications of the QCR, such as how it informs our work in developing and testing of survey instruments by allowing us to calibrate the range of question complexity. This material is based upon work supported by the National Science Foundation under Grant No. 0715517, a CCLI Phase III Grant for the Collaboration of Astronomy Teaching Scholars (CATS). Any opinions, findings, and conclusions or recommendations expressed in this material are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of the National Science Foundation.

  17. Mixed-field GCR Simulations for Radiobiological Research Using Ground Based Accelerators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, Myung-Hee Y.; Rusek, Adam; Cucinotta, Francis A.

    2014-01-01

    Space radiation is comprised of a large number of particle types and energies, which have differential ionization power from high energy protons to high charge and energy (HZE) particles and secondary neutrons produced by galactic cosmic rays (GCR). Ground based accelerators such as the NASA Space Radiation Laboratory (NSRL) at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) are used to simulate space radiation for radiobiology research and dosimetry, electronics parts, and shielding testing using mono-energetic beams for single ion species. As a tool to support research on new risk assessment models, we have developed a stochastic model of heavy ion beams and space radiation effects, the GCR Event-based Risk Model computer code (GERMcode). For radiobiological research on mixed-field space radiation, a new GCR simulator at NSRL is proposed. The NSRL-GCR simulator, which implements the rapid switching mode and the higher energy beam extraction to 1.5 GeV/u, can integrate multiple ions into a single simulation to create GCR Z-spectrum in major energy bins. After considering the GCR environment and energy limitations of NSRL, a GCR reference field is proposed after extensive simulation studies using the GERMcode. The GCR reference field is shown to reproduce the Z and LET spectra of GCR behind shielding within 20% accuracy compared to simulated full GCR environments behind shielding. A major challenge for space radiobiology research is to consider chronic GCR exposure of up to 3-years in relation to simulations with cell and animal models of human risks. We discuss possible approaches to map important biological time scales in experimental models using ground-based simulation with extended exposure of up to a few weeks and fractionation approaches at a GCR simulator.

  18. Mixed-field GCR Simulations for Radiobiological Research using Ground Based Accelerators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Myung-Hee Y.; Rusek, Adam; Cucinotta, Francis

    Space radiation is comprised of a large number of particle types and energies, which have differential ionization power from high energy protons to high charge and energy (HZE) particles and secondary neutrons produced by galactic cosmic rays (GCR). Ground based accelerators such as the NASA Space Radiation Laboratory (NSRL) at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) are used to simulate space radiation for radiobiology research and dosimetry, electronics parts, and shielding testing using mono-energetic beams for single ion species. As a tool to support research on new risk assessment models, we have developed a stochastic model of heavy ion beams and space radiation effects, the GCR Event-based Risk Model computer code (GERMcode). For radiobiological research on mixed-field space radiation, a new GCR simulator at NSRL is proposed. The NSRL-GCR simulator, which implements the rapid switching mode and the higher energy beam extraction to 1.5 GeV/u, can integrate multiple ions into a single simulation to create GCR Z-spectrum in major energy bins. After considering the GCR environment and energy limitations of NSRL, a GCR reference field is proposed after extensive simulation studies using the GERMcode. The GCR reference field is shown to reproduce the Z and LET spectra of GCR behind shielding within 20 percents accuracy compared to simulated full GCR environments behind shielding. A major challenge for space radiobiology research is to consider chronic GCR exposure of up to 3-years in relation to simulations with cell and animal models of human risks. We discuss possible approaches to map important biological time scales in experimental models using ground-based simulation with extended exposure of up to a few weeks and fractionation approaches at a GCR simulator.

  19. In vivo radiobiological assessment of the new clinical carbon ion beams at CNAO.

    PubMed

    Facoetti, A; Vischioni, B; Ciocca, M; Ferrarini, M; Furusawa, Y; Mairani, A; Matsumoto, Y; Mirandola, A; Molinelli, S; Uzawa, A; Vilches, Freixas G; Orecchia, R

    2015-09-01

    In this article, the in vivo study performed to evaluate the uniformity of biological doses within an hypothetical target volume and calculate the values of relative biological effectiveness (RBE) at different depths in the spread-out Bragg peak (SOBP) of the new CNAO (National Centre for Oncological Hadrontherapy) carbon beams is presented, in the framework of a typical radiobiological beam calibration procedure. The RBE values (relative to (60)Co γ rays) of the CNAO active scanning carbon ion beams were determined using jejunal crypt regeneration in mice as biological system at the entrance, centre and distal end of a 6-cm SOBP. The RBE values calculated from the iso-effective doses to reduce crypt survival per circumference to 10, ranged from 1.52 at the middle of the SOBP to 1.75 at the distal position and are in agreement with those previously reported from other carbon ion facilities. In conclusion, this first set of in vivo experiments shows that the CNAO carbon beam is radiobiologically comparable with the NIRS (National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Chiba, Japan) and GSI (Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung, Darmstadt, Germany) ones.

  20. The Anatomische Gesellschaft and National Socialism: an analysis based on newly available archival material.

    PubMed

    Winkelmann, Andreas

    2015-09-01

    The newly available scientific estate of Heinrich von Eggeling (1869-1954), long-time secretary of the Anatomische Gesellschaft (AG), allows a more profound analysis of how this scientific association went through the period of the "Third Reich". At the first meeting under the new rulers in 1934, von Eggeling and Siegfried Mollier prevented their board colleague Martin Heidenhain from giving an introductory talk because they (not unjustly) feared anti-Jewish protests, but also because many anatomy professors, like other German scholars, were fervent nationalists who welcomed Hitler and largely accepted the expulsion of Jewish and other colleagues as 'inevitable' for national renewal. Many persecuted members nevertheless remained on the membership lists and the AG never officially introduced anti-Jewish bylaws. Eggeling and his like-minded colleagues successfully defended the international status of the AG, though not so much against the Nazi authorities but against a younger generation of anatomists who were willing to benefit from the new political situation and strived for their own German anatomical association. The available archival material suggests that the motivation of the established leading members of the AG to take this specific path was not rooted in opposition to the new rulers but rather in defence of their traditional status of reputed professors running a time-honoured, world leading society. This made international reputation an important guideline for many decisions. While they did ward off attempts by the younger generation to politicise the AG, their post-war calls for an apolitical science remain ambivalent, as their own stance had not always been apolitical.

  1. New radiobiological, radiation risk and radiation protection paradigms.

    PubMed

    Goodhead, Dudley T

    2010-05-01

    The long-standing conventional paradigm for radiobiology has formed a logical basis for the standard paradigm for radiation risk of cancer and heritable effects and, from these paradigms, has developed the internationally applied system for radiation protection, but with many simplifications, assumptions and generalizations. A variety of additional radiobiological phenomena that do not conform to the standard paradigm for radiobiology may have potential implications for radiation risk and radiation protection. It is suggested, however, that the current state of knowledge is still insufficient for these phenomena, individually or collectively, to be formulated systematically into a new paradigm for radiobiology. Additionally, there is at present lack of direct evidence of their relevance to risk for human health, despite attractive hypotheses as to how they might be involved. Finally, it remains to be shown how incorporation of such phenomena into the paradigm for radiation protection would provide sufficient added value to offset disruption to the present widely applied system. Further research should aim for better mechanistic understanding of processes such as radiation-induced genomic instability (for all radiation types) and bystander effects (particularly for low-fluence high-LET particles) and also priority should be given to confirmation, or negation, of the relevance of the processes to human health risks from radiation. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Dosimetry in nuclear medicine therapy: radiobiology application and results.

    PubMed

    Strigari, L; Benassi, M; Chiesa, C; Cremonesi, M; Bodei, L; D'Andrea, M

    2011-04-01

    The linear quadratic model (LQM) has largely been used to assess the radiobiological damage to tissue by external beam fractionated radiotherapy and more recently has been extended to encompass a general continuous time varying dose rate protocol such as targeted radionuclide therapy (TRT). In this review, we provide the basic aspects of radiobiology, from a theoretical point of view, starting from the "four Rs" of radiobiology and introducing the biologically effective doses, which may be used to quantify the impact of a treatment on both tumors and normal tissues. We also present the main parameters required in the LQM, and illustrate the main models of tumor control probability and normal tissue complication probability and summarize the main dose-effect responses, reported in literature, which demonstrate the tentative link between targeted radiotherapy doses and those used in conventional radiotherapy. A better understanding of the radiobiology and mechanisms of action of TRT could contribute to describe the clinical data and guide the development of future compounds and the designing of prospective clinical trials.

  3. Rat testis as a radiobiological in vivo model for radionuclides.

    PubMed

    Grafström, G; Jönsson, B-A; El Hassan, A M; Tennvall, J; Strand, S-E

    2006-01-01

    The radiobiological effect of intracellularly localised radionuclides emitting low energy electrons (Auger electrons) has received much attention. Most in vivo studies reported have been performed in the mouse testis. We have investigated the rat testis as an in vivo radiobiological model, with sperm-head survival, testis weight loss and also alteration in the blood plasma hormone levels of FSH and LH as radiobiological endpoints. Validation of the rat testis model was evaluated by using mean absorbed doses of up to 10 Gy from intratesticularly (i.t.) injected (111)In oxine or local X-ray irradiation. Biokinetics of the i.t. injected radionuclide was analysed by scintillation camera imaging and used in the absorbed dose estimation. By the analysis of the autoradiographs, the activity distribution was revealed. Cell fractionation showed (111)In to be mainly associated with the cell nuclei. External irradiations were monitored by thermoluminescence dosimeters. The sperm-head survival was the most sensitive radiobiological parameter correlated to the mean absorbed dose, with a D(37) of 2.3 Gy for (111)In oxine and 1.3 Gy for X rays. The levels of plasma pituitary gonadal hormones FSH and LH were elevated for absorbed doses >7.7 Gy. This investigation shows that the radiobiological model based on the rat testis has several advantages compared with the previously commonly used mouse testis model. The model is appropriate for further investigations of basic phenomena such as radiation geometry, intracellular kinetics and heterogeneity, crucial for an understanding of the biological effect of low-energy electrons.

  4. Data integration of Soil Survey Geographic Database data with layers of The National Map and data from archived geologic maps.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perez Lespier, L. M.; Shoberg, T.

    2016-12-01

    This research integrates soil data from the Soil Survey Geographic Database (SSURGO) of the U.S. Department of Agriculture with layers from The National Map of the U.S. Geological Survey and bedrock geology data from archived geologic maps from the Missouri Geological Survey. The integration method involves geometry comparisons between alluvium based soil units from the SSURGO dataset with stream lines from National Hydrography Dataset of The National Map and alluvium units from the bedrock geology maps. The consistency of this integration process is analyzed by comparing the confidence limits of best fit parameters to the null set of pattern shift. Results imply good consistency with this method for areas with well-defined stream lines and distinct geologic units.

  5. Transnational science and collaborative networks. The case of Genetics and Radiobiology in Mexico, 1950-1970.

    PubMed

    Barahona, Ana

    2015-01-01

    The transnational approach of the science and technology studies (S&TS) abandons the nation as a unit of analysis in order to understand the development of science history. It also abandons Euro-US-centred narratives in order to explain the role of international collaborative networks and the circulation of knowledge, people, artefacts and scientific practices. It is precisely under this perspective that the development of genetics and radiobiology in Mexico shall be analyzed, together with the pioneering work of the Mexican physician-turned-geneticist Alfonso León de Garay who spent two years in the Galton Laboratory in London under the supervision of Lionel Penrose. Upon his return de Garay funded the Genetics and Radiobiology Program of the National Commission of Nuclear Energy based on local needs and the aim of working beyond geographical limitations to thus facilitate the circulation of knowledge, practices and people. The three main lines of research conducted in the years after its foundation that were in line with international projects while responding to the national context were, first, cytogenetic studies of certain abnormalities, and the cytogenetics and anthropological studies of the Olympic Games held in Mexico in 1968; second, the study of the effects of radiation on hereditary material; and third, the study of population genetics in Drosophila and in Mexican indigenous groups. The program played a key role in reshaping the scientific careers of Mexican geneticists, and in transferring locally sourced research into broader networks. This case shows the importance of international collaborative networks and circulation in the constitution of national scientific elites, and also shows the national and transnational concerns that shaped local practices.

  6. Sci-Tech Archives and Manuscript Collections.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mount, Ellis, Ed.

    1989-01-01

    Selected collections of scientific and technical archives and manuscripts described in eight articles include the Edison Archives; American Museum of Natural History Library; MIT (Massachusetts Institute of Technology) Institute Archives and Special Collections; National Archives; Dard Hunter Paper Museum; American Zoo and Aquarium Archives; and…

  7. Sci-Tech Archives and Manuscript Collections.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mount, Ellis, Ed.

    1989-01-01

    Selected collections of scientific and technical archives and manuscripts described in eight articles include the Edison Archives; American Museum of Natural History Library; MIT (Massachusetts Institute of Technology) Institute Archives and Special Collections; National Archives; Dard Hunter Paper Museum; American Zoo and Aquarium Archives; and…

  8. Upgrades to NDSF Vehicle Camera Systems and Development of a Prototype System for Migrating and Archiving Video Data in the National Deep Submergence Facility Archives at WHOI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fornari, D.; Howland, J.; Lerner, S.; Gegg, S.; Walden, B.; Bowen, A.; Lamont, M.; Kelley, D.

    2003-12-01

    In recent years, considerable effort has been made to improve the visual recording capabilities of Alvin and ROV Jason. This has culminated in the routine use of digital cameras, both internal and external on these vehicles, which has greatly expanded the scientific recording capabilities of the NDSF. The UNOLS National Deep Submergence Facility (NDSF) archives maintained at Woods Hole Oceanograpic Institution (WHOI) are the repository for the diverse suite of photographic still images (both 35mm and recently digital), video imagery, vehicle data and navigation, and near-bottom side-looking sonar data obtained by the facility vehicles. These data comprise a unique set of information from a wide range of seafloor environments over the more than 25 years of NDSF operations in support of science. Included in the holdings are Alvin data plus data from the tethered vehicles- ROV Jason, Argo II, and the DSL-120 side scan sonar. This information conservatively represents an outlay in facilities and science costs well in excess of \\$100 million. Several archive related improvement issues have become evident over the past few years. The most critical are: 1. migration and better access to the 35mm Alvin and Jason still images through digitization and proper cataloging with relevant meta-data, 2. assessing Alvin data logger data, migrating data on older media no longer in common use, and properly labeling and evaluating vehicle attitude and navigation data, 3. migrating older Alvin and Jason video data, especially data recorded on Hi-8 tape that is very susceptible to degradation on each replay, to newer digital format media such as DVD, 4. improving the capabilities of the NDSF archives to better serve the increasingly complex needs of the oceanographic community, including researchers involved in focused programs like Ridge2000 and MARGINS, where viable distributed databases in various disciplinary topics will form an important component of the data management structure

  9. A Case Study in Collaboration: Looking Back at the National Graphic Design Archive

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Remington, R. Roger

    2004-01-01

    Inspired by the 1980s interest in graphic design history, an initially productive, but difficult to sustain, collaboration among three American universities from the late 1980s to the mid-1990s, is the subject of this case study. The ideas behind a much-needed archival consortium, its organization and its difficulties in sustaining collaboration…

  10. A Case Study in Collaboration: Looking Back at the National Graphic Design Archive

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Remington, R. Roger

    2004-01-01

    Inspired by the 1980s interest in graphic design history, an initially productive, but difficult to sustain, collaboration among three American universities from the late 1980s to the mid-1990s, is the subject of this case study. The ideas behind a much-needed archival consortium, its organization and its difficulties in sustaining collaboration…

  11. The NASA Space Radiobiology Risk Assessment Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cucinotta, Francis A.; Huff, Janice; Ponomarev, Artem; Patel, Zarana; Kim, Myung-Hee

    The current first phase (2006-2011) has the three major goals of: 1) optimizing the conventional cancer risk models currently used based on the double-detriment life-table and radiation quality functions; 2) the integration of biophysical models of acute radiation syndromes; and 3) the development of new systems radiation biology models of cancer processes. The first-phase also includes continued uncertainty assessment of space radiation environmental models and transport codes, and relative biological effectiveness factors (RBE) based on flight data and NSRL results, respectively. The second phase of the (2012-2016) will: 1) develop biophysical models of central nervous system risks (CNS); 2) achieve comphrensive systems biology models of cancer processes using data from proton and heavy ion studies performed at NSRL; and 3) begin to identify computational models of biological countermeasures. Goals for the third phase (2017-2021) include: 1) the development of a systems biology model of cancer risks for operational use at NASA; 2) development of models of degenerative risks, 2) quantitative models of counter-measure impacts on cancer risks; and 3) indiviudal based risk assessments. Finally, we will support a decision point to continue NSRL research in support of NASA's exploration goals beyond 2021, and create an archival of NSRL research results for continued analysis. Details on near term goals, plans for a WEB based data resource of NSRL results, and a space radiation Wikepedia are described.

  12. Ultrashort Pulse Laser Accelerated Proton Beams for First Radiobiological Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Schramm, U.; Zeil, K.; Beyreuther, E.; Bussmann, M.; Cowan, T. E.; Kluge, T.; Kraft, S.; Metzkes, J.; Sauerbrey, R.; Richter, C.; Enghardt, W.; Pawelke, J.; Karsch, L.; Laschinsky, L.; Naumburger, D.

    2010-11-04

    We report on the generation of proton pulses with maximum energies exceeding 15 MeV by means of the irradiation of few micron thick metal foils by ultrashort (30 fs) laser pulses at a power level of 100 TW. In contrast to the well known situation for longer laser pulses, here, a near linear scaling of the maximum proton energy with laser power can be found. Aiming for radiobiological applications the long and short term stability of the laser plasma accelerator as well as a compact energy selection and dosimetry system is presented. The first irradiation of in vitro tumour cells showing dose dependent biological damage is demonstrated paving the way for systematic radiobiological studies.

  13. Dosimetry for radiobiological studies of the human hematopoietic system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beck, W. L.; Stokes, T. R.; Lushbaugh, C. C.

    1972-01-01

    A system for estimating individual bone marrow doses in therapeutic radiation exposures of leukemia patients was studied. These measurements are used to make dose response correlations and to study the effect of dose protraction on peripheral blood cell levels. Three irradiators designed to produce a uniform field of high energy gamma radiation for total body exposures of large animals and man are also used for radiobiological studies.

  14. Toward a consensus on radiobiology teaching to radiation oncology residents.

    PubMed

    Dynlacht, Joseph R; Dewhirst, Mark W; Hall, Eric J; Rosenstein, Barry S; Zeman, Elaine M

    2002-05-01

    There are approximately 82 radiation oncology residency programs in the United States, which provide training opportunities for about 400 residents. All accredited radiation oncology residency programs must have at least one basic scientist on the faculty, and it is these individuals who often assume, wholly or in part, the responsibility of teaching radiation and cancer biology to radiation oncology residents in preparation for the American College of Radiology (ACR) In-Training Examination in Radiation Oncology and the American Board of Radiology (ABR) written examinations. In response to a perceived lack of uniformity in radiation and cancer biology curricula currently being taught to residents and a perceived lack of guidance for instructors in formulating course content for this population, a special session was presented at the Forty-eighth Annual Radiation Research Society meeting on April 23, 2001. The session, entitled "Toward a Consensus on Radiobiology Teaching to Radiation Oncology Residents", was focused on issues related to teaching radiobiology to radiation oncology residents and targeted for individuals who actively teach radiation and cancer biology as well as coordinators of residency training programs. The speakers addressed current challenges and future problems facing instructors and programs. Among these were lack of feedback on resident performance on ABR and ACR written examinations and on course content, uncertainty about what topics residents must know to pass the ABR examination, and, in the near future, a reduction (due to retirement) of instructors qualified to teach radiobiology. This article provides a synopsis of the information that was presented during that session, offers a glimpse into how the ABR and ACR examinations are prepared and details of the content of past and future examinations, and summarizes the activities of the Joint Working Group on Radiobiology Teaching which was formed to educate instructors, to establish a

  15. Radiobiological risk and single event effects during manned space flights.

    PubMed

    Bourrieau, J; Calvet, M C

    1995-01-01

    Radiation hazard during previous manned space flights was not a critical problem as seen from monitoring on board MIR and the SHUTTLE. Future Martian and Lunar missions as well as flights on inclined or high altitude orbits around the Earth can be exposed to a large radiobiological risk and critical reliability losses can be expected, due to Single Event Effects on VLSI devices. The main characteristics of these hazards and some counter-measures to be provided for are given.

  16. Radioembolization of Hepatic Lesions from a Radiobiology and Dosimetric Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Cremonesi, Marta; Chiesa, Carlo; Strigari, Lidia; Ferrari, Mahila; Botta, Francesca; Guerriero, Francesco; De Cicco, Concetta; Bonomo, Guido; Orsi, Franco; Bodei, Lisa; Di Dia, Amalia; Grana, Chiara Maria; Orecchia, Roberto

    2014-01-01

    Radioembolization (RE) of liver cancer with 90Y-microspheres has been applied in the last two decades with notable responses and acceptable toxicity. Two types of microspheres are available, glass and resin, the main difference being the activity/sphere. Generally, administered activities are established by empirical methods and differ for the two types. Treatment planning based on dosimetry is a prerogative of few centers, but has notably gained interest, with evidence of predictive power of dosimetry on toxicity, lesion response, and overall survival (OS). Radiobiological correlations between absorbed doses and toxicity to organs at risk, and tumor response, have been obtained in many clinical studies. Dosimetry methods have evolved from the macroscopic approach at the organ level to voxel analysis, providing absorbed dose spatial distributions and dose–volume histograms (DVH). The well-known effects of the external beam radiation therapy (EBRT), such as the volume effect, underlying disease influence, cumulative damage in parallel organs, and different tolerability of re-treatment, have been observed also in RE, identifying in EBRT a foremost reference to compare with. The radiobiological models – normal tissue complication probability and tumor control probability – and/or the style (DVH concepts) used in EBRT are introduced in RE. Moreover, attention has been paid to the intrinsic different activity distribution of resin and glass spheres at the microscopic scale, with dosimetric and radiobiological consequences. Dedicated studies and mathematical models have developed this issue and explain some clinical evidences, e.g., the shift of dose to higher toxicity thresholds using glass as compared to resin spheres. This paper offers a comprehensive review of the literature incident to dosimetry and radiobiological issues in RE, with the aim to summarize the results and to identify the most useful methods and information that should accompany future studies

  17. Pulsed radiobiology with laser-driven plasma accelerators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giulietti, Antonio; Grazia Andreassi, Maria; Greco, Carlo

    2011-05-01

    Recently, a high efficiency regime of acceleration in laser plasmas has been discovered, allowing table top equipment to deliver doses of interest for radiotherapy with electron bunches of suitable kinetic energy. In view of an R&D program aimed to the realization of an innovative class of accelerators for medical uses, a radiobiological validation is needed. At the present time, the biological effects of electron bunches from the laser-driven electron accelerator are largely unknown. In radiobiology and radiotherapy, it is known that the early spatial distribution of energy deposition following ionizing radiation interactions with DNA molecule is crucial for the prediction of damages at cellular or tissue levels and during the clinical responses to this irradiation. The purpose of the present study is to evaluate the radio-biological effects obtained with electron bunches from a laser-driven electron accelerator compared with bunches coming from a IORT-dedicated medical Radio-frequency based linac's on human cells by the cytokinesis block micronucleus assay (CBMN). To this purpose a multidisciplinary team including radiotherapists, biologists, medical physicists, laser and plasma physicists is working at CNR Campus and University of Pisa. Dose on samples is delivered alternatively by the "laser-linac" operating at ILIL lab of Istituto Nazionale di Ottica and an RF-linac operating for IORT at Pisa S. Chiara Hospital. Experimental data are analyzed on the basis of suitable radiobiological models as well as with numerical simulation based on Monte Carlo codes. Possible collective effects are also considered in the case of ultrashort, ultradense bunches of ionizing radiation.

  18. New challenges in high-energy particle radiobiology

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Densely ionizing radiation has always been a main topic in radiobiology. In fact, α-particles and neutrons are sources of radiation exposure for the general population and workers in nuclear power plants. More recently, high-energy protons and heavy ions attracted a large interest for two applications: hadrontherapy in oncology and space radiation protection in manned space missions. For many years, studies concentrated on measurements of the relative biological effectiveness (RBE) of the energetic particles for different end points, especially cell killing (for radiotherapy) and carcinogenesis (for late effects). Although more recently, it has been shown that densely ionizing radiation elicits signalling pathways quite distinct from those involved in the cell and tissue response to photons. The response of the microenvironment to charged particles is therefore under scrutiny, and both the damage in the target and non-target tissues are relevant. The role of individual susceptibility in therapy and risk is obviously a major topic in radiation research in general, and for ion radiobiology as well. Particle radiobiology is therefore now entering into a new phase, where beyond RBE, the tissue response is considered. These results may open new applications for both cancer therapy and protection in deep space. PMID:24198199

  19. New challenges in high-energy particle radiobiology.

    PubMed

    Durante, M

    2014-03-01

    Densely ionizing radiation has always been a main topic in radiobiology. In fact, α-particles and neutrons are sources of radiation exposure for the general population and workers in nuclear power plants. More recently, high-energy protons and heavy ions attracted a large interest for two applications: hadrontherapy in oncology and space radiation protection in manned space missions. For many years, studies concentrated on measurements of the relative biological effectiveness (RBE) of the energetic particles for different end points, especially cell killing (for radiotherapy) and carcinogenesis (for late effects). Although more recently, it has been shown that densely ionizing radiation elicits signalling pathways quite distinct from those involved in the cell and tissue response to photons. The response of the microenvironment to charged particles is therefore under scrutiny, and both the damage in the target and non-target tissues are relevant. The role of individual susceptibility in therapy and risk is obviously a major topic in radiation research in general, and for ion radiobiology as well. Particle radiobiology is therefore now entering into a new phase, where beyond RBE, the tissue response is considered. These results may open new applications for both cancer therapy and protection in deep space.

  20. Quantitative modeling of chronic myeloid leukemia: insights from radiobiology

    PubMed Central

    Radivoyevitch, Tomas; Hlatky, Lynn; Landaw, Julian

    2012-01-01

    Mathematical models of chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) cell population dynamics are being developed to improve CML understanding and treatment. We review such models in light of relevant findings from radiobiology, emphasizing 3 points. First, the CML models almost all assert that the latency time, from CML initiation to diagnosis, is at most ∼ 10 years. Meanwhile, current radiobiologic estimates, based on Japanese atomic bomb survivor data, indicate a substantially higher maximum, suggesting longer-term relapses and extra resistance mutations. Second, different CML models assume different numbers, between 400 and 106, of normal HSCs. Radiobiologic estimates favor values > 106 for the number of normal cells (often assumed to be the HSCs) that are at risk for a CML-initiating BCR-ABL translocation. Moreover, there is some evidence for an HSC dead-band hypothesis, consistent with HSC numbers being very different across different healthy adults. Third, radiobiologists have found that sporadic (background, age-driven) chromosome translocation incidence increases with age during adulthood. BCR-ABL translocation incidence increasing with age would provide a hitherto underanalyzed contribution to observed background adult-onset CML incidence acceleration with age, and would cast some doubt on stage-number inferences from multistage carcinogenesis models in general. PMID:22353999

  1. Quantitative modeling of chronic myeloid leukemia: insights from radiobiology.

    PubMed

    Radivoyevitch, Tomas; Hlatky, Lynn; Landaw, Julian; Sachs, Rainer K

    2012-05-10

    Mathematical models of chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) cell population dynamics are being developed to improve CML understanding and treatment. We review such models in light of relevant findings from radiobiology, emphasizing 3 points. First, the CML models almost all assert that the latency time, from CML initiation to diagnosis, is at most ∼10 years. Meanwhile, current radiobiologic estimates, based on Japanese atomic bomb survivor data, indicate a substantially higher maximum, suggesting longer-term relapses and extra resistance mutations. Second, different CML models assume different numbers, between 400 and 10(6), of normal HSCs. Radiobiologic estimates favor values>10(6) for the number of normal cells (often assumed to be the HSCs) that are at risk for a CML-initiating BCR-ABL translocation. Moreover, there is some evidence for an HSC dead-band hypothesis, consistent with HSC numbers being very different across different healthy adults. Third, radiobiologists have found that sporadic (background, age-driven) chromosome translocation incidence increases with age during adulthood. BCR-ABL translocation incidence increasing with age would provide a hitherto underanalyzed contribution to observed background adult-onset CML incidence acceleration with age, and would cast some doubt on stage-number inferences from multistage carcinogenesis models in general.

  2. In vitro irradiation station for broad beam radiobiological experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wéra, A.-C.; Riquier, H.; Heuskin, A.-C.; Michiels, C.; Lucas, S.

    2011-12-01

    The study of the interaction of charged particles with living matter is of prime importance to the fields of radiotherapy, radioprotection and space radiobiology. Particle accelerators and their associated equipment are proven to be helpful tools in performing basic science in all these fields. Indeed, they can accelerate virtually any ions to a given energy and flux and let them interact with living matter either in vivo or in vitro. In this context, the University of Namur has developed a broad beam in vitro irradiation station for use in radiobiological experiments. Cells are handled in GLP conditions and can be irradiated at various fluxes with ions ranging from hydrogen to carbon. The station is mounted on a 2 MV tandem accelerator, and the energy range can be set up in the linear energy transfer (LET) ranges that are useful for radiobiological experiments. This paper describes the current status of the hardware that has been developed, and presents results related to its performance in term of dose-rate, energy range and beam uniformity for protons, alpha particles and carbon ions. The results of clonogenic assays of A549 lung adenocarcinoma cells irradiated with protons and alpha particles are also presented and compared with literature.

  3. The Civil War: A Survey. Featuring Original Documents from the National Archives and Records Administration. Volume 6. Teaching with Primary Sources Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    West, Jean M., Ed.

    This unit of study (for grades 5-8 and up) about the U.S. Civil War features original documents from the National Archives and Records Administration. All the records used in the unit reflect the actions of the federal government or citizens' responses to these actions. These records were selected for their historical value, their legibility and…

  4. 36 CFR 1235.46 - What electronic media may be used for transferring records to the National Archives of the United...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...-ROM) or mechanisms (e.g., FTP), the agency and NARA must agree on the most appropriate medium or... may use File Transfer Protocol (FTP) to transfer permanent electronic records to the National Archives of the United States only with NARA's approval. Several important factors may limit the use of FTP...

  5. 36 CFR 1235.46 - What electronic media may be used for transferring records to the National Archives of the United...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...-ROM) or mechanisms (e.g., FTP), the agency and NARA must agree on the most appropriate medium or... may use File Transfer Protocol (FTP) to transfer permanent electronic records to the National Archives of the United States only with NARA's approval. Several important factors may limit the use of FTP...

  6. 36 CFR 1235.46 - What electronic media may be used for transferring records to the National Archives of the United...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...-ROM) or mechanisms (e.g., FTP), the agency and NARA must agree on the most appropriate medium or... may use File Transfer Protocol (FTP) to transfer permanent electronic records to the National Archives of the United States only with NARA's approval. Several important factors may limit the use of FTP...

  7. NOAO Science Archive

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seaman, Robert L.; De La Pena, Michele; Zarate, Nelson; Lauer, Tod R.

    2002-12-01

    The NOAO Science Archive (NSA) is a step toward building a comprehensive scientific archive of the optical and infrared data holdings of the National Optical Astronomy Observatory. Earlier efforts included the NOAO Save the Bits archive (more properly a data store) with current raw data holdings from telescopes at both Kitt Peak National Observatory and Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory of more than 3 million images, totaling in excess of 20 terabytes. The NOAO Science Archive builds on the foundation provided by the NOAO Deep-Wide Field Survey (NDWFS) Archive that offers sophisticated analysis tools -- as well as the coherent and extensive NDWFS data set. NSA is an initiative of the NOAO Data Products Program aimed at identifying scientifically useful datasets from the large and growing NOAO holdings and making these data available to the astronomical community, while providing tools for data discovery, mining and exploration. The goals for the NSA are: to immediately create a scientifically useful archive of NOAO Survey data, to develop in-house expertise in the relevant technologies, to identify and document requirements for NOAO's future comprehensive archive by providing a design study, and to create a high level of visibility and utility for both the NOAO Archive and NOAO Surveys (for example, with web services available at http://archive.noao.edu). The archive and associated NOAO assets are expected to grow into a resource of the National Virtual Observatory.

  8. National Space Science Data Center data archive and distribution service (NDADS) automated retrieval mail system user's guide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perry, Charleen M.; Vansteenberg, Michael E.

    1992-01-01

    The National Space Science Data Center (NSSDC) has developed an automated data retrieval request service utilizing our Data Archive and Distribution Service (NDADS) computer system. NDADS currently has selected project data written to optical disk platters with the disks residing in a robotic 'jukebox' near-line environment. This allows for rapid and automated access to the data with no staff intervention required. There are also automated help information and user services available that can be accessed. The request system permits an average-size data request to be completed within minutes of the request being sent to NSSDC. A mail message, in the format described in this document, retrieves the data and can send it to a remote site. Also listed in this document are the data currently available.

  9. MO-D-BRD-03: Radiobiology and Commissioning of Electronic Brachytherapy for IORT

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, J.

    2015-06-15

    Electronic brachytherapy (eBT) has seen an insurgence of manufacturers entering the US market for use in radiation therapy. In addition to the established interstitial, intraluminary, and intracavitary applications of eBT, many centers are now using eBT to treat skin lesions. It is important for medical physicists working with electronic brachytherapy sources to understand the basic physics principles of the sources themselves as well as the variety of applications for which they are being used. The calibration of the sources is different from vendor to vendor and the traceability of calibrations has evolved as new sources came to market. In 2014, a new air-kerma based standard was introduced by the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) to measure the output of an eBT source. Eventually commercial treatment planning systems should accommodate this new standard and provide NIST traceability to the end user. The calibration and commissioning of an eBT system is unique to its application and typically entails a list of procedural recommendations by the manufacturer. Commissioning measurements are performed using a variety of methods, some of which are modifications of existing AAPM Task Group protocols. A medical physicist should be familiar with the different AAPM Task Group recommendations for applicability to eBT and how to properly adapt them to their needs. In addition to the physical characteristics of an eBT source, the photon energy is substantially lower than from HDR Ir-192 sources. Consequently, tissue-specific dosimetry and radiobiological considerations are necessary when comparing these brachytherapy modalities and when making clinical decisions as a radiation therapy team. In this session, the physical characteristics and calibration methodologies of eBt sources will be presented as well as radiobiology considerations and other important clinical considerations. Learning Objectives: To understand the basic principles of electronic

  10. Pharmaceuticals and Personal Care Products in Archived U.S. Biosolids from the 2001 EPA National Sewage Sludge Survey

    PubMed Central

    McClellan, Kristin; Halden, Rolf U.

    2010-01-01

    In response to the U.S. National Academies’ call for a better assessment of chemical pollutants contained in the approximately 6.9 million dry tons of digested municipal sludge produced annually in the United States, the mean concentration of 72 pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCP) were determined in 110 biosolids samples collected by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) in its 2001 National Sewage Sludge Survey. Composite samples of archived biosolids, collected at 94 U.S. wastewater treatment plants from 32 states and the District of Columbia, were analyzed by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry using EPA Method 1694. Thirty-eight (54%) of the 72 analytes were detected in at least one composite sample at concentrations ranging from 0.002 to 48 mg kg−1 dry weight. Triclocarban and triclosan were the most abundant analytes with mean concentrations of 36 ± 8 and 12.6 ± 3.8 mg kg−1 (n = 5), respectively, accounting for 65% of the total PPCP mass found. The loading to U.S. soils from nationwide biosolids recycling was estimated at 210–250 metric tons per year for the sum of the 72 PPCPs investigated. The results of this nationwide reconnaissance of PPCPs in archived U.S. biosolids mirror in contaminant occurrences, frequencies and concentrations, those reported by the U.S. EPA for samples collected in 2006/07. This demonstrates that PPCP releases in U.S. biosolids have been ongoing for many years and the most abundant PPCPs appear to show limited fluctuations in mass over time when assessed on a nationwide basis. The here demonstrated use of five mega composite samples holds promise for conducting cost-effective, routine monitoring on a regional basis. PMID:20106500

  11. Manned Mars mission radiation environment and radiobiology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nachtwey, D. S.

    1986-01-01

    Potential radiation hazards to crew members on manned Mars missions are discussed. It deals briefly with radiation sources and environments likely to be encountered during various phases of such missions, providing quantitative estimates of these environments. Also provided are quantitative data and discussions on the implications of such radiation on the human body. Various sorts of protective measures are suggested. Recent re-evaluation of allowable dose limits by the National Council of Radiation Protection is discussed, and potential implications from such activity are assessed.

  12. The New Radiobiology: Returning to Our Roots

    PubMed Central

    Ulsh, Brant A.

    2012-01-01

    In 2005, two expert advisory bodies examined the evidence on the effects of low doses of ionizing radiation. The U.S. National Research Council concluded that current scientific evidence is consistent with the linear no-threshold dose-response relationship (NRCNA 2005) while the French National Academies of Science and Medicine concluded the opposite (Aurengo et al. 2005). These contradictory conclusions may stem in part from an emphasis on epidemiological data (a “top down” approach) versus an emphasis on biological mechanisms (a “bottom up” approach). In this paper, the strengths and limitations of the top down and bottom up approaches are discussed, and proposals for strengthening and reconciling them are suggested. The past seven years since these two reports were published have yielded increasing evidence of nonlinear responses of biological systems to low radiation doses delivered at low dose-rates. This growing body of evidence is casting ever more doubt on the extrapolation of risks observed at high doses and dose-rates to estimate risks associated with typical environmental and occupational exposures. This paper compares current evidence on low dose, low dose-rate effects against objective criteria of causation. Finally, some questions for a post-LNT world are posed. PMID:23304107

  13. Public discourse on HIV/AIDS: an archival analysis of national newspaper reporting in Uganda, 1996–2011

    PubMed Central

    Lagone, Elizabeth; Mathur, Sanyukta; Nakyanjo, Neema; Nalugoda, Fred; Santelli, John

    2014-01-01

    Uganda is recognised as an early success story in the HIV epidemic at least in part due to an open and vigorous national dialogue about HIV prevention. This study examined the national discourse about HIV, AIDS, and young people in New Vision, Uganda's leading national newspaper between 1996 and 2011, building from a previous archival analysis of New Vision reporting by Kirby (1986-1995). We examined the continuing evolution in the public discourse in Uganda, focusing on reporting about young people. An increase in reporting on HIV and AIDS occurred after 2003, as antiretroviral treatment was becoming available. While the emphasis in newspaper reporting about adults and the population at large evolved to reflect the development of new HIV treatment and prevention methods, the majority of the articles focused on young people did not change. Articles about young people continued to emphasise HIV acquisition due to early and premarital sexual activity and the need for social support services for children affected by HIV and AIDS. Articles often did not report on the complex social conditions that shape HIV-related risk among young people, or address young people who are sexually active, married, and/or HIV infected. With HIV prevalence now increasing among young people and adults in Uganda, greater attention to HIV prevention is needed. PMID:25132802

  14. Public discourse on HIV/AIDS: an archival analysis of national newspaper reporting in Uganda, 1996-2011.

    PubMed

    Lagone, Elizabeth; Mathur, Sanyukta; Nakyanjo, Neema; Nalugoda, Fred; Santelli, John

    2014-01-01

    Uganda is recognised as an early success story in the HIV epidemic at least in part due to an open and vigorous national dialogue about HIV prevention. This study examined the national discourse about HIV, AIDS, and young people in New Vision, Uganda's leading national newspaper between 1996 and 2011, building from a previous archival analysis of New Vision reporting by Kirby (1986-1995). We examined the continuing evolution in the public discourse in Uganda, focusing on reporting about young people. An increase in reporting on HIV and AIDS occurred after 2003, as antiretroviral treatment was becoming available. While the emphasis in newspaper reporting about adults and the population at large evolved to reflect the development of new HIV treatment and prevention methods, the majority of the articles focused on young people did not change. Articles about young people continued to emphasise HIV acquisition due to early and premarital sexual activity and the need for social support services for children affected by HIV and AIDS. Articles often did not report on the complex social conditions that shape HIV-related risk among young people, or address young people who are sexually active, married, and/or HIV infected. With HIV prevalence now increasing among young people and adults in Uganda, greater attention to HIV prevention is needed.

  15. Prediction of AVM obliteration after stereotactic radiotherapy using radiobiological modelling.

    PubMed

    Mavroidis, Panayiotis; Theodorou, Kyriaki; Lefkopoulos, Dimitrios; Nataf, François; Schlienger, Michel; Karlsson, Bengt; Lax, Ingmar; Kappas, Constantin; Lind, Bengt K; Brahme, Anders

    2002-07-21

    This study was carried out in order to derive the radiobiological parameters of the dose-response relation for the obliteration of arteriovenous malformation (AVM) following single fraction stereotactic radiotherapy. Furthermore, the accuracy by which the linear Poisson model predicts the probability of obliteration and how the haemorrhage history, location and volume of the AVM influence its radiosensitivity are investigated. The study patient material consists of 85 patients who received radiation for AVM therapy. Radiation-induced AVM obliterations were assessed on the basis of post-irradiation angiographies and other radiological findings. For each patient the dose delivered to the clinical target volume and the clinical treatment outcome were available. These data were used in a maximum likelihood analysis to calculate the best estimates of the parameters of the linear Poisson model. The uncertainties of these parameters were also calculated and their individual influence on the dose-response curve was studied. AVM radiosensitivity was assumed to be the same for all the patients. The radiobiological model used was proved suitable for predicting the treatment outcome pattern of the studied patient material. The radiobiological parameters of the model were calculated for different AVM locations, bleeding histories and AVM sizes. The range of parameter variability had considerable effect on the dose-response curve of AVM. The correlation between the dosimetric data and their corresponding clinical effect could be accurately modelled using the linear Poisson model. The derived response parameters can be introduced into the clinical routine with the calculated accuracy assuming the same methodology in target definition and delineation. The known volume dependence of AVM radiosensitivity was confirmed. Moreover, a trend relating AVM location with its radiosensitivity was observed.

  16. Application of SSNTDs in radiobiological investigations aboard recoverable satellites.

    PubMed

    Huang, R Q; Gu, R Q; Li, Q

    1997-01-01

    In recent years some Biostack experiments including a wide spectrum of biological objects have been devoted to study of the radiobiological effects on dry seeds aboard recoverable satellites. Some impressive phenomena have been observed. Clearly, the large amount of energy deposited by the highly ionizing heavy nuclei of cosmic rays is the principal reason for the induced aberrations of the chromosomes of wheat root tip cells. A methodical description of the experimental arrangement and procedure of handling and evaluation of given. The preliminary physical and biological results from the experimental "wheat seeds" are presented.

  17. A fuzzy convolution model for radiobiologically optimized radiotherapy margins.

    PubMed

    Mzenda, Bongile; Hosseini-Ashrafi, Mir; Gegov, Alex; Brown, David J

    2010-06-07

    In this study we investigate the use of a new knowledge-based fuzzy logic technique to derive radiotherapy margins based on radiotherapy uncertainties and their radiobiological effects. The main radiotherapy uncertainties considered and used to build the model were delineation, set-up and organ motion-induced errors. The radiobiological effects of these combined errors, in terms of prostate tumour control probability and rectal normal tissue complication probability, were used to formulate the rule base and membership functions for a Sugeno type fuzzy system linking the error effect to the treatment margin. The defuzzified output was optimized by convolving it with a Gaussian convolution kernel to give a uniformly varying transfer function which was used to calculate the required treatment margins. The margin derived using the fuzzy technique showed good agreement compared to current prostate margins based on the commonly used margin formulation proposed by van Herk et al (2000 Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys. 47 1121-35), and has nonlinear variation above combined errors of 5 mm standard deviation. The derived margin is on average 0.5 mm bigger than currently used margins in the region of small treatment uncertainties where margin reduction would be applicable. The new margin was applied in an intensity modulated radiotherapy prostate treatment planning example where margin reduction and a dose escalation regime were implemented, and by inducing equivalent treatment uncertainties, the resulting target and organs at risk doses were found to compare well to results obtained using currently recommended margins.

  18. Hypofractionation in prostate cancer: radiobiological basis and clinical appliance.

    PubMed

    Mangoni, M; Desideri, I; Detti, B; Bonomo, P; Greto, D; Paiar, F; Simontacchi, G; Meattini, I; Scoccianti, S; Masoni, T; Ciabatti, C; Turkaj, A; Serni, S; Minervini, A; Gacci, M; Carini, M; Livi, L

    2014-01-01

    External beam radiation therapy with conventional fractionation to a total dose of 76-80 Gy represents the most adopted treatment modality for prostate cancer. Dose escalation in this setting has been demonstrated to improve biochemical control with acceptable toxicity using contemporary radiotherapy techniques. Hypofractionated radiotherapy and stereotactic body radiation therapy have gained an increasing interest in recent years and they have the potential to become the standard of care even if long-term data about their efficacy and safety are not well established. Strong radiobiological basis supports the use of high dose for fraction in prostate cancer, due to the demonstrated exceptionally low values of α / β . Clinical experiences with hypofractionated and stereotactic radiotherapy (with an adequate biologically equivalent dose) demonstrated good tolerance, a PSA control comparable to conventional fractionation, and the advantage of shorter time period of treatment. This paper reviews the radiobiological findings that have led to the increasing use of hypofractionation in the management of prostate cancer and briefly analyzes the clinical experience in this setting.

  19. Influence of oxygen on the chemical stage of radiobiological mechanism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barilla, Jiří; Lokajíček, Miloš V.; Pisaková, Hana; Simr, Pavel

    2016-07-01

    The simulation of the chemical stage of radiobiological mechanism may be very helpful in studying the radiobiological effect of ionizing radiation when the water radical clusters formed by the densely ionizing ends of primary or secondary charged particle may form DSBs damaging DNA molecules in living cells. It is possible to study not only the efficiency of individual radicals but also the influence of other species or radiomodifiers (mainly oxygen) being present in water medium during irradiation. The mathematical model based on Continuous Petri nets (proposed by us recently) will be described. It makes it possible to analyze two main processes running at the same time: chemical radical reactions and the diffusion of radical clusters formed during energy transfer. One may study the time change of radical concentrations due to the chemical reactions running during diffusion process. Some orientation results concerning the efficiency of individual radicals in DSB formation (in the case of Co60 radiation) will be presented; the influence of oxygen present in water medium during irradiation will be shown, too.

  20. REVIEW: Development of radiobiology for oncology—a personal view

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fowler, Jack F.

    2006-07-01

    When I came into radiotherapy in 1950, I was puzzled that some patients were treated to 3000 rads (cGy) in 3 weeks but others received 4000 in 5 or 6000 in 6 weeks. When I asked why, there were no convincing answers given, except 'this is what we usually do'. It wasn't until I went to a course on 'Radiobiology for Radiotherapy' in Cambridge that I learnt about the basic theories of Douglas Lea and the very considerable history of research into radiobiology and clinical radiotherapy. And there were still some questions outstanding, such as the relative importance of intracellular repair between 'daily' fractions, whether a 2 day gap each week was a good or a bad idea, and the role of proliferation, if any, during irradiation. I thought that a few simple animal experiments might help to give answers! That led me to a continuing interest in these questions and answers, which has taken me more than 50 years to pursue. This is the very personal story of what I saw happening in the subject, decade by decade. I was happy to experience all this together with scientists in many other countries, and our own, along the way.

  1. Cell irradiation setup and dosimetry for radiobiological studies at ELBE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeil, K.; Beyreuther, E.; Lessmann, E.; Wagner, W.; Pawelke, J.

    2009-07-01

    The radiation source ELBE delivers different types of secondary radiation, which is used for cell irradiation studies in radiobiological research. Thereby an important issue is the determination of the biological effectiveness of photon radiation as a function of photon energy by using low-energetic, monochromatic channeling radiation (10-100 keV) and high-energetic bremsstrahlung (up to 40 MV). Radiobiological studies at the research facility ELBE demand special technical and dosimetric prerequisites. Therefore, a cell irradiation system (CIS) has been designed, constructed and installed at the beam line. The CIS allows automatic irradiation of a larger cell sample number and the compensation of spatial inhomogeneity of the dose distribution within the beam spot. The recently introduced GafChromic ® EBT radiochromic film model has been used to verify the cell irradiation dose deposition achieving a dose uncertainty of <5%. Both, the installed cell irradiation system and the developed dosimetric procedure based on the use of the EBT film have been experimentally tested at ELBE. The biological effectiveness of 34 MV bremsstrahlung with respect to 200 kV X-rays from a conventional X-ray tube has been determined. An RBE value of 0.75 has been measured in good agreement with literature.

  2. Detailed characterization of the 1087 MeV/nucleon iron-56 beam used for radiobiology at the alternating gradient synchrotron

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zeitlin, C.; Heilbronn, L.; Miller, J.

    1998-01-01

    We report beam characterization and dosimetric measurements made using a 56Fe beam extracted from the Brookhaven National Laboratory Alternating Gradient Synchrotron (AGS) with a kinetic energy of 1087 MeV/nucleon. The measurements reveal that the depth-dose distribution of this beam differs significantly from that obtained with a 600 MeV/nucleon iron beam used in several earlier radiobiology experiments at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory's BEVALAC. We present detailed measurements of beam parameters relevant for radiobiology, including track- and dose-averaged linear energy transfer (LET), fragment composition and LET spectra measured behind sample holders used in irradiations of biological samples. We also report measurements of fluence behind three depths (1.94, 4.68 and 9.35 g cm(-2)) of polyethylene targets with the 1087 MeV/nucleon beam, and behind 1.94 g cm(-2) of polyethylene with a 610 MeV/nucleon beam delivered by the AGS. These results are compared to earlier measurements with the 600 MeV/nucleon beam at the BEVALAC.

  3. National Archive of Marine Seismic Surveys (NAMSS): U.S. Geological Survey Program to Provide new Access to Proprietary Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Childs, J. R.; Hart, P. E.

    2004-12-01

    Marine seismic reflection profile data originally acquired for purposes of offshore oil and gas exploration and development within the United States Exclusive Economic Zone represent a national scientific resource of inestimable value. Although the commercial value of these data has diminished due to technological advances and offshore development moratoria, the value to current and future scientific endeavors continues to be very high. Recently, commercial owners (including WesternGeco and ChevronTexaco) of large data holdings offshore the eastern, western, and Alaskan coasts of the United States have offered to transfer over 200,000 line kilometers of two-dimensional data (vintage 1970 to 1985) to the public domain. Recognizing the value of these data, the U.S. Geological Survey in co-operation with the Institute for Crustal Studies at UCSB, the Incorporated Research Institutions for Seismology, and the American Geological Institute) is promoting efforts to safeguard on behalf of the research community and the nation any data that may otherwise be lost, and to ensure free and open access to that data. To achieve these goals, the USGS has developed a National Archive of Marine Seismic Surveys (NAMSS). Work is underway to organize and reformat digital data currently stored on obsolete media, primarily nine-track tapes. The NAMSS web site below has further information on the project, including trackline maps of surveys that will soon be publicly available. The ultimate objective is the establishment of a data repository accessible through an on-line database, with graphical and text-based search and retrieval interface.

  4. Very High Dose-Rate Radiobiology and Radiation Therapy for Lung Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-02-01

    AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-14-1-0014 TITLE: Very High Dose-Rate Radiobiology and Radiation Therapy for Lung Cancer PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Peter Maxim...TITLE AND SUBTITLE ery High Dose-Rate Radiobiology and Radiation Therapy for Lung Cancer 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-14-1-0014 5c...1 Contract number: W81XWH-14-1-0014 Title: Very High Dose-Rate Radiobiology and Radiation Therapy for Lung Cancer Principal Investigator: Peter G

  5. A radiobiological model of reoxygenation and fractionation effects.

    PubMed

    Guerrero, Mariana; Carlson, David J

    2017-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a radiobiological model of reoxygenation that fulfills the following goals: (a) Quantify the reoxygenation effect for different fractionations (b) Model the hypoxic fraction in tumors as a function of the number of radiation treatments. (c) Develop a simple analytical expression for a reoxygenation term in biological effect calculations. The model considers tumor cells in two compartments: an aerobic (or normoxic) population of cells and a hypoxic population including cells under a range of reduced oxygen concentrations. The surviving fraction is predicted using the linear-quadratic (LQ) model. A hypoxia reduction factor (HRF) is used to quantify reductions in radiosensitivity parameters αA and βA as cellular oxygen concentration decreases. The HRF is defined as the ratio of the dose at a specific level of hypoxia to the dose under fully aerobic conditions to achieve equal cell killing. The model assumes that a fraction of the hypoxic cells (Δ) moves from the hypoxic to the aerobic compartment after each daily fraction. As an example, we compare the effect of reoxygenation on biological response for a standard dose fractionation for nonsmall cell lung cancer (NSCLC) (d = 2 Gy, n = 33) to typical fractionations for stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) and other nonstandard fractionations. The reoxygenation effect is parameterized for biological effect calculations and an analytic expression for the surviving fraction after n daily treatments is derived. The hypoxic fraction either increases or decreases with n depending on the reoxygenation parameter Δ. For certain combinations of parameters, the biological effect of reoxygenation goes as -(n-1) · ln(1-Δ) providing a simple expression that can be introduced in biologically effective dose (BED) calculations. The model is used to compare fractionation schedules and quantitatively interpret results from molecular imaging studies of hypoxia. Based on the comparison of

  6. Archives Library Information Center (ALIC) Notes, 1989-1992.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ALIC Notes, 1992

    1992-01-01

    The Archives Library Information Center (ALIC) within the National Archives and Records Administration (NARA) collects printed material on archives, manuscripts, and records management. ALIC compiles a database of these materials, sources of archival services and supplies, and information on significant archival projects. "ALIC Notes" is…

  7. National inventory of perfluoroalkyl substances in archived U.S. biosolids from the 2001 EPA National Sewage Sludge Survey

    PubMed Central

    Venkatesan, Arjun K.; Halden, Rolf U.

    2013-01-01

    Using liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry, we determined the first nationwide inventories of 13 perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) in U.S. biosolids via analysis of samples collected by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency in the 2001 National Sewage Sludge Survey. Perfluorooctane sulfonate [PFOS; 403 ± 127 ng/g dry weight (dw)] was the most abundant PFAS detected in biosolids composites representing 32 U.S. states and the District of Columbia, followed by perfluorooctanoate [PFOA; 34 ± 22 ng/g dw] and perfluorodecanoate [PFDA; 26 ± 20 ng/g dw]. Mean concentrations in U.S. biosolids of the remaining ten PFASs ranged between 2 and 21 ng/g dw. Interestingly, concentrations of PFOS determined here in biosolids collected prior to the phase-out period (2002) were similar to levels reported in the literature for recent years. The mean load of ΣPFASs in U.S. biosolids was estimated at 2749–3450 kg/year, of which about 1375–2070 kg is applied on agricultural land and 467–587 kg goes to landfills as an alternative disposal route. This study informs the risk assessment of PFASs by furnishing national inventories of PFASs occurrence and environmental release via biosolids application on land. PMID:23562984

  8. Studies in the radiobiology of osteoradionecrosis and their clinical significance

    SciTech Connect

    Marx, R.E.; Johnson, R.P.

    1987-10-01

    The radiobiology of osteoradionecrosis is a complex of cellular death and cellular functional impairments from radiation energy transfers. Four studies of irradiated patients and a data base from 536 patients with osteoradionecrosis revealed separate pathophysiologic conditions for osteoradionecrosis induced by early trauma, osteoradionecrosis induced by late trauma, and spontaneous osteoradionecrosis. A large body of data suggested useful clinical guidelines for the management of irradiated patients. The guidelines, in part, include a recommendation for deferring radiation treatment for 21 days after tissue wounding, if possible; a relative contraindication to wounding tissue during a radiation course; a recommendation for the use of hyperbaric oxygen before wounding; and a strong recommendation to provide comprehensive dental care to the irradiated patient.

  9. Heavy ion radiobiology for hadrontherapy and space radiation protection.

    PubMed

    Durante, Marco

    2004-12-01

    Research in the field of biological effects of heavy charged particles is needed for both heavy-ion therapy (hadrontherapy) and protection from the exposure to galactic cosmic radiation in long-term manned space missions. Although the exposure conditions (e.g. high- vs. low-dose rate) and relevant endpoints (e.g. cell killing vs. neoplastic transformation) are different in the two fields, it is clear that a substantial overlap exists in several research topics. Three such topics are discussed in this short review: individual radiosensitivity, mixed radiation fields, and late stochastic effects of heavy ions. In addition, researchers involved either in experimental studies on space radiation protection or heavy-ion therapy will basically use the same accelerator facilities. It seems to be important that novel accelerator facilities planned (or under construction) for heavy-ion therapy reserve a substantial amount of beamtime to basic studies of heavy-ion radiobiology and its applications in space radiation research.

  10. Latin American Archives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Belsunce, Cesar A. Garcia

    1983-01-01

    Examination of the situation of archives in four Latin American countries--Argentina, Brazil, Colombia, and Costa Rica--highlights national systems, buildings, staff, processing of documents, accessibility and services to the public and publications and extension services. (EJS)

  11. Neutron generator at Hiroshima University for use in radiobiology study.

    PubMed

    Endo, S; Hoshi, M; Tauchi, H; Takeoka, S; Kitagawa, K; Suga, S; Maeda, N; Komatsu, K; Sawada, S; Iwamoto, E

    1995-06-01

    A neutron generator (HIRRAC) for use in radiobiology study has been constructed at the Research Institute for Radiation Biology and Medicine, Hiroshima University (RIRBM). Monoenergetic neutrons of which energy is less than 1.3 MeV are generated by the 7Li(p,n)7 Be reaction at proton energies up to 3 MeV. The protons are accelerated by a Schenkel-type-accelerator and are bombared onto the 7Li-target. An apparatus for the irradiation of biological material such as mice, cultured cells and so on, was designed and will be manufactured. Neutron and gamma-ray dose rates were measured by paired (TE-TE and C-CO2) ionization chambers. Contamination of the gamma ray was less than about 6% when using 10-microns-thick 7Li as a target. Maximum dose rates for the tissue equivalent materials was 40 cGy/min at a distance of 10 cm from the target. Energy distributions of the obtained neutrons have been measured by a 3He-gas proportional counter. The monoenergetic neutrons within an energy region from 0.1 to 1.3 MeV produced by thin 7Li or 7LiF targets had a small energy spread of about 50 keV (1 sigma width of gaussian). The energy spread of neutrons was about 10% or less at an incident proton energy of 2.3 MeV. We found that HIRRAC produces small energy spread neutrons and at sufficient dose rates for use in radiobiology studies.

  12. The radiobiology/radiation protection interface in healthcare.

    PubMed

    Martin, C J; Sutton, D G; West, C M; Wright, E G

    2009-06-01

    The current knowledge of radiation effects is reviewed and implications for its application in healthcare considered. The 21st L H Gray conference gathered leading experts in radiobiology, radiation epidemiology, radiation effect modelling, and the application of radiation in medicine to provide an overview of the subject. The latest radiobiology research in non-targeted effects such as genomic instability and the bystander effect challenge the old models, but the implications for health effects on humans are uncertain. Adaptive responses to external stresses, of which radiation is one, have been demonstrated in cells and animal models, but it is not known how these might modify human dose-effect relationships. Epidemiological evidence from the Japanese A-bomb survivors provides strong evidence that there is a linear relationship between the excess risk of cancer and organ dose that extends from about 50 mSv up to 2.5 Sv, and results from pooled data for multiple epidemiological studies indicate that risks extend down to doses of 20 mSv. Thus linear extrapolation of the A-bomb dose-effect data provides an appropriate basis for radiological protection standards at the present time. Risks from higher dose diagnostic procedures fall within the range in which health effects can be demonstrated. There is therefore reason for concern about the rise in the number of computed tomography (CT) scans performed in many countries, and in particular the use of CT for screening of asymptomatic individuals. New radiotherapy techniques allow high dose radiation fields to be conformed more effectively to target volumes, and reduce doses to critical organs, but they tend to give a higher and more uniform dose to the whole body which may increase the risk of second cancer. It is important that radiation protection practitioners keep abreast of developments in understanding of radiation effects and advise the medical community about the implications of fundamental research when

  13. Hot particle dosimetry and radiobiology--past and present.

    PubMed

    Charles, M W; Harrison, J D

    2007-09-01

    Small high-activity radioactive particles of nominal diameter ranging from approximately 1 mm down to several microm have been a radiological concern over the last 30 years in and around European and American nuclear reactor facilities. These particles have often been referred to as 'hot particles'. The 'hot particle problem' came into prominent concern in the late 1960s. The potential carcinogenic effects in lungs as the result of irradiation by discrete small particles containing alpha-emitting radionuclides, particularly (239)Pu, were claimed by some to be several orders of magnitude greater than those produced by uniform irradiation to the same mean dose. The phrase 'hot particle problem' was subsequently used to refer to the difficulty of predicting health effects for all microscopic radioactive sources. The difficulty arose because of the paucity of comparative human, animal or cell studies using radioactive particles, and the lack of validated measurement or calculational techniques for dose estimation for non-uniform exposures. Experience was largely restricted to uniform, large-area/volume exposures. The concern regarding cancer induction was extended to deterministic effects when the ICRP in 1977 failed to give adequate dose limits for dealing with 'hot particle' exposures of the skin. Since 1980, considerable efforts have been made to clarify and solve the dosimetric and radiobiological issues related to the health effects of 'hot particle' exposures. The general recommendations of the ICRP in 1991 used the latest radiobiological data to provide skin dose limits which are applicable to 'hot particle' exposures. More recently the NCRP has extended considerations to other organs. This progress is reviewed and applied to the specific case of the recent evaluation of potential health effects of Dounreay fuel fragments commissioned by the Scottish Environment Protection Agency (SEPA). Analyses of possible doses and risks in this case indicate that the

  14. Status of worldwide Landsat archive

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Warriner, Howard W.

    1987-01-01

    In cooperation with the International Landsat community, and through the Landsat Technical Working Group (LTWG), NOAA is assembling information about the status of the Worldwide Landsat Archive. During LTWG 9, member nations agreed to participate in a survey of International Landsat data holding and of their archive experiences with Landsat data. The goal of the effort was two-fold; one, to document the Landsat archive to date, and, two, to ensure that specific nations' experience with long-term Landsat archival problems were available to others. The survey requested details such as amount of data held, the format of the archive holdings by Spacecraft/Sensor, and acquisition years; the estimated costs to accumulated process, and replace the data (if necessary); the storage space required, and any member nation's plans that would establish the insurance of continuing quality. As a group, the LTWG nations are concerned about the characteristics and reliability of long-term magnetic media storage. Each nation's experience with older data retrieval is solicited in the survey. This information will allow nations to anticipate and plan for required changes to their archival holdings. Also solicited were reports of any upgrades to a nation's archival system that are currently planned and all results of attempts to reduce archive holdings including methodology, current status, and the planned access rates and product support that are anticipated for responding to future archival usage.

  15. The hallmarks of cancer and the radiation oncologist: updating the 5Rs of radiobiology.

    PubMed

    Good, J S; Harrington, K J

    2013-10-01

    A comprehensive, mechanistic understanding of radiobiological phenomena that can be integrated within the broader context of cancer biology offers the prospect of transforming clinical practice in radiation oncology. In this review, we revisit the six established biological hallmarks of cancer and examine how they have provided insights into novel therapeutic strategies. In addition, we discuss the potential of two emerging hallmarks to continue to expand our understanding beyond the narrow confines of the traditional 5Rs of radiobiology.

  16. [The nursing image in Italy: an analysis of the historic archive of national newspaper].

    PubMed

    Dignani, Lucia; Montanari, Paola; Dante, Angelo; Guarinoni, Milena Giovanna; Petrucci, Cristina; Lancia, Loreto

    2014-01-01

    The main aim is to describe the nursing profession image as it appears in one of the main national newspaper. A retrospective study has been conducted through the analysis of 2017 articles published between 1906 and 2005 on the national newspaper "La Stampa". 11 thematic clusters emerged from the analysis. The articles published with a higher frequency were those concerning "news and chronicle", with a relevant increase after the second half of the '80s, followed by "working conditions" with a maximum spread during the '90s. Instead the articles that rarely appeared on the newspaper were those concerning, "aesthetic" and "contests". More than half of the articles concerning "staff shortage" reported consequent disruptions. Almost all the articles concerning "malpractice" highlighted the inadequate care delivered from nurses and they have been published with constant trend starting from the a '50s. The articles concerning "staff shortage", "innovation", and "education", showed their maximum spread starting from the '90s. The analysis of the articles published in the newspaper "La Stampa" allowed to read the nursing profession story as troubled, made of professional achievements obtained from struggles, claims and countless educational and organizational changes though many of the analyzed articles did not contributed to show, and consequently to appreciate, the nursing profession for its real content and contributions to the population's health.

  17. WE-E-BRE-04: Dual Focal Spot Dose Painting for Precision Preclinical Radiobiological Investigations

    SciTech Connect

    Stewart, J; Lindsay, P; Jaffray, D

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: Recent progress in small animal radiotherapy systems has provided the foundation for delivering the heterogeneous, millimeter scale dose distributions demanded by preclinical radiobiology investigations. Despite advances in preclinical dose planning, delivery of highly heterogeneous dose distributions is constrained by the fixed collimation systems and large x-ray focal spot common in small animal radiotherapy systems. This work proposes a dual focal spot dose optimization and delivery method with a large x-ray focal spot used to deliver homogeneous dose regions and a small focal spot to paint spatially heterogeneous dose regions. Methods: Two-dimensional dose kernels were measured for a 1 mm circular collimator with radiochromic film at 10 mm depth in a solid water phantom for the small and large x-ray focal spots on a recently developed small animal microirradiator. These kernels were used in an optimization framework which segmented a desired dose distribution into low- and high-spatial frequency regions for delivery by the large and small focal spot, respectively. For each region, the method determined an optimal set of stage positions and beam-on times. The method was demonstrated by optimizing a bullseye pattern consisting of 0.75 mm radius circular target and 0.5 and 1.0 mm wide rings alternating between 0 and 2 Gy. Results: Compared to a large focal spot technique, the dual focal spot technique improved the optimized dose distribution: 69.2% of the optimized dose was within 0.5 Gy of the intended dose for the large focal spot, compared to 80.6% for the dual focal spot method. The dual focal spot design required 14.0 minutes of optimization, and will require 178.3 minutes for automated delivery. Conclusion: The dual focal spot optimization and delivery framework is a novel option for delivering conformal and heterogeneous dose distributions at the preclinical level and provides a new experimental option for unique radiobiological investigations

  18. NOAA National Operational Model Archive and Distribution System (NOMADS) Access to the Twentieth Century Reanalysis Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rutledge, G.; Compo, G.

    2009-05-01

    Using a state-of-the-art data assimilation system and surface pressure observations, the Twentieth Century Reanalysis Project is generating a six-hourly, four-dimensional global atmospheric dataset spanning 1891- 2008 to place current atmospheric circulation patterns into a historical perspective. An important consequence of climate change is the altered likelihood of weather extremes. To have confidence in projected changes of such extremes in the twenty-first century, it is first necessary to assess model simulations of such changes throughout the twentieth century, using daily data. Any such daily verification data must also have quantified estimates of uncertainty to allow a fair quantitative assessment of the simulations. This paper will describe the data and NOMADS access paths to these data from the National Climatic Data Center in Asheville, NC.

  19. Neutron flux characterisation of the Pavia TRIGA Mark II research reactor for radiobiological and microdosimetric applications.

    PubMed

    Alloni, D; Prata, M; Salvini, A; Ottolenghi, A

    2015-09-01

    Nowadays the Pavia TRIGA reactor is available for national and international collaboration in various research fields. The TRIGA Mark II nuclear research reactor of the Pavia University offers different in- and out-core neutron irradiation channels, each characterised by different neutron spectra. In the last two years a campaign of measurements and simulations has been performed in order to guarantee a better characterisation of these different fluxes and to meet the demands of irradiations that require precise information on these spectra in particular for radiobiological and microdosimetric studies. Experimental data on neutron fluxes have been collected analysing and measuring the gamma activity induced in thin target foils of different materials irradiated in different TRIGA experimental channels. The data on the induced gamma activities have been processed with the SAND II deconvolution code and finally compared with the spectra obtained with Monte Carlo simulations. The comparison between simulated and measured spectra showed a good agreement allowing a more precise characterisation of the neutron spectra and a validation of the adopted method.

  20. Novel Radiobiological Gamma Index for Evaluation of 3-Dimensional Predicted Dose Distribution

    SciTech Connect

    Sumida, Iori; Yamaguchi, Hajime; Kizaki, Hisao; Aboshi, Keiko; Tsujii, Mari; Yoshikawa, Nobuhiko; Yamada, Yuji; Suzuki, Osamu; Seo, Yuji; Isohashi, Fumiaki; Yoshioka, Yasuo; Ogawa, Kazuhiko

    2015-07-15

    Purpose: To propose a gamma index-based dose evaluation index that integrates the radiobiological parameters of tumor control (TCP) and normal tissue complication probabilities (NTCP). Methods and Materials: Fifteen prostate and head and neck (H&N) cancer patients received intensity modulated radiation therapy. Before treatment, patient-specific quality assurance was conducted via beam-by-beam analysis, and beam-specific dose error distributions were generated. The predicted 3-dimensional (3D) dose distribution was calculated by back-projection of relative dose error distribution per beam. A 3D gamma analysis of different organs (prostate: clinical [CTV] and planned target volumes [PTV], rectum, bladder, femoral heads; H&N: gross tumor volume [GTV], CTV, spinal cord, brain stem, both parotids) was performed using predicted and planned dose distributions under 2%/2 mm tolerance and physical gamma passing rate was calculated. TCP and NTCP values were calculated for voxels with physical gamma indices (PGI) >1. We propose a new radiobiological gamma index (RGI) to quantify the radiobiological effects of TCP and NTCP and calculate radiobiological gamma passing rates. Results: The mean RGI gamma passing rates for prostate cases were significantly different compared with those of PGI (P<.03–.001). The mean RGI gamma passing rates for H&N cases (except for GTV) were significantly different compared with those of PGI (P<.001). Differences in gamma passing rates between PGI and RGI were due to dose differences between the planned and predicted dose distributions. Radiobiological gamma distribution was visualized to identify areas where the dose was radiobiologically important. Conclusions: RGI was proposed to integrate radiobiological effects into PGI. This index would assist physicians and medical physicists not only in physical evaluations of treatment delivery accuracy, but also in clinical evaluations of predicted dose distribution.

  1. Evaluation of the National Archives program to convert nitrate aerial photographs of the United States to a stable-base safety film.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Williams, R.S.; Lyons, T.R.; Ferrigno, J.G.; Quinn, M.C.

    1984-01-01

    Discusses the programme on reproducing the 1930's and early 1940's nitrate aerial photographs of large areas of the US onto stable-base safety film, and the proceedings of a February 1981 meeting at the National Archives and Records Service, General Services Administration, which discussed the programme and inspected the results of the new full-size (1:1), roll-to-roll conversions. The latter process was found to be acceptable to all current and envisaged future users of this photography.-R.House

  2. Amchitka Radiobiological Program progress report, January 1979-December 1979

    SciTech Connect

    Thornberg, L.D.; Sibley, T.H.; Nakatani, R.E.

    1980-07-01

    The objective of the Amchitka Radiobiological Program for the period 1970-1979 was to determine the extent of radionuclide contamination from world-wide atmospheric fallout and from the detonation of three underground nuclear blasts on Amchitka Island. The objective is achieved, by the collection and radiological analyses of biological and environmental samples and by background radiation measurements. Leakage of radionuclides from the underground sites of the Amchitka nuclear detonations would be suspected if the contamination was significntly greater than would be expected from world fallout. An account of the program from July 1970 to December 1978 has been given in nine previous reports from the Laboratory of Radiation Ecology to the Nevada Operations Office of the US Department of Energy. This report is an account of the program for calendar year 1979. The results of analyses of the samples collected in 1979 lead to the same conclusions as in previous years; i.e., there is no evidence that the radionuclide contamination at Amchitka Island is greater than would be expected from world fallout except for a slight contamination of the Long Shot Mud Pits with tritium.

  3. Hidden stressors in the clonogenic assay used in radiobiology experiments.

    PubMed

    Potter, M D E; Suchowerska, N; Rizvi, S; McKenzie, D R

    2011-09-01

    While clonogenic assays are extensively used in radiobiology, there is no widely accepted procedure for choosing the composition of the cell culture media. Cell line suppliers recommend a specific culture medium for each cell line, however a researcher will frequently customize this aspect of the protocol by supplementing the recommended support medium with additives. For example, many researchers add antibiotics, in order to avoid contamination of cells and the consequent loss of data, with little discussion of the influence of the antibiotics on the clonogenic survival of the cells. It is assumed that the effect of any variables in the growth medium on cell survival is taken into consideration by comparing the survival fraction relative to that of controls grown under the same conditions. In the search for better cancer treatment, the effect of various stressors on clonogenic cell survival is under investigation. This study seeks to identify and test potential stressors commonly introduced into the cell culture medium, which may confound the response to radiation.

  4. Radiobiological study by using laser-driven proton beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yogo, A.; Sato, K.; Nishikino, M.; Mori, M.; Teshima, T.; Numasaki, H.; Murakami, M.; Demizu, Y.; Akagi, S.; Nagayama, S.; Ogura, K.; Sagisaka, A.; Orimo, S.; Nishiuchi, M.; Pirozhkov, A. S.; Ikegami, M.; Tampo, M.; Sakaki, H.; Suzuki, M.; Daito, I.; Oishi, Y.; Sugiyama, H.; Kiriyama, H.; Okada, H.; Kanazawa, S.; Kondo, S.; Shimomura, T.; Nakai, Y.; Tanoue, M.; Sugiyama, H.; Sasao, H.; Wakai, D.; Kawachi, T.; Nishimura, H.; Bolton, P. R.; Daido, H.

    2009-07-01

    Particle acceleration driven by high-intensity laser systems is widely attracting interest as a potential alternative to conventional ion acceleration, including ion accelerator applications to tumor therapy. Recent works have shown that a high intensity laser pulse can produce single proton bunches of a high current and a short pulse duration. This unique feature of laser-ion acceleration can lead to progress in the development of novel ion sources. However, there has been no experimental study of the biological effects of laser-driven ion beams. We describe in this report the first demonstrated irradiation effect of laser-accelerated protons on human lung cancer cells. In-vitro A549 cells are irradiated with a proton dose of 20 Gy, resulting in a distinct formation of γ-H2AX foci as an indicator of DNA double-strand breaks. This is a pioneering result that points to future investigations of the radiobiological effects of laser-driven ion beams. The laser-driven ion beam is apotential excitation source for time-resolved determination of hydroxyl (OH) radical yield, which will explore relationship between the fundamental chemical reactions of radiation effects and consequent biological processes.

  5. Stochastic, weighted hit size theory of cellular radiobiological action

    SciTech Connect

    Bond, V.P.; Varma, M.N.

    1982-01-01

    A stochastic theory that appears to account well for the observed responses of cell populations exposed in radiation fields of different qualities and for different durations of exposure is described. The theory appears to explain well most cellular radiobiological phenomena observed in at least autonomous cell systems, argues for the use of fluence rate (phi) instead of absorbed dose for quantification of the amount of radiation involved in low level radiation exposure. With or without invoking the cell sensitivity function, the conceptual improvement would be substantial. The approach suggested also shows that the absorbed dose-cell response functions currently employed do not reflect the spectrum of cell sensitivities to increasing cell doses of a single agent, nor can RBE represent the potency ratio for different agents that can produce similar quantal responses. Thus, for accurate comparison of cell sensitivities among different cells in the same individual, or between the cells in different kinds of individuals, it is necessary to quantify cell sensitivity in terms of the hit size weighting or cell sensitivity function introduced here. Similarly, this function should be employed to evaluate the relative potency of radiation and other radiomimetic chemical or physical agents.

  6. Amchitka Radiobiological Program. Final report, July 1970-December 1979

    SciTech Connect

    Sibley, T.H.; Tornberg, L.D.

    1982-11-01

    The Amchitka Radiobiological Program, to collect biological and environmental samples for radiological analyses, began in 1970 and continued through 1979. The principal objective was to determine the extent of radionuclide contamination from worldwide atmospheric fallout and from the detonation of three underground nuclear tests on Amchitka. Leakage of radionuclides from the underground test sites would be suspected if the amount of contamination was significantly greater than could be attributed to worldwide fallout or if an unexpected assemblage of radionuclides was detected. No radionuclides from the underground sites were detected, except for tritium from the Long Shot test (1965) which produced increased tritium concentrations in surface water and freshwater plants near the test site. This final report compiles all previous data into one report and considers the temporal trends in these data. Two naturally occurring radionuclides, /sup 40/K and /sup 7/Be, were the most abundantly occurring radionuclides in most samples; in lichen samples either /sup 137/Cs or /sup 144/Ce had the highest activity. All samples were below applicable Radiation Protection Guides and by 1979 most samples were near or below the statistical detection limits. Increased concentrations of short-lived fallout radionuclides following the Chinese atmospheric tests were found in freshwater and seawater samples and in most indicator organisms.

  7. Radiobiological study by using laser-driven proton beams

    SciTech Connect

    Yogo, A.; Nishikino, M.; Mori, M.; Ogura, K.; Sagisaka, A.; Orimo, S.; Nishiuchi, M.; Pirozhkov, A. S.; Ikegami, M.; Tampo, M.; Sakaki, H.; Suzuki, M.; Daito, I.; Kiriyama, H.; Okada, H.; Kanazawa, S.; Kondo, S.; Shimomura, T.; Nakai, Y.; Kawachi, T.

    2009-07-25

    Particle acceleration driven by high-intensity laser systems is widely attracting interest as a potential alternative to conventional ion acceleration, including ion accelerator applications to tumor therapy. Recent works have shown that a high intensity laser pulse can produce single proton bunches of a high current and a short pulse duration. This unique feature of laser-ion acceleration can lead to progress in the development of novel ion sources. However, there has been no experimental study of the biological effects of laser-driven ion beams. We describe in this report the first demonstrated irradiation effect of laser-accelerated protons on human lung cancer cells. In-vitro A549 cells are irradiated with a proton dose of 20 Gy, resulting in a distinct formation of gamma-H2AX foci as an indicator of DNA double-strand breaks. This is a pioneering result that points to future investigations of the radiobiological effects of laser-driven ion beams. The laser-driven ion beam is apotential excitation source for time-resolved determination of hydroxyl (OH) radical yield, which will explore relationship between the fundamental chemical reactions of radiation effects and consequent biological processes.

  8. The significance of the choice of radiobiological (NTCP) models in treatment plan objective functions.

    PubMed

    Miller, J; Fuller, M; Vinod, S; Suchowerska, N; Holloway, L

    2009-06-01

    A Clinician's discrimination between radiation therapy treatment plans is traditionally a subjective process, based on experience and existing protocols. A more objective and quantitative approach to distinguish between treatment plans is to use radiobiological or dosimetric objective functions, based on radiobiological or dosimetric models. The efficacy of models is not well understood, nor is the correlation of the rank of plans resulting from the use of models compared to the traditional subjective approach. One such radiobiological model is the Normal Tissue Complication Probability (NTCP). Dosimetric models or indicators are more accepted in clinical practice. In this study, three radiobiological models, Lyman NTCP, critical volume NTCP and relative seriality NTCP, and three dosimetric models, Mean Lung Dose (MLD) and the Lung volumes irradiated at 10Gy (V10) and 20Gy (V20), were used to rank a series of treatment plans using, harm to normal (Lung) tissue as the objective criterion. None of the models considered in this study showed consistent correlation with the Radiation Oncologists plan ranking. If radiobiological or dosimetric models are to be used in objective functions for lung treatments, based on this study it is recommended that the Lyman NTCP model be used because it will provide most consistency with traditional clinician ranking.

  9. Archive of bathymetry and backscatter data collected in 2014 nearshore Breton and Gosier Islands, Breton National Wildlife Refuge, Louisiana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    DeWitt, Nancy T.; Fredericks, Jake J.; Flocks, James G.; Miselis, Jennifer L.; Locker, Stanley D.; Kindinger, Jack G.; Bernier, Julie C.; Kelso, Kyle W.; Reynolds, Billy J.; Wiese, Dana S.; Browning, Trevor

    2016-08-01

    As part of the Barrier Island Monitoring Project, scientists from the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) St. Petersburg Coastal and Marine Science Center conducted nearshore geophysical surveys off Breton and Gosier Islands, Louisiana, in July and August of 2014. To assist the United States Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) with restoration planning efforts, the USGS was tasked with answering fundamental questions about the physical environment of the southern Chandeleur Islands, including the geology, morphology, and oceanography. Baseline data needed to answer these questions were either insufficient or missing. The USGS conducted a comprehensive geologic investigation in the summer of 2014, collecting geophysical and sedimentological data.Breton Island, located at the southern end of the Chandeleur Island chain in southeastern Louisiana, was recognized as a natural, globally significant nesting sanctuary for several bird species and was established as the Breton National Wildlife Refuge (NWR) in 1904. The areal extent of Breton Island has diminished 90 percent since 1920. Land loss is attributed to ongoing relative sea-level rise, diminished sediment supply, and storm impacts. The bird population on Breton Island has also declined over the years, most notably after Hurricane George in 1998 and after Hurricane Katrina in 2015; the latter completely submerged the island. Despite decreasing habitable acreage, migratory seabirds continue to return and nest on Breton Island. To prevent the island from being submerged in the future, and to protect, stabilize, and provide more nesting and foraging areas for the bird population, the USFWS proposed a restoration effort to rebuild Breton Island to its pre-Katrina footprint.This data series serves as an archive of processed interferometric swath and single-beam bathymetry data, and side-scan sonar data, collected in the nearshore of Breton and Gosier Islands, NWR, Louisiana. The data were collected during two USGS cruises (USGS

  10. CIDS Bibliography. Research Papers Prepared by Members of the Archivist Career Training Program, National Archives and Records Administration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Songster-Burnett, Jennifer, Comp.

    This CIDS bibliography lists 239 research papers prepared by members of the Archivist Career Training Program from 1979-1993. Individual papers are listed alphabetically by author within the year in which they were produced. Topics covered include access to records; archival administration, theory, and training; automation; classified materials;…

  11. Radiobiological studies using synchrotron-produced ultrasoft X-rays.

    PubMed

    Gould, M N; Nelms, B E; Hill, C K; Mackay, J F; Lindstrom, M J; Mackie, T R; Deluca, P M

    1999-12-01

    Ultrasoft X-rays have been extensively used to explore radiobiological mechanisms surrounding cell killing. These studies for the most part have been linked to a small number of X-ray energies. Recently, this field of study has been broadened by the availability of synchrotron-produced ultrasoft X-rays which can be produced at any desired energy. We have taken advantage of the University of Wisconsin Synchrotron to reexamine two fundamental radiobiological questions: Dose RBE vary with different ultrasoft X-ray energies? Dose the fraction of the nuclear volume exposed to equal total X-ray energy modify cell cytotoxicity? The first study focuses on the survival of Chinese hamster V79 and mouse C3H10T1/2 cells irradiated with synchrotron-produced 273 eV and 860 eV ultrasoft X-rays. These two energies, which are available by multilayer monochromatization of the synchrotron output spectrum, exhibit equal attenuation within living cells. Such an isoattenuating energy pair allows the direct examination of how biological effectiveness varies with the energy of the ultrasoft X-rays. In comparing survival results, we find similar biological effectiveness of these two energies for both the C3H10T1/2 and the V79 cells. These results are no consistent with previous findings of increasing RBE with decreasing ultrasoft X-ray energies. In addition, after correcting for mean nuclear based on measurements of cell thickness obtained with confocal microscopy, we find no significant differences in survival between the two ultrasoft X-ray energies and 250 kVp X-rays. These results suggest that RBE does not increase with decreasing energy of ultrasoft X-ray between 860 eV and 273 eV. In a second study we introduced an method which allows partial-volume irradiation of live cells using synchrotron-produced ultrasoft X-rays and micro-fabricated irradiation masks. The masks were made by X-ray lithography at the University of Wisconsin Synchrotron Radiation Center, and they consist of 1

  12. Heavy-ion tumor therapy: Physical and radiobiological benefits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schardt, Dieter; Elsässer, Thilo; Schulz-Ertner, Daniela

    2010-01-01

    High-energy beams of charged nuclear particles (protons and heavier ions) offer significant advantages for the treatment of deep-seated local tumors in comparison to conventional megavolt photon therapy. Their physical depth-dose distribution in tissue is characterized by a small entrance dose and a distinct maximum (Bragg peak) near the end of range with a sharp fall-off at the distal edge. Taking full advantage of the well-defined range and the small lateral beam spread, modern scanning beam systems allow delivery of the dose with millimeter precision. In addition, projectiles heavier than protons such as carbon ions exhibit an enhanced biological effectiveness in the Bragg peak region caused by the dense ionization of individual particle tracks resulting in reduced cellular repair. This makes them particularly attractive for the treatment of radio-resistant tumors localized near organs at risk. While tumor therapy with protons is a well-established treatment modality with more than 60 000 patients treated worldwide, the application of heavy ions is so far restricted to a few facilities only. Nevertheless, results of clinical phase I-II trials provide evidence that carbon-ion radiotherapy might be beneficial in several tumor entities. This article reviews the progress in heavy-ion therapy, including physical and technical developments, radiobiological studies and models, as well as radiooncological studies. As a result of the promising clinical results obtained with carbon-ion beams in the past ten years at the Heavy Ion Medical Accelerator facility (Japan) and in a pilot project at GSI Darmstadt (Germany), the plans for new clinical centers for heavy-ion or combined proton and heavy-ion therapy have recently received a substantial boost.

  13. Low LET protons focused to submicrometer shows enhanced radiobiological effectiveness.

    PubMed

    Schmid, T E; Greubel, C; Hable, V; Zlobinskaya, O; Michalski, D; Girst, S; Siebenwirth, C; Schmid, E; Molls, M; Multhoff, G; Dollinger, G

    2012-10-07

    This study shows that enhanced radiobiological effectiveness (RBE) values can be generated focusing low linear energy transfer (LET) radiation and thus changing the microdose distribution. 20 MeV protons (LET = 2.65 keV µm(-1)) are focused to submicrometer diameter at the ion microprobe superconducting nanoprobe for applied nuclear (Kern) physics experiments of the Munich tandem accelerator. The RBE values, as determined by measuring micronuclei (RBE(MN) = 1.48 ± 0.07) and dicentrics (RBE(D) = 1.92 ± 0.15), in human-hamster hybrid (A(L)) cells are significantly higher when 117 protons were focused to a submicrometer irradiation field within a 5.4 × 5.4 µm(2) matrix compared to quasi homogeneous in a 1 × 1 µm(2) matrix applied protons (RBE(MN) = 1.28 ± 0.07; RBE(D) = 1.41 ± 0.14) at the same average dose of 1.7 Gy. The RBE values are normalized to standard 70 kV (dicentrics) or 200 kV (micronuclei) x-ray irradiation. The 117 protons applied per point deposit the same amount of energy like a (12)C ion with 55 MeV total energy (4.48 MeV u(-1)). The enhancements are about half of that obtained for (12)C ions (RBE(MN) = 2.20 ± 0.06 and RBE(D) = 3.21 ± 0.10) and they are attributed to intertrack interactions of the induced damages. The measured RBE values show differences from predictions of the local effect model (LEM III) that is used to calculate RBE values for irradiation plans to treat tumors with high LET particles.

  14. Heavy-ion tumor therapy: Physical and radiobiological benefits

    SciTech Connect

    Schardt, Dieter; Elsaesser, Thilo; Schulz-Ertner, Daniela

    2010-01-15

    High-energy beams of charged nuclear particles (protons and heavier ions) offer significant advantages for the treatment of deep-seated local tumors in comparison to conventional megavolt photon therapy. Their physical depth-dose distribution in tissue is characterized by a small entrance dose and a distinct maximum (Bragg peak) near the end of range with a sharp fall-off at the distal edge. Taking full advantage of the well-defined range and the small lateral beam spread, modern scanning beam systems allow delivery of the dose with millimeter precision. In addition, projectiles heavier than protons such as carbon ions exhibit an enhanced biological effectiveness in the Bragg peak region caused by the dense ionization of individual particle tracks resulting in reduced cellular repair. This makes them particularly attractive for the treatment of radio-resistant tumors localized near organs at risk. While tumor therapy with protons is a well-established treatment modality with more than 60 000 patients treated worldwide, the application of heavy ions is so far restricted to a few facilities only. Nevertheless, results of clinical phase I-II trials provide evidence that carbon-ion radiotherapy might be beneficial in several tumor entities. This article reviews the progress in heavy-ion therapy, including physical and technical developments, radiobiological studies and models, as well as radiooncological studies. As a result of the promising clinical results obtained with carbon-ion beams in the past ten years at the Heavy Ion Medical Accelerator facility (Japan) and in a pilot project at GSI Darmstadt (Germany), the plans for new clinical centers for heavy-ion or combined proton and heavy-ion therapy have recently received a substantial boost.

  15. 21st L H Gray Conference: the radiobiology/radiation protection interface.

    PubMed

    West, C M L; Martin, C J; Sutton, D G; Wright, E G

    2009-05-01

    The 21st L H Gray Conference, organised by the L H Gray Trust with the Society for Radiological Protection, brought together international experts in radiobiology, epidemiology and risk assessment, and scientists involved in diagnostic and therapeutic radiation exposure. The meeting - held in Edinburgh, Scotland, on 4-6 June 2008 - aimed to raise awareness, educate and share knowledge of important issues in radiation protection. A distinguished group of speakers discussed topics that included (i) non-targeted effects of radiation, (ii) exposure to high natural background radiation, (iii) non-cancer effects in Japanese bomb survivors, (iv) lessons learnt from Chernobyl, (v) radiation in the workplace, (vi) biokinetic modelling, (vii) uncertainties in risk estimation, (viii) issues in diagnostic medical exposures, (ix) lessons leant from the polonium-210 incidence and (x) how the radiobiology/radiation oncology community is needed to help society prepare for potential future acts of radiation terrorism. The conference highlighted the importance, relevance and topicality of radiobiology today.

  16. Tumour and normal tissue radiobiology in mouse models: how close are mice to mini-humans?

    PubMed

    Koontz, Bridget F; Verhaegen, Frank; De Ruysscher, Dirk

    2017-01-01

    Animal modelling is essential to the study of radiobiology and the advancement of clinical radiation oncology by providing preclinical data. Mouse models in particular have been highly utilized in the study of both tumour and normal tissue radiobiology because of their cost effectiveness and versatility. Technology has significantly advanced in preclinical radiation techniques to allow highly conformal image-guided irradiation of small animals in an effort to mimic human treatment capabilities. However, the biological and physical limitations of animal modelling should be recognized and considered when interpreting preclinical radiotherapy (RT) studies. Murine tumour and normal tissue radioresponse has been shown to vary from human cellular and molecular pathways. Small animal irradiation techniques utilize different anatomical boundaries and may have different physical properties than human RT. This review addresses the difference between the human condition and mouse models and discusses possible strategies for future refinement of murine models of cancer and radiation for the benefit of both basic radiobiology and clinical translation.

  17. Radiobiological compensation: A case study of uterine cervix cancer with concurrent chemotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Herrera, Higmar; Yanez, Elvia; Lopez, Jesus

    2012-10-23

    The case of a patient diagnosed with uterine cervix cancer is presented as an example of the clinical application of the radiobiological compensation method implemented at Centro Estatal de Cancerologia de Durango. Radiotherapy treatment was initially modified to compensate for the chemotherapy component and, as medical complications arose during treatment delivery resulting in an 18 days gap, new compensation followed. All physical and radiobiological assumptions to calculate the Biologically Effective Dose in the external beam and brachytherapy parts of the treatment are presented. Good local control of the tumor was achieved, the theoretical tolerance limits for the organs at risk were not surpassed and the patient manifested no extensive morbidity.

  18. Radiobiological compensation: A case study of uterine cervix cancer with concurrent chemotherapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herrera, Higmar; Yañez, Elvia; López, Jesús

    2012-10-01

    The case of a patient diagnosed with uterine cervix cancer is presented as an example of the clinical application of the radiobiological compensation method implemented at Centro Estatal de Cancerología de Durango. Radiotherapy treatment was initially modified to compensate for the chemotherapy component and, as medical complications arose during treatment delivery resulting in an 18 days gap, new compensation followed. All physical and radiobiological assumptions to calculate the Biologically Effective Dose in the external beam and brachytherapy parts of the treatment are presented. Good local control of the tumor was achieved, the theoretical tolerance limits for the organs at risk were not surpassed and the patient manifested no extensive morbidity.

  19. 76 FR 52991 - Renewal of Advisory Committee on Electronic Records Archives

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-24

    ... RECORDS ADMINISTRATION Renewal of Advisory Committee on Electronic Records Archives AGENCY: National... Administration's (NARA) Advisory Committee on Electronic Records Archives. In accordance with Office of... Electronic Records Archives in NARA's ceiling of discretionary advisory committees. FOR FURTHER...

  20. Solar radiation observation stations with complete listing of data archived by the National Climatic Center, Asheville, North Carolina and initial listing of data not currently archived

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carter, E. A.; Wells, R. E.; Williams, B. B.; Christensen, D. L.

    1976-01-01

    A listing is provided of organizations taking solar radiation data, the 166 stations where observations are made, the type of equipment used, the form of the recorded data, and the period of operation of each station. Included is a listing of the data from 150 solar radiation stations collected over the past 25 years and stored by the National Climatic Center.

  1. A Radiobiological Analysis of Multicenter Data for Postoperative Keloid Radiotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Flickinger, John C.

    2011-03-15

    Purpose: To identify factors significantly affecting recurrence rates after postoperative external beam radiotherapy (XRT) of keloids, and to delineate any radiation dose response and effects of radiation dose per fraction. Methods and Materials: A comprehensive literature review was performed to compile a database of 2,515 resected keloids (36.9% earlobe). Postoperative XRT was 45- to 100-kV X-rays in 27.0% or 120- to 250-kV X-rays in 11.1%, Co-60 in 1.9%, Sr-90 in 4.7%, 1.5- to 9-MeV electrons in 26.5%, and no XRT in 28.8%. In the 1,791 irradiated patients, the median radiation parameters were as follows: total dose, 15 Gy (range, 6-30 Gy); dose per fraction, 5.0 Gy (range, 2-15 Gy); fractions, 3 (range, 1-10); and time, 7 days (range, 0-33 days). Results: Multivariate stepwise logistic regression correlated decreased keloid recurrence with earlobe location (p = 1.98E-10; odds ratio, 0.34), biologically effective dose (p = 1.01E-27), and treatment with electron beam or Co-60 vs. other techniques (p = 0.0014; odds ratio, 0.72). Different radiobiological models calculated values of {alpha}/{beta} = 1.12 to 2.86 (mean, 2.08) and time (repopulation) correction factors for biologically effective dose from 0.98 to 2.13 Gy per day (mean, 1.34) starting 10 days after surgery. Different models (with {alpha}/{beta} = 2.08) predicted that doses needed for 90% and 95% control with 3 fractions of postoperative electron beam were 16.0 to 16.2 Gy and 18.3 to 19.2 Gy, respectively, in less than 10 days for earlobe keloids and 21.5 to 22.2 Gy and 23.4 to 24.8 Gy, respectively, in less than 10 days for other sites. Conclusions: Postoperative keloid radiotherapy requires moderately high doses and optimal technique to be effective. The relatively low {alpha}/{beta} ratio indicates that radiotherapy with a limited number of fractions and high doses per fraction is the best strategy.

  2. MQSA National Statistics

    MedlinePlus

    ... Standards Act and Program MQSA Insights MQSA National Statistics Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing options ... but should level off with time. Archived Scorecard Statistics 2017 Scorecard Statistics 2016 Scorecard Statistics (Archived) 2015 ...

  3. Surface Model and Tomographic Archive of Fossil Primate and Other Mammal Holotype and Paratype Specimens of the Ditsong National Museum of Natural History, Pretoria, South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Adams, Justin W.; Olah, Angela; McCurry, Matthew R.; Potze, Stephany

    2015-01-01

    Nearly a century of paleontological excavation and analysis from the cave deposits of the Cradle of Humankind UNESCO World Heritage Site in northeastern South Africa underlies much of our understanding of the evolutionary history of hominins, other primates and other mammal lineages in the late Pliocene and early Pleistocene of Africa. As one of few designated fossil repositories, the Plio-Pleistocene Palaeontology Section of the Ditsong National Museum of Natural History (DNMNH; the former Transvaal Museum) curates much of the mammalian faunas recovered from the fossil-rich deposits of major South African hominin-bearing localities, including the holotype and paratype specimens of many primate, carnivore, and other mammal species (Orders Primates, Carnivora, Artiodactyla, Eulipotyphla, Hyracoidea, Lagomorpha, Perissodactyla, and Proboscidea). Here we describe an open-access digital archive of high-resolution, full-color three-dimensional (3D) surface meshes of all 89 non-hominin holotype, paratype and significant mammalian specimens curated in the Plio-Pleistocene Section vault. Surface meshes were generated using a commercial surface scanner (Artec Spider, Artec Group, Luxembourg), are provided in formats that can be opened in both open-source and commercial software, and can be readily downloaded either via an online data repository (MorphoSource) or via direct request from the DNMNH. In addition to providing surface meshes for each specimen, we also provide tomographic data (both computerized tomography [CT] and microfocus [microCT]) for a subset of these fossil specimens. This archive of the DNMNH Plio-Pleistocene collections represents the first research-quality 3D datasets of African mammal fossils to be made openly available. This simultaneously provides the paleontological community with essential baseline information (e.g., updated listing and 3D record of specimens in their current state of preservation) and serves as a single resource of high

  4. Surface Model and Tomographic Archive of Fossil Primate and Other Mammal Holotype and Paratype Specimens of the Ditsong National Museum of Natural History, Pretoria, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Adams, Justin W; Olah, Angela; McCurry, Matthew R; Potze, Stephany

    2015-01-01

    Nearly a century of paleontological excavation and analysis from the cave deposits of the Cradle of Humankind UNESCO World Heritage Site in northeastern South Africa underlies much of our understanding of the evolutionary history of hominins, other primates and other mammal lineages in the late Pliocene and early Pleistocene of Africa. As one of few designated fossil repositories, the Plio-Pleistocene Palaeontology Section of the Ditsong National Museum of Natural History (DNMNH; the former Transvaal Museum) curates much of the mammalian faunas recovered from the fossil-rich deposits of major South African hominin-bearing localities, including the holotype and paratype specimens of many primate, carnivore, and other mammal species (Orders Primates, Carnivora, Artiodactyla, Eulipotyphla, Hyracoidea, Lagomorpha, Perissodactyla, and Proboscidea). Here we describe an open-access digital archive of high-resolution, full-color three-dimensional (3D) surface meshes of all 89 non-hominin holotype, paratype and significant mammalian specimens curated in the Plio-Pleistocene Section vault. Surface meshes were generated using a commercial surface scanner (Artec Spider, Artec Group, Luxembourg), are provided in formats that can be opened in both open-source and commercial software, and can be readily downloaded either via an online data repository (MorphoSource) or via direct request from the DNMNH. In addition to providing surface meshes for each specimen, we also provide tomographic data (both computerized tomography [CT] and microfocus [microCT]) for a subset of these fossil specimens. This archive of the DNMNH Plio-Pleistocene collections represents the first research-quality 3D datasets of African mammal fossils to be made openly available. This simultaneously provides the paleontological community with essential baseline information (e.g., updated listing and 3D record of specimens in their current state of preservation) and serves as a single resource of high

  5. NASA's Long-Term Archive (LTA) of ICESat Data at the National Snow and Ice Data Center (NSIDC)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fowler, D. K.; Moses, J. F.; Dimarzio, J. P.; Webster, D.

    2011-12-01

    Data Stewardship, preservation, and reproducibility are becoming principal parts of a data manager's work. In an era of distributed data and information systems, where the host location ought to be transparent to the internet user, it is of vital importance that organizations make a commitment to both current and long-term goals of data management and the preservation of scientific data. NASA's EOS Data and Information System (EOSDIS) is a distributed system of discipline-specific archives and mission-specific science data processing facilities. Satellite missions and instruments go through a lifecycle that involves pre-launch calibration, on-orbit data acquisition and product generation, and final reprocessing. Data products and descriptions flow to the archives for distribution on a regular basis during the active part of the mission. However there is additional information from the product generation and science teams needed to ensure the observations will be useful for long term climate studies. Examples include ancillary input datasets, product generation software, and production history as developed by the team during the course of product generation. These data and information will need to be archived after product data processing is completed. Using inputs from the USGCRP Workshop on Long Term Archive Requirements (1998), discussions with EOS instrument teams, and input from the 2011 ESIPS Federation meeting, NASA is developing a set of Earth science data and information content requirements for long term preservation that will ultimately be used for all the EOS missions as they come to completion. Since the ICESat/GLAS mission is one of the first to come to an end, NASA and NSIDC are preparing for long-term support of the ICESat mission data now. For a long-term archive, it is imperative that there is sufficient information about how products were prepared in order to convince future researchers that the scientific results are accurate, understandable

  6. Radiobiological effects of heavy ions and protons. [on cells of mammals, bacteria and viruses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ryzhov, N. I.; Vorozhtsova, S. V.; Krasavin, Y. A.; Mashinskaya, T. Y.; Savchenko, N. Y.; Fedorov, B. S.; Khlaponina, V. F.; Shelegedin, V. N.; Gut, L.; Sabo, L.

    1974-01-01

    Radiobiological effects of heavy ions and protons are studied on cells of mammals, bacteria, viruses and DNA of bacteria. Results show that the dose effect dependence bears an exponential character; the reduction of RBE as LET of particle increases reflects the different character of microdistribution of absorbed energy in biological objects with different levels of biological organization.

  7. Radiobiological effects of heavy ions and protons. [on cells of mammals, bacteria and viruses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ryzhov, N. I.; Vorozhtsova, S. V.; Krasavin, Y. A.; Mashinskaya, T. Y.; Savchenko, N. Y.; Fedorov, B. S.; Khlaponina, V. F.; Shelegedin, V. N.; Gut, L.; Sabo, L.

    1974-01-01

    Radiobiological effects of heavy ions and protons are studied on cells of mammals, bacteria, viruses and DNA of bacteria. Results show that the dose effect dependence bears an exponential character; the reduction of RBE as LET of particle increases reflects the different character of microdistribution of absorbed energy in biological objects with different levels of biological organization.

  8. Fluctuations in energy loss and their implications for dosimetry and radiobiology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baily, N. A.; Steigerwalt, J. E.

    1972-01-01

    Serious consideration of the physics of energy deposition indicates that a fundamental change in the interpretation of absorbed dose is required at least for considerations of effects in biological systems. In addition, theoretical approaches to radiobiology and microdosimetry seem to require statistical considerations incorporating frequency distributions of the magnitude of the event sizes within the volume of interest.

  9. Assessing the shift of radiobiological metrics in lung radiotherapy plans using 2D gamma index

    PubMed Central

    Balosso, Jacques

    2016-01-01

    Background The purpose of this work is to investigate the 2D gamma (γ) maps to illustrate the change of radiobiological outcomes for lung radiotherapy plans and evaluate the correlation between tumor control probability (TCP), normal tissue complication probability (NTCP) with γ passing rates (γ-rates). Methods Nine patients with lung cancer were used. The doses were calculated using Modified Batho method integrated with pencil beam convolution (MB-PBC) and anisotropic analytical algorithm (AAA) using the same beam arrangements and prescription dose. The TCP and NTCP were estimated, respectively, using equivalent uniform dose (EUD) model and Lyman-Kutcher-Burman (LKB) model. The correlation between ΔTCP or ΔNTCP with γ-rates, from 2%/2 and 3%/3 mm, were tested to explore the best correlation predicting the relevant γ criteria using Spearman’s rank test (ρ). Wilcoxon paired test was used to calculate P value. Results TCP value was significantly lower in the recalculated AAA plans as compared to MB plans. However, AAA predicted more NTCP on lung pneumonitis according to the LKB model and using relevant radiobiological parameters (n, m and TD50) for MB-PBC and AAA, with P=0.03. The data showed a weak correlation between radiobiological metrics with γ-rates or γ-mean, ρ<0.3. Conclusions AAA and MB yield different TCP values as well as NTCP for lung pneumonitis based on the LKB model parameters. Therefore, 2D γ-maps, generated with 2%/2 or 3%/3 mm, could illustrate visual information about the radiobiological changes. The information is useful to evaluate the clinical outcome of a radiotherapy treatment and to approve the treatment plan of the patient if the dose constraints are respected. On the other hand, the γ-maps tool can be used as quality assurance (QA) process to check the predicted TCP and NTCP from radiobiological models. PMID:27413708

  10. Validation of mega composite sampling and nationwide mass inventories for 26 previously unmonitored contaminants in archived biosolids from the U.S National Biosolids Repository.

    PubMed

    Chari, Bipin P; Halden, Rolf U

    2012-10-01

    In the present study, archived U.S biosolids from the 2001 Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) National Sewage Sludge Survey were analyzed with an expanded U.S EPA Method 1694, to determine the occurrence of 26 previously unmonitored pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) among a total of 120 analytes. The study further served to examine the reproducibility of a mega-composite approach for creating chemical mass inventories in biosolids based on pooled samples from wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) nationwide. Five mega-composites reflecting 94 WWTPs in 32 states and the District of Columbia were constructed from archived biosolids and analyzed by LC/ESI-MS/MS using a newly introduced analytical method expanding upon U.S EPA Method 1694. In addition, soil-biosolids mixtures from a mesocosm setup were analyzed to experimentally determine the half-lives of biosolids-borne compounds applied on U.S land. Among 59 analytes detected, 33 had been reported previously, whereas 26 are reported in biosolids for the first time, at levels ranging from 1.65 to 673 μg kg⁻¹ dry weight. Newly recognized biosolids constituents were identified as Ca²⁺ channel blockers, antidepressants, diuretics, β-blockers and analgesics. Using a mass balance approach, the total loading of these 26 pharmaceuticals to U.S soils from biosolids land application was estimated at 5-15 tons year⁻¹. Past and present datasets for 30 pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) were determined to be statistically indistinguishable (paired t-test; p = 0.01). This study expands the list of PPCPs reported in U.S biosolids, provides the first estimates of nationwide release rates to and environmental half-lives in U.S agricultural soils, and confirms the utility of using mega-composite sampling for economical tracking of chemical inventories in biosolids on a national scale. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Validation of mega composite sampling and nationwide mass inventories for 26 previously unmonitored contaminants in archived biosolids from the U.S National Biosolids Repository

    PubMed Central

    Chari, Bipin P.; Halden, Rolf U.

    2012-01-01

    In the present study, archived U.S biosolids from the 2001 Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) National Sewage Sludge Survey were analyzed with an expanded U.S EPA Method 1694, to determine the occurrence of 26 previously unmonitored pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) among a total of 120 analytes. The study further served to examine the reproducibility of a mega-composite approach for creating chemical mass inventories in biosolids based on pooled samples from wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) nationwide. Five mega-composites reflecting 94 WWTPs in 32 states and the District of Columbia were constructed from archived biosolids and analyzed by LC/ESI-MS/MS using a newly introduced analytical method expanding upon U.S EPA Method 1694. In addition, soil-biosolids mixtures from a mesocosm setup were analyzed to experimentally determine the half-lives of biosolids-borne compounds applied on U.S land. Among 59 analytes detected, 33 had been reported previously, whereas 26 are reported in biosolids for the first time, at levels ranging from 1.65 to 673 μg kg−1 dry weight. Newly recognized biosolids constituents were identified as Ca2+ channel blockers, antidepressants, diuretics, β-blockers and analgesics. Using a mass balance approach, the total loading of these 26 pharmaceuticals to U.S soils from biosolids land application was estimated at 5–15 tons year−1. Past and present datasets for 30 pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) were determined to be statistically indistinguishable (paired t-test; p = 0.01). This study expands the list of PPCPs reported in U.S biosolids, provides the first estimates of nationwide release rates to and environmental half-lives in U.S agricultural soils, and confirms the utility of using mega-composite sampling for economical tracking of chemical inventories in biosolids on a national scale. PMID:22789759

  12. On-line data collection platform for national dose surveys in diagnostic and interventional radiology.

    PubMed

    Vassileva, J; Simeonov, F; Avramova-Cholakova, S

    2015-07-01

    According to the Bulgarian regulation for radiation protection at medical exposure, the National Centre of Radiobiology and Radiation Protection (NCRRP) is responsible for performing national dose surveys in diagnostic and interventional radiology and nuclear medicine and for establishing of national diagnostic reference levels (DRLs). The next national dose survey is under preparation to be performed in the period of 2015-16, with the aim to cover conventional radiography, mammography, conventional fluoroscopy, interventional and fluoroscopy guided procedures and CT. It will be performed electronically using centralised on-line data collection platform established by the NCRRP. The aim is to increase the response rate and to improve the accuracy by reducing human errors. The concept of the on-line dose data collection platform is presented. Radiological facilities are provided with a tool to determine local typical patient doses, and the NCRRP to establish national DRLs. Future work will include automatic retrieval of dose data from hospital picture archival and communicating system. The on-line data collection platform is expected to facilitate the process of dose audit and optimisation of radiological procedures in Bulgarian hospitals. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. Gaia archive

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hypki, Arkadiusz; Brown, Anthony

    2016-06-01

    The Gaia archive is being designed and implemented by the DPAC Consortium. The purpose of the archive is to maximize the scientific exploitation of the Gaia data by the astronomical community. Thus, it is crucial to gather and discuss with the community the features of the Gaia archive as much as possible. It is especially important from the point of view of the GENIUS project to gather the feedback and potential use cases for the archive. This paper presents very briefly the general ideas behind the Gaia archive and presents which tools are already provided to the community.

  14. Some results of radiobiological studies performed on Cosmos-110 biosatellite.

    PubMed

    Antipov, V V; Delone, N L; Nikitin, M D; Parfyonov, G P; Saxonov, P P

    1969-01-01

    The experiment carried out on the Cosmos 110 biosatellite is a step further in radiobiological investigations performed in outer space and differs appreciably from flight experiments conducted on board the Vostok and Voskhod spacecraft. The difference lies, firstly, in the integral dose of cosmic radiation. According to the onboard dosimeter readings, it was 12 rad at an average dose rate of 500 mrad/day during the biosatellite flight, whereas in previous biological flight experiments, as is well known, the total dose was below 80 mrad (on a five-day flight of Vostok 5) at a dose rate of 80 to 20 mrad/day. Secondly, during the biosatellite mission, cosmic radiation originated not from the primary cosmic radiation as was the case in the Vostok and Voskhod flights but mainly from the Earth's radiation belts. Thirdly, the duration of the Cosmos 110 flight was far longer than that of any previous mission: the effect of weightlessness lasted for about 22 days. The paper presents results of investigations performed on E. coli K-12 lambda lysogenic bacteria, Tradescantia microspores, dry seeds of higher plants, different Chlorella strains and an intact plant of Tradescantia paludosa. The biological effect of space flight factors was evaluated by various physiological, cytogenetic, genetic and microbiological techniques. Similar to previous experiments carried out on board the Vostok 3-6 spacecraft, tests with lysogenic bacteria revealed a statistically significant induction of moderate bacteriophage. The induction value was shown to lag behind the mission duration dependence level. This seems to be related to a change of inducibility properties of lysogenic bacteria and a reduction of the yield range of phages per bacterial cell. Other tests (duration of the latent period, formation pattern of phage components) indicated no significant differences between test and control objects (N.N. Zhukov-Verezhnikov, N.I. Rybakov, V.A. Kozlov et al.). A study of protective properties

  15. 36 CFR 1256.20 - May I obtain access to Federal archival records?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Federal archival records? 1256.20 Section 1256.20 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL ARCHIVES...) Most Federal archival records are open for research without submitting a Freedom of Information Act.... 2108 by the agency that transferred the records to the National Archives of the United States....

  16. Using a national archive of patient experience narratives to promote local patient-centered quality improvement: an ethnographic process evaluation of 'accelerated' experience-based co-design.

    PubMed

    Locock, Louise; Robert, Glenn; Boaz, Annette; Vougioukalou, Sonia; Shuldham, Caroline; Fielden, Jonathan; Ziebland, Sue; Gager, Melanie; Tollyfield, Ruth; Pearcey, John

    2014-10-01

    To evaluate an accelerated form of experience-based co-design (EBCD), a type of participatory action research in which patients and staff work together to improve quality; to observe how acceleration affected the process and outcomes of the intervention. An ethnographic process evaluation of an adapted form of EBCD was conducted, including observations, interviews, questionnaires and documentary analysis. Whilst retaining all components of EBCD, the adapted approach replaced local patient interviews with secondary analysis of a national archive of patient experience narratives to create national trigger films; shortened the timeframe; and employed local improvement facilitators. It was tested in intensive care and lung cancer in two English National Health Service (NHS) hospitals. A total of 96 clinical staff (primarily nursing and medical), and 63 patients and family members participated in co-design activities. The accelerated approach proved acceptable to staff and patients; using films of national rather than local narratives did not adversely affect local NHS staff engagement, and may have made the process less threatening or challenging. Local patients felt the national films generally reflected important themes although a minority felt they were more negative than their own experience. However, they served their purpose of 'triggering' discussion between patients and staff, and the resulting 48 co-design (improvement) activities across the four pathways were similar to those in EBCD, but achieved more quickly and at lower cost. Accelerated EBCD offers a rigorous and relatively cost-effective patient-centered quality improvement approach. © The Author(s) 2014 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  17. 36 CFR 1253.7 - Regional Archives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...-1620 or Toll Free 1-866-840-1752. (c) The National Archives at Philadelphia is located at the Robert N.C. Nix Federal Building, 900 Market St., Philadelphia, PA 19107-4292 (entrance is on Chestnut Street... National Archives at Boston is located in the Frederick C. Murphy Federal Center, 380 Trapelo Rd., Waltham...

  18. 36 CFR 1253.7 - Regional Archives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...-1620 or Toll Free 1-866-840-1752. (c) The National Archives at Philadelphia is located at the Robert N.C. Nix Federal Building, 900 Market St., Philadelphia, PA 19107-4292 (entrance is on Chestnut Street... National Archives at Boston is located in the Frederick C. Murphy Federal Center, 380 Trapelo Rd., Waltham...

  19. 36 CFR 1253.7 - Regional Archives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...-1620 or Toll Free 1-866-840-1752. (c) The National Archives at Philadelphia is located at the Robert N.C. Nix Federal Building, 900 Market St., Philadelphia, PA 19107-4292 (entrance is on Chestnut Street... National Archives at Boston is located in the Frederick C. Murphy Federal Center, 380 Trapelo Rd., Waltham...

  20. 36 CFR 1253.7 - Regional Archives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...-1620 or Toll Free 1-866-840-1752. (c) The National Archives at Philadelphia is located at the Robert N.C. Nix Federal Building, 900 Market St., Philadelphia, PA 19107-4292 (entrance is on Chestnut Street... National Archives at Boston is located in the Frederick C. Murphy Federal Center, 380 Trapelo Rd., Waltham...

  1. Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer - Earth Observing System (AMSR-E) Validation Data Management at the National Snow and Ice Data Center (NSIDC) Distributed Active Archive Center (DAAC)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marquis, M. C.; Paserba, A. M.

    2003-12-01

    The National Snow and Ice Data Center (NSIDC) Distributed Active Archive Center (DAAC) is supporting the Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer - Earth Observing System (AMSR-E) validation activity. NSIDC has designed and developed a web portal to data and information collected during NASA's AMSR-E Validation Program: (http://nsidc.org/data/amsr_validation/.) The AMSR-E validation experiments address three disciplines: soil moisture, rainfall and cryospheric validation campaigns. This poster describes all these experiments (past, present and future). NSIDC provides documentation, e.g., user guides, as well as metadata documents (DIFS) submitted to the Global Change Master Directory (GCMD), for all the AMSR-E validation experiments. NSIDC further supports the validation activities by collaborating with the AMSR-E Science Investigator-led Processing System (SIPS) to provide scientists in the field (e.g., Arctic and Antarctic ship and flight campaigns) with quick, easy access to AMSR-E data for their validation experiments. NSIDC provides subsets of reformatted data in a manner most convenient to the validation scientists while they conduct their experiments. The AMSR-E is a mission instrument launched aboard NASA's Aqua Satellite on 4 May 2002. The Aqua mission provides a multi-disciplinary study of the Earth's atmospheric, oceanic, cryospheric, and land processes and their relationship to global change. With six instruments aboard, the Aqua Satellite will travel in a polar, sun-synchronous orbit. NSIDC will archive and distribute all AMSR-E products, including Levels 1A, 2, and 3 data. Users can order Level-1A AMSR-E data beginning 19 June 2003 and Level-2A data beginning 01 September 2003. Other products will be available in March 2004.

  2. Radiobiological effectiveness of laser accelerated electrons in comparison to electron beams from a conventional linear accelerator.

    PubMed

    Laschinsky, Lydia; Baumann, Michael; Beyreuther, Elke; Enghardt, Wolfgang; Kaluza, Malte; Karsch, Leonhard; Lessmann, Elisabeth; Naumburger, Doreen; Nicolai, Maria; Richter, Christian; Sauerbrey, Roland; Schlenvoigt, Hans-Peter; Pawelke, Jörg

    2012-01-01

    The notable progress in laser particle acceleration technology promises potential medical application in cancer therapy through compact and cost effective laser devices that are suitable for already existing clinics. Previously, consequences on the radiobiological response by laser driven particle beams characterised by an ultra high peak dose rate have to be investigated. Therefore, tumour and non-malignant cells were irradiated with pulsed laser accelerated electrons at the JETI facility for the comparison with continuous electrons of a conventional therapy LINAC. Dose response curves were measured for the biological endpoints clonogenic survival and residual DNA double strand breaks. The overall results show no significant differences in radiobiological response for in vitro cell experiments between laser accelerated pulsed and clinical used electron beams. These first systematic in vitro cell response studies with precise dosimetry to laser driven electron beams represent a first step toward the long term aim of the application of laser accelerated particles in radiotherapy.

  3. Standards and Methodologies for Characterizing Radiobiological Impact of High-Z Nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Subiel, Anna; Ashmore, Reece; Schettino, Giuseppe

    2016-01-01

    Research on the application of high-Z nanoparticles (NPs) in cancer treatment and diagnosis has recently been the subject of growing interest, with much promise being shown with regards to a potential transition into clinical practice. In spite of numerous publications related to the development and application of nanoparticles for use with ionizing radiation, the literature is lacking coherent and systematic experimental approaches to fully evaluate the radiobiological effectiveness of NPs, validate mechanistic models and allow direct comparison of the studies undertaken by various research groups. The lack of standards and established methodology is commonly recognised as a major obstacle for the transition of innovative research ideas into clinical practice. This review provides a comprehensive overview of radiobiological techniques and quantification methods used in in vitro studies on high-Z nanoparticles and aims to provide recommendations for future standardization for NP-mediated radiation research. PMID:27446499

  4. Feasibility studies of colorless LR 115 SSNTD for alpha-particle radiobiological experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chan, K. F.; Tse, A. K. W.; Fong, W. F.; Yu, K. N.

    2006-06-01

    The feasibility of using the active layer of the colorless LR 115 SSNTD for alpha-particle radiobiological experiments was studied. The track revelation time on the bottom side (the side attached to the polyester base) was much longer than that on the top side (the side not attached to the polyester base) of the active layer so track formation on the top side was more desirable. In relation to this, culture of HeLa cells on the bottom side of the active layer was found feasible although the cultured cell number was relatively smaller. The feasibility of using this SSNTD for alpha-particle radiobiological experiments was demonstrated by culturing cells on the bottom side while performing alpha-particle irradiation and chemical etching on the top side, and by taking photographs of the cells and alpha-particle tracks together under the optical microscope.

  5. Effects of radiobiological uncertainty on shield design for a 60-day lunar mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, John W.; Nealy, John E.; Schimmerling, Walter

    1993-01-01

    Some consequences of uncertainties in radiobiological risk due to galactic cosmic ray exposure are analyzed to determine their effect on engineering designs for a first lunar outpost - a 60-day mission. Quantitative estimates of shield mass requirements as a function of a radiobiological uncertainty factor are given for a simplified vehicle structure. The additional shield mass required for compensation is calculated as a function of the uncertainty in galactic cosmic ray exposure, and this mass is found to be as large as a factor of 3 for a lunar transfer vehicle. The additional cost resulting from this mass is also calculated. These cost estimates are then used to exemplify the cost-effectiveness of research.

  6. Intra-fraction dose delivery timing during stereotactic radiotherapy can influence the radiobiological effect

    SciTech Connect

    Murphy, Martin J.; Lin, Peck-Sun; Ozhasoglu, Cihat

    2007-02-15

    The sequence of incremental dose delivery during a radiotherapy fraction can potentially influence the radiobiological effect. This would be most noticeable during the long fractions characteristic of hypo-fractionated stereotactic radiotherapy and radiosurgery. We demonstrate here the spatio-temporal variation of dose delivery by the CyberKnife to a lung tumor and propose strategies to reduce and/or correct for any resultant dose-time cytotoxic effects.

  7. Ill-posed problem and regularization in reconstruction of radiobiological parameters from serial tumor imaging data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chvetsov, Alevei V.; Sandison, George A.; Schwartz, Jeffrey L.; Rengan, Ramesh

    2015-11-01

    The main objective of this article is to improve the stability of reconstruction algorithms for estimation of radiobiological parameters using serial tumor imaging data acquired during radiation therapy. Serial images of tumor response to radiation therapy represent a complex summation of several exponential processes as treatment induced cell inactivation, tumor growth rates, and the rate of cell loss. Accurate assessment of treatment response would require separation of these processes because they define radiobiological determinants of treatment response and, correspondingly, tumor control probability. However, the estimation of radiobiological parameters using imaging data can be considered an inverse ill-posed problem because a sum of several exponentials would produce the Fredholm integral equation of the first kind which is ill posed. Therefore, the stability of reconstruction of radiobiological parameters presents a problem even for the simplest models of tumor response. To study stability of the parameter reconstruction problem, we used a set of serial CT imaging data for head and neck cancer and a simplest case of a two-level cell population model of tumor response. Inverse reconstruction was performed using a simulated annealing algorithm to minimize a least squared objective function. Results show that the reconstructed values of cell surviving fractions and cell doubling time exhibit significant nonphysical fluctuations if no stabilization algorithms are applied. However, after applying a stabilization algorithm based on variational regularization, the reconstruction produces statistical distributions for survival fractions and doubling time that are comparable to published in vitro data. This algorithm is an advance over our previous work where only cell surviving fractions were reconstructed. We conclude that variational regularization allows for an increase in the number of free parameters in our model which enables development of more

  8. Strike Up the Score: Deriving Searchable and Playable Digital Formats from Sheet Music; Smart Objects and Open Archives; Building the Archives of the Future: Advanced in Preserving Electronic Records at the National Archives and Records Administration; From the Digitized to the Digital Library.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Choudhury, G. Sayeed; DiLauro, Tim; Droettboom, Michael; Fujinaga, Ichiro; MacMillan, Karl; Nelson, Michael L.; Maly, Kurt; Thibodeau, Kenneth; Thaller, Manfred

    2001-01-01

    These articles describe the experiences of the Johns Hopkins University library in digitizing their collection of sheet music; motivation for buckets, Smart Object, Dumb Archive (SODA) and the Open Archives Initiative (OAI), and initial experiences using them in digital library (DL) testbeds; requirements for archival institutions, the National…

  9. Strike Up the Score: Deriving Searchable and Playable Digital Formats from Sheet Music; Smart Objects and Open Archives; Building the Archives of the Future: Advanced in Preserving Electronic Records at the National Archives and Records Administration; From the Digitized to the Digital Library.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Choudhury, G. Sayeed; DiLauro, Tim; Droettboom, Michael; Fujinaga, Ichiro; MacMillan, Karl; Nelson, Michael L.; Maly, Kurt; Thibodeau, Kenneth; Thaller, Manfred

    2001-01-01

    These articles describe the experiences of the Johns Hopkins University library in digitizing their collection of sheet music; motivation for buckets, Smart Object, Dumb Archive (SODA) and the Open Archives Initiative (OAI), and initial experiences using them in digital library (DL) testbeds; requirements for archival institutions, the National…

  10. Comparison of treatment plans: a retrospective study by the method of radiobiological evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Puzhakkal, Niyas; Kallikuzhiyil Kochunny, Abdullah; Manthala Padannayil, Noufal; Singh, Navin; Elavan Chalil, Jumanath; Kulangarakath Umer, Jamshad

    2016-09-01

    There are many situations in radiotherapy where multiple treatment plans need to be compared for selection of an optimal plan. In this study we performed the radiobiological method of plan evaluation to verify the treatment plan comparison procedure of our clinical practice. We estimated and correlated various radiobiological dose indices with physical dose metrics for a total of 30 patients representing typical cases of head and neck, prostate and brain tumors. Three sets of plans along with a clinically approved plan (final plan) treated by either Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy (IMRT) or Rapid Arc (RA) techniques were considered. The study yielded improved target coverage for final plans, however, no appreciable differences in doses and the complication probabilities of organs at risk were noticed. Even though all four plans showed adequate dose distributions, from dosimetric point of view, the final plan had more acceptable dose distribution. The estimated biological outcome and dose volume histogram data showed least differences between plans for IMRT when compared to RA. Our retrospective study based on 120 plans, validated the radiobiological method of plan evaluation. The tumor cure or normal tissue complication probabilities were found to be correlated with the corresponding physical dose indices.

  11. Prognostic value of radiobiological hypoxia during fractionated irradiation for local tumor control.

    PubMed

    Zips, Daniel; Böke, Simon; Kroeber, Theresa; Meinzer, Andreas; Brüchner, Kerstin; Thames, Howard D; Baumann, Michael; Yaromina, Ala

    2011-05-01

    Previous experiments showed that the fraction of radiobiologically hypoxic tumor cells (rHF) in un-treated tumors did not accurately predict local tumor control after fractionated irradiation. Thus, the prognostic value of rHF determined during fractionated irradiation was investigated. Six human squamous cell carcinoma lines were transplanted into nude mice and then irradiated with 15 fractions over 3 weeks. Thereafter, single dose irradiation under normal and clamped blood flow was given. Local tumor control rates were used to calculate the rHF and the TCD₅₀, i.e., the radiation dose necessary to control 50% of the tumors, after single dose irradiation. These values were compared with the in parallel determined TCD₅₀ after 30 fractions in 6 weeks. The rHF after 15 fractions varied between 28% and 100%. No correlation was found with the TCD₅₀ after 30 fractions in 6 weeks. Single dose top-up TCD₅₀ under ambient and clamp conditions after 15 fractions significantly correlated with TCD₅₀ after 30 fractions in 6 weeks. rHF after 15 fractions is not a prognostic parameter for the outcome after fractionated irradiation. In contrast, the radiobiological parameters number of tumor stem cells, intrinsic radiosensitivity, and number of radiobiologically hypoxic tumor cells appear promising to predict outcome after fractionated irradiation.

  12. Radiobiological assessment of non-standard and novel radiotherapy treatments using the linear-quadratic model.

    PubMed

    Dale, R G

    1993-01-01

    The linear-quadratic (LQ) model is useful in the radiobiological assessment of a wide variety of radiotherapy treatment techniques, not being confined to analysis of fractionated treatments alone. The model uses parameters that must be separately specified for tumours and dose-limiting normal tissues, and may therefore be used to help identify treatments that are most likely to maximise tumour cell kill while minimising the risk of severe normal-tissue damage. Additionally, the model is capable of making tentative allowance for the tumour repopulation that can occur during extended treatments. Intercomparisons between different types of treatment are made through the concept of the Extrapolated Response Dose (ERD). The ERD is calculated for each critical tissue and takes account of both the radiobiological parameters and the dose/time pattern of radiation delivery. Known tolerance doses for specified organs may be expressed as an ERDtolerance value, and, if a proposed 'new' treatment is to be successful, its associated ERD value must not exceed ERDtolerance. Examples of this procedure are given in this paper. It is particularly important that medical physicists fully appreciate the scope and limitations of LQ equations, as the analysis of radiobiology problems using the model often requires a degree of mathematical understanding that clinicians may not possess.

  13. Rapid assessment of radiobiological doses for terrestrial and interplanetary space missions.

    PubMed

    Melkonian, G; Bourrieau, J

    1994-11-01

    This paper presents the doses levels expected in orbits in chart form, covering the range 300-800 km of altitude and 0-90 degrees of inclination behind shieldings similar to the Hermes spacecraft and the EVA spacesuit matter distributions. These charts allow users to rapidly find the radiobiological dose received in the most critical organs of the human body either in normal situations or during a large solar event. Outside the magnetosphere, during interplanetary or lunar missions, when the dose received during crossing of the radiation belts become negligible, the dose is due to galactic cosmic rays (GCR) and solar flares. The correct radiobiological assessment of the components of this radiation field becomes a major problem. On the Moon a permanent ground-based station can be shielded by lunar materials against meteoroids and radiations. The radiobiological hazard, essentially linked to the solar flare risk during the transfer phase and the extra-station activities, may be solved by mission planning. For interplanetary flights the problem comes from both increased risk of solar events and from the continuous exposure to GCR. These energetic particles cannot be easily stopped by shieldings; cost considerations imply that more effective materials must be used. Impact on the vehicle design and the mission planning is important.

  14. Radio data archiving system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knapic, C.; Zanichelli, A.; Dovgan, E.; Nanni, M.; Stagni, M.; Righini, S.; Sponza, M.; Bedosti, F.; Orlati, A.; Smareglia, R.

    2016-07-01

    Radio Astronomical Data models are becoming very complex since the huge possible range of instrumental configurations available with the modern Radio Telescopes. What in the past was the last frontiers of data formats in terms of efficiency and flexibility is now evolving with new strategies and methodologies enabling the persistence of a very complex, hierarchical and multi-purpose information. Such an evolution of data models and data formats require new data archiving techniques in order to guarantee data preservation following the directives of Open Archival Information System and the International Virtual Observatory Alliance for data sharing and publication. Currently, various formats (FITS, MBFITS, VLBI's XML description files and ancillary files) of data acquired with the Medicina and Noto Radio Telescopes can be stored and handled by a common Radio Archive, that is planned to be released to the (inter)national community by the end of 2016. This state-of-the-art archiving system for radio astronomical data aims at delegating as much as possible to the software setting how and where the descriptors (metadata) are saved, while the users perform user-friendly queries translated by the web interface into complex interrogations on the database to retrieve data. In such a way, the Archive is ready to be Virtual Observatory compliant and as much as possible user-friendly.

  15. Archiving Derrida

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morris, Marla

    2003-01-01

    Derrida's archive, broadly speaking, is brilliantly mad, for he digs exegetically into the most difficult textual material and combines the most unlikely texts--from Socrates to Freud, from postcards to encyclopedias, from madness(es) to the archive, from primal scenes to death. In this paper, the author would like to do a brief study of the…

  16. Archiving Derrida

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morris, Marla

    2003-01-01

    Derrida's archive, broadly speaking, is brilliantly mad, for he digs exegetically into the most difficult textual material and combines the most unlikely texts--from Socrates to Freud, from postcards to encyclopedias, from madness(es) to the archive, from primal scenes to death. In this paper, the author would like to do a brief study of the…

  17. National Archive of Marine Seismic Surveys (NAMSS): Status Report on U.S. Geological Survey Program Providing Access to Proprietary Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hart, P. E.; Childs, J. R.

    2005-05-01

    During the last four decades, hundreds of thousands of line kilometers of 2D marine seismic reflection data have been collected by the hydrocarbon exploration industry within the United States Exclusive Economic Zone. The commercial value of much of these data has decreased significantly because of drilling moratoria and new technology such as 3D acquisition. However, these data still have tremendous value for scientific research and education purposes. The U.S. Geological Survey has recently made agreements with two commercial owners of large data holdings to transfer to the public domain over 250,000 line kilometers of marine data from off the eastern, western, and Alaskan coasts of the United States. In order to provide access to the data, the USGS has developed the National Archive of Marine Seismic Surveys (NAMSS) program. For a small fraction of the money that would be required to collect new data, work is underway to organize and recover digital data currently stored on tens of thousands of 9-track tapes. Even where new data collection efforts could be funded, current environmental restrictions on marine seismic exploration could preclude operations. The NAMSS web site at http://walrus.wr.usgs.gov/NAMSS/ has trackline maps of surveys that are now or will soon be available for downloading in SEG-Y format. As more owners and users become aware of this new data resource, it is hoped that additional partners in will join this data rescue effort.

  18. A Survey of Mesenchyme-related Tumors of the Rat Kidney in the National Toxicology Program Archives, with Particular Reference to Renal Mesenchymal Tumor.

    PubMed

    Hard, Gordon C; Seely, John Curtis; Betz, Laura J

    2016-08-01

    In order to harmonize diagnostic terminology, confirm diagnostic criteria, and describe aspects of tumor biology characteristic of different tumor types, a total of 165 cases of mesenchyme-related tumors and nephroblastomas of the rat kidney were reexamined from the National Toxicology Program (NTP) Archives. This survey demonstrated that renal mesenchymal tumor (RMT) was the most common spontaneous nonepithelial tumor in the rat kidney, also occurring more frequently in the NTP studies than nephroblastoma. Renal sarcoma was a distinct but very rare tumor entity, representing a malignant, monomorphous population of densely crowded, fibroblast-like cells, in which, unlike RMT, preexisting tubules did not persist. Nephroblastoma was characterized by early death of affected animals, suggesting an embryonal origin for this tumor type. Male and female rats were equally disposed to developing RMT, but most of the cases of nephroblastoma occurred in female rats and liposarcoma occurred mostly in male rats. This survey confirmed discrete histopathological and biological differences between the mesenchyme-related renal tumor types and between RMT and nephroblastoma. Statistical analysis also demonstrated a lack of any relationship of these renal tumor types to test article administration in the NTP data bank.

  19. Data archiving for animal cognition research: report of an NIMH workshop.

    PubMed

    Kurtzman, Howard S; Church, Russell M; Crystal, Jonathon D

    2002-11-01

    In July 2001, the National Institute of Mental Health sponsored a workshop titled "Data Archiving for Animal Cognition Research." Participants included scientists as well as experts in archiving, publishing, policy, and law. As is described in this report, the workshop resulted in a set of conclusions and recommendations concerning (A) the impact of data archiving on research, (B) how to incorporate data archiving into research practice, (C) contents of data archives, (D) technical and archival standards, and (E) organizational, financing, and policy issues. The animal cognition research community is encouraged to begin now to establish archives, deposit data and related materials, and make use of archived materials in new scientific projects.

  20. Digital Archival Image Collections: Who Are the Users?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herold, Irene M. H.

    2010-01-01

    Archival digital image collections are a relatively new phenomenon in college library archives. Digitizing archival image collections may make them accessible to users worldwide. There has been no study to explore whether collections on the Internet lead to users who are beyond the institution or a comparison of users to a national or…

  1. Digital Archival Image Collections: Who Are the Users?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herold, Irene M. H.

    2010-01-01

    Archival digital image collections are a relatively new phenomenon in college library archives. Digitizing archival image collections may make them accessible to users worldwide. There has been no study to explore whether collections on the Internet lead to users who are beyond the institution or a comparison of users to a national or…

  2. Archive of sediment data collected in 2014 and 2015 from around Breton and Gosier Islands, Breton National Wildlife Refuge, Louisiana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bernier, Julie C.; Kelso, Kyle W.; Tuten, Thomas M.; Stalk, Chelsea A.; Flocks, James G.

    2017-01-01

    Breton Island, located at the southern end of the Chandeleur Islands, supports one of Louisiana’s largest historical brown pelican nesting colonies. Although the brown pelican (Pelecanus occidentalis) was delisted as an endangered species in 2009, nesting areas are threatened by continued land loss and are extremely vulnerable to storm impacts. The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service proposed to restore Breton Island to pre-Hurricane Katrina conditions through rebuilding the shoreface, dune, and back-barrier marsh environments. Prior to restoration, scientists from the U.S. Geological Survey’s (USGS) St. Petersburg Coastal and Marine Science Center Geologic and Morphologic Evolution of Coastal Margins project collected high-resolution geophysical (topography, bathymetry, and sub-bottom profiles) and sedimentologic data from around Breton Island to characterize the geologic framework of the island platform, nearshore, and shelf environments. These data will be used to characterize the geologic framework around Breton Island, identify potential borrow areas for restoration efforts, quantify seafloor change, and provide information for sediment transport and morphologic change models to asses island response to restoration and natural processes.This data release serves as an archive of sediment data from vibracores, push cores, and submerged grab samples collected from around Breton and Gosier Islands, Louisiana, during two surveys in July 2014 and January 2015 (USGS Field Activity Numbers [FAN] 2014–314–FA [alternate FAN 14BIM04] and 2014–336–FA, respectively). Sedimentologic and stratigraphic metrics (for example, sediment texture or unit thicknesses) derived from these data can be used to ground-truth the geophysical data and characterize potential sand resources or can be incorporated into sediment transport or morphologic change models. Data collection and processing methods are described in Data Series 1037. All 14BIM04 locations and GIS data files

  3. 36 CFR 1275.24 - Archival processing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Archival processing. 1275.24 Section 1275.24 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL ARCHIVES AND RECORDS ADMINISTRATION NIXON... protecting and preserving the materials, and for providing authorized access to the materials pursuant...

  4. 36 CFR 1275.24 - Archival processing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Archival processing. 1275.24 Section 1275.24 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL ARCHIVES AND RECORDS ADMINISTRATION NIXON... protecting and preserving the materials, and for providing authorized access to the materials pursuant...

  5. 36 CFR 1275.24 - Archival processing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Archival processing. 1275.24 Section 1275.24 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL ARCHIVES AND RECORDS ADMINISTRATION NIXON... protecting and preserving the materials, and for providing authorized access to the materials pursuant...

  6. Guide to the Seattle Archives Branch.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hobbs, Richard, Comp.

    The guide presents an overview of the textual and microfilmed records located at the Seattle Branch of the National Archives of the United States. Established in 1969, the Seattle Archives Branch is one of 11 branches which preserve and make available for research those U.S. Government records of permanent value created and maintained by Federal…

  7. 36 CFR 1275.24 - Archival processing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Archival processing. 1275.24 Section 1275.24 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL ARCHIVES AND RECORDS ADMINISTRATION NIXON PRESIDENTIAL MATERIALS PRESERVATION AND PROTECTION OF AND ACCESS TO THE PRESIDENTIAL HISTORICAL MATERIALS...

  8. Radiobiological Effectiveness of Ultrashort Laser-Driven Electron Bunches: Micronucleus Frequency, Telomere Shortening and Cell Viability.

    PubMed

    Andreassi, Maria Grazia; Borghini, Andrea; Pulignani, Silvia; Baffigi, Federica; Fulgentini, Lorenzo; Koester, Petra; Cresci, Monica; Vecoli, Cecilia; Lamia, Debora; Russo, Giorgio; Panetta, Daniele; Tripodi, Maria; Gizzi, Leonida A; Labate, Luca

    2016-09-01

    Laser-driven electron accelerators are capable of producing high-energy electron bunches in shorter distances than conventional radiofrequency accelerators. To date, our knowledge of the radiobiological effects in cells exposed to electrons using a laser-plasma accelerator is still very limited. In this study, we compared the dose-response curves for micronucleus (MN) frequency and telomere length in peripheral blood lymphocytes exposed to laser-driven electron pulse and X-ray radiations. Additionally, we evaluated the effects on cell survival of in vitro tumor cells after exposure to laser-driven electron pulse compared to electron beams produced by a conventional radiofrequency accelerator used for intraoperative radiation therapy. Blood samples from two different donors were exposed to six radiation doses ranging from 0 to 2 Gy. Relative biological effectiveness (RBE) for micronucleus induction was calculated from the alpha coefficients for electrons compared to X rays (RBE = alpha laser/alpha X rays). Cell viability was monitored in the OVCAR-3 ovarian cancer cell line using trypan blue exclusion assay at day 3, 5 and 7 postirradiation (2, 4, 6, 8 and 10 Gy). The RBE values obtained by comparing the alpha values were 1.3 and 1.2 for the two donors. Mean telomere length was also found to be reduced in a significant dose-dependent manner after irradiation with both electrons and X rays in both donors studied. Our findings showed a radiobiological response as mirrored by the induction of micronuclei and shortening of telomere as well as by the reduction of cell survival in blood samples and cancer cells exposed in vitro to laser-generated electron bunches. Additional studies are needed to improve preclinical validation of the radiobiological characteristics and efficacy of laser-driven electron accelerators in the future.

  9. A radiobiological model for the relative biological effectiveness of high-dose-rate 252Cf brachytherapy.

    PubMed

    Rivard, Mark J; Melhus, Christopher S; Zinkin, Heather D; Stapleford, Liza J; Evans, Krista E; Wazer, David E; Odlozilíková, Anna

    2005-09-01

    While there is significant clinical experience using both low- and high-dose-rate 252Cf brachytherapy, there are minimal data regarding values for the neutron relative biological effectiveness (RBE) with both modalities. The aim of this research was to derive a radiobiological model for 252Cf neutron RBE and to compare these results with neutron RBE values used clinically in Russia. The linear-quadratic (LQ) model was used as the basis to characterize cell survival after irradiation, with identical cell killing rates (S(N) = S(gamma)) between 252Cf neutrons and photons used for derivation of RBE. Using this equality, a relationship among neutron dose and LQ radiobiological parameter (i.e., alpha(N), beta(N), alpha(gamma), beta(gamma)) was obtained without the need to specify the photon dose. These results were used to derive the 252Cf neutron RBE, which was then compared with Russian neutron RBE values. The 252Cf neutron RBE was determined after incorporating the LQ radiobiological parameters obtained from cell survival studies with fast neutrons and teletherapy photons. For single-fraction high-dose-rate neutron doses of 0.5, 1.0, 1.5 and 2.0 Gy, the total biologically equivalent doses were 1.8, 3.4, 4.7 and 6.0 RBE Gy with 252Cf neutron RBE values of 3.2, 2.9, 2.7 and 2.5, respectively. Using clinical data for late-responding reactions from 252Cf, Russian investigators created an empirical model that predicted high-dose-rate 252Cf neutron RBE values ranging from 3.6 to 2.9 for similar doses and fractionation schemes and observed that 252Cf neutron RBE increases with the number of treatment fractions. Using these relationships, our results were in general concordance with high-dose-rate 252Cf RBE values obtained from Russian clinical experience.

  10. Issues for Simulation of Galactic Cosmic Ray Exposures for Radiobiological Research at Ground-Based Accelerators

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Myung-Hee Y.; Rusek, Adam; Cucinotta, Francis A.

    2015-01-01

    For radiobiology research on the health risks of galactic cosmic rays (GCR) ground-based accelerators have been used with mono-energetic beams of single high charge, Z and energy, E (HZE) particles. In this paper, we consider the pros and cons of a GCR reference field at a particle accelerator. At the NASA Space Radiation Laboratory (NSRL), we have proposed a GCR simulator, which implements a new rapid switching mode and higher energy beam extraction to 1.5 GeV/u, in order to integrate multiple ions into a single simulation within hours or longer for chronic exposures. After considering the GCR environment and energy limitations of NSRL, we performed extensive simulation studies using the stochastic transport code, GERMcode (GCR Event Risk Model) to define a GCR reference field using 9 HZE particle beam–energy combinations each with a unique absorber thickness to provide fragmentation and 10 or more energies of proton and 4He beams. The reference field is shown to well represent the charge dependence of GCR dose in several energy bins behind shielding compared to a simulated GCR environment. However, a more significant challenge for space radiobiology research is to consider chronic GCR exposure of up to 3 years in relation to simulations with animal models of human risks. We discuss issues in approaches to map important biological time scales in experimental models using ground-based simulation, with extended exposure of up to a few weeks using chronic or fractionation exposures. A kinetics model of HZE particle hit probabilities suggests that experimental simulations of several weeks will be needed to avoid high fluence rate artifacts, which places limitations on the experiments to be performed. Ultimately risk estimates are limited by theoretical understanding, and focus on improving knowledge of mechanisms and development of experimental models to improve this understanding should remain the highest priority for space radiobiology research. PMID:26090339

  11. Radiobiological Determination of Dose Escalation and Normal Tissue Toxicity in Definitive Chemoradiation Therapy for Esophageal Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Warren, Samantha; Partridge, Mike; Carrington, Rhys; Hurt, Chris; Crosby, Thomas; Hawkins, Maria A.

    2014-10-01

    Purpose: This study investigated the trade-off in tumor coverage and organ-at-risk sparing when applying dose escalation for concurrent chemoradiation therapy (CRT) of mid-esophageal cancer, using radiobiological modeling to estimate local control and normal tissue toxicity. Methods and Materials: Twenty-one patients with mid-esophageal cancer were selected from the SCOPE1 database (International Standard Randomised Controlled Trials number 47718479), with a mean planning target volume (PTV) of 327 cm{sup 3}. A boost volume, PTV2 (GTV + 0.5 cm margin), was created. Radiobiological modeling of tumor control probability (TCP) estimated the dose required for a clinically significant (+20%) increase in local control as 62.5 Gy/25 fractions. A RapidArc (RA) plan with a simultaneously integrated boost (SIB) to PTV2 (RA{sub 62.5}) was compared to a standard dose plan of 50 Gy/25 fractions (RA{sub 50}). Dose-volume metrics and estimates of normal tissue complication probability (NTCP) for heart and lungs were compared. Results: Clinically acceptable dose escalation was feasible for 16 of 21 patients, with significant gains (>18%) in tumor control from 38.2% (RA{sub 50}) to 56.3% (RA{sub 62.5}), and only a small increase in predicted toxicity: median heart NTCP 4.4% (RA{sub 50}) versus 5.6% (RA{sub 62.5}) P<.001 and median lung NTCP 6.5% (RA{sub 50}) versus 7.5% (RA{sub 62.5}) P<.001. Conclusions: Dose escalation to the GTV to improve local control is possible when overlap between PTV and organ-at-risk (<8% heart volume and <2.5% lung volume overlap for this study) generates only negligible increase in lung or heart toxicity. These predictions from radiobiological modeling should be tested in future clinical trials.

  12. Estimation of Radiobiologic Parameters and Equivalent Radiation Dose of Cytotoxic Chemotherapy in Malignant Glioma

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, Bleddyn . E-mail: b.jones.1@bham.ac.uk; Sanghera, Paul

    2007-06-01

    Purpose: To determine the radiobiologic parameters for high-grade gliomas. Methods and Materials: The biologic effective dose concept is used to estimate the {alpha}/{beta} ratio and K (dose equivalent for tumor repopulation/d) for high-grade glioma patients treated in a randomized fractionation trial. The equivalent radiation dose of temozolomide (Temodar) chemotherapy was estimated from another randomized study. The method assumes that the radiotherapy biologic effective dose is proportional to the adjusted radiotherapy survival duration of high-grade glioma patients. Results: The median tumor {alpha}/{beta} and K estimate is 9.32 Gy and 0.23 Gy/d, respectively. Using the published surviving fraction after 2-Gy exposure (SF{sub 2}) data, and the above {alpha}/{beta} ratio, the estimated median {alpha} value was 0.077 Gy{sup -1}, {beta} was 0.009 Gy{sup -2}, and the cellular doubling time was 39.5 days. The median equivalent biologic effective dose of temozolomide was 11.03 Gy{sub 9.3} (equivalent to a radiation dose of 9.1 Gy given in 2-Gy fractions). Random sampling trial simulations based on a cure threshold of 70 Gy in high-grade gliomas have shown the potential increase in tumor cure with dose escalation. Partial elimination of hypoxic cells (by chemical hypoxic cell sensitizers or carbon ion therapy) has suggested that considerable gains in tumor control, which are further supplemented by temozolomide, are achievable. Conclusion: The radiobiologic parameters for human high-grade gliomas can be estimated from clinical trials and could be used to inform future clinical trials, particularly combined modality treatments with newer forms of radiotherapy. Other incurable cancers should be studied using similar radiobiologic analysis.

  13. The tumor radiobiology of SRS and SBRT: are more than the 5 Rs involved?

    PubMed

    Brown, J Martin; Carlson, David J; Brenner, David J

    2014-02-01

    Stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) and stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT), also known as stereotactic ablative radiation therapy (SABR), are rapidly becoming accepted practice for the radiation therapy of certain tumors. Typically, SRS and SBRT involve the delivery of 1 or a few large-dose fractions of 8 to 30 Gy per fraction: a major paradigm shift from radiation therapy practice over the past 90 years, when, with relatively large amounts of normal tissues receiving high doses, the goal was to maximize tumor response for an acceptable level of normal tissue injury. The development of SRS and SBRT have come about because of technologic advances in image guidance and treatment delivery techniques that enable the delivery of large doses to tumors with reduced margins and high gradients outside the target, thereby minimizing doses to surrounding normal tissues. Because the results obtained with SRS and SBRT have been impressive, they have raised the question whether classic radiobiological modeling, and the linear-quadratic (LQ) model, are appropriate for large doses per fraction. In addition to objections to the LQ model, the possibility of additional biological effects resulting from endothelial cell damage, enhanced tumor immunity, or both have been raised to account for the success of SRS and SBRT. In this review, we conclude that the available preclinical and clinical data do not support a need to change the LQ model or to invoke phenomena over and above the classic 5 Rs of radiobiology and radiation therapy, with the likely exception that for some tumors high doses of irradiation may produce enhanced antitumor immunity. Thus, we suggest that for most tumors, the standard radiobiology concepts of the 5 Rs are sufficient to explain the clinical data, and the excellent results obtained from clinical studies are the result of the much larger biologically effective doses that are delivered with SRS and SBRT. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Issues for Simulation of Galactic Cosmic Ray Exposures for Radiobiological Research at Ground-Based Accelerators.

    PubMed

    Kim, Myung-Hee Y; Rusek, Adam; Cucinotta, Francis A

    2015-01-01

    For radiobiology research on the health risks of galactic cosmic rays (GCR) ground-based accelerators have been used with mono-energetic beams of single high charge, Z and energy, E (HZE) particles. In this paper, we consider the pros and cons of a GCR reference field at a particle accelerator. At the NASA Space Radiation Laboratory (NSRL), we have proposed a GCR simulator, which implements a new rapid switching mode and higher energy beam extraction to 1.5 GeV/u, in order to integrate multiple ions into a single simulation within hours or longer for chronic exposures. After considering the GCR environment and energy limitations of NSRL, we performed extensive simulation studies using the stochastic transport code, GERMcode (GCR Event Risk Model) to define a GCR reference field using 9 HZE particle beam-energy combinations each with a unique absorber thickness to provide fragmentation and 10 or more energies of proton and (4)He beams. The reference field is shown to well represent the charge dependence of GCR dose in several energy bins behind shielding compared to a simulated GCR environment. However, a more significant challenge for space radiobiology research is to consider chronic GCR exposure of up to 3 years in relation to simulations with animal models of human risks. We discuss issues in approaches to map important biological time scales in experimental models using ground-based simulation, with extended exposure of up to a few weeks using chronic or fractionation exposures. A kinetics model of HZE particle hit probabilities suggests that experimental simulations of several weeks will be needed to avoid high fluence rate artifacts, which places limitations on the experiments to be performed. Ultimately risk estimates are limited by theoretical understanding, and focus on improving knowledge of mechanisms and development of experimental models to improve this understanding should remain the highest priority for space radiobiology research.

  15. Development of a compact laser-produced plasma soft X-ray source for radiobiology experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adjei, Daniel; Ayele, Mesfin Getachew; Wachulak, Przemyslaw; Bartnik, Andrzej; Wegrzynski, Łukasz; Fiedorowicz, Henryk; Vyšín, Luděk; Wiechec, Anna; Lekki, Janusz; Kwiatek, Wojciech M.; Pina, Ladislav; Davídková, Marie; Juha, Libor

    2015-12-01

    A desk-top laser-produced plasma (LPP) source of soft X-rays (SXR) has been developed for radiobiology research. The source is based on a double-stream gas puff target, irradiated with the focused beam of a commercial Nd:YAG laser. The source has been optimized to get a maximum photon emission from LPP in the X-ray "water window" spectral wavelength range from 2.3 nm (i.e., an absorption edge of oxygen) to 4.4 nm (i.e., an absorption edge of carbon) (280-540 eV in photon energy units) by using argon gas-puff target and spectral filtering by free-standing thin foils. The present source delivers nanosecond pulses of soft X-rays at a fluence of about 4.2 × 103 photons/μm2/pulse on a sample placed inside the vacuum chamber. In this paper, the source design, radiation output characterization measurements and initial irradiation experiments are described. The source can be useful in addressing observations related to biomolecular, cellular and organisms' sensitivity to pulsed radiation in the "water window", where carbon atoms absorb X-rays more strongly than the oxygen, mostly present in water. The combination of the SXR source and the radiobiology irradiation layout, reported in this article, make possible a systematic investigation of relationships between direct and indirect action of ionizing radiation, an increase of a local dose in carbon-rich compartments of the cell (e.g., lipid membranes), an experimental estimation of a particular role of the Auger effect (in particular in carbon atoms) in the damage to biological systems, and the study of ionization/excitation-density (LET - Linear Energy Transfer) and dose-rate effects in radiobiology.

  16. SU-E-T-194: From Dicom-RT to Radiobiological Dose Metrics in 5 Minutes

    SciTech Connect

    Whelan, B; Holloway, L

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To develop a flexible and standalone framework for batch calculation of radiobiological dose metrics from Dicom-RT. Methods: Software has been developed which allows (1) The calculation of DVH data from DICOM dose and structure files (DVHgenerator), (2) Calculation of a wide range of radiobiological metrics from this data (CompPlanGui). Both these tools are run via graphical user interface (GUI), making them fast and simple. Part 1 is a new tool which has not previously been published, whilst part 2 is a GUI overlay for the previously published software ‘Comp-Plan’ (Holloway et. al., Medical Dosimetry, 2012), previously reliant on command line interface. The time taken for an experienced user to evaluate a test case of 6 plans with and without CompPlanGUI was quantified. Results: The DVH-generator has been found to be faster, more robust and require far less physical memory then using alternative software solutions for the same purpose. The Comp Plan GUI significantly reduces the amount of time required to set up a base directory, eliminates code crashes arising from typographical errors, and renders the code far more accessible to non-expert users. It took an experienced user of the code around 3 minutes to set up a base directory of 6 plans compared around 8 minutes without, indicating that using CompPlanGUI reduced setup time by over 50%. Conclusion: A standalone GUI based framework has developed which allows for the batch calculation of radiobiological dose metrics directly from Dicom-RT files. As with the original code, this work will be made freely available on request, as well as via matlab file exchange.

  17. Radiobiological hypoxia, histological parameters of tumour microenvironment and local tumour control after fractionated irradiation.

    PubMed

    Yaromina, Ala; Thames, Howard; Zhou, Xuanjing; Hering, Sandra; Eicheler, Wolfgang; Dörfler, Annegret; Leichtner, Thomas; Zips, Daniel; Baumann, Michael

    2010-07-01

    To investigate the relationships between radiobiological hypoxic fraction (rHF), pimonidazole hypoxic fraction (pHF) as well as other histological parameters of the tumour microenvironment, and local tumour control after fractionated irradiation in human squamous cell carcinomas (hSCCs). Ten different hSCC cell lines were transplanted into nude mice and rHF was calculated from local tumour control rates after single dose irradiation under normal or clamped blood flow conditions. In parallel, tumours were irradiated with 30 fractions within 6 weeks. Radiation response was quantified as dose required to cure 50% of tumours (TCD(50)). Unirradiated tumours were excised for histological evaluation including relative hypoxic area (pHF), relative vascular area (RVA), and fraction of perfused vessels (PF). A weak but significant positive correlation between rHF (R(2)=0.6, p=0.014) and TCD(50) after fractionated irradiation was found. The pHF did not correlate with rHF but was significantly associated with the TCD(50) after single dose clamp (R(2)=0.8, p=0.003) and showed a trend for an association with TCD(50) after fractionated irradiation (R(2)=0.4, p=0.067). Relative vascular area and fraction of perfused vessels did not show an association with rHF or TCD(50) after fractionated irradiation. Our data suggest that radiobiological hypoxia contributes to the response after fractionated irradiation but that also other radiobiological mechanisms are involved. In the present study, pimonidazole labelling does not reflect rHF and has a limited value to predict local tumour control after fractionated irradiation. The association between pHF and TCD(50) after single dose clamp warrants further investigation. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. The Tumor Radiobiology of SRS and SBRT: Are More Than the 5 Rs Involved?

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, J. Martin; Carlson, David J.; Brenner, David J.

    2014-02-01

    Stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) and stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT), also known as stereotactic ablative radiation therapy (SABR), are rapidly becoming accepted practice for the radiation therapy of certain tumors. Typically, SRS and SBRT involve the delivery of 1 or a few large-dose fractions of 8 to 30 Gy per fraction: a major paradigm shift from radiation therapy practice over the past 90 years, when, with relatively large amounts of normal tissues receiving high doses, the goal was to maximize tumor response for an acceptable level of normal tissue injury. The development of SRS and SBRT have come about because of technologic advances in image guidance and treatment delivery techniques that enable the delivery of large doses to tumors with reduced margins and high gradients outside the target, thereby minimizing doses to surrounding normal tissues. Because the results obtained with SRS and SBRT have been impressive, they have raised the question whether classic radiobiological modeling, and the linear-quadratic (LQ) model, are appropriate for large doses per fraction. In addition to objections to the LQ model, the possibility of additional biological effects resulting from endothelial cell damage, enhanced tumor immunity, or both have been raised to account for the success of SRS and SBRT. In this review, we conclude that the available preclinical and clinical data do not support a need to change the LQ model or to invoke phenomena over and above the classic 5 Rs of radiobiology and radiation therapy, with the likely exception that for some tumors high doses of irradiation may produce enhanced antitumor immunity. Thus, we suggest that for most tumors, the standard radiobiology concepts of the 5 Rs are sufficient to explain the clinical data, and the excellent results obtained from clinical studies are the result of the much larger biologically effective doses that are delivered with SRS and SBRT.

  19. Accelerator-based radiation sources for next-generation radiobiological research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DeVeaux, Linda C.; Wells, Douglas P.; Hunt, Alan; Webb, Tim; Beezhold, Wendland; Harmon, J. Frank

    2006-06-01

    The Idaho Accelerator Center (IAC) of Idaho State University has developed a unique radiation research facility to answer next-generation radiobiological questions. The IAC has 10 operating research accelerators. These include continuously delivered radiation beams such as a 950 keV electron beam and a 2 MeV light-ion Van de Graaff. The IAC also has a number of pulsed electron linacs which range in energy from 4 to 40 MeV. The most intense amongst them deliver peak dose rates greater than 10 12 Gy/s. The operational flexibility of pulsed electron linacs allows control of peak and average dose rate, pulse separation and total dose over many orders of magnitude in these parameters. These high dose rates also allow delivery of large doses on time scales that are very small when compared to biological responses. The spectrum of particle beams that the IAC can deliver includes alphas, protons, neutrons, electrons (betas), and gammas (X-rays). Current radiobiological research at the IAC is focused upon radiation effects in unicellular organisms. The effectiveness of extremely high dose rate electron irradiation for the neutralization of microbes is being investigated. Concurrently, we are characterizing the survival mechanisms employed by microbes when exposed to these extremely high doses and dose rates. We have isolated strains from several diverse species that show increased radiation-resistance over normal populations. In addition, we were the first to demonstrate radiation-induced Bystander effects in unicellular organisms. Because of the numerous and diverse accelerators at the IAC, these and many other novel radiobiological investigations are readily attainable.

  20. Dosimetry and radiobiology at the new RA-3 reactor boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) facility: application to the treatment of experimental oral cancer.

    PubMed

    Pozzi, E; Nigg, D W; Miller, M; Thorp, S I; Heber, E M; Zarza, L; Estryk, G; Monti Hughes, A; Molinari, A J; Garabalino, M; Itoiz, M E; Aromando, R F; Quintana, J; Trivillin, V A; Schwint, A E

    2009-07-01

    The National Atomic Energy Commission of Argentina (CNEA) constructed a novel thermal neutron source for use in boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) applications at the RA-3 research reactor facility located in Buenos Aires. The aim of the present study was to perform a dosimetric characterization of the facility and undertake radiobiological studies of BNCT in an experimental model of oral cancer in the hamster cheek pouch. The free-field thermal flux was 7.1 x 10(9) n cm(-2)s(-1) and the fast neutron flux was 2.5 x 10(6) n cm(-2)s(-1), indicating a very well-thermalized neutron field with negligible fast neutron dose. For radiobiological studies it was necessary to shield the body of the hamster from the neutron flux while exposing the everted cheek pouch bearing the tumors. To that end we developed a lithium (enriched to 95% in (6)Li) carbonate enclosure. Groups of tumor-bearing hamsters were submitted to BPA-BNCT, GB-10-BNCT, (GB-10+BPA)-BNCT or beam only treatments. Normal (non-cancerized) hamsters were treated similarly to evaluate normal tissue radiotoxicity. The total physical dose delivered to tumor with the BNCT treatments ranged from 6 to 8.5 Gy. Tumor control at 30 days ranged from 73% to 85%, with no normal tissue radiotoxicity. Significant but reversible mucositis in precancerous tissue surrounding tumors was associated to BPA-BNCT. The therapeutic success of different BNCT protocols in treating experimental oral cancer at this novel facility was unequivocally demonstrated.

  1. Determination of high LET cosmic particles' trajectories for space radiobiological studies.

    PubMed

    Ogura, K; Doke, T; Kasuya, T; Kuwahara, K; Matsushima, M; Nagaoka, S; Ohnishi, H; Takahashi, T; Yamada, H; Yatagai, F

    1993-01-01

    During IML-1 mission, we carried out space experiments on radiobiological effect of a single HZE cosmic particle. In the experiment, the precise determination of the distance between the center of the particle trajectory and the individual biological objects around it is an indispensable condition. For the detection of HZE particles CR-39 track detectors were used and analyzed by the video image processing. The positions of biological objects in relation to a particle trajectory were measured by referring to the laser grid marks which were printed on the surface of CR-39 detector. We describe such an experimental method and report the applicability of this method.

  2. Non-targeted radiation effects in vivo: a critical glance of the future in radiobiology.

    PubMed

    Hatzi, Vasiliki I; Laskaratou, Danae A; Mavragani, Ifigeneia V; Nikitaki, Zacharenia; Mangelis, Anastasios; Panayiotidis, Mihalis I; Pantelias, Gabriel E; Terzoudi, Georgia I; Georgakilas, Alexandros G

    2015-01-01

    Radiation-induced bystander effects (RIBE), demonstrate the induction of biological non-targeted effects in cells which have not directly hit by radiation or by free radicals produced by ionization events. Although RIBE have been demonstrated using a variety of biological endpoints the mechanism(s) of this phenomenon still remain unclear. The controversial results of the in vitro RIBE and the evidence of non-targeted effects in various in vivo systems are discussed. The experimental evidence on RIBE, indicate that a more analytical and mechanistic in depth approach is needed to secure an answer to one of the most intriguing questions in radiobiology.

  3. Oxygen as a product of water radiolysis in high-LET tracks. II. Radiobiological implications

    SciTech Connect

    Baverstock, K.F.; Burns, W.G.

    1981-04-01

    Consideration is given to the possibility that molecular oxygen generated in the tracks of energetic heavy ions is responsible for the reduction in oxygen enhancement ratio (OER) with increasing linear energy transfer (LET) observed for the loss of reproductive capacity caused by radiation in many cellular organisms. Yields of oxygen relationship of OER to LET for two organisms, Chlamydomonas reinhardii and Shigella flexneri, using a simple diffusion kinetic model for radiobiological action which takes account of the diffusion of oxygen after its formation. The results of these calculations show that the model accounts well for the shape of the OER vs. LET relationship.

  4. Nuclear Physics and Radiobiology - Issues for Humans in Space and on Earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tripathi, Ram

    2008-10-01

    Nuclear physics is playing a vital role in human biological applications, specifically in planned space missions, in hadron radiotherapy, and in low dose radiobiology. While seemingly disparate, these and other areas share a common need for the understanding of nuclear interactions in biological systems. Radiobiology continues to provide valuable information that will help develop better methods for using radiation in the treatment of disease as well as provide a scientific basis for radiation protection standards. NASA is now focused on the agency's vision for space exploration encompassing a broad range of human and robotic missions including missions to the Moon, Mars and beyond. As a result, there is a focus on long duration space missions. Protection from hazards of space radiation has been identified as one of the five NASA critical areas for human space flight. The cost effective design of spacecraft demands a very stringent requirement on the optimization process. Exposures from the hazards of severe space radiation in deep space and/or long duration missions are very different from that of low earth orbit, and much needs to be done about their effects. However, it is clear that revolutionary technologies will need to be developed. Here on earth, particulate radiation treatment for cancer, such as proton radiotherapy, is playing an increasing important role, while the biological effectiveness remains less well understood than for x-rays and other forms of medical radiation treatments. Advanced imaging, dosimetric, Monte Carlo, and other techniques from nuclear physics are utilized to study the molecular basis of fractionation dependency and other tumor and normal tissue radiation responses, such as radiosensitivity. Moreover, advances developed by biological research efforts, such as the sequencing of the human genome, have opened new horizons for radiobiology. New techniques have made it possible to determine at the cellular / molecular level how living

  5. 78 FR 38077 - National Industrial Security Program Policy Advisory Committee (NISPPAC)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-25

    ... NATIONAL ARCHIVES AND RECORDS ADMINISTRATION Information Security Oversight Office [NARA-13-0030] National Industrial Security Program Policy Advisory Committee (NISPPAC) AGENCY: National Archives and... following committee meeting to discuss National Industrial Security Program policy matters. DATES: The...

  6. 75 FR 32229 - National Declassification Center (NDC)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-07

    ... RECORDS ADMINISTRATION National Declassification Center (NDC) AGENCY: National Archives and Records..., Classified National Security Information, announcement is made for the National Declassification Center (NDC... priorities as identified by the Draft Prioritization Plan developed by The National Declassification Center...

  7. Radiobiological studies of plants orbited in Biosatellite II.

    PubMed

    Schairer, L A; Sparrow, A H; Marimuthu, K M

    1970-01-01

    The Biosatellite II Tradescantia experiment probed the effects of the space environment on spontaneous and radiation-induced mutation rates and on cytological changes in Tradescantia clone 02. Thirty two young flowering plants arranged in a plastic housing with the roots immersed in nutrient solution were exposed to gamma radiation from an on-board 85 Strontium source during the two-day orbital flight. Unirradiated plants were flown in a package in the spacecraft behind a tungsten radiation shield and identical non-flight control packages (with and without irradiation) were maintained at the launch site. After retrieval of the spacecraft near Hawaii, samples of root tip, ovary and stamen tissues were collected. These and the intact plants were flown to the Brookhaven National Laboratory for observations on the following end points: somatic mutation, cell size, loss of reproductive integrity resulting in stunted stamen hairs, pollen grain mortality, frequency of micronuclei in pollen, disturbed mitotic spindle function and chromosome aberrations. Analysis of data on somatic mutation, cell size and chromosome aberration end points showed no significant differences between flight and non-flight samples. However, pollen abortion, frequency of micronuclei in pollen and loss of reproductive integrity (stamen hair stunting) showed increases associated with weightlessness in irradiated material. Root tip and microspore cells showed effects of disturbed mitotic spindle function in orbited plants both with and without irradiation. Clearly differences exist between flight and non-flight material and the significance and possible mechanisms for these effects are being studied in continuing non-flight tests.

  8. Stop Wasting Archive Grants Act of 2010

    THOMAS, 111th Congress

    Rep. Chaffetz, Jason [R-UT-3

    2010-07-27

    House - 07/30/2010 Referred to the Subcommittee on Information Policy, Census, and National Archives. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  9. Heavy-ion radiobiology: new approaches to delineate mechanisms underlying enhanced biological effectiveness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blakely, E. A.; Kronenberg, A.; Chatterjee, A. (Principal Investigator)

    1998-01-01

    Shortly after the discovery of polonium and radium by Marie Curie and her husband and colleague, Pierre Curie, it was learned that exposure to these alpha-particle emitters produced deleterious biological effects. The mechanisms underlying the increased biological effectiveness of densely ionizing radiations, including alpha particles, neutrons and highly energetic heavy charged particles, remain an active area of investigation. In this paper, we review recent advances in several areas of the radiobiology of these densely ionizing radiations, also known as heavy ions. Advances are described in the areas of DNA damage and repair, chromosome aberrations, mutagenesis, neoplastic transformation in vitro, genomic instability, normal tissue radiobiology and carcinogenesis in vivo. We focus on technical innovations, including novel applications of pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), linkage analysis, and studies of gene expression and protein expression. We also highlight the use of new cellular and animal systems, including those with defined DNA repair deficiencies, as well as epithelial cell model systems to assess neoplastic transformation both in vitro and in vivo. The studies reviewed herein have had a substantial impact on our understanding of the genotoxic effects of heavy ions as well as their distinct effects on tissue homeostasis. The use of these radiations in cancer therapy is also discussed. The use of both heavy-ion and proton therapy is on the upswing in several centers around the world, due to their unique energy deposition characteristics that enhance the therapeutic effect and help reduce damage to normal tissue.

  10. A model to describe potential effects of chemotherapy on critical radiobiological treatments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodríguez-Pérez, D.; Desco, M. M.; Antoranz, J. C.

    2016-08-01

    Although chemo- and radiotherapy can annihilate tumors on their own. they are also used in coadjuvancy: improving local effects of radiotherapy using chemotherapy as a radiosensit.izer. The effects of radiotherapy are well described by current radiobiological models. The goal of this work is to describe a discrete radiotherapy model, that has been previously used describe high radiation dose response as well as unusual radio-responses of some types of tumors (e.g. prostate cancer), to obtain a model of chemo+radiotherapy that can describe how the outcome of their combination is a more efficient removal of the tumor. Our hypothesis is that, although both treatments haven different mechanisms, both affect similar key points of cell metabolism and regulation, that lead to cellular death. Hence, we will consider a discrete model where chemotherapy may affect a fraction of the same targets destroyed by radiotherapy. Although radiotherapy reaches all cells equally, chemotherapy diffuses through a tumor attaining lower concentration in its center and higher in its surface. With our simulations we study the enhanced effect of combined therapy treatment and how it depends on the tissue critical parameters (the parameters of the lion-extensive radiobiological model), the number of “targets” aimed at by chemotherapy, and the concentration and diffusion rate of the drug inside the tumor. The results show that an equivalent, cliemo-radio-dose can be computed that allows the prediction of the lower radiation dose that causes the same effect than a radio-only treatment.

  11. Heavy-ion radiobiology: new approaches to delineate mechanisms underlying enhanced biological effectiveness.

    PubMed

    Blakely, E A; Kronenberg, A

    1998-11-01

    Shortly after the discovery of polonium and radium by Marie Curie and her husband and colleague, Pierre Curie, it was learned that exposure to these alpha-particle emitters produced deleterious biological effects. The mechanisms underlying the increased biological effectiveness of densely ionizing radiations, including alpha particles, neutrons and highly energetic heavy charged particles, remain an active area of investigation. In this paper, we review recent advances in several areas of the radiobiology of these densely ionizing radiations, also known as heavy ions. Advances are described in the areas of DNA damage and repair, chromosome aberrations, mutagenesis, neoplastic transformation in vitro, genomic instability, normal tissue radiobiology and carcinogenesis in vivo. We focus on technical innovations, including novel applications of pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), linkage analysis, and studies of gene expression and protein expression. We also highlight the use of new cellular and animal systems, including those with defined DNA repair deficiencies, as well as epithelial cell model systems to assess neoplastic transformation both in vitro and in vivo. The studies reviewed herein have had a substantial impact on our understanding of the genotoxic effects of heavy ions as well as their distinct effects on tissue homeostasis. The use of these radiations in cancer therapy is also discussed. The use of both heavy-ion and proton therapy is on the upswing in several centers around the world, due to their unique energy deposition characteristics that enhance the therapeutic effect and help reduce damage to normal tissue.

  12. Heavy-ion radiobiology: new approaches to delineate mechanisms underlying enhanced biological effectiveness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blakely, E. A.; Kronenberg, A.; Chatterjee, A. (Principal Investigator)

    1998-01-01

    Shortly after the discovery of polonium and radium by Marie Curie and her husband and colleague, Pierre Curie, it was learned that exposure to these alpha-particle emitters produced deleterious biological effects. The mechanisms underlying the increased biological effectiveness of densely ionizing radiations, including alpha particles, neutrons and highly energetic heavy charged particles, remain an active area of investigation. In this paper, we review recent advances in several areas of the radiobiology of these densely ionizing radiations, also known as heavy ions. Advances are described in the areas of DNA damage and repair, chromosome aberrations, mutagenesis, neoplastic transformation in vitro, genomic instability, normal tissue radiobiology and carcinogenesis in vivo. We focus on technical innovations, including novel applications of pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), linkage analysis, and studies of gene expression and protein expression. We also highlight the use of new cellular and animal systems, including those with defined DNA repair deficiencies, as well as epithelial cell model systems to assess neoplastic transformation both in vitro and in vivo. The studies reviewed herein have had a substantial impact on our understanding of the genotoxic effects of heavy ions as well as their distinct effects on tissue homeostasis. The use of these radiations in cancer therapy is also discussed. The use of both heavy-ion and proton therapy is on the upswing in several centers around the world, due to their unique energy deposition characteristics that enhance the therapeutic effect and help reduce damage to normal tissue.

  13. An Estimation of Radiobiological Parameters for Head-and-Neck Cancer Cells and the Clinical Implications

    PubMed Central

    Qi, X. Sharon; Yang, Qiuhui; Lee, Steve P.; Li, X. Allen; Wang, Dian

    2012-01-01

    In vitro survival measurements using two human head-and-neck cancer (HNC) cell lines were performed. The specially designed split-dose surviving fraction was obtained and fitted to the linear-quadratic formalism. The repair halftime (Tr), the potential doubling time (Td), α/β and radiosensitivity α, were estimated. Other radiobiological models: EUD, BED, TCP, etc., were used to examine the potential treatment effectiveness of different IMRT techniques. Our data indicated the repair halftime of ~17 min based on two HNC cell lines. The combined α/β, α and Td are α/β = 8.1 ± 4.1 Gy, α = 0.22 ± 0.08 Gy−1, Td = 4.0 ± 1.8 day, respectively. The prolonged IMRT dose delivery for entire HNC treatment course could possibly result in the loss of biological effectiveness, i.e., the target EUDs decreased by 11% with fraction dose delivery time varying from 5 to 30 min. We determined the sublethal damage repair halftime and other radiobiological parameters for HNC cells, and to evaluate treatment effectiveness of the prolonged dose delivery times associated with different IMRT techniques. The estimated repair halftime for HNC is relatively short and may be comparable to the step-and-shoot IMRT fraction dose delivery time. The effectiveness of IMRT treatment may be improved by reducing the fraction delivery time for HNC treatment. PMID:24213325

  14. A radiobiological model of radiotherapy response and its correlation with prognostic imaging variables

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crispin-Ortuzar, Mireia; Jeong, Jeho; Fontanella, Andrew N.; Deasy, Joseph O.

    2017-04-01

    Radiobiological models of tumour control probability (TCP) can be personalized using imaging data. We propose an extension to a voxel-level radiobiological TCP model in order to describe patient-specific differences and intra-tumour heterogeneity. In the proposed model, tumour shrinkage is described by means of a novel kinetic Monte Carlo method for inter-voxel cell migration and tumour deformation. The model captures the spatiotemporal evolution of the tumour at the voxel level, and is designed to take imaging data as input. To test the performance of the model, three image-derived variables found to be predictive of outcome in the literature have been identified and calculated using the model’s own parameters. Simulating multiple tumours with different initial conditions makes it possible to perform an in silico study of the correlation of these variables with the dose for 50% tumour control (\\text{TC}{{\\text{D}}50} ) calculated by the model. We find that the three simulated variables correlate with the calculated \\text{TC}{{\\text{D}}50} . In addition, we find that different variables have different levels of sensitivity to the spatial distribution of hypoxia within the tumour, as well as to the dynamics of the migration mechanism. Finally, based on our results, we observe that an adequate combination of the variables may potentially result in higher predictive power.

  15. Bringing the heavy: carbon ion therapy in the radiobiological and clinical context.

    PubMed

    Schlaff, Cody D; Krauze, Andra; Belard, Arnaud; O'Connell, John J; Camphausen, Kevin A

    2014-03-28

    Radiotherapy for the treatment of cancer is undergoing an evolution, shifting to the use of heavier ion species. For a plethora of malignancies, current radiotherapy using photons or protons yields marginal benefits in local control and survival. One hypothesis is that these malignancies have acquired, or are inherently radioresistant to low LET radiation. In the last decade, carbon ion radiotherapy facilities have slowly been constructed in Europe and Asia, demonstrating favorable results for many of the malignancies that do poorly with conventional radiotherapy. However, from a radiobiological perspective, much of how this modality works in overcoming radioresistance, and extending local control and survival are not yet fully understood. In this review, we will explain from a radiobiological perspective how carbon ion radiotherapy can overcome the classical and recently postulated contributors of radioresistance (α/β ratio, hypoxia, cell proliferation, the tumor microenvironment and metabolism, and cancer stem cells). Furthermore, we will make recommendations on the important factors to consider, such as anatomical location, in the future design and implementation of clinical trials. With the existing data available we believe that the expansion of carbon ion facilities into the United States is warranted.

  16. Development of a novel experimental model to investigate radiobiological implications of respiratory motion in advanced radiotherapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cole, Aidan J.; McGarry, Conor K.; Butterworth, Karl T.; Prise, Kevin M.; O'Sullivan, Joe M.; Hounsell, Alan R.

    2012-11-01

    Respiratory motion introduces complex spatio-temporal variations in the dosimetry of radiotherapy. There is a paucity of literature investigating the radiobiological consequences of intrafraction motion and concerns regarding the impact of movement when applied to cancer cell lines in vitro exist. We have addressed this by developing a novel model which accurately replicates respiratory motion under experimental conditions to allow clinically relevant irradiation of cell lines. A bespoke phantom and motor driven moving platform was adapted to accommodate flasks containing medium and cells in order to replicate respiratory motion using varying frequencies and amplitude settings. To study this effect on cell survival in vitro, dose response curves were determined for human lung cancer cell lines H1299 and H460 exposed to a uniform 6 MV radiation field under moving or stationary conditions. Cell survival curves showed no significant difference between irradiation at different dose points for these cell lines in the presence or absence of motion. These data indicate that motion of unshielded cells in vitro does not affect cell survival in the presence of uniform irradiation. This model provides a novel research platform to investigate the radiobiological consequences of respiratory motion in radiotherapy.

  17. Bringing the heavy: carbon ion therapy in the radiobiological and clinical context

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Radiotherapy for the treatment of cancer is undergoing an evolution, shifting to the use of heavier ion species. For a plethora of malignancies, current radiotherapy using photons or protons yields marginal benefits in local control and survival. One hypothesis is that these malignancies have acquired, or are inherently radioresistant to low LET radiation. In the last decade, carbon ion radiotherapy facilities have slowly been constructed in Europe and Asia, demonstrating favorable results for many of the malignancies that do poorly with conventional radiotherapy. However, from a radiobiological perspective, much of how this modality works in overcoming radioresistance, and extending local control and survival are not yet fully understood. In this review, we will explain from a radiobiological perspective how carbon ion radiotherapy can overcome the classical and recently postulated contributors of radioresistance (α/β ratio, hypoxia, cell proliferation, the tumor microenvironment and metabolism, and cancer stem cells). Furthermore, we will make recommendations on the important factors to consider, such as anatomical location, in the future design and implementation of clinical trials. With the existing data available we believe that the expansion of carbon ion facilities into the United States is warranted. PMID:24679134

  18. Radiobiological characterization of post-lumpectomy focal brachytherapy with lipid nanoparticle-carried radionuclides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hrycushko, Brian A.; Gutierrez, Alonso N.; Goins, Beth; Yan, Weiqiang; Phillips, William T.; Otto, Pamela M.; Bao, Ande

    2011-02-01

    Post-operative radiotherapy has commonly been used for early stage breast cancer to treat residual disease. The primary objective of this work was to characterize, through dosimetric and radiobiological modeling, a novel focal brachytherapy technique which uses direct intracavitary infusion of β-emitting radionuclides (186Re/188Re) carried by lipid nanoparticles (liposomes). Absorbed dose calculations were performed for a spherical lumpectomy cavity with a uniformly injected activity distribution using a dose point kernel convolution technique. Radiobiological indices were used to relate predicted therapy outcome and normal tissue complication of this technique with equivalent external beam radiotherapy treatment regimens. Modeled stromal damage was used as a measure of the inhibition of the stimulatory effect on tumor growth driven by the wound healing response. A sample treatment plan delivering 50 Gy at a therapeutic range of 2.0 mm for 186Re-liposomes and 5.0 mm for 188Re-liposomes takes advantage of the dose delivery characteristics of the β-emissions, providing significant EUD (58.2 Gy and 72.5 Gy for 186Re and 188Re, respectively) with a minimal NTCP (0.046%) of the healthy ipsilateral breast. Modeling of kidney BED and ipsilateral breast NTCP showed that large injected activity concentrations of both radionuclides could be safely administered without significant complications.

  19. Real-Time Dosimetry for Radiobiology Experiments Using 25 MeV LINAC

    SciTech Connect

    Mestari, Mohammed A.; Naeem, Syed F.; Wells, Douglas P.; Hunt, Alan; DeVeaux, Linda C.

    2009-03-10

    The next generation of radiobiology research requires increasingly more complex radiation sources to address questions ranging from the effects of space-based radiation to the influence of dose rate on biological systems. The Idaho Accelerator Center (IAC) has developed a radiobiology research facility to address some of these questions. The irradiation challenge is to deliver stable and reproducible conditions of high dose rate with well-controlled beam uniformity, dose, and dose rate under controlled temperature. In this work, we used a 25 MeV modified medical grade linear accelerator (LINAC) to obtain a high and adjustable electron dose rate. To overcome electron beam drift we used a collimator that both assisted the LINAC operator to steer the beam and ensured that regardless of beam drift, only the fixed collimated beam would irradiate the specimens. In addition, we utilized a beam flattener to keep the beam variation as low as 3% at 2.5 cm from the beam's center, and 1% variation between the simultaneously irradiated sample tubes. We also demonstrated that a segmented Faraday 'cup'(FC) array provides a useful real-time beam scanning and monitoring system, and is promising for implementing real-time dosimetry and control.

  20. Radiobiologically optimized couch shift: A new localization paradigm using cone-beam CT for prostate radiotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, Yimei Gardner, Stephen J.; Wen, Ning; Zhao, Bo; Gordon, James; Brown, Stephen; Chetty, Indrin J.

    2015-10-15

    Purpose: To present a novel positioning strategy which optimizes radiation delivery by utilizing radiobiological response knowledge and evaluate its use during prostate external beam radiotherapy. Methods: Five patients with low or intermediate risk prostate cancer were evaluated retrospectively in this IRB-approved study. For each patient, a VMAT plan with one 358° arc was generated on the planning CT (PCT) to deliver 78 Gy in 39 fractions. Five representative pretreatment cone beam CTs (CBCT) were selected for each patient. The CBCT images were registered to PCT by a human observer, which consisted of an initial automated registration with three degrees-of-freedom, followed by manual adjustment for agreement at the prostate/rectal wall interface. To determine the optimal treatment position for each CBCT, a search was performed centering on the observer-matched position (OM-position) utilizing a score function based on radiobiological and dosimetric indices (EUD{sub prostate}, D99{sub prostate}, NTCP{sub rectum}, and NTCP{sub bladder}) for the prostate, rectum, and bladder. We termed the optimal treatment position the radiobiologically optimized couch shift position (ROCS-position). Results: The dosimetric indices, averaged over the five patients’ treatment plans, were (mean ± SD) 79.5 ± 0.3 Gy (EUD{sub prostate}), 78.2 ± 0.4 Gy (D99{sub prostate}), 11.1% ± 2.7% (NTCP{sub rectum}), and 46.9% ± 7.6% (NTCP{sub bladder}). The corresponding values from CBCT at the OM-positions were 79.5 ± 0.6 Gy (EUD{sub prostate}), 77.8 ± 0.7 Gy (D99{sub prostate}), 12.1% ± 5.6% (NTCP{sub rectum}), and 51.6% ± 15.2% (NTCP{sub bladder}), respectively. In comparison, from CBCT at the ROCS-positions, the dosimetric indices were 79.5 ± 0.6 Gy (EUD{sub prostate}), 77.3 ± 0.6 Gy (D99{sub prostate}), 8.0% ± 3.3% (NTCP{sub rectum}), and 46.9% ± 15.7% (NTCP{sub bladder}). Excessive NTCP{sub rectum} was observed on Patient 5 (19.5% ± 6.6%) corresponding to localization at OM