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Sample records for national retail food

  1. Food retailing and food service.

    PubMed

    Capps, Oral; Park, John L

    2003-07-01

    The food retailing and food service sector is not only an important component of the food marketing channel but is also vital to the United States economy, accounting for more than 7% of the United States gross domestic product in 2001. The business of food retailing and food service is undergoing salient change. The authors argue that the singular force driving this change is the consumer. To understand the linkages in the food marketing channel, this article provides information on the farm-to-retail price spread and the economic forces that influence their magnitude. Examples are given of farm-to-retail price spreads for red meat and dairy industries. In addition, the economics behind the provision of retail services and the growth of the food service industry are discussed. Further, the authors demonstrate that the structure of the food market channel is consumer driven, and present three characteristics of convenience (preparation, delivery, and service) and identify four food distribution channels in terms of convenience (complete convenience, traditional food service, consumer direct, and traditional retail).

  2. Prevalence of the main food-borne pathogens in retail food under the national food surveillance system in Japan.

    PubMed

    Hara-Kudo, Y; Konuma, H; Kamata, Y; Miyahara, M; Takatori, K; Onoue, Y; Sugita-Konishi, Y; Ohnishi, T

    2013-01-01

    The National Food Surveillance System in Japan was formed in 1998 to monitor the contamination of retail foods with bacterial pathogens. Approximately 2000-3000 samples were tested annually, and the data from food categories that had more than 400 samples collected during 1998-2008 were analysed. With regard to meat, the frequency of positive samples for Salmonella in chicken for raw consumption and ground chicken was 12.7% and 33.5%, respectively. Moreover, Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) O157 was found in ground meat, organ meat and processed meat, although at a low frequency (0.1%). The prevalence of Campylobacter jejuni/coli was 13.3% and 20.9% in chicken for raw consumption and ground chicken, respectively. In vegetables and fruit, Salmonella was detected in cucumber, lettuce, sprout and tomato samples at a frequency of around 0.1-0.2%. With regard to seafood, Salmonella was found in 0.5% of oysters for raw consumption. Seafood was not contaminated with STEC O157 or Shigella. Serotype Infantis was the most frequently detected serotype of Salmonella in seafood, followed by the serotypes Typhimurium, Schwarzengrund and Manhattan. In ground chicken, 72.2% of the strains were identified as the serotype Infantis. E. coli, as an indicator of food hygiene, was detected in all food categories. The results show the prevalence of the above-mentioned pathogens in the retail food supplied in Japan; further, they indicate that consumption of raw food carries the risk of contracting food-borne infections.

  3. Food Retailers and Obesity.

    PubMed

    Stanton, Rosemary A

    2015-03-01

    We live in an 'obesogenic environment' where we are constantly bombarded with choices that encourage us to move less and eat more. Many factors influence our dietary choices, including the expert marketers who advise manufacturers on ways to encourage the population to buy more, especially profitable, palatable 'ultra-processed' foods. Supermarkets themselves have become skilled in manipulating buying behaviour, using their layout and specific product placement as well as advertising to maximise purchases of particular foods. Increasingly, supermarkets push their own 'house' brands. Those marketing fast foods also use persuasive tactics to attract customers, especially children who they entice with non-food items such as promotional or collectable toys. There is no mystery to the increase in obesity: our energy intake from foods and drinks has increased over the same period that energy output has decreased. Obesity has a range of relevant factors, but there is little doubt that marketing from supermarkets and fast food retailers has played a role.

  4. 7 CFR 278.2 - Participation of retail food stores.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Participation of retail food stores. 278.2 Section 278..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FOOD STAMP AND FOOD DISTRIBUTION PROGRAM PARTICIPATION OF RETAIL FOOD STORES, WHOLESALE FOOD CONCERNS AND INSURED FINANCIAL INSTITUTIONS § 278.2 Participation of retail food stores....

  5. 78 FR 12360 - PNC Bank, National Association, Retail Bank Franklin, PA; PNC Bank, National Association, Retail...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-22

    ... Employment and Training Administration PNC Bank, National Association, Retail Bank Franklin, PA; PNC Bank, National Association, Retail Bank West Chester, IL; Notice of Negative Determination Regarding Application... Assistance (TAA) applicable to workers and former workers of PNC Bank, National Association, Retail...

  6. Retail Food Refrigeration and the Phaseout of HCFC-22

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Provides information on the HCFC phaseout that is relevant to food retailers, including alternatives to the use of HCFC-22 in retail food refrigeration, other refrigerant regulations, and resources for more information.

  7. Food Intakes Converted to Retail Commodities Databases 2003-08: Methodology and User Guide

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The purpose for developing the Food Intakes Converted to Retail Commodities Databases (FICRCD) 2003-08 is to convert foods consumed in What We Eat In America, National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (WWEIA, NHANES) 2003-2004, 2005-2006, and 2007-2008 to respective amounts of retail-level fo...

  8. 7 CFR 278.2 - Participation of retail food stores.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Participation of retail food stores. 278.2 Section 278.2 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FOOD STAMP AND FOOD DISTRIBUTION PROGRAM PARTICIPATION OF RETAIL FOOD...

  9. 7 CFR 278.2 - Participation of retail food stores.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Participation of retail food stores. 278.2 Section 278.2 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FOOD STAMP AND FOOD DISTRIBUTION PROGRAM PARTICIPATION OF RETAIL FOOD...

  10. National Beef Tenderness Survey-2010: Warner-Bratzler shear force values and sensory panel ratings for beef steaks from United States retail and food service establishments.

    PubMed

    Guelker, M R; Haneklaus, A N; Brooks, J C; Carr, C C; Delmore, R J; Griffin, D B; Hale, D S; Harris, K B; Mafi, G G; Johnson, D D; Lorenzen, C L; Maddock, R J; Martin, J N; Miller, R K; Raines, C R; VanOverbeke, D L; Vedral, L L; Wasser, B E; Savell, J W

    2013-02-01

    The tenderness and palatability of retail and food service beef steaks from across the United States (12 cities for retail, 5 cities for food service) were evaluated using Warner-Bratzler shear (WBS) and consumer sensory panels. Subprimal postfabrication storage or aging times at retail establishments averaged 20.5 d with a range of 1 to 358 d, whereas postfabrication times at the food service level revealed an average time of 28.1 d with a range of 9 to 67 d. Approximately 64% of retail steaks were labeled with a packer/processor or store brand. For retail, top blade had among the lowest (P < 0.05) WBS values, whereas steaks from the round had the greatest (P < 0.05) values. There were no differences (P > 0.05) in WBS values between moist-heat and dry-heat cookery methods for the top round and bottom round steaks or between enhanced (contained salt or phosphate solution) or nonenhanced steaks. Food service top loin and rib eye steaks had the lowest (P < 0.05) WBS values compared with top sirloin steaks. Retail top blade steaks and food service top loin steaks received among the greatest (P < 0.05) consumer sensory panel ratings compared with the other steaks evaluated. Prime food service rib eye steaks received the greatest ratings (P < 0.05) for overall like, like tenderness, tenderness level, like juiciness, and juiciness level, whereas ungraded rib eye steaks received the lowest ratings (P < 0.05) for like tenderness and tenderness level. The WBS values for food service steaks were greater (P < 0.05) for the Select and ungraded groups compared with the Prime, Top Choice, and Low Choice groups. The WBS values and sensory ratings were comparable to the last survey, signifying that no recent or substantive changes in tenderness have occurred.

  11. Trust: The Missing Dimension in the Food Retail Transition in Thailand.

    PubMed

    Banwell, C; Kelly, M; Dixon, J; Seubsman, S-A; Sleigh, A

    2016-04-02

    Thailand has experienced dramatic growth of large national and international modern food retailers, such as supermarkets, hypermarkets and convenience stores in large cities and regional centres in the last two decades. Nevertheless, Thai consumers continue to purchase perishables (fruits, vegetables and animal products) from fresh markets (wet markets, talat sot) contradicting predictions from analysts that modern food retail chains will rapidly replace fresh markets as the preferred venue for purchasing all types of foods. This paper examines trust in food retail systems as an under-explored dimension lying behind the continued patronage by Thais of fresh markets to purchase perishable items. It derives from a research program commenced in 2005 that includes fieldwork visits, interviews and questionnaires. In the context of the Thai food retail transition, we propose that trust affects relationships between consumers and (1) individual fresh market-based vendors, (2) the food products sold at fresh markets and (3) the food retail system more broadly. If fresh markets can be maintained in the face of sustained pressure from modern national and international food retailers, Thais will continue to use them. Meanwhile, trust is a relatively unrecognised dimension that is supporting the continued existence of traditional food retail formats.

  12. Trust: The Missing Dimension in the Food Retail Transition in Thailand

    PubMed Central

    Banwell, C.; Kelly, M.; Dixon, J.; Seubsman, S-A.; Sleigh, A.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Thailand has experienced dramatic growth of large national and international modern food retailers, such as supermarkets, hypermarkets and convenience stores in large cities and regional centres in the last two decades. Nevertheless, Thai consumers continue to purchase perishables (fruits, vegetables and animal products) from fresh markets (wet markets, talat sot) contradicting predictions from analysts that modern food retail chains will rapidly replace fresh markets as the preferred venue for purchasing all types of foods. This paper examines trust in food retail systems as an under-explored dimension lying behind the continued patronage by Thais of fresh markets to purchase perishable items. It derives from a research program commenced in 2005 that includes fieldwork visits, interviews and questionnaires. In the context of the Thai food retail transition, we propose that trust affects relationships between consumers and (1) individual fresh market-based vendors, (2) the food products sold at fresh markets and (3) the food retail system more broadly. If fresh markets can be maintained in the face of sustained pressure from modern national and international food retailers, Thais will continue to use them. Meanwhile, trust is a relatively unrecognised dimension that is supporting the continued existence of traditional food retail formats. PMID:27499561

  13. Short Summary European Reports on Retail Sector, Motor Vehicle Repair and Sales Sector, Food and Beverages Sector.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    European Centre for the Development of Vocational Training, Berlin (Germany).

    This document is composed of European synthesis reports on retail trade, the agro-food sector, and the motor vehicle sales and repair sector. They are based on the most important findings of the European report and the 12 national reports for each sector. Section 1, "Retail Sector," deals in part 1 with the structure of retailing in the…

  14. 77 FR 54924 - Temporary Concession Contract for the Operation of Lodging, Food and Beverage and Retail Services...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-06

    ... Retail Services in Canyon de Chelly National Mounument AGENCY: National Park Service, Interior. ACTION... a term not to exceed 3 years. The visitor services include lodging, food and beverage and...

  15. 7 CFR 278.9 - Implementation of amendments relating to the participation of retail food stores, wholesale food...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... participation of retail food stores, wholesale food concerns and insured financial institutions. 278.9 Section..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FOOD STAMP AND FOOD DISTRIBUTION PROGRAM PARTICIPATION OF RETAIL FOOD STORES... the participation of retail food stores, wholesale food concerns and insured financial...

  16. 7 CFR 278.9 - Implementation of amendments relating to the participation of retail food stores, wholesale food...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... participation of retail food stores, wholesale food concerns and insured financial institutions. 278.9 Section..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FOOD STAMP AND FOOD DISTRIBUTION PROGRAM PARTICIPATION OF RETAIL FOOD STORES... the participation of retail food stores, wholesale food concerns and insured financial...

  17. Short-Term Temporal Stability in Observed Retail Food Characteristics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zenk, Shannon N.; Grigsby-Toussaint, Diana S.; Curry, Susan J.; Berbaum, Michael; Schneider, Linda

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Use of direct observation to characterize neighborhood retail food environments is increasing, but to date most studies have relied on a single observation. If food availability, prices, and quality vary over short time periods, repeated measures may be needed to portray these food characteristics. This study evaluated short-term…

  18. Can A Food Retailer-Based Healthier Foods Initiative Improve The Nutrient Profile Of US Packaged Food Purchases? A Case Study Of Walmart, 2000-2013

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Lindsey; Ng, Shu Wen; Popkin, Barry M.

    2015-01-01

    Healthier foods initiatives (HFIs) by national food retailers offer an opportunity to improve the nutritional profile of packaged food purchases (PFPS). Using a longitudinal dataset of US household PFPs, with methods to account for selectivity of shopping at a specific retailer, we modeled the effect of Walmart’s HFI using counterfactual simulations to examine observed vs. expected changes in the nutritional profile of Walmart PFPs. From 2000 to 2013, Walmart PFPs showed major declines in energy, sodium, and sugar density, as well as declines in sugary beverages, grain-based desserts, snacks, and candy, beyond trends at similar retailers. However, post-HFI declines were similar to what we expected based on pre-HFI trends, suggesting that these changes were not attributable to Walmart’s HFI. These results suggest that food retailer-based HFIs may not be sufficient to improve the nutritional profile of food purchases. PMID:26526244

  19. 7 CFR 278.6 - Disqualification of retail food stores and wholesale food concerns, and imposition of civil money...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Disqualification of retail food stores and wholesale..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FOOD STAMP AND FOOD DISTRIBUTION PROGRAM PARTICIPATION OF RETAIL FOOD STORES, WHOLESALE FOOD CONCERNS AND INSURED FINANCIAL INSTITUTIONS § 278.6 Disqualification of retail food...

  20. 78 FR 52899 - Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) Enhancing Retail Food Store Eligibility...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-27

    ... Food and Nutrition Service Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) Enhancing Retail Food Store Eligibility--Listening Sessions AGENCY: Food and Nutrition Service (FNS), USDA. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This... regarding Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) retailer eligibility requirements (78 FR...

  1. 7 CFR 278.7 - Determination and disposition of claims-retail food stores and wholesale food concerns.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... PROGRAM PARTICIPATION OF RETAIL FOOD STORES, WHOLESALE FOOD CONCERNS AND INSURED FINANCIAL INSTITUTIONS § 278.7 Determination and disposition of claims—retail food stores and wholesale food concerns. (a... stolen coupons. FNS may not be held liable for claims from retail food stores, meal services,...

  2. 7 CFR 278.7 - Determination and disposition of claims-retail food stores and wholesale food concerns.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... PROGRAM PARTICIPATION OF RETAIL FOOD STORES, WHOLESALE FOOD CONCERNS AND INSURED FINANCIAL INSTITUTIONS § 278.7 Determination and disposition of claims—retail food stores and wholesale food concerns. (a... stolen coupons. FNS may not be held liable for claims from retail food stores, meal services,...

  3. Retail Food Availability, Obesity, and Cigarette Smoking in Rural Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hosler, Akiko S.

    2009-01-01

    Context: Disparities in the availability of nutritionally important foods and their influence on health have been studied in US urban communities. Purpose: To assess the availability of selected retail foods and cigarettes, and explore ecologic relationships of the availability with obesity and smoking in rural communities. Methods: Inventories of…

  4. 75 FR 43182 - Voluntary Registration by Authorized Officials of Non-Covered Retail Food Establishments and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-23

    ... (hereinafter ``chain retail food establishments''), and for certain foods sold in vending machines operated by... (hereinafter ``chain vending machine operators''). For chain retail food establishments, as that term is used... regulations. B. What is the effect of voluntary registration under section 4205? Unlike chain retail...

  5. Reestablishing healthy food retail: changing the landscape of food deserts.

    PubMed

    Karpyn, Allison; Young, Candace; Weiss, Stephanie

    2012-02-01

    The term "food desert" was formally introduced into the lexicon in 1995 and has come to describe areas with limited access to affordable nutritious foods, particularly areas in lower-income neighborhoods. The definition has led to the development of national and regional maps that focus efforts on equity in food access. Recognition of food deserts also marks a strategic change in public health's approach to obesity prevention. Today's emphasis on prevention has shifted away from individual responsibility to the role of the environment in health promotion. A number of solutions are underway to address food deserts, including public–private financing programs, industry commitments, as well as local and regional efforts to put healthy food within reach. The promise of financing programs to facilitate development of healthy food markets in underserved communities is rooted in their potential to alleviate the grocery gap and address underlying environmental contributors to obesity and diet-related diseases, such as obesity and diabetes. As food desert mapping and related interventions expand, there remains a need for ongoing investigation of impacts and the mechanisms by which impacts are achieved.

  6. Understanding the sustainability of retail food recovery.

    PubMed

    Phillips, Caleb; Hoenigman, Rhonda; Higbee, Becky; Reed, Tom

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we study the simultaneous problems of food waste and hunger in the context of food (waste) rescue and redistribution as a means for mitigating hunger. To this end, we develop an empirical model that can be used in Monte Carlo simulations to study the dynamics of the underlying problem. Our model's parameters are derived from a data set provided by a large food bank and food rescue organization in north central Colorado. We find that food supply is a non-parametric heavy-tailed process that is well modeled with an extreme value peaks over threshold model. Although the underlying process is stochastic, the basic approach of food rescue and redistribution to meet hunger demand appears to be feasible. The ultimate sustainability of this model is intimately tied to the rate at which food expires and hence the ability to preserve and quickly transport and redistribute food. The cost of the redistribution is related to the number and density of participating suppliers. The results show that costs can be reduced (and supply increased) simply by recruiting additional donors to participate. With sufficient funding and manpower, a significant amount of food can be rescued from the waste stream and used to feed the hungry.

  7. Understanding the Sustainability of Retail Food Recovery

    PubMed Central

    Phillips, Caleb; Hoenigman, Rhonda; Higbee, Becky; Reed, Tom

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we study the simultaneous problems of food waste and hunger in the context of food (waste) rescue and redistribution as a means for mitigating hunger. To this end, we develop an empirical model that can be used in Monte Carlo simulations to study the dynamics of the underlying problem. Our model's parameters are derived from a data set provided by a large food bank and food rescue organization in north central Colorado. We find that food supply is a non-parametric heavy-tailed process that is well modeled with an extreme value peaks over threshold model. Although the underlying process is stochastic, the basic approach of food rescue and redistribution to meet hunger demand appears to be feasible. The ultimate sustainability of this model is intimately tied to the rate at which food expires and hence the ability to preserve and quickly transport and redistribute food. The cost of the redistribution is related to the number and density of participating suppliers. The results show that costs can be reduced (and supply increased) simply by recruiting additional donors to participate. With sufficient funding and manpower, a significant amount of food can be rescued from the waste stream and used to feed the hungry. PMID:24130716

  8. A Retailer's Experience with Irradiated Foods

    SciTech Connect

    James P. Corrigan

    2000-11-12

    A food irradiation success story comes from Northbrook, Illinois, where Carrot Top, Inc., has been routinely carrying irradiated food for more than 7 yr. This paper presents the experiences of Carrot Top during those years, details the marketing approaches used, and summarizes the resulting sales figures.

  9. Traditional, modern or mixed? Perspectives on social, economic, and health impacts of evolving food retail in Thailand.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Matthew; Seubsman, Sam-Ang; Banwell, Cathy; Dixon, Jane; Sleigh, Adrian

    Transnational food retailers expanded to middle-income countries over recent decades responding to supply (liberalized foreign investment) and demand (rising incomes, urbanization, female workforce participation, and time poverty). Control in new markets diffuses along three axes: socio-economic (rich to poor), geographic (urban to rural), and product category (processed foods to fresh foods). We used a mixed method approach to study the progression of modern retail in Thailand on these three axes and consumer preferences for food retailing. In Thailand modern retail controls half the food sales but traditional fresh markets remain important. Quantitative questionnaires administered to members of a large national cohort study revealed around half of respondents were primarily traditional shoppers and half either utilized modern and traditional formats equally or primarily shopped at supermarkets. Fresh foods were mainly purchased at traditional retail formats and dry packaged foods at supermarkets. Qualitative interviews found price and quality of produce and availability of culturally important products to be significant reasons for continued support of fresh markets. Our results show socio-economic and geographic diffusion is already advanced with most respondents having access to and utilizing modern retail. Control of the fresh food sector by transnationals faces barriers in Thailand and may remain elusive. The short to mid-term outcome may be a bifurcated food system with modern and traditional retail each retaining market share, but fresh markets longer term survival may require government assistance as supermarkets become more established. Fresh markets supply affordable, healthy foods, and livelihoods for poorer Thais and are repositories of Thai food culture and social networks. If they survive they will confer cultural, social, economic, and health benefits.

  10. Reliability of a Retail Food Store Survey and Development of an Accompanying Retail Scoring System to Communicate Survey Findings and Identify Vendors for Healthful Food and Marketing Initiatives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ghirardelli, Alyssa; Quinn, Valerie; Sugerman, Sharon

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To develop a retail grocery instrument with weighted scoring to be used as an indicator of the food environment. Participants/Setting: Twenty six retail food stores in low-income areas in California. Intervention: Observational. Main Outcome Measure(s): Inter-rater reliability for grocery store survey instrument. Description of store…

  11. Retail food environments in Canada: Maximizing the impact of research, policy and practice.

    PubMed

    Minaker, Leia M

    2016-06-09

    Retail food environments are gaining national and international attention as important determinants of population dietary intake. Communities across Canada are beginning to discuss and implement programs and policies to create supportive retail food environments. Three considerations should drive the selection of food environment assessment methods: relevance (What is the problem, and how is it related to dietary outcomes?); resources (What human, time and financial resources are required to undertake an assessment?); and response (How will policy-makers find meaning out of and act on the information gained through the food environment assessment?). Ultimately, food environment assessments should be conducted in the context of stakeholder buy-in and multi-sectoral partnerships, since food environment solutions require multi-sectoral action. Partnerships between public health actors and the food and beverage industry can be challenging, especially when mandates are not aligned. Clarifying the motivations, expectations and roles of all stakeholders takes time but is important if the impact of food environment research, policy and practice is to be maximized. The articles contained in this special supplementary issue describe ongoing food environments research across Canada and fill some of the important gaps in the current body of Canadian food environments literature.

  12. Association of food environment and food retailers with obesity in US adults.

    PubMed

    Yan, Renfei; Bastian, Nathaniel D; Griffin, Paul M

    2015-05-01

    The food environment has been shown to be a factor affecting the obesity rate. We studied the association of density of food retailer type with obesity rate in U.S. adults in local regions controlling for socioeconomic factors. Parametric nonlinear regression was used on publically available data (year=2009) at the county level. We used the results of this association to estimate the impact of the addition of a new food retailer type in a geographic region. Obesity rate increased in supercenters (0.25-0.28%) and convenience stores (0.05%) and decreased in grocery stores (0.08%) and specialized food stores (0.27-0.36%). The marginal measures estimated in this work could be useful in identifying regions where interventions based on food retailer type would be most effective.

  13. 76 FR 30050 - Food Labeling; Nutrition Labeling of Standard Menu Items in Restaurants and Similar Retail Food...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-24

    ...; Nutrition Labeling of Standard Menu Items in Restaurants and Similar Retail Food Establishments; Correction... 2010 (Affordable Care Act), FDA proposed requirements for providing certain nutrition information...

  14. Antimicrobial Resistance in Non-Typhoidal Salmonella from Humans, Retail Meats and Food Animals: 2002-2007

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background. The National Antimicrobial Resistance Monitor System (NARMS) tracks antimicrobial susceptibility in enteric bacteria from humans, retail meats and food animals. We analyzed changes in ceftiofur resistance (TioR), nalidixic acid resistance (NalR) and multidrug resistance (MDR-AmpC, define...

  15. Relationships between Food Manufacturers and Retailers and Possible Implications for Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Richard; Kruse, Wilfried

    A pilot study examined the relationship between the retail sector and food and beverages industries and their implications for training. A range of case studies were undertaken in food manufacturing and retailing enterprises in the United Kingdom (UK) and Germany. The UK case studies examined the problems of manufacturers, both small and large,…

  16. 76 FR 51308 - Retail Food Store Advertising and Marketing Practices Rule

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-18

    ... CFR Part 424 Retail Food Store Advertising and Marketing Practices Rule AGENCY: Federal Trade... impact of the FTC's rule for ``Retail Food Store Advertising and Marketing Practices'' (``Unavailability... Store Advertising and Marketing Practices: Statement of Basis and Purpose: The Rule, 36 FR 8777 (May...

  17. Hand washing compliance among retail food establishment workers in Minnesota.

    PubMed

    Allwood, Paul B; Jenkins, Timothy; Paulus, Colleen; Johnson, Lars; Hedberg, Craig W

    2004-12-01

    Inadequate hand washing by food workers is an important contributing factor to foodborne disease outbreaks in retail food establishments (RFEs). We conducted a survey of RFEs to investigate the effect of hand washing training, availability of hand washing facilities, and the ability of the person in charge (PIC) to describe hand washing according to the Minnesota Food Code (food code) on workers' ability to demonstrate food code-compliant hand washing. Only 52% of the PICs could describe the hand washing procedure outlined in the food code, and only 48% of workers could demonstrate code-compliant hand washing. The most common problems observed were failure to wash for 20 s and failure to use a fingernail brush. There was a strong positive association between the PIC being a certified food manager and being able to describe the food code hand washing procedure (odds ratio [OR], 5.5; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.2 to 13.7), and there was an even stronger association between the PIC being able to describe hand washing and workers being able to demonstrate code-compliant hand washing (OR, 15; 95% CI, 6 to 37). Significant associations were detected among correct hand washing demonstration, physical infrastructure for hand washing, and the hand washing training methods used by the establishment. However, the principal determinant of successful hand washing demonstration was the PIC's ability to describe proper hand washing procedure. These results suggest that improving hand washing practices among food workers will require interventions that address PIC knowledge of hand washing requirement and procedure and the development and implementation of effective hand washing training methods.

  18. Antimicrobial resistance and virulence of Enterococcus faecalis isolated from retail food

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Although enterococci are considered opportunistic nosocomial pathogens, their contribution to food-borne illnesses via dissemination through retail food remains undefined. In this study, prevalence and association of antimicrobial resistance and virulence factors of 80 Enterococcus faecalis isolate...

  19. Economic benefits from food recovery at the retail stage: an application to Italian food chains.

    PubMed

    Giuseppe, Aiello; Mario, Enea; Cinzia, Muriana

    2014-07-01

    The food supply chain is affected by losses of products near to their expiry date or damaged by improper transportation or production defects. Such products are usually poorly attractive for the consumer in the target market even if they maintain their nutritional properties. On the other hand undernourished people face every day the problem of fulfilling their nutritional needs usually relying on non-profit organizations. In this field the food recovery enabling economic benefits for donors is nowadays seen as a coherent way to manage food products unsalable in the target market for various causes and thus destined to be discarded and disposed to landfill thus representing only a cost. Despite its obvious affordability the food recovery is today not always practiced because the economic benefits that could be achieved are barely known. The paper aims at presenting a deterministic mathematical model for the optimization of the supply chain composed by retailers and potential recipients that practice the food recovery, taking into account the benefits recognized to donors and the management costs of the food recovery. The model determines the optimal time to withdraw the products from the shelves as well as the quantities to be donated to the non-profit organizations and those to be sent to the livestock market maximizing the retailer profit. The results show that the optimal conditions ensuring the affordability of the food recovery strategy including the tax reliefs and cost saving for the retailers outperforms the profit achievable in absence of such a system.

  20. Comparing sugary drinks in the food retail environment in six NYC neighborhoods.

    PubMed

    Adjoian, Tamar; Dannefer, Rachel; Sacks, Rachel; Van Wye, Gretchen

    2014-04-01

    Obesity is a national public health concern linked to numerous chronic health conditions among Americans of all age groups. Evidence suggests that discretionary calories from sugary drink consumption have been a significant contributor to excess caloric intake among both children and adults. Research has established strong links between retail food environments and purchasing habits of consumers, but little information exists on the sugary drink retail environment in urban neighborhoods. The objective of this assessment was to compare various aspects of the sugary drink retail environment across New York City (NYC) neighborhoods with disparate self-reported sugary drink consumption patterns. In-store retail audits were conducted at 883 corner stores, chain pharmacies, and grocery stores in 12 zip codes throughout NYC. Results showed that among all beverage types assessed, sugary drinks had the most prominent presence in the retail environment overall, which was even more pronounced in higher-consumption neighborhoods. In higher- versus lower-consumption neighborhoods, the mean number of sugary drink varieties available at stores was higher (11.4 vs. 10.4 varieties), stores were more likely to feature sugary drink advertising (97 vs. 89 %) and advertising at multiple places throughout the store (78 vs. 57 %), and several sugary drinks, including 20-oz Coke® or Pepsi®, were less expensive ($1.38 vs. $1.60). These results, all statistically significant, indicate that neighborhoods characterized by higher levels of sugary drink consumption expose shoppers to sugary drinks to a greater extent than lower-consumption neighborhoods. This builds upon evidence documenting the association between the environment and individual behavior.

  1. A food retail-based intervention on food security and consumption.

    PubMed

    Sadler, Richard C; Gilliland, Jason A; Arku, Godwin

    2013-08-05

    The effect of the built environment on diet (and ensuing health outcomes) is less understood than the effect of diet on obesity. Natural experiments are increasingly advocated in place of cross-sectional studies unable to suggest causality. The central research question of this paper, therefore, asks whether a neighborhood-level food retail intervention will affect dietary habits or food security. The intervention did not have a significant impact on fruit and vegetable consumption, and the intervention population actually purchased prepared meals more frequently. More problematic, only 8% of respondents overall regularly consumed enough fruits and vegetables, and 34% were food insecure. Further complicating this public health issue, the new grocery store closed after 17 months of operation. Results indicate that geographic access to food is only one element of malnutrition, and that multi-pronged dietary interventions may be more effective. The economic failure of the store also suggests the importance of non-retail interventions to combat malnutrition.

  2. A Food Retail-Based Intervention on Food Security and Consumption

    PubMed Central

    Sadler, Richard C.; Gilliland, Jason A.; Arku, Godwin

    2013-01-01

    The effect of the built environment on diet (and ensuing health outcomes) is less understood than the effect of diet on obesity. Natural experiments are increasingly advocated in place of cross-sectional studies unable to suggest causality. The central research question of this paper, therefore, asks whether a neighborhood-level food retail intervention will affect dietary habits or food security. The intervention did not have a significant impact on fruit and vegetable consumption, and the intervention population actually purchased prepared meals more frequently. More problematic, only 8% of respondents overall regularly consumed enough fruits and vegetables, and 34% were food insecure. Further complicating this public health issue, the new grocery store closed after 17 months of operation. Results indicate that geographic access to food is only one element of malnutrition, and that multi-pronged dietary interventions may be more effective. The economic failure of the store also suggests the importance of non-retail interventions to combat malnutrition. PMID:23921626

  3. Hand washing frequencies and procedures used in retail food services.

    PubMed

    Strohbehn, Catherine; Sneed, Jeannie; Paez, Paola; Meyer, Janell

    2008-08-01

    Transmission of viruses, bacteria, and parasites to food by way of improperly washed hands is a major contributing factor in the spread of foodborne illnesses. Field observers have assessed compliance with hand washing regulations, yet few studies have included consideration of frequency and methods used by sectors of the food service industry or have included benchmarks for hand washing. Five 3-h observation periods of employee (n = 80) hand washing behaviors during menu production, service, and cleaning were conducted in 16 food service operations for a total of 240 h of direct observation. Four operations from each of four sectors of the retail food service industry participated in the study: assisted living for the elderly, childcare, restaurants, and schools. A validated observation form, based on 2005 Food Code guidelines, was used by two trained researchers. Researchers noted when hands should have been washed, when hands were washed, and how hands were washed. Overall compliance with Food Code recommendations for frequency during production, service, and cleaning phases ranged from 5% in restaurants to 33% in assisted living facilities. Procedural compliance rates also were low. Proposed benchmarks for the number of times hand washing should occur by each employee for each sector of food service during each phase of operation are seven times per hour for assisted living, nine times per hour for childcare, 29 times per hour for restaurants, and 11 times per hour for schools. These benchmarks are high, especially for restaurant employees. Implementation would mean lost productivity and potential for dermatitis; thus, active managerial control over work assignments is needed. These benchmarks can be used for training and to guide employee hand washing behaviors.

  4. Consumer perceptions of the safety of ready-to-eat foods in retail food establishments

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A nationally-representative survey was administered to 1041 participants who volunteered to evaluate selected risk perceptions and self-reported behaviors. Participants were shown 12 photographs taken at retail stores portraying cross-contamination, product and equipment temperatures, worker hygiene...

  5. Observations of marketing on food packaging targeted to youth in retail food stores.

    PubMed

    Grigsby-Toussaint, Diana S; Moise, Imelda K; Geiger, Sarah D

    2011-09-01

    There is growing evidence that exposure to food marketing influences dietary preferences among youth. Few studies exploring this association, however, have focused on the retail food store environment where families negotiate the influence of food and beverage marketing on purchasing practices. Consequently, we sought to examine: (i) the extent to which foods marketed on the internet and television to youth are also available and marketed in retail food stores, and (ii) whether differences exist in the marketing practices across store types and by neighborhood racial composition. In 2008, a cross-sectional survey of 118 food stores was conducted in four Midwestern cities in the United States. Results showed that 82% of stores assessed carried items commonly marketed to youth via television or the internet. The items most likely to have some type of marketing technique were noncarbonated drinks (97.7%), fruit and cereal bars (76.9%), and soda (62.2%). Grocery stores were significantly more likely than convenience stores to have marketing for breads and pastries (34.6% vs. 17.9%), breakfast cereals (52.0% vs. 22.9%), cookies and crackers (54.2% vs. 25.3%), dairy (70.8% vs. 42.7%), and ice cream (23.8% vs. 9.8%). Stores located in black neighborhoods were significantly more likely to have marketing, in comparison to white neighborhoods, for breads and pastries (35.7% vs. 17.1%), breakfast cereals (44.4% vs. 25.0%), and cookies and crackers (48.1% vs. 26.3%). Our results highlight the importance of examining food marketing techniques in the retail food store environment, where visual cues from television and the internet may be reinforced.

  6. FDA Procedures for Standardization and Certification of Retail Food Inspection/Training Officers, 2000.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Food and Drug Administration (DHHS/PHS), Rockville, MD.

    This document provides information, standards, and behavioral objectives for standardization and certification of retail food inspection personnel in the Food and Drug Administration (FDA). The procedures described in the document are based on the FDA Food Code, updated to reflect current Food Code provisions and to include a more refined focus on…

  7. 76 FR 19191 - Food Labeling; Nutrition Labeling of Standard Menu Items in Restaurants and Similar Retail Food...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-06

    ..., MN about the influence of nutritional labeling on fast-food meal choices, 79 percent of respondents... similar retail food establishments would likely include table service and quick-service (or fast food... theaters Quick service (fast food) establishments Amusement parks Cafeterias General merchandise...

  8. 76 FR 33307 - Strengthen and Promote the Role of Local Health Departments in Retail Food Safety Regulation (U-50)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-08

    ... in Retail Food Safety Regulation (U-50) AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice... and help FDA/CFSAN ] promote effective city and county regulatory programs responsible for retail food... establishments, or supermarkets, grocery stores, and other food outlets regulated by almost 3,000 States,...

  9. Food loss rates at the food retail, influencing factors and reasons as a basis for waste prevention measures.

    PubMed

    Lebersorger, S; Schneider, F

    2014-11-01

    This paper quantifies food loss rates for fruit & vegetables, dairy products and bread & pastry as well as donations to social services. In addition potential influencing factors and reasons for food losses are investigated in order to provide a basis for the development of waste prevention measures. Detailed data from 612 retail outlets all over Austria, which covered the period of one year, were analysed and sorting analyses of discarded food were carried out in a small sample of retail outlets. Food loss amounts to 1.3% of the sales of dairy products, 2.8% for bread & pastry and 4.2% for fruit & vegetables. Returned bread amounts to additional 9.7% of the sales of bread & pastry. The food loss rates are similar to the results of previous publications. At present, 7% of the food loss is donated to social services, 38% of retail outlets do not donate any articles at all. Food loss rates are declining with increasing sales areas, increasing numbers of purchases per year and increasing sales of the retail outlet, but explain only 33% or less of the variation of food loss rates. Large differences between retail outlets of comparable structure indicate potential for reduction. More than a quarter of discarded food articles did not show any flaws besides the expiration of the best before or sell-by date. Waste prevention approaches should focus on avoiding returns, transfer of best practices, information and education of employees and customers as well as strengthening the donation to social services.

  10. Self-Reported Changes in Food Safety Behaviors among Foodservice Employees: Impact of a Retail Food Safety Education Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anding, Jenna D.; Boleman, Chris; Thompson, Britta

    2007-01-01

    A food safety education program developed for retail food establishments was evaluated to assess the extent to which participants were practicing selected behaviors linked to reducing the risk of foodborne disease both before and after the program. Scores from the state health department's Certified Food Manager (CFM) exam also were examined.…

  11. 76 FR 30051 - Food Labeling; Nutrition Labeling of Standard Menu Items in Restaurants and Similar Retail Food...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-24

    ...; Nutrition Labeling of Standard Menu Items in Restaurants and Similar Retail Food Establishments; Extension... 19192). In that document, FDA proposed requirements for providing nutrition information for standard...: Geraldine A. June, Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition (HFS-820), Food and Drug...

  12. Microbiological quality of food in relation to hazard analysis systems and food hygiene training in UK catering and retail premises.

    PubMed

    Little, C L; Lock, D; Barnes, J; Mitchell, R T

    2003-09-01

    A meta-analysis of eight UK food studies was carried out to determine the microbiological quality of food and its relationship with the presence in food businesses of hazard analysis systems and food hygiene training. Of the 19,022 premises visited to collect food samples in these studies between 1997 and 2002, two thirds (66%) were catering premises and one third (34%) were retail premises. Comparison with PHLS Microbiological Guidelines revealed that significantly more ready-to-eat food samples from catering premises (20%; 2,511/12,703) were of unsatisfactory or unacceptable microbiological quality compared to samples from retail premises (12%; 1,039/8,462) (p < 0.00001). Three quarters (76%) of retail premises had hazard analysis systems in place compared with 59% of catering premises (p < 0.00001). In 87% of retail premises the manager had received some form of food hygiene training compared with 80% of catering premises (p < 0.00001). From premises where the manager had received no food hygiene training a greater proportion of samples were of unsatisfactory and unacceptable microbiological quality (20% retail, 27% catering) compared with premises where the manager had received food hygiene training (11% retail, 19% catering) (p < 0.00001). Where the manager of the premises had received food hygiene training, documented hazard analysis systems were more likely to be in place (p < 0.00001). Higher proportions of samples of unsatisfactory and unacceptable microbiological quality (17% retail, 22% catering) were from premises where there was no hazard analysis system in place compared to premises that had a documented hazard analysis system in place (10% retail, 18% catering) (p < 0.00001). Our meta-analysis suggests that the lower microbiological quality of ready-to-eat foods from catering premises compared with those collected from retail premises may reflect differences in management food hygiene training and the presence of a hazard analysis system. The

  13. Tobacco advertising and sales practices in licensed retail outlets after the Food and Drug Administration regulations.

    PubMed

    Frick, Ryan G; Klein, Elizabeth G; Ferketich, Amy K; Wewers, Mary Ellen

    2012-10-01

    To assess retailer compliance with Food and Drug Administration (FDA) regulations on tobacco sales and advertising practices, including point-of-sale advertisements, in two distinct Columbus, Ohio neighborhood groups by income. Data were gathered from a random sample of 129 licensed tobacco retailers, which included data on both exterior and interior advertisements as well as sales practices. Descriptive analyses compared retail outlets by high and low income neighborhood locations. Compliance with FDA regulations was high in the random sample of urban tobacco retail outlets. None of the retail outlets sold loose cigarettes or offered free items with purchase. Less than 10% of the outlets surveyed offered self-service access to cigarettes or smokeless tobacco products. From all surveyed retail outlets 95% had cigarette, 57% had smokeless, and 57% had cigar advertisements at the point-of-sale. There were no significant differences in compliance by income, but the mean number of advertisements on the building and self-service access to cigars was significantly different by neighborhood income. There was a high degree of compliance with the new FDA regulation on tobacco marketing and sales practices in urban retail tobacco outlets in Columbus, Ohio. Tobacco advertising and marketing remain highly prevalent in retail outlets, with some significant differences between high and low income neighborhoods.

  14. Pulga (Flea Market) Contributions to the Retail Food Environment of Colonias in the South Texas Border Region

    PubMed Central

    Dean, Wesley R.; Sharkey, Joseph R.; St. John, Julie

    2011-01-01

    Accounts of the retail food environment have been limited by research that focused on supermarkets, grocery stores and restaurants as the principal food sources for consumers. Little is known about alternative retail food-sources, especially in rural and underserved areas such as the colonias along the South Texas border with Mexico. Many colonias are located near pulgas (flea markets). This is the first study to examine this alternative food source for colonia residents. This study's purpose is to provide preliminary data on food availability in this unstudied element of the retail food environment. Five pulgas were identified for study by local informants. Two separate teams of two promotores (indigenous community health workers) conducted observations, wrote field notes, and surveyed vendors in each pulga. Traditional foods, prepared foods, and fresh fruit and vegetables were available in the observed pulgas. Traditional foods included staples, meal items, and snacks and sweets. Prepared foods were available in small stands run by independent operators, and each pulga had permanent restaurants which served prepared foods. A large variety of fresh fruit and vegetables were also available. An emphasis on supermarkets and grocery stores will provide an incomplete account of the retail food environment. Further studies should attempt to provide a more complete account by identifying alternative retail sources used by local residents. One such alternative retail food-source, the pulga, provides a range of traditional food stuffs, prepared food items, and fruits and vegetables that complement conventionally studied aspects of the retail food environment. PMID:21515116

  15. Pulga (flea market) contributions to the retail food environment of colonias in the South Texas border region.

    PubMed

    Dean, Wesley R; Sharkey, Joseph R; St John, Julie

    2011-05-01

    Accounts of the retail food environment have been limited by research that focused on supermarkets, grocery stores, and restaurants as the principal food sources for consumers. Little is known about alternative retail food sources, especially in rural and underserved areas such as the colonias along the South Texas border with Mexico. Many colonias are located near pulgas (flea markets). This is the first study to examine this alternative food source for colonia residents. This study's purpose is to provide preliminary data on food availability in this unstudied element of the retail food environment. Five pulgas were identified for study by local informants. Two separate teams of two promotores (indigenous community health workers) conducted observations, wrote field notes, and surveyed vendors in each pulga. Traditional foods, prepared foods, and fresh fruits and vegetables were available in the observed pulgas. Traditional foods included staples, meal items, and snacks and sweets. Prepared foods were available in small stands run by independent operators, and each pulga had permanent restaurants that served prepared foods. A large variety of fresh fruits and vegetables were also available. An emphasis on supermarkets and grocery stores will provide an incomplete account of the retail food environment. Further studies should attempt to provide a more complete account by identifying alternative retail sources used by local residents. One such alternative retail food source, the pulga, provides a range of traditional food stuffs, prepared food items, and fruits and vegetables that complement conventionally studied aspects of the retail food environment.

  16. Association of the Neighborhood Retail Food Environment with Sodium and Potassium Intake Among US Adults

    PubMed Central

    Schieb, Linda; Schwartz, Greg; Onufrak, Stephen; Park, Sohyun

    2014-01-01

    Introduction High sodium intake and low potassium intake, which can contribute to hypertension and risk of cardiovascular disease, may be related to the availability of healthful food in neighborhood stores. Despite evidence linking food environment with diet quality, this relationship has not been evaluated in the United States. The modified retail food environment index (mRFEI) provides a composite measure of the retail food environment and represents the percentage of healthful-food vendors within a 0.5 mile buffer of a census tract. Methods We analyzed data from 8,779 participants in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2005–2008. By using linear regression, we assessed the relationship between mRFEI and sodium intake, potassium intake, and the sodium–potassium ratio. Models were stratified by region (South and non-South) and included participant and neighborhood characteristics. Results In the non-South region, higher mRFEI scores (indicating a more healthful food environment) were not associated with sodium intake, were positively associated with potassium intake (P [trend] = .005), and were negatively associated with the sodium–potassium ratio (P [trend] = .02); these associations diminished when neighborhood characteristics were included, but remained close to statistical significance for potassium intake (P [trend] = .05) and sodium–potassium ratio (P [trend] = .07). In the South, mRFEI scores were not associated with sodium intake, were negatively associated with potassium intake (P [trend] = < .001), and were positively associated with sodium–potassium ratio (P [trend] = .01). These associations also diminished after controlling for neighborhood characteristics for both potassium intake (P [trend] = .03) and sodium–potassium ratio (P [trend] = .40). Conclusion We found no association between mRFEI and sodium intake. The association between mRFEI and potassium intake and the sodium–potassium ratio varied by region. National

  17. A shopper's eye view of food safety at retail stores: lessons from photographs taken while grocery shopping

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Retail grocery stores are the source of over 50% of food sales in the U.S., representing the most important sector for consumer food choices. Food safety-related infrastructure, procedures, and practices at retail grocery stores play an important role in protecting public health. Beyond actual risk ...

  18. Food labeling; nutrition labeling of standard menu items in restaurants and similar retail food establishments. Final rule.

    PubMed

    2014-12-01

    To implement the nutrition labeling provisions of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act of 2010 (Affordable Care Act or ACA), the Food and Drug Administration (FDA or we) is requiring disclosure of certain nutrition information for standard menu items in certain restaurants and retail food establishments. The ACA, in part, amended the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (the FD&C Act), among other things, to require restaurants and similar retail food establishments that are part of a chain with 20 or more locations doing business under the same name and offering for sale substantially the same menu items to provide calorie and other nutrition information for standard menu items, including food on display and self-service food. Under provisions of the ACA, restaurants and similar retail food establishments not otherwise covered by the law may elect to become subject to these Federal requirements by registering every other year with FDA. Providing accurate, clear, and consistent nutrition information, including the calorie content of foods, in restaurants and similar retail food establishments will make such nutrition information available to consumers in a direct and accessible manner to enable consumers to make informed and healthful dietary choices.

  19. Occurrence of β-lactamase genes among non-Typhi Salmonella enterica isolated from humans, food animals, and retail meats in the United States and Canada.

    PubMed

    Sjölund-Karlsson, Maria; Howie, Rebecca L; Blickenstaff, Karen; Boerlin, Patrick; Ball, Takiyah; Chalmers, Gabhan; Duval, Brea; Haro, Jovita; Rickert, Regan; Zhao, Shaohua; Fedorka-Cray, Paula J; Whichard, Jean M

    2013-06-01

    Non-Typhi Salmonella cause over 1.7 million cases of gastroenteritis in North America each year, and food-animal products are commonly implicated in human infections. For invasive infections, antimicrobial therapy is indicated. In North America, the antimicrobial susceptibility of Salmonella is monitored by the U.S. National Antimicrobial Resistance Monitoring System (NARMS) and The Canadian Integrated Program for Antimicrobial Resistance Surveillance (CIPARS). In this study, we determined the susceptibility to cephalosporins by broth microdilution among 5,041 non-Typhi Salmonella enterica isolated from food animals, retail meats, and humans. In the United States, 109 (4.6%) of isolates collected from humans, 77 (15.7%) from retail meat, and 140 (10.6%) from food animals displayed decreased susceptibility to cephalosporins (DSC). Among the Canadian retail meat and food animal isolates, 52 (13.0%) and 42 (9.4%) displayed DSC. All isolates displaying DSC were screened for β-lactamase genes (bla(TEM), bla(SHV), bla(CMY), bla(CTX-M), and bla(OXA-1)) by polymerase chain reaction. At least one β-lactamase gene was detected in 74/109 (67.9%) isolates collected from humans, and the bla(CMY) genes were most prevalent (69/109; 63.3%). Similarly, the bla(CMY) genes predominated among the β-lactamase-producing isolates collected from retail meats and food animals. Three isolates from humans harbored a bla(CTX-M-15) gene. No animal or retail meat isolates harbored a bla(CTX-M) or bla(OXA-1) gene. A bla(TEM) gene was found in 5 human, 9 retail meat, and 17 animal isolates. Although serotype distributions varied among human, retail meat, and animal sources, overlap in bla(CMY)-positive serotypes across sample sources supports meat and food-animal sources as reservoirs for human infection.

  20. Antimicrobial resistance and genetic relatedness among Salmonella from retail foods of animal origin: NARMS retail meat surveillance.

    PubMed

    Zhao, S; McDermott, P F; Friedman, S; Abbott, J; Ayers, S; Glenn, A; Hall-Robinson, E; Hubert, S K; Harbottle, H; Walker, R D; Chiller, T M; White, D G

    2006-01-01

    Salmonella isolates were recovered from a monthly sampling of chicken breasts, ground turkey, ground beef, and pork chops purchased from selected grocery stores in six participating FoodNet sites (Connecticut, Georgia, Maryland, Minnesota, Oregon, and Tennessee) in 2002 and an additional two sites in 2003 (California and New York). In 2002 and 2003, a total of 6,046 retail meats were examined, including 1,513 chicken breasts, 1,499 ground turkey samples, 1,522 ground beef samples, and 1,502 pork chops. Retail meat samples tested increased to 3,533 in 2003 as compared to 2,513 in 2002. Overall, six percent of 6,046 retail meat samples (n = 365) were contaminated with Salmonella, the bulk recovered from either ground turkey (52%) or chicken breast (39%). Salmonella isolates were serotyped and susceptibility tested using a panel of 16 antimicrobial agents. S. Heidelberg was the predominant serotype identified (23%), followed by S. Saintpaul (12%), S. Typhimurium (11%), and S. Kentucky (10%). Overall, resistance was most often observed to tetracycline (40%), streptomycin (37%), ampicillin (26%), and sulfamethoxazole (25%). Twelve percent of isolates were resistant to cefoxitin and ceftiofur, though only one isolate was resistant to ceftriaxone. All isolates were susceptible to amikacin and ciprofloxacin; however, 3% of isolates were resistant to nalidixic acid and were almost exclusive to ground turkey samples (n = 11/12). All Salmonella isolates were analyzed for genetic relatedness using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) patterns generated by digestion with Xba1 or Xba1 plus Bln1. PFGE fingerprinting profiles showed that Salmonella, in general, were genetically diverse with a total of 175 Xba1 PFGE profiles generated from the 365 isolates. PFGE profiles showed good correlation with serotypes and in some instances, antimicrobial resistance profiles. Results demonstrated a varied spectrum of antimicrobial resistance and PFGE patterns, including several multidrug

  1. Evaluating the use of in-store measures in retail food stores and restaurants in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Duran, Ana Clara; Lock, Karen; Latorre, Maria do Rosario D O; Jaime, Patricia Constante

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To assess inter-rater reliability, test-retest reliability, and construct validity of retail food store, open-air food market, and restaurant observation tools adapted to the Brazilian urban context. METHODS This study is part of a cross-sectional observation survey conducted in 13 districts across the city of Sao Paulo, Brazil in 2010-2011. Food store and restaurant observational tools were developed based on previously available tools, and then tested it. They included measures on the availability, variety, quality, pricing, and promotion of fruits and vegetables and ultra-processed foods. We used Kappa statistics and intra-class correlation coefficients to assess inter-rater and test-retest reliabilities in samples of 142 restaurants, 97 retail food stores (including open-air food markets), and of 62 restaurants and 45 retail food stores (including open-air food markets), respectively. Construct validity as the tool’s abilities to discriminate based on store types and different income contexts were assessed in the entire sample: 305 retail food stores, 8 fruits and vegetable markets, and 472 restaurants. RESULTS Inter-rater and test-retest reliability were generally high, with most Kappa values greater than 0.70 (range 0.49-1.00). Both tools discriminated between store types and neighborhoods with different median income. Fruits and vegetables were more likely to be found in middle to higher-income neighborhoods, while soda, fruit-flavored drink mixes, cookies, and chips were cheaper and more likely to be found in lower-income neighborhoods. CONCLUSIONS The measures were reliable and able to reveal significant differences across store types and different contexts. Although some items may require revision, results suggest that the tools may be used to reliably measure the food stores and restaurant food environment in urban settings of middle-income countries. Such studies can help .inform health promotion interventions and policies in these

  2. Retailer branding of consumer sales promotions. A major development in food marketing?

    PubMed

    Hamlin, Robert P; Lindsay, Sophie; Insch, Andrea

    2012-02-01

    This article examines retailer branding of consumer price promotions. It discusses the mechanics of price promotions, consumers' reactions to them and the benefits that accrue to those that use them. It describes how large food retailers can now deploy branded price promotion systems that are fundamentally different to 'traditional' price promotions in both their mechanics and their effects on consumer decision processes. The article describes a field experiment that compared the performance of a food retailer's branded price promotion system with that of a generic (manufacturer) price promotion. The research involved three experiments that covered two food categories (sliced bread and margarine) and two levels of discount (10% and 20%). The results indicate that food retailers are able to attach powerful brands to their price promotion systems, and these brand heuristics can significantly increase consumer purchase intent relative to an equivalent generic/manufacturer promotion. This incremental heuristic effect was stable in both categories and for both levels of price discount studied. These results are consistent with the predictions of alternative, non-cognitive and heuristic based models of food consumer choice that have been published recently in 'Appetite'.

  3. Evolving food retail environments in Thailand and implications for the health and nutrition transition

    PubMed Central

    Banwell, Cathy; Dixon, Jane; Seubsman, Sam-ang; Pangsap, Suttinan; Kelly, Matthew; Sleigh, Adrian

    2013-01-01

    Objective An investigation into evolving food retail systems in Thailand Design Rapid assessment procedures based on qualitative research methods such as interviews, focus groups discussions and site visits Setting Seven freshmarkets located in the four main regions of Thailand Subjects Managers, food specialists, vendors and shoppers from seven freshmarkets who participated in interviews and focus group discussions. Results Freshmarkets are under economic pressure and are declining in number. They are attempting to resist the competition from supermarkets by improving convenience, food diversity, quality and safety. Conclusions Obesity has increased in Thailand at the same time as rapid growth of modern food retail formats has occurred. As freshmarkets are overtaken by supermarkets there is a likely loss of fresh, healthy, affordable food for poorer Thais, and a diminution of regional culinary culture, women’s jobs and social capital with implications for the health and nutrition transition in Thailand. PMID:23021291

  4. Policy options for healthier retail food environments in city-regions.

    PubMed

    Mah, Catherine L; Cook, Brian; Rideout, Karen; Minaker, Leia M

    2016-06-09

    Public policy is central to health promotion: it determines the distribution of resources in a society and establishes the structural context for the actions of both corporations and consumers. With this in mind, the purpose of this paper is to begin a discussion on promising policy options for a health-promoting retail food environment. Drawing on specific municipal examples, we examine four groups of policy options for healthier retail food environments in city-regions: planning for health; transforming consumer environments; economic and fiscal instruments; and a culture of transparency and participation. We introduce examples of policy options that are receiving increasing attention in the public health and urban planning literature and that function at the municipal level. We also highlight how public health professionals have an important role to play in policy that shapes retail food environments, especially in making explicit the linkages between health and other policy goals. In doing so, this commentary aims to motivate public health practitioners in a variety of community contexts to consider the policy supports they need to advance their exploration, development, testing and evaluation of interventions for healthier retail food environments.

  5. Packaged Food Purchases at Walmart and Other Food Retail Chains Changes In Nutritional Profile From 2000 to 2013

    PubMed Central

    Taillie, Lindsey Smith; Ng, Shu Wen; Popkin, Barry M.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Proliferation of food retail chains has created an environment in which a few food retailers account for the majority of U.S. packaged food purchases (PFPs). Despite the major potential for these food retail chains (FRCs) to impact what U.S. consumers buy and eat, little is known about the nutritional profile of PFPs from these retailers, particularly PFPs from Walmart, the U.S.’ largest grocer. Methods A data set of household PFPs from Nielsen Homescan was linked to data from the Nutrition Facts Panel (N=164,315), analyzed in 2014. Fixed effects models and inverse probability weights accounting for selectivity of shopping at a retailer were used to examine shifts in nutrient densities and key food groups purchased at Walmart and other FRCs from 2000 to 2013, and whether these changes differed for low-income or race/ethnic minority households. Results There were substantial declines in energy (−73 kcal/100 g), total sugar (−8 g/100 g), and sodium density (−33 mg/100 g) of Walmart PFPs, coupled with decreases in percentage volume purchased from sweets (−11%), grain-based desserts (−2%), and savory snacks (−3%) and increases in fruits (+3%) and vegetables (+1%). PFPs from other FRCs had a more favorable nutritional profile than Walmart PFPs in 2000, but demonstrated smaller shifts over time. Disparities in the nutritional profile of Walmart PFPs by race/ethnicity but not by income level shrank over time. Conclusions The nutritional profile of Walmart purchases has improved over time and in 2013 was similar to PFPs from other FRCs. PMID:26497262

  6. Retail health marketing: evaluating consumers' choice for healthier foods.

    PubMed

    Nayga, R M

    1999-01-01

    This study investigates the effect of socioeconomic and demographic variables, nutrition and health related factors, attitudes, and use of nutritional labels on consumers' choice for healthier food products. Seven equations are estimated representing different food types: luncheon meat, milk, cheese, ice cream, salad dressing, dessert, and meats. The results generally indicate that individuals who are less likely to choose a healthier alternative of a food product include: blacks, younger individuals, males, those with smaller households, smokers, those who take less exercise, those who are not on a special diet, those who are less aware about the linkage between diet and disease, those who put more importance on taste when food shopping, and those who less frequently use nutrition panels and labels that describe health benefits on food packages.

  7. The number and type of food retailers surrounding schools and their association with lunchtime eating behaviours in students

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The primary study objective was to examine whether the presence of food retailers surrounding schools was associated with students’ lunchtime eating behaviours. The secondary objective was to determine whether measures of the food retail environment around schools captured using road network or circular buffers were more strongly related to eating behaviours while at school. Methods Grade 9 and 10 students (N=6,971) who participated in the 2009/10 Canadian Health Behaviour in School Aged Children Survey were included in this study. The outcome was determined by students’ self-reports of where they typically ate their lunch during school days. Circular and road network-based buffers were created for a 1 km distance surrounding 158 schools participating in the HBSC. The addresses of fast food restaurants, convenience stores and coffee/donut shops were mapped within the buffers. Multilevel logistic regression was used to determine whether there was a relationship between the presence of food retailers near schools and students regularly eating their lunch at a fast food restaurant, snack-bar or café. The Akaike Information Criteria (AIC) value, a measure of goodness-of-fit, was used to determine the optimal buffer type. Results For the 1 km circular buffers, students with 1–2 (OR= 1.10, 95% CI: 0.57-2.11), 3–4 (OR=1.45, 95% CI: 0.75-2.82) and ≥5 nearby food retailers (OR=2.94, 95% CI: 1.71-5.09) were more likely to eat lunch at a food retailer compared to students with no nearby food retailers. The relationships were slightly stronger when assessed via 1 km road network buffers, with a greater likelihood of eating at a food retailer for 1–2 (OR=1.20, 95% CI:0.74-1.95), 3–4 (OR=3.19, 95% CI: 1.66-6.13) and ≥5 nearby food retailers (OR=3.54, 95% CI: 2.08-6.02). Road network buffers appeared to provide a better measure of the food retail environment, as indicated by a lower AIC value (3332 vs. 3346). Conclusions There was a strong

  8. An application of the edge effect in measuring accessibility to multiple food retailer types in Southwestern Ontario, Canada

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Trends in food retailing associated with the consolidation of smaller-format retailers into fewer, larger-format supercentres have left some rural areas with fewer sources of nutritious, affordable food. Access to nutritious, affordable food is essential for good dietary habits and combating health issues such as type-2 diabetes, obesity, and cardiovascular disease. Many studies on food environments use inaccurate or incomplete methods for locating food retailers, which may be responsible for mischaracterising food deserts. This study uses databases of every residence in and every food retailer in and around Middlesex County, Ontario, Canada. Residences were geocoded to their precise address, and network analysis techniques were performed in a geographic information system (GIS) to determine distances between every residence and different types of food retailers (grocery stores, fast food, fruit and vegetable sources, grocery stores plus fruit and vegetable sources, variety stores), both when considering and neglecting facilities outside the area of study, to account for a deficiency in analysis termed the 'edge effect'. Results Analysis of household accessibility to food outlets by neighbourhood socioeconomic distress level indicated that residents in the most distressed neighbourhoods tended to have better accessibility to all types of food retailers. In the most distressed neighbourhoods, 79 percent of residences were within walking distance of a grocery store, compared to only 10 percent in the least distressed neighbourhoods. When the edge effect was neglected, 37 percent of distance estimates proved inaccurate. Average accessibility to all food retailer types improved dramatically when food outlets adjacent to the study area were considered, thereby controlling for the edge effect. Conclusion By neglecting to consider food retailers just outside study area boundaries, previous studies may significantly over-report the actual distance necessary to

  9. Genotypic characterization of quinolone resistant-Escherichia coli isolates from retail food in Morocco.

    PubMed

    Nayme, Kaotar; Barguigua, Abouddihaj; Bouchrif, Brahim; Karraouan, Bouchra; El Otmani, Fatima; Elmdaghri, Naima; Zerouali, Khalid; Timinouni, Mohammed

    2017-02-01

    This study was conducted to assess the retail food as a possible vehicle for antimicrobial resistant, particularly quinolones resistant and pathogenic Escherichia coli. We determined the prevalence and characteristics of nalidixic acid (Nal) resistant E. coli isolates from diverse retail food samples. In all, 70 (28%) of 250 E. coli isolates studied were Nal-resistant E. coli and 91% of these were multi-drug resistant. Plasmid mediated quinolone resistance genes were identified in 32 isolates, including aac(6')-Ib-cr (n = 16), qnrS1 (n = 11) and qnrB19 (n = 7). Mutations in gyr A and par C genes were detected among 80% of the isolates, and the isolates showed substitution Ser83-Leu and Asp87-Asn in gyrA and Ser80-Ile in parC. In addition, three different gene cassettes were identified (aadA1, aadA7, aac(3)-Id) in 18%. Virulence-associated genes stx1, eae, sfa, hlyA and stx2 were found in six (8%), three (4%), two (3%), three (4%) and three (4%) isolates, respectively. E. coli isolates of phylogenetic group A were dominant (64%, 45/70). Pulsed field gel electrophoresis revealed none epidemiological relationship between these isolates. The results of this work report the higher frequency of Nal-resistant E. coli isolates from Moroccan retail food samples including MDR and pathogenic isolates.

  10. 78 FR 54657 - Guidance for Tobacco Retailers on Tobacco Retailer Training Programs; Availability

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-05

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Guidance for Tobacco Retailers on Tobacco Retailer Training... ``Tobacco Retailer Training Programs.'' The Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act (Tobacco Control Act) does not require retailers to implement retailer training programs. However, the...

  11. Commercial Building Partnership Retail Food Sales Energy Savings Overview

    SciTech Connect

    2013-03-01

    The Commercial Building Partnership (CBP) paired selected commercial building owners and operators with representatives of DOE, national laboratories and private sector exports to explore energy efficiency measures across general merchandise commercial buildings.

  12. [Food Security in Europe: comparison between the "Hygiene Package" and the British Retail Consortium (BRC) & International Food Standard (IFS) protocols].

    PubMed

    Stilo, A; Parisi, S; Delia, S; Anastasi, F; Bruno, G; Laganà, P

    2009-01-01

    The birth of Hygiene Package and of the Reg. CE no 2073/2005 in the food production field signalled a change in Italy. This process started in Italy in 1997 with the legislative decree no 155 on Self-control but in reality, it was implemented in the UK in 1990 with the promulgation of the Food Safety Act. This legal act was influenced by some basic rules corresponding to the application of HACCP standards. Since 1990 the British chains of distribution (Retailers) have involved all aspects of the food line in this type of responsibility. Due to this growing awareness for a need for greater regulation, a protocol, edited by British Retail Consortium was created in 1998. This protocol acted as a "stamp" of approval for food products and it is now known as the BRC Global Food Standard. In July 2008, this protocol became effective in its fifth version. After the birth of BRC, also French and German Retailers have established a standard practically equivalent and perhaps more pertinent to safety food, that is International Food Standard (IFS). The new approach is specific to the food field and strictly applies criteria which will ensure "safety, quality and legality" of food products, similarly to ISO 22000:2005 (mainly based on BRC & IFS past experiences). New standards aim to create a sort of green list with fully "proper and fit" Suppliers only, because of comprehensible exigencies of Retailers. It is expected, as we have shown, that Auditor authorities who are responsible for ensuring that inspections are now carried out like the Hygiene Package, will find these new standards useful. The advantages of streamlining this system is that it will allow enterprises to diligently enforce food safety practices without fear of upset or legal consequence, to improve the quality (HACCP) of management & traceability system; to restrict wastes, reprocessing and withdrawal of products. However some discordances about the interpretation of certain sub-field norms (e.g., water

  13. The availability of electronic cigarettes in US retail outlets, 2012: results of two national studies

    PubMed Central

    Rose, Shyanika W; Barker, Dianne C; D'Angelo, Heather; Khan, Tamkeen; Huang, Jidong; Chaloupka, Frank J; Ribisl, Kurt M

    2014-01-01

    Background Since their introduction in 2007, electronic cigarette (‘e-cigarette’) awareness and use has grown rapidly. Little is known about variation in e-cigarette availability across areas with different levels of tobacco taxes and smoke-free air policies. This paper looks at US retail availability of e-cigarettes and factors at the store, neighbourhood and policy levels associated with it. Methods In-person store audit data collected in 2012 came from two national samples of tobacco retailers in the contiguous US. Study 1 collected data from a nationally representative sample of tobacco retailers (n=2165). Study 2 collected data from tobacco retailers located in school enrolment zones for nationally representative samples of 8th, 10th and 12th grade public school students (n=2526). Results In 2012, e-cigarette retail availability was 34% in study 1 and 31% in study 2. Tobacco, pharmacy and gas/convenience stores were more likely to sell e-cigarettes than beer/wine/liquor stores. Retail availability of e-cigarettes was more likely in neighbourhoods with higher median household income (study 1), and lower percent of African–American (studies 1 and 2) and Hispanic residents (study 2). Price of traditional cigarettes was inversely related to e-cigarette availability. Stores in states with an American Lung Association Smoke-Free Air grade of F (study 1) or D (study 2) compared with A had increased likelihood of having e-cigarettes. Conclusions Currently, e-cigarette availability appears more likely in areas with weak tax and smoke-free air policies. Given the substantial availability of e-cigarettes at tobacco retailers nationwide, states and localities should monitor the sales and marketing of e-cigarettes at point of sale (POS). PMID:24935892

  14. Monitoring the availability of healthy and unhealthy foods and non-alcoholic beverages in community and consumer retail food environments globally.

    PubMed

    Ni Mhurchu, C; Vandevijvere, S; Waterlander, W; Thornton, L E; Kelly, B; Cameron, A J; Snowdon, W; Swinburn, B

    2013-10-01

    Retail food environments are increasingly considered influential in determining dietary behaviours and health outcomes. We reviewed the available evidence on associations between community (type, availability and accessibility of food outlets) and consumer (product availability, prices, promotions and nutritional quality within stores) food environments and dietary outcomes in order to develop an evidence-based framework for monitoring the availability of healthy and unhealthy foods and non-alcoholic beverages in retail food environments. Current evidence is suggestive of an association between community and consumer food environments and dietary outcomes; however, substantial heterogeneity in study designs, methods and measurement tools makes it difficult to draw firm conclusions. The use of standardized tools to monitor local food environments within and across countries may help to validate this relationship. We propose a step-wise framework to monitor and benchmark community and consumer retail food environments that can be used to assess density of healthy and unhealthy food outlets; measure proximity of healthy and unhealthy food outlets to homes/schools; evaluate availability of healthy and unhealthy foods in-store; compare food environments over time and between regions and countries; evaluate compliance with local policies, guidelines or voluntary codes of practice; and determine the impact of changes to retail food environments on health outcomes, such as obesity.

  15. 21 CFR 101.43 - Substantial compliance of food retailers with the guidelines for the voluntary nutrition labeling...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... guidelines for the voluntary nutrition labeling of raw fruit, vegetables, and fish. 101.43 Section 101.43... FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION FOOD LABELING Specific Nutrition Labeling Requirements and Guidelines § 101.43 Substantial compliance of food retailers with the guidelines for the voluntary nutrition labeling of raw...

  16. 21 CFR 101.43 - Substantial compliance of food retailers with the guidelines for the voluntary nutrition labeling...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... guidelines for the voluntary nutrition labeling of raw fruit, vegetables, and fish. 101.43 Section 101.43... FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION FOOD LABELING Specific Nutrition Labeling Requirements and Guidelines § 101.43 Substantial compliance of food retailers with the guidelines for the voluntary nutrition labeling of raw...

  17. 21 CFR 101.43 - Substantial compliance of food retailers with the guidelines for the voluntary nutrition labeling...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... guidelines for the voluntary nutrition labeling of raw fruit, vegetables, and fish. 101.43 Section 101.43... FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION FOOD LABELING Specific Nutrition Labeling Requirements and Guidelines § 101.43 Substantial compliance of food retailers with the guidelines for the voluntary nutrition labeling of raw...

  18. 21 CFR 101.43 - Substantial compliance of food retailers with the guidelines for the voluntary nutrition labeling...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... guidelines for the voluntary nutrition labeling of raw fruit, vegetables, and fish. 101.43 Section 101.43... FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION FOOD LABELING Specific Nutrition Labeling Requirements and Guidelines § 101.43 Substantial compliance of food retailers with the guidelines for the voluntary nutrition labeling of raw...

  19. 21 CFR 101.43 - Substantial compliance of food retailers with the guidelines for the voluntary nutrition labeling...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... guidelines for the voluntary nutrition labeling of raw fruit, vegetables, and fish. 101.43 Section 101.43... FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION FOOD LABELING Specific Nutrition Labeling Requirements and Guidelines § 101.43 Substantial compliance of food retailers with the guidelines for the voluntary nutrition labeling of raw...

  20. Plasticizers in Brazilian food-packaging materials acquired on the retail market.

    PubMed

    Freire, M T De A; Santana, I A; Reyes, F G R

    2006-01-01

    Packaging materials intended for direct food contact were acquired on the Brazilian retail market and analysed for their plasticizer content. Analyses were carried out by gas chromatography with flame ionization detection. Di-2-ethyl-hexyl adipate (DEHA), di-2-ethyl-hexyl phthalate (DEHP) and di-iso-decyl phthalate (DIDP) plasticizers were identified in films and closure seals in concentrations ranging from 12 to 19% (w/w), 15 to 44% (w/w) and 10 to 11% (w/w), respectively. Brazilian regulations state that for use with foods with a fat content above 5%, the levels of DEHP and DIDP in the plastic material should be no greater than 3%. The results obtained demonstrate a lack of conformity. It would be advisable to include information on the labels of packaging materials about their restrictions of use in order to advise manufacturers and consumers about their proper usage.

  1. Antibiotic resistance in bacterial pathogens from retail raw meats and food-producing animals in Japan.

    PubMed

    Hiroi, Midori; Kawamori, Fumihiko; Harada, Tetsuya; Sano, Yono; Miwa, Norinaga; Sugiyama, Kanji; Hara-Kudo, Yukiko; Masuda, Takashi

    2012-10-01

    To determine the prevalence and antimicrobial susceptibility profiles of Campylobacter, Salmonella, Staphylococcus aureus, methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA), and vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) in food-producing animals and retail raw meats in Japan, raw meat samples as well as food-producing animal feces, cutaneous swabs, and nasal swabs collected from 2004 to 2006 were analyzed. Isolation rates of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli, Salmonella, and S. aureus were 34.6% (363 of 1,050), 2.7% (28 of 1,050), and 32.8% (238 of 725), respectively. MRSA was isolated from 3% (9 of 300) of meat samples. No VRE were isolated in this study. Antibiotic resistance in C. coli was higher than that in C. jejuni. Three C. jejuni isolates from a patient with diarrhea in a hospital of Shizuoka Prefecture and two chicken samples that exhibited resistance to ciprofloxacin had identical pulsed-field gel electrophoresis patterns, suggesting that ciprofloxacin-resistant C. jejuni could have been distributed in meat. S. aureus isolates showed the highest level of resistance to ampicillin and tetracycline. Resistance to tetracycline in S. aureus isolates from beef was lower than that seen in isolates from chicken and pork (P < 0.01). This study revealed that the prevalence of MRSA and VRE were low in food-producing animals and retail domestic meats in Japan, although Campylobacter isolates resistant to fluoroquinolone and erythromycin were detected. The occurrence of antimicrobial-resistant pathogens should be monitored continuously to improve the management of the risks associated with antimicrobial drug resistance transferred from food-producing animals to humans.

  2. Shopping for fruits and vegetables. Food and retail qualities of importance to low-income households at the grocery store.

    PubMed

    Webber, Caroline B; Sobal, Jeffery; Dollahite, Jamie S

    2010-04-01

    Purchasing fruits and vegetables is an integral part of managing food consumption and dietary quality. This study examined how low-income adults who had primary responsibility for household food purchases considered retail produce decisions. We used a qualitative research approach based on grounded theory and an ecological conceptual framework. Twenty-eight low-income rural, village, and inner city heads of households in upstate New York, USA, were selected by purposive and theoretical sampling and interviewed about fruit and vegetable shopping habits, attitudes toward local food stores, and where and how they would prefer to buy produce. Analyses revealed their concerns were organized around five themes: store venue; internal store environment; product quality; product price; relationships with the stores. An unanticipated finding was the differing social relations that appear to exist between participant consumers, store employees and management, and the store itself as a representation of the larger retail food system. Attitudes toward retail food stores in this study are described as passive or fatalistic indifference, supportive, opportunistic, and confrontational (change agents). These attitudes are related to how shoppers considered retail fruit and vegetable choice, access, and availability. These findings suggest ways to individualize nutrition education and consumer education messages.

  3. Distribution and Molecular Characterization of Salmonella enterica Hypermutators in Retail Food in China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yin; Liu, Chongyang; Zhang, Zengfeng; Hu, Yuanyuan; Cao, Chenyang; Wang, Xin; Xi, Meili; Xia, Xiaodong; Yang, Baowei; Meng, Jianghong

    2015-08-01

    Hypermutable pathogens can easily acquire mutation opportunities, as well as antimicrobial resistance, and are tremendous hazards to food safety and public health. In this study, a total of 96 (7.6%) hypermutators were identified from 1,264 Salmonella isolates recovered from retail foods. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis analysis indicated that hypermutators were genetically diverse. Amino acid substitution of Val421Phe was detected in MutS in one hypermutator and Val246Ala in 56 other hypermutators, while no mutation in MutS was found among the remaining 39 hypermutators. Hypermutators in Salmonella isolates recovered in 2010 (9.3%) and 2008 (7.7%) were significantly more prevalent than those in 2007 (1.4%). The rate of hypermutators in mutton (22.2%) was significantly higher than that in chicken (7.9%) and pork (4.7%). In Salmonella Leimo isolates (60.0%), hypermutators were most frequently detected, followed by Salmonella Essen (50.0%), Salmonella Indiana (36.6%), Salmonella Kallo (25.0%), Salmonella Heidelberg (23.8%), Salmonella Typhimurium (14.0%), Salmonella Shubra (13.0%), Salmonella Albany (11.1%), Salmonella Agona (7.0%), Salmonella Gueuletapee (6.3%), and Salmonella Enteritidis (1.7%). Salmonella hypermutators in isolates recovered from retail food stored at ambient temperature (15.7%) were significantly more prevalent than those stored in chilled (3.1%) and frozen (5.4%) condition. The overall distributions of mutation frequencies of the 96 hypermutators (selected by rifampin) were from 2.16 × 10(-5) to 4.25 × 10(-1). Mutation frequencies of hypermutators of Salmonella Leimo, Salmonella Essen, Salmonella Kallo, and Salmonella Agona were relative low, while those of Salmonella Typhimurium, Salmonella Indiana, and Salmonella Shubra were extremely high. No significant correlation was found between mutation frequency and antimicrobial resistance of the hypermutators.

  4. A systematic review of the influence of the retail food environment around schools on obesity-related outcomes.

    PubMed

    Williams, J; Scarborough, P; Matthews, A; Cowburn, G; Foster, C; Roberts, N; Rayner, M

    2014-05-01

    The high prevalence of childhood obesity has led to questions about the influence of 'obesogenic' environments on children's health. Public health interventions targeting the retail food environment around schools have been proposed, but it is unclear if they are evidence based. This systematic review investigates associations between food outlets near schools and children's food purchases, consumption and body weight. We conducted a keyword search in 10 databases. Inclusion criteria required papers to be peer reviewed, to measure retailing around schools and to measure obesity-related outcomes among schoolchildren. Thirty papers were included. This review found very little evidence for an effect of the retail food environment surrounding schools on food purchases and consumption, but some evidence of an effect on body weight. Given the general lack of evidence for association with the mediating variables of food purchases and consumption, and the observational nature of the included studies, it is possible that the effect on body weight is a result of residual confounding. Most of the included studies did not consider individual children's journeys through the food environment, suggesting that predominant exposure measures may not account for what individual children actually experience. These findings suggest that future interventions targeting the food environment around schools need careful evaluation.

  5. Behavior analysis in consumer affairs: Retail and consumer response to publicizing food price information

    PubMed Central

    Greene, Brandon F.; Rouse, Mark; Green, Richard B.; Clay, Connie

    1984-01-01

    A popular program among consumer action groups involves publicizing comparative food price information (CFPI) gathered from retail stores. Its significance is based on the assumption that publishing CFPI maximizes retail competition (i.e., moderates price levels or price increases) and occasions more frugal store selections among consumers. We tested these assumptions during a 2-year analysis. Specifically, we monitored the prices of two distinct market baskets in the supermarkets of two midwestern cities (target and contrast cities). Following a lengthy baseline, we published the prices of only one of the market baskets at stores in the target city in the local newspaper on five different occasions. The results suggested that reductions in price inflation occurred for both market baskets at the independently operated target stores. The corporate chain stores were not similarly affected. In addition, surveys indicated that many consumers used the CFPI as a basis for store selection. Finally, the analysis included a discussion of the politics, economics, and future of CFPI programs. PMID:16795672

  6. 7 CFR 278.1 - Approval of retail food stores and wholesale food concerns.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... of foods, such as apples, cabbage, tomatoes, and squash in the fruit or vegetable staple food... limited to, different varieties of apples, cabbage, tomatoes, or squash shall not each be considered...

  7. 7 CFR 278.1 - Approval of retail food stores and wholesale food concerns.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... of foods, such as apples, cabbage, tomatoes, and squash in the fruit or vegetable staple food... limited to, different varieties of apples, cabbage, tomatoes, or squash shall not each be considered...

  8. 7 CFR 278.1 - Approval of retail food stores and wholesale food concerns.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... of foods, such as apples, cabbage, tomatoes, and squash in the fruit or vegetable staple food... limited to, different varieties of apples, cabbage, tomatoes, or squash shall not each be considered...

  9. Uncertainty analysis of the use of a retailer fidelity card scheme in the assessment of food additive intake.

    PubMed

    McNamara, C; Mehegan, J; O'Mahony, C; Safford, B; Smith, B; Tennant, D; Buck, N; Ehrlich, V; Sardi, M; Haldemann, Y; Nordmann, H; Jasti, P R

    2011-12-01

    The feasibility of using a retailer fidelity card scheme to estimate food additive intake was investigated in an earlier study. Fidelity card survey information was combined with information provided by the retailer on levels of the food colour Sunset Yellow (E110) in the foods to estimate a daily exposure to the additive in the Swiss population. As with any dietary exposure method the fidelity card scheme is subject to uncertainties and in this paper the impact of uncertainties associated with input variables including the amounts of food purchased, the levels of E110 in food, the proportion of food purchased at the retailer, the rate of fidelity card usage, the proportion of foods consumed outside of the home and bodyweights and with systematic uncertainties was assessed using a qualitative, deterministic and probabilistic approach. An analysis of the sensitivity of the results to each of the probabilistic inputs was also undertaken. The analysis identified the key factors responsible for uncertainty within the model and demonstrated how the application of some simple probabilistic approaches can be used quantitatively to assess uncertainty.

  10. Evaluating the effectiveness of food recalls in retail establishments in New York City.

    PubMed

    Hanson, Heather; Reddy, Vasudha; Bauer, Melissa; Stich, Stephen; Kidoguchi, Lara; Luker, John; Sebek, Kim; Sawyer, Erin; Balter, Sharon

    2011-01-01

    Information on how promptly food recalls of U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-regulated products are disseminated to retailers is not well documented. Store managers were surveyed after recalls were declared to estimate the proportion aware of a recall, to describe the methods by which they learned of the recall, and to ascertain how they would prefer to be notified of recalls in the future. From 1 January 2008 to 31 December 2009, we identified FDA Class I products recalled because of potential contamination with an infectious agent such as Salmonella, which were sold in New York City. After each recall, a sample of retailers who carried the products was contacted, a standardized questionnaire was administered to store managers, and a sample of stores was inspected to determine if the product had been removed. Among nine recalls evaluated, 85 % (range, 12 to 100 % ) of managers were aware of the recall affecting a product at their store. Chain store managers were more aware of recalls than were independent store managers (93 versus 78%, P < 0.0001). More chain store managers first heard about the recall via e-mail as compared with independent store managers (35 versus 4%, P < 0.0001). E-mail notification was preferred by large chain store managers (38 versus 8%, P < 0.0001); on inspection, chain stores were more likely to have removed the item than were independent stores (85 versus 56%, P = 0.0071). Although recall information reaches many stores, faster electronic notifications are not effective at reaching small, independent stores, which may lack computers or fax machines. Alternate means to disseminate recall notifications rapidly are needed for stores without electronic communication capabilities.

  11. Efflux pump-mediated benzalkonium chloride resistance in Listeria monocytogenes isolated from retail food.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Xiaobing; Yu, Tao; Liang, Yu; Ji, Shengdong; Guo, Xiaowei; Ma, Jianmin; Zhou, Lijun

    2016-01-18

    In this study, efflux pump-mediated benzalkonium chloride (BC) resistance, including plasmid-encoded (Qac protein family and BcrABC) and chromosome-borne efflux pumps, was investigated in Listeria monocytogenes from retail food in China. Among the 59 L. monocytogenes strains, 13 (22.0%) strains were resistant to BC. The PCR results showed that bcrABC was harbored by 2 of 13 BC resistant strains. However, none of the qac genes were detected among the 59 strains. The bcrABC was absent in both of the plasmid cured strains, indicating that this BC resistance determinant was plasmid-encoded in the two bcrABC-positive strains. In the presence of reserpine, most of the bcrABC-negative strains had decreases in the MICs of BC, suggesting the existence of other efflux pumps and their role in BC resistance. After exposed to reserpine, the reduction in BC MICs was observed in the two cured strains, indicating that efflux pumps located on chromosome was also involved in BC resistance. Our findings suggest that food products may act as reservoirs for BC resistant isolates of L. monocytogenes and plasmid- and chromosome-encoded efflux pumps could mediate the BC resistance of L. monocytogenes, which is especially relevant to the adaption of this organism in food-related environments with frequent BC use.

  12. Robustness of an Intermittent Program of Comparative Retail Food Price Information.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dahlgran, Roger A.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    The distribution of food item prices was compared across Tucson-area stores and to a local newspaper's annual price survey. Price distributions for national brands and cheapest alternative brands coincided closely with the newspaper report, suggesting that comparative food-store price reports provide useful information to consumers. (SK)

  13. Quantitative exposure model for the transmission of norovirus in retail food preparation.

    PubMed

    Mokhtari, Amirhossein; Jaykus, Lee-Ann

    2009-07-31

    It is widely recognized that the human noroviruses (HuNoV) are responsible for a large proportion of the world's foodborne disease burden. These viruses are transmitted by human fecal contamination and frequently make their way into foods because of poor personal hygiene of infected food handlers. This paper describes a probabilistic exposure assessment which models the dynamics of the transmission of HuNoV in the retail food preparation environment. Key inputs included degree of fecal shedding, hand hygiene behaviors, efficacy of virus removal and/or inactivation, and transferability of virus between surfaces. The model has a temporal dimension allowing contamination to be estimated as a function of time over the simulation period. Sensitivity and what-if scenario analyses were applied to identify the most important model inputs and evaluate potential mitigation strategies. The key inputs affecting estimates of the number of infectious viruses present in contaminated food servings, given the current model structure and assumptions, were as follows: mass of feces on hands (m(FH)), concentration of virus in feces (nv(CF)), number of bathroom visits, degree of gloving compliance (p(WG)), hand-washing efficiency (HW(eff)), and hand-washing compliance (p(HW)). The model suggests that gloving and hand-washing compliance are most effective in controlling contamination of food products when practiced simultaneously. Moreover, the bathroom environment was identified as a major reservoir of HuNoV, even in the absence of an ill individual on site. This mathematical approach to modeling the transmission of gastrointestinal viruses should facilitate comparison of potential mitigations aimed at reducing the transmission of foodborne viruses.

  14. 7 CFR 278.1 - Approval of retail food stores and wholesale food concerns.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ..., stores selling only accessory foods, including spices, candy, soft drinks, tea, or coffee; ice cream... amount equal to ten percent of the average monthly food stamp benefit redemption volume of the applicant... benefits shall in addition to meeting the requirements of paragraphs (a), (b) and (d)(1) of this...

  15. Listeria monocytogenes Prevalence and Characteristics in Retail Raw Foods in China.

    PubMed

    Wu, Shi; Wu, Qingping; Zhang, Jumei; Chen, Moutong; Yan, Ze An; Hu, Huijuan

    2015-01-01

    The prevalence and levels of Listeria monocytogenes in retail raw foods covering most provincial capitals in China were studied with testing of 1036 samples of vegetables, edible mushrooms, raw meat, aquatic products and quick-frozen products from September 2012 to January 2014. The total prevalence of Listeria monocytogenes was 20.0% (207/1036), and the most probable number (MPN) values of 65.7% of the positive samples ranged from 0.3 to 110 MPN/g. Geographical differences were observed in this survey, and the results of both qualitative and quantitative methods indicated that the levels in the samples from North China were higher than those in the samples from South China. A total of 248 isolates were analyzed, of which approximately half belonged to molecular serogroup 1/2a-3a (45.2%), followed by 1/2b-3b-7 (30.6%), 1/2c-3c (16.1%), 4b-4d-4e (5.2%) and 4a-4c (2.8%). Most of the isolates carried hly (100%), inlB (98.8%), inlA (99.6%), inlC (98.0%) and inlJ (99.2%), and 44.8% of the isolates were llsX-positive. Seventeen epidemic clones (ECs) were detected, with 7 strains belonging to ECI (2.8%) and 10 belonging to ECIII (4.03%). Resistance to clindamycin (46.8%) was commonly observed, and 59 strains (23.8%) were susceptible to all 14 tested antibiotics, whereas 84 (33.9%) showed an intermediate level of resistance or were resistant to two or more antibiotics, including 7 multi-resistant strains that exhibited resistance to more than 10 antibiotics. The data obtained in the present study provides useful information for assessment of the possible risk posed to Chinese consumers, and this information will have a significant public health impact in China. Furthermore, the presence of virulence markers, epidemic clones, as well as the antibiotic resistance amongst the isolates strongly implies that many of these strains might be capable of causing listeriosis, and more accurate treatment of human listeriosis with effective antibiotics should be considered. This

  16. 7 CFR 278.1 - Approval of retail food stores and wholesale food concerns.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ..., stores selling only accessory foods, including spices, candy, soft drinks, tea, or coffee; ice cream vendors selling solely ice cream; and specialty doughnut shops or bakeries not selling bread. In...

  17. Isolation, molecular and phenotypic characterization, and antibiotic susceptibility of Cronobacter spp. from Brazilian retail foods.

    PubMed

    Brandão, Marcelo Luiz Lima; Umeda, Natália Scudeller; Jackson, Emily; Forsythe, Stephen James; de Filippis, Ivano

    2017-05-01

    Several Cronobacter species are opportunistic pathogens that cause infections in humans. The aim of this study was to detect Cronobacter spp. from 90 samples of retail foods in Brazil, and characterize the strains by phenotypic tests, molecular assays and antibiotic susceptibility. Three isolation methodologies were evaluated using different selective enrichments and the isolates were identified using Vitek 2.0, PCRs protocols, fusA allele sequencing and multilocus sequence typing (MLST). Thirty-eight samples (42.2%) contained Cronobacter spp., and the highest percentage was found in flours (66.7%, 20/30), followed by spices and herbs (36.7%, 11/30), and cereal mixes for children (23.3%, 7/30). The 45 isolates included four species: C. sakazakii (n = 37), C. malonaticus (n = 3), C. dublinensis (n = 3), and C. muytjensii (n = 2); that presented 20 different fusA alleles. MLST analysis revealed 32 sequence types (STs), 13 of which were newly identified. All strains were sensitive to all antibiotics (n = 10) tested. The combination of CSB/v enrichment with DFI plating was considered the most efficient for Cronobacter spp. isolation. This study revealed the presence of Cronobacter spp. in foods commercialized in Brazil and the isolates showed a high diversity after MLST analysis and included two strains of the C. sakazakii ST4 neonatal meningitic pathovar.

  18. Development of sample handling procedures for foods under USDA’s National Food and Nutrient Analysis Program

    PubMed Central

    Trainer, D.; Pehrsson, P.R.; Haytowitz, D.B.; Holden, J.M.; Phillips, K.M.; Rasor, A.S.; Conley, N.A.

    2010-01-01

    The National Food and Nutrient Analysis Program (NFNAP) was implemented in 1997 to update and improve the quality of food composition data maintained by the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA). NFNAP was designed to sample and analyze frequently consumed foods in the U.S. food supply using statistically rigorous sampling plans, established sample handling procedures, and qualified analytical laboratories. Methods for careful handling of food samples from acquisition to analysis were developed to ensure the integrity of the samples and subsequent generation of accurate nutrient values. The infrastructure of NFNAP, under which over 1500 foods have been sampled, mandates tested sample handling protocols for a wide variety of foods. The majority of these foods were categorized into several major areas: 1) frozen foods; 2) fresh produce and/or highly perishable foods requiring refrigeration; 3) fast foods and prepared foods; 4) shelf-stable foods; 5) specialized study and non-retail (point of production) foods; and 6) foods from remote areas (e.g. American Indian reservations). This paper describes the sample handling approaches, from the collection and receipt of the food items to the preparation of the analytical samples, with emphasis on the strategies developed for those foods. It provides a foundation for developing sample handling protocols of foods to be analyzed under NFNAP and for other researchers working on similar projects. PMID:21516233

  19. Prevalence and characterization of methicillin susceptible Staphylococcus aureus ST398 isolates from retail foods.

    PubMed

    Li, Guanghui; Wu, Congming; Wang, Xin; Meng, Jianghong

    2015-03-02

    In this study, we explored the prevalence of Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) ST398 in retail foods and then investigated for their virulence and antimicrobial resistance genetic background. Fourteen out of 5103 (0.27%) samples were positive for methicillin susceptible S. aureus (MSSA) ST398. Resistance was most frequently observed to penicillin (PEN) (100%), followed by trimethoprim (TMP), erythromycin (ERY) and ampicillin (AMP) (each 86.7%), clindamycin (CLD, 80.0%), and tetracycline (TET, 26.7%). All ST398 isolates were susceptible to amikacin, chloramphenicol, cefoxitin, gentamicin, oxacillin, and vancomycin. Two predominant resistance patterns including TMP-ERY-CLD-PEN-AMP (60.0%) and TMP-ERY-TET-CLD-PEN-AMP (20.0%) were identified. Isolates harbored blaZ (86.7%) gene, followed by tet(L) and linA/linA' (each 46.7%), ermB and msrA (each 33.3%), aph(3')-IIIa and dfrK (each 26.7%), tet(K) (20.0%), ant(4')-Ia, ermA and emrC (each 13.3%) and cat::pC221 (6.7%). No isolate carried mecA, tet(M), tet(O), fexA, aac(6')/aph(2″), cfr, ermT, msrB, cat::pC194, cat::pC223, catpIp-501, dfrD, dfrG and dfrS1 genes. For virulence genes, hld (73.3%), seb and sed (each 66.7%), hla (60.0%), lukPV (33.3%), sej (26.7%), lukED and seg (each 3.3%) were detected. None of isolates contained sea, sec, see, seh, sei, tst, eta, etb, sek-ser, seu, lukM, hlg, and hlgv genes. Four spa types were found, including t571 (6/15), t034 (4/15), t2876 (3/15) and t1250 (2/15). All strains were non-typeable for agr locus. Our findings indicated that MSSA ST398 isolates had a low prevalence rate in retail foods, and these isolates harbored multiple virulence and antimicrobial resistance genes, and exhibited multiple antimicrobial resistance. Further studies are required to elucidate the possible role of MSSA ST398 as a source of human infection.

  20. Is the Nutrition North Canada retail subsidy program meeting the goal of making nutritious and perishable food more accessible and affordable in the North?

    PubMed

    Galloway, Tracey

    2014-08-21

    The Nutrition North Canada program is a federal retail subsidy designed to make nutritious, perishable food more widely available and affordable in northern communities. Implemented in April 2011, Nutrition North replaced the Food Mail freight subsidy long used to offset the high cost of transporting perishable food to remote towns and villages lacking year-round road access. An examination of program and government reporting to date reveals little evidence that Nutrition North is meeting its goal of improving the availability and affordability of nutritious food. The fiscal reporting and food costing tools used by the program are insufficiently detailed to evaluate the accuracy of community subsidy rates and the degree to which retailers are passing on the subsidy to consumers. Action is needed to modify the program reporting structure to achieve greater accountability among retailers, and lower and more consistent food pricing across northern communities.

  1. Added sugar in the packaged foods and beverages available at a major Canadian retailer in 2015: a descriptive analysis

    PubMed Central

    Acton, Rachel B.; Vanderlee, Lana; Hobin, Erin P.; Hammond, David

    2017-01-01

    Background: Excess consumption of added sugars has been associated with a variety of health problems, but there is little information available characterizing added sugar in the Canadian food supply. This study examined the presence and types of added sugars in the packaged food and beverage products available at a major Canadian grocery retailer. Methods: We searched the ingredients lists of over 40 000 packaged food products available for sale in March 2015 for a variety of added sugar terms. Proportions of food products containing added sugar were identified overall and within food product categories. Differences in total sugar content were identified between food products with and without added sugar. Results: Overall, 66% of the packaged food products analyzed contained at least 1 added sugar. The added sugar term "sugar" (and its variations) appeared the most frequently, followed by "dextrose." Added sugar presence and total sugar content varied within many product categories but were consistently higher in expected categories such as "beverages." Mean total sugar content was significantly higher in products with added sugar than in those without, both overall (p < 0.001) and within most product subcategories (p < 0.02). Interpretation: About two-thirds of the packaged foods and beverages available at a major Canadian grocery retailer contain added sugar, similar to recent patterns estimated for the US food supply. The results provide an estimation of the baseline characterization of added sugar in the Canadian food supply, which can be used to assess outcomes of future changes to sugar labelling policies in Canada.

  2. Occurrence and Characterization of Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) in Retail Ready-to-Eat Foods in China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shuhong; Wu, Qingping; Zhang, Jumei; Zhu, Xuemei

    2016-01-01

    Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) is an important foodborne pathogen that potentially causes infant and adult diarrhea. The occurrence and characteristics of EPEC in retail ready-to-eat (RTE) foods have not been thoroughly investigated in China. This study aimed to investigate EPEC occurrence in retail RTE foods sold in the markets of China and to characterize the isolated EPEC by serotyping, virulence gene analyses, antibiotic susceptibility test, and molecular typing based on enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus-polymerase chain reaction (ERIC-PCR). From May 2012 to April 2013, 459 RTE food samples were collected from retail markets in 24 cities of China. E. coli in general, and EPEC specifically, were detected in 144 (31.4%) and 39 (8.5%) samples, respectively. Cold vegetable in sauce was the food type most frequently contaminated with EPEC (18.6%). Of 39 EPEC isolates, 38 were atypical EPEC (eae+) and 1 was typical EPEC (eae+bfpA+) by multiplex PCR assays. The virulence genes espA, espB, tir, and iha were detected in 12, 9, 2, and 1 of 39 isolates, respectively, while genes toxB, etpD, katP, and saa were not detected. O-antigen serotyping results showed that among 28 typeable isolates, the most common serotype was O119, followed by O26, O111, and O128. Many isolates were resistant to tetracycline (64.1%; 25/39), ampicillin (48.7%; 19/39), and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (48.7%; 19/39). ERIC-PCR indicated high genetic diversity in EPEC strains, which classified 42 strains (39 isolates and 3 reference strains) into 32 different profiles with a discrimination index of 0.981. The findings of this study highlight the need for close surveillance of the RTE foods at the level of production, packaging, and storage to minimize risks of foodborne disease.

  3. The personal and general hygiene practices of food handlers in the delicatessen sections of retail outlets in South Africa.

    PubMed

    van Tonder, Izanne; Lues, Jan F R; Theron, Maria M

    2007-11-01

    This paper presents data on personal- and general-hygiene knowledge and practices among food handlers in the delicatessens of a major retail group in the Western Cape in South Africa. Food handlers were interviewed by means of a structured questionnaire. Although the majority of food handlers adhered to basic hygiene principles, there is definitely a need for proper and continuous training in personal and general hygiene, not only for food handlers, but also for management. The study reported here is of importance particularly in view of new local regulations governing the application of the hazard analysis and critical control point (HACCP) system. Management is responsible for the implementation of this system, and where supervision is not adequate, the manager of the outlet should intervene to ensure that staff conform to the requirements.

  4. Retail Commodity Intakes: Mean Amounts of Retail Commodities per Individual, 2007-08

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The table set includes national estimates in terms of mean gram amounts of retail commodities consumed per person estimated from the day 1 dietary intake data of 8,528 individuals, ages 2 years and over, in What We Eat In America, National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2007-2008 and Food ...

  5. Retail Commodity Intakes: Mean Amounts of Retail Commodities per Individual, 2005-06

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The table set includes national estimates in terms of mean gram amounts of retail commodities consumed per person estimated from the day 1 dietary intake data of 8,549 individuals, ages 2 years and over, in What We Eat In America, National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2005-2006 and Food ...

  6. Retail Commodity Intakes: Mean Amounts of Retail Commodities per Individual, 2003-04

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The table set includes national estimates in terms of mean gram amounts of retail commodities consumed per person estimated from the day 1 dietary intake data of 8,272 individuals, ages 2 years and over, in What We Eat In America, National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2003-2004 and Food ...

  7. Life Cycle Inventory and Carbon and Water FoodPrint of Fruits and Vegetables: Application to a Swiss Retailer

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Food production and consumption is known to have significant environmental impacts. In the present work, the life cycle assessment methodology is used for the environmental assessment of an assortment of 34 fruits and vegetables of a large Swiss retailer, with the aim of providing environmental decision-support to the retailer and establishing life cycle inventories (LCI) also applicable to other case studies. The LCI includes, among others, seedling production, farm machinery use, fuels for the heating of greenhouses, irrigation, fertilizers, pesticides, storage and transport to and within Switzerland. The results show that the largest reduction of environmental impacts can be achieved by consuming seasonal fruits and vegetables, followed by reduction of transport by airplane. Sourcing fruits and vegetables locally is only a good strategy to reduce the carbon footprint if no greenhouse heating with fossil fuels is involved. The impact of water consumption depends on the location of agricultural production. For some crops a trade-off between the carbon footprint and the induced water stress is observed. The results were used by the retailer to support the purchasing decisions and improve the supply chain management. PMID:22309056

  8. Prevalence, levels, and relatedness of Listeria monocytogenes isolated from raw and ready-to-eat foods at retail markets in Culiacan, Sinaloa, Mexico

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The prevalence, levels, and relatedness of Listeria monocytogenes (LM) strains isolated from select raw and ready-to-eat (RTE) foods at retail markets in Culiacan, Sinaloa, Mexico were determined during 2011. LM was isolated from 26 (14.4%) of 180 food samples. Raw chicken breast showed the highest ...

  9. Prevalence of Staphylococcus aureus and Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus in Retail Ready-to-Eat Foods in China

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Xiaojuan; Zhang, Jumei; Yu, Shubo; Wu, Qingping; Guo, Weipeng; Huang, Jiahui; Cai, Shuzhen

    2016-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus, particularly methicillin-resistant S.aureus (MRSA), is a life-threatening pathogen in humans, and its presence in food is a public health concern. MRSA has been identified in foods in China, but little information is available regarding MRSA in ready-to-eat (RTE) foods. We aimed to investigate the prevalence of S. aureus and MRSA in Chinese retail RTE foods. All isolated S. aureus were tested for antimicrobial susceptibility, and MRSA isolates were further characterized by multilocus sequence typing (MLST) and staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec) typing. Of the 550 RTE foods collected from 2011 to 2014, 69 (12.5%) were positive for S. aureus. Contamination levels were mostly in the range of 0.3–10 most probable number (MPN)/g, with five samples exceeding 10 MPN/g. Of the 69 S. aureus isolates, seven were identified as MRSA by cefoxitin disc diffusion test. Six isolates were mecA-positive, while no mecC-positive isolates were identified. In total, 75.8% (47/62) of the methicillin-susceptible S. aureus isolates and all of the MRSA isolates were resistant to three or more antibiotics. Amongst the MRSA isolates, four were identified as community-acquired strains (ST59-MRSA-IVa (n = 2), ST338-MRSA-V, ST1-MRSA-V), while one was a livestock-associated strain (ST9, harboring an unreported SCCmec type 2C2). One novel sequence type was identified (ST3239), the SCCmec gene of which could not be typed. Overall, our findings showed that Chinese retail RTE foods are likely vehicles for transmission of multidrug-resistant S. aureus and MRSA lineages. This is a serious public health risk and highlights the need to implement good hygiene practices. PMID:27375562

  10. 75 FR 55310 - Performance of Registration Functions by National Futures Association With Respect to Retail...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-10

    ... to off-exchange retail forex transactions.\\2\\ The ] Commodity Exchange Act (``Act''),\\3\\ as amended... participate in off-exchange forex contracts, who pool customer money for the purpose of trading off-exchange... counterparties to retail forex typically registered as FCMs, even though they may not have engaged in...

  11. Fast Food Jobs. National Study of Fast Food Employment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Charner, Ivan; Fraser, Bryna Shore

    A study examined employment in the fast-food industry. The national survey collected data from employees at 279 fast-food restaurants from seven companies. Female employees outnumbered males by two to one. The ages of those fast-food employees in the survey sample ranged from 14 to 71, with fully 70 percent being in the 16- to 20-year-old age…

  12. Do the foods advertised in Australian supermarket catalogues reflect national dietary guidelines?

    PubMed

    Cameron, Adrian J; Sayers, Stacey J; Sacks, Gary; Thornton, Lukar E

    2015-09-16

    Unhealthy diets are the major contributor to poor health in Australia and many countries globally. The majority of food spending in Australia occurs in supermarkets, which stock and sell both healthy and unhealthy foods. This study aimed to compare the foods advertised in the marketing catalogues (circulars) from four Australian supermarket chains with the Australian Guide to Healthy Eating. The content of national online weekly supermarket catalogues from four major Australian supermarket retailers was audited from June-September 2013 (12 weeks). Advertised products were categorized as (i) foods in the five core food groups (plus water); (ii) discretionary foods plus fats and oils; (iii) alcohol and (iv) other (food not fitting into any other category). Across all chains combined, 34.2% of foods advertised were from the five core food groups, 43.3% were discretionary foods, 8.5% were alcohol and the remaining 14.0% were 'other' foods. The percentage of advertised foods in the five core food groups varied between 29.3 and 38.3% across the four chains, whereas the percentage of discretionary foods varied between 34.8 and 49.0%. Australian supermarket catalogues heavily promote discretionary foods and contribute towards an environment that supports unhealthy eating behaviour. Strategies to increase the ratio of healthy-to-unhealthy foods need to be explored as part of efforts to improve population diets.

  13. Exploring the relationship between nature sounds, connectedness to nature, mood and willingness to buy sustainable food: A retail field experiment.

    PubMed

    Spendrup, Sara; Hunter, Erik; Isgren, Ellinor

    2016-05-01

    Nature sounds are increasingly used by some food retailers to enhance in-store ambiance and potentially even influence sustainable food choices. An in-store, 2 × 3 between-subject full factorial experiment conducted on 627 customers over 12 days tested whether nature sound directly and indirectly influenced willingness to buy (WTB) sustainable foods. The results show that nature sounds positively and directly influence WTB organic foods in groups of customers (men) that have relatively low initial intentions to buy. Indirectly, we did not find support for the effect of nature sound on influencing mood or connectedness to nature (CtN). However, we show that information on the product's sustainability characteristics moderates the relationship between CtN and WTB in certain groups. Namely, when CtN is high, sustainability information positively moderated WTB both organic and climate friendly foods in men. Conversely, when CtN was low, men expressed lower WTB organic and climate friendly foods than identical, albeit conventionally labelled products. Consequently, our study concludes that nature sounds might be an effective, yet subtle in-store tool to use on groups of consumers who might otherwise respond negatively to more overt forms of sustainable food information.

  14. Migration from plasticized films into foods. 3. Migration of phthalate, sebacate, citrate and phosphate esters from films used for retail food packaging.

    PubMed

    Castle, L; Mercer, A J; Startin, J R; Gilbert, J

    1988-01-01

    A UK survey of plasticizer levels in retail foods (73 samples) wrapped in plasticized films or materials with plasticized coatings has been carried out. A wide range of different food-types packaged in vinylidene chloride copolymers (PVDC), nitrocellulose-coated regenerated cellulose film (RCF) and cellulose acetate were purchased from retail and 'take-away' outlets. Plasticizers found in these films were dibutyl sebacate (DBS) and acetyl tributyl citrate (ATBC) in PVDC, dibutyl phthalate (DBP), dicyclohexyl phthalate (DCHP), butylbenzyl phthalate (BBP), and diphenyl 2-ethylhexyl phosphate (DPOP) in RCF coatings, and diethyl phthlate (DEP) in cellulose acetate. Foodstuffs analysed included cheese, pate, chocolate and confectionery products, meat pies, cake, quiches and sandwiches. Analysis was by stable isotope dilution GC/MS for DBP, DCHP and DEP, GC/MS (selected ion monitoring) for BBP and DPOP, and GC with flame ionization detection for DBS and ATBC, but with mass spectrometric confirmation. Levels of plasticizers found in foods were in the following ranges: ATBC in cheese, 2-8 mg/kg; DBS in processed cheese and cooked meats, 76-137 mg/kg; 76-137 mg/kg; DBP, DCHP, BBP, and DPOP found individually or in combination in confectionery, meat pies, cake and sandwiches, total levels from 0.5 to 53 mg/kg; and DEP in quiches, 2-4 mg/kg.

  15. Characterizing the Food Retail Environment: Impact of Count, Type and Geospatial Error in Two Secondary Data Sources

    PubMed Central

    Liese, Angela D.; Barnes, Timothy L.; Lamichhane, Archana P.; Hibbert, James D.; Colabianchi, Natalie; Lawson, Andrew B.

    2013-01-01

    Objective Commercial listings of food retail outlets are increasingly used by community members, food policy councils, and in multi-level intervention research to identify areas with limited access to healthier food. This study quantified the amount of count, type and geospatial error in two commercial data sources. Methods InfoUSA and Dun & Bradstreet (D&B) were compared to a validated field census and validity statistics calculated. Results Considering only completeness, D&B data undercounted 24% of existing supermarkets and grocery stores and InfoUSA 29%. Additionally, considering accuracy of outlet type assignment increased the undercount error to 42% and 39%, respectively. Marked overcount existed as well and only 43% of existing supermarkets were correctly identified with respect to presence, outlet type, and location. Conclusions and Implications Relying exclusively on secondary data to characterize the food environment will result in substantial error. While extensive data cleaning can offset some error, verification of outlets with a field census is still the method of choice. PMID:23582231

  16. 78 FR 51136 - Request for Information: Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) Enhancing Retail Food...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-20

    .... (2) ``Staple foods'' do not include accessory food items, such as coffee, tea, cocoa, carbonated and... limited to, coffee, tea, cocoa, carbonated and un-carbonated drinks, candy, condiments, and spices shall... be purchased with food stamp benefits. USDA FNS Policy: ``Accessory food items include coffee,...

  17. Monitoring the health-related labelling of foods and non-alcoholic beverages in retail settings.

    PubMed

    Rayner, M; Wood, A; Lawrence, M; Mhurchu, C N; Albert, J; Barquera, S; Friel, S; Hawkes, C; Kelly, B; Kumanyika, S; L'abbé, M; Lee, A; Lobstein, T; Ma, J; Macmullan, J; Mohan, S; Monteiro, C; Neal, B; Sacks, G; Sanders, D; Snowdon, W; Swinburn, B; Vandevijvere, S; Walker, C

    2013-10-01

    Food labelling on food packaging has the potential to have both positive and negative effects on diets. Monitoring different aspects of food labelling would help to identify priority policy options to help people make healthier food choices. A taxonomy of the elements of health-related food labelling is proposed. A systematic review of studies that assessed the nature and extent of health-related food labelling has been conducted to identify approaches to monitoring food labelling. A step-wise approach has been developed for independently assessing the nature and extent of health-related food labelling in different countries and over time. Procedures for sampling the food supply, and collecting and analysing data are proposed, as well as quantifiable measurement indicators and benchmarks for health-related food labelling.

  18. 75 FR 53316 - Draft Guidance for Food and Drug Administration Staff and Tobacco Retailers on Civil Money...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-31

    ... Tobacco Retailers on Civil Money Penalties and No-Tobacco-Sale Orders for Tobacco Retailers; Availability...) is announcing the availability of a draft guidance entitled ``Civil Money Penalties and No-Tobacco... policies with respect to civil money penalties and no-tobacco-sale orders for retailers who...

  19. A national survey of the microbiological quality of retail raw meats in Australia.

    PubMed

    Phillips, David; Jordan, David; Morris, Stephen; Jenson, Ian; Sumner, John

    2008-06-01

    A national survey of the microbiology of meat (ground beef and diced lamb) at the retail level in Australia was undertaken. For ground beef samples (n = 360), the mean aerobic plate count (APC) was 5.79 log CFU/g, and Escherichia coli was detected in 17.8% of samples; the mean population for these positive samples was 1.49 log CFU/g. Enterobacteriaceae were detected in 96.9% of samples (mean for positive samples, 3.01 log CFU/g), and coagulase-positive staphylococci were detected in 28.1% of samples (mean for positive samples, 2.18 log CFU/g). For diced lamb samples (n = 360), the mean APC was 5.71 log CFU/g, and E. coli was detected in 16.7% of samples (mean for positive samples, 1.67 log CFU/g). Enterobacteriaceae were detected in 91.1% of samples (mean for positive samples, 2.85 log CFU/g), and coagulase-positive staphylococci were detected in 22.5% of samples (mean for positive samples, 2.34 log CFU/g). Salmonella was recovered from 4 (1.1%) of the 360 ground beef samples (isolates were Salmonella Typhimurium phage types), and E. coli O157 was recovered from 1 (0.3%) of 357 samples; Campylobacter and Clostridium perfringens were not recovered from any of the 91 and 94 samples tested, respectively. Salmonella was recovered from 2 (0.6%) of the 360 diced lamb samples (serovars were Salmonella Infantis and Salmonella Typhimurium), Campylobacter was recovered from 1 (1.1%) of 95 samples, and C. perfringens was recovered from 1 (1.1%) of 92 samples.

  20. Qualitative and quantitative detection of human pathogenic Yersinia enterocolitica in different food matrices at retail level in Bavaria.

    PubMed

    Messelhäusser, Ute; Kämpf, Peter; Colditz, Janine; Bauer, Hans; Schreiner, Hermann; Höller, Christiane; Busch, Ulrich

    2011-01-01

    Yersinia enterocolitica is a major foodborne pathogen and the third most important bacteriological cause of diarrhea in Germany. However, studies investigating the occurrence of human pathogenic Y. enterocolitica in food at the retail level are very rare. Most of the studies published so far show qualitative but not quantitative data concerning the prevalence of this human pathogen. In this study the qualitative and quantitative assessment of human pathogenic Y. enterocolitica in different food matrices was investigated. For the qualitative analysis we used an enrichment method according to the International Organisation of Standardization (ISO) standard in combination with a real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method detecting the ail gene of Y. enterocolitica. After detecting Y. enterocolitica in a sample, a quantitative investigation on Cefsulodin-Irgasan-Novobiocin (CIN) Agar was done to get information about the contamination level of the different samples. During the years 2008 and 2009, 446 samples of pork and pork products, 51 samples of game meat, and 61 raw milk samples were investigated for the presence of human pathogenic Y. enterocolitica. The samples were collected at the retail level in Bavaria. From the pork samples investigated, 81 samples (18%) were positive for the ail gene by real-time PCR, but human pathogenic Y. enterocolitica O:3 were found only in 46 (10%) pork samples by culture; the concentration in the samples ranged between 0.04 cfu/g and 2.30 × 10(5) cfu/g. Three game meat samples were positive by real-time PCR, but not by the cultural detection. All raw milk samples were negative by real-time PCR and culture.

  1. Lack of Healthy Food in Small-Size to Mid-Size Retailers Participating in the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program, Minneapolis–St. Paul, Minnesota, 2014

    PubMed Central

    Caspi, Caitlin E.; Pelletier, Jennifer E.; Friebur, Robin; Harnack, Lisa J.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The US Department of Agriculture has stocking criteria for healthy foods among Supplemental Nutrition Assistant Program (SNAP)-authorized retailers. Increased access to healthy food could improve diet quality among SNAP participants, which has implications for chronic disease prevention. The objective of this study was to quantify healthy foods stocked in small-size to mid-size retailers who are authorized under SNAP but not under the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC). Methods We used formative, cross-sectional data from a large policy evaluation to conduct secondary analyses. Store audits were conducted in 2014 in 91 randomly selected, licensed food stores in Minneapolis and St. Paul, Minnesota. Supermarkets and retailers participating in WIC, which are required to stock healthy foods, were excluded as were other stores not reasonably expected to stock staple foods, such as specialty stores or produce stands. Availability of milk, fruits, vegetables, and whole-grain–rich foods was assessed. Results The 91 stores studied were corner stores, food–gas marts, dollar stores, and pharmacies. More than half carried 1 or more varieties of fat-free or low-fat milk, fresh or canned fruit, and whole-grain–rich cereal. However, only one-third stocked 1 or more varieties of fresh vegetables and only one-quarter stocked whole-grain–rich products, such as whole-grain-rich bread (26%) or tortillas (21%) or brown rice (25%). Few stores stocked at least 2 varieties of each product. Conclusions Many stores did not stock a variety of healthy foods. The US Department of Agriculture should change policies to improve minimum stocking requirements for SNAP-authorized retailers. PMID:26312380

  2. Retail ready-to-eat food as a potential vehicle for Staphylococcus spp. harboring antibiotic resistance genes.

    PubMed

    Chajęcka-Wierzchowska, Wioleta; Zadernowska, Anna; Nalepa, Beata; Sierpińska, Magda; Laniewska-Trokenheim, Lucja

    2014-06-01

    Ready-to-eat (RTE) food, which does not need thermal processing before consumption, could be a vehicle for the spread of antibiotic-resistant microorganisms. As part of general microbiological safety checks, staphylococci are routinely enumerated in these kinds of foods. However, the presence of antibiotic-resistant staphylococci in RTE food is not routinely investigated, and data are only available from a small number of studies. The present study evaluated the pheno- and genotypical antimicrobial resistance profile of Staphylococcus spp. isolated from 858 RTE foods (cheeses, cured meats, sausages, smoked fishes, salads). Of 113 strains isolated, S. aureus was the most prevalent species, followed by S. xylosus, S. saprophyticus, and S. epidermidis. More than half (54.9%) of the isolates were resistant to at least one class of tested antibiotic; of these, 35.4% of the strains were classified as multidrug resistant. Most of the isolates were resistant to cefoxitin (49.6%), followed by clindamycin (39.3%), tigecycline (27.4%), quinupristin-dalfopristin (22.2%), rifampin (20.5%), tetracycline (17.9%), and erythromycin (8.5%). All methicillin-resistant staphylococci harbored the mecA gene. Among the isolates resistant to at least one antibiotic, 38 harbored tetracycline resistance determinant tet (M), 24 harbored tet (L), and 9 harbored tet (K). Of the isolates positive for tet (M) genes, 34.2% were positive for the Tn916-Tn1545-like integrase family gene. Our results indicated that retail RTE food could be considered an important route for the transmission of antibiotic-resistant bacteria harboring multiple antibiotic resistance genes.

  3. The food retail revolution in China and its association with diet and health

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Yijing; Du, Shufa; Su, Chang; Zhang, Bing; Wang, Huijun; Popkin, Barry M.

    2015-01-01

    The processed food sector in low- and middle-income countries has grown rapidly. Little is understood about its effect on obesity. Using data from 14,976 participants aged two and older in the 2011 China Health and Nutrition Survey, this paper examines patterns of processed food consumption and their impacts on obesity while considering the endogeneity of those who purchase processed foods. A major assumption of our analysis of the impact of processed foods on overweight and obesity was that the consumption of processed foods is endogenous due to their accessibility and urbanicity levels. The results show that 74.5% of participants consumed processed foods, excluding edible oils and other condiments; 28.5% of participants' total daily energy intake (EI) was from processed foods. Children and teenagers in megacities had the highest proportion of EI (40.2%) from processed foods. People who lived in megacities or highly urbanized neighborhoods with higher incomes and educational achievement consumed more processed foods. When controlling for endogeneity, only the body mass index (BMI) and risk of being overweight of children ages two to eighteen are adversely associated with processed foods (+4.97 BMI units, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.66–8.28; odds ratio (OR) = 3.63, 95% CI: 1.45–9.13). Processed food purchases represent less than a third of current Chinese food purchases. However, processed food purchases are growing at the rate of 50% per year, and we must begin to understand the implications for the future. PMID:26217068

  4. National Apprenticeship and Training Standards for Associated Retail Bakers of America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Associated Retail Bakers of America, Chicago, IL.

    The document presents systematic standards (adopted by the Associated Retail Bakers of America in accordance with the basic standards recommended by the Bureau of Apprenticeship and Training of the U.S. Department of Labor) to be used in the apprenticeship and training programs of the baking industry. Included is the following information: (1)…

  5. Retail food environments research: Promising future with more work to be done.

    PubMed

    Fuller, Daniel; Engler-Stringer, Rachel; Muhajarine, Nazeem

    2016-06-09

    As members of the scientific committee for the Food Environments in Canada conference, we reflect on the current state of food environments research in Canada. We are very encouraged that the field is growing and there have been many collaborative efforts to link researchers in Canada, including the 2015 Food Environments in Canada Symposium and Workshop. We believe there are 5 key challenges the field will need to collectively address: theory and causality; replication and extension; consideration of rural, northern and vulnerable populations; policy analysis; and intervention research. In addressing the challenges, we look forward to working together to conduct more sophisticated, complex and community-driven food environments research in the future.

  6. Method development and HPLC analysis of retail foods and beverages for copper chlorophyll (E141[i]) and chlorophyllin (E141[ii]) food colouring materials.

    PubMed

    Scotter, Michael J; Castle, Laurence; Roberts, Dominic

    2005-12-01

    An analytical method using high performance liquid chromatography with photodiode array and fluorescence detection has been developed and applied to the determination of the food colour additives copper chlorophylls and copper chlorophyllins (E141[i] and [ii]) in foods and beverages. The analytical procedures from previously reported methods have been refined to cover a range of food colour formulations and retail foods. The method was single-laboratory validated. Recoveries of the polar copper chlorophyllins from spiked samples (at 14.5 mg/kg in all but one case) were in the range 79-109%, except for jelly sweets (49%). Recoveries of relatively non-polar copper chlorophylls were in the range 77-107% (except for 'made' jelly at 50%). The %RSD for recoveries was generally below 12%. Quantitative estimates of the total copper chlorophyll/chlorophyllin content of a small range of food commodities are reported, based on the use of trisodium copper chlorophyllin as a surrogate standard. The majority of E141-containing foods and colour formulations analysed exhibited a multiplicity of components due to the various extraction and purification processes that are used to obtain these colour additives. This was confounded by the presence of overwhelming amounts of native chlorophylls in certain samples (e.g. mint sauce). Food commodities containing significant amounts of emulsifiers (i.e. ice cream), gelatine or fats were problematic during extraction hence further development of extraction regimes is desirable for such products. All of the samples analysed with added E141, had estimated total copper chlorophyllin contents of below 15 mg/kg (range 0.7-13.0).

  7. Using Geographic Information Systems to measure retail food environments: Discussion of methodological considerations and a proposed reporting checklist (Geo-FERN).

    PubMed

    Wilkins, Emma L; Morris, Michelle A; Radley, Duncan; Griffiths, Claire

    2017-03-01

    Geographic Information Systems (GIS) are widely used to measure retail food environments. However the methods used are hetrogeneous, limiting collation and interpretation of evidence. This problem is amplified by unclear and incomplete reporting of methods. This discussion (i) identifies common dimensions of methodological diversity across GIS-based food environment research (data sources, data extraction methods, food outlet construct definitions, geocoding methods, and access metrics), (ii) reviews the impact of different methodological choices, and (iii) highlights areas where reporting is insufficient. On the basis of this discussion, the Geo-FERN reporting checklist is proposed to support methodological reporting and interpretation.

  8. 7 CFR 278.6 - Disqualification of retail food stores and wholesale food concerns, and imposition of civil money...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants and Children (WIC), as specified in paragraph (e)(8) of this...) Ownership of the firm; (G) Employer Identification Numbers and Social Security Numbers; (H) Food Stamp... providers, and shelters for battered women and children which the wholesale food concern was authorized...

  9. Effectiveness of the food recovery at the retailing stage under shelf life uncertainty: An application to Italian food chains

    SciTech Connect

    Muriana, Cinzia

    2015-07-15

    Highlights: • The food recovery is seen as suitable way to manage food near to its expiry date. • The variability of the products shelf life must be taken into account. • The paper addresses the mathematic modeling of the profit related to food recovery. • The optimal time to withdraw the products is determinant for food recovery. - Abstract: Food losses represent a significant issue affecting food supply chains. The possibility of recovering such products can be seen as an effective way to reduce such a phenomenon, improve supply chain performances and ameliorate the conditions of undernourished people. The topic has been already investigated by a previous paper enforcing the hypothesis of deterministic and constant Shelf Life (SL) of products. However, such a model cannot be properly extended to products affected by uncertainties of the SL as it does not take into account the deterioration costs and loss of profits due to the overcoming of the SL within the cycle time. Thus the present paper presents an extension of the previous one under stochastic conditions of the food quality. Differently from the previous publication, this work represents a general model applicable to all supply chains, especially to those managing fresh products characterized by uncertain SL such as fruits and vegetables. The deterioration costs and loss of profits are included in the model and the optimal time at which to withdraw the products from the shelves as well as the quantities to be shipped at each alternative destination have been determined. A comparison of the proposed model with that reported in the previous publication has been carried out in order to underline the impact of the SL variability on the optimality conditions. The results show that the food recovery strategy in the presence of uncertainty of the food quality is rewarding, even if the optimal profit is lower than that of the deterministic case.

  10. Neighborhood Retail Food Environment and Fruit and Vegetable Intake in a Multiethnic Urban Population

    PubMed Central

    Zenk, Shannon N.; Schulz, Amy J.; Kannan, Srimathi; Lachance, Laurie L.; Mentz, Graciela; Ridella, William

    2012-01-01

    Purpose To examine relationships between the neighborhood food environment and fruit and vegetable intake in a multiethnic urban population. Design Analysis of cross-sectional survey and observational data. Setting 146 neighborhoods within three large geographic communities of Detroit, Michigan. Subjects Probability sample of 919 African-American, Latino, and White adults. Measures The dependent variable was mean daily fruit and vegetable servings measured using a modified Block 98 food frequency questionnaire. Independent variables included the neighborhood food environment: store availability (large grocery, specialty, convenience, liquor, small grocery), supermarket proximity (street-network distance to nearest chain grocer), and perceived and observed neighborhood fresh fruit and vegetable supply (availability, variety, quality, affordability). Analysis Weighted multilevel regression. Results Presence of a large grocery store in the neighborhood was associated with, on average, 0.69 more daily fruit and vegetable servings in the full sample. Relationships between the food environment and fruit and vegetable intake did not differ between Whites and African-Americans. However, Latinos compared with African-Americans with a large grocery store in their neighborhood consumed 2.20 more daily servings of fruits and vegetables. Presence of a convenience store in the neighborhood was associated with 1.84 fewer daily fruit and vegetable servings among Latinos than African-Americans. Conclusion The neighborhood food environment influences fruit and vegetable intake, and the size of this relationship may vary for different racial/ethnic subpopulations. PMID:19288847

  11. 7 CFR 278.6 - Disqualification of retail food stores and wholesale food concerns, and imposition of civil money...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... the store did (or will) open for business under the current ownership, business, health or other... nonfood items, cartons of cigarettes, or alcoholic beverages in exchange for food coupons; or (ii)...

  12. 7 CFR 278.6 - Disqualification of retail food stores and wholesale food concerns, and imposition of civil money...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... the store did (or will) open for business under the current ownership, business, health or other... nonfood items, cartons of cigarettes, or alcoholic beverages in exchange for food coupons; or (ii)...

  13. 7 CFR 278.6 - Disqualification of retail food stores and wholesale food concerns, and imposition of civil money...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... the store did (or will) open for business under the current ownership, business, health or other... nonfood items, cartons of cigarettes, or alcoholic beverages in exchange for food coupons; or (ii)...

  14. Prevalence and levels of Listeria monocytogenes (Lm) in ready-to-eat foods (RTE) at retail.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Although significant efforts have been taken to control Lm in Ready-to-eat (RTE)foods over the last decade, a well-designed survey is needed to determine whether changes occur in the “true” prevalence and levels of the pathogen and to provide current data to assess the relative ranking of higher ris...

  15. Effectiveness of the food recovery at the retailing stage under shelf life uncertainty: An application to Italian food chains.

    PubMed

    Muriana, Cinzia

    2015-07-01

    Food losses represent a significant issue affecting food supply chains. The possibility of recovering such products can be seen as an effective way to reduce such a phenomenon, improve supply chain performances and ameliorate the conditions of undernourished people. The topic has been already investigated by a previous paper enforcing the hypothesis of deterministic and constant Shelf Life (SL) of products. However, such a model cannot be properly extended to products affected by uncertainties of the SL as it does not take into account the deterioration costs and loss of profits due to the overcoming of the SL within the cycle time. Thus the present paper presents an extension of the previous one under stochastic conditions of the food quality. Differently from the previous publication, this work represents a general model applicable to all supply chains, especially to those managing fresh products characterized by uncertain SL such as fruits and vegetables. The deterioration costs and loss of profits are included in the model and the optimal time at which to withdraw the products from the shelves as well as the quantities to be shipped at each alternative destination have been determined. A comparison of the proposed model with that reported in the previous publication has been carried out in order to underline the impact of the SL variability on the optimality conditions. The results show that the food recovery strategy in the presence of uncertainty of the food quality is rewarding, even if the optimal profit is lower than that of the deterministic case.

  16. Migration of epoxidised soya bean oil into foods from retail packaging materials and from plasticised PVC film used in the home.

    PubMed

    Castle, L; Mayo, A; Gilbert, J

    1990-01-01

    Epoxidised soya bean oil (ESBO) is used as a plasticiser and heat stabiliser in a number of feed contact materials, in particular in poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC) films and gaskets. The level of ESBO migration into foods has been determined using a combined gas chromatographic/mass spectrometric (GC/MS) analytical procedure. The study has included both the use of ESBO-containing materials for retail packaged foods and the domestic use of plasticised PVC films for applications such as wrapping food and covering food for re-heating in a microwave oven. Levels of ESBO in fresh retail meat samples wrapped in film ranged from less than 1 to 4 mg/kg, but were higher (max. 22 mg/kg) in retail cooked meat. Migration into sandwiches and rolls from 'take-away' outlets ranged from less than 1 to 27 mg/kg depending on factors such as the type of filling and the length of the contact time prior to analysis. The levels of migration of ESBO into cheese and cakes were consistent with previous experience with plasticiser migration--direct contact with fatty surfaces leading to the highest levels. When the film was used for microwave cooking in direct contact with food, levels of ESBO from 5 to 85 mg/kg were observed, whereas when the film was employed only as a splash cover for re-heating foods, ESBO levels ranged from 0.1 to 16 mg/kg. For a variety of baby foods there was no significant difference in ESBO levels between foods packaged in glass jars with PVC gaskets and foods in cans containing ESBO in the can lacquer. In both cases ESBO levels were low, ranging from less than 0.1 to 7.6 mg/kg. It is not clear for these retail samples, if the low levels observed (average 1.9 mg/kg) result solely from migration or contain some contribution from naturally occurring epoxides.

  17. Analysis of Multilocus Sequence Typing and Virulence Characterization of Listeria monocytogenes Isolates from Chinese Retail Ready-to-Eat Food

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Shi; Wu, Qingping; Zhang, Jumei; Chen, Moutong; Guo, Weipeng

    2016-01-01

    Eighty Listeria monocytogenes isolates were obtained from Chinese retail ready-to-eat (RTE) food and were previously characterized with serotyping and antibiotic susceptibility tests. The aim of this study was to characterize the subtype and virulence potential of these L. monocytogenes isolates by multilocus sequence typing (MLST), virulence-associate genes, epidemic clones (ECs), and sequence analysis of the important virulence factor: internalin A (inlA). The result of MLST revealed that these L. monocytogenes isolates belonged to 14 different sequence types (STs). With the exception of four new STs (ST804, ST805, ST806, and ST807), all other STs observed in this study have been associated with human listeriosis and outbreaks to varying extents. Six virulence-associate genes (inlA, inlB, inlC, inlJ, hly, and llsX) were selected and their presence was investigated using PCR. All strains carried inlA, inlB, inlC, inlJ, and hly, whereas 38.8% (31/80) of strains harbored the listeriolysin S genes (llsX). A multiplex PCR assay was used to evaluate the presence of markers specific to epidemic clones of L. monocytogenes and identified 26.3% (21/80) of ECI in the 4b-4d-4e strains. Further study of inlA sequencing revealed that most strains contained the full-length InlA required for host cell invasion, whereas three mutations lead to premature stop codons (PMSC) within a novel PMSCs at position 326 (GAA → TAA). MLST and inlA sequence analysis results were concordant, and different virulence potentials within isolates were observed. These findings suggest that L. monocytogenes isolates from RTE food in China could be virulent and be capable of causing human illness. Furthermore, the STs and virulence profiles of L. monocytogenes isolates have significant implications for epidemiological and public health studies of this pathogen. PMID:26909076

  18. Prevalence, antimicrobial resistance and genetic diversity of Yersinia enterocolitica isolated from retail frozen foods in China.

    PubMed

    Ye, Qinghua; Wu, Qingping; Hu, Huijuan; Zhang, Jumei; Huang, Huixian

    2015-12-01

    In this study, our aim was to estimate the extent of Yersinia enterocolitica contamination in frozen foods in China and determine the bioserotype, virulotype, antimicrobial resistance, and enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus-PCR (ERIC-PCR) genotyping profiles of recovered Y. enterocolitica isolates. Out of 455 samples collected between July 2011 and May 2014, 56 (12.3%) tested positive for Y. enterocolitica. The 70 isolated strains were grouped into five clusters and one singleton based on their ERIC-PCR fingerprint, at a similarity coefficient of 70%. All strains were of biotype 1A, and 35.7% were of bioserotype 1A/O:8. Most strains lacked the virulence genes ail, virF, ystA, and ystC, but harbored ystB, fepD, ymoA, fes and sat. All strains were sensitive to ticarcillin but resistant to two or more antibiotics, and 48.6% of the strains were resistant to four to nine antibiotics. High resistance rates were observed for ampicillin, cephalothin, trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole, amoxicillin/clavulanic acid, nalidixic acid and chloramphenicol (98.6%, 95.7%, 74.3%, 28.6%, 18.6% and 12.9%, respectively). This study provides a systematic surveillance of Y. enterocolitica prevalence in frozen foods in China and indicates its high antibiotic resistance, which could serve as useful information for the government to control Y. enterocolitica contamination in frozen foods and the use of antibiotics.

  19. Cephalosporin Resistance among Non-Typhi Salmonella from Humans, Retail Meats and Food Animals in the United States

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background: The National Antimicrobial Resistance Monitoring System (NARMS) is a collaboration among the Food and Drug Administration (FDA), U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA), and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Here we report on decreased susceptibility to cephalosporins ...

  20. 7 CFR 274.3 - Retailer management.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Retailer management. 274.3 Section 274.3 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE... management. (a) Retailer participation. (1) All authorized retailers must be afforded the opportunity...

  1. Benzalkonium chloride and heavy-metal tolerance in Listeria monocytogenes from retail foods.

    PubMed

    Xu, Dongyang; Li, Yanli; Zahid, M Shamim Hasan; Yamasaki, Shinji; Shi, Lei; Li, Jian-rong; Yan, He

    2014-11-03

    Phenotypic and genotypic tolerance in 71 Listeria monocytogenes isolates from different varieties of foods to benzalkonium chloride (BC) and cadmium were investigated by susceptibility test and molecular methods. To investigate the role of efflux pumps in BC tolerance, reserpine, an efflux pump inhibitor, was added to the BC tolerant strains. Tolerance to BC and cadmium were 26.8% (19/71) and 49.3% (35/71) respectively. Strains with BC tolerance were significantly more frequent among those of serotype 4b (100%, 6/6) than among those of serotype 1/2a (or 3a) (13.5%, 5/37), which represent the predominant number of strains (52.1%, 37/71). Tolerance to cadmium was encountered among 62.2% (23/37) and 50.0% (3/6) of the serotype 1/2a (or 3a) and 4b strains, respectively, and among 19.0% (4/21) of the strains of the serotype 1/2c. All of the 10 (14.1%) isolates found to be BC and cadmium co-tolerance were isolated from raw meat or quick-frozen food made of wheat flour and rice. Five multi-drug resistant strains were tolerant to cadmium as well. Among 71 isolates examined, one contained qacA and three contained qacEΔ1-sul. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first detection of qacA and qacEΔ1-sul in L. monocytogenes, an indication of the possible horizontal transfer of the two genes. Addition of reserpine to the tolerant strains resulted in the loss of tolerance among seven out of 19 BC strains, suggesting a certain role the efflux pump played in mediating BC tolerance. Of the three distinct cadA types known to date in L. monocytogenes, the cadA1 and cadA2 genes were detected among 24 (33.8%) and three (4.2%) isolates respectively. The presence of cadA1 and cadA2 largely corresponded to the susceptibility phenotype. A subset (9/35 [25.7%]) of the cadmium-tolerant isolates lacked the known cadmium resistance determinants. These findings suggest that food products could act as a reservoir for L. monocytogenes harboring tolerance to BC and cadmium and will further

  2. Exposure assessment within a Total Diet Study: a comparison of the use of the pan-European classification system FoodEx-1 with national food classification systems.

    PubMed

    Akhandaf, Y; Van Klaveren, J; De Henauw, S; Van Donkersgoed, G; Van Gorcum, T; Papadopoulos, A; Sirot, V; Kennedy, M; Pinchen, H; Ruprich, J; Rehurkova, I; Perelló, G; Sioen, I

    2015-04-01

    A Total Diet Study (TDS) consists of selecting, collecting and preparing commonly consumed foods purchased at retail level and analysing them for harmful and/or beneficial chemical substances. A food classification system is needed to link food consumption data with the contaminant concentration data obtained in the TDS for the exposure assessment. In this study a comparison was made between the use of a national food classification systems and the use of FoodEx-1, developed and recommended by the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA). The work was performed using data of six European countries: Belgium, Czech Republic, France, The Netherlands, Spain and the UK. For each population, exposure to contaminant A (organic compounds) and/or contaminant B (inorganic compound) was assessed by the Monte Carlo Risk Assessment (MCRA) software using the national classification system and FoodEx-1 for food consumption data and for TDS laboratory results. Minimal differences between both approaches were observed. This observation applied for both contaminant A and contaminant B. In general risk assessment will be similar for both approaches; however, this is not guaranteed. FoodEx-1 proved to be a valuable hierarchic classification system in order to harmonise exposure assessment based on existing TDS results throughout Europe.

  3. National Meat Case Study 2004: Fresh product types and allocation of retail space.

    PubMed

    Reicks, A L; Brooks, J C; Kelly, J M; Kuecker, W G; Boillot, K; Irion, R; Miller, M F

    2008-12-01

    Fresh meat retail cases in 104 supermarkets across 5 regions of the United States were audited for product space allocation, percentage of space allocated to each fresh meat category and frequency of species among all stock keeping units (n = 14,863). The United States was divided into Mountain/Southwest, Midwest, Northeast, Southeast, and West Coast regions. Fresh meat categories for self-service cases included beef muscle cuts, ground beef, pork, veal, lamb, chicken, turkey, fresh sausage, value-added, heat and serve, ham-bone-in, ham-boneless, ham steak, other processed meats, seafood, and nonmeat items. Fresh meat categories for the full-service case included seafood, beef, pork, chicken, and other. Whole muscle beef, pork, and chicken products were available in all stores. Ground beef products and turkey were reported in almost all stores, 94.5 to 100%, respectively. The majority of the self-service meat case was dedicated to beef in all regions except for the Northeast, where chicken occupied the majority of the self-service case. Linear meters of self-service fresh meat case were greatest in the Northeast region, which was similar to Mountain and Midwest regions, but different (P = 0.003) than the Southeast and West Coast regions. However, the West Coast region best utilized the retail meat case by providing consumers with the greatest number of offerings per linear meter. The percentage of stores audited with a full-service meat case was 37.5%, and the percentage with a full-service seafood case was 60.6%. The full-service meat case was the smallest (number of linear meters, P = 0.039) in the Southeast and largest (number of linear meters, P = 0.039) in the Midwest.

  4. How well are national guidelines relating to the general sales of aspirin and paracetamol, adhered to by retail stores: a mystery shopper study

    PubMed Central

    Molloy, Phillip; Chambers, Ruth; Cork, Tania

    2016-01-01

    Objective To determine whether non-pharmaceutical retail outlets are aboding to the current Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA) national guidelines for over-the-counter (OTC) sales of aspirin and paracetamol. Methods Stages 1 and 2 of the study deployed eight and four medical students, respectively, to undertake a mystery shopper style investigation. Stage 1: eight medical students attempted to buy ≥96 tablets/capsules aspirin or paracetamol in one transaction in 62 shops. Stage 2: four medical students attempted to purchase 32 paracetamol 500 mg along with a ‘flu remedy preparation also containing paracetamol, in 54 shops. Results Stage 1 data revealed that 58% and 57% retailers sold more than the MHRA guidelines recommended for paracetamol and aspirin, respectively. We observed that 23% and 28% retailers were willing to sell ≥96 tablets of paracetamol or aspirin with no questions asked. Stage 2 results showed that 57% retailers sold 32×500 mg paracetamol in conjunction with a paracetamol-containing ‘flu preparation; while 98% shops sold 16×paracetamol 500 mg along with a paracetamol-containing ‘flu remedy, with no questions asked of the shopper or advice given. Discussion MHRA national guidelines for OTC medicines sales appear to be poorly adhered to in non-pharmacy shops. Sales of aspirin and paracetamol OTC must be better regulated in the UK to ultimately reduce morbidity and mortality rates of deliberate and accidental overdoses. PMID:26781508

  5. Survey for Listeria monocytogenes on ready-to-eat foods from retail establishments in the United States (2010-2013): assessing potential changes of pathogen prevalence and levels in a decade

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A multi-year Interagency Listeria monocytogenes Market Basket Survey (Lm MBS) was undertaken for selected categories of refrigerated ready-to eat (RTE) foods purchased at retail in four FoodNet sites in the U.S. Eighteen product types were sampled, including RTE seafood, produce, dairy, meat, eggs,...

  6. Verification of retail food outlet location data from a local health department using ground-truthing and remote-sensing technology: assessing differences by neighborhood characteristics.

    PubMed

    Rossen, Lauren M; Pollack, Keshia M; Curriero, Frank C

    2012-09-01

    Obtaining valid and accurate data on community food environments is critical for research evaluating associations between the food environment and health outcomes. This study utilized ground-truthing and remote-sensing technology to validate a food outlet retail list obtained from an urban local health department in Baltimore, Maryland in 2009. Ten percent of outlets (n=169) were assessed, and differences in accuracy were explored by neighborhood characteristics (96 census tracts) to determine if discrepancies were differential or non-differential. Inaccuracies were largely unrelated to a variety of neighborhood-level variables, with the exception of number of vacant housing units. Although remote-sensing technologies are a promising low-cost alternative to direct observation, this study demonstrated only moderate levels of agreement with ground-truthing.

  7. Retailing in Tennessee 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-01-01

    Data on retail sales compiled from sales tax records are summarized. Contained in this report are retail sales estimates for the 95 counties in the State of Tennessee and 303 cities, towns, or parts of towns which are shown in various degrees of detail depending on disclosure restrictions. Number of firms is determined by the total number of reports submitted. Sales and percent distribution of sales are shown for the State of Tennessee and counties by Standard Metropolitan Statistical Area (SMSA) designation and by various county groupings based on the size of largest city. A list of counties by SMSA designation and by size class of largest city is given in the Appendix. The number of firms and estimated retail sales are also shown for 10 business groups defined by the US Department of Commerce along with the total retail sales for each of the 95 counties in Tennessee and for 137 of the larger cities, towns, or parts of towns in the state. Sales for 37 smaller incorporated places or parts of towns are given. Any attempt to report retail activity in the same detail that is possible for large cities is hampered by disclosure restrictions for towns in this group. Through the use of fewer categories, the amount of information that can be revealed is maximized while maintaining confidentiality for individual businesses. A classification widely adopted by economists and planners is the use of the broad retail categories of shoppers' goods, convenience goods, and all other stores. Shoppers' goods stores include department and variety stores, apparel and accessory shops, and furniture and home furnishings outlets. Convenience goods stores are food stores, gasoline service stations, drug stores, and eating and drinking places. The remaining category of all other stores includes building materials, hardware, automotive, and miscellaneous retail stores. Total sales are given for 129 very small incorporated towns.

  8. Isolation of Campylobacter spp. from Client-Owned Dogs and Cats, and Retail Raw Meat Pet Food in the Manawatu, New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Bojanić, K; Midwinter, A C; Marshall, J C; Rogers, L E; Biggs, P J; Acke, E

    2016-11-12

    Campylobacter causes acute gastroenteritis in people worldwide and is frequently isolated from food, animals and the environment. The disease is predominately food-borne but many routes of transmission and sources of infection have been described, including contact with pets. The prevalence of Campylobacter spp. in dogs and cats varies widely, and data on New Zealand pets are limited. This study aimed to investigate the prevalence of Campylobacter spp. in dogs, cats and retail raw meat pet food products in New Zealand and to characterize Campylobacter jejuni isolates using multilocus sequence typing (MLST). Ninety dogs and 110 cats examined at the Massey University Veterinary Teaching Hospital for elective procedures, and fifty locally purchased retail raw meat pet diets were sampled. Two culture protocols combining Bolton broth enrichment and mCCDA and CAT agars in a microaerobic atmosphere at 42°C and 37°C with species identification using PCR were performed. The prevalence of Campylobacter spp., C. jejuni, Campylobacter upsaliensis and Campylobacter helveticus was 36%, 13%, 23% and 1% in dogs and 16%, 5%, 5% and 7% in cats, respectively. One dog had Campylobacter lari confirmed, and three dogs and one cat had multiple Campylobacter spp. detected. Significantly more animals tested positive using CAT than mCCDA agar (P < 0.001). Being neutered, vaccinated for Bordetella bronchiseptica, fed dry diets and brought in for neutering were protective factors for dogs, whereas attendance for dental treatment was a risk factor for cats. Campylobacter spp. were isolated from 28%, C. jejuni 22%, C. lari 6% and Campylobacter coli 6% of food samples. Six isolates positive by Campylobacter genus PCR were identified as Arcobacter butzleri. Poultry meat was more likely to be positive than non-poultry meat (P = 0.006). Of the 13 C. jejuni pet isolates with full MLST profiles, eight were of different sequence types (ST) and all nine food isolates were of different STs.

  9. National food control systems: lessons from Mauritius.

    PubMed

    Neeliah, S A; Goburdhun, D; Neeliah, H

    2009-01-01

    Food control systems are being established or revamped in many countries because of problems occurring along the food chain and the obligations of governments towards the World Trade Organization. The main components of an ideal food control system are food legislation, administration, enforcement and supporting bodies like analytical services and consumer organizations. Mauritius introduced modern legal instruments in 1998 in an attempt to reinvigorate food control. This article describes the components of the Mauritian Food Control System (MFCS). An appraisal of these components is then made. The methodology comprised a literature review and in-depth interviews with key informants and stakeholders of the local food control system. Although much progress was made with the introduction of new food legislation in 1998, other components of the local system like enforcement and various supporting bodies did not receive appropriate support. Other countries could use the lessons drawn from the Mauritian experience while setting up or upgrading their food control systems.

  10. US Child Labor Violations in the Retail and Service Industries: Findings From a National Survey of Working Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Rauscher, Kimberly J.; Runyan, Carol W.; Schulman, Michael D.; Bowling, J. Michael

    2008-01-01

    Objectives. We investigated child labor violations among US adolescents working in the retail and service industries. Methods. We used interview data from a nationally representative sample of working adolescents, and investigated reports of select child labor violations (e.g., hours, equipment, and work permits). We computed weighted percentages of respondents reporting each type of discrete (and aggregated) violation. Results. Nearly 37% of respondents reported a violation of the hazardous occupations orders (i.e., prohibited jobs or use of equipment), and 40% reported a work permit violation. Fewer than 2% reported working more than the maximum weekly hours allowed during the school year, but 11% reported working past the latest hour allowed on a school night, and 15% reported working off the clock. Conclusions. Significant numbers of US adolescents are employed in violation of the child labor laws and as a result are exposed to safety risks. Although our data did not allow for an analysis of enforcement, our findings demonstrate gaps in employer compliance with the law. We suggest that closer attention to enforcement policy and practice is needed. PMID:18633089

  11. 21 CFR 1314.25 - Requirements for retail transactions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Requirements for retail transactions. 1314.25 Section 1314.25 Food and Drugs DRUG ENFORCEMENT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE RETAIL SALE OF SCHEDULED LISTED CHEMICAL PRODUCTS Sales by Regulated Sellers § 1314.25 Requirements for retail...

  12. Evidence for validity of five secondary data sources for enumerating retail food outlets in seven American Indian Communities in North Carolina

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Most studies on the local food environment have used secondary sources to describe the food environment, such as government food registries or commercial listings (e.g., Reference USA). Most of the studies exploring evidence for validity of secondary retail food data have used on-site verification and have not conducted analysis by data source (e.g., sensitivity of Reference USA) or by food outlet type (e.g., sensitivity of Reference USA for convenience stores). Few studies have explored the food environment in American Indian communities. To advance the science on measuring the food environment, we conducted direct, on-site observations of a wide range of food outlets in multiple American Indian communities, without a list guiding the field observations, and then compared our findings to several types of secondary data. Methods Food outlets located within seven State Designated Tribal Statistical Areas in North Carolina (NC) were gathered from online Yellow Pages, Reference USA, Dun & Bradstreet, local health departments, and the NC Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services. All TIGER/Line 2009 roads (>1,500 miles) were driven in six of the more rural tribal areas and, for the largest tribe, all roads in two of its cities were driven. Sensitivity, positive predictive value, concordance, and kappa statistics were calculated to compare secondary data sources to primary data. Results 699 food outlets were identified during primary data collection. Match rate for primary data and secondary data differed by type of food outlet observed, with the highest match rates found for grocery stores (97%), general merchandise stores (96%), and restaurants (91%). Reference USA exhibited almost perfect sensitivity (0.89). Local health department data had substantial sensitivity (0.66) and was almost perfect when focusing only on restaurants (0.91). Positive predictive value was substantial for Reference USA (0.67) and moderate for local health department data (0

  13. Development of sample handling procedures for foods under USDA's National Food and Nutrient Analysis Program

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The National Food and Nutrient Analysis Program (NFNAP) was implemented in 1997 to update and improve the quality of food composition data maintained in the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) National Nutrient Database for Standard Reference. NFNAP was designed to sample and analyze fre...

  14. Prevalence, antimicrobial resistance and multiple-locus variable-number tandem-repeat analysis profiles of diarrheagenic Escherichia coli isolated from different retail foods.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lili; Nakamura, Hiromi; Kage-Nakadai, Eriko; Hara-Kudo, Yukiko; Nishikawa, Yoshikazu

    2017-03-07

    Diarrheagenic E. coli (DEC) isolates were recovered from local retail markets and the Osaka Municipal Central Wholesale Market in Japan. Retail food samples were collected for analysis in Osaka Japan from 2005 to 2008 and consisted of 32 beef, 28 pork, 20 poultry, 136 fish, 66 fruits and vegetables and 51 ready-to-eat (RTE) food samples. A total of 82 DEC strains were recovered from 64 (19%) food samples with the highest prevalence in poultry (100%, 20/20), followed by pork (54%, 15/28), beef (28%, 9/32), fruits and vegetables (12%, 8/66), fish (6.6%, 9/136) and RTE foods (5.9%, 3/51). Most of the strains belonged to E. coli possessing the enteroaggregative E. coli (EAEC) heat-stable enterotoxin 1 (EAST1) gene (EAST1EC; n=62, P<0.0001) and enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC; n=16, P<0.01), whereas only 1 strain belonged to Shiga toxin-producing E. coli (STEC), 1 to EAEC and 2 to enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC) strains. Of the 82 DEC isolates, 22 O and 13H serogroups were detected, including some specific serogroups (O91, O103, O115, O119, O126, and O157) which have been associated with human diarrheal infections. Phylogenetic group A and B1 were predominant among the DEC isolates. Antimicrobial resistance to tetracycline was most common (49%), followed by nalidixic acid (28%), ampicillin (24%), sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim (20%), and cephalothin (18%). All isolates were susceptible to aztreonam. Of the resistant strains, 44% (22/50) demonstrated resistance to >3 antimicrobial agents. Isolates resistant to >5 antimicrobials were only found in the meat samples, while isolates from the fruits and vegetables as well as RTE foods showed resistance to only 1 or 2 antimicrobial agents. Sixty one percent of EAST1EC, 56% of EPEC and all of the EAEC and ETEC were resistant to at least 1 antimicrobial agent. Multiple-locus variable-number tandem repeat analysis (MLVA) was used in this study for genotyping of DEC. The 82 isolates collected for this study showed 77 distinct MLVA

  15. Assessment of hygienic quality of surfaces in retail food service establishments based on microbial counts and real-time detection of ATP.

    PubMed

    Cunningham, Annette E; Rajagopal, Raj; Lauer, Jim; Allwood, Paul

    2011-04-01

    Clean food contact surfaces are important in reducing the likelihood of foodborne disease transmission. The goal of this study was to assess and compare baseline cleanliness of food contact and environmental surfaces in retail food establishments by using ATP bioluminescence (ATP-B), visual assessment, and surface contact plates. Four hundred eighty-nine surface samples were collected from three food service establishments at the University of Minnesota-Twin Cities (Minneapolis) and analyzed for either ATP (252) or total aerobic plate count bacteria (237). ATP levels ranged from a minimum of 4 relative light units (RLU; 0.60 log RLU) on a clean slicer to a maximum of 506,618 RLU (5.77 log RLU) on a dirty cutting board. The overall mean was 1,950 RLU (3.29 log RLU). Cutting boards had the highest ATP levels (mean, 5,495 RLU or 3.74 log RLU; median, 6,761 RLU or 3.83 log RLU). Of the 128 samples judged visually clean at the time of sampling, 70.3 % failed ATP-B testing. Sixty-one (26 % ) of the 237 total aerobic plate count samples yielded counts of over 125 CFU/50 cm(2) (failed), and of those that failed, 40 % were assessed as visually clean before sampling. The highest average counts in CFU/50 cm(2) were found on slicers (104) and cutting boards (87). The results of this study suggest that the current practice of evaluating food contact surface cleanliness by sight and touch to meet regulatory requirements might be inadequate. ATP-B testing may be an efficient tool to facilitate creation, implementation, and validation of more effective food contact surface cleaning in food establishments.

  16. Understanding the Relationship Between the Retail Food Environment Index and Early Childhood Obesity Among WIC Participants in Los Angeles County Using GeoDa.

    PubMed

    Koleilat, Maria; Whaley, Shannon E; Afifi, Abdelmonem A; Estrada, Leobardo; Harrison, Gail G

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the association between the local food environment and obesity proportions among 3- to 4-year-old children who were participants in the WIC program in Los Angeles County using spatial analyses techniques. ArcGIS, spatial analysis software, was used to compute the retail food environment index (RFEI) per ZIP code. GeoDa, spatial statistics software was employed to check for spatial autocorrelation and to control for permeability of the boundaries. Linear regression and ANOVA were used to examine the impact of the food environment on childhood obesity. Fast-food restaurants represented 30% and convenience stores represented 40% of the sum of food outlets in areas where WIC participants reside. Although there was no statistically significant association between RFEI and 3- to 4-year-old obesity proportions among WIC children, analysis of variance (ANOVA) tests demonstrated statistically significant positive associations between obesity and the number of convenience stores and the number of supermarkets. Our findings suggest that RFEI, as currently constructed, may not be the optimal way to capture the food environment. This study suggests that convenience stores and supermarkets are a likely source of excess calories for children in low-income households. Given the ubiquity of convenience stores in low-income neighborhoods, interventions to improve availability of healthy food in these stores should be part of the many approaches to addressing childhood obesity. This study adds to the literature by examining the validity of the RFEI and by demonstrating the need and illustrating the use of spatial analyses, using GeoDA, in the environment/obesity studies.

  17. Examination of community and consumer nutrition, tobacco and physical activity environments at food and tobacco retail stores in three diverse North Carolina communities

    PubMed Central

    D'Angelo, Heather; Evenson, Kelly R.; Rose, Shyanika W.; Fleischhacker, Sheila; Myers, Allison E.; Ribisl, Kurt M.

    2015-01-01

    To advance our understanding of multiple health-related dimensions of the built environment, this study examined associations among nutrition, tobacco, and physical activity community and consumer environments. Community environment measures included supermarket access, tobacco outlet density, and physical activity resource density in store neighborhoods. Cross-sectional observations of the nutrition, tobacco and physical activity environments were conducted in 2011 at and around 303 food stores that sold tobacco products in three North Carolina counties. Pearson correlation coefficients and multiple linear regression were used to examine associations between community and consumer environments. Correlations between community nutrition, tobacco, and physical activity environments ranged from slight to fair (− 0.35 to 0.20) and from poor to fair (− 0.01 to − 0.38) between consumer environments. Significant relationships between consumer tobacco and nutrition environments were found after controlling for store and neighborhood characteristics. For example, stores with higher amounts of interior tobacco marketing had higher healthy food availability (p = 0.001), while stores with higher amounts of exterior tobacco marketing had lower healthy food availability (p = 0.02). Community and consumer environments for nutrition, tobacco, and physical activity were interrelated. Measures that assess single aspects of community or consumer environments could miss characteristics that may influence customer purchasing. Even chain supermarkets, typically regarded as healthful food sources compared to smaller food stores, may expose customers to tobacco marketing inside. Future research could explore combining efforts to reduce obesity and tobacco use by addressing tobacco marketing, healthy food availability and physical activity opportunities at retail food outlets. PMID:26516620

  18. 78 FR 4830 - National Advisory Committee on Microbiological Criteria for Foods; Reestablishment

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-23

    ... Food Safety and Inspection Service National Advisory Committee on Microbiological Criteria for Foods; Reestablishment AGENCY: Food Safety and Inspection Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of reestablishment of Committee... reestablishment of the National Advisory Committee on Microbiological Criteria for Foods (NACMCF). The...

  19. 76 FR 56143 - National Advisory Committee on Microbiological Criteria for Foods

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-12

    ... Food Safety and Inspection Service National Advisory Committee on Microbiological Criteria for Foods AGENCY: Food Safety and Inspection Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of public meeting. SUMMARY: This notice is announcing that the National Advisory Committee on Microbiological Criteria for Foods...

  20. Ochratoxin A Concentrations in a Variety of Grain-Based and Non-Grain-Based Foods on the Canadian Retail Market from 2009 to 2014.

    PubMed

    Kolakowski, Beata; O'Rourke, Sarah M; Bietlot, Henri P; Kurz, Karl; Aweryn, Barbara

    2016-12-01

    The extent of ochratoxin A (OTA) contamination of domestically produced foods sold across Canada was determined from 2009 to 2014 with sampling and testing occurring each fiscal year. Cereal-based, fruit-based, and soy-based food samples (n = 6,857) were analyzed. Almost half of the samples (3,200; 47%) did not contain detectable concentrations of OTA. The remaining 3,657 samples contained OTA at 0.040 to 631 ng/g. Wheat, oats, milled products of other grains (such as rye and buckwheat), and to a lesser extent corn products and their derived foods were the most significant potential sources of OTA exposure for the Canadian population. Wine, grape juice, soy products, beer, dairy-based infant formula, and licorice candy were not significant contributors to OTA consumption. Spices had the highest OTA concentrations; but because so little is ingested, these foods are not considered to be a significant source of OTA. In contrast, infant formulas and cereals can be important dietary sources of OTA. Infant cereals containing oats and infant formulas containing soy had detectable concentrations of OTA, some of which exceeded the proposed Canadian guidelines. The prevalence and concentrations of OTA in major crops (wheat, corn, and oats) varied widely across years. Because these foods were purchased at retail stores, no information was available on the OTA concentrations in the raw materials, the storage conditions before purchase of the samples, or the origin of the ingredients (may include blends of raw materials from different years and/or different geographical regions of Canada); therefore, impact of these factors could not be assessed. Overall, 2.3% of the samples exceeded the proposed Canadian OTA regulatory limits and 2.7% exceeded the current European Union (EU) OTA regulatory limits. These results are consistent with a Health Canada exposure assessment published in 2010, despite the inclusion of a wider range of products and confirm the safety of foods widely

  1. The antibiotic resistance characteristics of non-typhoidal Salmonella enterica isolated from food-producing animals, retail meat and humans in South East Asia.

    PubMed

    Van, Thi Thu Hao; Nguyen, Hoang Nam Kha; Smooker, Peter M; Coloe, Peter J

    2012-03-15

    Antimicrobial resistance is a global problem. It is most prevalent in developing countries where infectious diseases remain common, the use of antibiotics in humans and animals is widespread, and the replacement of older antibiotics with new generation antibiotics is not easy due to the high cost. Information on antibiotic resistance phenotypes and genotypes of Salmonella spp. in food animals and humans in different countries and geographic regions is necessary to combat the spread of resistance. This will improve the understanding of antibiotic resistance epidemiology, tracing of new emerging pathogens, assisting in disease treatment, and enhancing prudent use of antibiotics. However, the extent of antibiotic resistance in food-borne pathogens and humans in many developing countries remains unknown. The goal of this review is to discuss the current state of antibiotic resistance of non-typhoid Salmonella spp. in food-producing animals, retail meat and humans from South East Asia. It is focused on resistance characteristics of traditional and "critically important" antibiotics in this region, and the emergence of multidrug resistant strains and genetic elements that contribute to the development of multidrug resistance, including integrons and the Salmonella Genomic Island (SGI).

  2. Mobile and home-based vendors' contributions to the retail food environment in rural South Texas Mexican-origin settlements.

    PubMed

    Valdez, Zulema; Dean, Wesley R; Sharkey, Joseph R

    2012-10-01

    A growing concern with high rates of obesity and overweight among immigrant minority populations in the US has focused attention on the availability and accessibility to healthy foods in such communities. Small-scale vending in rural, impoverished and underserved areas, however, is generally overlooked; yet, this type of informal activity and source for food is particularly important in such environs, or "food desserts," where traditional forms of work and mainstream food outlets are limited or even absent. This exploratory study investigates two types of small-scale food vending that take place in rural colonias, or Mexican-origin settlements along the South Texas border with Mexico: mobile and home-based. Using a convenience sample of 23 vendors who live and work in Texas colonias, this study identifies the characteristics associated with mobile and home-based food vendors and their businesses and its contributions to the rural food environment. Findings reveal that mobile and home-based vending provides a variety of food and beverage options to colonia residents, and suggests that home-based vendors contribute a greater assortment of food options, including some healthier food items, than mobile food vendors, which offer and sell a limited range of products. Findings may contribute to the development of innovative policy solutions and interventions aimed at increasing healthy food options or reducing health disparities in immigrant communities.

  3. 7 CFR 274.3 - Retailer management.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... supplies are maintained in working order for retail stores equipped by the State agency or its contractor. Equipment shall be replaced or repaired within 48 hours; (7) Ensure that retail store employees are trained... food stores which opt to make home deliveries to SNAP households, house-to-house trade routes...

  4. 15 CFR 400.45 - Retail trade.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... ZONES BOARD, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE REGULATIONS OF THE FOREIGN-TRADE ZONES BOARD Zone Operations and Administrative Requirements § 400.45 Retail trade. (a) In general. Retail trade is prohibited in zones, except...-paid or duty-free food and non-alcoholic beverage products sold within the zone or subzone...

  5. 15 CFR 400.45 - Retail trade.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... ZONES BOARD, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE REGULATIONS OF THE FOREIGN-TRADE ZONES BOARD Zone Operations and Administrative Requirements § 400.45 Retail trade. (a) In general. Retail trade is prohibited in zones, except...-paid or duty-free food and non-alcoholic beverage products sold within the zone or subzone...

  6. 15 CFR 400.45 - Retail trade.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... ZONES BOARD, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE REGULATIONS OF THE FOREIGN-TRADE ZONES BOARD Zone Operations and Administrative Requirements § 400.45 Retail trade. (a) In general. Retail trade is prohibited in zones, except...-paid or duty-free food and non-alcoholic beverage products sold within the zone or subzone...

  7. 75 FR 37754 - Nominations for Membership on the National Advisory Committee on Microbiological Criteria for Foods

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-30

    ... expertise in the fields of epidemiology, food technology, microbiology (food, clinical, and predictive... Food Safety Inspection Service Nominations for Membership on the National Advisory Committee on Microbiological Criteria for Foods AGENCY: Food Safety and Inspection Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY:...

  8. 75 FR 39201 - Nominations for Membership on the National Advisory Committee on Microbiological Criteria for Foods

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-08

    ... expertise in the fields of epidemiology, food technology, microbiology (food, clinical, and predictive... Food Safety Inspection Service Nominations for Membership on the National Advisory Committee on Microbiological Criteria for Foods AGENCY: Food Safety and Inspection Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY:...

  9. Childhood asphyxiation by food. A national analysis and overview.

    PubMed

    Harris, C S; Baker, S P; Smith, G A; Harris, R M

    1984-05-04

    Data on all identified food-related asphyxiations of infants and children aged 0 to 9 years in 41 states from 1979 to 1981 were analyzed by type of food and age of child. Nationally, one death occurred approximately every five days. More than 90% occurred in infants and children younger than 5 years and 65% in infants younger than 2 years. Round foods were most often mentioned of the 103 foods specifically identified on death certificates. Most frequently cited were hot dog products (17 cases, 17%), candy, ten; nuts, nine; and grapes, eight. Hot dogs caused deaths from infancy through 3 years (more than two thirds of all deaths from meat products) and seven of ten deaths in 3-year-olds. Characteristics of foods, children, and environment can be related to three phases of food asphyxiation: penetration, occlusion, and expulsion. Preventive measures include product modification, warning labels, and dissemination of information on high-risk foods.

  10. 7 CFR 278.3 - Participation of wholesale food concerns.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... from one or more specified authorized retail food stores, from one or more specified authorized... retail food store's properly filled-out and signed redemption certificate for the coupons; and (2) The... authorized retail food store's redemption certificate....

  11. 7 CFR 278.3 - Participation of wholesale food concerns.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... from one or more specified authorized retail food stores, from one or more specified authorized... retail food store's properly filled-out and signed redemption certificate for the coupons; and (2) The... authorized retail food store's redemption certificate....

  12. Transfer of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus from retail pork products onto food contact surfaces and the potential for consumer exposure.

    PubMed

    Snyder, Heather L; Niebuhr, Steven E; Dickson, James S

    2013-12-01

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is a pathogen that has developed resistance to beta-lactam antibiotics and has been isolated at low population numbers in retail meat products. The objectives of this study were to estimate the potential transfer of MRSA from contaminated retail pork products to food contact surfaces and to estimate the potential for human exposure to MRSA by contact with those contaminated surfaces. Pork loins, bacon, and fresh pork sausage were inoculated with a four-strain mixed MRSA culture over a range of populations from approximately 4 to 8 log, vacuum packaged, and stored for 2 weeks at 5°C to simulate normal packaging and distribution. Primary transfer was determined by placing inoculated products on knife blades, cutting boards, and a human skin model (pork skin) for 5 min. Secondary transfer was determined by placing an inoculated product on the contact surface, removing it, and then placing the secondary contact surface on the initial contact surface. A pork skin model was used to simulate transfer to human skin by placing it into contact with the contact surface. The percentages of transfer for primary transfer from the inoculated products to the cutting board ranged from 39 to 49%, while the percentages of transfer to the knife ranged from 17 to 42%. The percentages of transfer from the inoculated products to the pork skin ranged from 26 to 36%. The secondary transfer percentages ranged from 2.2 to 5.2% across all products and contact surfaces. Statistical analysis showed no significant differences in the amounts of transfer between transfer surfaces and across cell concentrations.

  13. Microbiological quality of retail spices in Tehran, Iran.

    PubMed

    Koohy-Kamaly-Dehkordy, Paliz; Nikoopour, Houshang; Siavoshi, Farideh; Koushki, Mohammadreza; Abadi, Alireza

    2013-05-01

    The microbiological quality of 351 samples of nine types of spices including black pepper, caraway, cinnamon, cow parsnip, curry powder, garlic powder, red pepper, sumac, and turmeric, collected from retail shops in Tehran during 2007, was determined. The numbers of aerobic mesophilic bacteria, Escherichia coli, and molds exceeded Iran's National Standard limits, at 63.2% (>5 × 10(5) CFU/g), 23.4% (>0.3 MPN/g), and 21.9% (>5 × 10(3) CFU/g) of the studied samples, respectively. Coliform contamination was more than 10(3) MPN/g in 24.8% of samples. High contamination of retail spices is considered an indication of environmental or fecal contamination due to unhygienic practices in their production. Use of spices with high microbial content could increase the chance of food spoilage and transmission of foodborne pathogens. Accordingly, application of food safety measurements to reduce microbial counts in spices is strongly recommended.

  14. 76 FR 22905 - Guidance for Food and Drug Administration Staff and Tobacco Retailers on Civil Money Penalties...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-25

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Guidance for Food and Drug Administration Staff and Tobacco... regulation (21 CFR 10.115). The guidance represents the Agency's current thinking on ``Civil Money...

  15. Policy alternatives for reducing tobacco sales to minors: results from a national survey of retail chain and franchise stores.

    PubMed

    Altman, D G; Linzer, J; Kropp, R; Descheemaeker, N; Feighery, E; Fortmann, S P

    1992-01-01

    Minors' access to tobacco has become an important public health issue. Little is known, however, about the knowledge, attitudes, beliefs, and behavior toward access among executives from businesses that sell tobacco. This study examined access from the perspective of corporate and regional headquarters of retail chains and franchises that sell tobacco. A total of 148 U.S. companies with the largest overall retail sales volume that sold tobacco were asked to participate; 91 agreed. The sample included grocery stores, convenience stores, gas station mini-marts, liquor stores, and drug stores. Data revealed at least moderate support for policies limiting youth tobacco access. Although most companies reported having in place policies to prevent minors from purchasing tobacco, these policies did not seem intensive. In addition, executives underestimated the extent of youth access. We conclude that the time is right for passage of bold policies to protect young people from tobacco.

  16. [The national food and nutrition policy and its dialogue with the national food and nutrition security policy].

    PubMed

    Alves, Kelly Poliany de Souza; Jaime, Patricia Constante

    2014-11-01

    Food is one of the determinants and conditions of health and an inherent right of all people. The consequences of food and nutrition insecurity in the population, such as obesity, malnutrition and specific nutritional deficiencies, impact the health sector and have historically meant that it has assumed the responsibility for food and nutrition programs and policies in Brazil. However, ensuring food and nutrition security requires a combination of public policies, among which the National Food and Nutrition Policy of the Unified Health System (SUS) plays a fundamental role. This paper seeks to contribute to the debate on intersectoriality and health promotion based on presenting the National Food and Nutrition Policy and discussing its role as interface between the SUS and the National Food and Nutrition Security Policy and System. This perspective strongly suggests the combination of efforts to promote health and food and nutrition security in order to optimize initiatives developed in different sectors and accompanied by different policy councils that are not interrelated, enabling enhanced government and civil society action on the determinants of health and nutrition.

  17. 21 CFR 801.110 - Retail exemption for prescription devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Retail exemption for prescription devices. 801.110 Section 801.110 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES LABELING Exemptions From Adequate Directions for Use § 801.110 Retail...

  18. Integrating Tobacco Control and Obesity Prevention Initiatives at Retail Outlets

    PubMed Central

    D’Angelo, Heather; Evenson, Kelly R.; Fleischhacker, Sheila; Myers, Allison E.; Rose, Shyanika W.

    2016-01-01

    Tobacco products are sold in approximately 375,000 US retail outlets, including convenience stores and pharmacies, which often sell energy-dense, low-nutrient foods and beverages. The Food and Drug Administration’s (FDA’s) increased authority over tobacco product sales and marketing, combined with declining smoking rates, provides an opportunity to transition tobacco retailers toward healthier retail environments. Unfortunately, research into improving consumer retail environments is often conducted in isolation by researchers working in tobacco control, nutrition, and physical activity. Interdisciplinary efforts are needed to transform tobacco retailers from stores that are dependent on a declining product category, to the sale and promotion of healthful foods and creating environments conducive to active living. The objective of this article is to describe the potential for interdisciplinary efforts to transition retailers away from selling and promoting tobacco products and toward creating retail environments that promote healthful eating and active living. PMID:26963859

  19. Integrating Tobacco Control and Obesity Prevention Initiatives at Retail Outlets.

    PubMed

    Ribisl, Kurt M; D'Angelo, Heather; Evenson, Kelly R; Fleischhacker, Sheila; Myers, Allison E; Rose, Shyanika W

    2016-03-10

    Tobacco products are sold in approximately 375,000 US retail outlets, including convenience stores and pharmacies, which often sell energy-dense, low-nutrient foods and beverages. The Food and Drug Administration's (FDA's) increased authority over tobacco product sales and marketing, combined with declining smoking rates, provides an opportunity to transition tobacco retailers toward healthier retail environments. Unfortunately, research into improving consumer retail environments is often conducted in isolation by researchers working in tobacco control, nutrition, and physical activity. Interdisciplinary efforts are needed to transform tobacco retailers from stores that are dependent on a declining product category, to the sale and promotion of healthful foods and creating environments conducive to active living. The objective of this article is to describe the potential for interdisciplinary efforts to transition retailers away from selling and promoting tobacco products and toward creating retail environments that promote healthful eating and active living.

  20. Occurrence and characterization of Listeria spp. in ready-to-eat retail foods from Vancouver, British Columbia.

    PubMed

    Kovačević, Jovana; Mesak, Lili R; Allen, Kevin J

    2012-06-01

    The occurrence of Listeria spp. and Listeria monocytogenes in retail RTE meat and fish products in Vancouver, British Columbia (B.C.) was investigated. To assess potential consumer health risk, recovered L. monocytogenes isolates were subjected to genotypic and phenotypic characterization. Conventional methods were used to recover Listeria spp. from deli meat (n = 40) and fish (n = 40) samples collected from 17 stores. Listeria spp. were recovered only from fish samples (20%); 5% harboured Listeria innocua, 5% had L. monocytogenes and 10% contained Listeria welshimeri. L. monocytogenes isolates serotyped as 1/2a and 1/2b, possessed dissimilar PFGE patterns, and had full-length InlA. Three 1/2a clonal isolates encoded the 50 kb genomic island, LGI1. Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) profiling showed all Listeria spp. possessed resistance to cefoxitin and nalidixic acid. L. monocytogenes were resistant to clindamycin, two were resistant to streptomycin, and one to amikacin. Reduced susceptibility to ciprofloxacin was seen in all L. monocytogenes, L. innocua and three L. welshimeri isolates. Reduced susceptibility to amikacin and chloramphenicol was also observed in one L. monocytogenes and three L. welshimeri isolates, respectively. Recovery of L. monocytogenes in fish samples possessing AMR, full-length InlA, LGI1, and serotypes frequently associated with listeriosis suggest B.C. consumers are exposed to high-risk strains.

  1. Do people really know what food retailers exist in their neighborhood? Examining GIS-based and perceived presence of retail food outlets in an eight-county region of South Carolina

    PubMed Central

    Barnes, Timothy L.; Bell, Bethany A.; Freedman, Darcy A.; Colabianchi, Natalie; Liese, Angela D.

    2015-01-01

    Measures of neighborhood food environments have been linked to diet and obesity. However, the appropriate measurement methods and how people actually perceive their food environments are still unclear. In a cross-sectional study of 939 adults, the perceived presence of food outlets was compared to the geographic-based presence of outlets within a participant’s neighborhood, utilizing percent agreement and Kappa statistics. Perceived presence was based on survey-administered questions, and geographic-based presence was characterized using 1-, 2-, 3- and 5-mile (1-mile=1.6 km) Euclidean- and network-based buffers centered on each participant’s residence. Analyses were also stratified by urban and non-urban designations. Overall, an individual’s perceived neighborhood food environment was moderately correlated with the geographic-based presence of outlets. The performance of an individual’s perception was most optimal using a 2- or 3-mile geographic-based neighborhood boundary and/or when the participant lived in a non-urban neighborhood. This study has implications for how researchers measure the food environment. PMID:26046635

  2. Do people really know what food retailers exist in their neighborhood? Examining GIS-based and perceived presence of retail food outlets in an eight-county region of South Carolina.

    PubMed

    Barnes, Timothy L; Bell, Bethany A; Freedman, Darcy A; Colabianchi, Natalie; Liese, Angela D

    2015-04-01

    Measures of neighborhood food environments have been linked to diet and obesity. However, the appropriate measurement methods and how people actually perceive their food environments are still unclear. In a cross-sectional study of 939 adults, the perceived presence of food outlets was compared to the geographic-based presence of outlets within a participant's neighborhood, utilizing percent agreement and Kappa statistics. Perceived presence was based on survey-administered questions, and geographic-based presence was characterized using 1-, 2-, 3- and 5-mile (1-mile=1.6km) Euclidean- and network-based buffers centered on each participant's residence. Analyses were also stratified by urban and non-urban designations. Overall, an individual's perceived neighborhood food environment was moderately correlated with the geographic-based presence of outlets. The performance of an individual's perception was most optimal using a 2- or 3-mile geographic-based neighborhood boundary and/or when the participant lived in a non-urban neighborhood. This study has implications for how researchers measure the food environment.

  3. Antibiotic-Resistant Extended Spectrum ß-Lactamase- and Plasmid-Mediated AmpC-Producing Enterobacteriaceae Isolated from Retail Food Products and the Pearl River in Guangzhou, China

    PubMed Central

    Ye, Qinghua; Wu, Qingping; Zhang, Shuhong; Zhang, Jumei; Yang, Guangzhu; Wang, Huixian; Huang, Jiahui; Chen, Mongtong; Xue, Liang; Wang, Juan

    2017-01-01

    We conducted a survey in 2015 to evaluate the presence of extended spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)- and plasmid-mediated AmpC-producing Enterobacteriaceae in retail food and water of the Pearl River in Guangzhou, China, as well as their antibiotic resistance profiles. Samples (88 fresh food samples and 43 water samples) from eight different districts were analyzed by direct plating and after enrichment. Multidrug-resistant strains were found in 41.7 and 43.4% of food and water samples, respectively. ESBLs were found in 3.4 and 11.6% of food and water samples, respectively, and AmpC producers were found in 13.6 and 16.3% of food and water samples, respectively. Molecular characterization revealed the domination of blaCTX−Mgenes; plasmidic AmpC was of the type DHA-1 both in food and water samples. Thirteen of Fifty one β-lactamase-producing positive isolates were detected to be transconjugants, which readily received the β-lactamase genes conferring resistance to β-lactam antibiotics as well as some non-β-lactam antibiotics. These findings provide evidence that retail food and the river water may be considered as reservoirs for the dissemination of β-lactam antibiotics, and these resistance genes could readily be transmitted to humans through the food chain and water. PMID:28217112

  4. 7 CFR 205.309 - Agricultural products in other than packaged form at the point of retail sale that are sold...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) ORGANIC FOODS PRODUCTION ACT PROVISIONS NATIONAL ORGANIC PROGRAM Labels.... (1) Such statement must not list more than three organic ingredients or food groups, and (2) In any... the point of retail sale that are sold, labeled, or represented as âmade with organic...

  5. 7 CFR 205.309 - Agricultural products in other than packaged form at the point of retail sale that are sold...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) ORGANIC FOODS PRODUCTION ACT PROVISIONS NATIONAL ORGANIC PROGRAM Labels.... (1) Such statement must not list more than three organic ingredients or food groups, and (2) In any... the point of retail sale that are sold, labeled, or represented as âmade with organic...

  6. 7 CFR 205.309 - Agricultural products in other than packaged form at the point of retail sale that are sold...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) ORGANIC FOODS PRODUCTION ACT PROVISIONS NATIONAL ORGANIC PROGRAM Labels.... (1) Such statement must not list more than three organic ingredients or food groups, and (2) In any... the point of retail sale that are sold, labeled, or represented as âmade with organic...

  7. 7 CFR 205.309 - Agricultural products in other than packaged form at the point of retail sale that are sold...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) ORGANIC FOODS PRODUCTION ACT PROVISIONS NATIONAL ORGANIC PROGRAM Labels.... (1) Such statement must not list more than three organic ingredients or food groups, and (2) In any... the point of retail sale that are sold, labeled, or represented as âmade with organic...

  8. 7 CFR 205.309 - Agricultural products in other than packaged form at the point of retail sale that are sold...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) ORGANIC FOODS PRODUCTION ACT PROVISIONS NATIONAL ORGANIC PROGRAM Labels.... (1) Such statement must not list more than three organic ingredients or food groups, and (2) In any... the point of retail sale that are sold, labeled, or represented as âmade with organic...

  9. HACCP TO DEVELOP SAFE FOOD COOLING, THE SHELF-LIFE LIMITS OF THE CHILLED FOOD FOR A NEW PROCESS IN A RETAIL OPERATION

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point (HACCP) is a prevention based food safety system that identifies and monitors specific food safety hazards that can adversely affect the safety of food products. The Critical Control Point in a cooked roast beef plant is to cool the product’s internal temperat...

  10. 47 CFR 301.6 - Retailer participation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Retailer participation. 301.6 Section 301.6 Telecommunication NATIONAL TELECOMMUNICATIONS AND INFORMATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE DIGITAL-TO... requires the retailers to self certify that they: (A) Have been engaged in the consumer electronics...

  11. Food Service Perspectives on National School Lunch Program Implementation

    PubMed Central

    Tabak, Rachel G.; Moreland-Russell, Sarah

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Explore barriers and facilitators to implementation of the new National School Lunch Program (NSLP) policy guidelines. Methods Interviews with eight food service directors using an interview guide informed by the Consolidated Framework for Implementation Research. Results Food service personnel; parents, teachers, school staff; and students were important stakeholders. Characteristics of the new NSLP policy guidelines were reported to create increased demands; resources alleviated some barriers. Directors reported increased food and labor costs, food sourcing challenges, decreased student participation, and organizational constraints as barriers to implementation. Creativity in menu planning facilitated success. Conclusions Factors within the food service department, characteristics of implementing individuals and the new NSLP policy guidelines, and stakeholder involvement in the implementation process relate to successful implementation. PMID:26417607

  12. 77 FR 16807 - Nominations for Membership on the National Advisory Committee on Microbiological Criteria for Foods

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-22

    ... technology, microbiology (food, clinical, and predictive), toxicology, risk assessment, infectious disease... Food Safety Inspection Service Nominations for Membership on the National Advisory Committee on Microbiological Criteria for Foods AGENCY: Food Safety and Inspection Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY:...

  13. National Nutrient Database for Standard Reference - Find Nutrient Value of Common Foods by Nutrient

    MedlinePlus

    ... Nutrient: Second Nutrient: Third Nutrient: Food Subset: Food Groups: Select food groups (10 maximum) Sort by: Measure by: * required field ​ USDA Food Composition Databases Software developed by the National Agricultural ...

  14. Food irradiation: Public opinion surveys

    SciTech Connect

    Kerr, S.D.

    1987-01-01

    The Canadian government are discussing the legislation, regulations and practical protocol necessary for the commercialization of food irradiation. Food industry marketing, public relations and media expertise will be needed to successfully introduce this new processing choice to retailers and consumers. Consumer research to date including consumer opinion studies and market trials conducted in the Netherlands, United States, South Africa and Canada will be explored for signposts to successful approaches to the introduction of irradiated foods to retailers and consumers. Research has indicated that the terms used to describe irradiation and information designed to reduce consumer fears will be important marketing tools. Marketers will be challenged to promote old foods, which look the same to consumers, in a new light. Simple like or dislike or intention to buy surveys will not be effective tools. Consumer fears must be identified and effectively handled to support a receptive climate for irradiated food products. A cooperative government, industry, health professional, consumer association and retailer effort will be necessary for the successful introduction of irradiated foods into the marketplace. Grocery Products Manufacturers of Canada is a national trade association of more than 150 major companies engaged in the manufacture of food, non-alcoholic beverages and array of other national-brand consumer items sold through retail outlets.

  15. Comparison of materials used for cleaning equipment in retail food premises, and of two methods for the enumeration of bacteria on cleaned equipment and work surfaces

    PubMed Central

    Gilbert, R. J.

    1970-01-01

    There is no official scheme for testing disinfectants and detergent/disinfectants for use in the retail food trade and few recommended procedures have been given for the cleaning of equipment with these agents. Therefore, field trials were carried out in a large self-service store. Comparisons were made of the various cleaning efficiencies, as determined by bacterial plate counts, of detergent and disinfectant solutions and machine cleaning oils applied with either clean cloths or disposable paper towels to items of equipment. The most satisfactory results were always obtained when anionic detergent (0·75% w/v) and hypochlorite (200 p.p.m. available chlorine) solutions were applied in a `two-step' procedure. Tests were made to compare the calcium alginate swab-rinse and the agar sausage (Agaroid) techniques for the enumeration of bacteria on stainless steel, plastic, formica and wooden surfaces before and after a cleaning process. Although recovery rates were always greater by the swab-rinse technique, the agar sausage technique was considered to be a useful routine control method for surface sampling. PMID:4914087

  16. Field validation of secondary commercial data sources on the retail food outlet environment in the U.S.

    PubMed

    Powell, Lisa M; Han, Euna; Zenk, Shannon N; Khan, Tamkeen; Quinn, Christopher M; Gibbs, Kevin P; Pugach, Oksana; Barker, Dianne C; Resnick, Elissa A; Myllyluoma, Jaana; Chaloupka, Frank J

    2011-09-01

    This study used direct field observations with interior assessments of outlets to validate food store and restaurant data from two commercial business lists conditional on classification of outlet type, including supermarkets, grocery stores, convenience stores, full-service restaurants and fast food restaurants. The study used a stratified random sample that included 274 urban census tracts across 9 counties from the Chicago Metropolitan Statistical Area (MSA) and 46 suburban and 61 rural census tracts across 13 counties from a 50-mile buffer surrounding the MSA. Results showed that agreement between the field observations and the commercial business lists for the food store and restaurant outlets was generally moderate (ranging from fair to good). However, when the listed data were validated based on an exact classification match, agreement was only fair (ranging from poor to moderate) and, in particular, poor for fast food restaurants. The study also found that agreement levels for some outlet types differed by tract characteristics. Commercial databases must be used with caution as substitutes for on the ground data collection.

  17. 7 CFR 274.3 - Retailer management.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Retailer management. 274.3 Section 274.3 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FOOD STAMP AND FOOD DISTRIBUTION PROGRAM ISSUANCE AND USE OF PROGRAM BENEFITS § 274.3...

  18. 7 CFR 274.3 - Retailer management.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Retailer management. 274.3 Section 274.3 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FOOD STAMP AND FOOD DISTRIBUTION PROGRAM ISSUANCE AND USE OF PROGRAM BENEFITS § 274.3...

  19. The Indian National Food Security Act, 2013: a commentary.

    PubMed

    Varadharajan, Kiruba Sankar; Thomas, Tinku; Kurpad, Anura

    2014-06-01

    The National Food Security Act (NFSA) 2013, passed recently by the Indian Parliament, aims to ensure food security in India, chiefly by providing cereals at subsidized prices through the Targeted Public Distribution System (TPDS) for about two-thirds of households. The predominant line of criticism of the NFSA has been the costs of such an ambitious rights-based approach in the context of decelerating economic growth and growing fiscal deficits. We argue that the food subsidy has been increasing through the last few decades and is set to climb even higher with this act but that the incremental costs, at about 0.2% of gross domestic product, are not as high as claimed. Further, recent evidence of increasing utilization of the TPDS and decreasing corruption add credence to the act's premise that significant income transfers to poor households can be achieved, thereby promoting food security as well as dietary diversity. Several concerns remain to be addressed in the design and implementation of the act, including its proposed coverage, a cereal-centric approach, the identification of beneficiaries, and its adaptability at the state level. If these are resolved effectively, the act can prove to be a significant step forward in India's long-drawn-out battle against undernutrition and food insecurity. Finally, the NFSA also provides a fresh opportunity to reform and strengthen the TPDS, which has been an integral component of India's strategy to achieve food security at the national level.

  20. Food Consumption and Nutrition Evaluation: The National School Lunch Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Food and Nutrition Service (USDA), Washington, DC.

    The purpose of this study of food consumption in the National School Lunch Program (NSLP) was to: (1) conduct a comprehensive review of literature on plate waste in school foodservice and other institutional foodservice facilities, (2) report the results of a pilot study designed to determine the degree of plate waste in the NSLP and its…

  1. Toxaphene levels in retail food from the Pearl River Delta area of South China and an assessment of dietary intake.

    PubMed

    Jiang, YouSheng; Liu, ZhiBin; Wu, DongTing; Zhang, JianQing; Zhou, Jian; Li, ShengNong; Lu, LinGeng; Lin, XiaoShi; Lu, ShaoYou; Peng, JinLing

    2016-06-01

    Limited literature exists on toxaphene contamination in food worldwide, particularly in mainland China. In this study, three toxaphene congeners, Parlar 26 (B8-1413), Parlar 50 (B9-1679) and Parlar 62 (B9-1025), were analyzed in five different food categories from the Pearl River Delta Area in China using isotope dilution high-resolution gas chromatography/high-resolution mass spectrometry (HRGC/HRMS), and toxaphene levels in food were reported and toxaphene dietary intake by local residents estimated. The results showed that fish contained the highest toxaphene level with a median of 12.87 pg/g wet weight (ww), followed by poultry meat, egg products, livestock meat and vegetable, which had median levels of 5.8, 2.2, 1.89 and 0.67 pg/g ww, respectively. Parlar 50 and Parlar 26 were the predominant characteristic congeners in fish, and Parlar 26 was the predominant congener not only in poultry products and eggs, but also in livestock and vegetable. The estimated average daily intake found by local residents was 35.57 pg/kg body weight/day. Overall toxaphene levels and estimated dietary intake in the Pearl River Delta Area of South China are far lower than the European Maximum Residue Limits (EU MRLs), the German MRL for fish, and other international literature data. Therefore, the risk of adverse health effects from dietary intakes of toxaphene for the local residents is not considerable at the current time, but follow-ups are warranted to study dynamic changes of toxaphene in food in this area.

  2. 21 CFR 1314.30 - Recordkeeping for retail transactions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Recordkeeping for retail transactions. 1314.30 Section 1314.30 Food and Drugs DRUG ENFORCEMENT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE RETAIL SALE OF... seller may use a point-of-sale and bar code reader. Such electronic records must be provided pursuant...

  3. 21 CFR 1314.30 - Recordkeeping for retail transactions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Recordkeeping for retail transactions. 1314.30 Section 1314.30 Food and Drugs DRUG ENFORCEMENT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE RETAIL SALE OF... capture through bar code reader or similar technology. Such electronic records must be provided...

  4. 21 CFR 1314.30 - Recordkeeping for retail transactions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Recordkeeping for retail transactions. 1314.30 Section 1314.30 Food and Drugs DRUG ENFORCEMENT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE RETAIL SALE OF... capture through bar code reader or similar technology. Such electronic records must be provided...

  5. Occurrence and characterization of food-borne pathogens isolated from fruit, vegetables and sprouts retailed in the Czech Republic.

    PubMed

    Vojkovská, Hana; Myšková, Petra; Gelbíčová, Tereza; Skočková, Alena; Koláčková, Ivana; Karpíšková, Renáta

    2017-05-01

    Food of non-animal origin is a major component of the human diet and has been considered to pose a low risk from the point of view of bacteriological safety. However, an increase in the number of outbreaks of illness caused by such pathogens and linked to the consumption of fresh fruit and vegetables have been reported from around the world recently. Salmonella spp., STEC (Shiga toxin producing Escherichia coli) and Listeria monocytogenes are among the most frequently identified agents. Additionally, the transmission of antibiotic resistant strains including also the methicillin resistant S. aureus (MRSA) to humans via the food chain is one of the greatest public health problems being confronted today. Therefore, we focused on the bacterial safety of fruit, vegetables and sprouts on sale in the Czech Republic. One strain (0.3%) of Salmonella Enteritidis phage type PT8, one strain (0.3%) of MRSA and 17 strains (5.0%) of L. monocytogenes were isolated from a total of 339 collected samples. The most problematic commodities were frozen fruit and vegetables (packed and unpacked) and fresh-cut vegetables. Our findings indicate deficiencies in hygiene practices during harvesting, processing and distribution of these commodities. Although sprouts and berries are the most likely to be contaminated by human pathogens, only two samples were positive for the presence of L. monocytogenes.

  6. Surveys of aflatoxin B1 contamination of retail Turkish foods and of products intended for export between 2007 and 2009.

    PubMed

    Ulca, P; Evcimen, M K; Senyuva, H Z

    2010-01-01

    Surveys were carried out between 2007 and 2009 to determine the aflatoxin B1 content of 3345 commercial Turkish foodstuffs supplied by producers for testing for their own purposes or for export certification. To simplify the reporting of data, foods were categorized as: 1, high sugar products with nuts; 2, nuts and seeds; 3, spices; 4, grain; 5, cocoa products; 6, dried fruit and vegetables; 7, processed cereal products; 8, tea; and 9, baby food and infant formula. Aflatoxin analysis was carried out by high-performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection after immunoaffinity column clean-up, with a recoveries ranging from 91% to 99%, depending on the matrix. Of the 3345 samples analysed, 94% contained aflatoxin B1 below the European Union limit of 2 µg kg(-1), which applies to nuts, dried fruit, and cereals products. The 6% of the 206 contaminated samples were mainly nuts and spices. For pistachios, 24%, 38%, and 42% of the totals of 207, 182, and 24 samples tested for 2007, 2008 and 2009, respectively, were above 2 µg kg(-1), with 50 samples containing aflatoxin B1 at levels ranging from 10 to 477 µg kg(-1).

  7. Food loss rate in food supply chain using material flow analysis.

    PubMed

    Ju, Munsol; Osako, Masahiro; Harashina, Sachihiko

    2017-03-01

    The food loss rate is a factor that represents food consumption efficiency. To improve food consumption efficiency, we need to fundamentally quantify food loss at national and global levels. This study examines food and food waste flow and calculates the food loss rate in the food supply chain by targeting Japan. We analyzed inedible food waste and avoidable food losses in wholesale, manufacturing, retail, food services, and households and considered different supply chain pathways, different food categories representing whole Japanese meals, and weight changes after cooking. The results are as follows: (1) Japan has an overall rate of avoidable food losses of approximately 15% for meals (excluding agricultural losses), (2) the supply sector with the highest food loss rate is food services, and (3) the food category with the highest food loss rate is vegetables. Finally, we proposed a model for calculating food loss rates that could be used for future analysis in Japan or other countries.

  8. 21 CFR 1304.05 - Records of authorized central fill pharmacies and retail pharmacies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Records of authorized central fill pharmacies and retail pharmacies. 1304.05 Section 1304.05 Food and Drugs DRUG ENFORCEMENT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... fill pharmacies and retail pharmacies. (a) Every retail pharmacy that utilizes the services of...

  9. 21 CFR 1304.05 - Records of authorized central fill pharmacies and retail pharmacies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Records of authorized central fill pharmacies and retail pharmacies. 1304.05 Section 1304.05 Food and Drugs DRUG ENFORCEMENT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... fill pharmacies and retail pharmacies. (a) Every retail pharmacy that utilizes the services of...

  10. 76 FR 43254 - Child and Adult Care Food Program: National Average Payment Rates, Day Care Home Food Service...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-20

    ... Food and Nutrition Service Child and Adult Care Food Program: National Average Payment Rates, Day Care... Day Care Homes for the Period July 1, 2011 Through June 30, 2012 AGENCY: Food and Nutrition Service...-risk afterschool care centers, and adult day care centers; the food service payment rates for meals...

  11. 78 FR 45176 - Child and Adult Care Food Program: National Average Payment Rates, Day Care Home Food Service...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-26

    ... Food and Nutrition Service Child and Adult Care Food Program: National Average Payment Rates, Day Care... Day Care Homes for the Period July 1, 2013 Through June 30, 2014 AGENCY: Food and Nutrition Service...-risk afterschool care centers, and adult day care centers; the food service payment rates for meals...

  12. 75 FR 41793 - Child and Adult Care Food Program: National Average Payment Rates, Day Care Home Food Service...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-19

    ... Food and Nutrition Service Child and Adult Care Food Program: National Average Payment Rates, Day Care... Day Care Homes for the Period July 1, 2010 Through June 30, 2011 AGENCY: Food and Nutrition Service...-risk afterschool care centers, and adult day care centers; the food service payment rates for meals...

  13. Towards global benchmarking of food environments and policies to reduce obesity and diet-related non-communicable diseases: design and methods for nation-wide surveys

    PubMed Central

    Vandevijvere, Stefanie; Swinburn, Boyd

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Unhealthy diets are heavily driven by unhealthy food environments. The International Network for Food and Obesity/non-communicable diseases (NCDs) Research, Monitoring and Action Support (INFORMAS) has been established to reduce obesity, NCDs and their related inequalities globally. This paper describes the design and methods of the first-ever, comprehensive national survey on the healthiness of food environments and the public and private sector policies influencing them, as a first step towards global monitoring of food environments and policies. Methods and analysis A package of 11 substudies has been identified: (1) food composition, labelling and promotion on food packages; (2) food prices, shelf space and placement of foods in different outlets (mainly supermarkets); (3) food provision in schools/early childhood education (ECE) services and outdoor food promotion around schools/ECE services; (4) density of and proximity to food outlets in communities; food promotion to children via (5) television, (6) magazines, (7) sport club sponsorships, and (8) internet and social media; (9) analysis of the impact of trade and investment agreements on food environments; (10) government policies and actions; and (11) private sector actions and practices. For the substudies on food prices, provision, promotion and retail, ‘environmental equity’ indicators have been developed to check progress towards reducing diet-related health inequalities. Indicators for these modules will be assessed by tertiles of area deprivation index or school deciles. International ‘best practice benchmarks’ will be identified, against which to compare progress of countries on improving the healthiness of their food environments and policies. Dissemination This research is highly original due to the very ‘upstream’ approach being taken and its direct policy relevance. The detailed protocols will be offered to and adapted for countries of varying size and income in order to

  14. Food Safety in the National School Lunch Program. USDA Food and Nutrition Service

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    US Department of Agriculture, 2010

    2010-01-01

    Schools that serve meals under the National School Lunch Program (NSLP) and School Breakfast Program (SBP) are required to maintain proper sanitation and health standards in conformance with all applicable State and local laws and regulations. In addition, schools are required to obtain two school food safety inspections per school year, which are…

  15. National Chemistry Week 2000: JCE Resources in Food Chemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacobsen, Erica K.

    2000-10-01

    November brings another National Chemistry Week, and this year's theme is food chemistry. I was asked to collect and evaluate JCE resources for use with this theme, a project that took me deep into past issues of JCE and yielded many treasures. Here we present the results of searches for food chemistry information and activities. While the selected articles are mainly at the high school and college levels, there are some excellent ones for the elementary school level and some that can be adapted for younger students. The focus of all articles is on the chemistry of food itself. Activities that only use food to demonstrate a principle other than food chemistry are not included. Articles that cover household products such as cleansers and pharmaceuticals are also not included. Each article has been characterized as a demonstration, experiment, calculation, activity, or informational item; several fit more than one classification. Also included are keywords and an evaluation as to which levels the article may serve.

  16. Cross-continental comparison of national food consumption survey methods--a narrative review

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Food consumption surveys are performed in many countries. Comparison of results from those surveys across nations is difficult because of differences in methodological approaches. While consensus about the preferred methodology associated with national food consumption surveys is increasing, no in...

  17. USDA’s National Food and Nutrient Analysis Program: Analytical Quality Control Procedures for Food Composition Research

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Representative food samples collected under the United States Department of Agriculture's (USDA) National Food and Nutrient Analysis Program (NFNAP) are analyzed for composition of nutrients and other bioactive components. Standard procedures have been developed to describe how these primary food s...

  18. Evaluation of national food and nutrition policy in Albania

    PubMed Central

    Hyska, Jolanda; Burazeri, Genc

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Introduction The paper aims to describe the progress that has been made in the implementation of the Albanian food and nutrition policy since 2003, so as to consider its impacts to date, and to identify strategic priorities/critical areas and priorities for Albania’s future policy on improving the national food and nutrition situation. Methods In 2011-2012, an expert group applied an intersectoral participatory approach to evaluate the implementation of Food and Nutrition Action Plan 2003-08 in Albania. The experts employed the quantitative method, using a 9 question logical assessment matrix to measure the achievements of the individual goals of the Plan, and a qualitative tool for the interview of an interdisciplinary sample of 68-key informants-persons operating in public health nutrition, food safety and food availability related subfields, from a wide range of pertinent institutions and stakeholders. Results The quantitative and qualitative assessment revealed that the implementation process has faced serious barriers linked to the design of the plan, which did not accurately anticipate a theoretical framework, or structured methods for its implementation. Other impeding factors included the lack of institutional/infrastructure support, lack of intersectoral coordination and motivation, as well as insufficient capacities and know-how. Intersectoral response to the multifaceted nature of double burden of malnutrition is of key importance to improve nutritional wellbeing and health outcomes in Albania. Conclusions Participatory approaches that involve all relevant sectors and actors in the development, monitoring and evaluation of the implementation of public health policies based on comprehensive action-oriented assessments are promising and should be further supported. PMID:28289471

  19. Consumption of fresh fruit juice: how a healthy food practice caused a national outbreak of Salmonella Panama gastroenteritis.

    PubMed

    Noël, Harold; Hofhuis, Agnetha; De Jonge, Rob; Heuvelink, Annet E; De Jong, Aarieke; Heck, Max E O C; De Jager, Carolien; van Pelt, Wilfrid

    2010-04-01

    In spring 2008, 15 Salmonella Panama laboratory-confirmed cases were reported within 2 weeks, twice the average annual number of reported cases of this infrequent serotype in The Netherlands. To identify the source responsible for this national outbreak, we carried out an epidemiological, microbiological, and trace-back investigation. In total, 33 cases were reported, and a matched case-control study (23 cases/24 controls) identified consumption of fresh (unpasteurized) fruit juice purchased from a large retailer (X) as the only significant risk factor for illness (matched odds ratio: 7.4, 95% confidence interval: 1.5-37.2). Though the bacterium could not be isolated from fruit juice, the minimal pH value for growth of the causative strain of the outbreak (3.4) was compatible with survival in fruit juice from X. The outbreak strain showed acid resistance and adaptive properties that may explain how it could have caused infection through fresh orange juice. To our knowledge, this is the first documented outbreak related to fresh fruit juice consumption in western Europe since 1922. A growing number of consumers who are seeking healthy food practices are exposed to the infectious risks related to unpasteurized fresh fruit juice. Labeling regulations should be adapted to properly indicate to the consumers that unpasteurized fresh fruit juices remain vulnerable to microbial contamination. Frequent microbiological screening and strict compliance with food safety procedures should reduce the infectious hazards of fresh fruit juices.

  20. Energy intake from commercially-prepared meals by food source in Korean adults: Analysis of the 2001 and 2011 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Injoo; Kim, Won Gyoung

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES The commercial foodservice industry in Korea has shown rapid growth recently. This study examined Korean adults' consumption of commercially-prepared meals based on where the food was prepared. SUBJECTS/METHODS Data from a 24-hour dietary recall of the 2001 and 2011 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys were analyzed. A total of 10,539 subjects (n = 6,152 in 2001; n = 4,387 in 2011) aged 19-64 years were included for analysis. Commercially-prepared meals were classified into four food source groups based on where the food was prepared: Korean restaurants, Chinese/Western/Japanese restaurants, fast-food restaurants, and retail stores. Subjects' energy intake, including the amount and proportion of calories, was examined for each food source. The analysis was also conducted by gender for age-stratified groups: 19-29, 30-49, and 50-64 years old. RESULTS Korean adults' energy intake from commercially-prepared meals increased in the amount of calories (551 kcal to 635 kcal, P < 0.01), but not in the proportion of daily calories (27% to 28%) from 2001 to 2011. The most frequent food source of commercially-prepared meals was Korean restaurants in both years. The amount and proportion of calories from retail stores increased from 83 kcal to 143 kcal (P < 0.001) and from 4% to 7% (P < 0.001), respectively, during the same period. Males aged 30-49 years (34%) and females aged 19-29 years (35%) consumed the highest proportion of daily calories from commercially-prepared meals in 2011. CONCLUSIONS Korean adults consumed about one-fourth of their energy intake from commercially-prepared meals. In particular, males aged 30-49 years and females aged 19-29 years consumed more than one-third of their energy intake from commercially-prepared meals. Korean restaurants played a significant role in Korean adults' energy intake. Retail stores increased influence on Korean adults' energy intake. These results could be useful for developing health

  1. Tracking Microbial Contamination in Retail Environments Using Fluorescent Powder - A Retail Delicatessen Environment Example

    PubMed Central

    Sirsat, Sujata A.; Kim, Kawon; Gibson, Kristen E.; Crandall, Phillip G.; Ricke, Steven C.; Neal, Jack A.

    2014-01-01

    Cross contamination of foodborne pathogens in the retail environment is a significant public health issue contributing to an increased risk for foodborne illness. Ready-to-eat (RTE) processed foods such as deli meats, cheese, and in some cases fresh produce, have been involved in foodborne disease outbreaks due to contamination with pathogens such as Listeria monocytogenes. With respect to L. monocytogenes, deli slicers are often the main source of cross contamination. The goal of this study was to use a fluorescent compound to simulate bacterial contamination and track this contamination in a retail setting. A mock deli kitchen was designed to simulate the retail environment. Deli meat was inoculated with the fluorescent compound and volunteers were recruited to complete a set of tasks similar to those expected of a food retail employee. The volunteers were instructed to slice, package, and store the meat in a deli refrigerator. The potential cross contamination was tracked in the mock retail environment by swabbing specific areas and measuring the optical density of the swabbed area with a spectrophotometer. The results indicated that the refrigerator (i.e. deli case) grip and various areas on the slicer had the highest risk for cross contamination. The results of this study may be used to develop more focused training material for retail employees. In addition, similar methodologies could also be used to track microbial contamination in food production environments (e.g. small farms), hospitals, nursing homes, cruise ships, and hotels. PMID:24637553

  2. Tracking microbial contamination in retail environments using fluorescent powder--a retail delicatessen environment example.

    PubMed

    Sirsat, Sujata A; Kim, Kawon; Gibson, Kristen E; Crandall, Phillip G; Ricke, Steven C; Neal, Jack A

    2014-03-05

    Cross contamination of foodborne pathogens in the retail environment is a significant public health issue contributing to an increased risk for foodborne illness. Ready-to-eat (RTE) processed foods such as deli meats, cheese, and in some cases fresh produce, have been involved in foodborne disease outbreaks due to contamination with pathogens such as Listeria monocytogenes. With respect to L. monocytogenes, deli slicers are often the main source of cross contamination. The goal of this study was to use a fluorescent compound to simulate bacterial contamination and track this contamination in a retail setting. A mock deli kitchen was designed to simulate the retail environment. Deli meat was inoculated with the fluorescent compound and volunteers were recruited to complete a set of tasks similar to those expected of a food retail employee. The volunteers were instructed to slice, package, and store the meat in a deli refrigerator. The potential cross contamination was tracked in the mock retail environment by swabbing specific areas and measuring the optical density of the swabbed area with a spectrophotometer. The results indicated that the refrigerator (i.e. deli case) grip and various areas on the slicer had the highest risk for cross contamination. The results of this study may be used to develop more focused training material for retail employees. In addition, similar methodologies could also be used to track microbial contamination in food production environments (e.g. small farms), hospitals, nursing homes, cruise ships, and hotels.

  3. Food Systems: Modern Technology, Transnationalization, Regional and National Situations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Social Science Journal, 1985

    1985-01-01

    Topics discussed include: the emergence of biotechnology; modern food technology; strategies of transnational food companies; transnational agribusiness firms and Mexican agriculture; food production in Western Europe; the agro-industrial system of the USSR; food systems in India; food production systems of the Senegal River; and production modes…

  4. 77 FR 48461 - Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program: Farm Bill of 2008 Retailer Sanctions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-14

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Food and Nutrition Service 7 CFR Parts 278 and 279 RIN 0584-AD88 Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program: Farm Bill of 2008 Retailer Sanctions AGENCY: Food and Nutrition Service (FNS... Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) (formerly the Food Stamp Program) retailer sanction regulations...

  5. 76 FR 22633 - Retail Foreign Exchange Transactions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-22

    ...The Office of the Comptroller of the Currency (OCC) is proposing a rule authorizing national banks, Federal branches or agencies of foreign banks, and their operating subsidiaries to engage in off-exchange transactions in foreign currency with retail customers. The proposed rule also describes various requirements with which national banks, Federal branches or agencies of foreign banks, and......

  6. 76 FR 41375 - Retail Foreign Exchange Transactions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-14

    ...The Office of the Comptroller of the Currency (OCC) is adopting a final rule authorizing national banks, Federal branches and agencies of foreign banks, and their operating subsidiaries to engage in off-exchange transactions in foreign currency with retail customers. The rule also describes various requirements with which national banks, Federal branches and agencies of foreign banks, and......

  7. 7 CFR 278.3 - Participation of wholesale food concerns.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... retail food store's properly filled-out and signed redemption certificate for the coupons; and (2) The authorized wholesale food concern's properly filled-out and signed redemption certificate. (d) Handling... authorized retail food store's redemption certificate....

  8. Sodium Content of Foods Contributing to Sodium Intake: Comparison between Selected Foods from the CDC Packaged Food Database and the USDA National Nutrient Database for Standard Reference.

    PubMed

    Maalouf, Joyce; Cogswell, Mary E; Yuan, Keming; Martin, Carrie; Gillespie, Cathleen; Ahuja, Jaspreet Kc; Pehrsson, Pamela; Merritt, Robert

    The sodium concentration (mg/100g) for 23 of 125 Sentinel Foods (e.g. white bread) were identified in the 2009 CDC Packaged Food Database (PFD) and compared with data in the USDA's 2013 National Nutrient Database for Standard Reference(SR 26). Sentinel Foods are foods identified by USDA to be monitored as primary indicators to assess the changes in the sodium content of commercially processed foods from stores and restaurants. Overall, 937 products were evaluated in the CDC PFD, and between 3 (one brand of ready-to-eat cereal) and 126 products (white bread) were evaluated per selected food. The mean sodium concentrations of 17 of the 23 (74%) selected foods in the CDC PFD were 90%-110% of the mean sodium concentrations in SR 26 and differences in sodium concentration were statistically significant for 6 Sentinel Foods. The sodium concentration of most of the Sentinel Foods, as selected in the PFD, appeared to represent the sodium concentrations of the corresponding food category. The results of our study help improve the understanding of how nutrition information compares between national analytic values and the label and whether the selected Sentinel Foods represent their corresponding food category as indicators for assessment of change of the sodium content in the food supply.

  9. Sodium Content of Foods Contributing to Sodium Intake: Comparison between Selected Foods from the CDC Packaged Food Database and the USDA National Nutrient Database for Standard Reference

    PubMed Central

    Maalouf, Joyce; Cogswell, Mary E.; Yuan, Keming; Martin, Carrie; Gillespie, Cathleen; Ahuja, Jaspreet KC; Pehrsson, Pamela; Merritt, Robert

    2015-01-01

    The sodium concentration (mg/100g) for 23 of 125 Sentinel Foods (e.g. white bread) were identified in the 2009 CDC Packaged Food Database (PFD) and compared with data in the USDA’s 2013 National Nutrient Database for Standard Reference(SR 26). Sentinel Foods are foods identified by USDA to be monitored as primary indicators to assess the changes in the sodium content of commercially processed foods from stores and restaurants. Overall, 937 products were evaluated in the CDC PFD, and between 3 (one brand of ready-to-eat cereal) and 126 products (white bread) were evaluated per selected food. The mean sodium concentrations of 17 of the 23 (74%) selected foods in the CDC PFD were 90%–110% of the mean sodium concentrations in SR 26 and differences in sodium concentration were statistically significant for 6 Sentinel Foods. The sodium concentration of most of the Sentinel Foods, as selected in the PFD, appeared to represent the sodium concentrations of the corresponding food category. The results of our study help improve the understanding of how nutrition information compares between national analytic values and the label and whether the selected Sentinel Foods represent their corresponding food category as indicators for assessment of change of the sodium content in the food supply. PMID:26484010

  10. [Street food in the national agenda of food and nutrition security: an essay for sanitary qualification in Brazil].

    PubMed

    Bezerra, Aída Couto Dinucci; Mancuso, Ana Maria Cervato; Heitz, Sarah Jeanne Jorge

    2014-05-01

    In 2014, the World Cup will be staged in Brazil. Is Brazil able to ensure safe street food is on offer? This paper seeks to elicit reflection on some problems relating to the sale of street food, thereby contributing to highlight this theme in the food security agenda in Brazil. The scope of this study is exclusively street food. Care is taken not to reduce the broader concepts of food security and the importance of sanitary and hygienic handling is stressed as one of the core components of food and nutrition security. In this context the following aspects are discussed: the credibility of the official data on insanitary outbreaks related to street food; street food security compared to that in other eating environments; and the training of people to modify inadequate food handling practices. Thus, in the discussion about problems in the street food market it is essential to improve the quantity and quality of the training of food handlers in order to implement food and nutrition security as promoting the human right to adequate food and ensure that the topic is urgently included on the national calendar of public health debates.

  11. 76 FR 44573 - Child and Adult Care Food Program: National Average Payment Rates, Day Care Home Food Service...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-26

    ... Food and Nutrition Service Child and Adult Care Food Program: National Average Payment Rates, Day Care... Day Care Homes for the Period July 1, 2011 Through June 30, 2012 Correction In notice document 2011... page 43255, the table labeled ``Administrative Reimbursement Rates for Sponsoring Organizations of...

  12. Distance Learning for Food Security and Rural Development: A Perspective from the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLean, Scott; Gasperini, Lavinia; Rudgard, Stephen

    2002-01-01

    The distance learning experiences of the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization led to the following suggestions for applying distance learning strategies to the challenges of food security and rural development: use distance learning for the right reasons, be sensitive to context, use existing infrastructure, engage stakeholders, and…

  13. Listeria monocytogenes in Retail Delicatessens: an Interagency Risk Assessment-model and baseline results.

    PubMed

    Pouillot, Régis; Gallagher, Daniel; Tang, Jia; Hoelzer, Karin; Kause, Janell; Dennis, Sherri B

    2015-01-01

    The Interagency Risk Assessment-Listeria monocytogenes (Lm) in Retail Delicatessens provides a scientific assessment of the risk of listeriosis associated with the consumption of ready-to-eat (RTE) foods commonly prepared and sold in the delicatessen (deli) of a retail food store. The quantitative risk assessment (QRA) model simulates the behavior of retail employees in a deli department and tracks the Lm potentially present in this environment and in the food. Bacterial growth, bacterial inactivation (following washing and sanitizing actions), and cross-contamination (from object to object, from food to object, or from object to food) are evaluated through a discrete event modeling approach. The QRA evaluates the risk per serving of deli-prepared RTE food for the susceptible and general population, using a dose-response model from the literature. This QRA considers six separate retail baseline conditions and provides information on the predicted risk of listeriosis for each. Among the baseline conditions considered, the model predicts that (i) retail delis without an environmental source of Lm (such as niches), retail delis without niches that do apply temperature control, and retail delis with niches that do apply temperature control lead to lower predicted risk of listeriosis relative to retail delis with niches and (ii) retail delis with incoming RTE foods that are contaminated with Lm lead to higher predicted risk of listeriosis, directly or through cross-contamination, whether the contaminated incoming product supports growth or not. The risk assessment predicts that listeriosis cases associated with retail delicatessens result from a sequence of key events: (i) the contaminated RTE food supports Lm growth; (ii) improper retail and/or consumer storage temperature or handling results in the growth of Lm on the RTE food; and (iii) the consumer of this RTE food is susceptible to listeriosis. The risk assessment model, therefore, predicts that cross

  14. The regulation of protein content and quality in national and international food standards.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Janine L

    2012-08-01

    Food regulation aims to protect public health through a safe and nutritious food supply produced by a compliant food industry. Food standards of developed countries generally do not regulate protein content or protein quality because the risk of dietary protein inadequacy in their national populations is very low. Protein is nevertheless regulated for reasons of product quality or protein labelling or to minimise assessed health risks associated with consumption of certain animal- and vegetable-protein foods; analogue products that extend or simulate commonly available animal-protein foods; and special purpose foods such as infant formula and foods, supplementary and medical foods, and foods for weight loss. The extent and approach to protein regulation varies greatly among jurisdictions but where it occurs, it is applied through minimum and sometimes maximum limits on protein content or quality measures or both using an inter-related approach. Protein quality measures range from amino acid profiles and digestibility corrected scores to protein rating, a rat bioassay and reference proteins not further described. Regulatory methods for protein quality determination are referenced to the published scientific literature or developed nationally. Internationally, the Codex Alimentarius regulates the protein content and quality of some foods. The Codex approach varies according to the food but is similar to the approaches used in national and regional food regulation. This paper provides a comparison of the regulation of protein in foods using examples from the food regulations of Australia New Zealand, Canada, the European Union, the United States of America and the Codex Alimentarius.

  15. Genetic Characterization of Listeria monocytogenes Isolates from Industrial and Retail Ready-to-Eat Meat-Based Foods and Their Relationship with Clinical Strains from Human Listeriosis in Portugal.

    PubMed

    Henriques, A R; Cristino, J Melo; Fraqueza, M J

    2017-04-01

    Listeria monocytogenes isolates (n = 81) recovered from ready-to-eat meat-based food products (RTEMP) collected in industrial processing plants and retail establishments were genetically characterized for comparison with those from human clinical cases of listeriosis (n = 49). The aim was to assess RTEMP as a possible food source for human infection. L. monocytogenes was detected in 12.5% of the RTEMP samples, and in some cases, counts were above the European food safety criteria. All isolates were assessed by multiplex PCR for serogroup determination and detection of virulence-associated genes inlA, inlB, inlC, inlJ, plcA, hlyA, actA, and iap. Serogroups IIb and IVb dominated in RTEMP and human isolates, and all were positive for the assessed virulence genes. Antibiotic susceptibility testing by the disk diffusion method revealed a low level of resistance among the isolates. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) of L. monocytogenes isolates, using restriction enzymes ApaI and AscI, revealed genetic variability and differentiated the isolates in five clusters. Although some pulsed-field gel electrophoresis profiles of particular RTEMP and human isolates seemed to be highly related, exhibiting more than 90% similarity, which suggests a possible common source, in most cases the strains were not genetically or temporally matched. The close genetic relatedness of RTEMP and human listeriosis strains stressed the importance of preventive measure implementation throughout the food chain.

  16. Training in the Retail Sector. A Survey for the FORCE Programme. First Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kruse, Wilfried; And Others

    Training in the retail sector throughout the 12 European Community (EC) member countries was examined through in-depth case studies of 55 retail firms that were selected as representing a wide range of firm types (19 multinational, 36 national, 4 cooperative, 7 family-owned firms), forms of retailing (department stores, supermarkets, and chain and…

  17. Food Insecurity Is an Ongoing National Concern123

    PubMed Central

    Gundersen, Craig

    2013-01-01

    Food insecurity is a leading public health challenge in the United States today. This is primarily due to the magnitude of the problem, ∼50 million persons are food insecure (i.e., they were uncertain of having, or unable to acquire, enough food because they had insufficient money or other resources), and the serious negative health and other outcomes associated with being food insecure. This paper defines the measure used to delineate whether a household is food insecure. The measure, the Core Food Security Module, is based on 18 questions about a household’s food situation. From the responses, a household is defined as food secure, low food secure, or very low food secure, with the latter 2 categories defined as “food insecure.” I next discuss the extent of food insecurity in the US across various dimensions and the key determinants of food insecurity. The key policy tool used to address food insecurity is the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP; formerly known as the Food Stamp Program). During the current economic downturn, >40 million persons are enrolled in SNAP, with total benefits of >$70 billion. This makes it the largest food assistance program and the largest near-cash assistance program in the US. After defining the eligibility criteria, I review the literature, which has demonstrated the effectiveness of SNAP in addressing its key goal, namely the alleviation of food insecurity in the US. I conclude with 4 suggestions for how SNAP can maintain and even improve its effectiveness in alleviating food insecurity. PMID:23319121

  18. Food fears: a national survey on the attitudes of Australian adults about the safety and quality of food.

    PubMed

    Williams, Peter; Stirling, Emma; Keynes, Nick

    2004-01-01

    A national telephone survey of a representative sample of 1200 Australian adults was conducted in March 2002 in order to identify the factors of greatest concern to consumers in relation to the safety and quality of food, to measure recent trends in views about hazards in the food supply, to explore beliefs about the safety of additives and to discover whether consumers use food labels to check for ingredients of concern. Forty five percent of Australians responded that they were more concerned about the safety and quality of food than they were five years previously, while only 5% were less concerned. The most common potential hazards volunteered were additives and chemical residues (28%), followed by food processing/handling/freshness (21%), food hygiene or contamination (14%), and also genetic modification (14%). More than half of the respondents believe that additives and preservatives are harmful to your health and that many foods contain high levels of pesticides. A greater proportion of consumers claimed to be conscious of checking for additives, either general or specific, on food labels than for information on the salt or sugar content of products. Food regulators, journalists, the food industry and health professionals need to work together to correct misconceptions about the risks to health posed by common food additives and pesticide residues.

  19. Mislabelling and Species Substitution in Fishery Products Retailed in Sardinia (Italy), 2009-2014

    PubMed Central

    Piras, Pierluigi; Mazzette, Rina

    2015-01-01

    Mislabelling and species substitution are major concerns for fishery products marketed in the EU. The present survey aimed to investigate the correct enforcement of the Community and National rules on the labelling and marketing of fishery products retailed in Sardinia (Italy) between 2009 and 2014. A total of 3000 labels for fresh unpacked fishery products have been considered. A total of 900 labels (30%) presented non-compliance concerning the wrong trade name, the wrong or missing information about the catch area and the production method. The highest percentage of mislabelling and species substitution has been detected in open-air markets (65%) and small-scale retail shops (40%) compared with the big supermarket chains (10%). The high percentage of non-compliances with the European and Italian legislation highlights the need to improve the essential information demanded by consumers on fishery products marketed in open-air markets and small-scale retail shops. While there are laws in place, it is unclear how effective they are and what type of penalties food business operators of open-air markets and small-scale retail shops may incur. PMID:27800419

  20. A National Evaluation of the Impact of State Policies on Competitive Foods in Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fernandes, Meenakshi M.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Since 2003, many states have introduced policies to improve the nutritional content and restrict the availability of competitive foods, which are foods offered outside of the National School Lunch and Breakfast Programs. This article evaluates the impact of 2 types of state-level policies on the availability of competitive foods in a…

  1. Food Group Preferences of Elementary School Children Participating in the National School Lunch Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cashman, Linda; Tripurana, Madhuri; Englund, Tim; Bergman, Ethan A.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose/Objectives: The purpose of the study was to assess the food group preferences of second through fifth grade children based on ethnic background, gender, and grade. Food group preferences were determined by the amount of various food groups consumed in meals served as part of the National School Lunch Program at selected schools. Research…

  2. Feasibility of Community Food Item Collection for the National Children's Study

    EPA Science Inventory

    The National Children’s Study proposes to investigate the role of contaminants on health outcomes in pregnant women and children. A specific area of concern is contaminant exposure through the ingestion of solid foods. National food contaminant databases may miss environmental ex...

  3. MONDAY: EPA Co-Hosts First National Food Recovery Summit in Charleston, S.C.

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Washington, D.C. - The first national Food Recovery Summit will take place next week in Charleston, S.C. Inspired by the national goal announced by EPA and U.S. Department of Agriculture to cut wasted food in half by 2030, partners from all facets of the f

  4. Feasibility of Community Food Item Collection for the National Children's Study.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Background: The National Children’s Study proposes to investigate the role of environmental influences on health outcomes in pregnant women and children. A specific area of concern is contaminant exposure through the ingestion of solid foods. National food contaminant database...

  5. Impact of the National Food Supplementary Program for Children on Household Food Security and Maternal Weight Status in Iran

    PubMed Central

    Ghodsi, Delaram; Omidvar, Nasrin; Eini-Zinab, Hassan; Rashidian, Arash; Raghfar, Hossein

    2016-01-01

    Background: Food aid programs are strategies that aim to improve nutritional status and to tackle food insecurity. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of a National Food Supplementary Program for Children on households’ food security. Methods: The study sample included 359 mothers of children aged 6–72 months under the coverage of the program in two provinces of Iran. Demographic and socioeconomic characteristics of the households and percentage of supplementary food items consumed by target child were assessed by a questionnaire and checklist. Data on household food security were collected by locally adapted Household Food Insecurity Access Scale at the baseline of the study and 6 months thereafter. Results: At the baseline, only 4.7% of families were food secure, while 43.5% were severely food insecure, and these proportions were changed to 7.9% and 38%, respectively (P < 0.001), at the end of the study. Odds of having worse food insecurity in households with medium and high wealth index was 65% and 87% lower than those with low wealth index, respectively (odds ratio [OR] = 0.35, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.2–0.61, and OR = 0.23, 95% CI: 0.12–0.43). Food sharing was common among more than 95% of the studied households. Mean maternal body mass index (BMI) increased significantly after 6 months (P < 0.001). However, there was no significant association between mother's BMI and household food security in the baseline and at the end of the study (P > 0.05). Conclusions: Findings show that the food supplementary program for children can also improve the household food security status. Further research is needed to assess other factors that affect the effectiveness of this kind of programs. PMID:27833722

  6. Considering retail health clinics.

    PubMed

    Mullin, Kathy

    2009-12-01

    By gaining increasing acceptance from consumers and traditional providers, retail-based convenient care clinics have moved from the innovative fringe into the mainstream of healthcare delivery. Nationwide, resourceful administrators are experimenting with retail-based delivery systems, using the clinic's unique attributes to promote wellness, expand accessibility, reduce delivery costs, and enhance brand recognition. This article takes an in-depth look at the convenient care business model, pertinent regulatory issues, and some of the associated benefits and concerns.

  7. FORCE Sectoral Survey on European Retail Trade.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bertzeletou, Tina

    1993-01-01

    A sectoral survey focused on ways in which vocational training plans are formulated and analysis of the cost effectiveness of continuing vocational training at the company level. It examined techniques applied to developing continuing vocational training and improving access. National surveys carried out for the retail trade sector revealed…

  8. 21 CFR 1301.27 - Separate registration by retail pharmacies for installation and operation of automated dispensing...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Separate registration by retail pharmacies for....27 Separate registration by retail pharmacies for installation and operation of automated dispensing systems at long term care facilities. (a) A retail pharmacy may install and operate automated...

  9. 21 CFR 1301.27 - Separate registration by retail pharmacies for installation and operation of automated dispensing...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Separate registration by retail pharmacies for....27 Separate registration by retail pharmacies for installation and operation of automated dispensing systems at long term care facilities. (a) A retail pharmacy may install and operate automated...

  10. Changes in Food Intake in Australia: Comparing the 1995 and 2011 National Nutrition Survey Results Disaggregated into Basic Foods

    PubMed Central

    Ridoutt, Bradley; Baird, Danielle; Bastiaans, Kathryn; Hendrie, Gilly; Riley, Malcolm; Sanguansri, Peerasak; Syrette, Julie; Noakes, Manny

    2016-01-01

    As nations seek to address obesity and diet-related chronic disease, understanding shifts in food intake over time is an imperative. However, quantifying intake of basic foods is not straightforward because of the diversity of raw and cooked wholefoods, processed foods and mixed dishes actually consumed. In this study, data from the Australian national nutrition surveys of 1995 and 2011, each involving more than 12,000 individuals and covering more than 4500 separate foods, were coherently disaggregated into basic foods, with cooking and processing factors applied where necessary. Although Australians are generally not eating in a manner consistent with national dietary guidelines, there have been several positive changes. Australians are eating more whole fruit, a greater diversity of vegetables, more beans, peas and pulses, less refined sugar, and they have increased their preference for brown and wholegrain cereals. Adult Australians have also increased their intake of nuts and seeds. Fruit juice consumption markedly declined, especially for younger Australians. Cocoa consumption increased and shifts in dairy product intake were mixed, reflecting one of several important differences between age and gender cohorts. This study sets the context for more detailed research at the level of specific foods to understand individual and household differences. PMID:28231135

  11. Changes in Food Intake in Australia: Comparing the 1995 and 2011 National Nutrition Survey Results Disaggregated into Basic Foods.

    PubMed

    Ridoutt, Bradley; Baird, Danielle; Bastiaans, Kathryn; Hendrie, Gilly; Riley, Malcolm; Sanguansri, Peerasak; Syrette, Julie; Noakes, Manny

    2016-05-25

    As nations seek to address obesity and diet-related chronic disease, understanding shifts in food intake over time is an imperative. However, quantifying intake of basic foods is not straightforward because of the diversity of raw and cooked wholefoods, processed foods and mixed dishes actually consumed. In this study, data from the Australian national nutrition surveys of 1995 and 2011, each involving more than 12,000 individuals and covering more than 4500 separate foods, were coherently disaggregated into basic foods, with cooking and processing factors applied where necessary. Although Australians are generally not eating in a manner consistent with national dietary guidelines, there have been several positive changes. Australians are eating more whole fruit, a greater diversity of vegetables, more beans, peas and pulses, less refined sugar, and they have increased their preference for brown and wholegrain cereals. Adult Australians have also increased their intake of nuts and seeds. Fruit juice consumption markedly declined, especially for younger Australians. Cocoa consumption increased and shifts in dairy product intake were mixed, reflecting one of several important differences between age and gender cohorts. This study sets the context for more detailed research at the level of specific foods to understand individual and household differences.

  12. Are Retail Outlets Complying with National Legislation to Protect Children from Exposure to Tobacco Displays at Point of Sale? Results from the First Compliance Study in the UK

    PubMed Central

    Eadie, Douglas; Stead, Martine; MacKintosh, Anne Marie; Murray, Susan; Best, Catherine; Pearce, Jamie; Tisch, Catherine; van der Sluijs, Winfried; Amos, Amanda; MacGregor, Andy; Haw, Sally

    2016-01-01

    Background From April 6th 2015, all small shops in the UK were required to cover up tobacco products at point of sale (POS) to protect children from exposure. As part of a larger 5-year study to measure the impact of the legislation in Scotland, an audit was conducted to assess level and nature of compliance with the ban immediately following its introduction. Materials and Methods A discreet observational audit was conducted 7–14 days post implementation which took measures of physical changes made to cover products, server/assistant practices, tobacco signage and advertising, and communication of price information. The audit was conducted in all small retail outlets (n = 83) selling tobacco in four communities in Scotland selected to represent different levels of urbanisation and social deprivation. Data were analysed descriptively. Results Compliance with the legislation was high, with 98% of shops removing tobacco from permanent display and non-compliance was restricted almost entirely to minor contraventions. The refurbishment of shops with new or adapted tobacco storage units resulted in the removal of nearly all commercial brand messages and images from POS, dropping from 51% to 4%. The majority of shops stored their tobacco in public-facing storage units (81%). Most shops also displayed at least one generic tobacco message (88%). Conclusions Compliance with Scottish prohibitions on display of tobacco products in small retail outlets was high immediately after the legislation implementation date. However, although tobacco branding is no longer visible in retail outlets, tobacco storage units with generic tobacco messages are still prominent. This points towards a need to monitor how the space vacated by tobacco products is utilised and to better understand how the continuing presence of tobacco storage units influences people’s awareness and understanding of tobacco and smoking. Countries with existing POS bans and who are considering such bans should

  13. Retail firewood can transport live tree pests.

    PubMed

    Jacobi, W R; Hardin, J G; Goodrich, B A; Cleaver, C M

    2012-10-01

    Untreated firewood can harbor destructive insects and pathogens and transport them to uninfested areas. In a national survey of retail locations selling firewood in 18 states, over half (52%) of the firewood was from sources out of the purchase state and 50% showed evidence of insect infestation. In a three state survey of southern Rocky Mountain retailers, the most common retailer types carrying firewood were grocery stores and department or big box stores followed by gas stations or convenience stores. In 2007-2009, we purchased 419 firewood bundles from retailers in Colorado, New Mexico, Utah, and Wyoming and caged the firewood to quantify insect emergence. Live insects emerged from 47% of firewood bundles over 18 mo of rearing time. Approximately 11 insects emerged on average from each infested bundle (1-520 per bundle). Pine, fir, and mixed-conifer bundles yielded the greatest number of insects. Beetles (Coleoptera) were prominent and made up the majority of individuals (3-60 individuals in each of 24 families). Most Coleoptera were bark and ambrosia beetles (subfamily Scolytinae) while wood borers (Buprestidae, Cerambycidae, Siricidae) occurred in lower numbers. Firewood with evidence of previous or current insect infestation was more likely to have insects emerge than firewood without such evidence. The risk of moving live native or nonindigenous insects in untreated firewood is high because insects emerged up to 558 d from purchase date. Retail firewood should be heat treated in a manner to eliminate insects that is uniformly accepted across North America.

  14. Gains Made By Walmart's Healthier Food Initiative Mirror Preexisting Trends.

    PubMed

    Taillie, Lindsey Smith; Ng, Shu Wen; Popkin, Barry M

    2015-11-01

    Healthier food initiatives conducted by national food retailers may offer opportunities to improve the nutritional profile of food purchases. Using a longitudinal data set of packaged food purchases made by US households, we examined the effect of a healthier food initiative officially launched by Walmart in 2011. From 2000 to 2013, household-level purchases of packaged foods at Walmart showed major declines in energy, sodium, and total sugar density, as well as in quantities of sugary beverages, grain-based desserts, snacks, and candy. These trends in packaged food purchases were more pronounced than similar concurrent trends seen at other major food retailers. However, the declines seen at Walmart after the initiative's official implementation did not exceed what would have been expected had pre-implementation trends continued, and therefore they cannot be attributed to the initiative. These results suggest that food retailer-based initiatives that purportedly create a healthier food environment may not suffice to improve the nutritional profile of food purchases. More systemic shifts in consumers' characteristics and preferences may be needed.

  15. Responding to Rapid and Unexpected Retail Innovations: Planning Retail Resilience

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rao, Fujie

    Retail areas within cities have traditionally not only satisfied the demands for various goods and services, but also promoted community sustainability and healthy lifestyles. Since the end of World War II (WWII), retail innovations have occurred rapidly and unexpectedly. In retail development, economic efficiency is highly prioritized over other functions, in opposition to sustainable development. In retail planning, a communicative approach frequently results in the public responses by "Not In My Back Yard" sentiments, contradicting the projected cooperation between different stakeholders. This research implements the resilience theory to tackle the shocks created by these rapid and unexpected retail changes, based on a comparative case of Edmonton (Alberta, Canada) and Portland (Oregon, USA). Primarily through interviews with senior planners in both cities, it is found that adaptive retail management, polycentric retail planning, a well-informed public, and the use of consensus building could better stimulates resilient retail outcomes.

  16. USDA's National Food and Nutrient Analysis Program (NFNAP) Produces High-Quality Data for USDA Food Composition Databases: Two Decades of Collaboration

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    For nearly 20 years, the National Food and Nutrient Analysis Program (NFNAP) has expanded and improved the quantity and quality of data in US Department of Agriculture’s (USDA) food composition databases through the collection and analysis of nationally representative food samples. This manuscript d...

  17. Quantifying food waste in Hawaii's food supply chain.

    PubMed

    Loke, Matthew K; Leung, PingSun

    2015-12-01

    Food waste highlights a considerable loss of resources invested in the food supply chain. While it receives a lot of attention in the global context, the assessment of food waste is deficient at the sub-national level, owing primarily to an absence of quality data. This article serves to explore that gap and aims to quantify the edible weight, economic value, and calorie equivalent of food waste in Hawaii. The estimates are based on available food supply data for Hawaii and the US Department of Agriculture's (USDA's) loss-adjusted food availability data for defined food groups at three stages of the food supply chain. At its highest aggregated level, we estimate Hawaii's food waste generation at 237,122 t or 26% of available food supply in 2010. This is equivalent to food waste of 161.5 kg per person, per annum. Additionally, this food waste is valued at US$1.025 billion annually or the equivalent of 502.6 billion calories. It is further evident that the occurrence of food waste by all three measures is highest at the consumer stage, followed by the distribution and retail stage, and is lowest at the post-harvest and packing stage. The findings suggest that any meaningful intervention to reduce food waste in Hawaii should target the consumer, and distribution and retail stages of the food supply chain. Interventions at the consumer stage should focus on the two protein groups, as well as fresh fruits and fresh vegetables.

  18. The Development and Piloting of a Mobile Data Collection Protocol to Assess Compliance With a National Tobacco Advertising, Promotion, and Product Display Ban at Retail Venues in the Russian Federation

    PubMed Central

    Grant, Ashley S; Spires, Mark H; Cohen, Joanna E

    2016-01-01

    Background Tobacco control policies that lead to a significant reduction in tobacco industry marketing can improve public health by reducing consumption of tobacco and preventing initiation of tobacco use. Laws that ban or restrict advertising and promotion in point-of-sale (POS) environments, in the moment when consumers decide whether or not to purchase a tobacco product, must be correctly implemented to achieve the desired public health benefits. POS policy compliance assessments can support implementation; however, there are challenges to conducting evaluations that are rigorous, cost-effective, and timely. Data collection must be discreet, accurate, and systematic, and ideally collected both before and after policies take effect. The use of mobile phones and other mobile technology provide opportunities to efficiently collect data and support effective tobacco control policies. The Russian Federation (Russia) passed a comprehensive national tobacco control law that included a ban on most forms of tobacco advertising and promotion, effective November 15, 2013. The legislation further prohibited the display of tobacco products at retail trade sites and eliminated kiosks as a legal trade site, effective June 1, 2014. Objective The objective of the study was to develop and test a mobile data collection protocol including: (1) retailer sampling, (2) adaptation of survey instruments for mobile phones, and (3) data management protocols. Methods Two waves of observations were conducted; wave 1 took place during April-May 2014, after the advertising and promotion bans were effective, and again in August-September 2014, after the product display ban and elimination of tobacco sales in kiosks came into effect. Sampling took place in 5 Russian cities: Moscow, St. Petersburg, Novosibirsk, Yekaterinburg, and Kazan. Lack of access to a comprehensive list of licensed tobacco retailers necessitated a sampling approach that included the development of a walking protocol to

  19. A National Study of the Association between Food Environments and County-Level Health Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ahern, Melissa; Brown, Cheryl; Dukas, Stephen

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: This national, county-level study examines the relationship between food availability and access, and health outcomes (mortality, diabetes, and obesity rates) in both metro and non-metro areas. Methods: This is a secondary, cross-sectional analysis using Food Environment Atlas and CDC data. Linear regression models estimate relationships…

  20. More neighborhood retail associated with lower obesity among New York City public high school students.

    PubMed

    Bader, Michael D M; Schwartz-Soicher, Ofira; Jack, Darby; Weiss, Christopher C; Richards, Catherine A; Quinn, James W; Lovasi, Gina S; Neckerman, Kathryn M; Rundle, Andrew G

    2013-09-01

    Policies target fast food outlets to curb adolescent obesity. We argue that researchers should examine the entire retail ecology of neighborhoods, not just fast food outlets. We examine the association between the neighborhood retail environment and obesity using Fitnessgram data collected from 94,348 New York City public high school students. In generalized hierarchical linear models, the number of fast food restaurants predicted lower odds of obesity for adolescents (OR:0.972 per establishment; CI:0.957-0.988). In a "placebo test" we found that banks--a measure of neighborhood retail ecology--also predicted lower obesity (OR:0.979 per bank; CI:0.962-0.994). Retail disinvestment might be associated with greater obesity; accordingly, public health research should study the influence of general retail disinvestment not just food-specific investment.

  1. 21 CFR 1140.14 - Additional responsibilities of retailers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... Section 1140.14 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) TOBACCO PRODUCTS CIGARETTES AND SMOKELESS TOBACCO Prohibition of Sale and Distribution to Persons... requirements under this part, each retailer is responsible for ensuring that all sales of cigarettes...

  2. 21 CFR 1140.14 - Additional responsibilities of retailers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Section 1140.14 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) TOBACCO PRODUCTS CIGARETTES AND SMOKELESS TOBACCO Prohibition of Sale and Distribution to Persons... requirements under this part, each retailer is responsible for ensuring that all sales of cigarettes...

  3. 21 CFR 1140.14 - Additional responsibilities of retailers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... Section 1140.14 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) TOBACCO PRODUCTS CIGARETTES AND SMOKELESS TOBACCO Prohibition of Sale and Distribution to Persons... requirements under this part, each retailer is responsible for ensuring that all sales of cigarettes...

  4. 21 CFR 1140.14 - Additional responsibilities of retailers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... Section 1140.14 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) TOBACCO PRODUCTS CIGARETTES AND SMOKELESS TOBACCO Prohibition of Sale and Distribution to Persons... requirements under this part, each retailer is responsible for ensuring that all sales of cigarettes...

  5. Target salt 2025: a global overview of national programs to encourage the food industry to reduce salt in foods.

    PubMed

    Webster, Jacqui; Trieu, Kathy; Dunford, Elizabeth; Hawkes, Corinna

    2014-08-21

    Reducing population salt intake has been identified as a priority intervention to reduce non-communicable diseases. Member States of the World Health Organization have agreed to a global target of a 30% reduction in salt intake by 2025. In countries where most salt consumed is from processed foods, programs to engage the food industry to reduce salt in products are being developed. This paper provides a comprehensive overview of national initiatives to encourage the food industry to reduce salt. A systematic review of the literature was supplemented by key informant questionnaires to inform categorization of the initiatives. Fifty nine food industry salt reduction programs were identified. Thirty eight countries had targets for salt levels in foods and nine countries had introduced legislation for some products. South Africa and Argentina have both introduced legislation limiting salt levels across a broad range of foods. Seventeen countries reported reductions in salt levels in foods-the majority in bread. While these trends represent progress, many countries have yet to initiate work in this area, others are at early stages of implementation and further monitoring is required to assess progress towards achieving the global target.

  6. Prevalence and level of Listeria monocytogenes and other Listeria species in selected retail ready-to-eat foods in the United Kingdom.

    PubMed

    Little, C L; Sagoo, S K; Gillespie, I A; Grant, K; McLauchlin, J

    2009-09-01

    Although listeriosis is a rare cause of human disease in the United Kingdom, an increase in the number of cases has been observed since 2001, almost exclusively in persons older than 60 years. This increase prompted this study on the microbiological safety of ready-to-eat (RTE) foods, which included those types potentially linked to cases of listeriosis. Between May 2006 and April 2007, 6,984 RTE foods were sampled (2,168 sliced meats, 1,242 hard cheese, 1,088 sandwiches, 878 butter, 725 spreadable cheese, 515 confectionery products containing cream, and 368 probiotic drinks). The food types with the highest prevalence of Listeria monocytogenes were sandwiches (7.0%) and sliced meats (3.7% within shelf life, 4.2% end of shelf life). L. monocytogenes at > 100 CFU/g (exceeding the European Commission's food safety criteria limit) only occurred in sandwiches (0.4%) and sliced meats (0.7% within shelf life, 1.0% end of shelf life). Contamination with L. monocytogenes at >100 CFU/g was more frequent in meats that were prepacked and/or of pack size > or = 300 g and in sandwiches that were supplied prepacked that contained salad vegetables as an ingredient. Satisfactory microbiological quality was associated with premises on which the management was trained in food hygiene and those that complied with hazard analysis and critical control point principles. This study provides important information about the microbiological safety of RTE foods and demonstrates that the control of L. monocytogenes in such foods, and in particular sandwiches and sliced meats, is essential in order to minimize the risk of this bacterium being present at levels hazardous to health at the point of consumption.

  7. Sustaining Our Nation's Seniors through Federal Food and Nutrition Programs.

    PubMed

    Gergerich, Erika; Shobe, Marcia; Christy, Kameri

    2015-01-01

    Food insecurity is a pressing issue in the United States where one in six people suffer from hunger. The older adult population faces unique challenges to receiving adequate nutrition. The federal government currently employs four food and nutrition programs that target the senior population in an effort to address their specific needs. These are the Congregate Meals and Home Delivered Meals Programs (provided through the Older Americans Act), and the Senior Farmers' Market Nutrition Program and Child and Adult Care Food Program (provided by the United States Department of Agriculture). As the older adult population continues to grow, it will be important to evaluate and improve these programs and the social policies related to them. This manuscript describes each policy in depth, considers economic and political elements that have shaped each policy, describes the level of program success, and offers suggestions for future research and program development.

  8. Tobacco advertising in retail stores.

    PubMed

    Cummings, K M; Sciandra, R; Lawrence, J

    1991-01-01

    Recent studies have described tobacco advertising in the print media, on billboards, and through sponsorship of cultural and sporting events. However, little attention has been given to another common and unavoidable source of tobacco advertising, that which is encountered in retail stores. In July 1987, we conducted a survey of 61 packaged goods retail stores in Buffalo, NY, to assess the prevalence and type of point-of-sale tobacco advertising. In addition, store owners or managers were surveyed to determine their store's policy regarding tobacco advertising, receipt of monetary incentives from distributors for displaying tobacco ads, and willingness to display antitobacco ads. Six types of stores were involved in the study: 10 supermarkets, 10 privately owned grocery stores, 9 chain convenience food stores that do not sell gasoline, 11 chain convenience food stores that sell gasoline, 11 chain pharmacies, and 10 private pharmacies. Two-thirds of the stores displayed tobacco posters, and 87 percent had promotional items advertising tobacco products, primarily cigarettes. Larger stores, and those that were privately owned, tended to display more posters and promotional items. Eighty percent of tobacco product displays were for cigarettes, 16 percent for smokeless tobacco products, and 4 percent for cigars and pipe tobacco. Convenience stores selling gasoline had the most separate tobacco product displays. Of tobacco product displays, 24 percent were located adjacent to candy and snack displays. Twenty-nine of the 61 store owners or managers indicated that their store had a policy regulating the display of tobacco ads and tobacco product displays. Policies dealt primarily with the location of tobacco posters (for example, no ads in the window) and number of product displays. Only 14 shop owners or managers indicated that they had previously displayed antitobacco information; more than half (31 of 61) said that they would be willing to display antitobaccoads.In many

  9. Exploration of Retailing Careers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilkie, Barbara J.

    Designed as a semester unit of instruction at the middle or junior high school level in the exploration of retailing careers, this distributive education curriculum guide is divided into two sections: The Teacher's Guide and Student Materials. One of the elective courses intended as a followup to "Orientation to Marketing Careers," it provides the…

  10. Prevalence of antimicrobial resistance in Salmonella serotype Hadar isolated from humans, retail meat, and food animals at slaughter, United States, NARMS 1996-2008

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background Non-Typhi Salmonella (NTS) is a leading cause of bacterial gastroenteritis in the United States. Although most infections are self-limited, antibiotic treatment is essential for severe illness. Use of antimicrobial agents in food animals contributes to resistance in NTS. Multidrug resis...

  11. Occurrence of ß-lactamase genes among non-Typhi Salmonella enterica isolated from humans, food animals, and retail meats in the United States and Canada

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Non-Typhi Salmonella cause over 1.7 million cases of gastroenteritis in North America each year, and food-animal products are commonly implicated in human infections. For invasive infections, antimicrobial therapy is implicated. In North America, the antimicrobial susceptibility of Salmonella is m...

  12. BI-NATIONAL LOWER FOOD WEB ASSESSMENT: 2005 BENTHOS RESULTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Findings have been generated as part of a bi-national coordinated partnership for lakewide sampling to support needs expressed by the Great Lakes Fisheries Committee, the Lake Superior Technical Committee, and the Lake Superior LaMP.

  13. The National Cancer Institute diet history questionnaire: validation of pyramid food servings.

    PubMed

    Millen, Amy E; Midthune, Douglas; Thompson, Frances E; Kipnis, Victor; Subar, Amy F

    2006-02-01

    The performance of the National Cancer Institute's food frequency questionnaire, the Diet History Questionnaire (DHQ), in estimating servings of 30 US Department of Agriculture Food Guide Pyramid food groups was evaluated in the Eating at America's Table Study (1997-1998), a nationally representative sample of men and women aged 20-79 years. Participants who completed four nonconsecutive, telephone-administered 24-hour dietary recalls (n = 1,301) were mailed a DHQ; 965 respondents completed both the 24-hour dietary recalls and the DHQ. The US Department of Agriculture's Pyramid Servings Database was used to estimate intakes of pyramid servings for both diet assessment tools. The correlation (rho) between DHQ-reported intake and true intake and the attenuation factor (lambda) were estimated using a measurement error model with repeat 24-hour dietary recalls as the reference instrument. Correlations for energy-adjusted pyramid servings of foods ranged from 0.43 (other starchy vegetables) to 0.84 (milk) among women and from 0.42 (eggs) to 0.80 (total dairy food) among men. The mean rho and lambda after energy adjustment were 0.62 and 0.60 for women and 0.63 and 0.66 for men, respectively. This food frequency questionnaire validation study of foods measured in pyramid servings allowed for a measure of food intake consistent with national dietary guidance.

  14. Integrating Environmental Sustainability Considerations into Food and Nutrition Policies: Insights from Australia's National Food Plan.

    PubMed

    Ridgway, Ella Megan; Lawrence, Mark Andrew; Woods, Julie

    2015-01-01

    The environmental sustainability (ES) of food systems is a critical challenge for policy makers. This is a highly contested policy area with differing views among stakeholders. The aim of the study was to develop a better understanding of how ES considerations are addressed in Australian food and nutrition policies and the way that consultation processes affect final policy outcomes. A mixed-methods study design combined a detailed chronology of key policy developments (2009-2015), a content analysis of written submissions obtained during the NFP's consultation period (2011-2013) and a frame analysis of the sustainability perspectives - efficiency, demand restraint, and system transformation - in the NFP's Issues, Green, and White Papers. There were 555 written submissions responding to two consultation papers. Stakeholders represented all sectors of Australia's food system including government, non-government organizations, the food supply chain, research and academic institutions, and members of the general public. Around 74% of submissions referred to ES considerations and ~65% supported their inclusion into the final policy. Efficiency frames were most dominant; emphasizing a production-oriented approach that regards the environment as a natural resource base for food production but overlooks consumption and equity concerns. Despite strong support for the inclusion of ES considerations in the NFP, the influence of Australia's socio-political context, powerful, industry-dominated stakeholders, and a reliance on traditional production-oriented perspectives delivered a business-as-usual approach to food policy making. It has since been replaced by an agricultural strategy that provides only cursory attention to ES. Our findings indicate that Australia's political environment is not sufficiently mature for ES considerations to be integrated into food and nutrition policies. We propose reforms to the current consultation process in Australia to better support this

  15. Target Salt 2025: A Global Overview of National Programs to Encourage the Food Industry to Reduce Salt in Foods

    PubMed Central

    Webster, Jacqui; Trieu, Kathy; Dunford, Elizabeth; Hawkes, Corinna

    2014-01-01

    Reducing population salt intake has been identified as a priority intervention to reduce non-communicable diseases. Member States of the World Health Organization have agreed to a global target of a 30% reduction in salt intake by 2025. In countries where most salt consumed is from processed foods, programs to engage the food industry to reduce salt in products are being developed. This paper provides a comprehensive overview of national initiatives to encourage the food industry to reduce salt. A systematic review of the literature was supplemented by key informant questionnaires to inform categorization of the initiatives. Fifty nine food industry salt reduction programs were identified. Thirty eight countries had targets for salt levels in foods and nine countries had introduced legislation for some products. South Africa and Argentina have both introduced legislation limiting salt levels across a broad range of foods. Seventeen countries reported reductions in salt levels in foods—the majority in bread. While these trends represent progress, many countries have yet to initiate work in this area, others are at early stages of implementation and further monitoring is required to assess progress towards achieving the global target. PMID:25195640

  16. Cross-Continental Comparison of National Food Consumption Survey Methods—A Narrative Review

    PubMed Central

    De Keyzer, Willem; Bracke, Tatiana; McNaughton, Sarah A.; Parnell, Winsome; Moshfegh, Alanna J.; Pereira, Rosangela A.; Lee, Haeng-Shin; van’t Veer, Pieter; De Henauw, Stefaan; Huybrechts, Inge

    2015-01-01

    Food consumption surveys are performed in many countries. Comparison of results from those surveys across nations is difficult because of differences in methodological approaches. While consensus about the preferred methodology associated with national food consumption surveys is increasing, no inventory of methodological aspects across continents is available. The aims of the present review are (1) to develop a framework of key methodological elements related to national food consumption surveys, (2) to create an inventory of these properties of surveys performed in the continents North-America, South-America, Asia and Australasia, and (3) to discuss and compare these methodological properties cross-continentally. A literature search was performed using a fixed set of search terms in different databases. The inventory was completed with all accessible information from all retrieved publications and corresponding authors were requested to provide additional information where missing. Surveys from ten individual countries, originating from four continents are listed in the inventory. The results are presented according to six major aspects of food consumption surveys. The most common dietary intake assessment method used in food consumption surveys worldwide is the 24-HDR (24 h dietary recall), occasionally administered repeatedly, mostly using interview software. Only three countries have incorporated their national food consumption surveys into continuous national health and nutrition examination surveys. PMID:25984745

  17. Cross-continental comparison of national food consumption survey methods--a narrative review.

    PubMed

    De Keyzer, Willem; Bracke, Tatiana; McNaughton, Sarah A; Parnell, Winsome; Moshfegh, Alanna J; Pereira, Rosangela A; Lee, Haeng-Shin; van't Veer, Pieter; De Henauw, Stefaan; Huybrechts, Inge

    2015-05-13

    Food consumption surveys are performed in many countries. Comparison of results from those surveys across nations is difficult because of differences in methodological approaches. While consensus about the preferred methodology associated with national food consumption surveys is increasing, no inventory of methodological aspects across continents is available. The aims of the present review are (1) to develop a framework of key methodological elements related to national food consumption surveys, (2) to create an inventory of these properties of surveys performed in the continents North-America, South-America, Asia and Australasia, and (3) to discuss and compare these methodological properties cross-continentally. A literature search was performed using a fixed set of search terms in different databases. The inventory was completed with all accessible information from all retrieved publications and corresponding authors were requested to provide additional information where missing. Surveys from ten individual countries, originating from four continents are listed in the inventory. The results are presented according to six major aspects of food consumption surveys. The most common dietary intake assessment method used in food consumption surveys worldwide is the 24-HDR (24 h dietary recall), occasionally administered repeatedly, mostly using interview software. Only three countries have incorporated their national food consumption surveys into continuous national health and nutrition examination surveys.

  18. [National policies and the field of Food and Nutrition in Collective Health: the current scenario].

    PubMed

    Recine, Elisabetta; Vasconcellos, Ana Beatriz

    2011-01-01

    It is presented a review of the guidelines implementation of the National Food and Nutrition Policy (PNAN) contextualizing the actions in the Brazilian Unified Health System (SUS) scenario. At ten years of its publication, PNAN faces challenges both to expand and qualify the shares of food and nutrition on health. It is challenging to stand as interlocutor and legitimate representative of the area of health, political and institutional context of food security and nutrition. Issues related to the articulation of PNAN and future National Policy on Food and Nutrition Security will be analyzed to demonstrate the convergence of agendas among the priorities for the guarantee of the SAN. The authors identify the potential of this field of action, from the current institutional setting, and the need for comprehensive solutions that address the complexity of food and nutrition in health.

  19. Food Insecurity and Mental Disorders in a National Sample of U.S. Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLaughlin, Katie A.; Green, Jennifer Greif; Alegria, Margarita; Costello, E. Jane; Gruber, Michael J.; Sampson, Nancy A.; Kessler, Ronald C.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To examine whether food insecurity is associated with past-year "DSM-IV" mental disorders after controlling for standard indicators of family socioeconomic status (SES) in a U.S. national sample of adolescents. Method: Data were drawn from 6,483 adolescent-parent pairs who participated in the National Comorbidity Survey Replication…

  20. New Local, National and Regional Cereal Price Indices for Improved Identification of Food Insecurity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, Molly E.; Tondel, Fabien; Thorne, Jennifer A.; Essam, Timothy; Mann, Bristol F.; Stabler, Blake; Eilerts, Gary

    2011-01-01

    Large price increases over a short time period can be indicative of a deteriorating food security situation. Food price indices developed by the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) are used to monitor food price trends at a global level, but largely reflect supply and demand conditions in export markets. However, reporting by the United States Agency for International Development (USAID)'s Famine Early Warning Systems Network (FEWS NET) indicates that staple cereal prices in many markets of the developing world, especially in surplus-producing areas, often have a delayed and variable response to international export market price trends. Here we present new price indices compiled for improved food security monitoring and assessment, and specifically for monitoring conditions of food access across diverse food insecure regions. We found that cereal price indices constructed using market prices within a food insecure region showed significant differences from the international cereals price, and had a variable price dispersion across markets within each marketshed. Using satellite-derived remote sensing information that estimates local production and the FAO Cereals Index as predictors, we were able to forecast movements of the local or national price indices in the remote, arid and semi-arid countries of the 38 countries examined. This work supports the need for improved decision-making about targeted aid and humanitarian relief, by providing earlier early warning of food security crises.

  1. Seasonal food use by white-tailed deer at Valley Forge National Historical Park, Pennsylvania, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cypher, Brian L.; Yahner, Richard H.; Cypher, Ellen A.

    1988-03-01

    Food habits of white-tailed deer ( Odocoileus virginianus) were examined from January to November 1984 via fecal-pellet analysis at Valley Forge National Historical Park (VFNHP), which represents an “island” habitat for deer surrounded by extensive urbanization, in southeastern Pennsylvania. In addition, use of fields by deer was compared to food habits. Herbaceous vegetation (forbs, leaves of woody plants, and conifer needles) was the predominant food type in all seasons except fall. Acorns and graminoids (grasses and sedges) were important food resources in fall and spring, respectively. Use of woody browse (twigs) was similar among seasons. Field use was relatively high during fall, winter without snow cover (<20 cm), and spring when food resources in fields were readily available. In contrast, use of fields was lowest in summer when preferred woodland foods were available and in winter with snow cover when food in fields was not readily accessible. Patterns of food-type use by deer at VFNHP indicate the year-round importance of nonwoody foods and field habitats to deer populations on public lands such as national parks in the northeastern United States.

  2. Foodborne pathogens recovered from ready-to-eat foods from roadside cafeterias and retail outlets in Alice, Eastern Cape Province, South Africa: public health implications.

    PubMed

    Nyenje, Mirriam E; Odjadjare, Collins E; Tanih, Nicoline F; Green, Ezekiel; Ndip, Roland N

    2012-08-01

    This study assessed the microbiological quality of various ready-to-eat foods sold in Alice, South Africa. Microbiological analysis was conducted on 252 samples which included vegetables, potatoes, rice, pies, beef and chicken stew. The isolates were identified using biochemical tests and the API 20E, API 20NE and API Listeria kits; results were analyzed using the one-way-ANOVA test. Bacterial growth was present in all the food types tested; high levels of total aerobic count were observed in vegetables, 6.8 ± 0.07 followed by rice, 6.7 ± 1.7 while pies had the lowest count (2.58 ± 0.24). Organisms isolated included: Listeria spp. (22%), Enterobacter spp. (18%), Aeromonas hydrophila (12%), Klebsiella oxytoca (8%), Proteus mirabilis (6.3%), Staphylococcus aureus (3.2%) and Pseudomonas luteola (2.4%). Interestingly, Salmonella spp. and Escherichia coli were not isolated in any of the samples. There was a statistically significant difference (p < 0.05) in the prevalence of foodborne pathogens from hygienic and unhygienic cafeterias. The results indicated that most of the ready-to-eat food samples examined in this study did not meet bacteriological quality standards, therefore posing potential risks to consumers. This should draw the attention of the relevant authorities to ensure that hygienic standards are improved to curtain foodborne infections.

  3. 7 CFR 3402.4 - Food and agricultural sciences areas targeted for National Needs Graduate and Postdoctoral...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Food and agricultural sciences areas targeted for... AGRICULTURE FOOD AND AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES NATIONAL NEEDS GRADUATE AND POSTGRADUATE FELLOWSHIP GRANTS PROGRAM Program Description § 3402.4 Food and agricultural sciences areas targeted for National Needs Graduate...

  4. 7 CFR 3402.4 - Food and agricultural sciences areas targeted for National Needs Graduate and Postdoctoral...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Food and agricultural sciences areas targeted for... AGRICULTURE FOOD AND AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES NATIONAL NEEDS GRADUATE AND POSTGRADUATE FELLOWSHIP GRANTS PROGRAM Program Description § 3402.4 Food and agricultural sciences areas targeted for National Needs Graduate...

  5. 7 CFR 3402.4 - Food and agricultural sciences areas targeted for National Needs Graduate and Postdoctoral...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Food and agricultural sciences areas targeted for... AGRICULTURE FOOD AND AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES NATIONAL NEEDS GRADUATE AND POSTGRADUATE FELLOWSHIP GRANTS PROGRAM Program Description § 3402.4 Food and agricultural sciences areas targeted for National Needs Graduate...

  6. 7 CFR 3402.4 - Food and agricultural sciences areas targeted for National Needs Graduate and Postdoctoral...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Food and agricultural sciences areas targeted for... AGRICULTURE FOOD AND AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES NATIONAL NEEDS GRADUATE AND POSTGRADUATE FELLOWSHIP GRANTS PROGRAM Program Description § 3402.4 Food and agricultural sciences areas targeted for National Needs Graduate...

  7. The Market for Food in the Nation's Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kriesberg, Martin

    This report is based on a study made during the school year 1962-63. Comparison with a benchmark survey conducted five years earlier shows that during the intervening period the number of public school districts decreased by one-third, while pupil enrollment increased by about 10 percent. The number of lunches served in the National School Lunch…

  8. Understanding the Impact of Higher Corn Prices on Consumer Food Prices

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2007-04-18

    In an effort to assess the true effects of higher corn prices, the National Corn Growers Association (NCGA) commissioned an analysis on the impact of increased corn prices on retail food prices. This paper summarizes key results of the study and offers additional analysis based on information from a variety of other sources.

  9. 77 FR 62177 - Retail Foreign Exchange Transactions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-12

    ... distinguishes retail customers from non-retail customers through the term eligible contract participant (ECP).\\11\\ In many cases, the CEA provides fewer protections to ECPs than retail customers, i.e., non-ECPs... preliminarily believes that treating bank funds as traditional retail customers for purposes of the retail...

  10. Tradition of healthy food access in low-income neighborhoods: Price and variety of curbside produce vending compared to conventional retailers.

    PubMed

    Brinkley, Catherine; Chrisinger, Benjamin; Hillier, Amy

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes the longstanding, naturally emergent model of curbside vending of whole fruit and vegetable produce across several low-income, low-health Philadelphia neighborhoods. We conducted open-ended interviews with managers of 11 curbside produce vendors and compared prices and varieties of fruits and vegetables with the 11 closest conventional outlets. We find that produce trucks offer significantly lower prices on common fruit and vegetable items and they carry a variety of items comparable to that carried by limited-assortment grocery stores. We conclude with recommendations regarding zoning, licensing, and Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) authorization that could stabilize and expand this model of healthy food access.

  11. Geisinger's Retail Innovation Journey.

    PubMed

    Prince, Denise B; Graf, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    In 2003, Geisinger Health System formed a new group, Geisinger Ventures (GV), to accelerate the growth of new lines of business that were extensions of the core mission of the organization. Careworks, the convenient care clinic line of business, began in early 2006 as one of the early components of the GV portfolio. Over the past nine years, Geisinger has tested several retail and walk-in models, including in-store clinics, separate retail sites, and models colocated with primary care practices and emergency departments. Each site and model presents different benefits and challenges with respect to patient care, marketing, staffing, and clinical integration. With the implementation of healthcare reform and a decision to participate in Medicaid'managed care, Geisinger's strategic need for convenient care options has intensified, and new models, including e-visits and telemedicine specialty consultations, are being actively explored. Geisinger's view is that healthcare is rapidly changing, being affected by demographic shifts, diagnostic and treatment options, payment changes, and communication technologies. Healthcare delivery must flex to adjust to these and other trends, and retail clinics are part of that response. Careful examination of the critical elements necessary for optimal care (including wellness, prevention, and management of chronic disease and severe multimorbid disease) and then matching those elements to the optimal mode and site of care will lead to a streamlined healthcare system. The historical--and still most prevalent--methodology of traditional office, emergency department, and inpatient care options are not ideal for all patients' care needs in the twenty-first century. A thoughtful, deliberate extension of those options will be necessary. Rather than simply adding a static retail or virtual offering, medical professionals should develop a process to continually assess patients, technology, payment, and disease changes so that they are

  12. Tradition of healthy food access in low-income neighborhoods: Price and variety of curbside produce vending compared to conventional retailers

    PubMed Central

    Brinkley, Catherine; Chrisinger, Benjamin; Hillier, Amy

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes the longstanding, naturally emergent model of curbside vending of whole fruit and vegetable produce across several low-income, low-health Philadelphia neighborhoods. We conducted open-ended interviews with managers of 11 curbside produce vendors and compared prices and varieties of fruits and vegetables with the 11 closest conventional outlets. We find that produce trucks offer significantly lower prices on common fruit and vegetable items and they carry a variety of items comparable to that carried by limited-assortment grocery stores. We conclude with recommendations regarding zoning, licensing, and Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) authorization that could stabilize and expand this model of healthy food access. PMID:25541595

  13. Food Insecurity and Mental Disorders in a National Sample of U.S. Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    McLaughlin, Katie A.; Green, Jennifer Greif; Alegría, Margarita; Costello, E. Jane; Gruber, Michael J.; Sampson, Nancy A.; Kessler, Ronald C.

    2013-01-01

    Objective To examine whether food insecurity is associated with past-year DSM-IV mental disorders after controlling for standard indicators of family socioeconomic status (SES) in a U.S. national sample of adolescents. Method Data were drawn from 6,483 adolescent–parent pairs who participated in the National Comorbidity Survey Replication Adolescent Supplement, a national survey of adolescents 13 to 17 years old. Frequency and severity of food insecurity were assessed with questions based on the U.S. Department of Agriculture’s Food Security Scale (standardized to a mean of 0, variance of 1). DSM-IV mental disorders were assessed with the World Health Organization Composite International Diagnostic Interview. Associations of food insecurity with DSM-IV/Composite International Diagnostic Interview diagnoses were estimated with logistic regression models controlling for family SES (parental education, household income, relative deprivation, community-level inequality, and subjective social status). Results Food insecurity was highest in adolescents with the lowest SES. Controlling simultaneously for other aspects of SES, standardized food insecurity was associated with an increased odds of past-year mood, anxiety, behavior, and substance disorders. A 1 standard deviation increase in food insecurity was associated with a 14%increase in the odds of past-year mental disorder, even after controlling for extreme poverty. The association between food insecurity and mood disorders was strongest in adolescents living in families with a low household income and high relative deprivation. Conclusions Food insecurity is associated with a wide range of adolescent mental disorders independently of other aspects of SES. Expansion of social programs aimed at decreasing family economic strain might be one useful policy approach for improving youth mental health. PMID:23200286

  14. Sodium content in processed foods in Argentina: compliance with the national law

    PubMed Central

    Tiscornia, María Victoria; Ponce, Miguel; Castronuovo, Luciana; Dunford, Elizabeth; Schoj, Verónica

    2015-01-01

    Background Despite the body of evidence that documents the unfavorable effects of excessive sodium consumption on blood pressure and cardiovascular health, public health efforts to decrease sodium consumption have been limited to a few countries. Argentina is the first country in Latin America to regulate sodium content of processed foods by means of a national law. The objective of this cross-sectional quantitative study is to provide a baseline comparison against the reduction targets set by the national law before its entry into force. Methods Data were collected in February 2014 in a leading supermarket chain located in Buenos Aires. Nutrient data from package labels were analysed for 1,320 products within 14 food groups during the study period. To compare sodium concentration levels with the established maximum levels we matched the collected food groups with the food groups included in the law resulting in a total of 292 products. Data analysis was conducted using SPSS version 20 software. Results Food groups with the highest median sodium content were sauces and spreads (866.7 mg/100 g), meat and meat products (750 mg/100 g) and snack foods (644 mg/100 g). Categories with the highest sodium content were appetizers (1,415 mg/100 g), sausages (1,050 mg/100 g) and ready-made meals (940.7 mg/100 g). We also found large variability within products from the same food categories. Products included in the national law correspond to 22.1% (n=292) of the surveyed foods. From the 18 food groups, 15 showed median sodium values below the established targets. Products exceeding the established maximum levels correspond to 15.1% (n=44) of the products included in the analysis. Conclusions This study is the first analysis of food labels to determine sodium concentrations of processed foods in Argentina and to provide a baseline against the national law standards. Upon the completion of this analysis, maximum levels have been achieved by most of the food groups included in

  15. Stakeholder perspectives on national policy for regulating the school food environment in Mexico.

    PubMed

    Monterrosa, Eva C; Campirano, Fabricio; Tolentino Mayo, Lizbeth; Frongillo, Edward A; Hernández Cordero, Sonia; Kaufer-Horwitz, Martha; Rivera, Juan A

    2015-02-01

    In Mexico, the school environment has been promoting sale of unhealthy foods. There is little empirical evidence on multi-stakeholder perspectives around national school food policy to regulate this. We studied stakeholders' perspectives on the proposed regulation for school sale of unhealthy foods. Comments about the regulation were available from an open consultation process held in June 2010 before the approval and implementation of the regulation. To examine perspectives, we coded 597 comments for beliefs, expectations and demands in NVivo. We created matrices by actors: academics, parents, citizens, health professionals and food industry. For academics, citizens and health professionals, the primary issue regarding the regulation was obesity, while for parents it was health of children. Academics, citizens, health professionals and parents believed that government was responsible for health of citizens, expected that this regulation would improve eating habits and health (i.e. less obesity and chronic diseases), and demanded that unhealthy foods be removed from schools. Parents demanded immediate action for school food policy that would protect their children. Citizens and health professionals demanded nutrition education and healthy food environment. Food industry opposed the regulation because it would not solve obesity or improve diet and physical activity behaviours. Instead, industry would lose income and jobs. Food industry demanded policy aimed at families that included nutrition education and physical activity. There was substantial consensus in narratives and perspectives for most actor types, with the primary narrative being the food environment followed by shared responsibility. Food industry rejected both these narratives, espousing instead the narrative of personal responsibility. Consensus among most actor groups supports the potential success of implementation of the regulation in Mexican schools. With regard to addressing childhood obesity

  16. Retailer Adherence to Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act, North Carolina, 2011

    PubMed Central

    Myers, Allison E.; D’Angelo, Heather; Ribisl, Kurt M.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction The Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act regulates the sales and marketing of tobacco products in the United States; poor adherence by tobacco retailers may reduce the effectiveness of the Act’s provisions. The objectives of this study were 1) to assess whether and to which provisions retailers were adherent and 2) to examine differences in adherence by county, retailer neighborhood, and retailer characteristics. Methods We conducted multivariate analysis of tobacco retailers’ adherence to 12 point-of-sale provisions of the Tobacco Control Act in 3 North Carolina counties. We conducted observational audits of 324 retailers during 3 months in 2011 to assess adherence. We used logistic regression to assess associations between adherence to provisions and characteristics of each county, retailer neighborhood, and retailer. Results We found 15.7% of retailers did not adhere to at least 1 provision; 84.3% adhered to all provisions. The provisions most frequently violated were the ban on sales of cigarettes with modified-risk labels (eg, “light” cigarettes) (43 [13.3%] retailers nonadherent) and the ban on self-service for cigarettes and smokeless tobacco (6 [1.9%] retailers nonadherent). We found significant differences in rates of nonadherence by county and type of retailer. Pharmacies and drug stores were more than 3 times as likely as grocery stores to be nonadherent. Conclusion Most tobacco retailers have implemented regulatory changes without enforcement by the US Food and Drug Administration. Monitoring rates of adherence by store type and locale (eg, county) may help retailers comply with point-of-sale provisions. PMID:23557638

  17. Food Insecurity and Cost-Related Medication Underuse Among Nonelderly Adults in a Nationally Representative Sample

    PubMed Central

    Afulani, Patience; Coleman-Jensen, Alisha; Harrison, Gail G.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. We investigated whether nonelderly US adults (aged 18–64 years) in food-insecure households are more likely to report cost-related medication underuse than the food-secure, and whether the relationship between food insecurity and cost-related medication underuse differs by gender, chronic disease, and health insurance status. Methods. We analyzed data from the 2011 and 2012 National Health Interview Survey (n = 67 539). We examined the relationship between food insecurity and cost-related medication underuse with the χ2 test and multivariate logistic regression with interaction terms. Results. Bivariate and multivariate analyses showed a dose–response relationship between food insecurity and cost-related medication underuse, with an increasing likelihood of cost-related medication underuse with increasing severity of food insecurity (P < .001). This association was conditional on health insurance status, but not substantially different by gender or chronic disease status. Being female, low-income, having no or partial health insurance, chronic conditions, functional limitations, or severe mental illness were positively associated with cost-related medication underuse. Conclusions. Using food insecurity as a risk factor to assess cost-related medication underuse could help increase identification of individuals who may need assistance purchasing medications and improve health for those in food-insecure households. PMID:26270308

  18. National food fortification: a dialogue with reference to Asia: policy in evolution.

    PubMed

    Wahlqvist, Mark L

    2008-01-01

    Food fortification generally refers to the addition of micronutrients and other favourably bio-active food components to food-stuffs where there are recognised deficiencies in the target population. Each forticant has had or could have regulatory implications. It is understandable, although arguable, in the face of a limited food supply skewed, for the majority, in the direction of starchy staples of low essential nutrient density. Efforts, with plant breeding, to biofortify such foods are underway and likely to be safer, more sustainable and affordable than chemical additions. Unfortunately, with an increasingly refined and naturally tasteless food supply (salty, fatty, sugary and starchy), and where energy requirements are falling because of physical inactivity, micronutrient fortification is being used as a nutritional "fix-it' strategy. In Asia, there are several critical micro- nutrients. No one national fortification program can deal with all deficiencies is likely to be highly selective for the nutrients which have the greatest advocacy or are most recognisable. They also leave the other health promoting food properties like intactness, nutrient spectrum, and phytonutrient content un-addressed. A variety of food-stuffs, with different biological origins, is the preferred approach. Where an optimal food system is not in place, there may be justification for fortification if there is regular monitoring and surveillance of the food supply and health outcomes occurs; is a clear cost-risk-benefit advantage in such a strategy; are programs in place to improve the nutritional value of the basic food supply and is an "exit strategy' for the fortification program.

  19. Causes for Retail Industry Globalization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jagadeesha, M.

    2012-12-01

    The heading of this article itself pushing me to think why retail industry is globalizing! Because to increase their presence worldwide and profit on the onside and for the sake of ìname and fameî in industry is other side, but todayís trend and compitetitation force industrial giants to forget the word ìname and fameî globalization is the only strategy to compensate their market share or profit from one country to another country or domestic market. The presence of retail industry in the global level from centuries, but the global recognaization of retail industry came to limelight only two decades ago. As soon as restrictions are removed in this sector, all the retail industry big giants spread across the world to extend their operations especially in emerging markets. Is this a good sign for retailers? Off course it is good sign for some countries and some countries are stick to their own perceptions. Some of the countries welcome this move because the FDI will improve their economic structure. On the other side employment opportunity is also one of the issues in globalization of retail sector. Because retail industry needs huge workforce, so significance of retail has been undoubted.

  20. The National School Lunch and Competitive Food Offerings and Purchasing Behaviors of High School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snelling, Anastasia M.; Korba, Casey; Burkey, Alyvia

    2007-01-01

    Background: Across the nation, schools have become actively involved in developing obesity prevention strategies both in classrooms and in cafeterias. We sought to determine the type of foods being offered during lunch in the cafeteria of 3 public high schools in 1 county and if this reflects the purchasing patterns of students. By labeling foods…

  1. Little River Experimental Watershed, Georgia: National Institute of Food and Agriculture - Conservation Effects Assessment Project

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In September 2007, USDA’s Cooperative State Research, Education, and Extension Service (CSREES), now the National Institute of Food and Agriculture (NIFA), and the Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS) jointly funded two integrated research and outreach grants to conduct a synthesis of resul...

  2. 77 FR 24456 - Retail Exemptions Adjusted Dollar Limitations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-24

    ...) is announcing the dollar limitations on the amount of meat and meat food products and poultry and poultry products that a retail store can sell to hotels, restaurants, and similar institutions without... $61,900 to $67,300 and for poultry products from $50,200 to $51,700. FSIS is changing the...

  3. 78 FR 23902 - Retail Exemptions Adjusted Dollar Limitations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-23

    ...) is announcing the dollar limitations on the amount of meat and meat food products, poultry, and poultry products that a retail store can sell to hotels, restaurants, and similar institutions without... $67,300 to $69,600 and for poultry products from $51,700 to $54,500. FSIS is changing the...

  4. Clostridium difficile in retail meat and processing plants in Texas

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The incidence and severity of disease associated with toxigenic Clostridium difficile (Cd) have increased in hospitals in North America from the emergence of newer, more virulent strains of Cd. Toxigenic Cd has been isolated from food animals and retail meat with potential implications of transfer ...

  5. Intention to purchase organic food among young consumers: Evidences from a developing nation.

    PubMed

    Yadav, Rambalak; Pathak, Govind Swaroop

    2016-01-01

    The present study attempts to investigate the consumer's intention to purchase organic food in the context of a developing nation (India) using the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB). Further, the study has incorporated additional constructs (moral attitude, health consciousness and environmental concern) in the TPB and measured its appropriateness. Responses were collected from 220 young consumers adopting convenience sampling approach. Data were analyzed using Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) to evaluate the strength of relationship between the constructs. The findings reported that the TPB partially supported the organic food purchase intention. Among the additional constructs incorporated, moral attitude and health consciousness positively influenced the consumer's intention to purchase organic food. The study has supported the inclusion of new constructs in the TPB as it has improved the predictive power of the proposed framework in determining consumer's intention to purchase organic food.

  6. A Descriptive Analysis of Supply Factors and Prices for USDA Foods in the National School Lunch Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Cora

    2010-01-01

    Purpose/Objectives: Schools that participate in the National School Lunch Program (NSLP) receive a portion of their annual federal funding as commodity entitlement foods--now called USDA Foods--rather than cash payments. Due to rising food prices in recent years, it has been recommended that schools compare the costs and benefits of commodity and…

  7. 7 CFR 3402.4 - Food and agricultural sciences areas targeted for National Needs Graduate and Postdoctoral...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Food and agricultural sciences areas targeted for..., AND EXTENSION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FOOD AND AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES NATIONAL NEEDS... sciences areas targeted for National Needs Graduate and Postdoctoral Fellowship Grants Program...

  8. Low-income Children's participation in the National School Lunch Program and household food insufficiency.

    PubMed

    Huang, Jin; Barnidge, Ellen

    2016-02-01

    Assessing the impact of the National School Lunch Program (NSLP) on household food insufficiency is critical to improve the implementation of public food assistance and to improve the nutrition intake of low-income children and their families. To examine the association of receiving free/reduced-price lunch from the NSLP with household food insufficiency among low-income children and their families in the United States, the study used data from four longitudinal panels of the Survey of Income and Program Participation (SIPP; 1996, 2001, 2004, and 2008), which collected information on household food insufficiency covering both summer and non-summer months. The sample included 15, 241 households with at least one child (aged 5-18) receiving free/reduced-price lunch from the NSLP. A dichotomous measure describes whether households have sufficient food to eat in the observed months. Fixed-effects regression analysis suggests that the food insufficiency rate is .7 (95%CI: .1, 1.2) percentage points higher in summer months among NSLP recipients. Since low-income families cannot participate in the NSLP in summer when the school is not in session, the result indicates the NSLP participation is associated with a reduction of food insufficiency risk by nearly 14%. The NSLP plays a significant role to protect low-income children and their families from food insufficiency. It is important to increase access to school meal programs among children at risk of food insufficiency in order to ensure adequate nutrition and to mitigate the health problems associated with malnourishment among children.

  9. The Small Retailer and His Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burstinger, Irving

    1975-01-01

    This study, through personal interviews, collected data on small retailers for three purposes: (1) to provide informative insights into small-scale retailing in New York City, (2) to explore retailers' opinions as to why customers shop at their stroes, and (3) to ascertain the more common problems experienced by retailers. (Author/BP)

  10. 21 CFR 1140.10 - General responsibilities of manufacturers, distributors, and retailers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false General responsibilities of manufacturers, distributors, and retailers. 1140.10 Section 1140.10 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... ensuring that the cigarettes or smokeless tobacco it manufactures, labels, advertises,...

  11. 21 CFR 1140.10 - General responsibilities of manufacturers, distributors, and retailers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false General responsibilities of manufacturers, distributors, and retailers. 1140.10 Section 1140.10 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... ensuring that the cigarettes or smokeless tobacco it manufactures, labels, advertises,...

  12. Greater Food Reward Sensitivity Is Associated with More Frequent Intake of Discretionary Foods in a Nationally Representative Sample of Young Adults

    PubMed Central

    Nansel, Tonja R.; Lipsky, Leah M.; Eisenberg, Miriam H.; Haynie, Denise L.; Liu, Danping; Simons-Morton, Bruce

    2016-01-01

    Food reward sensitivity may influence individual susceptibility to an environment replete with highly palatable foods of minimal nutritional value. These foods contain combinations of added sugar, fat, and/or salt that may enhance their motivational salience. This study examined associations of food reward sensitivity with eating behaviors in the NEXT Generation Health Study, a nationally representative sample of U.S. young adults. Participants (n = 2202) completed self-report measures including the Power of Food Scale, assessing food reward sensitivity, and intake frequency of 14 food groups. Multiple linear regressions estimated associations of food reward sensitivity with each of the eating behaviors adjusting for covariates. Higher food reward sensitivity was associated with more frequent intake of fast food (b ± linearized SE = 0.24 ± 0.05, p < 0.001), sweet and salty snacks (0.21 ± 0.05, p < 0.001), foods made with cheese (0.14 ± 0.06, p = 0.03), soda (0.12 ± 0.04, p = 0.009), processed meats (0.12 ± 0.05, p = 0.045), and fish (0.08 ± 0.03, p = 0.03) but was not associated with intake frequency of fruit or juice, green or orange vegetables, beans, whole grains, nuts/seeds, or dairy products. Food reward sensitivity was associated with greater intake of discretionary foods but was not associated with intake of most health-promoting foods, suggesting food reward sensitivity may lead to preferential intake of unhealthful foods. PMID:27588287

  13. Greater Food Reward Sensitivity Is Associated with More Frequent Intake of Discretionary Foods in a Nationally Representative Sample of Young Adults.

    PubMed

    Nansel, Tonja R; Lipsky, Leah M; Eisenberg, Miriam H; Haynie, Denise L; Liu, Danping; Simons-Morton, Bruce

    2016-01-01

    Food reward sensitivity may influence individual susceptibility to an environment replete with highly palatable foods of minimal nutritional value. These foods contain combinations of added sugar, fat, and/or salt that may enhance their motivational salience. This study examined associations of food reward sensitivity with eating behaviors in the NEXT Generation Health Study, a nationally representative sample of U.S. young adults. Participants (n = 2202) completed self-report measures including the Power of Food Scale, assessing food reward sensitivity, and intake frequency of 14 food groups. Multiple linear regressions estimated associations of food reward sensitivity with each of the eating behaviors adjusting for covariates. Higher food reward sensitivity was associated with more frequent intake of fast food (b ± linearized SE = 0.24 ± 0.05, p < 0.001), sweet and salty snacks (0.21 ± 0.05, p < 0.001), foods made with cheese (0.14 ± 0.06, p = 0.03), soda (0.12 ± 0.04, p = 0.009), processed meats (0.12 ± 0.05, p = 0.045), and fish (0.08 ± 0.03, p = 0.03) but was not associated with intake frequency of fruit or juice, green or orange vegetables, beans, whole grains, nuts/seeds, or dairy products. Food reward sensitivity was associated with greater intake of discretionary foods but was not associated with intake of most health-promoting foods, suggesting food reward sensitivity may lead to preferential intake of unhealthful foods.

  14. A City and National Metric measuring Isolation from the Global Market for Food Security Assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, Molly E.; Silver, Kirk Coleman; Rajagopalan, Krishnan

    2013-01-01

    The World Bank has invested in infrastructure in developing countries for decades. This investment aims to reduce the isolation of markets, reducing both seasonality and variability in food availability and food prices. Here we combine city market price data, global distance to port, and country infrastructure data to create a new Isolation Index for countries and cities around the world. Our index quantifies the isolation of a city from the global market. We demonstrate that an index built at the country level can be applied at a sub-national level to quantify city isolation. In doing so, we offer policy makers with an alternative metric to assess food insecurity. We compare our isolation index with other indices and economic data found in the literature.We show that our Index measures economic isolation regardless of economic stability using correlation and analysis

  15. The LBNL Water Heater Retail Price Database

    SciTech Connect

    Lekov, Alex; Glover, Julie; Lutz, Jim

    2000-10-01

    Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory developed the LBNL Water Heater Price Database to compile and organize information used in the revision of U.S. energy efficiency standards for water heaters. The Database contains all major components that contribute to the consumer cost of water heaters, including basic retail prices, sales taxes, installation costs, and any associated fees. In addition, the Database provides manufacturing data on the features and design characteristics of more than 1100 different water heater models. Data contained in the Database was collected over a two-year period from 1997 to 1999.

  16. Sorbate and benzoate in Turkish retail foodstuffs.

    PubMed

    Ulca, Pelin; Atamer, Beril; Keskin, Mehtap; Senyuva, Hamide Z

    2013-01-01

    From 2008 to 2011, surveys were conducted to determine the levels of benzoic and sorbic acids and their respective salts in 983 retail food samples which included sauces, vegetable and fruit preparations, flavoured syrups, food supplements, cereals, bakery products, jelly, synthetic cream, sprays, mustards, jam and preserves, molasses, chewing gum, confectionery, non-alcoholic beverages, tea, wine, vinegar, brine and beers. The analysis involved methanol extraction of the foodstuff and direct determination by HPLC with UV detection. Quality assurance was employed with each batch of samples. Accuracy was ensured through regular participation in proficiency tests. Over this four-year period, a total of 23 samples (2.3%), some syrups, tomato sauces and fruit contained individual or combined levels of sorbic and benzoic acids above regulatory limits. Unauthorised use of benzoic acid was also detected in a syrup sample, bakery products and fruit preserves.

  17. 21 CFR 1301.27 - Separate registration by retail pharmacies for installation and operation of automated dispensing...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ....27 Separate registration by retail pharmacies for installation and operation of automated dispensing... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Separate registration by retail pharmacies for installation and operation of automated dispensing systems at long term care facilities. 1301.27 Section...

  18. 21 CFR 1301.27 - Separate registration by retail pharmacies for installation and operation of automated dispensing...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ....27 Separate registration by retail pharmacies for installation and operation of automated dispensing... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Separate registration by retail pharmacies for installation and operation of automated dispensing systems at long term care facilities. 1301.27 Section...

  19. 21 CFR 1301.27 - Separate registration by retail pharmacies for installation and operation of automated dispensing...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ....27 Separate registration by retail pharmacies for installation and operation of automated dispensing... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Separate registration by retail pharmacies for installation and operation of automated dispensing systems at long term care facilities. 1301.27 Section...

  20. The Establishment of the Colombian Integrated Program for Antimicrobial Resistance Surveillance (COIPARS): A Pilot Project on Poultry Farms, Slaughterhouses and Retail Market.

    PubMed

    Donado-Godoy, P; Castellanos, R; León, M; Arevalo, A; Clavijo, V; Bernal, J; León, D; Tafur, M A; Byrne, B A; Smith, W A; Perez-Gutierrez, E

    2015-04-01

    The development of antimicrobial resistance among bacteria (AMR) is currently one of the world's most pressing public health problems. The use of antimicrobial agents in humans and animals has resulted in AMR which has narrowed the potential use of antibiotics for the treatment of infections in humans. To monitor AMR and to develop control measures, some countries, such as the USA, Canada and Denmark, have established national integrated surveillance systems (FDA, , CIPARS, 2007, DANMAP,2002). The components of these programs monitor changes in susceptibility/resistance to antimicrobial agents of selected zoonotic pathogens and commensal organisms recovered from animals, retail meats and humans. The rapid development of Colombia's animal production industry has raised food safety issues including the emergence of antibiotic resistance. The Colombian Integrated Surveillance Program for Antimicrobial Resistance (COIPARS) was established as a pilot project to monitor AMR on poultry farms, slaughter houses and retail markets.

  1. Retail Location Choice with Complementary Goods: An Agent-Based Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Arthur; Levinson, David

    This paper models the emergence of retail clusters on a supply chain network comprised of suppliers, retailers, and consumers. Firstly, an agent-based model is proposed to investigate retail location distribution in a market of two complementary goods. The methodology controls for supplier locales and unit sales prices of retailers and suppliers, and a consumer’s willingness to patronize a retailer depends on the total travel distance of buying both goods. On a circle comprised of discrete locations, retailers play a non-cooperative game of location choice to maximize individual profits. Our findings suggest that the probability distribution of the number of clusters in equilibrium follows power law and that hierarchical distribution patterns are much more likely to occur than the spread-out ones. In addition, retailers of complementary goods tend to co-locate at supplier locales. Sensitivity tests on the number of retailers are also performed. Secondly, based on the County Business Patterns (CBP) data of Minneapolis-St. Paul from US Census 2000 database, we find that the number of clothing stores and the distribution of food stores at the zip code level follows power-law distribution.

  2. Traditional foods and 25(OH)D concentrations in a subarctic First Nations community

    PubMed Central

    Mansuri, Sudaba; Badawi, Alaa; Kayaniyil, Sheena; Cole, David E.; Harris, Stewart B.; Mamakeesick, Mary; Wolever, Thomas; Gittelsohn, Joel; Maguire, Jonathon L.; Connelly, Philip W.; Zinman, Bernard; Hanley, Anthony J.

    2016-01-01

    Background Sub-optimal vitamin D status is common worldwide and the condition may be associated with increased risk for various chronic diseases. In particular, low vitamin D status is highly prevalent in indigenous communities in Canada, although limited data are available on the determinants of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) concentrations in this population. The relationship between traditional food consumption and vitamin D status has not been well documented. Objective To investigate the determinants of serum 25(OH)D status in a First Nations community in Ontario, Canada, with a focus on the role of traditional food consumption and activities. Methods A cross-sectional analysis was conducted within the Sandy Lake Health and Diabetes Project (2003–2005). A total of 445 participants (>12 years of age) were assessed for serum 25(OH)D status, anthropometric and lifestyle variables, including traditional and non-traditional dietary practices and activities. Diet patterns were identified using factor analysis, and multivariate linear regression analysis was used to analyse the determinants of 25(OH)D concentrations. Results Mean serum 25(OH)D concentrations were 22.1 nmol/L (16.9, 29.9 nmol/L) in men and 20.5 nmol/L (16.0, 27.3 nmol/L) in women. Multivariate determinants of higher serum 25(OH)D included higher consumption of traditional and healthier market foods, higher wild fish consumption, male gender, spring/summer season of blood collection and more frequent physical activity. Significant negative determinants included hours of TV/day, higher BMI and higher consumption of unhealthy market foods. Conclusions Traditional food consumption contributed independently to higher 25(OH)D concentrations in a First Nations community with a high prevalence of sub-optimal vitamin D status. PMID:27664115

  3. Traditional foods and 25(OH)D concentrations in a subarctic First Nations community.

    PubMed

    Mansuri, Sudaba; Badawi, Alaa; Kayaniyil, Sheena; Cole, David E; Harris, Stewart B; Mamakeesick, Mary; Wolever, Thomas; Gittelsohn, Joel; Maguire, Jonathon L; Connelly, Philip W; Zinman, Bernard; Hanley, Anthony J

    2016-01-01

    Background Sub-optimal vitamin D status is common worldwide and the condition may be associated with increased risk for various chronic diseases. In particular, low vitamin D status is highly prevalent in indigenous communities in Canada, although limited data are available on the determinants of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) concentrations in this population. The relationship between traditional food consumption and vitamin D status has not been well documented. Objective To investigate the determinants of serum 25(OH)D status in a First Nations community in Ontario, Canada, with a focus on the role of traditional food consumption and activities. Methods A cross-sectional analysis was conducted within the Sandy Lake Health and Diabetes Project (2003-2005). A total of 445 participants (>12 years of age) were assessed for serum 25(OH)D status, anthropometric and lifestyle variables, including traditional and non-traditional dietary practices and activities. Diet patterns were identified using factor analysis, and multivariate linear regression analysis was used to analyse the determinants of 25(OH)D concentrations. Results Mean serum 25(OH)D concentrations were 22.1 nmol/L (16.9, 29.9 nmol/L) in men and 20.5 nmol/L (16.0, 27.3 nmol/L) in women. Multivariate determinants of higher serum 25(OH)D included higher consumption of traditional and healthier market foods, higher wild fish consumption, male gender, spring/summer season of blood collection and more frequent physical activity. Significant negative determinants included hours of TV/day, higher BMI and higher consumption of unhealthy market foods. Conclusions Traditional food consumption contributed independently to higher 25(OH)D concentrations in a First Nations community with a high prevalence of sub-optimal vitamin D status.

  4. Sampling the food processing environment: taking up the cudgel for preventive quality management in food processing environments.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Martin; Stessl, Beatrix

    2014-01-01

    The Listeria monitoring program for Austrian cheese factories was established in 1988. The basic idea is to control the introduction of L. monocytogenes into the food processing environment, preventing the pathogen from contaminating the food under processing. The Austrian Listeria monitoring program comprises four levels of investigation, dealing with routine monitoring of samples and consequences of finding a positive sample. Preventive quality control concepts attempt to detect a foodborne hazard along the food processing chain, prior to food delivery, retailing, and consumption. The implementation of a preventive food safety concept provokes a deepened insight by the manufacturers into problems concerning food safety. The development of preventive quality assurance strategies contributes to the national food safety status and protects public health.

  5. Attitudes and beliefs on the establishment of a national food safety authority in Cyprus. A population-based survey.

    PubMed

    Hadjigeorgiou, Andreas; Talias, Michael A; Soteriades, Elpidoforos S; Philalithis, Anastasios; Psaroulaki, Anna; Gikas, Achilleas; Tselentis, Yiannis

    2014-04-01

    Cyprus does not have a National Food Safety Authority (NFSA), but a multi-level, fragmented system with responsibilities divided among different ministries and governmental agencies, frequently impeding efforts to effectively manage food risks by duplication and overlapping of responsibilities. A population-based survey was carried out to determine the beliefs and attitudes of interested parties concerning the establishment of a NFSA in Cyprus. Information was collected using a random stratified sampling design and a structured questionnaire. A total of 868 questionnaires were collected (704 from regular consumers, 154 from food businesses' representatives, and 10 from public services' directors or acting head officers). About 11% of food businesses' representatives and 45% of consumers reported that they did not know which public authorities are responsible for food control. Moreover, 2 out of 10 (17%) of responders from public agencies, 70% from food businesses and 91% from consumers, although not aware of ongoing efforts to establish a food safety authority in Cyprus (currently under consideration), were supportive of the idea [8 out of 10 (83%) of responders from public services, 93% from food businesses, and 89% of consumers]. Finally, 7 out of 10 (67%) from the public agencies and 84% of representatives from food businesses agreed with the separation of risk assessment from risk management activities. Public opinion in Cyprus as well as public agencies and food businesses' representatives support the establishment of a single independent national food safety authority in Cyprus based on the European paradigm including the division of risk activities.

  6. Who Is Food Insecure? Implications for Targeted Recruitment and Outreach, National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2005–2010

    PubMed Central

    Leonard, Tammy; Xuan, Lei; Amory, Richard; Higashi, Robin T.; Nguyen, Oanh Kieu; Pezzia, Carla; Swales, Stephanie

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Food insecurity is negatively associated with health; however, health needs may differ among people participating in food assistance programs. Our objectives were to characterize differences in health among people receiving different types of food assistance and summarize strategies for targeted recruitment and outreach of various food insecure populations. Methods We examined health status, behaviors, and health care access associated with food insecurity and receipt of food assistance among US adults aged 20 years or older using data from participants (N = 16,934) of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey from 2005 through 2010. Results Food insecurity affected 19.3% of US adults (95% confidence interval, 17.9%–20.7%). People who were food insecure reported poorer health and less health care access than those who were food secure (P < .001 for all). Among those who were food insecure, 58.0% received no assistance, 20.3% received only Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) benefits, 9.7% received only food bank assistance, and 12.0% received both SNAP and food bank assistance. We observed an inverse relationship between receipt of food assistance and health and health behaviors among the food insecure. Receipt of both (SNAP and food bank assistance) was associated with the poorest health; receiving no assistance was associated with the best health. For example, functional limitations were twice as prevalent among people receiving both types of food assistance than among those receiving none. Conclusion Receipt of food assistance is an overlooked factor associated with health and has the potential to shape future chronic disease prevention efforts among the food insecure. PMID:27736055

  7. Foods and nutritional components of diets of black bear in Rocky Mountain National Park, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Baldwin, R.A.; Bender, L.C.

    2009-01-01

    We used scat analysis to determine diets and relative nutritional values of diets for black bears (Ursus americanus Pallas, 1780) in Rocky Mountain National Park, Colorado, from 2003 to 2006, and compared foods consumed and nutritional components to identify important sources of fecal gross energy (GE), crude fat (CF), and fecal nitrogen (FN) in annual and seasonal diets. Patterns of use of food classes followed typical seasonal patterns for bears, although use of animal matter was among the highest reported (>49% annually). Use of animal matter increased after spring, although crude protein levels in bear diets were always >25%. GE was typically lowest for grasses and other herbaceous plants and highest for ants and ungulates; FN was strongly positively related to most animal sources, but negatively correlated with vegetative matter; and CF showed the strongest positive relationship with ungulates and berries, with the latter likely influenced by the presence of seeds. Compared with historic data (1984-1991), contemporary diets included substantially greater prevalence of anthropogenic foods, which likely contributed to increases in size, condition, and productivity of the contemporary bear population. Management strategies are needed to increase quantity and quality of natural foods while minimizing dependence on anthropogenic sources.

  8. Methylmercury enters an aquatic food web through acidophilic microbial mats in Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming.

    PubMed

    Boyd, Eric S; King, Susan; Tomberlin, Jeffery K; Nordstrom, D Kirk; Krabbenhoft, David P; Barkay, Tamar; Geesey, Gill G

    2009-04-01

    Microbial mats are a visible and abundant life form inhabiting the extreme environments in Yellowstone National Park (YNP), WY, USA. Little is known of their role in food webs that exist in the Park's geothermal habitats. Eukaryotic green algae associated with a phototrophic green/purple Zygogonium microbial mat community that inhabits low-temperature regions of acidic (pH approximately 3.0) thermal springs were found to serve as a food source for stratiomyid (Diptera: Stratiomyidae) larvae. Mercury in spring source water was taken up and concentrated by the mat biomass. Monomethylmercury compounds (MeHg(+)), while undetectable or near the detection limit (0.025 ng l(-1)) in the source water of the springs, was present at concentrations of 4-7 ng g(-1) dry weight of mat biomass. Detection of MeHg(+) in tracheal tissue of larvae grazing the mat suggests that MeHg(+) enters this geothermal food web through the phototrophic microbial mat community. The concentration of MeHg(+) was two to five times higher in larval tissue than mat biomass indicating MeHg(+) biomagnification occurred between primary producer and primary consumer trophic levels. The Zygogonium mat community and stratiomyid larvae may also play a role in the transfer of MeHg(+) to species in the food web whose range extends beyond a particular geothermal feature of YNP.

  9. The format for the National Food Guide: performance and preference studies.

    PubMed

    Hunt, P; Gatenby, S; Raynert, M

    2007-06-01

    This paper gives the main findings of research designed to inform decisions about the format of a food selection guide, subsequently published as the National Food Guide. The research involved 2074 members of the public and 230 professionals involved in nutrition education. Different formats for the guide were assessed for performance (how well the information was understood and recalled) and preference with a quota sample of C2 and D socioeconomic groups. Preferences were also assessed with a sample of various professionals involved in nutrition education. The investigations involved different versions of the guide which varied in shape, background colour, presentational style (whether the foods depicted were many or few, photographic or drawn) and in the wording of the food group headings. The key findings were that exposure to a guide can have a significant effect on people's understanding of guide concepts and that some aspects of the design enhanced that effect. In particular, guides which were in the shape of a tilted plate were better at conveying nutritional concepts than those which were pyramid-shaped. Members of the public and nutrition educators both preferred a plate shape but, whereas the public preferred a tilted plate to a flat plate, the nutrition educators thought that a flat plate would be more appealing to their clients than a tilted plate.

  10. Methylmercury enters an aquatic food web through acidophilic microbial mats in Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Boyd, E.S.; King, S.; Tomberlin, J.K.; Nordstrom, D.K.; Krabbenhoft, D.P.; Barkay, T.; Geesey, G.G.

    2009-01-01

    Summary Microbial mats are a visible and abundant life form inhabiting the extreme environments in Yellowstone National Park (YNP), WY, USA. Little is known of their role in food webs that exist in the Park's geothermal habitats. Eukaryotic green algae associated with a phototrophic green/purple Zygogonium microbial mat community that inhabits low-temperature regions of acidic (pH ??? 3.0) thermal springs were found to serve as a food source for stratiomyid (Diptera: Stratiomyidae) larvae. Mercury in spring source water was taken up and concentrated by the mat biomass. Monomethylmercury compounds (MeHg +), while undetectable or near the detection limit (0.025 ng l -1) in the source water of the springs, was present at concentrations of 4-7 ng g-1 dry weight of mat biomass. Detection of MeHg + in tracheal tissue of larvae grazing the mat suggests that MeHg+ enters this geothermal food web through the phototrophic microbial mat community. The concentration of MeHg+ was two to five times higher in larval tissue than mat biomass indicating MeHg+ biomagnification occurred between primary producer and primary consumer trophic levels. The Zygogonium mat community and stratiomyid larvae may also play a role in the transfer of MeHg+ to species in the food web whose range extends beyond a particular geothermal feature of YNP. ?? 2008 The Authors. Journal compilation ?? 2008 Society for Applied Microbiology and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  11. A Comparative Cost Analysis of Commodity Foods from the U. S. Department of Agriculture in the National School Lunch Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Cora

    2009-01-01

    Schools that participate in the National School Lunch Program receive a portion of their federal funding as commodity foods rather than cash payments. This research compared the product costs and estimated total procurement costs of commodity and commercial foods from the school district perspective using data from 579 Minnesota ordering sites in…

  12. Hospital-affiliated and hospital-owned retail clinics: strategic opportunities and operational challenges.

    PubMed

    Kaissi, Amer

    2010-01-01

    Retail clinics have experienced an exponential growth in the last few years. While the majority of retail clinics are freestanding, venture-backed companies affiliated with retail hosts, an increasing number of hospital systems have decided to develop their own retail clinics or partner with existing national companies. Using a stakeholder approach, the purpose of this article is to assess the strategic considerations behind these decisions and the operational challenges associated with them and to use the results to develop a questionnaire that can be applied in future research in a national sample of healthcare executives. We conducted eight in-depth interviews with administrative and clinical leaders in seven hospital systems across the United States that have or had a relationship with retail clinics in the last three years. Our findings show that the hospital systems' association with retail clinics involves two main models: an affiliation with retail chains that operate the clinics and ownership of the clinics with an arms-length relationship with the retail chain. Hospital systems are engaging in these relationships for several strategic reasons: to increase market share through enhanced referrals to physician offices and hospitals, to become closer to consumers, and to experiment with nontraditional ways of delivering health care. Operational challenges included physician resistance and skepticism, poor financial performance, people's perception of retail clinics, staffing issues, and the newness of the business model. Six out of eight respondents thought that hospital affiliation with/ownership of retail clinics is a trend that is here to stay, although many provided caveats and stipulations. Further research is needed to provide more evidence about this emerging way of healthcare delivery.

  13. 7 CFR 1206.19 - Retailer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MANGO PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION Mango Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1206.19 Retailer. Retailer means a person engaged in the business of selling mangos only to consumers....

  14. 7 CFR 1206.19 - Retailer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MANGO PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION Mango Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1206.19 Retailer. Retailer means a person engaged in the business of selling mangos only to consumers....

  15. Sodium content of foods contributing to sodium intake: A comparison between selected foods from the CDC Packaged Food Database and the USDA National Nutrient Database for Standard Reference

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The sodium concentration (mg/100g) for 23 of 125 Sentinel Foods were identified in the 2009 CDC Packaged Food Database (PFD) and compared with data in the USDA’s 2013 Standard Reference 26 (SR 26) database. Sentinel Foods are foods and beverages identified by USDA to be monitored as primary indicat...

  16. Retail applications of signature verification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zimmerman, Thomas G.; Russell, Gregory F.; Heilper, Andre; Smith, Barton A.; Hu, Jianying; Markman, Dmitry; Graham, Jon E.; Drews, Clemens

    2004-08-01

    The dramatic rise in identity theft, the ever pressing need to provide convenience in checkout services to attract and retain loyal customers, and the growing use of multi-function signature captures devices in the retail sector provides favorable conditions for the deployment of dynamic signature verification (DSV) in retail settings. We report on the development of a DSV system to meet the needs of the retail sector. We currently have a database of approximately 10,000 signatures collected from 600 subjects and forgers. Previous work at IBM on DSV has been merged and extended to achieve robust performance on pen position data available from commercial point of sale hardware, achieving equal error rates on skilled forgeries and authentic signatures of 1.5% to 4%.

  17. Standardized Curriculum for Service Station Retailing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mississippi State Dept. of Education, Jackson. Office of Vocational, Technical and Adult Education.

    This curriculum guide for service station retailing was developed by the state of Mississippi to standardize vocational education course titles and core contents. The objectives contained in this document are common to all service station retailing programs in the state. The guide contains objectives for service station retailing I and II courses.…

  18. The natural food habits of grizzly bears in Yellowstone National Park, 1973-74

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mealey, Stephen Patrick

    1980-01-01

     The natural food habits of grizzly bears (Ursus arctos horribilis Ord) in Yellowstone National Park were investigated in 1973-74 to identify the grizzly's energy sources and trophic level(s), nutrient use, and distribution. Food consumption was determined by scat analysis and field observations. Food quality and digestibility were estimated by chemical analysis. Grizzlies were distributed in 3 distinctive feeding economies: valley/plateau, a grass/rodent economy where grizzlies were intensive diggers; mountain, primarily a grass/springbeauty/root economy where grizzlies were casual diggers; and lake, primarily a fish/grass economy where grizzlies were fishers. The economies occured in areas with fertile soils; distribution of bears within each was related to the occurrence of succulent plants. The feeding cycle in the valley/plateau and mountain economies followed plant phenology. Grizzlies fed primarily on meat before green-up and on succulent herbs afterwards; meat, corms, berries, and nuts became important during the postgrowing season. Succulent grasses and sedges with an importance value percentage of 78.5 were the most important food items consumed. Protein from animal tissue was more digestible than protein from plant tissue. Storage fats were more digestible than structural fats. Food energy and digestibility were directly related. Five principle nutrient materials (listed with their percentage digestibilities) contributed to total energy intake: protein from succulent herbs, 42.8; protein and fat from animal material, 78.1; fat and protein from pine nuts, 73.6; starch, 78.8; and sugar from berries and fruits, digestibility undetermined. Protein from succulent herbs, with a nutritive value percentage of 77.3, was the grizzlies' primary energy source. Because succulent, preflowering herbs had higher protein levels than dry, mature herbs, grizzly use of succulent herbs guaranteed them the highest source of herbaceous protein. Low protein digestibility of

  19. 21 CFR 115.50 - Refrigeration of shell eggs held for retail distribution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Refrigeration of shell eggs held for retail... SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION SHELL EGGS § 115.50 Refrigeration of shell eggs held for... consumers. (b) Except as provided in paragraph (c) of this section, all shell eggs, whether in intrastate...

  20. 21 CFR 115.50 - Refrigeration of shell eggs held for retail distribution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Refrigeration of shell eggs held for retail... SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION SHELL EGGS § 115.50 Refrigeration of shell eggs held for... consumers. (b) Except as provided in paragraph (c) of this section, all shell eggs, whether in intrastate...

  1. 21 CFR 115.50 - Refrigeration of shell eggs held for retail distribution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Refrigeration of shell eggs held for retail... SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION SHELL EGGS § 115.50 Refrigeration of shell eggs held for... consumers. (b) Except as provided in paragraph (c) of this section, all shell eggs, whether in intrastate...

  2. 21 CFR 115.50 - Refrigeration of shell eggs held for retail distribution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Refrigeration of shell eggs held for retail... SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION SHELL EGGS § 115.50 Refrigeration of shell eggs held for... consumers. (b) Except as provided in paragraph (c) of this section, all shell eggs, whether in intrastate...

  3. 78 FR 12245 - Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program: Suspension of SNAP Benefit Payments to Retailers

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-22

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Food and Nutrition Service 7 CFR Part 278 RIN 0584-AE22 Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program: Suspension of SNAP Benefit Payments to Retailers AGENCY: Food and Nutrition Service (FNS), USDA. ACTION: Proposed rule. SUMMARY: Integrity in the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program...

  4. SELF-STUDY PROGRAM IN RETAIL STORE OPERATIONS, UNITS 1-13 AND STUDY GUIDE.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quaker Oats Co., Chicago, IL.

    THE PURPOSE OF THIS SELF-STUDY PROGRAM IS TO PROVIDE A COMPREHENSIVE VIEW OF TOTAL RETAIL FOOD STORE OPERATIONS AND TO BROADEN THE KNOWLEDGE AND UNDERSTANDING OF THOSE IN OR STUDENTS AND OTHERS PREPARING TO ENTER THE FOOD INDUSTRY. IT WAS DEVELOPED BY THE QUAKER OATS COMPANY FOR ITS SALESMEN BUT WAS EXPANDED FOR USE OUTSIDE THE COMPANY. THE…

  5. From agricultural modernisation to agri-food globalisation: the waning of national development in Thailand.

    PubMed

    Goss, J; Burch, D

    2001-01-01

    Agriculture has been central to accounts of Thailand's modernisation and the rise of the national development project between the 1940s and the 1970s. However, the role of agriculture in the waning of national development is rarely explored critically in the Thai context. This paper focuses on agriculture and the role of the state in the shift from national development to globalisation. The first part of the paper examines the beginnings of Thailand's modern agricultural sector, before turning to the state-sponsored diversification of agriculture in the 1950s. The paper locates shifting state responses to agriculture in the late 1950s and 1960s in the context of specific political and historical social forces, before exploring the emergence of agri-food exports in the 1970s and the rise of agribusiness in the 1980s and 1990s. The paper concludes by commenting on the significance of the Thai state's role in the national development project and the globalisation project.

  6. Occupation and Skill Change in the European Retail Sector. A Study for CECD and EURO-FIET.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spilsbury, Mark; And Others

    A study examined occupational and skill change within the retail sector in Europe so that training and development schemes can be put in place. Data were collected in the following ways: compilation of information on the level of employment, skills, and training in the retail sector of European countries; compilation of national data on…

  7. Ground Beef and Food Safety

    MedlinePlus

    ... are a guide for retailers. Although many products bear "Sell-By" dates, product dating is not a ... law requiring that package labels of certain foods bear the names of the country or countries where ...

  8. Control Materials for Validating Measurement of Vitamin D in Key Foods for the USDA National Food and Nutrient Analysis Program (NFNAP)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    As part of the USDA's NFNAP, data for vitamin D in the National Nutrient Database for Standard Reference are being updated and expanded, focusing on high priority foods contributing to vitamin D intake. Fish and vitamin D fortified orange juice, breakfast cereals, milk, sliced American cheese, and y...

  9. Providing micronutrients through food-based solutions: a key to human and national development.

    PubMed

    Demment, Montague W; Young, Michelle M; Sensenig, Ryan L

    2003-11-01

    To alleviate poverty in developing countries, economies must grow. Without the necessary investments in human capital, national economic growth may not lead to poverty alleviation and socioeconomic development, nor be sustainable. Economic growth that leads to poverty alleviation is fueled by the creative and physical capacities of people. The impact of micronutrient malnutrition is established early in life, leading to growth stunting, lower cognitive abilities, lethargy and poor attention, and greater severity and rates of infection. These effects limit educational progress, physical work capacity and life expectancy, thereby reducing individual lifetime productivity and the aggregate ability of the population to enhance its well-being and participate in national and global markets. The diets of the poor are largely cereal-based, monotonous and lacking in diversity and micronutrients. Animal source foods (ASF) have been an important factor in human evolution, a component of what was an historically diverse diet and an important source of micronutrients. Poverty and micronutrient malnutrition positively influence each other. This poverty micronutrient malnutrition (PMM) trap requires outside inputs to change the state of development in developing countries. Nutrition interventions have been excellent investments in development. More productive interaction between agricultural scientists and nutritionists, supported by a strong federal agenda for development, is needed to break the PMM trap. In the end, food is the means by which nutrients are delivered. Food-based approaches will require long-term commitments, but are more likely to be sustainable because they are part of a development process that leads to long-term economic growth.

  10. Bovine cysticercosis and its food safety implications in Harari People's National Regional State, eastern Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Terefe, Yitagele; Redwan, Feysel; Zewdu, Endrias

    2014-02-19

    Taenia saginata cysticercosis is one of the zoonotic diseases that threaten food safety and food security, particularly in developing countries. A cross-sectional study was conducted to estimate the prevalence and cyst distribution in infected cattle, and food safety implications of Taenia saginata cysticercosis in Harari People's National Regional State, eastern Ethiopia. Post-mortem inspection of carcasses and organs of slaughtered cattle in Harar Municipal Abattoir, cyst viability tests and interviews with randomly selected meat consumers were undertaken. The post-mortem inspection showed that of the 898 local zebu cattle slaughtered for human consumption and examined for the presence of cysticerci of T. saginata, 19.7% (177/898; 95% CI = 17.2-22.5) harboured at least one cyst in the muscles or organs inspected. Of the edible anatomical sites with cysticerci, shoulder muscle, liver and heart together represented 65.4%, 66.0% and 65.4% respectively of relative prevalence, total cyst count and cyst viability. These edible sites are preferred above others by local people for preparation and consumption of raw or inadequately cooked meat dishes that are locally served as kurt, kitffo and dullet. The interviews revealed that among the 300 study participants, 182 (60.7%) had been infected by taeniosis at least once during the previous year and of these 99.0% had eaten raw or undercooked beef, the majority (88.3%) obtained from butchers assumed to provide officially inspected meat that was fit for consumption. This indicated that existing meat inspection processes were inadequate to prevent carcasses infected with T. saginata cysticerci from reaching consumers. The high prevalence of viable cysts in the edible parts of beef together with the widespread consumption of raw or undercooked beef indicated the importance of T. saginata cysticercosis as a food safety problem in eastern Ethiopia. The promotion of policies to upgrade existing meat inspection procedures and

  11. The benefits divide: health care purchasing in retail versus other sectors.

    PubMed

    Maxwell, James; Temin, Peter; Zaman, Saminaz

    2002-01-01

    This paper is the first to compare health care purchasing in the retail versus other sectors of the Fortune 500. Employing millions of low-wage workers, the retail sector is the largest employer of uninsured workers in the economy. We found that retail companies are using the same competitive bidding process that other companies use to obtain a given level of coverage for the lowest possible cost. However, they are more price oriented than other Fortune 500 companies are. The most striking disparity lies in the nearly fivefold difference in offer rates for health care coverage. This shows that the economy's bifurcation in health benefits extends even to the nation's largest companies.

  12. Reference Materials for Determination of the Nutrient Composition of Foods: Results from USDA's National Food and Nutrient Analysis Program

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Certified reference materials (CRMs) play a critical role in validating the accuracy of nutrient data for food samples. A number of available food CRMs of differing matrix composition have assigned concentrations for various nutrients, along with associated uncertainty intervals (UIs) for those valu...

  13. Convenience stores are the key food environment influence on nutrients available from household food supplies in Texas Border Colonias

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Few studies have focused on the relationship between the retail food environment and household food supplies. This study examines spatial access to retail food stores, food shopping habits, and nutrients available in household food supplies among 50 Mexican-origin families residing in Texas border colonias. Methods The design was cross-sectional; data were collected in the home March to June 2010 by promotora-researchers. Ground-truthed methods enumerated traditional (supercenters, supermarkets, grocery stores), convenience (convenience stores and food marts), and non-traditional (dollar stores, discount stores) retail food stores. Spatial access was computed using the network distance from each participant’s residence to each food store. Data included survey data and two household food inventories (HFI) of the presence and amount of food items in the home. The Spanish language interviewer-administered survey included demographics, transportation access, food purchasing, food and nutrition assistance program participation, and the 18-item Core Food Security Module. Nutrition Data Systems for Research (NDS-R) was used to calculate HFI nutrients. Adult equivalent adjustment constants (AE), based on age and gender calorie needs, were calculated based on the age- and gender composition of each household and used to adjust HFI nutrients for household composition. Data were analyzed using bivariate analysis and linear regression models to determine the association of independent variables with the availability of each AE-adjusted nutrient. Results Regression models showed that households in which the child independently purchased food from a convenience store at least once a week had foods and beverages with increased amounts of total energy, total fat, and saturated fat. A greater distance to the nearest convenience store was associated with reduced amounts of total energy, vitamin D, total sugar, added sugar, total fat, and saturated fat. Participation in

  14. Global harmonization of food safety regulation from the perspective of Korea and a novel fast automatic product recall system.

    PubMed

    Sohn, Mun-Gi; Oh, Sangsuk

    2014-08-01

    Efforts have been made for global harmonization of food safety regulations among countries through international organizations such as WTO and WHO/FAO. Global harmonization of food safety regulations is becoming increasingly important for Korean consumers because more than half of food and agricultural products are imported and consumed. Through recent reorganization of the Korean government, a consolidated national food safety authority-the Ministry of Food and Drug Safety (MFDS)-has been established for more efficient food safety control and better communication with consumers. The Automatic Sales Blocking System (ASBS), which blocks the sales of the recalled food products at the point of sale, has been implemented at over 40,000 retail food stores around the nation using state-of-the art information and communication technology (ICT) for faster recall of adulterated food products, and the e-Food Safety Control System has been developed for more efficient monitoring of national food safety surveillance situations. The National Food Safety Information Service was also established for monitoring and collecting food safety information and incidents worldwide, and shares relevant information with all stakeholders. The new approaches adopted by the Korean Food Safety Authority are expected to enhance public trust with regard to food safety issues and expedite the recall process of adulterated products from the market.

  15. FoodSwitch: A Mobile Phone App to Enable Consumers to Make Healthier Food Choices and Crowdsourcing of National Food Composition Data

    PubMed Central

    Trevena, Helen; Goodsell, Chester; Ng, Ka Hung; Webster, Jacqui; Millis, Audra; Goldstein, Stan; Hugueniot, Orla; Neal, Bruce

    2014-01-01

    Background Front-of-pack nutrition labeling (FoPL) schemes can help consumers understand the nutritional content of foods and may aid healthier food choices. However, most packaged foods in Australia carry no easily interpretable FoPL, and no standard FoPL system has yet been mandated. About two thirds of Australians now own a smartphone. Objective We sought to develop a mobile phone app that would provide consumers with easy-to-understand nutrition information and support the selection of healthier choices when shopping for food. Methods An existing branded food database including 17,000 Australian packaged foods underpinned the project. An iterative process of development, review, and testing was undertaken to define a user interface that could deliver nutritional information. A parallel process identified the best approach to rank foods based on nutritional content, so that healthier alternative products could be recommended. Results Barcode scanning technology was identified as the optimal mechanism for interaction of the mobile phone with the food database. Traffic light labels were chosen as the preferred format for presenting nutritional information, and the Food Standards Australia New Zealand nutrient profiling method as the best strategy for identifying healthier products. The resulting FoodSwitch mobile phone app was launched in Australia in January 2012 and was downloaded by about 400,000 users in the first 18 months. FoodSwitch has maintained a 4-plus star rating, and more than 2000 users have provided feedback about the functionality. Nutritional information for more than 30,000 additional products has been obtained from users through a crowdsourcing function integrated within the app. Conclusions FoodSwitch has empowered Australian consumers seeking to make better food choices. In parallel, the huge volume of crowdsourced data has provided a novel means for low-cost, real-time tracking of the nutritional composition of Australian foods. There appears

  16. Developing a national food defense guideline based on a vulnerability assessment of intentional food contamination in Japanese food factories using the CARVER+Shock vulnerability assessment tool.

    PubMed

    Kanagawa, Yoshiyuki; Akahane, Manabu; Hasegawa, Atsushi; Yamaguchi, Kentaro; Onitake, Kazuo; Takaya, Satoshi; Yamamoto, Shigeki; Imamura, Tomoaki

    2014-12-01

    The awareness of food terrorism has increased following the September 11, 2001 terrorist attacks in New York City, United States, and many measures and policies dealing with this issue have been established worldwide. Suspected deliberate food-poisoning crimes have occurred in Japan, although they are not regarded as acts of food terrorism. One area of concern is that the small- to medium-sized companies that dominate Japan's food industry are extremely vulnerable to deliberate food poisoning. We conducted a literature research on food defense measures undertaken by the World Health Organization and in the United States and Europe. Using the Carver+Shock vulnerability assessment tool, eight food factories and related facilities in Japan were evaluated and we found the level of awareness of food defense to be low and the measures inappropriate. On the basis of this evaluation, we developed a set of guidelines that Japanese food companies can use to help develop their food defense strategies and to serve as a reference in considering specific measures.

  17. Effect of increases in energy-related labor forces upon retailing in Alabama

    SciTech Connect

    Robicheaux, R.A.

    1983-06-01

    The heightened mining employment that will result from increased extraction of coal from Alabama's Warrior Coal Basin will boost retail sales and employment. The Warrior Coal Basin counties (Fayette, Jefferson, Tuscaloosa and Walker) are heavily dependent upon coal mining as a source of employment and wages. Further, since the counties' economies grew increasingly dependent upon coal mining activities throughout the 1970s, it was believed that it would be possible to measure, with some acceptable level of reliability, the impact of the steadily rising mining activity upon the area's retailing sector. Therefore, a small scale econometric model was developed which represents the interrelationships among income, mining and trade employment and retail sales in the four-county Warrior Coal Basin area. The results of two versions of the model are presented. In the first version, area-wide retail sales are treated in the aggregate. In the second version, retail sales are disaggregated into twelve categories (e.g., food, apparel, furniture, etc.). The models were specified using 1960 to 1976 data. The mining employment growth scenario used in this report called for steady increases in mining employment that culminated in an employment level that is 4000 above the baseline employment projections by 1985. Both versions of the model predicted that cumulative real regional income would increase by $1.39 billion over seven years with the added mining employment. The predicted impacts on trade employment and real retail sales varied between the two models, however. The aggregate model predicts the addition of 7500 trade workers and an additional $1.35 billion in real retail sales. The disaggregate model suggests that food stores, automobile dealers, general merchandise stores, gas stations and lumber and building materials retailers would enjoy the greatest positive benefits.

  18. Position of the American Dietetic Association: food irradiation.

    PubMed

    Wood, O B; Bruhn, C M

    2000-02-01

    Food irradiation has been identified a sa safe technology to reduce the risk of foodborne illness as part of high-quality food production, processing, handling, and preparation. Food irradiation's history of scientific research , evaluation, and testing spans more than 40 countries around the world and it has been endorsed or support by numerous national and international food and organizations and professional groups. Food irradiation utilizes a source of ionizing energy that passes through food to destroy harmful bacteria and other organism. Often referred to as "cold pasteurization," food irradiation offers negligible loss of nutrients or sensory qualities in food as it does not substantially raise the temperature of the food during processing. Food irradiation does not replace proper food production, processing, handling, or preparation, nor can it enhance the quality of or prevent contact with foodborne bacteria after irradiation. In the United States, manufacturers are required to identify irradiated food sold to consumers with an international symbol (Radura) and and terminology describing the process on product labels. In addiction, food irradiation facilities are thoroughly regulated and monitored for worker and environmental safety. Members of The American Dietetic Association (ADA) and other food, nutrition, and health professionals have a responsibility to educate consumers, food processors, manufacturers and retailers about the safety and application of the technology. When consumers are educated about food irradiation, many prefer irradiated products because of their increased safety. It is the position of ADA that food irradiation enhances the safety and quality of the food supply and helps protect consumers from foodborne illness. The ADA encourages the government, food manufactures, food commodity groups, and qualified food and nutrition professionals to work together to educate consumers about this additional food safety tool and make this choice

  19. Enhancing Nutrition Security via India's National Food Security Act: Using an Axe instead of a Scalpel?

    PubMed

    Desai, Sonalde; Vanneman, Reeve

    2015-08-05

    In September 2013, India passed a historic National Food Security Act. This paper examines the potential impact of the two central pillars of this act - expansion of the Public Distribution System and strengthening of the Integrated Child Development Schemes - on child nutrition. Using new data from the India Human Development Survey of 2011-12, this paper shows that access to subsidized grains via PDS is not related to improved child nutrition, and while ICDS seems to be related to lower child undernutrition, it has a limited reach in spite of the universalization of the program. The paper suggests that a tiered strategy in dealing with child undernutrition that starts with the identification of undernourished children and districts and follows through with different strategies for dealing with severe, acute malnutrition, followed by a focus on moderate malnutrition, could be more effective than the existing focus on cereal distribution rooted in the NFSA.

  20. Integrating Environmental Sustainability Considerations into Food and Nutrition Policies: Insights from Australia’s National Food Plan

    PubMed Central

    Ridgway, Ella Megan; Lawrence, Mark Andrew; Woods, Julie

    2015-01-01

    The environmental sustainability (ES) of food systems is a critical challenge for policy makers. This is a highly contested policy area with differing views among stakeholders. The aim of the study was to develop a better understanding of how ES considerations are addressed in Australian food and nutrition policies and the way that consultation processes affect final policy outcomes. A mixed-methods study design combined a detailed chronology of key policy developments (2009–2015), a content analysis of written submissions obtained during the NFP’s consultation period (2011–2013) and a frame analysis of the sustainability perspectives – efficiency, demand restraint, and system transformation – in the NFP’s Issues, Green, and White Papers. There were 555 written submissions responding to two consultation papers. Stakeholders represented all sectors of Australia’s food system including government, non-government organizations, the food supply chain, research and academic institutions, and members of the general public. Around 74% of submissions referred to ES considerations and ~65% supported their inclusion into the final policy. Efficiency frames were most dominant; emphasizing a production-oriented approach that regards the environment as a natural resource base for food production but overlooks consumption and equity concerns. Despite strong support for the inclusion of ES considerations in the NFP, the influence of Australia’s socio-political context, powerful, industry-dominated stakeholders, and a reliance on traditional production-oriented perspectives delivered a business-as-usual approach to food policy making. It has since been replaced by an agricultural strategy that provides only cursory attention to ES. Our findings indicate that Australia’s political environment is not sufficiently mature for ES considerations to be integrated into food and nutrition policies. We propose reforms to the current consultation process in Australia to

  1. Food irradiation is safe: Half a century of studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roberts, Peter B.

    2014-12-01

    The potential benefits of food irradiation are yet to be realized due to slow progress in the commercialization of the technology. Processing food with ionizing radiation has encountered several barriers, one of which is the belief that consumers will not purchase irradiated food and a consequent caution among food retailers and producers. There is sufficient evidence that consumers will purchase irradiated foods when offered at retail in contrast to the data from many surveys of general public opinion. Communicating this evidence to food retailers and producers is essential if a major barrier to a greater use of the technology is to be overcome.

  2. Transforming research for food and health in Europe.

    PubMed

    McCarthy, M

    2012-10-01

    Eating causes up to a quarter of premature deaths from chronic diseases in Europe through poor diet and excess consumption. FAHRE (Food and Health Research in Europe) was funded to determine needs and gaps in research structures and programmes. Most food research links towards agriculture and the environmental sciences, whereas most health research links towards clinical diseases, biochemical pathways and biology. Research on food and health together includes food safety research addressing biological and chemical contaminants, and biotechnology research supporting clinical nutrition. Research for healthy eating must draw on social and behavioural sciences for studies of policy, regulation and interventions. The food industry, across production, retail and catering, must be part of the research programme, and civil society. Better coordination and improved levels of funding are needed in the coming European research programme 'Horizon 2020', and national programmes linked in the Joint Programming Initiative. Transforming the research agenda can give great benefits to Europe's citizens.

  3. 29 CFR 779.328 - Retail and wholesale distinguished.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Retail and wholesale distinguished. 779.328 Section 779.328... AS APPLIED TO RETAILERS OF GOODS OR SERVICES Exemptions for Certain Retail or Service Establishments ârecognizedâ As Retail âin the Particular Industryâ § 779.328 Retail and wholesale distinguished. (a)...

  4. A Food Store–Based Environmental Intervention Is Associated with Reduced BMI and Improved Psychosocial Factors and Food-Related Behaviors on the Navajo Nation123

    PubMed Central

    Gittelsohn, Joel; Kim, Elizabeth M.; He, Siran; Pardilla, Marla

    2013-01-01

    The prevalence of obesity is significantly higher among American Indians (AIs) and is associated with increased rates of diabetes, hypertension, and cardiovascular disease. We implemented a 14-mo intervention trial (Navajo Healthy Stores) on the Navajo Nation that sought to increase availability of healthier foods in local food stores and to promote these foods at the point of purchase and through community media. We divided the Navajo Nation into 10 store regions, half of which were randomized to intervention and half to comparison. We evaluated the program by using a pre-post sample of systematically sampled adult Navajo consumers (baseline, n = 276; postintervention, n = 145). Intervention impact was examined by analyzing pre-post differences by intervention group and by intervention exposure level. When intervention and comparison groups were compared, only body mass index (BMI) showed a trend toward impact of the intervention (P = 0.06). However, greater exposure to the intervention was associated with significantly reduced BMI (P ≤ 0.05) and improved healthy food intentions (P ≤ 0.01), healthy cooking methods (P ≤ 0.05), and healthy food getting (P ≤ 0.01). With increasing exposure, the odds of improving overweight or obese status was 5.02 (95% CI: 1.48, 16.99; P ≤ 0.01) times the odds of maintaining or worsening overweight or obese status. In summary, a food store intervention was associated with reduced overweight/obesity and improved obesity-related psychosocial and behavioral factors among those persons most exposed to the intervention on an AI reservation. PMID:23864511

  5. Demand side management in recycling and electricity retail pricing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kazan, Osman

    This dissertation addresses several problems from the recycling industry and electricity retail market. The first paper addresses a real-life scheduling problem faced by a national industrial recycling company. Based on their practices, a scheduling problem is defined, modeled, analyzed, and a solution is approximated efficiently. The recommended application is tested on the real-life data and randomly generated data. The scheduling improvements and the financial benefits are presented. The second problem is from electricity retail market. There are well-known patterns in daily usage in hours. These patterns change in shape and magnitude by seasons and days of the week. Generation costs are multiple times higher during the peak hours of the day. Yet most consumers purchase electricity at flat rates. This work explores analytic pricing tools to reduce peak load electricity demand for retailers. For that purpose, a nonlinear model that determines optimal hourly prices is established based on two major components: unit generation costs and consumers' utility. Both are analyzed and estimated empirically in the third paper. A pricing model is introduced to maximize the electric retailer's profit. As a result, a closed-form expression for the optimal price vector is obtained. Possible scenarios are evaluated for consumers' utility distribution. For the general case, we provide a numerical solution methodology to obtain the optimal pricing scheme. The models recommended are tested under various scenarios that consider consumer segmentation and multiple pricing policies. The recommended model reduces the peak load significantly in most cases. Several utility companies offer hourly pricing to their customers. They determine prices using historical data of unit electricity cost over time. In this dissertation we develop a nonlinear model that determines optimal hourly prices with parameter estimation. The last paper includes a regression analysis of the unit generation cost

  6. The USDA National Nutrient Database for Standard Reference: Sodium in Foods

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sodium in foods primarily comes from food processing (77%) but also from salting at the table, home cooking, and inherent food sodium. Excessive sodium intake in the U.S. is a public health concern. Comprehensive data on the sodium content of the U.S. food supply is essential to assessing levels of ...

  7. Retail video analytics: an overview and survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Connell, Jonathan; Fan, Quanfu; Gabbur, Prasad; Haas, Norman; Pankanti, Sharath; Trinh, Hoang

    2013-03-01

    Today retail video analytics has gone beyond the traditional domain of security and loss prevention by providing retailers insightful business intelligence such as store traffic statistics and queue data. Such information allows for enhanced customer experience, optimized store performance, reduced operational costs, and ultimately higher profitability. This paper gives an overview of various camera-based applications in retail as well as the state-ofthe- art computer vision techniques behind them. It also presents some of the promising technical directions for exploration in retail video analytics.

  8. 76 FR 56094 - Retail Foreign Exchange Transactions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-12

    ... Supervision (OTS) was the appropriate Federal regulatory agency for Federal savings associations. The OTS did... disputes related to retail forex transactions: civil court litigation and arbitration conducted by...

  9. EPA and USDA Join Private Sector, Charitable Organizations to Set Nations First Goals to Reduce Wasted Food

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    WASHINGTON -- Today, U.S. EPA Administrator Gina McCarthy and U.S. Department of Agriculture Secretary Tom Vilsack announced the United States' first-ever national food waste reduction goal, calling for a 50-percent reduction by 2030. As part of the

  10. Associations between Participation in the National School Lunch Program, Food Insecurity, and Child Well-Being. JCPR Working Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunifon, Rachel; Kowaleski-Jones, Lori

    This study examined the association between food insecurity, participation in the National School Lunch Program (NSLP), and child well-being. Participants were children age 6-12 years in families in which at least one child participated in the NSLP. Data came from the 1997 Child Development Supplement to the Panel Study of Income Dynamics. Food…

  11. Delivery Strategies to Enhance the Sustainability of Training: Lessons from the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Rosa, Cecilia; Nadeau, Andrew; Hernandez, Emilio; Kafeero, Fred; Zahiga, Jacques

    2016-01-01

    The Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) utilizes training as a major component of the support it provides to its member countries in Africa. In the past, stand-alone training events targeting individual actors were the norm. However, an external evaluation indicated that this type of training scores low in terms of…

  12. [Nutritional challenges in the Brazilian Unified National Health System for building the interface between health and food and nutritional security].

    PubMed

    Rigon, Silvia do Amaral; Schmidt, Suely Teresinha; Bógus, Cláudia Maria

    2016-03-01

    This article discusses the establishment of inter-sector action between health and food and nutritional security in Brazil from 2003 to 2010, when this issue was launched as a priority on the government's agenda. A qualitative study was developed according to constructivist epistemology, using key-informant interviews in the field's nationwide social oversight body. Advances and challenges in this process are addressed as analytical categories. The National Food and Nutrition Policy (PNAN) was mentioned as the link between the two fields, decentralized through a network with activity in the states and municipalities. However, the study found political, institutional, and operational obstacles to the effective implementation of the PNAN in the Brazilian Unified National Health System and consequently to a contribution to the advancement of Health and Food and Nutritional Security in the country. The predominance of the biomedical, curative, and high-complexity model was cited as the principal impediment, while health promotion policies like the PNAN were assigned secondary priority.

  13. 78 FR 79567 - National School Lunch Program and School Breakfast Program: Nutrition Standards for All Foods...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-31

    ... Healthy, Hunger-Free Kids Act of 2010; Approval of Information Collection Request AGENCY: Food and...: Nutrition Standards for All Foods Sold in Schools as required by the Healthy, Hunger-Free Kids Act of...

  14. Clostridium difficile in retail meat and processing plants in Texas.

    PubMed

    Harvey, Roger B; Norman, Keri N; Andrews, Kathleen; Norby, Bo; Hume, Michael E; Scanlan, Charles M; Hardin, Margaret D; Scott, Harvey M

    2011-07-01

    The incidence and severity of disease associated with toxigenic Clostridium difficile have increased in hospitals in North America from the emergence of newer, more virulent strains. Toxigenic C. difficile has been isolated from food animals and retail meat with potential implications of transfer to human beings. The objective of the present study was to determine the prevalence of C. difficile in pork from sausage manufacturing plants and retail meat in Texas. Twenty-three C. difficile isolates were detected from 243 meat samples (9.5%) from 3 sausage-manufacturing plants and 5 retail meat outlets from 2004 to 2009. Twenty-two isolates were positive for toxins A, B, and binary toxin, and were characterized as toxinotype V, PFGE type-NAP7, or "NAP7-variant." Susceptibilities to 11 antimicrobial agents in the current study were similar to those reported previously for toxinotype V isolates, although the results suggested somewhat reduced resistance than reported for other meat, animal, or human clinical toxinotype V isolates.

  15. Food and Drug Administration process validation activities to support 99Mo production at Sandia National Laboratories

    SciTech Connect

    McDonald, M.J.; Bourcier, S.C.; Talley, D.G.

    1997-07-01

    Prior to 1989 {sup 99}Mo was produced in the US by a single supplier, Cintichem Inc., Tuxedo, NY. Because of problems associated with operating its facility, in 1989 Cintichem elected to decommission the facility rather than incur the costs for repair. The demise of the {sup 99}Mo capability at Cintichem left the US totally reliant upon a single foreign source, Nordion International, located in Ottawa Canada. In 1992 the DOE purchased the Cintichem {sup 99}Mo Production Process and Drug Master File (DMF). In 1994 the DOE funded Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) to produce {sup 99}Mo. Although Cintichem produced {sup 99}Mo and {sup 99m}Tc generators for many years, there was no requirement for process validation which is now required by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA). In addition to the validation requirement, the requirements for current Good manufacturing Practices were codified into law. The purpose of this paper is to describe the process validation being conducted at SNL for the qualification of SNL as a supplier of {sup 99}Mo to US pharmaceutical companies.

  16. The national employment guarantee scheme and inequities in household spending on food and non-food determinants of health in rural India

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Inequities in a population in spending on food and non-food items can contribute to disparities in health status. The Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Scheme (MGNREGS) was launched in rural India in 2006, aimed at providing at least 100 days of manual work to a member in needy households. Methods We used nationally representative data from the consumer expenditure surveys of 2004–05 and 2009–10 and the employment survey of 2009–10 conducted by National Sample Survey Organisation to assess the effect of MGNREGS in reducing inequities in consumption of food and non-food items between poor and non-poor households in the states of India. Variations among the states in implementation of MGNREGS were examined using the employment and unemployment survey data, and compared with official programme data up to 2012–13. Inequity in spending on food and non-food items was assessed using the ratio of monthly per capita consumer expenditure (MPCE) between the most vulnerable (labourer) and least vulnerable categories of households. Results The survey data suggested 1.42 billion person-days of MGNRGES employment in the 2009–10 financial year, whereas the official programme data reported 2.84 billion person-days. According to the official data, the person-days of MGNRGES employment decreased by 43.3% from 2009–10 to 2012–13 for the 9 large less developed states of India. Survey data revealed that the average number of MGNREGS work days in a year per household varied from 42 days in Rajasthan to less than 10 days in 14 of the 20 major states in India in 2009–10. Rajasthan with the highest implementation of MGNRGES among the 9 less developed states of India had the highest relative decline of 10.4% in the food spending inequity from 2004–05 to 2009–10 between the most vulnerable and less vulnerable households. The changes in inequity for non-food spending did not have any particular pattern across the less developed states. In the

  17. State of the States: A Profile of Food and Nutrition Programs across the Nation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hess, Doug; Weill, Jim

    Noting that problems of high rates of poverty, hunger, and food insecurity will persist unless steps are taken to reduce them, this report of the Food Research and Action Center details food and nutrition programs throughout the country. The report, designed for use by federal government, states, localities, advocates, religious organizations,…

  18. State of the States: A Profile of Food and Nutrition Programs across the Nation. [2002 Update].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hess, Doug; Weill, Jim

    Noting that problems of high rates of poverty, hunger, and food insecurity will persist unless steps are taken to reduce them, this report of the Food Research and Action Center details food and nutrition programs throughout the country. The report, designed for use by the federal government, states, localities, advocates, religious organizations,…

  19. State of the States: A Profile of Food and Nutrition Programs across the Nation. [2000 Update].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Food Research and Action Center, Washington, DC.

    Noting that persistent poverty, hunger, and food insecurity remain an important challenge in the United States, this report of the Food Research and Action Center details food and nutrition programs throughout the country. The report, designed for use by governments, advocates, religious organizations, schools, service providers, and non-profit…

  20. Associations between Food Outlets around Schools and BMI among Primary Students in England: A Cross-Classified Multi-Level Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Julianne; Scarborough, Peter; Townsend, Nick; Matthews, Anne; Burgoine, Thomas; Mumtaz, Lorraine; Rayner, Mike

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Researchers and policy-makers are interested in the influence that food retailing around schools may have on child obesity risk. Most previous research comes from North America, uses data aggregated at the school-level and focuses on associations between fast food outlets and school obesity rates. This study examines associations between food retailing and BMI among a large sample of primary school students in Berkshire, England. By controlling for individual, school and home characteristics and stratifying results across the primary school years, we aimed to identify if the food environment around schools had an effect on BMI, independent of socio-economic variables. Methods We measured the densities of fast food outlets and food stores found within schoolchildren’s home and school environments using Geographic Information Systems (GIS) and data from local councils. We linked these data to measures from the 2010/11 National Child Measurement Programme and used a cross-classified multi-level approach to examine associations between food retailing and BMI z-scores. Analyses were stratified among Reception (aged 4-5) and Year 6 (aged 10-11) students to measure associations across the primary school years. Results Our multilevel model had three levels to account for individual (n = 16,956), home neighbourhood (n = 664) and school (n = 268) factors. After controlling for confounders, there were no significant associations between retailing near schools and student BMI, but significant positive associations between fast food outlets in home neighbourhood and BMI z-scores. Year 6 students living in areas with the highest density of fast food outlets had an average BMI z-score that was 0.12 (95% CI: 0.04, 0.20) higher than those living in areas with none. Discussion We found little evidence to suggest that food retailing around schools influences student BMI. There is some evidence to suggest that fast food outlet densities in a child’s home neighbourhood

  1. Retail redlining in New York City: racialized access to day-to-day retail resources.

    PubMed

    Kwate, Naa Oyo A; Loh, Ji Meng; White, Kellee; Saldana, Nelson

    2013-08-01

    Racial residential segregation is associated with health inequalities in the USA, and one of the primary mechanisms is through influencing features of the neighborhood physical environment. To better understand how Black residential segregation might contribute to health risk, we examined retail redlining; the inequitable distribution of retail resources across racially distinct areas. A combination of visual and analytic methods was used to investigate whether predominantly Black census block groups in New York City had poor access to retail stores important for health. After controlling for retail demand, median household income, population density, and subway ridership, percent Black was associated with longer travel distances to various retail industries. Our findings suggest that Black neighborhoods in New York City face retail redlining. Future research is needed to determine how retail redlining may perpetuate health disparities and socioeconomic disadvantage.

  2. National Prevalence and Risk Factors for Food Allergy and Relationship to Asthma: Results from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2005-2006

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Andrew H.; Jaramillo, Renee; Sicherer, Scott H.; Wood, Robert A.; Bock, S. Allan; Burks, A. Wesley; Massing, Mark; Cohn, Richard D.; Zeldin, Darryl C.

    2010-01-01

    Background The national prevalence and patterns of food allergy (FA) in the United States (US) are not well understood. Objective We developed nationally representative estimates of the prevalence of and demographic risk factors for FA, and investigated associations of FA with asthma, hay fever, and eczema. Methods 8,203 participants in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2005–2006 had food-specific serum IgE measured to peanut, cow's milk, egg white, and shrimp. Food-specific IgE and age-based criteria were used to define Likely FA (LFA), Possible FA (PFA), and Unlikely FA (UFA), and to develop estimates of clinical FA. Self-reported data were used to evaluate demographic risk factors and associations with asthma and related conditions. Results In the US, the estimated prevalence of clinical FA was 2.5% (peanut 1.3%, milk 0.4%, egg 0.2%, shrimp 1.0%, not mutually exclusive). Risk of PFA/LFA was increased in non-Hispanic blacks (odds ratio (OR) 3.06; 95% confidence interval (CI) 2.14-4.36), males (1.87; 1.32-2.66), and children (2.04; 1.42-2.93). Study participants with doctor-diagnosed asthma (vs. no asthma) exhibited increased risk of all measures of food sensitization. Moreover, in those with LFA, the adjusted OR for current asthma (3.8; 1.5-10.7) and an emergency room (ER) visit for asthma in the past year (6.9; 2.4-19.7) were both notably increased. Conclusion Population-based serologic data on 4 foods indicate an estimated 2.5% of the US population has FA, and increased risk was found for blacks, males, and children. Additionally, FA could be an under-recognized risk factor for problematic asthma. PMID:20920770

  3. Simulating Retail Banking for Banking Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Supramaniam, Mahadevan; Shanmugam, Bala

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the implementation flow and development of retail bank management simulation based training system which could provide a comprehensive knowledge about the operations and management of banks for the banking students. The prototype of a Retail banking simulation based training system was developed based on…

  4. Developing Strategic Planning for the Retail Market.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenawalt, Richard A.

    1983-01-01

    Retailers need a strategic plan that will enable them to adapt to changing trends and work with new ideas. Questions retailers should ask to shape the strategic plan and generic strategies--overall cost leadership, differentiation, and marketing to a particular group or offering a special service--are discussed. (SR)

  5. 27 CFR 6.85 - Temporary retailers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Temporary retailers. 6.85 Section 6.85 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS âTIED-HOUSEâ Exceptions § 6.85 Temporary retailers. (a) General. The furnishing of things of value to a...

  6. Ultraviolet and mass spectrometric analysis of vitamin D in retail fortified orange juice

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Samples of vitamin D fortified orange juice obtained from retail food stores were analyzed for vitamin D3 content using a method developed by combining the best features of two AOAC officially approved methods. The ether/petroleum ether extraction from AOAC 992.26 was combined with the high perform...

  7. Survey of Clostridium difficile in retail seafood in College Station, Texas

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The incidence and severity of disease associated with toxigenic Clostridium difficile have increased in hospitals in North America with the emergence of newer, more virulent strains. Toxigenic C. difficile has been isolated from food animals and retail meat with potential implications of transfer t...

  8. Prevalence of Clostridium difficile in pork and retail meat in Texas

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The incidence and severity of disease associated with toxigenic Clostridium difficile (Cd) have increased in hospitals in North America from the emergence of newer, more virulent strains of Cd. Toxigenic Cd has been isolated from food animals and retail meat with potential implications of transfer ...

  9. Competition in the retail gasoline industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brewer, Jedidiah

    2007-05-01

    This dissertation examines competition in the retail gasoline industry. The first chapter highlights the importance of gasoline in modern society, introduces my work, and places it in the context of the existing academic literature. The second chapter details the institutional structure and profitability of the industry. The vast majority of retail gasoline stations are not directly owned and operated by major oil companies. Instead, most stations are set up under other contractual relationships: lessee-dealer, open-dealer, jobber-owned-and-operated, and independent. Gasoline retailers make relatively low profits, as is the case in many other retail industries, and are substantially less profitable than major oil companies. Gas stations also make less money when retail prices are climbing than when they are falling. As prices rise, total station profits are near zero or negative. When retail prices are constant or falling, retailers can make positive profits. The third chapter describes the entry of big-box stores into the retail gasoline industry over the last decade. The growth of such large retailers, in all markets, has led to a great deal of controversy as smaller competitors with long-term ties to the local community have become less common. I estimate the price impact that big-box stores have on traditional gasoline retailers using cross-sectional data in two geographically diverse cities. I also examine changes in pricing following the entry of The Home Depot into a local retail gasoline market. The results show that big-box stores place statistically and economically significant downward pressure on the prices of nearby gas stations, offering a measure of the impact of the entry of a big-box store. Chapter 4 examines the nature of price competition in markets where some competing retailers sell the same brand. The price effect of having more retailers selling the same brand is theoretically unclear. High brand diversity could give individual retailers

  10. Position of the academy of nutrition and dietetics: nutrition security in developing nations: sustainable food, water, and health.

    PubMed

    Nordin, Stacia M; Boyle, Marie; Kemmer, Teresa M

    2013-04-01

    It is the position of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics that all people should have consistent access to an appropriately nutritious diet of food and water, coupled with a sanitary environment, adequate health services, and care that ensure a healthy and active life for all household members. The Academy supports policies, systems, programs, and practices that work with developing nations to achieve nutrition security and self-sufficiency while being environmentally and economically sustainable. For nations to achieve nutrition security, all people must have access to a variety of nutritious foods and potable drinking water; knowledge, resources, and skills for healthy living; prevention, treatment, and care for diseases affecting nutrition status; and safety-net systems during crisis situations, such as natural disasters or deleterious social and political systems. More than 2 billion people are micronutrient deficient; 1.5 billion people are overweight or obese; 870 million people have inadequate food energy intake; and 783 million people lack potable drinking water. Adequate nutrient intake is a concern, independent of weight status. Although this article focuses on nutritional deficiencies in developing nations, global solutions for excesses and deficiencies need to be addressed. In an effort to achieve nutrition security, lifestyles, policies, and systems (eg, food, water, health, energy, education/knowledge, and economic) contributing to sustainable resource use, environmental management, health promotion, economic stability, and positive social environments are required. Food and nutrition practitioners can get involved in promoting and implementing effective and sustainable policies, systems, programs, and practices that support individual, community, and national efforts.

  11. "A Wholesome Article of Food": Rhetoric of Health and Nation in Canada's Oleomargarine Debates, 1917-1924.

    PubMed

    Lieffers, Caroline

    2015-01-01

    This article examines the rhetoric employed in the 1917-1924 debates over oleomargarine's legalization in Canada, noting that health, extending from the individual to the collective body, emerged as a key battle cry. Oleomargarine was at once a tool of citizenship and a nexus for new theories of food science, anxieties about race and otherness, women's emerging political influence, and contention about the roles of both industry and government in dictating food choices. As both sides promulgated their respective products' contributions to personal and national welfare, health and citizenship stood as entwined ideals, inviolable but not uncontested.

  12. Comparison of children’s food and beverage intakes with national recommendations in New York City child-care centres

    PubMed Central

    Dixon, L Beth; Breck, Andrew; Khan, Laura Kettel

    2016-01-01

    Objective The present study compared foods and beverages provided to and consumed by children at child-care centres in New York City (NYC) with national nutrition recommendations. Design The study used survey, observational and centre record data collected from child-care centres. Food and beverage intakes from two days of observation and amounts of energy and nutrients were estimated using the US National Cancer Institute’s Automated Self-Administered 24 h Recall system. Setting Meal and snack time at 108 child-care centres in low-income communities in NYC. Subjects Children aged 3–4 years old in classrooms selected by the directors of the participating child-care centres. Results Foods and beverages provided to and consumed by children (n 630) met >50% of the Dietary Reference Intake (DRI) for most nutrients. Intakes of fibre and vitamins D and E were <30% of the DRI. Foods and beverages provided >50% of the recommended average daily intake amounts for total grains, fruits and fruit juices, and dairy, but <50% of the recommended amounts for whole grains, protein foods and vegetables. Intake of oils was below the allowance for energy levels, but foods and beverages with solid fats and added sugars exceeded the limits by 68%. Conclusions Providing more whole grains, vegetables and low-fat dairy and fewer foods with solid fats and added sugars may improve children’s diet quality when at child-care centres. Centre staff may need training, resources and strategies in order to meet the nutrition recommendations. PMID:27280552

  13. The Geographic Distribution, Ownership, Prices, and Scope of Practice at Retail Clinics

    PubMed Central

    Rudavsky, Rena; Pollack, Craig Evan; Mehrotra, Ateev

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND As a new model of care in the United States (US), retail clinics have generated much interest. Located physically within a retail store, they provide simple acute and preventive care services for a fixed price and without an appointment. OBJECTIVE To describe where retail clinics have opened in the US, their ownership structure, scope of practice, prices, acceptance of insurance, and the fraction of the population that lives within a short driving distance of a clinic. DESIGN Cross-sectional descriptive study SAMPLE All retail clinics operating in the US as of August 2008 MEASUREMENTS Population living within five and ten-minute driving distances of a retail clinic RESULTS In August 2008, 42 operators ran 982 clinics in 33 states; 88.4% were located in urban areas. An estimated 13.4% and 35.8% of the US urban population lives within a five-minute and ten-minute driving distance respectively from a retail clinic. The proportion of the population that lives close to a retail clinic is higher than 50 percent in some cities such as Nashville (56.7% five-minute, 93.7% ten-minute) and Minneapolis-St. Paul, MN (50.9%, 96.0%). The majority of retail clinic operators (25, 59.5%) are hospital chains and/or physician groups, but they only operate 11.4% of the clinics nationally. Simple acute conditions, skin conditions, and immunizations make up the majority of retail clinics’ limited scope of practice. Across operators, those without insurance paid on average $78 for a sore throat visit and $63 for an adult tetanus booster vaccine. In a random sample of clinics, we found that 97% accepted private insurance, 93% accepted Medicare fee-for-service, and 60% accepted some form of Medicaid. LIMITATIONS Geographic access is only one of many factors that influence whether an individual visits a retail clinic CONCLUSIONS Retail clinics can provide care for simple acute conditions and immunizations for a significant segment of the urban US population. PRIMARY FUNDING

  14. 78 FR 20666 - Food and Drug Administration/National Institutes of Health/National Science Foundation Public...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-05

    ... Building 1 where routine security check procedures will be performed. For parking and security information...Information/ucm241740.htm . Contact Persons: Donna Lochner, Center for Devices and Radiological Health, Food... the posted events list. Please provide complete contact information for each attendee, including...

  15. 75 FR 42105 - Memorandum of Understanding: Food and Drug Administration and the National Institutes of Health...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-20

    ... Toxicology Program; and the National Institutes of Health, National Human Genome Research Institute, National... Program (NTP); and the NIH, National Human Genome Research Institute (NHGRI), NIH Chemical Genomics Center... phylogenetically lower animal species (e.g., fish, worms), as well as high throughput whole genome...

  16. 17 CFR 5.8 - Aggregate retail forex assets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Aggregate retail forex assets... FOREIGN CURRENCY TRANSACTIONS § 5.8 Aggregate retail forex assets. (a) Each retail foreign exchange dealer and futures commission merchant offering or engaging in retail forex transactions shall calculate...

  17. 17 CFR 5.8 - Aggregate retail forex assets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Aggregate retail forex assets... FOREIGN CURRENCY TRANSACTIONS § 5.8 Aggregate retail forex assets. (a) Each retail foreign exchange dealer and futures commission merchant offering or engaging in retail forex transactions shall calculate...

  18. 17 CFR 5.8 - Aggregate retail forex assets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Aggregate retail forex assets... FOREIGN CURRENCY TRANSACTIONS § 5.8 Aggregate retail forex assets. (a) Each retail foreign exchange dealer and futures commission merchant offering or engaging in retail forex transactions shall calculate...

  19. 17 CFR 5.8 - Aggregate retail forex assets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... merchant may not include aggregate retail forex assets as current assets or otherwise record any property... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Aggregate retail forex assets... FOREIGN CURRENCY TRANSACTIONS § 5.8 Aggregate retail forex assets. (a) Each retail foreign exchange...

  20. 26 CFR 1.471-8 - Inventories of retail merchants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Inventories of retail merchants. 1.471-8 Section... (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Inventories § 1.471-8 Inventories of retail merchants. (a) Retail merchants who employ what is known as the “retail method” of pricing inventories may make their returns upon...

  1. 27 CFR 31.31 - Retail dealer in liquors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Retail dealer in liquors... Classified § 31.31 Retail dealer in liquors. (a) General. Except as otherwise provided in paragraph (b) of... other than a dealer is a retail dealer in liquors for purposes of this part. Every retail dealer...

  2. 27 CFR 31.55 - Limited retail dealers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Limited retail dealers. 31... Registration And/or Recordkeeping § 31.55 Limited retail dealers. (a) Sales by limited retail dealers. Limited retail dealers, as described in § 31.35, are not required to register or keep records under this part....

  3. 29 CFR 779.24 - Retail or service establishment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Retail or service establishment. 779.24 Section 779.24... AS APPLIED TO RETAILERS OF GOODS OR SERVICES General Some Basic Definitions § 779.24 Retail or service establishment. In the 1949 amendments to the Act, the term “retail or service...

  4. 27 CFR 31.181 - Requirements for retail dealers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Requirements for retail... BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS ALCOHOL BEVERAGE DEALERS Records and Reports Retail Dealer's Records § 31.181 Requirements for retail dealers. (a) Records of receipt. All retail dealers must keep...

  5. 26 CFR 1.471-8 - Inventories of retail merchants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Inventories of retail merchants. 1.471-8 Section... (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Inventories § 1.471-8 Inventories of retail merchants. (a) Retail merchants who employ what is known as the “retail method” of pricing inventories may make their returns...

  6. Role of the "National Reference Centre for Genetically Modified Organisms (GMO) detection" in the official control of food and feed.

    PubMed

    Ciabatti, I; Marchesi, U; Froiio, A; Paternò, A; Ruggeri, M; Amaddeo, D

    2005-08-01

    The National Reference Centre for Genetically Modified Organisms (GMO) detection was established in 2002 within the Istituto Zooprofilattico Sperimentale Lazio e Toscana, with the aim of providing scientific and technical support to the National Health System and to the Ministry of Health within the scope of the regulation of GMO use in food and feed.The recently adopted EU legislation on GMOs (Regulation CE no. 1829/2003 and no. 1830/2003) introduced more rigorous procedures for the authorisation, labelling and analytical control of food and feed consisting, containing or derived from GMOs. The National Reference Centre, besides its institutional tasks as one of the laboratories of the Italian National Health System, collects and analyses data and results of the national official control of GMOs; carries out scientific research aimed at developing, improving, validating and harmonising detection and quantification methods, in cooperation with other scientific institutions, the Community Reference Laboratory and within the European Network of GMOs laboratories (ENGL); collaborates with the Ministry of Health in the definition of control programmes and promotes educational and training initiatives. Objectives defined for 2004-2006, activities in progress and goals already achieved are presented.

  7. Integrating NASA Remote Sensing Products into the Decision Support Systems of the United Nations World Food Programme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Z.; Milich, L.; Teng, W.; Rui, H.; Kempler, S.

    2005-12-01

    This presentation will describe our collaborative work with the World Food Programme of the United Nations, including web-based information services and tools to address global and regional water related issues, such as, floods and droughts. Set-up in 1963, the World Food Programme (WFP) is the United Nations frontline agency in the fight against global hunger. WFP depends on donors worldwide. The United States of America has been the largest donor. Natural disasters, such as, floods and droughts, occur every year in third world countries and often require emergency food aid. Moving large quantities of foods is not an easy task. Time and planning are required. Accurate and timely environmental information will facilitate decision-making and food distribution and maximize the use of contributions. Few observational data are available for disaster monitoring in remote and poor countries. Satellite observations provide a unique way in providing such data from space. The NASA Goddard Earth Sciences Data and Information Services Center (GES DISC) and Dr. Lenard Milich of WFP have been collaborating for the past three years on ways to integrate Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) data into forward planning exercises for establishing geographic areas (e.g., sub-equatorial Africa, Indonesia, and North Korea) in need of food assistance. To monitor and assess current conditions, the GES DISC has developed a number of rainfall products derived from TRMM and online based tools to facilitate data and information access. These tools will not only benefit the WFP decision-making activities, but also other local agencies and the general public. All data and services are web-based to minimize the cost for data accessing and maximize the use of global rainfall data products.

  8. Ultra-processed foods and added sugars in the US diet: evidence from a nationally representative cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Martínez Steele, Eurídice; Baraldi, Larissa Galastri; Louzada, Maria Laura da Costa; Moubarac, Jean-Claude; Mozaffarian, Dariush; Monteiro, Carlos Augusto

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To investigate the contribution of ultra-processed foods to the intake of added sugars in the USA. Ultra-processed foods were defined as industrial formulations which, besides salt, sugar, oils and fats, include substances not used in culinary preparations, in particular additives used to imitate sensorial qualities of minimally processed foods and their culinary preparations. Design Cross-sectional study. Setting National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2009–2010. Participants We evaluated 9317 participants aged 1+ years with at least one 24 h dietary recall. Main outcome measures Average dietary content of added sugars and proportion of individuals consuming more than 10% of total energy from added sugars. Data analysis Gaussian and Poisson regressions estimated the association between consumption of ultra-processed foods and intake of added sugars. All models incorporated survey sample weights and adjusted for age, sex, race/ethnicity, family income and educational attainment. Results Ultra-processed foods comprised 57.9% of energy intake, and contributed 89.7% of the energy intake from added sugars. The content of added sugars in ultra-processed foods (21.1% of calories) was eightfold higher than in processed foods (2.4%) and fivefold higher than in unprocessed or minimally processed foods and processed culinary ingredients grouped together (3.7%). Both in unadjusted and adjusted models, each increase of 5 percentage points in proportional energy intake from ultra-processed foods increased the proportional energy intake from added sugars by 1 percentage point. Consumption of added sugars increased linearly across quintiles of ultra-processed food consumption: from 7.5% of total energy in the lowest quintile to 19.5% in the highest. A total of 82.1% of Americans in the highest quintile exceeded the recommended limit of 10% energy from added sugars, compared with 26.4% in the lowest. Conclusions Decreasing the consumption of ultra

  9. 7 CFR 2.66 - Director, National Institute of Food and Agriculture.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... cooperative agricultural extension program relating to agriculture, uses of solar energy with respect to... challenges in food and agricultural system productivity; development of new food, fiber, and energy sources; agricultural energy use and production; natural resources; promotion of the health and welfare of people;...

  10. 7 CFR 2.66 - Director, National Institute of Food and Agriculture.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... cooperative agricultural extension program relating to agriculture, uses of solar energy with respect to... challenges in food and agricultural system productivity; development of new food, fiber, and energy sources; agricultural energy use and production; natural resources; promotion of the health and welfare of people;...

  11. 7 CFR 2.66 - Director, National Institute of Food and Agriculture.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... cooperative agricultural extension program relating to agriculture, uses of solar energy with respect to... challenges in food and agricultural system productivity; development of new food, fiber, and energy sources; agricultural energy use and production; natural resources; promotion of the health and welfare of people;...

  12. 78 FR 9529 - National School Lunch Program and School Breakfast Program: Nutrition Standards for All Foods...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-08

    ... purposes. Competitive food is proposed to be defined as all food and beverages sold to students on the... implementation, as all areas of the property under the jurisdiction of the school that are accessible to students... in this proposed rule is not sold to students on the school campus during the school day. Given...

  13. Performance evaluation of restaurant food waste and biowaste to biogas pilot projects in China and implications for national policy.

    PubMed

    De Clercq, Djavan; Wen, Zongguo; Fan, Fei

    2017-03-15

    The objective of this research was to conduct a performance evaluation of three food waste/biowaste-to-biogas pilot projects across 7 scenarios in China based on multi-criteria decision analysis (MCDA) methodology. The projects ranked included a food waste-biogas project in Beijing, a food waste-biogas project in Suzhou and a co-digestion project producing biomethane in Hainan. The projects were ranked from best to worst based on technical, economic and environmental criteria under the MCDA framework. The results demonstrated that some projects are encountering operational problems. Based on these findings, six national policy recommendations were provided: (1) shift away from capital investment subsidies to performance-based subsidies; (2) re-design feed in tariffs; (3) promote bio-methane and project clustering; (4) improve collection efficiency by incentivizing FW producers to direct waste to biogas projects; (5) incentivize biogas projects to produce multiple outputs; (6) incentivize food waste-based projects to co-digest food waste with other substrates for higher gas output.

  14. The use of reverse logistics for waste management in a Brazilian grocery retailer.

    PubMed

    Dias, Karina T S; Braga Junior, Sergio S

    2016-01-01

    Retail growth is a result of the diversification of departments with the intention to look to consumer's needs and level of demand. Pressed by consumers and by the law, the adoption of environmental preservation practices is becoming stronger among grocery retailers. The objective of this research was to analyse the practices of reverse logistics performed by a retailer and measure the amount of waste generated by each department. To reach the proposed goal, a field research study was conducted to directly observe a grocery retailer in the state of Sao Paulo, Brazil, for a period of 6 months and monitor the amounts of cardboard and plastic discarded by each department. Using the Wuppertal method, the first result observed was that the retailer stopped its monthly production of approximately 20 tonne of biotic and abiotic material, which influence global warming and degradation of the ozone layer. Another result observed with the implementation of reverse logistics, was that the general grocery department mostly used cardboard and plastic. This sector includes products such as food cupboard, drinks, household, health and beauty, and pet articles. The fresh fruit and vegetable department and the meat, chicken and frozen department were increasingly using less plastic and cardboard packaging, increasing the use of returnable and durable packaging and thus promoting sustainability.

  15. Survey of residual nitrite and nitrate in conventional and organic/natural/uncured/indirectly cured meats available at retail in the United States.

    PubMed

    Nuñez De González, Maryuri T; Osburn, Wesley N; Hardin, Margaret D; Longnecker, Michael; Garg, Harsha K; Bryan, Nathan S; Keeton, Jimmy T

    2012-04-18

    A survey of residual nitrite (NO(2)(-)) and nitrate (NO(3)(-)) in cured meats available at retail was conducted to verify concentrations in conventional (C) products and establish a baseline for organic/natural/uncured/indirectly cured (ONC) products. In this study, 470 cured meat products representing six major categories were taken from retail outlets in five major metropolitan cities across the United States. Random samples representing both C and ONC type products were analyzed for NO(2)(-) and NO(3)(-) content (ppm) using an ENO-20 high-performance liquid chromatography system equipped with a reverse phase column. Generally, there were no differences in NO(2)(-) concentrations between C and ONC meat categories, but a few ONC products surveyed in certain cities were lower in NO(3)(-) content. Pairwise comparisons between cities indicated that NO(2)(-) and NO(3)(-) contents of all C type products were not appreciably different, and the same was true for most ONC products. Numerical NO(2)(-) values were less variable than NO(3)(-) concentrations within each meat product category. NO(2)(-) concentrations were similar to those previously reported by Cassens ( Cassens , R. G. Residual nitrite in cured meat . Food Technol. 1997a , 51 , 53 - 55 ) in 1997. Residual NO(2)(-) and NO(3)(-) values in this study were numerically lower than those reported by NAS ( National Academy of Sciences . The Health Effects of Nitrate, Nitrite, and N-Nitroso Compounds ; National Academy Press : Washington, DC , 1981 ) in 1981. Data from this survey provide a benchmark of NO(2)(-) and NO(3)(-) concentrations for ONC products available at retail.

  16. The Impact of Modern Retail Minimarket towards the Continuity of Traditional Retail Businesses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masruroh, R.

    2017-03-01

    Today the business is growing rapidly minimarket with the development of socioeconomic conditions of society, and changes in value systems that result in changes to the pattern of life and needs of the community. In meeting the needs and desires, people tend to prefer a wide range of modern facilities expenditures. Thus increasing the number of modern minimarket store increasingly cornered the existence of traditional retail stores are stand-alone and based on social economy. This study aimed to analyze the changes in turnover and market traditional retail stores before and after the modern mini-market retail in the vicinity. To achieve these objectives, conducted survey research approach, this study uses primary and secondary data by distributing interviews and questionnaires to 40 respondents traditional retail store owners in the district of Kuningan which is selected by probability sampling. Descriptive qualitative were used to analyse this study. Based on the survey results revealed that there are significant differences between turnover and market traditional retail stores before and after the modern minimarket in the vicinity. This shows that the presence of modern retail stores provide a decrease in turnover and customers impact for traditional retail stores. But the research also shows that traditional retail stores that improve the quality of services and facilities are not affected by the presence of modern retail stores in the vicinity.

  17. The effects of retail concentration on retail dairy product prices in the United States.

    PubMed

    Hovhannisyan, V; Bozic, M

    2016-06-01

    This study provides an empirical investigation of the relationship between grocery retail concentration and retail dairy product prices in the United States. The analysis was performed based on a unique data set on store-level retail prices provided by the Information Resources Inc. Further, alternative measures of retail concentration were considered, which included revenue and store selling space-based Herfindahl-Hirschman Index that were computed based on a Nielsen TDLinx data set on store characteristics. Results from a reduced-form empirical framework estimated via panel data techniques indicated that grocery retail concentration had a positive statistically significant effect on retail dairy product prices in the analyzed locations during the analyzed period of time. Specifically, a 10% increase in concentration was found to lead to a 0.46% rise in retail dairy product prices. This central result was robust to the way in which retail concentration was measured and was consistent with broader empirical evidence in the literature on retail market power.

  18. Food Allergy

    MedlinePlus

    ... November 2016 by the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. If you have a food allergy ... clinical trials below: Idiopathic Anaphylaxis Natural History and Genetics of Food Allergy and Related Conditions Featured Research ...

  19. Retailing and Shopping on the Internet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rowley, Jennifer

    1996-01-01

    Internet advertising and commercial activity are increasing. This article examines challenges facing the retail industry on the Internet: location; comparison shopping; security, especially financial transactions; customer base and profile; nature of the shopping experience; and legal and marketplace controls. (PEN)

  20. Green Power Partnership Top 30 Retail

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA's Green Power Partnership is a voluntary program designed to reduce the environmental impact of electricity generation by promoting renewable energy. This list represents the largest green power users among retail partners within the GPP.

  1. Biotechnology and food allergy.

    PubMed

    Helm, Ricki M

    2002-01-01

    The production of genetically modified foods for an increasingly informed and selective consumer requires the coordinated activities of both the companies developing the transgenic food and regulatory authorities to ensure that these foods are at least as safe as the traditional foods they are supplementing in the diet. Although the size and complexity of the food sector ensures that no single player can control the process from seed production through farming and processing to final products marketed in a retail outlet, checks and balances are in place to ensure that transgenic foods will provide a convenient, wholesome, tasty, safe, affordable food source. Ultimately, it is the responsibility of companies developing the genetically modified food to provide relevant data to regulatory agencies, such as the US Department of Agriculture, Environmental Protection Agency, and Food and Drug Administration, to confirm that the transgenic product is reasonably safe for the consumer, as zero risk from allergen sensitization is nonexistent.

  2. 76 FR 33307 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Announcement of Office of Management and Budget...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-08

    ... Office of Management and Budget Approval; Voluntary National Retail Food Regulatory Program Standards...) is announcing that a collection of information entitled ``Voluntary National Retail Food...

  3. CALiPER Retail Lamps Study 3

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2014-02-01

    This is a special CALiPER report on LED lamps available through the retail marketplace and targeted toward general consumers. It follows similar reports published in 2011 and 2012 (products purchased in 2010 and 2011), and is intended as a continuation that identifies long-term trends. For this report, products were selected to investigate specific hypotheses, rather than represent a sample of the increasingly large retail LED market.

  4. Assessing the Average Sodium Content of Prepacked Foods with Nutrition Declarations: The Importance of Sales Data

    PubMed Central

    Korošec, Živa; Pravst, Igor

    2014-01-01

    Processed foods are recognized as a major contributor to high dietary sodium intake, associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease. Different public health actions are being introduced to reduce sodium content in processed foods and sodium intake in general. A gradual reduction of sodium content in processed foods was proposed in Slovenia, but monitoring sodium content in the food supply is essential to evaluate the progress. Our primary objective was to test a new approach for assessing the sales-weighted average sodium content of prepacked foods on the market. We show that a combination of 12-month food sales data provided by food retailers covering the majority of the national market and a comprehensive food composition database compiled using food labelling data represent a robust and cost-effective approach to assessing the sales-weighted average sodium content of prepacked foods. Food categories with the highest sodium content were processed meats (particularly dry cured meat), ready meals (especially frozen pizza) and cheese. The reported results show that in most investigated food categories, market leaders in the Slovenian market have lower sodium contents than the category average. The proposed method represents an excellent tool for monitoring sodium content in the food supply. PMID:25192028

  5. Assessing the average sodium content of prepacked foods with nutrition declarations: the importance of sales data.

    PubMed

    Korošec, Živa; Pravst, Igor

    2014-09-04

    Processed foods are recognized as a major contributor to high dietary sodium intake, associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease. Different public health actions are being introduced to reduce sodium content in processed foods and sodium intake in general. A gradual reduction of sodium content in processed foods was proposed in Slovenia, but monitoring sodium content in the food supply is essential to evaluate the progress. Our primary objective was to test a new approach for assessing the sales-weighted average sodium content of prepacked foods on the market. We show that a combination of 12-month food sales data provided by food retailers covering the majority of the national market and a comprehensive food composition database compiled using food labelling data represent a robust and cost-effective approach to assessing the sales-weighted average sodium content of prepacked foods. Food categories with the highest sodium content were processed meats (particularly dry cured meat), ready meals (especially frozen pizza) and cheese. The reported results show that in most investigated food categories, market leaders in the Slovenian market have lower sodium contents than the category average. The proposed method represents an excellent tool for monitoring sodium content in the food supply.

  6. Food consumption of adults in Germany: results of the German National Nutrition Survey II based on diet history interviews.

    PubMed

    Heuer, Thorsten; Krems, Carolin; Moon, Kilson; Brombach, Christine; Hoffmann, Ingrid

    2015-05-28

    The second German National Nutrition Survey (NVS II) aimed to evaluate food consumption and other aspects of nutritional behaviour of a representative sample of the German population, using a modular design with three different dietary assessment methods. To assess usual food consumption, 15,371 German speaking subjects 14-80 years of age completed a diet history interview between November 2005 and November 2006. With reference to the guidelines of the German Nutrition Society (DGE), NVS II observed that the German population did not eat enough foods of plant origin, especially vegetables and consumed too much of meat and meat products. While generally similar food consumption is observed in other European countries, consumption of bread, fruit juices/nectars and beer is higher in Germany. On average, men consumed two times more meat and soft drinks as well as six times more beer than women did, whereas the consumption of vegetables, fruit as well as herbal/fruit tea was higher in women. Older participants showed a lower consumption of meat, fruit juice/nectars, soft drinks and spirits as well as a higher consumption of fish, vegetables, fruit, and herbal/fruit tea than adolescents and younger adults did. There are also differences in food consumption with regard to socio-economic status (SES). Persons with higher SES consumed more vegetables, fruit, fish, water, coffee/tea and wine, while persons with lower SES consumed more meat and meat products, soft drinks and beer. In general, the food consumption of women, the elderly and the higher SES group tends to be closer to the official dietary guidelines in Germany.

  7. Protein, fat, moisture, and cooking yields from a nationwide study of retail beef cuts.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Nutrient data from the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) are an important resource for U.S. and international databases. To ensure the data for retail beef cuts in USDA’s National Nutrient Database for Standard Reference (SR) are current, a comprehensive, nationwide, multiyear study was conducte...

  8. Exploring Middle-Skill Training Programs for Employment in the Retail Industry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kazis, Richard; Molina, Frieda

    2016-01-01

    The retail industry is a huge and growing sector of the U.S. economy, accounting for about 10 percent of the nation's jobs in 2013 and projected to increase by 7 percent between 2012 and 2022. The sheer size of the industry and the number of employment opportunities it affords low-skilled workers led MDRC to explore the potential of the retail…

  9. Cholesterol and vitamin D content of eggs in the U.S. retail market

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Nationwide sampling in the U.S. of whole large eggs, to update values in the USDA National Nutrient Database for Standard Reference (SR) (http://www.ars.usda.gov/nutrientdata), was conducted in 2000-2001 and again in 2010. Retail cartons of large eggs were obtained from 12 supermarket locations usi...

  10. Nutrient Database improvement project: Separable components and proximate composition of retail cuts from the beef chuck

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study was designed to provide updated information on the separable components, cooking yields, and nutrient values of retail cuts from the beef chuck. Ultimately, these data will be used in the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) Nutrient Data Laboratory’s (NDL) National Nutrient Da...

  11. Wasted Food: U.S. Consumers' Reported Awareness, Attitudes, and Behaviors

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The U.S. wastes 31 to 40% of its post-harvest food supply, with a substantial portion of this waste occurring at the consumer level. Globally, interventions to address wasted food have proliferated, but efforts are in their infancy in the U.S. To inform these efforts and provide baseline data to track change, we performed a survey of U.S. consumer awareness, attitudes and behaviors related to wasted food. The survey was administered online to members of a nationally representative panel (N=1010), and post-survey weights were applied. The survey found widespread (self-reported) awareness of wasted food as an issue, efforts to reduce it, and knowledge about how to do so, plus moderately frequent performance of waste-reducing behaviors. Three-quarters of respondents said they discard less food than the average American. The leading motivations for waste reduction were saving money and setting an example for children, with environmental concerns ranked last. The most common reasons given for discarding food were concern about foodborne illness and a desire to eat only the freshest food. In some cases there were modest differences based on age, parental status, and income, but no differences were found by race, education, rural/urban residence or other demographic factors. Respondents recommended ways retailers and restaurants could help reduce waste. This is the first nationally representative consumer survey focused on wasted food in the U.S. It provides insight into U.S. consumers’ perceptions related to wasted food, and comparisons to existing literature. The findings suggest approaches including recognizing that many consumers perceive themselves as being already-knowledgeable and engaged, framing messages to focus on budgets, and modifying existing messages about food freshness and aesthetics. This research also suggests opportunities to shift retail and restaurant practice, and identifies critical research gaps. PMID:26062025

  12. Creating a GIS application for retail centers in Jeddah city

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murad, AbdulKader A.

    2003-11-01

    The aim of this paper is to identify the role of geographical information systems (GIS) in supporting retail planners in monitoring and analyzing retail development and growth. At first, a review about retail planning and its relevant issues is made. Second, GIS is defined together with its applications in retail planning. The third part discusses the created GIS application that is designed for two retail centers in Jeddah city, Saudi Arabia. This application is created to help planners in defining the distribution of retail demand, describing customers profile, analyzing trade areas and modeling retail flows. Two useful models have been produced by this study. One is called market penetration and the other is based on spatial interaction technique. The former is created to examine retail center catchment area, while the latter is used to model the interaction between demand areas and retail centers.

  13. Associations between Participation in the National School Lunch Program, Food Insecurity, and Child Well-Being. Discussion Paper No. 1249-02

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunifon, Rachel; Kowaleski-Jones, Lori

    2002-01-01

    This paper examines the associations between food insecurity, participation in the National School Lunch Program (NSLP), and children's well-being. We address problems of selection by restricting our sample to children in families in which at least one child participates in the NSLP. Results suggest that food insecurity is associated with…

  14. Food habits of introduced rodents in high-elevation shrubland of Haleakala National Park, Maui, Hawai'i

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cole, F. Russell; Loope, Lloyd L.; Medeiros, Arthur C.; Howe, Cameron E.; Anderson, Laurel J.

    2000-01-01

    Mus musculus and Rattus rattus are ubiquitous consumers in the high-elevation shrubland of Haleakala National Park. Food habits of these two rodent species were determined from stomach samples obtained by snaptrapping along transects located at four different elevations during November 1984 and February, May, and August 1985. Mus musculus fed primarily on fruits, grass seeds, and arthropods. Rattus rattus ate various fruits, dicot leaves, and arthropods. Arthropods, many of which are endemic, were taken frequently by Mus musculus throughout the year at the highest elevation where plant food resources were scarce. Araneida, Lepidoptera (primarily larvae), Coleoptera, and Homoptera were the main arthropod taxa taken. These rodents, particularly Mus musculus, exert strong predation pressure on populations of arthropod species, including locally endemic species on upper Haleakala Volcano.

  15. 29 CFR 779.388 - Exemption provided for food or beverage service employees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Exemption provided for food or beverage service employees... FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT AS APPLIED TO RETAILERS OF GOODS OR SERVICES Exemptions for Certain Retail or Service Establishments Restaurants and Establishments Providing Food and Beverage Service §...

  16. Adolescent nutritional awareness and use of food labels: Results from the national nutrition health and examination survey

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Awareness of federal nutrition programs and use of the nutrition facts label are associated with reduced risk for obesity and increased intake of fruits and vegetables. Relationships between nutrition programs, use of food labels and risk for overweight and obesity have rarely been evaluated in adolescents. Methods Using the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey from 2005–6, we evaluated the frequency of nutrition awareness of USDA and CDC nutrition programs and use of food labels in adolescents. Risk for overweight (BMI ≥ 85-94th percentile) and obesity (BMI ≥ 95th percentile) was assessed in relation to nutrition awareness and label reading. Results Most adolescents (92.4%) were aware of the Food Guide Pyramid. Fewer (43.5%) were aware of the 5-A-Day Program, and even less (29.3%) were aware of the Dietary Guidelines for Americans. Less than 25% of adolescents decided which foods to purchase by reading material on the nutrition facts label. There were significant racial and ethnic differences in awareness of federal nutrition programs with Mexican-Americans having the lowest levels of awareness of the US Dietary Guidelines for Americans and the Food Guide Pyramid in comparison with other groups. Non-Hispanic whites had higher and African-American adolescents had lower frequencies of reading fat information on the nutrition label in comparison to Mexican-American and other Hispanics. Awareness of other nutrition programs or of other information on the nutrition facts label was not associated with increased or decreased risk for overweight or obesity. Conclusions Use of the nutrition facts panel information is low among US adolescents. Additionally, less than half of adolescents are aware of federal nutrition programs including the Dietary Guidelines for Americans. Future studies should evaluate avenues to make nutrition information more accessible to young Americans. PMID:22639924

  17. 7 CFR 2.66 - Director, National Institute of Food and Agriculture.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... to agriculture, uses of solar energy with respect to agriculture, home economics, and rural energy in... new food, fiber, and energy sources; agricultural energy use and production; natural resources... renewable energy workforce (7 U.S.C. 3319e). (146) Administer a competitive grants program to assist...

  18. Menu Workbook and Food Buying Guide. National School Lunch and Breakfast Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arizona State Dept. of Education, Phoenix.

    The goal of every school food service program is to serve nutritionally adequate, attractive, acceptable, and moderately priced meals. Recognizing that the quality of the meal depends upon the knowledge, ability, and judgment of the person planning menus, this guide provides information on the menu planning and meal service options available in…

  19. The National Advisory Committee on Hyperkinesis and Food Additives. Final Report to the Nutrition Foundation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nutrition Foundation, Inc., Washington, DC.

    In response to the issues raised by B. Feingold regarding the possible role of food additives as a cause of hyperactivity and learing disability, the Nutrition Foundation organized a critical review of Feinfold's claims by a group of behavioral and medical scientists. Among the cliams made by Feingold was that, when treated with the salicylate and…

  20. The National Advisory Committee on Hyperkinesis and Food Additives. Report to the Nutrition Foundation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Advisory Committee on Hyperkinesis and Food Additives.

    Reviewed in the report is research on hyperkinesis, specifically B. Feingold's hypotheses on the role of salicylates and food additives. Criticisms of Feingold's studies are seen to include methodological weaknesses (no double blind controlled experiments), nutritional concerns over the adequacy of prescribed diets, and lack of a specifically…

  1. Outsourcing on American Campuses: National Developments and the Food Service Experience at GWU

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glickman, Theodore S.; Holm, Jennifer; Keating, Devlin; Pannait, Claudia; White, Susan C.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to provide an in-depth examination of the outsourcing of food services on a university campus. Design/methodology/approach: The paper uses a detailed case study including interviews with university administrators, contractor administrators, and students and background information taken from student…

  2. Moving From Policy to Implementation: A Methodology and Lessons Learned to Determine Eligibility for Healthy Food Financing Projects

    PubMed Central

    Harries, Caroline; Koprak, Julia; Young, Candace; Weiss, Stephanie; Parker, Kathryn M.; Karpyn, Allison

    2014-01-01

    Public health obesity prevention experts have recently emphasized a policy systems and environmental change approach. Absent, however, are studies describing how practitioners transition from policy adoption to implementation. In the realm of food policy, financing programs to incentivize healthy food retail development in communities classified as “underserved” are underway at the local, state, and national levels. Implementing these policies requires a clear definition of eligibility for program applicants and policy administrators. This article outlines a methodology to establish eligibility for healthy food financing programs by describing the work of The Food Trust to coadminister programs in 3 distinct regions. To determine program eligibility, qualitative assessments of community fit are needed and national data sources must be locally verified. Our findings have broad implications for programs that assess need to allocate limited public/private financing resources. PMID:24594793

  3. Moving from policy to implementation: a methodology and lessons learned to determine eligibility for healthy food financing projects.

    PubMed

    Harries, Caroline; Koprak, Julia; Young, Candace; Weiss, Stephanie; Parker, Kathryn M; Karpyn, Allison

    2014-01-01

    Public health obesity prevention experts have recently emphasized a policy systems and environmental change approach. Absent, however, are studies describing how practitioners transition from policy adoption to implementation. In the realm of food policy, financing programs to incentivize healthy food retail development in communities classified as "underserved" are underway at the local, state, and national levels. Implementing these policies requires a clear definition of eligibility for program applicants and policy administrators. This article outlines a methodology to establish eligibility for healthy food financing programs by describing the work of The Food Trust to coadminister programs in 3 distinct regions. To determine program eligibility, qualitative assessments of community fit are needed and national data sources must be locally verified. Our findings have broad implications for programs that assess need to allocate limited public/private financing resources.

  4. Identifying and Measuring Food Deserts in Rural Ohio

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mulangu, Francis; Clark, Jill

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of our article is twofold. First, we introduce a framework for U.S. Extension educators to measure the extent of food access at any scale when information about food carried by retailers is limited. Second, we create a baseline for the Ohio Food Policy Council so that work to increase food access in rural areas will have a benchmark to…

  5. Consumption of sugar-rich food products among Brazilian students:National School Health Survey (PeNSE 2012).

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Nathália Luíza; Claro, Rafael Moreira; Lopes, Aline Cristine Souza

    2015-12-01

    This study aimed to analyze the consumption of high-sugar foods by Brazilian schoolchildren and to identify associated factors, based on data from the National School Health Survey (PeNSE 2012). Consumption of these foods was classified as: do not consume sweets and soft drinks regularly; consume sweets or soft drinks regularly; and consume sweets and soft drinks regularly. Its association with sociodemographic information, eating habits, and family contexts were investigated via multiple ordinal regressions. Regular consumption of sweets and/or soft drinks was reported by 19.2% and 36.1% of adolescents, respectively, and higher prevalence was associated with female gender, age 14-15 years, higher maternal education, not living with the mother and father, not eating meals with the parents, eating while watching TV, and longer TV time. Nearly one-fifth of adolescents regularly consumed sweets and soft drinks, which was associated with socio-demographic and behavioral factors that should be targeted in order to improve their food consumption.

  6. What Older Adults Need to Know about Retail Clinics

    MedlinePlus

    What Older Adults Need to Know about Retail Clinics Expert Information from Healthcare Professionals Who Specialize in the Care of Older Adults Retail clinics are medical clinics based in pharmacies, supermarkets, ...

  7. 76 FR 49511 - Postal Service Initiative on Retail Postal Locations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-10

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office POSTAL REGULATORY COMMISSION Postal Service Initiative on Retail Postal Locations AGENCY: Postal Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Notice... of the continuation of service at postal retail locations. The procedural schedule included...

  8. Evaluating the Effectiveness of Traditional Training Methods in Non-Traditional Training Programs for Adult Learners through a Pre-Test/Post-Test Comparison of Food Safety Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dodd, Caleb D.; Burris, Scott; Fraze, Steve; Doerfert, David; McCulloch, Abigail

    2013-01-01

    The incorporation of hot and cold food bars into grocery stores in an effort to capture a portion of the home meal replacement industry is presenting new challenges for retail food establishments. To ensure retail success and customer safety, employees need to be educated in food safety practices. Traditional methods of training are not meeting…

  9. Dutch patients, retail chicken meat and poultry share the same ESBL genes, plasmids and strains.

    PubMed

    Leverstein-van Hall, M A; Dierikx, C M; Cohen Stuart, J; Voets, G M; van den Munckhof, M P; van Essen-Zandbergen, A; Platteel, T; Fluit, A C; van de Sande-Bruinsma, N; Scharinga, J; Bonten, M J M; Mevius, D J

    2011-06-01

    Intestinal carriage of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) -producing bacteria in food-producing animals and contamination of retail meat may contribute to increased incidences of infections with ESBL-producing bacteria in humans. Therefore, distribution of ESBL genes, plasmids and strain genotypes in Escherichia coli obtained from poultry and retail chicken meat in the Netherlands was determined and defined as 'poultry-associated' (PA). Subsequently, the proportion of E. coli isolates with PA ESBL genes, plasmids and strains was quantified in a representative sample of clinical isolates. The E. coli were derived from 98 retail chicken meat samples, a prevalence survey among poultry, and 516 human clinical samples from 31 laboratories collected during a 3-month period in 2009. Isolates were analysed using an ESBL-specific microarray, sequencing of ESBL genes, PCR-based replicon typing of plasmids, plasmid multi-locus sequence typing (pMLST) and strain genotyping (MLST). Six ESBL genes were defined as PA (bla(CTX-M-1) , bla(CTX-M-2) , bla(SHV-2) , bla(SHV-12) , bla(TEM-20) , bla(TEM-52) ): 35% of the human isolates contained PA ESBL genes and 19% contained PA ESBL genes located on IncI1 plasmids that were genetically indistinguishable from those obtained from poultry (meat). Of these ESBL genes, 86% were bla(CTX-M-1) and bla(TEM-52) genes, which were also the predominant genes in poultry (78%) and retail chicken meat (75%). Of the retail meat samples, 94% contained ESBL-producing isolates of which 39% belonged to E. coli genotypes also present in human samples. These findings are suggestive for transmission of ESBL genes, plasmids and E. coli isolates from poultry to humans, most likely through the food chain.

  10. Guiding Principles And A Decision-Making Framework For Stakeholders Pursuing Healthy Food Environments.

    PubMed

    Kraak, Vivica I; Story, Mary

    2015-11-01

    To address obesity and diet-related chronic diseases in the United States, organizations such as the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation and the Institute of Medicine have encouraged the use of voluntary engagement strategies among stakeholders. By using public-private partnerships as well as networks, alliances, and coalitions, voluntary engagement can translate evidence-informed dietary recommendations into effective policies and actions and into innovative products and services. We offer six guiding principles and a decision-making framework that stakeholders can use to ensure that partnerships are accountable and effective in their pursuit of health-related goals. We apply the principles and framework to four national partnerships of US food, beverage, and food retail industry stakeholders working to prevent child obesity and to promote healthy food environments through product reformulation and healthy food retail incentives. We conclude that partnerships should be evaluated for their synergy, accountability, and effectiveness at achieving the partners' objectives. Independent evaluations will help build credibility and public trust in the capacity of voluntary engagement strategies to promote healthy food environments and positively influence public health.

  11. Total, Free, and Added Sugar Consumption and Adherence to Guidelines: The Dutch National Food Consumption Survey 2007–2010

    PubMed Central

    Sluik, Diewertje; van Lee, Linde; Engelen, Anouk I.; Feskens, Edith J. M.

    2016-01-01

    A high sugar intake is a subject of scientific debate due to the suggested health implications and recent free sugar recommendations by the WHO. The objective was to complete a food composition table for added and free sugars, to estimate the intake of total sugars, free sugars, and added sugars, adherence to sugar guidelines and overall diet quality in Dutch children and adults. In all, 3817 men and women (7–69 years) from the Dutch National Food Consumption Survey 2007–2010 were studied. Added and free sugar content of products was assigned by food composition tables and using labelling and product information. Diet was assessed with two 24-h recalls. Diet quality was studied in adults with the Dutch Healthy Diet-index. Total sugar intake was 22% Total Energy (%TE), free sugars intake 14 %TE, and added sugar intake 12 %TE. Sugar consumption was higher in children than adults. Main food sources of sugars were sweets and candy, non-alcoholic beverages, dairy, and cake and cookies. Prevalence free sugar intake <10 %TE was 5% in boys and girls (7–18 years), 29% in women, and 33% in men. Overall diet quality was similar comparing adults adherent and non-adherent to the sugar guidelines, although adherent adults had a higher intake of dietary fiber and vegetables. Adherence to the WHO free sugar guidelines of <5 %TE and <10 %TE was generally low in the Netherlands, particularly in children. Adherence to the added and free sugar guidelines was not strongly associated with higher diet quality in adults. PMID:26828518

  12. Occurrence of ochratoxin a contamination and detection of ochratoxigenic aspergillus species in retail samples of dried fruits and nuts

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ochratoxin A (OTA) is a mycotoxin produced by several species of Aspergillus and Penicillium and is a potential contaminant of a wide variety of food products. To determine the incidence of OTA contamination in dried fruits and tree nuts, retail packaged and bulk raisins, dates, figs, prunes, almon...

  13. Efficacy of sweet whey containing final dips in reducing protein oxidation in retail-cut cubed beefsteak

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Oxidative degradation results in extensive deterioration of shelf-life and quality of retail-cut muscle foods. Use of antioxidants, especially the ones of natural origin, can markedly reduce this process without adverse health consequences to the consumer. Sweet whey originating from Cheddar (CW) an...

  14. Listeria monocytogenes in Retail Delicatessens: An Interagency Risk Assessment-Risk Mitigations.

    PubMed

    Gallagher, Daniel; Pouillot, Régis; Hoelzer, Karin; Tang, Jia; Dennis, Sherri B; Kause, Janell R

    2016-07-01

    Cross-contamination, improper holding temperatures, and insufficient sanitary practices are known retail practices that may lead to product contamination and growth of Listeria monocytogenes. However, the relative importance of control options to mitigate the risk of invasive listeriosis from ready-to-eat (RTE) products sliced or prepared at retail is not well understood. This study illustrates the utility of a quantitative risk assessment model described in a first article of this series (Pouillot, R., D. Gallagher, J. Tang, K. Hoelzer, J. Kause, and S. B. Dennis, J. Food Prot. 78:134-145, 2015) to evaluate the public health impact associated with changes in retail deli practices and interventions. Twenty-two mitigation scenarios were modeled and evaluated under six different baseline conditions. These scenarios were related to sanitation, worker behavior, use of growth inhibitors, cross-contamination, storage temperature control, and reduction of the level of L. monocytogenes on incoming RTE food products. The mean risk per serving of RTE products obtained under these scenarios was then compared with the risk estimated in the baseline condition. Some risk mitigations had a consistent impact on the predicted listeriosis risk in all baseline conditions (e.g. presence or absence of growth inhibitor), whereas others were greatly dependent on the initial baseline conditions or practices in the deli (e.g. preslicing of products). Overall, the control of the bacterial growth and the control of contamination at its source were major factors of listeriosis risk in these settings. Although control of cross-contamination and continued sanitation were also important, the decrease in the predicted risk was not amenable to a simple solution. Findings from these predictive scenario analyses are intended to encourage improvements to retail food safety practices and mitigation strategies to control L. monocytogenes in RTE foods more effectively and to demonstrate the utility of

  15. E-cigarette specialty retailers: Data to assess the association between retail environment and student e-cigarette use.

    PubMed

    Bostean, Georgiana; Crespi, Catherine M; Vorapharuek, Patsornkarn; McCarthy, William J

    2017-04-01

    The retail environment is a major social determinant of health, yet little is known about the e-cigarette specialty retailer environment. The e-cigarette specialty retail environment may be associated with e-cigarette use by middle and high school students, an issue that was addressed in a recent article entitled, "E-cigarette use among students and e-cigarette specialty retailer presence near schools," by Bostean and colleagues (G. Bostean, C.M. Crespi, P. Vorapharuek, W.J. McCarthy, 2016 [1]). We present data relating to e-cigarette specialty retailers in Orange County, California. We describe the data collection method (including the search methodology to identify e-cigarette specialty retailers), present descriptive retailer data including school proximity, and provide data from multi-level regressions predicting individual-level student use of e-cigarettes based on presence of an e-cigarette specialty retailer in proximity to schools.

  16. 29 CFR 779.207 - Related activities in retail operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Related activities in retail operations. 779.207 Section... Coverage Related Activities § 779.207 Related activities in retail operations. In the case of an enterprise which has one or more retail or service establishments, all of the activities which are performed...

  17. RETAIL ORGANIZATION, A SUGGESTED ADULT DISTRIBUTIVE EDUCATION COURSE OUTLINE.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MAURO, RALPH N.; AND OTHERS

    THIS SUGGESTED OUTLINE FOR A COURSE ON RETAIL ORGANIZATION IS PLANNED FOR FIVE 2-HOUR SESSIONS ON (1) EVOLUTION OF RETAIL ORGANIZATIONAL STRUCTURE, (2) ORGANIZATION, INCLUDING CONCEPTS, PRINCIPLES, AND PRACTICES, (3) TYPICAL RETAIL ORGANIZATION PATTERNS, (4) ORGANIZATIONAL AND FUNCTIONAL ANAYSIS, INCLUDING MERCHANDISING, SALES PROMOTION, AND…

  18. 47 CFR 51.609 - Determination of avoided retail costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Determination of avoided retail costs. 51.609... (CONTINUED) INTERCONNECTION Resale § 51.609 Determination of avoided retail costs. (a) Except as provided in § 51.611, the amount of avoided retail costs shall be determined on the basis of a cost study...

  19. 27 CFR 31.51 - Wholesale dealers making retail sales.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... retail sales. 31.51 Section 31.51 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND... Persons Exempt from Registration And/or Recordkeeping § 31.51 Wholesale dealers making retail sales. A... under this part, is exempt from registration at that place as a retail dealer in liquors or in beer....

  20. 27 CFR 31.35 - Limited retail dealer; persons eligible.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Limited retail dealer... Part Dealers Classified § 31.35 Limited retail dealer; persons eligible. Any person selling distilled... “limited retail dealer” if the person or organization is not otherwise engaged in business as a dealer....

  1. 27 CFR 8.54 - Criteria for determining retailer independence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... retailer independence. 8.54 Section 8.54 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND... determining retailer independence. The criteria specified in this section are indications that a particular practice, other than those in §§ 8.52 and 8.53, places retailer independence at risk. A practice need...

  2. 27 CFR 6.153 - Criteria for determining retailer independence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... retailer independence. 6.153 Section 6.153 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX... determining retailer independence. The criteria specified in this section are indications that a particular practice, other than those in § 6.152, places retailer independence at risk. A practice need not meet...

  3. Is There a Relationship Between the Concentration of Same-Sex Couples and Tobacco Retailer Density?

    PubMed Central

    Pan, William K.; Henriksen, Lisa; Goldstein, Adam O.; Ribisl, Kurt M.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Tobacco use is markedly higher among lesbian, gay, and bisexual populations than heterosexuals. Higher density of tobacco retailers is found in neighborhoods with lower income and more racial/ethnic minorities. Same-sex couples tend to live in similar neighborhoods, but the association of this demographic with tobacco retailer density has not been examined. Methods: For a national sample of 97 US counties, we calculated the number of tobacco retailers per 1000 persons and rates of same-sex couples per 1000 households in each census tract (n = 17 941). Using spatial regression, we examined the association of these variables in sex-stratified models, including neighborhood demographics and other environmental characteristics to examine confounding. Results: Results from spatial regression show that higher rates of both female and male same-sex couples were associated with a higher density of tobacco retailers. However the magnitude of this association was small. For female couples, the association was not significant after controlling for area-level characteristics, such as percent black, percent Hispanic, median household income, the presence of interstate highways, and urbanicity, which are neighborhood correlates of higher tobacco retailer density. For male couples, the association persisted after control for these characteristics. Conclusion: Same-sex couples reside in areas with higher tobacco retailer density, and for men, this association was not explained by neighborhood confounders, such as racial/ethnic composition and income. While lesbian, gay, and bisexual disparities in tobacco use may be influenced by neighborhood environment, the magnitude of the association suggests other explanations of these disparities remain important areas of research. PMID:25744959

  4. Retail Deli Slicer Cleaning Frequency--Six Selected Sites, United States, 2012.

    PubMed

    Brown, Laura G; Hoover, E Rickamer; Ripley, Danny; Matis, Bailey; Nicholas, David; Hedeen, Nicole; Faw, Brenda

    2016-04-01

    Listeria monocytogenes (Listeria) causes the third highest number of foodborne illness deaths (an estimated 255) in the United States annually, after nontyphoidal Salmonella species and Toxoplasma gondii (1). Deli meats are a major source of listeriosis illnesses, and meats sliced and packaged at retail delis are the major source of listeriosis illnesses attributed to deli meat (4). Mechanical slicers pose cross-contamination risks in delis and are an important source of Listeria cross-contamination. Reducing Listeria contamination of sliced meats in delis will likely reduce Listeria illnesses and outbreaks. Good slicer cleaning practices can reduce this foodborne illness risk. CDC's Environmental Health Specialists Network (EHS-Net) studied how often retail deli slicers were fully cleaned (disassembled, cleaned, and sanitized) at the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) Food Code-specified minimum frequency of every 4 hours and examined deli and staff characteristics related to slicer cleaning frequency. Interviews with staff members in 298 randomly-selected delis in six EHS-Net sites showed that approximately half of delis fully cleaned their slicers less often than FDA's specified minimum frequency. Chain-owned delis and delis with more customers, more slicers, required manager food safety training, food safety-knowledgeable workers, written slicer-cleaning policies, and food safety-certified managers fully cleaned their slicers more frequently than did other types of delis, according to deli managers or workers. States and localities should require deli manager training and certification, as specified in the FDA Food Code. They should also consider encouraging or requiring delis to have written slicer-cleaning policies. Retail food industry leaders can also implement these prevention efforts to reduce risk in their establishments. Because independent and smaller delis had lower frequencies of slicer cleaning, prevention efforts should focus on these types of

  5. Socioeconomic Status, Food Security, and Dental Caries in US Children: Mediation Analyses of Data From the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2007–2008

    PubMed Central

    Masterson, Erin E.; Carle, Adam C.; Mancl, Lloyd A.; Coldwell, Susan E.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. We examined associations of household socioeconomic status (SES) and food security with children’s oral health outcomes. Methods. We analyzed 2007 and 2008 US National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey data for children aged 5 to 17 years (n = 2206) to examine the relationship between food security and untreated dental caries and to assess whether food security mediates the SES–caries relationship. Results. About 20.1% of children had untreated caries. Most households had full food security (62%); 13% had marginal, 17% had low, and 8% had very low food security. Higher SES was associated with significantly lower caries prevalence (prevalence ratio [PR] = 0.77; 95% confidence interval = 0.63, 0.94; P = .01). Children from households with low or very low food security had significantly higher caries prevalence (PR = 2.00 and PR = 1.70, respectively) than did children living in fully food-secure households. Caries prevalence did not differ among children from fully and marginally food-secure households (P = .17). Food insecurity did not appear to mediate the SES–caries relationship. Conclusions. Interventions and policies to ensure food security may help address the US pediatric caries epidemic. PMID:24625141

  6. Molecular Characterization and Antimicrobial Resistance Profile of Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus in Retail Chicken.

    PubMed

    Sallam, Khalid Ibrahim; Abd-Elghany, Samir Mohammed; Elhadidy, Mohamed; Tamura, Tomohiro

    2015-10-01

    The emergence of livestock-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in food-producing animals is of increasing interest, raising questions about the presence of MRSA in food of animal origin and potential sources of transmission to humans via the food chain. In this study, the prevalence, molecular characterization, virulence factors, and antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of MRSA isolates from 200 retail raw chicken samples in Egypt were determined. MRSA was detected by positive amplification of the mecA gene in 38% (76 of 200) of chicken samples analyzed. This represents a potential public health threat in Egypt, as this contamination rate seems to be the highest among other studies reported worldwide. Furthermore, genes encoding α-hemolysin (hla) and staphylococcal enterotoxins (sea, seb, and sec) were detected in all of the 288 MRSA isolates. Nonetheless, none of the strains tested carried tst, the gene encoding toxic shock syndrome toxin 1. Antimicrobial resistance of MRSA isolates was most frequently detected against penicillin (93.4%), ampicillin (88.9%), and cloxacillin (83.3%). These results suggest that retail chicken might be a significant potential source for transmission of multidrug-resistant and toxigenic S. aureus in Egypt. This underlines the need for stricter hygienic measures in chicken production in Egypt to minimize the risk of transmission of these strains to consumers. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study that reports the isolation and molecular characterization of MRSA in retail chicken samples in Egypt.

  7. Assessment of the Microbiological Safety of Precut Fruit from Retail and Catering Premises in the United Kingdom.

    PubMed

    Willis, Caroline; McLauchlin, Jim; Amar, Corinne; Sadler-Reeves, Lorraine; Elviss, Nicola; Aird, Heather; Fox, Andrew; Kaye, Moira

    2016-04-01

    Fresh fruit has been associated with a number of foodborne outbreaks in recent years. In particular, a large outbreak of listeriosis in the United States in 2011 was associated with consumption of cantaloupe melon, and an outbreak of Salmonella Newport in the United Kingdom and Europe (also in 2011) was linked to watermelon consumption. A study of precut fruit products from catering and retail premises in the United Kingdom was, therefore, carried out to assess their microbiological safety. Between January and March 2012, samples (1,188) of ready-to-eat precut fruit were collected from retail and catering premises in the United Kingdom, and 99% were of satisfactory microbiological quality. However, four samples (0.3%) were of an unsatisfactory quality (one with 800 CFU/g Listeria monocytogenes and three with >100 CFU/g Escherichia coli), and five samples (0.4%) were of a borderline quality owing to the presence of E. coli (two samples with a level of 20 CFU/g), Staphylococcus aureus (two samples with levels of >50 CFU/g), or L. monocytogenes (one sample with a level of 80 CFU/g). L. monocytogenes or other Listeria species were detected in a further 54 samples (4.5%) at levels below the threshold considered to be borderline or unsatisfactory. A significantly larger proportion of samples from one national supermarket chain was contaminated with L. monocytogenes than other supermarkets, and two types were, in this study, unique to this supermarket. This study shows that overall, the microbiological quality of ready-to-eat precut fruit was good. However, the presence of Listeria species in 5% of samples highlights the need for good hygiene during preparation and satisfactory temperature and time control during storage of these food products.

  8. Quantitative risk assessment of human salmonellosis in Canadian broiler chicken breast from retail to consumption.

    PubMed

    Smadi, Hanan; Sargeant, Jan M

    2013-02-01

    The current quantitative risk assessment model followed the framework proposed by the Codex Alimentarius to provide an estimate of the risk of human salmonellosis due to consumption of chicken breasts which were bought from Canadian retail stores and prepared in Canadian domestic kitchens. The model simulated the level of Salmonella contamination on chicken breasts throughout the retail-to-table pathway. The model used Canadian input parameter values, where available, to represent risk of salmonellosis. From retail until consumption, changes in the concentration of Salmonella on each chicken breast were modeled using equations for growth and inactivation. The model predicted an average of 318 cases of salmonellosis per 100,000 consumers per year. Potential reasons for this overestimation were discussed. A sensitivity analysis showed that concentration of Salmonella on chicken breasts at retail and food hygienic practices in private kitchens such as cross-contamination due to not washing cutting boards (or utensils) and hands after handling raw meat along with inadequate cooking contributed most significantly to the risk of human salmonellosis. The outcome from this model emphasizes that responsibility for protection from Salmonella hazard on chicken breasts is a shared responsibility. Data needed for a comprehensive Canadian Salmonella risk assessment were identified for future research.

  9. Genetic Characterization of Staphylococcus aureus Isolated from Retail Meat in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia

    PubMed Central

    Raji, Muhabat A.; Garaween, Ghada; Ehricht, Ralf; Monecke, Stefan; Shibl, Atef M.; Senok, Abiola

    2016-01-01

    Limited data exist from the Gulf Cooperation Council states on the prevalence and population dynamics of Staphylococcus aureus colonizing livestock or contaminating retail meat. This study was designed to determine the presence and genetic characteristics of Staphylococcus aureus isolated from raw retail meat sold in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Over a period of 9 months, different raw retail meat types were aseptically processed using the double broth enrichment technique, characteristic colonies from chromogenic and mannitol salt agar were further identified using conventional methods. Susceptibility to 9 antibiotics was determined using the disc diffusion technique. Interpretation of inhibition zone was done according to Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute guidelines. Molecular characterization was carried out using the StaphyType DNA microarray technology. Twenty-five meat samples yielded Staphylococcus aureus isolates. Camel meat had the highest contamination rate with Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) (20%) and Methicillin susceptible Staphylococcus aureus (28%), while poultry meat had the least contamination rate with MRSA (4%). The MRSA isolates were grouped into 4 clonal complexes (CCs) namely CC1-MRSA-IV/SCCfus (n = 2), CC15-MRSA-V/SCCfus (n = 4), CC80-MRSA-IV/PVL+ (n = 5), and CC88-MRSA-IV/PVL+ (n = 2). All CC15-MRSA-V/SCCfus isolates were obtained from camel meat. This is the first study to demonstrate the novel CC15-MRSA-V/SCCfus in retail camel meat. We recommend that surveillance studies should be incorporated in public health and food hygiene programs. PMID:27375611

  10. Genetic Characterization of Staphylococcus aureus Isolated from Retail Meat in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    Raji, Muhabat A; Garaween, Ghada; Ehricht, Ralf; Monecke, Stefan; Shibl, Atef M; Senok, Abiola

    2016-01-01

    Limited data exist from the Gulf Cooperation Council states on the prevalence and population dynamics of Staphylococcus aureus colonizing livestock or contaminating retail meat. This study was designed to determine the presence and genetic characteristics of Staphylococcus aureus isolated from raw retail meat sold in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Over a period of 9 months, different raw retail meat types were aseptically processed using the double broth enrichment technique, characteristic colonies from chromogenic and mannitol salt agar were further identified using conventional methods. Susceptibility to 9 antibiotics was determined using the disc diffusion technique. Interpretation of inhibition zone was done according to Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute guidelines. Molecular characterization was carried out using the StaphyType DNA microarray technology. Twenty-five meat samples yielded Staphylococcus aureus isolates. Camel meat had the highest contamination rate with Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) (20%) and Methicillin susceptible Staphylococcus aureus (28%), while poultry meat had the least contamination rate with MRSA (4%). The MRSA isolates were grouped into 4 clonal complexes (CCs) namely CC1-MRSA-IV/SCCfus (n = 2), CC15-MRSA-V/SCCfus (n = 4), CC80-MRSA-IV/PVL+ (n = 5), and CC88-MRSA-IV/PVL+ (n = 2). All CC15-MRSA-V/SCCfus isolates were obtained from camel meat. This is the first study to demonstrate the novel CC15-MRSA-V/SCCfus in retail camel meat. We recommend that surveillance studies should be incorporated in public health and food hygiene programs.

  11. National surveillance of Salmonella enterica in food-producing animals in Japan

    PubMed Central

    Ishihara, Kanako; Takahashi, Toshio; Morioka, Ayako; Kojima, Akemi; Kijima, Mayumi; Asai, Tetsuo; Tamura, Yutaka

    2009-01-01

    A total of 518 fecal samples collected from 183 apparently healthy cattle, 180 pigs and 155 broilers throughout Japan in 1999 were examined to determine the prevalence and antimicrobial susceptibility of Salmonella. The isolation rates were 36.1% in broilers, 2.8% in pigs and 0.5% in cattle. S. enterica Infantis was the most frequent isolate, found in 22.6% of broiler fecal samples. Higher resistance rates were observed against oxytetracycline (82.0%), dihydrostreptomycin (77.9%), kanamycin (41.0%) and trimethoprim (35.2%). Resistance rates to ampicillin, ceftiofur, bicozamycin, chloramphenicol and nalidixic acid were <10%. CTX-M-2 β-lactamase producing S. enterica Senftenberg was found in the isolates obtained from one broiler fecal sample. This is the first report of cephalosporin-resistant Salmonella directly isolated from food animal in Japan. PMID:19703311

  12. Using Interactive Whiteboards in Teaching Retail Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greene, Marla; Kirpalani, Nicole

    2013-01-01

    Undergraduate marketing students have sometimes been found to lack mathematical skills. It can therefore be challenging for instructors to effectively teach courses that depend on mathematical problem-solving skills. This paper discusses the use of interactive whiteboards as an innovative way to teach retail mathematics effectively. The authors…

  13. The World of Retailing. Publication No. 0011.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kondras, Robert

    Designed to introduce the world of retailing to junior high school students, the course encompasses three different activities: consumer knowledge, selling, and establishing a school store. Many of the ideas have been used with students in grades 7 and 8. The section on consumer education includes consumer influence and problems, consumer law, and…

  14. 78 FR 42439 - Retail Foreign Exchange Transactions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-16

    ... settle on a T+3 or greater timeline.\\5\\ Significantly, certain types of transactions are not ``retail... subject to certain restrictions) or an alternative monetary test coupled with a non-monetary component (e... enumerated types of regulated entities; and certain governmental entities and individuals that meet...

  15. Retail Florist: Designing Basic Types of Arrangements.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Southern Illinois Univ., Carbondale.

    This retail florist unit guide is provided to help teachers teach a unit on designing basic types of flower arrangements. Topics covered are principles of design, foundation materials used, foundation securing methods, tints and flower dyes, wire and ribbon sizes, color harmony, and basic types of arrangements. Learning activities include choosing…

  16. Virtual Retail Simulations in Second Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drake-Bridges, Erin; Strelzoff, Andrew; Sulbaran, Tulio

    2011-01-01

    This paper explores the use of simulations in virtual reality to teach students the fundamental processes behind retailing and product development. The project described involved one class of students who developed their own clothing lines of "virtual merchandise." A second class of students then "purchased" the wholesale…

  17. Training Retail Managers--A Symposium.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hurley, F. G., Ed.

    This symposium focuses on training programs for managers of department stores, multiple shops, supermarkets and self-service stores, and small independent shops. The authors of each of the four sections in the publication have had experience in training managers in the retail trade. For conceptual and managerial aspects of the manager's job,…

  18. 76 FR 28358 - Retail Foreign Exchange Transactions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-17

    ...The FDIC is proposing regulations that would impose requirements for foreign currency futures, options on futures, and options that an insured depository institution supervised by the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation engages in with retail customers. Pursuant to section 742(c) of the Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act, such transactions will be prohibited as of July......

  19. Investigating Competition in the Retail Petrol Market.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davies, P.

    1984-01-01

    A questionnaire that college economics students can use to investigate the degree and nature of competition in the retail market for petrol is provided. A simple computer program is included to help in the analysis of the questionnaire. (Author/RM)

  20. 76 FR 40779 - Retail Foreign Exchange Transactions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-12

    ...The FDIC is adopting a final rule that imposes requirements for foreign currency futures, options on futures, and options that an insured depository institution supervised by the FDIC engages in with retail customers. The final rule also imposes requirements on other foreign currency transactions that are functionally or economically similar, including so-called ``rolling spot'' transactions......

  1. Enhancing Nutrition Security via India's National Food Security Act: Using an Axe instead of a Scalpel?§

    PubMed Central

    Desai, Sonalde; Vanneman, Reeve

    2016-01-01

    In September 2013, India passed a historic National Food Security Act. This paper examines the potential impact of the two central pillars of this act - expansion of the Public Distribution System and strengthening of the Integrated Child Development Schemes – on child nutrition. Using new data from the India Human Development Survey of 2011-12, this paper shows that access to subsidized grains via PDS is not related to improved child nutrition, and while ICDS seems to be related to lower child undernutrition, it has a limited reach in spite of the universalization of the program. The paper suggests that a tiered strategy in dealing with child undernutrition that starts with the identification of undernourished children and districts and follows through with different strategies for dealing with severe, acute malnutrition, followed by a focus on moderate malnutrition, could be more effective than the existing focus on cereal distribution rooted in the NFSA. PMID:27034596

  2. 77 FR 59404 - Food Defense; Public Workshop

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-27

    ... it relates to food facilities such as farms, manufacturers, processors, distributors, retailers, and....hhs.gov . For information on accommodations: Karen Smith or Andrea Graves at the Robert M. Kerr Food... register by October 31, 2012. The workshop has a registration fee to cover the cost of...

  3. Long-term temporal and spatial dynamics of food availability for endangered mountain gorillas in Volcanoes National Park, Rwanda.

    PubMed

    Grueter, Cyril C; Ndamiyabo, Ferdinand; Plumptre, Andrew J; Abavandimwe, Didier; Mundry, Roger; Fawcett, Katie A; Robbins, Martha M

    2013-03-01

    Monitoring temporal and spatial changes in the resource availability of endangered species contributes to their conservation. The number of critically endangered mountain gorillas (Gorilla beringei beringei) in the Virunga Volcano population has doubled over the past three decades, but no studies have examined how food availability has changed during that period. First, we assessed if the plant species consumed by the gorillas have changed in abundance and distribution during the past two decades. In 2009-2010, we replicated a study conducted in 1988-1989 by measuring the frequency, density, and biomass of plant species consumed by the gorillas in 496 plots (ca. 6 km(2)) in the Karisoke study area in Volcanoes National Park, Rwanda. We expected to observe a decreased presence of major gorilla food plants as a likely result of density-dependent overharvesting by gorillas. Among the five most frequently consumed species (composing approximately 70% of the gorilla's diet, excluding bamboo), two have decreased in availability and abundance, while three have increased. Some species have undergone shifts in their altitudinal distribution, possibly due to regional climatic changes. Second, we made baseline measurements of food availability in a larger area currently utilized by the gorillas. In the extended sampling (n = 473 plots) area (ca. 25 km(2) ), of the five most frequently consumed species, two were not significantly different in frequency from the re-sampled area, while two occurred significantly less frequently, and one occurred significantly more frequently. We discuss the potential impact of gorilla-induced herbivory on changes of vegetation abundance. The changes in the species most commonly consumed by the gorillas could affect their nutrient intake and stresses the importance of monitoring the interrelation among plant population dynamics, species density, and resource use.

  4. Effects of forest structure and composition on food availability for Varecia variegata at Ranomafana National Park, Madagascar

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Balko, E.A.; Underwood, H.B.

    2005-01-01

    We present a summary of a long-term field study that examined the effects of forest disturbance on the availability of palatable fruit and its utilization by V. variegata. Forest structure and tree species composition were measured in three adjacent study areas, with different histories of disturbance, in Ranomafana National Park (RNP), Madagascar. V. variegata abundance was monitored by frequent encounters with resident groups and periodic censuses conducted along trails. Finally, the abundance of mature fruit in species used by V. variegata was scored monthly at representative trees at several locations. V. variegata abundance was most consistent in the least anthropogenically disturbed site, while no established lemur groups were observed in the heavily logged site for over a decade post-harvest. Lemur abundance was variable in the selectively logged site. The presence of select food trees, particularly specimens with voluminous crowns capable of producing abundant fruit crops, appears to be key to the establishment and expansion of V variegata groups. Our analysis of year-long fruit utilization revealed a high degree of preference for several species of trees. Two species exhibited mature fruit in a low percentage of stems but were available for a protracted period of time, while two additional species showed high intraspecific fruiting synchrony and were available for a shorter period of time. These contrasting phenologies, rather than the individual tree species, may be most important to V. variegata due to their coincident timing of fruit maturation with key lemur life-history events. Any disturbance-natural or anthropogenic-that disrupts the phenology cycles of food trees has the potential to impact lemur abundance and dispersion. Intense disturbances, such as heavy logging or severe cyclones, have long-lasting impacts on fruit production, while selective logging or moderate cyclonic windthrow cause more transient impacts. V. variegata is adapted to deal

  5. Elevated contaminants contrasted with potential benefits of ω-3 fatty acids in wild food consumers of two remote first nations communities in northern Ontario, Canada.

    PubMed

    Seabert, Timothy A; Pal, Shinjini; Pinet, Bernard M; Haman, Francois; Robidoux, Michael A; Imbeault, Pascal; Krümmel, Eva M; Kimpe, Linda E; Blais, Jules M

    2014-01-01

    Indigenous communities in Boreal environments rely on locally-harvested wild foods for sustenance. These foods provide many nutritional benefits including higher levels of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs; such as ω-3) than what is commonly found in store-bought foods. However, wild foods can be a route of exposure to dietary mercury and persistent organic pollutants (POPs) such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). Here, we show a strong association between the frequency of wild food consumption in adults (N=72) from two remote First Nations communities of Northern Ontario and environmental contaminants in blood (POPs) and hair (mercury). We observed that POPs and mercury were on average 3.5 times higher among those consuming wild foods more often, with many frequent wild food consumers exceeding Canadian and international health guidelines for PCB and mercury exposures. Contaminants in locally-harvested fish and game from these communities were sufficiently high that many participants exceeded the monthly consumption limits for methylmercury and PCBs. Those consuming more wild foods also had higher proportions of potentially beneficial ω-3 fatty acids including eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). These results show that the benefits of traditional dietary choices in Boreal regions of Canada must be weighed against the inherent risks of contaminant exposure from these foods.

  6. Elevated Contaminants Contrasted with Potential Benefits of ω-3 Fatty Acids in Wild Food Consumers of Two Remote First Nations Communities in Northern Ontario, Canada

    PubMed Central

    Seabert, Timothy A.; Pal, Shinjini; Pinet, Bernard M.; Haman, Francois; Robidoux, Michael A.; Imbeault, Pascal; Krümmel, Eva M.; Kimpe, Linda E.; Blais, Jules M.

    2014-01-01

    Indigenous communities in Boreal environments rely on locally-harvested wild foods for sustenance. These foods provide many nutritional benefits including higher levels of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs; such as ω-3) than what is commonly found in store-bought foods. However, wild foods can be a route of exposure to dietary mercury and persistent organic pollutants (POPs) such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). Here, we show a strong association between the frequency of wild food consumption in adults (N = 72) from two remote First Nations communities of Northern Ontario and environmental contaminants in blood (POPs) and hair (mercury). We observed that POPs and mercury were on average 3.5 times higher among those consuming wild foods more often, with many frequent wild food consumers exceeding Canadian and international health guidelines for PCB and mercury exposures. Contaminants in locally-harvested fish and game from these communities were sufficiently high that many participants exceeded the monthly consumption limits for methylmercury and PCBs. Those consuming more wild foods also had higher proportions of potentially beneficial ω-3 fatty acids including eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). These results show that the benefits of traditional dietary choices in Boreal regions of Canada must be weighed against the inherent risks of contaminant exposure from these foods. PMID:24598815

  7. Survival of enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157:H7 in retail mustard.

    PubMed

    Mayerhauser, C M

    2001-06-01

    Escherichia coli O157:H7 survival in acid foods such as unpasteurized apple cider and fermented sausage is well documented. Researchers have determined that E. coli O157:H7 can survive in refrigerated acid foods for weeks. The potential of acid foods to serve as a vector of E. coli O157:H7 foodborne illness prompted this study to determine the fate of this organism in retail mustard containing acetic acid when stored at room and refrigerated temperatures. Various retail brands of dijon, yellow, and deli style mustard, pH ranging from 3.17 to 3.63, were inoculated individually with three test strains of E. coli O157:H7. Samples were inoculated with approximately 1.0 x 10(6) CFU/g, incubated at room (25+/-2.5 degrees C) and refrigerated (5+/-3 degrees C) temperatures, and assayed for surviving test strains at predetermined time intervals. An aliquot was appropriately diluted and plated using sorbitol MacConkey agar (SMAC). When the test strain was not recoverable by direct plating, the sample was assayed by enrichment in modified tryptic soy broth and recovered using SMAC. Growth of E. coli O157:H7 test strains was inhibited in all retail mustard styles. E. coli O157:H7 was not detected in dijon style mustard beyond 3 h at room and 2 days at refrigerated temperatures. Survival in yellow and deli style mustard was not detected beyond 1 h. Overall, test strain survival was greater at refrigerated than room temperature. Retail mustard demonstrated the ability to eliminate effectively any chance contamination by this organism within hours to days, suggesting that these products are not a likely factor in E. coli O157:H7 foodborne illness.

  8. Estimating the Global Prevalence of Zinc Deficiency: Results Based on Zinc Availability in National Food Supplies and the Prevalence of Stunting

    PubMed Central

    Wessells, K. Ryan; Brown, Kenneth H.

    2012-01-01

    Background Adequate zinc nutrition is essential for adequate growth, immunocompetence and neurobehavioral development, but limited information on population zinc status hinders the expansion of interventions to control zinc deficiency. The present analyses were conducted to: (1) estimate the country-specific prevalence of inadequate zinc intake; and (2) investigate relationships between country-specific estimated prevalence of dietary zinc inadequacy and dietary patterns and stunting prevalence. Methodology and Principal Findings National food balance sheet data were obtained from the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. Country-specific estimated prevalence of inadequate zinc intake were calculated based on the estimated absorbable zinc content of the national food supply, International Zinc Nutrition Consultative Group estimated physiological requirements for absorbed zinc, and demographic data obtained from United Nations estimates. Stunting data were obtained from a recent systematic analysis based on World Health Organization growth standards. An estimated 17.3% of the world’s population is at risk of inadequate zinc intake. Country-specific estimated prevalence of inadequate zinc intake was negatively correlated with the total energy and zinc contents of the national food supply and the percent of zinc obtained from animal source foods, and positively correlated with the phytate: zinc molar ratio of the food supply. The estimated prevalence of inadequate zinc intake was correlated with the prevalence of stunting (low height-for-age) in children under five years of age (r = 0.48, P<0.001). Conclusions and Significance These results, which indicate that inadequate dietary zinc intake may be fairly common, particularly in Sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia, allow inter-country comparisons regarding the relative likelihood of zinc deficiency as a public health problem. Data from these analyses should be used to determine the need for

  9. Presence of mcr-1-positive Enterobacteriaceae in retail chicken meat but not in humans in the Netherlands since 2009.

    PubMed

    Kluytmans-van den Bergh, Marjolein F; Huizinga, Pepijn; Bonten, Marc J; Bos, Martine; De Bruyne, Katrien; Friedrich, Alexander W; Rossen, John W; Savelkoul, Paul H; Kluytmans, Jan A

    2016-01-01

    Recently, the plasmid-mediated colistin resistance gene mcr-1 was found in Enterobacteriaceae from humans, pigs and retail meat in China. Several reports have documented global presence of the gene in Enterobacteriaceae from humans, food animals and food since. We screened several well-characterised strain collections of Enterobacteriaceae, obtained from retail chicken meat and hospitalised patients in the Netherlands between 2009 and 2015, for presence of colistin resistance and the mcr-1 gene. A total of 2,471 Enterobacteriaceae isolates, from surveys in retail chicken meat (196 isolates), prevalence surveys in hospitalised patients (1,247 isolates), clinical cultures (813 isolates) and outbreaks in healthcare settings (215 isolates), were analysed. The mcr-1 gene was identified in three (1.5%) of 196 extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Escherichia coli isolates from retail chicken meat samples in 2009 and 2014. Two isolates were obtained from the same batch of meat samples, most likely representing contamination from a common source. No mcr-1-positive isolates were identified among 2,275 human isolates tested. All mcr-1-positive isolates were colistin-resistant (minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) > 2 mg/L). Our findings indicate that mcr-1-based colistin-resistance currently poses no threat to healthcare in the Netherlands. They indicate however that continued monitoring of colistin resistance and its underlying mechanisms in humans, livestock and food is needed.

  10. Extraintestinal Pathogenic and Antimicrobial-Resistant Escherichia coli, Including Sequence Type 131 (ST131), from Retail Chicken Breasts in the United States in 2013.

    PubMed

    Johnson, James R; Porter, Stephen B; Johnston, Brian; Thuras, Paul; Clock, Sarah; Crupain, Michael; Rangan, Urvashi

    2017-03-15

    Chicken meat products are hypothesized to be vehicles for transmitting antimicrobial-resistant and extraintestinal pathogenic Escherichia coli (ExPEC) to consumers. To reassess this hypothesis in the current era of heightened concerns about antimicrobial use in food animals, we analyzed 175 chicken-source E. coli isolates from a 2013 Consumer Reports national survey. Isolates were screened by PCR for ExPEC-defining virulence genes. The 25 ExPEC isolates (12% of 175) and a 2:1 randomly selected set of 50 non-ExPEC isolates were assessed for their phylogenetic/clonal backgrounds and virulence genotypes for comparison with their resistance profiles and the claims on the retail packaging label ("organic," "no antibiotics," and "natural"). Compared with the findings for non-ExPEC isolates, the group of ExPEC isolates had a higher prevalence of phylogroup B2 isolates (44% versus 4%; P < 0.001) and a lower prevalence of phylogroup A isolates (4% versus 30%; P = 0.001), a higher prevalence of multiple individual virulence genes, higher virulence scores (median, 11 [range, 4 to 16] versus 8 [range, 1 to 14]; P = 0.001), and higher resistance scores (median, 4 [range, 0 to 8] versus 3 [range, 0 to 10]; P < 0.001). All five isolates of sequence type 131 (ST131) were ExPEC (P = 0.003), were as extensively resistant as the other isolates tested, and had higher virulence scores than the other isolates tested (median, 12 [range, 11 to 13] versus 8 [range, 1 to 16]; P = 0.005). Organic labeling predicted lower resistance scores (median, 2 [range, 0 to 3] versus 4 [range, 0 to 10]; P = 0.008) but no difference in ExPEC status or virulence scores. These findings document a persisting reservoir of extensively antimicrobial-resistant ExPEC isolates, including isolates from ST131, in retail chicken products in the United States, suggesting a potential public health threat.IMPORTANCE We found that among Escherichia coli isolates from retail chicken meat products purchased across the

  11. Where are the food deserts? An evaluation of policy-relevant measures of community food access in South Carolina.

    PubMed

    Liese, Angela D; Hibbert, James D; Ma, Xiaoguang; Bell, Bethany A; Battersby, Sarah E

    Several recent United States (US) policies target spatial access to healthier food retailers. We evaluated two measures of community food access developed by two different agencies, using a 2009 food environment validation study in South Carolina as a reference. While the US Department of Agriculture Economic Research Service's (USDA ERS) measure designated 22.5% of census tracts as food deserts, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's (CDC) measure designated 29.0% as non-healthier retail tracts; 71% of tracts were designated consistently between USDA ERS and CDC. Our findings suggest a need for greater harmonization of these measures of community food access.

  12. Nonresponse and Underreporting Errors Increase over the Data Collection Week Based on Paradata from the National Household Food Acquisition and Purchase Survey.

    PubMed

    Hu, Mengyao; Gremel, Garrett W; Kirlin, John A; West, Brady T

    2017-03-15

    Background: Food acquisition diary surveys are important for studying food expenditures, factors affecting food acquisition decisions, and relations between these decisions with selected measures of health (e.g., body mass index, self-reported health). However, to our knowledge, no studies have evaluated the errors associated with these diary surveys, which can bias survey estimates and research findings. The use of paradata, which has been largely ignored in previous literature on diary surveys, could be useful for studying errors in these surveys.Objective: We used paradata to assess survey errors in the National Household Food Acquisition and Purchase Survey (FoodAPS).Methods: To evaluate the patterns of nonresponse over the diary period, we fit a multinomial logistic regression model to data from this 1-wk diary survey. We also assessed factors influencing respondents' probability of reporting food acquisition events during the diary process by using logistic regression models. Finally, with the use of an ordinal regression model, we studied factors influencing respondents' perceived ease of participation in the survey.Results: As the diary period progressed, nonresponse increased, especially for those starting the survey on Friday (where the odds of a refusal increased by 12% with each fielding day). The odds of reporting food acquisition events also decreased by 6% with each additional fielding day. Similarly, the odds of reporting ≥1 food-away-from-home event (i.e., meals, snacks, and drinks obtained outside the home) decreased significantly over the fielding period. Male respondents, larger households, households that eat together less often, and households with frequent guests reported a significantly more difficult time getting household members to participate, as did non-English-speaking households and households currently experiencing difficult financial conditions.Conclusions: Nonresponse and underreporting of food acquisition events tended to

  13. Iron deficiency is associated with food insecurity in pregnant females in the United States: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1999-2010.

    PubMed

    Park, Clara Y; Eicher-Miller, Heather A

    2014-12-01

    Food-insecure pregnant females may be at greater risk of iron deficiency (ID) because nutrition needs increase and more resources are needed to secure food during pregnancy. This may result in a higher risk of infant low birth weight and possibly cognitive impairment in the neonate. The relationships of food insecurity and poverty income ratio (PIR) with iron intake and ID among pregnant females in the United States were investigated using National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1999-2010 data (n=1,045). Food security status was classified using the US Food Security Survey Module. One 24-hour dietary recall and a 30-day supplement recall were used to assess iron intake. Ferritin, soluble transferrin receptor, or total body iron classified ID. Difference of supplement intake prevalence, difference in mean iron intake, and association of ID and food security status or PIR were assessed using χ(2) analysis, Student t test, and logistic regression analysis (adjusted for age, race, survey year, PIR/food security status, education, parity, trimester, smoking, C-reactive protein level, and health insurance coverage), respectively. Mean dietary iron intake was similar among groups. Mean supplemental and total iron intake were lower, whereas odds of ID, classified by ferritin status, were 2.90 times higher for food-insecure pregnant females compared with food-secure pregnant females. Other indicators of ID were not associated with food security status. PIR was not associated with iron intake or ID. Food insecurity status may be a better indicator compared with income status to identify populations at whom to direct interventions aimed at improving access and education regarding iron-rich foods and supplements.

  14. Global forest cover mapping for the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization forest resources assessment 2000 program

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zhu, Z.; Waller, E.

    2003-01-01

    Many countries periodically produce national reports on the status and changes of forest resources, using statistical surveys and spatial mapping of remotely sensed data. At the global level, the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) of the United Nations has conducted a Forest Resources Assessment (FRA) program every 10 yr since 1980, producing statistics and analysis that give a global synopsis of forest resources in the world. For the year 2000 of the FRA program (FRA2000), a global forest cover map was produced to provide spatial context to the extensive survey. The forest cover map, produced at the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) EROS Data Center (EDC), has five classes: closed forest, open or fragmented forest, other wooded land, other land cover, and water. The first two forested classes at the global scale were delineated using combinations of temporal compositing, modified mixture analysis, geographic stratification, and other classification techniques. The remaining three FAO classes were derived primarily from the USGS global land cover characteristics database (Loveland et al. 1999). Validated on the basis of existing reference data sets, the map is estimated to be 77% accurate for the first four classes (no reference data were available for water), and 86% accurate for the forest and nonforest classification. The final map will be published as an insert to the FAO FRA2000 report.

  15. Comparison of public health impact of Listeria monocytogenes product-to-product and environment-to-product contamination of deli meats at retail.

    PubMed

    Pradhan, Abani K; Ivanek, Renata; Gröhn, Yrjö T; Bukowski, Robert; Wiedmann, Martin

    2011-11-01

    This study compared the relative public health impact in deli meats at retail contaminated with Listeria monocytogenes by either (i) other products or (ii) the retail environment. Modeling was performed using the risk of listeriosis-associated deaths as a public health outcome of interest and using two deli meat products (i.e., ham and turkey, both formulated without growth inhibitors) as model systems. Based on reported data, deli meats coming to retail were assumed to be contaminated at a frequency of 0.4%. Three contamination scenarios were investigated: (i) a baseline scenario, in which no additional cross-contamination occurred at retail, (ii) a scenario in which an additional 2.3% of products were cross-contaminated at retail due to transfer of L. monocytogenes cells from already contaminated ready-to-eat deli meats, and (iii) a scenario in which an additional 2.3% of products were contaminated as a result of cross-contamination from a contaminated retail environment. By using a previously reported L. monocytogenes risk assessment model that uses product-specific growth kinetic parameters, cross-contamination of deli ham and turkey was estimated to increase the relative risk of listeriosis-associated deaths by 5.9- and 6.1-fold, respectively, for contamination from other products and by 4.9- and 5.8-fold, respectively, for contamination from the retail environment. Sensitivity and scenario analyses indicated that the frequency of cross-contamination at retail from any source (other food products or environment) was the most important factor affecting the relative risk of listeriosis-associated deaths. Overall, our data indicate that retail-level cross-contamination of ready-to-eat deli meats with L. monocytogenes has the potential to considerably increase the risk of human listeriosis cases and deaths, and thus precise estimates of cross-contamination frequency are critical for accurate risk assessments.

  16. Food-related energy requirements.

    PubMed

    Hirst, E

    1974-04-12

    I have used data from input-output studies to determine the quantities of primary and electric energy consumed in the agricultural, processing, transportation, wholesale and retail trade, and household sectors for personal consumption of food. Before one draws conclusions from these results, it is important to note the assumptions and approximations used in this analysis. First, the economic input-output data published by the Department of Commerce are subject to a number of inaccuracies, including lack of complete coverage for an industry, restriction of data for proprietary reasons, and use of different time periods for different data. Second, aggregation can combine within the same sector industries whose energy intensities differ widely. For example, eating and drinking establishments probably consume more energy per dollar of sales (because of refrigerators, stoves, and freezers) than do department stores. However, both types of establishment are included in retail trade. Thus energy use for food-related retail trade may be underestimated because of aggregation. Third, the energy coefficients are subject to error. In particular, the coefficients for the agricultural and trade sectors are vulnerable because energy use within these sectors is not well documented. Finally, the scaling factor used to estimate food-related energy use for the 1960's is approximate, in that it neglects the possibility that these energy coefficients changed differently with time. Because of these limitations, which are described more fully by Herendeen (6), a number of important issues were not addressed here. such as relative energy requirements for fresh, frozen, and canned vegetables; and for soybeans as compared to beef. This analysis shows that the U.S. food cycle consumes a considerable amount of energy, about 12 percent of the total national energy budget. The residential sector, which accounts for 30 percent of the total, is the most energy-intensive sector in terms of energy

  17. Prevalence of Campylobacter spp. in Retail Chicken, Turkey, Pork, and Beef Meat in Poland between 2009 and 2013.

    PubMed

    Korsak, Dorota; Maćkiw, Elżbieta; Rożynek, Elżbieta; Żyłowska, Monika

    2015-05-01

    The purpose of the present study was to determine the prevalence of thermophilic Campylobacter in poultry, pork, and beef meat at the retail level and to identify the main categories of meat representing the most significant reservoirs of Campylobacter. A monitoring study was conducted throughout Poland from 2009 to 2013. A total of 1,700 fresh meat samples were collected from supermarkets, large retail outlets, and smaller stores. Thermophilic Campylobacter species were detected in 690 (49.3%) of 1,400 poultry samples collected from retail trade. Strains were isolated from 50.2 and 41.1% of raw chicken and turkey meat samples, respectively, and from 50.1 and 42.6% of raw chicken and turkey giblets. The incidence of Campylobacter spp. on pork (10.6%) and beef (10.1%) was significantly lower than on poultry. Campylobacter jejuni was the most prevalent Campylobacter species in chicken (46.6%), pork (68.6%), and beef (66.7%), and Campylobacter coli was the most frequently isolated Campylobacter species in turkey meat (71.2%). This study revealed that retail raw meats are often contaminated with Campylobacter; however, the prevalence of these pathogens is markedly different in different meats. Raw retail meats are potential vehicles for transmitting foodborne diseases, and our findings stress the need for increased implementation of hazard analysis critical control point programs and consumer food safety education efforts.

  18. Microbiological quality of some spices and herbs in retail markets.

    PubMed

    Schwab, A H; Harpestad, A D; Swartzentruber, A; Lanier, J M; Wentz, B A; Duran, A P; Barnard, R J; Read, R B

    1982-09-01

    The microbiological quality of 10 spices or herbs was determined by a national survey at the retail level. Aerobic plate count values for the 10 products ranged from less than 100 to 3.1 X 10(8) per g; mean values of the individual spices or herbs ranged from 1,400 to 820,000 per g. Coliform counts ranged from less than 3 to 1.1 X 10(6) per g; however, mean values were less than 20 per g for all products. Escherichia coli counts ranged from less than 3 to 2,300 per g. Except for celery seed, which had a mean value of 7 per g, all mean values were less than 3 per g. Yeast and mold counts were made for 5 of the 10 products. Mean values were generally low; the highest mean (290 per g) was obtained for cinnamon.

  19. Microbiological quality of some spices and herbs in retail markets.

    PubMed Central

    Schwab, A H; Harpestad, A D; Swartzentruber, A; Lanier, J M; Wentz, B A; Duran, A P; Barnard, R J; Read, R B

    1982-01-01

    The microbiological quality of 10 spices or herbs was determined by a national survey at the retail level. Aerobic plate count values for the 10 products ranged from less than 100 to 3.1 X 10(8) per g; mean values of the individual spices or herbs ranged from 1,400 to 820,000 per g. Coliform counts ranged from less than 3 to 1.1 X 10(6) per g; however, mean values were less than 20 per g for all products. Escherichia coli counts ranged from less than 3 to 2,300 per g. Except for celery seed, which had a mean value of 7 per g, all mean values were less than 3 per g. Yeast and mold counts were made for 5 of the 10 products. Mean values were generally low; the highest mean (290 per g) was obtained for cinnamon. PMID:7138003

  20. Food and agricultural research in changing times: Highlights of a national round table. Held in Washington, DC on June 16, 1995. Special report

    SciTech Connect

    Ridgway, R.L.; Reeder, R.

    1995-11-01

    A National Round Table on Food and Agricultural Research in Changing Times was held to (1) present an overview of Federal research programs, (2) review information gained from four regional focus groups conducted to obtain grassroots inputs into Federal agricultural research and extension programs, (3) integrate regional inputs with those from national organizations representing diverse constituents, and (4) enhance communication and collaboration among constituents of the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA), other Federal research agencies, Congress, and the Administration.