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Sample records for national retail food

  1. Prevalence of the main food-borne pathogens in retail food under the national food surveillance system in Japan.

    PubMed

    Hara-Kudo, Y; Konuma, H; Kamata, Y; Miyahara, M; Takatori, K; Onoue, Y; Sugita-Konishi, Y; Ohnishi, T

    2013-01-01

    The National Food Surveillance System in Japan was formed in 1998 to monitor the contamination of retail foods with bacterial pathogens. Approximately 2000-3000 samples were tested annually, and the data from food categories that had more than 400 samples collected during 1998-2008 were analysed. With regard to meat, the frequency of positive samples for Salmonella in chicken for raw consumption and ground chicken was 12.7% and 33.5%, respectively. Moreover, Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) O157 was found in ground meat, organ meat and processed meat, although at a low frequency (0.1%). The prevalence of Campylobacter jejuni/coli was 13.3% and 20.9% in chicken for raw consumption and ground chicken, respectively. In vegetables and fruit, Salmonella was detected in cucumber, lettuce, sprout and tomato samples at a frequency of around 0.1-0.2%. With regard to seafood, Salmonella was found in 0.5% of oysters for raw consumption. Seafood was not contaminated with STEC O157 or Shigella. Serotype Infantis was the most frequently detected serotype of Salmonella in seafood, followed by the serotypes Typhimurium, Schwarzengrund and Manhattan. In ground chicken, 72.2% of the strains were identified as the serotype Infantis. E. coli, as an indicator of food hygiene, was detected in all food categories. The results show the prevalence of the above-mentioned pathogens in the retail food supplied in Japan; further, they indicate that consumption of raw food carries the risk of contracting food-borne infections.

  2. Food retailing and food service.

    PubMed

    Capps, Oral; Park, John L

    2003-07-01

    The food retailing and food service sector is not only an important component of the food marketing channel but is also vital to the United States economy, accounting for more than 7% of the United States gross domestic product in 2001. The business of food retailing and food service is undergoing salient change. The authors argue that the singular force driving this change is the consumer. To understand the linkages in the food marketing channel, this article provides information on the farm-to-retail price spread and the economic forces that influence their magnitude. Examples are given of farm-to-retail price spreads for red meat and dairy industries. In addition, the economics behind the provision of retail services and the growth of the food service industry are discussed. Further, the authors demonstrate that the structure of the food market channel is consumer driven, and present three characteristics of convenience (preparation, delivery, and service) and identify four food distribution channels in terms of convenience (complete convenience, traditional food service, consumer direct, and traditional retail).

  3. Food Retailers and Obesity.

    PubMed

    Stanton, Rosemary A

    2015-03-01

    We live in an 'obesogenic environment' where we are constantly bombarded with choices that encourage us to move less and eat more. Many factors influence our dietary choices, including the expert marketers who advise manufacturers on ways to encourage the population to buy more, especially profitable, palatable 'ultra-processed' foods. Supermarkets themselves have become skilled in manipulating buying behaviour, using their layout and specific product placement as well as advertising to maximise purchases of particular foods. Increasingly, supermarkets push their own 'house' brands. Those marketing fast foods also use persuasive tactics to attract customers, especially children who they entice with non-food items such as promotional or collectable toys. There is no mystery to the increase in obesity: our energy intake from foods and drinks has increased over the same period that energy output has decreased. Obesity has a range of relevant factors, but there is little doubt that marketing from supermarkets and fast food retailers has played a role.

  4. Obesogenic Retail Food Environments Around New Zealand Schools: A National Study.

    PubMed

    Vandevijvere, Stefanie; Sushil, Zaynel; Exeter, Daniel J; Swinburn, Boyd

    2016-09-01

    This is the first nationwide spatial analysis of retail food environments around more and less socioeconomically deprived schools in New Zealand. Addresses from all food outlets were retrieved from 66 City and District Councils in 2014. All fast food, takeaway, and convenience outlets (FFTCs) were geocoded and (spatially) validated in 2015. Density and proximity of FFTCs around/from all schools were stratified by urban/rural area and quintile of school socioeconomic deprivation. About 68.5% urban and 14.0% rural schools had a convenience store within 800 m; 62.0% urban and 9.5% rural schools had a fast food or takeaway outlet within 800 m. Median road distance to the closest convenience store from urban schools was significantly higher for the least (617 m) versus the most deprived (521 m) schools (p<0.001); the opposite was found for rural schools. Median FFTC density was 2.4 (0.8-4.8) per km(2) and maximum density was 85 per km(2) within 800 m of urban schools. Median density of convenience stores around the least deprived urban schools was significantly lower than around the most deprived schools (p<0.01). Access to unhealthy foods through FFTCs within walking distance from urban schools is substantial in New Zealand, and greater for the most versus the least deprived schools. Health promoters should work with retailers to explore feasible actions to reduce children's exposure to unhealthy foods before and after school, and provisions to allow Councils to restrict new FFTCs in school neighborhoods could be included in the Local Government Act. Copyright © 2016 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Retail food commodity intakes: Mean amounts of retail commodities per individual, 1994-1998

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The table set includes national estimates of the amounts of retail-level commodities per person estimated from day 1 dietary intake data of 19,017 individuals, ages 2 years and over, in the Continuing Survey of Food Intakes by Individuals 1994-1998 and Food Intakes Converted to Retail Commodities Da...

  6. Validity of Secondary Retail Food Outlet Data

    PubMed Central

    Fleischhacker, Sheila E.; Evenson, Kelly R.; Sharkey, Joseph; Pitts, Stephanie B.J.; Rodriguez, Daniel A.

    2013-01-01

    Context Improving access to healthy foods is a promising strategy to prevent nutrition-related chronic diseases. To characterize retail food environments and identify areas with limited retail access, researchers, government programs, and community advocates have primarily used secondary retail food outlet data sources (e.g., InfoUSA or government food registries). To advance the state of the science on measuring retail food environments, this systematic review examined the evidence for validity reported for secondary retail food outlet data sources for characterizing retail food environments. Evidence acquisition A literature search was conducted through December 31, 2012 to identify peer-reviewed published literature that compared secondary retail food outlet data sources to primary data sources (i.e., field observations) for accuracy of identifying the type and location of retail food outlets. Data were analyzed in 2013. Evidence synthesis Nineteen studies met the inclusion criteria. The evidence for validity reported varied by secondary data sources examined, primary data–gathering approaches, retail food outlets examined, and geographic and sociodemographic characteristics. More than half of the studies (53%) did not report evidence for validity by type of food outlet examined and by a particular secondary data source. Conclusions Researchers should strive to gather primary data but if relying on secondary data sources, InfoUSA and government food registries had higher levels of agreement than reported by other secondary data sources and may provide sufficient accuracy for exploring these associations in large study areas. PMID:24050423

  7. 7 CFR 278.2 - Participation of retail food stores.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Participation of retail food stores. 278.2 Section 278..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FOOD STAMP AND FOOD DISTRIBUTION PROGRAM PARTICIPATION OF RETAIL FOOD STORES, WHOLESALE FOOD CONCERNS AND INSURED FINANCIAL INSTITUTIONS § 278.2 Participation of retail food stores. (a...

  8. 7 CFR 278.2 - Participation of retail food stores.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Participation of retail food stores. 278.2 Section 278..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FOOD STAMP AND FOOD DISTRIBUTION PROGRAM PARTICIPATION OF RETAIL FOOD STORES, WHOLESALE FOOD CONCERNS AND INSURED FINANCIAL INSTITUTIONS § 278.2 Participation of retail food stores. (a...

  9. 7 CFR 278.2 - Participation of retail food stores.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Participation of retail food stores. 278.2 Section 278..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FOOD STAMP AND FOOD DISTRIBUTION PROGRAM PARTICIPATION OF RETAIL FOOD STORES, WHOLESALE FOOD CONCERNS AND INSURED FINANCIAL INSTITUTIONS § 278.2 Participation of retail food stores. (a...

  10. 78 FR 12360 - PNC Bank, National Association, Retail Bank Franklin, PA; PNC Bank, National Association, Retail...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-22

    ... Employment and Training Administration PNC Bank, National Association, Retail Bank Franklin, PA; PNC Bank, National Association, Retail Bank West Chester, IL; Notice of Negative Determination Regarding Application... Assistance (TAA) applicable to workers and former workers of PNC Bank, National Association, Retail Bank...

  11. Retail Food Refrigeration and the Phaseout of HCFC-22

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Provides information on the HCFC phaseout that is relevant to food retailers, including alternatives to the use of HCFC-22 in retail food refrigeration, other refrigerant regulations, and resources for more information.

  12. Identifying retail food stores to evaluate the food environment.

    PubMed

    Hosler, Akiko S; Dharssi, Aliza

    2010-07-01

    The availability of food stores is the most frequently used measure of the food environment, but identifying them poses a technical challenge. This study evaluated eight administrative lists of retailers for identifying food stores in an urban community. Lists of inspected food stores (IFS), cigarette retailers, liquor licenses, lottery retailers, gasoline retailers, farmers' markets, and authorized WIC (Program for Women, Infants, and Children) and Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) retailers for Albany NY were obtained from government agencies. Sensitivity and positive predictive value (PPV) were assessed, using ground-truthing as the validation measure. Stores were also grouped by the number of lists they were documented on, and the proportion of food stores in each group was obtained. Data were collected and analyzed in 2009. A total of 166 stores, including four from ground-truthing, were identified. Forty-three stores were disqualified, as a result of having no targeted foods (n=17); being in the access-restricted area of a building (n=15); and being out of business (n=11). Sensitivity was highest in IFS (87.0%), followed by the cigarette retailers' list (76.4%). PPV was highest in WIC and farmers' markets lists (100%), followed by SNAP (97.8%). None of the lists had both sensitivity and PPV greater than 90%. All stores that were listed by four or more lists were food stores. The proportion of food stores was lowest (33.3%) for stores listed by only one list. Individual lists had limited utility for identifying food stores, but when they were combined, the likelihood of a retail store being a food store could be predicted by the number of lists the store was documented on. This information can be used to increase the efficiency of ground-truthing. Copyright 2010 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Food Intakes Converted to Retail Commodities Databases 2003-08: Methodology and User Guide

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The purpose for developing the Food Intakes Converted to Retail Commodities Databases (FICRCD) 2003-08 is to convert foods consumed in What We Eat In America, National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (WWEIA, NHANES) 2003-2004, 2005-2006, and 2007-2008 to respective amounts of retail-level fo...

  14. Food Retailers Help Teach Food Buying

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bornmann, Priscilla G.

    1973-01-01

    Kroger Food Stores conducted five training sessions for Expanded Food and Nutrition Education Program (EFNEP) aides. The series translated basic marketing principles, as they affect food prices, into axioms for thrifty food buying. (BL)

  15. Food Retailers Help Teach Food Buying

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bornmann, Priscilla G.

    1973-01-01

    Kroger Food Stores conducted five training sessions for Expanded Food and Nutrition Education Program (EFNEP) aides. The series translated basic marketing principles, as they affect food prices, into axioms for thrifty food buying. (BL)

  16. 7 CFR 278.2 - Participation of retail food stores.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Participation of retail food stores. 278.2 Section 278.2 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FOOD STAMP AND FOOD DISTRIBUTION PROGRAM PARTICIPATION OF RETAIL FOOD STORES...

  17. 7 CFR 278.2 - Participation of retail food stores.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Participation of retail food stores. 278.2 Section 278.2 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FOOD STAMP AND FOOD DISTRIBUTION PROGRAM PARTICIPATION OF RETAIL FOOD STORES...

  18. National Beef Tenderness Survey-2010: Warner-Bratzler shear force values and sensory panel ratings for beef steaks from United States retail and food service establishments.

    PubMed

    Guelker, M R; Haneklaus, A N; Brooks, J C; Carr, C C; Delmore, R J; Griffin, D B; Hale, D S; Harris, K B; Mafi, G G; Johnson, D D; Lorenzen, C L; Maddock, R J; Martin, J N; Miller, R K; Raines, C R; VanOverbeke, D L; Vedral, L L; Wasser, B E; Savell, J W

    2013-02-01

    The tenderness and palatability of retail and food service beef steaks from across the United States (12 cities for retail, 5 cities for food service) were evaluated using Warner-Bratzler shear (WBS) and consumer sensory panels. Subprimal postfabrication storage or aging times at retail establishments averaged 20.5 d with a range of 1 to 358 d, whereas postfabrication times at the food service level revealed an average time of 28.1 d with a range of 9 to 67 d. Approximately 64% of retail steaks were labeled with a packer/processor or store brand. For retail, top blade had among the lowest (P < 0.05) WBS values, whereas steaks from the round had the greatest (P < 0.05) values. There were no differences (P > 0.05) in WBS values between moist-heat and dry-heat cookery methods for the top round and bottom round steaks or between enhanced (contained salt or phosphate solution) or nonenhanced steaks. Food service top loin and rib eye steaks had the lowest (P < 0.05) WBS values compared with top sirloin steaks. Retail top blade steaks and food service top loin steaks received among the greatest (P < 0.05) consumer sensory panel ratings compared with the other steaks evaluated. Prime food service rib eye steaks received the greatest ratings (P < 0.05) for overall like, like tenderness, tenderness level, like juiciness, and juiciness level, whereas ungraded rib eye steaks received the lowest ratings (P < 0.05) for like tenderness and tenderness level. The WBS values for food service steaks were greater (P < 0.05) for the Select and ungraded groups compared with the Prime, Top Choice, and Low Choice groups. The WBS values and sensory ratings were comparable to the last survey, signifying that no recent or substantive changes in tenderness have occurred.

  19. Methodology and User Guide for the Food Intakes Converted to Retail Commodities Databases: CSFII 1994-1996 and 1998; NHANES 1999-2000; WWEIA, NHANES 2001-2002

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The purpose for developing the Food Intakes Converted to Retail Commodities Database (FICRCD) is to convert foods consumed in the national dietary surveys, 1994-2002, to respective amounts of retail-level food commodities. Food commodities are defined as those available for purchase in retail store...

  20. Validity of secondary retail food outlet data: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Fleischhacker, Sheila E; Evenson, Kelly R; Sharkey, Joseph; Pitts, Stephanie B Jilcott; Rodriguez, Daniel A

    2013-10-01

    Improving access to healthy foods is a promising strategy to prevent nutrition-related chronic diseases. To characterize retail food environments and identify areas with limited retail access, researchers, government programs, and community advocates have primarily used secondary retail food outlet data sources (e.g., InfoUSA or government food registries). To advance the state of the science on measuring retail food environments, this systematic review examined the evidence for validity reported for secondary retail food outlet data sources for characterizing retail food environments. A literature search was conducted through December 31, 2012, to identify peer-reviewed published literature that compared secondary retail food outlet data sources to primary data sources (i.e., field observations) for accuracy of identifying the type and location of retail food outlets. Data were analyzed in 2013. Nineteen studies met the inclusion criteria. The evidence for validity reported varied by secondary data sources examined, primary data-gathering approaches, retail food outlets examined, and geographic and sociodemographic characteristics. More than half of the studies (53%) did not report evidence for validity by type of food outlet examined and by a particular secondary data source. Researchers should strive to gather primary data but if relying on secondary data sources, InfoUSA and government food registries had higher levels of agreement than reported by other secondary data sources and may provide sufficient accuracy for exploring these associations in large study areas. Published by Elsevier Inc. on behalf of American Journal of Preventive Medicine.

  1. Trust: The Missing Dimension in the Food Retail Transition in Thailand

    PubMed Central

    Banwell, C.; Kelly, M.; Dixon, J.; Seubsman, S-A.; Sleigh, A.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Thailand has experienced dramatic growth of large national and international modern food retailers, such as supermarkets, hypermarkets and convenience stores in large cities and regional centres in the last two decades. Nevertheless, Thai consumers continue to purchase perishables (fruits, vegetables and animal products) from fresh markets (wet markets, talat sot) contradicting predictions from analysts that modern food retail chains will rapidly replace fresh markets as the preferred venue for purchasing all types of foods. This paper examines trust in food retail systems as an under-explored dimension lying behind the continued patronage by Thais of fresh markets to purchase perishable items. It derives from a research program commenced in 2005 that includes fieldwork visits, interviews and questionnaires. In the context of the Thai food retail transition, we propose that trust affects relationships between consumers and (1) individual fresh market-based vendors, (2) the food products sold at fresh markets and (3) the food retail system more broadly. If fresh markets can be maintained in the face of sustained pressure from modern national and international food retailers, Thais will continue to use them. Meanwhile, trust is a relatively unrecognised dimension that is supporting the continued existence of traditional food retail formats. PMID:27499561

  2. Trust: The Missing Dimension in the Food Retail Transition in Thailand.

    PubMed

    Banwell, C; Kelly, M; Dixon, J; Seubsman, S-A; Sleigh, A

    2016-04-02

    Thailand has experienced dramatic growth of large national and international modern food retailers, such as supermarkets, hypermarkets and convenience stores in large cities and regional centres in the last two decades. Nevertheless, Thai consumers continue to purchase perishables (fruits, vegetables and animal products) from fresh markets (wet markets, talat sot) contradicting predictions from analysts that modern food retail chains will rapidly replace fresh markets as the preferred venue for purchasing all types of foods. This paper examines trust in food retail systems as an under-explored dimension lying behind the continued patronage by Thais of fresh markets to purchase perishable items. It derives from a research program commenced in 2005 that includes fieldwork visits, interviews and questionnaires. In the context of the Thai food retail transition, we propose that trust affects relationships between consumers and (1) individual fresh market-based vendors, (2) the food products sold at fresh markets and (3) the food retail system more broadly. If fresh markets can be maintained in the face of sustained pressure from modern national and international food retailers, Thais will continue to use them. Meanwhile, trust is a relatively unrecognised dimension that is supporting the continued existence of traditional food retail formats.

  3. Short Summary European Reports on Retail Sector, Motor Vehicle Repair and Sales Sector, Food and Beverages Sector.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    European Centre for the Development of Vocational Training, Berlin (Germany).

    This document is composed of European synthesis reports on retail trade, the agro-food sector, and the motor vehicle sales and repair sector. They are based on the most important findings of the European report and the 12 national reports for each sector. Section 1, "Retail Sector," deals in part 1 with the structure of retailing in the…

  4. 77 FR 54924 - Temporary Concession Contract for the Operation of Lodging, Food and Beverage and Retail Services...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-06

    ... Retail Services in Canyon de Chelly National Mounument AGENCY: National Park Service, Interior. ACTION... a term not to exceed 3 years. The visitor services include lodging, food and beverage and...

  5. Retail food environments research in Canada: A scoping review.

    PubMed

    Minaker, Leia M; Shuh, Alanna; Olstad, Dana L; Engler-Stringer, Rachel; Black, Jennifer L; Mah, Catherine L

    2016-06-09

    The field of retail food environments research is relatively new in Canada. The objective of this scoping review is to provide an overview of retail food environments research conducted before July 2015 in Canada. Specifically, this review describes research foci and key findings, identifies knowledge gaps and suggests future directions for research. A search of published literature concerning Canadian investigations of retail food environment settings (food stores, restaurants) was conducted in July 2015 using PubMed, Web of Science, Scopus, PsychInfo and ERIC. Studies published in English that reported qualitative or quantitative data on any aspect of the retail food environment were included, as were conceptual papers and commentaries. Eighty-eight studies were included in this review and suggest that the field of retail food environments research is rapidly expanding in Canada. While only 1 paper was published before 2005, 66 papers were published between 2010 and 2015. Canadian food environments research typically assessed either the socio-economic patterning of food environments (n = 28) or associations between retail food environments and diet, anthropometric or health outcomes (n = 33). Other papers profiled methodological research, qualitative studies, intervention research and critical commentaries (n = 27). Key gaps in the current literature include measurement inconsistency among studies and a lack of longitudinal and intervention studies. Retail food environments are a growing topic of research, policy and program development in Canada. Consistent methods (where appropriate), longitudinal and intervention research, and close partnerships between researchers and key stakeholders would greatly advance the field of retail food environments research in Canada.

  6. 7 CFR 278.9 - Implementation of amendments relating to the participation of retail food stores, wholesale food...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... participation of retail food stores, wholesale food concerns and insured financial institutions. 278.9 Section..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FOOD STAMP AND FOOD DISTRIBUTION PROGRAM PARTICIPATION OF RETAIL FOOD STORES... the participation of retail food stores, wholesale food concerns and insured financial institutions...

  7. 7 CFR 278.9 - Implementation of amendments relating to the participation of retail food stores, wholesale food...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... participation of retail food stores, wholesale food concerns and insured financial institutions. 278.9 Section..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FOOD STAMP AND FOOD DISTRIBUTION PROGRAM PARTICIPATION OF RETAIL FOOD STORES... the participation of retail food stores, wholesale food concerns and insured financial institutions...

  8. 7 CFR 278.9 - Implementation of amendments relating to the participation of retail food stores, wholesale food...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... participation of retail food stores, wholesale food concerns and insured financial institutions. 278.9 Section..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FOOD STAMP AND FOOD DISTRIBUTION PROGRAM PARTICIPATION OF RETAIL FOOD STORES... the participation of retail food stores, wholesale food concerns and insured financial institutions...

  9. 7 CFR 278.9 - Implementation of amendments relating to the participation of retail food stores, wholesale food...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... participation of retail food stores, wholesale food concerns and insured financial institutions. 278.9 Section..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FOOD STAMP AND FOOD DISTRIBUTION PROGRAM PARTICIPATION OF RETAIL FOOD STORES... the participation of retail food stores, wholesale food concerns and insured financial institutions...

  10. 7 CFR 278.9 - Implementation of amendments relating to the participation of retail food stores, wholesale food...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... participation of retail food stores, wholesale food concerns and insured financial institutions. 278.9 Section..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FOOD STAMP AND FOOD DISTRIBUTION PROGRAM PARTICIPATION OF RETAIL FOOD STORES... the participation of retail food stores, wholesale food concerns and insured financial institutions...

  11. Short-Term Temporal Stability in Observed Retail Food Characteristics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zenk, Shannon N.; Grigsby-Toussaint, Diana S.; Curry, Susan J.; Berbaum, Michael; Schneider, Linda

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Use of direct observation to characterize neighborhood retail food environments is increasing, but to date most studies have relied on a single observation. If food availability, prices, and quality vary over short time periods, repeated measures may be needed to portray these food characteristics. This study evaluated short-term…

  12. Short-Term Temporal Stability in Observed Retail Food Characteristics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zenk, Shannon N.; Grigsby-Toussaint, Diana S.; Curry, Susan J.; Berbaum, Michael; Schneider, Linda

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Use of direct observation to characterize neighborhood retail food environments is increasing, but to date most studies have relied on a single observation. If food availability, prices, and quality vary over short time periods, repeated measures may be needed to portray these food characteristics. This study evaluated short-term…

  13. Can A Food Retailer-Based Healthier Foods Initiative Improve The Nutrient Profile Of US Packaged Food Purchases? A Case Study Of Walmart, 2000-2013

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Lindsey; Ng, Shu Wen; Popkin, Barry M.

    2015-01-01

    Healthier foods initiatives (HFIs) by national food retailers offer an opportunity to improve the nutritional profile of packaged food purchases (PFPS). Using a longitudinal dataset of US household PFPs, with methods to account for selectivity of shopping at a specific retailer, we modeled the effect of Walmart’s HFI using counterfactual simulations to examine observed vs. expected changes in the nutritional profile of Walmart PFPs. From 2000 to 2013, Walmart PFPs showed major declines in energy, sodium, and sugar density, as well as declines in sugary beverages, grain-based desserts, snacks, and candy, beyond trends at similar retailers. However, post-HFI declines were similar to what we expected based on pre-HFI trends, suggesting that these changes were not attributable to Walmart’s HFI. These results suggest that food retailer-based HFIs may not be sufficient to improve the nutritional profile of food purchases. PMID:26526244

  14. 78 FR 52899 - Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) Enhancing Retail Food Store Eligibility...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-27

    ... Food and Nutrition Service Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) Enhancing Retail Food Store Eligibility--Listening Sessions AGENCY: Food and Nutrition Service (FNS), USDA. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This... regarding Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) retailer eligibility requirements (78 FR 51136...

  15. National Apprenticeship Standards for the Retail Meatcutting Industry. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Employment and Training Administration (DOL), Washington, DC. Bureau of Apprenticeship and Training.

    These national standards are intended to serve as a guide for the establishment of thorough and complete apprenticeship programs to produce trained retail meatcutters to carry on the tradition of quality in the retail meatcutting industry. Covered in the individual sections are the following topics: definitions, the National Joint Apprenticeship…

  16. Consumer Perceptions of the Safety of Ready-to-Eat Foods in Retail Food Store Settings.

    PubMed

    Levine, Katrina; Yavelak, Mary; Luchansky, John B; Porto-Fett, Anna C S; Chapman, Benjamin

    2017-08-01

    To better understand how consumers perceive food safety risks in retail food store settings, a survey was administered to 1,041 nationally representative participants who evaluated possible food safety risks depicted in selected photographs and self-reported their perceptions, attitudes, and behaviors. Participants were shown 12 photographs taken at retail stores portraying either commonly perceived or actual food safety contributing factors, such as cross-contamination, product and equipment temperatures, worker hygiene, and/or store sanitation practices. Participants were then asked to specifically identify what they saw, comment as to whether what they saw was safe or unsafe, and articulate what actions they would take in response to these situations. In addition to the survey, focus groups were employed to supplement survey findings with qualitative data. Survey respondents identified risk factors for six of nine actual contributing factor photographs >50% of the time: poor produce storage sanitation (86%, n = 899), cross-contamination during meat slicing (72%, n = 750), bare-hand contact of ready-to-eat food in the deli area (67%, n = 698), separation of raw and ready-to-eat food in the seafood case (63%, n = 660), cross-contamination from serving utensils in the deli case (62%, n = 644), and incorrect product storage temperature (51%, n = 528). On a scale of 1 to 5, where 1 was very unsafe and 5 was very safe, a significant difference was found between average risk perception scores for photographs of actual contributing factors (score of ca. 2.5) and scores for photographs of perceived contributing factors (score of ca. 2.0). Themes from the focus groups supported the results of the survey and provided additional insight into consumer food safety risk perceptions. The results of this study inform communication interventions for consumers and retail food safety professionals aimed at improving hazard identification.

  17. Retail Food Availability, Obesity, and Cigarette Smoking in Rural Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hosler, Akiko S.

    2009-01-01

    Context: Disparities in the availability of nutritionally important foods and their influence on health have been studied in US urban communities. Purpose: To assess the availability of selected retail foods and cigarettes, and explore ecologic relationships of the availability with obesity and smoking in rural communities. Methods: Inventories of…

  18. Retail Food Availability, Obesity, and Cigarette Smoking in Rural Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hosler, Akiko S.

    2009-01-01

    Context: Disparities in the availability of nutritionally important foods and their influence on health have been studied in US urban communities. Purpose: To assess the availability of selected retail foods and cigarettes, and explore ecologic relationships of the availability with obesity and smoking in rural communities. Methods: Inventories of…

  19. Short-term temporal stability in observed retail food characteristics.

    PubMed

    Zenk, Shannon N; Grigsby-Toussaint, Diana S; Curry, Susan J; Berbaum, Michael; Schneider, Linda

    2010-01-01

    Use of direct observation to characterize neighborhood retail food environments is increasing, but to date most studies have relied on a single observation. If food availability, prices, and quality vary over short time periods, repeated measures may be needed to portray these food characteristics. This study evaluated short-term (2-week), within-season temporal stability in retail food availability, prices, and quality. In-person observations of retail food stores at 2 time points, 2 weeks apart. Southwest Chicago, IL. 157 food stores. Availability and prices of food items selected from the following food groups: fruit, vegetables, grains, meats and beans, and dairy, as well as fresh produce quality. Temporal stability was tested for availability using a McNemar test and for price and quality using a Wilcoxon signed-rank test. Measures of food availability and prices as well as fresh produce quality at stores were generally stable at the 2 time points. This study suggests that a single observation may be sufficient to accurately characterize within-season food availability, food prices, and fresh produce quality.

  20. Food Costs...From Farm to Retail.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunham, Denis

    This report focuses on food costs for 1985. Some of the information included in the report includes an analysis of food cost trends, percentages of the food dollar that goes to the farmer, and how much of the food dollar goes to food processors and marketers. Some of the highlights of the study are the following: (1) food prices rose slowly in…

  1. 7 CFR 278.1 - Approval of retail food stores and wholesale food concerns.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Approval of retail food stores and wholesale food concerns. 278.1 Section 278.1 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FOOD STAMP AND FOOD DISTRIBUTION PROGRAM PARTICIPATION OF...

  2. Reestablishing healthy food retail: changing the landscape of food deserts.

    PubMed

    Karpyn, Allison; Young, Candace; Weiss, Stephanie

    2012-02-01

    The term "food desert" was formally introduced into the lexicon in 1995 and has come to describe areas with limited access to affordable nutritious foods, particularly areas in lower-income neighborhoods. The definition has led to the development of national and regional maps that focus efforts on equity in food access. Recognition of food deserts also marks a strategic change in public health's approach to obesity prevention. Today's emphasis on prevention has shifted away from individual responsibility to the role of the environment in health promotion. A number of solutions are underway to address food deserts, including public–private financing programs, industry commitments, as well as local and regional efforts to put healthy food within reach. The promise of financing programs to facilitate development of healthy food markets in underserved communities is rooted in their potential to alleviate the grocery gap and address underlying environmental contributors to obesity and diet-related diseases, such as obesity and diabetes. As food desert mapping and related interventions expand, there remains a need for ongoing investigation of impacts and the mechanisms by which impacts are achieved.

  3. Understanding the Sustainability of Retail Food Recovery

    PubMed Central

    Phillips, Caleb; Hoenigman, Rhonda; Higbee, Becky; Reed, Tom

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we study the simultaneous problems of food waste and hunger in the context of food (waste) rescue and redistribution as a means for mitigating hunger. To this end, we develop an empirical model that can be used in Monte Carlo simulations to study the dynamics of the underlying problem. Our model's parameters are derived from a data set provided by a large food bank and food rescue organization in north central Colorado. We find that food supply is a non-parametric heavy-tailed process that is well modeled with an extreme value peaks over threshold model. Although the underlying process is stochastic, the basic approach of food rescue and redistribution to meet hunger demand appears to be feasible. The ultimate sustainability of this model is intimately tied to the rate at which food expires and hence the ability to preserve and quickly transport and redistribute food. The cost of the redistribution is related to the number and density of participating suppliers. The results show that costs can be reduced (and supply increased) simply by recruiting additional donors to participate. With sufficient funding and manpower, a significant amount of food can be rescued from the waste stream and used to feed the hungry. PMID:24130716

  4. Understanding the sustainability of retail food recovery.

    PubMed

    Phillips, Caleb; Hoenigman, Rhonda; Higbee, Becky; Reed, Tom

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we study the simultaneous problems of food waste and hunger in the context of food (waste) rescue and redistribution as a means for mitigating hunger. To this end, we develop an empirical model that can be used in Monte Carlo simulations to study the dynamics of the underlying problem. Our model's parameters are derived from a data set provided by a large food bank and food rescue organization in north central Colorado. We find that food supply is a non-parametric heavy-tailed process that is well modeled with an extreme value peaks over threshold model. Although the underlying process is stochastic, the basic approach of food rescue and redistribution to meet hunger demand appears to be feasible. The ultimate sustainability of this model is intimately tied to the rate at which food expires and hence the ability to preserve and quickly transport and redistribute food. The cost of the redistribution is related to the number and density of participating suppliers. The results show that costs can be reduced (and supply increased) simply by recruiting additional donors to participate. With sufficient funding and manpower, a significant amount of food can be rescued from the waste stream and used to feed the hungry.

  5. A Retailer's Experience with Irradiated Foods

    SciTech Connect

    James P. Corrigan

    2000-11-12

    A food irradiation success story comes from Northbrook, Illinois, where Carrot Top, Inc., has been routinely carrying irradiated food for more than 7 yr. This paper presents the experiences of Carrot Top during those years, details the marketing approaches used, and summarizes the resulting sales figures.

  6. Traditional, modern or mixed? Perspectives on social, economic, and health impacts of evolving food retail in Thailand.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Matthew; Seubsman, Sam-Ang; Banwell, Cathy; Dixon, Jane; Sleigh, Adrian

    Transnational food retailers expanded to middle-income countries over recent decades responding to supply (liberalized foreign investment) and demand (rising incomes, urbanization, female workforce participation, and time poverty). Control in new markets diffuses along three axes: socio-economic (rich to poor), geographic (urban to rural), and product category (processed foods to fresh foods). We used a mixed method approach to study the progression of modern retail in Thailand on these three axes and consumer preferences for food retailing. In Thailand modern retail controls half the food sales but traditional fresh markets remain important. Quantitative questionnaires administered to members of a large national cohort study revealed around half of respondents were primarily traditional shoppers and half either utilized modern and traditional formats equally or primarily shopped at supermarkets. Fresh foods were mainly purchased at traditional retail formats and dry packaged foods at supermarkets. Qualitative interviews found price and quality of produce and availability of culturally important products to be significant reasons for continued support of fresh markets. Our results show socio-economic and geographic diffusion is already advanced with most respondents having access to and utilizing modern retail. Control of the fresh food sector by transnationals faces barriers in Thailand and may remain elusive. The short to mid-term outcome may be a bifurcated food system with modern and traditional retail each retaining market share, but fresh markets longer term survival may require government assistance as supermarkets become more established. Fresh markets supply affordable, healthy foods, and livelihoods for poorer Thais and are repositories of Thai food culture and social networks. If they survive they will confer cultural, social, economic, and health benefits.

  7. Reliability of a Retail Food Store Survey and Development of an Accompanying Retail Scoring System to Communicate Survey Findings and Identify Vendors for Healthful Food and Marketing Initiatives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ghirardelli, Alyssa; Quinn, Valerie; Sugerman, Sharon

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To develop a retail grocery instrument with weighted scoring to be used as an indicator of the food environment. Participants/Setting: Twenty six retail food stores in low-income areas in California. Intervention: Observational. Main Outcome Measure(s): Inter-rater reliability for grocery store survey instrument. Description of store…

  8. Reliability of a Retail Food Store Survey and Development of an Accompanying Retail Scoring System to Communicate Survey Findings and Identify Vendors for Healthful Food and Marketing Initiatives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ghirardelli, Alyssa; Quinn, Valerie; Sugerman, Sharon

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To develop a retail grocery instrument with weighted scoring to be used as an indicator of the food environment. Participants/Setting: Twenty six retail food stores in low-income areas in California. Intervention: Observational. Main Outcome Measure(s): Inter-rater reliability for grocery store survey instrument. Description of store…

  9. Retail food environments in Canada: Maximizing the impact of research, policy and practice.

    PubMed

    Minaker, Leia M

    2016-06-09

    Retail food environments are gaining national and international attention as important determinants of population dietary intake. Communities across Canada are beginning to discuss and implement programs and policies to create supportive retail food environments. Three considerations should drive the selection of food environment assessment methods: relevance (What is the problem, and how is it related to dietary outcomes?); resources (What human, time and financial resources are required to undertake an assessment?); and response (How will policy-makers find meaning out of and act on the information gained through the food environment assessment?). Ultimately, food environment assessments should be conducted in the context of stakeholder buy-in and multi-sectoral partnerships, since food environment solutions require multi-sectoral action. Partnerships between public health actors and the food and beverage industry can be challenging, especially when mandates are not aligned. Clarifying the motivations, expectations and roles of all stakeholders takes time but is important if the impact of food environment research, policy and practice is to be maximized. The articles contained in this special supplementary issue describe ongoing food environments research across Canada and fill some of the important gaps in the current body of Canadian food environments literature.

  10. Association of food environment and food retailers with obesity in US adults.

    PubMed

    Yan, Renfei; Bastian, Nathaniel D; Griffin, Paul M

    2015-05-01

    The food environment has been shown to be a factor affecting the obesity rate. We studied the association of density of food retailer type with obesity rate in U.S. adults in local regions controlling for socioeconomic factors. Parametric nonlinear regression was used on publically available data (year=2009) at the county level. We used the results of this association to estimate the impact of the addition of a new food retailer type in a geographic region. Obesity rate increased in supercenters (0.25-0.28%) and convenience stores (0.05%) and decreased in grocery stores (0.08%) and specialized food stores (0.27-0.36%). The marginal measures estimated in this work could be useful in identifying regions where interventions based on food retailer type would be most effective.

  11. National Retail Data Monitor for public health surveillance.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Michael M; Tsui, F C; Espino, J; Hogan, W; Hutman, J; Hersh, J; Neill, D; Moore, A; Parks, G; Lewis, C; Aller, R

    2004-09-24

    The National Retail Data Monitor (NRDM) is a public health surveillance tool that collects and analyzes daily sales data for over-the-counter (OTC) health-care products. NRDM collects sales data for selected OTC health-care products in near real time from >15,000 retail stores and makes them available to public health officials. NRDM is one of the first examples of a national data utility for public health surveillance that collects, redistributes, and analyzes daily sales-volume data of selected health-care products, thereby reducing the effort for both data providers and health departments.

  12. Nutrition transition, food retailing and health equity in Thailand

    PubMed Central

    Kelly, Matthew; Banwell, Cathy; Dixon, Jane; Seubsman, Sam-ang; Yiengprugsawan, Vasoontara; Sleigh, Adrian

    2012-01-01

    Aim Here we examine the influence of changes in food retailing, the food supply and the associated nutrition transition on health equity in Thailand, a middle income country experiencing rapid economic development. Methods The dietary transition underway in Thailand is reviewed along with theories regarding convergence to a globalised energy dense obesogenic diet and subsequent socio-economically related dietary divergence along with the implications for health inequity. Results Thailand is part way through a dietary, nutrition and health transition. The food distribution and retailing system is now 50% controlled by modern supermarkets and convenience stores. The problem of increasing availability of calorie dense foods is especially threatening because a substantial proportion of the adult population is short statured due to child malnutrition. Obesity is an emerging problem and for educated Thai women has already developed an inverse relationship to socio-economic status as found in high income countries. Conclusions Thailand has reached an important point in its nutrition transition. The challenge for the Thai government and population is to boost affordable healthy diets and to avoid the socio-economic inequity of nutritional outcomes observed in many rich countries. PMID:22442643

  13. 75 FR 43182 - Voluntary Registration by Authorized Officials of Non-Covered Retail Food Establishments and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-23

    ...-Covered Retail Food Establishments and Vending Machine Operators Electing To Be Subject to the Menu and Vending Machine Labeling Requirements Established by the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act of... (hereinafter ``chain retail food establishments''), and for certain foods sold in vending machines operated by...

  14. 76 FR 30050 - Food Labeling; Nutrition Labeling of Standard Menu Items in Restaurants and Similar Retail Food...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-24

    ...; Nutrition Labeling of Standard Menu Items in Restaurants and Similar Retail Food Establishments; Correction... 2010 (Affordable Care Act), FDA proposed requirements for providing certain nutrition information for...

  15. Antimicrobial Resistance in Non-Typhoidal Salmonella from Humans, Retail Meats and Food Animals: 2002-2007

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Background. The National Antimicrobial Resistance Monitor System (NARMS) tracks antimicrobial susceptibility in enteric bacteria from humans, retail meats and food animals. We analyzed changes in ceftiofur resistance (TioR), nalidixic acid resistance (NalR) and multidrug resistance (MDR-AmpC, define...

  16. Decomposing Racial Disparities in Obesity Prevalence: Variations in Retail Food Environment.

    PubMed

    Singleton, Chelsea R; Affuso, Olivia; Sen, Bisakha

    2016-03-01

    Racial disparities in obesity exist at the individual and community levels. Retail food environment has been hypothesized to be associated with racial disparities in obesity prevalence. This study aimed to quantify how much food environment measures explain racial disparities in obesity at the county level. Data from 2009 to 2010 on 3,135 U.S. counties were extracted from the U.S. Department of Agriculture Food Environment Atlas and the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System and analyzed in 2013. Oaxaca-Blinder decomposition was used to quantify the portion of the gap in adult obesity prevalence observed between counties with a high and low proportion of African-American residents is explained by food environment measures (e.g., proximity to grocery stores, per capita fast-food restaurants). Counties were considered to have a high African-American population if the percentage of African-American residents was >13.1%, which represents the 2010 U.S. Census national estimate of percentage African-American citizens. There were 665 counties (21%) classified as a high African-American county. The total gap in mean adult obesity prevalence between high and low African-American counties was found to be 3.35 percentage points (32.98% vs 29.63%). Retail food environment measures explained 13.81% of the gap in mean age-adjusted adult obesity prevalence. Retail food environment explains a proportion of the gap in adult obesity prevalence observed between counties with a high proportion of African-American residents and counties with a low proportion of African-American residents. Copyright © 2016 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. 76 FR 51308 - Retail Food Store Advertising and Marketing Practices Rule

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-18

    ... CFR Part 424 Retail Food Store Advertising and Marketing Practices Rule AGENCY: Federal Trade... impact of the FTC's rule for ``Retail Food Store Advertising and Marketing Practices'' (``Unavailability... Store Advertising and Marketing Practices: Statement of Basis and Purpose: The Rule, 36 FR 8777 (May 13...

  18. Relationships between Food Manufacturers and Retailers and Possible Implications for Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Richard; Kruse, Wilfried

    A pilot study examined the relationship between the retail sector and food and beverages industries and their implications for training. A range of case studies were undertaken in food manufacturing and retailing enterprises in the United Kingdom (UK) and Germany. The UK case studies examined the problems of manufacturers, both small and large,…

  19. Hand washing compliance among retail food establishment workers in Minnesota.

    PubMed

    Allwood, Paul B; Jenkins, Timothy; Paulus, Colleen; Johnson, Lars; Hedberg, Craig W

    2004-12-01

    Inadequate hand washing by food workers is an important contributing factor to foodborne disease outbreaks in retail food establishments (RFEs). We conducted a survey of RFEs to investigate the effect of hand washing training, availability of hand washing facilities, and the ability of the person in charge (PIC) to describe hand washing according to the Minnesota Food Code (food code) on workers' ability to demonstrate food code-compliant hand washing. Only 52% of the PICs could describe the hand washing procedure outlined in the food code, and only 48% of workers could demonstrate code-compliant hand washing. The most common problems observed were failure to wash for 20 s and failure to use a fingernail brush. There was a strong positive association between the PIC being a certified food manager and being able to describe the food code hand washing procedure (odds ratio [OR], 5.5; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.2 to 13.7), and there was an even stronger association between the PIC being able to describe hand washing and workers being able to demonstrate code-compliant hand washing (OR, 15; 95% CI, 6 to 37). Significant associations were detected among correct hand washing demonstration, physical infrastructure for hand washing, and the hand washing training methods used by the establishment. However, the principal determinant of successful hand washing demonstration was the PIC's ability to describe proper hand washing procedure. These results suggest that improving hand washing practices among food workers will require interventions that address PIC knowledge of hand washing requirement and procedure and the development and implementation of effective hand washing training methods.

  20. Antimicrobial resistance and virulence of Enterococcus faecalis isolated from retail food

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Although enterococci are considered opportunistic nosocomial pathogens, their contribution to food-borne illnesses via dissemination through retail food remains undefined. In this study, prevalence and association of antimicrobial resistance and virulence factors of 80 Enterococcus faecalis isolate...

  1. 78 FR 64468 - Request for Information: Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) Enhancing Retail Food...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-29

    ... pizza or raw fish. Should such stores be eligible for participation in SNAP? 11. Should all retailers... ingredients shall only be counted in one staple food category. For example, foods such as cold pizza, macaroni...

  2. Comparing sugary drinks in the food retail environment in six NYC neighborhoods.

    PubMed

    Adjoian, Tamar; Dannefer, Rachel; Sacks, Rachel; Van Wye, Gretchen

    2014-04-01

    Obesity is a national public health concern linked to numerous chronic health conditions among Americans of all age groups. Evidence suggests that discretionary calories from sugary drink consumption have been a significant contributor to excess caloric intake among both children and adults. Research has established strong links between retail food environments and purchasing habits of consumers, but little information exists on the sugary drink retail environment in urban neighborhoods. The objective of this assessment was to compare various aspects of the sugary drink retail environment across New York City (NYC) neighborhoods with disparate self-reported sugary drink consumption patterns. In-store retail audits were conducted at 883 corner stores, chain pharmacies, and grocery stores in 12 zip codes throughout NYC. Results showed that among all beverage types assessed, sugary drinks had the most prominent presence in the retail environment overall, which was even more pronounced in higher-consumption neighborhoods. In higher- versus lower-consumption neighborhoods, the mean number of sugary drink varieties available at stores was higher (11.4 vs. 10.4 varieties), stores were more likely to feature sugary drink advertising (97 vs. 89 %) and advertising at multiple places throughout the store (78 vs. 57 %), and several sugary drinks, including 20-oz Coke® or Pepsi®, were less expensive ($1.38 vs. $1.60). These results, all statistically significant, indicate that neighborhoods characterized by higher levels of sugary drink consumption expose shoppers to sugary drinks to a greater extent than lower-consumption neighborhoods. This builds upon evidence documenting the association between the environment and individual behavior.

  3. A food retail-based intervention on food security and consumption.

    PubMed

    Sadler, Richard C; Gilliland, Jason A; Arku, Godwin

    2013-08-05

    The effect of the built environment on diet (and ensuing health outcomes) is less understood than the effect of diet on obesity. Natural experiments are increasingly advocated in place of cross-sectional studies unable to suggest causality. The central research question of this paper, therefore, asks whether a neighborhood-level food retail intervention will affect dietary habits or food security. The intervention did not have a significant impact on fruit and vegetable consumption, and the intervention population actually purchased prepared meals more frequently. More problematic, only 8% of respondents overall regularly consumed enough fruits and vegetables, and 34% were food insecure. Further complicating this public health issue, the new grocery store closed after 17 months of operation. Results indicate that geographic access to food is only one element of malnutrition, and that multi-pronged dietary interventions may be more effective. The economic failure of the store also suggests the importance of non-retail interventions to combat malnutrition.

  4. A Food Retail-Based Intervention on Food Security and Consumption

    PubMed Central

    Sadler, Richard C.; Gilliland, Jason A.; Arku, Godwin

    2013-01-01

    The effect of the built environment on diet (and ensuing health outcomes) is less understood than the effect of diet on obesity. Natural experiments are increasingly advocated in place of cross-sectional studies unable to suggest causality. The central research question of this paper, therefore, asks whether a neighborhood-level food retail intervention will affect dietary habits or food security. The intervention did not have a significant impact on fruit and vegetable consumption, and the intervention population actually purchased prepared meals more frequently. More problematic, only 8% of respondents overall regularly consumed enough fruits and vegetables, and 34% were food insecure. Further complicating this public health issue, the new grocery store closed after 17 months of operation. Results indicate that geographic access to food is only one element of malnutrition, and that multi-pronged dietary interventions may be more effective. The economic failure of the store also suggests the importance of non-retail interventions to combat malnutrition. PMID:23921626

  5. Hand washing frequencies and procedures used in retail food services.

    PubMed

    Strohbehn, Catherine; Sneed, Jeannie; Paez, Paola; Meyer, Janell

    2008-08-01

    Transmission of viruses, bacteria, and parasites to food by way of improperly washed hands is a major contributing factor in the spread of foodborne illnesses. Field observers have assessed compliance with hand washing regulations, yet few studies have included consideration of frequency and methods used by sectors of the food service industry or have included benchmarks for hand washing. Five 3-h observation periods of employee (n = 80) hand washing behaviors during menu production, service, and cleaning were conducted in 16 food service operations for a total of 240 h of direct observation. Four operations from each of four sectors of the retail food service industry participated in the study: assisted living for the elderly, childcare, restaurants, and schools. A validated observation form, based on 2005 Food Code guidelines, was used by two trained researchers. Researchers noted when hands should have been washed, when hands were washed, and how hands were washed. Overall compliance with Food Code recommendations for frequency during production, service, and cleaning phases ranged from 5% in restaurants to 33% in assisted living facilities. Procedural compliance rates also were low. Proposed benchmarks for the number of times hand washing should occur by each employee for each sector of food service during each phase of operation are seven times per hour for assisted living, nine times per hour for childcare, 29 times per hour for restaurants, and 11 times per hour for schools. These benchmarks are high, especially for restaurant employees. Implementation would mean lost productivity and potential for dermatitis; thus, active managerial control over work assignments is needed. These benchmarks can be used for training and to guide employee hand washing behaviors.

  6. Small Food Store Retailers' Willingness to Implement Healthy Store Strategies in Rural North Carolina.

    PubMed

    D'Angelo, Heather; Ammerman, Alice; Gordon-Larsen, Penny; Linnan, Laura; Lytle, Leslie; Ribisl, Kurt M

    2017-02-01

    Access to supermarkets is lacking in many rural areas. Small food stores are often available, but typically lack healthy food items such as fresh produce. We assessed small food store retailer willingness to implement 11 healthy store strategies to increase the availability, display, and promotion of healthy foods and decrease the availability, display, and promotion of tobacco products. Interviews were conducted with 55 small food store retailers in three rural North Carolina counties concurrently with store observations assessing current practices related to the strategies. All stores sold low-calorie beverages, sugar-sweetened beverages, candy and cigarettes. Nearly all sold smokeless tobacco and cigars/cigarillos, and 72 % sold e-cigarettes. Fresh fruits were sold at 30.2 % of stores; only 9.4 % sold fresh vegetables. Retailers reported being most willing to stock skim/low-fat milk, display healthy snacks near the register, and stock whole wheat bread. About 50 % were willing to stock at least three fresh fruits and three fresh vegetables, however only 2 % of stores currently stocked these foods. Nearly all retailers expressed unwillingness to reduce the availability of tobacco products or marketing. Our results show promise for working with retailers in rural settings to increase healthy food availability in small food stores. However, restrictions on retail tobacco sales and marketing may be more feasible through local tobacco control ordinances, or could be included with healthy foods ordinances that require stores to stock a minimum amount of healthy foods.

  7. Consumer perceptions of the safety of ready-to-eat foods in retail food establishments

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A nationally-representative survey was administered to 1041 participants who volunteered to evaluate selected risk perceptions and self-reported behaviors. Participants were shown 12 photographs taken at retail stores portraying cross-contamination, product and equipment temperatures, worker hygiene...

  8. Understanding policy enactment: the New Orleans Fresh Food Retailer Initiative.

    PubMed

    Ulmer, Vanessa M; Rathert, Adrienne R; Rose, Donald

    2012-09-01

    Healthy-food financing initiatives have been endorsed as a way to improve food access, but relatively little research exists on understanding the formulation of such policies. This paper investigates the development of the New Orleans Fresh Food Retailer Initiative (FFRI) to highlight factors that enabled and impeded its enactment. In 2010 and 2011, semistructured interviews were conducted with 22 key informants with firsthand experience of this case, including representatives from the private sector, nonprofit organizations, and government. A participant-observer approach was used to synthesize these observations with archived written materials and the authors' own observations. Historical disparities in food access in New Orleans were exacerbated by Hurricane Katrina, which also generated neighborhood activism and a pressing need to rebuild the city. A Food Policy Advisory Committee (FPAC) was formed from diverse groups. This paper describes the evolution of FPAC, its deliberations and report to the City Council, and actions to promote a financing initiative, as well as delays encountered in the process. Enactment of the FFRI was facilitated by a window of opportunity that opened in the storm's aftermath, broad-based stakeholder buy-in, the existence of political champions, and policy-relevant information that was simple and convincing. Impediments to success included the constant turnover of city staff, a skeptical state bureaucracy, and the many competing priorities in New Orleans. This study highlights the importance of having a clear policy objective to address a well-defined and illustrated problem, key advocates in diverse organizations, and broad-based support for its implementation. Copyright © 2012 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Observations of marketing on food packaging targeted to youth in retail food stores.

    PubMed

    Grigsby-Toussaint, Diana S; Moise, Imelda K; Geiger, Sarah D

    2011-09-01

    There is growing evidence that exposure to food marketing influences dietary preferences among youth. Few studies exploring this association, however, have focused on the retail food store environment where families negotiate the influence of food and beverage marketing on purchasing practices. Consequently, we sought to examine: (i) the extent to which foods marketed on the internet and television to youth are also available and marketed in retail food stores, and (ii) whether differences exist in the marketing practices across store types and by neighborhood racial composition. In 2008, a cross-sectional survey of 118 food stores was conducted in four Midwestern cities in the United States. Results showed that 82% of stores assessed carried items commonly marketed to youth via television or the internet. The items most likely to have some type of marketing technique were noncarbonated drinks (97.7%), fruit and cereal bars (76.9%), and soda (62.2%). Grocery stores were significantly more likely than convenience stores to have marketing for breads and pastries (34.6% vs. 17.9%), breakfast cereals (52.0% vs. 22.9%), cookies and crackers (54.2% vs. 25.3%), dairy (70.8% vs. 42.7%), and ice cream (23.8% vs. 9.8%). Stores located in black neighborhoods were significantly more likely to have marketing, in comparison to white neighborhoods, for breads and pastries (35.7% vs. 17.1%), breakfast cereals (44.4% vs. 25.0%), and cookies and crackers (48.1% vs. 26.3%). Our results highlight the importance of examining food marketing techniques in the retail food store environment, where visual cues from television and the internet may be reinforced.

  10. FDA Procedures for Standardization and Certification of Retail Food Inspection/Training Officers, 2000.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Food and Drug Administration (DHHS/PHS), Rockville, MD.

    This document provides information, standards, and behavioral objectives for standardization and certification of retail food inspection personnel in the Food and Drug Administration (FDA). The procedures described in the document are based on the FDA Food Code, updated to reflect current Food Code provisions and to include a more refined focus on…

  11. Neighborhood food retail environment and health outcomes among urban Ghanaian women

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taflin, Helena Janet

    Over the past several decades there has been a global dietary shift, occurring at different rates across time and space. These changes are reflective of the nutrition transition--a series of potentially adverse changes in diet, health and physical activity. These dietary shifts have been associated with significant health consequences, as seen by the global rise in nutrition-related non-communicable diseases (NR-NCDs) such as diabetes, hypertension, cancer, coronary heart disease as well as obesity. Clinical studies have confirmed that overweight and obese individuals are at increased risk for diabetes and hypertension, among other cardiovascular diseases. However, these linkages between the nutrition transition and health are not spatially random. They vary according to personal characteristics ("who you are") and the neighborhood environment in which you live ("where you are"). Leveraging existing demographic and health resources, in this project I aim to investigate the relationship between the food retail environment and health outcomes among a representative sample of urban Ghanaian women ages 18 and older, normally resident in the Accra Metropolitan Area (AMA), using a mixed methods spatial approach. Data for this study are drawn primarily from the 2008-09 Women's Health Study of Accra (WHSA II) which was funded by the U.S. National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD) (John R. Weeks, Project Director/Principal Investigator). It was conducted as a joint collaboration between the Institute of Statistical, Social and Economic Research (ISSER) at the University of Ghana, the Harvard School of Public Health and San Diego State University. Results from this study highlights the importance of addressing the high prevalence of hypertension among adult women in Accra and should be of concern to both stakeholders and the public. Older populations, overweight and obese individuals, those with partners living at home, limited number of food retailers

  12. Economic benefits from food recovery at the retail stage: an application to Italian food chains.

    PubMed

    Giuseppe, Aiello; Mario, Enea; Cinzia, Muriana

    2014-07-01

    The food supply chain is affected by losses of products near to their expiry date or damaged by improper transportation or production defects. Such products are usually poorly attractive for the consumer in the target market even if they maintain their nutritional properties. On the other hand undernourished people face every day the problem of fulfilling their nutritional needs usually relying on non-profit organizations. In this field the food recovery enabling economic benefits for donors is nowadays seen as a coherent way to manage food products unsalable in the target market for various causes and thus destined to be discarded and disposed to landfill thus representing only a cost. Despite its obvious affordability the food recovery is today not always practiced because the economic benefits that could be achieved are barely known. The paper aims at presenting a deterministic mathematical model for the optimization of the supply chain composed by retailers and potential recipients that practice the food recovery, taking into account the benefits recognized to donors and the management costs of the food recovery. The model determines the optimal time to withdraw the products from the shelves as well as the quantities to be donated to the non-profit organizations and those to be sent to the livestock market maximizing the retailer profit. The results show that the optimal conditions ensuring the affordability of the food recovery strategy including the tax reliefs and cost saving for the retailers outperforms the profit achievable in absence of such a system. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Do GIS-derived measures of fast food retailers convey perceived fast food opportunities? Implications for food environment assessment.

    PubMed

    Barnes, Timothy L; Colabianchi, Natalie; Freedman, Darcy A; Bell, Bethany A; Liese, Angela D

    2017-01-01

    Geographic information systems (GISs) have been used to define fast food availability, with higher availability perhaps promoting poorer quality diets. Alternative measures involve perceptions; however, few studies have examined associations between GIS-derived and perceived measures of the food environment. Telephone surveys of 705 participants within an eight-county region in South Carolina were analyzed using logistic regression to examine relationships between geographic presence of and distance to various types of food retailers and perceived fast food availability. The mean distance to the nearest fast food restaurant was 6.1 miles, with 16% of participants having a fast food restaurant within 1 mile of home. The geographic presence of and distance to all food retailer types were significantly associated with perceived availability of fast food in unadjusted models. After adjustment, only the presence of a fast food restaurant or pharmacy was significantly associated with greater odds of higher perceived availability of fast food. Greater odds of lower perceived availability of fast food were observed with the presence of a dollar store and increasing distance to the nearest supermarket or pharmacy. Measures of fast food availability, whether objective or perceived, may not be interchangeable. Researchers should carefully decide on the appropriate measurement tool-GIS-derived or perceived-in food environment studies. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Geographic measures of retail food outlets and perceived availability of healthy foods in neighbourhoods.

    PubMed

    Barnes, Timothy L; Freedman, Darcy A; Bell, Bethany A; Colabianchi, Natalie; Liese, Angela D

    2016-06-01

    To examine associations between geographic measures of retail food outlets and perceived availability of healthy foods. Cross-sectional. A predominantly rural, eight-county region of South Carolina, USA. Data from 705 household shoppers were analysed using ordinary least-squares regression to examine relationships between geographic measures (presence and distance) of food outlets obtained via a geographic information system and perceived availability of healthy foods (fresh fruits and vegetables and low-fat foods). The presence of a supermarket within an 8·05 km (5-mile) buffer area was significantly associated with perceived availability of healthy foods (β=1·09, P=0·025) when controlling for all other food outlet types. However, no other derived geographic presence measures were significant predictors of perceived availability of healthy foods. Distances to the nearest supermarket (β=-0·16, P=0·003), dollar and variety store (β=-0·15, P=0·005) and fast-food restaurant (β=0·11, P=0·015) were all significantly associated with perceptions of healthy food availability. Our results suggest that distance to food outlets is a significant predictor of healthy food perceptions, although presence is sensitive to boundary size. Our study contributes to the understanding and improvement of techniques that characterize individuals' food options in their community.

  15. Food loss rates at the food retail, influencing factors and reasons as a basis for waste prevention measures.

    PubMed

    Lebersorger, S; Schneider, F

    2014-11-01

    This paper quantifies food loss rates for fruit & vegetables, dairy products and bread & pastry as well as donations to social services. In addition potential influencing factors and reasons for food losses are investigated in order to provide a basis for the development of waste prevention measures. Detailed data from 612 retail outlets all over Austria, which covered the period of one year, were analysed and sorting analyses of discarded food were carried out in a small sample of retail outlets. Food loss amounts to 1.3% of the sales of dairy products, 2.8% for bread & pastry and 4.2% for fruit & vegetables. Returned bread amounts to additional 9.7% of the sales of bread & pastry. The food loss rates are similar to the results of previous publications. At present, 7% of the food loss is donated to social services, 38% of retail outlets do not donate any articles at all. Food loss rates are declining with increasing sales areas, increasing numbers of purchases per year and increasing sales of the retail outlet, but explain only 33% or less of the variation of food loss rates. Large differences between retail outlets of comparable structure indicate potential for reduction. More than a quarter of discarded food articles did not show any flaws besides the expiration of the best before or sell-by date. Waste prevention approaches should focus on avoiding returns, transfer of best practices, information and education of employees and customers as well as strengthening the donation to social services.

  16. 76 FR 30051 - Food Labeling; Nutrition Labeling of Standard Menu Items in Restaurants and Similar Retail Food...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-24

    ...; Nutrition Labeling of Standard Menu Items in Restaurants and Similar Retail Food Establishments; Extension... 19192). In that document, FDA proposed requirements for providing nutrition information for standard...: Geraldine A. June, Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition (HFS-820), Food and Drug Administration...

  17. Self-Reported Changes in Food Safety Behaviors among Foodservice Employees: Impact of a Retail Food Safety Education Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anding, Jenna D.; Boleman, Chris; Thompson, Britta

    2007-01-01

    A food safety education program developed for retail food establishments was evaluated to assess the extent to which participants were practicing selected behaviors linked to reducing the risk of foodborne disease both before and after the program. Scores from the state health department's Certified Food Manager (CFM) exam also were examined.…

  18. Self-Reported Changes in Food Safety Behaviors among Foodservice Employees: Impact of a Retail Food Safety Education Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anding, Jenna D.; Boleman, Chris; Thompson, Britta

    2007-01-01

    A food safety education program developed for retail food establishments was evaluated to assess the extent to which participants were practicing selected behaviors linked to reducing the risk of foodborne disease both before and after the program. Scores from the state health department's Certified Food Manager (CFM) exam also were examined.…

  19. Trends impacting food safety in retail foodservice: implications for dietetics practice.

    PubMed

    Sneed, Jeannie; Strohbehn, Catherine H

    2008-07-01

    Food safety in retail foodservice is increasingly important to consumers. Trends that impact food safety concerns include the increasing number of meals eaten away from home, increasing consumer awareness about food safety, an aging population, changes in the foodservice workforce, changing technology in work environments, changes in food procurement, foodservice risk factors, and food defense concerns. Each of these trends has implications for dietetics practice, both in working with consumers and managing foodservice operations.

  20. Microbiological quality of food in relation to hazard analysis systems and food hygiene training in UK catering and retail premises.

    PubMed

    Little, C L; Lock, D; Barnes, J; Mitchell, R T

    2003-09-01

    A meta-analysis of eight UK food studies was carried out to determine the microbiological quality of food and its relationship with the presence in food businesses of hazard analysis systems and food hygiene training. Of the 19,022 premises visited to collect food samples in these studies between 1997 and 2002, two thirds (66%) were catering premises and one third (34%) were retail premises. Comparison with PHLS Microbiological Guidelines revealed that significantly more ready-to-eat food samples from catering premises (20%; 2,511/12,703) were of unsatisfactory or unacceptable microbiological quality compared to samples from retail premises (12%; 1,039/8,462) (p < 0.00001). Three quarters (76%) of retail premises had hazard analysis systems in place compared with 59% of catering premises (p < 0.00001). In 87% of retail premises the manager had received some form of food hygiene training compared with 80% of catering premises (p < 0.00001). From premises where the manager had received no food hygiene training a greater proportion of samples were of unsatisfactory and unacceptable microbiological quality (20% retail, 27% catering) compared with premises where the manager had received food hygiene training (11% retail, 19% catering) (p < 0.00001). Where the manager of the premises had received food hygiene training, documented hazard analysis systems were more likely to be in place (p < 0.00001). Higher proportions of samples of unsatisfactory and unacceptable microbiological quality (17% retail, 22% catering) were from premises where there was no hazard analysis system in place compared to premises that had a documented hazard analysis system in place (10% retail, 18% catering) (p < 0.00001). Our meta-analysis suggests that the lower microbiological quality of ready-to-eat foods from catering premises compared with those collected from retail premises may reflect differences in management food hygiene training and the presence of a hazard analysis system. The

  1. Tobacco advertising and sales practices in licensed retail outlets after the Food and Drug Administration regulations.

    PubMed

    Frick, Ryan G; Klein, Elizabeth G; Ferketich, Amy K; Wewers, Mary Ellen

    2012-10-01

    To assess retailer compliance with Food and Drug Administration (FDA) regulations on tobacco sales and advertising practices, including point-of-sale advertisements, in two distinct Columbus, Ohio neighborhood groups by income. Data were gathered from a random sample of 129 licensed tobacco retailers, which included data on both exterior and interior advertisements as well as sales practices. Descriptive analyses compared retail outlets by high and low income neighborhood locations. Compliance with FDA regulations was high in the random sample of urban tobacco retail outlets. None of the retail outlets sold loose cigarettes or offered free items with purchase. Less than 10% of the outlets surveyed offered self-service access to cigarettes or smokeless tobacco products. From all surveyed retail outlets 95% had cigarette, 57% had smokeless, and 57% had cigar advertisements at the point-of-sale. There were no significant differences in compliance by income, but the mean number of advertisements on the building and self-service access to cigars was significantly different by neighborhood income. There was a high degree of compliance with the new FDA regulation on tobacco marketing and sales practices in urban retail tobacco outlets in Columbus, Ohio. Tobacco advertising and marketing remain highly prevalent in retail outlets, with some significant differences between high and low income neighborhoods.

  2. The Food Retail Environment in School Neighborhoods and its Relation to Lunchtime Eating Behaviors in Youth from Three Countries

    PubMed Central

    Héroux, Mariane; Iannotti, Ronald J.; Currie, Dorothy; Pickett, William; Janssen, Ian

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the relation between the chain food retail environment surrounding schools, youths’ lunchtime eating behavior, and youths’ obesity levels across three countries. Participants consisted of 26,778 students 13–15 years old from 687 schools across Canada, Scotland and the US. The density of convenience stores, chain fast food restaurants, and chain cafés within 1 km of each school was measured. Lunchtime eating behaviors, weight, and height were self-reported. Although the density of chain food retailers was highest in the US, fewer American students (2.6%) routinely ate their lunch at a food retailer during the school week than did Canadian (7.7%) and Scottish (43.7%) students. The density of chain food retailers was associated with eating lunch at a food retailer in Canada only whereby students attending schools with 1–2, 3–4, and 5+ chain food retailers within 1 km from their schools were 1.39 (95% CI: 0.84–2.29), 1.87 (95% CI: 1.10–3.20), and 2.50 (95% CI: 1.56–4.01) times more likely to eat at a chain food retailer compared to students attending schools with no nearby chain food retailers. No associations were found between chain food retailer density and obesity. PMID:23041489

  3. Pulga (Flea Market) Contributions to the Retail Food Environment of Colonias in the South Texas Border Region

    PubMed Central

    Dean, Wesley R.; Sharkey, Joseph R.; St. John, Julie

    2011-01-01

    Accounts of the retail food environment have been limited by research that focused on supermarkets, grocery stores and restaurants as the principal food sources for consumers. Little is known about alternative retail food-sources, especially in rural and underserved areas such as the colonias along the South Texas border with Mexico. Many colonias are located near pulgas (flea markets). This is the first study to examine this alternative food source for colonia residents. This study's purpose is to provide preliminary data on food availability in this unstudied element of the retail food environment. Five pulgas were identified for study by local informants. Two separate teams of two promotores (indigenous community health workers) conducted observations, wrote field notes, and surveyed vendors in each pulga. Traditional foods, prepared foods, and fresh fruit and vegetables were available in the observed pulgas. Traditional foods included staples, meal items, and snacks and sweets. Prepared foods were available in small stands run by independent operators, and each pulga had permanent restaurants which served prepared foods. A large variety of fresh fruit and vegetables were also available. An emphasis on supermarkets and grocery stores will provide an incomplete account of the retail food environment. Further studies should attempt to provide a more complete account by identifying alternative retail sources used by local residents. One such alternative retail food-source, the pulga, provides a range of traditional food stuffs, prepared food items, and fruits and vegetables that complement conventionally studied aspects of the retail food environment. PMID:21515116

  4. Pulga (flea market) contributions to the retail food environment of colonias in the South Texas border region.

    PubMed

    Dean, Wesley R; Sharkey, Joseph R; St John, Julie

    2011-05-01

    Accounts of the retail food environment have been limited by research that focused on supermarkets, grocery stores, and restaurants as the principal food sources for consumers. Little is known about alternative retail food sources, especially in rural and underserved areas such as the colonias along the South Texas border with Mexico. Many colonias are located near pulgas (flea markets). This is the first study to examine this alternative food source for colonia residents. This study's purpose is to provide preliminary data on food availability in this unstudied element of the retail food environment. Five pulgas were identified for study by local informants. Two separate teams of two promotores (indigenous community health workers) conducted observations, wrote field notes, and surveyed vendors in each pulga. Traditional foods, prepared foods, and fresh fruits and vegetables were available in the observed pulgas. Traditional foods included staples, meal items, and snacks and sweets. Prepared foods were available in small stands run by independent operators, and each pulga had permanent restaurants that served prepared foods. A large variety of fresh fruits and vegetables were also available. An emphasis on supermarkets and grocery stores will provide an incomplete account of the retail food environment. Further studies should attempt to provide a more complete account by identifying alternative retail sources used by local residents. One such alternative retail food source, the pulga, provides a range of traditional food stuffs, prepared food items, and fruits and vegetables that complement conventionally studied aspects of the retail food environment.

  5. Association of the Neighborhood Retail Food Environment with Sodium and Potassium Intake Among US Adults

    PubMed Central

    Schieb, Linda; Schwartz, Greg; Onufrak, Stephen; Park, Sohyun

    2014-01-01

    Introduction High sodium intake and low potassium intake, which can contribute to hypertension and risk of cardiovascular disease, may be related to the availability of healthful food in neighborhood stores. Despite evidence linking food environment with diet quality, this relationship has not been evaluated in the United States. The modified retail food environment index (mRFEI) provides a composite measure of the retail food environment and represents the percentage of healthful-food vendors within a 0.5 mile buffer of a census tract. Methods We analyzed data from 8,779 participants in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2005–2008. By using linear regression, we assessed the relationship between mRFEI and sodium intake, potassium intake, and the sodium–potassium ratio. Models were stratified by region (South and non-South) and included participant and neighborhood characteristics. Results In the non-South region, higher mRFEI scores (indicating a more healthful food environment) were not associated with sodium intake, were positively associated with potassium intake (P [trend] = .005), and were negatively associated with the sodium–potassium ratio (P [trend] = .02); these associations diminished when neighborhood characteristics were included, but remained close to statistical significance for potassium intake (P [trend] = .05) and sodium–potassium ratio (P [trend] = .07). In the South, mRFEI scores were not associated with sodium intake, were negatively associated with potassium intake (P [trend] = < .001), and were positively associated with sodium–potassium ratio (P [trend] = .01). These associations also diminished after controlling for neighborhood characteristics for both potassium intake (P [trend] = .03) and sodium–potassium ratio (P [trend] = .40). Conclusion We found no association between mRFEI and sodium intake. The association between mRFEI and potassium intake and the sodium–potassium ratio varied by region. National

  6. A shopper's eye view of food safety at retail stores: lessons from photographs taken while grocery shopping

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Retail grocery stores are the source of over 50% of food sales in the U.S., representing the most important sector for consumer food choices. Food safety-related infrastructure, procedures, and practices at retail grocery stores play an important role in protecting public health. Beyond actual risk ...

  7. Access to food retail outlets in County Durham, UK: a pragmatic cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Mills, Susanna; Wright, Tim

    2015-02-26

    Strong links exist between deprivation, obesity, and dietary quality. Increasing interest has focussed on the concept of access to food and so-called food deserts, defined by a policy working group of the UK Low Income Project Team in 1995 as "areas of relative exclusion where people experience physical and economic barriers to accessing healthy food". We aimed to establish the accessibility of food retail outlets in County Durham, a county in north-east England, UK, considering physical access, affordability, and food range and quality. In a pragmatic cross-sectional study in County Durham, we used information from town surveys and food business databases to locate and identify food retail outlets. The prevalence of deprivation, obesity, retail outlets, takeaway outlets, and ratio of retail to takeaway outlets was mapped, to establish local food access, and any associations with deprivation and obesity. The times taken to travel from residences to supermarkets using private car and public transport were also measured. 400 members of the community participated in eight focus groups and commissioned on-street surveys. Focus group transcripts were reviewed alongside the on-street survey responses to identify key issues. Most residents shopped at least weekly for food (n=368, 92%), used a supermarket for their main food shop (372, 93%), travelled for up to 15 min (340, 85%), and used a car for transport (188, 47%). Many survey respondents indicated high levels of satisfaction with food retail outlets (average rating 8·7 out of 10 for agreement with the statement "Overall I am satisfied with the shop where I do my main food shopping"), although financial constraints and transport inconvenience were identified as barriers. Difficulties with food shopping were more widely described in focus groups, and many individuals felt that local shopping provision had declined, with an emergent excess of takeaway outlets. Food retail access was reduced for the disabled, full

  8. Food labeling; nutrition labeling of standard menu items in restaurants and similar retail food establishments. Final rule.

    PubMed

    2014-12-01

    To implement the nutrition labeling provisions of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act of 2010 (Affordable Care Act or ACA), the Food and Drug Administration (FDA or we) is requiring disclosure of certain nutrition information for standard menu items in certain restaurants and retail food establishments. The ACA, in part, amended the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (the FD&C Act), among other things, to require restaurants and similar retail food establishments that are part of a chain with 20 or more locations doing business under the same name and offering for sale substantially the same menu items to provide calorie and other nutrition information for standard menu items, including food on display and self-service food. Under provisions of the ACA, restaurants and similar retail food establishments not otherwise covered by the law may elect to become subject to these Federal requirements by registering every other year with FDA. Providing accurate, clear, and consistent nutrition information, including the calorie content of foods, in restaurants and similar retail food establishments will make such nutrition information available to consumers in a direct and accessible manner to enable consumers to make informed and healthful dietary choices.

  9. Occurrence of β-lactamase genes among non-Typhi Salmonella enterica isolated from humans, food animals, and retail meats in the United States and Canada.

    PubMed

    Sjölund-Karlsson, Maria; Howie, Rebecca L; Blickenstaff, Karen; Boerlin, Patrick; Ball, Takiyah; Chalmers, Gabhan; Duval, Brea; Haro, Jovita; Rickert, Regan; Zhao, Shaohua; Fedorka-Cray, Paula J; Whichard, Jean M

    2013-06-01

    Non-Typhi Salmonella cause over 1.7 million cases of gastroenteritis in North America each year, and food-animal products are commonly implicated in human infections. For invasive infections, antimicrobial therapy is indicated. In North America, the antimicrobial susceptibility of Salmonella is monitored by the U.S. National Antimicrobial Resistance Monitoring System (NARMS) and The Canadian Integrated Program for Antimicrobial Resistance Surveillance (CIPARS). In this study, we determined the susceptibility to cephalosporins by broth microdilution among 5,041 non-Typhi Salmonella enterica isolated from food animals, retail meats, and humans. In the United States, 109 (4.6%) of isolates collected from humans, 77 (15.7%) from retail meat, and 140 (10.6%) from food animals displayed decreased susceptibility to cephalosporins (DSC). Among the Canadian retail meat and food animal isolates, 52 (13.0%) and 42 (9.4%) displayed DSC. All isolates displaying DSC were screened for β-lactamase genes (bla(TEM), bla(SHV), bla(CMY), bla(CTX-M), and bla(OXA-1)) by polymerase chain reaction. At least one β-lactamase gene was detected in 74/109 (67.9%) isolates collected from humans, and the bla(CMY) genes were most prevalent (69/109; 63.3%). Similarly, the bla(CMY) genes predominated among the β-lactamase-producing isolates collected from retail meats and food animals. Three isolates from humans harbored a bla(CTX-M-15) gene. No animal or retail meat isolates harbored a bla(CTX-M) or bla(OXA-1) gene. A bla(TEM) gene was found in 5 human, 9 retail meat, and 17 animal isolates. Although serotype distributions varied among human, retail meat, and animal sources, overlap in bla(CMY)-positive serotypes across sample sources supports meat and food-animal sources as reservoirs for human infection.

  10. Antimicrobial resistance and genetic relatedness among Salmonella from retail foods of animal origin: NARMS retail meat surveillance.

    PubMed

    Zhao, S; McDermott, P F; Friedman, S; Abbott, J; Ayers, S; Glenn, A; Hall-Robinson, E; Hubert, S K; Harbottle, H; Walker, R D; Chiller, T M; White, D G

    2006-01-01

    Salmonella isolates were recovered from a monthly sampling of chicken breasts, ground turkey, ground beef, and pork chops purchased from selected grocery stores in six participating FoodNet sites (Connecticut, Georgia, Maryland, Minnesota, Oregon, and Tennessee) in 2002 and an additional two sites in 2003 (California and New York). In 2002 and 2003, a total of 6,046 retail meats were examined, including 1,513 chicken breasts, 1,499 ground turkey samples, 1,522 ground beef samples, and 1,502 pork chops. Retail meat samples tested increased to 3,533 in 2003 as compared to 2,513 in 2002. Overall, six percent of 6,046 retail meat samples (n = 365) were contaminated with Salmonella, the bulk recovered from either ground turkey (52%) or chicken breast (39%). Salmonella isolates were serotyped and susceptibility tested using a panel of 16 antimicrobial agents. S. Heidelberg was the predominant serotype identified (23%), followed by S. Saintpaul (12%), S. Typhimurium (11%), and S. Kentucky (10%). Overall, resistance was most often observed to tetracycline (40%), streptomycin (37%), ampicillin (26%), and sulfamethoxazole (25%). Twelve percent of isolates were resistant to cefoxitin and ceftiofur, though only one isolate was resistant to ceftriaxone. All isolates were susceptible to amikacin and ciprofloxacin; however, 3% of isolates were resistant to nalidixic acid and were almost exclusive to ground turkey samples (n = 11/12). All Salmonella isolates were analyzed for genetic relatedness using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) patterns generated by digestion with Xba1 or Xba1 plus Bln1. PFGE fingerprinting profiles showed that Salmonella, in general, were genetically diverse with a total of 175 Xba1 PFGE profiles generated from the 365 isolates. PFGE profiles showed good correlation with serotypes and in some instances, antimicrobial resistance profiles. Results demonstrated a varied spectrum of antimicrobial resistance and PFGE patterns, including several multidrug

  11. 76 FR 19191 - Food Labeling; Nutrition Labeling of Standard Menu Items in Restaurants and Similar Retail Food...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-06

    ...To implement the menu labeling provisions of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act of 2010 (Affordable Care Act), the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is proposing requirements for providing certain nutrition information for standard menu items in certain chain restaurants and similar retail food establishments. The Affordable Care Act, in part, amended the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (FD&C Act), among other things, to require restaurants and similar retail food establishments that are part of a chain with 20 or more locations doing business under the same name and offering for sale substantially the same menu items to provide calorie and other nutrition information for standard menu items, including food on display and self-service food. Under provisions of the Affordable Care Act, restaurants and similar retail food establishments not otherwise covered by the law may elect to become subject to the Federal requirements by registering every other year with the FDA. Providing calorie and other nutrition information in restaurants and similar retail food establishments would assist consumers in making healthier dietary choices.

  12. Measuring the retail food environment in rural and urban North Carolina counties.

    PubMed

    Jilcott, Stephanie B; McGuirt, Jared T; Imai, Satomi; Evenson, Kelly R

    2010-01-01

    Development of accurate and sensitive methods to characterize the food environment is needed. Thus, we examined convergent and criterion validity of 2 retail food environment data sources and then examined differences in predictive validity between 3 ways of measuring the rural and urban food environment. Ten counties were selected in each of 3 North Carolina regions (n = 30). Number of fast-food restaurants and chain supermarkets were calculated using 2 data sources. Convergent validity was percent agreement between the 2 sources. Criterion validity was percent agreement between each source and the most accurate venue count. Predictive validity of food environment measures (Retail Food Environment Index, fast-food restaurants/capita, and supermarkets/capita) was calculated by associations with county-level mean-weighted body mass index (BMI). Percent agreement for fast-food restaurants ranged from 50% to 100% (mean = 87%) and for supermarkets ranged from 58% to 100% (mean = 89%). The 2 data sources had similar percent agreement with the most accurate count. Retail Food Environment Index was positively associated with BMI, while fast-food restaurants per capita were negatively associated with BMI. Our results lend support to studies using both food environment data sources examined.

  13. 76 FR 22905 - Guidance for Food and Drug Administration Staff and Tobacco Retailers on Civil Money Penalties...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-25

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Guidance for Food and Drug Administration Staff and Tobacco Retailers on Civil Money Penalties and No-Tobacco-Sale Orders for Tobacco Retailers; Availability AGENCY... announcing the availability of a guidance entitled ``Civil Money Penalties and No- Tobacco-Sale Orders for...

  14. Evaluating the use of in-store measures in retail food stores and restaurants in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Duran, Ana Clara; Lock, Karen; Latorre, Maria do Rosario D O; Jaime, Patricia Constante

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To assess inter-rater reliability, test-retest reliability, and construct validity of retail food store, open-air food market, and restaurant observation tools adapted to the Brazilian urban context. METHODS This study is part of a cross-sectional observation survey conducted in 13 districts across the city of Sao Paulo, Brazil in 2010-2011. Food store and restaurant observational tools were developed based on previously available tools, and then tested it. They included measures on the availability, variety, quality, pricing, and promotion of fruits and vegetables and ultra-processed foods. We used Kappa statistics and intra-class correlation coefficients to assess inter-rater and test-retest reliabilities in samples of 142 restaurants, 97 retail food stores (including open-air food markets), and of 62 restaurants and 45 retail food stores (including open-air food markets), respectively. Construct validity as the tool’s abilities to discriminate based on store types and different income contexts were assessed in the entire sample: 305 retail food stores, 8 fruits and vegetable markets, and 472 restaurants. RESULTS Inter-rater and test-retest reliability were generally high, with most Kappa values greater than 0.70 (range 0.49-1.00). Both tools discriminated between store types and neighborhoods with different median income. Fruits and vegetables were more likely to be found in middle to higher-income neighborhoods, while soda, fruit-flavored drink mixes, cookies, and chips were cheaper and more likely to be found in lower-income neighborhoods. CONCLUSIONS The measures were reliable and able to reveal significant differences across store types and different contexts. Although some items may require revision, results suggest that the tools may be used to reliably measure the food stores and restaurant food environment in urban settings of middle-income countries. Such studies can help .inform health promotion interventions and policies in these

  15. Evaluating the use of in-store measures in retail food stores and restaurants in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Duran, Ana Clara; Lock, Karen; Latorre, Maria do Rosario D O; Jaime, Patricia Constante

    2015-01-01

    To assess inter-rater reliability, test-retest reliability, and construct validity of retail food store, open-air food market, and restaurant observation tools adapted to the Brazilian urban context. This study is part of a cross-sectional observation survey conducted in 13 districts across the city of Sao Paulo, Brazil in 2010-2011. Food store and restaurant observational tools were developed based on previously available tools, and then tested it. They included measures on the availability, variety, quality, pricing, and promotion of fruits and vegetables and ultra-processed foods. We used Kappa statistics and intra-class correlation coefficients to assess inter-rater and test-retest reliabilities in samples of 142 restaurants, 97 retail food stores (including open-air food markets), and of 62 restaurants and 45 retail food stores (including open-air food markets), respectively. Construct validity as the tool's abilities to discriminate based on store types and different income contexts were assessed in the entire sample: 305 retail food stores, 8 fruits and vegetable markets, and 472 restaurants. Inter-rater and test-retest reliability were generally high, with most Kappa values greater than 0.70 (range 0.49-1.00). Both tools discriminated between store types and neighborhoods with different median income. Fruits and vegetables were more likely to be found in middle to higher-income neighborhoods, while soda, fruit-flavored drink mixes, cookies, and chips were cheaper and more likely to be found in lower-income neighborhoods. The measures were reliable and able to reveal significant differences across store types and different contexts. Although some items may require revision, results suggest that the tools may be used to reliably measure the food stores and restaurant food environment in urban settings of middle-income countries. Such studies can help .inform health promotion interventions and policies in these contexts.

  16. Retailer branding of consumer sales promotions. A major development in food marketing?

    PubMed

    Hamlin, Robert P; Lindsay, Sophie; Insch, Andrea

    2012-02-01

    This article examines retailer branding of consumer price promotions. It discusses the mechanics of price promotions, consumers' reactions to them and the benefits that accrue to those that use them. It describes how large food retailers can now deploy branded price promotion systems that are fundamentally different to 'traditional' price promotions in both their mechanics and their effects on consumer decision processes. The article describes a field experiment that compared the performance of a food retailer's branded price promotion system with that of a generic (manufacturer) price promotion. The research involved three experiments that covered two food categories (sliced bread and margarine) and two levels of discount (10% and 20%). The results indicate that food retailers are able to attach powerful brands to their price promotion systems, and these brand heuristics can significantly increase consumer purchase intent relative to an equivalent generic/manufacturer promotion. This incremental heuristic effect was stable in both categories and for both levels of price discount studied. These results are consistent with the predictions of alternative, non-cognitive and heuristic based models of food consumer choice that have been published recently in 'Appetite'.

  17. Green neighborhoods, food retail and childhood overweight: differences by population density.

    PubMed

    Liu, Gilbert C; Wilson, Jeffrey S; Qi, Rong; Ying, Jun

    2007-01-01

    This study examines relationships between overweight in children and two environmentalfactors--amount of vegetation surrounding a child's place of residence and proximity of the child's residence to various types of food retail locations. We hypothesize that living in greener neighborhoods, farther from fast food restaurants, and closer to supermarkets would be associated with lower risk of overweight. Cross-sectional study. Network of primary care pediatric clinics in Marion County, Indiana. We acquired data for 7334 subjects, ages 3 to 18 years, presenting for routine well-child care. Neighborhood vegetation and proximity to food retail were calculated using geographic information systems for each subject using circular and network buffers. Child weight status was defined using body mass index percentiles. Analysis. We used cumulative logit models to examine associations between an index of overweight, neighborhood vegetation, and food retail environment. After controlling for individual socio-demographics and neighborhood socioeconomic status, measures of vegetation and food retail significantly predicted overweight in children. Increased neighborhood vegetation was associated with decreased risk for overweight, but only for subjects residing in higher population density regions. Increased distance between a subject's residence and the nearest large brand name supermarkets was associated with increased risk of overweight, but only for subjects residing in lower population density regions. This research suggests that aspects of the built environment are determinants of child weight status, ostensibly by influencing physical activity and dietary behaviors.

  18. Evolving food retail environments in Thailand and implications for the health and nutrition transition

    PubMed Central

    Banwell, Cathy; Dixon, Jane; Seubsman, Sam-ang; Pangsap, Suttinan; Kelly, Matthew; Sleigh, Adrian

    2013-01-01

    Objective An investigation into evolving food retail systems in Thailand Design Rapid assessment procedures based on qualitative research methods such as interviews, focus groups discussions and site visits Setting Seven freshmarkets located in the four main regions of Thailand Subjects Managers, food specialists, vendors and shoppers from seven freshmarkets who participated in interviews and focus group discussions. Results Freshmarkets are under economic pressure and are declining in number. They are attempting to resist the competition from supermarkets by improving convenience, food diversity, quality and safety. Conclusions Obesity has increased in Thailand at the same time as rapid growth of modern food retail formats has occurred. As freshmarkets are overtaken by supermarkets there is a likely loss of fresh, healthy, affordable food for poorer Thais, and a diminution of regional culinary culture, women’s jobs and social capital with implications for the health and nutrition transition in Thailand. PMID:23021291

  19. Policy options for healthier retail food environments in city-regions.

    PubMed

    Mah, Catherine L; Cook, Brian; Rideout, Karen; Minaker, Leia M

    2016-06-09

    Public policy is central to health promotion: it determines the distribution of resources in a society and establishes the structural context for the actions of both corporations and consumers. With this in mind, the purpose of this paper is to begin a discussion on promising policy options for a health-promoting retail food environment. Drawing on specific municipal examples, we examine four groups of policy options for healthier retail food environments in city-regions: planning for health; transforming consumer environments; economic and fiscal instruments; and a culture of transparency and participation. We introduce examples of policy options that are receiving increasing attention in the public health and urban planning literature and that function at the municipal level. We also highlight how public health professionals have an important role to play in policy that shapes retail food environments, especially in making explicit the linkages between health and other policy goals. In doing so, this commentary aims to motivate public health practitioners in a variety of community contexts to consider the policy supports they need to advance their exploration, development, testing and evaluation of interventions for healthier retail food environments.

  20. Is proximity to a food retail store associated with diet and BMI in Glasgow, Scotland?

    PubMed

    Macdonald, Laura; Ellaway, Anne; Ball, Kylie; Macintyre, Sally

    2011-06-10

    Access to healthy food is often seen as a potentially important contributor to diet. Policy documents in many countries suggest that variations in access contribute to inequalities in diet and in health. Some studies, mostly in the USA, have found that proximity to food stores is associated with dietary patterns, body weight and socio-economic differences in diet and obesity, whilst others have found no such relationships. We aim to investigate whether proximity to food retail stores is associated with dietary patterns or Body Mass Index in Glasgow, a large city in the UK. We mapped data from a 'Health and Well-Being Survey' (n = 991), and a list of food stores (n = 741) in Glasgow City, using ArcGIS, and undertook network analysis to find the distance from respondents' home addresses to the nearest fruit and vegetable store, small general store, and supermarket. We found few statistically significant associations between proximity to food retail outlets and diet or obesity, for unadjusted or adjusted models, or when stratifying by gender, car ownership or employment. The findings suggest that in urban settings in the UK the distribution of retail food stores may not be a major influence on diet and weight, possibly because most urban residents have reasonable access to food stores.

  1. Is proximity to a food retail store associated with diet and BMI in Glasgow, Scotland?

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Access to healthy food is often seen as a potentially important contributor to diet. Policy documents in many countries suggest that variations in access contribute to inequalities in diet and in health. Some studies, mostly in the USA, have found that proximity to food stores is associated with dietary patterns, body weight and socio-economic differences in diet and obesity, whilst others have found no such relationships. We aim to investigate whether proximity to food retail stores is associated with dietary patterns or Body Mass Index in Glasgow, a large city in the UK. Methods We mapped data from a 'Health and Well-Being Survey' (n = 991), and a list of food stores (n = 741) in Glasgow City, using ArcGIS, and undertook network analysis to find the distance from respondents' home addresses to the nearest fruit and vegetable store, small general store, and supermarket. Results We found few statistically significant associations between proximity to food retail outlets and diet or obesity, for unadjusted or adjusted models, or when stratifying by gender, car ownership or employment. Conclusions The findings suggest that in urban settings in the UK the distribution of retail food stores may not be a major influence on diet and weight, possibly because most urban residents have reasonable access to food stores. PMID:21663674

  2. Reliability of a retail food store survey and development of an accompanying retail scoring system to communicate survey findings and identify vendors for healthful food and marketing initiatives.

    PubMed

    Ghirardelli, Alyssa; Quinn, Valerie; Sugerman, Sharon

    2011-01-01

    To develop a retail grocery instrument with weighted scoring to be used as an indicator of the food environment. Twenty six retail food stores in low-income areas in California. Observational. Inter-rater reliability for grocery store survey instrument. Description of store scoring methodology weighted to emphasize availability of healthful food. Type A intra-class correlation coefficients (ICC) with absolute agreement definition or a κ test for measures using ranges as categories. Measures of availability and price of fruits and vegetables performed well in reliability testing (κ = 0.681-0.800). Items for vegetable quality were better than for fruit (ICC 0.708 vs 0.528). Kappa scores indicated low to moderate agreement (0.372-0.674) on external store marketing measures and higher scores for internal store marketing. "Next to" the checkout counter was more reliable than "within 6 feet." Health departments using the store scoring system reported it as the most useful communication of neighborhood findings. There was good reliability of the measures among the research pairs. The local store scores can show the need to bring in resources and to provide access to fruits and vegetables and other healthful food. Copyright © 2011 Society for Nutrition Education. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Packaged Food Purchases at Walmart and Other Food Retail Chains Changes In Nutritional Profile From 2000 to 2013

    PubMed Central

    Taillie, Lindsey Smith; Ng, Shu Wen; Popkin, Barry M.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Proliferation of food retail chains has created an environment in which a few food retailers account for the majority of U.S. packaged food purchases (PFPs). Despite the major potential for these food retail chains (FRCs) to impact what U.S. consumers buy and eat, little is known about the nutritional profile of PFPs from these retailers, particularly PFPs from Walmart, the U.S.’ largest grocer. Methods A data set of household PFPs from Nielsen Homescan was linked to data from the Nutrition Facts Panel (N=164,315), analyzed in 2014. Fixed effects models and inverse probability weights accounting for selectivity of shopping at a retailer were used to examine shifts in nutrient densities and key food groups purchased at Walmart and other FRCs from 2000 to 2013, and whether these changes differed for low-income or race/ethnic minority households. Results There were substantial declines in energy (−73 kcal/100 g), total sugar (−8 g/100 g), and sodium density (−33 mg/100 g) of Walmart PFPs, coupled with decreases in percentage volume purchased from sweets (−11%), grain-based desserts (−2%), and savory snacks (−3%) and increases in fruits (+3%) and vegetables (+1%). PFPs from other FRCs had a more favorable nutritional profile than Walmart PFPs in 2000, but demonstrated smaller shifts over time. Disparities in the nutritional profile of Walmart PFPs by race/ethnicity but not by income level shrank over time. Conclusions The nutritional profile of Walmart purchases has improved over time and in 2013 was similar to PFPs from other FRCs. PMID:26497262

  4. Walmart and Other Food Retail Chains: Trends and Disparities in the Nutritional Profile of Packaged Food Purchases.

    PubMed

    Taillie, Lindsey Smith; Ng, Shu Wen; Popkin, Barry M

    2016-02-01

    Proliferation of food retail chains has created an environment in which a few food retailers account for the majority of U.S. packaged food purchases (PFPs). Despite the major potential for these food retail chains (FRCs) to impact what U.S. consumers buy and eat, little is known about the nutritional profile of PFPs from these retailers, particularly PFPs from Walmart, the largest U.S. grocer. A data set of household PFPs from Nielsen Homescan was linked to data from the Nutrition Facts Panel (N=164,315), analyzed in 2014. Fixed effects models and inverse probability weights accounting for selectivity of shopping at a retailer were used to examine shifts in nutrient densities and key food groups purchased at Walmart and other FRCs from 2000 to 2013, and whether these changes differed for low-income or racial/ethnic-minority households. There were substantial declines in energy (-73 kcal/100 g); total sugar (-8 g/100 g); and sodium density (-33 mg/100 g) of Walmart PFPs, coupled with decreases in percentage volume purchased from sweets (-11%); grain-based desserts (-2%); and savory snacks (-3%) and increases in fruits (+3%) and vegetables (+1%). PFPs from other FRCs had a more favorable nutritional profile than Walmart PFPs in 2000, but demonstrated smaller shifts over time. Disparities in the nutritional profile of Walmart PFPs by race/ethnicity but not by income level shrank over time. The nutritional profile of Walmart purchases has improved over time and in 2013 was similar to PFPs from other FRCs. Copyright © 2016 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Measuring the healthfulness of food retail stores: variations by store type and neighbourhood deprivation.

    PubMed

    Black, Christina; Ntani, Georgia; Inskip, Hazel; Cooper, Cyrus; Cummins, Steven; Moon, Graham; Baird, Janis

    2014-05-23

    The consumer nutrition environment has been conceptualised as in-store environmental factors that influence food shopping habits. More healthful in-store environments could be characterised as those which promote healthful food choices such as selling good quality healthy foods or placing them in prominent locations to prompt purchasing. Research measuring the full-range of in-store environmental factors concurrently is limited. To develop a summary score of 'healthfulness' composed of nine in-store factors that influence food shopping behaviour, and to assess this score by store type and neighbourhood deprivation. A cross-sectional survey of 601 retail food stores, including supermarkets, grocery stores and convenience stores, was completed in Hampshire, United Kingdom between July 2010 and June 2011. The survey measured nine variables (variety, price, quality, promotions, shelf placement, store placement, nutrition information, healthier alternatives and single fruit sale) to assess the healthfulness of retail food stores on seven healthy and five less healthy foods that are markers of diet quality. Four steps were completed to create nine individual variable scores and another three to create an overall score of healthfulness for each store. Analysis of variance showed strong evidence of a difference in overall healthfulness by store type (p < 0.001). Large and premium supermarkets offered the most healthful shopping environments for consumers. Discount supermarkets, 'world', convenience and petrol stores offered less healthful environments to consumers however there was variation across the healthfulness spectrum. No relationship between overall healthfulness and neighbourhood deprivation was observed (p = 0.1). A new composite measure of nine variables that can influence food choices was developed to provide an overall assessment of the healthfulness of retail food stores. This composite score could be useful in future research to measure the relationship

  6. Measuring the healthfulness of food retail stores: variations by store type and neighbourhood deprivation

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The consumer nutrition environment has been conceptualised as in-store environmental factors that influence food shopping habits. More healthful in-store environments could be characterised as those which promote healthful food choices such as selling good quality healthy foods or placing them in prominent locations to prompt purchasing. Research measuring the full-range of in-store environmental factors concurrently is limited. Purpose To develop a summary score of ‘healthfulness’ composed of nine in-store factors that influence food shopping behaviour, and to assess this score by store type and neighbourhood deprivation. Methods A cross-sectional survey of 601 retail food stores, including supermarkets, grocery stores and convenience stores, was completed in Hampshire, United Kingdom between July 2010 and June 2011. The survey measured nine variables (variety, price, quality, promotions, shelf placement, store placement, nutrition information, healthier alternatives and single fruit sale) to assess the healthfulness of retail food stores on seven healthy and five less healthy foods that are markers of diet quality. Four steps were completed to create nine individual variable scores and another three to create an overall score of healthfulness for each store. Results Analysis of variance showed strong evidence of a difference in overall healthfulness by store type (p < 0.001). Large and premium supermarkets offered the most healthful shopping environments for consumers. Discount supermarkets, ‘world’, convenience and petrol stores offered less healthful environments to consumers however there was variation across the healthfulness spectrum. No relationship between overall healthfulness and neighbourhood deprivation was observed (p = 0.1). Conclusions A new composite measure of nine variables that can influence food choices was developed to provide an overall assessment of the healthfulness of retail food stores. This composite score could be

  7. Retail health marketing: evaluating consumers' choice for healthier foods.

    PubMed

    Nayga, R M

    1999-01-01

    This study investigates the effect of socioeconomic and demographic variables, nutrition and health related factors, attitudes, and use of nutritional labels on consumers' choice for healthier food products. Seven equations are estimated representing different food types: luncheon meat, milk, cheese, ice cream, salad dressing, dessert, and meats. The results generally indicate that individuals who are less likely to choose a healthier alternative of a food product include: blacks, younger individuals, males, those with smaller households, smokers, those who take less exercise, those who are not on a special diet, those who are less aware about the linkage between diet and disease, those who put more importance on taste when food shopping, and those who less frequently use nutrition panels and labels that describe health benefits on food packages.

  8. Measures of Retail Food Store Environments and Sales: Review and Implications for Healthy Eating Initiatives.

    PubMed

    Glanz, Karen; Johnson, Lauren; Yaroch, Amy L; Phillips, Matthew; Ayala, Guadalupe X; Davis, Erica L

    2016-04-01

    This review describes available measures of retail food store environments, including data collection methods, characteristics of measures, the dimensions most commonly captured across methods, and their strengths and limitations. Articles were included if they were published between 1990 and 2015 in an English-language peer-reviewed journal and presented original research findings on the development and/or use of a measure or method to assess retail food store environments. Four sources were used, including literature databases, backward searching of identified articles, published reviews, and measurement registries. From 3,013 citations identified, 125 observational studies and 5 studies that used sales records were reviewed in-depth. Most studies were cross-sectional and based in the US. The most common tools used were the US Department of Agriculture's Thrifty Food Plan and the Nutrition Environment Measures Survey for Stores. The most common attribute captured was availability of healthful options, followed by price. Measurement quality indicators were minimal and focused mainly on assessments of reliability. Two widely used tools to measure retail food store environments are available and can be refined and adapted. Standardization of measurement across studies and reports of measurement quality (eg, reliability, validity) may better inform practice and policy changes. Copyright © 2016 Society for Nutrition Education and Behavior. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Associations between retail food store exterior advertisements and community demographic and socioeconomic composition.

    PubMed

    Isgor, Zeynep; Powell, Lisa; Rimkus, Leah; Chaloupka, Frank

    2016-05-01

    This paper examines the association between the prevalence of various types of outdoor food and beverage advertising found on the building exteriors and properties of retail food outlets and community racial/ethnic and socioeconomic composition in a nationwide sample of food outlets in the U.S. Our major finding from multivariable analysis is that food stores in low-income communities have higher prevalence of all food and beverage ads, including those for unhealthy products such as regular soda, controlling for community racial/ethnic composition and other covariates. This adds to growing research pointing to socioeconomic disparities in food and beverage marketing exposure. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. The number and type of food retailers surrounding schools and their association with lunchtime eating behaviours in students

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The primary study objective was to examine whether the presence of food retailers surrounding schools was associated with students’ lunchtime eating behaviours. The secondary objective was to determine whether measures of the food retail environment around schools captured using road network or circular buffers were more strongly related to eating behaviours while at school. Methods Grade 9 and 10 students (N=6,971) who participated in the 2009/10 Canadian Health Behaviour in School Aged Children Survey were included in this study. The outcome was determined by students’ self-reports of where they typically ate their lunch during school days. Circular and road network-based buffers were created for a 1 km distance surrounding 158 schools participating in the HBSC. The addresses of fast food restaurants, convenience stores and coffee/donut shops were mapped within the buffers. Multilevel logistic regression was used to determine whether there was a relationship between the presence of food retailers near schools and students regularly eating their lunch at a fast food restaurant, snack-bar or café. The Akaike Information Criteria (AIC) value, a measure of goodness-of-fit, was used to determine the optimal buffer type. Results For the 1 km circular buffers, students with 1–2 (OR= 1.10, 95% CI: 0.57-2.11), 3–4 (OR=1.45, 95% CI: 0.75-2.82) and ≥5 nearby food retailers (OR=2.94, 95% CI: 1.71-5.09) were more likely to eat lunch at a food retailer compared to students with no nearby food retailers. The relationships were slightly stronger when assessed via 1 km road network buffers, with a greater likelihood of eating at a food retailer for 1–2 (OR=1.20, 95% CI:0.74-1.95), 3–4 (OR=3.19, 95% CI: 1.66-6.13) and ≥5 nearby food retailers (OR=3.54, 95% CI: 2.08-6.02). Road network buffers appeared to provide a better measure of the food retail environment, as indicated by a lower AIC value (3332 vs. 3346). Conclusions There was a strong

  11. An application of the edge effect in measuring accessibility to multiple food retailer types in Southwestern Ontario, Canada

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Trends in food retailing associated with the consolidation of smaller-format retailers into fewer, larger-format supercentres have left some rural areas with fewer sources of nutritious, affordable food. Access to nutritious, affordable food is essential for good dietary habits and combating health issues such as type-2 diabetes, obesity, and cardiovascular disease. Many studies on food environments use inaccurate or incomplete methods for locating food retailers, which may be responsible for mischaracterising food deserts. This study uses databases of every residence in and every food retailer in and around Middlesex County, Ontario, Canada. Residences were geocoded to their precise address, and network analysis techniques were performed in a geographic information system (GIS) to determine distances between every residence and different types of food retailers (grocery stores, fast food, fruit and vegetable sources, grocery stores plus fruit and vegetable sources, variety stores), both when considering and neglecting facilities outside the area of study, to account for a deficiency in analysis termed the 'edge effect'. Results Analysis of household accessibility to food outlets by neighbourhood socioeconomic distress level indicated that residents in the most distressed neighbourhoods tended to have better accessibility to all types of food retailers. In the most distressed neighbourhoods, 79 percent of residences were within walking distance of a grocery store, compared to only 10 percent in the least distressed neighbourhoods. When the edge effect was neglected, 37 percent of distance estimates proved inaccurate. Average accessibility to all food retailer types improved dramatically when food outlets adjacent to the study area were considered, thereby controlling for the edge effect. Conclusion By neglecting to consider food retailers just outside study area boundaries, previous studies may significantly over-report the actual distance necessary to

  12. An application of the edge effect in measuring accessibility to multiple food retailer types in southwestern Ontario, Canada.

    PubMed

    Sadler, Richard C; Gilliland, Jason A; Arku, Godwin

    2011-05-15

    Trends in food retailing associated with the consolidation of smaller-format retailers into fewer, larger-format supercentres have left some rural areas with fewer sources of nutritious, affordable food. Access to nutritious, affordable food is essential for good dietary habits and combating health issues such as type-2 diabetes, obesity, and cardiovascular disease. Many studies on food environments use inaccurate or incomplete methods for locating food retailers, which may be responsible for mischaracterising food deserts. This study uses databases of every residence in and every food retailer in and around Middlesex County, Ontario, Canada. Residences were geocoded to their precise address, and network analysis techniques were performed in a geographic information system (GIS) to determine distances between every residence and different types of food retailers (grocery stores, fast food, fruit and vegetable sources, grocery stores plus fruit and vegetable sources, variety stores), both when considering and neglecting facilities outside the area of study, to account for a deficiency in analysis termed the 'edge effect'. Analysis of household accessibility to food outlets by neighbourhood socioeconomic distress level indicated that residents in the most distressed neighbourhoods tended to have better accessibility to all types of food retailers. In the most distressed neighbourhoods, 79 percent of residences were within walking distance of a grocery store, compared to only 10 percent in the least distressed neighbourhoods. When the edge effect was neglected, 37 percent of distance estimates proved inaccurate. Average accessibility to all food retailer types improved dramatically when food outlets adjacent to the study area were considered, thereby controlling for the edge effect. By neglecting to consider food retailers just outside study area boundaries, previous studies may significantly over-report the actual distance necessary to travel for food. Research on

  13. Genotypic characterization of quinolone resistant-Escherichia coli isolates from retail food in Morocco.

    PubMed

    Nayme, Kaotar; Barguigua, Abouddihaj; Bouchrif, Brahim; Karraouan, Bouchra; El Otmani, Fatima; Elmdaghri, Naima; Zerouali, Khalid; Timinouni, Mohammed

    2017-02-01

    This study was conducted to assess the retail food as a possible vehicle for antimicrobial resistant, particularly quinolones resistant and pathogenic Escherichia coli. We determined the prevalence and characteristics of nalidixic acid (Nal) resistant E. coli isolates from diverse retail food samples. In all, 70 (28%) of 250 E. coli isolates studied were Nal-resistant E. coli and 91% of these were multi-drug resistant. Plasmid mediated quinolone resistance genes were identified in 32 isolates, including aac(6')-Ib-cr (n = 16), qnrS1 (n = 11) and qnrB19 (n = 7). Mutations in gyr A and par C genes were detected among 80% of the isolates, and the isolates showed substitution Ser83-Leu and Asp87-Asn in gyrA and Ser80-Ile in parC. In addition, three different gene cassettes were identified (aadA1, aadA7, aac(3)-Id) in 18%. Virulence-associated genes stx1, eae, sfa, hlyA and stx2 were found in six (8%), three (4%), two (3%), three (4%) and three (4%) isolates, respectively. E. coli isolates of phylogenetic group A were dominant (64%, 45/70). Pulsed field gel electrophoresis revealed none epidemiological relationship between these isolates. The results of this work report the higher frequency of Nal-resistant E. coli isolates from Moroccan retail food samples including MDR and pathogenic isolates.

  14. The availability of electronic cigarettes in US retail outlets, 2012: results of two national studies

    PubMed Central

    Rose, Shyanika W; Barker, Dianne C; D'Angelo, Heather; Khan, Tamkeen; Huang, Jidong; Chaloupka, Frank J; Ribisl, Kurt M

    2014-01-01

    Background Since their introduction in 2007, electronic cigarette (‘e-cigarette’) awareness and use has grown rapidly. Little is known about variation in e-cigarette availability across areas with different levels of tobacco taxes and smoke-free air policies. This paper looks at US retail availability of e-cigarettes and factors at the store, neighbourhood and policy levels associated with it. Methods In-person store audit data collected in 2012 came from two national samples of tobacco retailers in the contiguous US. Study 1 collected data from a nationally representative sample of tobacco retailers (n=2165). Study 2 collected data from tobacco retailers located in school enrolment zones for nationally representative samples of 8th, 10th and 12th grade public school students (n=2526). Results In 2012, e-cigarette retail availability was 34% in study 1 and 31% in study 2. Tobacco, pharmacy and gas/convenience stores were more likely to sell e-cigarettes than beer/wine/liquor stores. Retail availability of e-cigarettes was more likely in neighbourhoods with higher median household income (study 1), and lower percent of African–American (studies 1 and 2) and Hispanic residents (study 2). Price of traditional cigarettes was inversely related to e-cigarette availability. Stores in states with an American Lung Association Smoke-Free Air grade of F (study 1) or D (study 2) compared with A had increased likelihood of having e-cigarettes. Conclusions Currently, e-cigarette availability appears more likely in areas with weak tax and smoke-free air policies. Given the substantial availability of e-cigarettes at tobacco retailers nationwide, states and localities should monitor the sales and marketing of e-cigarettes at point of sale (POS). PMID:24935892

  15. [Food Security in Europe: comparison between the "Hygiene Package" and the British Retail Consortium (BRC) & International Food Standard (IFS) protocols].

    PubMed

    Stilo, A; Parisi, S; Delia, S; Anastasi, F; Bruno, G; Laganà, P

    2009-01-01

    The birth of Hygiene Package and of the Reg. CE no 2073/2005 in the food production field signalled a change in Italy. This process started in Italy in 1997 with the legislative decree no 155 on Self-control but in reality, it was implemented in the UK in 1990 with the promulgation of the Food Safety Act. This legal act was influenced by some basic rules corresponding to the application of HACCP standards. Since 1990 the British chains of distribution (Retailers) have involved all aspects of the food line in this type of responsibility. Due to this growing awareness for a need for greater regulation, a protocol, edited by British Retail Consortium was created in 1998. This protocol acted as a "stamp" of approval for food products and it is now known as the BRC Global Food Standard. In July 2008, this protocol became effective in its fifth version. After the birth of BRC, also French and German Retailers have established a standard practically equivalent and perhaps more pertinent to safety food, that is International Food Standard (IFS). The new approach is specific to the food field and strictly applies criteria which will ensure "safety, quality and legality" of food products, similarly to ISO 22000:2005 (mainly based on BRC & IFS past experiences). New standards aim to create a sort of green list with fully "proper and fit" Suppliers only, because of comprehensible exigencies of Retailers. It is expected, as we have shown, that Auditor authorities who are responsible for ensuring that inspections are now carried out like the Hygiene Package, will find these new standards useful. The advantages of streamlining this system is that it will allow enterprises to diligently enforce food safety practices without fear of upset or legal consequence, to improve the quality (HACCP) of management & traceability system; to restrict wastes, reprocessing and withdrawal of products. However some discordances about the interpretation of certain sub-field norms (e.g., water

  16. Commercial Building Partnership Retail Food Sales Energy Savings Overview

    SciTech Connect

    2013-03-01

    The Commercial Building Partnership (CBP) paired selected commercial building owners and operators with representatives of DOE, national laboratories and private sector exports to explore energy efficiency measures across general merchandise commercial buildings.

  17. Ultra-processed food purchases in Norway: a quantitative study on a representative sample of food retailers.

    PubMed

    Solberg, Siri Løvsjø; Terragni, Laura; Granheim, Sabrina Ionata

    2016-08-01

    To identify the use of ultra-processed foods - vectors of salt, sugar and fats - in the Norwegian diet through an assessment of food sales. Sales data from a representative sample of food retailers in Norway, collected in September 2005 (n 150) and September 2013 (n 170), were analysed. Data consisted of barcode scans of individual food item purchases, reporting type of food, price, geographical region and retail concept. Foods were categorized as minimally processed, culinary ingredients, processed products and ultra-processed. Indicators were share of purchases and share of expenditure on food categories. Six geographical regions in Norway. The barcode data included 296 121 observations in 2005 and 501 938 observations in 2013. Ultra-processed products represented 58·8 % of purchases and 48·8 % of expenditure in 2013. Minimally processed foods accounted for 17·2 % of purchases and 33·0 % of expenditure. Every third purchase was a sweet ultra-processed product. Food sales changed marginally in favour of minimally processed foods and in disfavour of processed products between 2005 and 2013 (χ 2 (3)=203 195, P<0·001, Cramer's V=0·017, P<0·001). Ultra-processed products accounted for the majority of food sales in Norway, indicating a high consumption of such products. This could be contributing to rising rates of overweight, obesity and non-communicable diseases in the country, as findings from other countries indicate. Policy measures should aim at decreasing consumption of ultra-processed products and facilitating access (including economic) to minimally processed foods.

  18. Reducing calorie sales from supermarkets - 'silent' reformulation of retailer-brand food products.

    PubMed

    Jensen, Jørgen Dejgård; Sommer, Iben

    2017-08-23

    Food product reformulation is seen as one among several tools to promote healthier eating. Reformulating the recipe for a processed food, e.g. reducing the fat, sugar or salt content of the foods, or increasing the content of whole-grains, can help the consumers to pursue a healthier life style. In this study, we evaluate the effects on calorie sales of a 'silent' reformulation strategy, where a retail chain's private-label brands are reformulated to a lower energy density without making specific claims on the product. Using an ecological study design, we analyse 52 weeks' sales data - enriched with data on products' energy density - from a Danish retail chain. Sales of eight product categories were studied. Within each of these categories, specific products had been reformulated during the 52 weeks data period. Using econometric methods, we decompose the changes in calorie turnover and sales value into direct and indirect effects of product reformulation. For all considered products, the direct effect of product reformulation was a reduction in the sale of calories from the respective product categories - between 0.5 and 8.2%. In several cases, the reformulation led to indirect substitution effects that were counterproductive with regard to reducing calorie turnover. However, except in two insignificant cases, these indirect substitution effects were dominated by the direct effect of the reformulation, leading to net reductions in calorie sales between -3.1 and 7.5%. For all considered product reformulations, the reformulation had either positive, zero or very moderate negative effects on the sales value of the product category to which the reformulated product belonged. Based on these findings, 'silent' reformulation of retailer's private brands towards lower energy density seems to contribute to lowering the calorie intake in the population (although to a moderate extent) with moderate losses in retailer's sales revenues.

  19. An evaluation of the impact of a restrictive retail food environment intervention in a rural community pharmacy setting.

    PubMed

    Minaker, Leia M; Olstad, Dana Lee; MacKenzie, Graham; Nguyen, Nghia; Azagba, Sunday; Cook, Brian E; Mah, Catherine L

    2016-07-16

    Sugar-sweetened beverage consumption is associated with morbidity and mortality. The retail food environment influences food and beverage purchasing and consumption. This study assesses the impact of a community pharmacy's removal of sweet beverages on overall community sales of carbonated soft drinks (CSD) in a rural setting. We also examined whether the pharmacy intervention affected CSD sales in the town's other food stores. Weekly CSD sales data were acquired from the three food retailers in the town of Baddeck, Nova Scotia (January 1, 2013 to May 8, 2015, n = 123 weeks). Autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA) analysis was used to analyse the interrupted time series data and estimate the impact of the pharmacy intervention (September 11, 2014) on overall CSD sales at the community level. Data were analysed in 2015. Before the intervention, the pharmacy accounted for approximately 6 % of CSD sales in the community. After the intervention, declines in total weekly average community CSD sales were not statistically significantly. CSD sales at the other food stores did not increase after the pharmacy intervention. This study was among the first to examine the impact of a restrictive retail food environment intervention, and found a non-significant decline in CSD sales at the community level. It is the first study to examine a retail food environment intervention in a community pharmacy. Pharmacies may have an important role to play in creating healthy retail food environments.

  20. Brooklyn, New York foodscape 2007–2011: a five-year analysis of stability in food retail environments

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Food retail studies have focused on the availability of food stores, and on disparities in food access by neighborhood race and income level. Previous research does not address possible changes in local food environments over time, because little is known about the extent to which food environments fluctuate. Methods Records of stores licensed to sell food with the New York State Department of Agriculture and Markets from 2007–2011 were compared to detect differences in the total number of food stores and supermarkets annually, as well as the total change for the five-year period. Food stores and supermarkets per 10,000 persons were also calculated. Food retail stability – how many individual food stores opened and closed – was also calculated for total stores and supermarkets. All results were stratified by income level and racial characteristics of 2000 Census Bureau census tracts. Results There was an overall increase in all food stores, as well as in supermarkets specifically. However, stability – the proportion of stores that remained open for five years – was greater in higher-wealth and predominantly white areas. Supermarkets remained open in greater proportion than total stores in all racial/ethnic and income areas, but areas with the highest wealth had the greatest supermarket stability. Those areas also had slightly more supermarkets per 10,000 persons, and had no permanent closures of supermarkets. The proportion of new store locations was similar between areas, but lowest-income areas had the greatest proportion of new supermarket locations. Conclusions These data suggest that food retail environments change over short periods of time. Stability of food retail environments varies between neighborhoods by race and income. Fluctuations may need to be studied further to understand their impact on food behaviors and health of residents. Finally, the dynamic nature of food retail environments suggests opportunities for policymakers and

  1. Retail Food Store Access in Rural Appalachia: A Mixed Methods Study.

    PubMed

    Thatcher, Esther; Johnson, Cassandra; Zenk, Shannon N; Kulbok, Pamela

    2017-05-01

    To describe how characteristics of food retail stores (potential access) and other factors influence self-reported food shopping behavior (realized food access) among low-income, rural Central Appalachian women. Cross-sectional descriptive. Potential access was assessed through store mapping and in-store food audits. Factors influencing consumers' realized access were assessed through in-depth interviews. Results were merged using a convergent parallel mixed methods approach. Food stores (n = 50) and adult women (n = 9) in a rural Central Appalachian county. Potential and realized food access were described across five dimensions: availability, accessibility, affordability, acceptability, and accommodation. Supermarkets had better availability of healthful foods, followed by grocery stores, dollar stores, and convenience stores. On average, participants lived within 10 miles of 3.9 supermarkets or grocery stores, and traveled 7.5 miles for major food shopping. Participants generally shopped at the closest store that met their expectations for food availability, price, service, and atmosphere. Participants' perceptions of stores diverged from each other and from in-store audit findings. Findings from this study can help public health nurses engage with communities to make affordable, healthy foods more accessible. Recommendations are made for educating low-income consumers and partnering with food stores. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Monitoring the availability of healthy and unhealthy foods and non-alcoholic beverages in community and consumer retail food environments globally.

    PubMed

    Ni Mhurchu, C; Vandevijvere, S; Waterlander, W; Thornton, L E; Kelly, B; Cameron, A J; Snowdon, W; Swinburn, B

    2013-10-01

    Retail food environments are increasingly considered influential in determining dietary behaviours and health outcomes. We reviewed the available evidence on associations between community (type, availability and accessibility of food outlets) and consumer (product availability, prices, promotions and nutritional quality within stores) food environments and dietary outcomes in order to develop an evidence-based framework for monitoring the availability of healthy and unhealthy foods and non-alcoholic beverages in retail food environments. Current evidence is suggestive of an association between community and consumer food environments and dietary outcomes; however, substantial heterogeneity in study designs, methods and measurement tools makes it difficult to draw firm conclusions. The use of standardized tools to monitor local food environments within and across countries may help to validate this relationship. We propose a step-wise framework to monitor and benchmark community and consumer retail food environments that can be used to assess density of healthy and unhealthy food outlets; measure proximity of healthy and unhealthy food outlets to homes/schools; evaluate availability of healthy and unhealthy foods in-store; compare food environments over time and between regions and countries; evaluate compliance with local policies, guidelines or voluntary codes of practice; and determine the impact of changes to retail food environments on health outcomes, such as obesity.

  3. Detection, identification and characterization of bacteriocin-producing lactic acid bacteria from retail food products.

    PubMed

    Garver, K I; Muriana, P M

    1993-09-01

    Forty bacteriocin-producing (Bac+) lactic acid bacteria (LAB) were isolated from food samples purchased from retail supermarkets and local farms. Of the 40 Bac+ isolates, 18 were isolated from 85 food samples by enrichment (21% isolation rate) whereas eight were obtained from 63 samples by direct plating (13% isolation rate). By direct plating, Bac+ LAB were detected at levels up to 2.4 x 10(5) cfu/g in ready-to-eat meats. The Bac+ isolates were identified by carbohydrate fermentation patterns, SDS-PAGE protein patterns, and other biochemical characteristics; SDS-PAGE proved invaluable in identifying strains that could not be identified by other means. Differential inhibitory spectra against indicator microorganisms assisted in the identification of 19 unique Bac+ isolates. Bac+ LAB included Enterococcus faecalis, Lactobacillus curvatus, Lb. delbrueckii, Lb. plantarum, Lactococcus lactis, and Pediococcus acidilactici. Lb. curvatus (four strains) and Lc. lactis (nine strains) were the only isolates inhibitory to foodborne pathogens including Listeria monocytogenes, Bacillus cereus, Clostridium perfringens and Staphylococcus aureus. Some Lc. lactis isolates inhibited as many as nine Gram-positive genera. Lb. curvatus FS47 and FS65 grew to high cell densities and produced bacteriocin at 6 degrees C; however, Lc. lactis FS56 produced greater levels of bacteriocin at lower cell densities. The high incidence of Bac+ LAB detected in retail foods indicates that the public is consuming a wide variety of Bac+ LAB that occur as natural contaminants. These data suggest a greater role for bacteriocins as biopreservatives in food.

  4. 21 CFR 101.43 - Substantial compliance of food retailers with the guidelines for the voluntary nutrition labeling...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... guidelines for the voluntary nutrition labeling of raw fruit, vegetables, and fish. 101.43 Section 101.43... FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION FOOD LABELING Specific Nutrition Labeling Requirements and Guidelines § 101.43 Substantial compliance of food retailers with the guidelines for the voluntary nutrition labeling of raw fruit...

  5. Use of retailer fidelity card schemes in the assessment of food additive intake: Sunset Yellow a case study.

    PubMed

    Sardi, M; Haldemann, Y; Nordmann, H; Bottex, B; Safford, B; Smith, B; Tennant, D; Howlett, J; Jasti, P R

    2010-11-01

    The feasibility of using a retailer fidelity card scheme to estimate food additive intake was investigated using the Swiss retailer MIGROS's Cumulus Card and the example of the food colour Sunset Yellow (E 110). Information held within the card scheme was used to identify a sample of households purchasing foods containing Sunset Yellow over a 15 day period. A sample of 1204 households was selected for interview, of which 830 households were retained in the study following interview. Interviews were conducted to establish household structure, patterns of consumption by different individuals within the household, and the proportion of foods containing Sunset Yellow habitually purchased at the retailer and/or consumed outside the home. Information provided by the retailer on levels of Sunset Yellow in the foods was combined with the information obtained at interview to calculate the per-capita intake of Sunset Yellow by members of participating households. More than 99% of consumers (n = 1902) of foods containing Sunset Yellow were estimated to consume less than 1 mg Sunset Yellow kg(-1) body weight day(-1). The method proved to be a simple and resource-efficient approach to estimate food additive intake on the basis of actual consumer behaviour and thus reports results more closely related to the actual consumption of foods by individuals.

  6. 21 CFR 101.43 - Substantial compliance of food retailers with the guidelines for the voluntary nutrition labeling...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... guidelines for the voluntary nutrition labeling of raw fruit, vegetables, and fish. 101.43 Section 101.43... FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION FOOD LABELING Specific Nutrition Labeling Requirements and Guidelines § 101.43 Substantial compliance of food retailers with the guidelines for the voluntary nutrition labeling of raw fruit...

  7. 21 CFR 101.43 - Substantial compliance of food retailers with the guidelines for the voluntary nutrition labeling...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... guidelines for the voluntary nutrition labeling of raw fruit, vegetables, and fish. 101.43 Section 101.43... FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION FOOD LABELING Specific Nutrition Labeling Requirements and Guidelines § 101.43 Substantial compliance of food retailers with the guidelines for the voluntary nutrition labeling of raw fruit...

  8. 21 CFR 101.43 - Substantial compliance of food retailers with the guidelines for the voluntary nutrition labeling...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... guidelines for the voluntary nutrition labeling of raw fruit, vegetables, and fish. 101.43 Section 101.43... FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION FOOD LABELING Specific Nutrition Labeling Requirements and Guidelines § 101.43 Substantial compliance of food retailers with the guidelines for the voluntary nutrition labeling of raw fruit...

  9. 21 CFR 101.43 - Substantial compliance of food retailers with the guidelines for the voluntary nutrition labeling...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... guidelines for the voluntary nutrition labeling of raw fruit, vegetables, and fish. 101.43 Section 101.43... FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION FOOD LABELING Specific Nutrition Labeling Requirements and Guidelines § 101.43 Substantial compliance of food retailers with the guidelines for the voluntary nutrition labeling of raw fruit...

  10. "Socioeconomic inequalities in children's accessibility to food retailing: Examining the roles of mobility and time".

    PubMed

    Ravensbergen, Léa; Buliung, Ron; Wilson, Kathi; Faulkner, Guy

    2016-03-01

    Childhood overweight and obesity rates in Canada are at concerning levels, more apparently so for individuals of lower socioeconomic status (SES). Accessibility to food establishments likely influences patterns of food consumption, a contributor to body weight. Previous work has found that households living in lower income neighbourhoods tend to have greater geographical accessibility to unhealthy food establishments and lower accessibility to healthy food stores. This study contributes to the literature on neighbourhood inequalities in accessibility to healthy foods by explicitly focusing on children, an understudied population, and by incorporating mobility and time into metrics of accessibility. Accessibility to both healthy and unhealthy food retailing is measured within children's activity spaces using Road Network and Activity Location Buffering methods. Weekday vs. weekend accessibility to food establishments is then compared. The results suggest that children attending lower SES schools had almost two times the density of fast food establishments and marginally higher supermarket densities in their activity spaces. Children attending higher SES schools also had much larger activity spaces. All children had higher supermarket densities during weekdays than on weekend days. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Successful customer intercept interview recruitment outside small and midsize urban food retailers.

    PubMed

    Pelletier, Jennifer E; Caspi, Caitlin E; Schreiber, Liana R N; Erickson, Darin J; Harnack, Lisa; Laska, Melissa N

    2016-10-05

    Customer intercept interviews are increasingly used to characterize food purchases at retail food outlets and restaurants; however, methodological procedures, logistical issues and response rates using intercept methods are not well described in the food environment literature. The aims of this manuscript were to 1) describe the development and implementation of a customer intercept interview protocol in a large, NIH-funded study assessing food purchases in small and midsize food retailers in Minneapolis and St. Paul, Minnesota, 2) describe intercept interview response rates by store type and environmental factors (e.g., neighborhood socioeconomic status, day/time, weather), and 3) compare demographic characteristics (e.g., gender, race/ethnicity) of participants versus non-participants. After a pilot phase involving 28 stores, a total of 616 interviews were collected from customers exiting 128 stores in fall 2014. The number of eligible customers encountered per hour (a measure of store traffic), participants successfully recruited per hour, and response rates were calculated overall and by store type, neighborhood socio-economic status, day and time of data collection, and weather. Response rates by store type, neighborhood socio-economic status, time and day of data collection, and weather, and characteristics of participants and non-participants were compared using chi-square tests. The overall response rate was 35 %, with significantly higher response rates at corner/small grocery stores (47 %) and dollar stores (46 %) compared to food-gas marts (32 %) and pharmacies (26 %), and for data collection between 4:00-6:00 pm on weekdays (40 %) compared to weekends (32 %). The distribution of race/ethnicity, but not gender, differed between participants and non-participants (p < 0.01), with greater participation rates among those identified as Black versus White. Customer intercept interviews can be successfully used to recruit diverse samples of

  12. Impacts of fast food and the food retail environment on overweight and obesity in China: a multilevel latent class cluster approach.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiaoyong; van der Lans, Ivo; Dagevos, Hans

    2012-01-01

    To simultaneously identify consumer segments based on individual-level consumption and community-level food retail environment data and to investigate whether the segments are associated with BMI and dietary knowledge in China. A multilevel latent class cluster model was applied to identify consumer segments based not only on their individual preferences for fast food, salty snack foods, and soft drinks and sugared fruit drinks, but also on the food retail environment at the community level. The data came from the China Health and Nutrition Survey (CHNS) conducted in 2006 and two questionnaires for adults and communities were used. A total sample of 9788 adults living in 218 communities participated in the CHNS. We successfully identified four consumer segments. These four segments were embedded in two types of food retail environment: the saturated food retail environment and the deprived food retail environment. A three-factor solution was found for consumers' dietary knowledge. The four consumer segments were highly associated with consumers' dietary knowledge and a number of sociodemographic variables. The widespread discussion about the relationships between fast-food consumption and overweight/obesity is irrelevant for Chinese segments that do not have access to fast food. Factors that are most associated with segments with a higher BMI are consumers' (incorrect) dietary knowledge, the food retail environment and sociodemographics. The results provide valuable insight for policy interventions on reducing overweight/obesity in China. This study also indicates that despite the breathtaking changes in modern China, the impact of 'obesogenic' environments should not be assessed too strictly from a 'Western' perspective.

  13. Plasticizers in Brazilian food-packaging materials acquired on the retail market.

    PubMed

    Freire, M T De A; Santana, I A; Reyes, F G R

    2006-01-01

    Packaging materials intended for direct food contact were acquired on the Brazilian retail market and analysed for their plasticizer content. Analyses were carried out by gas chromatography with flame ionization detection. Di-2-ethyl-hexyl adipate (DEHA), di-2-ethyl-hexyl phthalate (DEHP) and di-iso-decyl phthalate (DIDP) plasticizers were identified in films and closure seals in concentrations ranging from 12 to 19% (w/w), 15 to 44% (w/w) and 10 to 11% (w/w), respectively. Brazilian regulations state that for use with foods with a fat content above 5%, the levels of DEHP and DIDP in the plastic material should be no greater than 3%. The results obtained demonstrate a lack of conformity. It would be advisable to include information on the labels of packaging materials about their restrictions of use in order to advise manufacturers and consumers about their proper usage.

  14. Antibiotic resistance in bacterial pathogens from retail raw meats and food-producing animals in Japan.

    PubMed

    Hiroi, Midori; Kawamori, Fumihiko; Harada, Tetsuya; Sano, Yono; Miwa, Norinaga; Sugiyama, Kanji; Hara-Kudo, Yukiko; Masuda, Takashi

    2012-10-01

    To determine the prevalence and antimicrobial susceptibility profiles of Campylobacter, Salmonella, Staphylococcus aureus, methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA), and vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) in food-producing animals and retail raw meats in Japan, raw meat samples as well as food-producing animal feces, cutaneous swabs, and nasal swabs collected from 2004 to 2006 were analyzed. Isolation rates of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli, Salmonella, and S. aureus were 34.6% (363 of 1,050), 2.7% (28 of 1,050), and 32.8% (238 of 725), respectively. MRSA was isolated from 3% (9 of 300) of meat samples. No VRE were isolated in this study. Antibiotic resistance in C. coli was higher than that in C. jejuni. Three C. jejuni isolates from a patient with diarrhea in a hospital of Shizuoka Prefecture and two chicken samples that exhibited resistance to ciprofloxacin had identical pulsed-field gel electrophoresis patterns, suggesting that ciprofloxacin-resistant C. jejuni could have been distributed in meat. S. aureus isolates showed the highest level of resistance to ampicillin and tetracycline. Resistance to tetracycline in S. aureus isolates from beef was lower than that seen in isolates from chicken and pork (P < 0.01). This study revealed that the prevalence of MRSA and VRE were low in food-producing animals and retail domestic meats in Japan, although Campylobacter isolates resistant to fluoroquinolone and erythromycin were detected. The occurrence of antimicrobial-resistant pathogens should be monitored continuously to improve the management of the risks associated with antimicrobial drug resistance transferred from food-producing animals to humans.

  15. Association of Food Premises Inspection and Disclosure Program with retail-acquired foodborne illness and operator noncompliance in Toronto.

    PubMed

    Serapiglia, Tino; Kennedy, Erin; Thompson, Sylvanus; de Burger, Ron

    2007-01-01

    In 2001, the city of Toronto was the only health unit in Canada to have implemented a multi-component disclosure system as part of its provincially mandated food safety program. To measure the impact on the ultimate goal of preventing foodborne illness, the authors of the study reported here assessed directly the association of Toronto Public Health's program with the specific incidence of retail-acquired foodborne illness by analyzing secondary data on reportable local enteric disease. In addition, the study indirectly measured prevention of retail-acquired foodborne illness by assessing existing data on regulatory compliance in Toronto food premises as an inherent performance indicator. Results of the statistical analysis show that although there has not been a significant difference in the overall incidence rate of retail foodborne illness (Chi-squared = 0.009, p = .93), certain key diseases, such as Campylobacter infection, have decreased significantly since the implementation of the disclosure program in Toronto. There has also been a significant trend in the reduction of operator noncompliance rates (Z = 32, p < .0001). Further analysis shows that the decrease in operator non-compliance is positively correlated with a decrease in retail foodborne illness (r = .73, p < .0001). These results suggest that the Food Premises Inspection and Disclosure Program is an effective intervention for reducing retail-acquired foodborne illness and decreasing operator noncompliance in the city of Toronto. Programs of this type may assist other local health units to achieve similar results.

  16. Design of a National Retail Data Monitor for Public Health Surveillance

    PubMed Central

    Wagner, Michael M.; Robinson, J. Michael; Tsui, Fu-Chiang; Espino, Jeremy U.; Hogan, William R.

    2003-01-01

    The National Retail Data Monitor receives data daily from 10,000 stores, including pharmacies, that sell health care products. These stores belong to national chains that process sales data centrally and utilize Universal Product Codes and scanners to collect sales information at the cash register. The high degree of retail sales data automation enables the monitor to collect information from thousands of store locations in near to real time for use in public health surveillance. The monitor provides user interfaces that display summary sales data on timelines and maps. Algorithms monitor the data automatically on a daily basis to detect unusual patterns of sales. The project provides the resulting data and analyses, free of charge, to health departments nationwide. Future plans include continued enrollment and support of health departments, developing methods to make the service financially self-supporting, and further refinement of the data collection system to reduce the time latency of data receipt and analysis. PMID:12807802

  17. Design of a national retail data monitor for public health surveillance.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Michael M; Robinson, J Michael; Tsui, Fu-Chiang; Espino, Jeremy U; Hogan, William R

    2003-01-01

    The National Retail Data Monitor receives data daily from 10,000 stores, including pharmacies, that sell health care products. These stores belong to national chains that process sales data centrally and utilize Universal Product Codes and scanners to collect sales information at the cash register. The high degree of retail sales data automation enables the monitor to collect information from thousands of store locations in near to real time for use in public health surveillance. The monitor provides user interfaces that display summary sales data on timelines and maps. Algorithms monitor the data automatically on a daily basis to detect unusual patterns of sales. The project provides the resulting data and analyses, free of charge, to health departments nationwide. Future plans include continued enrollment and support of health departments, developing methods to make the service financially self-supporting, and further refinement of the data collection system to reduce the time latency of data receipt and analysis.

  18. Shopping for fruits and vegetables. Food and retail qualities of importance to low-income households at the grocery store.

    PubMed

    Webber, Caroline B; Sobal, Jeffery; Dollahite, Jamie S

    2010-04-01

    Purchasing fruits and vegetables is an integral part of managing food consumption and dietary quality. This study examined how low-income adults who had primary responsibility for household food purchases considered retail produce decisions. We used a qualitative research approach based on grounded theory and an ecological conceptual framework. Twenty-eight low-income rural, village, and inner city heads of households in upstate New York, USA, were selected by purposive and theoretical sampling and interviewed about fruit and vegetable shopping habits, attitudes toward local food stores, and where and how they would prefer to buy produce. Analyses revealed their concerns were organized around five themes: store venue; internal store environment; product quality; product price; relationships with the stores. An unanticipated finding was the differing social relations that appear to exist between participant consumers, store employees and management, and the store itself as a representation of the larger retail food system. Attitudes toward retail food stores in this study are described as passive or fatalistic indifference, supportive, opportunistic, and confrontational (change agents). These attitudes are related to how shoppers considered retail fruit and vegetable choice, access, and availability. These findings suggest ways to individualize nutrition education and consumer education messages.

  19. The association between neighborhood economic hardship, the retail food environment, fast food intake, and obesity: findings from the Survey of the Health of Wisconsin.

    PubMed

    Laxy, Michael; Malecki, Kristen C; Givens, Marjory L; Walsh, Matthew C; Nieto, F Javier

    2015-03-13

    Neighborhood-level characteristics such as economic hardship and the retail food environment are assumed to be correlated and to influence consumers' dietary behavior and health status, but few studies have investigated these different relationships comprehensively in a single study. This work aims to investigate the association between neighborhood-level economic hardship, the retail food environment, fast food consumption, and obesity prevalence. Linking data from the population-based Survey of the Health of Wisconsin (SHOW, n = 1,570, 2008-10) and a commercially available business database, the Wisconsin Retail Food Environment Index (WRFEI) was defined as the mean distance from each participating household to the three closest supermarkets divided by the mean distance to the three closest convenience stores or fast food restaurants. Based on US census data, neighborhood-level economic hardship was defined by the Economic Hardship Index (EHI). Relationships were analyzed using multivariate linear and logistic regression models. SHOW residents living in neighborhoods with the highest economic hardship faced a less favorable retail food environment (WRFEI = 2.53) than residents from neighborhoods with the lowest economic hardship (WRFEI = 1.77; p-trend < 0.01). We found no consistent or significant associations between the WRFEI and obesity and only a weak borderline-significant association between access to fast food restaurants and self-reported fast food consumption (≥ 2 times/week, OR = 0.59-0.62, p = 0.05-0.09) in urban residents. Participants reporting higher frequency of fast food consumption (≥ 2 times vs. <2 times per week) were more likely to be obese (OR = 1.35, p = 0.06). This study indicates that neighborhood-level economic hardship is associated with an unfavorable retail food environment. However inconsistent or non-significant relationships between the retail food environment, fast food consumption, and obesity were observed. More research

  20. Distribution and Molecular Characterization of Salmonella enterica Hypermutators in Retail Food in China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yin; Liu, Chongyang; Zhang, Zengfeng; Hu, Yuanyuan; Cao, Chenyang; Wang, Xin; Xi, Meili; Xia, Xiaodong; Yang, Baowei; Meng, Jianghong

    2015-08-01

    Hypermutable pathogens can easily acquire mutation opportunities, as well as antimicrobial resistance, and are tremendous hazards to food safety and public health. In this study, a total of 96 (7.6%) hypermutators were identified from 1,264 Salmonella isolates recovered from retail foods. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis analysis indicated that hypermutators were genetically diverse. Amino acid substitution of Val421Phe was detected in MutS in one hypermutator and Val246Ala in 56 other hypermutators, while no mutation in MutS was found among the remaining 39 hypermutators. Hypermutators in Salmonella isolates recovered in 2010 (9.3%) and 2008 (7.7%) were significantly more prevalent than those in 2007 (1.4%). The rate of hypermutators in mutton (22.2%) was significantly higher than that in chicken (7.9%) and pork (4.7%). In Salmonella Leimo isolates (60.0%), hypermutators were most frequently detected, followed by Salmonella Essen (50.0%), Salmonella Indiana (36.6%), Salmonella Kallo (25.0%), Salmonella Heidelberg (23.8%), Salmonella Typhimurium (14.0%), Salmonella Shubra (13.0%), Salmonella Albany (11.1%), Salmonella Agona (7.0%), Salmonella Gueuletapee (6.3%), and Salmonella Enteritidis (1.7%). Salmonella hypermutators in isolates recovered from retail food stored at ambient temperature (15.7%) were significantly more prevalent than those stored in chilled (3.1%) and frozen (5.4%) condition. The overall distributions of mutation frequencies of the 96 hypermutators (selected by rifampin) were from 2.16 × 10(-5) to 4.25 × 10(-1). Mutation frequencies of hypermutators of Salmonella Leimo, Salmonella Essen, Salmonella Kallo, and Salmonella Agona were relative low, while those of Salmonella Typhimurium, Salmonella Indiana, and Salmonella Shubra were extremely high. No significant correlation was found between mutation frequency and antimicrobial resistance of the hypermutators.

  1. A systematic review of the influence of the retail food environment around schools on obesity-related outcomes.

    PubMed

    Williams, J; Scarborough, P; Matthews, A; Cowburn, G; Foster, C; Roberts, N; Rayner, M

    2014-05-01

    The high prevalence of childhood obesity has led to questions about the influence of 'obesogenic' environments on children's health. Public health interventions targeting the retail food environment around schools have been proposed, but it is unclear if they are evidence based. This systematic review investigates associations between food outlets near schools and children's food purchases, consumption and body weight. We conducted a keyword search in 10 databases. Inclusion criteria required papers to be peer reviewed, to measure retailing around schools and to measure obesity-related outcomes among schoolchildren. Thirty papers were included. This review found very little evidence for an effect of the retail food environment surrounding schools on food purchases and consumption, but some evidence of an effect on body weight. Given the general lack of evidence for association with the mediating variables of food purchases and consumption, and the observational nature of the included studies, it is possible that the effect on body weight is a result of residual confounding. Most of the included studies did not consider individual children's journeys through the food environment, suggesting that predominant exposure measures may not account for what individual children actually experience. These findings suggest that future interventions targeting the food environment around schools need careful evaluation.

  2. Behavior analysis in consumer affairs: Retail and consumer response to publicizing food price information.

    PubMed

    Greene, B F; Rouse, M; Green, R B; Clay, C

    1984-01-01

    A popular program among consumer action groups involves publicizing comparative food price information (CFPI) gathered from retail stores. Its significance is based on the assumption that publishing CFPI maximizes retail competition (i.e., moderates price levels or price increases) and occasions more frugal store selections among consumers. We tested these assumptions during a 2-year analysis. Specifically, we monitored the prices of two distinct market baskets in the supermarkets of two midwestern cities (target and contrast cities). Following a lengthy baseline, we published the prices of only one of the market baskets at stores in the target city in the local newspaper on five different occasions. The results suggested that reductions in price inflation occurred for both market baskets at the independently operated target stores. The corporate chain stores were not similarly affected. In addition, surveys indicated that many consumers used the CFPI as a basis for store selection. Finally, the analysis included a discussion of the politics, economics, and future of CFPI programs.

  3. Behavior analysis in consumer affairs: Retail and consumer response to publicizing food price information

    PubMed Central

    Greene, Brandon F.; Rouse, Mark; Green, Richard B.; Clay, Connie

    1984-01-01

    A popular program among consumer action groups involves publicizing comparative food price information (CFPI) gathered from retail stores. Its significance is based on the assumption that publishing CFPI maximizes retail competition (i.e., moderates price levels or price increases) and occasions more frugal store selections among consumers. We tested these assumptions during a 2-year analysis. Specifically, we monitored the prices of two distinct market baskets in the supermarkets of two midwestern cities (target and contrast cities). Following a lengthy baseline, we published the prices of only one of the market baskets at stores in the target city in the local newspaper on five different occasions. The results suggested that reductions in price inflation occurred for both market baskets at the independently operated target stores. The corporate chain stores were not similarly affected. In addition, surveys indicated that many consumers used the CFPI as a basis for store selection. Finally, the analysis included a discussion of the politics, economics, and future of CFPI programs. PMID:16795672

  4. Uncertainty analysis of the use of a retailer fidelity card scheme in the assessment of food additive intake.

    PubMed

    McNamara, C; Mehegan, J; O'Mahony, C; Safford, B; Smith, B; Tennant, D; Buck, N; Ehrlich, V; Sardi, M; Haldemann, Y; Nordmann, H; Jasti, P R

    2011-12-01

    The feasibility of using a retailer fidelity card scheme to estimate food additive intake was investigated in an earlier study. Fidelity card survey information was combined with information provided by the retailer on levels of the food colour Sunset Yellow (E110) in the foods to estimate a daily exposure to the additive in the Swiss population. As with any dietary exposure method the fidelity card scheme is subject to uncertainties and in this paper the impact of uncertainties associated with input variables including the amounts of food purchased, the levels of E110 in food, the proportion of food purchased at the retailer, the rate of fidelity card usage, the proportion of foods consumed outside of the home and bodyweights and with systematic uncertainties was assessed using a qualitative, deterministic and probabilistic approach. An analysis of the sensitivity of the results to each of the probabilistic inputs was also undertaken. The analysis identified the key factors responsible for uncertainty within the model and demonstrated how the application of some simple probabilistic approaches can be used quantitatively to assess uncertainty.

  5. Overweight and obesity: Can we reconcile evidence about supermarkets and fast food retailers for public health policy?

    PubMed Central

    Viola, Deborah; Arno, Peter S.; Maroko, Andrew R.; Schechter, Clyde B.; Sohler, Nancy; Rundle, Andrew; Neckerman, Kathryn M.; Maantay, Juliana

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study is to determine whether access to fast food outlets and supermarkets is associated with overweight and obesity in New York City neighborhoods. We use a Bayesian ecologic approach for spatial prediction and consistent with prior research, we find no association between fast food density and overweight or obesity. Consistent with prior research, we find that supermarket access has a salutary impact on overweight and obesity. Given the lack of empirical evidence linking fast food retailers with adverse health outcomes, policymakers should be encouraged to adopt policies that incentivize the establishment of supermarkets and the modification of existing food store markets and retailers to offer healthier choices. Reaching within neighborhoods and modifying the physical environment and public health prevention and intervention efforts based on the characteristics of those neighborhoods may play a key role in creating healthier communities. PMID:23719294

  6. Overweight and obesity: can we reconcile evidence about supermarkets and fast food retailers for public health policy?

    PubMed

    Viola, Deborah; Arno, Peter S; Maroko, Andrew R; Schechter, Clyde B; Sohler, Nancy; Rundle, Andrew; Neckerman, Kathryn M; Maantay, Juliana

    2013-08-01

    The aim of this study is to determine whether access to fast food outlets and supermarkets is associated with overweight and obesity in New York City neighborhoods. We use a Bayesian ecologic approach for spatial prediction. Consistent with prior research, we find no association between fast food density and overweight or obesity. Consistent with prior research, we find that supermarket access has a salutary impact on overweight and obesity. Given the lack of empirical evidence linking fast food retailers with adverse health outcomes, policymakers should be encouraged to adopt policies that incentivize the establishment of supermarkets and the modification of existing food store markets and retailers to offer healthier choices. Reaching within neighborhoods and modifying the physical environment and public health prevention and intervention efforts based on the characteristics of those neighborhoods may play a key role in creating healthier communities.

  7. Evaluating the effectiveness of food recalls in retail establishments in New York City.

    PubMed

    Hanson, Heather; Reddy, Vasudha; Bauer, Melissa; Stich, Stephen; Kidoguchi, Lara; Luker, John; Sebek, Kim; Sawyer, Erin; Balter, Sharon

    2011-01-01

    Information on how promptly food recalls of U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-regulated products are disseminated to retailers is not well documented. Store managers were surveyed after recalls were declared to estimate the proportion aware of a recall, to describe the methods by which they learned of the recall, and to ascertain how they would prefer to be notified of recalls in the future. From 1 January 2008 to 31 December 2009, we identified FDA Class I products recalled because of potential contamination with an infectious agent such as Salmonella, which were sold in New York City. After each recall, a sample of retailers who carried the products was contacted, a standardized questionnaire was administered to store managers, and a sample of stores was inspected to determine if the product had been removed. Among nine recalls evaluated, 85 % (range, 12 to 100 % ) of managers were aware of the recall affecting a product at their store. Chain store managers were more aware of recalls than were independent store managers (93 versus 78%, P < 0.0001). More chain store managers first heard about the recall via e-mail as compared with independent store managers (35 versus 4%, P < 0.0001). E-mail notification was preferred by large chain store managers (38 versus 8%, P < 0.0001); on inspection, chain stores were more likely to have removed the item than were independent stores (85 versus 56%, P = 0.0071). Although recall information reaches many stores, faster electronic notifications are not effective at reaching small, independent stores, which may lack computers or fax machines. Alternate means to disseminate recall notifications rapidly are needed for stores without electronic communication capabilities.

  8. The role of the local retail food environment in fruit, vegetable and sugar-sweetened beverage consumption in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Duran, Ana Clara; de Almeida, Samuel Luna; Latorre, Maria do Rosario D O; Jaime, Patricia Constante

    2016-04-01

    To examine the relationship between the local retail food environment and consumption of fruits and vegetables (FV) and sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB) in São Paulo, Brazil, as well as the moderation effects of income in the studied relationships. Cross-sectional study design that drew upon neighbourhood- and individual-level data. For each participant, community (density and proximity) and community food environment (availability, variety, quality and price) measures of FV and SSB were assessed in retail food stores and specialized fresh produce markets within 1·6 km of their homes. Poisson generalized estimating equations (GEE) were used to model the associations of food consumption with food environment measures, adjusted by individual-level characteristics. São Paulo, Brazil. Adults (n 1842) residing in the same census tracts (n 52) in São Paulo, Brazil as those where the neighbourhood-level measures were taken. FV availability in neighbourhoods was associated with regular FV consumption (≥5 times/week; prevalence ratio=1·41; 95 % CI 1·19, 1·67). Regular FV consumption prevalence was significantly lower among lower-income individuals living in neighbourhoods with fewer supermarkets and fresh produce markets (P-interaction <0·05). A greater variety of SSB was associated with a 15 % increase in regular SSB consumption (≥5 times/week) prevalence, after adjustment for confounding variables. Our findings suggest that the local retail food environment is associated with FV and SSB consumption in a Brazilian urban sample.

  9. Efflux pump-mediated benzalkonium chloride resistance in Listeria monocytogenes isolated from retail food.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Xiaobing; Yu, Tao; Liang, Yu; Ji, Shengdong; Guo, Xiaowei; Ma, Jianmin; Zhou, Lijun

    2016-01-18

    In this study, efflux pump-mediated benzalkonium chloride (BC) resistance, including plasmid-encoded (Qac protein family and BcrABC) and chromosome-borne efflux pumps, was investigated in Listeria monocytogenes from retail food in China. Among the 59 L. monocytogenes strains, 13 (22.0%) strains were resistant to BC. The PCR results showed that bcrABC was harbored by 2 of 13 BC resistant strains. However, none of the qac genes were detected among the 59 strains. The bcrABC was absent in both of the plasmid cured strains, indicating that this BC resistance determinant was plasmid-encoded in the two bcrABC-positive strains. In the presence of reserpine, most of the bcrABC-negative strains had decreases in the MICs of BC, suggesting the existence of other efflux pumps and their role in BC resistance. After exposed to reserpine, the reduction in BC MICs was observed in the two cured strains, indicating that efflux pumps located on chromosome was also involved in BC resistance. Our findings suggest that food products may act as reservoirs for BC resistant isolates of L. monocytogenes and plasmid- and chromosome-encoded efflux pumps could mediate the BC resistance of L. monocytogenes, which is especially relevant to the adaption of this organism in food-related environments with frequent BC use.

  10. Identification and antimicrobial susceptibility of lactic acid bacteria from retail fermented foods.

    PubMed

    Ge, Beilei; Jiang, Ping; Han, Feifei; Saleh, Nasreen K; Dhiman, Nivedita; Fedorko, Daniel P; Nelson, Nancy A; Meng, Jianghong

    2007-11-01

    One important safety criterion of using lactic acid bacteria (LAB) in food applications is to ensure that they do not carry transferable antimicrobial resistance (AR) determinants. In this study, 63 LAB belonging to six genera, Streptococcus, Lactobacillus, Lactococcus, Enterococcus, Leuconostoc, and Pediococcus, were recovered from 28 retail fermented food products in Maryland, identified to species with 16S-23S rRNA spacer PCRs, and characterized for antimicrobial susceptibility against eight antimicrobials. Besides intrinsic resistance to ciprofloxacin or vancomycin in some lactobacilli, tetracycline resistance was observed in two Streptococcus thermophilus isolates from one cheese and one sour cream sample and was associated with the presence of a nonconjugative tet(S) gene. The results indicated a low level of AR among naturally occurring and starter LAB cultures in fermented dairy and meat products in the United States; therefore, the probability for foodborne LAB to serve as reservoirs of AR is low. Further studies involving a larger sample size are needed to assess the potential risk of AR gene transfer from LAB in fermented food products.

  11. Aflatoxin and ochratoxin A contamination of retail foods and intake of these mycotoxins in Japan.

    PubMed

    Kumagai, S; Nakajima, M; Tabata, S; Ishikuro, E; Tanaka, T; Norizuki, H; Itoh, Y; Aoyama, K; Fujita, K; Kai, S; Sato, T; Saito, S; Yoshiike, N; Sugita-Konishi, Y

    2008-09-01

    A survey was undertaken of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1), B2 (AFB2), G1 (AFG1), G2 (AFG2), ochratoxin A (OTA), and fumonisin B1 (FB1), B2 (FB2) and B3 (FB3) contamination of various retail foods in Japan during 2004-05. The mycotoxins were analysed by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (LC/MS) or high-performance thin-layer chromatography (HPTLC). Aflatoxins (AFs) were detected in ten of 21 peanut butter and in 22 of 44 bitter chocolate samples; the highest level of AFB1, 2.59 microg kg(-1), was found in peanut butter. Aflatoxin contamination was not observed in corn products (n = 55), corn (n = 110), peanuts (n = 120), buckwheat flour (n = 23), dried buckwheat noodles (n = 59), rice (n = 83) or sesame oil (n = 20). OTA was detected in 120 out of 192 samples of oatmeal, wheat flour, rye, buckwheat flour, raw coffee, roasted coffee, raisin, beer, wine and bitter chocolate, but not in rice or corn products. OTA levels in the positive samples were below 13 microg kg(-1). AFs and OTA intakes through the consumption of foods containing cacao were estimated using the data for mycotoxin contamination in bitter chocolate and those for the consumption of foods containing cacao in Japan.

  12. Robustness of an Intermittent Program of Comparative Retail Food Price Information.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dahlgran, Roger A.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    The distribution of food item prices was compared across Tucson-area stores and to a local newspaper's annual price survey. Price distributions for national brands and cheapest alternative brands coincided closely with the newspaper report, suggesting that comparative food-store price reports provide useful information to consumers. (SK)

  13. Quantitative exposure model for the transmission of norovirus in retail food preparation.

    PubMed

    Mokhtari, Amirhossein; Jaykus, Lee-Ann

    2009-07-31

    It is widely recognized that the human noroviruses (HuNoV) are responsible for a large proportion of the world's foodborne disease burden. These viruses are transmitted by human fecal contamination and frequently make their way into foods because of poor personal hygiene of infected food handlers. This paper describes a probabilistic exposure assessment which models the dynamics of the transmission of HuNoV in the retail food preparation environment. Key inputs included degree of fecal shedding, hand hygiene behaviors, efficacy of virus removal and/or inactivation, and transferability of virus between surfaces. The model has a temporal dimension allowing contamination to be estimated as a function of time over the simulation period. Sensitivity and what-if scenario analyses were applied to identify the most important model inputs and evaluate potential mitigation strategies. The key inputs affecting estimates of the number of infectious viruses present in contaminated food servings, given the current model structure and assumptions, were as follows: mass of feces on hands (m(FH)), concentration of virus in feces (nv(CF)), number of bathroom visits, degree of gloving compliance (p(WG)), hand-washing efficiency (HW(eff)), and hand-washing compliance (p(HW)). The model suggests that gloving and hand-washing compliance are most effective in controlling contamination of food products when practiced simultaneously. Moreover, the bathroom environment was identified as a major reservoir of HuNoV, even in the absence of an ill individual on site. This mathematical approach to modeling the transmission of gastrointestinal viruses should facilitate comparison of potential mitigations aimed at reducing the transmission of foodborne viruses.

  14. Listeria monocytogenes Prevalence and Characteristics in Retail Raw Foods in China

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Shi; Wu, Qingping; Zhang, Jumei; Chen, Moutong; Yan, Ze′an; Hu, Huijuan

    2015-01-01

    The prevalence and levels of Listeria monocytogenes in retail raw foods covering most provincial capitals in China were studied with testing of 1036 samples of vegetables, edible mushrooms, raw meat, aquatic products and quick-frozen products from September 2012 to January 2014. The total prevalence of Listeria monocytogenes was 20.0% (207/1036), and the most probable number (MPN) values of 65.7% of the positive samples ranged from 0.3 to 110 MPN/g. Geographical differences were observed in this survey, and the results of both qualitative and quantitative methods indicated that the levels in the samples from North China were higher than those in the samples from South China. A total of 248 isolates were analyzed, of which approximately half belonged to molecular serogroup 1/2a-3a (45.2%), followed by 1/2b-3b-7 (30.6%), 1/2c-3c (16.1%), 4b-4d-4e (5.2%) and 4a-4c (2.8%). Most of the isolates carried hly (100%), inlB (98.8%), inlA (99.6%), inlC (98.0%) and inlJ (99.2%), and 44.8% of the isolates were llsX-positive. Seventeen epidemic clones (ECs) were detected, with 7 strains belonging to ECI (2.8%) and 10 belonging to ECIII (4.03%). Resistance to clindamycin (46.8%) was commonly observed, and 59 strains (23.8%) were susceptible to all 14 tested antibiotics, whereas 84 (33.9%) showed an intermediate level of resistance or were resistant to two or more antibiotics, including 7 multi-resistant strains that exhibited resistance to more than 10 antibiotics. The data obtained in the present study provides useful information for assessment of the possible risk posed to Chinese consumers, and this information will have a significant public health impact in China. Furthermore, the presence of virulence markers, epidemic clones, as well as the antibiotic resistance amongst the isolates strongly implies that many of these strains might be capable of causing listeriosis, and more accurate treatment of human listeriosis with effective antibiotics should be considered. This

  15. Listeria monocytogenes Prevalence and Characteristics in Retail Raw Foods in China.

    PubMed

    Wu, Shi; Wu, Qingping; Zhang, Jumei; Chen, Moutong; Yan, Ze An; Hu, Huijuan

    2015-01-01

    The prevalence and levels of Listeria monocytogenes in retail raw foods covering most provincial capitals in China were studied with testing of 1036 samples of vegetables, edible mushrooms, raw meat, aquatic products and quick-frozen products from September 2012 to January 2014. The total prevalence of Listeria monocytogenes was 20.0% (207/1036), and the most probable number (MPN) values of 65.7% of the positive samples ranged from 0.3 to 110 MPN/g. Geographical differences were observed in this survey, and the results of both qualitative and quantitative methods indicated that the levels in the samples from North China were higher than those in the samples from South China. A total of 248 isolates were analyzed, of which approximately half belonged to molecular serogroup 1/2a-3a (45.2%), followed by 1/2b-3b-7 (30.6%), 1/2c-3c (16.1%), 4b-4d-4e (5.2%) and 4a-4c (2.8%). Most of the isolates carried hly (100%), inlB (98.8%), inlA (99.6%), inlC (98.0%) and inlJ (99.2%), and 44.8% of the isolates were llsX-positive. Seventeen epidemic clones (ECs) were detected, with 7 strains belonging to ECI (2.8%) and 10 belonging to ECIII (4.03%). Resistance to clindamycin (46.8%) was commonly observed, and 59 strains (23.8%) were susceptible to all 14 tested antibiotics, whereas 84 (33.9%) showed an intermediate level of resistance or were resistant to two or more antibiotics, including 7 multi-resistant strains that exhibited resistance to more than 10 antibiotics. The data obtained in the present study provides useful information for assessment of the possible risk posed to Chinese consumers, and this information will have a significant public health impact in China. Furthermore, the presence of virulence markers, epidemic clones, as well as the antibiotic resistance amongst the isolates strongly implies that many of these strains might be capable of causing listeriosis, and more accurate treatment of human listeriosis with effective antibiotics should be considered. This

  16. Isolation, molecular and phenotypic characterization, and antibiotic susceptibility of Cronobacter spp. from Brazilian retail foods.

    PubMed

    Brandão, Marcelo Luiz Lima; Umeda, Natália Scudeller; Jackson, Emily; Forsythe, Stephen James; de Filippis, Ivano

    2017-05-01

    Several Cronobacter species are opportunistic pathogens that cause infections in humans. The aim of this study was to detect Cronobacter spp. from 90 samples of retail foods in Brazil, and characterize the strains by phenotypic tests, molecular assays and antibiotic susceptibility. Three isolation methodologies were evaluated using different selective enrichments and the isolates were identified using Vitek 2.0, PCRs protocols, fusA allele sequencing and multilocus sequence typing (MLST). Thirty-eight samples (42.2%) contained Cronobacter spp., and the highest percentage was found in flours (66.7%, 20/30), followed by spices and herbs (36.7%, 11/30), and cereal mixes for children (23.3%, 7/30). The 45 isolates included four species: C. sakazakii (n = 37), C. malonaticus (n = 3), C. dublinensis (n = 3), and C. muytjensii (n = 2); that presented 20 different fusA alleles. MLST analysis revealed 32 sequence types (STs), 13 of which were newly identified. All strains were sensitive to all antibiotics (n = 10) tested. The combination of CSB/v enrichment with DFI plating was considered the most efficient for Cronobacter spp. isolation. This study revealed the presence of Cronobacter spp. in foods commercialized in Brazil and the isolates showed a high diversity after MLST analysis and included two strains of the C. sakazakii ST4 neonatal meningitic pathovar.

  17. A review of the incidence and transmission of Listeria monocytogenes in ready-to-eat products in retail and food service environments.

    PubMed

    Lianou, Alexandra; Sofos, John N

    2007-09-01

    Contamination of ready-to-eat products with Listeria monocytogenes may occur at several stages before consumption. Accessibility to the public and relatively limited control interventions at retail and food service establishments (compared with the processing sector of the food industry) and the lack of a specific regulatory framework increase the likelihood of introduction of this pathogen into some foods in these establishments. This review is a compilation of available information on the incidence and transmission of L. monocytogenes through ready-to-eat products at the retail and food service level. The potential transmission of L. monocytogenes within retail and food service operations has been indicated in epidemiological investigations and by survey data. Potential sources of the organism in these operations include the environment, food handlers, and incoming raw ingredients or processed products that have become contaminated after the lethality treatment at the manufacturing facility. L. monocytogenes may be present at retail and food service establishments in various ready-to-eat products, both prepackaged and those packaged in the store, and occasionally at high concentrations. This issue dictates the need for development and application of effective control measures, and potential control approaches are discussed here. Good manufacturing practices, appropriate cleaning, sanitation and hygiene programs, and temperature control required for prevention or inhibition of growth of the pathogen to high levels are critical for control of L. monocytogenes in the retail and food service sector. A comprehensive food safety system designed to be functional in retail and food service operations and based on the philosophy of hazard analysis and critical control point systems and a series of sound prerequisite programs can provide effective control of L. monocytogenes in these environments. However, competent delivery of food safety education and training to retail

  18. Development of sample handling procedures for foods under USDA’s National Food and Nutrient Analysis Program

    PubMed Central

    Trainer, D.; Pehrsson, P.R.; Haytowitz, D.B.; Holden, J.M.; Phillips, K.M.; Rasor, A.S.; Conley, N.A.

    2010-01-01

    The National Food and Nutrient Analysis Program (NFNAP) was implemented in 1997 to update and improve the quality of food composition data maintained by the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA). NFNAP was designed to sample and analyze frequently consumed foods in the U.S. food supply using statistically rigorous sampling plans, established sample handling procedures, and qualified analytical laboratories. Methods for careful handling of food samples from acquisition to analysis were developed to ensure the integrity of the samples and subsequent generation of accurate nutrient values. The infrastructure of NFNAP, under which over 1500 foods have been sampled, mandates tested sample handling protocols for a wide variety of foods. The majority of these foods were categorized into several major areas: 1) frozen foods; 2) fresh produce and/or highly perishable foods requiring refrigeration; 3) fast foods and prepared foods; 4) shelf-stable foods; 5) specialized study and non-retail (point of production) foods; and 6) foods from remote areas (e.g. American Indian reservations). This paper describes the sample handling approaches, from the collection and receipt of the food items to the preparation of the analytical samples, with emphasis on the strategies developed for those foods. It provides a foundation for developing sample handling protocols of foods to be analyzed under NFNAP and for other researchers working on similar projects. PMID:21516233

  19. The influence of the WIC food package changes on the retail food environment in New Orleans.

    PubMed

    Rose, Donald; O'Malley, Keelia; Dunaway, Lauren Futrell; Bodor, J Nicholas

    2014-01-01

    To examine the effect of the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) food package changes on availability of healthy foods in small stores. Pre-post comparison group design with repeat in-store observations. New Orleans. Small stores (n = 102; 77% of total) were visited in 2009. Of these, 91% were observed again in 2010, including both WIC (n = 27) and non-WIC (n = 66) stores. The 2009 WIC food package changes to include healthier foods. Change in store availability of fruits, vegetables, lower-fat milks, whole wheat bread, and brown rice. Change in number of varieties and shelf length of fruits and vegetables. Difference-in-differences analysis using logit models for change in availability and regression models for change in number of varieties or shelf length. The WIC stores were more likely to improve availability of lower-fat milks than non-WIC stores (adjusted odds ratio, 5.0, 95% confidence interval, 1.2-21.0). An even greater relative improvement was seen with whole grains. The WIC stores showed a relative increase in number of varieties of fresh fruits (0.9 ± 0.3; P < .01) and shelf length of vegetables (1.2 ± 0.4 meters; P < .01). Results suggest that WIC changes improved the availability of healthy foods in small stores in New Orleans. Similar changes throughout the country could have a significant impact on neighborhood food environments. Copyright © 2014 Society for Nutrition Education and Behavior. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Prevalence and characterization of methicillin susceptible Staphylococcus aureus ST398 isolates from retail foods.

    PubMed

    Li, Guanghui; Wu, Congming; Wang, Xin; Meng, Jianghong

    2015-03-02

    In this study, we explored the prevalence of Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) ST398 in retail foods and then investigated for their virulence and antimicrobial resistance genetic background. Fourteen out of 5103 (0.27%) samples were positive for methicillin susceptible S. aureus (MSSA) ST398. Resistance was most frequently observed to penicillin (PEN) (100%), followed by trimethoprim (TMP), erythromycin (ERY) and ampicillin (AMP) (each 86.7%), clindamycin (CLD, 80.0%), and tetracycline (TET, 26.7%). All ST398 isolates were susceptible to amikacin, chloramphenicol, cefoxitin, gentamicin, oxacillin, and vancomycin. Two predominant resistance patterns including TMP-ERY-CLD-PEN-AMP (60.0%) and TMP-ERY-TET-CLD-PEN-AMP (20.0%) were identified. Isolates harbored blaZ (86.7%) gene, followed by tet(L) and linA/linA' (each 46.7%), ermB and msrA (each 33.3%), aph(3')-IIIa and dfrK (each 26.7%), tet(K) (20.0%), ant(4')-Ia, ermA and emrC (each 13.3%) and cat::pC221 (6.7%). No isolate carried mecA, tet(M), tet(O), fexA, aac(6')/aph(2″), cfr, ermT, msrB, cat::pC194, cat::pC223, catpIp-501, dfrD, dfrG and dfrS1 genes. For virulence genes, hld (73.3%), seb and sed (each 66.7%), hla (60.0%), lukPV (33.3%), sej (26.7%), lukED and seg (each 3.3%) were detected. None of isolates contained sea, sec, see, seh, sei, tst, eta, etb, sek-ser, seu, lukM, hlg, and hlgv genes. Four spa types were found, including t571 (6/15), t034 (4/15), t2876 (3/15) and t1250 (2/15). All strains were non-typeable for agr locus. Our findings indicated that MSSA ST398 isolates had a low prevalence rate in retail foods, and these isolates harbored multiple virulence and antimicrobial resistance genes, and exhibited multiple antimicrobial resistance. Further studies are required to elucidate the possible role of MSSA ST398 as a source of human infection.

  1. Proximity of food retailers to schools and rates of overweight ninth grade students: an ecological study in California.

    PubMed

    Howard, Philip H; Fitzpatrick, Margaret; Fulfrost, Brian

    2011-01-31

    The prevalence of obesity and overweight in youth has increased dramatically since the 1980s, and some researchers hypothesize that increased consumption of low-nutrient, energy-dense foods is a key contributor. The potential importance of food retailers near schools has received increasing attention, but public health research and policy has focused primarily on fast food restaurants. Less is known about the relationship between overweight/obesity and other types of retailers. This study aims to investigate the potential associations between nearby 1) fast food restaurants, 2) convenience stores, and 3) supermarkets, and rates of overweight students in California schools. We examined the rate of overweight ninth grade students in public schools in 2007 using linear regression. The percentage of overweight students per school was determined by a state required physical fitness test, with three different options for measuring individual body composition. Our key independent variables were the presence of three different types of retailers within 800 m network buffers of the schools. Additional independent variables included school ethnic, gender and socioeconomic composition, as well as urban/non-urban location. We obtained the data from the California Department of Education and ESRI, Inc. The presence of a convenience store within a 10-minute walking distance of a school was associated with a higher rate of overweight students than schools without nearby convenience stores, after controlling for all school-level variables in the regression (1.2%, 95% confidence interval 0.03, 2.36). Nearby fast food restaurants and supermarkets, however, were not associated with school rates of overweight students. Public health researchers and policy-makers interested in the food environments outside schools should expand their recent focus on nearby fast food restaurants to include convenience stores, which may also be important sources of low-nutrient, energy-dense foods for

  2. Proximity of food retailers to schools and rates of overweight ninth grade students: an ecological study in California

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The prevalence of obesity and overweight in youth has increased dramatically since the 1980s, and some researchers hypothesize that increased consumption of low-nutrient, energy-dense foods is a key contributor. The potential importance of food retailers near schools has received increasing attention, but public health research and policy has focused primarily on fast food restaurants. Less is known about the relationship between overweight/obesity and other types of retailers. This study aims to investigate the potential associations between nearby 1) fast food restaurants, 2) convenience stores, and 3) supermarkets, and rates of overweight students in California schools. Methods We examined the rate of overweight ninth grade students in public schools in 2007 using linear regression. The percentage of overweight students per school was determined by a state required physical fitness test, with three different options for measuring individual body composition. Our key independent variables were the presence of three different types of retailers within 800 m network buffers of the schools. Additional independent variables included school ethnic, gender and socioeconomic composition, as well as urban/non-urban location. We obtained the data from the California Department of Education and ESRI, Inc. Results The presence of a convenience store within a 10-minute walking distance of a school was associated with a higher rate of overweight students than schools without nearby convenience stores, after controlling for all school-level variables in the regression (1.2%, 95% confidence interval 0.03, 2.36). Nearby fast food restaurants and supermarkets, however, were not associated with school rates of overweight students. Conclusions Public health researchers and policy-makers interested in the food environments outside schools should expand their recent focus on nearby fast food restaurants to include convenience stores, which may also be important sources of

  3. The availability of electronic cigarettes in U.S. retail outlets, 2012: results of two national studies.

    PubMed

    Rose, Shyanika W; Barker, Dianne C; D'Angelo, Heather; Khan, Tamkeen; Huang, Jidong; Chaloupka, Frank J; Ribisl, Kurt M

    2014-07-01

    Since their introduction in 2007, electronic cigarette ('e-cigarette') awareness and use has grown rapidly. Little is known about variation in e-cigarette availability across areas with different levels of tobacco taxes and smoke-free air policies. This paper looks at US retail availability of e-cigarettes and factors at the store, neighbourhood and policy levels associated with it. In-person store audit data collected in 2012 came from two national samples of tobacco retailers in the contiguous US. Study 1 collected data from a nationally representative sample of tobacco retailers (n=2165). Study 2 collected data from tobacco retailers located in school enrolment zones for nationally representative samples of 8th, 10th and 12th grade public school students (n=2526). In 2012, e-cigarette retail availability was 34% in study 1 and 31% in study 2. Tobacco, pharmacy and gas/convenience stores were more likely to sell e-cigarettes than beer/wine/liquor stores. Retail availability of e-cigarettes was more likely in neighbourhoods with higher median household income (study 1), and lower percent of African-American (studies 1 and 2) and Hispanic residents (study 2). Price of traditional cigarettes was inversely related to e-cigarette availability. Stores in states with an American Lung Association Smoke-Free Air grade of F (study 1) or D (study 2) compared with A had increased likelihood of having e-cigarettes. Currently, e-cigarette availability appears more likely in areas with weak tax and smoke-free air policies. Given the substantial availability of e-cigarettes at tobacco retailers nationwide, states and localities should monitor the sales and marketing of e-cigarettes at point of sale (POS). Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  4. Integrating expert knowledge in a GIS to optimize siting decisions for small-scale healthy food retail interventions.

    PubMed

    Sadler, Richard Casey

    2016-06-16

    The availability of healthy foods in a neighborhood remains a key determinant of diet and diet-related disease in disadvantaged communities. Innovative solutions to the 'food desert' problem include the deployment of mobile markets and healthy corner store initiatives. Such initiatives, however, do not always capitalize on the principles guiding retail development and the possibilities of GIS-based data. Simultaneously, community partners are not always engaged effectively in the planning for such interventions, which limits acceptability and suitability of such work. This paper highlights the results of a participatory mapping exercise to optimize the siting of a planned healthy food retail intervention in Flint, Michigan. Potential sites are chosen by engaging experts in a three-stage mapping process that includes the analytic hierarchy process and point allocation of five key variables (including food access, socioeconomic distress, population density, access to transit, and proximity to neighborhood centers), as well as direct mapping of suitable sites. Results suggest a discrete set of areas-primarily in the northwestern quadrant of the city-where small-scale healthy food retail interventions might be most strategically located. Areas with the most consistent overlap between directly mapped sites and very high levels of suitability align well with neighborhoods which are distant from existing grocery stores. As a community-based strategy, this increases the opportunity for effectively improving neighborhood access to healthy foods by optimizing the potential sites for healthy food interventions. Community partners have already been active in using these results in project planning for just such an intervention.

  5. Occurrence of aflatoxins, ochratoxin A, and fumonisins in retail foods in Japan.

    PubMed

    Sugita-Konishi, Yoshiko; Nakajima, Masahiro; Tabata, Setsuko; Ishikuro, Eiichi; Tanaka, Toshitsugu; Norizuki, Hiroko; Itoh, Yoshinori; Aoyama, Koji; Fujita, Kazuhiro; Kai, Shigemi; Kumagai, Susumu

    2006-06-01

    We conducted a survey of aflatoxin B1, B2, G1, and G2, ochratoxin A, and fumonisin B1, B2, and B3 contamination in various foods on the retail market in Japan in 2004 and 2005. The mycotoxins were analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography, liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry, or high-performance thin-layer chromatography. Aflatoxins were detected in 10 of 21 peanut butter samples; the highest concentration of aflatoxin B1 was 2.59 microg/kg. Aflatoxin contamination was not found in corn products, corn, peanuts, buckwheat flour, dried buckwheat noodles, rice, or sesame oil. Ochratoxin A was detected in oatmeal, wheat flour, rye, buckwheat flour, green coffee beans, roasted coffee beans, raisins, beer, and wine but not in rice or corn products. Ochratoxin A concentrations in contaminated samples were below 0.8 microg/kg. Fumonisins were detected in popcorn, frozen corn, corn flakes, and corn grits. The highest concentrations of fumonisins B1, B2, and B3 in these samples were 354.0, 94.0, and 64.0 microg/kg, respectively.

  6. Four-year surveillance for ochratoxin a and fumonisins in retail foods in Japan.

    PubMed

    Aoyama, Koji; Nakajima, Masahiro; Tabata, Setsuko; Ishikuro, Eiichi; Tanaka, Toshitsugu; Norizuki, Hiroko; Itoh, Yoshinori; Fujita, Kazuhiro; Kai, Shigemi; Tsutsumi, Toru; Takahashi, Masanori; Tanaka, Hiroki; Iizuka, Seiichiro; Ogiso, Motoki; Maeda, Mamoru; Yamaguchi, Shigeaki; Sugiyama, Kei-Ichi; Sugita-Konishi, Yoshiko; Kumagai, Susumu

    2010-02-01

    Between 2004 and 2007 we examined foods from Japanese retail shops for contamination with ochratoxin A (OTA) and fumonisins B(1), B(2), and B(3). A total of 1,358 samples of 27 different products were examined for OTA, and 831 samples of 16 different products were examined for fumonisins. The limits of quantification ranged from 0.01 to 0.5 microg/kg for OTA and 2 to 10 microg/kg for the fumonisins. OTA was detected in amounts higher than limits of quantification in wheat flour, pasta, oatmeal, rye, buckwheat flour and dried buckwheat noodles, raisins, wine, beer, coffee beans and coffee products, chocolate, cocoa, and coriander. OTA was found in more than 90% of the samples of instant coffee and cocoa, and the highest concentration of OTA, 12.5 microg/kg, was detected in raisins. The concentration of OTA in oatmeal, rye, raisins, wine, and roasted coffee beans varied remarkably from year to year. Fumonisins were detected in frozen and canned corn, popcorn grain, corn grits, cornflakes, corn soups, corn snacks, beer, soybeans, millet, and asparagus. The highest concentrations of fumonisins B(1), B(2), and B(3) were detected in corn grits (1,670, 597, and 281 microg/kg, respectively). All of the samples of corn grits were contaminated with fumonisins, and more than 80% of the samples of popcorn grain and corn snacks contained fumonisins. OTA and fumonisins were detected in several food products in Japan; however, although Japan has not set regulatory levels for these mycotoxins, their concentrations were relatively low.

  7. Is the Nutrition North Canada retail subsidy program meeting the goal of making nutritious and perishable food more accessible and affordable in the North?

    PubMed

    Galloway, Tracey

    2014-08-21

    The Nutrition North Canada program is a federal retail subsidy designed to make nutritious, perishable food more widely available and affordable in northern communities. Implemented in April 2011, Nutrition North replaced the Food Mail freight subsidy long used to offset the high cost of transporting perishable food to remote towns and villages lacking year-round road access. An examination of program and government reporting to date reveals little evidence that Nutrition North is meeting its goal of improving the availability and affordability of nutritious food. The fiscal reporting and food costing tools used by the program are insufficiently detailed to evaluate the accuracy of community subsidy rates and the degree to which retailers are passing on the subsidy to consumers. Action is needed to modify the program reporting structure to achieve greater accountability among retailers, and lower and more consistent food pricing across northern communities.

  8. Added sugar in the packaged foods and beverages available at a major Canadian retailer in 2015: a descriptive analysis

    PubMed Central

    Acton, Rachel B.; Vanderlee, Lana; Hobin, Erin P.; Hammond, David

    2017-01-01

    Background: Excess consumption of added sugars has been associated with a variety of health problems, but there is little information available characterizing added sugar in the Canadian food supply. This study examined the presence and types of added sugars in the packaged food and beverage products available at a major Canadian grocery retailer. Methods: We searched the ingredients lists of over 40 000 packaged food products available for sale in March 2015 for a variety of added sugar terms. Proportions of food products containing added sugar were identified overall and within food product categories. Differences in total sugar content were identified between food products with and without added sugar. Results: Overall, 66% of the packaged food products analyzed contained at least 1 added sugar. The added sugar term "sugar" (and its variations) appeared the most frequently, followed by "dextrose." Added sugar presence and total sugar content varied within many product categories but were consistently higher in expected categories such as "beverages." Mean total sugar content was significantly higher in products with added sugar than in those without, both overall (p < 0.001) and within most product subcategories (p < 0.02). Interpretation: About two-thirds of the packaged foods and beverages available at a major Canadian grocery retailer contain added sugar, similar to recent patterns estimated for the US food supply. The results provide an estimation of the baseline characterization of added sugar in the Canadian food supply, which can be used to assess outcomes of future changes to sugar labelling policies in Canada. PMID:28401111

  9. Occurrence and Characterization of Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) in Retail Ready-to-Eat Foods in China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shuhong; Wu, Qingping; Zhang, Jumei; Zhu, Xuemei

    2016-01-01

    Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) is an important foodborne pathogen that potentially causes infant and adult diarrhea. The occurrence and characteristics of EPEC in retail ready-to-eat (RTE) foods have not been thoroughly investigated in China. This study aimed to investigate EPEC occurrence in retail RTE foods sold in the markets of China and to characterize the isolated EPEC by serotyping, virulence gene analyses, antibiotic susceptibility test, and molecular typing based on enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus-polymerase chain reaction (ERIC-PCR). From May 2012 to April 2013, 459 RTE food samples were collected from retail markets in 24 cities of China. E. coli in general, and EPEC specifically, were detected in 144 (31.4%) and 39 (8.5%) samples, respectively. Cold vegetable in sauce was the food type most frequently contaminated with EPEC (18.6%). Of 39 EPEC isolates, 38 were atypical EPEC (eae+) and 1 was typical EPEC (eae+bfpA+) by multiplex PCR assays. The virulence genes espA, espB, tir, and iha were detected in 12, 9, 2, and 1 of 39 isolates, respectively, while genes toxB, etpD, katP, and saa were not detected. O-antigen serotyping results showed that among 28 typeable isolates, the most common serotype was O119, followed by O26, O111, and O128. Many isolates were resistant to tetracycline (64.1%; 25/39), ampicillin (48.7%; 19/39), and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (48.7%; 19/39). ERIC-PCR indicated high genetic diversity in EPEC strains, which classified 42 strains (39 isolates and 3 reference strains) into 32 different profiles with a discrimination index of 0.981. The findings of this study highlight the need for close surveillance of the RTE foods at the level of production, packaging, and storage to minimize risks of foodborne disease.

  10. The personal and general hygiene practices of food handlers in the delicatessen sections of retail outlets in South Africa.

    PubMed

    van Tonder, Izanne; Lues, Jan F R; Theron, Maria M

    2007-11-01

    This paper presents data on personal- and general-hygiene knowledge and practices among food handlers in the delicatessens of a major retail group in the Western Cape in South Africa. Food handlers were interviewed by means of a structured questionnaire. Although the majority of food handlers adhered to basic hygiene principles, there is definitely a need for proper and continuous training in personal and general hygiene, not only for food handlers, but also for management. The study reported here is of importance particularly in view of new local regulations governing the application of the hazard analysis and critical control point (HACCP) system. Management is responsible for the implementation of this system, and where supervision is not adequate, the manager of the outlet should intervene to ensure that staff conform to the requirements.

  11. Retail Commodity Intakes: Mean Amounts of Retail Commodities per Individual, 2007-08

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The table set includes national estimates in terms of mean gram amounts of retail commodities consumed per person estimated from the day 1 dietary intake data of 8,528 individuals, ages 2 years and over, in What We Eat In America, National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2007-2008 and Food ...

  12. Retail Commodity Intakes: Mean Amounts of Retail Commodities per Individual, 2005-06

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The table set includes national estimates in terms of mean gram amounts of retail commodities consumed per person estimated from the day 1 dietary intake data of 8,549 individuals, ages 2 years and over, in What We Eat In America, National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2005-2006 and Food ...

  13. Retail Commodity Intakes: Mean Amounts of Retail Commodities per Individual, 2003-04

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The table set includes national estimates in terms of mean gram amounts of retail commodities consumed per person estimated from the day 1 dietary intake data of 8,272 individuals, ages 2 years and over, in What We Eat In America, National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2003-2004 and Food ...

  14. Large scale food retailing as an intervention for diet and health: quasi-experimental evaluation of a natural experiment

    PubMed Central

    Cummins, S.; Petticrew, M.; Higgins, C.; Findlay, A.; Sparks, L.

    2005-01-01

    Design: Prospective quasi-experimental design comparing baseline and follow up data in an "intervention" community with a matched "comparison" community in Glasgow, UK. Participants: 412 men and women aged 16 or over for whom follow up data on fruit and vegetable consumption and GHQ-12 were available. Main outcome measures: Fruit and vegetable consumption in portions per day, poor self reported health, and poor psychological health (GHQ-12). Main results: Adjusting for age, sex, educational attainment, and employment status there was no population impact on daily fruit and vegetable consumption, self reported, and psychological health. There was some evidence for a net reduction in the prevalence of poor psychological health for residents who directly engaged with the intervention. Conclusions: Government policy has advocated using large scale food retailing as a social intervention to improve diet and health in poor communities. In contrast with a previous uncontrolled study this study did not find evidence for a net intervention effect on fruit and vegetable consumption, although there was evidence for an improvement in psychological health for those who directly engaged with the intervention. Although definitive conclusions about the effect of large scale retailing on diet and health in deprived communities cannot be drawn from non-randomised controlled study designs, evaluations of the impacts of natural experiments may offer the best opportunity to generate evidence about the health impacts of retail interventions in poor communities. PMID:16286490

  15. Life Cycle Inventory and Carbon and Water FoodPrint of Fruits and Vegetables: Application to a Swiss Retailer

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Food production and consumption is known to have significant environmental impacts. In the present work, the life cycle assessment methodology is used for the environmental assessment of an assortment of 34 fruits and vegetables of a large Swiss retailer, with the aim of providing environmental decision-support to the retailer and establishing life cycle inventories (LCI) also applicable to other case studies. The LCI includes, among others, seedling production, farm machinery use, fuels for the heating of greenhouses, irrigation, fertilizers, pesticides, storage and transport to and within Switzerland. The results show that the largest reduction of environmental impacts can be achieved by consuming seasonal fruits and vegetables, followed by reduction of transport by airplane. Sourcing fruits and vegetables locally is only a good strategy to reduce the carbon footprint if no greenhouse heating with fossil fuels is involved. The impact of water consumption depends on the location of agricultural production. For some crops a trade-off between the carbon footprint and the induced water stress is observed. The results were used by the retailer to support the purchasing decisions and improve the supply chain management. PMID:22309056

  16. Life cycle inventory and carbon and water FoodPrint of fruits and vegetables: application to a Swiss retailer.

    PubMed

    Stoessel, Franziska; Juraske, Ronnie; Pfister, Stephan; Hellweg, Stefanie

    2012-03-20

    Food production and consumption is known to have significant environmental impacts. In the present work, the life cycle assessment methodology is used for the environmental assessment of an assortment of 34 fruits and vegetables of a large Swiss retailer, with the aim of providing environmental decision-support to the retailer and establishing life cycle inventories (LCI) also applicable to other case studies. The LCI includes, among others, seedling production, farm machinery use, fuels for the heating of greenhouses, irrigation, fertilizers, pesticides, storage and transport to and within Switzerland. The results show that the largest reduction of environmental impacts can be achieved by consuming seasonal fruits and vegetables, followed by reduction of transport by airplane. Sourcing fruits and vegetables locally is only a good strategy to reduce the carbon footprint if no greenhouse heating with fossil fuels is involved. The impact of water consumption depends on the location of agricultural production. For some crops a trade-off between the carbon footprint and the induced water stress is observed. The results were used by the retailer to support the purchasing decisions and improve the supply chain management.

  17. Prevalence, levels, and relatedness of Listeria monocytogenes isolated from raw and ready-to-eat foods at retail markets in Culiacan, Sinaloa, Mexico

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The prevalence, levels, and relatedness of Listeria monocytogenes (LM) strains isolated from select raw and ready-to-eat (RTE) foods at retail markets in Culiacan, Sinaloa, Mexico were determined during 2011. LM was isolated from 26 (14.4%) of 180 food samples. Raw chicken breast showed the highest ...

  18. Pulsed-field gel electrophoretic analysis and some characteristics of Staphylococcus aureus isolated from retail foods and human hands.

    PubMed

    Shimamura, Yuko; Murata, Masatsune

    2011-01-01

    This study investigates whether there is a predominant Staphylococcus aureus strain in retail foods and healthy human hands, and examines the relationship between pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) banding patterns and the S. aureus characteristics of staphylococcal enterotoxin (SE) type, coagulase type, and β-lactamase activity. Ninety-four strains of S. aureus isolated from retail foods and healthy human hands were analyzed by PFGE. Several strains isolated from the same shop or a chain store showed identical patterns, indicating that the origins of these strains were identical. After excluding these strains showing identical patterns, 54 strains were used for the PFGE analysis. No spread of a particular clone in the environment surrounding the food was apparent. The PFGE analysis of these 54 strains was classified in 6 lineages (L1-L6). There was no relationship between the PFGE banding pattern and coagulase type or SE type. Eleven (84.6%) of the 13 isolates in PFGE banding pattern L5 did not produce β-lactamase, suggesting that the production of β-lactamase influenced a specific PFGE banding pattern.

  19. Do marginalized neighbourhoods have less healthy retail food environments? An analysis using Bayesian spatial latent factor and hurdle models.

    PubMed

    Luan, Hui; Minaker, Leia M; Law, Jane

    2016-08-22

    Findings of whether marginalized neighbourhoods have less healthy retail food environments (RFE) are mixed across countries, in part because inconsistent approaches have been used to characterize RFE 'healthfulness' and marginalization, and researchers have used non-spatial statistical methods to respond to this ultimately spatial issue. This study uses in-store features to categorize healthy and less healthy food outlets. Bayesian spatial hierarchical models are applied to explore the association between marginalization dimensions and RFE healthfulness (i.e., relative healthy food access that modelled via a probability distribution) at various geographical scales. Marginalization dimensions are derived from a spatial latent factor model. Zero-inflation occurring at the walkable-distance scale is accounted for with a spatial hurdle model. Neighbourhoods with higher residential instability, material deprivation, and population density are more likely to have access to healthy food outlets within a walkable distance from a binary 'have' or 'not have' access perspective. At the walkable distance scale however, materially deprived neighbourhoods are found to have less healthy RFE (lower relative healthy food access). Food intervention programs should be developed for striking the balance between healthy and less healthy food access in the study region as well as improving opportunities for residents to buy and consume foods consistent with dietary recommendations.

  20. A step-by-step approach to improve data quality when using commercial business lists to characterize retail food environments.

    PubMed

    Jones, Kelly K; Zenk, Shannon N; Tarlov, Elizabeth; Powell, Lisa M; Matthews, Stephen A; Horoi, Irina

    2017-01-07

    Food environment characterization in health studies often requires data on the location of food stores and restaurants. While commercial business lists are commonly used as data sources for such studies, current literature provides little guidance on how to use validation study results to make decisions on which commercial business list to use and how to maximize the accuracy of those lists. Using data from a retrospective cohort study [Weight And Veterans' Environments Study (WAVES)], we (a) explain how validity and bias information from existing validation studies (count accuracy, classification accuracy, locational accuracy, as well as potential bias by neighborhood racial/ethnic composition, economic characteristics, and urbanicity) were used to determine which commercial business listing to purchase for retail food outlet data and (b) describe the methods used to maximize the quality of the data and results of this approach. We developed data improvement methods based on existing validation studies. These methods included purchasing records from commercial business lists (InfoUSA and Dun and Bradstreet) based on store/restaurant names as well as standard industrial classification (SIC) codes, reclassifying records by store type, improving geographic accuracy of records, and deduplicating records. We examined the impact of these procedures on food outlet counts in US census tracts. After cleaning and deduplicating, our strategy resulted in a 17.5% reduction in the count of food stores that were valid from those purchased from InfoUSA and 5.6% reduction in valid counts of restaurants purchased from Dun and Bradstreet. Locational accuracy was improved for 7.5% of records by applying street addresses of subsequent years to records with post-office (PO) box addresses. In total, up to 83% of US census tracts annually experienced a change (either positive or negative) in the count of retail food outlets between the initial purchase and the final dataset. Our study

  1. Prevalence of Staphylococcus aureus and Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus in Retail Ready-to-Eat Foods in China

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Xiaojuan; Zhang, Jumei; Yu, Shubo; Wu, Qingping; Guo, Weipeng; Huang, Jiahui; Cai, Shuzhen

    2016-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus, particularly methicillin-resistant S.aureus (MRSA), is a life-threatening pathogen in humans, and its presence in food is a public health concern. MRSA has been identified in foods in China, but little information is available regarding MRSA in ready-to-eat (RTE) foods. We aimed to investigate the prevalence of S. aureus and MRSA in Chinese retail RTE foods. All isolated S. aureus were tested for antimicrobial susceptibility, and MRSA isolates were further characterized by multilocus sequence typing (MLST) and staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec) typing. Of the 550 RTE foods collected from 2011 to 2014, 69 (12.5%) were positive for S. aureus. Contamination levels were mostly in the range of 0.3–10 most probable number (MPN)/g, with five samples exceeding 10 MPN/g. Of the 69 S. aureus isolates, seven were identified as MRSA by cefoxitin disc diffusion test. Six isolates were mecA-positive, while no mecC-positive isolates were identified. In total, 75.8% (47/62) of the methicillin-susceptible S. aureus isolates and all of the MRSA isolates were resistant to three or more antibiotics. Amongst the MRSA isolates, four were identified as community-acquired strains (ST59-MRSA-IVa (n = 2), ST338-MRSA-V, ST1-MRSA-V), while one was a livestock-associated strain (ST9, harboring an unreported SCCmec type 2C2). One novel sequence type was identified (ST3239), the SCCmec gene of which could not be typed. Overall, our findings showed that Chinese retail RTE foods are likely vehicles for transmission of multidrug-resistant S. aureus and MRSA lineages. This is a serious public health risk and highlights the need to implement good hygiene practices. PMID:27375562

  2. How a routine checking of Escherichia coli in retailed food of animal origin can protect consumers against exposition to Campylobacter spp. and Listeria monocytogenes?

    PubMed

    Trajković-Pavlović, Ljiljana; Novaković, Budimka; Martinov-Cvejin, Mirjana; Gusman, Vera; Bijelović, Sanja; Dragnić, Natasa; Balać, Dragana

    2010-08-01

    According to the literature that has been published over the last two decades Campylobacter spp i Listeria monocitogens can be identified as causes of numerous diseases derived by consuming food of animal origin. The purpose of this paper was to find out how established national microbiological criteria of the Republic of Serbia on food safety in retailed food of animal origin could contribute to consumer's protection against exposition to foodborne pathogens such as Campylobacter spp. and Listeria monocytogenes. During a routine microbiological safety control of randomly selected 60 samples of fresh poultry meat, 30 samples of other fresh meat readymade for grilling, 30 samples of sausage products, 37 samples of heat-treated meat, 39 samples of toppings for fast food of animal origin and 31 samples of dairy products a national food safety criteria (Escherichia coli, aerobic plate count, Salmonella spp., coagulasa positive Staphylococcus, Proteus spp., sulphito-reducting Clostridia) were applied and, as well as, testing to Campylobacter spp. and Listeria monocitogens. In determination of Campylobacter spp. and Listeria monocytogenes, food quality control methods of the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) were applied, while in determination of the other above motioned bacteria, national provisions on microbiological methods were applied who are adjusted to the FAO ones. Related to the national criteria on microbiological food safety, 88 (38.8%) samples, out of the total 227 tested, were rejected. When to these results, the results of laboratory tests on Listeria monocytogens were added, a terminal number of rejected samples were not changed. When to these results, the results of Campylobacter spp. testing were added, 91 (40.1%) out of the 227 samples were unsatisfied. Results of logistic regression model with occurrence of Escherichia coli as dependent variable indicated that Escherichia coli was 4.5 times likely to occur among samples with Campylobacter spp

  3. 75 FR 55310 - Performance of Registration Functions by National Futures Association With Respect to Retail...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-10

    ... to off-exchange retail forex transactions.\\2\\ The ] Commodity Exchange Act (``Act''),\\3\\ as amended... participate in off-exchange forex contracts, who pool customer money for the purpose of trading off-exchange... counterparties to retail forex typically registered as FCMs, even though they may not have engaged in...

  4. Do the foods advertised in Australian supermarket catalogues reflect national dietary guidelines?

    PubMed

    Cameron, Adrian J; Sayers, Stacey J; Sacks, Gary; Thornton, Lukar E

    2015-09-16

    Unhealthy diets are the major contributor to poor health in Australia and many countries globally. The majority of food spending in Australia occurs in supermarkets, which stock and sell both healthy and unhealthy foods. This study aimed to compare the foods advertised in the marketing catalogues (circulars) from four Australian supermarket chains with the Australian Guide to Healthy Eating. The content of national online weekly supermarket catalogues from four major Australian supermarket retailers was audited from June-September 2013 (12 weeks). Advertised products were categorized as (i) foods in the five core food groups (plus water); (ii) discretionary foods plus fats and oils; (iii) alcohol and (iv) other (food not fitting into any other category). Across all chains combined, 34.2% of foods advertised were from the five core food groups, 43.3% were discretionary foods, 8.5% were alcohol and the remaining 14.0% were 'other' foods. The percentage of advertised foods in the five core food groups varied between 29.3 and 38.3% across the four chains, whereas the percentage of discretionary foods varied between 34.8 and 49.0%. Australian supermarket catalogues heavily promote discretionary foods and contribute towards an environment that supports unhealthy eating behaviour. Strategies to increase the ratio of healthy-to-unhealthy foods need to be explored as part of efforts to improve population diets.

  5. Fast Food Jobs. National Study of Fast Food Employment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Charner, Ivan; Fraser, Bryna Shore

    A study examined employment in the fast-food industry. The national survey collected data from employees at 279 fast-food restaurants from seven companies. Female employees outnumbered males by two to one. The ages of those fast-food employees in the survey sample ranged from 14 to 71, with fully 70 percent being in the 16- to 20-year-old age…

  6. Exploring the relationship between nature sounds, connectedness to nature, mood and willingness to buy sustainable food: A retail field experiment.

    PubMed

    Spendrup, Sara; Hunter, Erik; Isgren, Ellinor

    2016-05-01

    Nature sounds are increasingly used by some food retailers to enhance in-store ambiance and potentially even influence sustainable food choices. An in-store, 2 × 3 between-subject full factorial experiment conducted on 627 customers over 12 days tested whether nature sound directly and indirectly influenced willingness to buy (WTB) sustainable foods. The results show that nature sounds positively and directly influence WTB organic foods in groups of customers (men) that have relatively low initial intentions to buy. Indirectly, we did not find support for the effect of nature sound on influencing mood or connectedness to nature (CtN). However, we show that information on the product's sustainability characteristics moderates the relationship between CtN and WTB in certain groups. Namely, when CtN is high, sustainability information positively moderated WTB both organic and climate friendly foods in men. Conversely, when CtN was low, men expressed lower WTB organic and climate friendly foods than identical, albeit conventionally labelled products. Consequently, our study concludes that nature sounds might be an effective, yet subtle in-store tool to use on groups of consumers who might otherwise respond negatively to more overt forms of sustainable food information. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. The Neighborhood Energy Balance Equation: Does Neighborhood Food Retail Environment + Physical Activity Environment = Obesity? The CARDIA Study

    PubMed Central

    Boone-Heinonen, Janne; Diez-Roux, Ana V.; Goff, David C.; Loria, Catherine M.; Kiefe, Catarina I.; Popkin, Barry M.; Gordon-Larsen, Penny

    2013-01-01

    Background Recent obesity prevention initiatives focus on healthy neighborhood design, but most research examines neighborhood food retail and physical activity (PA) environments in isolation. We estimated joint, interactive, and cumulative impacts of neighborhood food retail and PA environment characteristics on body mass index (BMI) throughout early adulthood. Methods and Findings We used cohort data from the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) Study [n=4,092; Year 7 (24-42 years, 1992-1993) followed over 5 exams through Year 25 (2010-2011); 12,921 person-exam observations], with linked time-varying geographic information system-derived neighborhood environment measures. Using regression with fixed effects for individuals, we modeled time-lagged BMI as a function of food and PA resource density (counts per population) and neighborhood development intensity (a composite density score). We controlled for neighborhood poverty, individual-level sociodemographics, and BMI in the prior exam; and included significant interactions between neighborhood measures and by sex. Using model coefficients, we simulated BMI reductions in response to single and combined neighborhood improvements. Simulated increase in supermarket density (from 25th to 75th percentile) predicted inter-exam reduction in BMI of 0.09 kg/m2 [estimate (95% CI): -0.09 (-0.16, -0.02)]. Increasing commercial PA facility density predicted BMI reductions up to 0.22 kg/m2 in men, with variation across other neighborhood features [estimate (95% CI) range: -0.14 (-0.29, 0.01) to -0.22 (-0.37, -0.08)]. Simultaneous increases in supermarket and commercial PA facility density predicted inter-exam BMI reductions up to 0.31 kg/m2 in men [estimate (95% CI) range: -0.23 (-0.39, -0.06) to -0.31 (-0.47, -0.15)] but not women. Reduced fast food restaurant and convenience store density and increased public PA facility density and neighborhood development intensity did not predict reductions in BMI

  8. The neighborhood energy balance equation: does neighborhood food retail environment + physical activity environment = obesity? The CARDIA study.

    PubMed

    Boone-Heinonen, Janne; Diez-Roux, Ana V; Goff, David C; Loria, Catherine M; Kiefe, Catarina I; Popkin, Barry M; Gordon-Larsen, Penny

    2013-01-01

    Recent obesity prevention initiatives focus on healthy neighborhood design, but most research examines neighborhood food retail and physical activity (PA) environments in isolation. We estimated joint, interactive, and cumulative impacts of neighborhood food retail and PA environment characteristics on body mass index (BMI) throughout early adulthood. We used cohort data from the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) Study [n=4,092; Year 7 (24-42 years, 1992-1993) followed over 5 exams through Year 25 (2010-2011); 12,921 person-exam observations], with linked time-varying geographic information system-derived neighborhood environment measures. Using regression with fixed effects for individuals, we modeled time-lagged BMI as a function of food and PA resource density (counts per population) and neighborhood development intensity (a composite density score). We controlled for neighborhood poverty, individual-level sociodemographics, and BMI in the prior exam; and included significant interactions between neighborhood measures and by sex. Using model coefficients, we simulated BMI reductions in response to single and combined neighborhood improvements. Simulated increase in supermarket density (from 25(th) to 75(th) percentile) predicted inter-exam reduction in BMI of 0.09 kg/m(2) [estimate (95% CI): -0.09 (-0.16, -0.02)]. Increasing commercial PA facility density predicted BMI reductions up to 0.22 kg/m(2) in men, with variation across other neighborhood features [estimate (95% CI) range: -0.14 (-0.29, 0.01) to -0.22 (-0.37, -0.08)]. Simultaneous increases in supermarket and commercial PA facility density predicted inter-exam BMI reductions up to 0.31 kg/m(2) in men [estimate (95% CI) range: -0.23 (-0.39, -0.06) to -0.31 (-0.47, -0.15)] but not women. Reduced fast food restaurant and convenience store density and increased public PA facility density and neighborhood development intensity did not predict reductions in BMI. Findings suggest that

  9. Salt Content in Ready-to-Eat Food and Bottled Spring and Mineral Water Retailed in Novi Sad.

    PubMed

    Paplović, Ljiljana B Trajković; Popović, Milka B; Bijelović, Sanja V; Velicki, Radmila S; Torović, Ljilja D

    2015-01-01

    Salt intake above 5 g/person/day is a strong independent risk factor for hypertension, stroke and cardiovascular diseases. Published studies indicate that the main source of salt in human diet is processed ready-to-eat food, contributing with 65-85% to daily salt intake. The aim of this paper was to present data on salt content of ready-to-eat food retailed in Novi Sad, Serbia, and contribution of the salt contained in 100 g of food to the recommended daily intake of salt for healthy and persons with cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk. In 1,069 samples of ready-to-eat food, salt (sodium chloride) content was calculated based on chloride ion determined by titrimetric method, while in 54 samples of bottled water sodium content was determined using flame-photometry. Food items in each food group were categorized as low, medium or high salt. Average salt content of each food group was expressed as a percentage of recommended daily intake for healthy and for persons with CVD risk. Average salt content (g/100 g) ranged from 0.36 ± 0.48 (breakfast cereals) to 2.32 ± 1.02 (grilled meat). The vast majority of the samples of sandwiches (91.7%), pizza (80.7%), salami (73.9%), sausages (72.9%), grilled meat (70.0%) and hard cheese (69.6%) had a high salt profile. Average amount of salt contained in 100 g of food participated with levels ranging from 7.2% (breakfast cereals) to 46.4% (grilled meat) and from 9.6% to 61.8% in the recommended daily intake for healthy adult and person with CVD risk, respectively. Average sodium content in 100 ml of bottled spring and mineral water was 0.33 ± 0.30 mg and 33 ± 44 mg, respectively. Ready-to-eat food retailed in Novi Sad has high hidden salt content, which could be considered as an important contributor to relatively high salt consumption of its inhabitants.

  10. Prevalence and Characterization of Cronobacter sakazakii in Retail Milk-Based Infant and Baby Foods in Shaanxi, China.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhen; Ge, Wupeng; Li, Keting; Gan, Jing; Zhang, Yifan; Zhang, Qiang; Luo, Rong; Chen, Limin; Liang, Yi; Wang, Qianning; Xi, Meili; Xia, Xiaodong; Wang, Xin; Yang, Baowei

    2016-04-01

    Cronobacter sakazakii (formerly Enterobacter sakazakii) is an opportunistic pathogen that causes meningitis, sepsis, and necrotizing enterocolitis in neonates and infants through consumption of contaminated milk-based foods. In this study, the prevalence of C. sakazakii in 705 retail milk-based infant and baby food samples was investigated in 12 cities in Shaanxi, China, in 2010 and 2012. One hundred and nineteen samples (16.9%) were C. sakazakii positive. The isolates were further characterized for antimicrobial susceptibility to 14 antibiotics, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis profiles, and presence of the virulence genes. Samples of brand W, Y, A, and G in 2010 and 2012 were C. sakazakii positive. All isolates recovered in 2010 and 2012 were susceptible to levofloxacin and cefoperazone. In 2012, no isolate was resistant to gentamicin, cefoxitin, chloramphenicol, gatifloxacin, ciprofloxacin, and ceftriaxone. Antibiotic resistance of the isolates was most commonly found to rifampicin, amoxicillin-clavulanic acid, streptomycin, tetracycline, and ampicillin in both 2010 and 2012, except to trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole in 2012. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis profiles indicated that C. sakazakii isolates were genotypically diverse, although these isolates were prevalent in infant and baby foods with the same brand. A total of 34 virulence gene profiles of the C. sakazakii isolates in 2010 and 2012 were detected. Isolates that co-carried hly-ompX-eitCBAD-iucABCD/iutA genes in 2012 were significantly (p < 0.05) more prevalent than those in 2010. The results added new epidemiological evidence for the widespread occurrence of C. sakazakii in retail milk-based infant and baby foods and this should be an indicator of potential health risk for consumers.

  11. Migration from plasticized films into foods. 3. Migration of phthalate, sebacate, citrate and phosphate esters from films used for retail food packaging.

    PubMed

    Castle, L; Mercer, A J; Startin, J R; Gilbert, J

    1988-01-01

    A UK survey of plasticizer levels in retail foods (73 samples) wrapped in plasticized films or materials with plasticized coatings has been carried out. A wide range of different food-types packaged in vinylidene chloride copolymers (PVDC), nitrocellulose-coated regenerated cellulose film (RCF) and cellulose acetate were purchased from retail and 'take-away' outlets. Plasticizers found in these films were dibutyl sebacate (DBS) and acetyl tributyl citrate (ATBC) in PVDC, dibutyl phthalate (DBP), dicyclohexyl phthalate (DCHP), butylbenzyl phthalate (BBP), and diphenyl 2-ethylhexyl phosphate (DPOP) in RCF coatings, and diethyl phthlate (DEP) in cellulose acetate. Foodstuffs analysed included cheese, pate, chocolate and confectionery products, meat pies, cake, quiches and sandwiches. Analysis was by stable isotope dilution GC/MS for DBP, DCHP and DEP, GC/MS (selected ion monitoring) for BBP and DPOP, and GC with flame ionization detection for DBS and ATBC, but with mass spectrometric confirmation. Levels of plasticizers found in foods were in the following ranges: ATBC in cheese, 2-8 mg/kg; DBS in processed cheese and cooked meats, 76-137 mg/kg; 76-137 mg/kg; DBP, DCHP, BBP, and DPOP found individually or in combination in confectionery, meat pies, cake and sandwiches, total levels from 0.5 to 53 mg/kg; and DEP in quiches, 2-4 mg/kg.

  12. Characterization of extended-spectrum cephalosporin-resistant Salmonella enterica serovar Heidelberg isolated from food animals, retail meat, and humans in the United States 2009.

    PubMed

    Folster, J P; Pecic, G; Singh, A; Duval, B; Rickert, R; Ayers, S; Abbott, J; McGlinchey, B; Bauer-Turpin, J; Haro, J; Hise, K; Zhao, S; Fedorka-Cray, P J; Whichard, J; McDermott, P F

    2012-07-01

    Salmonella enterica is one of the most common causes of foodborne illness in the United States. Although salmonellosis is usually self-limiting, severe infections typically require antimicrobial treatment, and ceftriaxone, an extended-spectrum cephalosporin (ESC), is commonly used in both adults and children. Surveillance conducted by the National Antimicrobial Resistance Monitoring System (NARMS) has shown a recent increase in ESC resistance among Salmonella Heidelberg isolated from food animals at slaughter, retail meat, and humans. ESC resistance among Salmonella in the United States is usually mediated by a plasmid-encoded bla(CMY) β-lactamase. In 2009, we identified 47 ESC-resistant bla(CMY)-positive Heidelberg isolates from humans (n=18), food animals at slaughter (n=16), and retail meats (n=13) associated with a spike in the prevalence of this serovar. Almost 90% (26/29) of the animal and meat isolates were isolated from chicken carcasses or retail chicken meat. We screened NARMS isolates for the presence of bla(CMY), determined whether the gene was plasmid-encoded, examined pulsed-field gel electrophoresis patterns to assess the genetic diversities of the isolates, and categorized the bla(CMY) plasmids by plasmid incompatibility groups and plasmid multi-locus sequence typing (pMLST). All 47 bla(CMY) genes were found to be plasmid encoded. Incompatibility/replicon typing demonstrated that 41 were IncI1 plasmids, 40 of which only conferred bla(CMY)-associated resistance. Six were IncA/C plasmids that carried additional resistance genes. pMLST of the IncI1-bla(CMY) plasmids showed that 27 (65.8%) were sequence type (ST) 12, the most common ST among bla(CMY)-IncI1 plasmids from Heidelberg isolated from humans. Ten plasmids had a new ST profile, ST66, a type very similar to ST12. This work showed that the 2009 increase in ESC resistance among Salmonella Heidelberg was caused mainly by the dissemination of bla(CMY) on IncI1 and IncA/C plasmids in a variety of

  13. Hispanic immigrant women’s perspective on healthy foods and the New York City retail food environment: a mixed-method study

    PubMed Central

    Park, Yoosun; Quinn, James; Florez, Karen; Jacobson, Judith; Neckerman, Kathryn; Rundle, Andrew

    2011-01-01

    Much has been written about the role of dietary acculturation in the epidemic of obesity among Hispanic immigrants in the United States. Yet little is known about the role of beliefs and preferences in immigrants’ dietary practices and their relationship to the retail food environment in which the practices occur. We conducted a mixed-methods convergence study of these issues. Twenty eight foreign-born Hispanic adult women, recruited from families enrolled in a childhood asthma study and mainly living in New York City took part in 60–90 minute, semi-structured interviews regarding their dietary beliefs, preferences, and practices. The findings were then used to formulate hypotheses for analyses of food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) data collected from the 345 New York Hispanic women enrolled in the asthma study. Generalized estimating equations were used to determine whether characteristics of the retail food environment within 0.5 Km of the home predicted diet, adjusting for individual and neighborhood socio-demographic characteristics. In the interviews, healthy food was rarely discussed in terms of nutritional content. Instead, considerations of freshness, as indicated by time since harvest or slaughter and thus local sourcing; purity, as indicated by the absence of preservatives and processing; and naturalness, as indicated by chemical free farming practices, were the primary axes around which healthy food was defined. Quantitative results were consistent with the qualitative findings: 1) the presence of a farmers’ market within the home neighborhood was associated with consumption of more total servings per day of fruit, vegetables, and juice, and 2) the presence of a farmers’ market and/or a livestock market was associated with consumption of more servings per day of meat. Proximity to supermarkets or medium-sized grocery stores was not associated with consumption. The results suggest that the availability of fresh produce and meat from local farms

  14. 7 CFR 278.7 - Determination and disposition of claims-retail food stores and wholesale food concerns.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... accepted or redeemed coupons in violation of the Food Stamp Act or this part regardless of whether the firms or entities are authorized to accept food stamps. If a firm fails to pay a claim, FNS may collect... Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FOOD STAMP AND FOOD DISTRIBUTION...

  15. 7 CFR 278.7 - Determination and disposition of claims-retail food stores and wholesale food concerns.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... accepted or redeemed coupons in violation of the Food Stamp Act or this part regardless of whether the firms or entities are authorized to accept food stamps. If a firm fails to pay a claim, FNS may collect... Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FOOD STAMP AND FOOD DISTRIBUTION...

  16. 7 CFR 278.7 - Determination and disposition of claims-retail food stores and wholesale food concerns.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... accepted or redeemed coupons in violation of the Food Stamp Act or this part regardless of whether the firms or entities are authorized to accept food stamps. If a firm fails to pay a claim, FNS may collect... Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FOOD STAMP AND FOOD DISTRIBUTION...

  17. 7 CFR 278.7 - Determination and disposition of claims-retail food stores and wholesale food concerns.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... accepted or redeemed coupons in violation of the Food Stamp Act or this part regardless of whether the firms or entities are authorized to accept food stamps. If a firm fails to pay a claim, FNS may collect... Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FOOD STAMP AND FOOD DISTRIBUTION...

  18. 7 CFR 278.7 - Determination and disposition of claims-retail food stores and wholesale food concerns.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... accepted or redeemed coupons in violation of the Food Stamp Act or this part regardless of whether the firms or entities are authorized to accept food stamps. If a firm fails to pay a claim, FNS may collect... Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FOOD STAMP AND FOOD DISTRIBUTION...

  19. Characterizing the food retail environment: impact of count, type, and geospatial error in 2 secondary data sources.

    PubMed

    Liese, Angela D; Barnes, Timothy L; Lamichhane, Archana P; Hibbert, James D; Colabianchi, Natalie; Lawson, Andrew B

    2013-01-01

    Commercial listings of food retail outlets are increasingly used by community members and food policy councils and in multilevel intervention research to identify areas with limited access to healthier food. This study quantified the amount of count, type, and geospatial error in 2 commercial data sources. InfoUSA and Dun and Bradstreet were compared with a validated field census and validity statistics were calculated. Considering only completeness, Dun and Bradstreet data undercounted 24% of existing supermarkets and grocery stores, and InfoUSA, 29%. In addition, considering accuracy of outlet type assignment increased the undercount error to 42% and 39%, respectively. Marked overcount existed as well, and only 43% of existing supermarkets were correctly identified with respect to presence, outlet type, and location. Relying exclusively on secondary data to characterize the food environment will result in substantial error. Whereas extensive data cleaning can offset some error, verification of outlets with a field census is still the method of choice. Copyright © 2013 Society for Nutrition Education and Behavior. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Characterizing the Food Retail Environment: Impact of Count, Type and Geospatial Error in Two Secondary Data Sources

    PubMed Central

    Liese, Angela D.; Barnes, Timothy L.; Lamichhane, Archana P.; Hibbert, James D.; Colabianchi, Natalie; Lawson, Andrew B.

    2013-01-01

    Objective Commercial listings of food retail outlets are increasingly used by community members, food policy councils, and in multi-level intervention research to identify areas with limited access to healthier food. This study quantified the amount of count, type and geospatial error in two commercial data sources. Methods InfoUSA and Dun & Bradstreet (D&B) were compared to a validated field census and validity statistics calculated. Results Considering only completeness, D&B data undercounted 24% of existing supermarkets and grocery stores and InfoUSA 29%. Additionally, considering accuracy of outlet type assignment increased the undercount error to 42% and 39%, respectively. Marked overcount existed as well and only 43% of existing supermarkets were correctly identified with respect to presence, outlet type, and location. Conclusions and Implications Relying exclusively on secondary data to characterize the food environment will result in substantial error. While extensive data cleaning can offset some error, verification of outlets with a field census is still the method of choice. PMID:23582231

  1. Antimicrobial susceptibility and molecular typing of methicillin-resistant staphylococcus aureus in retail foods in Shaanxi, China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xin; Li, Guanghui; Xia, Xiaodong; Yang, Baowei; Xi, Meili; Meng, Jianghong

    2014-04-01

    The aims of this study were to evaluate the occurrence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in retail foods in Shaanxi, China and to investigate antimicrobial resistance and molecular characteristics of these strains. A total of 1979 retail food samples were randomly collected during 2008-2012 from supermarkets and farmers markets and screened for S. aureus, and then S. aureus isolates were further examined to determine whether they were MRSA. MRSA isolates were further characterized by antimicrobial susceptibility test, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, spa typing, multilocus sequence typing, and SCCmec typing, and were examined for genes encoding enterotoxins, exfoliative toxins, Panton-Valentine leukocidin (pvl), and toxic shock syndrome toxin 1. Among all the samples examined, four (1.4%) raw milk samples, six (2.3%) chicken samples, one (0.6%) pork sample, three (0.6%) ready-to-eat food samples, and three (2.5%) dumpling samples were positive for MRSA. No MRSA isolates were recovered from infant foods. A total of 23 MRSA isolates were recovered from the 17 MRSA-positive samples. Antimicrobial susceptibility tests showed that, among these MRSA isolates, resistance was most frequently observed to penicillin, ampicillin, oxacillin, cefoxitin, and clindamycin (each 100%), followed by erythromycin (95.7%) and clarithromycin (87.0%). The commonly detected toxin genes were pvl, seg, seb, sed, followed by see, sec, and sei. Seven spa types (t189, t377, t437, t899, t10793, t5762, and a new spa type) and three SCCmec types (II, IVb, and V) were identified. More than half (52.2%) of the MRSA isolates belonged to ST9, followed by ST88, ST59, ST188, ST72, and ST630. Our findings indicate that MRSA in food could be from both animal and human origin. Although the prevalence is low, the presence of multidrug resistant and enterotoxigenic MRSA strains in foods poses a potential threat to consumers and emphasizes the need for better control of sources of

  2. Lack of Healthy Food in Small-Size to Mid-Size Retailers Participating in the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program, Minneapolis-St. Paul, Minnesota, 2014.

    PubMed

    Laska, Melissa N; Caspi, Caitlin E; Pelletier, Jennifer E; Friebur, Robin; Harnack, Lisa J

    2015-08-27

    The US Department of Agriculture has stocking criteria for healthy foods among Supplemental Nutrition Assistant Program (SNAP)-authorized retailers. Increased access to healthy food could improve diet quality among SNAP participants, which has implications for chronic disease prevention. The objective of this study was to quantify healthy foods stocked in small-size to mid-size retailers who are authorized under SNAP but not under the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC). We used formative, cross-sectional data from a large policy evaluation to conduct secondary analyses. Store audits were conducted in 2014 in 91 randomly selected, licensed food stores in Minneapolis and St. Paul, Minnesota. Supermarkets and retailers participating in WIC, which are required to stock healthy foods, were excluded as were other stores not reasonably expected to stock staple foods, such as specialty stores or produce stands. Availability of milk, fruits, vegetables, and whole-grain-rich foods was assessed. The 91 stores studied were corner stores, food-gas marts, dollar stores, and pharmacies. More than half carried 1 or more varieties of fat-free or low-fat milk, fresh or canned fruit, and whole-grain-rich cereal. However, only one-third stocked 1 or more varieties of fresh vegetables and only one-quarter stocked whole-grain-rich products, such as whole-grain-rich bread (26%) or tortillas (21%) or brown rice (25%). Few stores stocked at least 2 varieties of each product. Many stores did not stock a variety of healthy foods. The US Department of Agriculture should change policies to improve minimum stocking requirements for SNAP-authorized retailers.

  3. Monitoring the health-related labelling of foods and non-alcoholic beverages in retail settings.

    PubMed

    Rayner, M; Wood, A; Lawrence, M; Mhurchu, C N; Albert, J; Barquera, S; Friel, S; Hawkes, C; Kelly, B; Kumanyika, S; L'abbé, M; Lee, A; Lobstein, T; Ma, J; Macmullan, J; Mohan, S; Monteiro, C; Neal, B; Sacks, G; Sanders, D; Snowdon, W; Swinburn, B; Vandevijvere, S; Walker, C

    2013-10-01

    Food labelling on food packaging has the potential to have both positive and negative effects on diets. Monitoring different aspects of food labelling would help to identify priority policy options to help people make healthier food choices. A taxonomy of the elements of health-related food labelling is proposed. A systematic review of studies that assessed the nature and extent of health-related food labelling has been conducted to identify approaches to monitoring food labelling. A step-wise approach has been developed for independently assessing the nature and extent of health-related food labelling in different countries and over time. Procedures for sampling the food supply, and collecting and analysing data are proposed, as well as quantifiable measurement indicators and benchmarks for health-related food labelling.

  4. A national survey of the microbiological quality of retail raw meats in Australia.

    PubMed

    Phillips, David; Jordan, David; Morris, Stephen; Jenson, Ian; Sumner, John

    2008-06-01

    A national survey of the microbiology of meat (ground beef and diced lamb) at the retail level in Australia was undertaken. For ground beef samples (n = 360), the mean aerobic plate count (APC) was 5.79 log CFU/g, and Escherichia coli was detected in 17.8% of samples; the mean population for these positive samples was 1.49 log CFU/g. Enterobacteriaceae were detected in 96.9% of samples (mean for positive samples, 3.01 log CFU/g), and coagulase-positive staphylococci were detected in 28.1% of samples (mean for positive samples, 2.18 log CFU/g). For diced lamb samples (n = 360), the mean APC was 5.71 log CFU/g, and E. coli was detected in 16.7% of samples (mean for positive samples, 1.67 log CFU/g). Enterobacteriaceae were detected in 91.1% of samples (mean for positive samples, 2.85 log CFU/g), and coagulase-positive staphylococci were detected in 22.5% of samples (mean for positive samples, 2.34 log CFU/g). Salmonella was recovered from 4 (1.1%) of the 360 ground beef samples (isolates were Salmonella Typhimurium phage types), and E. coli O157 was recovered from 1 (0.3%) of 357 samples; Campylobacter and Clostridium perfringens were not recovered from any of the 91 and 94 samples tested, respectively. Salmonella was recovered from 2 (0.6%) of the 360 diced lamb samples (serovars were Salmonella Infantis and Salmonella Typhimurium), Campylobacter was recovered from 1 (1.1%) of 95 samples, and C. perfringens was recovered from 1 (1.1%) of 92 samples.

  5. 75 FR 53316 - Draft Guidance for Food and Drug Administration Staff and Tobacco Retailers on Civil Money...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-31

    ... Tobacco Retailers on Civil Money Penalties and No-Tobacco-Sale Orders for Tobacco Retailers; Availability...) is announcing the availability of a draft guidance entitled ``Civil Money Penalties and No-Tobacco-Sale Orders for Tobacco Retailers.'' This guidance document is intended to describe FDA's current...

  6. Qualitative and quantitative detection of human pathogenic Yersinia enterocolitica in different food matrices at retail level in Bavaria.

    PubMed

    Messelhäusser, Ute; Kämpf, Peter; Colditz, Janine; Bauer, Hans; Schreiner, Hermann; Höller, Christiane; Busch, Ulrich

    2011-01-01

    Yersinia enterocolitica is a major foodborne pathogen and the third most important bacteriological cause of diarrhea in Germany. However, studies investigating the occurrence of human pathogenic Y. enterocolitica in food at the retail level are very rare. Most of the studies published so far show qualitative but not quantitative data concerning the prevalence of this human pathogen. In this study the qualitative and quantitative assessment of human pathogenic Y. enterocolitica in different food matrices was investigated. For the qualitative analysis we used an enrichment method according to the International Organisation of Standardization (ISO) standard in combination with a real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method detecting the ail gene of Y. enterocolitica. After detecting Y. enterocolitica in a sample, a quantitative investigation on Cefsulodin-Irgasan-Novobiocin (CIN) Agar was done to get information about the contamination level of the different samples. During the years 2008 and 2009, 446 samples of pork and pork products, 51 samples of game meat, and 61 raw milk samples were investigated for the presence of human pathogenic Y. enterocolitica. The samples were collected at the retail level in Bavaria. From the pork samples investigated, 81 samples (18%) were positive for the ail gene by real-time PCR, but human pathogenic Y. enterocolitica O:3 were found only in 46 (10%) pork samples by culture; the concentration in the samples ranged between 0.04 cfu/g and 2.30 × 10(5) cfu/g. Three game meat samples were positive by real-time PCR, but not by the cultural detection. All raw milk samples were negative by real-time PCR and culture.

  7. 7 CFR 278.6 - Disqualification of retail food stores and wholesale food concerns, and imposition of civil money...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... to comply with the Food Stamp Act of 1977, as amended, or this part. Such disqualification shall... B as specified in the Food Stamp Act of 1977, as amended; (D) Annual staple food sales; (E) Total... that the following acts are prohibited and are in violation of the Food Stamp Act and regulations: the...

  8. Lack of Healthy Food in Small-Size to Mid-Size Retailers Participating in the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program, Minneapolis–St. Paul, Minnesota, 2014

    PubMed Central

    Caspi, Caitlin E.; Pelletier, Jennifer E.; Friebur, Robin; Harnack, Lisa J.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The US Department of Agriculture has stocking criteria for healthy foods among Supplemental Nutrition Assistant Program (SNAP)-authorized retailers. Increased access to healthy food could improve diet quality among SNAP participants, which has implications for chronic disease prevention. The objective of this study was to quantify healthy foods stocked in small-size to mid-size retailers who are authorized under SNAP but not under the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC). Methods We used formative, cross-sectional data from a large policy evaluation to conduct secondary analyses. Store audits were conducted in 2014 in 91 randomly selected, licensed food stores in Minneapolis and St. Paul, Minnesota. Supermarkets and retailers participating in WIC, which are required to stock healthy foods, were excluded as were other stores not reasonably expected to stock staple foods, such as specialty stores or produce stands. Availability of milk, fruits, vegetables, and whole-grain–rich foods was assessed. Results The 91 stores studied were corner stores, food–gas marts, dollar stores, and pharmacies. More than half carried 1 or more varieties of fat-free or low-fat milk, fresh or canned fruit, and whole-grain–rich cereal. However, only one-third stocked 1 or more varieties of fresh vegetables and only one-quarter stocked whole-grain–rich products, such as whole-grain-rich bread (26%) or tortillas (21%) or brown rice (25%). Few stores stocked at least 2 varieties of each product. Conclusions Many stores did not stock a variety of healthy foods. The US Department of Agriculture should change policies to improve minimum stocking requirements for SNAP-authorized retailers. PMID:26312380

  9. 78 FR 51136 - Request for Information: Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) Enhancing Retail Food...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-20

    ... on the array of raw ingredients, such as unbaked pizza or raw fish. Should such stores be eligible... counted in one staple food category. For example, foods such as cold pizza, macaroni and cheese, multi...

  10. National Apprenticeship and Training Standards for Associated Retail Bakers of America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Associated Retail Bakers of America, Chicago, IL.

    The document presents systematic standards (adopted by the Associated Retail Bakers of America in accordance with the basic standards recommended by the Bureau of Apprenticeship and Training of the U.S. Department of Labor) to be used in the apprenticeship and training programs of the baking industry. Included is the following information: (1)…

  11. Retail ready-to-eat food as a potential vehicle for Staphylococcus spp. harboring antibiotic resistance genes.

    PubMed

    Chajęcka-Wierzchowska, Wioleta; Zadernowska, Anna; Nalepa, Beata; Sierpińska, Magda; Laniewska-Trokenheim, Lucja

    2014-06-01

    Ready-to-eat (RTE) food, which does not need thermal processing before consumption, could be a vehicle for the spread of antibiotic-resistant microorganisms. As part of general microbiological safety checks, staphylococci are routinely enumerated in these kinds of foods. However, the presence of antibiotic-resistant staphylococci in RTE food is not routinely investigated, and data are only available from a small number of studies. The present study evaluated the pheno- and genotypical antimicrobial resistance profile of Staphylococcus spp. isolated from 858 RTE foods (cheeses, cured meats, sausages, smoked fishes, salads). Of 113 strains isolated, S. aureus was the most prevalent species, followed by S. xylosus, S. saprophyticus, and S. epidermidis. More than half (54.9%) of the isolates were resistant to at least one class of tested antibiotic; of these, 35.4% of the strains were classified as multidrug resistant. Most of the isolates were resistant to cefoxitin (49.6%), followed by clindamycin (39.3%), tigecycline (27.4%), quinupristin-dalfopristin (22.2%), rifampin (20.5%), tetracycline (17.9%), and erythromycin (8.5%). All methicillin-resistant staphylococci harbored the mecA gene. Among the isolates resistant to at least one antibiotic, 38 harbored tetracycline resistance determinant tet (M), 24 harbored tet (L), and 9 harbored tet (K). Of the isolates positive for tet (M) genes, 34.2% were positive for the Tn916-Tn1545-like integrase family gene. Our results indicated that retail RTE food could be considered an important route for the transmission of antibiotic-resistant bacteria harboring multiple antibiotic resistance genes.

  12. 78 FR 54657 - Guidance for Tobacco Retailers on Tobacco Retailer Training Programs; Availability

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-05

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Guidance for Tobacco Retailers on Tobacco Retailer Training... Drug Administration (FDA) is announcing the availability of a guidance for tobacco retailers entitled ``Tobacco Retailer Training Programs.'' The Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act (Tobacco...

  13. The food retail revolution in China and its association with diet and health

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Yijing; Du, Shufa; Su, Chang; Zhang, Bing; Wang, Huijun; Popkin, Barry M.

    2015-01-01

    The processed food sector in low- and middle-income countries has grown rapidly. Little is understood about its effect on obesity. Using data from 14,976 participants aged two and older in the 2011 China Health and Nutrition Survey, this paper examines patterns of processed food consumption and their impacts on obesity while considering the endogeneity of those who purchase processed foods. A major assumption of our analysis of the impact of processed foods on overweight and obesity was that the consumption of processed foods is endogenous due to their accessibility and urbanicity levels. The results show that 74.5% of participants consumed processed foods, excluding edible oils and other condiments; 28.5% of participants' total daily energy intake (EI) was from processed foods. Children and teenagers in megacities had the highest proportion of EI (40.2%) from processed foods. People who lived in megacities or highly urbanized neighborhoods with higher incomes and educational achievement consumed more processed foods. When controlling for endogeneity, only the body mass index (BMI) and risk of being overweight of children ages two to eighteen are adversely associated with processed foods (+4.97 BMI units, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.66–8.28; odds ratio (OR) = 3.63, 95% CI: 1.45–9.13). Processed food purchases represent less than a third of current Chinese food purchases. However, processed food purchases are growing at the rate of 50% per year, and we must begin to understand the implications for the future. PMID:26217068

  14. Retail food environments research: Promising future with more work to be done.

    PubMed

    Fuller, Daniel; Engler-Stringer, Rachel; Muhajarine, Nazeem

    2016-06-09

    As members of the scientific committee for the Food Environments in Canada conference, we reflect on the current state of food environments research in Canada. We are very encouraged that the field is growing and there have been many collaborative efforts to link researchers in Canada, including the 2015 Food Environments in Canada Symposium and Workshop. We believe there are 5 key challenges the field will need to collectively address: theory and causality; replication and extension; consideration of rural, northern and vulnerable populations; policy analysis; and intervention research. In addressing the challenges, we look forward to working together to conduct more sophisticated, complex and community-driven food environments research in the future.

  15. Method development and HPLC analysis of retail foods and beverages for copper chlorophyll (E141[i]) and chlorophyllin (E141[ii]) food colouring materials.

    PubMed

    Scotter, Michael J; Castle, Laurence; Roberts, Dominic

    2005-12-01

    An analytical method using high performance liquid chromatography with photodiode array and fluorescence detection has been developed and applied to the determination of the food colour additives copper chlorophylls and copper chlorophyllins (E141[i] and [ii]) in foods and beverages. The analytical procedures from previously reported methods have been refined to cover a range of food colour formulations and retail foods. The method was single-laboratory validated. Recoveries of the polar copper chlorophyllins from spiked samples (at 14.5 mg/kg in all but one case) were in the range 79-109%, except for jelly sweets (49%). Recoveries of relatively non-polar copper chlorophylls were in the range 77-107% (except for 'made' jelly at 50%). The %RSD for recoveries was generally below 12%. Quantitative estimates of the total copper chlorophyll/chlorophyllin content of a small range of food commodities are reported, based on the use of trisodium copper chlorophyllin as a surrogate standard. The majority of E141-containing foods and colour formulations analysed exhibited a multiplicity of components due to the various extraction and purification processes that are used to obtain these colour additives. This was confounded by the presence of overwhelming amounts of native chlorophylls in certain samples (e.g. mint sauce). Food commodities containing significant amounts of emulsifiers (i.e. ice cream), gelatine or fats were problematic during extraction hence further development of extraction regimes is desirable for such products. All of the samples analysed with added E141, had estimated total copper chlorophyllin contents of below 15 mg/kg (range 0.7-13.0).

  16. Using Geographic Information Systems to measure retail food environments: Discussion of methodological considerations and a proposed reporting checklist (Geo-FERN).

    PubMed

    Wilkins, Emma L; Morris, Michelle A; Radley, Duncan; Griffiths, Claire

    2017-03-01

    Geographic Information Systems (GIS) are widely used to measure retail food environments. However the methods used are hetrogeneous, limiting collation and interpretation of evidence. This problem is amplified by unclear and incomplete reporting of methods. This discussion (i) identifies common dimensions of methodological diversity across GIS-based food environment research (data sources, data extraction methods, food outlet construct definitions, geocoding methods, and access metrics), (ii) reviews the impact of different methodological choices, and (iii) highlights areas where reporting is insufficient. On the basis of this discussion, the Geo-FERN reporting checklist is proposed to support methodological reporting and interpretation.

  17. Effectiveness of the food recovery at the retailing stage under shelf life uncertainty: An application to Italian food chains

    SciTech Connect

    Muriana, Cinzia

    2015-07-15

    Highlights: • The food recovery is seen as suitable way to manage food near to its expiry date. • The variability of the products shelf life must be taken into account. • The paper addresses the mathematic modeling of the profit related to food recovery. • The optimal time to withdraw the products is determinant for food recovery. - Abstract: Food losses represent a significant issue affecting food supply chains. The possibility of recovering such products can be seen as an effective way to reduce such a phenomenon, improve supply chain performances and ameliorate the conditions of undernourished people. The topic has been already investigated by a previous paper enforcing the hypothesis of deterministic and constant Shelf Life (SL) of products. However, such a model cannot be properly extended to products affected by uncertainties of the SL as it does not take into account the deterioration costs and loss of profits due to the overcoming of the SL within the cycle time. Thus the present paper presents an extension of the previous one under stochastic conditions of the food quality. Differently from the previous publication, this work represents a general model applicable to all supply chains, especially to those managing fresh products characterized by uncertain SL such as fruits and vegetables. The deterioration costs and loss of profits are included in the model and the optimal time at which to withdraw the products from the shelves as well as the quantities to be shipped at each alternative destination have been determined. A comparison of the proposed model with that reported in the previous publication has been carried out in order to underline the impact of the SL variability on the optimality conditions. The results show that the food recovery strategy in the presence of uncertainty of the food quality is rewarding, even if the optimal profit is lower than that of the deterministic case.

  18. Effects of retail style or food service style packaging type and storage time on sensory characteristics of bacon manufactured from commercially sourced pork bellies.

    PubMed

    Lowe, B K; Bohrer, B M; Holmer, S F; Boler, D D; Dilger, A C

    2014-06-01

    Objectives were to characterize differences in pork bellies that were stored frozen for different durations prior to processing and characterize sensory properties of the bacon derived from those bellies when stored in either retail or food service style packaging. Bellies (n = 102) were collected from 4 different time periods, fresh bellies (never frozen) and bellies frozen for 2, 5, or 7 mo, and manufactured into bacon under commercial conditions. Food service bacon was packaged in oxygen-permeable polyvinyl lined boxes layered on wax-covered lined paper and blast frozen (-33 °C) for 45 or 90 d after slicing. Retail bacon was vacuum-packaged in retail packages and refrigerated (2 °C) in the dark for 60 or 120 d after slicing. At the end of respective storage times after slicing, bacon was analyzed for sensory attributes and lipid oxidation. Off-flavor and oxidized odor of bacon increased (P < 0.01) with increasing storage time in both packaging types. Lipid oxidation increased (P < 0.01) as storage time increased from day 0 to day 45 in food service packaged bacon from frozen bellies, but was unchanged (P ≥ 0.07) with time in food service packaged bacon from fresh bellies. Lipid oxidation was also unchanged (P ≥ 0.21) over time in retail packaged bacon, with the exception of bellies frozen for 5 mo, which was increased from day 0 to day 90. Overall, off-flavor, oxidized odor, and lipid oxidation increased as storage time after processing increased. Freezing bellies before processing may exacerbate lipid oxidation as storage time after processing was extended. Bacon can be packaged and managed several different ways before it reaches the consumer. This research simulated food service (frozen) and retail packaged (refrigerated) bacon over a range of storage times after slicing. Off-flavor and oxidized odor increased as storage time after processing increased in both packaging types. Lipid oxidation increased as storage time after slicing increased to a

  19. Classification bias in commercial business lists for retail food stores in the U.S.

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Aspects of the food environment such as the availability of different types of food stores have recently emerged as key modifiable factors that may contribute to the increased prevalence of obesity. Given that many of these studies have derived their results based on secondary datasets and the relationship of food stores with individual weight outcomes has been reported to vary by store type, it is important to understand the extent to which often-used secondary data correctly classify food stores. We evaluated the classification bias of food stores in Dun & Bradstreet (D&B) and InfoUSA commercial business lists. Methods We performed a full census in 274 randomly selected census tracts in the Chicago metropolitan area and collected detailed store attributes inside stores for classification. Store attributes were compared by classification match status and store type. Systematic classification bias by census tract characteristics was assessed in multivariate regression. Results D&B had a higher classification match rate than InfoUSA for supermarkets and grocery stores, while InfoUSA was higher for convenience stores. Both lists were more likely to correctly classify large supermarkets, grocery stores, and convenience stores with more cash registers and different types of service counters (supermarkets and grocery stores only). The likelihood of a correct classification match for supermarkets and grocery stores did not vary systemically by tract characteristics whereas convenience stores were more likely to be misclassified in predominately Black tracts. Conclusion Researches can rely on classification of food stores in commercial datasets for supermarkets and grocery stores whereas classifications for convenience and specialty food stores are subject to some systematic bias by neighborhood racial/ethnic composition. PMID:22512874

  20. Classification bias in commercial business lists for retail food stores in the U.S.

    PubMed

    Han, Euna; Powell, Lisa M; Zenk, Shannon N; Rimkus, Leah; Ohri-Vachaspati, Punam; Chaloupka, Frank J

    2012-04-18

    Aspects of the food environment such as the availability of different types of food stores have recently emerged as key modifiable factors that may contribute to the increased prevalence of obesity. Given that many of these studies have derived their results based on secondary datasets and the relationship of food stores with individual weight outcomes has been reported to vary by store type, it is important to understand the extent to which often-used secondary data correctly classify food stores. We evaluated the classification bias of food stores in Dun & Bradstreet (D&B) and InfoUSA commercial business lists. We performed a full census in 274 randomly selected census tracts in the Chicago metropolitan area and collected detailed store attributes inside stores for classification. Store attributes were compared by classification match status and store type. Systematic classification bias by census tract characteristics was assessed in multivariate regression. D&B had a higher classification match rate than InfoUSA for supermarkets and grocery stores, while InfoUSA was higher for convenience stores. Both lists were more likely to correctly classify large supermarkets, grocery stores, and convenience stores with more cash registers and different types of service counters (supermarkets and grocery stores only). The likelihood of a correct classification match for supermarkets and grocery stores did not vary systemically by tract characteristics whereas convenience stores were more likely to be misclassified in predominately Black tracts. Researches can rely on classification of food stores in commercial datasets for supermarkets and grocery stores whereas classifications for convenience and specialty food stores are subject to some systematic bias by neighborhood racial/ethnic composition.

  1. Neighborhood Retail Food Environment and Fruit and Vegetable Intake in a Multiethnic Urban Population

    PubMed Central

    Zenk, Shannon N.; Schulz, Amy J.; Kannan, Srimathi; Lachance, Laurie L.; Mentz, Graciela; Ridella, William

    2012-01-01

    Purpose To examine relationships between the neighborhood food environment and fruit and vegetable intake in a multiethnic urban population. Design Analysis of cross-sectional survey and observational data. Setting 146 neighborhoods within three large geographic communities of Detroit, Michigan. Subjects Probability sample of 919 African-American, Latino, and White adults. Measures The dependent variable was mean daily fruit and vegetable servings measured using a modified Block 98 food frequency questionnaire. Independent variables included the neighborhood food environment: store availability (large grocery, specialty, convenience, liquor, small grocery), supermarket proximity (street-network distance to nearest chain grocer), and perceived and observed neighborhood fresh fruit and vegetable supply (availability, variety, quality, affordability). Analysis Weighted multilevel regression. Results Presence of a large grocery store in the neighborhood was associated with, on average, 0.69 more daily fruit and vegetable servings in the full sample. Relationships between the food environment and fruit and vegetable intake did not differ between Whites and African-Americans. However, Latinos compared with African-Americans with a large grocery store in their neighborhood consumed 2.20 more daily servings of fruits and vegetables. Presence of a convenience store in the neighborhood was associated with 1.84 fewer daily fruit and vegetable servings among Latinos than African-Americans. Conclusion The neighborhood food environment influences fruit and vegetable intake, and the size of this relationship may vary for different racial/ethnic subpopulations. PMID:19288847

  2. 7 CFR 278.6 - Disqualification of retail food stores and wholesale food concerns, and imposition of civil money...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... the store did (or will) open for business under the current ownership, business, health or other... nonfood items, cartons of cigarettes, or alcoholic beverages in exchange for food coupons; or (ii)...

  3. 7 CFR 278.6 - Disqualification of retail food stores and wholesale food concerns, and imposition of civil money...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... the store did (or will) open for business under the current ownership, business, health or other... nonfood items, cartons of cigarettes, or alcoholic beverages in exchange for food coupons; or (ii)...

  4. 7 CFR 278.6 - Disqualification of retail food stores and wholesale food concerns, and imposition of civil money...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... the store did (or will) open for business under the current ownership, business, health or other... nonfood items, cartons of cigarettes, or alcoholic beverages in exchange for food coupons; or (ii)...

  5. Effect of a Publicly Accessible Disclosure System on Food Safety Inspection Scores in Retail and Food Service Establishments.

    PubMed

    Choi, Jihee; Scharff, Robert L

    2017-07-01

    The increased frequency with which people are dining out coupled with an increase in the publicity of foodborne disease outbreaks has led the public to an increased awareness of food safety issues associated with food service establishments. To accommodate consumer needs, local health departments have increasingly publicized food establishments' health inspection scores. The objective of this study was to estimate the effect of the color-coded inspection score disclosure system in place since 2006 in Columbus, OH, by controlling for several confounding factors. This study incorporated cross-sectional time series data from food safety inspections performed from the Columbus Public Health Department. An ordinary least squares regression was used to assess the effect of the new inspection regime. The introduction of the new color-coded food safety inspection disclosure system increased inspection scores for all types of establishments and for most types of inspections, although significant differences were found in the degree of improvement. Overall, scores increased significantly by 1.14 points (of 100 possible). An exception to the positive results was found for inspections in response to foodborne disease complaints. Scores for these inspections declined significantly by 10.2 points. These results should be useful for both food safety researchers and public health decision makers.

  6. Small Retailer Perspectives of the 2009 Women, Infants and Children Program Food Package Changes

    PubMed Central

    Gittelsohn, Joel; Laska, Melissa N.; Andreyeva, Tatiana; Foster, Gary; Rose, Donald; Tester, June; Lee, Seung Hee; Zenk, Shannon N.; Odoms-Young, Angela; McCoy, Tara; Ayala, Guadalupe X.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To understand vendor perspectives regarding changes made in 2009 to the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infant, and Children (WIC) food package. Methods Fifty-two in-depth, qualitative interviews with owners or managers of small stores in 8 urban areas across 7 states conducted 6-12 months after the changes. Results Store owners experienced implementation challenges, but felt the changes increased the number of customers, sales, and profits. Conclusion This research provides vendor perspectives on the 2009 WIC policy changes and may enhance policy implementation directed at increasing healthy food availability, particularly in urban communities. PMID:22584093

  7. Prevalence and levels of Listeria monocytogenes (Lm) in ready-to-eat foods (RTE) at retail.

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Although significant efforts have been taken to control Lm in Ready-to-eat (RTE)foods over the last decade, a well-designed survey is needed to determine whether changes occur in the “true” prevalence and levels of the pathogen and to provide current data to assess the relative ranking of higher ris...

  8. Effectiveness of the food recovery at the retailing stage under shelf life uncertainty: An application to Italian food chains.

    PubMed

    Muriana, Cinzia

    2015-07-01

    Food losses represent a significant issue affecting food supply chains. The possibility of recovering such products can be seen as an effective way to reduce such a phenomenon, improve supply chain performances and ameliorate the conditions of undernourished people. The topic has been already investigated by a previous paper enforcing the hypothesis of deterministic and constant Shelf Life (SL) of products. However, such a model cannot be properly extended to products affected by uncertainties of the SL as it does not take into account the deterioration costs and loss of profits due to the overcoming of the SL within the cycle time. Thus the present paper presents an extension of the previous one under stochastic conditions of the food quality. Differently from the previous publication, this work represents a general model applicable to all supply chains, especially to those managing fresh products characterized by uncertain SL such as fruits and vegetables. The deterioration costs and loss of profits are included in the model and the optimal time at which to withdraw the products from the shelves as well as the quantities to be shipped at each alternative destination have been determined. A comparison of the proposed model with that reported in the previous publication has been carried out in order to underline the impact of the SL variability on the optimality conditions. The results show that the food recovery strategy in the presence of uncertainty of the food quality is rewarding, even if the optimal profit is lower than that of the deterministic case.

  9. Migration of epoxidised soya bean oil into foods from retail packaging materials and from plasticised PVC film used in the home.

    PubMed

    Castle, L; Mayo, A; Gilbert, J

    1990-01-01

    Epoxidised soya bean oil (ESBO) is used as a plasticiser and heat stabiliser in a number of feed contact materials, in particular in poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC) films and gaskets. The level of ESBO migration into foods has been determined using a combined gas chromatographic/mass spectrometric (GC/MS) analytical procedure. The study has included both the use of ESBO-containing materials for retail packaged foods and the domestic use of plasticised PVC films for applications such as wrapping food and covering food for re-heating in a microwave oven. Levels of ESBO in fresh retail meat samples wrapped in film ranged from less than 1 to 4 mg/kg, but were higher (max. 22 mg/kg) in retail cooked meat. Migration into sandwiches and rolls from 'take-away' outlets ranged from less than 1 to 27 mg/kg depending on factors such as the type of filling and the length of the contact time prior to analysis. The levels of migration of ESBO into cheese and cakes were consistent with previous experience with plasticiser migration--direct contact with fatty surfaces leading to the highest levels. When the film was used for microwave cooking in direct contact with food, levels of ESBO from 5 to 85 mg/kg were observed, whereas when the film was employed only as a splash cover for re-heating foods, ESBO levels ranged from 0.1 to 16 mg/kg. For a variety of baby foods there was no significant difference in ESBO levels between foods packaged in glass jars with PVC gaskets and foods in cans containing ESBO in the can lacquer. In both cases ESBO levels were low, ranging from less than 0.1 to 7.6 mg/kg. It is not clear for these retail samples, if the low levels observed (average 1.9 mg/kg) result solely from migration or contain some contribution from naturally occurring epoxides.

  10. Analysis of Multilocus Sequence Typing and Virulence Characterization of Listeria monocytogenes Isolates from Chinese Retail Ready-to-Eat Food

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Shi; Wu, Qingping; Zhang, Jumei; Chen, Moutong; Guo, Weipeng

    2016-01-01

    Eighty Listeria monocytogenes isolates were obtained from Chinese retail ready-to-eat (RTE) food and were previously characterized with serotyping and antibiotic susceptibility tests. The aim of this study was to characterize the subtype and virulence potential of these L. monocytogenes isolates by multilocus sequence typing (MLST), virulence-associate genes, epidemic clones (ECs), and sequence analysis of the important virulence factor: internalin A (inlA). The result of MLST revealed that these L. monocytogenes isolates belonged to 14 different sequence types (STs). With the exception of four new STs (ST804, ST805, ST806, and ST807), all other STs observed in this study have been associated with human listeriosis and outbreaks to varying extents. Six virulence-associate genes (inlA, inlB, inlC, inlJ, hly, and llsX) were selected and their presence was investigated using PCR. All strains carried inlA, inlB, inlC, inlJ, and hly, whereas 38.8% (31/80) of strains harbored the listeriolysin S genes (llsX). A multiplex PCR assay was used to evaluate the presence of markers specific to epidemic clones of L. monocytogenes and identified 26.3% (21/80) of ECI in the 4b-4d-4e strains. Further study of inlA sequencing revealed that most strains contained the full-length InlA required for host cell invasion, whereas three mutations lead to premature stop codons (PMSC) within a novel PMSCs at position 326 (GAA → TAA). MLST and inlA sequence analysis results were concordant, and different virulence potentials within isolates were observed. These findings suggest that L. monocytogenes isolates from RTE food in China could be virulent and be capable of causing human illness. Furthermore, the STs and virulence profiles of L. monocytogenes isolates have significant implications for epidemiological and public health studies of this pathogen. PMID:26909076

  11. Prevalence, antimicrobial resistance and genetic diversity of Yersinia enterocolitica isolated from retail frozen foods in China.

    PubMed

    Ye, Qinghua; Wu, Qingping; Hu, Huijuan; Zhang, Jumei; Huang, Huixian

    2015-12-01

    In this study, our aim was to estimate the extent of Yersinia enterocolitica contamination in frozen foods in China and determine the bioserotype, virulotype, antimicrobial resistance, and enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus-PCR (ERIC-PCR) genotyping profiles of recovered Y. enterocolitica isolates. Out of 455 samples collected between July 2011 and May 2014, 56 (12.3%) tested positive for Y. enterocolitica. The 70 isolated strains were grouped into five clusters and one singleton based on their ERIC-PCR fingerprint, at a similarity coefficient of 70%. All strains were of biotype 1A, and 35.7% were of bioserotype 1A/O:8. Most strains lacked the virulence genes ail, virF, ystA, and ystC, but harbored ystB, fepD, ymoA, fes and sat. All strains were sensitive to ticarcillin but resistant to two or more antibiotics, and 48.6% of the strains were resistant to four to nine antibiotics. High resistance rates were observed for ampicillin, cephalothin, trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole, amoxicillin/clavulanic acid, nalidixic acid and chloramphenicol (98.6%, 95.7%, 74.3%, 28.6%, 18.6% and 12.9%, respectively). This study provides a systematic surveillance of Y. enterocolitica prevalence in frozen foods in China and indicates its high antibiotic resistance, which could serve as useful information for the government to control Y. enterocolitica contamination in frozen foods and the use of antibiotics.

  12. Cephalosporin Resistance among Non-Typhi Salmonella from Humans, Retail Meats and Food Animals in the United States

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Background: The National Antimicrobial Resistance Monitoring System (NARMS) is a collaboration among the Food and Drug Administration (FDA), U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA), and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Here we report on decreased susceptibility to cephalosporins ...

  13. 7 CFR 274.3 - Retailer management.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Retailer management. 274.3 Section 274.3 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE... management. (a) Retailer participation. (1) All authorized retailers must be afforded the opportunity...

  14. Method development and analysis of retail foods and beverages for carotenoid food colouring materials E160a(ii) and E160e.

    PubMed

    Scotter, M J; Castle, L; Croucher, J M; Olivier, L

    2003-02-01

    An analytical method using high-performance liquid chromatography with photodiode array detection was developed and applied to the determination of the permitted food colour additives beta-carotene(E160a(ii)) and beta-apo-8'-carotenal (E160e) in foods and beverages. The scope of previously reported methods has been broadened to cover a wide range of retail foods and enzymatic hydrolysis has been used in place of saponification for high-fat samples. Quantitative results (greater then 0.1 mg kg(-1)) are given for the major colour principals trans-beta-apo-8'-carotenal and trans-beta-carotene. Semiquantitative results are given for the various cis-isomers of each colorant for which authentic reference standards were not available. The method has been used successfully for the analysis of a wide range of foodstuffs with differing fat content without the need for saponification, except for moderate- to high-fat foodstuffs containing significant levels of emulsifiers, for which it was limited. The results suggest that beta-apo-8'-carotenal (E160e) does not have widespread use in the UK. None of the samples exhibited a total beta-carotene content greater than 20 mg kg(-1) and none of the high-fat samples and only one of the 17 low-fat/beverage samples contained total beta-carotene at levels less than 0.1 mg kg(-1). The total beta-carotene contents of the low-fat/beverage samples ranged from 0.4 +/- 0.03 to 8.4 i 0.71 mg kg(-1), and the total beta-carotene contents of the high-fat samples ranged from 0.1 +/- 0.01 (jelly confectionery) to 18.5 +/- 0.98 mg kg(-1) (processed cheese).

  15. Exposure assessment within a Total Diet Study: a comparison of the use of the pan-European classification system FoodEx-1 with national food classification systems.

    PubMed

    Akhandaf, Y; Van Klaveren, J; De Henauw, S; Van Donkersgoed, G; Van Gorcum, T; Papadopoulos, A; Sirot, V; Kennedy, M; Pinchen, H; Ruprich, J; Rehurkova, I; Perelló, G; Sioen, I

    2015-04-01

    A Total Diet Study (TDS) consists of selecting, collecting and preparing commonly consumed foods purchased at retail level and analysing them for harmful and/or beneficial chemical substances. A food classification system is needed to link food consumption data with the contaminant concentration data obtained in the TDS for the exposure assessment. In this study a comparison was made between the use of a national food classification systems and the use of FoodEx-1, developed and recommended by the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA). The work was performed using data of six European countries: Belgium, Czech Republic, France, The Netherlands, Spain and the UK. For each population, exposure to contaminant A (organic compounds) and/or contaminant B (inorganic compound) was assessed by the Monte Carlo Risk Assessment (MCRA) software using the national classification system and FoodEx-1 for food consumption data and for TDS laboratory results. Minimal differences between both approaches were observed. This observation applied for both contaminant A and contaminant B. In general risk assessment will be similar for both approaches; however, this is not guaranteed. FoodEx-1 proved to be a valuable hierarchic classification system in order to harmonise exposure assessment based on existing TDS results throughout Europe.

  16. Benzalkonium chloride and heavy-metal tolerance in Listeria monocytogenes from retail foods.

    PubMed

    Xu, Dongyang; Li, Yanli; Zahid, M Shamim Hasan; Yamasaki, Shinji; Shi, Lei; Li, Jian-rong; Yan, He

    2014-11-03

    Phenotypic and genotypic tolerance in 71 Listeria monocytogenes isolates from different varieties of foods to benzalkonium chloride (BC) and cadmium were investigated by susceptibility test and molecular methods. To investigate the role of efflux pumps in BC tolerance, reserpine, an efflux pump inhibitor, was added to the BC tolerant strains. Tolerance to BC and cadmium were 26.8% (19/71) and 49.3% (35/71) respectively. Strains with BC tolerance were significantly more frequent among those of serotype 4b (100%, 6/6) than among those of serotype 1/2a (or 3a) (13.5%, 5/37), which represent the predominant number of strains (52.1%, 37/71). Tolerance to cadmium was encountered among 62.2% (23/37) and 50.0% (3/6) of the serotype 1/2a (or 3a) and 4b strains, respectively, and among 19.0% (4/21) of the strains of the serotype 1/2c. All of the 10 (14.1%) isolates found to be BC and cadmium co-tolerance were isolated from raw meat or quick-frozen food made of wheat flour and rice. Five multi-drug resistant strains were tolerant to cadmium as well. Among 71 isolates examined, one contained qacA and three contained qacEΔ1-sul. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first detection of qacA and qacEΔ1-sul in L. monocytogenes, an indication of the possible horizontal transfer of the two genes. Addition of reserpine to the tolerant strains resulted in the loss of tolerance among seven out of 19 BC strains, suggesting a certain role the efflux pump played in mediating BC tolerance. Of the three distinct cadA types known to date in L. monocytogenes, the cadA1 and cadA2 genes were detected among 24 (33.8%) and three (4.2%) isolates respectively. The presence of cadA1 and cadA2 largely corresponded to the susceptibility phenotype. A subset (9/35 [25.7%]) of the cadmium-tolerant isolates lacked the known cadmium resistance determinants. These findings suggest that food products could act as a reservoir for L. monocytogenes harboring tolerance to BC and cadmium and will further

  17. National Meat Case Study 2004: Fresh product types and allocation of retail space.

    PubMed

    Reicks, A L; Brooks, J C; Kelly, J M; Kuecker, W G; Boillot, K; Irion, R; Miller, M F

    2008-12-01

    Fresh meat retail cases in 104 supermarkets across 5 regions of the United States were audited for product space allocation, percentage of space allocated to each fresh meat category and frequency of species among all stock keeping units (n = 14,863). The United States was divided into Mountain/Southwest, Midwest, Northeast, Southeast, and West Coast regions. Fresh meat categories for self-service cases included beef muscle cuts, ground beef, pork, veal, lamb, chicken, turkey, fresh sausage, value-added, heat and serve, ham-bone-in, ham-boneless, ham steak, other processed meats, seafood, and nonmeat items. Fresh meat categories for the full-service case included seafood, beef, pork, chicken, and other. Whole muscle beef, pork, and chicken products were available in all stores. Ground beef products and turkey were reported in almost all stores, 94.5 to 100%, respectively. The majority of the self-service meat case was dedicated to beef in all regions except for the Northeast, where chicken occupied the majority of the self-service case. Linear meters of self-service fresh meat case were greatest in the Northeast region, which was similar to Mountain and Midwest regions, but different (P = 0.003) than the Southeast and West Coast regions. However, the West Coast region best utilized the retail meat case by providing consumers with the greatest number of offerings per linear meter. The percentage of stores audited with a full-service meat case was 37.5%, and the percentage with a full-service seafood case was 60.6%. The full-service meat case was the smallest (number of linear meters, P = 0.039) in the Southeast and largest (number of linear meters, P = 0.039) in the Midwest.

  18. 77 FR 1723 - Proposed Concession Contract for Shenandoah National Park-Alternative Formula for Calculating...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-11

    .... The contract will cover operation of the lodging, food and beverage, retail sales, gasoline, and... INFORMATION: The National Park Service will be soliciting proposals for operation of the lodging, food and beverage, retail sales, gasoline, and horseback riding operations at Shenandoah National Park in 2012. The...

  19. Surveillance and characterisation by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis of Cronobacter spp. in farming and domestic environments, food production animals and retail foods.

    PubMed

    Molloy, Catherine; Cagney, Claire; O'Brien, Stephen; Iversen, Carol; Fanning, Séamus; Duffy, Geraldine

    2009-12-31

    Cronobacter spp. (formally Enterobacter sakazakii) has been linked to illness in infants from contaminated powdered infant formula, however, there is limited information on the environmental sources and potential transmission routes of this pathogen. The aim of this study was to establish if food production animals (cattle, pigs), and the wider farm environment were playing a role in the transmission of Cronobacter spp. and also to assess the risk of cross contamination in the home where infant formula is prepared, from the presence of the pathogen on other foods and the general domestic environment. A wide range of samples (n=518) was collected at dairy farms, meat abattoirs, retail food stores and domestic environs and examined for the pathogen using an adapted ISO/DTS 22964 cultural protocol. The modified method included incubation at 42 degrees C instead of 44 degrees C and serial dilution of the enriched media prior to plating on Druggan-Forsythe-Iversen agar. Presumptive Cronobacter spp. colonies were confirmed by Real Time PCR targeting the dnaG on the MMS operon. All Cronobacter spp. isolated were speciated using biochemical tests, tested for resistance to 8 antibiotics and characterised using pulsed field gel electrophoresis. Cronobacter spp. was not recovered from cattle faeces, farm soil or trough water but isolates (n=33) were recovered from a variety of other sample types including cattle feed, pork and beef cuts, beef burgers and beef mince, green vegetables as well as organic breakfast cereals and domestic vacuum cleaner dust. The species recovered included C. Sakazakii (n=21), C. malonaticus (n=1) and C. turicensis (n=1). Of the 33 isolates 51% were resistant to Cephalothin but sensitive to all other 7 tested antibiotics. Sub-typing of the recovered isolates by PFGE showed considerable clonal diversity, though a number of persistent PFGE profiles were observed. In conclusion the study showed that Cronobacter spp. was not carried by food production

  20. How well are national guidelines relating to the general sales of aspirin and paracetamol, adhered to by retail stores: a mystery shopper study

    PubMed Central

    Molloy, Phillip; Chambers, Ruth; Cork, Tania

    2016-01-01

    Objective To determine whether non-pharmaceutical retail outlets are aboding to the current Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA) national guidelines for over-the-counter (OTC) sales of aspirin and paracetamol. Methods Stages 1 and 2 of the study deployed eight and four medical students, respectively, to undertake a mystery shopper style investigation. Stage 1: eight medical students attempted to buy ≥96 tablets/capsules aspirin or paracetamol in one transaction in 62 shops. Stage 2: four medical students attempted to purchase 32 paracetamol 500 mg along with a ‘flu remedy preparation also containing paracetamol, in 54 shops. Results Stage 1 data revealed that 58% and 57% retailers sold more than the MHRA guidelines recommended for paracetamol and aspirin, respectively. We observed that 23% and 28% retailers were willing to sell ≥96 tablets of paracetamol or aspirin with no questions asked. Stage 2 results showed that 57% retailers sold 32×500 mg paracetamol in conjunction with a paracetamol-containing ‘flu preparation; while 98% shops sold 16×paracetamol 500 mg along with a paracetamol-containing ‘flu remedy, with no questions asked of the shopper or advice given. Discussion MHRA national guidelines for OTC medicines sales appear to be poorly adhered to in non-pharmacy shops. Sales of aspirin and paracetamol OTC must be better regulated in the UK to ultimately reduce morbidity and mortality rates of deliberate and accidental overdoses. PMID:26781508

  1. Survey for Listeria monocytogenes on ready-to-eat foods from retail establishments in the United States (2010-2013): assessing potential changes of pathogen prevalence and levels in a decade

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A multi-year Interagency Listeria monocytogenes Market Basket Survey (Lm MBS) was undertaken for selected categories of refrigerated ready-to eat (RTE) foods purchased at retail in four FoodNet sites in the U.S. Eighteen product types were sampled, including RTE seafood, produce, dairy, meat, eggs,...

  2. Verification of retail food outlet location data from a local health department using ground-truthing and remote-sensing technology: assessing differences by neighborhood characteristics.

    PubMed

    Rossen, Lauren M; Pollack, Keshia M; Curriero, Frank C

    2012-09-01

    Obtaining valid and accurate data on community food environments is critical for research evaluating associations between the food environment and health outcomes. This study utilized ground-truthing and remote-sensing technology to validate a food outlet retail list obtained from an urban local health department in Baltimore, Maryland in 2009. Ten percent of outlets (n=169) were assessed, and differences in accuracy were explored by neighborhood characteristics (96 census tracts) to determine if discrepancies were differential or non-differential. Inaccuracies were largely unrelated to a variety of neighborhood-level variables, with the exception of number of vacant housing units. Although remote-sensing technologies are a promising low-cost alternative to direct observation, this study demonstrated only moderate levels of agreement with ground-truthing.

  3. Retailing in Tennessee 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-01-01

    Data on retail sales compiled from sales tax records are summarized. Contained in this report are retail sales estimates for the 95 counties in the State of Tennessee and 303 cities, towns, or parts of towns which are shown in various degrees of detail depending on disclosure restrictions. Number of firms is determined by the total number of reports submitted. Sales and percent distribution of sales are shown for the State of Tennessee and counties by Standard Metropolitan Statistical Area (SMSA) designation and by various county groupings based on the size of largest city. A list of counties by SMSA designation and by size class of largest city is given in the Appendix. The number of firms and estimated retail sales are also shown for 10 business groups defined by the US Department of Commerce along with the total retail sales for each of the 95 counties in Tennessee and for 137 of the larger cities, towns, or parts of towns in the state. Sales for 37 smaller incorporated places or parts of towns are given. Any attempt to report retail activity in the same detail that is possible for large cities is hampered by disclosure restrictions for towns in this group. Through the use of fewer categories, the amount of information that can be revealed is maximized while maintaining confidentiality for individual businesses. A classification widely adopted by economists and planners is the use of the broad retail categories of shoppers' goods, convenience goods, and all other stores. Shoppers' goods stores include department and variety stores, apparel and accessory shops, and furniture and home furnishings outlets. Convenience goods stores are food stores, gasoline service stations, drug stores, and eating and drinking places. The remaining category of all other stores includes building materials, hardware, automotive, and miscellaneous retail stores. Total sales are given for 129 very small incorporated towns.

  4. Patient Use of Email, Facebook, and Physician Websites to Communicate with Physicians: A National Online Survey of Retail Pharmacy Users.

    PubMed

    Lee, Joy L; Choudhry, Niteesh K; Wu, Albert W; Matlin, Olga S; Brennan, Troyen A; Shrank, William H

    2016-01-01

    Patient-physician communication often occurs outside the clinic setting; many institutions discourage electronic communication outside of established electronic health record systems. Little empirical data are available on patient interest in electronic communication and Web-based health tools that are technically feasible but not widely available. To explore patient behavior and interest in using the Internet to contact physicians. National cross-sectional online survey. A sample of 4,510 CVS customers with at least one chronic condition in the household was used to target patients with chronic conditions and their caregivers. Subjects were identified from a national panel of over 100,000 retail pharmacy customers. Of those sampled, 2,252 responded (50.0 % response rate). Survey measures included demographic and health information, patient use of email and Facebook to contact physicians, and patient interest in and use of Web-based tools for health. A total of 37 % of patients reported contacting their physicians via email within the last six months, and 18 % via Facebook. Older age was negatively associated with contacting physicians using email (OR 0.57 [95 % CI 0.41-0.78]) or Facebook (OR 0.28 [0.17-0.45]). Non-white race (OR 1.61 [1.18-2.18] and OR 1.82 [1.24-2.67]) and caregiver status (OR 1.58 [1.27-1.96] and OR 1.71 [1.31- 2.23]) were positively associated with using email and Facebook, respectively. Patients were interested in using Web-based tools to fill prescriptions, track their own health, and access health information (37-57 %), but few were currently doing so (4-8 %). In this population of retail pharmacy users, there is strong interest among patients in the use of email and Facebook to communicate with their physicians. The findings highlight the gap between patient interest for online communication and what physicians may currently provide. Improving and accelerating the adoption of secure Web messaging systems is a possible solution that

  5. Molecular epidemiology of extended-spectrum β-lactamases and Escherichia coli isolated from retail foods including chicken meat in Japan.

    PubMed

    Kawamura, Kumiko; Goto, Kensuke; Nakane, Kunihiko; Arakawa, Yoshichika

    2014-02-01

    Contamination of retail meat with extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Escherichia coli has been reported, but only limited data have been documented in Japan. One hundred fifty-three retail foods including chicken meat, beef, pork, and vegetables were purchased from 29 supermarkets between January and October in 2010. ESBL producers were recovered from each food sample using McConkey agar plate supplemented with 1 mg/L of cefotaxime. ESBL type was identified by DNA sequencing analysis after polymerase chain reaction amplification. Antibiogram, O serotype, plasmid replicon type, pulsotype, and multilocus sequence type were also determined. Fifty-two epidemiologically unrelated Escherichia coli isolates producing ESBL were recovered from 35 (22.9%) of 153 samples, all of which were chicken meat. ESBL types were mainly CTX-M-2 group followed by CTX-M-1 group and CTX-M-8 group. The numbers of bacterial isolates (8 of 21, 38.1%) harboring bla(CTX-M-8) recovered from imported meat samples were significantly larger than those of domestic ones (one of 31, 3.2%) (p<0.05). Nine O serotypes (mainly O8, O25, and O1) were found, together with O-antigen untypable (OUT). Four E. coli belonging to the O25b:H4-ST131 clone were recovered from domestic (n=1) and imported meat samples (n=3), respectively. These four isolates were susceptible to fluoroquinolones, although the E. coli O25b:H4-ST131 clone producing CTX-M-15, which is predominant in human isolates, is usually resistant to fluoroquinolones. By contrast, five CTX-M-15-producing E. coli strains were recovered only from domestic meat samples, and their serotypes were O8 or OUT instead of predominant serotype O25b. Our results showed that ESBL-producing E. coli isolates recovered from retail chicken meat samples in Japan are generally divergent in both genetic and serological aspects. Further comparative analyses of bla(CTX-M)-mediating genetic elements would be continued in the next step to characterize the ESBL

  6. National food control systems: lessons from Mauritius.

    PubMed

    Neeliah, S A; Goburdhun, D; Neeliah, H

    2009-01-01

    Food control systems are being established or revamped in many countries because of problems occurring along the food chain and the obligations of governments towards the World Trade Organization. The main components of an ideal food control system are food legislation, administration, enforcement and supporting bodies like analytical services and consumer organizations. Mauritius introduced modern legal instruments in 1998 in an attempt to reinvigorate food control. This article describes the components of the Mauritian Food Control System (MFCS). An appraisal of these components is then made. The methodology comprised a literature review and in-depth interviews with key informants and stakeholders of the local food control system. Although much progress was made with the introduction of new food legislation in 1998, other components of the local system like enforcement and various supporting bodies did not receive appropriate support. Other countries could use the lessons drawn from the Mauritian experience while setting up or upgrading their food control systems.

  7. US child labor violations in the retail and service industries: findings from a national survey of working adolescents.

    PubMed

    Rauscher, Kimberly J; Runyan, Carol W; Schulman, Michael D; Bowling, J Michael

    2008-09-01

    We investigated child labor violations among US adolescents working in the retail and service industries. We used interview data from a nationally representative sample of working adolescents, and investigated reports of select child labor violations (e.g., hours, equipment, and work permits). We computed weighted percentages of respondents reporting each type of discrete (and aggregated) violation. Nearly 37% of respondents reported a violation of the hazardous occupations orders (i.e., prohibited jobs or use of equipment), and 40% reported a work permit violation. Fewer than 2% reported working more than the maximum weekly hours allowed during the school year, but 11% reported working past the latest hour allowed on a school night, and 15% reported working off the clock. Significant numbers of US adolescents are employed in violation of the child labor laws and as a result are exposed to safety risks. Although our data did not allow for an analysis of enforcement, our findings demonstrate gaps in employer compliance with the law. We suggest that closer attention to enforcement policy and practice is needed.

  8. US Child Labor Violations in the Retail and Service Industries: Findings From a National Survey of Working Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Rauscher, Kimberly J.; Runyan, Carol W.; Schulman, Michael D.; Bowling, J. Michael

    2008-01-01

    Objectives. We investigated child labor violations among US adolescents working in the retail and service industries. Methods. We used interview data from a nationally representative sample of working adolescents, and investigated reports of select child labor violations (e.g., hours, equipment, and work permits). We computed weighted percentages of respondents reporting each type of discrete (and aggregated) violation. Results. Nearly 37% of respondents reported a violation of the hazardous occupations orders (i.e., prohibited jobs or use of equipment), and 40% reported a work permit violation. Fewer than 2% reported working more than the maximum weekly hours allowed during the school year, but 11% reported working past the latest hour allowed on a school night, and 15% reported working off the clock. Conclusions. Significant numbers of US adolescents are employed in violation of the child labor laws and as a result are exposed to safety risks. Although our data did not allow for an analysis of enforcement, our findings demonstrate gaps in employer compliance with the law. We suggest that closer attention to enforcement policy and practice is needed. PMID:18633089

  9. 21 CFR 1314.25 - Requirements for retail transactions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Requirements for retail transactions. 1314.25 Section 1314.25 Food and Drugs DRUG ENFORCEMENT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE RETAIL SALE OF SCHEDULED LISTED CHEMICAL PRODUCTS Sales by Regulated Sellers § 1314.25 Requirements for retail transactions...

  10. 21 CFR 1314.25 - Requirements for retail transactions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Requirements for retail transactions. 1314.25 Section 1314.25 Food and Drugs DRUG ENFORCEMENT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE RETAIL SALE OF SCHEDULED LISTED CHEMICAL PRODUCTS Sales by Regulated Sellers § 1314.25 Requirements for retail transactions...

  11. 21 CFR 1314.25 - Requirements for retail transactions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Requirements for retail transactions. 1314.25 Section 1314.25 Food and Drugs DRUG ENFORCEMENT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE RETAIL SALE OF SCHEDULED LISTED CHEMICAL PRODUCTS Sales by Regulated Sellers § 1314.25 Requirements for retail transactions...

  12. 21 CFR 1314.25 - Requirements for retail transactions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Requirements for retail transactions. 1314.25 Section 1314.25 Food and Drugs DRUG ENFORCEMENT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE RETAIL SALE OF SCHEDULED LISTED CHEMICAL PRODUCTS Sales by Regulated Sellers § 1314.25 Requirements for retail transactions...

  13. 21 CFR 1314.25 - Requirements for retail transactions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Requirements for retail transactions. 1314.25 Section 1314.25 Food and Drugs DRUG ENFORCEMENT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE RETAIL SALE OF SCHEDULED LISTED CHEMICAL PRODUCTS Sales by Regulated Sellers § 1314.25 Requirements for retail transactions...

  14. Food security in South Africa: a review of national surveys

    PubMed Central

    Labadarios, Demetre; Steyn, Nelia Patricia; Gericke, Gerda; Maunder, Eleni Maria Winifred; Davids, Yul Derek; Parker, Whadi-ah

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Objective To assess the status of food security – i.e. access to food, food availability and food utilization – in South Africa. Methods A systematic search of national surveys that used the Community Childhood Hunger Identification Project (CCHIP) index to measure food security in South Africa over a period of 10 years (1999–2008) was conducted. Anthropometric data for children aged 1–9 years were used to assess food utilization, and household food inventory data were used to assess food availability. Findings Only three national surveys had used the CCHIP index, namely, the 1999 and 2005 National Food Consumption Surveys (NFCS) and the 2008 South African Social Attitudes Survey. These surveys showed a relatively large decrease in food insecurity between 1999 and 2008. However, the consistent emerging trend indicated that in poorer households women were either feeding their children a poor diet or skipping meals so their children could eat. In terms of food access and availability, the 1999 NFCS showed that households that enjoyed food security consumed an average of 16 different food items over 24 hours, whereas poorer households spent less money on food and consumed fewer than 8 different food items. Moreover, children had low mean scores for dietary diversity (3.58; standard deviation, SD: ± 1.37) and dietary variety (5.52; SD: ± 2.54) scores. In terms of food utilization, the NFCS showed that stunting in children decreased from 21.6% in 1999 to 18% in 2005. Conclusion The South African government must implement measures to improve the undesirably high level of food insecurity in poorer households. PMID:22271946

  15. Monitoring process hygiene in Serbian retail establishments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vesković Moračanin, S.; Baltić, T.; Milojević, L.

    2017-09-01

    The present study was conducted to estimate the effectiveness of sanitary procedures on food contact surfaces and food handlers’ hands in Serbian retail establishments. For that purpose, a total of 970 samples from food contact surfaces and 525 samples from workers’ hands were microbiologically analyzed. Results of total aerobic plate count and total Enterobacteriaceae count showed that the implemented washing and disinfection procedures, as a part of HACCP plans, were not effective enough in most retail facilities. Constant and intensive education of employees on proper implementation of sanitation procedures are needed in order to ensure food safety in the retail market.

  16. B'More Healthy: Retail Rewards--design of a multi-level communications and pricing intervention to improve the food environment in Baltimore City.

    PubMed

    Budd, Nadine; Cuccia, Alison; Jeffries, Jayne K; Prasad, Divya; Frick, Kevin D; Powell, Lisa; Katz, Fred A; Gittelsohn, Joel

    2015-03-24

    Low-income black residents of Baltimore City have disproportionately higher rates of obesity and chronic disease than other Maryland residents. Increasing the availability and affordability of healthy food are key strategies to improve the food environment and can lead to healthier diets. This paper describes B'More Healthy: Retail Rewards (BHRR), an intervention that tests the effectiveness of performance-based pricing discounts and health communications, separately and combined, on healthy food purchasing and consumption among low-income small store customers. BHRR is 2x2 factorial design randomized controlled trial. Fifteen regular customers recruited from each of 24 participating corner stores in Baltimore City were enrolled. Food stores were randomized to 1) pricing intervention, 2) communications intervention, 3) combined intervention, or 4) control. Pricing stores were given a 10-30% price discount on selected healthier food items, such as fresh fruits, frozen vegetables, and baked chips, at the point of purchase from two food wholesale stores during the 6-month trial. Storeowners agreed to pass on the discount to the consumer to increase demand for healthy food. Communications stores received visual and interactive materials to promote healthy items, including signage, taste tests, and refrigerators. Primary outcome measures include consumer food purchasing and associated psychosocial variables. Secondary outcome measures include consumer food consumption, store sales, and associated storeowner psychosocial factors. Process evaluation was monitored throughout the trial at wholesaler, small store, and consumer levels. This is the first study to test the impact of performance-based pricing and communications incentives in small food stores, an innovative strategy to encourage local wholesalers and storeowners to share responsibility in creating a healthier food supply by stocking, promoting, and reducing costs of healthier foods in their stores. Local food

  17. Evidence for validity of five secondary data sources for enumerating retail food outlets in seven American Indian Communities in North Carolina

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Most studies on the local food environment have used secondary sources to describe the food environment, such as government food registries or commercial listings (e.g., Reference USA). Most of the studies exploring evidence for validity of secondary retail food data have used on-site verification and have not conducted analysis by data source (e.g., sensitivity of Reference USA) or by food outlet type (e.g., sensitivity of Reference USA for convenience stores). Few studies have explored the food environment in American Indian communities. To advance the science on measuring the food environment, we conducted direct, on-site observations of a wide range of food outlets in multiple American Indian communities, without a list guiding the field observations, and then compared our findings to several types of secondary data. Methods Food outlets located within seven State Designated Tribal Statistical Areas in North Carolina (NC) were gathered from online Yellow Pages, Reference USA, Dun & Bradstreet, local health departments, and the NC Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services. All TIGER/Line 2009 roads (>1,500 miles) were driven in six of the more rural tribal areas and, for the largest tribe, all roads in two of its cities were driven. Sensitivity, positive predictive value, concordance, and kappa statistics were calculated to compare secondary data sources to primary data. Results 699 food outlets were identified during primary data collection. Match rate for primary data and secondary data differed by type of food outlet observed, with the highest match rates found for grocery stores (97%), general merchandise stores (96%), and restaurants (91%). Reference USA exhibited almost perfect sensitivity (0.89). Local health department data had substantial sensitivity (0.66) and was almost perfect when focusing only on restaurants (0.91). Positive predictive value was substantial for Reference USA (0.67) and moderate for local health department data (0

  18. Development of sample handling procedures for foods under USDA's National Food and Nutrient Analysis Program

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The National Food and Nutrient Analysis Program (NFNAP) was implemented in 1997 to update and improve the quality of food composition data maintained in the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) National Nutrient Database for Standard Reference. NFNAP was designed to sample and analyze fre...

  19. Prevalence, antimicrobial resistance and multiple-locus variable-number tandem-repeat analysis profiles of diarrheagenic Escherichia coli isolated from different retail foods.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lili; Nakamura, Hiromi; Kage-Nakadai, Eriko; Hara-Kudo, Yukiko; Nishikawa, Yoshikazu

    2017-03-07

    Diarrheagenic E. coli (DEC) isolates were recovered from local retail markets and the Osaka Municipal Central Wholesale Market in Japan. Retail food samples were collected for analysis in Osaka Japan from 2005 to 2008 and consisted of 32 beef, 28 pork, 20 poultry, 136 fish, 66 fruits and vegetables and 51 ready-to-eat (RTE) food samples. A total of 82 DEC strains were recovered from 64 (19%) food samples with the highest prevalence in poultry (100%, 20/20), followed by pork (54%, 15/28), beef (28%, 9/32), fruits and vegetables (12%, 8/66), fish (6.6%, 9/136) and RTE foods (5.9%, 3/51). Most of the strains belonged to E. coli possessing the enteroaggregative E. coli (EAEC) heat-stable enterotoxin 1 (EAST1) gene (EAST1EC; n=62, P<0.0001) and enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC; n=16, P<0.01), whereas only 1 strain belonged to Shiga toxin-producing E. coli (STEC), 1 to EAEC and 2 to enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC) strains. Of the 82 DEC isolates, 22 O and 13H serogroups were detected, including some specific serogroups (O91, O103, O115, O119, O126, and O157) which have been associated with human diarrheal infections. Phylogenetic group A and B1 were predominant among the DEC isolates. Antimicrobial resistance to tetracycline was most common (49%), followed by nalidixic acid (28%), ampicillin (24%), sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim (20%), and cephalothin (18%). All isolates were susceptible to aztreonam. Of the resistant strains, 44% (22/50) demonstrated resistance to >3 antimicrobial agents. Isolates resistant to >5 antimicrobials were only found in the meat samples, while isolates from the fruits and vegetables as well as RTE foods showed resistance to only 1 or 2 antimicrobial agents. Sixty one percent of EAST1EC, 56% of EPEC and all of the EAEC and ETEC were resistant to at least 1 antimicrobial agent. Multiple-locus variable-number tandem repeat analysis (MLVA) was used in this study for genotyping of DEC. The 82 isolates collected for this study showed 77 distinct MLVA

  20. Examination of community and consumer nutrition, tobacco and physical activity environments at food and tobacco retail stores in three diverse North Carolina communities

    PubMed Central

    D'Angelo, Heather; Evenson, Kelly R.; Rose, Shyanika W.; Fleischhacker, Sheila; Myers, Allison E.; Ribisl, Kurt M.

    2015-01-01

    To advance our understanding of multiple health-related dimensions of the built environment, this study examined associations among nutrition, tobacco, and physical activity community and consumer environments. Community environment measures included supermarket access, tobacco outlet density, and physical activity resource density in store neighborhoods. Cross-sectional observations of the nutrition, tobacco and physical activity environments were conducted in 2011 at and around 303 food stores that sold tobacco products in three North Carolina counties. Pearson correlation coefficients and multiple linear regression were used to examine associations between community and consumer environments. Correlations between community nutrition, tobacco, and physical activity environments ranged from slight to fair (− 0.35 to 0.20) and from poor to fair (− 0.01 to − 0.38) between consumer environments. Significant relationships between consumer tobacco and nutrition environments were found after controlling for store and neighborhood characteristics. For example, stores with higher amounts of interior tobacco marketing had higher healthy food availability (p = 0.001), while stores with higher amounts of exterior tobacco marketing had lower healthy food availability (p = 0.02). Community and consumer environments for nutrition, tobacco, and physical activity were interrelated. Measures that assess single aspects of community or consumer environments could miss characteristics that may influence customer purchasing. Even chain supermarkets, typically regarded as healthful food sources compared to smaller food stores, may expose customers to tobacco marketing inside. Future research could explore combining efforts to reduce obesity and tobacco use by addressing tobacco marketing, healthy food availability and physical activity opportunities at retail food outlets. PMID:26516620

  1. Understanding the Relationship Between the Retail Food Environment Index and Early Childhood Obesity Among WIC Participants in Los Angeles County Using GeoDa.

    PubMed

    Koleilat, Maria; Whaley, Shannon E; Afifi, Abdelmonem A; Estrada, Leobardo; Harrison, Gail G

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the association between the local food environment and obesity proportions among 3- to 4-year-old children who were participants in the WIC program in Los Angeles County using spatial analyses techniques. ArcGIS, spatial analysis software, was used to compute the retail food environment index (RFEI) per ZIP code. GeoDa, spatial statistics software was employed to check for spatial autocorrelation and to control for permeability of the boundaries. Linear regression and ANOVA were used to examine the impact of the food environment on childhood obesity. Fast-food restaurants represented 30% and convenience stores represented 40% of the sum of food outlets in areas where WIC participants reside. Although there was no statistically significant association between RFEI and 3- to 4-year-old obesity proportions among WIC children, analysis of variance (ANOVA) tests demonstrated statistically significant positive associations between obesity and the number of convenience stores and the number of supermarkets. Our findings suggest that RFEI, as currently constructed, may not be the optimal way to capture the food environment. This study suggests that convenience stores and supermarkets are a likely source of excess calories for children in low-income households. Given the ubiquity of convenience stores in low-income neighborhoods, interventions to improve availability of healthy food in these stores should be part of the many approaches to addressing childhood obesity. This study adds to the literature by examining the validity of the RFEI and by demonstrating the need and illustrating the use of spatial analyses, using GeoDA, in the environment/obesity studies.

  2. Understanding the Relationship Between the Retail Food Environment Index and Early Childhood Obesity Among WIC Participants in Los Angeles County Using GeoDa

    PubMed Central

    Koleilat, Maria; Whaley, Shannon E.; Afifi, Abdelmonem A.; Estrada, Leobardo; Harrison, Gail G.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the association between the local food environment and obesity proportions among 3- to 4-year-old children who were participants in the WIC program in Los Angeles County using spatial analyses techniques. ArcGIS, spatial analysis software, was used to compute the retail food environment index (RFEI) per ZIP code. GeoDa, spatial statistics software was employed to check for spatial autocorrelation and to control for permeability of the boundaries. Linear regression and ANOVA were used to examine the impact of the food environment on childhood obesity. Fast-food restaurants represented 30% and convenience stores represented 40% of the sum of food outlets in areas where WIC participants reside. Although there was no statistically significant association between RFEI and 3- to 4-year-old obesity proportions among WIC children, analysis of variance (ANOVA) tests demonstrated statistically significant positive associations between obesity and the number of convenience stores and the number of supermarkets. Our findings suggest that RFEI, as currently constructed, may not be the optimal way to capture the food environment. This study suggests that convenience stores and supermarkets are a likely source of excess calories for children in low-income households. Given the ubiquity of convenience stores in low-income neighborhoods, interventions to improve availability of healthy food in these stores should be part of the many approaches to addressing childhood obesity. This study adds to the literature by examining the validity of the RFEI and by demonstrating the need and illustrating the use of spatial analyses, using GeoDA, in the environment/obesity studies. PMID:23569623

  3. Assessment of hygienic quality of surfaces in retail food service establishments based on microbial counts and real-time detection of ATP.

    PubMed

    Cunningham, Annette E; Rajagopal, Raj; Lauer, Jim; Allwood, Paul

    2011-04-01

    Clean food contact surfaces are important in reducing the likelihood of foodborne disease transmission. The goal of this study was to assess and compare baseline cleanliness of food contact and environmental surfaces in retail food establishments by using ATP bioluminescence (ATP-B), visual assessment, and surface contact plates. Four hundred eighty-nine surface samples were collected from three food service establishments at the University of Minnesota-Twin Cities (Minneapolis) and analyzed for either ATP (252) or total aerobic plate count bacteria (237). ATP levels ranged from a minimum of 4 relative light units (RLU; 0.60 log RLU) on a clean slicer to a maximum of 506,618 RLU (5.77 log RLU) on a dirty cutting board. The overall mean was 1,950 RLU (3.29 log RLU). Cutting boards had the highest ATP levels (mean, 5,495 RLU or 3.74 log RLU; median, 6,761 RLU or 3.83 log RLU). Of the 128 samples judged visually clean at the time of sampling, 70.3 % failed ATP-B testing. Sixty-one (26 % ) of the 237 total aerobic plate count samples yielded counts of over 125 CFU/50 cm(2) (failed), and of those that failed, 40 % were assessed as visually clean before sampling. The highest average counts in CFU/50 cm(2) were found on slicers (104) and cutting boards (87). The results of this study suggest that the current practice of evaluating food contact surface cleanliness by sight and touch to meet regulatory requirements might be inadequate. ATP-B testing may be an efficient tool to facilitate creation, implementation, and validation of more effective food contact surface cleaning in food establishments.

  4. Evidence for the benefits of food chain interventions on E. coli 0157:H7/NM prevalence in retail ground beef and human disease incidence: A success story.

    PubMed

    Pollari, Frank; Christidis, Tanya; Pintar, Katarina D M; Nesbitt, Andrea; Farber, Jeff; Lavoie, Marie-Claude; Gill, Alex; Kirsch, Penelope; Johnson, Roger P

    2017-04-20

    Human infection with Escherichia coli O157:H7/NM has historically been associated with consumption of undercooked ground beef. The purpose of this paper is to investigate the correlation of the decline in E. coli O157:H7/NM infections in Canada with the introduction of control efforts in ground beef by industry. The human incidence of E. coli O157:H7/NM, prevalence in ground beef and interventions from 1996 to 2014 were analyzed. Pathogen prevalence data were obtained from federal government and industry surveillance and inspection/compliance programs. A survey of the largest ground beef producers in Canada was conducted to identify when interventions were implemented. The incidence of E. coli O157:H7/NM infections in Canada declined from ∼4 cases/100 000 to ∼1 case/100 000 from 2000 to 2010. Verotoxigenic Escherichia coli (VTEC) prevalence in ground beef sold at retail declined from about 30% around the year 2000 to <2% since 2012. Other measures of the prevalence of E. coli, VTEC, and E. coli O157:H7/NM in beef and ground beef also declined. The number and types of interventions implemented in the major beef processing establishments in Canada increased from 1996 to 2016. The observed decline in human illnesses and pathogen levels in relation to retail meats was associated with the introduction of control efforts by industry, federal and provincial/territorial governments, and the general population. Industry-led changes in beef processing along with the introduction of food safety policies, regulations, and public education have led to improved food safety in Canada.

  5. Isolation of Campylobacter spp. from Client-Owned Dogs and Cats, and Retail Raw Meat Pet Food in the Manawatu, New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Bojanić, K; Midwinter, A C; Marshall, J C; Rogers, L E; Biggs, P J; Acke, E

    2017-09-01

    Campylobacter causes acute gastroenteritis in people worldwide and is frequently isolated from food, animals and the environment. The disease is predominately food-borne but many routes of transmission and sources of infection have been described, including contact with pets. The prevalence of Campylobacter spp. in dogs and cats varies widely, and data on New Zealand pets are limited. This study aimed to investigate the prevalence of Campylobacter spp. in dogs, cats and retail raw meat pet food products in New Zealand and to characterize Campylobacter jejuni isolates using multilocus sequence typing (MLST). Ninety dogs and 110 cats examined at the Massey University Veterinary Teaching Hospital for elective procedures, and fifty locally purchased retail raw meat pet diets were sampled. Two culture protocols combining Bolton broth enrichment and mCCDA and CAT agars in a microaerobic atmosphere at 42°C and 37°C with species identification using PCR were performed. The prevalence of Campylobacter spp., C. jejuni, Campylobacter upsaliensis and Campylobacter helveticus was 36%, 13%, 23% and 1% in dogs and 16%, 5%, 5% and 7% in cats, respectively. One dog had Campylobacter lari confirmed, and three dogs and one cat had multiple Campylobacter spp. detected. Significantly more animals tested positive using CAT than mCCDA agar (P < 0.001). Being neutered, vaccinated for Bordetella bronchiseptica, fed dry diets and brought in for neutering were protective factors for dogs, whereas attendance for dental treatment was a risk factor for cats. Campylobacter spp. were isolated from 28%, C. jejuni 22%, C. lari 6% and Campylobacter coli 6% of food samples. Six isolates positive by Campylobacter genus PCR were identified as Arcobacter butzleri. Poultry meat was more likely to be positive than non-poultry meat (P = 0.006). Of the 13 C. jejuni pet isolates with full MLST profiles, eight were of different sequence types (ST) and all nine food isolates were of different STs.

  6. Ochratoxin A Concentrations in a Variety of Grain-Based and Non-Grain-Based Foods on the Canadian Retail Market from 2009 to 2014.

    PubMed

    Kolakowski, Beata; O'Rourke, Sarah M; Bietlot, Henri P; Kurz, Karl; Aweryn, Barbara

    2016-12-01

    The extent of ochratoxin A (OTA) contamination of domestically produced foods sold across Canada was determined from 2009 to 2014 with sampling and testing occurring each fiscal year. Cereal-based, fruit-based, and soy-based food samples (n = 6,857) were analyzed. Almost half of the samples (3,200; 47%) did not contain detectable concentrations of OTA. The remaining 3,657 samples contained OTA at 0.040 to 631 ng/g. Wheat, oats, milled products of other grains (such as rye and buckwheat), and to a lesser extent corn products and their derived foods were the most significant potential sources of OTA exposure for the Canadian population. Wine, grape juice, soy products, beer, dairy-based infant formula, and licorice candy were not significant contributors to OTA consumption. Spices had the highest OTA concentrations; but because so little is ingested, these foods are not considered to be a significant source of OTA. In contrast, infant formulas and cereals can be important dietary sources of OTA. Infant cereals containing oats and infant formulas containing soy had detectable concentrations of OTA, some of which exceeded the proposed Canadian guidelines. The prevalence and concentrations of OTA in major crops (wheat, corn, and oats) varied widely across years. Because these foods were purchased at retail stores, no information was available on the OTA concentrations in the raw materials, the storage conditions before purchase of the samples, or the origin of the ingredients (may include blends of raw materials from different years and/or different geographical regions of Canada); therefore, impact of these factors could not be assessed. Overall, 2.3% of the samples exceeded the proposed Canadian OTA regulatory limits and 2.7% exceeded the current European Union (EU) OTA regulatory limits. These results are consistent with a Health Canada exposure assessment published in 2010, despite the inclusion of a wider range of products and confirm the safety of foods widely

  7. The antibiotic resistance characteristics of non-typhoidal Salmonella enterica isolated from food-producing animals, retail meat and humans in South East Asia.

    PubMed

    Van, Thi Thu Hao; Nguyen, Hoang Nam Kha; Smooker, Peter M; Coloe, Peter J

    2012-03-15

    Antimicrobial resistance is a global problem. It is most prevalent in developing countries where infectious diseases remain common, the use of antibiotics in humans and animals is widespread, and the replacement of older antibiotics with new generation antibiotics is not easy due to the high cost. Information on antibiotic resistance phenotypes and genotypes of Salmonella spp. in food animals and humans in different countries and geographic regions is necessary to combat the spread of resistance. This will improve the understanding of antibiotic resistance epidemiology, tracing of new emerging pathogens, assisting in disease treatment, and enhancing prudent use of antibiotics. However, the extent of antibiotic resistance in food-borne pathogens and humans in many developing countries remains unknown. The goal of this review is to discuss the current state of antibiotic resistance of non-typhoid Salmonella spp. in food-producing animals, retail meat and humans from South East Asia. It is focused on resistance characteristics of traditional and "critically important" antibiotics in this region, and the emergence of multidrug resistant strains and genetic elements that contribute to the development of multidrug resistance, including integrons and the Salmonella Genomic Island (SGI).

  8. [Retail food outlets and the association with overweight/obesity in schoolchildren from Florianópolis, Santa Catarina State, Brazil].

    PubMed

    Motter, Adriana Filimberti; Vasconcelos, Francisco de Assis Guedes de; Correa, Elizabeth Nappi; Andrade, Dalton Francisco de

    2015-03-01

    The study analyzes retail food outlets and their association with overweight/obesity in schoolchildren from Florianópolis, Santa Catarina State, Brazil. The study used a cross-sectional design with a random sample of 2,506 schoolchildren from public (n = 19) and private schools (n = 11). Overweight and obesity were classified according to World Health Organization guidelines for 2007, and crude and adjusted analyses were performed using Poisson regression. Prevalence of overweight/obesity was 34.2%. In public schools, 19.6% of the children were overweight and 13.5% were obese, as compared to 22.4% and 11.1% in private schools. An association was found in the public school system between overweight/obesity and the use of bakeries for food purchases (p = 0.004). In the private school system, children of families that bought groceries at the supermarket showed 26% less overweight/obesity compared to those who did not (p = 0.003). The data show an association between some types of food outlets (supermarkets and bakeries) and prevalence of overweight/obesity in the school-age population.

  9. Mobile and home-based vendors' contributions to the retail food environment in rural South Texas Mexican-origin settlements.

    PubMed

    Valdez, Zulema; Dean, Wesley R; Sharkey, Joseph R

    2012-10-01

    A growing concern with high rates of obesity and overweight among immigrant minority populations in the US has focused attention on the availability and accessibility to healthy foods in such communities. Small-scale vending in rural, impoverished and underserved areas, however, is generally overlooked; yet, this type of informal activity and source for food is particularly important in such environs, or "food desserts," where traditional forms of work and mainstream food outlets are limited or even absent. This exploratory study investigates two types of small-scale food vending that take place in rural colonias, or Mexican-origin settlements along the South Texas border with Mexico: mobile and home-based. Using a convenience sample of 23 vendors who live and work in Texas colonias, this study identifies the characteristics associated with mobile and home-based food vendors and their businesses and its contributions to the rural food environment. Findings reveal that mobile and home-based vending provides a variety of food and beverage options to colonia residents, and suggests that home-based vendors contribute a greater assortment of food options, including some healthier food items, than mobile food vendors, which offer and sell a limited range of products. Findings may contribute to the development of innovative policy solutions and interventions aimed at increasing healthy food options or reducing health disparities in immigrant communities. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Mobile and Home-based Vendors’ Contributions to the Retail Food Environment in Rural South Texas Mexican-origin Settlements

    PubMed Central

    Valdez, Zulema; Dean, Wesley R; Sharkey, Joseph R

    2012-01-01

    A growing concern with high rates of obesity and overweight among immigrant minority populations in the U.S. has focused attention on the availability and accessibility to healthy foods in such communities. Small-scale vending in rural, impoverished and underserved areas, however, is generally overlooked; yet, this type of informal activity and source for food is particularly important in such environs, or “food desserts,” where traditional forms of work and mainstream food outlets are limited or even absent. This exploratory study investigates two types of small-scale food vending that take place in rural colonias, or Mexican-origin settlements along the South Texas border with Mexico: mobile and home-based. Using a convenience sample of 23 vendors who live and work in Texas colonias, this study identifies the characteristics associated with mobile and home-based food vendors and their businesses and its contributions to the rural food environment. Findings reveal that mobile and home-based vending provides a variety of food and beverage options to colonia residents, and suggests that home-based vendors contribute a greater assortment of food options, including some healthier food items, than mobile food vendors, which offer and sell a limited range of products. Findings may contribute to the development of innovative policy solutions and interventions aimed at increasing healthy food options or reducing health disparities in immigrant communities. PMID:22531289

  11. 76 FR 33307 - Strengthen and Promote the Role of Local Health Departments in Retail Food Safety Regulation (U-50)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-08

    ...-based approach to safeguard the American food supply. The goal is to identify potential threats to the food supply and to counteract them before they harm American consumers. CFSAN administers the FDA Foods... facilities (including approximately 154,000 domestic facilities and 223,000 foreign facilities)...

  12. Neighborhood fast food restaurants and fast food consumption: A national study

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Recent studies suggest that neighborhood fast food restaurant availability is related to greater obesity, yet few studies have investigated whether neighborhood fast food restaurant availability promotes fast food consumption. Our aim was to estimate the effect of neighborhood fast food availability on frequency of fast food consumption in a national sample of young adults, a population at high risk for obesity. Methods We used national data from U.S. young adults enrolled in wave III (2001-02; ages 18-28) of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (n = 13,150). Urbanicity-stratified multivariate negative binomial regression models were used to examine cross-sectional associations between neighborhood fast food availability and individual-level self-reported fast food consumption frequency, controlling for individual and neighborhood characteristics. Results In adjusted analysis, fast food availability was not associated with weekly frequency of fast food consumption in non-urban or low- or high-density urban areas. Conclusions Policies aiming to reduce neighborhood availability as a means to reduce fast food consumption among young adults may be unsuccessful. Consideration of fast food outlets near school or workplace locations, factors specific to more or less urban settings, and the role of individual lifestyle attitudes and preferences are needed in future research. PMID:21740571

  13. 15 CFR 400.45 - Retail trade.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... ZONES BOARD, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE REGULATIONS OF THE FOREIGN-TRADE ZONES BOARD Zone Operations and Administrative Requirements § 400.45 Retail trade. (a) In general. Retail trade is prohibited in zones, except...-paid or duty-free food and non-alcoholic beverage products sold within the zone or subzone...

  14. 15 CFR 400.45 - Retail trade.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... ZONES BOARD, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE REGULATIONS OF THE FOREIGN-TRADE ZONES BOARD Zone Operations and Administrative Requirements § 400.45 Retail trade. (a) In general. Retail trade is prohibited in zones, except...-paid or duty-free food and non-alcoholic beverage products sold within the zone or subzone...

  15. 15 CFR 400.45 - Retail trade.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... ZONES BOARD, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE REGULATIONS OF THE FOREIGN-TRADE ZONES BOARD Zone Operations and Administrative Requirements § 400.45 Retail trade. (a) In general. Retail trade is prohibited in zones, except...-paid or duty-free food and non-alcoholic beverage products sold within the zone or subzone...

  16. Childhood asphyxiation by food. A national analysis and overview.

    PubMed

    Harris, C S; Baker, S P; Smith, G A; Harris, R M

    1984-05-04

    Data on all identified food-related asphyxiations of infants and children aged 0 to 9 years in 41 states from 1979 to 1981 were analyzed by type of food and age of child. Nationally, one death occurred approximately every five days. More than 90% occurred in infants and children younger than 5 years and 65% in infants younger than 2 years. Round foods were most often mentioned of the 103 foods specifically identified on death certificates. Most frequently cited were hot dog products (17 cases, 17%), candy, ten; nuts, nine; and grapes, eight. Hot dogs caused deaths from infancy through 3 years (more than two thirds of all deaths from meat products) and seven of ten deaths in 3-year-olds. Characteristics of foods, children, and environment can be related to three phases of food asphyxiation: penetration, occlusion, and expulsion. Preventive measures include product modification, warning labels, and dissemination of information on high-risk foods.

  17. 7 CFR 278.3 - Participation of wholesale food concerns.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... from one or more specified authorized retail food stores, from one or more specified authorized... retail food store's properly filled-out and signed redemption certificate for the coupons; and (2) The... authorized retail food store's redemption certificate....

  18. Survey for Listeria monocytogenes in and on Ready-to-Eat Foods from Retail Establishments in the United States (2010 through 2013): Assessing Potential Changes of Pathogen Prevalence and Levels in a Decade.

    PubMed

    Luchansky, John B; Chen, Yuhuan; Porto-Fett, Anna C S; Pouillot, Régis; Shoyer, Bradley A; Johnson-DeRycke, Rachel; Eblen, Denise R; Hoelzer, Karin; Shaw, William K; van Doren, Jane M; Catlin, Michelle; Lee, Jeehyun; Tikekar, Rohan; Gallagher, Daniel; Lindsay, James A; Dennis, Sherri

    2017-06-01

    A multiyear interagency Listeria monocytogenes Market Basket Survey was undertaken for selected refrigerated ready-to-eat foods purchased at retail in four FoodNet sites in the United States. Food samples from 16 food categories in six broad groups (seafood, produce, dairy, meat, eggs, and combination foods) were collected weekly at large national chain supermarkets and independent grocery stores in California, Maryland, Connecticut, and Georgia for 100 weeks between December 2010 and March 2013. Of the 27,389 total samples, 116 samples tested positive by the BAX PCR system for L. monocytogenes , and the pathogen was isolated and confirmed for 102 samples. Among the 16 food categories, the proportion of positive samples (i.e., without considering clustering effects) based on recovery of a viable isolate of L. monocytogenes ranged from 0.00% (95% confidence interval: 0.00, 0.18) for the category of soft-ripened and semisoft cheese to 1.07% (0.63, 1.68) for raw cut vegetables. Among the 571 samples that tested positive for Listeria-like organisms, the proportion of positive samples ranged from 0.79% (0.45, 1.28) for soft-ripened and semisoft cheese to 4.76% (2.80, 7.51) for fresh crab meat or sushi. Across all 16 categories, L. monocytogenes contamination was significantly associated with the four states (P < 0.05) but not with the packaging location (prepackaged by the manufacturer versus made and/or packaged in the store), the type of store (national chain versus independent), or the season. Among the 102 samples positive for L. monocytogenes , levels ranged from <0.036 most probable number per g to 6.1 log CFU/g. For delicatessen (deli) meats, smoked seafood, seafood salads, soft-ripened and semisoft cheeses, and deli-type salads without meat, the percentage of positive samples was significantly lower (P < 0.001) in this survey than that reported a decade ago based on comparable surveys in the United States. Use of mixed logistic regression models to address

  19. The Ubiquity of Energy-Dense Snack Foods: A National Multicity Study

    PubMed Central

    Farley, Thomas A.; Baker, Erin T.; Rice, Janet C.

    2010-01-01

    Objectives. We assessed the availability and accessibility of energy-dense snacks in retail stores whose primary merchandise was not food and whether these varied by store type, region, or socioeconomic factors. Methods. We conducted systematic observations of 1082 retail stores in 19 US cities and determined the availability and accessibility of 6 categories of energy-dense snack foods. Results. Snack food was available in 41% of the stores; the most common forms were candy (33%), sweetened beverages (20%), and salty snacks (17%). These foods were often within arm's reach of the cash register queue. We observed snack foods in 96% of pharmacies, 94% of gasoline stations, 22% of furniture stores, 16% of apparel stores, and 29% to 65% of other types of stores. Availability varied somewhat by region but not by the racial or socioeconomic characteristics of nearby census tracts. Conclusions. Energy-dense snack foods and beverages, implicated as contributors to the obesity epidemic, are widely available in retail stores whose primary business is not food. The ubiquity of these products may contribute to excess energy consumption in the United States. PMID:20019297

  20. Transfer of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus from retail pork products onto food contact surfaces and the potential for consumer exposure.

    PubMed

    Snyder, Heather L; Niebuhr, Steven E; Dickson, James S

    2013-12-01

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is a pathogen that has developed resistance to beta-lactam antibiotics and has been isolated at low population numbers in retail meat products. The objectives of this study were to estimate the potential transfer of MRSA from contaminated retail pork products to food contact surfaces and to estimate the potential for human exposure to MRSA by contact with those contaminated surfaces. Pork loins, bacon, and fresh pork sausage were inoculated with a four-strain mixed MRSA culture over a range of populations from approximately 4 to 8 log, vacuum packaged, and stored for 2 weeks at 5°C to simulate normal packaging and distribution. Primary transfer was determined by placing inoculated products on knife blades, cutting boards, and a human skin model (pork skin) for 5 min. Secondary transfer was determined by placing an inoculated product on the contact surface, removing it, and then placing the secondary contact surface on the initial contact surface. A pork skin model was used to simulate transfer to human skin by placing it into contact with the contact surface. The percentages of transfer for primary transfer from the inoculated products to the cutting board ranged from 39 to 49%, while the percentages of transfer to the knife ranged from 17 to 42%. The percentages of transfer from the inoculated products to the pork skin ranged from 26 to 36%. The secondary transfer percentages ranged from 2.2 to 5.2% across all products and contact surfaces. Statistical analysis showed no significant differences in the amounts of transfer between transfer surfaces and across cell concentrations.

  1. Microbiological quality of retail spices in Tehran, Iran.

    PubMed

    Koohy-Kamaly-Dehkordy, Paliz; Nikoopour, Houshang; Siavoshi, Farideh; Koushki, Mohammadreza; Abadi, Alireza

    2013-05-01

    The microbiological quality of 351 samples of nine types of spices including black pepper, caraway, cinnamon, cow parsnip, curry powder, garlic powder, red pepper, sumac, and turmeric, collected from retail shops in Tehran during 2007, was determined. The numbers of aerobic mesophilic bacteria, Escherichia coli, and molds exceeded Iran's National Standard limits, at 63.2% (>5 × 10(5) CFU/g), 23.4% (>0.3 MPN/g), and 21.9% (>5 × 10(3) CFU/g) of the studied samples, respectively. Coliform contamination was more than 10(3) MPN/g in 24.8% of samples. High contamination of retail spices is considered an indication of environmental or fecal contamination due to unhygienic practices in their production. Use of spices with high microbial content could increase the chance of food spoilage and transmission of foodborne pathogens. Accordingly, application of food safety measurements to reduce microbial counts in spices is strongly recommended.

  2. Policy alternatives for reducing tobacco sales to minors: results from a national survey of retail chain and franchise stores.

    PubMed

    Altman, D G; Linzer, J; Kropp, R; Descheemaeker, N; Feighery, E; Fortmann, S P

    1992-01-01

    Minors' access to tobacco has become an important public health issue. Little is known, however, about the knowledge, attitudes, beliefs, and behavior toward access among executives from businesses that sell tobacco. This study examined access from the perspective of corporate and regional headquarters of retail chains and franchises that sell tobacco. A total of 148 U.S. companies with the largest overall retail sales volume that sold tobacco were asked to participate; 91 agreed. The sample included grocery stores, convenience stores, gas station mini-marts, liquor stores, and drug stores. Data revealed at least moderate support for policies limiting youth tobacco access. Although most companies reported having in place policies to prevent minors from purchasing tobacco, these policies did not seem intensive. In addition, executives underestimated the extent of youth access. We conclude that the time is right for passage of bold policies to protect young people from tobacco.

  3. [The national food and nutrition policy and its dialogue with the national food and nutrition security policy].

    PubMed

    Alves, Kelly Poliany de Souza; Jaime, Patricia Constante

    2014-11-01

    Food is one of the determinants and conditions of health and an inherent right of all people. The consequences of food and nutrition insecurity in the population, such as obesity, malnutrition and specific nutritional deficiencies, impact the health sector and have historically meant that it has assumed the responsibility for food and nutrition programs and policies in Brazil. However, ensuring food and nutrition security requires a combination of public policies, among which the National Food and Nutrition Policy of the Unified Health System (SUS) plays a fundamental role. This paper seeks to contribute to the debate on intersectoriality and health promotion based on presenting the National Food and Nutrition Policy and discussing its role as interface between the SUS and the National Food and Nutrition Security Policy and System. This perspective strongly suggests the combination of efforts to promote health and food and nutrition security in order to optimize initiatives developed in different sectors and accompanied by different policy councils that are not interrelated, enabling enhanced government and civil society action on the determinants of health and nutrition.

  4. 21 CFR 1140.14 - Additional responsibilities of retailers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Additional responsibilities of retailers. 1140.14 Section 1140.14 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... displays, advertising, labeling, and other items, that are located in the retailer's establishment and that...

  5. 21 CFR 1140.14 - Additional responsibilities of retailers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Additional responsibilities of retailers. 1140.14 Section 1140.14 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... displays, advertising, labeling, and other items, that are located in the retailer's establishment and that...

  6. 21 CFR 801.110 - Retail exemption for prescription devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Retail exemption for prescription devices. 801.110 Section 801.110 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES LABELING Exemptions From Adequate Directions for Use § 801.110 Retail exemption...

  7. 21 CFR 801.110 - Retail exemption for prescription devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Retail exemption for prescription devices. 801.110 Section 801.110 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES LABELING Exemptions From Adequate Directions for Use § 801.110 Retail exemption...

  8. 21 CFR 801.110 - Retail exemption for prescription devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Retail exemption for prescription devices. 801.110 Section 801.110 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES LABELING Exemptions From Adequate Directions for Use § 801.110 Retail exemption...

  9. 21 CFR 801.110 - Retail exemption for prescription devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Retail exemption for prescription devices. 801.110 Section 801.110 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES LABELING Exemptions From Adequate Directions for Use § 801.110 Retail exemption...

  10. 21 CFR 801.110 - Retail exemption for prescription devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Retail exemption for prescription devices. 801.110 Section 801.110 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES LABELING Exemptions From Adequate Directions for Use § 801.110 Retail exemption...

  11. Integrating Tobacco Control and Obesity Prevention Initiatives at Retail Outlets

    PubMed Central

    D’Angelo, Heather; Evenson, Kelly R.; Fleischhacker, Sheila; Myers, Allison E.; Rose, Shyanika W.

    2016-01-01

    Tobacco products are sold in approximately 375,000 US retail outlets, including convenience stores and pharmacies, which often sell energy-dense, low-nutrient foods and beverages. The Food and Drug Administration’s (FDA’s) increased authority over tobacco product sales and marketing, combined with declining smoking rates, provides an opportunity to transition tobacco retailers toward healthier retail environments. Unfortunately, research into improving consumer retail environments is often conducted in isolation by researchers working in tobacco control, nutrition, and physical activity. Interdisciplinary efforts are needed to transform tobacco retailers from stores that are dependent on a declining product category, to the sale and promotion of healthful foods and creating environments conducive to active living. The objective of this article is to describe the potential for interdisciplinary efforts to transition retailers away from selling and promoting tobacco products and toward creating retail environments that promote healthful eating and active living. PMID:26963859

  12. Integrating Tobacco Control and Obesity Prevention Initiatives at Retail Outlets.

    PubMed

    Ribisl, Kurt M; D'Angelo, Heather; Evenson, Kelly R; Fleischhacker, Sheila; Myers, Allison E; Rose, Shyanika W

    2016-03-10

    Tobacco products are sold in approximately 375,000 US retail outlets, including convenience stores and pharmacies, which often sell energy-dense, low-nutrient foods and beverages. The Food and Drug Administration's (FDA's) increased authority over tobacco product sales and marketing, combined with declining smoking rates, provides an opportunity to transition tobacco retailers toward healthier retail environments. Unfortunately, research into improving consumer retail environments is often conducted in isolation by researchers working in tobacco control, nutrition, and physical activity. Interdisciplinary efforts are needed to transform tobacco retailers from stores that are dependent on a declining product category, to the sale and promotion of healthful foods and creating environments conducive to active living. The objective of this article is to describe the potential for interdisciplinary efforts to transition retailers away from selling and promoting tobacco products and toward creating retail environments that promote healthful eating and active living.

  13. Occurrence and characterization of Listeria spp. in ready-to-eat retail foods from Vancouver, British Columbia.

    PubMed

    Kovačević, Jovana; Mesak, Lili R; Allen, Kevin J

    2012-06-01

    The occurrence of Listeria spp. and Listeria monocytogenes in retail RTE meat and fish products in Vancouver, British Columbia (B.C.) was investigated. To assess potential consumer health risk, recovered L. monocytogenes isolates were subjected to genotypic and phenotypic characterization. Conventional methods were used to recover Listeria spp. from deli meat (n = 40) and fish (n = 40) samples collected from 17 stores. Listeria spp. were recovered only from fish samples (20%); 5% harboured Listeria innocua, 5% had L. monocytogenes and 10% contained Listeria welshimeri. L. monocytogenes isolates serotyped as 1/2a and 1/2b, possessed dissimilar PFGE patterns, and had full-length InlA. Three 1/2a clonal isolates encoded the 50 kb genomic island, LGI1. Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) profiling showed all Listeria spp. possessed resistance to cefoxitin and nalidixic acid. L. monocytogenes were resistant to clindamycin, two were resistant to streptomycin, and one to amikacin. Reduced susceptibility to ciprofloxacin was seen in all L. monocytogenes, L. innocua and three L. welshimeri isolates. Reduced susceptibility to amikacin and chloramphenicol was also observed in one L. monocytogenes and three L. welshimeri isolates, respectively. Recovery of L. monocytogenes in fish samples possessing AMR, full-length InlA, LGI1, and serotypes frequently associated with listeriosis suggest B.C. consumers are exposed to high-risk strains.

  14. Microbiological quality of retail imported unprepared whole lettuces: a PHLS Food Working Group Study. Public Health Laboratory Service.

    PubMed

    Little, C; Roberts, D; Youngs, E; de Louvois, J

    1999-04-01

    A study of imported unprepared whole lettuces sampled from supermarkets, greengrocers, shops, and market stalls found that all were of acceptable microbiological quality. Twenty-seven out of 151 (18%) imported lettuce samples had Enterobacteriaceae levels of 10(4) CFU/g or more. However, these bacteria that constitute part of the natural microflora of unprepared vegetables may also be derived from the soil and/or by poor handling. The pathogens, Salmonella spp., Shigella spp., Campylobacter spp., Escherichia coli O157:H7, Vibrio cholerae, Listeria monocytogenes, and also Escherichia coli, an indicator of fecal contamination, were not detected in any imported lettuces, indicating that hygiene, harvesting, and production practices were good. Imported lettuces with Enterobacteriaceae levels of 10(4) CFU/g or more varied with type of retail premises and the temperature at which the lettuces were displayed. Samples from greengrocers, shops, and market stalls were more likely to contain Enterobacteriaceae at levels in excess of 10(4) CFU/g than those from supermarkets.

  15. Where we are in retail food safety, how we got to where we are, and how do we get there?

    PubMed

    Bryan, Frank L

    2002-09-01

    Food safety has not yet been attained. This is evident from reported foodborne-disease outbreaks, laboratory-confirmed cases of diseases that can be foodborne, estimates of foodborne illness based on surveillance data, and out-of-compliance risk factors. Several activities have had an impact on food safety, but there are limitations in the way each of those activities has been or is being conducted. The activities include foodborne-disease surveillance; food sampling and testing; swabbing and testing of utensils; inspection and enforcement of regulations; use of the Food Code; on-site hazard analyses, on-site monitoring of critical control points and prompt corrective actions; applied research and challenge testing; training of public-health and food regulatory personnel; training of food workers, supervisors, and managers; and education of the public. To attain food safety, we must use common (microbiological) sense and understand the principles of transmission of foodborne-disease etiological agents and their control. A change of attitudes and program focus is necessary.

  16. Antibiotic-Resistant Extended Spectrum ß-Lactamase- and Plasmid-Mediated AmpC-Producing Enterobacteriaceae Isolated from Retail Food Products and the Pearl River in Guangzhou, China

    PubMed Central

    Ye, Qinghua; Wu, Qingping; Zhang, Shuhong; Zhang, Jumei; Yang, Guangzhu; Wang, Huixian; Huang, Jiahui; Chen, Mongtong; Xue, Liang; Wang, Juan

    2017-01-01

    We conducted a survey in 2015 to evaluate the presence of extended spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)- and plasmid-mediated AmpC-producing Enterobacteriaceae in retail food and water of the Pearl River in Guangzhou, China, as well as their antibiotic resistance profiles. Samples (88 fresh food samples and 43 water samples) from eight different districts were analyzed by direct plating and after enrichment. Multidrug-resistant strains were found in 41.7 and 43.4% of food and water samples, respectively. ESBLs were found in 3.4 and 11.6% of food and water samples, respectively, and AmpC producers were found in 13.6 and 16.3% of food and water samples, respectively. Molecular characterization revealed the domination of blaCTX−Mgenes; plasmidic AmpC was of the type DHA-1 both in food and water samples. Thirteen of Fifty one β-lactamase-producing positive isolates were detected to be transconjugants, which readily received the β-lactamase genes conferring resistance to β-lactam antibiotics as well as some non-β-lactam antibiotics. These findings provide evidence that retail food and the river water may be considered as reservoirs for the dissemination of β-lactam antibiotics, and these resistance genes could readily be transmitted to humans through the food chain and water. PMID:28217112

  17. Antibiotic-Resistant Extended Spectrum ß-Lactamase- and Plasmid-Mediated AmpC-Producing Enterobacteriaceae Isolated from Retail Food Products and the Pearl River in Guangzhou, China.

    PubMed

    Ye, Qinghua; Wu, Qingping; Zhang, Shuhong; Zhang, Jumei; Yang, Guangzhu; Wang, Huixian; Huang, Jiahui; Chen, Mongtong; Xue, Liang; Wang, Juan

    2017-01-01

    We conducted a survey in 2015 to evaluate the presence of extended spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)- and plasmid-mediated AmpC-producing Enterobacteriaceae in retail food and water of the Pearl River in Guangzhou, China, as well as their antibiotic resistance profiles. Samples (88 fresh food samples and 43 water samples) from eight different districts were analyzed by direct plating and after enrichment. Multidrug-resistant strains were found in 41.7 and 43.4% of food and water samples, respectively. ESBLs were found in 3.4 and 11.6% of food and water samples, respectively, and AmpC producers were found in 13.6 and 16.3% of food and water samples, respectively. Molecular characterization revealed the domination of blaCTX-M genes; plasmidic AmpC was of the type DHA-1 both in food and water samples. Thirteen of Fifty one β-lactamase-producing positive isolates were detected to be transconjugants, which readily received the β-lactamase genes conferring resistance to β-lactam antibiotics as well as some non-β-lactam antibiotics. These findings provide evidence that retail food and the river water may be considered as reservoirs for the dissemination of β-lactam antibiotics, and these resistance genes could readily be transmitted to humans through the food chain and water.

  18. Do people really know what food retailers exist in their neighborhood? Examining GIS-based and perceived presence of retail food outlets in an eight-county region of South Carolina.

    PubMed

    Barnes, Timothy L; Bell, Bethany A; Freedman, Darcy A; Colabianchi, Natalie; Liese, Angela D

    2015-04-01

    Measures of neighborhood food environments have been linked to diet and obesity. However, the appropriate measurement methods and how people actually perceive their food environments are still unclear. In a cross-sectional study of 939 adults, the perceived presence of food outlets was compared to the geographic-based presence of outlets within a participant's neighborhood, utilizing percent agreement and Kappa statistics. Perceived presence was based on survey-administered questions, and geographic-based presence was characterized using 1-, 2-, 3- and 5-mile (1-mile=1.6km) Euclidean- and network-based buffers centered on each participant's residence. Analyses were also stratified by urban and non-urban designations. Overall, an individual's perceived neighborhood food environment was moderately correlated with the geographic-based presence of outlets. The performance of an individual's perception was most optimal using a 2- or 3-mile geographic-based neighborhood boundary and/or when the participant lived in a non-urban neighborhood. This study has implications for how researchers measure the food environment.

  19. Do people really know what food retailers exist in their neighborhood? Examining GIS-based and perceived presence of retail food outlets in an eight-county region of South Carolina

    PubMed Central

    Barnes, Timothy L.; Bell, Bethany A.; Freedman, Darcy A.; Colabianchi, Natalie; Liese, Angela D.

    2015-01-01

    Measures of neighborhood food environments have been linked to diet and obesity. However, the appropriate measurement methods and how people actually perceive their food environments are still unclear. In a cross-sectional study of 939 adults, the perceived presence of food outlets was compared to the geographic-based presence of outlets within a participant’s neighborhood, utilizing percent agreement and Kappa statistics. Perceived presence was based on survey-administered questions, and geographic-based presence was characterized using 1-, 2-, 3- and 5-mile (1-mile=1.6 km) Euclidean- and network-based buffers centered on each participant’s residence. Analyses were also stratified by urban and non-urban designations. Overall, an individual’s perceived neighborhood food environment was moderately correlated with the geographic-based presence of outlets. The performance of an individual’s perception was most optimal using a 2- or 3-mile geographic-based neighborhood boundary and/or when the participant lived in a non-urban neighborhood. This study has implications for how researchers measure the food environment. PMID:26046635

  20. 7 CFR 205.309 - Agricultural products in other than packaged form at the point of retail sale that are sold...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) ORGANIC FOODS PRODUCTION ACT PROVISIONS NATIONAL ORGANIC PROGRAM Labels.... (1) Such statement must not list more than three organic ingredients or food groups, and (2) In any... the point of retail sale that are sold, labeled, or represented as âmade with organic (specified...

  1. 7 CFR 205.309 - Agricultural products in other than packaged form at the point of retail sale that are sold...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) ORGANIC FOODS PRODUCTION ACT PROVISIONS NATIONAL ORGANIC PROGRAM Labels.... (1) Such statement must not list more than three organic ingredients or food groups, and (2) In any... the point of retail sale that are sold, labeled, or represented as âmade with organic...

  2. 7 CFR 205.309 - Agricultural products in other than packaged form at the point of retail sale that are sold...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) ORGANIC FOODS PRODUCTION ACT PROVISIONS NATIONAL ORGANIC PROGRAM Labels.... (1) Such statement must not list more than three organic ingredients or food groups, and (2) In any... the point of retail sale that are sold, labeled, or represented as âmade with organic...

  3. 7 CFR 205.309 - Agricultural products in other than packaged form at the point of retail sale that are sold...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) ORGANIC FOODS PRODUCTION ACT PROVISIONS NATIONAL ORGANIC PROGRAM Labels.... (1) Such statement must not list more than three organic ingredients or food groups, and (2) In any... the point of retail sale that are sold, labeled, or represented as âmade with organic...

  4. 7 CFR 205.309 - Agricultural products in other than packaged form at the point of retail sale that are sold...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) ORGANIC FOODS PRODUCTION ACT PROVISIONS NATIONAL ORGANIC PROGRAM Labels.... (1) Such statement must not list more than three organic ingredients or food groups, and (2) In any... the point of retail sale that are sold, labeled, or represented as âmade with organic (specified...

  5. HACCP TO DEVELOP SAFE FOOD COOLING, THE SHELF-LIFE LIMITS OF THE CHILLED FOOD FOR A NEW PROCESS IN A RETAIL OPERATION

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point (HACCP) is a prevention based food safety system that identifies and monitors specific food safety hazards that can adversely affect the safety of food products. The Critical Control Point in a cooked roast beef plant is to cool the product’s internal temperat...

  6. 47 CFR 301.6 - Retailer participation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Retailer participation. 301.6 Section 301.6 Telecommunication NATIONAL TELECOMMUNICATIONS AND INFORMATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE DIGITAL-TO... requires the retailers to self certify that they: (A) Have been engaged in the consumer electronics...

  7. Food Service Perspectives on National School Lunch Program Implementation

    PubMed Central

    Tabak, Rachel G.; Moreland-Russell, Sarah

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Explore barriers and facilitators to implementation of the new National School Lunch Program (NSLP) policy guidelines. Methods Interviews with eight food service directors using an interview guide informed by the Consolidated Framework for Implementation Research. Results Food service personnel; parents, teachers, school staff; and students were important stakeholders. Characteristics of the new NSLP policy guidelines were reported to create increased demands; resources alleviated some barriers. Directors reported increased food and labor costs, food sourcing challenges, decreased student participation, and organizational constraints as barriers to implementation. Creativity in menu planning facilitated success. Conclusions Factors within the food service department, characteristics of implementing individuals and the new NSLP policy guidelines, and stakeholder involvement in the implementation process relate to successful implementation. PMID:26417607

  8. Food Service Perspectives on National School Lunch Program Implementation.

    PubMed

    Tabak, Rachel G; Moreland-Russell, Sarah

    2015-09-01

    Explore barriers and facilitators to implementation of the new National School Lunch Program (NSLP) policy guidelines. Interviews with eight food service directors using an interview guide informed by the Consolidated Framework for Implementation Research. Food service personnel; parents, teachers, school staff; and students were important stakeholders. Characteristics of the new NSLP policy guidelines were reported to create increased demands; resources alleviated some barriers. Directors reported increased food and labor costs, food sourcing challenges, decreased student participation, and organizational constraints as barriers to implementation. Creativity in menu planning facilitated success. Factors within the food service department, characteristics of implementing individuals and the new NSLP policy guidelines, and stakeholder involvement in the implementation process relate to successful implementation.

  9. Local, national and imported foods: a qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Chambers, Stephanie; Lobb, Alexandra; Butler, Laurie; Harvey, Kate; Traill, W Bruce

    2007-07-01

    The UK government is currently attempting to encourage consumers to buy more locally produced food. It is hoped that this will provide economic, environmental and social benefits to local areas, leading to more sustainable patterns of consumption. This qualitative study looks at the views and behaviour of consumers towards local foods with a particular focus on the barriers that prevent greater uptake of local produce. In total, four focus groups (n=33) were conducted. Content analysis identified six relevant themes in relation to local, national and imported foods. These were cost, lifestyle, food quality, consumer ethnocentrism, choice and farmers. Overall, although participants reported buying few local products currently, there was widespread enthusiasm across socio-economic groups for local foods, with participants perceiving them as being of a higher quality than imported foods. They also generally endorsed the idea of supporting local farmers and their own national economy. The main barriers preventing participants from buying more local products were price and inconvenience. The results are discussed in relation to developing future strategies for encouraging people to buy more local food products.

  10. Content Analysis of Vomit and Diarrhea Cleanup Procedures To Prevent Norovirus Infections in Retail and Food Service Operations.

    PubMed

    Chao, Morgan G; Dubé, Anne-Julie; Leone, Cortney M; Moore, Christina M; Fraser, Angela M

    2016-11-01

    Human noroviruses are the leading cause of foodborne disease in the United States, sickening 19 to 21 million Americans each year. Vomit and diarrhea are both highly concentrated sources of norovirus particles. For this reason, establishing appropriate cleanup procedures for these two substances is critical. Food service establishments in states that have adopted the 2009 or 2013 U.S. Food and Drug Administration Food Code are required to have a program detailing specific cleanup procedures. The aim of our study was to determine the alignment of existing vomit and diarrhea cleanup procedures with the 11 elements recommended in Annex 3 of the 2011 Supplement to the 2009 Food Code and to determine their readability and clarity of presentation. In July 2015, we located vomit and diarrhea cleanup procedures by asking Norovirus Collaborative for Outreach, Research, and Education stakeholders for procedures used by their constituency groups and by conducting a Google Advanced Search of the World Wide Web. We performed content analysis to determine alignment with the recommendations in Annex 3. Readability and clarity of presentation were also assessed. A total of 38 artifacts were analyzed. The mean alignment score was 7.0 ± 1.7 of 11 points; the mean clarity score was 6.7 ± 2.5 of 17 points. Only nine artifacts were classified as high clarity, high alignment. Vomit and diarrhea cleanup procedures should align with Annex 3 in the Food Code and should, as well, be clearly presented; yet, none of the artifacts completely met both conditions. To reduce the spread of norovirus infections in food service establishments, editable guidelines are needed that are aligned with Annex 3 and are clearly written, into which authors could insert their facility-specific information.

  11. Food irradiation: Public opinion surveys

    SciTech Connect

    Kerr, S.D.

    1987-01-01

    The Canadian government are discussing the legislation, regulations and practical protocol necessary for the commercialization of food irradiation. Food industry marketing, public relations and media expertise will be needed to successfully introduce this new processing choice to retailers and consumers. Consumer research to date including consumer opinion studies and market trials conducted in the Netherlands, United States, South Africa and Canada will be explored for signposts to successful approaches to the introduction of irradiated foods to retailers and consumers. Research has indicated that the terms used to describe irradiation and information designed to reduce consumer fears will be important marketing tools. Marketers will be challenged to promote old foods, which look the same to consumers, in a new light. Simple like or dislike or intention to buy surveys will not be effective tools. Consumer fears must be identified and effectively handled to support a receptive climate for irradiated food products. A cooperative government, industry, health professional, consumer association and retailer effort will be necessary for the successful introduction of irradiated foods into the marketplace. Grocery Products Manufacturers of Canada is a national trade association of more than 150 major companies engaged in the manufacture of food, non-alcoholic beverages and array of other national-brand consumer items sold through retail outlets.

  12. The retail market for fresh cassava root tubers in the European Union (EU): the case of Copenhagen, Denmark--a chemical food safety issue?

    PubMed

    Kolind-Hansen, Lotte; Brimer, Leon

    2010-01-30

    A number of retail shops in Copenhagen sell fresh cassava roots. Cassava roots contain the toxic cyanogenic glucoside linamarin. A survey was made of the shop characteristics, origin of the roots, buyers, shop owner's knowledge of toxicity levels, and actual toxicity levels. Shops selling fresh cassava were shown mostly to be owned by persons originating in the Middle East or Afghanistan, buyers were found to predominantly be of African origin, and sellers' knowledge concerning the potential toxicity was found to be very restricted. Seventy-six per cent of the roots purchased had a total cyanogenic potentials (CNp) above the 50 mg HCN equivalents kg(-1) dry weight (d.w.) proposed as acceptable by an EU working group. Two of 25 roots purchased had CNp higher than 340 mg HCN eq. kg(-1) d.w. The EU has previously made risk assessments concerning cassava and cyanogenic compounds. In the light of the conclusions drawn, the EU needs to make decisions about how to deal with the regulation and control of fresh cassava roots imported to the European food market. Also cassava root products and cassava leaves should be considered. (c) 2009 Society of Chemical Industry.

  13. Comparison of materials used for cleaning equipment in retail food premises, and of two methods for the enumeration of bacteria on cleaned equipment and work surfaces

    PubMed Central

    Gilbert, R. J.

    1970-01-01

    There is no official scheme for testing disinfectants and detergent/disinfectants for use in the retail food trade and few recommended procedures have been given for the cleaning of equipment with these agents. Therefore, field trials were carried out in a large self-service store. Comparisons were made of the various cleaning efficiencies, as determined by bacterial plate counts, of detergent and disinfectant solutions and machine cleaning oils applied with either clean cloths or disposable paper towels to items of equipment. The most satisfactory results were always obtained when anionic detergent (0·75% w/v) and hypochlorite (200 p.p.m. available chlorine) solutions were applied in a `two-step' procedure. Tests were made to compare the calcium alginate swab-rinse and the agar sausage (Agaroid) techniques for the enumeration of bacteria on stainless steel, plastic, formica and wooden surfaces before and after a cleaning process. Although recovery rates were always greater by the swab-rinse technique, the agar sausage technique was considered to be a useful routine control method for surface sampling. PMID:4914087

  14. Isolation and Taxonomic Identity of Bacteriocin-Producing Lactic Acid Bacteria from Retail Foods and Animal Sources

    PubMed Central

    Henning, Chris; Vijayakumar, Paul; Adhikari, Raj; Jagannathan, Badrinath; Gautam, Dhiraj; Muriana, Peter M.

    2015-01-01

    Bacteriocin-producing (Bac+) lactic acid bacteria (LAB) were isolated from a variety of food products and animal sources. Samples were enriched in de Man, Rogosa, and Sharpe (MRS) Lactocilli broth and plated onto MRS agar plates using a “sandwich overlay” technique. Inhibitory activity was detected by the “deferred antagonism” indicator overlay method using Listeria monocytogenes as the primary indicator organism. Antimicrobial activity against L. monocytogenes was detected by 41 isolates obtained from 23 of 170 food samples (14%) and 11 of 110 samples from animal sources (10%) tested. Isolated Bac+ LAB included Lactococcus lactis, Lactobacillus curvatus, Carnobacterium maltaromaticum, Leuconostoc mesenteroides, and Pediococcus acidilactici, as well as Enterococcus faecium, Enterococcus faecalis, Enterococcus hirae, and Enterococcus thailandicus. In addition to these, two Gram-negative bacteria were isolated (Serratia plymuthica, and Serratia ficaria) that demonstrated inhibitory activity against L. monocytogenes, Staphylococcus aureus, and Enterococcus faecalis (S. ficaria additionally showed activity against Salmonella Typhimurium). These data continue to demonstrate that despite more than a decade of antimicrobial interventions on meats and produce, a wide variety of food products still contain Bac+ microbiota that are likely eaten by consumers and may have application as natural food preservatives. PMID:27682080

  15. Field validation of secondary commercial data sources on the retail food outlet environment in the U.S.

    PubMed

    Powell, Lisa M; Han, Euna; Zenk, Shannon N; Khan, Tamkeen; Quinn, Christopher M; Gibbs, Kevin P; Pugach, Oksana; Barker, Dianne C; Resnick, Elissa A; Myllyluoma, Jaana; Chaloupka, Frank J

    2011-09-01

    This study used direct field observations with interior assessments of outlets to validate food store and restaurant data from two commercial business lists conditional on classification of outlet type, including supermarkets, grocery stores, convenience stores, full-service restaurants and fast food restaurants. The study used a stratified random sample that included 274 urban census tracts across 9 counties from the Chicago Metropolitan Statistical Area (MSA) and 46 suburban and 61 rural census tracts across 13 counties from a 50-mile buffer surrounding the MSA. Results showed that agreement between the field observations and the commercial business lists for the food store and restaurant outlets was generally moderate (ranging from fair to good). However, when the listed data were validated based on an exact classification match, agreement was only fair (ranging from poor to moderate) and, in particular, poor for fast food restaurants. The study also found that agreement levels for some outlet types differed by tract characteristics. Commercial databases must be used with caution as substitutes for on the ground data collection.

  16. The Indian National Food Security Act, 2013: a commentary.

    PubMed

    Varadharajan, Kiruba Sankar; Thomas, Tinku; Kurpad, Anura

    2014-06-01

    The National Food Security Act (NFSA) 2013, passed recently by the Indian Parliament, aims to ensure food security in India, chiefly by providing cereals at subsidized prices through the Targeted Public Distribution System (TPDS) for about two-thirds of households. The predominant line of criticism of the NFSA has been the costs of such an ambitious rights-based approach in the context of decelerating economic growth and growing fiscal deficits. We argue that the food subsidy has been increasing through the last few decades and is set to climb even higher with this act but that the incremental costs, at about 0.2% of gross domestic product, are not as high as claimed. Further, recent evidence of increasing utilization of the TPDS and decreasing corruption add credence to the act's premise that significant income transfers to poor households can be achieved, thereby promoting food security as well as dietary diversity. Several concerns remain to be addressed in the design and implementation of the act, including its proposed coverage, a cereal-centric approach, the identification of beneficiaries, and its adaptability at the state level. If these are resolved effectively, the act can prove to be a significant step forward in India's long-drawn-out battle against undernutrition and food insecurity. Finally, the NFSA also provides a fresh opportunity to reform and strengthen the TPDS, which has been an integral component of India's strategy to achieve food security at the national level.

  17. Food Consumption and Nutrition Evaluation: The National School Lunch Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Food and Nutrition Service (USDA), Washington, DC.

    The purpose of this study of food consumption in the National School Lunch Program (NSLP) was to: (1) conduct a comprehensive review of literature on plate waste in school foodservice and other institutional foodservice facilities, (2) report the results of a pilot study designed to determine the degree of plate waste in the NSLP and its…

  18. Toxaphene levels in retail food from the Pearl River Delta area of South China and an assessment of dietary intake.

    PubMed

    Jiang, YouSheng; Liu, ZhiBin; Wu, DongTing; Zhang, JianQing; Zhou, Jian; Li, ShengNong; Lu, LinGeng; Lin, XiaoShi; Lu, ShaoYou; Peng, JinLing

    2016-06-01

    Limited literature exists on toxaphene contamination in food worldwide, particularly in mainland China. In this study, three toxaphene congeners, Parlar 26 (B8-1413), Parlar 50 (B9-1679) and Parlar 62 (B9-1025), were analyzed in five different food categories from the Pearl River Delta Area in China using isotope dilution high-resolution gas chromatography/high-resolution mass spectrometry (HRGC/HRMS), and toxaphene levels in food were reported and toxaphene dietary intake by local residents estimated. The results showed that fish contained the highest toxaphene level with a median of 12.87 pg/g wet weight (ww), followed by poultry meat, egg products, livestock meat and vegetable, which had median levels of 5.8, 2.2, 1.89 and 0.67 pg/g ww, respectively. Parlar 50 and Parlar 26 were the predominant characteristic congeners in fish, and Parlar 26 was the predominant congener not only in poultry products and eggs, but also in livestock and vegetable. The estimated average daily intake found by local residents was 35.57 pg/kg body weight/day. Overall toxaphene levels and estimated dietary intake in the Pearl River Delta Area of South China are far lower than the European Maximum Residue Limits (EU MRLs), the German MRL for fish, and other international literature data. Therefore, the risk of adverse health effects from dietary intakes of toxaphene for the local residents is not considerable at the current time, but follow-ups are warranted to study dynamic changes of toxaphene in food in this area.

  19. The National Food Consumption Survey (NFCS): South Africa, 1999.

    PubMed

    Labadarios, D; Steyn, N P; Maunder, E; MacIntryre, U; Gericke, G; Swart, R; Huskisson, J; Dannhauser, A; Vorster, H H; Nesmvuni, A E; Nel, J H

    2005-08-01

    The aim of the National Food Consumption Survey (NFCS) in South Africa was to determine the nutrient intakes and anthropometric status of children (1-9 years old), as well as factors that influence their dietary intake. This was a cross-sectional survey of a nationally representative sample of all children aged 1-9 years in South Africa. A nationally representative sample with provincial representation was selected using 1996 Census information. Of the 3120 children who were originally sampled data were obtained from 2894, a response rate of 93%. The sociodemographic status of each household was assessed by a questionnaire. Dietary intake was assessed by means of a 24-hour recall and a food-frequency questionnaire from the caregivers of the children. Food purchasing practices were determined by means of a food procurement questionnaire. Hunger was assessed by a modified hunger scale questionnaire. Nutritional status was determined by means of anthropometric measurements: height, weight, head circumference and arm circumference. At the national level, stunting (height-for-age below minus two standard deviations (< -2SD) from the reference median) was by far the most common nutritional disorder, affecting nearly one in five children. The children least affected (17%) were those living in urban areas. Even with regard to the latter, however, children living in informal urban areas were more severely affected (20%) compared with those living in formal urban areas (16%). A similar pattern emerged for the prevalence of underweight (weight-for-age < -2SD), with one in 10 children being affected at the national level. Furthermore, one in 10 (13%) and one in four (26%) children aged 1-3 years had an energy intake less than half and less than two-thirds of their daily energy needs, respectively. For South African children as a whole, the intakes of energy, calcium, iron, zinc, selenium, vitamins A, D, C and E, riboflavin, niacin, vitamin B6 and folic acid were below two

  20. Availability and price of malaria rapid diagnostic tests in the public and private health sectors in 2011: results from 10 nationally representative cross-sectional retail surveys.

    PubMed

    Poyer, Stephen; Shewchuk, Tanya; Tougher, Sarah; Ye, Yazoume; Mann, Andrea G; Willey, Barbara A; Thomson, Rebecca; Amuasi, John H; Ren, Ruilin; Wamukoya, Marilyn; Taylor, Mark; Nguah, Samuel Blay; Mberu, Blessing; Kalolella, Admirabilis; Juma, Elizabeth; Festo, Charles; Johanes, Boniface; Diap, Graciela; Bruxvoort, Katia; Ansong, Daniel; Hanson, Kara; Arnold, Fred; Goodman, Catherine

    2015-06-01

    To describe the state of the public and private malaria diagnostics market shortly after WHO updated its guidelines for testing all suspected malaria cases prior to treatment. Ten nationally representative cross-sectional cluster surveys were conducted in 2011 among public and private health facilities, community health workers and retail outlets (pharmacies and drug shops) in nine countries (Tanzania mainland and Zanzibar surveyed separately). Eligible outlets had antimalarials in stock on the day of interview or had stocked antimalarials in the past 3 months. Three thousand four hundred and thirty-nine rapid diagnostic test (RDT) products from 39 manufacturers were audited among 12,197 outlets interviewed. Availability was typically highest in public health facilities, although availability in these facilities varied greatly across countries, from 15% in Nigeria to >90% in Madagascar and Cambodia. Private for-profit sector availability was 46% in Cambodia, 20% in Zambia, but low in other countries. Median retail prices for RDTs in the private for-profit sector ranged from $0.00 in Madagascar to $3.13 in Zambia. The reported number of RDTs used in the 7 days before the survey in public health facilities ranged from 3 (Benin) to 50 (Zambia). Eighteen months after WHO updated its case management guidelines, RDT availability remained poor in the private sector in sub-Saharan Africa. Given the ongoing importance of the private sector as a source of fever treatment, the goal of universal diagnosis will not be achievable under current circumstances. These results constitute national baselines against which progress in scaling-up diagnostic tests can be assessed. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Surveys of aflatoxin B1 contamination of retail Turkish foods and of products intended for export between 2007 and 2009.

    PubMed

    Ulca, P; Evcimen, M K; Senyuva, H Z

    2010-01-01

    Surveys were carried out between 2007 and 2009 to determine the aflatoxin B1 content of 3345 commercial Turkish foodstuffs supplied by producers for testing for their own purposes or for export certification. To simplify the reporting of data, foods were categorized as: 1, high sugar products with nuts; 2, nuts and seeds; 3, spices; 4, grain; 5, cocoa products; 6, dried fruit and vegetables; 7, processed cereal products; 8, tea; and 9, baby food and infant formula. Aflatoxin analysis was carried out by high-performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection after immunoaffinity column clean-up, with a recoveries ranging from 91% to 99%, depending on the matrix. Of the 3345 samples analysed, 94% contained aflatoxin B1 below the European Union limit of 2 µg kg(-1), which applies to nuts, dried fruit, and cereals products. The 6% of the 206 contaminated samples were mainly nuts and spices. For pistachios, 24%, 38%, and 42% of the totals of 207, 182, and 24 samples tested for 2007, 2008 and 2009, respectively, were above 2 µg kg(-1), with 50 samples containing aflatoxin B1 at levels ranging from 10 to 477 µg kg(-1).

  2. Occurrence and characterization of food-borne pathogens isolated from fruit, vegetables and sprouts retailed in the Czech Republic.

    PubMed

    Vojkovská, Hana; Myšková, Petra; Gelbíčová, Tereza; Skočková, Alena; Koláčková, Ivana; Karpíšková, Renáta

    2017-05-01

    Food of non-animal origin is a major component of the human diet and has been considered to pose a low risk from the point of view of bacteriological safety. However, an increase in the number of outbreaks of illness caused by such pathogens and linked to the consumption of fresh fruit and vegetables have been reported from around the world recently. Salmonella spp., STEC (Shiga toxin producing Escherichia coli) and Listeria monocytogenes are among the most frequently identified agents. Additionally, the transmission of antibiotic resistant strains including also the methicillin resistant S. aureus (MRSA) to humans via the food chain is one of the greatest public health problems being confronted today. Therefore, we focused on the bacterial safety of fruit, vegetables and sprouts on sale in the Czech Republic. One strain (0.3%) of Salmonella Enteritidis phage type PT8, one strain (0.3%) of MRSA and 17 strains (5.0%) of L. monocytogenes were isolated from a total of 339 collected samples. The most problematic commodities were frozen fruit and vegetables (packed and unpacked) and fresh-cut vegetables. Our findings indicate deficiencies in hygiene practices during harvesting, processing and distribution of these commodities. Although sprouts and berries are the most likely to be contaminated by human pathogens, only two samples were positive for the presence of L. monocytogenes.

  3. 21 CFR 1304.05 - Records of authorized central fill pharmacies and retail pharmacies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Records of authorized central fill pharmacies and retail pharmacies. 1304.05 Section 1304.05 Food and Drugs DRUG ENFORCEMENT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... fill pharmacies and retail pharmacies. (a) Every retail pharmacy that utilizes the services of...

  4. 21 CFR 1304.05 - Records of authorized central fill pharmacies and retail pharmacies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Records of authorized central fill pharmacies and retail pharmacies. 1304.05 Section 1304.05 Food and Drugs DRUG ENFORCEMENT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... fill pharmacies and retail pharmacies. (a) Every retail pharmacy that utilizes the services of...

  5. 76 FR 43254 - Child and Adult Care Food Program: National Average Payment Rates, Day Care Home Food Service...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-20

    ... Food and Nutrition Service Child and Adult Care Food Program: National Average Payment Rates, Day Care... Day Care Homes for the Period July 1, 2011 Through June 30, 2012 AGENCY: Food and Nutrition Service...-risk afterschool care centers, and adult day care centers; the food service payment rates for meals...

  6. 78 FR 45176 - Child and Adult Care Food Program: National Average Payment Rates, Day Care Home Food Service...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-26

    ... Food and Nutrition Service Child and Adult Care Food Program: National Average Payment Rates, Day Care... Day Care Homes for the Period July 1, 2013 Through June 30, 2014 AGENCY: Food and Nutrition Service...-risk afterschool care centers, and adult day care centers; the food service payment rates for meals...

  7. 75 FR 41793 - Child and Adult Care Food Program: National Average Payment Rates, Day Care Home Food Service...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-19

    ... Food and Nutrition Service Child and Adult Care Food Program: National Average Payment Rates, Day Care... Day Care Homes for the Period July 1, 2010 Through June 30, 2011 AGENCY: Food and Nutrition Service...-risk afterschool care centers, and adult day care centers; the food service payment rates for meals...

  8. Towards global benchmarking of food environments and policies to reduce obesity and diet-related non-communicable diseases: design and methods for nation-wide surveys

    PubMed Central

    Vandevijvere, Stefanie; Swinburn, Boyd

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Unhealthy diets are heavily driven by unhealthy food environments. The International Network for Food and Obesity/non-communicable diseases (NCDs) Research, Monitoring and Action Support (INFORMAS) has been established to reduce obesity, NCDs and their related inequalities globally. This paper describes the design and methods of the first-ever, comprehensive national survey on the healthiness of food environments and the public and private sector policies influencing them, as a first step towards global monitoring of food environments and policies. Methods and analysis A package of 11 substudies has been identified: (1) food composition, labelling and promotion on food packages; (2) food prices, shelf space and placement of foods in different outlets (mainly supermarkets); (3) food provision in schools/early childhood education (ECE) services and outdoor food promotion around schools/ECE services; (4) density of and proximity to food outlets in communities; food promotion to children via (5) television, (6) magazines, (7) sport club sponsorships, and (8) internet and social media; (9) analysis of the impact of trade and investment agreements on food environments; (10) government policies and actions; and (11) private sector actions and practices. For the substudies on food prices, provision, promotion and retail, ‘environmental equity’ indicators have been developed to check progress towards reducing diet-related health inequalities. Indicators for these modules will be assessed by tertiles of area deprivation index or school deciles. International ‘best practice benchmarks’ will be identified, against which to compare progress of countries on improving the healthiness of their food environments and policies. Dissemination This research is highly original due to the very ‘upstream’ approach being taken and its direct policy relevance. The detailed protocols will be offered to and adapted for countries of varying size and income in order to

  9. Audit of tobacco retail outlets in Hangzhou, China.

    PubMed

    Gong, Ting; Lv, Jun; Liu, Qingmin; Ren, Yanjun; Li, Liming; Kawachi, Ichiro

    2013-07-01

    To determine the prevalence of tobacco advertisements and warning messages at points of sale as well as to examine the density of tobacco retail outlets in neighbourhoods and around schools in Hangzhou, China. Tobacco retail outlets (n=1639) in all food and tobacco specialty stores were observed objectively by trained students. Tobacco advertisements and warning messages were assessed with an audit, and stores' addresses were recorded with Global Positioning System coordinates. The distances (1) between all pairs of tobacco retail outlets (2) between each tobacco retail outlet and 15 middle schools were calculated to assess the density of tobacco retail outlets in neighbourhoods and around schools. Among the 1639 tobacco retail outlets, <1% had 'no sales to minors' signs, 1.5% had tobacco warning messages, 28% had signs indicating tobacco sale and 12.4% had tobacco advertisements. For 48.7% of tobacco retail outlets, the nearest distances to other tobacco retail outlets were <50 m. For 80% of schools, there was at least one tobacco retail outlets within a 100 m radius. Tobacco advertisement in retail outlets is prevalent and the density of tobacco retail outlets is high in Hangzhou, China. Signs indicating 'no sales to minors' and tobacco warning signs are almost non-existent. These findings point to an urgent need for the enforcement of regulations on display of 'no sales to minors' and a new density standard for tobacco retail outlets based on protecting the public's health.

  10. Food Safety in the National School Lunch Program. USDA Food and Nutrition Service

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    US Department of Agriculture, 2010

    2010-01-01

    Schools that serve meals under the National School Lunch Program (NSLP) and School Breakfast Program (SBP) are required to maintain proper sanitation and health standards in conformance with all applicable State and local laws and regulations. In addition, schools are required to obtain two school food safety inspections per school year, which are…

  11. Occurrence of four Fusarium mycotoxins, deoxynivalenol, zearalenone, T-2 toxin, and HT-2 toxin, in wheat, barley, and Japanese retail food.

    PubMed

    Yoshinari, Tomoya; Takeuchi, Hiroshi; Aoyama, Koji; Taniguchi, Masaru; Hashiguchi, Shigeki; Kai, Shigemi; Ogiso, Motoki; Sato, Takashi; Akiyama, Yu; Nakajima, Masahiro; Tabata, Setsuko; Tanaka, Toshitsugu; Ishikuro, Eiichi; Sugita-Konishi, Yoshiko

    2014-11-01

    A survey of the contamination of wheat, barley, and Japanese retail food by four Fusarium mycotoxins, deoxynivalenol (DON), zearalenone (ZEN), T-2 toxin (T-2), and HT-2 toxin (HT-2), was performed between 2010 and 2012. A method for the simultaneous determination of the four mycotoxins by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry was validated by a small-scale interlaboratory study using two spiked wheat samples (DON was spiked at 20 and 100 μg/kg and ZEN, T-2, and HT-2 at 6 and 20 μg/kg in the respective samples). The recovery of the four mycotoxins ranged from 77.3 to 107.2%. A total of 557 samples of 10 different commodities were analyzed over 3 years by this validated method. Both T-2 and HT-2 were detected in wheat, wheat flour, barley, Job's tears products, beer, corn grits, azuki beans, soybeans, and rice with mixed grains. Only T-2 toxin was detected in sesame seeds. The highest concentrations of T-2 toxin (48.4 μg/kg) and HT-2 toxin (85.0 μg/kg) were present in azuki beans and wheat, respectively. DON was frequently detected in wheat, wheat flour, beer, and corn grits. The contamination level of wheat was below the provisional standard in Japan (1,100 μg/kg). The maximum contamination level of DON was present in a sample of a Job's tears product (1,093 μg/kg). ZEN was frequently detected in Job's tears products, corn grits, azuki beans, rice with mixed grains, and sesame seeds. A sample of a Job's tears product presented the highest ZEN contamination (153 μg/kg). These results indicate that continuous monitoring by multiple laboratories is effective and necessary due to the percentage of positive samples detected.

  12. Cross-continental comparison of national food consumption survey methods--a narrative review

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Food consumption surveys are performed in many countries. Comparison of results from those surveys across nations is difficult because of differences in methodological approaches. While consensus about the preferred methodology associated with national food consumption surveys is increasing, no in...

  13. Cholesterol analysis of Korean eat-out foods for national food composition database.

    PubMed

    Sharmin, Farhana; Jeong, Beom-Gyun; Jung, Jiyoung; Quines, Venus; Chun, Jiyeon

    2017-06-01

    Information on cholesterol intake through restaurant meal is of high concern because of increasing eat-out population. Since nutrient labeling is not mandatory for restaurant food in Korea, cholesterol database on restaurant menu is unavailable. This study was performed to construct regional and national cholesterol database on primary Korean restaurant foods including 30 soup/stew, 24 rice dishes, and 27 noodles. From 2009 to 2012, Korea Ministry of Food and Drug Safety collected total 5832 foods (81 food types ×6 regions ×12 restaurants) nationwide and then 486 composites representing food types and regions were prepared for cholesterol analysis. Cholesterol contents of 486 composite samples were highly affected by recipe, food type, seasonality of ingredients, and geographical location, showing the range of 1.1-143.0, 1.5-85.1, and 0.4-62.2 mg/100 g for soup/stew, rice dishes, and noodles, respectively. The highest cholesterol value was observed in Al-tang (spicy fish roe soup) while Maemil-guksu (buckwheat noodle in beef stock) showed the lowest among all samples. Most foods contain relatively low cholesterol content, but the serving size and consumption frequency of dishes should be considered in order not to exceed the recommended daily intake limit (300 mg cholesterol). Saponification coupled with gas chromatography applied for cholesterol analysis was reliable based on accuracy (95% > recovery) and precision (repeatability <4% and reproducibility <8%). Quality control chart monitored for 4 years showed that all analyses were under the control. This study provides reliable and representative cholesterol contents of Korean restaurant key foods, which can be utilized for assessments of cholesterol intake in the current Korean diet.

  14. 78 FR 4830 - National Advisory Committee on Microbiological Criteria for Foods; Reestablishment

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-23

    ... Food Safety and Inspection Service National Advisory Committee on Microbiological Criteria for Foods; Reestablishment AGENCY: Food Safety and Inspection Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of reestablishment of Committee... reestablishment of the National Advisory Committee on Microbiological Criteria for Foods (NACMCF). The Committee...

  15. 75 FR 39201 - Nominations for Membership on the National Advisory Committee on Microbiological Criteria for Foods

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-08

    ... Food Safety Inspection Service Nominations for Membership on the National Advisory Committee on Microbiological Criteria for Foods AGENCY: Food Safety and Inspection Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This... on the National Advisory Committee on Microbiological Criteria for Foods (NACMCF). FSIS inadvertently...

  16. 75 FR 37754 - Nominations for Membership on the National Advisory Committee on Microbiological Criteria for Foods

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-30

    ... Food Safety Inspection Service Nominations for Membership on the National Advisory Committee on Microbiological Criteria for Foods AGENCY: Food Safety and Inspection Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This... on the National Advisory Committee on Microbiological Criteria for Foods (NACMCF). This notice...

  17. Introduction to Retail Security.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, James E., Ed.

    This collection consists of 15 articles dealing with retail security. Included in the volume are the following papers: "Retail Security--an Introduction," by Andrew J. Thacker and Linda Cressman; "Systematic Planning and Retail Security," by Linda T. Thomas; "Identifying Potentially Dishonest Employees," by James E.…

  18. 7 CFR 2.66 - Director, National Institute of Food and Agriculture.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Director, National Institute of Food and Agriculture... Secretary for Research, Education, and Economics § 2.66 Director, National Institute of Food and Agriculture... Economics (Under Secretary) to the Director, National Institute of Food and Agriculture, who shall report...

  19. 7 CFR 2.66 - Director, National Institute of Food and Agriculture.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Director, National Institute of Food and Agriculture... Secretary for Research, Education, and Economics § 2.66 Director, National Institute of Food and Agriculture... Economics (Under Secretary) to the Director, National Institute of Food and Agriculture, who shall report...

  20. 7 CFR 2.66 - Director, National Institute of Food and Agriculture.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Director, National Institute of Food and Agriculture... Secretary for Research, Education, and Economics § 2.66 Director, National Institute of Food and Agriculture... Economics (Under Secretary) to the Director, National Institute of Food and Agriculture, who shall report...

  1. Comparison of food consumption in Indian adults between national and sub-national dietary data sources.

    PubMed

    Aleksandrowicz, Lukasz; Tak, Mehroosh; Green, Rosemary; Kinra, Sanjay; Haines, Andy

    2017-04-01

    Accurate data on dietary intake are important for public health, nutrition and agricultural policy. The National Sample Survey is widely used by policymakers in India to estimate nutritional outcomes in the country, but has not been compared with other dietary data sources. To assess relative differences across available Indian dietary data sources, we compare intake of food groups across six national and sub-national surveys between 2004 and 2012, representing various dietary intake estimation methodologies, including Household Consumption Expenditure Surveys (HCES), FFQ, food balance sheets (FBS), and 24-h recall (24HR) surveys. We matched data for relevant years, regions and economic groups, for ages 16-59. One set of national HCES and the 24HR showed a decline in food intake in India between 2004-2005 and 2011-2012, whereas another HCES and FBS showed an increase. Differences in intake were smallest between the two HCES (1 % relative difference). Relative to these, FFQ and FBS had higher intake (13 and 35 %), and the 24HR lower intake (-9 %). Cereal consumption had high agreement across comparisons (average 5 % difference), whereas fruit and nuts, eggs, meat and fish and sugar had the least (120, 119, 56 and 50 % average differences, respectively). Spearman's coefficients showed high correlation of ranked food group intake across surveys. The underlying methods of the compared data highlight possible sources of under- or over-estimation, and influence their relevance for addressing various research questions and programmatic needs.

  2. USDA’s National Food and Nutrient Analysis Program: Analytical Quality Control Procedures for Food Composition Research

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Representative food samples collected under the United States Department of Agriculture's (USDA) National Food and Nutrient Analysis Program (NFNAP) are analyzed for composition of nutrients and other bioactive components. Standard procedures have been developed to describe how these primary food s...

  3. Antimicrobial Resistance of Campylobacter from Retail Meats and Chicken Carcass Rinses: Results of the National Antimicrobial Resistance Monitoring System (NARMS): 2002-2006

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Background - Campylobacter is an important foodborne pathogen in the United States and serves as a commensal-like bacterium in many animal species. Illness in humans is thought to occur through cross-contamination during preparation of foods, particularly poultry products. The U.S. National Antimi...

  4. Evaluation of national food and nutrition policy in Albania

    PubMed Central

    Hyska, Jolanda; Burazeri, Genc

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Introduction The paper aims to describe the progress that has been made in the implementation of the Albanian food and nutrition policy since 2003, so as to consider its impacts to date, and to identify strategic priorities/critical areas and priorities for Albania’s future policy on improving the national food and nutrition situation. Methods In 2011-2012, an expert group applied an intersectoral participatory approach to evaluate the implementation of Food and Nutrition Action Plan 2003-08 in Albania. The experts employed the quantitative method, using a 9 question logical assessment matrix to measure the achievements of the individual goals of the Plan, and a qualitative tool for the interview of an interdisciplinary sample of 68-key informants-persons operating in public health nutrition, food safety and food availability related subfields, from a wide range of pertinent institutions and stakeholders. Results The quantitative and qualitative assessment revealed that the implementation process has faced serious barriers linked to the design of the plan, which did not accurately anticipate a theoretical framework, or structured methods for its implementation. Other impeding factors included the lack of institutional/infrastructure support, lack of intersectoral coordination and motivation, as well as insufficient capacities and know-how. Intersectoral response to the multifaceted nature of double burden of malnutrition is of key importance to improve nutritional wellbeing and health outcomes in Albania. Conclusions Participatory approaches that involve all relevant sectors and actors in the development, monitoring and evaluation of the implementation of public health policies based on comprehensive action-oriented assessments are promising and should be further supported. PMID:28289471

  5. Critical Issues in Food Allergy: A National Academies Consensus Report.

    PubMed

    Sicherer, Scott H; Allen, Katrina; Lack, Gideon; Taylor, Steve L; Donovan, Sharon M; Oria, Maria

    2017-07-24

    The National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine convened an expert, ad hoc committee to examine critical issues related to food allergy. The authors of the resulting report, "Finding a Path to Safety in Food Allergy: Assessment of the Global Burden, Causes, Prevention, Management, and Public Policy," evaluated the scientific evidence on the prevalence, diagnosis, prevention, and management of food allergy and made recommendations to bring about a safe environment for those affected. The committee recommended approaches to monitor prevalence, explore risk factors, improve diagnosis, and provide evidence-based health care. Regarding diagnostics, emphasis was placed on utilizing allergy tests judiciously in the context of the medical history because positive test results are not, in isolation, diagnostic. Evidence-based prevention strategies were advised (for example, a strategy to prevent peanut allergy through early dietary introduction). The report encourages improved education of stakeholders for recognizing and managing as well as preventing allergic reactions, including an emphasis on using intramuscular epinephrine promptly to treat anaphylaxis. The report recommends improved food allergen labeling and evaluation of the need for epinephrine autoinjectors with a dosage appropriate for infants. The committee recommended policies and guidelines to prevent and treat food allergic reactions in a various settings and suggested research priorities to address key questions about diagnostics, mechanisms, risk determinants, and management. Identifying safe and effective therapies is the ultimate goal. This article summarizes the key findings from the report and emphasizes recommendations for actions that are applicable to pediatricians and to the American Academy of Pediatrics. Copyright © 2017 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  6. Consumption of fresh fruit juice: how a healthy food practice caused a national outbreak of Salmonella Panama gastroenteritis.

    PubMed

    Noël, Harold; Hofhuis, Agnetha; De Jonge, Rob; Heuvelink, Annet E; De Jong, Aarieke; Heck, Max E O C; De Jager, Carolien; van Pelt, Wilfrid

    2010-04-01

    In spring 2008, 15 Salmonella Panama laboratory-confirmed cases were reported within 2 weeks, twice the average annual number of reported cases of this infrequent serotype in The Netherlands. To identify the source responsible for this national outbreak, we carried out an epidemiological, microbiological, and trace-back investigation. In total, 33 cases were reported, and a matched case-control study (23 cases/24 controls) identified consumption of fresh (unpasteurized) fruit juice purchased from a large retailer (X) as the only significant risk factor for illness (matched odds ratio: 7.4, 95% confidence interval: 1.5-37.2). Though the bacterium could not be isolated from fruit juice, the minimal pH value for growth of the causative strain of the outbreak (3.4) was compatible with survival in fruit juice from X. The outbreak strain showed acid resistance and adaptive properties that may explain how it could have caused infection through fresh orange juice. To our knowledge, this is the first documented outbreak related to fresh fruit juice consumption in western Europe since 1922. A growing number of consumers who are seeking healthy food practices are exposed to the infectious risks related to unpasteurized fresh fruit juice. Labeling regulations should be adapted to properly indicate to the consumers that unpasteurized fresh fruit juices remain vulnerable to microbial contamination. Frequent microbiological screening and strict compliance with food safety procedures should reduce the infectious hazards of fresh fruit juices.

  7. Inequities in tobacco retailer sales to minors by neighbourhood racial/ethnic composition, poverty and segregation, USA, 2015.

    PubMed

    Lee, Joseph G L; Landrine, Hope; Torres, Essie; Gregory, Kyle R

    2016-12-01

    Tobacco retailers are an important source of tobacco products for minors. Previous research shows racial discrimination in sales to minors, but no national study has examined neighbourhood correlates of retailer under-age sales. We accessed publicly available results of 2015 US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) inspections of tobacco retailers (n=108 614). In this cross-sectional study, we used multilevel logistic regression to predict the likelihood of retailer sale to a minor based on tract characteristics. We assessed the proportion of residents identifying as American Indian, Asian, Black, Latino and White; Isolation Index scores for each racial/ethnic group; the proportion of people less than age 65 living in poverty; and the proportion of residents age 10-17 in relation to retailer inspection results. The proportion of American Indian residents, Black residents, Latino residents and residents less than age 65 under the poverty line in a neighbourhood are independently, positively associated with the likelihood that a retailer in that neighbourhood will fail an under-age buy inspection. The proportion of White residents and residents age 10-17 are independently, negatively associated with the likelihood of sale of tobacco products to a minor. Isolation Index scores show a similar pattern. In multivariable models holding neighbourhood characteristics constant, higher proportions of Black (+), Latino (+) and age 10-17 (-) residents remained significant predictors of the likelihood of under-age sale. Regulatory agencies should consider oversampling retailers in areas with higher likelihood of sales to minors for inspection. Interventions with tobacco retailers to reduce inequities in youth access should be implemented. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  8. Energy intake from commercially-prepared meals by food source in Korean adults: Analysis of the 2001 and 2011 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Injoo; Kim, Won Gyoung

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES The commercial foodservice industry in Korea has shown rapid growth recently. This study examined Korean adults' consumption of commercially-prepared meals based on where the food was prepared. SUBJECTS/METHODS Data from a 24-hour dietary recall of the 2001 and 2011 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys were analyzed. A total of 10,539 subjects (n = 6,152 in 2001; n = 4,387 in 2011) aged 19-64 years were included for analysis. Commercially-prepared meals were classified into four food source groups based on where the food was prepared: Korean restaurants, Chinese/Western/Japanese restaurants, fast-food restaurants, and retail stores. Subjects' energy intake, including the amount and proportion of calories, was examined for each food source. The analysis was also conducted by gender for age-stratified groups: 19-29, 30-49, and 50-64 years old. RESULTS Korean adults' energy intake from commercially-prepared meals increased in the amount of calories (551 kcal to 635 kcal, P < 0.01), but not in the proportion of daily calories (27% to 28%) from 2001 to 2011. The most frequent food source of commercially-prepared meals was Korean restaurants in both years. The amount and proportion of calories from retail stores increased from 83 kcal to 143 kcal (P < 0.001) and from 4% to 7% (P < 0.001), respectively, during the same period. Males aged 30-49 years (34%) and females aged 19-29 years (35%) consumed the highest proportion of daily calories from commercially-prepared meals in 2011. CONCLUSIONS Korean adults consumed about one-fourth of their energy intake from commercially-prepared meals. In particular, males aged 30-49 years and females aged 19-29 years consumed more than one-third of their energy intake from commercially-prepared meals. Korean restaurants played a significant role in Korean adults' energy intake. Retail stores increased influence on Korean adults' energy intake. These results could be useful for developing health

  9. Food Insecurity among American Indians and Alaska Natives: A National Profile using the Current Population Survey–Food Security Supplement

    PubMed Central

    Jernigan, Valarie Blue Bird; Huyser, Kimberly R.; Valdes, Jimmy; Simonds, Vanessa Watts

    2016-01-01

    Food insecurity increases the risk for obesity, diabetes, hypertension, and cancer—conditions highly prevalent among American Indians and Alaska Natives (AI/ANs). Using the Current Population Survey Food Security Supplement, we analyzed the food insecurity trends of AI/ANs compared to other racial and ethnic groups in the United States from 2000 to 2010. From 2000 to 2010, 25% of AI/ANs remained consistently food insecure and AI/ANs were twice as likely to be food insecure compared to whites. Urban AI/ANs were more likely to experience food insecurity than rural AI/ANs. Our findings highlight the need for national and tribal policies that expand food assistance programs; promote and support increased access to healthy foods and community food security, in both rural and urban areas; and reduce the burden of diet-related disparities on low-income and racial/ethnic minority populations. PMID:28491205

  10. Food Insecurity among American Indians and Alaska Natives: A National Profile using the Current Population Survey-Food Security Supplement.

    PubMed

    Jernigan, Valarie Blue Bird; Huyser, Kimberly R; Valdes, Jimmy; Simonds, Vanessa Watts

    2017-01-01

    Food insecurity increases the risk for obesity, diabetes, hypertension, and cancer-conditions highly prevalent among American Indians and Alaska Natives (AI/ANs). Using the Current Population Survey Food Security Supplement, we analyzed the food insecurity trends of AI/ANs compared to other racial and ethnic groups in the United States from 2000 to 2010. From 2000 to 2010, 25% of AI/ANs remained consistently food insecure and AI/ANs were twice as likely to be food insecure compared to whites. Urban AI/ANs were more likely to experience food insecurity than rural AI/ANs. Our findings highlight the need for national and tribal policies that expand food assistance programs; promote and support increased access to healthy foods and community food security, in both rural and urban areas; and reduce the burden of diet-related disparities on low-income and racial/ethnic minority populations.

  11. 77 FR 16807 - Nominations for Membership on the National Advisory Committee on Microbiological Criteria for Foods

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-22

    ... Food Safety Inspection Service Nominations for Membership on the National Advisory Committee on Microbiological Criteria for Foods AGENCY: Food Safety and Inspection Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This... membership to fill 16 vacancies on the National Advisory Committee on Microbiological Criteria for...

  12. Tracking Microbial Contamination in Retail Environments Using Fluorescent Powder - A Retail Delicatessen Environment Example

    PubMed Central

    Sirsat, Sujata A.; Kim, Kawon; Gibson, Kristen E.; Crandall, Phillip G.; Ricke, Steven C.; Neal, Jack A.

    2014-01-01

    Cross contamination of foodborne pathogens in the retail environment is a significant public health issue contributing to an increased risk for foodborne illness. Ready-to-eat (RTE) processed foods such as deli meats, cheese, and in some cases fresh produce, have been involved in foodborne disease outbreaks due to contamination with pathogens such as Listeria monocytogenes. With respect to L. monocytogenes, deli slicers are often the main source of cross contamination. The goal of this study was to use a fluorescent compound to simulate bacterial contamination and track this contamination in a retail setting. A mock deli kitchen was designed to simulate the retail environment. Deli meat was inoculated with the fluorescent compound and volunteers were recruited to complete a set of tasks similar to those expected of a food retail employee. The volunteers were instructed to slice, package, and store the meat in a deli refrigerator. The potential cross contamination was tracked in the mock retail environment by swabbing specific areas and measuring the optical density of the swabbed area with a spectrophotometer. The results indicated that the refrigerator (i.e. deli case) grip and various areas on the slicer had the highest risk for cross contamination. The results of this study may be used to develop more focused training material for retail employees. In addition, similar methodologies could also be used to track microbial contamination in food production environments (e.g. small farms), hospitals, nursing homes, cruise ships, and hotels. PMID:24637553

  13. Tracking microbial contamination in retail environments using fluorescent powder--a retail delicatessen environment example.

    PubMed

    Sirsat, Sujata A; Kim, Kawon; Gibson, Kristen E; Crandall, Phillip G; Ricke, Steven C; Neal, Jack A

    2014-03-05

    Cross contamination of foodborne pathogens in the retail environment is a significant public health issue contributing to an increased risk for foodborne illness. Ready-to-eat (RTE) processed foods such as deli meats, cheese, and in some cases fresh produce, have been involved in foodborne disease outbreaks due to contamination with pathogens such as Listeria monocytogenes. With respect to L. monocytogenes, deli slicers are often the main source of cross contamination. The goal of this study was to use a fluorescent compound to simulate bacterial contamination and track this contamination in a retail setting. A mock deli kitchen was designed to simulate the retail environment. Deli meat was inoculated with the fluorescent compound and volunteers were recruited to complete a set of tasks similar to those expected of a food retail employee. The volunteers were instructed to slice, package, and store the meat in a deli refrigerator. The potential cross contamination was tracked in the mock retail environment by swabbing specific areas and measuring the optical density of the swabbed area with a spectrophotometer. The results indicated that the refrigerator (i.e. deli case) grip and various areas on the slicer had the highest risk for cross contamination. The results of this study may be used to develop more focused training material for retail employees. In addition, similar methodologies could also be used to track microbial contamination in food production environments (e.g. small farms), hospitals, nursing homes, cruise ships, and hotels.

  14. Food Consumption According to the Days of the Week - National Food Survey, 2008-2009.

    PubMed

    Monteiro, Luana Silva; Hassan, Bruna Kulik; Estima, Camilla Chermont Prochnik; Souza, Amanda de Moura; Verly, Eliseu; Sichieri, Rosely; Pereira, Rosangela Alves

    2017-10-05

    Evaluate the variations in energy, nutrients, and food groups intake between days of the week and weekend days in the Brazilian population. We used data from the first National Food Survey (2008-2009) of a one-day food log of a representative sample of the Brazilian population aged 10 years or older (n = 34,003). For the analyses, we considered the sample weights and the effect of the study design. The mean (and standard deviations) and frequencies (%) of energy, nutrients, and food groups consumption were estimated for weekdays (Monday to Friday) and weekend (Saturday and Sunday), we then estimated the differences according to the days of the week for the population strata analyzed. The average daily energy intake for the weekend was 8% higher than the one observed for weekdays. The average percentage contribution of carbohydrate to the daily energy intake was higher during the week compared to Saturday and Sunday (56.3% versus 54.1%, p < 0.01). The inverse was observed for averages of the contribution to the daily intake of energy from total fat (26.8% versus 28.4%), saturated fat (9.1% versus 9.9%) and trans fat (1.4% versus 1.6%). The most significant changes between weekdays and weekend days were observed for eggs, sugar-added beverages, puff snacks and chips, beans, and pasta. During weekends, the frequency of beverage with added sugar consumption increased by 34%, the amount consumed increased by 42%, and the contribution to energy intake increased by 62% when compared to weekdays. The Brazilian population increases energy intake and unhealthy food markers on weekends compared to weekdays.

  15. Food Systems: Modern Technology, Transnationalization, Regional and National Situations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Social Science Journal, 1985

    1985-01-01

    Topics discussed include: the emergence of biotechnology; modern food technology; strategies of transnational food companies; transnational agribusiness firms and Mexican agriculture; food production in Western Europe; the agro-industrial system of the USSR; food systems in India; food production systems of the Senegal River; and production modes…

  16. Food Systems: Modern Technology, Transnationalization, Regional and National Situations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Social Science Journal, 1985

    1985-01-01

    Topics discussed include: the emergence of biotechnology; modern food technology; strategies of transnational food companies; transnational agribusiness firms and Mexican agriculture; food production in Western Europe; the agro-industrial system of the USSR; food systems in India; food production systems of the Senegal River; and production modes…

  17. Recent national French food and nutrient intake data.

    PubMed

    Volatier, J L; Verger, P

    1999-04-01

    In France, the first national dietary survey, called ASPCC, was done in 1993-1994. According to this survey, the mean fat intake in France is rather high, both for men (37.7%) and women (40%). Saturated fat intake is above 15% of energy. The intake of fruit and vegetables is particularly low for younger people and manual workers. Fruit intake is also lower for people from the north of the country. These data show the necessity of a targeted nutritional policy in France. Therefore, public health authorities are determining new dietary guidelines. The fact that people with unsatisfactory nutritional status are often not concerned with nutrition proves the importance of simple understandable food-based dietary guidelines.

  18. 7 CFR 278.3 - Participation of wholesale food concerns.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... retail food store's properly filled-out and signed redemption certificate for the coupons; and (2) The authorized wholesale food concern's properly filled-out and signed redemption certificate. (d) Handling... authorized retail food store's redemption certificate....

  19. [Street food in the national agenda of food and nutrition security: an essay for sanitary qualification in Brazil].

    PubMed

    Bezerra, Aída Couto Dinucci; Mancuso, Ana Maria Cervato; Heitz, Sarah Jeanne Jorge

    2014-05-01

    In 2014, the World Cup will be staged in Brazil. Is Brazil able to ensure safe street food is on offer? This paper seeks to elicit reflection on some problems relating to the sale of street food, thereby contributing to highlight this theme in the food security agenda in Brazil. The scope of this study is exclusively street food. Care is taken not to reduce the broader concepts of food security and the importance of sanitary and hygienic handling is stressed as one of the core components of food and nutrition security. In this context the following aspects are discussed: the credibility of the official data on insanitary outbreaks related to street food; street food security compared to that in other eating environments; and the training of people to modify inadequate food handling practices. Thus, in the discussion about problems in the street food market it is essential to improve the quantity and quality of the training of food handlers in order to implement food and nutrition security as promoting the human right to adequate food and ensure that the topic is urgently included on the national calendar of public health debates.

  20. The Development and Piloting of a Mobile Data Collection Protocol to Assess Compliance With a National Tobacco Advertising, Promotion, and Product Display Ban at Retail Venues in the Russian Federation.

    PubMed

    Grant, Ashley S; Kennedy, Ryan D; Spires, Mark H; Cohen, Joanna E

    2016-08-31

    Tobacco control policies that lead to a significant reduction in tobacco industry marketing can improve public health by reducing consumption of tobacco and preventing initiation of tobacco use. Laws that ban or restrict advertising and promotion in point-of-sale (POS) environments, in the moment when consumers decide whether or not to purchase a tobacco product, must be correctly implemented to achieve the desired public health benefits. POS policy compliance assessments can support implementation; however, there are challenges to conducting evaluations that are rigorous, cost-effective, and timely. Data collection must be discreet, accurate, and systematic, and ideally collected both before and after policies take effect. The use of mobile phones and other mobile technology provide opportunities to efficiently collect data and support effective tobacco control policies. The Russian Federation (Russia) passed a comprehensive national tobacco control law that included a ban on most forms of tobacco advertising and promotion, effective November 15, 2013. The legislation further prohibited the display of tobacco products at retail trade sites and eliminated kiosks as a legal trade site, effective June 1, 2014. The objective of the study was to develop and test a mobile data collection protocol including: (1) retailer sampling, (2) adaptation of survey instruments for mobile phones, and (3) data management protocols. Two waves of observations were conducted; wave 1 took place during April-May 2014, after the advertising and promotion bans were effective, and again in August-September 2014, after the product display ban and elimination of tobacco sales in kiosks came into effect. Sampling took place in 5 Russian cities: Moscow, St. Petersburg, Novosibirsk, Yekaterinburg, and Kazan. Lack of access to a comprehensive list of licensed tobacco retailers necessitated a sampling approach that included the development of a walking protocol to identify tobacco retailers to

  1. Sodium Content of Foods Contributing to Sodium Intake: Comparison between Selected Foods from the CDC Packaged Food Database and the USDA National Nutrient Database for Standard Reference

    PubMed Central

    Maalouf, Joyce; Cogswell, Mary E.; Yuan, Keming; Martin, Carrie; Gillespie, Cathleen; Ahuja, Jaspreet KC; Pehrsson, Pamela; Merritt, Robert

    2015-01-01

    The sodium concentration (mg/100g) for 23 of 125 Sentinel Foods (e.g. white bread) were identified in the 2009 CDC Packaged Food Database (PFD) and compared with data in the USDA’s 2013 National Nutrient Database for Standard Reference(SR 26). Sentinel Foods are foods identified by USDA to be monitored as primary indicators to assess the changes in the sodium content of commercially processed foods from stores and restaurants. Overall, 937 products were evaluated in the CDC PFD, and between 3 (one brand of ready-to-eat cereal) and 126 products (white bread) were evaluated per selected food. The mean sodium concentrations of 17 of the 23 (74%) selected foods in the CDC PFD were 90%–110% of the mean sodium concentrations in SR 26 and differences in sodium concentration were statistically significant for 6 Sentinel Foods. The sodium concentration of most of the Sentinel Foods, as selected in the PFD, appeared to represent the sodium concentrations of the corresponding food category. The results of our study help improve the understanding of how nutrition information compares between national analytic values and the label and whether the selected Sentinel Foods represent their corresponding food category as indicators for assessment of change of the sodium content in the food supply. PMID:26484010

  2. Sodium Content of Foods Contributing to Sodium Intake: Comparison between Selected Foods from the CDC Packaged Food Database and the USDA National Nutrient Database for Standard Reference.

    PubMed

    Maalouf, Joyce; Cogswell, Mary E; Yuan, Keming; Martin, Carrie; Gillespie, Cathleen; Ahuja, Jaspreet Kc; Pehrsson, Pamela; Merritt, Robert

    The sodium concentration (mg/100g) for 23 of 125 Sentinel Foods (e.g. white bread) were identified in the 2009 CDC Packaged Food Database (PFD) and compared with data in the USDA's 2013 National Nutrient Database for Standard Reference(SR 26). Sentinel Foods are foods identified by USDA to be monitored as primary indicators to assess the changes in the sodium content of commercially processed foods from stores and restaurants. Overall, 937 products were evaluated in the CDC PFD, and between 3 (one brand of ready-to-eat cereal) and 126 products (white bread) were evaluated per selected food. The mean sodium concentrations of 17 of the 23 (74%) selected foods in the CDC PFD were 90%-110% of the mean sodium concentrations in SR 26 and differences in sodium concentration were statistically significant for 6 Sentinel Foods. The sodium concentration of most of the Sentinel Foods, as selected in the PFD, appeared to represent the sodium concentrations of the corresponding food category. The results of our study help improve the understanding of how nutrition information compares between national analytic values and the label and whether the selected Sentinel Foods represent their corresponding food category as indicators for assessment of change of the sodium content in the food supply.

  3. Ethics in Retailing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kahn, Robert

    1979-01-01

    Retailers must decide whether to make the most money or help the most people. This conflict between democratic ideals and the free enterprise system must be made within the corporate structure and thus puts a great deal of pressure on the businessman. Suggests questions that the retailer can ask himself regarding his professional ethics. (JMD)

  4. Opportunities and challenges in developing a whole-of-government national food and nutrition policy: lessons from Australia's National Food Plan.

    PubMed

    Carey, Rachel; Caraher, Martin; Lawrence, Mark; Friel, Sharon

    2016-01-01

    The present article tracks the development of the Australian National Food Plan as a 'whole of government' food policy that aimed to integrate elements of nutrition and sustainability alongside economic objectives. The article uses policy analysis to explore the processes of consultation and stakeholder involvement in the development of the National Food Plan, focusing on actors from the sectors of industry, civil society and government. Existing documentation and submissions to the Plan were used as data sources. Models of health policy analysis and policy streams were employed to analyse policy development processes. Australia. Australian food policy stakeholders. The development of the Plan was influenced by powerful industry groups and stakeholder engagement by the lead ministry favoured the involvement of actors representing the food and agriculture industries. Public health nutrition and civil society relied on traditional methods of policy influence, and the public health nutrition movement failed to develop a unified cross-sector alliance, while the private sector engaged in different ways and presented a united front. The National Food Plan failed to deliver an integrated food policy for Australia. Nutrition and sustainability were effectively sidelined due to the focus on global food production and positioning Australia as a food 'superpower' that could take advantage of the anticipated 'dining boom' as incomes rose in the Asia-Pacific region. New forms of industry influence are emerging in the food policy arena and public health nutrition will need to adopt new approaches to influencing public policy.

  5. 76 FR 44573 - Child and Adult Care Food Program: National Average Payment Rates, Day Care Home Food Service...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-26

    ... Food and Nutrition Service Child and Adult Care Food Program: National Average Payment Rates, Day Care... Day Care Homes for the Period July 1, 2011 Through June 30, 2012 Correction In notice document 2011... page 43255, the table labeled ``Administrative Reimbursement Rates for Sponsoring Organizations of...

  6. Distance Learning for Food Security and Rural Development: A Perspective from the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLean, Scott; Gasperini, Lavinia; Rudgard, Stephen

    2002-01-01

    The distance learning experiences of the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization led to the following suggestions for applying distance learning strategies to the challenges of food security and rural development: use distance learning for the right reasons, be sensitive to context, use existing infrastructure, engage stakeholders, and…

  7. Listeria monocytogenes in Retail Delicatessens: an Interagency Risk Assessment-model and baseline results.

    PubMed

    Pouillot, Régis; Gallagher, Daniel; Tang, Jia; Hoelzer, Karin; Kause, Janell; Dennis, Sherri B

    2015-01-01

    The Interagency Risk Assessment-Listeria monocytogenes (Lm) in Retail Delicatessens provides a scientific assessment of the risk of listeriosis associated with the consumption of ready-to-eat (RTE) foods commonly prepared and sold in the delicatessen (deli) of a retail food store. The quantitative risk assessment (QRA) model simulates the behavior of retail employees in a deli department and tracks the Lm potentially present in this environment and in the food. Bacterial growth, bacterial inactivation (following washing and sanitizing actions), and cross-contamination (from object to object, from food to object, or from object to food) are evaluated through a discrete event modeling approach. The QRA evaluates the risk per serving of deli-prepared RTE food for the susceptible and general population, using a dose-response model from the literature. This QRA considers six separate retail baseline conditions and provides information on the predicted risk of listeriosis for each. Among the baseline conditions considered, the model predicts that (i) retail delis without an environmental source of Lm (such as niches), retail delis without niches that do apply temperature control, and retail delis with niches that do apply temperature control lead to lower predicted risk of listeriosis relative to retail delis with niches and (ii) retail delis with incoming RTE foods that are contaminated with Lm lead to higher predicted risk of listeriosis, directly or through cross-contamination, whether the contaminated incoming product supports growth or not. The risk assessment predicts that listeriosis cases associated with retail delicatessens result from a sequence of key events: (i) the contaminated RTE food supports Lm growth; (ii) improper retail and/or consumer storage temperature or handling results in the growth of Lm on the RTE food; and (iii) the consumer of this RTE food is susceptible to listeriosis. The risk assessment model, therefore, predicts that cross

  8. The regulation of protein content and quality in national and international food standards.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Janine L

    2012-08-01

    Food regulation aims to protect public health through a safe and nutritious food supply produced by a compliant food industry. Food standards of developed countries generally do not regulate protein content or protein quality because the risk of dietary protein inadequacy in their national populations is very low. Protein is nevertheless regulated for reasons of product quality or protein labelling or to minimise assessed health risks associated with consumption of certain animal- and vegetable-protein foods; analogue products that extend or simulate commonly available animal-protein foods; and special purpose foods such as infant formula and foods, supplementary and medical foods, and foods for weight loss. The extent and approach to protein regulation varies greatly among jurisdictions but where it occurs, it is applied through minimum and sometimes maximum limits on protein content or quality measures or both using an inter-related approach. Protein quality measures range from amino acid profiles and digestibility corrected scores to protein rating, a rat bioassay and reference proteins not further described. Regulatory methods for protein quality determination are referenced to the published scientific literature or developed nationally. Internationally, the Codex Alimentarius regulates the protein content and quality of some foods. The Codex approach varies according to the food but is similar to the approaches used in national and regional food regulation. This paper provides a comparison of the regulation of protein in foods using examples from the food regulations of Australia New Zealand, Canada, the European Union, the United States of America and the Codex Alimentarius.

  9. Genetic Characterization of Listeria monocytogenes Isolates from Industrial and Retail Ready-to-Eat Meat-Based Foods and Their Relationship with Clinical Strains from Human Listeriosis in Portugal.

    PubMed

    Henriques, A R; Cristino, J Melo; Fraqueza, M J

    2017-04-01

    Listeria monocytogenes isolates (n = 81) recovered from ready-to-eat meat-based food products (RTEMP) collected in industrial processing plants and retail establishments were genetically characterized for comparison with those from human clinical cases of listeriosis (n = 49). The aim was to assess RTEMP as a possible food source for human infection. L. monocytogenes was detected in 12.5% of the RTEMP samples, and in some cases, counts were above the European food safety criteria. All isolates were assessed by multiplex PCR for serogroup determination and detection of virulence-associated genes inlA, inlB, inlC, inlJ, plcA, hlyA, actA, and iap. Serogroups IIb and IVb dominated in RTEMP and human isolates, and all were positive for the assessed virulence genes. Antibiotic susceptibility testing by the disk diffusion method revealed a low level of resistance among the isolates. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) of L. monocytogenes isolates, using restriction enzymes ApaI and AscI, revealed genetic variability and differentiated the isolates in five clusters. Although some pulsed-field gel electrophoresis profiles of particular RTEMP and human isolates seemed to be highly related, exhibiting more than 90% similarity, which suggests a possible common source, in most cases the strains were not genetically or temporally matched. The close genetic relatedness of RTEMP and human listeriosis strains stressed the importance of preventive measure implementation throughout the food chain.

  10. Food Insecurity Is an Ongoing National Concern123

    PubMed Central

    Gundersen, Craig

    2013-01-01

    Food insecurity is a leading public health challenge in the United States today. This is primarily due to the magnitude of the problem, ∼50 million persons are food insecure (i.e., they were uncertain of having, or unable to acquire, enough food because they had insufficient money or other resources), and the serious negative health and other outcomes associated with being food insecure. This paper defines the measure used to delineate whether a household is food insecure. The measure, the Core Food Security Module, is based on 18 questions about a household’s food situation. From the responses, a household is defined as food secure, low food secure, or very low food secure, with the latter 2 categories defined as “food insecure.” I next discuss the extent of food insecurity in the US across various dimensions and the key determinants of food insecurity. The key policy tool used to address food insecurity is the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP; formerly known as the Food Stamp Program). During the current economic downturn, >40 million persons are enrolled in SNAP, with total benefits of >$70 billion. This makes it the largest food assistance program and the largest near-cash assistance program in the US. After defining the eligibility criteria, I review the literature, which has demonstrated the effectiveness of SNAP in addressing its key goal, namely the alleviation of food insecurity in the US. I conclude with 4 suggestions for how SNAP can maintain and even improve its effectiveness in alleviating food insecurity. PMID:23319121

  11. Training in the Retail Sector. A Survey for the FORCE Programme. First Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kruse, Wilfried; And Others

    Training in the retail sector throughout the 12 European Community (EC) member countries was examined through in-depth case studies of 55 retail firms that were selected as representing a wide range of firm types (19 multinational, 36 national, 4 cooperative, 7 family-owned firms), forms of retailing (department stores, supermarkets, and chain and…

  12. 75 FR 5115 - Temporary Concession Contract for Lake Mead National Recreation Area, AZ/NV

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-01

    ... accommodations, food and beverage, retail, fuel, and short term trailer villages. This action is necessary to... National Park Service Temporary Concession Contract for Lake Mead National Recreation Area, AZ/NV AGENCY: National Park Service, Department of the Interior. ACTION: Notice of intention to award temporary...

  13. Towards global benchmarking of food environments and policies to reduce obesity and diet-related non-communicable diseases: design and methods for nation-wide surveys.

    PubMed

    Vandevijvere, Stefanie; Swinburn, Boyd

    2014-05-15

    Unhealthy diets are heavily driven by unhealthy food environments. The International Network for Food and Obesity/non-communicable diseases (NCDs) Research, Monitoring and Action Support (INFORMAS) has been established to reduce obesity, NCDs and their related inequalities globally. This paper describes the design and methods of the first-ever, comprehensive national survey on the healthiness of food environments and the public and private sector policies influencing them, as a first step towards global monitoring of food environments and policies. A package of 11 substudies has been identified: (1) food composition, labelling and promotion on food packages; (2) food prices, shelf space and placement of foods in different outlets (mainly supermarkets); (3) food provision in schools/early childhood education (ECE) services and outdoor food promotion around schools/ECE services; (4) density of and proximity to food outlets in communities; food promotion to children via (5) television, (6) magazines, (7) sport club sponsorships, and (8) internet and social media; (9) analysis of the impact of trade and investment agreements on food environments; (10) government policies and actions; and (11) private sector actions and practices. For the substudies on food prices, provision, promotion and retail, 'environmental equity' indicators have been developed to check progress towards reducing diet-related health inequalities. Indicators for these modules will be assessed by tertiles of area deprivation index or school deciles. International 'best practice benchmarks' will be identified, against which to compare progress of countries on improving the healthiness of their food environments and policies. This research is highly original due to the very 'upstream' approach being taken and its direct policy relevance. The detailed protocols will be offered to and adapted for countries of varying size and income in order to establish INFORMAS globally as a new monitoring initiative

  14. Food fears: a national survey on the attitudes of Australian adults about the safety and quality of food.

    PubMed

    Williams, Peter; Stirling, Emma; Keynes, Nick

    2004-01-01

    A national telephone survey of a representative sample of 1200 Australian adults was conducted in March 2002 in order to identify the factors of greatest concern to consumers in relation to the safety and quality of food, to measure recent trends in views about hazards in the food supply, to explore beliefs about the safety of additives and to discover whether consumers use food labels to check for ingredients of concern. Forty five percent of Australians responded that they were more concerned about the safety and quality of food than they were five years previously, while only 5% were less concerned. The most common potential hazards volunteered were additives and chemical residues (28%), followed by food processing/handling/freshness (21%), food hygiene or contamination (14%), and also genetic modification (14%). More than half of the respondents believe that additives and preservatives are harmful to your health and that many foods contain high levels of pesticides. A greater proportion of consumers claimed to be conscious of checking for additives, either general or specific, on food labels than for information on the salt or sugar content of products. Food regulators, journalists, the food industry and health professionals need to work together to correct misconceptions about the risks to health posed by common food additives and pesticide residues.

  15. Food Group Preferences of Elementary School Children Participating in the National School Lunch Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cashman, Linda; Tripurana, Madhuri; Englund, Tim; Bergman, Ethan A.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose/Objectives: The purpose of the study was to assess the food group preferences of second through fifth grade children based on ethnic background, gender, and grade. Food group preferences were determined by the amount of various food groups consumed in meals served as part of the National School Lunch Program at selected schools. Research…

  16. A National Evaluation of the Impact of State Policies on Competitive Foods in Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fernandes, Meenakshi M.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Since 2003, many states have introduced policies to improve the nutritional content and restrict the availability of competitive foods, which are foods offered outside of the National School Lunch and Breakfast Programs. This article evaluates the impact of 2 types of state-level policies on the availability of competitive foods in a…

  17. Food Group Preferences of Elementary School Children Participating in the National School Lunch Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cashman, Linda; Tripurana, Madhuri; Englund, Tim; Bergman, Ethan A.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose/Objectives: The purpose of the study was to assess the food group preferences of second through fifth grade children based on ethnic background, gender, and grade. Food group preferences were determined by the amount of various food groups consumed in meals served as part of the National School Lunch Program at selected schools. Research…

  18. A National Evaluation of the Impact of State Policies on Competitive Foods in Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fernandes, Meenakshi M.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Since 2003, many states have introduced policies to improve the nutritional content and restrict the availability of competitive foods, which are foods offered outside of the National School Lunch and Breakfast Programs. This article evaluates the impact of 2 types of state-level policies on the availability of competitive foods in a…

  19. Mislabelling and Species Substitution in Fishery Products Retailed in Sardinia (Italy), 2009-2014

    PubMed Central

    Piras, Pierluigi; Mazzette, Rina

    2015-01-01

    Mislabelling and species substitution are major concerns for fishery products marketed in the EU. The present survey aimed to investigate the correct enforcement of the Community and National rules on the labelling and marketing of fishery products retailed in Sardinia (Italy) between 2009 and 2014. A total of 3000 labels for fresh unpacked fishery products have been considered. A total of 900 labels (30%) presented non-compliance concerning the wrong trade name, the wrong or missing information about the catch area and the production method. The highest percentage of mislabelling and species substitution has been detected in open-air markets (65%) and small-scale retail shops (40%) compared with the big supermarket chains (10%). The high percentage of non-compliances with the European and Italian legislation highlights the need to improve the essential information demanded by consumers on fishery products marketed in open-air markets and small-scale retail shops. While there are laws in place, it is unclear how effective they are and what type of penalties food business operators of open-air markets and small-scale retail shops may incur. PMID:27800419

  20. Feasibility of Community Food Item Collection for the National Children's Study

    EPA Science Inventory

    The National Children’s Study proposes to investigate the role of contaminants on health outcomes in pregnant women and children. A specific area of concern is contaminant exposure through the ingestion of solid foods. National food contaminant databases may miss environmental ex...

  1. Feasibility of Community Food Item Collection for the National Children's Study.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Background: The National Children’s Study proposes to investigate the role of environmental influences on health outcomes in pregnant women and children. A specific area of concern is contaminant exposure through the ingestion of solid foods. National food contaminant database...

  2. Feasibility of Community Food Item Collection for the National Children's Study

    EPA Science Inventory

    The National Children’s Study proposes to investigate the role of contaminants on health outcomes in pregnant women and children. A specific area of concern is contaminant exposure through the ingestion of solid foods. National food contaminant databases may miss environmental ex...

  3. MONDAY: EPA Co-Hosts First National Food Recovery Summit in Charleston, S.C.

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Washington, D.C. - The first national Food Recovery Summit will take place next week in Charleston, S.C. Inspired by the national goal announced by EPA and U.S. Department of Agriculture to cut wasted food in half by 2030, partners from all facets of the f

  4. Feasibility of Community Food Item Collection for the National Children's Study.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Background: The National Children’s Study proposes to investigate the role of environmental influences on health outcomes in pregnant women and children. A specific area of concern is contaminant exposure through the ingestion of solid foods. National food contaminant database...

  5. Impact of the National Food Supplementary Program for Children on Household Food Security and Maternal Weight Status in Iran.

    PubMed

    Ghodsi, Delaram; Omidvar, Nasrin; Eini-Zinab, Hassan; Rashidian, Arash; Raghfar, Hossein

    2016-01-01

    Food aid programs are strategies that aim to improve nutritional status and to tackle food insecurity. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of a National Food Supplementary Program for Children on households' food security. The study sample included 359 mothers of children aged 6-72 months under the coverage of the program in two provinces of Iran. Demographic and socioeconomic characteristics of the households and percentage of supplementary food items consumed by target child were assessed by a questionnaire and checklist. Data on household food security were collected by locally adapted Household Food Insecurity Access Scale at the baseline of the study and 6 months thereafter. At the baseline, only 4.7% of families were food secure, while 43.5% were severely food insecure, and these proportions were changed to 7.9% and 38%, respectively (P < 0.001), at the end of the study. Odds of having worse food insecurity in households with medium and high wealth index was 65% and 87% lower than those with low wealth index, respectively (odds ratio [OR] = 0.35, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.2-0.61, and OR = 0.23, 95% CI: 0.12-0.43). Food sharing was common among more than 95% of the studied households. Mean maternal body mass index (BMI) increased significantly after 6 months (P < 0.001). However, there was no significant association between mother's BMI and household food security in the baseline and at the end of the study (P > 0.05). Findings show that the food supplementary program for children can also improve the household food security status. Further research is needed to assess other factors that affect the effectiveness of this kind of programs.

  6. Impact of the National Food Supplementary Program for Children on Household Food Security and Maternal Weight Status in Iran

    PubMed Central

    Ghodsi, Delaram; Omidvar, Nasrin; Eini-Zinab, Hassan; Rashidian, Arash; Raghfar, Hossein

    2016-01-01

    Background: Food aid programs are strategies that aim to improve nutritional status and to tackle food insecurity. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of a National Food Supplementary Program for Children on households’ food security. Methods: The study sample included 359 mothers of children aged 6–72 months under the coverage of the program in two provinces of Iran. Demographic and socioeconomic characteristics of the households and percentage of supplementary food items consumed by target child were assessed by a questionnaire and checklist. Data on household food security were collected by locally adapted Household Food Insecurity Access Scale at the baseline of the study and 6 months thereafter. Results: At the baseline, only 4.7% of families were food secure, while 43.5% were severely food insecure, and these proportions were changed to 7.9% and 38%, respectively (P < 0.001), at the end of the study. Odds of having worse food insecurity in households with medium and high wealth index was 65% and 87% lower than those with low wealth index, respectively (odds ratio [OR] = 0.35, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.2–0.61, and OR = 0.23, 95% CI: 0.12–0.43). Food sharing was common among more than 95% of the studied households. Mean maternal body mass index (BMI) increased significantly after 6 months (P < 0.001). However, there was no significant association between mother's BMI and household food security in the baseline and at the end of the study (P > 0.05). Conclusions: Findings show that the food supplementary program for children can also improve the household food security status. Further research is needed to assess other factors that affect the effectiveness of this kind of programs. PMID:27833722

  7. Investigating the importance of the local food environment for fruit and vegetable intake in older men and women in 20 UK towns: a cross-sectional analysis of two national cohorts using novel methods.

    PubMed

    Hawkesworth, S; Silverwood, R J; Armstrong, B; Pliakas, T; Nanchahal, K; Sartini, C; Amuzu, A; Wannamethee, G; Atkins, J; Ramsay, S E; Casas, J P; Morris, R W; Whincup, P H; Lock, Karen

    2017-09-18

    Local neighbourhood environments can influence dietary behavior. There is limited evidence focused on older people who are likely to have greater dependence on local areas and may suffer functional limitations that amplify any neighbourhood impact. Using multi-level ordinal regression analysis we investigated the association between multiple dimensions of neighbourhood food environments (captured by fine-detail, foot-based environmental audits and secondary data) and self-reported frequency of fruit and vegetable intake. The study was a cross-sectional analysis nested within two nationally representative cohorts in the UK: the British Regional Heart Study and the British Women's Heart and Health Study. Main exposures of interest were density of food retail outlets selling fruits and vegetables, the density of fast food outlets and a novel measure of diversity of the food retail environment. A total of 1124 men and 883 women, aged 69 - 92 years, living in 20 British towns were included in the analysis. There was strong evidence of an association between area income deprivation and fruit and vegetable consumption, with study members in the most deprived areas estimated to have 27% (95% CI: 7, 42) lower odds of being in a higher fruit and vegetable consumption category relative to those in the least deprived areas. We found no consistent evidence for an association between fruit and vegetable consumption and a range of other food environment domains, including density of shops selling fruits and vegetables, density of premises selling fast food, the area food retail diversity, area walkability, transport accessibility, or the local food marketing environment. For example, individuals living in areas with greatest fruit and vegetable outlet density had 2% (95% CI: -22, 21) lower odds of being in a higher fruit and vegetable consumption category relative to those in areas with no shops. Although small effect sizes in environment-diet relationships cannot be discounted

  8. Retail Environments as a Venue for Obesity Prevention

    PubMed Central

    Singleton, Chelsea R.; Springfield, Sparkle; McNabb, Leilah; Thompson, Terry

    2017-01-01

    Increasing attention has been given to the role of retail food environments in shaping dietary behavior and obesity risk. Studies have generally shown an association between living in a neighborhood with or in close proximity to certain types of food outlets and/or the availability of healthy food options and better dietary quality, higher fruit/vegetable intakes, and a lower risk of overweight, even after controlling for individual/family level characteristics. However, research in this area has yielded mixed results, overall. Future research needs to identify consistent approaches for defining and measuring food retail environments. PMID:27099166

  9. Retail Environments as a Venue for Obesity Prevention.

    PubMed

    Odoms-Young, Angela; Singleton, Chelsea R; Springfield, Sparkle; McNabb, Leilah; Thompson, Terry

    2016-06-01

    Increasing attention has been given to the role of retail food environments in shaping dietary behavior and obesity risk. Studies have generally shown an association between living in a neighborhood with or in close proximity to certain types of food outlets and/or the availability of healthy food options and better dietary quality, higher fruit/vegetable intakes, and a lower risk of overweight, even after controlling for individual/family level characteristics. However, research in this area has yielded mixed results, overall. Future research needs to identify consistent approaches for defining and measuring food retail environments.

  10. Factors which influence the consumption of street foods and fast foods in South Africa--a national survey.

    PubMed

    Steyn, Nelia P; Labadarios, Demetre; Nel, Johanna H

    2011-10-04

    Very little is known about street food and fast food consumption patterns in South Africa despite this being a large sector of the national economy in terms of employment provided and sales of food. The objective of this study was to determine the use of street foods and fast foods purchased by South Africans living in different provinces and geographic areas. A cross-sectional survey was conducted. Structured interview-administered questionnaires in 11 official languages were conducted at the participants' homes. A nationally representative sample (n = 3287) was drawn from all ethnic groups, and provinces including participants 16 years and older. Logistic regression was done to evaluate factors impacting on fast food consumption. Frequent (2 ≥ times/week) street food consumption ranged from 1.8% in Northern Cape to 20.6% in Limpopo; frequent (2 ≥ times/week) fast food consumption ranged between 1.5% in North West Province to 14.7% in Gauteng. The highest intake of street food was in the medium socio-economic category (14.7%) while the highest intake of fast foods was in the high socio-economic category (13.2%). Overall, fruit was the most commonly purchased street food by all ethnic groups over the previous week although this practice was highest in black participants (35.8%). Purchases of soft drinks ranged from 4.8% in whites to 16.4% in blacks and savoury snacks from 2.3% to 14.5% in whites and blacks, respectively. Consumption of fast foods and street foods were influenced by a number of socio-demographic factors including ownership of major home appliances. Frequent fast food consumers had a significantly higher dietary diversity score (4.69; p < 0.0001) while frequent street food consumers had a significantly lower score (3.81; p < 0.0001). A large percentage of the population purchase street foods and fast foods. This is of some concern when one notes the high prevalence of soft drink consumption in terms of its association with obesity and non

  11. Factors which influence the consumption of street foods and fast foods in South Africa-a national survey

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Very little is known about street food and fast food consumption patterns in South Africa despite this being a large sector of the national economy in terms of employment provided and sales of food. The objective of this study was to determine the use of street foods and fast foods purchased by South Africans living in different provinces and geographic areas. Methods A cross-sectional survey was conducted. Structured interview-administered questionnaires in 11 official languages were conducted at the participants' homes. A nationally representative sample (n = 3287) was drawn from all ethnic groups, and provinces including participants 16 years and older. Logistic regression was done to evaluate factors impacting on fast food consumption. Results Frequent (2 ≥ times/week) street food consumption ranged from 1.8% in Northern Cape to 20.6% in Limpopo; frequent (2 ≥ times/week) fast food consumption ranged between 1.5% in North West Province to 14.7% in Gauteng. The highest intake of street food was in the medium socio-economic category (14.7%) while the highest intake of fast foods was in the high socio-economic category (13.2%). Overall, fruit was the most commonly purchased street food by all ethnic groups over the previous week although this practice was highest in black participants (35.8%). Purchases of soft drinks ranged from 4.8% in whites to 16.4% in blacks and savoury snacks from 2.3% to 14.5% in whites and blacks, respectively. Consumption of fast foods and street foods were influenced by a number of socio-demographic factors including ownership of major home appliances. Frequent fast food consumers had a significantly higher dietary diversity score (4.69; p < 0.0001) while frequent street food consumers had a significantly lower score (3.81; p < 0.0001). Conclusions A large percentage of the population purchase street foods and fast foods. This is of some concern when one notes the high prevalence of soft drink consumption in terms of its

  12. Considering retail health clinics.

    PubMed

    Mullin, Kathy

    2009-12-01

    By gaining increasing acceptance from consumers and traditional providers, retail-based convenient care clinics have moved from the innovative fringe into the mainstream of healthcare delivery. Nationwide, resourceful administrators are experimenting with retail-based delivery systems, using the clinic's unique attributes to promote wellness, expand accessibility, reduce delivery costs, and enhance brand recognition. This article takes an in-depth look at the convenient care business model, pertinent regulatory issues, and some of the associated benefits and concerns.

  13. FORCE Sectoral Survey on European Retail Trade.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bertzeletou, Tina

    1993-01-01

    A sectoral survey focused on ways in which vocational training plans are formulated and analysis of the cost effectiveness of continuing vocational training at the company level. It examined techniques applied to developing continuing vocational training and improving access. National surveys carried out for the retail trade sector revealed…

  14. 21 CFR 115.50 - Refrigeration of shell eggs held for retail distribution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Refrigeration of shell eggs held for retail... SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION SHELL EGGS § 115.50 Refrigeration of shell eggs held for... interstate commerce, held for retail distribution: (1) Shall promptly be placed under refrigeration...

  15. 21 CFR 115.50 - Refrigeration of shell eggs held for retail distribution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Refrigeration of shell eggs held for retail... SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION SHELL EGGS § 115.50 Refrigeration of shell eggs held for... interstate commerce, held for retail distribution: (1) Shall promptly be placed under refrigeration...

  16. 21 CFR 1301.27 - Separate registration by retail pharmacies for installation and operation of automated dispensing...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Separate registration by retail pharmacies for....27 Separate registration by retail pharmacies for installation and operation of automated dispensing systems at long term care facilities. (a) A retail pharmacy may install and operate automated...

  17. 21 CFR 1301.27 - Separate registration by retail pharmacies for installation and operation of automated dispensing...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Separate registration by retail pharmacies for....27 Separate registration by retail pharmacies for installation and operation of automated dispensing systems at long term care facilities. (a) A retail pharmacy may install and operate automated...

  18. Are Retail Outlets Complying with National Legislation to Protect Children from Exposure to Tobacco Displays at Point of Sale? Results from the First Compliance Study in the UK.

    PubMed

    Eadie, Douglas; Stead, Martine; MacKintosh, Anne Marie; Murray, Susan; Best, Catherine; Pearce, Jamie; Tisch, Catherine; van der Sluijs, Winfried; Amos, Amanda; MacGregor, Andy; Haw, Sally

    2016-01-01

    From April 6th 2015, all small shops in the UK were required to cover up tobacco products at point of sale (POS) to protect children from exposure. As part of a larger 5-year study to measure the impact of the legislation in Scotland, an audit was conducted to assess level and nature of compliance with the ban immediately following its introduction. A discreet observational audit was conducted 7-14 days post implementation which took measures of physical changes made to cover products, server/assistant practices, tobacco signage and advertising, and communication of price information. The audit was conducted in all small retail outlets (n = 83) selling tobacco in four communities in Scotland selected to represent different levels of urbanisation and social deprivation. Data were analysed descriptively. Compliance with the legislation was high, with 98% of shops removing tobacco from permanent display and non-compliance was restricted almost entirely to minor contraventions. The refurbishment of shops with new or adapted tobacco storage units resulted in the removal of nearly all commercial brand messages and images from POS, dropping from 51% to 4%. The majority of shops stored their tobacco in public-facing storage units (81%). Most shops also displayed at least one generic tobacco message (88%). Compliance with Scottish prohibitions on display of tobacco products in small retail outlets was high immediately after the legislation implementation date. However, although tobacco branding is no longer visible in retail outlets, tobacco storage units with generic tobacco messages are still prominent. This points towards a need to monitor how the space vacated by tobacco products is utilised and to better understand how the continuing presence of tobacco storage units influences people's awareness and understanding of tobacco and smoking. Countries with existing POS bans and who are considering such bans should pay particular attention to regulations regarding the use

  19. Are Retail Outlets Complying with National Legislation to Protect Children from Exposure to Tobacco Displays at Point of Sale? Results from the First Compliance Study in the UK

    PubMed Central

    Eadie, Douglas; Stead, Martine; MacKintosh, Anne Marie; Murray, Susan; Best, Catherine; Pearce, Jamie; Tisch, Catherine; van der Sluijs, Winfried; Amos, Amanda; MacGregor, Andy; Haw, Sally

    2016-01-01

    Background From April 6th 2015, all small shops in the UK were required to cover up tobacco products at point of sale (POS) to protect children from exposure. As part of a larger 5-year study to measure the impact of the legislation in Scotland, an audit was conducted to assess level and nature of compliance with the ban immediately following its introduction. Materials and Methods A discreet observational audit was conducted 7–14 days post implementation which took measures of physical changes made to cover products, server/assistant practices, tobacco signage and advertising, and communication of price information. The audit was conducted in all small retail outlets (n = 83) selling tobacco in four communities in Scotland selected to represent different levels of urbanisation and social deprivation. Data were analysed descriptively. Results Compliance with the legislation was high, with 98% of shops removing tobacco from permanent display and non-compliance was restricted almost entirely to minor contraventions. The refurbishment of shops with new or adapted tobacco storage units resulted in the removal of nearly all commercial brand messages and images from POS, dropping from 51% to 4%. The majority of shops stored their tobacco in public-facing storage units (81%). Most shops also displayed at least one generic tobacco message (88%). Conclusions Compliance with Scottish prohibitions on display of tobacco products in small retail outlets was high immediately after the legislation implementation date. However, although tobacco branding is no longer visible in retail outlets, tobacco storage units with generic tobacco messages are still prominent. This points towards a need to monitor how the space vacated by tobacco products is utilised and to better understand how the continuing presence of tobacco storage units influences people’s awareness and understanding of tobacco and smoking. Countries with existing POS bans and who are considering such bans should

  20. Changes in Food Intake in Australia: Comparing the 1995 and 2011 National Nutrition Survey Results Disaggregated into Basic Foods.

    PubMed

    Ridoutt, Bradley; Baird, Danielle; Bastiaans, Kathryn; Hendrie, Gilly; Riley, Malcolm; Sanguansri, Peerasak; Syrette, Julie; Noakes, Manny

    2016-05-25

    As nations seek to address obesity and diet-related chronic disease, understanding shifts in food intake over time is an imperative. However, quantifying intake of basic foods is not straightforward because of the diversity of raw and cooked wholefoods, processed foods and mixed dishes actually consumed. In this study, data from the Australian national nutrition surveys of 1995 and 2011, each involving more than 12,000 individuals and covering more than 4500 separate foods, were coherently disaggregated into basic foods, with cooking and processing factors applied where necessary. Although Australians are generally not eating in a manner consistent with national dietary guidelines, there have been several positive changes. Australians are eating more whole fruit, a greater diversity of vegetables, more beans, peas and pulses, less refined sugar, and they have increased their preference for brown and wholegrain cereals. Adult Australians have also increased their intake of nuts and seeds. Fruit juice consumption markedly declined, especially for younger Australians. Cocoa consumption increased and shifts in dairy product intake were mixed, reflecting one of several important differences between age and gender cohorts. This study sets the context for more detailed research at the level of specific foods to understand individual and household differences.

  1. Changes in Food Intake in Australia: Comparing the 1995 and 2011 National Nutrition Survey Results Disaggregated into Basic Foods

    PubMed Central

    Ridoutt, Bradley; Baird, Danielle; Bastiaans, Kathryn; Hendrie, Gilly; Riley, Malcolm; Sanguansri, Peerasak; Syrette, Julie; Noakes, Manny

    2016-01-01

    As nations seek to address obesity and diet-related chronic disease, understanding shifts in food intake over time is an imperative. However, quantifying intake of basic foods is not straightforward because of the diversity of raw and cooked wholefoods, processed foods and mixed dishes actually consumed. In this study, data from the Australian national nutrition surveys of 1995 and 2011, each involving more than 12,000 individuals and covering more than 4500 separate foods, were coherently disaggregated into basic foods, with cooking and processing factors applied where necessary. Although Australians are generally not eating in a manner consistent with national dietary guidelines, there have been several positive changes. Australians are eating more whole fruit, a greater diversity of vegetables, more beans, peas and pulses, less refined sugar, and they have increased their preference for brown and wholegrain cereals. Adult Australians have also increased their intake of nuts and seeds. Fruit juice consumption markedly declined, especially for younger Australians. Cocoa consumption increased and shifts in dairy product intake were mixed, reflecting one of several important differences between age and gender cohorts. This study sets the context for more detailed research at the level of specific foods to understand individual and household differences. PMID:28231135

  2. 76 FR 78225 - Notice of Appointment of Members to the National Agricultural Research, Extension, Education, and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-16

    ...); Category Y. ``National Social Science Association,'' Dr. Dawn Thilmany, Member, Agricultural and Applied..., forestry research, crop and animal science, land-grant institutions, non-land grant college or university with a historic commitment to research in the food and agricultural sciences, food retailing and...

  3. Retail firewood can transport live tree pests.

    PubMed

    Jacobi, W R; Hardin, J G; Goodrich, B A; Cleaver, C M

    2012-10-01

    Untreated firewood can harbor destructive insects and pathogens and transport them to uninfested areas. In a national survey of retail locations selling firewood in 18 states, over half (52%) of the firewood was from sources out of the purchase state and 50% showed evidence of insect infestation. In a three state survey of southern Rocky Mountain retailers, the most common retailer types carrying firewood were grocery stores and department or big box stores followed by gas stations or convenience stores. In 2007-2009, we purchased 419 firewood bundles from retailers in Colorado, New Mexico, Utah, and Wyoming and caged the firewood to quantify insect emergence. Live insects emerged from 47% of firewood bundles over 18 mo of rearing time. Approximately 11 insects emerged on average from each infested bundle (1-520 per bundle). Pine, fir, and mixed-conifer bundles yielded the greatest number of insects. Beetles (Coleoptera) were prominent and made up the majority of individuals (3-60 individuals in each of 24 families). Most Coleoptera were bark and ambrosia beetles (subfamily Scolytinae) while wood borers (Buprestidae, Cerambycidae, Siricidae) occurred in lower numbers. Firewood with evidence of previous or current insect infestation was more likely to have insects emerge than firewood without such evidence. The risk of moving live native or nonindigenous insects in untreated firewood is high because insects emerged up to 558 d from purchase date. Retail firewood should be heat treated in a manner to eliminate insects that is uniformly accepted across North America.

  4. USDA's National Food and Nutrient Analysis Program (NFNAP) produces high-quality data for USDA food composition databases: Two decades of collaboration.

    PubMed

    Haytowitz, David B; Pehrsson, Pamela R

    2018-01-01

    For nearly 20years, the National Food and Nutrient Analysis Program (NFNAP) has expanded and improved the quantity and quality of data in US Department of Agriculture's (USDA) food composition databases (FCDB) through the collection and analysis of nationally representative food samples. NFNAP employs statistically valid sampling plans, the Key Foods approach to identify and prioritize foods and nutrients, comprehensive quality control protocols, and analytical oversight to generate new and updated analytical data for food components. NFNAP has allowed the Nutrient Data Laboratory to keep up with the dynamic US food supply and emerging scientific research. Recently generated results for nationally representative food samples show marked changes compared to previous database values for selected nutrients. Monitoring changes in the composition of foods is critical in keeping FCDB up-to-date, so that they remain a vital tool in assessing the nutrient intake of national populations, as well as for providing dietary advice. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  5. Gains Made By Walmart's Healthier Food Initiative Mirror Preexisting Trends.

    PubMed

    Taillie, Lindsey Smith; Ng, Shu Wen; Popkin, Barry M

    2015-11-01

    Healthier food initiatives conducted by national food retailers may offer opportunities to improve the nutritional profile of food purchases. Using a longitudinal data set of packaged food purchases made by US households, we examined the effect of a healthier food initiative officially launched by Walmart in 2011. From 2000 to 2013, household-level purchases of packaged foods at Walmart showed major declines in energy, sodium, and total sugar density, as well as in quantities of sugary beverages, grain-based desserts, snacks, and candy. These trends in packaged food purchases were more pronounced than similar concurrent trends seen at other major food retailers. However, the declines seen at Walmart after the initiative's official implementation did not exceed what would have been expected had pre-implementation trends continued, and therefore they cannot be attributed to the initiative. These results suggest that food retailer-based initiatives that purportedly create a healthier food environment may not suffice to improve the nutritional profile of food purchases. More systemic shifts in consumers' characteristics and preferences may be needed. Project HOPE—The People-to-People Health Foundation, Inc.

  6. Subtyping of Listeria monocytogenes isolates recovered from retail ready-to-eat foods, processing plants and listeriosis patients in Sweden 2010.

    PubMed

    Lambertz, S Thisted; Ivarsson, S; Lopez-Valladares, G; Sidstedt, M; Lindqvist, R

    2013-08-16

    Identification and prioritisation of food safety interventions requires an understanding of the relationship between food, pathogens and cases. Such understanding can be gained through different approaches, e.g. microbial subtyping to attribute cases of foodborne disease to food vehicles or other sources of illness. In this study, Listeria monocytogenes isolates (n=166) from (i) three categories of ready-to-eat (RTE) foods, (ii) food processing plant environments, and (iii) human listeriosis cases, all sampled during 2010 in Sweden, were subtyped. In addition, 121 isolates from human listeriosis cases, collected 2005-2009, were subtyped. Subtyping consisted of both serotyping (conventional method and PCR) and genotyping using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). Serotype 1/2a dominated in all three groups of isolates (range 73-96%). Eighteen percent of the human isolates (2010) belonged to serotype 4b, but only 1.4% of the food isolates. The food isolates differentiated into 19 pulsotypes (ID=0.843), the human isolates collected 2010 into 31 pulsotypes (ID=0.950) and the processing plant isolates into 22 pulsotypes (ID=0.991). Six of the pulsotypes were shared between the food and human isolates. These pulsotypes comprised 42% of the human isolates and 59% of the food isolates. For some processing plants, there was suggested persistence of one or more specific L. monocytogenes strains, as indicated by repetitive isolation of the same pulsotype from food. This study indicated the presence of L. monocytogenes in the processing plant environment as a likely source of contamination of gravad and cold-smoked fish, and this food category as an important source of human exposure to the pathogen.

  7. Responding to Rapid and Unexpected Retail Innovations: Planning Retail Resilience

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rao, Fujie

    Retail areas within cities have traditionally not only satisfied the demands for various goods and services, but also promoted community sustainability and healthy lifestyles. Since the end of World War II (WWII), retail innovations have occurred rapidly and unexpectedly. In retail development, economic efficiency is highly prioritized over other functions, in opposition to sustainable development. In retail planning, a communicative approach frequently results in the public responses by "Not In My Back Yard" sentiments, contradicting the projected cooperation between different stakeholders. This research implements the resilience theory to tackle the shocks created by these rapid and unexpected retail changes, based on a comparative case of Edmonton (Alberta, Canada) and Portland (Oregon, USA). Primarily through interviews with senior planners in both cities, it is found that adaptive retail management, polycentric retail planning, a well-informed public, and the use of consensus building could better stimulates resilient retail outcomes.

  8. USDA's National Food and Nutrient Analysis Program (NFNAP) Produces High-Quality Data for USDA Food Composition Databases: Two Decades of Collaboration

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    For nearly 20 years, the National Food and Nutrient Analysis Program (NFNAP) has expanded and improved the quantity and quality of data in US Department of Agriculture’s (USDA) food composition databases through the collection and analysis of nationally representative food samples. This manuscript d...

  9. A pilot study of the microbiological quality of culturally diverse, ready-to-eat foods from selected retail establishments in Melbourne, Australia.

    PubMed

    McLean, Sarah K; Dunn, Louise A; Palombo, Enzo A

    2010-05-01

    In recent years, there has been an increasing number of foodborne outbreaks linked to the consumption of culturally diverse foods. This appears to be because of the increasing quantity of culturally diverse foods available and a preference to store these foods, some of which are considered potentially hazardous, at ambient temperature. This practice may contravene temperature requirements defined by the Food Standards Code. A lack of understanding of the hazardous nature of some culturally prepared foods also poses difficulties in applying the Australian food safety legislation by regulators. This pilot study examined the normal microbiota of four culturally diverse foods: nem chua, che dau trang, kueh talam, and bánh tét nhân man, which are traditionally stored and consumed at ambient temperature. Challenge testing was conducted to investigate the ability of these foods to support the growth of foodborne bacterial pathogens. Two of the products (kueh talam and che dau) were found to be microbiologically unsatisfactory because of the high standard plate counts. Challenge testing indicated that kueh talam, che dau, and bánh tét nhân man were able to support the growth of Bacillus cereus, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, and Salmonella (1-2 log increases over 6 hours at 25 degrees C), suggesting that these foods may require temperature control during storage. However, nem chua was unable to support the growth of test bacteria, probably because of its acidic nature (pH 4.5), suggesting that ambient storage of this food may be safe. This study provided some preliminary evidence to support the need for further sampling and challenge testing of these products.

  10. Allergens labeling on French processed foods - an Oqali study.

    PubMed

    Battisti, Charlène; Chambefort, Amélie; Digaud, Olivier; Duplessis, Barbara; Perrin, Cécile; Volatier, Jean-Luc; Gauvreau-Béziat, Julie; Menard, Céline

    2017-07-01

    The French Observatory of Food Quality (Oqali) aims at collecting all nutritional data provided on labels of processed foods (nutritional information and composition), at branded products level, in order to follow nutritional labeling changes over time. This study carries out an overview of allergens labeling frequencies by distinguishing allergens used in recipes from those listed on precautionary statements, for the fourteen allergen categories for which labeling is mandatory according to European legislation. 17,309 products were collected, between 2008 and 2012, from 26 food categories. Products were classified per family and type of brand (national brands, retailer brands, entry-level retailer brands, hard discount, and specialized retailer brands). Allergenic ingredients were identified from ingredients lists and precautionary statements. 73% of the 17,309 products studied contained at least one allergen in their ingredients list and 39% had a precautionary statement for one or more allergens. Milk (53%), gluten (41%), and egg (22%) were the most commonly used allergens in ingredients lists. For precautionary statement, nuts (20%), egg (14%), peanut (13%), soybean (12%), and milk (11%) were the most common allergens listed. Precautionary statement was most frequently found among first-price products (hard discount and entry-level retailer brands). National brands seemed to use it less frequently. For all these results, differences depended both on food categories and allergen categories. This study will enable to follow allergens labeling and their use as ingredients over time, particularly by assessing an hypothetical increase in allergens presence in processed food.

  11. Food and eating environments: in Canadian schools.

    PubMed

    Browning, H Frances; Laxer, Rachel E; Janssen, Ian

    2013-01-01

    This national study was conducted to examine healthy eating programs, healthy eating education, and the food retail environments of schools. A total of 436 Canadian schools were studied. Administrators completed a questionnaire designed to assess school healthy eating programs, healthy eating education, and food retail environment. The number of chain fast food restaurants, chain cafés/coffee shops, and convenience stores within 1 km of schools was measured using geographic information systems food retailer measures from DMTI Spatial Inc. and the Yellow Pages. During the preceding year, 67% of schools had initiated healthy eating lunch programs while 18% had junk food-free days. The majority of schools offered cooking classes (59%) and healthy eating media literacy education (67%), while a minority offered gardening activities (15%) and field trips to farmers' markets (27%) and grocery stores (36%). Fifty-three percent had a school cafeteria, and most had a school tuck shop (75%) and pop/juice vending machines (76%). Fifty percent had a chain fast food restaurant, 33% had a chain café/coffee shop, and 41% had a convenience store within 1 km. An important aspect of addressing childhood obesity will be improving the food environments of schools and their surrounding neighbourhoods, and providing healthy eating education for all students.

  12. Prevalence of household food poverty in South Africa: results from a large, nationally representative survey.

    PubMed

    Charlton, Karen E; Rose, Donald

    2002-06-01

    Household food insecurity is a major determinant of undernutrition, yet there is little information on its prevalence in the South African population. This paper assesses household food insecurity in South Africa using a quantitative and objective measure, known as food poverty, and provides prevalence estimates by geographic area and socio-economic condition. Secondary data analysis combining two sources: Statistics South Africa's household-based 1995 Income and Expenditure Survey; and the University of Port Elizabeth's Household Subsistence Level series, a nationally-conducted, market-based survey. South Africa. A nationally representative sample of the entire country - stratified by race, province, and urban and non-urban areas - consisting of 28 704 households. A household is defined to be in food poverty when monthly food spending is less than the cost of a nutritionally adequate very low-cost diet. The prevalence of food poverty in South Africa in 1995 was 43%. Food poverty rates were highest among households headed by Africans, followed by coloureds, Indians and whites. Higher food poverty rates were found with decreasing income, increasing household size, and among households in rural areas or those headed by females. The widespread nature of household food insecurity in South Africa is documented here. Prevalence rates by geographic and socio-economic breakdown provide the means for targeting of nutritional interventions and for monitoring progress in this field. The corroboration of these findings with both internal validation measures and external sources suggests that food poverty is a useful, objective measure of household food insecurity.

  13. Serving the food nation: Exploring Body Mass Index in food service workers.

    PubMed

    Woodhall-Melnik, Julia; Cooke, Martin; Bigelow, Philip L

    2015-01-01

    Obesity is a public health concern in North America. Consumption of food prepared outside of the home is often discussed as a contributing factor. To determine whether or not Canadian food service workers are more likely to have high Body Mass Indices (BMIs) as compared with the general population, and to examine factors that contribute to BMI in this population. Analyses of secondary survey data from Cycle 5.1 of the Canadian Community Health Survey were performed. Descriptive statistics were generated to examine food service workers' risk of having above normal BMI compared to other Canadians. Logistic regression analysis was used to identify factors contributing to variation in BMI among food service workers. Analyses were stratified by age. Canadian food service workers are less likely to have BMIs in the overweight and obese ranges than the general population. Stratification by age demonstrated that this decreased risk can be attributed to the fact that food service workers tend to be younger than the general population. As age increases among food service workers, the odds of having a BMI in the overweight and obese ranges increases. Food service workers in general were not at higher risk for high BMI, but those between the ages of 41 and 64 are at higher risk of having a BMI in the overweight or obese ranges. The findings suggest that proximity to food service outlets may not be the most salient factor in explaining BMI.

  14. The Development and Piloting of a Mobile Data Collection Protocol to Assess Compliance With a National Tobacco Advertising, Promotion, and Product Display Ban at Retail Venues in the Russian Federation

    PubMed Central

    Grant, Ashley S; Spires, Mark H; Cohen, Joanna E

    2016-01-01

    Background Tobacco control policies that lead to a significant reduction in tobacco industry marketing can improve public health by reducing consumption of tobacco and preventing initiation of tobacco use. Laws that ban or restrict advertising and promotion in point-of-sale (POS) environments, in the moment when consumers decide whether or not to purchase a tobacco product, must be correctly implemented to achieve the desired public health benefits. POS policy compliance assessments can support implementation; however, there are challenges to conducting evaluations that are rigorous, cost-effective, and timely. Data collection must be discreet, accurate, and systematic, and ideally collected both before and after policies take effect. The use of mobile phones and other mobile technology provide opportunities to efficiently collect data and support effective tobacco control policies. The Russian Federation (Russia) passed a comprehensive national tobacco control law that included a ban on most forms of tobacco advertising and promotion, effective November 15, 2013. The legislation further prohibited the display of tobacco products at retail trade sites and eliminated kiosks as a legal trade site, effective June 1, 2014. Objective The objective of the study was to develop and test a mobile data collection protocol including: (1) retailer sampling, (2) adaptation of survey instruments for mobile phones, and (3) data management protocols. Methods Two waves of observations were conducted; wave 1 took place during April-May 2014, after the advertising and promotion bans were effective, and again in August-September 2014, after the product display ban and elimination of tobacco sales in kiosks came into effect. Sampling took place in 5 Russian cities: Moscow, St. Petersburg, Novosibirsk, Yekaterinburg, and Kazan. Lack of access to a comprehensive list of licensed tobacco retailers necessitated a sampling approach that included the development of a walking protocol to

  15. Quantifying food waste in Hawaii's food supply chain.

    PubMed

    Loke, Matthew K; Leung, PingSun

    2015-12-01

    Food waste highlights a considerable loss of resources invested in the food supply chain. While it receives a lot of attention in the global context, the assessment of food waste is deficient at the sub-national level, owing primarily to an absence of quality data. This article serves to explore that gap and aims to quantify the edible weight, economic value, and calorie equivalent of food waste in Hawaii. The estimates are based on available food supply data for Hawaii and the US Department of Agriculture's (USDA's) loss-adjusted food availability data for defined food groups at three stages of the food supply chain. At its highest aggregated level, we estimate Hawaii's food waste generation at 237,122 t or 26% of available food supply in 2010. This is equivalent to food waste of 161.5 kg per person, per annum. Additionally, this food waste is valued at US$1.025 billion annually or the equivalent of 502.6 billion calories. It is further evident that the occurrence of food waste by all three measures is highest at the consumer stage, followed by the distribution and retail stage, and is lowest at the post-harvest and packing stage. The findings suggest that any meaningful intervention to reduce food waste in Hawaii should target the consumer, and distribution and retail stages of the food supply chain. Interventions at the consumer stage should focus on the two protein groups, as well as fresh fruits and fresh vegetables. © The Author(s) 2015.

  16. 76 FR 35301 - National School Lunch Program: School Food Service Account Revenue Amendments Related to the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-17

    ...This rule amends National School Lunch Program (NSLP) regulations to conform to requirements contained in the Healthy, Hunger-Free Kids Act of 2010 (Pub. L. 111-296) regarding equity in school lunch pricing and revenue from nonprogram foods sold in schools. This rule requires school food authorities (SFAs) participating in the NSLP to provide the same level of financial support for lunches......

  17. A National Study of the Association between Food Environments and County-Level Health Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ahern, Melissa; Brown, Cheryl; Dukas, Stephen

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: This national, county-level study examines the relationship between food availability and access, and health outcomes (mortality, diabetes, and obesity rates) in both metro and non-metro areas. Methods: This is a secondary, cross-sectional analysis using Food Environment Atlas and CDC data. Linear regression models estimate relationships…

  18. 75 FR 63433 - National Advisory Committee on Microbiological Criteria for Foods; Re-Establishment

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-15

    ... recommended by a 1985 report of the National Academy of Sciences Committee on Food Protection, Subcommittee on... access to selected food safety news and information. This service is available at http://www.fsis.usda.gov/News_&_Events/Email_Subscription/ . ] Options range from recalls, export information, regulations...

  19. A National Study of the Association between Food Environments and County-Level Health Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ahern, Melissa; Brown, Cheryl; Dukas, Stephen

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: This national, county-level study examines the relationship between food availability and access, and health outcomes (mortality, diabetes, and obesity rates) in both metro and non-metro areas. Methods: This is a secondary, cross-sectional analysis using Food Environment Atlas and CDC data. Linear regression models estimate relationships…

  20. More neighborhood retail associated with lower obesity among New York City public high school students.

    PubMed

    Bader, Michael D M; Schwartz-Soicher, Ofira; Jack, Darby; Weiss, Christopher C; Richards, Catherine A; Quinn, James W; Lovasi, Gina S; Neckerman, Kathryn M; Rundle, Andrew G

    2013-09-01

    Policies target fast food outlets to curb adolescent obesity. We argue that researchers should examine the entire retail ecology of neighborhoods, not just fast food outlets. We examine the association between the neighborhood retail environment and obesity using Fitnessgram data collected from 94,348 New York City public high school students. In generalized hierarchical linear models, the number of fast food restaurants predicted lower odds of obesity for adolescents (OR:0.972 per establishment; CI:0.957-0.988). In a "placebo test" we found that banks--a measure of neighborhood retail ecology--also predicted lower obesity (OR:0.979 per bank; CI:0.962-0.994). Retail disinvestment might be associated with greater obesity; accordingly, public health research should study the influence of general retail disinvestment not just food-specific investment. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. MORE NEIGHBORHOOD RETAIL ASSOCIATED WITH LOWER OBESITY AMONG NEW YORK CITY PUBLIC HIGH SCHOOL STUDENTS

    PubMed Central

    Bader, Michael D. M.; Schwartz-Soicher, Ofira; Jack, Darby; Weiss, Christopher C.; Richards, Catherine A.; Quinn, James W.; Lovasi, Gina S.; Neckerman, Kathryn M.; Rundle, Andrew G.

    2014-01-01

    Policies target fast food outlets to curb adolescent obesity. We argue that researchers should examine the entire retail ecology of neighborhoods, not just fast food outlets. We examine the association between the neighborhood retail environment and obesity using Fitnessgram data collected from 94,348 New York City public high school students. In generalized hierarchical linear models, the number of fast food restaurants predicted lower odds of obesity for adolescents (OR:0.972 per establishment; CI:0.957--0.988). In a “placebo test” we found that banks – a measure of neighborhood retail ecology – also predicted lower obesity (OR:0.979 per bank; CI:0.962–0.994). Retail disinvestment might be associated with greater obesity; accordingly, public health research should study the influence of general retail disinvestment not just food-specific investment. PMID:23827943

  2. 21 CFR 1140.14 - Additional responsibilities of retailers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... Section 1140.14 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) TOBACCO PRODUCTS CIGARETTES AND SMOKELESS TOBACCO Prohibition of Sale and Distribution to Persons... requirements under this part, each retailer is responsible for ensuring that all sales of cigarettes...

  3. Target salt 2025: a global overview of national programs to encourage the food industry to reduce salt in foods.

    PubMed

    Webster, Jacqui; Trieu, Kathy; Dunford, Elizabeth; Hawkes, Corinna

    2014-08-21

    Reducing population salt intake has been identified as a priority intervention to reduce non-communicable diseases. Member States of the World Health Organization have agreed to a global target of a 30% reduction in salt intake by 2025. In countries where most salt consumed is from processed foods, programs to engage the food industry to reduce salt in products are being developed. This paper provides a comprehensive overview of national initiatives to encourage the food industry to reduce salt. A systematic review of the literature was supplemented by key informant questionnaires to inform categorization of the initiatives. Fifty nine food industry salt reduction programs were identified. Thirty eight countries had targets for salt levels in foods and nine countries had introduced legislation for some products. South Africa and Argentina have both introduced legislation limiting salt levels across a broad range of foods. Seventeen countries reported reductions in salt levels in foods-the majority in bread. While these trends represent progress, many countries have yet to initiate work in this area, others are at early stages of implementation and further monitoring is required to assess progress towards achieving the global target.

  4. Sustaining Our Nation's Seniors through Federal Food and Nutrition Programs.

    PubMed

    Gergerich, Erika; Shobe, Marcia; Christy, Kameri

    2015-01-01

    Food insecurity is a pressing issue in the United States where one in six people suffer from hunger. The older adult population faces unique challenges to receiving adequate nutrition. The federal government currently employs four food and nutrition programs that target the senior population in an effort to address their specific needs. These are the Congregate Meals and Home Delivered Meals Programs (provided through the Older Americans Act), and the Senior Farmers' Market Nutrition Program and Child and Adult Care Food Program (provided by the United States Department of Agriculture). As the older adult population continues to grow, it will be important to evaluate and improve these programs and the social policies related to them. This manuscript describes each policy in depth, considers economic and political elements that have shaped each policy, describes the level of program success, and offers suggestions for future research and program development.

  5. Prevalence and level of Listeria monocytogenes and other Listeria species in selected retail ready-to-eat foods in the United Kingdom.

    PubMed

    Little, C L; Sagoo, S K; Gillespie, I A; Grant, K; McLauchlin, J

    2009-09-01

    Although listeriosis is a rare cause of human disease in the United Kingdom, an increase in the number of cases has been observed since 2001, almost exclusively in persons older than 60 years. This increase prompted this study on the microbiological safety of ready-to-eat (RTE) foods, which included those types potentially linked to cases of listeriosis. Between May 2006 and April 2007, 6,984 RTE foods were sampled (2,168 sliced meats, 1,242 hard cheese, 1,088 sandwiches, 878 butter, 725 spreadable cheese, 515 confectionery products containing cream, and 368 probiotic drinks). The food types with the highest prevalence of Listeria monocytogenes were sandwiches (7.0%) and sliced meats (3.7% within shelf life, 4.2% end of shelf life). L. monocytogenes at > 100 CFU/g (exceeding the European Commission's food safety criteria limit) only occurred in sandwiches (0.4%) and sliced meats (0.7% within shelf life, 1.0% end of shelf life). Contamination with L. monocytogenes at >100 CFU/g was more frequent in meats that were prepacked and/or of pack size > or = 300 g and in sandwiches that were supplied prepacked that contained salad vegetables as an ingredient. Satisfactory microbiological quality was associated with premises on which the management was trained in food hygiene and those that complied with hazard analysis and critical control point principles. This study provides important information about the microbiological safety of RTE foods and demonstrates that the control of L. monocytogenes in such foods, and in particular sandwiches and sliced meats, is essential in order to minimize the risk of this bacterium being present at levels hazardous to health at the point of consumption.

  6. Prepared Food Availability in U.S. Food Stores: A National Study.

    PubMed

    Zenk, Shannon N; Powell, Lisa M; Isgor, Zeynep; Rimkus, Leah; Barker, Dianne C; Chaloupka, Frank J

    2015-10-01

    Prepared, ready-to-eat foods comprise a significant part of Americans' diets and are increasingly obtained from food stores. Yet, little is known about the availability and healthfulness of prepared, ready-to-eat food offerings at stores. This study examines associations among community characteristics (racial/ethnic composition, poverty level, urbanicity) and availability of both healthier and less-healthy prepared foods in U.S. supermarkets, grocery stores, and convenience stores. Observational data were collected from 4,361 stores in 317 communities spanning 42 states in 2011 and 2012. Prepared food availability was assessed via one healthier food (salads or salad bar), three less-healthy items (pizza, hot dog/hamburger, taco/burrito/taquito), and one cold sandwich item. In 2014, multivariable generalized linear models were used to test associations with community characteristics. Overall, 63.6% of stores sold prepared foods, with 20.0% offering prepared salads and 36.4% offering at least one less-healthy item. Rural stores were 26% less likely to carry prepared salads (prevalence ratio [PR]=0.74, 95% CI=0.62, 0.88) and 14% more likely to carry at least one less-healthy prepared food item (PR=1.14, 95% CI=1.00, 1.30). Convenience stores in high-poverty communities were less likely to carry prepared salads than those in low-poverty communities (PR=0.64, 95% CI=0.47, 0.87). Among supermarkets, prepared salads were more likely to be carried in majority-white, low-poverty communities than in non-white, high-poverty communities. Increasing the healthfulness of prepared foods within stores may offer an important opportunity to improve the food environment. Copyright © 2015 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Tobacco advertising in retail stores.

    PubMed Central

    Cummings, K M; Sciandra, R; Lawrence, J

    1991-01-01

    Recent studies have described tobacco advertising in the print media, on billboards, and through sponsorship of cultural and sporting events. However, little attention has been given to another common and unavoidable source of tobacco advertising, that which is encountered in retail stores. In July 1987, we conducted a survey of 61 packaged goods retail stores in Buffalo, NY, to assess the prevalence and type of point-of-sale tobacco advertising. In addition, store owners or managers were surveyed to determine their store's policy regarding tobacco advertising, receipt of monetary incentives from distributors for displaying tobacco ads, and willingness to display antitobacco ads. Six types of stores were involved in the study: 10 supermarkets, 10 privately owned grocery stores, 9 chain convenience food stores that do not sell gasoline, 11 chain convenience food stores that sell gasoline, 11 chain pharmacies, and 10 private pharmacies. Two-thirds of the stores displayed tobacco posters, and 87 percent had promotional items advertising tobacco products, primarily cigarettes. Larger stores, and those that were privately owned, tended to display more posters and promotional items. Eighty percent of tobacco product displays were for cigarettes, 16 percent for smokeless tobacco products, and 4 percent for cigars and pipe tobacco. Convenience stores selling gasoline had the most separate tobacco product displays. Of tobacco product displays, 24 percent were located adjacent to candy and snack displays. Twenty-nine of the 61 store owners or managers indicated that their store had a policy regulating the display of tobacco ads and tobacco product displays.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1910192

  8. Tobacco advertising in retail stores.

    PubMed

    Cummings, K M; Sciandra, R; Lawrence, J

    1991-01-01

    Recent studies have described tobacco advertising in the print media, on billboards, and through sponsorship of cultural and sporting events. However, little attention has been given to another common and unavoidable source of tobacco advertising, that which is encountered in retail stores. In July 1987, we conducted a survey of 61 packaged goods retail stores in Buffalo, NY, to assess the prevalence and type of point-of-sale tobacco advertising. In addition, store owners or managers were surveyed to determine their store's policy regarding tobacco advertising, receipt of monetary incentives from distributors for displaying tobacco ads, and willingness to display antitobacco ads. Six types of stores were involved in the study: 10 supermarkets, 10 privately owned grocery stores, 9 chain convenience food stores that do not sell gasoline, 11 chain convenience food stores that sell gasoline, 11 chain pharmacies, and 10 private pharmacies. Two-thirds of the stores displayed tobacco posters, and 87 percent had promotional items advertising tobacco products, primarily cigarettes. Larger stores, and those that were privately owned, tended to display more posters and promotional items. Eighty percent of tobacco product displays were for cigarettes, 16 percent for smokeless tobacco products, and 4 percent for cigars and pipe tobacco. Convenience stores selling gasoline had the most separate tobacco product displays. Of tobacco product displays, 24 percent were located adjacent to candy and snack displays. Twenty-nine of the 61 store owners or managers indicated that their store had a policy regulating the display of tobacco ads and tobacco product displays. Policies dealt primarily with the location of tobacco posters (for example, no ads in the window) and number of product displays. Only 14 shop owners or managers indicated that they had previously displayed antitobacco information; more than half (31 of 61) said that they would be willing to display antitobaccoads.In many

  9. PRESENT CONDITION OF FOOD WASTE RECYCLING LOOP BASED ON RECYCLING PROJECT CERTIFICATION OF THE FOOD WASTE RECYCLING LAW

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kita, Tomoko; Kanaya, Ken

    Purpose of this research is to clear present condition of food waste recycling loops based on recycling project certification of the Food Waste Recycling Law. Method of this research is questionnaire survey to companies constituting the loops. Findings of this research are as follows: 1. Proponents of the loop is most often the recycling companies. 2. Food waste recycling rate is 61% for the food retailing industry and 81% for the food service industry. These values are higher than the national average in 2006. The effect of the revision of recycling project certification is suggested.

  10. Exploration of Retailing Careers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilkie, Barbara J.

    Designed as a semester unit of instruction at the middle or junior high school level in the exploration of retailing careers, this distributive education curriculum guide is divided into two sections: The Teacher's Guide and Student Materials. One of the elective courses intended as a followup to "Orientation to Marketing Careers," it provides the…

  11. The National Cancer Institute diet history questionnaire: validation of pyramid food servings.

    PubMed

    Millen, Amy E; Midthune, Douglas; Thompson, Frances E; Kipnis, Victor; Subar, Amy F

    2006-02-01

    The performance of the National Cancer Institute's food frequency questionnaire, the Diet History Questionnaire (DHQ), in estimating servings of 30 US Department of Agriculture Food Guide Pyramid food groups was evaluated in the Eating at America's Table Study (1997-1998), a nationally representative sample of men and women aged 20-79 years. Participants who completed four nonconsecutive, telephone-administered 24-hour dietary recalls (n = 1,301) were mailed a DHQ; 965 respondents completed both the 24-hour dietary recalls and the DHQ. The US Department of Agriculture's Pyramid Servings Database was used to estimate intakes of pyramid servings for both diet assessment tools. The correlation (rho) between DHQ-reported intake and true intake and the attenuation factor (lambda) were estimated using a measurement error model with repeat 24-hour dietary recalls as the reference instrument. Correlations for energy-adjusted pyramid servings of foods ranged from 0.43 (other starchy vegetables) to 0.84 (milk) among women and from 0.42 (eggs) to 0.80 (total dairy food) among men. The mean rho and lambda after energy adjustment were 0.62 and 0.60 for women and 0.63 and 0.66 for men, respectively. This food frequency questionnaire validation study of foods measured in pyramid servings allowed for a measure of food intake consistent with national dietary guidance.

  12. BI-NATIONAL LOWER FOOD WEB ASSESSMENT: 2005 BENTHOS RESULTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Findings have been generated as part of a bi-national coordinated partnership for lakewide sampling to support needs expressed by the Great Lakes Fisheries Committee, the Lake Superior Technical Committee, and the Lake Superior LaMP.

  13. Cross-continental comparison of national food consumption survey methods--a narrative review.

    PubMed

    De Keyzer, Willem; Bracke, Tatiana; McNaughton, Sarah A; Parnell, Winsome; Moshfegh, Alanna J; Pereira, Rosangela A; Lee, Haeng-Shin; van't Veer, Pieter; De Henauw, Stefaan; Huybrechts, Inge

    2015-05-13

    Food consumption surveys are performed in many countries. Comparison of results from those surveys across nations is difficult because of differences in methodological approaches. While consensus about the preferred methodology associated with national food consumption surveys is increasing, no inventory of methodological aspects across continents is available. The aims of the present review are (1) to develop a framework of key methodological elements related to national food consumption surveys, (2) to create an inventory of these properties of surveys performed in the continents North-America, South-America, Asia and Australasia, and (3) to discuss and compare these methodological properties cross-continentally. A literature search was performed using a fixed set of search terms in different databases. The inventory was completed with all accessible information from all retrieved publications and corresponding authors were requested to provide additional information where missing. Surveys from ten individual countries, originating from four continents are listed in the inventory. The results are presented according to six major aspects of food consumption surveys. The most common dietary intake assessment method used in food consumption surveys worldwide is the 24-HDR (24 h dietary recall), occasionally administered repeatedly, mostly using interview software. Only three countries have incorporated their national food consumption surveys into continuous national health and nutrition examination surveys.

  14. Cross-Continental Comparison of National Food Consumption Survey Methods—A Narrative Review

    PubMed Central

    De Keyzer, Willem; Bracke, Tatiana; McNaughton, Sarah A.; Parnell, Winsome; Moshfegh, Alanna J.; Pereira, Rosangela A.; Lee, Haeng-Shin; van’t Veer, Pieter; De Henauw, Stefaan; Huybrechts, Inge

    2015-01-01

    Food consumption surveys are performed in many countries. Comparison of results from those surveys across nations is difficult because of differences in methodological approaches. While consensus about the preferred methodology associated with national food consumption surveys is increasing, no inventory of methodological aspects across continents is available. The aims of the present review are (1) to develop a framework of key methodological elements related to national food consumption surveys, (2) to create an inventory of these properties of surveys performed in the continents North-America, South-America, Asia and Australasia, and (3) to discuss and compare these methodological properties cross-continentally. A literature search was performed using a fixed set of search terms in different databases. The inventory was completed with all accessible information from all retrieved publications and corresponding authors were requested to provide additional information where missing. Surveys from ten individual countries, originating from four continents are listed in the inventory. The results are presented according to six major aspects of food consumption surveys. The most common dietary intake assessment method used in food consumption surveys worldwide is the 24-HDR (24 h dietary recall), occasionally administered repeatedly, mostly using interview software. Only three countries have incorporated their national food consumption surveys into continuous national health and nutrition examination surveys. PMID:25984745

  15. [National policies and the field of Food and Nutrition in Collective Health: the current scenario].

    PubMed

    Recine, Elisabetta; Vasconcellos, Ana Beatriz

    2011-01-01

    It is presented a review of the guidelines implementation of the National Food and Nutrition Policy (PNAN) contextualizing the actions in the Brazilian Unified Health System (SUS) scenario. At ten years of its publication, PNAN faces challenges both to expand and qualify the shares of food and nutrition on health. It is challenging to stand as interlocutor and legitimate representative of the area of health, political and institutional context of food security and nutrition. Issues related to the articulation of PNAN and future National Policy on Food and Nutrition Security will be analyzed to demonstrate the convergence of agendas among the priorities for the guarantee of the SAN. The authors identify the potential of this field of action, from the current institutional setting, and the need for comprehensive solutions that address the complexity of food and nutrition in health.

  16. Food Insecurity and Mental Disorders in a National Sample of U.S. Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLaughlin, Katie A.; Green, Jennifer Greif; Alegria, Margarita; Costello, E. Jane; Gruber, Michael J.; Sampson, Nancy A.; Kessler, Ronald C.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To examine whether food insecurity is associated with past-year "DSM-IV" mental disorders after controlling for standard indicators of family socioeconomic status (SES) in a U.S. national sample of adolescents. Method: Data were drawn from 6,483 adolescent-parent pairs who participated in the National Comorbidity Survey Replication…

  17. Food Insecurity and Mental Disorders in a National Sample of U.S. Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLaughlin, Katie A.; Green, Jennifer Greif; Alegria, Margarita; Costello, E. Jane; Gruber, Michael J.; Sampson, Nancy A.; Kessler, Ronald C.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To examine whether food insecurity is associated with past-year "DSM-IV" mental disorders after controlling for standard indicators of family socioeconomic status (SES) in a U.S. national sample of adolescents. Method: Data were drawn from 6,483 adolescent-parent pairs who participated in the National Comorbidity Survey Replication…

  18. Target Salt 2025: A Global Overview of National Programs to Encourage the Food Industry to Reduce Salt in Foods

    PubMed Central

    Webster, Jacqui; Trieu, Kathy; Dunford, Elizabeth; Hawkes, Corinna

    2014-01-01

    Reducing population salt intake has been identified as a priority intervention to reduce non-communicable diseases. Member States of the World Health Organization have agreed to a global target of a 30% reduction in salt intake by 2025. In countries where most salt consumed is from processed foods, programs to engage the food industry to reduce salt in products are being developed. This paper provides a comprehensive overview of national initiatives to encourage the food industry to reduce salt. A systematic review of the literature was supplemented by key informant questionnaires to inform categorization of the initiatives. Fifty nine food industry salt reduction programs were identified. Thirty eight countries had targets for salt levels in foods and nine countries had introduced legislation for some products. South Africa and Argentina have both introduced legislation limiting salt levels across a broad range of foods. Seventeen countries reported reductions in salt levels in foods—the majority in bread. While these trends represent progress, many countries have yet to initiate work in this area, others are at early stages of implementation and further monitoring is required to assess progress towards achieving the global target. PMID:25195640

  19. Socio-economic and behavioural factors are predictors of food use in the National Food Stamp Program Survey.

    PubMed

    Bhargava, Alok

    2004-09-01

    The unhealthy dietary patterns in the USA especially among low-income households demand complex strategies for health promotion. The present paper analysed the proximate determinants of 7 d food use by 919 participants in the National Food Stamp Program Survey conducted in 1996. The households' consumption of dietary energy, carbohydrate, protein, fibre, saturated, monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fats, Ca, Fe, beta-carotene and vitamin C were explained by background, socio-economic and behavioural factors. Certain methodological issues arising in modelling food use data were addressed. The results showed that the subjects' knowledge of the US Department of Agriculture food pyramid, reading nutrition labels, adopting a low-fat diet, selecting fruits and vegetables, saving money at grocery stores and frequency of shopping trips were often significantly associated (P<0.05) with the densities of nutrient use. The results identified certain aspects of nutrition education programmes that deserve greater emphasis for improving diet quality. The model for energy intake indicated that disbursing half the food stamp benefits on a 2-week basis and better shopping practices can enhance food availability.

  20. Integrating Environmental Sustainability Considerations into Food and Nutrition Policies: Insights from Australia's National Food Plan.

    PubMed

    Ridgway, Ella Megan; Lawrence, Mark Andrew; Woods, Julie

    2015-01-01

    The environmental sustainability (ES) of food systems is a critical challenge for policy makers. This is a highly contested policy area with differing views among stakeholders. The aim of the study was to develop a better understanding of how ES considerations are addressed in Australian food and nutrition policies and the way that consultation processes affect final policy outcomes. A mixed-methods study design combined a detailed chronology of key policy developments (2009-2015), a content analysis of written submissions obtained during the NFP's consultation period (2011-2013) and a frame analysis of the sustainability perspectives - efficiency, demand restraint, and system transformation - in the NFP's Issues, Green, and White Papers. There were 555 written submissions responding to two consultation papers. Stakeholders represented all sectors of Australia's food system including government, non-government organizations, the food supply chain, research and academic institutions, and members of the general public. Around 74% of submissions referred to ES considerations and ~65% supported their inclusion into the final policy. Efficiency frames were most dominant; emphasizing a production-oriented approach that regards the environment as a natural resource base for food production but overlooks consumption and equity concerns. Despite strong support for the inclusion of ES considerations in the NFP, the influence of Australia's socio-political context, powerful, industry-dominated stakeholders, and a reliance on traditional production-oriented perspectives delivered a business-as-usual approach to food policy making. It has since been replaced by an agricultural strategy that provides only cursory attention to ES. Our findings indicate that Australia's political environment is not sufficiently mature for ES considerations to be integrated into food and nutrition policies. We propose reforms to the current consultation process in Australia to better support this

  1. Occurrence of ß-lactamase genes among non-Typhi Salmonella enterica isolated from humans, food animals, and retail meats in the United States and Canada

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Non-Typhi Salmonella cause over 1.7 million cases of gastroenteritis in North America each year, and food-animal products are commonly implicated in human infections. For invasive infections, antimicrobial therapy is implicated. In North America, the antimicrobial susceptibility of Salmonella is m...

  2. Prevalence of antimicrobial resistance in Salmonella serotype Hadar isolated from humans, retail meat, and food animals at slaughter, United States, NARMS 1996-2008

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Background Non-Typhi Salmonella (NTS) is a leading cause of bacterial gastroenteritis in the United States. Although most infections are self-limited, antibiotic treatment is essential for severe illness. Use of antimicrobial agents in food animals contributes to resistance in NTS. Multidrug resis...

  3. Seasonal food use by white-tailed deer at Valley Forge National Historical Park, Pennsylvania, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cypher, Brian L.; Yahner, Richard H.; Cypher, Ellen A.

    1988-03-01

    Food habits of white-tailed deer ( Odocoileus virginianus) were examined from January to November 1984 via fecal-pellet analysis at Valley Forge National Historical Park (VFNHP), which represents an “island” habitat for deer surrounded by extensive urbanization, in southeastern Pennsylvania. In addition, use of fields by deer was compared to food habits. Herbaceous vegetation (forbs, leaves of woody plants, and conifer needles) was the predominant food type in all seasons except fall. Acorns and graminoids (grasses and sedges) were important food resources in fall and spring, respectively. Use of woody browse (twigs) was similar among seasons. Field use was relatively high during fall, winter without snow cover (<20 cm), and spring when food resources in fields were readily available. In contrast, use of fields was lowest in summer when preferred woodland foods were available and in winter with snow cover when food in fields was not readily accessible. Patterns of food-type use by deer at VFNHP indicate the year-round importance of nonwoody foods and field habitats to deer populations on public lands such as national parks in the northeastern United States.

  4. New Local, National and Regional Cereal Price Indices for Improved Identification of Food Insecurity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, Molly E.; Tondel, Fabien; Thorne, Jennifer A.; Essam, Timothy; Mann, Bristol F.; Stabler, Blake; Eilerts, Gary

    2011-01-01

    Large price increases over a short time period can be indicative of a deteriorating food security situation. Food price indices developed by the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) are used to monitor food price trends at a global level, but largely reflect supply and demand conditions in export markets. However, reporting by the United States Agency for International Development (USAID)'s Famine Early Warning Systems Network (FEWS NET) indicates that staple cereal prices in many markets of the developing world, especially in surplus-producing areas, often have a delayed and variable response to international export market price trends. Here we present new price indices compiled for improved food security monitoring and assessment, and specifically for monitoring conditions of food access across diverse food insecure regions. We found that cereal price indices constructed using market prices within a food insecure region showed significant differences from the international cereals price, and had a variable price dispersion across markets within each marketshed. Using satellite-derived remote sensing information that estimates local production and the FAO Cereals Index as predictors, we were able to forecast movements of the local or national price indices in the remote, arid and semi-arid countries of the 38 countries examined. This work supports the need for improved decision-making about targeted aid and humanitarian relief, by providing earlier early warning of food security crises.

  5. 78 FR 20666 - Food and Drug Administration/National Institutes of Health/National Science Foundation Public...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-05

    .../ National Science Foundation Public Workshop on Computer Methods for Medical Devices AGENCY: Food and Drug... Administration (FDA) is announcing its fifth public workshop on Computer Methods for Medical Devices entitled ``FDA/ NIH/NSF Workshop on Computer Models and Validation for Medical Devices.'' The purpose of the...

  6. 7 CFR 3402.4 - Food and agricultural sciences areas targeted for National Needs Graduate and Postdoctoral...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Food and agricultural sciences areas targeted for... AGRICULTURE FOOD AND AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES NATIONAL NEEDS GRADUATE AND POSTGRADUATE FELLOWSHIP GRANTS PROGRAM Program Description § 3402.4 Food and agricultural sciences areas targeted for National Needs Graduate...

  7. 7 CFR 3402.4 - Food and agricultural sciences areas targeted for National Needs Graduate and Postdoctoral...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Food and agricultural sciences areas targeted for... AGRICULTURE FOOD AND AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES NATIONAL NEEDS GRADUATE AND POSTGRADUATE FELLOWSHIP GRANTS PROGRAM Program Description § 3402.4 Food and agricultural sciences areas targeted for National Needs Graduate...

  8. 7 CFR 3402.4 - Food and agricultural sciences areas targeted for National Needs Graduate and Postdoctoral...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Food and agricultural sciences areas targeted for... AGRICULTURE FOOD AND AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES NATIONAL NEEDS GRADUATE AND POSTGRADUATE FELLOWSHIP GRANTS PROGRAM Program Description § 3402.4 Food and agricultural sciences areas targeted for National Needs Graduate...

  9. 7 CFR 3402.4 - Food and agricultural sciences areas targeted for National Needs Graduate and Postdoctoral...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Food and agricultural sciences areas targeted for... AGRICULTURE FOOD AND AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES NATIONAL NEEDS GRADUATE AND POSTGRADUATE FELLOWSHIP GRANTS PROGRAM Program Description § 3402.4 Food and agricultural sciences areas targeted for National Needs Graduate...

  10. Foodborne pathogens recovered from ready-to-eat foods from roadside cafeterias and retail outlets in Alice, Eastern Cape Province, South Africa: public health implications.

    PubMed

    Nyenje, Mirriam E; Odjadjare, Collins E; Tanih, Nicoline F; Green, Ezekiel; Ndip, Roland N

    2012-08-01

    This study assessed the microbiological quality of various ready-to-eat foods sold in Alice, South Africa. Microbiological analysis was conducted on 252 samples which included vegetables, potatoes, rice, pies, beef and chicken stew. The isolates were identified using biochemical tests and the API 20E, API 20NE and API Listeria kits; results were analyzed using the one-way-ANOVA test. Bacterial growth was present in all the food types tested; high levels of total aerobic count were observed in vegetables, 6.8 ± 0.07 followed by rice, 6.7 ± 1.7 while pies had the lowest count (2.58 ± 0.24). Organisms isolated included: Listeria spp. (22%), Enterobacter spp. (18%), Aeromonas hydrophila (12%), Klebsiella oxytoca (8%), Proteus mirabilis (6.3%), Staphylococcus aureus (3.2%) and Pseudomonas luteola (2.4%). Interestingly, Salmonella spp. and Escherichia coli were not isolated in any of the samples. There was a statistically significant difference (p < 0.05) in the prevalence of foodborne pathogens from hygienic and unhygienic cafeterias. The results indicated that most of the ready-to-eat food samples examined in this study did not meet bacteriological quality standards, therefore posing potential risks to consumers. This should draw the attention of the relevant authorities to ensure that hygienic standards are improved to curtain foodborne infections.

  11. Retailer adherence to Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act, North Carolina, 2011.

    PubMed

    Rose, Shyanika W; Myers, Allison E; D'Angelo, Heather; Ribisl, Kurt M

    2013-04-04

    The Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act regulates the sales and marketing of tobacco products in the United States; poor adherence by tobacco retailers may reduce the effectiveness of the Act's provisions. The objectives of this study were 1) to assess whether and to which provisions retailers were adherent and 2) to examine differences in adherence by county, retailer neighborhood, and retailer characteristics. We conducted multivariate analysis of tobacco retailers' adherence to 12 point-of-sale provisions of the Tobacco Control Act in 3 North Carolina counties. We conducted observational audits of 324 retailers during 3 months in 2011 to assess adherence. We used logistic regression to assess associations between adherence to provisions and characteristics of each county, retailer neighborhood, and retailer. We found 15.7% of retailers did not adhere to at least 1 provision; 84.3% adhered to all provisions. The provisions most frequently violated were the ban on sales of cigarettes with modified-risk labels (eg, "light" cigarettes) (43 [13.3%] retailers nonadherent) and the ban on self-service for cigarettes and smokeless tobacco (6 [1.9%] retailers nonadherent). We found significant differences in rates of nonadherence by county and type of retailer. Pharmacies and drug stores were more than 3 times as likely as grocery stores to be nonadherent. Most tobacco retailers have implemented regulatory changes without enforcement by the US Food and Drug Administration. Monitoring rates of adherence by store type and locale (eg, county) may help retailers comply with point-of-sale provisions.

  12. The Market for Food in the Nation's Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kriesberg, Martin

    This report is based on a study made during the school year 1962-63. Comparison with a benchmark survey conducted five years earlier shows that during the intervening period the number of public school districts decreased by one-third, while pupil enrollment increased by about 10 percent. The number of lunches served in the National School Lunch…

  13. A national evaluation of the impact of state policies on competitive foods in schools.

    PubMed

    Fernandes, Meenakshi M

    2013-04-01

    Since 2003, many states have introduced policies to improve the nutritional content and restrict the availability of competitive foods, which are foods offered outside of the National School Lunch and Breakfast Programs. This article evaluates the impact of 2 types of state-level policies on the availability of competitive foods in a national sample of schools. Annual state-level data on limits, which restrict the time or venue of competitive foods sales, and standards, which regulate the nutrient content of competitive foods, was obtained from the Trust for America's Health and mapped to a national sample from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study who were in fifth grade in 2004 and eighth grade in 2007. A logistic regression model with child fixed effects tested the association between policy enactments and changes in reported availability of competitive foods in schools. The analyses controlled for child and school characteristics. Nineteen states introduced a standard or a limit between 2004 and 2007. After adjusting for child and school characteristics, standards were associated with lower child-reported availability of soft drinks (16.5%, p < .001), low-nutrient snacks (22.0%, p < .05), and sweets (18.1%, p < .001). The impact of limits was not statistically significant. Standards introduced between 2004 and 2007 were associated with a decline in the availability of soft drinks, low-nutrient snacks, and sweets as reported by a national sample of children. School compliance with state competitive food policies may increase over time. Research on the impact of existing state policies could inform the development of a national policy to regulate competitive foods in schools. © 2013, American School Health Association.

  14. Food and trust in Australia: building a picture.

    PubMed

    Coveney, John

    2008-03-01

    To explore consumer trust in food, especially people's experiences that support or diminish trust in the food supply; consumer practices to strengthen trust in food; and views on how trust in the food supply could be increased. Adelaide, South Australia. In-depth qualitative research interviews and focus groups. Women and men who are primary food providers in families (n = 24). Media coverage of food scares and scandals and personal experience of food-borne illness challenged respondents' trust in the food system. Poor retail food handling practices and questionable marketing ploys by food manufacturers also decreased trust. Buying 'Made-in-Australia' produce and following food safety procedures at home were important practices to strengthen food trust. Knowledge of procedures for local food inspection and for national food regulation to keep food safe was scanty. Having a strong regulatory environment governing food safety and quality was considered by respondents to be of prime importance for trust building. The dimensions of trust found in this study are consistent with key theoretical aspects of trust. The need for trust in highly complex environments, in this case the food supply, was evident. Trust was found to be integral to food choice, and negative media reports, the sources of which themselves enjoy various levels of dependability, were found to easily damage trust relationships. The lack of visibility of authoritative monitoring and surveillance, misleading food advertising, and poor retail food handling practices were identified as areas that decreased consumer trust. Respondents also questioned the probity of food labelling, especially health claims and other mechanisms designed to guide food choice. The research highlights the role trust plays in food choice. It also emphasises the importance of a visible authoritative presence in the food system to strengthen trust and provide reassurance to consumers.

  15. Understanding the Impact of Higher Corn Prices on Consumer Food Prices

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2007-04-18

    In an effort to assess the true effects of higher corn prices, the National Corn Growers Association (NCGA) commissioned an analysis on the impact of increased corn prices on retail food prices. This paper summarizes key results of the study and offers additional analysis based on information from a variety of other sources.

  16. A survey of aflatoxin B1 and total aflatoxin contamination in baby food, peanut and corn products sold at retail in Indonesia analysed by ELISA and HPLC.

    PubMed

    Razzazi-Fazeli, E; Noviandi, C T; Porasuphatana, S; Agus, A; Böhm, J

    2004-06-01

    Aflatoxin contamination has been well known as a world-wide health-threatening problem in tropical countries including Indonesia. This research was undertaken to determine the degree of aflatoxin contamination in different Indonesian foodstuffs. A preliminary survey was carried out to evaluate the level of total aflatoxin (AfT) and aflatoxin B1 (AfB1) contamination of baby foods, peanut products, and corn products, which were purchased from traditional markets and supermarkets in Indonesia during the year 2001-2002. Eighty two peanut products, 12 baby foods products, and 11 corn products from different brands were analysed for AfT and AfB1 using the Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) method. The results indicate that, of the brands analysed, 35% of the peanut products were contaminated with aflatoxins at various levels (range 5 to 870 μg/kg). Peanut-chilli sauces had the highest percentage of AfT contamination 9/12 (75%), which was followed by traditional snacks 5/11 (45%), peanut butter 4/11 (40%), flour egg coated peanut 6/16 (37%), and peanut cake 3/10 (30%). Fried peanuts and roasted peanut were found to contain aflatoxin at relatively lower percentages of 9% and 8%, respectively. From the 12 analysed baby food samples, on the other hand, no sample was found to be contaminated with aflatoxins. Two of 11 samples (18%) of corn based products were contaminated with AfT, ranging between 5.8 and 12.4 μg/kg. Additionally, 30 selected samples in different concentration ranges were further analysed to verify the correlation between ELISA and HPLC techniques and results were compared.

  17. Tradition of healthy food access in low-income neighborhoods: Price and variety of curbside produce vending compared to conventional retailers.

    PubMed

    Brinkley, Catherine; Chrisinger, Benjamin; Hillier, Amy

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes the longstanding, naturally emergent model of curbside vending of whole fruit and vegetable produce across several low-income, low-health Philadelphia neighborhoods. We conducted open-ended interviews with managers of 11 curbside produce vendors and compared prices and varieties of fruits and vegetables with the 11 closest conventional outlets. We find that produce trucks offer significantly lower prices on common fruit and vegetable items and they carry a variety of items comparable to that carried by limited-assortment grocery stores. We conclude with recommendations regarding zoning, licensing, and Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) authorization that could stabilize and expand this model of healthy food access.

  18. Geisinger's Retail Innovation Journey.

    PubMed

    Prince, Denise B; Graf, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    In 2003, Geisinger Health System formed a new group, Geisinger Ventures (GV), to accelerate the growth of new lines of business that were extensions of the core mission of the organization. Careworks, the convenient care clinic line of business, began in early 2006 as one of the early components of the GV portfolio. Over the past nine years, Geisinger has tested several retail and walk-in models, including in-store clinics, separate retail sites, and models colocated with primary care practices and emergency departments. Each site and model presents different benefits and challenges with respect to patient care, marketing, staffing, and clinical integration. With the implementation of healthcare reform and a decision to participate in Medicaid'managed care, Geisinger's strategic need for convenient care options has intensified, and new models, including e-visits and telemedicine specialty consultations, are being actively explored. Geisinger's view is that healthcare is rapidly changing, being affected by demographic shifts, diagnostic and treatment options, payment changes, and communication technologies. Healthcare delivery must flex to adjust to these and other trends, and retail clinics are part of that response. Careful examination of the critical elements necessary for optimal care (including wellness, prevention, and management of chronic disease and severe multimorbid disease) and then matching those elements to the optimal mode and site of care will lead to a streamlined healthcare system. The historical--and still most prevalent--methodology of traditional office, emergency department, and inpatient care options are not ideal for all patients' care needs in the twenty-first century. A thoughtful, deliberate extension of those options will be necessary. Rather than simply adding a static retail or virtual offering, medical professionals should develop a process to continually assess patients, technology, payment, and disease changes so that they are

  19. The Italian National Food Consumption Survey INRAN-SCAI 2005-06: main results in terms of food consumption.

    PubMed

    Leclercq, Catherine; Arcella, Davide; Piccinelli, Raffaela; Sette, Stefania; Le Donne, Cinzia; Turrini, Aida

    2009-12-01

    The current paper aims to present the main results of the Italian National Food Consumption Survey INRAN-SCAI 2005-06. A cross-sectional study was performed. Households were randomly selected after geographical stratification of the national territory. Food consumption was assessed on three consecutive days through individual estimated dietary records. Italy. The final study sample comprised 3323 subjects (1501 males and 1822 females) aged 0.1 to 97.7 years belonging to 1329 households: fifty-two infants (0-2.9 years), 193 children (3-9.9 years), 247 teenagers (10-17.9 years), 2313 adults (18-64.9 years) and 518 elderly (65 years and above). Participation rate was 33 %. The mean ratio of estimated energy intake to estimated BMR was 1.41 in adults. Indicators of mean and high individual consumption are presented for fifteen large categories and fifty-one subcategories of foods and beverages, in the total population and in consumers, by age and sex categories. The overall consumption of fruit and vegetables was 418 g/d. The consumption of red meat was approximately 700 g/week, expressed as raw weight. Some specific aspects of the Italian food consumption pattern were confirmed: a large contribution from bread, pasta and pizza to cereals, from olive oil to fats and from wine to alcoholic beverages. The database obtained from the survey will be the key reference for Italian food consumption during the coming years and will be utilized for a variety of purposes including the assessment of nutrient intakes and risk analysis.

  20. Food insecurity and mental disorders in a national sample of U.S. adolescents.

    PubMed

    McLaughlin, Katie A; Green, Jennifer Greif; Alegría, Margarita; Jane Costello, E; Gruber, Michael J; Sampson, Nancy A; Kessler, Ronald C

    2012-12-01

    To examine whether food insecurity is associated with past-year DSM-IV mental disorders after controlling for standard indicators of family socioeconomic status (SES) in a U.S. national sample of adolescents. Data were drawn from 6,483 adolescent-parent pairs who participated in the National Comorbidity Survey Replication Adolescent Supplement, a national survey of adolescents 13 to 17 years old. Frequency and severity of food insecurity were assessed with questions based on the U.S. Department of Agriculture's Food Security Scale (standardized to a mean of 0, variance of 1). DSM-IV mental disorders were assessed with the World Health Organization Composite International Diagnostic Interview. Associations of food insecurity with DSM-IV/Composite International Diagnostic Interview diagnoses were estimated with logistic regression models controlling for family SES (parental education, household income, relative deprivation, community-level inequality, and subjective social status). Food insecurity was highest in adolescents with the lowest SES. Controlling simultaneously for other aspects of SES, standardized food insecurity was associated with an increased odds of past-year mood, anxiety, behavior, and substance disorders. A 1 standard deviation increase in food insecurity was associated with a 14% increase in the odds of past-year mental disorder, even after controlling for extreme poverty. The association between food insecurity and mood disorders was strongest in adolescents living in families with a low household income and high relative deprivation. Food insecurity is associated with a wide range of adolescent mental disorders independently of other aspects of SES. Expansion of social programs aimed at decreasing family economic strain might be one useful policy approach for improving youth mental health. Copyright © 2012 American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Food Insecurity and Mental Disorders in a National Sample of U.S. Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    McLaughlin, Katie A.; Green, Jennifer Greif; Alegría, Margarita; Costello, E. Jane; Gruber, Michael J.; Sampson, Nancy A.; Kessler, Ronald C.

    2013-01-01

    Objective To examine whether food insecurity is associated with past-year DSM-IV mental disorders after controlling for standard indicators of family socioeconomic status (SES) in a U.S. national sample of adolescents. Method Data were drawn from 6,483 adolescent–parent pairs who participated in the National Comorbidity Survey Replication Adolescent Supplement, a national survey of adolescents 13 to 17 years old. Frequency and severity of food insecurity were assessed with questions based on the U.S. Department of Agriculture’s Food Security Scale (standardized to a mean of 0, variance of 1). DSM-IV mental disorders were assessed with the World Health Organization Composite International Diagnostic Interview. Associations of food insecurity with DSM-IV/Composite International Diagnostic Interview diagnoses were estimated with logistic regression models controlling for family SES (parental education, household income, relative deprivation, community-level inequality, and subjective social status). Results Food insecurity was highest in adolescents with the lowest SES. Controlling simultaneously for other aspects of SES, standardized food insecurity was associated with an increased odds of past-year mood, anxiety, behavior, and substance disorders. A 1 standard deviation increase in food insecurity was associated with a 14%increase in the odds of past-year mental disorder, even after controlling for extreme poverty. The association between food insecurity and mood disorders was strongest in adolescents living in families with a low household income and high relative deprivation. Conclusions Food insecurity is associated with a wide range of adolescent mental disorders independently of other aspects of SES. Expansion of social programs aimed at decreasing family economic strain might be one useful policy approach for improving youth mental health. PMID:23200286

  2. Sodium content in processed foods in Argentina: compliance with the national law

    PubMed Central

    Tiscornia, María Victoria; Ponce, Miguel; Castronuovo, Luciana; Dunford, Elizabeth; Schoj, Verónica

    2015-01-01

    Background Despite the body of evidence that documents the unfavorable effects of excessive sodium consumption on blood pressure and cardiovascular health, public health efforts to decrease sodium consumption have been limited to a few countries. Argentina is the first country in Latin America to regulate sodium content of processed foods by means of a national law. The objective of this cross-sectional quantitative study is to provide a baseline comparison against the reduction targets set by the national law before its entry into force. Methods Data were collected in February 2014 in a leading supermarket chain located in Buenos Aires. Nutrient data from package labels were analysed for 1,320 products within 14 food groups during the study period. To compare sodium concentration levels with the established maximum levels we matched the collected food groups with the food groups included in the law resulting in a total of 292 products. Data analysis was conducted using SPSS version 20 software. Results Food groups with the highest median sodium content were sauces and spreads (866.7 mg/100 g), meat and meat products (750 mg/100 g) and snack foods (644 mg/100 g). Categories with the highest sodium content were appetizers (1,415 mg/100 g), sausages (1,050 mg/100 g) and ready-made meals (940.7 mg/100 g). We also found large variability within products from the same food categories. Products included in the national law correspond to 22.1% (n=292) of the surveyed foods. From the 18 food groups, 15 showed median sodium values below the established targets. Products exceeding the established maximum levels correspond to 15.1% (n=44) of the products included in the analysis. Conclusions This study is the first analysis of food labels to determine sodium concentrations of processed foods in Argentina and to provide a baseline against the national law standards. Upon the completion of this analysis, maximum levels have been achieved by most of the food groups included in

  3. Sodium content in processed foods in Argentina: compliance with the national law.

    PubMed

    Allemandi, Lorena; Tiscornia, María Victoria; Ponce, Miguel; Castronuovo, Luciana; Dunford, Elizabeth; Schoj, Verónica

    2015-06-01

    Despite the body of evidence that documents the unfavorable effects of excessive sodium consumption on blood pressure and cardiovascular health, public health efforts to decrease sodium consumption have been limited to a few countries. Argentina is the first country in Latin America to regulate sodium content of processed foods by means of a national law. The objective of this cross-sectional quantitative study is to provide a baseline comparison against the reduction targets set by the national law before its entry into force. Data were collected in February 2014 in a leading supermarket chain located in Buenos Aires. Nutrient data from package labels were analysed for 1,320 products within 14 food groups during the study period. To compare sodium concentration levels with the established maximum levels we matched the collected food groups with the food groups included in the law resulting in a total of 292 products. Data analysis was conducted using SPSS version 20 software. Food groups with the highest median sodium content were sauces and spreads (866.7 mg/100 g), meat and meat products (750 mg/100 g) and snack foods (644 mg/100 g). Categories with the highest sodium content were appetizers (1,415 mg/100 g), sausages (1,050 mg/100 g) and ready-made meals (940.7 mg/100 g). We also found large variability within products from the same food categories. Products included in the national law correspond to 22.1% (n=292) of the surveyed foods. From the 18 food groups, 15 showed median sodium values below the established targets. Products exceeding the established maximum levels correspond to 15.1% (n=44) of the products included in the analysis. This study is the first analysis of food labels to determine sodium concentrations of processed foods in Argentina and to provide a baseline against the national law standards. Upon the completion of this analysis, maximum levels have been achieved by most of the food groups included in the law. Thus, the introduction of

  4. Tradition of healthy food access in low-income neighborhoods: Price and variety of curbside produce vending compared to conventional retailers

    PubMed Central

    Brinkley, Catherine; Chrisinger, Benjamin; Hillier, Amy

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes the longstanding, naturally emergent model of curbside vending of whole fruit and vegetable produce across several low-income, low-health Philadelphia neighborhoods. We conducted open-ended interviews with managers of 11 curbside produce vendors and compared prices and varieties of fruits and vegetables with the 11 closest conventional outlets. We find that produce trucks offer significantly lower prices on common fruit and vegetable items and they carry a variety of items comparable to that carried by limited-assortment grocery stores. We conclude with recommendations regarding zoning, licensing, and Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) authorization that could stabilize and expand this model of healthy food access. PMID:25541595

  5. Class differences in the food rules mothers impose on their children: a cross-national study.

    PubMed

    Hupkens, C L; Knibbe, R A; Van Otterloo, A H; Drop, M J

    1998-11-01

    Many studies indicate that children in middle-class families have healthier eating habits than children in lower class families. Class differences in food rules, which parents and especially mothers impose on their children, may underlie these social inequalities in food consumption. The present study uses education as a classifying variable and analyses whether mothers with higher education prescribe more "healthy" foodstuffs for their children and whether they restrict more "unhealthy" food items than less educated mothers. Moreover, the study examines whether higher class mothers consider health aspects more often and the preferences of their family members less often in their choice of food, and whether class differences in these considerations explain class differences in food rules. To answer these questions, questionnaires on the food practices of 849 women living in middle-class or lower class districts in Maastricht (the Netherlands), Liège (Belgium) and Aachen (Germany) were collected and analysed. The majority of mothers in each city prescribed primarily foods that were served at dinner like meat and vegetables, and most mothers limited their children's consumption of sweet foods, soft drinks and snacks. Higher class mothers restricted more foods, but prescribed as many food items as their lower class counterparts. Class differences in the number of restricted foods were partly, but not completely, explained by class differences in health and taste considerations. Despite national variations in dietary habits and possibly in the education of children, class differences in food rules and the explanatory power of health and taste considerations were comparable in the three cities.

  6. Stakeholder perspectives on national policy for regulating the school food environment in Mexico.

    PubMed

    Monterrosa, Eva C; Campirano, Fabricio; Tolentino Mayo, Lizbeth; Frongillo, Edward A; Hernández Cordero, Sonia; Kaufer-Horwitz, Martha; Rivera, Juan A

    2015-02-01

    In Mexico, the school environment has been promoting sale of unhealthy foods. There is little empirical evidence on multi-stakeholder perspectives around national school food policy to regulate this. We studied stakeholders' perspectives on the proposed regulation for school sale of unhealthy foods. Comments about the regulation were available from an open consultation process held in June 2010 before the approval and implementation of the regulation. To examine perspectives, we coded 597 comments for beliefs, expectations and demands in NVivo. We created matrices by actors: academics, parents, citizens, health professionals and food industry. For academics, citizens and health professionals, the primary issue regarding the regulation was obesity, while for parents it was health of children. Academics, citizens, health professionals and parents believed that government was responsible for health of citizens, expected that this regulation would improve eating habits and health (i.e. less obesity and chronic diseases), and demanded that unhealthy foods be removed from schools. Parents demanded immediate action for school food policy that would protect their children. Citizens and health professionals demanded nutrition education and healthy food environment. Food industry opposed the regulation because it would not solve obesity or improve diet and physical activity behaviours. Instead, industry would lose income and jobs. Food industry demanded policy aimed at families that included nutrition education and physical activity. There was substantial consensus in narratives and perspectives for most actor types, with the primary narrative being the food environment followed by shared responsibility. Food industry rejected both these narratives, espousing instead the narrative of personal responsibility. Consensus among most actor groups supports the potential success of implementation of the regulation in Mexican schools. With regard to addressing childhood obesity

  7. Retailer Adherence to Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act, North Carolina, 2011

    PubMed Central

    Myers, Allison E.; D’Angelo, Heather; Ribisl, Kurt M.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction The Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act regulates the sales and marketing of tobacco products in the United States; poor adherence by tobacco retailers may reduce the effectiveness of the Act’s provisions. The objectives of this study were 1) to assess whether and to which provisions retailers were adherent and 2) to examine differences in adherence by county, retailer neighborhood, and retailer characteristics. Methods We conducted multivariate analysis of tobacco retailers’ adherence to 12 point-of-sale provisions of the Tobacco Control Act in 3 North Carolina counties. We conducted observational audits of 324 retailers during 3 months in 2011 to assess adherence. We used logistic regression to assess associations between adherence to provisions and characteristics of each county, retailer neighborhood, and retailer. Results We found 15.7% of retailers did not adhere to at least 1 provision; 84.3% adhered to all provisions. The provisions most frequently violated were the ban on sales of cigarettes with modified-risk labels (eg, “light” cigarettes) (43 [13.3%] retailers nonadherent) and the ban on self-service for cigarettes and smokeless tobacco (6 [1.9%] retailers nonadherent). We found significant differences in rates of nonadherence by county and type of retailer. Pharmacies and drug stores were more than 3 times as likely as grocery stores to be nonadherent. Conclusion Most tobacco retailers have implemented regulatory changes without enforcement by the US Food and Drug Administration. Monitoring rates of adherence by store type and locale (eg, county) may help retailers comply with point-of-sale provisions. PMID:23557638

  8. Antibiotic prescribing for respiratory infections at retail clinics, physician practices, and emergency departments.

    PubMed

    Mehrotra, Ateev; Gidengil, Courtney A; Setodji, Claude M; Burns, Rachel M; Linder, Jeffrey A

    2015-04-01

    To compare antibiotic prescribing among retail clinics, primary care practices, and emergency departments (EDs) for acute respiratory infections (ARIs): antibiotics-may-be-appropriate ARIs (eg, sinusitis) and antibiotics-never-appropriate ARIs (eg, acute bronchitis). We analyzed retail clinic data from the electronic health records of the 3 largest retail clinic chains in the United States, and data on visits to primary care practices and EDs from the nationally representative National Ambulatory Medical Care Survey and National Hospital Ambulatory Medical Care Survey. Using multivariate models, we estimated an adjusted antibiotic prescribing rate for each site of care, controlling for differences in patient characteristics and diagnosis. From 2007 to 2009 in the United States, there were 3 million, 167 million, and 29 million ARI visits at retail clinics, primary care practices, and EDs, respectively. For all ARI visits, the adjusted antibiotic prescribing rate at retail clinics (58%) was similar to the rate at primary care practices (62%; P=.09) and EDs (59%; P=.48). For antibiotics-may-be-appropriate ARI visits, the adjusted antibiotic prescribing rate (95%) at retail clinics was higher than at primary care practices (85%; P<.01) and EDs (83%; P<.01). For antibiotics-never-appropriate ARI visits, the adjusted antibiotic prescribing rate (34%) at retail clinics was lower than at primary care practices (51%; P<.01) and EDs (48%; P<.01). Compared with primary care practices and EDs, there was no difference at retail clinics in overall ARI antibiotic prescribing. At retail clinics, antibiotic prescribing was more diagnosis-appropriate.

  9. Partnership Brings Educational Exhibits, Events, and Resources from Seven National Research Laboratories to the Public in a New Retail Center: The Wonders of Science at Twenty Ninth Street Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foster, S. Q.; Johnson, R.; Carbone, L.; Vangundy, S.; Adams, L.; Becker, K.; Cobabe-Ammanns, E.; Curtis, L.; Dusenbery, P.; Foy, R.; Himes, C.; Howell, C.; Knight, C.; Morehouse, R.; Koch, L.; O'Brian, T.; Rooney, J.; Schassburger, P.

    2006-12-01

    Federally Funded Research and Development Centers and universities are challenged to disseminate their educational resources to national audiences, let alone to find ways to collaborate with each other while engaging with the schools and public in their local communities. A unique new partnership involving seven world renowned research laboratories and a commercial land developer in the Denver Metropolitan is celebrating the unveiling of exhibits, web kiosk portals, and public science education events in a shopping mall. The October 2006 opening of the Twenty Ninth Street retail sales center (formerly Crossroad Mall) in Boulder, Colorado, has revitalized 60 acres in the heart of the city. It offers outdoor plazas that accommodate science education installations and lab-sponsored public events. The goal of the partnership is to celebrate the long-standing contributions of research laboratories to the community, increase awareness of each institution's mission, and entice visitors of all ages to learn more about science, mathematics, engineering, technology and related educational opportunities and careers. We describe how the public is responding to the Wonders of Science at Twenty Ninth Street, summarize lessons learned about this ambitious science education collaboration, and plans to sustain public and the K-12 community interest into the future. Partners in the Wonders of Science at Twenty Ninth Street include the JILA at the University of Colorado, the National Center for Atmospheric Research, National Institute for Science and Technology, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, National Renewable Energy Laboratory, the University of Colorado's Laboratory for Atmospheric and Space Physics, Space Science Institute, and Westcor, the shopping mall's developer.

  10. Food loss rate in food supply chain using material flow analysis.

    PubMed

    Ju, Munsol; Osako, Masahiro; Harashina, Sachihiko

    2017-03-01

    The food loss rate is a factor that represents food consumption efficiency. To improve food consumption efficiency, we need to fundamentally quantify food loss at national and global levels. This study examines food and food waste flow and calculates the food loss rate in the food supply chain by targeting Japan. We analyzed inedible food waste and avoidable food losses in wholesale, manufacturing, retail, food services, and households and considered different supply chain pathways, different food categories representing whole Japanese meals, and weight changes after cooking. The results are as follows: (1) Japan has an overall rate of avoidable food losses of approximately 15% for meals (excluding agricultural losses), (2) the supply sector with the highest food loss rate is food services, and (3) the food category with the highest food loss rate is vegetables. Finally, we proposed a model for calculating food loss rates that could be used for future analysis in Japan or other countries. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Sociodemographic determinants of perceived influences on food choice in a nationally representative sample of Irish adults.

    PubMed

    Kearney, M; Kearney, J; Dunne, A; Gibney, M

    2000-06-01

    To identify the most important motivations for food choice from the point of view of the consumer in the Irish population, and to characterize those subjects who do and do not regard nutrition as a significant consideration in food choice. As part of a pan-European Union (EU) survey on consumer attitudes to food, nutrition and health, a quota-controlled, nationally representative sample of Irish adults (n = 1009) aged 15 years upwards, completed an interview-assisted, close-ended questionnaire. Subjects selected three factors, from a list of 15, which they believed had the greatest influence on their food choice. The interviews for the survey were conducted in subjects' homes. 'Quality/freshness of food' was the most frequently selected food choice factor (51%) followed by 'taste' (43%) and 'trying to eat a healthy diet' (36%). Female gender, increasing age and higher levels of education were found to be independent sociodemographic factors affecting the selection of 'trying to eat a healthy diet' as an important factor in food choice. Although included in the top five most frequently selected factors affecting food choice, nutrition/healthy eating does not appear to have top priority for the majority of Irish adults. There are differences between the various sociodemographic groups within the population; males and younger subjects appear to require specific nutrition promotion messages.

  12. Food Insecurity and Cost-Related Medication Underuse Among Nonelderly Adults in a Nationally Representative Sample

    PubMed Central

    Afulani, Patience; Coleman-Jensen, Alisha; Harrison, Gail G.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. We investigated whether nonelderly US adults (aged 18–64 years) in food-insecure households are more likely to report cost-related medication underuse than the food-secure, and whether the relationship between food insecurity and cost-related medication underuse differs by gender, chronic disease, and health insurance status. Methods. We analyzed data from the 2011 and 2012 National Health Interview Survey (n = 67 539). We examined the relationship between food insecurity and cost-related medication underuse with the χ2 test and multivariate logistic regression with interaction terms. Results. Bivariate and multivariate analyses showed a dose–response relationship between food insecurity and cost-related medication underuse, with an increasing likelihood of cost-related medication underuse with increasing severity of food insecurity (P < .001). This association was conditional on health insurance status, but not substantially different by gender or chronic disease status. Being female, low-income, having no or partial health insurance, chronic conditions, functional limitations, or severe mental illness were positively associated with cost-related medication underuse. Conclusions. Using food insecurity as a risk factor to assess cost-related medication underuse could help increase identification of individuals who may need assistance purchasing medications and improve health for those in food-insecure households. PMID:26270308

  13. National food fortification: a dialogue with reference to Asia: policy in evolution.

    PubMed

    Wahlqvist, Mark L

    2008-01-01

    Food fortification generally refers to the addition of micronutrients and other favourably bio-active food components to food-stuffs where there are recognised deficiencies in the target population. Each forticant has had or could have regulatory implications. It is understandable, although arguable, in the face of a limited food supply skewed, for the majority, in the direction of starchy staples of low essential nutrient density. Efforts, with plant breeding, to biofortify such foods are underway and likely to be safer, more sustainable and affordable than chemical additions. Unfortunately, with an increasingly refined and naturally tasteless food supply (salty, fatty, sugary and starchy), and where energy requirements are falling because of physical inactivity, micronutrient fortification is being used as a nutritional "fix-it' strategy. In Asia, there are several critical micro- nutrients. No one national fortification program can deal with all deficiencies is likely to be highly selective for the nutrients which have the greatest advocacy or are most recognisable. They also leave the other health promoting food properties like intactness, nutrient spectrum, and phytonutrient content un-addressed. A variety of food-stuffs, with different biological origins, is the preferred approach. Where an optimal food system is not in place, there may be justification for fortification if there is regular monitoring and surveillance of the food supply and health outcomes occurs; is a clear cost-risk-benefit advantage in such a strategy; are programs in place to improve the nutritional value of the basic food supply and is an "exit strategy' for the fortification program.

  14. 29 CFR 779.318 - Characteristics and examples of retail or service establishments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... establishment sells to the general public its food and drink. It sells to such public its clothing and its... retail cannot be drawn. But a few characteristics of items like small trucks and farm implements may...

  15. [Comparison of two national food surveys (INCA 1 1998-99 and Health Nutrition Barometer 2002) with regard to five food recommendations of the National Nutrition and Health Program].

    PubMed

    Dubuisson, C; Lioret, S; Gautier, A; Delamaire, C; Perrin-Escalon, H; Guilbert, P; Volatier, J-L

    2006-02-01

    Monitoring the dietary intake of the French population requires the implementation and regular renewal of representative national survey. As these surveys can use different methodologies (food frequency questionnaire, 24 hour recall, 3 or 7-day dietary record...), it seems useful to check whether they supply similar results. The aim of this study is to determine whether two representative national surveys with different methodologies can be used alternately to monitor changes in food consumption of the French population. Percentages of consumers aged 15-75 were compared between two national food surveys (Health Nutrition Barometer 2002 and INCA 1 1998-99) with respect to five food frequency recommendations of the French National Nutrition and Health Program. The same public health priorities were found in both surveys: the food groups were graded according to the same hierarchy of adequate food intake prevalences (ascending: fruits and vegetables, dairy products, fish, starchy foods and meat-fish-egg products). On the other hand, significant statistical different elements were pointed out in a few food groups which may be explained by methodological patterns. Definitions of portions and food groups, survey duration and seasons are indeed important parameters to be considered when comparing surveys. The results show the need to elaborate standardized methods for comparison of food consumption surveys, which can be useful for the evaluation of the national nutritional recommendations. The methodological limitations described in this study also indicate that the quantitative description of food intake trends should improve when established by the results of the same regularly repeated survey.

  16. The National School Lunch and Competitive Food Offerings and Purchasing Behaviors of High School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snelling, Anastasia M.; Korba, Casey; Burkey, Alyvia

    2007-01-01

    Background: Across the nation, schools have become actively involved in developing obesity prevention strategies both in classrooms and in cafeterias. We sought to determine the type of foods being offered during lunch in the cafeteria of 3 public high schools in 1 county and if this reflects the purchasing patterns of students. By labeling foods…

  17. Little River Experimental Watershed, Georgia: National Institute of Food and Agriculture - Conservation Effects Assessment Project

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    In September 2007, USDA’s Cooperative State Research, Education, and Extension Service (CSREES), now the National Institute of Food and Agriculture (NIFA), and the Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS) jointly funded two integrated research and outreach grants to conduct a synthesis of resul...

  18. The National School Lunch and Competitive Food Offerings and Purchasing Behaviors of High School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snelling, Anastasia M.; Korba, Casey; Burkey, Alyvia

    2007-01-01

    Background: Across the nation, schools have become actively involved in developing obesity prevention strategies both in classrooms and in cafeterias. We sought to determine the type of foods being offered during lunch in the cafeteria of 3 public high schools in 1 county and if this reflects the purchasing patterns of students. By labeling foods…

  19. 77 FR 24456 - Retail Exemptions Adjusted Dollar Limitations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-24

    ... poultry products that a retail store can sell to hotels, restaurants, and similar institutions without... and restaurants (21 U.S.C. 661(c)(2) and 454(c)(2)). FSIS's regulations (9 CFR 303.1(d) and 381.10(d... processing of meat, meat food, poultry, and poultry products. Sales to Hotels, Restaurants, and Similar...

  20. Clostridium difficile in retail meat and processing plants in Texas

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The incidence and severity of disease associated with toxigenic Clostridium difficile (Cd) have increased in hospitals in North America from the emergence of newer, more virulent strains of Cd. Toxigenic Cd has been isolated from food animals and retail meat with potential implications of transfer ...

  1. Causes for Retail Industry Globalization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jagadeesha, M.

    2012-12-01

    The heading of this article itself pushing me to think why retail industry is globalizing! Because to increase their presence worldwide and profit on the onside and for the sake of ìname and fameî in industry is other side, but todayís trend and compitetitation force industrial giants to forget the word ìname and fameî globalization is the only strategy to compensate their market share or profit from one country to another country or domestic market. The presence of retail industry in the global level from centuries, but the global recognaization of retail industry came to limelight only two decades ago. As soon as restrictions are removed in this sector, all the retail industry big giants spread across the world to extend their operations especially in emerging markets. Is this a good sign for retailers? Off course it is good sign for some countries and some countries are stick to their own perceptions. Some of the countries welcome this move because the FDI will improve their economic structure. On the other side employment opportunity is also one of the issues in globalization of retail sector. Because retail industry needs huge workforce, so significance of retail has been undoubted.

  2. Intention to purchase organic food among young consumers: Evidences from a developing nation.

    PubMed

    Yadav, Rambalak; Pathak, Govind Swaroop

    2016-01-01

    The present study attempts to investigate the consumer's intention to purchase organic food in the context of a developing nation (India) using the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB). Further, the study has incorporated additional constructs (moral attitude, health consciousness and environmental concern) in the TPB and measured its appropriateness. Responses were collected from 220 young consumers adopting convenience sampling approach. Data were analyzed using Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) to evaluate the strength of relationship between the constructs. The findings reported that the TPB partially supported the organic food purchase intention. Among the additional constructs incorporated, moral attitude and health consciousness positively influenced the consumer's intention to purchase organic food. The study has supported the inclusion of new constructs in the TPB as it has improved the predictive power of the proposed framework in determining consumer's intention to purchase organic food. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Healthful Nutrition of Foods in Navajo Nation Stores: Availability and Pricing.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Gayathri; Jim-Martin, Sonlatsa; Piltch, Emily; Onufrak, Stephen; McNeil, Carrie; Adams, Laura; Williams, Nancy; Blanck, Heidi M; Curley, Larry

    2016-09-01

    Low availability and affordability of healthier foods in food stores on the Navajo Nation (NN) may be a community-level risk factor for the high prevalence of obesity among the Navajo people. This study assessed the availability and pricing of foods and beverages in supermarkets and convenience stores throughout the NN. Descriptive study design using the Nutrition Environment Measurement Survey in Stores audit tool. Supermarkets (n = 13) and convenience stores (n = 50) on NN and border-town supermarkets (n = 9). Not applicable. Availability and pricing of healthy and less-healthy foods. Descriptive and χ(2) analyses. Navajo convenience stores offered fewer healthier food options compared to Navajo supermarkets. In Navajo convenience stores, 100% whole grain products, reduced-fat cheese, lean meats, reduced-fat chips, and fat-free or light hot dogs were available in fewer stores than their corresponding less-healthy versions (all with p < .05). In both Navajo supermarkets and convenience stores, 100% whole wheat bread, lean cold cuts, and reduced-fat cheese were all more expensive per unit than their corresponding less-healthy versions (all with p < .05). According to this study, healthier foods are not as readily available in Navajo convenience stores as they are in Navajo supermarkets. Improving access to and affordability of healthier foods in reservation stores of all sizes may support healthy eating among Navajo residents. © 2016 by American Journal of Health Promotion, Inc.

  4. 76 FR 37356 - 2011 Scientific Meeting of the National Antimicrobial Resistance Monitoring System; Public...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-27

    ... Monitoring System.'' The topic to be discussed is animal and retail sampling methods for the National... NARMS can improve sampling using current resources. Other topics include: (1) How should NARMS define adequate sampling for resistance trends? (2) What are some additional sources for unbiased food animal...

  5. A Descriptive Analysis of Supply Factors and Prices for USDA Foods in the National School Lunch Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Cora

    2010-01-01

    Purpose/Objectives: Schools that participate in the National School Lunch Program (NSLP) receive a portion of their annual federal funding as commodity entitlement foods--now called USDA Foods--rather than cash payments. Due to rising food prices in recent years, it has been recommended that schools compare the costs and benefits of commodity and…

  6. A Descriptive Analysis of Supply Factors and Prices for USDA Foods in the National School Lunch Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Cora

    2010-01-01

    Purpose/Objectives: Schools that participate in the National School Lunch Program (NSLP) receive a portion of their annual federal funding as commodity entitlement foods--now called USDA Foods--rather than cash payments. Due to rising food prices in recent years, it has been recommended that schools compare the costs and benefits of commodity and…

  7. 7 CFR 3402.4 - Food and agricultural sciences areas targeted for National Needs Graduate and Postdoctoral...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Food and agricultural sciences areas targeted for..., AND EXTENSION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FOOD AND AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES NATIONAL NEEDS... sciences areas targeted for National Needs Graduate and Postdoctoral Fellowship Grants Program...

  8. Low-income Children's participation in the National School Lunch Program and household food insufficiency.

    PubMed

    Huang, Jin; Barnidge, Ellen

    2016-02-01

    Assessing the impact of the National School Lunch Program (NSLP) on household food insufficiency is critical to improve the implementation of public food assistance and to improve the nutrition intake of low-income children and their families. To examine the association of receiving free/reduced-price lunch from the NSLP with household food insufficiency among low-income children and their families in the United States, the study used data from four longitudinal panels of the Survey of Income and Program Participation (SIPP; 1996, 2001, 2004, and 2008), which collected information on household food insufficiency covering both summer and non-summer months. The sample included 15, 241 households with at least one child (aged 5-18) receiving free/reduced-price lunch from the NSLP. A dichotomous measure describes whether households have sufficient food to eat in the observed months. Fixed-effects regression analysis suggests that the food insufficiency rate is .7 (95%CI: .1, 1.2) percentage points higher in summer months among NSLP recipients. Since low-income families cannot participate in the NSLP in summer when the school is not in session, the result indicates the NSLP participation is associated with a reduction of food insufficiency risk by nearly 14%. The NSLP plays a significant role to protect low-income children and their families from food insufficiency. It is important to increase access to school meal programs among children at risk of food insufficiency in order to ensure adequate nutrition and to mitigate the health problems associated with malnourishment among children.

  9. Wasted Food, Wasted Nutrients: Nutrient Loss from Wasted Food in the United States and Comparison to Gaps in Dietary Intake.

    PubMed

    Spiker, Marie L; Hiza, Hazel A B; Siddiqi, Sameer M; Neff, Roni A

    2017-07-01

    Previous research has estimated that wasted food in the United States contains between 1,249 and 1,400 kcal per capita per day, but little is known about amounts of other nutrients embedded in the 31% to 40% of food that is wasted. This research aimed to calculate the nutritional value of food wasted at the retail and consumer levels in the US food supply, and contextualize the amount of nutrient loss in terms of gaps between current and recommended intakes and estimated food recovery potential. Data from the National Nutrient Database for Standard Reference were used to calculate the nutritional value of retail- and consumer-level waste of 213 commodities in the US Department of Agriculture Loss-Adjusted Food Availability data series for 27 nutrients in 2012. Food wasted at the retail and consumer levels of the US food supply in 2012 contained 1,217 kcal, 33 g protein, 5.9 g dietary fiber, 1.7 μg vitamin D, 286 mg calcium, and 880 mg potassium per capita per day. Using dietary fiber as an example, 5.9 g dietary fiber is 23% of the Recommended Dietary Allowance for women. This is equivalent to the fiber Recommended Dietary Allowance for 74 million adult women. Adult women in 2012 underconsumed dietary fiber by 8.9 g/day, and the amount of wasted fiber is equivalent to this gap for 206.6 million adult women. This was the first study to document the loss of nutrients from wasted food in the US food supply, to our knowledge. Although only a portion of discarded food can realistically be made available for human consumption, efforts to redistribute surplus foods where appropriate and prevent food waste in the first place could increase the availability of nutrients for Americans, while saving money and natural resources. Copyright © 2017 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. The Small Retailer and His Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burstinger, Irving

    1975-01-01

    This study, through personal interviews, collected data on small retailers for three purposes: (1) to provide informative insights into small-scale retailing in New York City, (2) to explore retailers' opinions as to why customers shop at their stroes, and (3) to ascertain the more common problems experienced by retailers. (Author/BP)

  11. Household food insecurity and dietary intake in Korea: results from the 2012 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyun Ja; Oh, Kyungwon

    2015-12-01

    To examine the prevalence of household food insecurity and compare dietary intake by food security status in a representative Korean population. Cross-sectional. Food security status of households was classified using an eighteen-item food security questionnaire. The nutrition survey comprised questions on dietary habits, a 24 h dietary recall and a semi-quantitative FFQ. The 2012 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. A total of 3007 households completed the food security questionnaire. Family members within each household aged ≥1 year (n 7118) participated in the nutrition survey. Results from the 2012 survey indicated that 88.7% of Korean households showed food security. The remaining 11.3% (9.3% for food insecurity without hunger and 2.0% for food insecurity with hunger) were in food-insecure households. The prevalence of household food insecurity was 13.2% in households with children and 10.3% in households without children. Mean daily intakes of energy, fat and carbohydrates were not significantly different between food-secure and food-insecure adults. In contrast, mean daily intakes of protein, crude fibre, vitamins and minerals as well as weekly consumption frequencies of vegetables, seaweeds, fruits, fruit juice, nuts, and milk and milk products were significantly lower in food-insecure adults compared with food-secure adults. The study demonstrated that food insecurity is associated with reduced intakes of healthy foods and nutrients essential for health and growth in a representative Korean population.

  12. 21 CFR 1140.10 - General responsibilities of manufacturers, distributors, and retailers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false General responsibilities of manufacturers, distributors, and retailers. 1140.10 Section 1140.10 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... ensuring that the cigarettes or smokeless tobacco it manufactures, labels, advertises, packages...

  13. 21 CFR 1140.10 - General responsibilities of manufacturers, distributors, and retailers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false General responsibilities of manufacturers, distributors, and retailers. 1140.10 Section 1140.10 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... responsible for ensuring that the cigarettes or smokeless tobacco it manufactures, labels, advertises...

  14. 21 CFR 1140.10 - General responsibilities of manufacturers, distributors, and retailers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false General responsibilities of manufacturers, distributors, and retailers. 1140.10 Section 1140.10 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... ensuring that the cigarettes or smokeless tobacco it manufactures, labels, advertises, packages...

  15. 21 CFR 1140.10 - General responsibilities of manufacturers, distributors, and retailers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false General responsibilities of manufacturers, distributors, and retailers. 1140.10 Section 1140.10 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... ensuring that the cigarettes or smokeless tobacco it manufactures, labels, advertises,...

  16. Food Waste in the National School Lunch Program 1978-2015: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Byker Shanks, Carmen; Banna, Jinan; Serrano, Elena L

    2017-08-11

    Food waste studies have been used for more than 40 years to assess nutrient intake, dietary quality, menu performance, food acceptability, cost, and effectiveness of nutrition education in the National School Lunch Program (NSLP). Describe methods used to measure food waste and respective results in the NSLP across time. A systematic review using PubMed, Science Direct, Informaworld, and Institute of Scientific Information Web of Knowledge was conducted using the following search terms: waste, school lunch, plate waste, food waste, kitchen, half method, quarter method, weight, and photography. Studies published through June 2015 were included. The systematic review followed preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses recommendations. The final review included 53 articles. Food waste methodologies included in-person visual estimation (n=11), digital photography (n=11), direct weighing (n=23), and a combination of in-person visual estimation, digital photography, and/or direct weighing (n=8). A majority of studies used a pre-post intervention or cross-sectional design. Fruits and vegetables were the most researched dietary component on the lunch tray and yielded the greatest amount of waste across studies. Food waste is commonly assessed in the NSLP, but the methods are diverse and reporting metrics are variable. Future research should focus on establishing more uniform metrics to measure and report on food waste in the NSLP. Consistent food waste measurement methods will allow for better comparisons between studies. Such measures may facilitate better decision making about NSLP practices, programs, and policies that influence student consumption patterns across settings and interventions. Copyright © 2017 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. [FOOD SOURCES OF SODIUM: ANALYSIS BASED ON A NATIONAL SURVEY IN COLOMBIA].

    PubMed

    Gaitán Charry, Diego Alejandro; Estrada, Alejandro; Argenor Lozano, Gustavo; Manjarres, Luz Mariela

    2015-11-01

    A high sodium intake is an independent risk factor for Cardiovascular diseases -CVD-. Thus, a strategy to reduce blood pressure and CVD risk throughout reducing sodium intake is promoted worldwide. In order to design an adequate strategy, it is important to identify th