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Sample records for national synchrotron light

  1. National Synchrotron Light Source

    SciTech Connect

    2009-03-10

    A tour of Brookhaven's National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS). The NSLS is one of the world's most widely used scientific research facilities, hosting more than 2,500 guest researchers each year. The NSLS provides intense beams of infrared, ultraviole

  2. National Synchrotron Light Source

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2016-07-12

    A tour of Brookhaven's National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS). The NSLS is one of the world's most widely used scientific research facilities, hosting more than 2,500 guest researchers each year. The NSLS provides intense beams of infrared, ultraviole

  3. National Synchrotron Light Source

    ScienceCinema

    BNL

    2016-07-12

    A tour of Brookhaven's National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS), hosted by Associate Laboratory Director for Light Sources, Stephen Dierker. The NSLS is one of the world's most widely used scientific research facilities, hosting more than 2,500 guest researchers each year. The NSLS provides intense beams of infrared, ultraviolet, and x-ray light for basic and applied research in physics, chemistry, medicine, geophysics, environmental, and materials sciences.

  4. National Synchrotron Light Source II

    ScienceCinema

    Steve Dierker

    2016-07-12

    The National Synchrotron Light Source II (NSLS-II) at the U.S. Department of Energy's Brookhaven National Laboratory is a proposed new state-of-the-art medium energy storage ring designed to deliver world-leading brightness and flux with top-off operation

  5. National Synchrotron Light Source II

    SciTech Connect

    Steve Dierker

    2008-03-12

    The National Synchrotron Light Source II (NSLS-II) at the U.S. Department of Energy's Brookhaven National Laboratory is a proposed new state-of-the-art medium energy storage ring designed to deliver world-leading brightness and flux with top-off operation

  6. National Synchrotron Light Source annual report 1988

    SciTech Connect

    Hulbert, S.; Lazarz, N.; Williams, G.

    1988-01-01

    This report discusses the experiment done at the National Synchrotron Light Source. Most experiments discussed involves the use of the x-ray beams to study physical properties of solid materials. (LSP)

  7. National Synchrotron Light Source 2008 Activity Report

    SciTech Connect

    Nasta,K.

    2009-05-01

    Funded by the U.S. Department of Energy's Office of Basic Energy Sciences, the National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS) is a national user facility that operates two electron storage rings: X-Ray (2.8 GeV, 300 mA) and Vacuum Ultraviolet (VUV) (800 mev, 1.0A). These two rings provide intense light spanning the electromagnetic spectrum -- from very long infrared rays to ultraviolet light and super-short x-rays -- to analyze very small or highly dilute samples. The properties of this light, and the specially designed experimental stations, called beamlines, allow scientists in many diverse disciplines of research to perform experiments not possible at their own laboratories. Each year, about 2,200 scientists from more than 400 universities and companies use the NSLS for research in such diverse fields as biology, physics, chemistry, geology, medicine, and environmental and materials sciences. For example, researchers have used the NSLS to examine the minute details of computer chips, decipher the structures of viruses, probe the density of bone, determine the chemical composition of moon rocks, and reveal countless other mysteries of science. The facility has 65 operating beamlines, with 51 beamlines on the X-Ray Ring and 14 beamlines on the VUV-Infrared Ring. It runs seven days a week, 24 hours a day throughout the year, except during periods of maintenance and studies. Researchers are not charged for beam time, provided that the research results are published in open literature. Proprietary research is conducted on a full-cost-recovery basis. With close to 1,000 publications per year, the NSLS is one of the most prolific scientific facilities in the world. Among the many accolades given to its users and staff, the NSLS has won nine R&D 100 Awards for innovations ranging from a closed orbit feedback system to the first device able to focus a large spread of high-energy x-rays. In addition, a visiting NSLS researcher shared the 2003 Nobel Prize in Chemistry for work

  8. National Synchrotron Light Source 2010 Activity Report

    SciTech Connect

    Rowe, M.; Snyder, K. J.

    2010-12-29

    This is a very exciting period for photon sciences at Brookhaven National Laboratory. It is also a time of unprecedented growth for the Photon Sciences Directorate, which operates the National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS) and is constructing NSLS-II, both funded by the Department of Energy's Office of Science. Reflecting the quick pace of our activities, we chose the theme 'Discovery at Light Speed' for the directorate's 2010 annual report, a fiscal year bookended by October 2009 and September 2010. The year began with the news that NSLS users Venki Ramakrishnan of Cambridge University (also a former employee in Brookhaven's biology department) and Thomas A. Steitz of Yale University were sharing the 2009 Nobel Prize in Chemistry with Ada E. Yonath of the Weizmann Institute of Science. Every research project has the potential for accolades. In 2010, NSLS users and staff published close to 900 papers, with about 170 appearing in premiere journals. Those are impressive stats for a facility nearly three decades old, testament to the highly dedicated team keeping NSLS at peak performance and the high quality of its user community. Our NSLS users come from a worldwide community of scientists using photons, or light, to carry out research in energy and environmental sciences, physics, materials science, chemistry, biology and medicine. All are looking forward to the new capabilities enabled by NSLS-II, which will offer unprecedented resolution at the nanoscale. The new facility will produce x-rays more than 10,000 times brighter than the current NSLS and host a suite of sophisticated instruments for cutting-edge science. Some of the scientific discoveries we anticipate at NSLS-II will lead to major advances in alternative energy technologies, such as hydrogen and solar. These discoveries could pave the way to: (1) catalysts that split water with sunlight for hydrogen production; (2) materials that can reversibly store large quantities of electricity or hydrogen; (3

  9. Status of the National Synchrotron Light Source project

    SciTech Connect

    Heese, R.N.

    1981-01-01

    The National Synchrotron Light Source is in its final stages of construction, and as the turn-on time for the 700 MeV vuv storage ring draws near, an overview of the project is presented. Emphasis is placed on the linac and booster synchrotron performance and the status of major subsystems.

  10. Research by industry at the National Synchrotron Light Source

    SciTech Connect

    1995-05-01

    The world`s foremost facility for research using x-rays and ultraviolet and infrared radiation, is operated by the National Synchrotron Light Source dept. This pamphlet described the participating research teams that built most of the beam lines, various techniques for studying materials, treatment of materials, and various industrial research (catalysis, pharmaceuticals, etc.).

  11. Computerized microtomography using synchrotron radiation from the NSLS (National Synchrotron Light Source)

    SciTech Connect

    Spanne, P.; Rivers, M.L.

    1986-09-01

    Results of microtomography experiments that employ filtered radiation from the National Synchrotron Light Source X-26 Microprobe beam line are presented. These experiments have yielded images of a freeze-dried caterpillar with a spatial resolution of the order of 30 ..mu..m and show that the limit on the spatial resolution with the present apparatus will be 1 to 10 ..mu..m. Directions for improvement in synchrotron microtomography techniques and some possible applications are discussed. 14 refs., 3 figs.

  12. NATIONAL SYNCHROTRON LIGHT SOURCE ACTIVITY REPORT 1998.

    SciTech Connect

    ROTHMAN,E.

    1999-05-01

    In FY 1998, following the 50th Anniversary Year of Brookhaven National Laboratory, Brookhaven Science Associates became the new Managers of BNL. The new start is an appropriate time to take stock of past achievements and to renew or confirm future goals. During the 1998 NSLS Annual Users Meeting (described in Part 3 of this Activity Report), the DOE Laboratory Operations Board, Chaired by the Under Secretary for Energy, Ernest Moniz met at BNL. By chance all the NSLS Chairmen except Martin Blume (acting NSLS Chair 84-85) were present as recorded in the picture. Under their leadership the NSLS has improved dramatically: (1) The VUV Ring current has increased from 100 mA in October 1982 to nearly 1 A today. For the following few years 10 Ahrs of current were delivered most weeks - NSLS now exceeds that every day. (2) When the first experiments were performed on the X-ray ring during FY1985 the electron energy was 2 GeV and the current up to 100 mA - the X-Ray Ring now runs routinely at 2.5 GeV and at 2.8 GeV with up to 350 mA of current, with a very much longer beam half-life and improved reliability. (3) Starting in FY 1984 the proposal for the Phase II upgrade, mainly for a building extension and a suite of insertion devices and their associated beamlines, was pursued - the promises were delivered in full so that for some years now the NSLS has been running with two undulators in the VUV Ring and three wigglers and an undulator in the X-Ray Ring. In addition two novel insertion devices have been commissioned in the X13 straight. (4) At the start of FY 1998 the NSLS welcomed its 7000th user - attracted by the opportunity for pursuing research with high quality beams, guaranteed not to be interrupted by 'delivery failures', and welcomed by an efficient and caring user office and first class teams of PRT and NSLS staff. R & D have lead to the possibility of running the X-Ray Ring at the higher energy of 2.8 GeV. Figure 1 shows the first user beam, which was provided

  13. NATIONAL SYNCHROTRON LIGHT SOURCE MEDICAL PERSONNEL PROTECTION INTERLOCK

    SciTech Connect

    BUDA,S.; GMUR,N.F.; LARSON,R.; THOMLINSON,W.

    1998-11-03

    This report is founded on reports written in April 1987 by Robert Hettel for angiography operations at the Stanford Synchrotron Research Laboratory (SSRL) and a subsequent report covering angiography operations at the National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS); BNL Informal Report 47681, June 1992. The latter report has now been rewritten in order to accurately reflect the design and installation of a new medical safety system at the NSLS X17B2 beamline Synchrotron Medical Research Facility (SMERF). Known originally as the Angiography Personnel Protection Interlock (APPI), this system has been modified to incorporate other medical imaging research programs on the same beamline and thus the name has been changed to the more generic Medical Personnel Protection Interlock (MPPI). This report will deal almost exclusively with the human imaging (angiography, bronchography, mammography) aspects of the safety system, but will briefly explain the modular aspects of the system allowing other medical experiments to be incorporated.

  14. Laue diffraction protein crystallography at the National Synchrotron Light Source

    SciTech Connect

    Getzoff, E.D.; McRee, D. ); Jones, K.W.; Spanne, P.; Sweet, R.M. ); Moffat, K.; Ng, K.; Rivers, M.L.; Schildkamp, W.; Teng, T.Y. ); Singer, P.T.; Westbrook, E.M. )

    1992-01-01

    A new facility for the study of protein crystal structure using Laue diffraction has been established at the X26 beam line of the National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS) at Brookhaven National Laboratory. The characteristics of the beam line and diffraction apparatus are described. Selected results of some of the initial experiments are discussed briefly by beam line users to illustrate the scope of the experimental program. Because the Laue method permits the recording of large data sets in a single shot, one goal in establishing this facility has been to develop the means to study time-resolved structures within protein crystals. Systems being studied include: the reactions catalyzed by trypsin; photolysis of carbonmonoxy myoglobin; and the photocycle of photoactive yellow protein.

  15. Laue diffraction protein crystallography at the National Synchrotron Light Source

    SciTech Connect

    Getzoff, E.D.; McRee, D.; Jones, K.W.; Spanne, P.; Sweet, R.M.; Moffat, K.; Ng, K.; Rivers, M.L.; Schildkamp, W.; Teng, T.Y.; Singer, P.T.; Westbrook, E.M.

    1992-12-31

    A new facility for the study of protein crystal structure using Laue diffraction has been established at the X26 beam line of the National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS) at Brookhaven National Laboratory. The characteristics of the beam line and diffraction apparatus are described. Selected results of some of the initial experiments are discussed briefly by beam line users to illustrate the scope of the experimental program. Because the Laue method permits the recording of large data sets in a single shot, one goal in establishing this facility has been to develop the means to study time-resolved structures within protein crystals. Systems being studied include: the reactions catalyzed by trypsin; photolysis of carbonmonoxy myoglobin; and the photocycle of photoactive yellow protein.

  16. National Synchrotron Light Source medical personnel protection interlock

    SciTech Connect

    Buda, S.; Gmuer, N.F.; Larson, R.; Thomlinson, W.

    1998-11-01

    This report is founded on reports written in April 1987 by Robert Hettel for angiography operations at the Stanford Synchrotron Research Laboratory (SSRL) and a subsequent report covering angiography operations at the National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS); BNL Informal Report 47681, June 1992. The latter report has now been rewritten in order to accurately reflect the design and installation of a new medical safety system at the NSLS X17B2 beamline Synchrotron Medical Research Facility (SMERF). Known originally as the Angiography Personnel Protection Interlock (APPI), this system has been modified to incorporate other medical imaging research programs on the same beamline and thus the name has been changed to the more generic Medical Personnel Protection Interlock (MPPI). This report will deal almost exclusively with the human imaging (angiography, bronchography, mammography) aspects of the safety system, but will briefly explain the modular aspects of the system allowing other medical experiments to be incorporated. This MPPI report is organized such that the level of detail changes from a general overview to detailed engineering drawings of the hardware system. The general overview is presented in Section 1.0, MPPI Operational Mode and Procedures. The various MPPI components are described in detail in Section 2.0. Section 3.0 presents some simplified logic diagrams and accompanying text. This section was written to allow readers to become familiar with the logic system without having to work through the entire set of detailed engineering drawings listed in the Appendix. Detailed logic specifications are given in Section 4.0. The Appendix also contains copies of the current MPPI interlock test procedures for Setup and Patient Modes.

  17. DEVELOPMENTS IN SYNCHROTRON X-RAY COMPUTED MICROTOMOGRAPHY AT THE NATIONAL SYNCHROTRON LIGHT SOURCE.

    SciTech Connect

    DOWD,B.A.

    1999-07-23

    Last year, the X27A beamline at the National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS) became dedicated solely to X-Ray Computed Microtomography (XCMT). This is a third-generation instrument capable of producing tomographic volumes of 1-2 micron resolution over a 2-3mm field of view. Recent enhancements will be discussed. These have focused on two issues: the desire for real-time data acquisition and processing and the need for highly monochromatic beam (.1 % energy bandpass). The latter will permit k-edge subtraction studies and will provide improved image contrast from below the Cr (6 keV) up to the Cs (36 keV) k-edge. A range of applications that benefit from these improvements will be discussed as well. These two goals are somewhat counterproductive, however; higher monochromaticity yields a lower flux forcing longer data acquisition times. To balance the two, a more efficient scintillator for X-ray conversion is being developed. Some testing of a prototype scintillator has been performed; preliminary results will be presented here. In the meantime, data reconstruction times have been reduced, and the entire tomographic acquisition, reconstruction and volume rendering process streamlined to make efficient use of synchrotron beam time. A Fast Filtered Back Transform (FFBT) reconstruction program recently developed helped to reduce the time to reconstruct a volume of 150 x 150 x 250 pixels{sup 3} (over 5 million voxels) from the raw camera data to 1.5 minutes on a dual R10,000 CPU. With these improvements, one can now obtain a ''quick look'' of a small tomographic volume ({approximately}10{sup 6}voxels) in just over 15 minutes from the start of data acquisition.

  18. National synchrotron light source. [Annual report], October 1, 1992--September 30, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Rothman, E.Z.; Hulbert, S.L.; Lazarz, N.M.

    1994-04-01

    This report contains brief discussions on the research being conducted at the National Synchrotron Light source. Some of the topics covered are: X-ray spectroscopy; nuclear physics; atomic and molecular science; meetings and workshops; operations; and facility improvements.

  19. 1994 Activity Report, National Synchrotron Light Source. Annual report, October 1, 1993-September 30, 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Rothman, E.Z.

    1995-05-01

    This report is a summary of activities carried out at the National Synchrotron Light Source during 1994. It consists of sections which summarize the work carried out in differing scientific disciplines, meetings and workshops, operations experience of the facility, projects undertaken for upgrades, administrative reports, and collections of abstracts and publications generated from work done at the facility.

  20. SUNY beamline facilities at the National Synchrotron Light Source (Final Report)

    SciTech Connect

    Coppens, Philip

    2003-06-22

    The DOE sponsored SUNY synchrotron project has involved close cooperation among faculty at several SUNY campuses. A large number of students and postdoctoral associates have participated in its operation which was centered at the X3 beamline of the National Synchrotron Light Source at Brookhaven National Laboratory. Four stations with capabilities for Small Angle Scattering, Single Crystal and Powder and Surface diffraction and EXAFS were designed and operated with capability to perform experiments at very low as well as elevated temperatures and under high vacuum. A large amount of cutting-edge science was performed at the facility, which in addition provided excellent training for students and postdoctoral scientists in the field.

  1. National Synchrotron Light Source angiography personnel protection interlock

    SciTech Connect

    Gmuer, N.; Larson, R.; Thomlinson, W.

    1992-06-01

    This document has been written to describe the safety system operation at the NSLS X17B2 beamline Synchrotron Medical Research Facility (SMERF). The angiography exposure process involves scanning a patient up and down through dual fixed-position x-ray beams; exposure is controlled by opening and closing a fast-acting Safety Shutter mechanism at precise times in relation to the up and down motion of the scan chair. The fast-acting Safety Shutter mechanism is the primary radiation-stopping element protecting the patient while the chair is at rest and while it is reversing directions during the scan. Its fail-safe and fast operation is essential for the safety of the patient. Operation of X17B2 as a human subject angiography station necessitates the implementation of a personnel protection interlock system that, in conjunction with the Safety Shutters: permits safe access to the patient exposure area while the synchrotron radiation beam is illuminating the upstream dual energy monochromator; allows a patient to be imaged by the monochromatized beam under the supervision of a Responsible Physician, with scan chair motion and precision shutter actuation regulated by an angiography control computer, while providing a suitable number of safeguards against accidental radiation exposure; has different modes of operation to accommodate equipment set-up, test, and calibration; and patient exposure; and ensures the quick extinction of the beam if a potentially unsafe condition is detected. The interlock system which performs these safety functions is called the Angiography Personnel Protection Interlock (APPI). The APPI Document is organized such that the level of detail changes from a general overview to detailed engineering drawings of the hardware system.

  2. Midinfrared beamline at the National Synchrotron Light Source port U2B

    SciTech Connect

    Carr, G.L. ); Hanfland, M. ); Williams, G.P. )

    1995-02-01

    A new infrared beamline has been developed on a conventional dipole bending magnet port of the vacuum ultraviolet ring at the National Synchrotron Light Source. The port provides approximately 12 mrad horizontal and 8 mrad vertical aperture, which limits the useful spectral range to wavelengths less than 20 [mu]m. Though the total flux across the midinfrared is less than that from a globar source, the calculated brightness is at least two orders of magnitude greater. Also, the synchrotron source delivers light in subnanosecond pulses. The developing experimental programs include studies of hydrogen and other materials at extremely high pressures, and time-resolved studies of infrared sensor materials. The measurement results presented here, characterizing the actual brightness advantage and spectroscopic performance, demonstrate the synchrotron's remarkable advantage for microspectroscopic studies.

  3. Medical applications of synchrotron radiation at the National Synchrotron Light Source

    SciTech Connect

    Thomlinson, W.

    1992-01-01

    The overriding features of the synchrotron beams which make them applicable to medical research are their extremely high intensity and broadband energy spectrum. Several orders of magnitude separate the smooth, continuous spectrum of the synchrotron from the sharply peaked characteristic emission spectrum of a conventional source. Basically, the high intensity and tunability allow monochromatic beams to be generated at virtually any energy. The standard problem of beam hardening in both medical imaging and therapy is eliminated by the monochromatic beams since the energy spectrum does not change with passage through tissue. The tunable spectrum allows enhancement of images and therapeutic dose by selection of the most effective energy for a given procedure.

  4. Medical applications of synchrotron radiation at the National Synchrotron Light Source

    SciTech Connect

    Thomlinson, W.

    1992-10-01

    The overriding features of the synchrotron beams which make them applicable to medical research are their extremely high intensity and broadband energy spectrum. Several orders of magnitude separate the smooth, continuous spectrum of the synchrotron from the sharply peaked characteristic emission spectrum of a conventional source. Basically, the high intensity and tunability allow monochromatic beams to be generated at virtually any energy. The standard problem of beam hardening in both medical imaging and therapy is eliminated by the monochromatic beams since the energy spectrum does not change with passage through tissue. The tunable spectrum allows enhancement of images and therapeutic dose by selection of the most effective energy for a given procedure.

  5. BNL National Synchrotron Light Source activity report 1997

    SciTech Connect

    1998-05-01

    During FY 1997 Brookhaven National Laboratory celebrated its 50th Anniversary and 50 years of outstanding achievement under the management of Associated Universities, Inc. This progress report is divided into the following sections: (1) introduction; (2) science highlights; (3) meetings and workshops; (4) operations; (5) projects; (6) organization; and (7) abstracts and publications.

  6. National Synchrotron Light Source users manual: Guide to the VUV and x-ray beam lines

    SciTech Connect

    Gmuer, N.F.; White-DePace, S.M.

    1987-08-01

    The success of the National Synchrotron Light Source in the years to come will be based, in large part, on the size of the users community and the diversity of the scientific disciplines represented by these users. In order to promote this philosophy, this National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS) Users Manual: Guide to the VUV and X-Ray Beam Lines, has been published. This manual serves a number of purposes. In an effort to attract new research, it will present to the scientific community-at-large the current and projected architecture and capabilities of the various VUV and x-ray beam lines and storage rings. We anticipate that this publication will be updated periodically in order to keep pace with the constant changes at the NSLS.

  7. Low-Level Radio Frequency System Development for the National Synchrotron Light Source II

    SciTech Connect

    Ma,H.; Rose, J.

    2009-05-04

    The National Synchrotron Light Source-II (NSLS-II) is a new ultra-bright 3GeV 3rd generation synchrotron radiation light source. The performance goals require operation with a beam current of 500mA and a bunch current of at least 0.5mA. The position and timing specifications of the ultra-bright photon beam imposes a set of stringent requirements on the performance of radio frequency (RF) control. In addition, commissioning and staged installation of damping wigglers and insertion devices requires the flexibility of handling varying beam conditions. To meet these requirements, a digital implementation of the LLRF is chosen, and digital serial links are planned for the system integration. The first prototype of the controller front-end hardware has been built, and is currently being tested.

  8. Omega Dante soft x-ray power diagnostic component calibration at the National Synchrotron Light Source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campbell, K. M.; Weber, F. A.; Dewald, E. L.; Glenzer, S. H.; Landen, O. L.; Turner, R. E.; Waide, P. A.

    2004-10-01

    The Dante soft x-ray spectrometer, installed on the Omega laser facility at the Laboratory for Laser Energetics, University of Rochester, is a 12-channel filter-edge defined soft x-ray power diagnostic. It is used to measure the spectrally resolved, absolute flux from direct drive, indirect drive (hohlraums) and other plasma sources. Dante component calibration efforts using two beam lines, U3C (50 eV-1 keV) and X8A (1-6 keV) at the National Synchrotron Light Source have been implemented to improve the accuracy of these measurements. We have calibrated metallic vacuum x-ray diodes, mirrors and filters.

  9. Omega Dante Soft X-Ray Power Diagnostic Component Calibration at the National Synchrotron Light Source

    SciTech Connect

    Campbell, K; Weber, F; Dewald, E; Glenzer, S; Landen, O; Turner, R; Waide, P

    2004-04-15

    The Dante soft x-ray spectrometer installed on the Omega laser facility at the Laboratory for Laser Energetics, University of Rochester is a twelve-channel filter-edge defined x-ray power diagnostic. It is used to measure the absolute flux from direct drive, indirect drive (hohlraums) and other plasma sources. Calibration efforts using two beam lines, U3C (50eV-1keV) and X8A (1keV-6keV) at the National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS) have been implemented to insure the accuracy of these measurements. We have calibrated vacuum x-ray diodes, mirrors and filters.

  10. Radiological implications of top-off operation at national synchrotron light source-II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Job, P. K.; Casey, W. R.

    2011-08-01

    High current and low emittance have been specified to achieve ultra high brightness in the third generation medium energy Synchrotron Radiation Sources. This leads to the electron beam lifetime limited by Touschek scattering, and after commissioning may settle in at as low as ∼3 h. It may well be less in the early days of operation. At the same time, the intensity stability specified by the user community for the synchrotron beam is 1% or better. Given the anticipated lifetime of the beam, incremental filling called top-off injection at intervals on the order of ∼1 min will be required to maintain this beam stability. It is judged to be impractical to make these incremental fills by closing the beam shutters at each injection. In addition, closing the front end beam shutters during each injection will adversely affect the stability of beamline optics due to thermal cycling. Hence the radiological consequences of injection with front end beam shutters open must be evaluated. This paper summarizes results of radiological analysis carried out for the proposed top-off injection at National Synchrotron Light Source-II (NSLS-II) with beam shutters open.

  11. Environmental Remediation Science at Beamline X26A at the National Synchrotron Light Source- Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Bertsch, Paul

    2013-11-07

    The goal of this project was to provide support for an advanced X-ray microspectroscopy facility at the National Synchrotron Light Source, Brookhaven National Laboratory. This facility is operated by the University of Chicago and the University of Kentucky. The facility is available to researchers at both institutions as well as researchers around the globe through the general user program. This facility was successfully supported during the project period. It provided access to advanced X-ray microanalysis techniques which lead to fundamental advances in understanding the behavior of contaminants and geochemistry that is applicable to environmental remediation of DOE legacy sites as well as contaminated sites around the United States and beyond.

  12. In-situ shearing interferometry of National Synchrotron Light Source mirrors

    SciTech Connect

    Qian, S.N.; Rarback, H.; Shu, D.; Takacs, P.Z.

    1987-01-01

    In situ mirror distortion measurements were made with a lateral shearing interferometer on three mirrors in beam line X17T at the National Syn203hrotron Light Source. Lateral shearing interference is insensitive to vibrational motion in five of the six degrees of freedom, so it is well-suited for investigations in the synchrotron radiation (SR) environment. No distortion was seen in an uncooled silicon carbide mirror and in a colled copper alloy mirror on X17TB, but a change in the radius of an uncooled electroless nickel-plated aluminium cylinder mirror of about 6.2% was observed on X17TA. Angular vibrations in the 2 to 3 arc second range were easily observed on one of the beam lines, as was an overall mirror rotation in the arc second range.

  13. National synchrotron light source. Activity report, October 1, 1994--September 30, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Rothman, E.Z.; Hastings, J.

    1996-05-01

    This report discusses research conducted at the National Synchrotron Light Source in the following areas: atomic and molecular science; energy dispersive diffraction; lithography, microscopy, and tomography; nuclear physics; scattering and crystallography studies of biological materials; time resolved spectroscopy; UV photoemission and surface science; x-ray absorption spectroscopy; x-ray scattering and crystallography; x-ray topography; the 1995 NSLS annual users` meeting; 17th international free electron laser conference; micro bunches workshop; VUV machine; VUV storage ring parameters; beamline technical improvements; x-ray beamlines; x-ray storage ring parameters; the NSLS source development laboratory; the accelerator test facility (ATF); NSLS facility improvements; NSLS advisory committees; NSLS staff; VUV beamline guide; and x-ray beamline guide.

  14. Ne, Ar, Fe, and Cu Auger-electron production at National Synchrotron Light Source

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, D.H.; Johnson, B.M.; Jones, K.W.; Guardala, N.A.; Price, J.L.; Stumborg, M.F.; Glass, G.A.

    1992-09-26

    Energetic K and L Auger electrons produced by focussed, filtered, broad-band synchrotron radiation have been measured at the x-ray ring of the National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS). The x-ray beam was used to study inner-shell photoionization of Ne and Ar gas and Fe and Cu solid film targets. The Auger electrons were analyzed by means of a semi-hemispherical electrostatic electron spectrometer at the energy resolution of {approximately} 3 %. The electrons were detected at both 90{degree} and 0{degree} with respect to the photon beam direction. Broad distributions of the inner-shell photoelectrons were also observed, reflecting the incoming photon flux distribution. The Fe and Cu K Auger electron spectra were found to be very similar to the Ar K Auger electron spectra. This was expected, since deep inner-shell Auger processes are not affected by the outer valence electrons. Above 3 keV in electron energy, there have been few previous Auger electron measurements. 2 figs., 13 refs.

  15. Ne, Ar, Fe, and Cu Auger-electron production at National Synchrotron Light Source

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, D.H.; Johnson, B.M.; Jones, K.W. ); Guardala, N.A.; Price, J.L.; Stumborg, M.F. . White Oak Lab.); Glass, G.A. . Dept. of Physics)

    1992-09-26

    Energetic K and L Auger electrons produced by focussed, filtered, broad-band synchrotron radiation have been measured at the x-ray ring of the National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS). The x-ray beam was used to study inner-shell photoionization of Ne and Ar gas and Fe and Cu solid film targets. The Auger electrons were analyzed by means of a semi-hemispherical electrostatic electron spectrometer at the energy resolution of [approximately] 3 %. The electrons were detected at both 90[degree] and 0[degree] with respect to the photon beam direction. Broad distributions of the inner-shell photoelectrons were also observed, reflecting the incoming photon flux distribution. The Fe and Cu K Auger electron spectra were found to be very similar to the Ar K Auger electron spectra. This was expected, since deep inner-shell Auger processes are not affected by the outer valence electrons. Above 3 keV in electron energy, there have been few previous Auger electron measurements. 2 figs., 13 refs.

  16. A MODEL STUDY OF TRANSVERSE MODE COUPLING INSTABILITY AT NATIONAL SYNCHROTRON LIGHT SOURCE-II (NSLS-II).

    SciTech Connect

    BLEDNYKH, A.; WANG, J.M.

    2005-05-15

    The vertical impedances of the preliminary designs of National Synchrotron Light Source II (NSLS-II) Mini Gap Undulators (MGU) are calculated by means of GdfidL code. The Transverse Mode Coupling Instability (TMCI) thresholds corresponding to these impedances are estimated using an analytically solvable model.

  17. Operation of general purpose stepping motor controllers at the National Synchrotron Light Source

    SciTech Connect

    Stubblefield, F.W.

    1986-10-01

    A prototype and four copies of a general purpose subsystem for mechanical positioning of detectors, samples, and beam line optical elements which constitute experiments at the National Synchrotron Light Source facility of Brookhaven National Laboratory have been constructed and placed into operation. Construction of a sixth subsystem is nearing completion. The subsystems effect mechanical positioning by controlling a set of stepping motors and their associated position encoders. The units are general purpose in the sense that they receive commands over a standard 9600 baud asynchronous serial line compatible with the RS-232-C electrical signal standard, generate TTL-compatible streams of stepping pulses which can be used with a wide variety of stepping motors, and read back position values from a number of different types and models of position encoder. The basic structure of the motor controller subsystem will be briefly reviewed. Short descriptions of the positioning apparatus actuated at each of the test and experiment stations employing a motor control unit are given. Additions and enhancements to the subsystem made in response to problems indicated by actual operation of the four installed units are described in more detail.

  18. Operation of general purpose stepping motor controllers at the National Synchrotron Light Source

    SciTech Connect

    Stubblefield, F.W.

    1987-02-01

    A prototype and four copies of a general purpose subsystem for mechanical positioning of detectors, samples, and beam line optical elements which constitute experiments at the National Synchrotron Light Source facility of Brookhaven National Laboratory have been constructed and placed into operation. Construction of a sixth subsystem is nearing completion. The subsystems effect mechanical positioning by controlling a set of stepping motors and their associated position encoders. The units are general purpose in the sense that they receive commands over a standard 9600 baud asynchronous serial line compatible with the RS-232-C electrical signal standard, generate TTL-compatible streams of stepping pulses which can be used with a wide variety of stepping motors, and read back position values from a number of different types and models of position encoder. The basic structure of the motor controller subsystem is briefly reviewed. Short descriptions of the positioning apparatus actuated at each of the test and experiment stations employing a motor control unit are given. Additions and enhancements to the sub-system made in response to problems indicated by actual operation of the four installed units are described in more detail.

  19. National synchrotron light source. Activity report, October 1, 1995--September 30, 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Rothman, E.Z.; Hastings, J.B.

    1997-05-01

    The hard work done by the synchrotron radiation community, in collaboration with all those using large-scale central facilities during 1995, paid off in FY 1996 through the DOE`s Presidential Scientific Facilities Initiative. In comparison with the other DOE synchrotron radiation facilities, the National Synchrotron Light Source benefited least in operating budgets because it was unable to increase running time beyond 100%-nevertheless, the number of station hours was maintained. The major thrust at Brookhaven came from a 15% increase in budget which allowed the recruitment of seven staff in the beamlines support group and permitted a step increment in the funding of the extremely long list of upgrades; both to the sources and to the beamlines. During the December 1995 shutdown, the VUV Ring quadrant around U10-U12 was totally reconstructed. New front ends, enabling apertures up to 90 mrad on U10 and U12, were installed. During the year new PRTs were in formation for the infrared beamlines, encouraged by the investment the lab was able to commit from the initiative funds and by awards from the Scientific Facilities Initiative. A new PRT, specifically for small and wide angle x-ray scattering from polymers, will start work on X27C in FY 1997 and existing PRTs on X26C and X9B working on macromolecular crystallography will be joined by new members. Plans to replace aging radio frequency cavities by an improved design, originally a painfully slow six or eight year project, were brought forward so that the first pair of cavities (half of the project for the X-Ray Ring) will now be installed in FY 1997. Current upgrades to 350 mA initially and to 438 mA later in the X-Ray Ring were set aside due to lack of funds for the necessary thermally robust beryllium windows. The Scientific Facilities Initiative allowed purchase of all 34 windows in FY 1996 so that the power upgrade will be achieved in FY 1997.

  20. National Synchrotron Light Source Facility Manual Maintenance Management Program. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Fewell, N.

    1993-12-01

    The purpose of this program s to meet the policy and objectives for the management and performance of cost-effective maintenance and repair of the National Synchrotron Light Source, as required by the US Department of Energy order DOE 433O.4A. It is the DOE`s policy that: The maintenance management program for the NSLS be consistent with this Order and that NSLS property is maintained in a manner which promotes operational safety, worker health, environmental protection and compliance, property preservation, and cost-effectiveness while meeting the NSLS`s programmatic mission. Structures, components and systems (active and passive) that are imporant to safe operation of the NSLS shall be subject to a maintenance program to ensure that they meet or exceed their design requirements throughout the life of the NSLS. Periodic examination of structures, systems components and equipment be performed to determine deterioration or technical obsolescence which may threaten performance and/or safety. Primary responsibility, authority, and accountability for the direction and management of the maintenance program at the NSLS reside with the line management assigned direct programmatic responsibility. Budgeting and accounting for maintenance programs are consistent with DOE Orders guidance.

  1. A scanning photoelectron microscope (SPEM) at the National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS)

    SciTech Connect

    Ade, H.; Kirz, J.; Hulbert, S.; Johnson, E.; Anderson, E.; Kern, D. . Dept. of Physics; Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY; Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA; International Business Machines Corp., Yorktown Heights, NY . Thomas J. Watson Research Center)

    1989-01-01

    We are in the process of developing and commissioning a scanning photoelectron microscope (SPEM) at the X1A beamline of the National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS). It is designed to make use of the Soft X-ray Undulator (SXU) at the NSLS. This high brightness source illuminates a Fresnel zone plate, which forms a focused probe, {<=} 0.2{mu}m in size, on the specimen surface. A grating monochromator selects the photon energy in the 400-800 eV range with an energy resolution of better than 1 eV. The expected flux in the focus is in the 5 {times} 10{sup 7} {minus} 10{sup 9} photons/s range. A single pass Cylindrical Mirror Analyzer (CMA) is used to record photoemission spectra, or to form an image within a fixed electron energy bandwidth as the specimen is mechanically scanned. As a first test, a 1000 mesh Au grid was successfully imaged with a resolution of about 1{mu}m and the CMA tuned to the Au 4 f photoelectron peak. Once it is commissioned, a program is planned which will utilize the microscope to study beam sensitive systems, such as thin oxide/sub-oxide films of alumina and silica, and ultimately various adsorbates on these films. 14 refs., 4 figs.

  2. NSLS 2007 Activity Report (National Synchrotron Light Source Activity Report 2007)

    SciTech Connect

    Miller ,L.; Nasta, K.

    2008-05-01

    The National Synchrotron Light Source is one of the world's most productive and cost-effective user facilities. With 2,219 individual users, about 100 more than last year, and a record-high 985 publications, 2007 was no exception. In addition to producing an impressive array of science highlights, which are included in this Activity Report, many NSLS users were honored this year for their scientific accomplishments. Throughout the year, there were major strides in the development of the scientific programs by strengthening strategic partnerships with major research resources and with the Center for Functional Nanomaterials (CFN). Of particular note, the Consortium for Materials Properties Research in Earth Sciences (COMPRES) received renewed funding for the next five years through the National Science Foundation. COMPRES operates four high-pressure NSLS beamlines--X17B2, X17B3, X17C, and U2A--and serves the earth science community as well as the rapidly expanding segment of researchers using high-pressure techniques in materials, chemical, and energy-related sciences. A joint appointment was made between the NSLS and Stony Brook University to further enhance interactions with COMPRES. There was major progress on two key beamline projects outlined in the Five-Year Strategic Plan: the X25 beamline upgrade and the construction of the X9 small angle scattering (SAXS) beamline. The X25 overhaul, which began with the installation of the in-vacuum mini-gap undulator (MGU) in January 2006, is now complete. X25 is once again the brightest beamline for macromolecular crystallography at the NSLS, and in tandem with the X29 undulator beamline, it will keep the NSLS at the cutting edge in this important area of research. Upgrade work associated with the new MGU and the front end for the X9 SAXS beamline--jointly developed by the NSLS and the CFN--also was completed. Beamline X9 will host the SAXS program that currently exists at beamline X21 and will provide new microbeam SAXS

  3. The Brazilian Synchrotron Light Source

    SciTech Connect

    Brum, J. A.; Tavares, P. F.

    2007-01-19

    The Brazilian Synchrotron Light Laboratory has been operating the only light source in the southern hemisphere since July 1997. During this period, approximately 28000 hours of beam time were delivered reaching more than 1000 users per year from all over Brazil as well as from 10 other countries. In this paper, we briefly recall the history of the project and describe the present configuration of the machine and associated instrumentation, focusing on improvements and upgrades of the various light source subsystems and beamlines implemented in recent years. Finally, we report on the use of the facility by the national and international scientific communities, its impact on the scientific and technological scene in Brazil and present perspectives for future improvements of the machine.

  4. Synchrotron light source data book

    SciTech Connect

    Murphy, J.

    1989-01-01

    The ''Synchrotron Light Source Data Book'' is as its name implies a collection of data on existing and planned synchrotron light sources. The intention was to provide a compendium of tools for the design of electron storage rings as synchrotron radiation sources. The slant is toward the accelerator physicist as other booklets such as the X-ray Data Booklet, edited by D. Vaughan (LBL PUB-490), address the 'use' of synchrotron radiation. It is hoped that the booklet serves as a pocket sized reference to facilitate back of the envelope type calculations. It contains some useful formulae in 'practical units' and a brief description of many of the existing and planned light source lattices.

  5. The DELTA Synchrotron Light Interferometer

    SciTech Connect

    Berges, U.

    2004-05-12

    Synchrotron radiation sources like DELTA, the Dortmund Electron Accelerator, a third generation synchrotron light source, need an optical monitoring system to measure the beam size at different points of the ring with high resolution and accuracy. These measurements also allow an investigation of the emittance of the storage ring, an important working parameter for the efficiency of working beamlines with experiments using the synchrotron radiation. The resolution limits of the different types of optical synchrotron light monitors at DELTA are investigated. The minimum measurable beamsize with the normal synchrotron light monitor using visible light at DELTA is about 80 {mu}m. Due to this a synchrotron light interferometer was built up and tested at DELTA. The interferometer uses the same beamline in the visible range. The minimum measurable beamsize is with about 8 {mu}m one order of magnitude smaller. This resolution is sufficient for the expected small vertical beamsizes at DELTA. The electron beamsize and emittance were measured with both systems at different electron beam energies of the storage ring. The theoretical values of the present optics are smaller than the measured emittance. So possible reasons for beam movements are investigated.

  6. Developing EnviroSuite Resources at the National Synchrotron Light Source

    SciTech Connect

    Paul Northrup; Jeffrey Fitts; Mark Fuhrmann; Paul Kalb

    2006-06-01

    The objective of Brookhaven National Laboratory's EnviroSuite Initiative is to develop the facilities, user support infrastructure, and techniques necessary to conduct world-class molecular environmental science research at the NSLS. This is intended to benefit the research of ERSD-supported scientists, both through direct access and assistance and through the indirect benefits of a broader network of environmental scientists as collaborators and users. Much of the EnviroSuite research involves close collaboration with members of the Center for Environmental Molecular Science (CEMS), an EMSI based at BNL and nearby Stony Brook University and jointly supported by ERSD (Project 1023761, P. Kalb) and NSF. This offers unique opportunities to benefit from both national laboratory facilities and university resources. Other collaborators, from around the US and the world, investigate various aspects of the underlying molecular-scale processes in complex natural systems. In general, synchrotron techniques are ideal for studying the molecular-scale structures, chemical/physical interactions, and transformations that govern the macroscopic properties and processes (e.g. transport, bioavailability) of contaminants in the environment. These techniques are element-specific, non-destructive, and sensitive to the very low concentrations found in real-world samples.

  7. Operation of a general purpose stepping motor-encoder positioning subsystem at the National Synchrotron Light Source

    SciTech Connect

    Stubblefield, F.W.

    1985-11-01

    Four copies of a general purpose subsystem for mechanical positioning of detectors, samples, and beam line optical elements which constitute experiments at the National Synchrotron Light Source facility of Brookhaven National Laboratory have been constructed and placed into operation. Construction of a fifth subsystem unit is nearing completion. The subsystems affect mechanical positioning by controlling a set of stepping motor-encoder pairs. The units are general purpose in the sense that they receive commands over a 9600 baud asynchronous serial line compatible with the RS-232-C electrical signal standard, generate TTL-compatible streams of stepping pulses which can be used with a wide variety of stepping motors, and read back position values from a number of different types and models of position encoder. The basic structure of the motor controller subsystem is briefly reviewed. Additions to the subsystem made in response to problems indicated by actual operation of the four installed units are described in more detail.

  8. National Synchrotron Light Source user`s manual: Guide to the VUV and x-ray beamlines. Fifth edition

    SciTech Connect

    Gmuer, N.F.

    1993-04-01

    The success of the National Synchrotron Light Source is based, in large part, on the size of the user community and the diversity of the scientific and technical disciplines represented by these users. As evidence of this success, the VUV Ring has just celebrated its 10th anniversary and the X-ray Ring will do the same in 1995. In order to enhance this success, the NSLS User`s Manual: Guide to the VUV and X-Ray Beamlines - Fifth Edition, is being published. This Manual presents to the scientific community-at-large the current and projected architecture, capabilities and research programs of the various VUV and X-ray beamlines. Also detailed is the research and computer equipment a General User can expect to find and use at each beamline when working at the NSLS. The Manual is updated periodically in order to keep pace with the constant changes on these beamlines.

  9. Support for the Advanced Polymers Beamline at the National Synchrotron Light Source

    SciTech Connect

    Hsiao, Benjamin S

    2008-10-01

    The primary focus of the X27C beamline is to investigate frontier polymer science and engineering problems with emphasis on real-time studies of structures, morphologies and dynamics from atomic, nanoscopic, microscopic to mesoscopic scales using simultaneous small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) and wide-angle X-ray diffraction (WAXD) techniques. The scientific merit of this project is as follows. Currently, many unique sample chambers for in-situ synchrotron studies, developed by the PI (B. Hsiao) and Co-PI (B. Chu), are available for general users of X27C at NSLS. These instruments include a gel/melt spinning apparatus, a continuous fiber drawing apparatus, a tensile stretching apparatus, a high pressure X-ray cell using supercritical carbon dioxide, a parallel plate strain-controlled shear stage and a dynamic rheometer for small-strain oscillatory deformation study. Based on the use of these instruments in combination with synchrotron X-rays, many new insights into the relationships between processing and structure have been obtained in recent years. The broader impact of this project is as follows. The X27C beamline is the first synchrotron facility in the United States dedicated to chemistry/materials research (with emphasis on polymers). The major benefit of this facility to the materials community is that no extensive synchrotron experience and equipment preparation are required from general users to carry out cutting-edge experiments.

  10. NSLS 2005 ACTIVITY REPORT (NATIONAL SYNCHROTRON LIGHT SOURCE ACTIVITY REPORT 2005).

    SciTech Connect

    MILLER, L.

    2006-05-01

    efforts on NSLS-II, the world-leading third-generation synchrotron planned for construction at BNL. NSLS-II passed a critical milestone in 2005 with the approval by the Department of Energy of CD-0. BNL has established the NSLS-II Project Organization within the Light Sources Directorate to put in place the management systems and infrastructure necessary to execute this complex undertaking. I will serve as NSLS-II Project Director and also retain my position as Associate Laboratory Director for Light Sources, with the NSLS reporting to me. Another exciting development is the planned establishment of the Joint Photon Sciences Institute (JPSI). JPSI will be devoted to cultivating and fostering collaborative, interdisciplinary R&D in areas of the physical sciences, engineering, and the life sciences that are united in employing synchrotron-based methods. JPSI will also develop new methods and applications that exploit the unique capabilities of NSLS-II and will serve as a gateway for NSLS-II users. JPSI will be a partnership between the Department of Energy and New York State, and I am delighted that New York State Governor George Pataki has pledged $30 million for the construction of the JPSI building. The building will be located adjacent to NSLS-II and will contain offices, meeting rooms, and specialized laboratories. The operating expenses of JPSI and funding for its research programs will be provided by the federal government. Until a permanent NSLS Director is selected, NSLS User Science Division Associate Chair Chi-Chang Kao will serve as the Interim NSLS Director. I couldn't be leaving the facility in more capable hands. Chi-Chang will lead NSLS staff and users this year in the development of a five-year strategic plan for the NSLS, scheduled for completion by the end of summer 2006. The plan will outline the course for the future operation and development of the NSLS, and will help ensure that the future of the NSLS remains as bright as its past.

  11. Development of an x-ray fluorescence microprobe at the National Synchrotron Light Source, Brookhaven National Laboratory: Early results: Comparison with data from other techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, J.V.; Rivers, M.L.; Sutton, S.R.; Jones, K.W.; Hanson, A.L.; Gordon, B.M.

    1986-01-01

    Theoretical predictions for the detection levels in x-ray fluorescence analysis with a synchrotron storage ring are being achieved experimentally at several laboratories. This paper is deliberately restricted to the state of development of the Brookhaven National Laboratory/University of Chicago instruments. Analyses at the parts per million (ppM) level are being made using white light apertured to 20 ..mu..m and an energy dispersive system. This system is particularly useful for elements with Z > 20 in materials dominated by elements with Z < 20. Diffraction causes an interference for crystalline materials. Development of a focusing microprobe for tunable monochromatic x-rays and a wavelength dispersive spectrometer (WDS) is delayed by problems in shaping an 8:1 focusing mirror to the required accuracy. Reconnaissance analyses with a wiggler source on the CHESS synchrotron have been made in the K spectrum up to Z = 80.

  12. THE Low-level Radio Frequency System for the superconducting cavities of National Synchrotron Light Source II

    SciTech Connect

    Ma, H.; Rose, J.; Holub, B.; Cupolo, J.; Oliva, J.; Sikora, R.; Yeddulla, M.

    2011-03-28

    A digital low-level radio frequency (LLRF) field controller has been developed for the storage ring of The National Synchrotron Light Source-II (NSLS-II). The primary performance goal for the LLRF is to support the required RF operation of the superconducting cavities with a beam current of 500mA and a 0.14 degree or better RF phase stability. The digital field controller is FPGA-based, in a standard format 19-inch/I-U chassis. It has an option of high-level control support with MATLAB running on a local host computer through a USB2.0 port. The field controller has been field tested with the high-power superconducting RF (SRF) at Canadian light Source, and successfully stored a high beam current of 250 mA. The test results show that required specifications for the cavity RF field stability are met. This digital field controller is also currently being used as a development platform for other functional modules in the NSLS-II RF systems.

  13. Soft-x-ray and vacuum-ultraviolet beamlines at the National Synchrotron Light Source 700-MeV storage ring

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, G.P.; Howells, M.R.

    1982-01-01

    We summarize the characteristics of the first beamlines which are being installed and commissioned at the National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS) 700 MeV storage ring at Brookhaven National Laboratory. We also give a progress report as of July 1982 on the early stages of beamline alignment and operation in which particular attention is paid to the 5 beamlines which NSLS has developed. The report describes in detail a novel method for beamline alignment which is of general application.

  14. NSLS 2006 ACTIVITY REPORT (NATIONAL SYNCHROTRON LIGHT SOURCE ACTIVITY REPORT 2006)

    SciTech Connect

    MILLER, L.

    2006-12-31

    This past year has seen both challenges and fantastic new opportunities for the user community at the NSLS. The fantastic new opportunities are clear and abundant. We now have a five-year strategic plan for new development and continued operation of the NSLS. The NSLS continues to be an extremely productive facility, and the UEC is delighted at how NSLS Chair Chi-Chang Kao has consulted widely within the user community to develop a five-year plan for strategic upgrades and continued operation of the facility. The NSLS-II project, led by Associate Lab Director Steve Dierker, has done very well in its Department of Energy (DOE) reviews and will hopefully soon receive Critical Decision-1 (CD-1) approval, which in DOE lingo gives a go-ahead to launch the detailed design of the facility. We also held the first joint user meeting between the NSLS and Brookhaven's Center for Functional Nanomaterials (CFN), for which the building is near completion. The joint user meeting is an important step toward the close collaboration of the two facilities. The CFN, led by Emilio Mendez, promises to provide capabilities and research foci that are complementary to those at the NSLS. Together, all of these developments give a clear path to an exciting future of synchrotron radiation research at Brookhaven! However, with opportunities come challenges! One of the largest of these faced in the past year involved congressional support for scientific research in general, and DOE user facilities in particular. As you likely know, Congress did not complete its usual budget process in 2006, with the exceptions of the departments of Defense and Homeland Security. This left science funding at the budget levels enacted in late 2005 for FY2006, and unfortunately, FY2006 was not a particularly memorable vintage for science support. The good news is that you, the user community, have spoken up with unprecedented vigor about this, and Congress appears to be listening. As we look at the FY2007 budget

  15. Remote Synchrotron Light Instrumentation Using Optical Fibers

    SciTech Connect

    De Santis, S.; Yin, Y.

    2009-05-04

    By coupling the emitted synchrotron light into an optical fiber, it is possible to transmit the signal at substantial distances from the light port, without the need to use expensive beamlines. This would be especially beneficial in all those cases when the synchrotron is situated in areas not easily access because of their location, or due to high radiation levels. Furthermore, the fiber output can be easily switched, or even shared, between different diagnostic instruments. We present the latest results on the coupling and dispersion measurements performed at the Advanced Light Source in Berkeley. In several cases, coupling synchrotron light into optical fibers can substantially facilitate the use of beam diagnostic instrumentation that measures longitudinal beam properties by detecting synchrotron radiation. It has been discussed in with some detail, how fiberoptics can bring the light at relatively large distances from the accelerator, where a variety of devices can be used to measure beam properties and parameters. Light carried on a fiber can be easily switched between instruments so that each one of them has 100% of the photons available, rather than just a fraction, when simultaneous measurements are not indispensable. From a more general point of view, once synchrotron light is coupled into the fiber, the vast array of techniques and optoelectronic devices, developed by the telecommunication industry becomes available. In this paper we present the results of our experiments at the Advanced Light Source, where we tried to assess the challenges and limitations of the coupling process and determine what level of efficiency one can typically expect to achieve.

  16. Ideas for future synchrotron light sources

    SciTech Connect

    Jackson, A.; Hassenzahl, W.; Meddahi, M.

    1992-03-01

    Synchrotron light sources have advanced in the past two-to-three decades through three ``generations,`` from irritating parasitic sources on high-energy physics accelerators to dedicated electron and position storage rings of unprecedented low emittance, utilizing undulator and wiggler magnets. The evolution through these three generations followed a predicable, science-driven, course towards brighter beams of VUV- and x-radiation. The requirements of future light sources is not so clear. The limit on how emittance has certainly not been reached, and diffraction-limited sources at shorter wavelengths would be the natural progression from previous generations. However, scientists are now looking at other radiation characteristics that might better serve their needs, for example, more coherent power, fast switching polarization, ultra-short (sub-picosecond) time structure, and synchronized beams for pump-probe experiments. This paper discusses some current ideas that might drive the fourth-generation synchrotron light source.

  17. Ideas for future synchrotron light sources

    SciTech Connect

    Jackson, A.; Hassenzahl, W.; Meddahi, M.

    1992-03-01

    Synchrotron light sources have advanced in the past two-to-three decades through three generations,'' from irritating parasitic sources on high-energy physics accelerators to dedicated electron and position storage rings of unprecedented low emittance, utilizing undulator and wiggler magnets. The evolution through these three generations followed a predicable, science-driven, course towards brighter beams of VUV- and x-radiation. The requirements of future light sources is not so clear. The limit on how emittance has certainly not been reached, and diffraction-limited sources at shorter wavelengths would be the natural progression from previous generations. However, scientists are now looking at other radiation characteristics that might better serve their needs, for example, more coherent power, fast switching polarization, ultra-short (sub-picosecond) time structure, and synchronized beams for pump-probe experiments. This paper discusses some current ideas that might drive the fourth-generation synchrotron light source.

  18. The Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory, 20 years of synchrotron light

    SciTech Connect

    Cantwell, K.

    1993-08-01

    The Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory (SSRL) is now operating as a fully dedicated light source with low emittance electron optics, delivering high brightness photon beams to 25 experimental stations six to seven months per year. On October 1, 1993 SSRL became a Division of the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center, rather than an Independent Laboratory of Stanford University, so that high energy physics and synchrotron radiation now function under a single DOE contract. The SSRL division of SLAC has responsibility for operating, maintaining and improving the SPEAR accelerator complex, which includes the storage ring and a 3 GeV injector. SSRL has thirteen x-ray stations and twelve VUV/Soft x-ray stations serving its 600 users. Recently opened to users is a new spherical grating monochromator (SGM) and a multiundulator beam line. Circularly polarized capabilities are being exploited on a second SGM line. New YB{sub 66} crystals installed in a vacuum double-crystal monochromator line have sparked new interest for Al and Mg edge studies. One of the most heavily subscribed stations is the rotation camera, which has been recently enhanced with a MAR imaging plate detector system for protein crystallography on a multipole wiggler. Under construction is a new wiggler-based structural molecular biology beam line with experimental stations for crystallography, small angle scattering and x-ray absorption spectroscopy. Plans for new developments include wiggler beam lines and associated facilities specialized for environmental research and materials processing.

  19. DAFNE-Light INFN-LNF Synchrotron Radiation Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Balerna, A.; Cestelli-Guidi, M.; Cimino, R.; Commisso, M.; Grilli, A.; Pietropaoli, M.; Raco, A.; Sciarra, V.; Tullio, V.; Viviani, G.; De Sio, A.; Gambicorti, L.; Hampai, D.; Pace, E.

    2010-06-23

    DAFNE-Light is the Synchrotron Radiation Facility at the INFN-Frascati National Laboratory (Rome, Italy). Three beamlines are operational, using in parasitic and dedicated mode the intense photon emission of DAFNE, a 0.51 GeV storage ring with a routinely circulating electron current higher than 1 Ampere. Two of these beamlines--the soft x-ray (DXR1) and UV (DXR2)--use one of the DAFNE wiggler magnets as synchrotron radiation source, while the third beamline SINBAD (Synchrotron Infrared Beamline At DAFNE) collects the radiation from a bending magnet. New XUV bending magnet beamlines are nowadays under construction and the low energy one (35-200 eV) will be ready for commissioning by the end of 2009. A presentation of the facility will be given together with some recent scientific results achieved at SINBAD and DXR1 beamlines.

  20. Status of the Synchrotron Light Source DELTA

    SciTech Connect

    Berges, U.; Sternemann, C.; Tolan, M.; Westphal, C.; Weis, T.; Wille, K.

    2007-01-19

    The Dortmund Electron Accelerator DELTA, a 1.5 GeV synchrotron light source located at University of Dortmund, is operated for 3000 h per year including 2000 h beam time for synchrotron radiation use and 1000 h for machine physics, optimisation and maintenance. The status of the synchrotron light source is presented with emphasis on the operation, commissioning and installation of beamlines and insertion devices. The soft X-ray undulator beamlines provide photon energies between 5 to 400 eV (U250) and 55 and 1500 eV (U55), respectively. One dipole beamline covers soft X-rays between 6 to 200 eV, and a second dipole beamline is used without a monochromator at 2.2 keV critical energy of the dipole spectrum. For photons in the hard X-ray regime, a superconducting asymmetric wiggler (SAW) with a field of 5.3 T and 7.9 keV critical energy was installed, providing circularly polarized X-rays in the range of 2 to 30 keV. Due to its broad radiation fan, three beamlines are simultaneously served. The first SAW-beamline with an energy range between 4 to 30 keV is in full operation, the second is under commissioning, serving the energy range between 2 to 30 keV. The third SAW beamline is near completion, additional dipole beamlines are under construction.

  1. Status Of The Synchrotron Light Source DELTA

    SciTech Connect

    Berges, U.; Friedl, J.; Hartmann, P.; Schirmer, D.; Schmidt, G.; Sternemann, C.; Tolan, M.; Weis, T.; Westphal, C.; Wille, K.

    2004-05-12

    The Dortmund Electron Accelerator DELTA, located at the University of Dortmund, changed its scope during the last years into a 1.5 GeV synchrotron light source. DELTA is now operated for 3000 h per year including 2000 h dedicated beam time for synchrotron radiation use and 1000 h for machine physics, optimization and maintenance. The status of the accelerator complex is presented together with the beam operation, the installation and commissioning of beamlines and insertion devices. To serve user demands of photon energies up to more than 10 keV a 5.3 T superconducting asymmetric multipole wiggler (SAW) with a critical energy of 7.9 keV has been installed serving three beamlines in the hard X-ray regime with also circular polarization. Two undulator beamlines for photon energies between 5 and 400 eV (U250) and between 55 and 1500 eV (U55) and several dipole beamlines up to 200 eV are under operation. The construction and operation of the different beamlines is done by various universities and laboratories in Nordrhein-Westfalen.

  2. Mircobeam X-ray total scattering experiments at the high-pressure beamline X17B3 at the National Synchrotron Light Source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, X.; Ehm, L.; Duffy, T. S.; Weidner, D. J.

    2013-12-01

    Structure of minerals under extreme conditions of high pressure and temperature is very important in Geosciences. The total scattering pair distribution function (PDF) technique using high energy X-ray microbeam to access a large range of scattering vector, e.g. 20Å-1-40Å-1, is an emerging structural analysis method in high pressure research, which allows simultaneous probing of local, intermediate and long-range structure in crystalline, amorphous or complex materials[1-3]. Using high-energy X-rays of 80 keV at X17B3 beamline, National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS), Brookhaven National Laboratory, PDF measurements has been carried out by users from multiple disciplines [4]. At this AGU meeting, we will present the current status of high-pressure total scattering pair distribution function (PDF) measurements and recent achievements on the availability of high energy X-ray microbeam at X17B3 beamline, NSLS. Accurate X-ray energy calibration is indispensable for X-ray energy-sensitive scattering and diffraction experiments, but there is still a lack of effective methods to precisely calibrate the high energy X-ray beam, because precise energy calibration XAS is problematic due to the lack of suitable X-ray absorption edges at the desired high energy. We have recently proposed an iterative method [5] for a precise and fast X-ray energy calibration over a wide range, including high energy X-ray beam for PDF measurements. Some PDF measurements on the geophysical important materials, such as GeO2 and SiO2 materials, under ambient and high-pressure using diamond anvil cell will be presented. References: 1. Billinge, S.J.L., The atomic pair distribution function: past and present. Zeitschrift für Kristallographie, 2004. 219(3-2004): p. 117-121. 2. Billinge, S.J. and I. Levin, The problem with determining atomic structure at the nanoscale. Science, 2007. 316(5824): p. 561-5. 3. Billinge, S.J.L., et al., Characterisation of amorphous and nanocrystalline molecular

  3. Producing terahertz coherent synchrotron radiation at the Hefei Light Source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, De-Rong; Xu, Hong-Liang; Shao, Yan

    2015-07-01

    This paper theoretically proves that an electron storage ring can generate coherent radiation in the THz region using a quick kicker magnet and an AC sextupole magnet. When the vertical chromaticity is modulated by the AC sextupole magnet, the vertical beam collective motion excited by the kicker produces a wavy spatial structure after a number of longitudinal oscillation periods. The radiation spectral distribution was calculated from the wavy bunch parameters at the Hefei Light Source (HLS). When the electron energy is reduced to 400 MeV, extremely strong coherent synchrotron radiation (CSR) at 0.115 THz should be produced. Supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (11375176)

  4. COMPRES X-ray beamlines (X17B3 and X17C) for the diamond anvil cell at the National Synchrotron Light Source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, X.; Chen, Z.; Sengupta, A.; Goncharov, A. F.; Ehm, L.; Duffy, T. S.; Weidner, D. J.

    2011-12-01

    The laser heated diamond anvil cell technique can readily achieve the pressure and temperature domain of Earth from upper mantle to outer core. The laser heating diamond anvil cell X-ray facilities (X17-DAC), consists of X17B3 and X17C stations on a superconducting wiggler beamline and a sample preparation/spectroscopy laboratory at the National Synchrotron Light Source). As the first dedicated high-pressure (HP) beamline in the world, X17-DAC has been a workhorse for HP research for two decades, and has led the way in many developments, Here we report current capabilities and recent developments at X17-DAC beamlines including a new double-side laser heating system . At the X17B3 station, high-temperature high-pressure X-ray diffraction experiments can be carried out either with monochromatic beam (~30 keV or ~80 keV), or with white beam for energy dispersive x-ray diffraction. In-situ laser heating system will be available for users in Geosciences starting from September, 2011. With a monochromatic beam at 30 keV, the X-ray beam can be focused to a beam size of ~10 μm. By combing with the laser heating technique, we can support in-situ X-ray diffraction experiments at the domain of temperature and pressure up to Earth's outer core. With high energy at 80 keV, total scattering pair distribution function (PDF) measurements are performed. Originally, this method was used to study amorphous and highly disordered materials, but more recently, it has been used for the analysis of crystalline and nanostructured materials. This novel technique provides useful information about the long- and short-range ordering of the atoms in the materials. It is promising to combine laser heating and total scattering PDF measurements so as to probe phase transitions and phase relations for geophysical important materials at X17B3 station. At X17C, we conduct angle and energy dispersive x-ray diffraction on polycrystalline samples in either axial or radial geometry. Energy dispersive

  5. Synchrotron radiation applications in medical research at Brookhaven National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Thomlinson, W.

    1997-08-01

    In the relatively short time that synchrotrons have been available to the scientific community, their characteristic beams of UV and X-ray radiation have been applied to virtually all areas of medical science which use ionizing radiation. The ability to tune intense monochromatic beams over wide energy ranges clearly differentiates these sources from standard clinical and research tools. The tunable spectrum, high intrinsic collimation of the beams, polarization and intensity of the beams make possible in-vitro and in-vivo research and therapeutic programs not otherwise possible. From the beginning of research operation at the National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS), many programs have been carrying out basic biomedical research. At first, the research was limited to in-vitro programs such as the x-ray microscope, circular dichroism, XAFS, protein crystallography, micro-tomography and fluorescence analysis. Later, as the coronary angiography program made plans to move its experimental phase from SSRL to the NSLS, it became clear that other in-vivo projects could also be carried out at the synchrotron. The development of SMERF (Synchrotron Medical Research Facility) on beamline X17 became the home not only for angiography but also for the MECT (Multiple Energy Computed Tomography) project for cerebral and vascular imaging. The high energy spectrum on X17 is necessary for the MRT (Microplanar Radiation Therapy) experiments. Experience with these programs and the existence of the Medical Programs Group at the NSLS led to the development of a program in synchrotron based mammography. A recent adaptation of the angiography hardware has made it possible to image human lungs (bronchography). Fig. 1 schematically depicts the broad range of active programs at the NSLS.

  6. National Institute of Standards and Technology Synchrotron Radiation Facilities for Materials Science

    PubMed Central

    Long, Gabrielle G.; Allen, Andrew J.; Black, David R.; Burdette, Harold E.; Fischer, Daniel A.; Spal, Richard D.; Woicik, Joseph C.

    2001-01-01

    Synchrotron Radiation Facilities, supported by the Materials Science and Engineering Laboratory of the National Institute of Standards and Technology, include beam stations at the National Synchrotron Light Source at Brookhaven National Laboratory and at the Advanced Photon Source at Argonne National Laboratory. The emphasis is on materials characterization at the microstructural and at the atomic and molecular levels, where NIST scientists, and researchers from industry, universities and government laboratories perform state-of-the-art x-ray measurements on a broad range of materials. PMID:27500070

  7. Brazilian Synchrotron Light Source: current results and future perspectives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roque da Silva, Antonio Jose

    2013-03-01

    The application of synchrotron radiation in a great variety of fields in general, and condensed matter in particular, has increased steadily worldwide. This, to a large extent, is a result of the availability of the much brighter third-generation light sources, which opened up new experimental techniques. Brazil gave an important contribution to science in Latin America through the development of the necessary technology and the construction of the first synchrotron in the southern hemisphere, still the only one in Latin America. The Laboratório Nacional de Luz Síncrotron - LNLS, operates this installation as an open facility since 1997, having today more than 1300 users yearly. Despite all this success, the current Brazilian light source is a second-generation machine, with relatively low electron energy, high emittance and few straight sections for insertion devices. LNLS is currently engaged in the design and construction of a new, third-generation synchrotron light source. It is being planned to be a state of the art machine, providing tools for cutting edge research that are non existent today in Brazil. In this talk an overview of the status of the current Brazilian light source will be provided, illustrated with some experimental results from users, as well as the future perspectives of the new synchrotron source.

  8. A POSSIBLE SYNCHROTRON LIGHT BEAM PROFILE MONITOR IN RHIC.

    SciTech Connect

    TRBOJEVIC, D.

    1998-06-26

    This report examines the possibility of observing transverse beam profiles by using synchrotron light emission from the 100 GeV/nucleon heavy-ion gold beam in the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC). Synchrotron radiation experiences a shift towards higher photon energy when the magnetic field at the end of a dipole varies rapidly over a short distance. Synchrotron light signals from high energy (larger than 400 GeV) proton beams have already been routinely used to observe the transverse beam profiles at the SPS in CERN and at the TEVATRON at Fermilab. Because of the modest relativistic factor of the fully stripped stored gold ions in RHIC this ''push'' towards higher critical energy is not large enough to place the synchrotron light within the visible region of the spectrum. The critical wavelength remains within the infrared region. A 77K cooled infrared array detector with 160 elements, made of PbSe (Lead salt) could be used for beam profile detection. It would cover the wavelength range between 1 and 6 microns, with maximum sensitivity at a wavelength of 4.5 microns.

  9. Chemical Imaging of Biological Tissue with Synchrotron Infrared Light

    SciTech Connect

    Miller,L.; Dumas, P.

    2006-01-01

    Fourier transform infrared micro-spectroscopy (FTIRM) and imaging (FTIRI) have become valuable techniques for examining the chemical makeup of biological materials by probing their vibrational motions on a microscopic scale. Synchrotron infrared (S-IR) light is an ideal source for FTIRM and FTIRI due to the combination of its high brightness (i.e., flux density), also called brilliance, and broadband nature. Through a 10-{mu}m pinhole, the brightness of a synchrotron source is 100-1000 times higher than a conventional thermal (globar) source. Accordingly, the improvement in spatial resolution and in spectral quality to the diffraction limit has led to a plethora of applications that is just being realized. In this review, we describe the development of synchrotron-based FTIRM, illustrate its advantages in many applications to biological systems, and propose some potential future directions for the technique.

  10. First Beam Measurements with the LHC Synchrotron Light Monitors

    SciTech Connect

    Lefevre, Thibaut; Bravin, Enrico; Burtin, Gerard; Guerrero, Ana; Jeff, Adam; Rabiller, Aurelie; Roncarolo, Federico; Fisher, Alan; /SLAC

    2012-07-13

    The continuous monitoring of the transverse sizes of the beams in the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) relies on the use of synchrotron radiation and intensified video cameras. Depending on the beam energy, different synchrotron light sources must be used. A dedicated superconducting undulator has been built for low beam energies (450 GeV to 1.5 TeV), while edge and centre radiation from a beam-separation dipole magnet are used respectively for intermediate and high energies (up to 7 TeV). The emitted visible photons are collected using a retractable mirror, which sends the light into an optical system adapted for acquisition using intensified CCD cameras. This paper presents the design of the imaging system, and compares the expected light intensity with measurements and the calculated spatial resolution with a cross calibration performed with the wire scanners. Upgrades and future plans are also discussed.

  11. Synchrotron light sources: A powerful tool for science and technology

    SciTech Connect

    Schlachter, F.; Robinson, A.

    1996-01-01

    A new generation of synchrotron light sources is producing extremely bright beams of vacuum-ultraviolet and x-ray radiation, powerful new tools for research in a wide variety of basic and applied sciences. Spectromicroscopy using high spectral and spatial resolution is a new way of seeing, offering many opportunities in the study of matter. Development of a new light source provides the country or region of the world in which the light source is located many new opportunities: a focal point for research in many scientific and technological areas, a means of upgrading the technology infrastructure of the country, a means of training students, and a potential service to industry. A light source for Southeast Asia would thus be a major resource for many years. Scientists and engineers from light sources around the world look forward to providing assistance to make this a reality in Southeast Asia.

  12. Measurements of a prototype synchrotron radiation pumped absorber for future light sources

    SciTech Connect

    Chou, T.S.; Foerster, C.L.; Halama, H.; Lanni, C.

    1988-01-01

    In the new generation of advanced synchrotron light sources, the conventional concept of distributed pumping is no longer suitable for removing the gas load caused by photon stimulated desorption (PSD). A new concept using a combination of photon absorber and pumping station has been designed, constructed, and installed in the U1OB beam line at the VUV ring of the National Synchrotron Light Source. The system consists of an electrically insulated water cooled copper block, a titanium sublimation pump, calibrated BA gauges, a calibrated RGA, and a known conductance. A photon beam 10 milliradian wide and 3.26 milliradian high, having critical energy of 500 eV, is directed on the absorber. PSD yield is studied as a function of total beam dose and absorber surface preparation. The results from this experiment, pump characteristics, design of an absorber pump for future light sources, and the pressure improvement factors will be presented. 5 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

  13. Conceptual design of the Argonne 6-GeV synchrotron light source

    SciTech Connect

    Cho, Y.; Crosbie, E.; Khoe, T.; Knott, M.; Kramer, S.; Kustom, R.; Lari, R.; Martin, R.; Mavrogenes, G.; Moenich, J.

    1985-01-01

    The Argonne National Laboratory Synchrotron Light Source Storage Ring is designed to have a natural emittance of 6.5 x 10/sup -9/ m for circulating 6-GeV positrons. Thirty of the 32 long straight sections, each 6.5-m long, will be available for synchrotron light insertion devices. A circulating positron current of 300 mA can be injected in about 8 min. from a booster synchrotron operating with a repetition time of 1.2 sec. The booster synchrotron will contain two different rf systems. The lower frequency system (38.97 MHz) will accept positrons from a 360-MeV linac and will accelerate them to 2.25 GeV. The higher frequency system (350.76 MHz) will accelerate the positrons to 6 GeV. The positrons will be produced from a 300-MeV electron beam on a tungsten target. A conceptual layout is shown. 5 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs.

  14. Mechanical Design of the HER Synchrotron Light Monitor Primary Mirror

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daly, Edward F.; Fisher, Alan S.; Kurita, Nadine R.; Langton, J.

    1997-05-01

    This paper describes the mechanical design of the primary mirror that images the synchrotron light extracted from the High Energy Ring of the PEP-II B Factory. During operation, the water-cooled GlidCop mirror is subjected to a heat flux in excess of 2000 W/cm^2, and the imaging surface is plated with Electroless Nickel to improve its optical characteristics. Calculated mechanical distortions and stresses experienced by the mirror during off-axis and normal operation will be presented.

  15. Condenser for illuminating a ringfield camera with synchrotron emission light

    DOEpatents

    Sweatt, William C.

    1996-01-01

    The present invention relates generally to the field of condensers for collecting light from a synchrotron radiation source and directing the light into a ringfield of a lithography camera. The present invention discloses a condenser comprising collecting, processing, and imaging optics. The collecting optics are comprised of concave and convex spherical mirrors that collect the light beams. The processing optics, which receive the light beams, are comprised of flat mirrors that converge and direct the light beams into a real entrance pupil of the camera in a symmetrical pattern. In the real entrance pupil are located flat mirrors, common to the beams emitted from the preceding mirrors, for generating substantially parallel light beams and for directing the beams toward the ringfield of a camera. Finally, the imaging optics are comprised of a spherical mirror, also common to the beams emitted from the preceding mirrors, images the real entrance pupil through the resistive mask and into the virtual entrance pupil of the camera. Thus, the condenser is comprised of a plurality of beams with four mirrors corresponding to a single beam plus two common mirrors.

  16. Condenser for illuminating a ringfield camera with synchrotron emission light

    DOEpatents

    Sweatt, W.C.

    1996-04-30

    The present invention relates generally to the field of condensers for collecting light from a synchrotron radiation source and directing the light into a ringfield of a lithography camera. The present invention discloses a condenser comprising collecting, processing, and imaging optics. The collecting optics are comprised of concave and convex spherical mirrors that collect the light beams. The processing optics, which receive the light beams, are comprised of flat mirrors that converge and direct the light beams into a real entrance pupil of the camera in a symmetrical pattern. In the real entrance pupil are located flat mirrors, common to the beams emitted from the preceding mirrors, for generating substantially parallel light beams and for directing the beams toward the ringfield of a camera. Finally, the imaging optics are comprised of a spherical mirror, also common to the beams emitted from the preceding mirrors, images the real entrance pupil through the resistive mask and into the virtual entrance pupil of the camera. Thus, the condenser is comprised of a plurality of beams with four mirrors corresponding to a single beam plus two common mirrors. 9 figs.

  17. The Advanced Light Source: A third-generation Synchrotron Radiation Source

    SciTech Connect

    Robinson, Arthur L.

    2002-08-14

    The Advanced Light Source (ALS) at the E.O. Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (Berkeley Lab) of the University of California is a ''third-generation'' synchrotron radiation source optimized for highest brightness at ultraviolet and soft x-ray photon energies. It also provides world-class performance at hard x-ray photon energies. Berkeley Lab operates the ALS for the United States Department of Energy as a national user facility that is available 24 hours/day around the year for research by scientists from industrial, academic, and government laboratories primarily from the United States but also from abroad.

  18. A Proposal to the Department of Energy for The Fabrication of a Very High Energy Polarized Gama Ray Beam Facility and A Program of Medium Energy Physics Research at The National Synchrotron Light Source

    SciTech Connect

    Sandorfi, A.M.; LeVine, M.J.; Thorn, C.E.; Giordano, G.; Matone, G.

    1982-09-01

    This proposal requests support for the fabrication and operation of a modest facility that would provide relatively intense beams of monochromatic and polarized photons with energies in the range of several hundreds of MeV. These {gamma} rays would be produced by Compton backscattering laser light from the electrons circulating in the 2.5-3.0 GeV 'X-RAY' storage ring of the National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS) at Brookhaven National Laboratory. The excellent emittance, phase space, and high current of this state-of-the-art storage ring will allow the production of 2 x 10{sup 7} {gamma} rays per second. These photons would be tagged by detecting the scattered electrons, thereby determining the energy to 2.7 MeV for all {gamma}-ray energies. The efficiency of this tagging procedure is 100% and the {gamma}-ray beam would be essentially background free. Tagging will also allow the flexibility of operating with a dynamic range as large as 200 MeV in photon energy while still preserving high resolution and polarization. These beams will permit a fruitful study of important questions in medium-energy nuclear physics. The initial goals of this program are to reach reliable operation with photon energies up to 300 MeV and to develop {gamma}-ray beams with energies up to about 500 MeV. To demonstrate reliable operation, a modest physics program is planned that, for the most part, utilizes existing magnets and detector systems but nonetheless addresses several important outstanding problems. Gamma ray beams of the versatility, intensity, energy, and resolution that can be achieved at this facility are not currently available at any other world facility either existing or under construction. Furthermore, the proposed program would produce the first intense source of medium-energy {gamma} rays that are polarized. Because of the difficulties in producing such polarized beams, it is very unlikely that viable alternate sources can be developed in the near future; at present

  19. National Synchrotron Light Source. Annual report 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Hulbert, S.L.; Lazarz, N.M.

    1993-04-01

    This report contains seven sections discussing the following: (1) scientific research at the NSLS; (2) symposia and workshops held at the NSLS; (3) a facility report; (4) NSLS projects; (5) NSLS operational highlights; (6) informational guides to the VUV and X-ray beamlines; and (7) appendices which include abstracts on projects carried out at the VUV and X-ray beamlines.

  20. National Synchrotron Light Source annual report 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Hulbert, S.L.; Lazarz, N.M.

    1992-04-01

    This report discusses the following research conducted at NSLS: atomic and molecular science; energy dispersive diffraction; lithography, microscopy and tomography; nuclear physics; UV photoemission and surface science; x-ray absorption spectroscopy; x-ray scattering and crystallography; x-ray topography; workshop on surface structure; workshop on electronic and chemical phenomena at surfaces; workshop on imaging; UV FEL machine reviews; VUV machine operations; VUV beamline operations; VUV storage ring parameters; x-ray machine operations; x-ray beamline operations; x-ray storage ring parameters; superconducting x-ray lithography source; SXLS storage ring parameters; the accelerator test facility; proposed UV-FEL user facility at the NSLS; global orbit feedback systems; and NSLS computer system.

  1. Synchrotron Vacuum Ultraviolet Light and Soft X-Ray Radiation Effects on Aluminized Teflon FEP Investigated

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dever, Joyce A.; Townsend, Jacqueline A.; Gaier, James R.; Jalics, Alice I.

    1999-01-01

    Since the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) was deployed in low Earth orbit in April 1990, two servicing missions have been conducted to upgrade its scientific capabilities. Minor cracking of second-surface metalized Teflon FEP (DuPont; fluorinated ethylene propylene) surfaces from multilayer insulation (MLI) was first observed upon close examination of samples with high solar exposure retrieved during the first servicing mission, which was conducted 3.6 years after deployment. During the second HST servicing mission, 6.8 years after deployment, astronaut observations and photographic documentation revealed significant cracks in the Teflon FEP layer of the MLI on both the solar- and anti-solar-facing surfaces of the telescope. NASA Goddard Space Flight Center directed the efforts of the Hubble Space Telescope MLI Failure Review Board, whose goals included identifying the low-Earth-orbit environmental constituent(s) responsible for the cracking and embrittling of Teflon FEP which was observed during the second servicing mission. The NASA Lewis Research Center provided significant support to this effort. Because soft x-ray radiation from solar flares had been considered as a possible cause for the degradation of the mechanical properties of Teflon FEP (ref. 1), the effects of soft xray radiation and vacuum ultraviolet light on Teflon FEP were investigated. In this Lewisled effort, samples of Teflon FEP with a 100-nm layer of vapor-deposited aluminum (VDA) on the backside were exposed to synchrotron radiation of various vacuum ultraviolet and soft x-ray wavelengths between 18 nm (69 eV) and 0.65 nm (1900 eV). Synchrotron radiation exposures were conducted using the National Synchrotron Light Source at Brookhaven National Laboratory. Samples of FEP/VDA were exposed with the FEP surface facing the synchrotron beam. Doses and fluences were compared with those estimated for the 20-yr Hubble Space Telescope mission.

  2. Parametric Modeling of Electron Beam Loss in Synchrotron Light Sources

    SciTech Connect

    Sayyar-Rodsari, B.; Schweiger, C.; Hartman, E.; Corbett, J.; Lee, M.; Lui, P.; Paterson, E.; /SLAC

    2007-11-28

    Synchrotron light is used for a wide variety of scientific disciplines ranging from physical chemistry to molecular biology and industrial applications. As the electron beam circulates, random single-particle collisional processes lead to decay of the beam current in time. We report a simulation study in which a combined neural network (NN) and first-principles (FP) model is used to capture the decay in beam current due to Touschek, Bremsstrahlung, and Coulomb effects. The FP block in the combined model is a parametric description of the beam current decay where model parameters vary as a function of beam operating conditions (e.g. vertical scraper position, RF voltage, number of the bunches, and total beam current). The NN block provides the parameters of the FP model and is trained (through constrained nonlinear optimization) to capture the variation in model parameters as operating condition of the beam changes. Simulation results will be presented to demonstrate that the proposed combined framework accurately models beam decay as well as variation to model parameters without direct access to parameter values in the model.

  3. Structural biology research at the National Synchroton Light Source

    SciTech Connect

    1996-05-01

    The world`s foremost facility for scientific research using x-rays and ultraviolet and infrared radiation is operated by the national synchrotron Light Source Department. This year alone, a total of 2200 guest researchers performed experiments at the world`s largest source of synchrotron light. Researchers are trying to define the three- dimensional structures of biological macromolecules to create a map of life, a guide for exploring the biological and chemical interactions of the vast variety of molecules found in living organisms. Studies in structural biology may lead to new insights into how biological systems are formed and nourished, how they survive and grow, how they are damaged and die. This document discusses some the the structural biological research done at the National Synchrotron Light Source.

  4. Synchrotron radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Knotek, M.L.

    1987-01-01

    Synchrotron radiation has had a revolutionary effect on a broad range of scientific studies, from physics, chemistry and metallurgy to biology, medicine and geoscience. The situation during the last decade has been one of very rapid growth, there is a great vitality to the field and a capability has been given to a very broad range of scientific disciplines which was undreamed of just a decade or so ago. Here we will discuss some of the properties of synchrotron radiation that makes it so interesting and something of the sources in existence today including the National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS). The NSLS is one of the new facilities built specifically for synchrotron radiation research and the model that was developed there for involvement of the scientific community is a good one which provides some good lessons for these facilities and others.

  5. Shedding Synchrotron Light on a Puzzle of Glasses

    SciTech Connect

    Chumakov, Aleksandr

    2007-12-05

    Vibrational dynamics of glasses remains a point of controversial discussions. In particular, the density of vibrational states (DOS) reveals an excess of states above the Debye model called "boson peak." Despite the fact that this universal feature for all glasses has been known for more than 35 years, the nature of the boson peak is still not understood. The application of nuclear inelastic scattering via synchrotron radiation perhaps provides a clearer, more consistent picture of the subject. The distinguishing features of nuclear inelastic scattering relative to, e.g., neutron inelastic scattering, are ideal momentum integration and exact scaling of the DOS in absolute units. This allows for reliable comparison to data from other techniques such as Brillouin light scattering. Another strong point is ideal isotope selectivity: the DOS is measured for a single isotope with a specific low-energy nuclear transition. This allows for special "design" of an experiment to study, for instance, the dynamics of only center-of-mass motions. Recently, we have investigated the transformation of the DOS as a function of several key parameters such as temperature, cooling rate, and density. In all cases the transformation of the DOS is sufficiently well described by a transformation of the continuous medium, in particular, by changes of the macroscopic density and the sound velocity. These results suggest a collective sound-like nature of vibrational dynamics in glasses and cast doubts on microscopic models of glass dynamics. Further insight can be obtained in combined studies of glass with nuclear inelastic and inelastic neutron scattering. Applying two techniques, we have measured the energy dependence of the characteristic correlation length of atomic motions. The data do not reveal localization of atomic vibrations at the energy of the boson peak. Once again, the results suggest that special features of glass dynamics are related to extended motions and not to local models.

  6. Shedding Synchrotron Light on a Puzzle of Glasses

    ScienceCinema

    Chumakov, Aleksandr [European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, Grenoble, France

    2016-07-12

    Vibrational dynamics of glasses remains a point of controversial discussions. In particular, the density of vibrational states (DOS) reveals an excess of states above the Debye model called "boson peak." Despite the fact that this universal feature for all glasses has been known for more than 35 years, the nature of the boson peak is still not understood. The application of nuclear inelastic scattering via synchrotron radiation perhaps provides a clearer, more consistent picture of the subject. The distinguishing features of nuclear inelastic scattering relative to, e.g., neutron inelastic scattering, are ideal momentum integration and exact scaling of the DOS in absolute units. This allows for reliable comparison to data from other techniques such as Brillouin light scattering. Another strong point is ideal isotope selectivity: the DOS is measured for a single isotope with a specific low-energy nuclear transition. This allows for special "design" of an experiment to study, for instance, the dynamics of only center-of-mass motions. Recently, we have investigated the transformation of the DOS as a function of several key parameters such as temperature, cooling rate, and density. In all cases the transformation of the DOS is sufficiently well described by a transformation of the continuous medium, in particular, by changes of the macroscopic density and the sound velocity. These results suggest a collective sound-like nature of vibrational dynamics in glasses and cast doubts on microscopic models of glass dynamics. Further insight can be obtained in combined studies of glass with nuclear inelastic and inelastic neutron scattering. Applying two techniques, we have measured the energy dependence of the characteristic correlation length of atomic motions. The data do not reveal localization of atomic vibrations at the energy of the boson peak. Once again, the results suggest that special features of glass dynamics are related to extended motions and not to local models.

  7. Synchrotron light source data book: Version 4, Revision 05/96

    SciTech Connect

    Murphy, J.B.

    1996-05-01

    This book is as its name implies a collection of data on existing and planned synchrotron light sources. The intention was to provide a compendium of tools for the design of electron storage rings as synchrotron radiation sources. The slant is toward the accelerator physicist as other booklets such as the X-Ray Data Booklet address the use of synchrotron radiation. It is hoped that the booklet serves as a pocket sized reference to facilitate back of the envelope type calculations. It contains some useful formulae in practical units and a brief description of many of the existing and planned light source lattices.

  8. Future Synchrotron Light Sources Based on Ultimate Storage Rings

    SciTech Connect

    Cai, Yunhai; /SLAC

    2012-04-09

    The main purpose of this talk is to describe how far one might push the state of the art in storage ring design. The talk will start with an overview of the latest developments and advances in the design of synchrotron light sources based on the concept of an 'ultimate' storage ring. The review will establish how bright a ring based light source might be, where the frontier of technological challenges are, and what the limits of accelerator physics are. Emphasis will be given to possible improvements in accelerator design and developments in technology toward the goal of achieving an ultimate storage ring. An ultimate storage ring (USR), defined as an electron ring-based light source having an emittance in both transverse planes at the diffraction limit for the range of X-ray wavelengths of interest for a scientific community, would provide very high brightness photons having high transverse coherence that would extend the capabilities of X-ray imaging and probe techniques beyond today's performance. It would be a cost-effective, high-coherence 4th generation light source, competitive with one based on energy recovery linac (ERL) technology, serving a large number of users studying material, chemical, and biological sciences. Furthermore, because of the experience accumulated over many decades of ring operation, it would have the great advantage of stability and reliability. In this paper we consider the design of an USR having 10-pm-rad emittance. It is a tremendous challenge to design a storage ring having such an extremely low emittance, a factor of 100 smaller than those in existing light sources, especially such that it has adequate dynamic aperture and beam lifetime. In many ultra-low emittance designs, the injection acceptances are not large enough for accumulation of the electron beam, necessitating on-axis injection where stored electron bunches are completely replaced with newly injected ones. Recently, starting with the MAX-IV 7-bend achromatic cell, we

  9. Storage Rings for Science with: Electron-Positron Collisions, Hadron Collisions and Synchrotron Light

    SciTech Connect

    Ozaki,S.

    2009-05-04

    The author is honored to receive the 2009 Robert Wilson Prize and the recognition that comes with it. The citation for the prize reads, 'For his outstanding contribution to the design and construction of accelerators that has led to the realization of major machines for fundamental science on two continents and his promotion of international collaboration.' In this article, he will discuss the two construction projects, which he led, one (TRISTAN e{sup +}e{sup -} Collider at KEK) in Japan and the other (RHIC at BNL) in the USA, covering project issues and lessons learned from these projects. Although both of them were built on separate continents, it is interesting to note that they are both built on long off-shore islands. He will also add comments on his recent engagement in the development of the Conceptual Design for the National Synchrotron Light Source II (NSLS-II).

  10. Status of compact synchrotron light source work at TAC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swenson, C. A.; Huson, F. R.; Rocha, R.; Huang, Yunxiang

    A compact electron synchrotron for x ray lithography is a design project at the Texas Accelerator Center. The design is a four super-period symmetric cell lattice that is 18.8 meters in circumference. Numerical tracking results including edge fields affect the theoretical and mechanical design of the machine. An integrated magnet and lattice design algorithm is discussed. Structural design and measurement system parameters for a prototype superferric 3 Tesla 90 degs dipole are discussed. The prototype dipole magnet is currently under construction.

  11. Advanced Materials Research with 3RD Generation Synchrotron Light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soukiassian, P.; D'angelo, M.; Enriquez, H.; Aristov, V. Yu.

    H and D surface nanochemistry on an advanced wide band gap semiconductor, silicon carbide is investigated by synchrotron radiation-based core level and valence band photoemission, infrared absorption and scanning tunneling spectroscopy, showing the 1st example of H/D-induced semiconductor surface metallization, that also occurs on a pre-oxidized surface. These results are compared to recent state-of-the-art ab-initio total energy calculations. Most interestingly, an amazing isotopic behavior is observed with a smaller charge transfer from D atoms suggesting the role of dynamical effects. Such findings are especially exciting in semiconductor physics and in interface with biology.

  12. Mechanical Design of the HER Synchrotron Light Monitor Primary Mirror

    SciTech Connect

    Daly, Edward F.; Fisher, Alan S.; Kurita, Nadine R.; Langton, J.; /SLAC

    2011-09-14

    This paper describes the mechanical design of the primary mirror that images the visible portion of the synchrotron radiation (SR) extracted from the High Energy Ring (HER) of the PEP-II B-Factory. During off-axis operation, the water-cooled GlidCop mirror is subjected to a heat flux in excess of 2000 W/cm2. When on-axis imaging occurs, the heat flux due to scattered SR, resistive wall losses and Higher-Order-Mode (HOM) heating is estimated at 1 W/cm2. The imaging surface is plated with Electroless Nickel to improve its optical characteristics. The design requirements for the primary mirror are listed and discussed. Calculated mechanical distortions and stresses experienced by the mirror during on-axis and off-axis operation will be presented.

  13. Spatial and temporal beam profiles for the LHC using synchrotron light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeff, A.; Bart Pedersen, S.; Boccardi, A.; Bravin, E.; Fisher, A. S.; Guerrero Ollacarizqueta, A.; Lefevre, T.; Rabiller, A.; Welsch, C. P.

    2010-04-01

    Synchrotron radiation is emitted whenever a beam of charged particles passes though a magnetic field. The power emitted is strongly dependent on the relativistic Lorentz factor of the particles, which itself is proportional to the beam energy and inversely proportional to the particle rest mass. Thus, synchrotron radiation is usually associated with electron accelerators, which are commonly used as light sources. However the largest proton machines reach sufficiently high energies to make synchrotron light useful for diagnostic purposes. The Large Hadron Collider at CERN will accelerate protons up to an energy of 7TeV. An optical arrangement has been made which focuses synchrotron light from two LHC magnets to image the cross-section of the beam. It is also planned to use this setup to produce a longitudinal profile of the beam by use of fast Single Photon Counting. This is complicated by the bunched nature of the beam which needs to be measured with a very large dynamic range. In this contribution we present early experimental data of the transverse LHC beam profile together with a scheme for measuring the longitudinal profile with a time resolution of 50 ps. It includes the use of a gating regime to increase the dynamic range of the photon counter and a three-stage correction algorithm to compensate for the detector's deadtime, afterpulsing and pile-up effects.

  14. Bringing Physics, Synchrotron Light and Probing Neutrons to the Public: A Collaborative Outreach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Micklavzina, Stanley; Almqvist, Monica; Sörensen, Stacey L.

    2014-01-01

    Stanley Micklavzina, a US physics educator on sabbatical, teams up with a Swedish national research laboratory, a synchrotron radiation experimental group and a university science centre to develop and create educational and public outreach projects. Descriptions of the physics, science centre displays and public demonstrations covering the…

  15. Introducing Synchrotrons Into the Classroom

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2016-07-12

    Brookhaven's Introducing Synchrotrons Into the Classroom (InSynC) program gives teachers and their students access to the National Synchrotron Light Source through a competitive proposal process. The first batch of InSynC participants included a group of students from Islip Middle School, who used the massive machine to study the effectiveness of different what filters.

  16. Introducing Synchrotrons Into the Classroom

    SciTech Connect

    2011-05-20

    Brookhaven's Introducing Synchrotrons Into the Classroom (InSynC) program gives teachers and their students access to the National Synchrotron Light Source through a competitive proposal process. The first batch of InSynC participants included a group of students from Islip Middle School, who used the massive machine to study the effectiveness of different what filters.

  17. New Perspectives for Advanced Science at the Brazilian Synchrotron Light Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Tolentino, Helio C.N.

    2003-01-24

    The LNLS (Laboratorio Nacional de Luz Sincrotron) is a national laboratory in Brazil that operates a 1.37 GeV storage ring for synchrotron light users since July 1997. Eleven bending magnet beamlines are open to a wide range of possibilities for research in ultra-violet and X-ray spectroscopy, single crystal and powder diffraction, magnetic and anomalous scattering, protein crystallography, X-ray fluorescence, X-ray lithography and small angle X-ray scattering. The recent conclusion of the booster injector opened the way for insertion devices to be accommodated in the four straight sections available. A multipolar wiggler, for protein crystallography using the MAD technique, is the first planned to be installed during 2003. The construction of the first LNLS undulator, for the vaccum ultra-violet and soft X-ray domain, has already started and will expand the possibilities in atomic, molecular and surface physics, as well as in catalysis and magnetism. LNLS has expanded its infra-structure as an open multidisciplinary research laboratory into complementary areas, such as electron and scanning probe microscopy, nanostructure synthesis and molecular biology. Many technological and scientific achievements have been attained in these last five years. Some of them will be highlighted here, with emphasis in the area of nanostructured and magnetic materials.

  18. Common characteristics of synchrotron radiation and light leaking from a bent optical fiber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Artru, X.; Ray, C.

    2016-07-01

    Light leaking from a bent optical fiber shares many properties with synchrotron radiation : in ray optics, both lights are emitted tangentially to a light cylinder; in wave optics, the emission mechanism involves a tunnel effect. The angular distributions of these two radiations are studied in parallel and found to be similar. The same is done for the impact parameter distributions. The latter show interference fringes of the Airy function type. The far field escaped from the fiber is calculated with the Volume Current Method. An optical system observing the impact parameter profile is proposed.

  19. GeoSoilEnviroCARS: A National User Facility for Synchrotron Radiation Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rivers, M. L.; Sutton, S. R.

    2002-12-01

    GeoSoilEnviroCARS (GSECARS) is a national user facility for frontier research in the earth sciences using synchrotron radiation at the Advanced Photon Source, Argonne National Laboratory. GSECARS provides earth scientists with access to the high-brilliance hard x-rays from this third-generation synchrotron light source. Both an undulator and a bending magnet beamline are available. All principal synchrotron-based analytical techniques in demand by earth scientists are being brought to bear on earth science problems: (1) high-pressure/high-temperature crystallography and spectroscopy using the diamond anvil cell; (2) high-pressure/high-temperature crystallography using the large-volume press; (3) powder, single crystal and interface diffraction; (4) inelastic x-ray scattering; (5) x-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) spectroscopy; (6) x-ray fluorescence microprobe analysis; and (7) microtomography. The major instrumentation includes 250 and 1000 MN multianvil presses, a double-sided laser heating system, a large general-purpose 5-circle diffractometer, a focused microprobe, and a Raman laboratory. A proposal-based system for beamtime allocation, open to all earth scientists, has been in place since Fall, 1998. Since then, over 450 beamtime proposals have been received and more than 320 outside users have conducted experiments at GSECARS. The research conducted by these investigators has resulted in more than 170 publications. The unique capabilities of the APS and GSECARS have allowed groundbreaking experiments to be conducted. These include: (1) phase transformations in the Mg-Si-O system at mantle conditions; (2) structure of hydrated a-Al2O3 surfaces; (3) alloying properties of silicon in the Earth's core; (4) dynamics of iron-rich melt segregation from silicates during core formation; (5) electronic spin state of FeO at high pressure and temperature; (6) elastic wave velocities of mantle minerals at lower mantle conditions; (7) copper partitioning and

  20. Fringe Pattern of the PEP-II Synchrotron-Light Interferometers

    SciTech Connect

    Fisher, Alan; /SLAC

    2005-09-19

    Synchrotron-light interferometry is used to measure the vertical beam sizes in the high-energy and low-energy rings (HER and LER) of the PEP-II B Factory at SLAC. Light from a point in a dipole magnet is diffracted by two slits and then imaged onto a CCD camera. A curve fitting algorithm matches the measured interference fringes to a calculated pattern that includes the effect on the modulation depth of the fringes due to both the small but nonzero source size and the narrow bandpass of the optical filter. These formulas are derived here. Next, an additional focusing term from the primary mirror in the vacuum chamber is considered. The mirror needs extensive cooling due to the intense fan of synchrotron x-rays and is likely to have a slight stress-induced curvature, which must be considered to determine the true source size.

  1. Shielding synchrotron light sources: Advantages of circular shield walls tunnels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kramer, S. L.; Ghosh, V. J.; Breitfeller, M.

    2016-08-01

    Third generation high brightness light sources are designed to have low emittance and high current beams, which contribute to higher beam loss rates that will be compensated by Top-Off injection. Shielding for these higher loss rates will be critical to protect the projected higher occupancy factors for the users. Top-Off injection requires a full energy injector, which will demand greater consideration of the potential abnormal beam miss-steering and localized losses that could occur. The high energy electron injection beam produce significantly higher neutron component dose to the experimental floor than lower energy injection and ramped operations. High energy neutrons produced in the forward direction from thin target beam losses are a major component of the dose rate outside the shield walls of the tunnel. The convention has been to provide thicker 90° ratchet walls to reduce this dose to the beam line users. We present an alternate circular shield wall design, which naturally and cost effectively increases the path length for this forward radiation in the shield wall and thereby substantially decreasing the dose rate for these beam losses. This shield wall design will greatly reduce the dose rate to the users working near the front end optical components but will challenge the beam line designers to effectively utilize the longer length of beam line penetration in the shield wall. Additional advantages of the circular shield wall tunnel are that it's simpler to construct, allows greater access to the insertion devices and the upstream in tunnel beam line components, as well as reducing the volume of concrete and therefore the cost of the shield wall.

  2. Evaluating scintillator performance in time-resolved hard X-ray studies at synchrotron light sources.

    PubMed

    Rutherford, Michael E; Chapman, David J; White, Thomas G; Drakopoulos, Michael; Rack, Alexander; Eakins, Daniel E

    2016-05-01

    The short pulse duration, small effective source size and high flux of synchrotron radiation is ideally suited for probing a wide range of transient deformation processes in materials under extreme conditions. In this paper, the challenges of high-resolution time-resolved indirect X-ray detection are reviewed in the context of dynamic synchrotron experiments. In particular, the discussion is targeted at two-dimensional integrating detector methods, such as those focused on dynamic radiography and diffraction experiments. The response of a scintillator to periodic synchrotron X-ray excitation is modelled and validated against experimental data collected at the Diamond Light Source (DLS) and European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (ESRF). An upper bound on the dynamic range accessible in a time-resolved experiment for a given bunch separation is calculated for a range of scintillators. New bunch structures are suggested for DLS and ESRF using the highest-performing commercially available crystal LYSO:Ce, allowing time-resolved experiments with an interframe time of 189 ns and a maximum dynamic range of 98 (6.6 bits).

  3. Evaluating scintillator performance in time-resolved hard X-ray studies at synchrotron light sources

    PubMed Central

    Rutherford, Michael E.; Chapman, David J.; White, Thomas G.; Drakopoulos, Michael; Rack, Alexander; Eakins, Daniel E.

    2016-01-01

    The short pulse duration, small effective source size and high flux of synchrotron radiation is ideally suited for probing a wide range of transient deformation processes in materials under extreme conditions. In this paper, the challenges of high-resolution time-resolved indirect X-ray detection are reviewed in the context of dynamic synchrotron experiments. In particular, the discussion is targeted at two-dimensional integrating detector methods, such as those focused on dynamic radiography and diffraction experiments. The response of a scintillator to periodic synchrotron X-ray excitation is modelled and validated against experimental data collected at the Diamond Light Source (DLS) and European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (ESRF). An upper bound on the dynamic range accessible in a time-resolved experiment for a given bunch separation is calculated for a range of scintillators. New bunch structures are suggested for DLS and ESRF using the highest-performing commercially available crystal LYSO:Ce, allowing time-resolved experiments with an interframe time of 189 ns and a maximum dynamic range of 98 (6.6 bits). PMID:27140147

  4. Operating synchrotron light sources with a high gain free electron laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Mitri, S.; Cornacchia, M.

    2015-11-01

    Since the 1980s synchrotron light sources have been considered as drivers of a high repetition rate (RR), high gain free electron laser (FEL) inserted in a by-pass line or in the ring itself. As of today, the high peak current required by the laser is not deemed to be compatible with the standard multi-bunch filling pattern of synchrotrons, and in particular with the operation of insertion device (ID) beamlines. We show that this problem can be overcome by virtue of magnetic bunch length compression in a ring section, and that, after lasing, the beam returns to equilibrium conditions without beam quality disruption. Bunch length compression brings a double advantage: the high peak current stimulates a high gain FEL emission, while the large energy spread makes the beam less sensitive to the FEL heating and to the microwave instability in the ring. The beam’s large energy spread at the undulator is matched to the FEL energy bandwidth through a transverse gradient undulator. Feasibility of lasing at 25 nm is shown for the Elettra synchrotron light source at 1 GeV, and scaling to shorter wavelengths as a function of momentum compaction, beam energy and transverse emittance in higher energy, larger rings is discussed. For the Elettra case study, a low (100 Hz) and a high (463 kHz) FEL RR are considered, corresponding to an average FEL output power at the level of ∼1 W (∼1013 photons per pulse) and ∼300 W (∼1011 photons per pulse), respectively. We also find that, as a by-product of compression, the ∼5 W Renieri’s limit on the average FEL power can be overcome. Our conclusion is that existing and planned synchrotron light sources may be made compatible with this new hybrid IDs-plus-FEL operational mode, with little impact on the standard beamlines functionality.

  5. SYNCHROTRON RADIATION, FREE ELECTRON LASER, APPLICATION OF NUCLEAR TECHNOLOGY, ETC.: Study on the characteristics of linac based THz light source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Xiong-Wei; Wang, Shu-Hong; Chen, Sen-Yu

    2009-10-01

    There are many methods based on linac for THz radiation production. As one of the options for the Beijing Advanced Light, an ERL test facility is proposed for THz radiation. In this test facility, there are 4 kinds of methods to produce THz radiation: coherent synchrotron radiation (CSR), synchrotron radiation (SR), low gain FEL oscillator, and high gain SASE FEL. In this paper, we study the characteristics of the 4 kinds of THz light sources.

  6. Vacuum and magnetic field constraints in a H -/light ion synchrotron

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arduini, G.; Martin, R. L.; Rossi, S.; Silari, M.

    1994-08-01

    Acceleration of H - ions in a synchrotron imposes severe restrictions on the level of residual pressure in the vacuum chamber and the maximum magnetic field in the magnets of the ring. Significant vacuum requirements are also imposed by the acceleration of ions. This paper discusses these two aspects of the design of a combined H -/light ion synchrotron for radiation therapy. The fractional loss of the accelerated beam induced by the two processes is evaluated on the basis of a general treatment of the physics of these phenomena. The values of the vacuum and magnetic field necessary for normal operation of the machine are specified and a discussion is given of the behaviour of the above quantities as a function of several parameters such as beam energy, composition and pressure of the residual gas in the vacuum chamber and beam extraction time.

  7. Magnetic properties of the ALS (Advanced Light Source) booster synchrotron engineering model magnets

    SciTech Connect

    Keller, R.; Green, M.I.; Hoyer, E.; Koo, Y.M.; Luchini, K.; Marks, S.; Milburn, J.; Nelson, D.H.

    1989-03-01

    The Advanced Light Source (ALS) at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory is designed to be a third-generation electron storage ring producing high-brightness VUV and X-ray radiation from wiggler and undulator insertion devices. Engineering models of all lattice magnets that are to be installed in the storage ring and its booster synchrotron have been built and are being tested to verify their performance. This paper is concerned with the magnets that form the booster lattice: dipoles, quadrupoles, sextupoles, and corrector dipoles (steerers). After a brief outline of measurement techniques and equipment, the major design parameters of these magnets are listed. Measured effective lengths and multipole field errors are then given for each type. All engineering models meet the specifications, and tracking studies including the measured systematic field errors show acceptable performance of the booster synchrotron; hence the designs are qualified for production. 3 refs., 7 figs., 4 tabs.

  8. SESAME-A 3rd Generation Synchrotron Light Source for the Middle East

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winick, Herman

    2010-02-01

    Developed under the auspices of UNESCO and modeled on CERN, SESAME (Synchrotron-light for Experimental Science and Applications in the Middle East) is an international research center in construction in Jordan. It will enable world class research by scientists from the region, reversing the brain drain. It will also build bridges between diverse societies, contributing to a culture of peace through international cooperation in science. The centerpiece is a synchrotron light source originating from BESSY I, a gift by Germany. The upgraded machine, a 2.5 GeV 3rd Generation Light Source (133m circumference, 26nm-rad emittance and 12 places for insertion devices), will provide light from infra-red to hard X-rays, offering excellent opportunities to train local scientists and attract those working abroad to return. The SESAME Council meets twice each year and presently has nine Members (Bahrain, Cyprus, Egypt, Iran, Israel, Jordan, Pakistan, Palestinian Authority, Turkey). Members have responsibility for the project and provide the annual operations budget (1.5M US dollars in 2009, expected to rise to about 5M when operation starts in 2012-13). Jordan provided the site, building, and infrastructure. A staff of 20 is installing the 0.8 GeV BESSY I injection system. The facility will have the capacity to serve 30 or more experiments operating simultaneously. See www.sesame.org.jo )

  9. SESAME - A 3rd Generation Synchrotron Light Source for the Middle East

    SciTech Connect

    Ulkue, Dincer; Rahighi, Javad; Winick, Herman

    2007-01-19

    SESAME (Synchrotron-light for Experimental Science and Applications in the Middle East) will be the Middle East's first international research center. It is a cooperative venture by the scientists and governments of the region with founding members Bahrain, Egypt, Israel, Jordan, Pakistan, Palestine Authority, and Turkey. Iran is in the process of finalizing its formal membership. Other countries (Cyprus, Morocco, and the United Arab Emirates) are also expected to join. The permanent Council of member states has full responsibility for the project. Members provide the annual operating budget. Observer countries are Germany, Greece, Italy, Kuwait, Portugal, Russian Federation, Sweden, the UK, and the US. SESAME is being developed under the umbrella of UNESCO. Jordan was selected as the building site. SESAME will offer excellent opportunities for training of Middle East scientists and attract those working abroad to consider returning. SESAME will be a 2.5GeV 3rd Generation light source (emittance 26nm-rad, circumference {approx}133m), providing excellent performance for structural molecular biology, molecular environmental science, surface and interface science, microelectromechanical devices, x-ray imaging, archaeological microanalysis, and materials characterization. It will cover a broad spectral range from the infrared to hard x-rays and will have 12 straight sections for insertion devices (average length 2.75m). The injector will be the BESSY I 0.8 GeV booster synchrotron which has been given as a gift from Germany. Four committees advise the Council and assist in developing the technical design, beam lines, user community, and scientific Program. The SESAME building, now in construction with funds and a site provided by Jordan, is scheduled for completion in late 2006 after which the BESSY I injector will be installed. First stored beam in the new 2.5 GeV ring is planned for 2009 with six initial beamlines planned. Some beamlines will be built by member

  10. The role of iron in neurodegenerative disorders: insights and opportunities with synchrotron light

    PubMed Central

    Collingwood, Joanna F.; Davidson, Mark R.

    2014-01-01

    There is evidence for iron dysregulation in many forms of disease, including a broad spectrum of neurodegenerative disorders. In order to advance our understanding of the pathophysiological role of iron, it is helpful to be able to determine in detail the distribution of iron as it relates to metabolites, proteins, cells, and tissues, the chemical state and local environment of iron, and its relationship with other metal elements. Synchrotron light sources, providing primarily X-ray beams accompanied by access to longer wavelengths such as infra-red, are an outstanding tool for multi-modal non-destructive analysis of iron in these systems. The micro- and nano-focused X-ray beams that are generated at synchrotron facilities enable measurement of iron and other transition metal elements to be performed with outstanding analytic sensitivity and specificity. Recent developments have increased the scope for methods such as X-ray fluorescence mapping to be used quantitatively rather than semi-quantitatively. Burgeoning interest, coupled with technical advances and beamline development at synchrotron facilities, has led to substantial improvements in resources and methodologies in the field over the past decade. In this paper we will consider how the field has evolved with regard to the study of iron in proteins, cells, and brain tissue, and identify challenges in sample preparation and analysis. Selected examples will be used to illustrate the contribution, and future potential, of synchrotron X-ray analysis for the characterization of iron in model systems exhibiting iron dysregulation, and for human cases of neurodegenerative disorders including Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s disease, Friedreich’s ataxia, and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. PMID:25191270

  11. Undulator based scanning microscope at the National Synchrotron Light Source

    SciTech Connect

    Rarback, H.; Shu, D.; Ade, H.; Jacobsen, C.; Kirz, J.; McNulty, I.; Rosser, R.

    1986-01-01

    A second generation scanning soft x-ray microscope is under construction, designed to utilize the dramatic increase in source bightness available at the soft x-ray undulator. The new instrument is expected to reduce image acquisition time by a factor of about 100, and to improve resolution, stability, and reproducibility.

  12. SUNY beam line X3, National Synchrotron Light Source

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-01-01

    This report discusses: beamline change and upgrades at NSLS; crystallography; surface structure; small angle scattering; EXAFS, glazing angle and fluorescence studies; and high temperature superconductors. (LSP).

  13. The tomography beamline at the National Synchrotron Light Source

    SciTech Connect

    Dilmanian, F.A.; Wu, X.Y.; Parsons, E.C.

    1996-12-31

    We compared the image contrast of a monochromatic CT, Multiple Energy Computed Tomography (MECT), and conventional CT scanner using phantoms. The experimental results indicate that monochromatic CT, with beam energy tuned just above the iodine K-edge, has about a 3 fold advantage in iodine contrast over conventional CT with a 120 kVp beam. Modeling using the same beams at a 3 rad dose and 3 mm slice height on an 18 cm diameter acrylic phantom, the simulations show a noise of 1.2 HU for MECT and 1.9 HU for CCT. Furthermore, despite the Cupping-effect corrections the bone contrast is lower in CCT and varies by 24 HU moving from the phantom`s center to the edge; this indicates an advantage for MECT in detecting and quantifying lesions differing from surrounding tissue by their mean atomic number.

  14. Analysis of Old Copper Synchrotron Light Absorbers from the Stanford Positron Electron Accelerating Ring

    SciTech Connect

    Marshall, S.R.; Scott, B.; /SLAC

    2005-12-15

    Synchrotron light absorbers intercept synchrotron radiation to protect chamber walls from excessive heat. When subjected to the high temperature of the beam, these absorbers undergo thermal stress. If the stress is too great or fatigues the material, the absorbers may fail. These absorbers are designed to last the lifetime of the machine. Any premature cracking could result in a leak and, consequently, loss of the ultra high vacuum environment. Using secondary and backscattered electron techniques, several sections of a used copper absorber were analyzed for material damage. Chemical analyses were performed on these samples as well. Comparing the unexposed sections to the sections exposed to the electron beam, few cracks were seen in the copper. However, the exposed samples showed heavy surface damage, in addition to crevices that could eventually result in material failure. Significant corrosion was also evident along the water cooling passage of the samples. These findings suggest that further investigation and periodic inspection of absorbers in SPEAR3 are necessary to control corrosion of the copper.

  15. Nondestructive Characterization by Advanced Synchrotron Light Techniques: Spectromicroscopy and Coherent Radiology

    PubMed Central

    Margaritondo, Giorgio; Hwu, Yeukuang; Je, Jung Ho

    2008-01-01

    The advanced characteristics of synchrotron light has led in recent years to the development of a series of new experimental techniques to investigate chemical and physical properties on a microscopic scale. Although originally developed for materials science and biomedical research, such techniques find increasing applications in other domains – and could be quite useful for the study and conservation of cultural heritage. Specifically, they can nondestructively provide detailed chemical composition information that can be useful for the identification of specimens, for the discovery of historical links based on the sources of chemical raw materials and on chemical processes, for the analysis of damage, their causes and remedies and for many other issues. Likewise, morphological and structural information on a microscopic scale is useful for the identification, study and preservation of many different cultural and historical specimens. We concentrate here on two classes of techniques: in the first case, photoemission spectromicroscopy. This is the result of the advanced evolution of photoemission techniques like ESCA (Electron Microscopy for Chemical Analysis). By combining high lateral resolution to spectroscopy, photoemission spectromicroscopy can deliver fine chemical information on a microscopic scale in a nondestructive fashion. The second class of techniques exploits the high lateral coherence of modern synchrotron sources, a byproduct of the quest for high brightness or brilliance. We will see that such techniques now push radiology into the submicron scale and the submillisecond time domain. Furthermore, they can be implemented in a tomographic mode, increasing the information and becoming potentially quite useful for the analysis of cultural heritage specimens.

  16. Synchrotrons: Taiwan unveils new synchrotron

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horiuchi, Noriaki

    2015-05-01

    Competitive activities around the globe to develop the world's brightest synchrotron light source have accelerated in recent years. Taiwanese scientists now aspire to be at the top of the list with the recently constructed Taiwan Photon Source.

  17. MULTIPLE FUNCTIONS LONG TRACE PROFILER (LTP-MF) FOR NATIONAL SYNCHROTRON RADIATION LABORATORY OF CHINA.

    SciTech Connect

    QIAN, S.; WANG, Q.; HONG, Y.; TAKACS, P.

    2005-07-31

    The Long Trace Profiler (LTP) is a useful optical metrology instrument for measuring the figure and slope error of cylindrical aspheres commonly used as synchrotron radiation (SR) optics. It is used extensively at a number of synchrotron radiation laboratories around the world. In order to improve SR beam line quality and resolution, the National Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory (NSRL) of China is developing a versatile LTP that can be used to measure both SR optics and more conventional ''normal'' optical surfaces. The optical metrology laboratories at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) and NSRL are collaborating in developing a multiple functions LTP (LTP-MF). Characteristics of the LTP-MF are: a very compact and lightweight optical head, a large angular test range ({+-} 16 mad) and high accuracy. The LTP-MF can be used in various configurations: as a laboratory-based LTP, an in-situ LTP or penta-prism LTP, as an angle monitor, a portable LTP, and a small radius of curvature test instrument. The schematic design of the compact optical head and a new compact slide are introduced. Analysis of different measurements modes and systematic error correction methods are introduced.

  18. Light flux density threshold at which protein denaturation is induced by synchrotron radiation circular dichroism beamlines.

    PubMed

    Miles, A J; Janes, Robert W; Brown, A; Clarke, D T; Sutherland, J C; Tao, Y; Wallace, B A; Hoffmann, S V

    2008-07-01

    New high-flux synchrotron radiation circular dichroism (SRCD) beamlines are providing important information for structural biology, but can potentially cause denaturation of the protein samples under investigation. This effect has been studied at the new CD1 dedicated SRCD beamline at ISA in Denmark, where radiation-induced thermal damage effects were observed, depending not only on the radiation flux but also on the focal spot size of the light. Comparisons with similar studies at other SRCD facilities worldwide has lead to the estimation of a flux density threshold under which SRCD beamlines should be operated when samples are to be exposed to low-wavelength vacuum ultraviolet radiation for extended periods of time.

  19. A microprobe-XRF Beamline on Indus-2 Synchrotron Light Source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tiwari, M. K.; Kane, S. R.; Sinha, A. K.; Garg, C. K.; Singh, A. K.; Gupta, P.; Garg, S. R.; Lodha, G. S.; Deb, S. K.

    2013-03-01

    A microfocus x-ray fluorescence (XRF) beamline has been setup on Indus-2 synchrotron light source. The beamline works in the x-ray energy range of 4-20 keV. The optics of the beamline comprises of a Si(111) double crystal monochromator for energy tunability and a Kirkpatrick-Baez (KB) based grazing incidence focusing optics. Microprobe XRF scanning over a region of the sample is possible using a 5-axis sample scanning stage. The beamline provides an energy resolution ~ 10-3 -10-4 with a photon flux density of the order of ~ 108 ph/sec./mm2/100mA for the collimated unfocused beam. Measured performance, various attractive features and some initial commissioning results are presented.

  20. Synchrotron X-Ray Microdiffraction Studies of Electromigration in Interconnect lines at the Advanced Light Source

    SciTech Connect

    Tamura, Nobumichi; Chen, Kai; Kunz, Martin

    2009-12-01

    Synchrotron polychromatic X-ray microdiffraction is a particularly suitable technique to study in situ the effect of electromigration in metal interconnects as add spatial resolution to grain orientation and strain sensitivity. This technique has been extensively used at the Advanced Light Source to monitor changes in aluminum and copper interconnect test structures while high-density current is passed into them during accelerated tests at elevated temperature. One of the principal findings is the observation of electromigration-induced plasticity in the metal lines that appear during the very early stages of electromigration. In some of the lines, high density of geometrically necessary dislocation are formed leading to additional diffusion paths causing an enhancement of electromigration effect at test temperature.

  1. Synchrotron radiation shielding design for the Brockhouse sector at the Canadian light source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bassey, Bassey; Moreno, Beatriz; Gomez, Ariel; Ahmed, Asm Sabbir; Ullrich, Doug; Chapman, Dean

    2014-05-01

    At the Canadian Light Source (CLS), the plans for the construction of three beamlines under the Brockhouse Project are underway. The beamlines, to be classified under the CLS Phase III beamlines, will comprise of a wiggler and an undulator, and will be dedicated to x-ray diffraction and scattering experiments. The energy range of these beamlines will be 7-22 keV (low energy wiggler beamline), 20-94 keV (high energy wiggler beamline), and 5-21 keV (undulator beamline). The beamlines will have a total of five hutches. Presented is the shielding design against target scattered white and monochromatic synchrotron radiations for these beamlines. The shielding design is based on: scatter target material-water, dose object-anthropomorphic phantom of the adult human (anteroposterior-AP geometry), and shielding thicknesses of steel and lead that will drop the radiation leakage from the hutches to below 0.5 μSv/h.

  2. Expected Performance of the LHC Synchrotron-Light Telescope (BSRT) and Abort-Gap Monitor (BSRA)

    SciTech Connect

    Fisher, Alan; /SLAC

    2010-06-07

    This Report presents calculations of the synchrotron light from proton and lead-ion beams in the LHC at all energies from 0.45 to 7 TeV. It computes the emission from three sources: the uniform-field region of the D3 dipole, the dipole's edge field, and the short undulator just upstream. Light emitted at or near visible wavelengths is assessed for making optical measurements of transverse beam profiles and for monitoring the emptiness of the abort gap in the fill pattern. There is sufficient light for both applications, although both species pass through energy ranges in the ramp with small photon counts. Effects limiting image resolution are examined, including geometric optics, depth of field, and diffraction. The Report also considers recent suggestions that the undulator, intended to supplement the dipole for low energies, should not be ramped off at high energies and perhaps should not be used at all. We conclude that the undulator is essential at low energy for both species, but that it is possible to leave the undulator on at the cost of some blurring at intermediate energies.

  3. Measurement of the intensity of the beam in the abort gap at the Tevatron utilizing synchrotron light

    SciTech Connect

    Thurman-Keup, R.; Lorman, E.; Meyer, T.; Pordes, S.; De Santis, S.; /LBL, Berkeley

    2005-05-01

    This paper discusses the implementation of abort gap beam intensity monitoring at the Tevatron collider at Fermilab. There are two somewhat independent monitors which measure the intensity of the synchrotron light emitted by particles in the abort gaps. One system uses a gated Photomultiplier Tube (PMT) to measure the light intensity, and the other system uses a single lens telescope, gated image intensifier, and Charge Injection Device (CID) camera to image the beam.

  4. Making good use of synchrotron radiation, The role of CHESS at Cornell and as a national facility

    SciTech Connect

    Batterman, B.W.

    1986-01-01

    Atom smashers is what the New York Times calls them when it publishes a piece about particle accelerators. Historically, particle accelerators were in fact used to break apart atoms, but modern machines do more exotic things. One of them is a spin-off of acceleration - the production of high-energy synchrotron radiation. Once considered a nuisance, this radiation has become valuable in almost every field of science and engineering. It is the basis of a national facility, the Cornell High Energy Synchrotron Source (CHESS), that operates in conjunction with the Cornell Electron Storage Ring (CESR). CHESS provides the highest-energy synchrotron radiation available in the United States.

  5. Design of a multi-bend achromat lattice for 3 GeV synchrotron light source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Eun-San

    2016-03-01

    We present a lattice design for a low-emittance and high-brilliance 3 GeV synchrotron light source that has been widely investigated in the world. We show the design results for a MBA (Multi-Bend Achromat) lattice with an emittance of 1.3 nm and 282.4 m circumference. Each cell has 5 bending magnets that consist of outer two with bending angle of 4.5° and inner three with bending angle of 7°. The lattice is designed to be flexible and consists of 12 straight sections in which one straight section has a length of 5.9 m. We have studied the dynamic aperture in the lattice with machine errors. It is shown that the designed low-emittance lattice provides sufficient dynamic aperture after COD correction. We present the results of variations of emittance, energy spread and dynamic aperture due to in-vacuum undulators in the straight sections. We performed particle tracking after the beam injection to investigate the efficiency of the injection scheme. We show the designed results of an injection scheme that shows the space allocation in injection section and the particle motions of injected beam. Our designed lattice provides a good optimization in terms of the emittance and brilliance as a light source for 3 GeV energy and circumference of 28 m.

  6. SESAME -- A third generation synchrotron light source for the Middle East

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winick, Herman

    2012-03-01

    Developed under the auspices of UNESCO and modeled on CERN, SESAME (Synchrotron-light for Experimental Science and Applications in the Middle East) is an international research centre in construction in Jordan, enabling world-class research while promoting peace through scientific cooperation. Its centerpiece, a new 2.5 GeV 3rd Generation Electron Storage Ring (133m circumference, 26nm-rad emittance, 12 places for insertion devices), will provide intense light from infra-red to hard X-rays. Members of the Council (Bahrain, Cyprus, Egypt, Iran, Israel, Jordan, Pakistan, Palestinian Authority,Turkey) provide the operations budget. Voluntary contributions by several Council Members that could amount to over 20 million over 5 years are now being finalized. This, plus funds from other sources, will enable acquisition of the technical components of the new ring and the upgrading of beamline equipment donated by several European and US labs. All concrete shielding is complete. The 0.8 GeV BESSY I injector system, a gift from Germany, is now being installed. A training program has been underway since 2000. SESAME is on track to start operation with four day-one beam lines in 2015.

  7. Brookhaven National Laboratory

    MedlinePlus

    ... Materials Science National Synchrotron Light Source II Sustainable Energy Technologies Environment, Biology, Nuclear Science & Nonproliferation Biology Environmental and Climate Sciences Department ...

  8. Synchrotron X-Ray Microdiffraction Studies of Electromigration in Interconnect lines at the Advanced Light Source

    SciTech Connect

    Tamura, Nobumichi; Chen, Kai; Kunz, Martin

    2009-05-01

    Synchrotron polychromatic X-ray microdiffraction is a particularly suitable technique to study in situ the effect of electromigration in metal interconnects as add spatial resolution to grain orientation and strain sensitivity. This technique has been extensively used at the Advanced Light Source to monitor changes in aluminum and copper interconnect test structures while high-density current is passed into them during accelerated tests at elevated temperature. One of the principal findings is the observation of electromigration-induced plasticity in the metal lines that appear during the very early stages of electromigration. In some of the lines, high density of geometrically necessary dislocation are formed leading to additional diffusion paths causing an enhancement of electromigration effect at test temperature. This paper presents an overview of the principal results obtained from X-ray microdiffraction studies of electromigration effects on aluminum and copper interconnects at the ALS throughout continuous efforts that spanned over a decade (1998-2008) from approximately 40 weeks of combined beamtime.

  9. Is photocleavage of DNA by YOYO-1 using a synchrotron radiation light source sequence dependent?

    PubMed

    Gilroy, Emma L; Hoffmann, Søren Vrønning; Jones, Nykola C; Rodger, Alison

    2011-10-01

    The photocleavage of double-stranded and single-stranded DNA by the fluorescent dye YOYO-1 was investigated in real time by using the synchrotron radiation light source ASTRID (ISA, Denmark) both to initiate the reaction and to monitor its progress using Couette flow linear dichroism (LD) throughout the irradiation period. The dependence of LD signals on DNA sequences and on time in the intense light beam was explored and quantified for single-stranded poly(dA), poly[(dA-dT)(2)], calf thymus DNA (ctDNA) and Micrococcus luteus DNA (mlDNA). The DNA and ligand regions of the spectrum showed different LD kinetic behaviors, and there was significant sequence dependence of the kinetics. However, in contrast to expectations from the literature, we found that poly(dA), mlDNA, low salt ctDNA and low salt poly[(dA-dT)(2)] all had significant populations of groove-bound YOYO. It seems that this mode was predominantly responsible for the catalysis of DNA cleavage. In homopolymeric DNAs, intercalated YOYO was unable to cleave DNA. In mixed-sequence DNAs the data suggest that YOYO in some but not all intercalated binding sites can cause cleavage. It is also likely that cleavage occurs at transient single-stranded regions. The reaction rates for a 100 mA beam current of 0.5-μW power varied from 0.6 h(-1) for single-stranded poly(dA) to essentially zero for low salt poly[(dG-dC)(2)] and high salt poly[(dA-dT)(2)]. At the conclusion of the experiments with each kind of DNA, uncleaved DNA with intercalated YOYO remained. PMID:21931957

  10. The Advanced Photon Source: A national synchrotron radiation research facility at Argonne National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    1995-10-01

    The vision of the APS sprang from prospective users, whose unflagging support the project has enjoyed throughout the decade it has taken to make this facility a reality. Perhaps the most extraordinary aspect of synchrotron radiation research, is the extensive and diverse scientific makeup of the user community. From this primordial soup of scientists exchanging ideas and information, come the collaborative and interdisciplinary accomplishments that no individual alone could produce. So, unlike the solitary Roentgen, scientists are engaged in a collective and dynamic enterprise with the potential to see and understand the structures of the most complex materials that nature or man can produce--and which underlie virtually all modern technologies. This booklet provides scientists and laymen alike with a sense of both the extraordinary history of x-rays and the knowledge they have produced, as well as the potential for future discovery contained in the APS--a source a million million times brighter than the Roentgen tube.

  11. The Advanced Light Source at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory: A high-brightness soft x-ray synchrotron-radiation facility

    SciTech Connect

    Schlachter, A.S.; Robinson, A.L.

    1990-07-01

    The Advanced Light Source, a third-generation national synchrotron-radiation facility now under construction at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, is scheduled to begin serving qualified users across a broad spectrum of research areas in the spring of 1993. Based on a low-emittance electron storage ring optimized to operate at 1.5 GeV, the ALS will have 10 long straight sections available for insertion devices (undulators and wigglers) and 24 high-quality bend-magnet ports. The short pulse width (30--50 ns) will be ideal for time-resolved measurements. Undulators will generate high-brightness soft x-ray and ultraviolet (XUV) radiation from below 20 eV to above 2 keV. Wigglers and bend magnets will extend the spectrum by generating high fluxes of hard x-rays to photon energies above 10 keV. The ALS will support an extensive research program in which XUV radiation is used to study matter in all its varied gaseous, liquid, and solid forms. The high brightness will open new areas of research in the materials sciences, such as spatially resolved spectroscopy (spectromicroscopy). Biological applications will include x-ray microscopy with element-specific sensitivity in the water window of the spectrum where water is much more transparent than protein. The ALS will be an excellent research tool for atomic physics and chemistry because the high flux will allow measurements to be made with tenuous gas-phase targets. 8 refs., 7 figs., 3 tabs.

  12. Synchrotron radiation in biosciences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marinkovic, Nebojsa S.; Gupta, Sayan; Zhan, Chenyang; Chance, Mark R.

    2005-12-01

    The Center for Synchrotron Biosciences (CSB) operates five beamlines at the National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS). Infrared (IR) micro-spectroscopy, X-ray absorption spectroscopy, structural proteomics and macromolecular footprinting are among the major technologies available through the Center. IR micro-spectroscopy is used to examine protein-folding in the microsecond time regime, image bone, neurons, seeds and other biological tissues, as well as image samples of interest in the chemical and environmental sciences. Structural proteomics research of New York Structural Genomics Research Consortium (NYSGRC) is steadily increasing the number of solved protein structures, with a goal to solve 100-200 structures per year. To speed up the research, a high-throughput method called 'metallomics' was implemented for NYSGRC crystallographers to detect intrinsic anomalous scatterers using X-ray absorption spectroscopy. Hydroxyl radical mediated X-ray footprinting is capable of resolving folding events of RNA, at single base resolution on millisecond timescales using a synchrotron white beam. The high brightness of synchrotron source is essential for CSB projects as it permits the use of smaller sample sizes and/or concentration, and allows studies of more complicated biological systems than with conventional sources.

  13. Atomic physics with hard X-rays from high brilliance synchrotron light sources

    SciTech Connect

    Southworth, S.; Gemmell, D.

    1996-08-01

    A century after the discovery of x rays, the experimental capability for studying atomic structure and dynamics with hard, bright synchrotron radiation is increasing remarkably. Tempting opportunities arise for experiments on many-body effects, aspects of fundamental photon-atom interaction processes, and relativistic and quantum-electrodynamic phenomena. Some of these possibilities are surveyed in general terms.

  14. ZAP AND ITS APPLICATION TO THE OPTIMIZATION OF SYNCHROTRON LIGHT SOURCE PARAMETERS

    SciTech Connect

    Zisman, M.S.

    1987-10-01

    A new computer code, ZAP, has been written to study the influence of various collective effects on the performance of electron storage rings. In particular, the code can evaluate the equilibrium emittance of a ring including the effects of intrabeam scattering. Examples are presented of utilizing the code to optimize the design of storage rings for the purposes of a third-generation synchrotron radiation source and a high-gain free-electron laser. In addition, the importance of the intrabeam scattering emittance blowup to the issue of low energy injection is discussed. Such considerations will be necessary to optimize the design of compact synchrotrons now being studied for use in x-ray lithography. To verify predictions of the code, comparisons are made with experimental measurements of low energy beam emittance taken from the Aladdin storage ring; reasonable agreement is obtained.

  15. Diffraction-Enhanced Computed Tomographic Imaging of Growing Piglet Joints by Using a Synchrotron Light Source

    PubMed Central

    Rhoades, Glendon W; Belev, George S; Chapman, L Dean; Wiebe, Sheldon P; Cooper, David M; Wong, Adelaine TF; Rosenberg, Alan M

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this project was to develop and test a new technology for imaging growing joints by means of diffraction-enhanced imaging (DEI) combined with CT and using a synchrotron radiation source. DEI–CT images of an explanted 4-wk-old piglet stifle joint were acquired by using a 40-keV beam. The series of scanned slices was later ‘stitched’ together, forming a 3D dataset. High-resolution DEI-CT images demonstrated fine detail within all joint structures and tissues. Striking detail of vasculature traversing between bone and cartilage, a characteristic of growing but not mature joints, was demonstrated. This report documents for the first time that DEI combined with CT and a synchrotron radiation source can generate more detailed images of intact, growing joints than can currently available conventional imaging modalities. PMID:26310464

  16. THE WISE LIGHT CURVES OF Z CAMELOPARDALIS DURING OUTBURST: EVIDENCE FOR SYNCHROTRON EMISSION?

    SciTech Connect

    Harrison, Thomas E.

    2014-08-10

    The WISE mission happened to observe the cataclysmic variable Z Cam at the peak of an outburst. The WISE single exposure data shows that Z Cam was highly variable at 12 μm, but only marginally so at shorter wavelengths. The rapid variability at 12 μm, and the fact that these observations occurred close to visual maximum suggests that, like SS Cyg, Z Cam is a synchrotron source.

  17. Study for a proposed Phase I Energy Recovery Linac (ERL) Synchrotron Light Source at Cornell University

    SciTech Connect

    Sol M. Gruner and Maury Tigner, eds.; Ivan Bazarov; Sergey Belomestnykh; Don Bilderback; Ken Finkelstein; Ernie Fontes; Steve Gray; Sol M. Gruner; Geoff Krafft; Lia Merminga; Hasan Padamsee; Ray Helmke; Qun Shen; Joe Rogers; Charles Sinclair; Richard Talman; Maury Tigner

    2001-07-01

    Synchrotron radiation (SR) has become an essential and rapidly growing tool across the sciences and engineering. World-wide, about 70 SR sources are in various stages of operation, construction, or planning, representing a cumulative investment on many billions of dollars and serving a growing research community well in excess of 10,000 scientists. To date, all major SR x-ray facilities are based on electron (or positron) storage rings. Given the expected continued growth, importance and expense of SR sources, it is important to ask if there are alternatives to the storage ring SR source which offer advantages of capability or cost. A step in this direction is being taken by the SR community with the proposed developments of linac-based x-ray free-electron lasers (XFELs) utilizing the self-amplified spontaneous emission process (SASE). However, the versatility of modern developments in accelerator physics, as applied to synchrotron radiation, is not limited to storage rings or XFELs. New developments in laser driven photoinjectors and superconducting linac technology open new and exciting possibilities for novel SR-generating machines which offer extraordinary capabilities and promise to catalyze whole new areas of SR-based science.

  18. Development of soft X-ray polarized light beamline on Indus-2 synchrotron radiation source

    SciTech Connect

    Phase, D. M. Gupta, Mukul Potdar, S. Behera, L. Sah, R. Gupta, Ajay

    2014-04-24

    This article describes the development of a soft x-ray beamline on a bending magnet source of Indus-2 storage ring (2.5 GeV) and some preliminary results of x-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) measurements using the same. The beamline layout is based on a spherical grating monochromator. The beamline is able to accept synchrotron radiation from the bending magnet port BL-1 of the Indus-2 ring with a wide solid angle. The large horizontal and vertical angular acceptance contributes to high photon flux and selective polarization respectively. The complete beamline is tested for ultrahigh vacuum (UHV) ∼ 10{sup −10} mbar. First absorption spectrum was obtained on HOPG graphite foil. Our performance test indicates that modest resolving power has been achieved with adequate photon flux to carry out various absorption experiments.

  19. Initial feasibility study of a dedicated synchrotron radiation light source for ultrafast X-ray science

    SciTech Connect

    Corlett, John N.; DeSantis, S.; Hartman, N.; Heimann, P.; LaFever, R.; Li, D.; Padmore, H.; Rimmer, R.; Robinson, K.; Schoenlein, R.; Tanabe, J.; Wang, S.; Zholents, A.; Kairan, D.

    2001-10-26

    We present an initial feasibility summary of a femtosecond synchrotron radiation x-ray source based on a flat-beam rf gun and a recirculating superconducting linac that provides beam to an array of undulators and bend magnets. Optical pulse durations of < 100 fs are obtained by a combination of electron pulse compression, transverse temporal correlation of the electrons, and x-ray pulse compression. After an introduction and initial scientific motivation, we cover the following aspects of the design: layout and lattice, ultra-fast x-ray pulse production, flat electron-beam production, the rf gun, rf systems, cryogenic systems, collective effects, photon production, and synchronization of x-ray and laser pulses. We conclude with a summary of issues and areas of development that remain to be addressed.

  20. LPE grown LSO:Tb scintillator films for high-resolution X-ray imaging applications at synchrotron light sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cecilia, A.; Rack, A.; Douissard, P.-A.; Martin, T.; Dos Santos Rolo, T.; Vagovič, P.; Hamann, E.; van de Kamp, T.; Riedel, A.; Fiederle, M.; Baumbach, T.

    2011-08-01

    Within the project ScinTAX of the 6th framework program (FP6) of the European Commission (SCINTAX—STRP 033 427) we have developed a new thin single crystal scintillator for high-resolution X-ray imaging. The scintillator is based on a Tb-doped Lu2SiO5 (LSO) film epitaxially grown on an adapted substrate. The high density, effective atomic number and light yield of the scintillating LSO significantly improves the efficiency of the X-ray imaging detectors currently used in synchrotron micro-imaging applications. In this work we present the characterization of the scintillating LSO films in terms of their spatial resolution performance and we provide two examples of high spatial and high temporal resolution applications.

  1. Measurements and modeling of coherent synchrotron radiation and its impact on the Linac Coherent Light Source electron beam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bane, K. L. F.; Decker, F.-J.; Ding, Y.; Dowell, D.; Emma, P.; Frisch, J.; Huang, Z.; Iverson, R.; Limborg-Deprey, C.; Loos, H.; Nuhn, H.-D.; Ratner, D.; Stupakov, G.; Turner, J.; Welch, J.; Wu, J.

    2009-03-01

    In order to reach the high peak current required for an x-ray free electron laser, two separate magnetic dipole chicanes are used in the Linac Coherent Light Source accelerator to compress the electron bunch length in stages. In these bunch compressors, coherent synchrotron radiation (CSR) can be emitted either by a short electron bunch or by any longitudinal density modulation that may be on the bunch. In this paper, we report detailed measurements of the CSR-induced energy loss and transverse emittance growth in these compressors. Good agreement is found between the experimental results and multiparticle tracking studies. We also describe direct observations of CSR at optical wavelengths and compare with analytical models based on beam microbunching.

  2. Time resolved spectroscopy using synchrotron infrared pulses

    SciTech Connect

    Carr, G.L.; Lobo, R.P.S.M. |; Hirschmugl, C.J.; LaVeigne, J.; Reitze, D.H.; Tanner, D.B.

    1997-09-01

    Electron synchrotron storage rings, such as the VUV ring at the National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS), produce short pulses of infrared (IR) radiation suitable for investigating the time-dependent phenomena in a variety of interesting experimental systems. In contrast to other pulses sources of IR, the synchrotron produces a continuum spectral output over the entire IR (and beyond), though at power levels typically below those obtained from laser systems. The infrared synchrotron radiation (IRSR) source is therefore well-suited as a probe using standard FTIR spectroscopic techniques. Here the authors describe the pump-probe spectroscopy facility being established at the NSLS and demonstrate the technique by measuring the photocarrier decay in a semiconductor.

  3. Visualization and measurement of multiphase flow in porous media using light transmission and synchrotron x-rays.

    PubMed

    Darnault, Christophe J G; Dicarlo, David A; Bauters, Tim W J; Steenhuis, Tammo S; Parlange, J-Yves; Montemagno, Carlo D; Baveye, Philippe

    2002-10-01

    Non-aqueous phase liquids enter the vadose zone as a result of spills or leaking underground storage facilities, thus contaminating groundwater resources. Measuring the contaminant concentrations is important in assessing the risk to human health and the environment and to develop effective remediation. This research presents the development and application of the light transmission method (LTM) for three-phase flow systems, aimed at investigating unstable fingered flow in a soil-air-oil-water system. The LTM uses the hue and intensity of light transmitted through a slab chamber to measure fluid content, since total liquid content is a function of both hue and light intensity. Evaluation of the LTM is obtained by comparing experiments with LTM and synchrotron X-rays. The LTM captures the spatial resolution of the fluid contents and can provide new insights into rapidly changing, two-phase and three-phase flow systems. Application of the LTM as a visualization technique for environmental and physical phenomena is noted. Visualization by LTM of groundwater remediation by surfactants as well as visualization of model cluster growth and fractal dimensions was also explored.

  4. Operational Radiation Protection in Synchrotron Light and Free Electron Laser Facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, James C.; Rokni, Sayed H.; Vylet, Vaclav; /Jefferson Lab

    2009-12-11

    The 3rd generation synchrotron radiation (SR) facilities are storage ring based facilities with many insertion devices and photon beamlines, and have low injection beam power (< few tens of watts), but extremely high stored beam power ({approx} 1 GW). The 4th generation x-ray free electron laser (FEL) facilities are based on an electron Linac with a long undulator and have high injection beam power (a few kW). Due to its electron and photon beam characteristics and modes of operation, storage ring and photon beamlines have unique safety aspects, which are the main subjects of this paper. The shielding design limits, operational modes, and beam losses are first reviewed. Shielding analysis (source terms and methodologies) and interlocked safety systems for storage ring and photon beamlines (including SR and gas bremsstrahlung) are described. Specific safety issues for storage ring top-off injection operation and FEL facilities are discussed. The operational safety program, e.g., operation authorization, commissioning, training, and radiation measurements, for SR facilities is also presented.

  5. Nuclear waste viewed in a new light; a synchrotron study of uranium encapsulated in grout.

    PubMed

    Stitt, C A; Hart, M; Harker, N J; Hallam, K R; MacFarlane, J; Banos, A; Paraskevoulakos, C; Butcher, E; Padovani, C; Scott, T B

    2015-03-21

    How do you characterise the contents of a sealed nuclear waste package without breaking it open? This question is important when the contained corrosion products are potentially reactive with air and radioactive. Synchrotron X-rays have been used to perform micro-scale in-situ observation and characterisation of uranium encapsulated in grout; a simulation for a typical intermediate level waste storage packet. X-ray tomography and X-ray powder diffraction generated both qualitative and quantitative data from a grout-encapsulated uranium sample before, and after, deliberately constrained H2 corrosion. Tomographic reconstructions provided a means of assessing the extent, rates and character of the corrosion reactions by comparing the relative densities between the materials and the volume of reaction products. The oxidation of uranium in grout was found to follow the anoxic U+H2O oxidation regime, and the pore network within the grout was observed to influence the growth of uranium hydride sites across the metal surface. Powder diffraction analysis identified the corrosion products as UO2 and UH3, and permitted measurement of corrosion-induced strain. Together, X-ray tomography and diffraction provide means of accurately determining the types and extent of uranium corrosion occurring, thereby offering a future tool for isolating and studying the reactions occurring in real full-scale waste package systems.

  6. X-ray photonic microsystems for the manipulation of synchrotron light

    PubMed Central

    Mukhopadhyay, D.; Walko, D. A.; Jung, I. W.; Schwartz, C. P.; Wang, Jin; López, D.; Shenoy, G. K.

    2015-01-01

    Photonic microsystems played an essential role in the development of integrated photonic devices, thanks to their unique spatiotemporal control and spectral shaping capabilities. Similar capabilities to markedly control and manipulate X-ray radiation are highly desirable but practically impossible due to the massive size of the silicon single-crystal optics currently used. Here we show that micromechanical systems can be used as X-ray optics to create and preserve the spatial, temporal and spectral correlation of the X-rays. We demonstrate that, as X-ray reflective optics they can maintain the wavefront properties with nearly 100% reflectivity, and as a dynamic diffractive optics they can generate nanosecond time windows with over 100-kHz repetition rates. Since X-ray photonic microsystems can be easily incorporated into lab-based and next-generation synchrotron X-ray sources, they bring unprecedented design flexibility for future dynamic and miniature X-ray optics for focusing, wavefront manipulation, multicolour dispersion, and pulse slicing. PMID:25940542

  7. Nuclear waste viewed in a new light; a synchrotron study of uranium encapsulated in grout.

    PubMed

    Stitt, C A; Hart, M; Harker, N J; Hallam, K R; MacFarlane, J; Banos, A; Paraskevoulakos, C; Butcher, E; Padovani, C; Scott, T B

    2015-03-21

    How do you characterise the contents of a sealed nuclear waste package without breaking it open? This question is important when the contained corrosion products are potentially reactive with air and radioactive. Synchrotron X-rays have been used to perform micro-scale in-situ observation and characterisation of uranium encapsulated in grout; a simulation for a typical intermediate level waste storage packet. X-ray tomography and X-ray powder diffraction generated both qualitative and quantitative data from a grout-encapsulated uranium sample before, and after, deliberately constrained H2 corrosion. Tomographic reconstructions provided a means of assessing the extent, rates and character of the corrosion reactions by comparing the relative densities between the materials and the volume of reaction products. The oxidation of uranium in grout was found to follow the anoxic U+H2O oxidation regime, and the pore network within the grout was observed to influence the growth of uranium hydride sites across the metal surface. Powder diffraction analysis identified the corrosion products as UO2 and UH3, and permitted measurement of corrosion-induced strain. Together, X-ray tomography and diffraction provide means of accurately determining the types and extent of uranium corrosion occurring, thereby offering a future tool for isolating and studying the reactions occurring in real full-scale waste package systems. PMID:25497037

  8. X-ray photonic microsystems for the manipulation of synchrotron light

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Mukhopadhyay, D.; Walko, D. A.; Jung, I. W.; Schwartz, C. P.; Wang, Jin; López, D.; Shenoy, G. K.

    2015-05-05

    In this study, photonic microsystems played an essential role in the development of integrated photonic devices, thanks to their unique spatiotemporal control and spectral shaping capabilities. Similar capabilities to markedly control and manipulate X-ray radiation are highly desirable but practically impossible due to the massive size of the silicon single-crystal optics currently used. Here we show that micromechanical systems can be used as X-ray optics to create and preserve the spatial, temporal and spectral correlation of the X-rays. We demonstrate that, as X-ray reflective optics they can maintain the wavefront properties with nearly 100% reflectivity, and as a dynamic diffractivemore » optics they can generate nanosecond time windows with over 100-kHz repetition rates. Since X-ray photonic microsystems can be easily incorporated into lab-based and next-generation synchrotron X-ray sources, they bring unprecedented design flexibility for future dynamic and miniature X-ray optics for focusing, wavefront manipulation, multicolour dispersion, and pulse slicing.« less

  9. Assessment of murine bone ultrastructure using synchrotron light: towards nano-computed tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schneider, Philipp; Voide, Romain; Stauber, Martin; Stampanoni, Marco; Donahue, Leah Rae; Wyss, Peter; Sennhauser, Urs; Müller, Ralph

    2006-08-01

    To describe the different aspects of bone quality, we follow a hierarchical approach and assess bone tissue properties in different regimes of spatial resolution, beginning at the organ level and going down to cellular dimensions. For these purposes we developed different synchrotron radiation (SR) based computed-tomography (CT) methods to assess murine bone ultrastructure. In a first step, a tubular system and the osteocyte lacunar system within murine cortical bone have been established as novel ultrastructural quantitative traits. Results in two mouse strains showed that morphometry of these quantitative traits was dependent on strain and partially on gender, and that their scaling behavior with bone size was fundamentally different. In a second step, we explored bone competence on an ultrastructural level and related our findings to the two ultrastructural quantitative traits introduced before. We showed that SR CT imaging is a powerful tool to investigate the initiation and propagation of microcracks, which may alter bone quality and may lead to increased fracture risk by means of microdamage accumulation. In summary, investigation of ultrastructural bone tissue properties will eventually lead to a better understanding of bone quality and its relative contribution to bone competence.

  10. X-ray photonic microsystems for the manipulation of synchrotron light

    SciTech Connect

    Mukhopadhyay, D.; Walko, D. A.; Jung, I. W.; Schwartz, C. P.; Wang, Jin; López, D.; Shenoy, G. K.

    2015-05-05

    In this study, photonic microsystems played an essential role in the development of integrated photonic devices, thanks to their unique spatiotemporal control and spectral shaping capabilities. Similar capabilities to markedly control and manipulate X-ray radiation are highly desirable but practically impossible due to the massive size of the silicon single-crystal optics currently used. Here we show that micromechanical systems can be used as X-ray optics to create and preserve the spatial, temporal and spectral correlation of the X-rays. We demonstrate that, as X-ray reflective optics they can maintain the wavefront properties with nearly 100% reflectivity, and as a dynamic diffractive optics they can generate nanosecond time windows with over 100-kHz repetition rates. Since X-ray photonic microsystems can be easily incorporated into lab-based and next-generation synchrotron X-ray sources, they bring unprecedented design flexibility for future dynamic and miniature X-ray optics for focusing, wavefront manipulation, multicolour dispersion, and pulse slicing.

  11. Preliminary studies of enhanced contrast radiography in anatomy and embryology of insects with Elettra synchrotron light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hönnicke, M. G.; Foerster, L. A.; Navarro-Silva, M. A.; Menk, R.-H.; Rigon, L.; Cusatis, C.

    2005-08-01

    Enhanced contrast X-ray imaging is achieved by exploiting the real part of the refraction index, which is responsible for the phase shifts, in addition to the imaginary part, which is responsible for the absorption. Such techniques are called X-ray phase contrast imaging. An analyzer-based X-ray phase contrast imaging set-up with Diffraction Enhanced Imaging processing (DEI) were used for preliminary studies in anatomy and embryology of insects. Parasitized stinkbug and moth eggs used as control agents of pests in vegetables and adult stinkbugs and mosquitoes ( Aedes aegypti) were used as samples. The experimental setup was mounted in the SYRMEP beamline at ELETTRA. Images were obtained using a high spatial resolution CCD detector (pixel size 14×14 μm 2) coupled with magnifying optics. Analyzer-based X-ray phase contrast images (PCI) and edge detection images show contrast and details not observed with conventional synchrotron radiography and open the possibility for future study in the embryonic development of insects.

  12. Synchrotron radiation from protons

    SciTech Connect

    Dutt, S.K.

    1992-12-01

    Synchrotron radiation from protons, though described by the same equations as the radiation from electrons, exhibits a number of interesting features on account of the parameters reached in praxis. In this presentation, we shall point out some of the features relating to (i) normal synchrotron radiation from dipoles in proton machines such as the High Energy Booster and the Superconducting Super Collider; (ii) synchrotron radiation from short dipoles, and its application to light monitors for proton machines, and (iii) synchrotron radiation from undulators in the limit when, the deflection parameter is much smaller than unity. The material for this presentation is taken largely from the work of Hofmann, Coisson, Bossart, and their collaborators, and from a paper by Kim. We shall emphasize the qualitative aspects of synchrotron radiation in the cases mentioned above, making, when possible, simple arguments for estimating the spectral and angular properties of the radiation. Detailed analyses can be found in the literature.

  13. Synchrotron Radiation Sheds Fresh Light on Plant Research: The Use of Powerful Techniques to Probe Structure and Composition of Plants.

    PubMed

    Vijayan, Permual; Willick, Ian R; Lahlali, Rachid; Karunakaran, Chithra; Tanino, Karen K

    2015-07-01

    While synchrotron radiation is a powerful tool in material and biomedical sciences, it is still underutilized in plant research. This mini review attempts to introduce the potential of synchrotron-based spectroscopic and imaging methods and their applications to plant sciences. Synchrotron-based Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray absorption and fluorescence techniques, and two- and three-dimensional imaging techniques are examined. We also discuss the limitations of synchrotron-based research in plant sciences, specifically the types of plant samples that can be used. Despite limitations, the unique features of synchrotron radiation such as high brightness, polarization and pulse properties offer great advantages over conventional spectroscopic and imaging tools and enable the correlation of the structure and chemical composition of plants with biochemical function. Modern detector technologies and experimental methodologies are thus enabling plant scientists to investigate aspects of plant sciences such as ultrafast kinetics of biochemical reactions, mineral uptake, transport and accumulation, and dynamics of cell wall structure and composition during environmental stress in unprecedented ways using synchrotron beamlines. The potential for the automation of some of these synchrotron technologies and their application to plant phenotyping is also discussed.

  14. Molecular Chemical Structure of Barley Proteins Revealed by Ultra-Spatially Resolved Synchrotron Light Sourced FTIR Microspectroscopy: Comparison of Barley Varieties

    SciTech Connect

    Yu,P.

    2007-01-01

    Barley protein structure affects the barley quality, fermentation, and degradation behavior in both humans and animals among other factors such as protein matrix. Publications show various biological differences among barley varieties such as Valier and Harrington, which have significantly different degradation behaviors. The objectives of this study were to reveal the molecular structure of barley protein, comparing various varieties (Dolly, Valier, Harrington, LP955, AC Metcalfe, and Sisler), and quantify protein structure profiles using Gaussian and Lorentzian methods of multi-component peak modeling by using the ultra-spatially resolved synchrotron light sourced Fourier transform infrared microspectroscopy (SFTIRM). The items of the protein molecular structure revealed included protein structure {alpha}-helices, {beta}-sheets, and others such as {beta}-turns and random coils. The experiment was performed at the National Synchrotron Light Source in Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL, US Department of Energy, NY). The results showed that with the SFTIRM, the molecular structure of barley protein could be revealed. Barley protein structures exhibited significant differences among the varieties in terms of proportion and ratio of model-fitted {alpha}-helices, {beta}-sheets, and others. By using multi-component peaks modeling at protein amide I region of 1710-1576 cm{sup -1}, the results show that barley protein consisted of approximately 18-34% of {alpha}-helices, 14-25% of {beta}-sheets, and 44-69% others. AC Metcalfe, Sisler, and LP955 consisted of higher (P < 0.05) proportions of {alpha}-helices (30-34%) than Dolly and Valier ({alpha}-helices 18-23%). Harrington was in between which was 25%. For protein {beta}-sheets, AC Metcalfe, and LP955 consisted of higher proportions (22-25%) than Dolly and Valier (13-17%). Different barley varieties contained different {alpha}-helix to {beta}-sheet ratios, ranging from 1.4 to 2.0, although the difference were

  15. Synchrotron polarization in blazars

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Haocheng; Böttcher, Markus; Chen, Xuhui

    2014-07-01

    We present a detailed analysis of time- and energy-dependent synchrotron polarization signatures in a shock-in-jet model for γ-ray blazars. Our calculations employ a full three-dimensional radiation transfer code, assuming a helical magnetic field throughout the jet. The code considers synchrotron emission from an ordered magnetic field, and takes into account all light-travel-time and other relevant geometric effects, while the relevant synchrotron self-Compton and external Compton effects are handled with the two-dimensional Monte-Carlo/Fokker-Planck (MCFP) code. We consider several possible mechanisms through which a relativistic shock propagating through the jet may affect the jet plasma to produce a synchrotron and high-energy flare. Most plausibly, the shock is expected to lead to a compression of the magnetic field, increasing the toroidal field component and thereby changing the direction of the magnetic field in the region affected by the shock. We find that such a scenario leads to correlated synchrotron + synchrotron-self-Compton flaring, associated with substantial variability in the synchrotron polarization percentage and position angle. Most importantly, this scenario naturally explains large polarization angle rotations by ≳ 180°, as observed in connection with γ-ray flares in several blazars, without the need for bent or helical jet trajectories or other nonaxisymmetric jet features.

  16. Detail view of light fixture on south facade National ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail view of light fixture on south facade - National Home for Disabled Volunteer Soldiers, Pacific Branch, Old Administration Building, 11301 Wilshire Boulevard, West Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

  17. Analysis of peripheral thermal damage after laser irradiation of dentin using polarized light microscopy and synchrotron radiation infrared spectromicroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dela Rosa, Alfredo; Sarma, Anupama V.; Le, Charles Q.; Jones, Robert S.; Fried, Daniel

    2004-05-01

    It is necessary to minimize peripheral thermal damage during laser irradiation, since thermal damage to collagen and mineral compromises the bond strength to restorative materials in dentin and inhibits healing and osteointegration in bone. The overall objective of this study was to test the hypothesis that lasers resonant to the specific absorption of water, collagen, and hydroxyapatite with pulse durations less than the thermal relaxation times at each respective laser wavelength will efficiently remove dentin with minimal peripheral thermal damage. Precise incisions were produced in 3 x 3 mm2 blocks of human dentin using CO2 (9.6 μm), Er:YSGG (2.79 μm), and Nd:YAG (355 nm) lasers with and without a computer controlled water spray. Polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography was used to obtain optical cross-sections of each incision to determine the rate and efficiency of ablation. The peripheral thermal damage zone around each incision was analyzed using polarized light microscopy (PLM) and Synchrotron-Radiation Fourier Transform Infrared Spectro-microscopy (SR-FTIR). Thermally induced chemical changes to both mineral and the collagen matrix was observed with SR-FTIR with a 10-μm spatial resolution and those changes were correlated with optical changes observed with PLM. Minimal (<10-μm) thermal damage was observed for pulse durations less than the thermal relaxation time (Tr ) of the deposited laser energy, with and without applied water at 9.6 um and only with applied water at 2.79 μm. For pulse durations greater than Tr, significantly greater peripheral thermal damage was observed for both IR laser wavelengths with and without the water spray. There was minimal thermal damage for 355-nm laser pulses, however extensive mechanical damage (cracks) was observed. High resolution SR-FTIR is well suited for characterization of the chemical changes that occur due to thermal damage peripheral to laser incisions in proteinaceous hard tissues. Sub

  18. Laser-synchrotron hybrid experiments: A photon to tickle, a photon to poke

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ederer, D. L.; Rubensson, J. E.; Mueller, D. R.; Shuker, R.; Obrien, W. L.; Jai, J.; Dong, Q. Y.; Callcott, T. A.; Carr, G. L.; Williams, G. P.

    1991-07-01

    In this paper we present the preliminary results from a new experimental technique to synchronize the pulses from a mode-locked NdYAG laser to the light pulses in the VUV storage ring at the National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS). We describe a method to electronically change the delay time between the laser pulses and the synchrotron pulses. We also illustrate a method to overlap the synchrotron pulses with the laser pulses in space and time. Preliminary results will be presented for two experiments.

  19. Laser-synchrotron hybrid experiments A photon to tickle - A photon to poke

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ederer, D. L.; Rubensson, J. E.; Mueller, D. R.; Shuker, R.; O'Brien, W. L.; Jai, J.; Dong, Q. Y.; Callcott, T. A.; Carr, G. L.; Williams, G. P.; Hirschmugl, C. J.; Etemad, S.; Inam, A.; Tanner, D. B.

    1992-08-01

    In this paper we present the preliminary results from a new experimental technique to synchronize the pulses from a mode-locked Nd-YAG laser to the light pulses in the VUV storage ring at the National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS). We describe a method to electronically change the delay time between the laser pulses and the synchrotron pulses. We also illustrate a method to overlap the synchrotron pulses with the laser pulses in space and time. Preliminary results will be presented for two experiments.

  20. Laser-synchrotron hybrid experiments: A photon to tickle, a photon to poke''

    SciTech Connect

    Ederer, D.L.; Rubensson, J.E.; Mueller, D.R. ); Shuker, R. ); O'Brien, W.L.; Jai, J.; Dong, Q.Y.; Callcott, T.A. ); Carr, G.L. . Corporate Research Center); Williams, G.P.; Hirschmugl, C.J

    1991-01-01

    In this paper we present the preliminary results from a new experimental technique to synchronize the pulses from a mode-locked NdYAG laser to the light pulses in the VUV storage ring at the National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS). We describe a method to electronically change the delay time between the laser pulses and the synchrotron pulses. We also illustrate a method to overlap the synchrotron pulses with the laser pulses in space and time. Preliminary results will be presented for two experiments.

  1. Laser-synchrotron hybrid experiments: ``A photon to tickle, a photon to poke``

    SciTech Connect

    Ederer, D.L.; Rubensson, J.E.; Mueller, D.R.; Shuker, R.; O`Brien, W.L.; Jai, J.; Dong, Q.Y.; Callcott, T.A.; Carr, G.L.; Williams, G.P.; Hirschmugl, C.J.; Etemad, S.; Inam, A.; Tanner, D.B.

    1991-12-31

    In this paper we present the preliminary results from a new experimental technique to synchronize the pulses from a mode-locked NdYAG laser to the light pulses in the VUV storage ring at the National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS). We describe a method to electronically change the delay time between the laser pulses and the synchrotron pulses. We also illustrate a method to overlap the synchrotron pulses with the laser pulses in space and time. Preliminary results will be presented for two experiments.

  2. Brookhaven highlights - Brookhaven National Laboratory 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1996-09-01

    This report highlights research conducted at Brookhaven National Laboratory in the following areas: alternating gradient synchrotron; physics; biology; national synchrotron light source; department of applied science; medical; chemistry; department of advanced technology; reactor; safety and environmental protection; instrumentation; and computing and communications.

  3. Synchrotron X-ray footprinting on tour

    PubMed Central

    Bohon, Jen; D’Mello, Rhijuta; Ralston, Corie; Gupta, Sayan; Chance, Mark R.

    2014-01-01

    Synchrotron footprinting is a valuable technique in structural biology for understanding macromolecular solution-state structure and dynamics of proteins and nucleic acids. Although an extremely powerful tool, there is currently only a single facility in the USA, the X28C beamline at the National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS), dedicated to providing infrastructure, technology development and support for these studies. The high flux density of the focused white beam and variety of specialized exposure environments available at X28C enables footprinting of highly complex biological systems; however, it is likely that a significant fraction of interesting experiments could be performed at unspecialized facilities. In an effort to investigate the viability of a beamline-flexible footprinting program, a standard sample was taken on tour around the nation to be exposed at several US synchrotrons. This work describes how a relatively simple and transportable apparatus can allow beamlines at the NSLS, CHESS, APS and ALS to be used for synchrotron footprinting in a general user mode that can provide useful results. PMID:24365913

  4. National Synchrotron Light Source annual report 1991. Volume 1, October 1, 1990--September 30, 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Hulbert, S.L.; Lazarz, N.M.

    1992-04-01

    This report discusses the following research conducted at NSLS: atomic and molecular science; energy dispersive diffraction; lithography, microscopy and tomography; nuclear physics; UV photoemission and surface science; x-ray absorption spectroscopy; x-ray scattering and crystallography; x-ray topography; workshop on surface structure; workshop on electronic and chemical phenomena at surfaces; workshop on imaging; UV FEL machine reviews; VUV machine operations; VUV beamline operations; VUV storage ring parameters; x-ray machine operations; x-ray beamline operations; x-ray storage ring parameters; superconducting x-ray lithography source; SXLS storage ring parameters; the accelerator test facility; proposed UV-FEL user facility at the NSLS; global orbit feedback systems; and NSLS computer system.

  5. Informal proposal for an Atomic Physics Facility at the National Synchrotron Light Source

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, K.W.; Johnson, B.M.; Meron, M.

    1986-01-01

    An Atomic Physics Facility (APF) for experiments that will use radiation from a superconducting wiggler on the NSLS X-13 port is described. The scientific justification for the APF is given and the elements of the facility are discussed. It is shown that it will be possible to conduct a uniquely varied set of experiments that can probe most aspects of atomic physics. A major component of the proposal is a heavy-ion storage ring capable of containing ions with energies of about 10 MeV/nucleon. The ring can be filled with heavy ions produced at the BNL MP Tandem Laboratory or from independent ion-source systems. A preliminary cost estimate for the facility is presented.

  6. Launching Light: Beyond the Bulb for the United Nations' International Year of Light 2015

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arcand, K. K.; Watzke, M.

    2015-09-01

    In astronomy, light is the language used to understand the Universe. From radio waves to gamma rays, light in all its forms delivers information that helps astronomers learn about the Universe. When the United Nations declared 2015 to be the International Year of Light and Light-based Technologies (IYL2015), it presented an opportunity to share the role that light plays in astronomy and beyond. The IYL2015 also offered a chance to build on experiences and sustain networks from the International Year of Astronomy in 2009. Light: Beyond the Bulb is an IYL2015 project that melds both of these goals. The project takes the form of an exhibit that showcases what light can do, from here on Earth and across the vastness of space, hosted by volunteer networks in public spaces for informal science learning.

  7. National Ignition Facility main laser stray light analysis and control

    SciTech Connect

    English, R E; Miller, J L; Peterson, G; Schweyen, J

    1998-06-26

    Stray light analysis has been carried out for the main laser section of the National Ignition Facility main laser section using a comprehensive non-sequential ray trace model supplemented with additional ray trace and diffraction propagation modeling. This paper describes the analysis and control methodology, gives examples of ghost paths and required tilted lenses, baffles, absorbers, and beam dumps, and discusses analysis of stray light "pencil beams" in the system.

  8. Misperceptions of "light" cigarettes abound: National survey data

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, Nick; Weerasekera, Deepa; Peace, Jo; Edwards, Richard; Thomson, George; Devlin, Miranda

    2009-01-01

    Background Many smokers believe that "light" cigarettes are less harmful than regular cigarettes, which is at variance with the scientific evidence. The Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC) aims to address this problem in Article 11 which deals with misleading labelling of tobacco products. In this study we aimed to determine smokers' use and beliefs concerning "light" and "mild" cigarettes ("lights"), including in relation to ethnicity, deprivation and other socio-demographic characteristics. Methods The New Zealand (NZ) arm of the International Tobacco Control Policy Evaluation Survey (ITC Project) uses as its sampling frame the NZ Health Survey. This is a national sample with boosted sampling of Maori, Pacific peoples and Asians. From this sample we surveyed adult smokers (n = 1376) about use and beliefs relating to "light" cigarettes. We assessed the associations with smoking "lights" after adjusting for socio-demographic variables, and smoking-related behaviours and beliefs. Results Many smokers of "lights" believed that smoking "lights" made it easier to quit smoking (25%), that "lights" are less harmful (42%), and that smokers of "lights" take in less tar (43%). Overall most "lights" smokers (60%) had at least one of these three beliefs, a proportion significantly higher than for smokers of "regular" cigarettes at 45% (adjusted odds ratio (aOR) = 1.96, 95% CI = 1.29 – 2.96). While "lights" smokers had significantly lower tobacco consumption and were more aware of smoking harms, they were no more likely to be intending to quit or have made a previous quit attempt. By ethnicity, both Maori and Pacific people were less likely to smoke "lights" than Europeans (aOR = 0.53, 95% CI = 0.35 – 0.80 and aOR = 0.14, 95% CI = 0.05 – 0.40 respectively). In contrast there was no significant difference by level of deprivation. Roll-your-own (RYO) tobacco smokers were less likely to smoke "light" forms of RYO tobacco while both older and women smokers were

  9. Potential applications of synchrotron computed microtomography to soil science

    SciTech Connect

    Spanne, P.; Jones, K.W. ); Prunty, L.D. ); Anderson, S.H. )

    1993-01-01

    Synchrotron x-ray computed microtomography (CMT) can be used to make non-destructive tomographic sections with spatial resolutions of a few [mu]m. This resolution presents possibilities for study of soil-fluid interactions on a spatial scale hitherto unreachable. Details of a CMT apparatus in operation at the Brookhaven National Synchrotron Light Source X26 beam line are presented and prospects for future investigations of test systems have been made and results for wet and dry samples of glass beads and sand samples are given to show the power of the system.

  10. Potential applications of synchrotron computed microtomography to soil science

    SciTech Connect

    Spanne, P.; Jones, K.W.; Prunty, L.D.; Anderson, S.H.

    1993-01-01

    Synchrotron x-ray computed microtomography (CMT) can be used to make non-destructive tomographic sections with spatial resolutions of a few {mu}m. This resolution presents possibilities for study of soil-fluid interactions on a spatial scale hitherto unreachable. Details of a CMT apparatus in operation at the Brookhaven National Synchrotron Light Source X26 beam line are presented and prospects for future investigations of test systems have been made and results for wet and dry samples of glass beads and sand samples are given to show the power of the system.

  11. National voluntary laboratory accreditation program: Energy efficient lighting products. Handbook

    SciTech Connect

    Galowin, L.S.; Hall, W.; Rossiter, W.J.

    1994-07-01

    The purpose of this handbook is to set out procedures and technical requirements for the National Voluntary Laboratory Accreditation Program (NVLAP) accreditation of laboratories which perform test methods covered by the Energy Efficient Lighting (EEL) Products program. It complements and supplements the NVLAP programmatic procedures and general requirements found in NIST Handbook 150 (PB94-178225). The interpretive comments and additional requirements contained in this handbook make the general NVLAP criteria specifically applicable to the EEL program.

  12. Brookhaven Lecture Series: Using the light fantastic: Number 211

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, G.

    1985-01-16

    The National Synchrotron Light Source is described, along with the principles of its operation, the properties of its radiation, and some perspective on what research can be done with the radiation. (LEW)

  13. Proton synchrotron radiation at Fermilab

    SciTech Connect

    Thurman-Keup, Randy; /Fermilab

    2006-05-01

    While protons are not generally associated with synchrotron radiation, they do emit visible light at high enough energies. This paper presents an overview of the use of synchrotron radiation in the Tevatron to measure transverse emittances and to monitor the amount of beam in the abort gap. The latter is necessary to ensure a clean abort and prevent quenches of the superconducting magnets and damage to the silicon detectors of the collider experiments.

  14. FT-IR microscopical analysis with synchrotron radiation: The microscope optics and system performance

    SciTech Connect

    Reffner, J.A.; Martoglio, P.A.; Williams, G.P.

    1995-01-01

    When a Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) microspectrometer was first interfaced with the National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS) in September 1993, there was an instant realization that the performance at the diffraction limit had increased 40-100 times. The synchrotron source transformed the IR microspectrometer into a true IR microprobe, providing high-quality IR spectra for probe diameters at the diffraction limit. The combination of IR microspectroscopy and synchrotron radiation provides a powerful new tool for molecular spectroscopy. The ability to perform IR microspectroscopy with synchrotron radiation is still under development at Brookhaven National Laboratory, but several initial studies have been completed that demonstrate the broad-ranging applications of this technology and its potential for materials characterization.

  15. X-ray microscopy using synchrotron radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, K.W.; Gordon, B.M.; Hanson, A.L.; Pounds, J.G.; Rivers, M.L.; Schidlovsky, G.; Smith, J.V.; Spanne, P.; Sutton, S.R.

    1989-01-01

    The system for x-ray microscopy now being developed at the X-26 beam line of the Brookhaven National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS) is described here. Examples of the use of x-ray microscopy for trace element geochemistry, biology and medicine, and materials investigations are given to emphasize the scientific applications of the technique. Future directions for the improvement and further development of the X-26 microscope and of the x-ray microscopy field in general are discussed. 11 refs., 7 figs.

  16. Transvenous coronary angiography in humans with synchrotron radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Thomlinson, W.

    1994-10-01

    The transvenous coronary angiography project at the National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS) is presently undergoing a significant upgrade to the hardware and software in the synchrotron medical facility. When completed, the project will have reached a level of maturity in the imaging technology which will allow the research team to begin to concentrate on medical research programs. This paper will review the status of the project and imaging technology and will discuss the current upgrades and future advanced technology initiatives. The advantages of using the radiation from a synchrotron, over that from a standard x-ray source, were the motivation for the project. A total of 23 human imaging sessions have been carried out with in the project. The primary goals have been to establish the imaging parameters and protocol necessary to obtain clinically useful images.

  17. The National Early Literacy Panel and Preschool Literacy Instruction: Green Lights, Caution Lights, and Red Lights

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paciga, Kathleen A.; Hoffman, Jessica L.; Teale, William H.

    2011-01-01

    The high level of acceptance in US society of the preschool years as a critically important time for building early literacy skills has led to a flurry of activity in early childhood research and policy. The National Early Literacy Panel (NELP) report "Developing Early Literacy" (2008) is one example of this activity. The NELP report is part of a…

  18. X27A - A New Hard X-ray Micro-Spectroscopy Facility at the National Synchrtron Light Source

    SciTech Connect

    Ablett,J.; Kao, C.; Reeder, R.; Tang, Y.; Lanzirotti, A.

    2006-01-01

    A new hard X-ray micro-spectroscopy beamline has recently been installed at bending-magnet beamline X27A at the National Synchrotron Light Source, where the focus of research is primarily directed towards the environmental, geological and materials science communities. This instrument delivers moderate, {approx}10 {micro}m spatial resolution using achromatic dynamically bent Kirkpatrick-Baez mirrors, in addition to providing high X-ray flux throughput and selectable energy resolution. The balance between moderate spatial resolution and high flux throughput, in combination with a liquid nitrogen-cooled 13-element energy-dispersive high-purity germanium detector, is particularly well suited to the investigation of dilute and thin-film systems using the fluorescence X-ray absorption fine-structure mode of detection. In this paper, we report on the design and performance of this instrument and highlight a recent experimental study undertaken at this facility.

  19. Transverse beam size measurement system using visible synchrotron radiation at HLS II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Kai; Sun, Bao-Gen; Yang, Yong-Liang; Lu, Ping; Tang, Lei-Lei; Wu, Fang-Fang; Cheng, Chao-Cai; Zheng, Jia-Jun; Li, Hao

    2016-09-01

    An interferometer system and an imaging system using visible synchrotron radiation (SR) have been installed in the Hefei Light Source (HLS) II storage ring. Simulations of these two systems are given using Synchrotron Radiation Workshop (SRW) code. With these two systems, the beam energy spread and the beam emittance can be measured. A detailed description of these two systems and the measurement method is given in this paper. The measurement results of beam size, emittance and energy spread are given at the end. Supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (11105141, 11175173) and Upgrade Project of Hefei Light Source

  20. Synchrotron radiation and biomedical imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Luccio, A.

    1986-08-01

    In this lecture we describe the characteristics of Synchrotron radiation as a source of X rays. We discuss the properties of SR arc sources, wigglers, undulators and the use of backscattering of laser light. Applications to angiography, X ray microscopy and tomography are reviewed. 16 refs., 23 figs.

  1. Three energy computed tomography with synchrotron radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Menk, R.H.; Thomlinson, W.; Zhong, Z.; Charvet, A.M.; Arfelli, F. |; Chapman, L.

    1997-09-01

    Preliminary experiments for digital subtraction computed tomography (CT) at the K-edge of iodine (33.1 keV) were carried out at SMERF (Synchrotron Medical Research Facility X17B2) at the National Synchrotron Light Source, Brookhaven National Laboratory. The major goal was to evaluate the availability of this kind of imaging for in vivo neurological studies. Using the transvenous coronary angiography system, CT images of various samples and phantoms were taken simultaneously at two slightly different energies bracketing the K-absorption edge of iodine. The logarithmic subtraction of the two images resulted in the contrast enhancement of iodine filled structures. An additional CT image was taken at 99.57 keV (second harmonic of the fundamental wave). The third energy allowed the calculation of absolute iodine, tissue and bone images by means of a matrix inversion. A spatial resolution of 0.8 LP/mm was measured in single energy images and iodine concentrations down to 0.082 mg/ml in a 1/4 diameter detail were visible in the reconstructed subtraction image.

  2. Workshop on detectors for synchrotron radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Robinson, Arthur L.

    2000-11-22

    Forefront experiments in many scientific areas for which synchrotron sources provide sufficient flux are nonetheless hindered because detectors cannot collect data fast enough, do not cover sufficiently solid angle, or do no have adequate resolution. Overall, the synchrotron facilities, each of which represents collective investments from funding agencies and user institutions ranging from many hundreds of millions to more than a billion dollars, are effectively significantly underutilized. While this chronic and growing problem plagues facilities around the world, it is particularly acute in the United States, where detector research often has to ride on the coat tails of explicitly science-oriented projects. As a first step toward moving out of this predicament, scientists from the U.S. synchrotron facilities held a national workshop in Washington, DC, on October 30-31, 2000. The Workshop on Detectors for Synchrotron Research aimed to create a national ''roadmap'' for development of synchrotron-radiation detectors.

  3. POLARIZATION STUDIES OF CdZnTe DETECTORS USING SYNCHROTRON X-RAY RADIATION.

    SciTech Connect

    CAMARDA,G.S.; BOLOTNIKOV, A.E.; CUI, Y.; HOSSAIN, A.; JAMES, R.B.

    2007-07-01

    New results on the effects of small-scale defects on the charge-carrier transport in single-crystal CdZnTe (CZT) material were produced. We conducted detailed studies of the role of Te inclusions in CZT by employing a highly collimated synchrotron x-ray radiation source available at Brookhaven's National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS). We were able to induce polarization effects by irradiating specific areas with the detector. These measurements allowed the first quantitative comparison between areas that are free of Te inclusions and those with a relatively high concentration of inclusions. The results of these polaration studies will be reported.

  4. Future Synchrotron Radiation Sources

    SciTech Connect

    Winick, Herman

    2003-07-09

    Sources of synchrotron radiation (also called synchrotron light) and their associated research facilities have experienced a spectacular growth in number, performance, and breadth of application in the past two to three decades. In 1978 there were eleven electron storage rings used as light sources. Three of these were small rings, all below 500 mega-electron volts (MeV), dedicated to this purpose; the others, with energy up to 5 giga-electron volts (GeV), were used parasitically during the operation of the ring for high energy physics research. In addition, at that time synchrotron radiation from nine cyclic electron synchrotrons, with energy up to 5 GeV, was also used parasitically. At present no cyclic synchrotrons are used, while about 50 electron storage rings are in operation around the world as fully dedicated light sources for basic and applied research in a wide variety of fields. Among these fields are structural molecular biology, molecular environmental science, materials, analytic chemistry, microfabrication, archaeometry and medical diagnostics. These rings span electron energies from a few hundred MeV to 8 GeV. Several facilities serve 2000 or more users on 30-60 simultaneously operational experimental stations. The largest rings are more than 1 km in circumference, cost about US$1B to build and have annual budgets of about US$100M. This growth is due to the remarkable properties of synchrotron radiation, including its high intensity, brightness and stability; wide spectral range extending from the infra-red to hard x-rays; variable polarization; pulsed time structure; and high vacuum environment. The ever-expanding user community and the increasing number of applications are fueling a continued growth in the number of facilities around the world. In the past few years new types of light sources have been proposed based on linear accelerators. Linac-based sources now being pursued include the free-electron laser (FEL) and energy recovery linac (ERL

  5. Report of the Synchrotron Radiation Vacuum Workshop

    SciTech Connect

    Avery, R.T.

    1984-06-01

    The Synchrotron Radiation Vacuum Workshop was held to consider two vacuum-related problems that bear on the design of storage rings and beam lines for synchrotron radiation facilities. These problems are gas desorption from the vacuum chamber walls and carbon deposition on optical components. Participants surveyed existing knowledge on these topics and recommended studies that should be performed as soon as possible to provide more definitive experimental data on these topics. This data will permit optimization of the final design of the Advanced Light Source (ALS) and its associated beam lines. It also should prove useful for other synchrotron radiation facilities as well.

  6. Synchrotron radiation as an infrared source.

    PubMed

    Stevenson, J R; Ellis, H; Bartlett, R

    1973-12-01

    The increasing availability of synchrotron radiation sources in a number of geographical regions of the world has motivated an evaluation of the radiation from electron accelerators and storage rings as a possible source for ir spectroscopy. As synchrotron radiation can be analytically described, a direct comparison is made with blackbody radiation for typical solid state spectroscopy. Both existing and proposed synchrotron radiation sources are found to be attractive in the ir. The ultrahigh vacuum environment of the source is compatible with clean surface investigations, the analytical description of the radiation is appropriate for calibration studies, and the continuous nature is suitable for Fourier spectroscopy or whenever a white light source is desirable.

  7. National synchrotron light source user's manual: Guide to the VUV and x-ray beamlines: Third edition

    SciTech Connect

    Gmuer, N.F.; Thomlinson, W.; White-DePace, S.

    1989-01-01

    This report contains information on the following topics: A Word on the Writing of Beamline Descriptions; Beamline Equipment Utilization for General Users; the Vacuum Ultraviolet (VUV) Storage Ring and Beamlines; VUV Beamline Descriptions--An Explanation; VUV Beamline Descriptions; X-Ray Storage Ring and Beamlines; X-Ray Beamline Descriptions--An Explanation; and X-Ray Beamline Descriptions.

  8. Research at and Operation of the Materials Science Beamline (X-11) at the National Synchrotron Light Source. Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Sayers, Dale E.

    2003-10-15

    This is the final report for DOE DE-FG02-89ER45384. An overview of the operational history and status of beamline X-11A at the end of the contract period, and a brief review of the core science program at NCSU and the scientific results of X-11A since the last progress report is also presented.

  9. GeoSoilEnviroCARS: A National User Facility for Synchrotron Radiation Research in GeoScience

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rivers, M. L.; Sutton, S. R.; Prakapenka, V.; Wang, Y.; Newville, M.; Eng, P.; Dera, P. K.

    2009-12-01

    GeoSoilEnviroCARS (GSECARS) is a national user facility for geoscience research at Sector 13 of the Advanced Photon Source, Argonne National Laboratory. GSECARS provides the scientific community with access to high-brightness x-rays and supports a wide range of experimental techniques. The operation of the facility is funded by the NSF Earth Sciences Facilities and Instrumentation Program, and by the Department of Energy Geosciences Program. GSECARS is managed by the Consortium for Advanced Radiation Sources (CARS) at the University of Chicago, and provides access to resources for earth science research which no single university or other institution could provide. By operating beamlines that are specialized for earth science research, we are able to provide staff who understand and participate in the research being conducted, which is critical for productivity. GSECARS began operations in 1996, and currently operates 4 experimental stations, two on the bending magnet beamline and two on the undulator beamline. The two bending magnet stations operate independently and simultaneously, while the two undulator stations currently share the beam time. (An upgrade proposal has recently been funded by NSF, DOE and NASA to allow the undulator stations to also operate independently and simultaneously). The experimental techniques provided at the facility include: - Diamond Anvil Cell: Monochromatic diffraction and spectroscopy. Online laser heating is available on the undulator beamline, and external heating is available on the bending magnet beamline. - Multi-anvil Press: energy-dispersive and monochromatic diffraction and imaging. There is a 250 ton press on the bending magnet beamline, and a 1000 ton press on the undulator beamline; deformation experiments, acoustic velocity measurements, and computed tomography can all be performed in the press. - Microprobe: micro-XRF, micro-XAFS, fluorescence microCMT, micro-XRD - Microtomography: absorption and differential

  10. A 1200 element detector system for synchrotron-based coronary angiography

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, A.C.; Lavender, W.M.; Rubenstein, E.; Giacomini, J.C.; Rosso, V.; Schulze, C.; Chapman, D.; Thomlinson, W.

    1993-08-23

    A 1200 channel Si(Li) detector system has been developed for transvenous coronary angiography experiments using synchrotron radiation. It is part of the synchrotron medical imaging facility at the National Synchrotron Light Source. The detector is made from a single crystal of lithium-drifted silicon with an active area 150 mm long {times} 11 mm high {times} 5 mm thick. The elements are arranged in two parallel rows of 600 elements with a center-to-center spacing of 0.25 mm. All 1200 elements are read out simultaneously every 4 ms. A Intel 80486 based computer with a high speed digital signal processing interface is used to control the beamline hardware and to acquire a series of images. The signal-to-noise, linearity and resolution of the system have been measured. Human images have been taken with this system.

  11. Nuclear Bragg x-ray scattering of synchrotron radiation by sup 57 Fe sub 2 O sub 3

    SciTech Connect

    Haustein, P.E.; Berman, L.E.; Faigel, G.; Grover, J.R.; Hastings, J.B.; Siddons, D.P.

    1989-01-01

    A program of studies of nuclear Bragg x-ray scattering with {sup 57}Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} at the National Synchrotron Light Source at Brookhaven National Laboratory and at the Cornell University CHESS facility is reviewed. Two main areas, instrumentation development and studies of dynamical diffraction processes, are described. The latter area has included: measurements of the temporal behaviour of nuclear collective decay mode and direct observation of polarization mixing. 7 refs., 5 figs.

  12. Infrared microspectroscopy with synchrotron radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Carr, G.L.; Williams, G.P.

    1997-09-01

    Infrared microspectroscopy with a high brightness synchrotron source can achieve a spatial resolution approaching the diffraction limit. However, in order to realize this intrinsic source brightness at the specimen location, some care must be taken in designing the optical system. Also, when operating in diffraction limited conditions, the effective spatial resolution is no longer controlled by the apertures typically used for a conventional (geometrically defined) measurement. Instead, the spatial resolution depends on the wavelength of light and the effective apertures of the microscope`s Schwarzchild objectives. The authors have modeled the optical system from the synchrotron source up to the sample location and determined the diffraction-limited spatial distribution of light. Effects due to the dependence of the synchrotron source`s numerical aperture on wavelength, as well as the difference between transmission and reflection measurement modes, are also addressed. Lastly, they examine the benefits (when using a high brightness source) of an extrinsic germanium photoconductive detector with cone optics as a replacement for the standard MCT detector.

  13. Symmetry and light stuffing of H o2T i2O7 , E r2T i2O7 , and Y b2T i2O7 characterized by synchrotron x-ray diffraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baroudi, Kristen; Gaulin, Bruce D.; Lapidus, Saul H.; Gaudet, Jonathan; Cava, R. J.

    2015-07-01

    The H o2T i2O7 , E r2T i2O7 , and Y b2T i2O7 pyrochlores were studied by synchrotron x-ray diffraction to determine whether the (002) peak, forbidden in the pyrochlore space group F d -3 m but observed in single crystal neutron scattering measurements, is present due to a deviation of their pyrochlore structure from F d -3 m symmetry. Synchrotron diffraction measurements on precisely synthesized stoichiometric and nonstoichiometric powders and a crushed floating zone crystal of H o2T i2O7 revealed that the (002) reflection is absent in all cases to a sensitivity of approximately one part in 30 000 of the strongest x-ray diffraction peak. This indicates to high sensitivity that the space group of the crystal structure of these rare earth titanate pyrochlores is F d -3 m , and that, thus, the (002) peak observed in the neutron scattering experiments has a nonstructural origin. The cell parameters and internal strain for lightly stuffed H o2 +xT i2 -xO7 are also presented.

  14. Elemental concentrations in skin of patients with fibroeptelial polip using synchrotron radiation total reflection x-ray fluorescence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soares, Júlio C. A. C. R.; Anjos, Marcelino J.; Canellas, Catarine G. L.; Lopes, Ricardo T.

    2012-05-01

    In this work, the concentrations of trace elements were measured in acrochordon, a skin lesion also known as skin tag or fibroepithelial polyp, as well as in normal skin from the same patient. The samples were analyzed by Synchrotron Radiation Total Reflection X-ray Fluorescence (SRTXRF) in the Synchrotron Light National Laboratory (LNLS) in Campinas/São Paulo-Brazil. The collection of lesion and healthy skin samples, including papillary dermis and epidermis, has involved 17 patients. It was evaluated the presence of P, S, Cl, K, Ca, Fe, Cu and Zn in the paired samples, which were compared, and significant differences were found in some of them.

  15. National Lighting Bureau Reports Dramatic Energy Savings Possible through Minor Lighting Modifications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    College Store Journal, 1979

    1979-01-01

    Dramatic savings are possible by implementing minor modifications including: energy efficient light bulbs and tubes, ballasts, luminaires (fixtures), controls, operating practices, and revised maintenance. Many different changes can be made without affecting productivity, safety and security, visual comfort, aesthetic appeal, consumer discretion,…

  16. Partnering for a National Lighting Fixture Design Competition: The United States Experience

    SciTech Connect

    Hoffman, Marc; Foster, Rebecca; Gordon, Kelly L.; McGowan, Terry; P. Bertoldi, F. Conti, and R. Pagani

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes Phase I of the National Lighting Fixture Design Competition organized by the American Lighting Association (ALA), the Consortium for Energy Efficiency (CEE), and DOE, represented by PNNL. The primary objective of the competition is to increase the market presence of attractive residential lighting fixtures that meet ENERGY STAR efficiency standards. The competition's phase I sought submissions of paper designs of new and existing energy efficient lighting fixtures in 7 categories: chandelies, sconce, pendant, portable, etc, in 2 price categories, e.g., <$100, >$100. PNNL and the team promoted the competition thru design magazines, press releases, brochures, lighting retailers, and ALA. Winners were announced in Dallas at the biannual Dallas Lighting Market in 2003. 24 designs were selected and designers are asked to submit working prototypes in Phase II which will encourage manufacture and production of winning designs.

  17. 3 GeV Booster Synchrotron Conceptual Design Report

    SciTech Connect

    Wiedemann, Helmut

    2009-06-02

    Synchrotron light cna be produced from a relativistic particle beam circulating in a storage ring at extremely high intensity and brilliance over a large spectral region reaching from the far infrared regime to hard x-rays. The particles, either electrons or positrons, radiate as they are deflected in the fields of the storage ring bending magnets or of magnets specially optimized for the production of synchrotron light. The synchrotron light being very intense and well collimated in the forward direction has become a major tool in a large variety of research fields in physics, chemistry, material science, biology, and medicine.

  18. New theoretical results in synchrotron radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bagrov, V. G.; Gitman, D. M.; Tlyachev, V. B.; Jarovoi, A. T.

    2005-11-01

    One of the remarkable features of the relativistic electron synchrotron radiation is its concentration in small angle Δ ≈ 1/γ (here γ-relativistic factor: γ = E/mc2, E energy, m electron rest mass, c light velocity) near rotation orbit plane [V.G. Bagrov, V.A. Bordovitsyn, V.G. Bulenok, V. Ya. Epp, Kinematical projection of pulsar synchrotron radiation profiles, in: Proceedings of IV ISTC Scientific Advisory Commitee Seminar on Basic Science in ISTC Aktivities, Akademgorodok, Novosibirsk, April 23 27, 2001, p. 293 300]. This theoretically predicted and experimentally confirmed feature is peculiar to total (spectrum summarized) radiating intensity. This angular distribution property has been supposed to be (at least qualitatively) conserved and for separate spectrum synchrotron radiation components. In the work of V.G. Bagrov, V.A. Bordovitsyn, V. Ch. Zhukovskii, Development of the theory of synchrotron radiation and related processes. Synchrotron source of JINR: the perspective of research, in: The Materials of the Second International Work Conference, Dubna, April 2 6, 2001, pp. 15 30 and in Angular dependence of synchrotron radiation intensity. http://lanl.arXiv.org/abs/physics/0209097, it is shown that the angular distribution of separate synchrotron radiation spectrum components demonstrates directly inverse tendency the angular distribution deconcentration relatively the orbit plane takes place with electron energy growth. The present work is devoted to detailed investigation of this situation. For exact quantitative estimation of angular concentration degree of synchrotron radiation the definition of radiation effective angle and deviation angle is proposed. For different polarization components of radiation the dependence of introduced characteristics was investigated as a functions of electron energy and number of spectrum component.

  19. Shedding new light on the molecular architecture of oocytes using a combination of synchrotron Fourier transform-infrared and Raman spectroscopic mapping.

    PubMed

    Wood, Bayden R; Chernenko, Tatyana; Matthäus, Christian; Diem, Max; Chong, Connie; Bernhard, Uditha; Jene, Cassandra; Brandli, Alice A; McNaughton, Don; Tobin, Mark J; Trounson, Alan; Lacham-Kaplan, Orly

    2008-12-01

    Synchrotron Fourier transform-infrared (FT-IR) and Raman microspectroscopy were applied to investigate changes in the molecular architecture of mouse oocytes and demonstrate the overall morphology of the maturing oocyte. Here we show that differences were identified between immature mouse oocytes at the germinal vesicle (GV) and mature metaphase II (MII) stage when using this technology, without the introduction of any extrinsic markers, labels, or dyes. GV mouse oocytes were found to have a small, centrally located lipid deposit and another larger polar deposit of similar composition. MII oocytes have very large, centrally located lipid deposits. Each lipid deposit for both cell types contains an inner and outer lipid environment that differs in composition. To assess interoocyte variability, line scans were recorded across the diameter of the oocytes and compared from three independent trials (GV, n = 91; MII, n = 172), and the data were analyzed with principal component analysis (PCA). The average spectra and PCA loading plots show distinct and reproducible changes in the CH stretching region that can be used as molecular maturation markers. The method paves the way for developing an independent assay to assess oocyte status during maturation providing new insights into lipid distribution at the single cell level.

  20. Measurement methods for surface oxides on SUS 316L in simulated light water reactor coolant environments using synchrotron XRD and XRF

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watanabe, Masashi; Yonezawa, Toshio; Shobu, Takahisa; Shoji, Tetsuo

    2013-03-01

    Synchrotron X-ray diffraction (XRD) and X-ray fluorescent (XRF) measurement techniques have been used for non-destructive characterization of surface oxide films on Type 316L austenitic stainless steels that were exposed to simulated primary water environments of pressurized water reactors (PWR) and boiling water reactors (BWR). The layer structures of the surface spinel oxides were revealed ex situ after oxidation by measurements made as a function of depth. The layer structure of spinel oxides formed in simulated PWR primary water should normally be different from that formed in simulated BWR water. After oxidation in the simulated BWR environment, the spinel oxide was observed to contain NiFe2O4 at shallow depths, and FeCr2O4 and Fe3O4 at deeper depths. By contrast, after oxidation in the simulated PWR primary water environment, a Fe3O4 type spinel was observed near the surface and FeCr2O4 type spinel near the interface with the metal substrate. Furthermore, by in situ measurements during oxidation in the simulated BWR environment, it was also demonstrated that the ratio between spinel and hematite Fe2O3 can be changed depending on the water condition such as BWR normal water chemistry or BWR hydrogen water chemistry.

  1. SYNCHROTRON RADIATION MONITOR FOR NSLS BOOSTER.

    SciTech Connect

    PINAYEV, I.; SHAFTAN, T.

    2005-11-04

    NSLS booster diagnostics consisted of tune measurement system, system for turn-by-turn measurement on the electron beam, and beam intensity monitor, which is not absolutely calibrated. We present design and implementation of synchrotron light monitor for the booster, which expands diagnostics capabilities. The system allows to measure an orbit, beam sizes and coupling of the electron beam along the ramp.

  2. Overview of United States synchrotron radiation facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Watson, R.E.

    1983-01-01

    There has been considerable activity within the past year involving the creation of new and the improvement of existing capabilities for research with synchrotron light. The purpose of this review is to summarize what has happened within the United States. Being a status report, some of the information necessarily has a date attached to it - the date, in this case, being early September 1983.

  3. National Energy Code Lighting Power Limits: The Need for an Updated Calculation Process

    SciTech Connect

    Richman, Eric E.; Meyer, Timothy

    2009-06-08

    Lighting energy codes throughout the US have become progressively more stringent due to increased interest in energy efficiency, and associated federal legislation. At the same time, the codes must, and are expected to allow for design flexibility. Historical code development for lighting has been mostly empirical with often limited observation to always make the best fit for the reality of design. With each iteration, the processes used to determine the codes and standards tries to become more closely representative of practical design and application. A natural challenge in this process is the number of variables associated with lighting design that challenges code writers to think critically about the visual needs of people, generally accepted lighting practices, and changes in the market that promote energy efficiency. Despite the issues, the code must keep designs from being wasteful and allow designers the artistic flexibility to achieve the lighting needs of the space. This paper provides a detailed look at these issues and how they affect the code development process through the development of one of the national lighting energy codes/standards. As new 2010 and beyond versions of the codes are in preparation, more detailed methods are being developed to walk that fine line between efficiency and design flexibility. The paper also explains some of the progression of the process of development of national lighting energy codes (ASHRAE/IES 90.1) and its effect on other codes.

  4. Survey of surface roughness properties of synchrotron radiation optics

    SciTech Connect

    Takacs, P.Z.; Colbert, J.; Church, E.L.

    1986-03-01

    Measurements of surface roughness were made on a large number of grazing incidence mirrors delivered for use at the National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS) at Brookhaven National Laboratory. The measurements were made with a WYKO optical profiler using a 2.5X and a 10X objective and analyzed with our PROFILE code to generate an average periodogram representation for each surface. The data is presented in the form of representative profiles with all of the periodogram curves arranged according to figure type. Analysis of the periodograms allows one to compute bandwidth-limited values for RMS roughness and slope, to provide valuable feedback information to manufacturers regarding compliance with specifications, and to predict the performance of the optic at x-ray wavelengths.

  5. A Classical Test Theory Analysis of the Light and Spectroscopy Concept Inventory National Study Data Set

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schlingman, Wayne M.; Prather, Edward E.; Wallace, Colin S.; Brissenden, Gina; Rudolph, Alexander L.

    2012-01-01

    This paper is the first in a series of investigations into the data from the recent national study using the Light and Spectroscopy Concept Inventory (LSCI). In this paper, we use classical test theory to form a framework of results that will be used to evaluate individual item difficulties, item discriminations, and the overall reliability of the…

  6. Lighting.

    SciTech Connect

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1992-09-01

    Since lighting accounts for about one-third of the energy used in commercial buildings, there is opportunity to conserve. There are two ways to reduce lighting energy use: modify lighting systems so that they used less electricity and/or reduce the number of hours the lights are used. This booklet presents a number of ways to do both. Topics covered include: reassessing lighting levels, reducing lighting levels, increasing bulb & fixture efficiency, using controls to regulate lighting, and taking advantage of daylight.

  7. The ISAS Synchrotron Microprobe at DELTA

    SciTech Connect

    Bohlen, Alex von; Kraemer, Markus; Hergenroeder, Roland; Berges, Ulf

    2007-01-19

    Since 2004 ISAS operates a dipole beamline at the synchrotron radiation facility DELTA at University of Dortmund. Synchrotron radiation is used at this beamline as an excellent excitation source for X-ray fluorescence spectrometry (XRF). Among others, the high brilliance of the synchrotron radiation in contrast to conventional X-ray tubes, the strong polarization of the synchrotron radiation and the low divergence of the electron beam can be applied to XRF offering several advantages for spectroscopy. These outstanding features encouraged us to develop and operate a synchrotron radiation induced X-ray micro fluorescence probe connected to a wavelength dispersive spectrometer (SR-WDXRF). A relevant characteristic of such a device, namely, good lateral resolution at high spectral resolution can be applied for single spot-, line-scan and area map analyses of a variety of objects. The instrumentation of the SR-WDXRF and the performed experiments will be presented. Main task is the detection of light elements by their fluorescence K-lines and the specification of element compounds.

  8. Lighting

    SciTech Connect

    Audin, L.

    1994-12-31

    EPAct covers a vast territory beyond lighting and, like all legislation, also contains numerous {open_quotes}favors,{close_quotes} compromises, and even some sleight-of-hand. Tucked away under Title XIX, for example, is an increase from 20% to 28% tax on gambling winnings, effective January 1, 1993 - apparently as a way to help pay for new spending listed elsewhere in the bill. Overall, it is a landmark piece of legislation, about a decade overdue. It remains to be seen how the Federal Government will enforce upgrading of state (or even their own) energy codes. There is no mention of funding for {open_quotes}energy police{close_quotes} in EPAct. Merely creating such a national standard, however, provides a target for those who sincerely wish to create an energy-efficient future.

  9. Atomic physics and synchrotron radiation: The production and accumulation of highly charged ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, B. M.; Meron, M.; Agagu, A.; Jones, K. W.

    1987-04-01

    Synchrotron radiation can be used to produce highly-charged ions, and to study photoexcitation and photoionization for ions of virtually any element in the periodic table. To date, with few exceptions, atomic physics studies have been limited to rare gases and a few metal vapors, and to photoexcitation energies in the VUV region of the electromagnetic spectrum. These limitations can now be overcome using photons produced by high-brightness synchrotron storage rings, such as the X-ray ring at the National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS) at Brookhaven. Furthermore, calculations indicate that irradiation of an ion trap with an intense energetic photon beam will result in a viable source of highly-charged ions that can be given the name PHOBIS: the photon beam ion source. Promising results, which encourage the wider systematic use of synchrotron radiation in atomic physics research, have been obtained in recent experiments on VUV photoemission and the production and storage of multiply-charged ions. An overview of the field, current plans, and future possibilities will be presented.

  10. Chemical applications of synchrotron radiation: Workshop report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-04-01

    The most recent in a series of topical meetings for Advanced Photon Source user subgroups, the Workshop on Chemical Applications of Synchrotron Radiation (held at Argonne National Laboratory, October 3-4, 1988) dealt with surfaces and kinetics, spectroscopy, small-angle scattering, diffraction, and topography and imaging. The primary objectives were to provide an educational resource for the chemistry community on the scientific research being conducted at existing synchrotron sources and to indicate some of the unique opportunities that will be made available with the Advanced Photon Source. The workshop organizers were also interested in gauging the interest of chemists in the field of synchrotron radiation. Interest expressed at the meeting has led to initial steps toward formation of a Chemistry Users Group at the APS. Individual projects are processed separately for the data bases.

  11. Precision synchrotron radiation detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Levi, M.; Rouse, F.; Butler, J.; Jung, C.K.; Lateur, M.; Nash, J.; Tinsman, J.; Wormser, G.; Gomez, J.J.; Kent, J.

    1989-03-01

    Precision detectors to measure synchrotron radiation beam positions have been designed and installed as part of beam energy spectrometers at the Stanford Linear Collider (SLC). The distance between pairs of synchrotron radiation beams is measured absolutely to better than 28 /mu/m on a pulse-to-pulse basis. This contributes less than 5 MeV to the error in the measurement of SLC beam energies (approximately 50 GeV). A system of high-resolution video cameras viewing precisely-aligned fiducial wire arrays overlaying phosphorescent screens has achieved this accuracy. Also, detectors of synchrotron radiation using the charge developed by the ejection of Compton-recoil electrons from an array of fine wires are being developed. 4 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  12. Characterization of the synchrotron-based 0.3-NA EUV microexposuretool at the ALS

    SciTech Connect

    Naulleau, Patrick; Goldberg, Kenneth A.; Anderson, Erik; Dean,Kim; Denham, Paul; Cain, Jason P.; Hoef, Brian; Jackson, Keith

    2005-06-01

    Synchrotron-based EUV exposure tools continue to play a crucial roll in the development of EUV lithography. Utilizing a programmable-pupil-fill illuminator, the 0.3-NA microexposure tool at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory's Advanced Light Source synchrotron radiation facility provides the highest resolution EUV projection printing capabilities available today. This makes it ideal for the characterization of advanced resist and mask processes. The Berkeley tool also serves as a good benchmarking platform for commercial implementations of 0.3-NA EUV microsteppers because its illuminator can be programmed to emulate the coherence conditions of the commercial tools. Here we present the latest resist and tool characterization results from the Berkeley EUV exposure station.

  13. Biomedical elemental analysis and imaging using synchrotron x-ray microscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, K.W.; Gordon, B.M.; Schidlovsky, G.; Spanne, P.; Dejun, Xue ); Bockman, R.S. ); Saubermann, A.J. . Health Science Center)

    1990-01-01

    The application of synchrotron x-ray microscopy to biomedical research is currently in progress at the Brookhaven National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS). The current status of the x-ray microscope (XRM) is reviewed from a technical standpoint. Some of the items considered are photon flux, spatial resolution, quantitation, minimum detection limits, and beam-induced specimen damage. Images can be produced by measurement of fluorescent x rays or of the attenuation of the incident beam by the specimen. Maps of the elemental distributions or linear attenuation of the incident beam by the specimen. Maps of the elemental distributions or linear attenuation coefficients can be made by scanning the specimen past the beam. Computed microtomography (CMT) can be used for non- destructive images through the specimen in either the emission or absorption mode. Examples of measurements made with the XRM are given.

  14. Mirror and grating surface figure requirements for grazing incidence synchrotron radiation beamlines: Power loading effects

    SciTech Connect

    Hulbert, S.L.; Sharma, S.

    1987-01-01

    At present, grazing incidence mirrors are used almost exclusively as the first optical element in VUV and soft x-ray synchrotron radiation beamlines. The performance of these mirrors is determined by thermal and mechanical stress-induced figure errors as well as by figure errors remaining from the grinding and polishing process. With the advent of VUV and soft x-ray undulators and wigglers has come a new set of thermal stress problems related to both the magnitude and the spatial distribution of power from these devices. In many cases the power load on the entrance slits and gratings in these beamlines is no longer negligible. The dependence of thermally-induced front-end mirror figure errors on various storage ring and insertion device parameters (especially those at the National Synchrotron Light Source) and the effects of these figure errors on two classes of soft x-ray beamlines are presented.

  15. Multielemental analysis of samples from patients with dermatological pathologies using synchrotron radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soares, J. C. A. C. R.; Canellas, C. G. L.; Anjos, M. J.; Lopes, R. T.

    2014-02-01

    Using synchrotron radiation total X-ray fluorescence (SRTXRF) technique, the concentrations of trace elements were measured in four skin lesions: seborrheic keratosis, fibroepithelial polyp, cherry angioma and dermatosis papulosa nigra. The concentrations of P, S, K, Ca, Fe, Cu, Zn and Rb were evaluated in 62 pairs of lesions and healthy samples, each one having been collected from the same patient. The results revealed significant differences of P, Ca, K, Fe and Cu levels as well as a common trend in their variations between lesion and control samples among the skin diseases. This study revealed a powerful tool that can be useful for skin disorders research. The measurements were conducted at Brazilian National Synchrotron Light Laboratory (LNLS).

  16. Tracing X-rays through an L-shaped laterally graded multilayer mirror: a synchrotron application.

    PubMed

    Honnicke, Marcelo Goncalves; Huang, Xianrong; Keister, Jeffrey W; Kodituwakku, Chaminda Nalaka; Cai, Yong Q

    2010-05-01

    A theoretical model to trace X-rays through an L-shaped (nested or Montel Kirkpatrick-Baez mirrors) laterally graded multilayer mirror to be used in a synchrotron application is presented. The model includes source parameters (size and divergence), mirror figure (parabolic and elliptic), multilayer parameters (reflectivity, which depends on layer material, thickness and number of layers) and figure errors (slope error, roughness, layer thickness fluctuation Deltad/d and imperfection in the corners). The model was implemented through MATLAB/OCTAVE scripts, and was employed to study the performance of a multilayer mirror designed for the analyzer system of an ultrahigh-resolution inelastic X-ray scattering spectrometer at National Synchrotron Light Source II. The results are presented and discussed. PMID:20400833

  17. Progress on the prevention of stray light and diffraction effects on the Thai National Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buisset, Christophe; Prasit, Apirat; Leckngam, Apichat; Lépine, Thierry; Poshyajinda, Saran; Soonthornthum, Boonrucksar; Irawati, Puji; Richichi, Andrea; Sawangwit, Utane; Dhillon, Vik; Hardy, Liam K.

    2015-09-01

    The 2.4-m Thai National Telescope (TNT) is the main facility of the Thai National Observatory located on the Doi Inthanon, Thailand's highest mountain. The first astronomical images obtained at the TNT suffered from diffraction and stray light problems: bright spikes spread from bright stellar images over few arcminutes in the focal plane, and the images taken during observations in bright moon conditions were contaminated by high levels of stray light. We performed targeted investigations to identify the origin of these problems. In a first time, these investigations consisted of analyzing the irradiance distribution of defocused stellar images and of identifying the contributors. We concluded that these bright spikes around the bright stellar images were due to the chamfer and the wavefront error at the mirror edge. We thus installed an annular mask along the edge of the primary mirror that fully suppressed these spikes and we quantified the improvement by observing the double star Sirius. In a second time, we identified the contributors to the stray light by placing a pinhole camera at the TNT focal plane. Then, we designed a new baffle to improve the stray light rejection. The final design of the baffle comprises 21 diaphragms, is painted with an ordinary black paint and was designed, developed and installed on the TNT in less than 8 months. We assessed the improvement on the performance by measuring the variation of the stray light signal before and after installing the baffle in the telescope structure. These steps significantly improved the image quality and enhanced the rejection of the stray light at the focal plane level. In this paper, we present our investigations, we describe the method used to design the TNT baffle, and we present the improvement in quantitative terms.

  18. 6 GeV synchrotron x-ray source: Conceptual design report. Supplement B - conceptual design of proposed beam lines for the 6 GeV light source

    SciTech Connect

    1996-03-01

    In this document, preliminary conceptual designs are presented for ten sample beamlines for the 6 GeV Light Source. These beamlines will accommodate investigations in solid-state physics, materials science, materials technology, chemical technology, and biological and medical sciences. In future, the designs will be altered to include new developments in x-ray optics and hardware technologies. The research areas addressed by the samples beamlines are as follows: Topography and Radiography/Tomography (section 2); Inelastic Scattering with Ultrahigh Energy Resolution (Section 3); Surface and Bulk Studies Using High Momentum Resolution (Section 4); Inelastic Scattering from Charge and Spin (Section 5); Advanced X-Ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy Studies (Section 6); Small Angle X-Ray Scattering Studies (Section 7); General Purpose Scattering for Materials Studies (Section 8); Multiple-Energy Anomalous-Dispersion Studies of Proteins (Section 9); Protein Crystallography (Section 10); Time- and Space-resolved X-Ray Spectroscopy (Section 11); Medical Diagnostic Facility (Section 12); and Transuranium Research Facility (Section 13). The computer systems to be used on the beamlines are also discussed in Section 14 of this document.

  19. Analysis of stray radiation produced by the advanced light source (1.9 GeV synchrotron radiation source) at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Ajemian, R.C.

    1995-12-31

    The yearly environmental dose equivalent likely to result at the closest site boundary from the Advanced Light Source was determined by generating multiple linear regressions. The independent variables comprised quantified accelerator operating parameters and measurements from synchronized, in-close (outside shielding prior to significant atmospheric scattering), state-of-the-art neutron remmeters and photon G-M tubes. Neutron regression models were more successful than photon models due to lower relative background radiation and redundant detectors at the site boundary. As expected, Storage Ring Beam Fill and Beam Crashes produced radiation at a higher rate than gradual Beam Decay; however, only the latter did not include zero in its 95% confidence interval. By summing for all three accelerator operating modes, a combined yearly DE of 4.3 mRem/yr with a 90% CI of (0.04-8.63) was obtained. These results fall below the DOE reporting level of 10 mRem/yr and suggest repeating the study with improved experimental conditions.

  20. Coherent Synchrotron Radiation: Theory and Simulations.

    SciTech Connect

    Novokhatski, Alexander; /SLAC

    2012-03-29

    achievable emittance in the synchrotron light sources for short bunches.

  1. Dynamics of synchrotron VUV-induced intracluster reactions

    SciTech Connect

    Grover, J.R.

    1993-12-01

    Photoionization mass spectrometry (PIMS) using the tunable vacuum ultraviolet radiation available at the National Synchrotron Light Source is being exploited to study photoionization-induced reactions in small van der Waals mixed complexes. The information gained includes the observation and classification of reaction paths, the measurement of onsets, and the determination of relative yields of competing reactions. Additional information is obtained by comparison of the properties of different reacting systems. Special attention is given to finding unexpected features, and most of the reactions investigated to date display such features. However, understanding these reactions demands dynamical information, in addition to what is provided by PIMS. Therefore the program has been expanded to include the measurement of kinetic energy release distributions.

  2. Experiments in atomic and applied physics using synchrotron radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, K.W.

    1987-01-01

    A diverse program in atomic and applied physics using x rays produced at the X-26 beam line at the Brookhaven National Synchrotron Light Source is in progress. The atomic physics program studies the properties of multiply-ionized atoms using the x rays for photo-excitation and ionization of neutral atoms and ion beams. The applied physics program builds on the techniques and results of the atomic physics work to develop new analytical techniques for elemental and chemical characterization of materials. The results are then used for a general experimental program in biomedical sciences, geo- and cosmochemistry, and materials sciences. The present status of the program is illustrated by describing selected experiments. Prospects for development of new experimental capabilities are discussed in terms of a heavy ion storage ring for atomic physics experiments and the feasibility of photoelectron microscopy for high spatial resolution analytical work. 21 refs., 11 figs., 2 tabs.

  3. Synchrotron Radiation II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MOSAIC, 1978

    1978-01-01

    Synchrotron radiation is a unique form of radiation that spans the electro-magnetic spectrum from X-rays through the ultraviolet and visible into the infrared. Tunable monochromators enable scientists to select a narrow band of wavelengths at any point in the spectrum. (Author/BB)

  4. X-ray diffraction microtomography using synchrotron radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barroso, R. C.; Lopes, R. T.; de Jesus, E. F. O.; Oliveira, L. F.

    2001-09-01

    The X-ray diffraction computed tomography technique is based on the interference phenomena of the coherent scatter. For low-momentum transfer, it is most probable that the scattering interaction will be coherent. A selective discrimination of a given element in a scanned specimen can be realized by fixing the Bragg angle which produces an interference peak and then, to carry out the computed tomography in the standard mode. The image reconstructed exalts the presence of this element with respect to other ones in a sample. This work reports the feasibility of a non-destructive synchrotron radiation X-ray diffraction imaging technique. This research was performed at the X-ray Diffraction beam line of the National Synchrotron Light Laboratory (LNLS) in Brazil. The coherent scattering properties of different tissue and bone substitute materials were evaluated. Furthermore, diffraction patterns of some polycrystalline solids were studied due to industrial and environmental human exposure to these metals. The obtained diffraction patterns form the basis of a selective tomography technique. Preliminary images are presented.

  5. Determination of the occurrence of gold in an unoxidized Carlin-type ore sample using synchrotron radiation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chen, J.R.; Chao, E.C.T.; Minkin, J.A.; Back, J.M.; Bagby, W.C.; Rivers, M.L.; Sutton, S.R.; Gordon, B.M.; Hanson, A.L.; Jones, K.W.

    1987-01-01

    The occurrence of the so-called invisible gold in two unoxidized Carlin-type gold samples from Nevada has been determined using synchrotron X-ray fluorescence (SXRF) analysis at the National Synchrotron Light Source, Brookhaven National Laboratory. A bedded sample from the East ore zone of the Carlin deposit and a breccia sample from Horse Canyon were analyzed. Preliminary results show that gold is found only in the Horse Canyon breccia sample. Experimental details including other X-ray line and diffraction peak interferences, standards used, and minimum detection limits (MDLs) are discussed. Gold, with a MDL range of 0.8 to 3 ppm, was not detected in euhedral pyrite crystals except in the interior porous portion of one grain. Gold was detected in some parts of the matrix. The phase which contains gold has not yet been identified. The highest content of gold so far analyzed is about 40 ppm. There are interesting implications of these new findings. ?? 1987.

  6. Synchrotron radiation sources and research

    SciTech Connect

    Teng, L.C.

    1995-12-31

    This is an introduction and a review of Synchrotron Radiation sources and the research performed using synchrotron radiation. I will begin with a brief discussion of the two principal uses of particle storage rings: for colliding beams (Collider) and for synchrotron radiation (Radiator). Then I will concentrate on discussions of synchrotron radiation topics, starting with a historical account, followed by descriptions of the features of the storage ring and the features of the radiation from the simplest source -- the bending magnet. I will then discuss the special insertion device sources -- wigglers and undulators -- and their radiations, and end with a brief general account of the research and other applications of synchrotron radiation.

  7. Role of Synchrotron infra red microspectroscopy in studying epidermotropism of cutaneous T-cell lymphoma

    SciTech Connect

    El Bedewi, A.; El Anany, G; El Mofty, M

    2010-01-01

    The molecular mechanisms of epidermotropism in mycosis fungoides (MF) are not well understood to date. The aim of this study was to differentiate between epidermal and dermal lymphocytes within the skin of MF patients. This study was done on 10 MF patients with a mean age of 50 years diagnosed clinically in the Department of Dermatology, Cairo University, Egypt. A 6 mm biopsy was taken from each patient in order to confirm the diagnosis. Skin biopsies were cut, put on low e-slides and then stained with H&E. Further examination with Synchrotron infrared (IR) microspectroscopy was done in National Synchrotron Light Source - Brookhaven National Laboratory, New York, USA. Immunophenotyping using antibodies CD3, CD4, CD8, CD20 and CD30 was also done. Statistical analysis was done by Student's t-test and cluster analysis. Both epidermal and dermal lymphocytes were clustered separately. Also, Amide I and RNA and DNA within the lymphocytes were significantly different between the epidermis and the dermis. The biochemical analysis of protein, RNA and DNA with Synchrotron IR microspectroscopy is a promising tool for studying epidermotropism in cutaneous T-cell lymphoma.

  8. Synchrotron powered FT-IR microspectroscopy enhances spatial resolution for probing and mapping of plant materials

    SciTech Connect

    Wetzel, David L.; Sweat, Joseph A.; Panzer, Dia D.

    1998-06-01

    Cross sections of grain kernels, leaves, other plant material, and their products have been examined routinely in our own laboratory with an integrated FT-IR microspectrometer equipped with a conventional (thermal) globar source. With plant material, scattering is often a problem. Representative (low density) mapping requires interpolation between spots on the tissue actually interrogated. High density (100%) mapping with a small pixel size is typically painstakingly done and requires coaddition of many scans. With the synchrotron source (National Synchrotron Light Source, Beamline U2B) of the U.S. Department of Energy's Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, New York, nearly all of these problems are solved. Low thermal noise and brightness of the beam provide high S/N. The non-divergence of the synchrotron microbeam allows the high S/N to be retained even with aperturing of 6 {mu}m or 12 {mu}m sizes. Diffraction influences the practical limit. Step sizes corresponding to the small aperture dimension reveal highly localized chemical differences between adjacent pixels of a tissue specimen.

  9. Synchrotron powered FT-IR microspectroscopy enhances spatial resolution for probing and mapping of plant materials

    SciTech Connect

    Wetzel, D.L.; Sweat, J.A.; Panzer, D.D.

    1998-06-01

    Cross sections of grain kernels, leaves, other plant material, and their products have been examined routinely in our own laboratory with an integrated FT-IR microspectrometer equipped with a conventional (thermal) globar source. With plant material, scattering is often a problem. Representative (low density) mapping requires interpolation between spots on the tissue actually interrogated. High density (100{percent}) mapping with a small pixel size is typically painstakingly done and requires coaddition of many scans. With the synchrotron source (National Synchrotron Light Source, Beamline U2B) of the U.S. Department of Energy{close_quote}s Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, New York, nearly all of these problems are solved. Low thermal noise and brightness of the beam provide high S/N. The non-divergence of the synchrotron microbeam allows the high S/N to be retained even with aperturing of 6 {mu}m or 12 {mu}m sizes. Diffraction influences the practical limit. Step sizes corresponding to the small aperture dimension reveal highly localized chemical differences between adjacent pixels of a tissue specimen. {copyright} {ital 1998 American Institute of Physics.}

  10. Assessing noise sources at synchrotron infrared ports

    PubMed Central

    Lerch, Ph.; Dumas, P.; Schilcher, T.; Nadji, A.; Luedeke, A.; Hubert, N.; Cassinari, L.; Boege, M.; Denard, J.-C.; Stingelin, L.; Nadolski, L.; Garvey, T.; Albert, S.; Gough, Ch.; Quack, M.; Wambach, J.; Dehler, M.; Filhol, J.-M.

    2012-01-01

    Today, the vast majority of electron storage rings delivering synchrotron radiation for general user operation offer a dedicated infrared port. There is growing interest expressed by various scientific communities to exploit the mid-IR emission in microspectroscopy, as well as the far infrared (also called THz) range for spectroscopy. Compared with a thermal (laboratory-based source), IR synchrotron radiation sources offer enhanced brilliance of about two to three orders of magnitude in the mid-IR energy range, and enhanced flux and brilliance in the far-IR energy range. Synchrotron radiation also has a unique combination of a broad wavelength band together with a well defined time structure. Thermal sources (globar, mercury filament) have excellent stability. Because the sampling rate of a typical IR Fourier-transform spectroscopy experiment is in the kHz range (depending on the bandwidth of the detector), instabilities of various origins present in synchrotron radiation sources play a crucial role. Noise recordings at two different IR ports located at the Swiss Light Source and SOLEIL (France), under conditions relevant to real experiments, are discussed. The lowest electron beam fluctuations detectable in IR spectra have been quantified and are shown to be much smaller than what is routinely recorded by beam-position monitors. PMID:22186638

  11. Assessing noise sources at synchrotron infrared ports.

    PubMed

    Lerch, Ph; Dumas, P; Schilcher, T; Nadji, A; Luedeke, A; Hubert, N; Cassinari, L; Boege, M; Denard, J-C; Stingelin, L; Nadolski, L; Garvey, T; Albert, S; Gough, Ch; Quack, M; Wambach, J; Dehler, M; Filhol, J-M

    2012-01-01

    Today, the vast majority of electron storage rings delivering synchrotron radiation for general user operation offer a dedicated infrared port. There is growing interest expressed by various scientific communities to exploit the mid-IR emission in microspectroscopy, as well as the far infrared (also called THz) range for spectroscopy. Compared with a thermal (laboratory-based source), IR synchrotron radiation sources offer enhanced brilliance of about two to three orders of magnitude in the mid-IR energy range, and enhanced flux and brilliance in the far-IR energy range. Synchrotron radiation also has a unique combination of a broad wavelength band together with a well defined time structure. Thermal sources (globar, mercury filament) have excellent stability. Because the sampling rate of a typical IR Fourier-transform spectroscopy experiment is in the kHz range (depending on the bandwidth of the detector), instabilities of various origins present in synchrotron radiation sources play a crucial role. Noise recordings at two different IR ports located at the Swiss Light Source and SOLEIL (France), under conditions relevant to real experiments, are discussed. The lowest electron beam fluctuations detectable in IR spectra have been quantified and are shown to be much smaller than what is routinely recorded by beam-position monitors.

  12. Synchrotron Radiation Workshop (SRW)

    2013-03-01

    "Synchrotron Radiation Workshop" (SRW) is a physical optics computer code for calculation of detailed characteristics of Synchrotron Radiation (SR) generated by relativistic electrons in magnetic fields of arbitrary configuration and for simulation of the radiation wavefront propagation through optical systems of beamlines. Frequency-domain near-field methods are used for the SR calculation, and the Fourier-optics based approach is generally used for the wavefront propagation simulation. The code enables both fully- and partially-coherent radiation propagation simulations inmore » steady-state and in frequency-/time-dependent regimes. With these features, the code has already proven its utility for a large number of applications in infrared, UV, soft and hard X-ray spectral range, in such important areas as analysis of spectral performances of new synchrotron radiation sources, optimization of user beamlines, development of new optical elements, source and beamline diagnostics, and even complete simulation of SR based experiments. Besides the SR applications, the code can be efficiently used for various simulations involving conventional lasers and other sources. SRW versions interfaced to Python and to IGOR Pro (WaveMetrics), as well as cross-platform library with C API, are available.« less

  13. Synchrotron Radiation Workshop (SRW)

    SciTech Connect

    Chubar, O.; Elleaume, P.

    2013-03-01

    "Synchrotron Radiation Workshop" (SRW) is a physical optics computer code for calculation of detailed characteristics of Synchrotron Radiation (SR) generated by relativistic electrons in magnetic fields of arbitrary configuration and for simulation of the radiation wavefront propagation through optical systems of beamlines. Frequency-domain near-field methods are used for the SR calculation, and the Fourier-optics based approach is generally used for the wavefront propagation simulation. The code enables both fully- and partially-coherent radiation propagation simulations in steady-state and in frequency-/time-dependent regimes. With these features, the code has already proven its utility for a large number of applications in infrared, UV, soft and hard X-ray spectral range, in such important areas as analysis of spectral performances of new synchrotron radiation sources, optimization of user beamlines, development of new optical elements, source and beamline diagnostics, and even complete simulation of SR based experiments. Besides the SR applications, the code can be efficiently used for various simulations involving conventional lasers and other sources. SRW versions interfaced to Python and to IGOR Pro (WaveMetrics), as well as cross-platform library with C API, are available.

  14. Measuring light pollution in Beijing and effects on Xinglong Station of National Astronomical Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    LU, Ligen; ZHANG, Baozhou; AI, Mingze; LIU, Jian; ZENG, Shanshan

    2015-08-01

    A light pollution survey in Beijing has been carried on to assess the quality of the night sky. To measure the absolute luminance of night sky directly, a portable night-sky luminance meter was developed specially for this survey. With a 2-degree field of view, the meter is sensitive only to a narrow cone of the sky and capable of detecting the minimum luminance of 10-6 cd/m2 (equivalent to 27.4 mag/arcsec2). The night-sky brightness was measured at seven sites, of which six are almost in line but with different distances from the city center. The Xinglong Station of National Astronomical Observatory was included to study the impacts of city lightings on an astronomical observatory. The survey shows that night skies at later time (from 0:00 to 3:00) keep mostly unchanged and are evidently darker than earlier time (e.g. the night-sky at 23:00 is about 40% brighter than midnight), which can be attributed to substantial artificial lightings for human activities being turned off after midnight. Moreover, zenith luminance of the night sky decreases with increasing distance from the city center. Compared with the night-sky luminance (21.50 mag/arcsec2) at Lingshan observation site which is closer to the city center, the night-sky brightness at Xinglong Station is a litter brighter (21.37 mag/arcsec2). This indicates that night sky at Xinglong Station has been brightened by outdoor lighting of the county town of Xinglong. The survey shows that either the luminance of zenith dark sky or the average luminance of skies at 45 degree altitude in all directions could be considered as a reasonable indicator of light pollution.

  15. Rare earth element concentrations in geological and synthetic samples using synchrotron X-ray fluorescence analysis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chen, J.R.; Chao, E.C.T.; Back, J.M.; Minkin, J.A.; Rivers, M.L.; Sutton, S.R.; Cygan, G.L.; Grossman, J.N.; Reed, M.J.

    1993-01-01

    The concentrations of rare earth elements (REEs) in specific mineral grains from the Bayan Obo ore deposit and synthetic high-silica glass samples have been measured by synchrotron X-ray fluorescence (SXRF) analysis using excitation of the REE K lines between 33 and 63 keV. Because SXRF, a nondestructive analytical technique, has much lower minimum detection limits (MDLs) for REEs, it is an important device that extends the in situ analytical capability of electron probe microanalysis (EPMA). The distribution of trace amounts of REEs in common rock-forming minerals, as well as in REE minerals and minerals having minor quantities of REEs, can be analyzed with SXRF. Synchrotron radiation from a bending magnet and a wiggler source at the National Synchrotron Light Source, Brookhaven National Laboratory, was used to excite the REEs. MDLs of 6 ppm (La) to 26 ppm (Lu) for 3600 s in 60-??m-thick standard samples were obtained with a 25-??m diameter wiggler beam. The MDLs for the light REEs were a factor of 10-20 lower than the MDLs obtained with a bending magnet beam. The SXRF REE concentrations in mineral grains greater than 25 ??m compared favorably with measurements using EPMA. Because EPMA offered REE MDLs as low as several hundred ppm, the comparison was limited to the abundant light REEs (La, Ce, Pr, Nd). For trace values of medium and heavy REEs, the SXRF concentrations were in good agreement with measurements using instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA), a bulk analysis technique. ?? 1993.

  16. GEO light imaging national testbed (GLINT) heliostat design and testing status

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thornton, Marcia A.; Oldenettel, Jerry R.; Hult, Dane W.; Koski, Katrina; Depue, Tracy; Cuellar, Edward L.; Balfour, Jim; Roof, Morey; Yarger, Fred W.; Newlin, Greg; Ramzel, Lee; Buchanan, Peter; Mariam, Fesseha G.; Scotese, Lee

    2002-01-01

    The GEO Light Imaging National Testbed (GLINT) will use three laser beams producing simultaneous interference fringes to illuminate satellites in geosynchronous earth orbit (GEO). The reflected returns will be recorded using a large 4,000 m2 'light bucket' receiver. This imaging methodology is termed Fourier Telescopy. A major component of the 'light bucket' will be an array of 40 - 80 heliostats. Each heliostat will have a mirrored surface area of 100 m2 mounted on a rigid truss structure which is supported by an A-frame. The truss structure attaches to the torque tube elevation drive and the A-frame structure rests on an azimuth ring that could provide nearly full coverage of the sky. The heliostat is designed to operate in 15 mph winds with jitter of less than 500 microradians peak-to- peak. One objective of the design was to minimize receiver cost to the maximum extent possible while maintaining GLINT system performance specifications. The mechanical structure weights approximately seven tons and is a simple fabricated steel framework. A prototype heliostat has been assembled at Stallion Range Center, White Sands Missile Range, New Mexico and is being tested under a variety of weather and operational conditions. The preliminary results of that testing will be presented as well as some finite element model analyses that were performed to predict the performance of the structure.

  17. Chemical Dynamics, Molecular Energetics, and Kinetics at the Synchrotron

    SciTech Connect

    Leone, Stephen R.; Ahmed, Musahid; Wilson, Kevin R.

    2010-03-14

    Scientists at the Chemical Dynamics Beamline of the Advanced Light Source in Berkeley are continuously reinventing synchrotron investigations of physical chemistry and chemical physics with vacuum ultraviolet light. One of the unique aspects of a synchrotron for chemical physics research is the widely tunable vacuum ultraviolet light that permits threshold ionization of large molecules with minimal fragmentation. This provides novel opportunities to assess molecular energetics and reaction mechanisms, even beyond simple gas phase molecules. In this perspective, significant new directions utilizing the capabilities at the Chemical Dynamics Beamline are presented, along with an outlook for future synchrotron and free electron laser science in chemical dynamics. Among the established and emerging fields of investigations are cluster and biological molecule spectroscopy and structure, combustion flame chemistry mechanisms, radical kinetics and product isomer dynamics, aerosol heterogeneous chemistry, planetary and interstellar chemistry, and secondary neutral ion-beam desorption imaging of biological matter and materials chemistry.

  18. On the implementation of computed laminography using synchrotron radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Helfen, L.; Pernot, P.; Elyyan, M.; Myagotin, A.; Mikulik, P.; Voropaev, A.; Di Michiel, M.; Baruchel, J.; Baumbach, T.

    2011-06-15

    Hard x rays from a synchrotron source are used in this implementation of computed laminography for three-dimensional (3D) imaging of flat, laterally extended objects. Due to outstanding properties of synchrotron light, high spatial resolution down to the micrometer scale can be attained, even for specimens having lateral dimensions of several decimeters. Operating either with a monochromatic or with a white synchrotron beam, the method can be optimized to attain high sensitivity or considerable inspection throughput in synchrotron user and small-batch industrial experiments. The article describes the details of experimental setups, alignment procedures, and the underlying reconstruction principles. Imaging of interconnections in flip-chip and wire-bonded devices illustrates the peculiarities of the method compared to its alternatives and demonstrates the wide application potential for the 3D inspection and quality assessment in microsystem technology.

  19. Synchrotron based proton drivers

    SciTech Connect

    Weiren Chou

    2002-09-19

    Proton drivers are the proton sources that produce intense short proton bunches. They have a wide range of applications. This paper discusses the proton drivers based on high-intensity proton synchrotrons. It gives a review of the high-intensity proton sources over the world and a brief report on recent developments in this field in the U.S. high-energy physics (HEP) community. The Fermilab Proton Driver is used as a case study for a number of challenging technical design issues.

  20. The metrology of spherical shells using synchrotron x ray microtomography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hmelo, Anthony B.; Allen, James L.; Damico, Kevin L.

    1990-01-01

    With recent advances in solid state imaging technology and the increasing availability of synchrotron x-ray radiation sources, synchrotron x-ray microtomography is emerging as a nondestructive technique for the evaluation of the structure and composition of small specimens with spatial resolution in the micron range. Synchrotron radiation offers the following advantages over conventional x-ray sources: high brightness, continuous emission which is tunable over a large energy range, faster data collection rates, and a highly collimated beam of large cross section permitting the illumination of large specimens. Synchrotron x-ray microtomography enables the structure of individual spheres to be evaluated in order to reveal the concentricity and sphericity of the internal void and the uniformity of the shell wall in the case of high quality spherical shells for Sandia National Laboratories' Inertial Confinement Fusion project.

  1. Nonthermal Synchrotron and Synchrotron Self-Compton Emission from GRBs: Predictions for Swift and GLAST

    SciTech Connect

    Finke, Justin D.; Boettcher, Markus

    2008-05-22

    Results of a leptonic jet model for the prompt emission and early afterglows of GRBs are presented. The synchrotron component is modeled with the canonical Band spectrum and the synchrotron self-Compton component is calculated from the implied synchrotron-emitting electron spectrum in a relativistic plasma blob. In the comoving frame the magnetic field is assumed to be tangled and the electron and photon distributions are assumed to be isotropic. The Compton-scattered spectrum is calculated using the full Compton cross-section in the Thomson through Klein-Nishina using the Jones formula. Pair production photoabsorption, both from ambient radiation in the jet and from the extragalactic background light (EBL), is taken into account. Results are presented as a function of a small set of parameters: the Doppler factor, the observed variability timescale, the comoving magnetic field, the peak synchrotron flux, and the redshift of the burst. Model predictions will be tested by multiwavelength observations, including the Swift and GLAST satellites, which will provide unprecedented coverage of GRBs.

  2. Wakefields in Coherent Synchrotron Radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Billinghurst, Brant E.; Bergstrom, J. C.; Baribeau, C.; Batten, T.; Dallin, L.; May, Tim E.; Vogt, J. M.; Wurtz, Ward A.; Warnock, Robert L.; Bizzozero, D. A.; Kramer, S.; Michaelian, K. H.

    2016-06-01

    When the electron bunches in a storage ring are sufficiently short the electrons act coherently producing radiation several orders of magnitude more intense than normal synchrotron radiation. This is referred to as Coherent Syncrotron Radiation (CSR). Due to the potential of CSR to provide a good source of Terahertz radiation for our users, the Canadian Light Source (CLS) has been researching the production and application of CSR. CSR has been produced at the CLS for many years, and has been used for a number of applications. However, resonances that permeate the spectrum at wavenumber intervals of 0.074 cm-1, and are highly stable under changes in the machine setup, have hampered some experiments. Analogous resonances were predicted long ago in an idealized theory. Through experiments and further calculations we elucidate the resonance and wakefield mechanisms in the CLS vacuum chamber. The wakefield is observed directly in the 30-110 GHz range by rf diodes. These results are consistent with observations made by the interferometer in the THz range. Also discussed will be some practical examples of the application of CSR for the study of condensed phase samples using both transmission and Photoacoustic techniques.

  3. The electron spectro-microscopy beamline at National Synchrotron Light Source II: A wide photon energy range, micro-focusing beamlinefor photoelectron spectro-microscopies

    SciTech Connect

    Reininger R.; Hulbert L.; Johnson P.D.; Sadowski, J.T.; Starr, D.E.; Chubar, O.; Valla, T.; Vescovo, E.

    2012-02-13

    A comprehensive optical design for a high-resolution, high-flux, wide-energy range, micro-focused beamline working in the vacuum ultraviolet and soft x-ray photon energy range is proposed. The beamline is to provide monochromatic radiation to three photoelectron microscopes: a full-field x-ray photoelectron emission microscope and two scanning instruments, one dedicated to angle resolved photoemission spectroscopy ({micro}-ARPES) and one for ambient pressure x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and scanning photoelectron microscopy (AP-XPS/SPEM). Microfocusing is achieved with state of the art elliptical cylinders, obtaining a spot size of 1 {micro}m for ARPES and 0.5 {micro}m for AP-XPS/SPEM. A detailed ray tracing analysis quantitatively evaluates the overall beamline performances.

  4. The electron spectro-microscopy beamline at National Synchrotron Light Source II: A wide photon energy range, micro-focusing beamline for photoelectron spectro-microscopies

    SciTech Connect

    Reininger, R.; Hulbert, S. L.; Chubar, O.; Vescovo, E.; Johnson, P. D.; Valla, T.; Sadowski, J. T.; Starr, D. E.

    2012-02-15

    A comprehensive optical design for a high-resolution, high-flux, wide-energy range, micro-focused beamline working in the vacuum ultraviolet and soft x-ray photon energy range is proposed. The beamline is to provide monochromatic radiation to three photoelectron microscopes: a full-field x-ray photoelectron emission microscope and two scanning instruments, one dedicated to angle resolved photoemission spectroscopy ({mu}-ARPES) and one for ambient pressure x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and scanning photoelectron microscopy (AP-XPS/SPEM). Microfocusing is achieved with state of the art elliptical cylinders, obtaining a spot size of 1 {mu}m for ARPES and 0.5 {mu}m for AP-XPS/SPEM. A detailed ray tracing analysis quantitatively evaluates the overall beamline performances.

  5. Construction and maintenance of SUNY facilities at the National Synchrotron Light Source. Progress report, 1 July 1983-1 July 1984. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Bigeleisen, J.

    1984-01-01

    Research reported includes beamline facilities, X-21 beamline update, SUNY-PRT participation in the design and commissioning of the CHESS crystallography facility, surface physics, material and structure studies using EXAFS, x-ray standing wave studies of surfaces and interfaces, and surface diffraction of adsorbed polyatomic molecules. (GHT)

  6. Development of Partially-Coherent Wavefront Propagation Simulation Methods for 3rd and 4th Generation Synchrotron Radiation Sources.

    SciTech Connect

    Chubar O.; Berman, L; Chu, Y.S.; Fluerasu, A.; Hulbert, S.; Idir, M.; Kaznatcheev, K.; Shapiro, D.; Baltser, J.

    2012-04-04

    Partially-coherent wavefront propagation calculations have proven to be feasible and very beneficial in the design of beamlines for 3rd and 4th generation Synchrotron Radiation (SR) sources. These types of calculations use the framework of classical electrodynamics for the description, on the same accuracy level, of the emission by relativistic electrons moving in magnetic fields of accelerators, and the propagation of the emitted radiation wavefronts through beamline optical elements. This enables accurate prediction of performance characteristics for beamlines exploiting high SR brightness and/or high spectral flux. Detailed analysis of radiation degree of coherence, offered by the partially-coherent wavefront propagation method, is of paramount importance for modern storage-ring based SR sources, which, thanks to extremely small sub-nanometer-level electron beam emittances, produce substantial portions of coherent flux in X-ray spectral range. We describe the general approach to partially-coherent SR wavefront propagation simulations and present examples of such simulations performed using 'Synchrotron Radiation Workshop' (SRW) code for the parameters of hard X-ray undulator based beamlines at the National Synchrotron Light Source II (NSLS-II), Brookhaven National Laboratory. These examples illustrate general characteristics of partially-coherent undulator radiation beams in low-emittance SR sources, and demonstrate advantages of applying high-accuracy physical-optics simulations to the optimization and performance prediction of X-ray optical beamlines in these new sources.

  7. X-ray fluorescence with synchrotron radiation to elemental analysis of lead and calcium content of primary teeth.

    PubMed

    de Souza Guerra, Carolina; Fernanda Gerlach, Raquel; Graciele Villela Pinto, Nívia; Coutinho Cardoso, Simone; Moreira, Silvana; Pereira de Almeida, André; Teixeira Alves Peixoto, Iza; Henrique Meloni, Carlos; Lemos Mota, Carla; Fernando de Oliveira, Luis; Braz, Delson; Cely Barroso, Regina

    2010-01-01

    Primary teeth were analyzed by micro-SRXRF. The aim of this study was to determine the elemental distribution of lead and calcium in different regions of primary incisor of children living in a notoriously contaminated area (Santo Amaro da Purificação, Bahia State, Brazil). The measurements were performed in standard geometry of 45 degrees incidence, exciting with a white beam and using a conventional system collimation (orthogonal slits) in the XRF beamline at the Synchrotron Light National Laboratory (Campinas, Brazil). PMID:19744862

  8. A new method to suppress high-order harmonics for a synchrotron radiation soft X-ray beamline

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Zhi-Ying; Xing, Hai-Ying; Hong, Cai-Hao; Tang, Kun; Han, Yong; Chen, Dong-Liang; Zhao, Yi-Dong

    2015-04-01

    A feasible and convenient method is proposed to suppress higher-harmonics for a varied-line-spacing plane grating monochromator in the soft X-ray region. Related calculations and experiments demonstrate that decreasing the included angle slightly by changing the parameter of the exit arm length can significantly improve light purity. This method is suitable and has been used for experiments of detector calibration in beamline 4B7B at the Beijing Synchrotron Radiation Facility (BSRF). Supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (11375227, 61204008)

  9. A vacuum ultraviolet filtering monochromator for synchrotron-based spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janik, Ireneusz; Marin, Timothy W.

    2013-01-01

    We describe the design, characterization, and implementation of a vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) monochromator for use in filtering stray and scattered light from the principal monochromator output of the Stainless Steel Seya VUV synchrotron beam line at the Synchrotron Radiation Center, University of Wisconsin-Madison. We demonstrate a reduction of three orders of magnitude of stray and scattered light over the wavelength range 1400-2000 Å with minimal loss of light intensity, allowing for over six orders of magnitude of dynamic range in light detection. We suggest that a similar filtering scheme can be utilized in any variety of spectroscopic applications where a large dynamic range and low amount of background signal are of import, such as in transmittance experiments with very high optical density.

  10. Monochromatic computed tomography of the human brain using synchrotron x rays: Technical feasibility

    SciTech Connect

    Nachaliel, E.; Dilmanian, F.A.; Garrett, R.F.; Thomlinson, W.C.; Chapman, L.D.; Gmuer, N.F.; Lazarz, N.M.; Moulin, H.R.; Rivers, M.L.; Rarback, H.; Stefan, P.M.; Spanne, P. ); Luke, P.N.; Pehl, R.; Thompson, A.C. ); Miller, M. )

    1991-01-01

    A monochromatic computed tomography (CT) scanner is being developed at the X17 superconducting wiggler beamline at the National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS), Brookhaven National Laboratory, to image the human head and neck. The system configuration is one of a horizontal fan beam and an upright seated rotating subject. The purpose of the project are to demonstrate improvement in the image contrast and in the image quantitative accuracy that can be obtained in monochromatic CT and to apply the system to specific clinical research programs in neuroradiology. This paper describes the first phantom studies carried out with a prototype system, using the dual photon absorptiometry (DPA) method at energies of 20 and 39 Kev. The results show that improvements in image contrast and quantitative accuracy are possible with monochromatic DPA CT. Estimates of the clinical performance of the planned CT system are made on the basis of these initial results.

  11. Monochromatic computed tomography of the human brain using synchrotron x rays: Technical feasibility

    SciTech Connect

    Nachaliel, E.; Dilmanian, F.A.; Garrett, R.F.; Thomlinson, W.C.; Chapman, L.D.; Gmuer, N.F.; Lazarz, N.M.; Moulin, H.R.; Rivers, M.L.; Rarback, H.; Stefan, P.M.; Spanne, P.; Luke, P.N.; Pehl, R.; Thompson, A.C.; Miller, M.

    1991-12-31

    A monochromatic computed tomography (CT) scanner is being developed at the X17 superconducting wiggler beamline at the National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS), Brookhaven National Laboratory, to image the human head and neck. The system configuration is one of a horizontal fan beam and an upright seated rotating subject. The purpose of the project are to demonstrate improvement in the image contrast and in the image quantitative accuracy that can be obtained in monochromatic CT and to apply the system to specific clinical research programs in neuroradiology. This paper describes the first phantom studies carried out with a prototype system, using the dual photon absorptiometry (DPA) method at energies of 20 and 39 Kev. The results show that improvements in image contrast and quantitative accuracy are possible with monochromatic DPA CT. Estimates of the clinical performance of the planned CT system are made on the basis of these initial results.

  12. Synchrotron Radiation Research--An Overview.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bienenstock, Arthur; Winick, Herman

    1983-01-01

    Discusses expanding user community seeking access to synchrotron radiation sources, properties/sources of synchrotron radiation, permanent-magnet technology and its impact on synchrotron radiation research, factors limiting power, the density of synchrotron radiation, and research results illustrating benefit of higher flux and brightness. Also…

  13. Project WEALTH (Water, Energy, Agriculture, Lighting, Training and Health): Harnessing the wealth of nations

    SciTech Connect

    Kashkari, C.

    1996-12-31

    Project WEALTH, hereafter referred to as WEALTH, is a global plan for the economic development of an estimated one million villages in the world, where one billion people live. The plan will focus on the provision of: Water, Energy, Agriculture, Lighting, Training and Health (WEALTH), by harnessing the natural resources of the villages and utilizing the technologies available in the industrialized countries. In the first phase of the project, one model village (WEALTH Center) will be established in every developing country of the world. The Center will serve as the training and demonstration center and promote the project in the country. WEALTH will provide economic opportunities for the industrialized and the developing countries. The Small Business Sector will play a major role in the implementation of the project. The project will be developed and implemented, not by governments, but by private sector, in cooperation with national governments. When fully operational, the project has the potential of generating business to the tune of billions of dollars every year. The Inner-cities of the US can participate in the project resulting in their own rapid development. WEALTH will spur global economic growth and lay the foundation for prosperity and peace in the twenty-first century.

  14. Mossbauer spectroscopy with synchrotron radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Alp, E.E.; Mooney, T.M.; Toellner, T.; Sturhahn, W.

    1993-07-01

    The principles underlying observation of the Mossbauer effect with synchrotron radiation are explained. The current status of the field is reviewed, and prospects for dedicated experimental stations on third generation machines are discussed.

  15. Single-bunch synchrotron shutter

    DOEpatents

    Norris, James R.; Tang, Jau-Huei; Chen, Lin; Thurnauer, Marion

    1993-01-01

    An apparatus for selecting a single synchrotron pulse from the millions of pulses provided per second from a synchrotron source includes a rotating spindle located in the path of the synchrotron pulses. The spindle has multiple faces of a highly reflective surface, and having a frequency of rotation f. A shutter is spaced from the spindle by a radius r, and has an open position and a closed position. The pulses from the synchrotron are reflected off the spindle to the shutter such that the speed s of the pulses at the shutter is governed by: s=4.times..pi..times.r.times.f. such that a single pulse is selected for transmission through an open position of the shutter.

  16. Single-bunch synchrotron shutter

    SciTech Connect

    Norris, J.R.; Tang, Jau-Huei; Chen, Lin; Thurnauer, M.

    1991-12-31

    An apparatus for selecting a single synchrotron pulse from the millions of pulses provided per second from a synchrotron source includes a rotating spindle located in the path of the synchrotron pulses. The spindle has multiple faces of a highly reflective surface, and having a frequency of rotation f. A shutter is spaced from the spindle by a radius r, and has an open position and a closed position. The pulses from the synchrotron are reflected off the spindle to the shutter such that the speed s of the pulses at the shutter is governed by: s=4 {times} {pi} {times} r {times} such that a single pulse is selected for transmission through an open position of the shutter.

  17. Applications of synchrotron radiation to Chemical Engineering Science: Workshop report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-07-01

    This report contains extended abstracts that summarize presentations made at the Workshop on Applications of Synchrotron Radiation to Chemical Engineering Science held at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), Argonne, IL, on April 22--23, 1991. The talks emphasized the application of techniques involving absorption fluorescence, diffraction, and reflection of synchrotron x-rays, with a focus on problems in applied chemistry and chemical engineering, as well as on the use of x-rays in topographic, tomographic, and lithographic procedures. The attendees at the workshop included experts in the field of synchrotron science, scientists and engineers from ANL, other national laboratories, industry, and universities; and graduate and undergraduate students who were enrolled in ANL educational programs at the time of the workshop. Talks in the Plenary and Overview Session described the status of and special capabilities to be offered by the Advanced Photon Source (APS), as well as strategies and opportunities for utilization of synchrotron radiation to solve science and engineering problems. Invited talks given in subsequent sessions covered the use of intense infrared, ultraviolet, and x-ray photon beams (as provided by synchrotrons) in traditional and nontraditional areas of chemical engineering research related to electrochemical and corrosion science, catalyst development and characterization, lithography and imaging techniques, and microanalysis.

  18. High intensity proton synchrotrons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Craddock, M. K.

    1986-10-01

    Strong initiatives are being pursued in a number of countries for the construction of ``kaon factory'' synchrotrons capable of producing 100 times more intense proton beams than those available now from machines such as the Brookhaven AGS and CERN PS. Such machines would yield equivalent increases in the fluxes of secondary particles (kaons, pions, muons, antiprotons, hyperons and neutrinos of all varieties)—or cleaner beams for a smaller increase in flux—opening new avenues to various fundamental questions in both particle and nuclear physics. Major areas of investigation would be rare decay modes, CP violation, meson and hadron spectroscopy, antinucleon interactions, neutrino scattering and oscillations, and hypernuclear properties. Experience with the pion factories has already shown how high beam intensities make it possible to explore the ``precision frontier'' with results complementary to those achievable at the ``energy frontier''. This paper will describe proposals for upgrading and AGS and for building kaon factories in Canada, Europe, Japan and the United States, emphasizing the novel aspects of accelerator design required to achieve the desired performance (typically 100 μA at 30 GeV).

  19. Angiography by Synchrotron Radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rubenstein, E.; Brown, G. S.; Giacomini, J. C.; Gordon, H. J.; Hofstadter, R.; Kernoff, R. S.; Otis, J. N.; Thomlinson, W.; Thompson, A. C.; Zeman, H. D.

    1987-01-01

    Because coronary disease represents the principal health problem in the Western, industrialized world, and because of the risks and costs associated with conventional methods of visualizing the coronary arteries, an effort has been underway at the Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory to develop a less invasive coronary imaging procedure based on iodine K-edge dichromography. A pair of line images, recorded within a few milliseconds of each other, is taken with two monochromatic X-ray beams whose energy closely brackets the K-edge of iodine, 33.17 keV. The logarithmic subtraction of the images produced by these beams results in an image which greatly enhances signals arising from attenuation by iodine and almost totally suppresses signals arising from attenuation by soft tissue and bone. The high sensitivity to iodine allows the visualization of arterial structures after an intravenous injection of contrast agent and its subsequent 20-30 fold dilution. The experiments began in 1979, with initial studies done on phantoms and excised pig hearts. The first images of anesthetized dogs were taken in 1982. The results of experiments on dogs will be reviewed, showing the stepwise evolution of the imaging system, leading to the use of the system on human subjects in 1986. The images recorded on human subjects will be described and the remaining problems discussed.

  20. Manufacturability of compact synchrotron mirrors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Douglas, Gary M.

    1997-11-01

    While many of the government funded research communities over the years have put their faith and money into increasingly larger synchrotrons, such as Spring8 in Japan, and the APS in the United States, a viable market appears to exist for smaller scale, research and commercial grade, compact synchrotrons. These smaller, and less expensive machines, provide the research and industrial communities with synchrotron radiation beamline access at a portion of the cost of their larger and more powerful counterparts. A compact synchrotron, such as the Aurora-2D, designed and built by Sumitomo Heavy Industries, Ltd. of japan (SHI), is a small footprint synchrotron capable of sustaining 20 beamlines. Coupled with a Microtron injector, with 150 MeV of injection energy, an entire facility fits within a 27 meter [88.5 ft] square floorplan. The system, controlled by 2 personal computers, is capable of producing 700 MeV electron energy and 300 mA stored current. Recently, an Aurora-2D synchrotron was purchased from SHI by the University of Hiroshima. The Rocketdyne Albuquerque Operations Beamline Optics Group was approached by SHI with a request to supply a group of 16 beamline mirrors for this machine. These mirrors were sufficient to supply 3 beamlines for the Hiroshima machine. This paper will address engineering issues which arose during the design and manufacturing of these mirrors.

  1. Synchrotron topography project. Progress report, January 20, 1982-October 20, 1982

    SciTech Connect

    Bilello, J.C.; Chen, H.; Hmelo, A.B.; Liu, J.M.; Birnbaum, H.K.; Herley, P.J.; Green, R.E. Jr.

    1982-01-01

    The collaborators have participated in the Synchrotron Topography Project (STP) which has designed and developed instrumentation for an x-ray topography station at the National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS) at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL). The two principle instruments constructed consist of a White Beam Camera (WBC) and a Multiple Crystal Camera (MCC) with high planar collimation and wide area image coverage. It is possible to perform in-situ studies in a versatile environmental chamber equipped with a miniature mechanical testing stage for both the WBC and MCC systems. Real-time video imaging plus a rapid feed cassette holder for high resolution photographic plates are available for recording topographs. Provisions are made for other types of photon detection as well as spectroscopy. The facilities for the entire station have been designed for remote operation using a LSI-11/23 plus suitable interfacing. These instruments will be described briefly and the current status of the program will be reviewed. The Appendix of this report presents titles, authors and abstracts of other technical work associated with this project during the current period.

  2. A novel molecular synchrotron for cold collision and EDM experiments.

    PubMed

    Hou, Shunyong; Wei, Bin; Deng, Lianzhong; Yin, Jianping

    2016-09-07

    Limited by the construction demands, the state-of-the-art molecular synchrotrons consist of only 40 segments that hardly make a good circle. Imperfections in the circular structure will lead to the appearance of unstable velocity regions (i.e. stopbands), where molecules of certain forward velocity will be lost from the structure. In this paper, we propose a stopband-free molecular synchrotron. It contains 1570 ring electrodes, which nearly make a perfect circle, capable of confining both light and heavy polar molecules in the low-field-seeking states. Molecular packets can be conveniently manipulated with this synchrotron by various means, like acceleration, deceleration or even trapping. Trajectory calculations are carried out using a pulsed (88)SrF molecular beam with a forward velocity of 50 m/s. The results show that the molecular beam can make more than 500 round trips inside the synchrotron with a 1/e lifetime of 6.2 s. The synchrotron can find potential applications in low-energy collision and reaction experiments or in the field of precision measurements, such as the searches for electric dipole moment of elementary particles.

  3. A novel molecular synchrotron for cold collision and EDM experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hou, Shunyong; Wei, Bin; Deng, Lianzhong; Yin, Jianping

    2016-09-01

    Limited by the construction demands, the state-of-the-art molecular synchrotrons consist of only 40 segments that hardly make a good circle. Imperfections in the circular structure will lead to the appearance of unstable velocity regions (i.e. stopbands), where molecules of certain forward velocity will be lost from the structure. In this paper, we propose a stopband-free molecular synchrotron. It contains 1570 ring electrodes, which nearly make a perfect circle, capable of confining both light and heavy polar molecules in the low-field-seeking states. Molecular packets can be conveniently manipulated with this synchrotron by various means, like acceleration, deceleration or even trapping. Trajectory calculations are carried out using a pulsed 88SrF molecular beam with a forward velocity of 50 m/s. The results show that the molecular beam can make more than 500 round trips inside the synchrotron with a 1/e lifetime of 6.2 s. The synchrotron can find potential applications in low-energy collision and reaction experiments or in the field of precision measurements, such as the searches for electric dipole moment of elementary particles.

  4. A novel molecular synchrotron for cold collision and EDM experiments

    PubMed Central

    Hou, Shunyong; Wei, Bin; Deng, Lianzhong; Yin, Jianping

    2016-01-01

    Limited by the construction demands, the state-of-the-art molecular synchrotrons consist of only 40 segments that hardly make a good circle. Imperfections in the circular structure will lead to the appearance of unstable velocity regions (i.e. stopbands), where molecules of certain forward velocity will be lost from the structure. In this paper, we propose a stopband-free molecular synchrotron. It contains 1570 ring electrodes, which nearly make a perfect circle, capable of confining both light and heavy polar molecules in the low-field-seeking states. Molecular packets can be conveniently manipulated with this synchrotron by various means, like acceleration, deceleration or even trapping. Trajectory calculations are carried out using a pulsed 88SrF molecular beam with a forward velocity of 50 m/s. The results show that the molecular beam can make more than 500 round trips inside the synchrotron with a 1/e lifetime of 6.2 s. The synchrotron can find potential applications in low-energy collision and reaction experiments or in the field of precision measurements, such as the searches for electric dipole moment of elementary particles. PMID:27600539

  5. A novel molecular synchrotron for cold collision and EDM experiments.

    PubMed

    Hou, Shunyong; Wei, Bin; Deng, Lianzhong; Yin, Jianping

    2016-01-01

    Limited by the construction demands, the state-of-the-art molecular synchrotrons consist of only 40 segments that hardly make a good circle. Imperfections in the circular structure will lead to the appearance of unstable velocity regions (i.e. stopbands), where molecules of certain forward velocity will be lost from the structure. In this paper, we propose a stopband-free molecular synchrotron. It contains 1570 ring electrodes, which nearly make a perfect circle, capable of confining both light and heavy polar molecules in the low-field-seeking states. Molecular packets can be conveniently manipulated with this synchrotron by various means, like acceleration, deceleration or even trapping. Trajectory calculations are carried out using a pulsed (88)SrF molecular beam with a forward velocity of 50 m/s. The results show that the molecular beam can make more than 500 round trips inside the synchrotron with a 1/e lifetime of 6.2 s. The synchrotron can find potential applications in low-energy collision and reaction experiments or in the field of precision measurements, such as the searches for electric dipole moment of elementary particles. PMID:27600539

  6. Recent developments in photoelectron dynamics using synchrotron radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Carlson, T.A.; Krause, M.O.; Taylor, J.W.; Keller, P.R.; Piancastelli, M.N.; Grimm, F.A.; Whitley, T.A.

    1982-01-01

    Through a collaborative effort of members of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory and Universities of Wisconsin and Tennessee, a comprehensive study of atoms and molecules using angle-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy and synchrotron radiation is underway at the Synchrotron Radiation Center, Stoughton, Wisconsin. Over 50 molecules and atoms have been investigated. These results, coupled with theory, aim at a better understanding of the dynamics of photoionization and of the wave functions that control these processes. In particular, attention is given to the following topics: metal atomic vapors, generalization of molecular orbital types, autoionization, shape resonances, core shell effects, satellite structure, and the Cooper minimum.

  7. Bystander Effects During Synchrotron Imaging Procedures?

    SciTech Connect

    Schueltke, Elisabeth; Nikkhah, Guido; Bewer, Brian; Wysokinski, Tomasz; Chapman, Dean

    2010-07-23

    Using monochromatic beam and synchrotron phase-contrast technique at the biomedical beamline of the Italian synchrotron facility Elettra (SYRMEP), we have shown in a small animal model of malignant brain tumor that it is possible to obtain high-resolution images of very small tumors when they have developed from implanted tumor cells loaded with colloidal gold nanoparticles (GNP). All previous experiments were conducted in post-mortem samples. We have now designed a cell culture experiment to investigate the effects of synchrotron radiation with an energy and dose profile similar to that expected in our first in vivo imaging studies according to the protocol developed at SYRMEP.Materials and Methods: Culture flasks containing either gold-loaded or naieve C6 glioma cells were exposed to a dose of 0.5 Gy at 24 keV. The irradiated medium was aspirated and replaced with fresh growth medium. Twenty-four hours later this non-irradiated medium exposed to irradiated cells was aspirated, then added to non-irradiated C6 cells in order to investigate whether bystander effects are seen under the conditions of our image acquisition protocol. The irradiated medium was added to a number of other non-irradiated cell cultures. Cell counts were followed until 72 hrs after irradiation. Western blots were conducted with H2AX antibodies. This experiment was one of the first biomedical experiments conducted at BMIT, the new biomedical imaging and therapy beamline of the Canadian Light Source.Results: No significant differences in proliferation were seen between cells that were directly irradiated, exposed to irradiated medium or exposed to the non-irradiated 24-hr-medium from the irradiated cells. However, there was a tendency towards a higher number of double strand breaks in previously irradiated cells when they were exposed to non-irradiated medium that had been in contact with irradiated cells for 24 hrs.

  8. Bystander Effects During Synchrotron Imaging Procedures?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schültke, Elisabeth; Bewer, Brian; Wysokinski, Tomasz; Chapman, Dean; Nikkhah, Guido

    2010-07-01

    Using monochromatic beam and synchrotron phase-contrast technique at the biomedical beamline of the Italian synchrotron facility Elettra (SYRMEP), we have shown in a small animal model of malignant brain tumor that it is possible to obtain high-resolution images of very small tumors when they have developed from implanted tumor cells loaded with colloidal gold nanoparticles (GNP). All previous experiments were conducted in post-mortem samples. We have now designed a cell culture experiment to investigate the effects of synchrotron radiation with an energy and dose profile similar to that expected in our first in vivo imaging studies according to the protocol developed at SYRMEP. Materials and Methods: Culture flasks containing either gold-loaded or naïve C6 glioma cells were exposed to a dose of 0.5 Gy at 24 keV. The irradiated medium was aspirated and replaced with fresh growth medium. Twenty-four hours later this non-irradiated medium exposed to irradiated cells was aspirated, then added to non-irradiated C6 cells in order to investigate whether bystander effects are seen under the conditions of our image acquisition protocol. The irradiated medium was added to a number of other non-irradiated cell cultures. Cell counts were followed until 72 hrs after irradiation. Western blots were conducted with H2AX antibodies. This experiment was one of the first biomedical experiments conducted at BMIT, the new biomedical imaging and therapy beamline of the Canadian Light Source. Results: No significant differences in proliferation were seen between cells that were directly irradiated, exposed to irradiated medium or exposed to the non-irradiated 24-hr-medium from the irradiated cells. However, there was a tendency towards a higher number of double strand breaks in previously irradiated cells when they were exposed to non-irradiated medium that had been in contact with irradiated cells for 24 hrs.

  9. All flash, No light: the kabuki dance opposing a national renewable portfolio standard

    SciTech Connect

    Cooper, Christopher; Sovacool, Benjamin K.

    2008-11-15

    We don't know what is driving Professor Michaels, but his case against a national RPS is little more than a Kabuki dance of factual distortions and flawed analysis. His persistence cannot substitute for facts, more and more of which, as we have shown, build a strong case for adopting a national RPS and establishing a national market for renewable energy. (author)

  10. Spin Echo in Synchrotrons

    SciTech Connect

    Chao, Alexander W.; Courant, Ernest D.; /Brookhaven

    2006-12-01

    As a polarized beam is accelerated through a depolarization resonance, its polarization is reduced by a well-defined calculable reduction factor. When the beam subsequently crosses a second resonance, the final beam polarization is considered to be reduced by the product of the two reduction factors corresponding to the two crossings, each calculated independently of the other. This is a good approximation when the spread of spin precession frequency {Delta}{nu}{sub spin} of the beam (particularly due to its energy spread) is sufficiently large that the spin precession phases of individual particles smear out completely during the time {tau} between the two crossings. This approximate picture, however, ignores two spin dynamics effects: an interference effect and a spin echo effect. This paper is to address these two effects. The interference effect occurs when {Delta}{nu}{sub spin} is too small, or when {tau} is too short, to complete the smearing process. In this case, the two resonance crossings interfere with each other, and the final polarization exhibits constructive or destructive patterns depending on the exact value of {tau}. Typically, the beam's energy spread is large and this interference effect does not occur. To study this effect, therefore, it is necessary to reduce the beam energy spread and to consider two resonance crossings very close to each other. The other mechanism, also due to the interplay between two resonance crossings, is spin echo. It turns out that even when the precession phases appear to be completely smeared between the two crossings, there will still be a sudden and short-lived echo signal of beam polarization at a time {tau} after the second crossing; the magnitude of which can be as large as 57%. This echo signal exists even when the beam has a sizable energy spread and when {tau} is very large, and could be a sensitive (albeit challenging) way to experimentally test the intricate spin dynamics in a synchrotron. After giving an

  11. CT imaging of small animals using monochromatized synchrotron x rays

    SciTech Connect

    Dilmanian, F.A.; Rarback, H.; Nachaliel, E.; Rivers, M.; Thomlinson, W.C.; Chapman, L.D.; Oversluizen, T.; Slatkin, D.N.; Spanne, P.; Spector, S. ); Garrett, R.F. ); Luke, P.N.; Pehl, R.; Thompson, A.C. ); Appel, R.; Miller, M.H. (A

    1992-01-01

    Rats and chicken embryos were imaged in vivo with a prototype Multiple Energy Computed Tomography (MECT) system using monochromatized x rays from the X17 superconducting wiggler at the National Synchrotron Light Source. The CT configuration coated of a horizontal low-divergence, fan-shaped beam, 70 mm wide and 0.5 mm high, and a subject rotating about a vertical aids. A linear-array high-purity Ge detector with 140 elements, each 0.5 mm wide and 6 mm thick, was used with a data acquisition system that provides a linear response over almost six orders of magnitude of detector current. The dual photon absorptiometry (DPA) algorithm was applied to images of the rat head acquired at 20 and 45 keV to obtain two new images, one representing the low-Z, and the other the intermediate-Z clement group. The results indicate that the contrast resolution and the quantification accuracy of the images improve stepwise; first, with the monochromatic beam and, second, the DPA method. The system is a prototype for a brain scanner.

  12. X-ray microscopy using collimated and focussed synchrotron radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, K.W.; Kwiatek, W.M.; Gordon, B.M.; Hanson, A.L.; Pounds, J.G.; Rivers, M.L.; Sutton, S.R.; Thompson, A.C.; Underwood, J.H.; Giauque, R.D.

    1987-01-01

    X-ray microscopy is a field that has developed rapidly in recent years. Two different approaches have been used. Zone plates have been employed to produce focused beams with sizes as low as 0.07 ..mu..m for x-ray energies below 1 keV. Images of biological materials and elemental maps for major and minor low Z have been produced using above and below absorption edge differences. At higher energies collimators and focusing mirrors have been used to make small diameter beams for excitation of characteristic K- or L-x rays of all elements in the periodic table. The practicality of a single instrument combining all the features of these two approaches is unclear. The use of high-energy x rays for x-ray microscopy has intrinsic value for characterization of thick samples and determination of trace amounts of most elements. A summary of work done on the X-26 beam line at the National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS) with collimated and focused x rays with energies above 4 keV is given here. 6 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  13. Laser Coupling to Reduced-Scale Targets at the Early Light Program of the National Ignition Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Hinkel, D E; Schneider, M B; Baldis, H A; Bower, D; Campbell, K M; Celeste, J R; Compton, S; Costa, R; Dewald, E L; Dixit, S; Eckart, M J; Eder, D C; Edwards, M J; Ellis, A; Emig, J; Froula, D H; Glenzer, S H; Hargrove, D; Haynam, C A; Heeter, R F; Holder, J P; Holtmeier, G; James, L; Jancaitis, K S; Kalantar, D H; Kauffman, R L; Kimbrough, J; Kirkwood, R K; Koniges, A E; Kamperschroer, J; Landen, O L; Landon, M; Langdon, A B; Lee, F D; MacGowan, B J; MacKinnon, A J; Manes, K R; May, M J; McDonald, J W; Munro, D H; Murray, J R; Niemann, C; Pellinen, D; Rekow, V; Ruppe, J A; Schein, J; Shepherd, R; Singh, M S; Springer, P T; Still, C H; Suter, L J; Turner, R E; Wallace, R J; Warrick, A; Watts, P; Weber, F; Williams, E A; Young, B K; Young, P E

    2004-11-18

    A platform for analysis of material properties under extreme conditions, where a sample is bathed in radiation with a high temperature, is under development. This hot environment is produced with a laser by depositing maximum energy into a small, high-Z can. Such targets were recently included in an experimental campaign using the first four of the 192 beams of the National Ignition Facility, under construction at the University of California Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. These targets demonstrate good laser coupling, reaching a radiation temperature of 340 eV. In addition, there is a unique wavelength dependence of the Raman backscattered light that is consistent with Brillouin backscatter of Raman forward scatter [A. B. Langdon and D. E. Hinkel, Physical Review Letters 89, 015003 (2002)]. Finally, novel diagnostic capabilities indicate that 20% of the direct backscatter from these reduced-scale targets is in the polarization orthogonal to that of the incident light.

  14. Understanding the Differences in Molecular Conformation of Carbohydrate and Protein in Endosperm Tissues of Grains with Different Biodegradation Kinetics Using Advanced Synchrotron Technology

    SciTech Connect

    Yu, P.; Block, H; Doiron, K

    2009-01-01

    Conventional 'wet' chemical analyses rely heavily on the use of harsh chemicals and derivatization, thereby altering native seed structures leaving them unable to detect any original inherent structures within an intact tissue sample. A synchrotron is a giant particle accelerator that turns electrons into light (million times brighter than sunlight) which can be used to study the structure of materials at the molecular level. Synchrotron radiation-based Fourier transform IR microspectroscopy (SR-FTIRM) has been developed as a rapid, direct, non-destructive and bioanalytical technique. This technique, taking advantage of the brightness of synchrotron light and a small effective source size, is capable of exploring the molecular chemistry within the microstructures of a biological tissue without the destruction of inherent structures at ultraspatial resolutions within cellular dimensions. This is in contrast to traditional 'wet' chemical methods, which, during processing for analysis, often result in the destruction of the intrinsic structures of feeds. To date there has been very little application of this technique to the study of plant seed tissue in relation to nutrient utilization. The objective of this study was to use novel synchrotron radiation-based technology (SR-FTIRM) to identify the differences in the molecular chemistry and conformation of carbohydrate and protein in various plant seed endosperms within intact tissues at cellular and subcellular level from grains with different biodegradation kinetics. Barley grain (cv. Harrington) with a high rate (31.3%/h) and extent (78%), corn grain (cv. Pioneer) with a low rate (9.6%/h) and extent of (57%), and wheat grain (cv. AC Barrie) with an intermediate rate (23%/h) and extent (72%) of ruminal DM degradation were selected for evaluation. SR-FTIRM evaluations were performed at the National Synchrotron Light Source at the Brookhaven National Laboratory (Brookhaven, NY). These results suggest that SR-FTIRM plus

  15. Contact microscopy with synchrotron radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Panessa-Warren, B.J.

    1985-10-01

    Soft x-ray contact microscopy with synchrotron radiation offers the biologist and especially the microscopist, a way to morphologically study specimens that could not be imaged by conventional TEM, STEM or SEM methods (i.e. hydrated samples, samples easily damaged by an electron beam, electron dense samples, thick specimens, unstained low contrast specimens) at spatial resolutions approaching those of the TEM, with the additional possibility to obtain compositional (elemental) information about the sample as well. Although flash x-ray sources offer faster exposure times, synchrotron radiation provides a highly collimated, intense radiation that can be tuned to select specific discrete ranges of x-ray wavelengths or specific individual wavelengths which optimize imaging or microanalysis of a specific sample. This paper presents an overview of the applications of x-ray contact microscopy to biological research and some current research results using monochromatic synchrotron radiation to image biological samples. 24 refs., 10 figs.

  16. Impact system for ultrafast synchrotron experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Jensen, B. J.; Owens, C. T.; Ramos, K. J.; Yeager, J. D.; Saavedra, R. A.; Luo, S. N.; Hooks, D. E.; Iverson, A. J.; Fezzaa, K.

    2013-01-15

    The impact system for ultrafast synchrotron experiments, or IMPULSE, is a 12.6-mm bore light-gas gun (<1 km/s projectile velocity) designed specifically for performing dynamic compression experiments using the advanced imaging and X-ray diffraction methods available at synchrotron sources. The gun system, capable of reaching projectile velocities up to 1 km/s, was designed to be portable for quick insertion/removal in the experimental hutch at Sector 32 ID-B of the Advanced Photon Source (Argonne, IL) while allowing the target chamber to rotate for sample alignment with the beam. A key challenge in using the gun system to acquire dynamic data on the nanosecond time scale was synchronization (or bracketing) of the impact event with the incident X-ray pulses (80 ps width). A description of the basic gun system used in previous work is provided along with details of an improved launch initiation system designed to significantly reduce the total system time from launch initiation to impact. Experiments were performed to directly measure the gun system time and to determine the gun performance curve for projectile velocities ranging from 0.3 to 0.9 km/s. All results show an average system time of 21.6 {+-} 4.5 ms, making it possible to better synchronize the gun system and detectors to the X-ray beam.

  17. Shining light on the differences in molecular structural chemical makeup and the cause of distinct degradation behavior between malting- and feed-type barley using synchrotron FTIR microspectroscopy: a novel approach.

    PubMed

    Yu, Peiqiang; Doiron, Kevin; Liu, Dasen

    2008-05-14

    The objective of this study was to use advanced synchrotron-sourced FTIR microspectroscopy (SFTIRM) as a novel approach to identify the differences in protein and carbohydrate molecular structure (chemical makeup) between these two varieties of barley and illustrate the exact causes for their significantly different degradation kinetics. Items assessed included (1) molecular structural differences in protein amide I to amide II intensities and their ratio within cellular dimensions, (2) molecular structural differences in protein secondary structure profile and their ratios, and (3) molecular structural differences in carbohydrate component peak profile. Our hypothesis was that molecular structure (chemical makeup) affects barley quality, fermentation, and degradation behavior in both humans and animals. Using SFTIRM, the protein and carbohydrate molecular structural chemical makeup of barley was revealed and identified. The protein molecular structural chemical makeup differed significantly between the two varieties of barleys. No difference in carbohydrate molecular structural chemical makeup was detected. Harrington was lower than Valier in protein amide I, amide II, and protein amide I to amide II ratio, while Harrington was relatively higher in model-fitted protein alpha-helix and beta-sheet, but lower in the others (beta-turn and random coil). These results indicated that it is the molecular structure of protein (chemical makeup) that may play a major role in the different degradation kinetics between the two varieties of barleys (not the molecular structure of carbohydrate). It is believed that use of the advanced synchrotron technology will make a significant step and an important contribution to research in examining the molecular structure (chemical makeup) of plant, feed, and seeds.

  18. A Synchrotron Radiation Research Facility for Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winick, Herman

    2015-03-01

    Africa is the only habitable continent without a synchrotron light source. Dozens of African scientists use facilities abroad. Although South Africa has become a member of ESRF, the number of users is limited by distance and travel cost. A light source in Africa would give thousands of African scientists access to this tool. Momentum is now building for an African light source, as a collaboration involving several sub-Saharan African countries. An interim Steering Committee has been formed. SESAME, now nearing completion in Jordan as a collaboration of 9 countries in the Middle East (www.sesame.org.jo) may be the example followed. UNESCO became the umbrella organization for SESAME at its Executive Board 164th session, May 2002, as it did in the case of CERN in the 1950s. UNESCO's Executive Board described SESAME as ``a quintessential UNESCO project combining capacity building with vital peace-building through science'' and ``a model project for other regions''. It is likely that UNESCO, if asked, would play a similar role as a facilitator for an African light source.

  19. A Synchrotron Radiation Research Facility for Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evans-Lutterodt, Kenneth; Mtingwa, Sekazi; Wague, Ahmadou; Tessema, Guebre; Winick, Herman

    2015-04-01

    Africa is the only habitable continent without a synchrotron light source. Dozens of African scientists use facilities abroad. Even though South Africa has become a member of ESRF, the number of users is limited by distance and travel cost. A light source in Africa would give many more African scientists access to this tool. Momentum is now building for an African light source, as a collaboration involving several African countries. An interim Steering Committee has been formed, with a mandate to plan a conference. SESAME, now nearing completion in Jordan, is a collaboration of 9 countries in the Middle East (www.sesame.org.jo) is an example to follow. UNESCO became the umbrella organization for SESAME at its Executive Board 164th session, May 2002, as it did in the case of CERN in the 1950s. UNESCO's Executive Board described SESAME as ``a quintessential UNESCO project combining capacity building with vital peace-building through science'' and ``a model project for other regions.'' It is likely that UNESCO, if asked, would play a similar role as a facilitator for an African light source.

  20. Comparison of synchrotron x-ray microanalysis with electron and proton microscopy for individual particle analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Janssens, K.H.; van Langevelde, F.; Adams, F.C.; Vis, R.D.; Sutton, S.R.; Rivers, M.L.; Jones, K.W.; Bowen, D.K.

    1991-12-31

    This paper is concerned with the evaluation of the use of synchrotron/radiation induced x-ray fluorescences ({mu}-SRXRF) as implemented at two existing X-ray microprobes for the analysis of individual particles. As representative environmental particulates, National Institutes of Science and Technology (NIST) K227, K309, K441 and K961 glass microspheres were analyzed using two types of X-ray micro probes: the white light microprobe at beamline X26A of the monochromatic (15 keV) X-ray microprobe at station 7.6 of the SRS. For reference, the particles were also analyzed with microanalytical techniques more commonly employed for individual particles analysis such as EPMA and micro-PIXE.

  1. Comparison of synchrotron x-ray microanalysis with electron and proton microscopy for individual particle analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Janssens, K.H.; van Langevelde, F.; Adams, F.C. ); Vis, R.D. ); Sutton, S.R.; Rivers, M.L. ); Jones, K.W. ); Bowen, D.K. )

    1991-01-01

    This paper is concerned with the evaluation of the use of synchrotron/radiation induced x-ray fluorescences ({mu}-SRXRF) as implemented at two existing X-ray microprobes for the analysis of individual particles. As representative environmental particulates, National Institutes of Science and Technology (NIST) K227, K309, K441 and K961 glass microspheres were analyzed using two types of X-ray micro probes: the white light microprobe at beamline X26A of the monochromatic (15 keV) X-ray microprobe at station 7.6 of the SRS. For reference, the particles were also analyzed with microanalytical techniques more commonly employed for individual particles analysis such as EPMA and micro-PIXE.

  2. Synchrotron X-ray microprobe and computed microtomography for characterization of nanocatalysts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, K. W.; Feng, H.; Lanzirotti, A.; Mahajan, D.

    2005-12-01

    Gas-to-liquids (GTL) is a viable pathway for synthesis of clean fuels from natural gas. One of the attractive synthesis options is the Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) method using an iron catalyst to yield a broad range of hydrocarbons. We collected catalyst samples during three separate F-T runs that utilized nanophase (mean particle diameter (MPD): 3 nm and 20-80 nm) and micrometer-sized (32.5 μm) Fe2O3 that served as catalyst precursors. The collected samples were characterized with micro-X-ray fluorescence and computed microtomography at the National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS). Results found with two different measurement techniques indicated that there was heterogeneity on a spatial scale corresponding to volumes of roughly 103 μm3.

  3. Looking Back at International Synchrotron Radiation Instrumentation

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, Gwyn

    2012-03-01

    With the 11th International Synchrotron Radiation Instrumentation coming up in July 2012 in Lyons, France, we thought it might be of interest to our readers to review all the past meetings in this series. We thank Denny Mills of the APS, Argonne for putting the list together. Prior to these larger meetings, and in the early days, facilities held their own meetings similar to the user meetings of today. However, the meeting held at ACO in Orsay, France in 1977 was the first such meeting with an international flavor and so it is on the list. However it is not counted as number 1 since it was agreed way back to start the numbering with the 1982 DESY meeting. The 2005 USA National Meeting scheduled at CAMD in Baton Rouge had to be canceled due to Hurricane Katrina. It was ultimately held in 2007, with the CLS hosted meeting the following year. And a personal note from the magazine - Synchrotron Radiation News was born at the 1987 meeting in Madison, Wisconsin with a proposal that was put to a special session of the meeting organized by Susan Lord. Initial proposals were to model it after the CERN Courier, but it soon adopted its own distinct flavor.

  4. Medical Applications of Synchrotron Radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prezado, Yolanda; Martínez-Rovira, Immaculada

    This chapter describes the state-of-art of synchrotron radiation therapies in the treatment of radioresistant tumors. The tolerance of the surrounding healthy tissue severely limits the achievement of a curative treatment for some brain tumors, like gliomas. This restriction is especially important in children, due to the high risk of complications in the development of the central nervous system. In addition, the treatment of tumors close to an organ at risk, like the spinal cord, is also restrained. One possible solution is the development of new radiotherapy techniques would exploit radically different irradiation modes, as it is the case of synchrotron radiotherapies. Their distinct features allow to modify the biological equivalent doses. In this chapter the three new approaches under development at the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (ESRF), in Grenoble (France), will be described, namely: stereotactic synchrotron radiation therapy, microbeam radiation therapy and minibeam radiation therapy. The promising results obtained in the treatment of high grade brain tumors in preclinical studies have paved the way to the forthcoming clinical trials, currently in preparation.

  5. Tandems as injectors for synchrotrons

    SciTech Connect

    Ruggiero, A.G.

    1992-08-01

    This is a review on the use of Tandem electrostatic accelerators for injection and filling of synchrotrons to accelerate intense beams of heavy-ions to relativistic energies. The paper emphasizes the need of operating the Tandems in pulsed mode for this application. It has been experimentally demonstrated that at the present this type of accelerators still provides the most reliable and best performance.

  6. Tandems as injectors for synchrotrons

    SciTech Connect

    Ruggiero, A.G.

    1992-01-01

    This is a review on the use of Tandem electrostatic accelerators for injection and filling of synchrotrons to accelerate intense beams of heavy-ions to relativistic energies. The paper emphasizes the need of operating the Tandems in pulsed mode for this application. It has been experimentally demonstrated that at the present this type of accelerators still provides the most reliable and best performance.

  7. Optical systems for synchrotron radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Howells, M.R.

    1985-12-01

    Various fundamental topics which underlie the design and use of optical systems for synchrotron radiation are considered from the viewpoint of linear system theory. These topics include the damped harmonic oscillator, free space propagation of an optical field, electromagnetic theory of optical properties of materials, theory of dispersion, and the Kramers-Kronig relations. 32 refs., 5 figs. (LEW)

  8. X-ray microfluorescence with synchrotron radiation applied in the analysis of pigments from ancient Egypt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calza, C.; Anjos, M. J.; Mendonça de Souza, S. M. F.; Brancaglion, A., Jr.; Lopes, R. T.

    2008-01-01

    In this work, X-ray microfluorescence with the synchrotron radiation technique was applied in the analysis of pigments found in decorative paintings in the sarcophagus of an Egyptian mummy. This female mummy, from the Roman Period, which was embalmed with the arms and legs swathed separately is considered one of the most important pieces of the Egyptian Collection from the National Museum (Rio de Janeiro, Brazil). The measurements were performed at the XRF beamline D09B of the Brazilian Synchrotron Light Laboratory (LNLS), using the white beam and a Si(Li) detector with resolution of 165 eV at 5.9 keV. The possible pigments found in the samples were: Egyptian blue, Egyptian green frit, green earth, verdigris, malachite, ochre, realgar, chalk, gypsum, bone white, ivory black and magnetite. Hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) and principal component analysis (PCA) were applied to the results in order to verify if the samples belong to the same period of a linen wrapping fragment, whose provenance was well established.

  9. Polymer research at synchrotron radiation sources: symposium proceedings

    SciTech Connect

    Russell, T.P.; Goland, A.N.

    1985-01-01

    The twenty-two papers are arranged into eleven sessions entitled: general overviews; time-resolved x-ray scattering; studies using fluorescence, ion-containing polymers; time-resolved x-ray scattering; novel applications of synchrotron radiation; phase transitions in polymers; x-ray diffraction on polymers; recent detector advances; complementary light, x-ray and neutron studies; and neutron scattering studies. Seven of the papers are processed separately; three of the remainder have been previously processed. (DLC)

  10. Putting synchrotron radiation to work for technology: Analytic methods

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-02-01

    This report contains viewgraphs on: Advanced Light Source; Ultra-ESCA: Advanced Capabilities of XPS with High-Brightness Synchrotron Radiation; High-Resolution (20 nm) XPS and XANES with the ALS; Photoelectron Spectroscopy in Industry: Current Capabilities, Needs, and Possible Roles for the ALS; Materials Analysis by Photoemission: Is This Practical at ALS?; Applications of Long-Wavelength X-Ray Fluorescence Spectrometry and X-Ray Powder Diffractometry.

  11. Putting synchrotron radiation to work for technology: Analytic methods

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-02-01

    This report contains viewgraphs on: Advanced Light Source; Ultra-ESCA: Advanced Capabilities of XPS with High-Brightness Synchrotron Radiation; High-Resolution (20 nm) XPS and XANES with the ALS; Photoelectron Spectroscopy in Industry: Current Capabilities, Needs, and Possible Roles for the ALS; Materials Analysis by Photoemission: Is This Practical at ALS ; Applications of Long-Wavelength X-Ray Fluorescence Spectrometry and X-Ray Powder Diffractometry.

  12. National Ignition Facility computational fluid dynamics modeling and light fixture case studies

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, R.; Bernardin, J.; Parietti, L.; Dennison, B.

    1998-02-01

    This report serves as a guide to the use of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) as a design tool for the National Ignition Facility (NIF) program Title I and Title II design phases at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. In particular, this report provides general guidelines on the technical approach to performing and interpreting any and all CFD calculations. In addition, a complete CFD analysis is presented to illustrate these guidelines on a NIF-related thermal problem.

  13. Chemical Exacerbation of Light-induced Retinal Degeneration in F344/N Rats in National Toxicology Program Rodent Bioassays.

    PubMed

    Yamashita, Haruhiro; Hoenerhoff, Mark J; Peddada, Shyamal D; Sills, Robert C; Pandiri, Arun R

    2016-08-01

    Retinal degeneration due to chronic ambient light exposure is a common spontaneous age-related finding in albino rats, but it can also be related to exposures associated with environmental chemicals and drugs. Typically, light-induced retinal degeneration has a central/hemispherical localization whereas chemical-induced retinal degeneration has a diffuse localization. This study was conducted to identify and characterize treatment-related retinal degeneration in National Toxicology Program rodent bioassays. A total of 3 chronic bioassays in F344/N rats (but not in B6C3F1/N mice) were identified that had treatment-related increases in retinal degeneration (kava kava extract, acrylamide, and leucomalachite green). A retrospective light microscopic evaluation of the retinas from rats in these 3 studies showed a dose-related increase in the frequencies of retinal degeneration, beginning with the loss of photoreceptor cells, followed by the inner nuclear layer cells. These dose-related increased frequencies of degenerative retinal lesions localized within the central/hemispherical region are suggestive of exacerbation of light-induced retinal degeneration. PMID:27230502

  14. Thermal Issues Associated with the Lighting Systems, Electronics Racks, and Pre-Amplifier Modules in the National Ignition System

    SciTech Connect

    A. C. Owen; J. D. Bernardin; K. L. Lam

    1998-08-01

    This report summarizes an investigation of the thermal issues related to the National Ignition Facility. The influence of heat sources such as lighting fixtures, electronics racks, and pre-amplifier modules (PAMs) on the operational performance of the laser guide beam tubes and optical alignment hardware in the NE laser bays were investigated with experiments and numerical models. In particular, empirical heat transfer data was used to establish representative and meaningful boundary conditions and also serve as bench marks for computational fluid dynamics (CFD) models. Numerical models, constructed with a commercial CFD code, were developed to investigate the extent of thermal plumes and radiation heat transfer from the heat sources. From these studies, several design modifications were recommended including reducing the size of all fluorescent lights in the NIF laser bays to single 32 W bulb fixtures, maintaining minimum separation distances between light fixtures/electronics racks and beam transport hardware, adding motion sensors in areas of the laser bay to control light fixture operation during maintenance procedures, properly cooling all electronics racks with air-water heat exchangers with heat losses greater than 25 W/rack to the M1 laser bay, ensuring that the electronics racks are not overcooked and thus maintain their surface temperatures to within a few degrees centigrade of the mean air temperature, and insulating the electronic bays and optical support structures on the PAMs.

  15. Dynamic full-field infrared imaging with multiple synchrotron beams

    PubMed Central

    Stavitski, Eli; Smith, Randy J.; Bourassa, Megan W.; Acerbo, Alvin S.; Carr, G. L.; Miller, Lisa M.

    2013-01-01

    Microspectroscopic imaging in the infrared (IR) spectral region allows for the examination of spatially resolved chemical composition on the microscale. More than a decade ago, it was demonstrated that diffraction limited spatial resolution can be achieved when an apertured, single pixel IR microscope is coupled to the high brightness of a synchrotron light source. Nowadays, many IR microscopes are equipped with multi-pixel Focal Plane Array (FPA) detectors, which dramatically improve data acquisition times for imaging large areas. Recently, progress been made toward efficiently coupling synchrotron IR beamlines to multi-pixel detectors, but they utilize expensive and highly customized optical schemes. Here we demonstrate the development and application of a simple optical configuration that can be implemented on most existing synchrotron IR beamlines in order to achieve full-field IR imaging with diffraction-limited spatial resolution. Specifically, the synchrotron radiation fan is extracted from the bending magnet and split into four beams that are combined on the sample, allowing it to fill a large section of the FPA. With this optical configuration, we are able to oversample an image by more than a factor of two, even at the shortest wavelengths, making image restoration through deconvolution algorithms possible. High chemical sensitivity, rapid acquisition times, and superior signal-to-noise characteristics of the instrument are demonstrated. The unique characteristics of this setup enabled the real time study of heterogeneous chemical dynamics with diffraction-limited spatial resolution for the first time. PMID:23458231

  16. Color changes in modern and fossil teeth induced by synchrotron microtomography.

    PubMed

    Richards, Gary D; Jabbour, Rebecca S; Horton, Caroline F; Ibarra, Caitlin L; MacDowell, Alastair A

    2012-10-01

    Studies using synchrotron microtomography have shown that this radiographic imaging technique provides highly informative microanatomical data from modern and fossil bones and teeth without the need for physical sectioning. The method is considered to be nondestructive; however, researchers using the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility have reported that color changes sometimes occur in teeth during submicron scanning. Using the Advanced Light Source, we tested for color changes during micron-level scanning and for postexposure effects of ultraviolet light. We exposed a 2.0-mm wide strip (band) to synchrotron light in 32 specimens, using multiple energy levels and scan durations. The sample included modern and fossilized teeth and bone. After scanning, the specimens were exposed to fluorescent and direct ultraviolet light. All teeth showed color changes caused by exposure to synchrotron radiation. The resulting color bands varied in intensity but were present even at the lowest energy and shortest duration of exposure. Color bands faded during subsequent exposure to fluorescent and ultraviolet light, but even after extensive ultraviolet exposure, 67% (8/12) of UV-exposed teeth retained some degree of induced color. We found that the hydroxyapatite crystals, rather than the organic component, are the targets of change, and that diagenesis appears to impact color retention. Color changes have significance beyond aesthetics. They are visible indicators of ionization (chemical change) and, therefore, of potential physical damage. It is important for researchers to recognize that synchrotron microtomography may damage specimens, but adopting suitable safeguards and procedures may moderate or eliminate this damage.

  17. Medical applications of synchrotron radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomlinson, W.

    1992-08-01

    Ever since the first diagnostic X-ray was done in the United States on February 3, 1896, the application of ionizing radiation to the field of medicine has become increasingly important. Both in clinical medicine and basic research the use of X-rays for diagnostic imaging and radiotheraphy is now widespread. Radiography, angiography, CAT and PETT scanning, mammography, and nuclear medicine are all examples of technologies developed to image the human anatomy. In therapeutic applications, both external and internal sources of radiation are applied to the battle against cancer. The development of dedicated synchrotron radiation sources has allowed exciting advances to take place in many of these applications. The new sources provide tunable, high-intensity monochromatic beams over a wide range of energies which can be tailored to specific programmatc needs. This paper surveys those areas of medical research in which synchrotron radiation facilities are actively involved.

  18. Medical applications of synchrotron radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Thomlinson, W.

    1991-10-01

    Ever since the first diagnostic x-ray was done in the United States on February 3, 1896, the application of ionizing radiation to the field of medicine has become increasingly important. Both in clinical medicine and basic research the use of x-rays for diagnostic imaging and radiotherapy is now widespread. Radiography, angiography, CAT and PETT scanning, mammography, and nuclear medicine are all examples of technologies developed to image the human anatomy. In therapeutic applications, both external and internal sources of radiation are applied to the battle against cancer. The development of dedicated synchrotron radiation sources has allowed exciting advances to take place in many of these applications. The new sources provide tunable, high-intensity monochromatic beams over a wide range of energies which can be tailored to specific programmatic needs. This paper surveys those areas of medical research in which synchrotron radiation facilities are actively involved.

  19. Medical Applications of Synchrotron Radiation

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    Thomlinson, W.

    1991-10-01

    Ever since the first diagnostic x-ray was done in the United States on February 3, 1896, the application of ionizing radiation to the field of medicine has become increasingly important. Both in clinical medicine and basic research the use of x-rays for diagnostic imaging and radiotherapy is now widespread. Radiography, angiography, CAT and PETT scanning, mammography, and nuclear medicine are all examples of technologies developed to image the human anatomy. In therapeutic applications, both external and internal sources of radiation are applied to the battle against cancer. The development of dedicated synchrotron radiation sources has allowed exciting advances to take place in many of these applications. The new sources provide tunable, high-intensity monochromatic beams over a wide range of energies which can be tailored to specific programmatic needs. This paper surveys those areas of medical research in which synchrotron radiation facilities are actively involved.

  20. Synchrotron Radiation in Life Sciences

    SciTech Connect

    Stojanoff, Vivian; Northrup, Paul; Pietri, Ruth; Zhong, Zhong

    2012-05-01

    Synchrotron Radiation (SR) presents itself as a “play-ground” with a large range of methods and techniques suitable to unveil the mysteries of life. Here we attempt to present a few of these methods that complement those employed in the home laboratory. SR diffraction, spectroscopy and imaging methods relevant to the atomic structure determination and characterization of the properties and function of chemical compounds and macromolecules of biological relevance, are introduced.

  1. Breast tomography with synchrotron radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pani, Silvia; Arfelli, Fulvia; Dreossi, Diego; Montanari, Francesco; Longo, Renata; Olivo, Alessandro; Poropat, Paolo; Zanconati, Fabrizio; Palma, Ludovico D.; Castelli, Edoardo

    2002-05-01

    A feasibility study of breast CT with synchrotron radiation is currently being carried on at Elettra, the Trieste synchrotron radiation facility. Breast CT cannot be implemented easily with conventional radiographic tubes, due to the high dose that would be delivered to the breast by a polychromatic X-ray spectrum. The possibility of tuning the beam energy, available at a synchrotron radiation beamline, allows a significant reduction in the delivered dose, and at the same time the use of monochromatic beams avoids beam hardening artifacts on the reconstructed image. Images of in vitro breast tissue samples have been acquired by means of a high efficiency linear array detector coupled to a VLSI single photon counting readout electronics. The pixel width, determining the pixel size of the reconstructed image, is 200 micrometers , while the pixel height, determining the CT slice thickness, is 300 micrometers . Tomograms have been reconstructed by means of standard filtered backprojection algorithms. Images of normal and pathologic breast tissue samples show a good visibility of glandular structure. The delivered dose was in all cases comparable to the one delivered in clinical planar mammography. Due to the promising results we obtained, in vivo studies are under evaluation.

  2. Research in atomic and applied physics using a 6-GeV synchrotron source

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, K.W.

    1985-12-01

    The Division of Atomic and Applied Physics in the Department of Applied Science at Brookhaven National Laboratory conducts a broad program of research using ion beams and synchrotron radiation for experiments in atomic physics and nuclear analytical techniques and applications. Many of the experiments would benefit greatly from the use of high energy, high intensity photon beams from a 6-GeV synchrotron source. A survey of some of the specific scientific possibilities is presented.

  3. National Institutes of Health Symptom Science Model sheds light on patient symptoms.

    PubMed

    Cashion, Ann K; Gill, Jessica; Hawes, Rebecca; Henderson, Wendy A; Saligan, Leorey

    2016-01-01

    Since the establishment of the nursing profession, identifying and alleviating the subjective symptoms experienced by patients has been at the core of nursing practice. In supporting the scientific foundation for clinical practice, nursing science has maintained a consistent commitment to prevent, manage, and eliminate symptoms. Scientists from the intramural research program at the National Institute of Nursing Research (NINR), a component of the National Institutes of Health, developed a National Institutes of Health Symptom Science Model (NIH-SSM) to guide symptom science research programs engaged in the use of emerging "omic" methods such as the genotyping of symptom phenotypes. The NIH-SSM was developed based on the NINR intramural research program's success in designing and implementing methods for examining identified symptoms or symptom clusters. The NIH-SSM identifies the research process of characterizing symptom phenotypes, identifying and testing biomarkers, and ultimately developing clinical interventions in cancer-related fatigue, gastrointestinal disorders, and traumatic brain injuries. The purpose of this article was to demonstrate how scientists can apply the NIH-SSM, leading the broader scientific community in advancing personalized and precise clinical interventions. PMID:27349632

  4. Synchrotron Environmental Science-I Workshop Report.

    SciTech Connect

    1999-07-08

    Attendees of the Synchrotrons Environmental Science 1 (SES-1) workshop represented a broad spectrum of environmental science research areas and expertise in all of the current synchrotrons techniques (X-ray scattering and diffraction, X-ray absorption spectroscopy, and two- and three-dimensional X-ray imaging). These individuals came together to discuss current measurement obstacles in environmental research and, more specifically, ways to overcome such obstacles by applying synchrotrons radiation techniques. Significant obstacles in measurement affect virtually all of the research issues described. Attendees identified synchrotrons approaches of potential value in their research. A number of the environmental research studies discussed are currently being addressed with some success by synchrotron-based approaches. Nevertheless, improvements in low-Z measurement capabilities are needed to facilitate the use of synchrotrons radiation methodologies in environmental research.

  5. Current Status of the Synchrotron Radiation Center

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kinraide, R.; Moore, C. J.; Jacobs, K. D.; Severson, M.; Bissen, M. J.; Frazer, B.; Bisognano, J. J.; Bosch, R. A.; Eisert, D.; Fisher, M.; Green, M. A.; Gundelach, C. T.; Hansen, R. W. C.; Hochst, H.; Julian, R. L.; Keil, R.; Kleman, K.; Kubala, T.; Legg, R. A.; Pedley, B.; Rogers, G. C.; Stott, J. P.; Wallace, D. J.; Wehlitz, R.; Wiese, L. M.; Taylor, J.; Campuzano, J. C.; De Stasio, G.

    2004-05-01

    The Synchrotron Radiation Center (SRC) operates the Aladdin electron storage ring at energies of 800 MeV or 1 GeV in support of a broad range of national and international research programs. A low emittance configuration is in routine operation during 800-MeV shifts and offers improved photon flux density with about the same beam lifetime. An improved undulator compensation algorithm and new optical beam position monitors have been implemented improving beam stability and maintaining vertical beam size variations to < 2% peak-to-peak during undulator scanning. Instrumentation initiatives include construction of a modified Wadsworth beamline (7.8 - 50 eV) and a variable-line-spacing plane-grating monochromator (VLS-PGM, 75 - 2000 eV) to utilize radiation from a permanent magnet undulator. The Wadsworth beamline is being commissioned for photoelectron spectroscopy (PES) experiments using high-resolution Scienta analyzers. The VLS-PGM is being constructed for experiments that require higher photon energies and high flux density such as x-ray photoemission electron microscopy (X-PEEM) and x-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS). It is scheduled to be available in early 2004. Recent research at the SRC has produced exciting results in a variety of fields, culminating in eight articles published in Physical Review Letters and three in Nature since October 2002, in addition to articles in many other publications. An outreach program offers research experiences for undergraduates and provides the general public with an awareness of synchrotron radiation. Hands-on workshops and activities on FTIR microscopy and X-PEEM are offered for graduate students and scientists. SRC sponsors a summer Research Experience for Undergraduates (REU) program and offers opportunities to non-research universities and high schools. Tours and educational events are coordinated with local civic groups and schools. Open houses are offered that include tours, demonstrations, and family activities.

  6. Ultra-spatial synchrotron radiation for imaging molecular chemical structure: Applications in plant and animal studies

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Yu, Peiqiang

    2007-01-01

    Synchrotron-based Fourier transform infrared microspectroscopy (S-FTIR) has been developed as a rapid, direct, non-destructive, bioanalytical technique. This technique takes advantage of synchrotron light brightness and small effective source size and is capable of exploring the molecular chemical features and make-up within microstructures of a biological tissue without destruction of inherent structures at ultra-spatial resolutions within cellular dimension. To date there has been very little application of this advanced synchrotron technique to the study of plant and animal tissues' inherent structure at a cellular or subcellular level. In this article, a novel approach was introduced to show the potential of themore » newly developed, advanced synchrotron-based analytical technology, which can be used to reveal molecular structural-chemical features of various plant and animal tissues.« less

  7. Application of X-ray synchrotron microscopy instrumentation in biology

    SciTech Connect

    Gasperini, F. M.; Pereira, G. R.; Granjeiro, J. M.; Calasans-Maia, M. D.; Rossi, A. M.; Perez, C. A.; Lopes, R. T.; Lima, I.

    2011-07-01

    X-ray micro-fluorescence imaging technique has been used as a significant tool in order to investigate minerals contents in some kinds of materials. The aim of this study was to evaluate the elemental distribution of calcium and zinc in bone substitute materials (nano-hydroxyapatite spheres) and cortical bones through X-Ray Micro-fluorescence analysis with the increment of Synchrotron Radiation in order to evaluate the characteristics of the newly formed bone and its interface, the preexisting bone and biomaterials by the arrangement of collagen fibers and its birefringence. The elemental mapping was carried out at Brazilian Synchrotron Light Laboratory, Campinas - Sao Paulo, Brazil working at D09-XRF beam line. Based on this study, the results suggest that hydroxyapatite-based biomaterials are biocompatible, promote osteo-conduction and favored bone repair. (authors)

  8. Optical Synchrotron Radiation Beam Imaging with a Digital Mask

    SciTech Connect

    Fiorito, R. B.; Zhang, H. D.; Corbett, W. J.; Fisher, A. S.; Mok, W. Y.; Tian, K.; Douglas, D.; Wilson, F. G.; Zhang, S.; Mitsuhashi, T. M.; Shkvarunets, A. G.

    2012-11-01

    We have applied a new imaging/optical masking technique, which employs a digital micro-mirror device (DMD) and optical synchrotron radiation (OSR), to perform high dynamic range (DR) beam imaging at the JLAB Energy Recovery Linac and the SLAC/SPEAR3 Synchrotron Light Source. The OSR from the beam is first focused onto the DMD to produce a primary image; selected areas of this image are spatially filtered by controlling the state of individual micro-mirrors; and finally, the filtered image is refocused onto a CCD camera. At JLAB this technique has been used successfully to view the beam halo with a DR ~ 105. At SPEAR3 the DMD was used to filter out the bright core of the stored beam to study the turn-by-turn dynamics of the 10-3 weaker injected beam. We describe the optical performance, present limitations and our plans to improve the DR of both experimental systems.

  9. Turn-By Beam Extraction during Acceleration in a Synchrotron

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsoupas, Nicholaos; Trbojevic, Dejan

    2014-02-01

    A synchrotron to accelerate protons or carbon ions for medical applications is being designed at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL). Single beam bunches with maximum beam energy of 1.18 GeV and 400 MeV/u for protons and carbon ions respectively will be extracted from the synchrotron at 15 Hz. For protons, the maximum required energy for irradiating a tumor is ˜206 MeV. A pencil-like proton beam containing ˜5.4×107 p/bunch delivers a therapeutic dose of 2.5 Gy in ˜1.5 minutes to treat a tumor of 1 liter volume. It will take ˜80 minutes with bunches containing 4.5×104 ions/bunch to deliver the same dose of 2.5 Gy with a 400 MeV/u pencil-like carbon beam. This extended treatment time when using carbon ions is not acceptable. In addition, the synchrotron cannot be controlled with a beam bunch containing such a low number of carbon ions. To overcome these two problems of the extended treatment time and the low bunch intensity required for the treatment when carbon ions are used, we have devised a method to “peel” the required 4.5×104 carbon-ions/bunch from the accelerating carbon beam bunch containing ˜108 ions/bunch and deliver them to the tumor on a “turn-by-turn” basis. Unlike other methods of beam extraction from a synchrotron, such as resonance extraction, this method does not allow for any beam losses during the extraction and the carbon beam can be peeled off in less than 15 ms during the acceleration or deceleration cycle of the synchrotron. Thus, this turn-by-turn beam extraction method provides beam with variable energy and precisely controlled beam current during the 30 ms acceleration or deceleration time.

  10. Synchrotron radiation-based far-infrared spectroscopic ellipsometer with full Mueller-matrix capability

    SciTech Connect

    Stanislavchuk, T. N.; Kang, T. D.; Rogers, P. D.; Standard, E. C.; Basistyy, R.; Nita, G.; Zhou, T.; Sirenko, A. A.; Kotelyanskii, A. M.; Carr, G. L.; Kotelyanskii, M.

    2013-02-15

    We developed far-IR spectroscopic ellipsometer at the U4IR beamline of the National Synchrotron Light Source in Brookhaven National Laboratory. This ellipsometer is able to measure both, rotating analyzer and full-Mueller matrix spectra using rotating retarders, and wire-grid linear polarizers. We utilize exceptional brightness of synchrotron radiation in the broad spectral range between about 20 and 4000 cm{sup -1}. Fourier-transform infrared (FT-IR) spectrometer is used for multi-wavelength data acquisition. The sample stage has temperature variation between 4.2 and 450 K, wide range of {theta}-2{theta} angular rotation, {chi} tilt angle adjustment, and X-Y-Z translation. A LabVIEW-based software controls the motors, sample temperature, and FT-IR spectrometer and also allows to run fully automated experiments with pre-programmed measurement schedules. Data analysis is based on Berreman's 4 Multiplication-Sign 4 propagation matrix formalism to calculate the Mueller matrix parameters of anisotropic samples with magnetic permeability {mu}{ne} 1. A nonlinear regression of the rotating analyzer ellipsometry and/or Mueller matrix (MM) spectra, which are usually acquired at variable angles of incidence and sample crystallographic orientations, allows extraction of dielectric constant and magnetic permeability tensors for bulk and thin-film samples. Applications of this ellipsometer setup for multiferroic and ferrimagnetic materials with {mu}{ne} 1 are illustrated with experimental results and simulations for TbMnO{sub 3} and Dy{sub 3}Fe{sub 5}O{sub 12} single crystals. We demonstrate how magnetic and electric dipoles, such as magnons and phonons, can be distinguished from a single MM measurement without adducing any modeling arguments. The parameters of magnetoelectric components of electromagnon excitations are determined using MM spectra of TbMnO{sub 3}.

  11. Barrier rf systems in synchrotrons

    SciTech Connect

    Chandra M. Bhat

    2004-06-28

    Recently, many interesting applications of the barrier RF system in hadron synchrotrons have been realized. A remarkable example of this is the development of longitudinal momentum mining and implementation at the Fermilab Recycler for extraction of low emittance pbars for the Tevatron shots. At Fermilab, we have barrier RF systems in four different rings. In the case of Recycler Ring, all of the rf manipulations are carried out using a barrier RF system. Here, the author reviews various uses of barrier rf systems in particle accelerators including some new schemes for producing intense proton beam and possible new applications.

  12. Determination of Endosperm Protein Secondary Structure in Hard Wheat Breeding Lines using Synchrotron Infrared Microspectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Wetzel, D.; Bonwell, E; Fritz, T; Fritz, A

    2008-01-01

    One molecular aspect of mature hard wheat protein quality for breadmaking is the relative amount of endosperm protein in the {alpha}-helix form compared with that in other secondary structure forms including {beta}-sheet. Modeling of {alpha}-helix and {beta}-sheet absorption bands that contribute to the amide I band at 1650 cm{sup -1} was applied to more than 1500 spectra in this study. The microscopic view of wheat endosperm is dominated by many large starch granules with protein in between. The spectrum produced from in situ microspectroscopy of this mixture is dominated by carbohydrate bands from the large starch granules that fill up the field. The high spatial resolution achievable with synchrotron infrared microspectroscopy enables revealing good in situ spectra of the protein located interstitially. Synchrotron infrared microspectroscopic mapping of 4 {mu}m thick frozen sections of endosperm in the subaleurone region provides spectra from a large number of pixels. Pixels with protein-dominated spectra are sorted out from among adjacent pixels to minimize the starch absorption and scattering contributions. Subsequent data treatment to extract information from the amide I band requires a high signal to noise ratio. Although spectral interference of the carbohydrate band on the amide band is not a problem, the scattering produced by the large starch granules diminishes the signal to noise ratio throughout the spectrum. High density mapping was done on beamlines U2B and U10B at the National Synchrotron Light Source at Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY. Mapping with a single masked spot size of 5.5 {mu}m diameter or confocal 5 {mu}mX5{mu}m spot size, respectively, on the two beamlines used produced spectra for new breeding lines under current consideration. Appropriate data treatment allows calculation of a numerical estimate of the {alpha}-helix population relative to other secondary protein structures from the position and shape of the amide I

  13. Determination of Endosperm Protein Secondary Structure in Hard Wheat Breeding Lines using Synchrotron Infrared Microspectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Bonwell,E.; Fisher, T.; Fritz, A.; Wetzel, D.

    2008-01-01

    One molecular aspect of mature hard wheat protein quality for breadmaking is the relative amount of endosperm protein in the a-helix form compared with that in other secondary structure forms including {beta}-sheet. Modeling of a-helix and {beta}-sheet absorption bands that contribute to the amide I band at 1650 cm-1 was applied to more than 1500 spectra in this study. The microscopic view of wheat endosperm is dominated by many large starch granules with protein in between. The spectrum produced from in situ microspectroscopy of this mixture is dominated by carbohydrate bands from the large starch granules that fill up the field. The high spatial resolution achievable with synchrotron infrared microspectroscopy enables revealing good in situ spectra of the protein located interstitially. Synchrotron infrared microspectroscopic mapping of 4 {mu}m thick frozen sections of endosperm in the subaleurone region provides spectra from a large number of pixels. Pixels with protein-dominated spectra are sorted out from among adjacent pixels to minimize the starch absorption and scattering contributions. Subsequent data treatment to extract information from the amide I band requires a high signal to noise ratio. Although spectral interference of the carbohydrate band on the amide band is not a problem, the scattering produced by the large starch granules diminishes the signal to noise ratio throughout the spectrum. High density mapping was done on beamlines U2B and U10B at the National Synchrotron Light Source at Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY. Mapping with a single masked spot size of 5.5 {mu}m diameter or confocal 5 {mu}m x 5 {mu}m spot size, respectively, on the two beamlines used produced spectra for new breeding lines under current consideration. Appropriate data treatment allows calculation of a numerical estimate of the a-helix population relative to other secondary protein structures from the position and shape of the amide I absorption band. Current

  14. Computed tomography using synchrotron radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, A.C.; Llacer, J.; Finman, L.C.; Hughes, E.B.; Otis, J.N.; Wilson, S.; Zeman, H.D.

    1983-09-01

    X-ray computed tomography (CT) is a widely used method of obtaining cross-sectional views of objects. The high intensity, natural collimation, monochromaticity and energy tunability of synchrotron x-ray sources could potentially be used to provide CT images of improved quality. The advantages of these systems would be that images could be produced more rapidly with better spatial resolution and reduced beam artifacts. In addition, images, in some cases, could be acquired with elemental sensitivity. As a demonstration of the capability of such a system, CT images were obtained of four slices of an excised pig heart in which the arteries and the cardiac chambers were filled with an iodinated medium. Images were taken with incident x-rays tuned successively to energies just above and below the iodine K edge. Iodine specific images were obtained by logarithmically subtracting the low energy image data from the high energy data and then reconstructing the image. CT imaging using synchrotron radiation may become a convenient and non-destructive method of imaging samples difficult to study by other methods.

  15. Management of unconverted light for the National Ignition Facility target chamber

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, A. T.; Bletzer, K.; Burnham, A. K.; Dixit, S; Genin, F. Y.; Hibbard, W.; Norton, J.; Scott, J. M.; Whitman, P. K.

    1998-07-08

    The NIF target chamber beam dumps must survive high x-ray, laser, ion, and shrapnel exposures without excessive generation of vapors or particulate that will contaminate the final optics debris shields, thereby making the debris shields susceptible to subsequent laser damage. The beam dumps also must be compatible with attaining and maintaining the required target chamber vacuum and must not activate significantly under high neutron fluxes. Finally, they must be developed, fabricated, and maintained for a reasonable cost. The primary challenge for the beam dump is to survive up to 20 J/cm{sup 2} of lpm light and 1 - 2 J/cm{sup 2} of nominally 200 - 350 eV blackbody temperature x rays. Additional threats include target shrapnel, and other contamination issues. Designs which have been evaluated include louvered hot-pressed boron carbide (B{sub 4}C) or stainless steel (SS) panels, in some cases covered with transparent Teflon film, and various combinations of inexpensive low thermal expansion glasses backed by inexpensive absorbing glass. Louvered designs can recondense a significant amount of ablated material that would otherwise escape into the target chamber. Transparent Teflon was evaluated as an alternative way to capture ablated material. The thin Teflon sheet would need to be replaced after each shot since it exhibits both laser damage and considerable x- ray ablation with each shot. Uncontaminated B{sub 4}C, SS, and low thermal expansion glasses have reasonably small x-ray and laser ablation rates, although the glasses begin to fail catastrophically after 100 high fluence shots. Commercially available absorbing glasses require a pre-shield of either Teflon or low thermal expansion glass to prevent serious degradation by the x-ray fluence. Advantages of the hot-pressed B{sub 4}C and SS over glass are their performance against microshrapnel, their relative indifference to contamination, and their ability to be refurbished by aggressive cleaning using CO{sub 2

  16. Synchrotron X-ray tests of an L-shaped laterally graded multilayer mirror for the analyzer system of the ultra-high-resolution IXS spectrometer at NSLS-II.

    PubMed

    Honnicke, Marcelo G; Keister, Jeffrey W; Conley, Raymond; Kaznatcheev, Konstantine; Takacs, Peter Z; Coburn, David Scott; Reffi, Leo; Cai, Yong Q

    2011-11-01

    Characterization and testing of an L-shaped laterally graded multilayer mirror are presented. This mirror is designed as a two-dimensional collimating optics for the analyzer system of the ultra-high-resolution inelastic X-ray scattering (IXS) spectrometer at National Synchrotron Light Source II (NSLS-II). The characterization includes point-to-point reflectivity measurements, lattice parameter determination and mirror metrology (figure, slope error and roughness). The synchrotron X-ray test of the mirror was carried out reversely as a focusing device. The results show that the L-shaped laterally graded multilayer mirror is suitable to be used, with high efficiency, for the analyzer system of the IXS spectrometer at NSLS-II.

  17. Far Infrared Synchrotron Spectrum of Trimethlyene Oxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahassneh, Omar; van Wijngaarden, Jennifer

    2016-06-01

    Rotationally-resolved vibrational spectra of trimethlyene oxide (c-C3H6O) from 650 through 1200 wn were recorded using far infrared synchrotron radiation at the Canadian Light Source with better than 0.001 wn resolution. The observed bands correspond to at least eight different fundamental vibrations in this region. Due to the low frequency ring puckering motion, the observed rovibrational pattern of each band is congested with hot-combination bands that originate in the first two excited ring puckering states (52.9 wn, 142.6 wn). The ongoing analysis of the strong b-type bands corresponding to asymmetric in-plane CO stretching (ν10:1008 wn) will be discussed along with the identification of allowed Coriolis interactions arising from nearby energy levels related to in-plane CC stretching (ν9: 940 wn, ν3: 1033 wn). G. Moruzzi et al., J. Mol. Spectrosc. 219, 152 (2003). Bánhegyi et al. Spectrochim. Acta. 39A, 761 (1983).

  18. Imaging using synchrotron radiation for forensic science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cervelli, F.; Carrato, S.; Mattei, A.; Jerian, M.; Benevoli, L.; Mancini, L.; Zanini, F.; Vaccari, L.; Perucchi, A.; Aquilanti, G.

    2011-03-01

    Forensic science is already taking benefits from synchrotron radiation (SR) sources in trace evidence analysis. In this contribution we show a multi-technique approach to study fingerprints from the morphological and chemical point of view using SR based techniques such as Fourier transform infrared microspectroscopy (FTIRMS), X-ray fluorescence (XRF), X-ray absorption structure (XAS), and phase contrast microradiography. Both uncontaminated and gunshot residue contaminated human fingerprints were deposited on lightly doped silicon wafers and on poly-ethylene-terephthalate foils. For the uncontaminated fingerprints an univariate approach of functional groups mapping to model FT-IRMS data was used to get the morphology and the organic compounds map. For the gunshot residue contaminated fingerprints, after a preliminary elemental analysis using XRF, microradiography just below and above the absorption edge of the elements of interest has been used to map the contaminants within the fingerprint. Finally, XAS allowed us to determine the chemical state of the different elements. The next step will be fusing the above information in order to produce an exhaustive and easily understandable evidence.

  19. Longitudinal bunch dynamics study with coherent synchrotron radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Billinghurst, B. E.; Bergstrom, J. C.; Baribeau, C.; Batten, T.; May, T. E.; Vogt, J. M.; Wurtz, W. A.

    2016-02-01

    An electron bunch circulating in a storage ring constitutes a dynamical system with both longitudinal and transverse degrees of freedom. Through a self-interaction with the wakefields created by the bunch, certain of these degrees may get excited, defining a set of eigenmodes analogous to a spectroscopic series. The present study focuses on the longitudinal modes of a single bunch. The excitation of a mode appears as an amplitude modulation at the mode frequency of the coherent synchrotron radiation (CSR) emitted by the bunch. The modulations are superimposed on a much larger continuum from CSR emission in the continuous mode. A given eigenmode is classified by the integer m which is the ratio of the mode frequency to the synchrotron frequency. The present measurements extend up to m =8 and focus on the region near the instability thresholds. At threshold the modes are excited sequentially, resembling a staircase when the mode frequencies are plotted as a function of bunch length or synchrotron frequency. Adjacent modes are observed to coexist at the boundaries between the modes. An energy-independent correlation is observed between the threshold current for an instability and the corresponding zero-current bunch length. Measurements were made at five beam energies between 1.0 and 2.9 GeV at the Canadian Light Source. The CSR was measured in the time domain using an unbiased Schottky diode spanning 50-75 GHz.

  20. Real world issues for the new soft x-ray synchrotron sources

    SciTech Connect

    Kincaid, B.M.

    1991-05-01

    A new generation of synchrotron radiation light sources covering the VUV, soft x-ray and hard x-ray spectral regions is under construction in several countries. They are designed specifically to use periodic magnetic undulators and low-emittance electron or positron beams to produce high-brightness near-diffraction-limited synchrotron radiation beams. An introduction to the properties of undulator radiation is followed by a discussion of some of the challenges to be faced at the new facilities. Examples of predicted undulator output from the Advanced Light Source, a third generation 1--2 GeV storage ring optimized for undulator use, are used to highlight differences from present synchrotron radiation sources, including high beam power, partial coherence, harmonics, and other unusual spectral and angular properties of undulator radiation. 8 refs., 2 figs.

  1. Spatial distribution of elements in the spheroids by prostate tumor cells using synchrotron radiation x-ray fluorescence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leitão, Roberta G.; Santos, Carlos Antônio N.; Junior, Antônio Palumbo; Souza, Pedro A. V. R.; Canellas, Catarine G. L.; Anjos, Marcelino J.; Nasciutti, Luiz E.; Lopes, Ricardo T.

    2012-05-01

    The formation of three-dimensional cell microspheres such as spheroids has attracted attention as a useful culture technique. In this study, we investigated the trace elemental distribution (mapping) in spheroids derived from tissue prostate cancer (PCa). The measurements were performed in standard geometry of 45° incidence, exciting with a white beam and using an optical capillary with 20 μm diameter collimation in the XRF beam line at the Synchrotron Light National Laboratory (Campinas, Brazil). The results showed that most elements analyzed presented non-uniform distribution. P, S and Cl showed similar elemental distribution in all the samples analyzed. K, Ca, Fe, and Cu showed different elemental distribution for the spheroids analyzed. Zinc presented more intense distributions in the spheroid central region for all spheroids analyzed.

  2. Investigation of Charge Transport Properties of CdZnTe Detectors with Synchrotron X-ray Radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Yang,G.; Bolotnikov, A.E.; Camarda, G.S.; Cui, Y.; Hossain, A.; James, R.B.

    2008-10-19

    Various internal defects, such as Te inclusions, twin boundaries, dislocation, etc., are prevalent in as-grown CdZnTe (CZT) crystals, which affect the charge transport properties of CZT crystals and, therefore, worsen the performance of CZT detectors. In order to develop high quality CZT detectors, it is imperative to clarify the effects of internal defects on the charge transport properties of CZT. Simple flood illumination with nuclear radiation source cannot reveal the nature of highly localized defects in CZT. Therefore, at Brookhaven's National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS), we have developed a unique testing system for micro-scale defect investigation of CZT, which employs an X-ray beam collimated with the spatial resolution as small as 3 x 3 {micro}m{sup 2}, a microscopic size comparable to the scale of common defects in CZT. This powerful tool enables us to investigate the effect of internal defects on charge transport properties of CZT in detail.

  3. Spatial distribution of elements in the spheroids by prostate tumor cells using synchrotron radiation x-ray fluorescence

    SciTech Connect

    Leitao, Roberta G.; Santos, Carlos Antonio N.; Junior, Antonio Palumbo; Souza, Pedro A. V. R.; Canellas, Catarine G. L.; Anjos, Marcelino J.; Nasciutti, Luiz E.; Lopes, Ricardo T.

    2012-05-17

    The formation of three-dimensional cell microspheres such as spheroids has attracted attention as a useful culture technique. In this study, we investigated the trace elemental distribution (mapping) in spheroids derived from tissue prostate cancer (PCa). The measurements were performed in standard geometry of 45 deg. incidence, exciting with a white beam and using an optical capillary with 20 {mu}m diameter collimation in the XRF beam line at the Synchrotron Light National Laboratory (Campinas, Brazil). The results showed that most elements analyzed presented non-uniform distribution. P, S and Cl showed similar elemental distribution in all the samples analyzed. K, Ca, Fe, and Cu showed different elemental distribution for the spheroids analyzed. Zinc presented more intense distributions in the spheroid central region for all spheroids analyzed.

  4. Third user workshop on high-power lasers at the Linac Coherent Light Source

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Bolme, Cynthia Anne; Glenzer, Sigfried; Fry, Alan

    2016-03-24

    On October 5–6, 2015, the third international user workshop focusing on high-power lasers at the Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS) was held in Menlo Park, CA, USA [1 R. Falcone, S. Glenzer, and S. Hau-Riege, Synchrotron Radiation News 27(2), 56–58 (2014)., 2 P. Heimann and S. Glenzer, Synchrotron Radiation News 28(3), 54–56 (2015).]. Here, the workshop was co-organized by Los Alamos National Laboratory and SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory. More than 110 scientists attended from North America, Europe, and Asia to discuss high-energy-density (HED) science that is enabled by the unique combination of high-power lasers with the LCLS X-rays at themore » LCLS-Matter in Extreme Conditions (MEC) endstation.« less

  5. Synchrotron micro-X-ray fluorescence analysis of natural diamonds: First steps in identification of mineral inclusions in situ

    SciTech Connect

    Sitepu, Husin; Kopylova, Maya G.; Quirt, David H.; Cutler, Jeffrey N.; Kotzer, Thomas G.

    2008-06-09

    Diamond inclusions are of particular research interest in mantle petrology and diamond exploration as they provide direct information about the chemical composition of upper and lower mantle and about the petrogenetic sources of diamonds in a given deposit. The objective of the present work is to develop semi-quantitative analytical tools for non-destructive in situ identification and characterization of mineral inclusions in diamonds using synchrotron micro-X-ray Fluorescence ({mu}SXRF) spectroscopy and micro-X-ray Absorption Near Edge Structure ({mu}XANES) spectroscopy at a focused spot size of 4 to 5 micrometers. The data were collected at the Pacific Northwest Consortium (PNC-CAT) 20-ID microprobe beamline at the Advanced Photon Source, located at the Argonne National Laboratory, and yielded the first high-resolution maps of Ti, Cr, Fe, Ni, Cu, and Zn for natural diamond grains, along with quantitative {mu}SXRF analysis of select chemical elements in exposed kimberlite indicator mineral grains. The distribution of diamond inclusions inside the natural diamond host, both visible and invisible using optical transmitted-light microscopy, can be mapped using synchrotron {mu}XRF analysis. Overall, the relative abundances of chemical elements determined by {mu}SXRF elemental analyses are broadly similar to their expected ratios in the mineral and therefore can be used to identify inclusions in diamonds in situ. Synchrotron {mu}XRF quantitative analysis provides accurate estimates of Cr contents of exposed polished minerals when calibrated using the concentration of Fe as a standard. Corresponding Cr K-edge {mu}XANES analyses on selected inclusions yield unique information regarding the formal oxidation state and local coordination of Cr.

  6. Molecular beam studies of unimolecular and bimolecular chemical reaction dynamics using VUV synchrotron radiation as a product probe

    SciTech Connect

    Blank, D.A.

    1997-08-01

    This dissertation describes the use of a new molecular beam apparatus designed to use tunable VUV synchrotron radiation for photoionization of the products from scattering experiments. The apparatus was built at the recently constructed Advanced Light Source at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, a third generation 1-2 GeV synchrotron radiation source. The new apparatus is applied to investigations of the dynamics of unimolecular reactions, photodissociation experiments, and bimolecular reactions, crossed molecular beam experiments. The first chapter describes the new apparatus and the VUV radiation used for photoionization. This is followed by a number of examples of the many advantages provided by using VUV photoionization in comparison with the traditional technique of electron bombardment ionization. At the end of the chapter there is a discussion of the data analysis employed in these scattering experiments. The remaining four chapters are complete investigations of the dynamics of four chemical systems using the new apparatus and provide numerous additional examples of the advantages provided by VUV photoionizaiton of the products. Chapters 2-4 are photofragment translational spectroscopy studies of the photodissociation dynamics of dimethyl sulfoxide, acrylonitrile, and vinyl chloride following absorption at 193 mn. All of these systems have multiple dissociation channels and provide good examples of the ability of the new apparatus to unravel the complex UV photodissociation dynamics that can arise in small polyatomic molecules.

  7. Synchrotron IR microspectroscopy for protein structure analysis: Potential and questions

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Yu, Peiqiang

    2006-01-01

    Synchrotron radiation-based Fourier transform infrared microspectroscopy (S-FTIR) has been developed as a rapid, direct, non-destructive, bioanalytical technique. This technique takes advantage of synchrotron light brightness and small effective source size and is capable of exploring the molecular chemical make-up within microstructures of a biological tissue without destruction of inherent structures at ultra-spatial resolutions within cellular dimension. To date there has been very little application of this advanced technique to the study of pure protein inherent structure at a cellular level in biological tissues. In this review, a novel approach was introduced to show the potential of the newly developed, advancedmore » synchrotron-based analytical technology, which can be used to localize relatively “pure“ protein in the plant tissues and relatively reveal protein inherent structure and protein molecular chemical make-up within intact tissue at cellular and subcellular levels. Several complex protein IR spectra data analytical techniques (Gaussian and Lorentzian multi-component peak modeling, univariate and multivariate analysis, principal component analysis (PCA), and hierarchical cluster analysis (CLA) are employed to relatively reveal features of protein inherent structure and distinguish protein inherent structure differences between varieties/species and treatments in plant tissues. By using a multi-peak modeling procedure, RELATIVE estimates (but not EXACT determinations) for protein secondary structure analysis can be made for comparison purpose. The issues of pro- and anti-multi-peaking modeling/fitting procedure for relative estimation of protein structure were discussed. By using the PCA and CLA analyses, the plant molecular structure can be qualitatively separate one group from another, statistically, even though the spectral assignments are not known. The synchrotron-based technology provides a new approach for protein structure research in

  8. CCD sensors in synchrotron X-ray detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strauss, M. G.; Naday, I.; Sherman, I. S.; Kraimer, M. R.; Westbrook, E. M.; Zaluzec, N. J.

    1988-04-01

    The intense photon flux from advanced synchrotron light sources, such as the 7-GeV synchrotron being designed at Argonne, require integrating-type detectors. Charge-coupled devices (CCDs) are well suited as synchrotron X-ray detectors. When irradiated indirectly via a phosphor followed by reducing optics, diffraction patterns of 100 cm 2 can be imaged on a 2 cm 2 CCD. With a conversion efficiency of ˜ 1 CCD electron/X-ray photon, a peak saturation capacity of > 10 6 X-rays can be obtained. A programmable CCD controller operating at a clock frequency of 20 MHz has been developed. The readout rate is 5 × 10 6 pixels/s and the shift rate in the parallel registers is 10 6 lines/s. The test detector was evaluated in two experiments. In protein crystallography diffraction patterns have been obtained from a lysozyme crystal using a conventional rotating anode X-ray generator. Based on these results we expect to obtain at a synchrotron diffraction images at a rate of ˜ 1 frame/s or a complete 3-dimensional data set from a single crystal in ˜ 2 min. In electron energy-loss spectroscopy (EELS), the CCD was used in a parallel detection mode which is similar to the mode array detectors are used in dispersive EXAFS. With a beam current corresponding to 3 × 10 9 electron/s on the detector, a series of 64 spectra were recorded on the CCD in a continuous sequence without interruption due to readout. The frame-to-frame pixel signal fluctuations had σ = 0.4% from which DQE = 0.4 was obtained, where the detector conversion efficiency was 2.6 CCD electrons/X-ray photon. These multiple frame series also showed the time-resolved modulation of the electron microscope optics by stray magnetic fields.

  9. High heat load synchrotron optics

    SciTech Connect

    Mills, D.M.

    1992-08-01

    Third generation synchrotron radiation sources currently being constructed worldwide will produce x-ray beams of unparalleled power and power density these high heat fluxes coupled with the stringent dimensional requirements of the x-ray optical components pose a prodigious challenge to designers of x-ray optical elements, specifically x-ray mirrors and crystal monochromators. Although certain established techniques for the cooling of high heat flux components can be directly applied to this problem, the thermal management of high heat load x-ray optical components has several unusual aspects that may ultimately lead to unique solutions. This manuscript attempts to summarize the various approaches currently being applied to this undertaking and to point out the areas of research that require further development.

  10. Synchrotron radiation and industrial research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Townsend, Rodney P.

    1995-05-01

    Fundamental studies on the properties of many different materials are of prime importance to most industrial concerns. For Unilever, solids (crystalline and amorphous), soft solids and complex fluids are the materials of primary interest. Synchrotron radiation has proved of great value for the analysis of a variety of such materials, because the intense and highly collimated radiation source has enabled us to obtain structural information rapidly as well as in time-resolved mode. In this paper are outlined the types of materials problems faced, and how we use different techniques to elucidate structure (both short and long range order) in zeolites, amorphous solids, as well as in biomaterials such as skin and hair containing lipid phases. Both equilibrium and time-resolved studies are described.

  11. Emittance Adapter for a Diffraction Limited Synchrotron Radiation Source

    SciTech Connect

    Chao, Alexander Wu; Raimondi, Pantaleo; /Frascati

    2012-03-01

    We investigate the possibility of reaching very small horizontal and vertical emittances inside an undulator in a storage ring, by means of a local exchange of the apparent horizontal and vertical emittances, performed with a combination of skew quadrupoles and one solenoid in a dedicated insertion line in the storage ring. The insertion leaves the ring parameters and its optical properties unaffected. This scheme could greatly relax the emittance requirements for a diffraction limited synchrotron light source. The lattice derivation and design is described.

  12. a Far Infrared Synchrotron-Based Investigation of 3-OXETANONE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Ziqiu; Wijngaarden, Jennifer Van

    2011-06-01

    The four membered ester ring 3-oxetanone is a precursor for adding oxetane subunits into pharmaceuticals which then block metabolically exposed sites in the bioactive molecule without increasing its lipophilicity. The high resolution (0.00096 cmCm-1) rovibrational spectrum of 3-oxetanone was recorded for the first time using far infrared radiation from the Canadian Light Source (CLS) synchrotron facility coupled to a Bruker IFS125HR FTIR spectrometer. A total of six rotationally-resolved vibrational bands were observed between 360 and 1150 cmCm-1 at room temperature. The assignment of the dense spectrum is currently underway and the progress will be discussed in this talk.

  13. 3D imaging of fetus vertebra by synchrotron radiation microtomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peyrin, Francoise; Pateyron-Salome, Murielle; Denis, Frederic; Braillon, Pierre; Laval-Jeantet, Anne-Marie; Cloetens, Peter

    1997-10-01

    A synchrotron radiation computed microtomography system allowing high resolution 3D imaging of bone samples has been developed at ESRF. The system uses a high resolution 2D detector based on a CCd camera coupled to a fluorescent screen through light optics. The spatial resolution of the device is particularly well adapted to the imaging of bone structure. In view of studying growth, vertebra samples of fetus with differential gestational ages were imaged. The first results show that fetus vertebra is quite different from adult bone both in terms of density and organization.

  14. Electron correlation explored through electron spectrometry using synchrotron radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Caldwell, C.D.; Whitfield, S.B.; Flemming, M.G. . Dept. of Physics); Krause, M.O. )

    1991-01-01

    The development of synchrotron radiation facilities as a research tool has made possible experiments which provide new insights into the role which correlation plays in electron dynamics and atomic and molecular structure. Features such as autoionizing resonances, normal and resonant Auger decay modes, and ionization threshold structure have become visible in a wealth of new detail. Some aspects of this information drawn from recent experiments on the alkaline earth metals and the rare gases are presented. The potential for increased flux and resolution inherent in insertion device-based facilities like the Advanced Light Source should advance this understanding even further, and some future directions are suggested. 8 refs., 8 figs.

  15. Chemical Composition and Heterogeneity of Wild 2 Cometary Particles Determined by Synchrotron X-ray Fluorescence

    SciTech Connect

    Lanzirotti,A.; Sutton, S.; Flynn, G.; Newville, M.; Rao, W.

    2008-01-01

    Seven cometary dust particle tracks in Stardust aerogel were studied using synchrotron X-ray fluorescence methods at the National Synchrotron Light Source (NY) and Advanced Photon Source (IL). Elemental maps were produced for each of the tracks and elemental abundances for 156 individual fragments within these tracks were determined. Whole-track elemental abundances were inferred by summing the elemental masses for the fragments in each track and scaling by the ratio of total Fe in the map and total Fe in the fragments. In general, whole-track and terminal-particle abundances are dissimilar. The total Fe masses ranged from 4 to 2200 pg, corresponding to impactors in the size range of 2.7 to 22 {mu}m if Fe abundances are equal to the chondritic value. Systematic variations in element abundance with fragment distance from the aerogel entry point were generally subtle but were pronounced in one track (C2115,19). In this track, Zn/Fe was about three orders of magnitude higher at the top, Cr/Fe was two orders of magnitude higher at the bottom, and S was relatively uniform. Compositional convergence data showed that typically analysis of {approx}10 fragments was needed to reach convergent whole-track abundance. Zinc was an exception, showing nonconvergent profiles and steps due to the presence of rare, high-Zn fragments. The resulting wholetrack elemental abundances show diverse patterns that are generally chondritic (i.e., within a factor of three of CI abundances) with some exceptions, notably depletions in S and enrichments in the moderately volatile elements Cu, Zn, and Ga. Enrichments in large ion lithophile elements relative to Fe were observed in one track. Correlation matrices showed several strong elemental correlations, notably selenium associated with sulfur (sulfides), a ubiquitous correlation of the first-row transition metals Cr, Mn, and Fe attributed to the presence of pyroxene, and enrichments of gallium associated with calcium, likely affiliated with Mg

  16. Characterization of a Pt mirror to be used to deflect synchrotron radiation beam onto Langmuir monolayers.

    PubMed

    Vieira, Carlos E P; Gasperini, Antonio A M; Freitas, Pedro P S; Oliveira, Rafael G; Cavalcanti, Leide P

    2015-05-01

    A homemade mirror for X-rays has been built to prepare a diffraction beamline for liquid surface diffraction and scattering measurements. This simple approach is in operation at the XRD2 bending-magnet beamline at the Brazilian Synchrotron Light Laboratory.

  17. Variable magnification with Kirkpatrick-Baez optics for synchrotron X-ray microscopy

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Jach, Terrence; Bakulin, Alex S.; Durbin, Stephen M.; Pedulla, Joseph; Macrander, Albert

    2006-05-01

    In this study, we describe the distinction between the operation of a short focal length x-ray microscope forming a real image with a laboratory source (convergent illumination) and with a highly collimated intense beam from a synchrotron light source (Kohler illumination).

  18. Three-dimensional imaging of drill core samples using synchrotron computed microtomography. Progress report, Year two

    SciTech Connect

    Lindquist, B.; Lee, S.

    1994-05-01

    Fundamental theories of rock structure are limited by the absence of high resolution, pore level, three dimensional images which could be used for statistical analysis. The ability to produce such images in a non-destructive manner would also allow for repeated measurements of dynamic processes such as fluid motion which could be correlated to the medium properties. One aspect of this funded work is the production of cross sectional images of rock, drill core samples with one micron resolution. This work is being done by Keith Jones and Per Spanne of Brookhaven National Laboratory using beam lines X-17 and X-26 of the National Synchrotron Light Source. Jones`s annual report will provide a description of the progress in this area. The second aspect of this work is the geometrical and statistical analysis of the pore structure of the three dimensional images provided. This aspect is being carried out at SUNY-Stony Brook; we report here on the progress that has been accomplished to date. Year one I progress was discussed fully in the previous progress report (DOE/ER/14261-1). Year one effort focused on the problem of voxel-by-voxel pore/grain identification of the tomographic images (image filtering), and on analysis of the filtered images via 2-point correlation structure.

  19. Experimental Demonstration of the Induction Synchrotron

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takayama, Ken; Arakida, Yoshio; Dixit, Tanuja; Iwashita, Taiki; Kono, Tadaaki; Nakamura, Eiji; Otsuka, Kazunori; Shimosaki, Yoshito; Torikai, Kota; Wake, Masayoshi

    2007-02-01

    We report an experimental demonstration of the induction synchrotron, the concept of which has been proposed as a future accelerator for the second generation of neutrino factory or hadron collider. The induction synchrotron supports a superbunch and a superbunch permits more charge to be accelerated while observing the constraints of the transverse space-charge limit. By using a newly developed induction acceleration system instead of radio-wave acceleration devices, a single proton bunch injected from the 500 MeV booster ring and captured by the barrier bucket created by the induction step voltages was accelerated to 6 GeV in the KEK proton synchrotron.

  20. Experimental demonstration of the induction synchrotron.

    PubMed

    Takayama, Ken; Arakida, Yoshio; Dixit, Tanuja; Iwashita, Taiki; Kono, Tadaaki; Nakamura, Eiji; Otsuka, Kazunori; Shimosaki, Yoshito; Torikai, Kota; Wake, Masayoshi

    2007-02-01

    We report an experimental demonstration of the induction synchrotron, the concept of which has been proposed as a future accelerator for the second generation of neutrino factory or hadron collider. The induction synchrotron supports a superbunch and a superbunch permits more charge to be accelerated while observing the constraints of the transverse space-charge limit. By using a newly developed induction acceleration system instead of radio-wave acceleration devices, a single proton bunch injected from the 500 MeV booster ring and captured by the barrier bucket created by the induction step voltages was accelerated to 6 GeV in the KEK proton synchrotron.

  1. The Development of Intentions for Adapted Teaching and Inclusive Education Seen in Light of Curriculum Potential. A Content Analysis of Norwegian National Curricula Post 1980

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bjornsrud, Halvor; Nilsen, Sven

    2011-01-01

    This article analyses and discusses the development of the principles of adapted teaching and inclusive education in the three most recent Norwegian national curricula, seen in light of curriculum potential as an overarching perspective. This potential highlights teachers' opportunities for choosing and adapting their teaching content. The area of…

  2. First operation of SOLEIL, a third generation synchrotron radiation source in France and prospects for ARC-EN-CIEL, a LINAC based fourth generation source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Couprie, M. E.; Filhol, J. M.; Benabderhammane, C.; Berteaud, P.; Besson, J. C.; Briquez, F.; Brunelle, P.; Bruni, C.; Chubar, O.; Denard, J. C.; Girault, M.; Godefroy, J. M.; Herbaux, C.; Lebasque, P.; Le Roux, V.; Level, M. P.; Lestrade, A.; Loulergue, A.; Marchand, P.; Marcouille, O.; Marteau, F.; Massal, M.; Nadji, A.; Nadolski, L.; Nagaoka, R.; Paulin, F.; Pottin, B.; Tordeux, M. A.; Valleau, M.; Vétéran, J.; Carré, B.; Garzella, D.; Labat, M.; Lambert, G.; Monot, P.; Jablonka, M.; Méot, F.; Mosnier, A.; Marquès, J. R.; Ortéga, J. M.

    2007-05-01

    The first results of commissioning for the French Synchrotron Radiation Facility SOLEIL at 2.75 GeV are presented. Perspectives for the fourth generation light source based on the ARC-EN-CIEL project are described.

  3. Metrology laboratory requirements for third-generation synchrotron radiation sources

    SciTech Connect

    Takacs, P.Z.; Quian, Shinan

    1997-11-01

    New third-generation synchrotron radiation sources that are now, or will soon, come on line will need to decide how to handle the testing of optical components delivered for use in their beam lines. In many cases it is desirable to establish an in-house metrology laboratory to do the work. We review the history behind the formation of the Optical Metrology Laboratory at Brookhaven National Laboratory and the rationale for its continued existence. We offer suggestions to those who may be contemplating setting up similar facilities, based on our experiences over the past two decades.

  4. Molecular photoemission studies using synchrotron radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Truesdale, C.M.

    1983-04-01

    The angular distributions of photoelectrons and Auger electrons were measured by electron spectroscopy using synchrotron radiation. The experimental results are compared with theoretical calculations to interpret the electronic behavior of photoionization for molecular systems.

  5. Synchrotron radiation applications in medical research

    SciTech Connect

    Thomlinson, W.

    1997-08-01

    Over the past two decades there has been a phenomenal growth in the number of dedicated synchrotron radiation facilities and a corresponding growth in the number of applications in both basic and applied sciences. The high flux and brightness, tunable beams, time structure and polarization of synchrotron radiation provide an ideal x- ray source for many applications in the medical sciences. There is a dual aspect to the field of medical applications of synchrotron radiation. First there are the important in-vitro programs such as structural biology, x-ray microscopy, and radiation cell biology. Second there are the programs that are ultimately targeted at in-vivo applications. The present status of synchrotron coronary angiography, bronchography, multiple energy computed tomography, mammography and radiation therapy programs at laboratories around the world is reviewed.

  6. Simulation of synchrotron motion with rf noise

    SciTech Connect

    Leemann, B.T.; Forest, E.; Chattopadhyay, S.

    1986-08-01

    The theoretical formulation is described that is behind an algorithm for synchrotron phase-space tracking with rf noise and some preliminary simulation results of bunch diffusion under rf noise obtained by actual tracking.

  7. THE RAPID CYCLING MEDICAL SYNCHROTRON RCMS.

    SciTech Connect

    PEGGS,S.; BARTON,D.; BEEBE-WANG,J.; CARDONA,J.; BRENNAN,M.; FISCHER,W.; GARDNER,C.; GASSNER,D.; ET AL

    2002-06-02

    Thirteen hadron beam therapy facilities began operation between 1990 and 2001 - 5 in Europe, 4 in North America, 3 in Japan, and 1 in South Africa [l]. Ten of them irradiate tumors with protons, 2 with Carbon- 12 ions, and 1 with both protons and Carbon-12. The facility with the highest patient throughput - a total of 6 174 patients in 11 years and as many as 150 patient treatments per day -is the Loma Linda University Medical Center, which uses a weak focusing slow cycling synchrotron to accelerate beam for delivery to passive scattering nozzles at the end of rotatable gantries [2, 3,4]. The Rapid Cycling Medical Synchrotron (RCMS) is a second generation synchrotron that, by contrast with the Loma Linda synchrotron, is strong focusing and rapid cycling, with a repetition rate of 30 Hz. Primary parameters for the RCMS are listed in Table 1.

  8. Synchrotron based X-ray fluorescence activities at Indus-2: An overview

    SciTech Connect

    Tiwari, M. K.

    2014-04-24

    X-Ray fluorescence (XRF) spectrometry is a powerful non-destructive technique for elemental analysis of materials at bulk and trace concentration levels. Taking into consideration several advantages of the synchrotron based XRF technique and to fulfill the requirements of Indian universities users we have setup a microfocus XRF beamline (BL-16) on Indus-2 synchrotron light source. The beamline offers a wide range of usages – both from research laboratories and industries; and for researchers working in diverse fields. A brief overview of the measured performance of the beamline, design specifications including various attractive features and recent research activities carried out on the BL-16 beamline are presented.

  9. Simulations of synchrotron loss in hotspots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matthews, Alan P.

    Simulations of the radio emission and polarization of hot spots are presented in which synchrotron losses have been taken into account. The hot spots were modeled on the basis of simulations of an axisymetric nonrelativistic jet into which a passive, initial randomly oriented magnetic field is introduced. The magnetic field configuration is then distorted by the flow. The simulations illustrate that synchrotron loss takes its toll not only in old parts of a source, but also in regions of enhanced magnetic fields.

  10. Beam conditioner for free electron lasers and synchrotrons

    DOEpatents

    Liu, H.; Neil, G.R.

    1998-09-08

    A focused optical has been used to introduce an optical pulse, or electromagnetic wave, collinear with the electron beam in a free electron laser or synchrotron thereby adding an axial field component that accelerates the electrons on the radial outside of the distribution of electrons in the electron beam. This invention consists of using the axial electrical component of a TEM{sub 10} mode Gaussian beam in vacuum to condition the electron beam and speed up the outer electrons in the beam. The conditioning beam should possess about the same diameter as the electron beam. The beam waist of the conditioning wave must be located around the entrance of the undulator longitudinally to have a net energy exchange between the electrons in the outer part of the distribution and the conditioning wave owing to the natural divergence of a Gaussian beam. By accelerating the outer electrons, the outer and core electrons are caused to stay in phase. This increases the fraction of the electron beam energy that is converted to light thereby improving the efficiency of conversion of energy to light and therefore boosting the power output of the free electron laser and synchrotron. 4 figs.

  11. Beam conditioner for free electron lasers and synchrotrons

    DOEpatents

    Liu, Hongxiu; Neil, George R.

    1998-01-01

    A focused optical is been used to introduce an optical pulse, or electromagnetic wave, colinearly with the electron beam in a free electron laser or synchrotron thereby adding an axial field component that accelerates the electrons on the radial outside of the distribution of electrons in the electron beam. This invention consists of using the axial electrical component of a TEM.sub.10 mode Gaussian beam in vacuum to condition the electron beam and speed up the outer electrons in the beam. The conditioning beam should possess about the same diameter as the electron beam. The beam waist of the conditioning wave must be located around the entrance of the undulator longitudinally to have a net energy exchange between the electrons in the outer part of the distribution and the conditioning wave owing to the natural divergence of a Gaussian beam. By accelerating the outer electrons, the outer and core electrons are caused to stay in phase. This increases the fraction of the electron beam energy that is converted to light thereby improving the efficiency of conversion of energy to light and therefore boosting the power output of the free electron laser and synchrotron.

  12. Synchrotron radiation in transactinium research report of the workshop

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-11-01

    This report contains viewgraphs on the following topics. The advanced light source U8 undulator beamline, 20--300 eV; gas-phase actinide studies with synchrotron radiation; atomic structure calculations for heavy atoms; flux growth of single crystal uranium intermetallics: Extension to transuranics; x-ray absorption near-edge structure studies of actinide compounds; surface as a new stage for studying actinides: Theoretical study of the surface electronic structure of uranium; magnetic x-ray scattering experiments at resonant energies; beamline instruments for radioactive materials; the search for x-ray absorption magnetic circular dichroism in actinide materials: preliminary experiments using UFe[sub 2] and U-S; the laser plasma laboratory light source: a source of preliminary transuranic data; electron spectroscopy of heavy fermion actinide materials; study of thin layers of actinides. Present status and future use of synchrotron radiation; electronic structure and correlated-electron theory for actinide materials; and heavy fermion and kondo phenomena in actinide materials.

  13. Synchrotron radiation in transactinium research report of the workshop

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-11-01

    This report contains viewgraphs on the following topics. The advanced light source U8 undulator beamline, 20--300 eV; gas-phase actinide studies with synchrotron radiation; atomic structure calculations for heavy atoms; flux growth of single crystal uranium intermetallics: Extension to transuranics; x-ray absorption near-edge structure studies of actinide compounds; surface as a new stage for studying actinides: Theoretical study of the surface electronic structure of uranium; magnetic x-ray scattering experiments at resonant energies; beamline instruments for radioactive materials; the search for x-ray absorption magnetic circular dichroism in actinide materials: preliminary experiments using UFe{sub 2} and U-S; the laser plasma laboratory light source: a source of preliminary transuranic data; electron spectroscopy of heavy fermion actinide materials; study of thin layers of actinides. Present status and future use of synchrotron radiation; electronic structure and correlated-electron theory for actinide materials; and heavy fermion and kondo phenomena in actinide materials.

  14. Deformation experiment on fayalite using deformation-Cubic Anvil, D-CAP 700, with synchrotron X rays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohnuma, R. S.; Ohtani, E.; Suzuki, A.; Kubo, T.; Doi, N.; Shimojuku, A.; Kato, T.; Kikegawa, T.

    2009-12-01

    Studies of the rheological properties of rocks and minerals are important for understanding the dynamics and evolution of the Earth’s mantle. A new deformation apparatus had been proposed by Durham et al. (2002) and the new apparatus is capable of deforming samples under confining pressure up to 15GPa. Basically, the new apparatus consists of the cubic-anvil apparatus known as the DIA and two differential rams, which is called the D-DIA. The system has been introduced into synchrotron X-ray beamlines, and a procedure for measuring stress and strain using synchrotron X-rays had been developed. So far, experiments using the deformation DIA with synchrotron X-rays have been conducted at only two beamlines, the GeoSoilEnviro CARS 13-BM-D beamline of the Advanced Photon Source and the X17B2 beamline of the National Synchrotron Light Source. So, we installed a deformation cubic anvil, D-CAP 700 at the 14C2 beamline of the Photon Factory, which is essentially similar to the conventional D-DIA system. The differential rams are driven by micro-discharge pumps, and the deformation cubic anvil component is driven by MAX-III 700ton press installed at the 14C2 beamline. Two differential rams are controlled by an oil pressure controller, and both of the pressure control and the displacement control are available. The displacements of two differential rams are measured by the stroke sensor attached to rams. An incident X-ray beam was monochromatized at energy of 50 keV by a monochromater. Strain is observed from transmitted X-ray imaging of sample using the YAG:Ce single crystal phosphor and the CCD camera. Stress is measured by analyzing the two dimensional diffraction patterns of samples. The two dimensional diffraction patterns are collected by an imaging plate. Using this new deformation apparatus, D-CAP 700 and the measurement system at the 14C2 beamline of the Photon Factory, we have conducted the deformation experiments of fayalite. Samples were deformed at a confining

  15. On-line control of the nonlinear dynamics for synchrotrons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bengtsson, J.; Martin, I. P. S.; Rowland, J. H.; Bartolini, R.

    2015-07-01

    We propose a simple approach to the on-line control of the nonlinear dynamics in storage rings, based on compensation of the nonlinear resonance driving terms using beam losses as the main indicator of the strength of a resonance. The correction scheme is built on the analysis of the resonance driving terms in first perturbative order and on the possibility of using independent power supplies in the sextupole magnets, which is nowadays present in many synchrotron light sources. Such freedom allows the definition of "smart sextupole knobs" attacking each resonance separately. The compensation scheme has been tested at the Diamond light source and proved to be effective in opening up the betatron tune space, resonance free, available to the electron beam and to improve the beam lifetime.

  16. Synchrotron X-ray Fluorescence Microtomography in Geo-, Cosmo-, and Bio- chemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lanzirotti, A.; Sutton, S. R.; Rivers, M.; Tappero, R.

    2009-05-01

    Synchrotron-based X-ray fluorescence computed microtomography (xrfCMT) is a unique method for imaging major and trace element distributions within natural materials nondestructively and with high spatial resolution. The technique is particularly useful in imaging and quantifying elemental abundance in small objects that may be too precious or too difficult to section, or in the analysis of materials in which sectioning may potentially alter elemental distributions. This presentation will highlight how this technique is being applied at beamlines X26A and X27A at the National Synchrotron Light Source (Brookhaven National Laboratory) and at 13-ID at the Advanced Photon Source (Argonne National Laboratory). These instruments utilize 1-10 μm diameter focused, monochromatic X-ray beams to non- destructively measure x-ray fluorescence from a sample as it is translated and rotated within the beam. The resultant fluorescence intensities are then reconstructed as either two-dimensional cross sectional or three- dimensional elemental distribution using a fast fourier transform based computational reconstruction algorithm. Reconstruction of multi-elemental distributions at concentrations down to approximately 1 μg g-1 (element dependent) can be obtained. By collecting and storing full energy dispersive spectra from a multi-channel analyzer for every pixel (rather than regions of interest), it is possible to evaluate a reconstructed spectrum within the object for more robust elemental analysis. For high density matrices in particular, corrections are necessary to account for x-ray absorption by the object of both incoming X-rays and outgoing fluorescent X-rays. These effects limit the size of objects and elements that can be imaged; however reasonable corrections can be made if an estimate of linear absorption coefficient through the material is made. It is also possible to couple fluorescence tomography with microbeam x-ray absorption and diffraction analysis. When coupled

  17. Synchrotron-based x-ray fluorescence applied to invertebrates to investigate the role of essential trace elements in a biological process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rao, D. V.; Swapna, M.; Cesareo, R.; Brunetti, A.; Akatsuka, T.; Yuasa, T.; Takeda, T.; Gigante, G. E.

    2012-03-01

    The fluorescence spectra have been detected by exciting invertebrate individual structures, such as external shell, embedded soft-tissue and operculum, with 8, 10 and 12 keV synchrotron x-rays, to find out about the accumulation of trace elements and biological processes in a small animal shell. A new hard x-ray micro-spectroscopy beamline facility, X27A, available at National Synchrotron Light Source, Brookhaven National Laboratory, USA, was utilized. It provided the primary beam in a small spot of the order of ~10 μm, for focusing. With this spatial resolution and high flux throughput, the synchrotron-induced x-ray fluorescent intensities were measured using a liquid-nitrogen-cooled 13-element energy-dispersive high-purity germanium detector. The fluorescence spectrum arising from the sample as a whole was assessed. Calcium is predominant in these aquatic organisms and a normal constituent of all living matter. The percentage of calcium is lower in the soft tissue, as distinguished from other samples, and the contributions of Cu and Zn are considerable. The latter possibility is due to some ground-based minerals, which may enter the sample when it traverses the land, and get attached to the soft tissue. This way, the accumulation of biominerals will be enhanced in addition to the originally presented ones. The presence of other bioactive trace elements such as Ti, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Rb and Sr was observed in low proportions. Some of these trace elements, for example, Mn, Fe, Cu, Rb and Sr, may induce toxic effects and the other potentially toxic elements, Ni and As, induce disorder in the organism if present in higher and lower proportions.

  18. 6th international conference on biophysics and synchrotron radiation. Program/Abstracts

    SciTech Connect

    Pittroff, Connie; Strasser, Susan Barr

    1999-08-03

    This STI product consists of the Program/Abstracts book that was prepared for the participants in the Sixth International Conference on Biophysics and Synchrotron Radiation that was held August 4-8, 1998, at the Advanced Photon Source, Argonne National Laboratory. This book contains the full conference program and abstracts of the scientific presentations.

  19. Installation of a Synchrotron Radiation Beamline Facility at the J. Bennett Johnston Center. Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Gooden, R.

    2000-03-21

    The Johnston Center presents a unique opportunity for scientists and engineers at southern institutions to initiate and carry out original research using synchrotron radiation ranging from visible light to hard x-rays. The Science and Engineering Alliance proposes to carry out a comprehensive new synchrotron radiation research initiative at CAMD in carefully phased steps of increasing risks. (1) materials research on existing CAMD beam lines and end stations; (2) design, construction and installation of end stations on existing CAMD beam lines, and research with this new instrumentation; (3) design, construction and operation of dedicated synchrotron radiation beam lines that covers the full spectral range of the CAMD storage ring and expanded research in the new facility.

  20. Nitride-MBE system for in situ synchrotron X-ray measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sasaki, Takuo; Ishikawa, Fumitaro; Yamaguchi, Tomohiro; Takahasi, Masamitu

    2016-05-01

    A molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) chamber dedicated to nitride growth was developed at the synchrotron radiation facility SPring-8. This chamber has two beryllium windows for incident and outgoing X-rays, and is directly connected to an X-ray diffractometer, enabling in situ synchrotron X-ray measurements during the nitride growth. Experimental results on initial growth dynamics in GaN/SiC, AlN/SiC, and InN/GaN heteroepitaxy were presented. We achieved high-speed and high-sensitivity reciprocal space mapping with a thickness resolution of atomic-layer scale. This in situ measurement using the high-brilliance synchrotron light source will be useful for evaluating structural variations in the initial growth stage of nitride semiconductors.

  1. Fullerene-Encapsulated Atoms in the Light of Synchrotron Radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Mueller, A.; Schippers, S.; Esteves, D.; Habibi, M.; Phaneuf, R. A.; Kilcoyne, A. L. D.; Aguilar, A.; Dunsch, L.

    2009-12-03

    Mass-selected beams of endohedral fullerene Ce-C{sub 82}{sup +} ions, of atomic Ce{sup q+} ions (q = 2, 3, 4), and of empty fullerene-cage C{sub 82}{sup +} ions were employed to study photoionization of fullerene-encapsulated and free cerium atoms. The Ce 4d inner-shell contributions to single and double ionization of the endohedral Ce-C{sub 82}{sup +} fullerene have been extracted from the data and compared with expectations based on theory and the experiments with atomic Ce ions. Dramatic reduction and redistribution of the ionization contributions to Ce 4d photoabsorption is observed. More than half of the Ce 4d oscillator strength is apparently diverted to additional decay channels of the Ce-C{sub 82}{sup +} complex.

  2. Fast ferrite tuner for the BNL synchrotron light source

    SciTech Connect

    Pivit, E. ); Hanna, S.M.; Keane, J. )

    1991-01-01

    A new type of ferrite tuner has been tested at the BNL. The ferrite tuner uses garnet slabs partially filling a stripline. One of the important features of the tuner is that the ferrite is perpendicularly biased for operation above FMR, thus reducing the magnetic losses. A unique design was adopted to achieve the efficient cooling. The principle of operation of the tuner as well as our preliminary results on tuning a 52 MHz cavity are reported. Optimized conditions under which we demonstrated linear tunability of 80 KHz are described. The tuner's losses and its effect on higher-order modes in the cavity are discussed. 2 refs., 8 figs.

  3. Reveal Protein Molecular Structural-Chemical Differrences Between Two Types of Winterfat (Forage) Seeds with Physiological Differences in Low Temperature Tolerance Using Synchrotron-Based Fourier Transform Infrared Microspectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Yu,P.; Wang, R.; Bai, Y.

    2005-01-01

    Winterfat (Krascheninnikovia lanata) (forage seed) is a long-lived native shrub with superior forage quality for livestock and wildlife. The objectives of this study were to use advanced synchrotron technology [S-Fourier transform infrared microspectroscopy (FTIR)] as a novel approach to reveal protein molecular structural-chemical differences in terms of protein secondary structures between the two types of winterfat (forage) seeds, which show physiological differences in low-temperature tolerances. This experiment was performed at beamline U10B at the National Synchrotron Light Source NSLS in Brookhaven National Laboratory BNL, U.S. Department of Energy (NSLS-BNL, New York). The results showed that with the synchrotron analytical technique (S-FTIR), the molecular structural-chemical makeup and characteristics of the winterfat seed tissues could be imaged and revealed. The protein secondary structures differed between the large and the small seed tissues. By using the multicomponent peaks modeling method, the results show that the large seeds contained no significant differences (P > 0.05) in percentage of {beta}-sheet (average 37.0%) and {alpha}-helix (average 24.1%). However, the large seeds contained a lower (P < 0.05) percentage of {beta}-turns (18.1 vs. 20.1%) and a lower (P < 0.05) ratio of {beta}-turns to {alpha}-helices (0.8 vs. 0.9) and {beta}-turns to {beta}-sheets (0.5 vs. 0.6). Our results demonstrate the potential of highly spatially resolved synchrotron-based FTIR microspectroscopy to reveal differences of structural molecular chemistry and protein secondary structures, which are associated with seed size variation and may affect germination behaviors.

  4. The Properties of Light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haglund, Richard F.

    The mystery of light has formed the core of creation stories in every culture, and attracted the earnest attentions of philosophers since at least the fifth century BCE. Their questions have ranged from how and what we see, to the interaction of light with material bodies, and finally to the nature of light itself. This chapter begins with a brief intellectual history of light from ancient Greece to the end of the 19th century. After introducing the physical parameterization of light in terms of standard units, three concepts of light are introduced: light as a wave, light as a quantum particle, and light as a quantum field. After highlighting the distinctive characteristics of light beams from various sources - thermal radiation, luminescence from atoms and molecules, and synchrotron light sources - the distinctive physical characteristics of light beams are examined in some detail. The chapter concludes with a survey of the statistical and quantum-mechanical properties of light beams. In the appropriate limits, this treatment not only recovers the classical description of light waves and the semiclassical view of light as a stream of quanta, but also forms a consistent description of quantum phenomena - such as interference phenomena generated by single photons - that have no classical analogs.

  5. Understanding the differences in molecular conformation of carbohydrate and protein in endosperm tissues of grains with different biodegradation kinetics using advanced synchrotron technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, P.; Block, H. C.; Doiron, K.

    2009-01-01

    Conventional "wet" chemical analyses rely heavily on the use of harsh chemicals and derivatization, thereby altering native seed structures leaving them unable to detect any original inherent structures within an intact tissue sample. A synchrotron is a giant particle accelerator that turns electrons into light (million times brighter than sunlight) which can be used to study the structure of materials at the molecular level. Synchrotron radiation-based Fourier transform IR microspectroscopy (SR-FTIRM) has been developed as a rapid, direct, non-destructive and bioanalytical technique. This technique, taking advantage of the brightness of synchrotron light and a small effective source size, is capable of exploring the molecular chemistry within the microstructures of a biological tissue without the destruction of inherent structures at ultraspatial resolutions within cellular dimensions. This is in contrast to traditional 'wet' chemical methods, which, during processing for analysis, often result in the destruction of the intrinsic structures of feeds. To date there has been very little application of this technique to the study of plant seed tissue in relation to nutrient utilization. The objective of this study was to use novel synchrotron radiation-based technology (SR-FTIRM) to identify the differences in the molecular chemistry and conformation of carbohydrate and protein in various plant seed endosperms within intact tissues at cellular and subcellular level from grains with different biodegradation kinetics. Barley grain (cv. Harrington) with a high rate (31.3%/h) and extent (78%), corn grain (cv. Pioneer) with a low rate (9.6%/h) and extent of (57%), and wheat grain (cv. AC Barrie) with an intermediate rate (23%/h) and extent (72%) of ruminal DM degradation were selected for evaluation. SR-FTIRM evaluations were performed at the National Synchrotron Light Source at the Brookhaven National Laboratory (Brookhaven, NY). The molecular structure spectral analysis

  6. 3D-analysis of plant microstructures: advantages and limitations of synchrotron X-ray microtomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsushima, U.; Graf, W.; Zabler, S.; Manke, I.; Dawson, M.; Choinka, G.; Hilger, A.; Herppich, W. B.

    2013-01-01

    Synchrotron X-ray computer microtomography was used to analyze the microstructure of rose peduncles. Samples from three rose cultivars, differing in anatomy, were scanned to study the relation between tissue structure and peduncles mechanical strength. Additionally, chlorophyll fluorescence imaging and conventional light microscopy was applied to quantify possible irradiation-induced damage to plant physiology and tissue structure. The spatial resolution of synchrotron X-ray computer microtomography was sufficiently high to investigate the complex tissues of intact rose peduncles without the necessity of any preparation. However, synchrotron X-radiation induces two different types of damage on irradiated tissues. First, within a few hours after first X-ray exposure, there is a direct physical destruction of cell walls. In addition, a slow and delayed destruction of chlorophyll and, consequently, of photosynthetic activity occurred within hours/ days after the exposure. The results indicate that synchrotron X-ray computer microtomography is well suited for three-dimensional visualization of the microstructure of rose peduncles. However, in its current technique, synchrotron X-ray computer microtomography is not really non-destructive but induce tissue damage. Hence, this technique needs further optimization before it can be applied for time-series investigations of living plant materials

  7. Synchrotron radiation applications in medical research

    SciTech Connect

    Thomlinson, W.

    1995-12-31

    The medical projects employing synchrotron radiation as discussed in this paper are, for the most part, still in their infancies and no one can predict the direction in which they will develop. Both the basic research and applied medical programs are sure to be advanced at the new facilities coming on line, especially the ESRF and Spring- 8. However, success is not guaranteed. There is a lot of competition from advances in conventional imaging with the development of digital angiography, computed tomography, functional magnetic resonance imaging and ultrasound. The synchrotron programs will have to provide significant advantages over these modalities in order to be accepted by the medical profession. Advances in image processing and potentially the development of compact sources will be required in order to move the synchrotron developed imaging technologies into the clinical world. In any event, it can be expected that the images produced by the synchrotron technologies will establish ``gold standards`` to be targeted by conventional modalities. A lot more work needs to be done in order to bring synchrotron radiation therapy and surgery to the level of human studies and, subsequently, to clinical applications.

  8. Synchrotron based spallation neutron source concepts

    SciTech Connect

    Cho, Y.

    1998-07-01

    During the past 20 years, rapid-cycling synchrotrons (RCS) have been used very productively to generate short-pulse thermal neutron beams for neutron scattering research by materials science communities in Japan (KENS), the UK (ISIS) and the US (IPNS). The most powerful source in existence, ISIS in the UK, delivers a 160-kW proton beam to a neutron-generating target. Several recently proposed facilities require proton beams in the MW range to produce intense short-pulse neutron beams. In some proposals, a linear accelerator provides the beam power and an accumulator ring compresses the pulse length to the required {approx} 1 {micro}s. In others, RCS technology provides the bulk of the beam power and compresses the pulse length. Some synchrotron-based proposals achieve the desired beam power by combining two or more synchrotrons of the same energy, and others propose a combination of lower and higher energy synchrotrons. This paper presents the rationale for using RCS technology, and a discussion of the advantages and disadvantages of synchrotron-based spallation sources.

  9. Time-Resolved Structural Analysis of Cation Exchange Reactions in Birnessite Using Synchrotron XRD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lopano, C. L.; Heaney, P. J.; Post, J. E.; Hanson, J. C.; Lee, Y.; Komarneni, S.

    2002-12-01

    Birnessite ((Na,Ca,Mn2+) Mn7O142.8H2O) is a layered Mn-oxide with a 7.2Å spacing between the Mn octahedral sheets. Since birnessite is an abundant phase in soils, desert varnishes, and ocean nodules, it plays a significant role in soil and groundwater chemistry. Experiments by Golden et al. (1986,1987) have demonstrated that Na-buserite (hydrated birnessite) readily exchanges Na+ for a variety of other cations, including K+, Mg2+, Ca2+, Ba2+, Ni2+, and Sr2+. In light of its high cation exchange capacity, birnessite is industrially important for ion and molecular sieves and cathodic materials. In addition, birnessite serves as a precursor in the synthesis of todorokite, which has a 3x3 tunnel structure and is used as an octahedral sieve. We monitored cation-exchange reactions in birnessite by time-resolved X-ray powder diffraction with a simple flow-through cell at the National Synchrotron Light Source. The flow-through cell was developed by Lee and Parise at SUNY-Stony Brook, and this work represents its first application to Mn oxides. A series of synthetic Na-birnessite samples were saturated with chloride solutions containing dissolved K+, Mg2+, and Ba2+, ranging from 0.1M to 0.001M. Powder X-ray diffraction patterns were collected every ~ 3 minutes. The synchrotron experiments revealed that complete cation exchange occurs within three hours, and significant modifications of the arrangements of interlayer cations and water molecules accompany the exchange. Specifically, the replacement of Na by Mg resulted in the continuous growth of a discrete buserite-like phase with a 10Å layer spacing, while replacement of Na by K and Ba retained the 7Å spacing. K replacement of Na resulted in gradually decreasing peak intensity and peak merging. The Ba exchange yielded an abrupt decrease in diffraction intensities followed by a more gradual lattice change over the last 2 hours. Rietveld analysis led to the first determination of the structure of Ba-birnessite in space

  10. Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory 1991 activity report. Facility developments January 1991--March 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Cantwell, K.; St. Pierre, M.

    1992-12-31

    SSRL is a national facility supported primarily by the Department of Energy for the utilization of synchrotron radiation for basic and applied research in the natural sciences and engineering. It is a user-oriented facility which welcomes proposals for experiments from all researchers. The synchrotron radiation is produced by the 3.5 GeV storage ring, SPEAR, located at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC). SPEAR is a fully dedicated synchrotron radiation facility which operates for user experiments 7 to 9 months per year. SSRL currently has 24 experimental stations on the SPEAR storage ring. There are 145 active proposals for experimental work from 81 institutions involving approximately 500 scientists. There is normally no charge for use of beam time by experimenters. This report summarizes the activity at SSRL for the period January 1, 1991 to December 31, 1991 for research. Facility development through March 1992 is included.

  11. Suppression of the emittance growth induced by coherent synchrotron radiation in triple-bend achromats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Xi-Yang; Jiao, Yi; Xu, Gang; Cui, Xiao-Hao

    2015-05-01

    The coherent synchrotron radiation (CSR) effect in a bending path plays an important role in transverse emittance dilution in high-brightness light sources and linear colliders, where the electron beams are of short bunch length and high peak current. Suppression of the emittance growth induced by CSR is critical to preserve the beam quality and help improve the machine performance. It has been shown that the CSR effect in a double-bend achromat (DBA) can be analyzed with the two-dimensional point-kick analysis method. In this paper, this method is applied to analyze the CSR effect in a triple-bend achromat (TBA) with symmetric layout, which is commonly used in the optics designs of energy recovery linacs (ERLs). A condition of cancelling the CSR linear effect in such a TBA is obtained, and is verified through numerical simulations. It is demonstrated that emittance preservation can be achieved with this condition, and to a large extent, has a high tolerance to the fluctuation of the initial transverse phase space distribution of the beam. Supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (11475202, 11405187) and Youth Innovation Promotion Association of Chinese Academy of Sciences (2015009)

  12. CT with monochromatic synchrotron x rays and its potential in clinical research

    SciTech Connect

    Dilmanian, F.A.; Wu, Xiao Ye; Ren, B.; Huang, Xiaoling

    1997-11-01

    A monochromatic CT for imaging the human head and neck is being developed at the National Synchrotron Light Source. We compared the performance of this system, multiple energy computed tomography [MECT], with that of a conventional CT [CCT] using phantoms. The advantage in image contrast of MECT, with its beam energy turned just above the K-edge of contrast element, over CCT carried out at 120 kVp, was {approx} 3.2-fold for iodine and {approx} 2.2 fold for gadolinium. Image noise was compared by simulations because this comparison requires matching the spatial resolutions of the two systems. Simulations at a 3-rad dose and 3-mm slice height on an 18-cm-diameter acrylic phantom, with MECT operating at 60.5 keV, showed that image noise for MECT was 1.4 HU vs. 1.8 HU for CCT. Simulations in the dual energy quantitative CT [DEQCT] mode showed a two-fold advantage for MECT in image noise, as well as its superior quantification. MECT operated in the planar mode revealed fatty tissue in the body of rat using xenon K-edge subtraction. Our initial plan for clinical application of the system is to image the composition of carotid artery plaques non-invasively, separating the plaques` main constituents: the fatty, fibrous, and calcified tissues.

  13. Status of the Metrology Light Source

    SciTech Connect

    Klein, R.; Ulm, G.; Feikes, J.; Hartrott, M. von; Wuestefeld, G.

    2010-06-23

    The Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB), the German national metrology institute, has set up the low-energy electron storage ring Metrology Light Source (MLS) in close cooperation with the Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin (HZB, formerly BESSY). This new storage ring has been in regular user operation since April 2008 and is dedicated to synchrotron-radiation-based metrology and technological developments in the far-IR/THz, IR, UV, VUV and EUV spectral range. The MLS has a double-bend-achromate lattice structure, injection is from a 105 MeV racetrack microtron. The electron energy can be ramped to any value from 105 MeV up to 630 MeV and the electron beam current covers the range from one stored electron (1 pA) up to 200 mA. The MLS is the first electron storage ring optimized for the generation of coherent synchrotron radiation, based on an electron bunch shortening mode. In this mode, MLS delivers coherent radiation in the far-IR/THz spectral range with enhanced intensity as compared to the normal mode of operation. Several beamlines are in operation or in construction, including one undulator beamline, bending magnet beamlines for the calibration of radiation sources and detectors and for reflectometry, an EUV metrology beamline and three IR/THz beamlines.

  14. Space-charge calculations in synchrotrons

    SciTech Connect

    Machida, S.

    1993-05-01

    One obvious bottleneck of achieving high luminosity in hadron colliders, such as the Superconducting Super Collider (SSC), is the beam emittance growth, due to space-charge effects in low energy injector synchrotrons. Although space-charge effects have been recognized since the alternating-gradient synchrotron was invented, and the Laslett tune shift usually calculated to quantify these effects, our understanding of the effects is limited, especially when the Laslett tune shift becomes a large fraction of the integer. Using the Simpsons tracking code, which we developed to study emittance preservation issues in proton synchrotrons, we investigated space-charge effects in the SSC Low Energy Booster (LEB). We observed detailed dependence on parameters such as beam intensity, initial emittance, injection energy, lattice function, and longitudinal motion. A summary of those findings, as well as the tracking technique we developed for the study, are presented.

  15. Dark Matter and Synchrotron Emission from Galactic Center Radio Filaments

    SciTech Connect

    Linden, Tim; Hooper, Dan; Yusef-Zadeh, Farhad

    2011-11-10

    The inner degrees of the Galactic center contain a large population of filamentary structures observed at radio frequencies. These so-called non-thermal radio filaments (NRFs) trace magnetic field lines and have attracted significant interest due to their hard (S_v ~ -0.1 +/- 0.4) synchrotron emission spectra. The origin of these filaments remains poorly understood. We show that the electrons and positrons created through the annihilations of a relatively light (~5-10 GeV) dark matter particle with the cross section predicted for a simple thermal relic can provide a compelling match to the intensity, spectral shape, and flux variation of the NRFs. Furthermore, the characteristics of the dark matter particle necessary to explain the synchrotron emission from the NRFs is consistent with those required to explain the excess gamma-ray emission observed from the Galactic center by the Fermi-LAT, as well as the direct detection signals observed by CoGeNT and DAMA/LIBRA.

  16. Synchrotron radiation based beam diagnostics at the Fermilab Tevatron

    SciTech Connect

    Thurman-Keup, R.; Cheung, H. W. K.; Hahn, A.; Hurh, P.; Lorman, E.; Lundberg, C.; Meyer, T.; Miller, D.; Pordes, S.; Valishev, A.

    2011-09-16

    Synchrotron radiation has been used for many years as a beam diagnostic at electron accelerators. It is not normally associated with proton accelerators as the intensity of the radiation is too weak to make detection practical. Therefore, if one utilizes the radiation originating near the edge of a bending magnet, or from a short magnet, the rapidly changing magnetic field serves to enhance the wavelengths shorter than the cutoff wavelength, which for more recent high energy proton accelerators such as Fermilab's Tevatron, tends to be visible light. This paper discusses the implementation at the Tevatron of two devices. A transverse beam profile monitor images the synchrotron radiation coming from the proton and antiproton beams separately and provides profile data for each bunch. A second monitor measures the low-level intensity of beam in the abort gaps which poses a danger to both the accelerator's superconducting magnets and the silicon detectors of the high energy physics experiments. Comparisons of measurements from the profile monitor to measurements from the flying wire profile systems are presented as are a number of examples of the application of the profile and abort gap intensity measurements to the modelling of Tevatron beam dynamics.

  17. Synchrotron radiation based beam diagnostics at the Fermilab Tevatron

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Thurman-Keup, R.; Cheung, H. W. K.; Hahn, A.; Hurh, P.; Lorman, E.; Lundberg, C.; Meyer, T.; Miller, D.; Pordes, S.; Valishev, A.

    2011-09-16

    Synchrotron radiation has been used for many years as a beam diagnostic at electron accelerators. It is not normally associated with proton accelerators as the intensity of the radiation is too weak to make detection practical. Therefore, if one utilizes the radiation originating near the edge of a bending magnet, or from a short magnet, the rapidly changing magnetic field serves to enhance the wavelengths shorter than the cutoff wavelength, which for more recent high energy proton accelerators such as Fermilab's Tevatron, tends to be visible light. This paper discusses the implementation at the Tevatron of two devices. A transversemore » beam profile monitor images the synchrotron radiation coming from the proton and antiproton beams separately and provides profile data for each bunch. A second monitor measures the low-level intensity of beam in the abort gaps which poses a danger to both the accelerator's superconducting magnets and the silicon detectors of the high energy physics experiments. Comparisons of measurements from the profile monitor to measurements from the flying wire profile systems are presented as are a number of examples of the application of the profile and abort gap intensity measurements to the modelling of Tevatron beam dynamics.« less

  18. Study of silicon pixel sensor for synchrotron radiation detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Zhen-Jie; Jia, Yun-Cong; Hu, Ling-Fei; Liu, Peng; Yin, Hua-Xiang

    2016-03-01

    The silicon pixel sensor (SPS) is one of the key components of hybrid pixel single-photon-counting detectors for synchrotron radiation X-ray detection (SRD). In this paper, the design, fabrication, and characterization of SPSs for single beam X-ray photon detection is reported. The designed pixel sensor is a p+-in-n structure with guard-ring structures operated in full-depletion mode and is fabricated on 4-inch, N type, 320 μm thick, high-resistivity silicon wafers by a general Si planar process. To achieve high energy resolution of X-rays and obtain low dark current and high breakdown voltage as well as appropriate depletion voltage of the SPS, a series of technical optimizations of device structure and fabrication process are explored. With optimized device structure and fabrication process, excellent SPS characteristics with dark current of 2 nA/cm2, full depletion voltage < 50 V and breakdown voltage >150 V are achieved. The fabricated SPSs are wire bonded to ASIC circuits and tested for the performance of X-ray response to the 1W2B synchrotron beam line of the Beijing Synchrotron Radiation Facility. The measured S-curves for SRD demonstrate a high discrimination for different energy X-rays. The extracted energy resolution is high (<20% for X-ray photon energy >10 keV) and the linear properties between input photo energy and the equivalent generator amplitude are well established. It confirmed that the fabricated SPSs have a good energy linearity and high count rate with the optimized technologies. The technology is expected to have a promising application in the development of a large scale SRD system for the Beijing Advanced Photon Source. Supported by Prefabrication Research of Beijing Advanced Photon Source (R&D for BAPS) and National Natural Science Foundation of China (11335010)

  19. Synchrotron characterization of functional tin dioxide nanowires

    SciTech Connect

    Domashevskaya, E. P. Chuvenkova, O. A.; Turishchev, S. Yu.

    2015-12-31

    Wire-like crystals of tin dioxide were synthesized by a gas-transport technique. The wires, of mainly nanometric diameters, were characterized by spectroscopy and microscopy techniques with the use of highly brilliant and intense synchrotron radiation. We studied the influence of the surface chemical state and the oxygen vacancies on the atomic and electronic structure of the nanowires. The surface of the nanowires is covered by a few nanometers of tin suboxides. The lack of oxygen over the surface layers leads to specific sub-zone formation in a gap, as shown by synchrotron studies.

  20. 12 Experimental Techniques at Synchrotron Lightsource Beamlines

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Peter L; Rhyne, James J

    2015-01-01

    The unique properties of synchrotron radiation are its continuous spectrum, high flux and brightness, and high coherence, which make it an indispensable tool in the exploration of matter. The wavelengths of the emitted photons span a range of dimensions from the atomic level to biological cells, thereby providing incisive probes for advanced research in materials science, physical and chemical sciences, metrology, geosciences, environmental sciences, biosciences, medical sciences, and pharmaceutical sciences. The features of synchrotron radiation are especially well matched to the needs of nanoscience.

  1. SYNCHROTRON RADIO FREQUENCY PHASE CONTROL SYSTEM

    DOEpatents

    Plotkin, M.; Raka, E.C.; Snyder, H.S.

    1963-05-01

    A system for canceling varying phase changes introduced by connecting cables and control equipment in an alternating gradient synchrotron is presented. In a specific synchrotron embodiment twelve spaced accelerating stations for the proton bunches are utilized. In order to ensure that the protons receive their boost or kick at the exact instant necessary it is necessary to compensate for phase changes occurring in the r-f circuitry over the wide range of frequencies dictated by the accelerated velocities of the proton bunches. A constant beat frequency is utilized to transfer the r-f control signals through the cables and control equipment to render the phase shift constant and readily compensable. (AEC)

  2. High-energy thermal synchrotron emission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Imamura, J. N.; Epstein, R. I.; Petrosian, V.

    1985-09-01

    The authors compute thermal synchrotron spectra for which the photon energy is comparable to the mean electron thermal energy. In this regime it is necessary to include the restriction that a photon receives no more energy than the kinetic energy of the radiating electron. The derived spectra fall off more rapidly at high energies than was previously estimated. It is found that the thermal synchrotron mechanism can still provide satisfactory fits to the very hard γ-ray burst spectra for sufficiently high temperatures and low magnetic fields. As example, data for the γ-ray burst of 1982 January 25 are discussed.

  3. Strength Measurement of Boron Suboxide B6O at High Pressure and Temperature Using in situ Synchrotron X-ray Diffraction

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, J.; Yang, Y; Yu, T; Zhang, J; Zhao, Y; Wang, L

    2008-01-01

    The strength of boron suboxide (B6O) was measured at high pressure and temperature up to 8 GPa and 800 C using diffraction peak broadening analysis. The sample was synthesized at 6 GPa and 1750 C. In situ energy dispersive X-ray diffraction was conducted at the X17B2 beamline of the National Synchrotron Light Source. The differential stress in the powdered sample was derived through deconvolution of peak broadening of diffraction lines (0 2 1) and (1 1 3) during the compression and heating. The sample shows anisotropic yielding along the two orientations. The (0 2 1) orientation does not show yielding within the investigated pressure range (8 GPa) whereas the (1 1 3) orientation yields at 5 GPa. Upon heating, significant weakening (yielding) was observed at temperatures above 400 C. The yield temperature of boron suboxide is much lower than that of diamond, 1200 C, but similar to that observed in moissanite (SiC).

  4. An ultra-high-vacuum mirror box with three remotely-operated water-cooled mirrors for the U13U wiggler/undulator spectroscopy branch line at the national synchrotron light source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hulbert, Steven L.; Rotela, Elbio; Shleifer, Mark

    1990-05-01

    We describe an ultra-high-vacuum mirror box with three independent remotely operated water-cooled mirrors which serve to focus a diverging input beam onto a common focal point. Each of the mirrors may be adjusted by independent rotations about two perpendicular axes in the mirror surface plane which intersect at the pole of the mirror and by linear motion along an axis orthogonal to the two rotation axes. These motions permit the surfaces of the three mirrors to lie on a common sphere, thereby forming the equivalent of a single mirror three times longer than any of the individual mirrors without the extreme cost and inherent figure error of such a lengthy mirror. The design is based on the combination of a double-axis gimbal mechanism and a linear extraction mechanism. Each mirror mechanism is fixed to a large rectangular flange attached to the mirror chamber by a special Helicoflex seal . All motions for each of the three mirrors are provided by stepping motors through special mechanisms with three bellows, one for a two-axis rotation and two for linear motion. Helicoflex Company, 400 Myrtle Avenue, Boonton, NJ 07005, USA.

  5. K-Edge Subtraction Angiography with Synchrotron X-Rays

    SciTech Connect

    Giacomini, John C.

    1996-12-31

    The purpose of this project was to utilize dual energy, monochromatic X-rays produced from synchrotrons radiation in order to obtain noninvasive medical imaging. The application of synchrotrons radiation to medical imaging is based on the principle of iodine dichromography, first described by Bertil Jacobson of the Karolinska Institute in 1953. Medical imaging using synchrotrons radiation and K-edge dichromography was pioneered at Stanford University under the leadership of Dr. Ed Rubenstein, and the late Nobel Laureate in Physics, Dr. Robert Hofstadter. With progressive refinements in hardware, clinical-quality images were obtained of human coronary arteries utilizing peripheral injections of iodinated contrast agent. These images even now are far superior to those being presented by investigators using MRI as an imaging tool for coronary arteries. However, new supplies and instruments in the cardiac catheterization laboratory have served to transform coronary angiography into an outpatient procedure, with relatively little morbidity. We extended the principles learned with coronary angiography to noninvasive imaging of the human bronchial tree. For these images, we utilized xenon as the contrast agent, as it has a K-edge very similar to that of iodine. In this case, there is no true competing diagnostic test, and pulmonary neoplasm is an enormous public health concern. In early experiments, we demonstrated remarkably clear images of the human bronchial tree. These images have been shown internationally; however, funding difficulties primarily with the Department of Energy have not allowed for progression of this promising avenue of research. One potential criticism of the project is that in order to obtain these images, we utilized national laboratories. Some have questioned whether this would lead to a practical imaging modality. However, we have shown that the technology exists to allow for construction of a miniature storage ring, with a superconducting

  6. From wealth to health: modelling the distribution of income per capita at the sub-national level using night-time light imagery

    PubMed Central

    Ebener, Steeve; Murray, Christopher; Tandon, Ajay; Elvidge, Christopher C

    2005-01-01

    Background Sub-national figures providing information about the wealth of the population are useful in defining the spatial distribution of both economic activity and poverty within any given country. Furthermore, since several health indicators such as life expectancy are highly correlated with household welfare, sub-national figures allow for the estimation of the distribution of these health indicators within countries when direct measurement is difficult. We have developed methods that utilize spatially distributed information, including night-time light imagery and population to model the distribution of income per capita, as a proxy for wealth, at the country and sub-national level to support the estimation of the distribution of correlated health indicators. Results A first set of analysis are performed in order to propose a new global model for the prediction of income per capita at the country level. A second set of analysis is then confirming the possibility to transfer the country level approach to the sub-national level on a country by country basis before underlining the difficulties to create a global or regional models for the extrapolation of sub-national figures when no country data set exists. Conclusions The methods described provide promising results for the extrapolation of national and sub-national income per capita figures. These results are then discussed in order to evaluate if the proposed methods could not represent an alternative approach for the generation of consistent country specific and/or global poverty maps disaggregated to some sub-national level. PMID:15705196

  7. High pressure x-ray diffraction techniques with synchrotron radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jing, Liu

    2016-07-01

    This article summarizes the developments of experimental techniques for high pressure x-ray diffraction (XRD) in diamond anvil cells (DACs) using synchrotron radiation. Basic principles and experimental methods for various diffraction geometry are described, including powder diffraction, single crystal diffraction, radial diffraction, as well as coupling with laser heating system. Resolution in d-spacing of different diffraction modes is discussed. More recent progress, such as extended application of single crystal diffraction for measurements of multigrain and electron density distribution, time-resolved diffraction with dynamic DAC and development of modulated heating techniques are briefly introduced. The current status of the high pressure beamline at BSRF (Beijing Synchrotron Radiation Facility) and some results are also presented. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 10875142, 11079040, and 11075175). The 4W2 beamline of BSRF was supported by the Chinese Academy of Sciences (Grant Nos. KJCX2-SW-N20, KJCX2-SW-N03, and SYGNS04).

  8. Synchrotron-based highest resolution FTIR spectroscopy of chlorobenzene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Albert, Sieghard; Keppler, Karen; Lerch, Philippe; Quack, Martin; Wokaun, Alexander

    2015-09-01

    We report the Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectrum of chlorobenzene (C6H5Cl) measured using synchrotron radiation and the ETH-SLS 2009 prototype spectrometer at the Swiss Light Source (SLS). The maximum optical path difference of these measurements was 11.8 m leading to a resolution of better than 0.0008 cm-1. The spectra were taken at room temperature in the range 600-900 cm-1. It was possible to analyze the in-plane mode ν12 of A1 symmetry (ν˜0 = 706.6686 cm-1) and the out-of-plane mode ν10b of B1 symmetry (ν˜0 = 741.2240 cm-1) of C6H535Cl. In addition, the ground state constant ΔK of C6H535Cl has been readjusted using combination differences (CD).

  9. High density terahertz frequency comb produced by coherent synchrotron radiation.

    PubMed

    Tammaro, S; Pirali, O; Roy, P; Lampin, J-F; Ducournau, G; Cuisset, A; Hindle, F; Mouret, G

    2015-07-20

    Frequency combs have enabled significant progress in frequency metrology and high-resolution spectroscopy extending the achievable resolution while increasing the signal-to-noise ratio. In its coherent mode, synchrotron radiation is accepted to provide an intense terahertz continuum covering a wide spectral range from about 0.1 to 1 THz. Using a dedicated heterodyne receiver, we reveal the purely discrete nature of this emission. A phase relationship between the light pulses leads to a powerful frequency comb spanning over one decade in frequency. The comb has a mode spacing of 846 kHz, a linewidth of about 200 Hz, a fractional precision of about 2 × 10(-10) and no frequency offset. The unprecedented potential of the comb for high-resolution spectroscopy is demonstrated by the accurate determination of pure rotation transitions of acetonitrile.

  10. High density terahertz frequency comb produced by coherent synchrotron radiation

    PubMed Central

    Tammaro, S.; Pirali, O.; Roy, P.; Lampin, J.-F.; Ducournau, G.; Cuisset, A.; Hindle, F.; Mouret, G.

    2015-01-01

    Frequency combs have enabled significant progress in frequency metrology and high-resolution spectroscopy extending the achievable resolution while increasing the signal-to-noise ratio. In its coherent mode, synchrotron radiation is accepted to provide an intense terahertz continuum covering a wide spectral range from about 0.1 to 1 THz. Using a dedicated heterodyne receiver, we reveal the purely discrete nature of this emission. A phase relationship between the light pulses leads to a powerful frequency comb spanning over one decade in frequency. The comb has a mode spacing of 846 kHz, a linewidth of about 200 Hz, a fractional precision of about 2 × 10−10 and no frequency offset. The unprecedented potential of the comb for high-resolution spectroscopy is demonstrated by the accurate determination of pure rotation transitions of acetonitrile. PMID:26190043

  11. Synchrotron radiation in strongly coupled conformal field theories

    SciTech Connect

    Athanasiou, Christiana; Chesler, Paul M.; Liu, Hong; Rajagopal, Krishna; Nickel, Dominik

    2010-06-15

    Using gauge/gravity duality, we compute the energy density and angular distribution of the power radiated by a quark undergoing circular motion in strongly coupled N=4 supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory. We compare the strong coupling results to those at weak coupling, finding them to be very similar. In both regimes, the angular distribution of the radiated power is in fact similar to that of synchrotron radiation produced by an electron in circular motion in classical electrodynamics: the quark emits radiation in a narrow beam along its velocity vector with a characteristic opening angle {alpha}{approx}1/{gamma}. To an observer far away from the quark, the emitted radiation appears as a short periodic burst, just like the light from a lighthouse does to a ship at sea. Our strong coupling results are valid for any strongly coupled conformal field theory with a dual classical gravity description.

  12. Lipidic cubic phase serial millisecond crystallography using synchrotron radiation

    PubMed Central

    Nogly, Przemyslaw; James, Daniel; Wang, Dingjie; White, Thomas A.; Zatsepin, Nadia; Shilova, Anastasya; Nelson, Garrett; Liu, Haiguang; Johansson, Linda; Heymann, Michael; Jaeger, Kathrin; Metz, Markus; Wickstrand, Cecilia; Wu, Wenting; Båth, Petra; Berntsen, Peter; Oberthuer, Dominik; Panneels, Valerie; Cherezov, Vadim; Chapman, Henry; Schertler, Gebhard; Neutze, Richard; Spence, John; Moraes, Isabel; Burghammer, Manfred; Standfuss, Joerg; Weierstall, Uwe

    2015-01-01

    Lipidic cubic phases (LCPs) have emerged as successful matrixes for the crystallization of membrane proteins. Moreover, the viscous LCP also provides a highly effective delivery medium for serial femtosecond crystallography (SFX) at X-ray free-electron lasers (XFELs). Here, the adaptation of this technology to perform serial millisecond crystallography (SMX) at more widely available synchrotron microfocus beamlines is described. Compared with conventional microcrystallography, LCP-SMX eliminates the need for difficult handling of individual crystals and allows for data collection at room temperature. The technology is demonstrated by solving a structure of the light-driven proton-pump bacteriorhodopsin (bR) at a resolution of 2.4 Å. The room-temperature structure of bR is very similar to previous cryogenic structures but shows small yet distinct differences in the retinal ligand and proton-transfer pathway. PMID:25866654

  13. Error reduction techniques for measuring long synchrotron mirrors

    SciTech Connect

    Irick, S.

    1998-07-01

    Many instruments and techniques are used for measuring long mirror surfaces. A Fizeau interferometer may be used to measure mirrors much longer than the interferometer aperture size by using grazing incidence at the mirror surface and analyzing the light reflected from a flat end mirror. Advantages of this technique are data acquisition speed and use of a common instrument. Disadvantages are reduced sampling interval, uncertainty of tangential position, and sagittal/tangential aspect ratio other than unity. Also, deep aspheric surfaces cannot be measured on a Fizeau interferometer without a specially made fringe nulling holographic plate. Other scanning instruments have been developed for measuring height, slope, or curvature profiles of the surface, but lack accuracy for very long scans required for X-ray synchrotron mirrors. The Long Trace Profiler (LTP) was developed specifically for long x-ray mirror measurement, and still outperforms other instruments, especially for aspheres. Thus, this paper focuses on error reduction techniques for the LTP.

  14. Synchrotron IR spectromicroscopy: chemistry of living cells.

    PubMed

    Holman, Hoi-Ying N; Bechtel, Hans A; Hao, Zhao; Martin, Michael C

    2010-11-01

    Advanced analytical capabilities of synchrotron IR spectromicroscopy meet the demands of modern biological research for studying molecular reactions in individual living cells. (To listen to a podcast about this article, please go to the Analytical Chemistry multimedia page at pubs.acs.org/page/ancham/audio/index.html.).

  15. PRINCIPLES OF SYNCHROTRON TECHNIQUES, POTENTIAL AND LIMITATIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Once environmental contaminants, such as arsenic, chromium, cadmium and lead, are detected, the problem becomes how to deal with them. For the past decade, researchers at the US EPA in Cincinnati have been employing synchrotron speciation methods to determine the exact chemical f...

  16. Synchrotron Emission from Chaotic Stellar Winds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    White, R. L.

    1985-01-01

    A model is presented for the radio emission from hot stars. Electrons are accelerated to relativistic energies by shocks in the wind near the star and emit radio radiation through the synchrotron mechanism. The particle spectrum and radio spectrum for this model are derived. The model accounts for many of the observed characteristics of some recently discovered stars which have peculiar radio emission.

  17. Molecular electronics studies by synchrotron radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Wee, Andrew T. S.; Chen Wei; Chi Dongchen; Chen Shi; Wang Li; Gao Xingyu

    2009-01-29

    In molecular electronics research, the molecule-metal interfacial properties crucially control the electronic properties of the devices fabricated. We use synchrotron radiation techniques of PES and NEXAFS, complemented by STM, to study the molecular orientation and interfacial charge transfer processes of model molecule-metal systems.

  18. SYNCHROTRON TECHNIQUES IN ENVIRONMENTAL AND FORSENIC SCIENCES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The application of synchrotron based research for understanding the fate of contaminants in water, soil, and atmosphere is proving to be beneficial for scientists and regulators. Drawing the connection of a contaminated site to knowledge of metal speciation provides direct eviden...

  19. An Update of The Diagnostic Systems Proposed for The New Third Generation UK Light Source, DIAMOND

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buckley, Stephen R.; Dufau, Michael J.; Smith, Robert J.

    2002-12-01

    This paper describes the currently proposed systems for electron beam position monitoring (EBPM) and diagnostics for the DIAMOND synchrotron. Although the basic requirements have remained unaltered, the philosophy of implementation has been subject to change, influenced by the experiences of other national light sources, and the emerging availability of commercial equipment, suited to the needs of DIAMOND. This paper focuses in greatest detail on the storage ring systems, including data acquisition and control. Details of Total Current Monitor (TCM) systems, and an active, beam position based interlock system for protecting ID vessels against thermal damage, by beam mis-steer, are also included.

  20. High-energy synchrotron X-ray radiography of shock-compressed materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rutherford, Michael E.; Chapman, David J.; Collinson, Mark A.; Jones, David R.; Music, Jasmina; Stafford, Samuel J. P.; Tear, Gareth R.; White, Thomas G.; Winters, John B. R.; Drakopoulos, Michael; Eakins, Daniel E.

    2015-06-01

    This presentation will discuss the development and application of a high-energy (50 to 250 keV) synchrotron X-ray imaging method to study shock-compressed, high-Z samples at Beamline I12 at the Diamond Light Source synchrotron (Rutherford-Appleton Laboratory, UK). Shock waves are driven into materials using a portable, single-stage gas gun designed by the Institute of Shock Physics. Following plate impact, material deformation is probed in-situ by white-beam X-ray radiography and complimentary velocimetry diagnostics. The high energies, large beam size (13 x 13 mm), and appreciable sample volumes (~ 1 cm3) viable for study at Beamline I12 compliment existing in-house pulsed X-ray capabilities and studies at the Dynamic Compression Sector. The authors gratefully acknowledge the ongoing support of Imperial College London, EPSRC, STFC and the Diamond Light Source, and AWE Plc.

  1. Picosecond pump-probe using an FEL and a synchrotron source

    SciTech Connect

    Denbeaux, G.; Straub, K.D.; Madey, J.M.J.

    1995-12-31

    Two color pump-probe experiments using both the Duke Storage Ring as a synchrotron light source for visible light the Mark III FEL as a tunable, high peak power IR source are possible. The visible synchrotron source can be used as a probe of vibrational excitation from the FEL in an experiment using vibrationally-assisted fluorescence as an indicator of overlap of the IR and the visible pulses. An optical delay line in the FEL beam will allow adjustment of the arrival time of the IR pulse relative to the visible probe. The storage ring RF booster and the Mark III FEL RF sources will be both driven by the same master oscillator with a timing jitter between sources of less than 20 psec. Exploration of coupling between electronic excitation and lifetimes of vibrational excitation of fluorescent compounds in solution can be carried out with this configuration.

  2. Three-dimensional rendering of otolith growth using phase contrast synchrotron tomography.

    PubMed

    Mapp, J J I; Fisher, M H; Atwood, R C; Bell, G D; Greco, M K; Songer, S; Hunter, E

    2016-05-01

    A three-dimensional computer reconstruction of a plaice Pleuronectes platessa otolith is presented from data acquired by the Diamond Light synchrotron, beamline I12, X-ray source, a high energy (53-150 keV) source particularly well suited to the study of dense objects. The data allowed non-destructive rendering of otolith structure, and for the first time allows otolith annuli (internal ring structures) to be analysed in X-ray tomographic images. PMID:27071346

  3. New Setup To Study Trapped Nano-Particles Using Synchrotron Radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Grimm, M.; Langer, B.; Schlemmer, S.; Lischke, T.; Becker, U.; Widdra, W.; Gerlich, D.; Ruehl, E.

    2004-05-12

    A novel setup is presented that is suitable to investigate the change of the properties of a single trapped nanoparticle by charging it with monochromatic synchrotron radiation. The particles are stored for long time periods that reach up to days without any contact to a substrate in the center of a three dimensional electrodynamic quadrupole trap. The accurate Q/M value is derived from the oscillatory motion of the particle in the trap recorded via scattering of visible light.

  4. In-situ Diffraction Study of Magnetite at Simultaneous High Pressure and High Temperature Using Synchrotron Radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, L.; Zhang, J.; Wang, S.; Chen, H.; Zhao, Y.

    2014-12-01

    Magnetite intertwined with the evolution of human civilizations, and remains so today. It is technologically and scientifically important by virtue of its unique magnetic and electrical properties. Magnetite is a common mineral found in a variety of geologic environments, and plays an important role in deciphering the oxygen evolution in the Earth's atmosphere and its deep interiors. The latter application asks for the knowledge of the thermal and elastic properties of magnetite at high pressures and temperatures, which is currently not available in literature. We have carried out a few in-situ diffraction experiments on magnetite using white synchrotron radiation at beamline X17B2 of National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS). A DIA module in an 1100-ton press and WC anvils were employed for compression, and diffraction spectra were collected at simultaneous high pressures (P) and temperatures (T) (up to 9 GPa and 900 oC). Mixture of amorphous boron and epoxy resin was used as pressure medium, and NaCl as pressure marker. Temperature was recorded by W-Re thermocouples. Commercially purchased magnetite powder and a mixture of the said powder and NaCl (1:1) were used as starting material in separate experiments. Preliminary data analyses have yielded following observations: (1) Charge disordering seen at ambient pressure remains active in current experiments, especially at lower pressures (< 6 GPa); (2) Though at each condition potentially complicated by charge disordering process, isothermal compression curves remains simple and reproducible; (3) During cooling, the reversibility and degree of cation disordering depend on the starting material and/or experimental P-T path; and (4) cation disordering notably reduces the apparent bulk moduli of magnetite.

  5. Subacute Neuropathological Effects of Microplanar Beams of X-Rays from a Synchrotron Wiggler

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slatkin, D. N.; Spanne, P.; Dilmanian, F. A.; Gebbers, J.-O.; Laissue, J. A.

    1995-09-01

    Microplanar beam radiation therapy has been proposed to treat brain tumors by using a series of rapid exposures to an array of parallel x-ray beams, each beam having uniform microscopic thickness and macroscopic breadth (i.e., microplanar). Thirty-six rats were exposed head-on either to an upright 4-mm-high, 20- or 37-μ m-wide beam or to a horizontal 7-mm-wide, 42-μ m-high beam of mostly 32- to 126-keV, minimally divergent x-rays from the X17 wiggler at the National Synchrotron Light Source at Brookhaven National Laboratory. Parallel slices of the head, separated at either 75 or 200 μ m on center, were exposed sequentially at 310-650 grays (Gy) per second until each skin-entrance absorbed dose reached 312, 625, 1250, 2500, 5000, or 10,000 Gy. The rats were euthanized 2 weeks or 1 month later. Two rats with 10,000-Gy-entrance slices developed brain tissue necrosis. All the other 10,000- and 5000-Gy-entrance slices and some of the 2500- and 1250-Gy-entrance slices showed loss of neuronal and astrocytic nuclei and their perikarya. No other kind of brain damage was evident histologically in any rat with entrance absorbed doses <=5000 Gy. Brain tissues in and between all the 312- and 625-Gy-entrance slices appeared normal. This unusual resistance to necrosis is central to the rationale of microplanar beam radiation therapy for brain tumors.

  6. Subacute neuropathological effects of microplanar beams of x-rays from a synchrotron wiggler.

    PubMed

    Slatkin, D N; Spanne, P; Dilmanian, F A; Gebbers, J O; Laissue, J A

    1995-09-12

    Microplanar beam radiation therapy has been proposed to treat brain tumors by using a series of rapid exposures to an array of parallel x-ray beams, each beam having uniform microscopic thickness and macroscopic breadth (i.e., microplanar). Thirty-six rats were exposed head-on either to an upright 4-mm-high, 20- or 37-microns-wide beam or to a horizontal 7-mm-wide, 42-microns-high beam of mostly 32- to 126-keV, minimally divergent x-rays from the X17 wiggler at the National Synchrotron Light Source at Brookhaven National Laboratory. Parallel slices of the head, separated at either 75 or 200 microns on center, were exposed sequentially at 310-650 grays (Gy) per second until each skin-entrance absorbed dose reached 312, 625, 1250, 2500, 5000, or 10,000 Gy. The rats were euthanized 2 weeks or 1 month later. Two rats with 10,000-Gy-entrance slices developed brain tissue necrosis. All the other 10,000- and 5000-Gy-entrance slices and some of the 2500- and 1250-Gy-entrance slices showed loss of neuronal and astrocytic nuclei and their perikarya. No other kind of brain damage was evident histologically in any rat with entrance absorbed doses < or = 5000 Gy. Brain tissues in and between all the 312- and 625-Gy-entrance slices appeared normal. This unusual resistance to necrosis is central to the rationale of microplanar beam radiation therapy for brain tumors.

  7. A summary of explorations into the use of green light for high-gain, high-yield experiments on the National Ignition Facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suter, L. J.; Glenzer, S.; Haan, S.; Hammel, B.; Manes, K.; Meezan, N.; Moody, J.; Spaeth, M.; Oades, K.; Stevenson, M.

    2004-12-01

    For several years we have been exploring the possibility of using green (2ω) light for indirect drive ignition on National Ignition Facility (NIF). This paper is a comprehensive review of our progress in this investigation and was the subject of a Teller lecture when one of the authors (LJS) was honoured with the Edward Teller Medal at the IFSA03 conference on September 12th, 2003, at Monterey, CA. While much of the work presented here has been previously published (Suter L.J. et al 2004 Phys. Plasmas 11 2738) and is included for completeness of the review, this paper also includes new research examining the possibility of higher temperature (300 eV) ignition hohlraums driven by green light (section 7).

  8. Determination of the occurrence of gold in an unoxidized Carlin-type ore sample using synchrotron radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, J.R.; Chao, E.C.T.; Minkin, J.A.; Back, J.M.; Bagby, W.C.; Rivers, M.L.; Sutton, S.R.; Hanson, A.L.; Jones, K.W.

    1986-01-01

    The occurrence of the so-called invisible gold in two unoxidized Carlin-type gold samples from Nevada have been determined using synchrotron x-ray fluorescence (SXRF) analysis at the National Sychrotron Light Source, Brookhaven National Laboratory. The samples were a bedded sample from the east ore zone of the Carlin deposit and a breccia sample from Horse Canyon. Preliminary results show that gold is found only in the Horse Canyon breccia sample. Experimental details including other x-ray line and diffraction peak interferences, standards used, and minimum detection limits (MDLs) are discussed. Gold was not detected in euhedral pyrite crystals except in the interior porous portion of one grain with MDLs of 0.8 to 3 ppM. Gold was detected in some parts of the matrix. The phase which contains gold has not yet been identified. The highest content of gold so far analyzed is about 40 ppM. Implications of these new findings are discussed. 2 figs.

  9. Fracture mechanics by three-dimensional crack-tip synchrotron X-ray microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Withers, P. J.

    2015-01-01

    To better understand the relationship between the nucleation and growth of defects and the local stresses and phase changes that cause them, we need both imaging and stress mapping. Here, we explore how this can be achieved by bringing together synchrotron X-ray diffraction and tomographic imaging. Conventionally, these are undertaken on separate synchrotron beamlines; however, instruments capable of both imaging and diffraction are beginning to emerge, such as ID15 at the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility and JEEP at the Diamond Light Source. This review explores the concept of three-dimensional crack-tip X-ray microscopy, bringing them together to probe the crack-tip behaviour under realistic environmental and loading conditions and to extract quantitative fracture mechanics information about the local crack-tip environment. X-ray diffraction provides information about the crack-tip stress field, phase transformations, plastic zone and crack-face tractions and forces. Time-lapse CT, besides providing information about the three-dimensional nature of the crack and its local growth rate, can also provide information as to the activation of extrinsic toughening mechanisms such as crack deflection, crack-tip zone shielding, crack bridging and crack closure. It is shown how crack-tip microscopy allows a quantitative measure of the crack-tip driving force via the stress intensity factor or the crack-tip opening displacement. Finally, further opportunities for synchrotron X-ray microscopy are explored. PMID:25624521

  10. Calibration of scintillation-light filters for neutron time-of-flight spectrometers at the National Ignition Facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sayre, D. B.; Barbosa, F.; Caggiano, J. A.; DiPuccio, V. N.; Eckart, M. J.; Grim, G. P.; Hartouni, E. P.; Hatarik, R.; Weber, F. A.

    2016-11-01

    Sixty-four neutral density filters constructed of metal plates with 88 apertures of varying diameter have been radiographed with a soft x-ray source and CCD camera at National Security Technologies, Livermore. An analysis of the radiographs fits the radial dependence of the apertures' image intensities to sigmoid functions, which can describe the rapidly decreasing intensity towards the apertures' edges. The fitted image intensities determine the relative attenuation value of each filter. Absolute attenuation values of several imaged filters, measured in situ during calibration experiments, normalize the relative quantities which are now used in analyses of neutron spectrometer data at the National Ignition Facility.

  11. INTERMEDIATE-ENERGY LIGHT SOURCES

    SciTech Connect

    Corbett, William

    2002-11-25

    Increasingly, atomic scale information underlies scientific and technological progress in disciplines ranging from pharmaceutical development to materials synthesis to environmental remediation. While a variety of research tools are used to provide atomic scale information, synchrotron radiation has proved invaluable in this quest. The rapid growth of soft- and hard X-ray synchrotron light sources stands as stark testimony to the importance and utility of synchrotron radiation. Starting from just a handful of synchrotron light sources in the early 1970s, this burgeoning field now includes over 70 proposed, in-construction, or operating facilities in 23 countries on five continents. Along the way, synchrotron light facilities have evolved from small laboratories extracting light parasitically from storage rings designed for high-energy physics research to large, dedicated sources using the latest technology to produce extraordinarily bright photon beams. The basic layout of a multi-GeV storage ring light source employs periodic bending magnets to guide a charged particle beam around the storage ring. As the charged beam is accelerated in an arc, it produces a sweeping fan of synchrotron radiation that extends from the infrared part of the electromagnetic spectrum (<1 eV) to hard X rays (>20 keV). Quadrupole magnets keep the electrons tightly focused, and a radio-frequency acceleration system replenishes beam energy lost to radiation emission. To optimize the output radiation, a premium is placed on high current electron beams with small cross section and extreme position stability. Magnetic insertion devices are used to further enhance radiation output by a factor of 10 or more over bend magnet sources. The storage ring vacuum chamber includes exit ports to allow portions of the radiation fan to propagate down photon beam transport lines to optical systems and experimental stations. A typical storage ring features 10 or more such radiation ports. The photon beam

  12. Development of a microsecond X-ray protein footprinting facility at the Advanced Light Source

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Sayan; Celestre, Richard; Petzold, Christopher J.; Chance, Mark R.; Ralston, Corie

    2014-01-01

    X-ray footprinting (XF) is an important structural biology tool used to determine macromolecular conformations and dynamics of both nucleic acids and proteins in solution on a wide range of timescales. With the impending shut-down of the National Synchrotron Light Source, it is ever more important that this tool continues to be developed at other synchrotron facilities to accommodate XF users. Toward this end, a collaborative XF program has been initiated at the Advanced Light Source using the white-light bending-magnet beamlines 5.3.1 and 3.2.1. Accessibility of the microsecond time regime for protein footprinting is demonstrated at beamline 5.3.1 using the high flux density provided by a focusing mirror in combination with a micro-capillary flow cell. It is further reported that, by saturating samples with nitrous oxide, the radiolytic labeling efficiency is increased and the imprints of bound versus bulk water can be distinguished. These results both demonstrate the suitability of the Advanced Light Source as a second home for the XF experiment, and pave the way for obtaining high-quality structural data on complex protein samples and dynamics information on the microsecond timescale. PMID:24971962

  13. Special Analysis for the Disposal of the Idaho National Laboratory Unirradiated Light Water Breeder Reactor Rods and Pellets Waste Stream at the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site, Nevada National Security Site, Nye County, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Shott, Gregory

    2014-08-31

    The purpose of this special analysis (SA) is to determine if the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) Unirradiated Light Water Breeder Reactor (LWBR) Rods and Pellets waste stream (INEL103597TR2, Revision 2) is suitable for disposal by shallow land burial (SLB) at the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site (RWMS). The INL Unirradiated LWBR Rods and Pellets waste stream consists of 24 containers with unirradiated fabricated rods and pellets composed of uranium oxide (UO2) and thorium oxide (ThO2) fuel in zirconium cladding. The INL Unirradiated LWBR Rods and Pellets waste stream requires an SA because the 229Th, 230Th, 232U, 233U, and 234U activity concentrations exceed the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS) Waste Acceptance Criteria (WAC) Action Levels.

  14. Phase contrast portal imaging using synchrotron radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Umetani, K.; Kondoh, T.

    2014-07-15

    Microbeam radiation therapy is an experimental form of radiation treatment with great potential to improve the treatment of many types of cancer. We applied a synchrotron radiation phase contrast technique to portal imaging to improve targeting accuracy for microbeam radiation therapy in experiments using small animals. An X-ray imaging detector was installed 6.0 m downstream from an object to produce a high-contrast edge enhancement effect in propagation-based phase contrast imaging. Images of a mouse head sample were obtained using therapeutic white synchrotron radiation with a mean beam energy of 130 keV. Compared to conventional portal images, remarkably clear images of bones surrounding the cerebrum were acquired in an air environment for positioning brain lesions with respect to the skull structure without confusion with overlapping surface structures.

  15. Phase contrast portal imaging using synchrotron radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Umetani, K.; Kondoh, T.

    2014-07-01

    Microbeam radiation therapy is an experimental form of radiation treatment with great potential to improve the treatment of many types of cancer. We applied a synchrotron radiation phase contrast technique to portal imaging to improve targeting accuracy for microbeam radiation therapy in experiments using small animals. An X-ray imaging detector was installed 6.0 m downstream from an object to produce a high-contrast edge enhancement effect in propagation-based phase contrast imaging. Images of a mouse head sample were obtained using therapeutic white synchrotron radiation with a mean beam energy of 130 keV. Compared to conventional portal images, remarkably clear images of bones surrounding the cerebrum were acquired in an air environment for positioning brain lesions with respect to the skull structure without confusion with overlapping surface structures.

  16. Resonant diffraction of synchrotron radiation: New possibilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ovchinnikova, E. N.; Mukhamedzhanov, E. Kh.

    2016-09-01

    Resonant diffraction of synchrotron radiation (SR) is a modern method of studying the structure and properties of condensed matter that can be implemented on third-generation synchrotrons. This method allows one to investigate local properties of media (including magnetic and electronic ones) and observe thermal vibrations, defects, and orbital and charge orderings. A brief review of the advance provided by SR resonant diffraction is presented, and the capabilities of this method for analyzing phase transitions are considered in more detail by the example of potassium dihydrogen phosphate and rubidium dihydrogen phosphate crystals. It is shown that the investigation of the temperature dependence of forbidden reflections not only makes it possible to observe the transition from para- to ferroelectric phase, but also gives information about the proton distribution at hydrogen bonds.

  17. Transverse damping systems in modern synchrotrons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhabitsky, V. M.

    2006-12-01

    Transverse feedback systems for suppression of transverse coherent beam oscillations are used in modern synchrotrons for preventing the development of transverse instabilities and damping residual beam oscillations after injection. Information on damper systems for the Large Hadron Collider (LHC; CERN, Geneva) and the accelerator complex FAIR (GSI, Darmstadt) is presented. The project for the LHC is being performed at the Laboratory of Particle Physics of the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research in collaboration with CERN. The information concerning the state of the project and the plans of its completion at the LHC is given. The results of the first design activity on transverse damping systems at the SIS100 and SIS300 synchrotrons, to be created in the framework of the new international project FAIR, are presented.

  18. High-energy gamma-ray beams from Compton-backscattered laser light

    SciTech Connect

    Sandorfi, A.M.; LeVine, M.J.; Thorn, C.E.; Giordano, G.; Matone, G.

    1983-01-01

    Collisions of light photons with relativistic electrons have previously been used to produce polarized ..gamma..-ray beams with modest (-10%) resolution but relatively low intensity. In contrast, the LEGS project (Laser + Electron Gamma Source) at Brookhaven will produce a very high flux (>2 x 10/sup 7/ s/sup -1/) of background-free polarized ..gamma.. rays whose energy will be determined to a high accuracy (..delta..E = 2.3 MeV). Initially, 300(420)-MeV ..gamma.. rays will be produced by backscattering uv light from the new 2.5(3.0)-GeV X-ray storage ring of the National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS). The LEGS facility will operate as one of many passive users of the NSLS. In a later stage of the project, a Free Electron Laser is expectred to extend the ..gamma..-ray energy up to 700 MeV.

  19. Microangiography in Living Mice Using Synchrotron Radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Yuan Falei; Wang Yongting; Xie Bohua; Tang Yaohui; Guan Yongjing; Lu Haiyan; Yang Guoyuan; Xie Honglan; Du Guohao; Xiao Tiqiao

    2010-07-23

    Traditionally, there are no methods available to detect the fine morphologic changes of cerebrovasculature in small living animals such as rats and mice. Newly developed synchrotron radiation microangiography can achieve a fine resolution of several micrometers and had provided us with a powerful tool to study the cerebral vasculature in small animals. The purpose of this study is to identify the morphology of cerebrovasculature especially the structure of Lenticulostriate arteries (LSAs) in living mice using the synchrotron radiation source at Shanghai Synchrotron Radiation Facility (SSRF) in Shanghai, China. Adult CD-1 mice weighing 35-40 grams were anesthetized. Nonionic iodine (Omnipaque, 350 mg I /mL) was used as a contrast agent. The study was performed at the BL13W1 beam line at SSRF. The beam line was derived from a storage ring of electrons with an accelerated energy of 3.5 GeV and an average beam current of 200 mA. X-ray energy of 33.3 keV was used to produce the highest contrast image. Images were acquired every 172 ms by a x-ray camera (Photonic-Science VHR 1.38) with a resolution of 13 {mu}m/pixel. The optimal dose of contrast agent is 100 {mu}l per injection and the injecting rate is 33 {mu}l/sec. The best position for imaging is to have the mouse lay on its right or left side, with ventral side facing the X-ray source. We observed the lenticulostriate artery for the first time in living mice. Our result show that there are 4 to 5 lenticulostriate branches originating from the root of middle cerebral artery in each hemisphere. LSAs have an average diameter of 43{+-}6.8 {mu}m. There were no differences between LSAs from the left and right hemisphere (p<0.05). These results suggest that synchrotron radiation may provide a unique tool for experimental stroke research.

  20. Diffraction imaging (topography) with monochromatic synchrotron radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Steiner, B.; Kuriyama, M.; Dobbyn, R.C.; Laor, U.

    1988-01-01

    Structural information of special interest to crystal growers and device physicists is now available from high resolution monochromatic synchrotron diffraction imaging (topography). In the review, the importance of superior resolution in momentum transfer and in space is described, and illustrations are taken from a variety of crystals: gallium arsenide, cadmium telluride, mercuric iodide, bismuth silicon oxide, and lithium niobate. The identification and understanding of local variations in crystal growth processes are shown. Finally, new experimental opportunities now available for exploitation are indicated.

  1. The time variability of Jupiter's synchrotron radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bolton, Scott Jay

    1991-02-01

    The time variability of the Jovian synchrotron emission is investigated by analyzing radio observations of Jupiter at decimetric wavelengths. The observations are composed from two distinct sets of measurements addressing both short term (days to weeks) and long term (months to years) variability. The study of long term variations utilizes a set of measurements made several times each month with the NASA Deep Space Network (DNS) antennas operating at 2295 MHz (13.1 cm). The DSN data set, covering 1971 through 1985, is compared with a set of measurements of the solar wind from a number of Earth orbiting spacecraft. The analysis indicates a maximum correlation between the synchrotron emission and the solar wind ram pressure with a two year time lag. Physical mechanisms affecting the synchrotron emission are discussed with an emphasis on radial diffusion. Calculations are performed that suggest the correlation is consistent with inward adiabatic diffusion of solar wind particles driven by Brice's model of ionospheric neutral wind convection (Brice 1972). The implication is that the solar wind could be a source of particles of Jupiter's radiation belts. The investigation of short term variability focuses on a three year Jupiter observing program using the University of California's Hat Creek radio telescope operating at 1400 MHz (21 cm). Measurements are made every two days during the months surrounding opposition. Results from the three year program suggest short term variability near the 10-20 percent level but should be considered inconclusive due to scheduling and observational limitations. A discussion of magneto-spheric processes on short term timescales identifies wave-particle interactions as a candidate source. Further analysis finds that the short term variations could be related to whistler mode wave-particles interactions in the radiation belts associated with atmospheric lightning on Jupiter. However, theoretical calculations on wave particle interactions

  2. Coherent synchrotron radiation: Theory and experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Courtland L. Bohn

    2002-07-19

    Our understanding of the generation of coherent synchrotron radiation in magnetic bending systems and its impact on beam dynamics has grown considerably over the past few years. The search for understanding has brought a number of surprises, all related to the complexity of the fully self-consistent problem. Herein I survey the associated phenomenology, theory, and experiments while emphasizing important subtleties that have recently been uncovered. I conclude by speculating on courses of future investigations that may prove fruitful.

  3. Magnets for high intensity proton synchrotrons

    SciTech Connect

    Jean-Francois Ostiguy, Vladimir Kashikhine and Alexander Makarov

    2002-09-19

    Recently, there has been considerable interest at Fermilab for the Proton Driver, a future high intensity proton machine. Various scenarios are under consideration, including a superconducting linac. Each scenario present some special challenges. We describe here the magnets proposed in a recent study, the Proton Driver Study II, which assumes a conventional warm synchrotron, roughly of the size of the existing FNAL booster, but capable of delivering 380 kW at 8 GeV.

  4. Constraining supersymmetric dark matter with synchrotron measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Hooper, Dan

    2008-06-15

    The annihilations of neutralino dark matter (or other dark matter candidate) generate, among other standard model states, electrons and positrons. These particles emit synchrotron photons as a result of their interaction with the galactic magnetic field. In this paper, we use the measurements of the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe satellite to constrain the intensity of this synchrotron emission and, in turn, the annihilation cross section of the lightest neutralino. We find this constraint to be more stringent than that provided by any other current indirect detection channel. In particular, the neutralino annihilation cross section must be less than {approx_equal}3x10{sup -26} cm{sup 3}/s (1x10{sup 25} cm{sup 3}/s) for 100 GeV (500 GeV) neutralinos distributed with a Navarro-Frenk-White halo profile. For the conservative case of an entirely flat dark matter distribution within the inner 8 kiloparsecs of the Milky Way, the constraint is approximately a factor of 30 less stringent. Even in this conservative case, synchrotron measurements strongly constrain, for example, the possibility of wino or Higgsino neutralino dark matter produced nonthermally in the early universe.

  5. MICROANALYSIS OF MATERIALS USING SYNCHROTRON RADIATION.

    SciTech Connect

    JONES,K.W.; FENG,H.

    2000-12-01

    High intensity synchrotron radiation produces photons with wavelengths that extend from the infrared to hard x rays with energies of hundreds of keV with uniquely high photon intensities that can be used to determine the composition and properties of materials using a variety of techniques. Most of these techniques represent extensions of earlier work performed with ordinary tube-type x-ray sources. The properties of the synchrotron source such as the continuous range of energy, high degree of photon polarization, pulsed beams, and photon flux many orders of magnitude higher than from x-ray tubes have made possible major advances in the possible chemical applications. We describe here ways that materials analyses can be made using the high intensity beams for measurements with small beam sizes and/or high detection sensitivity. The relevant characteristics of synchrotron x-ray sources are briefly summarized to give an idea of the x-ray parameters to be exploited. The experimental techniques considered include x-ray fluorescence, absorption, and diffraction. Examples of typical experimental apparatus used in these experiments are considered together with descriptions of actual applications.

  6. Thermal issues associated with the HVAC and lighting systems influences on the performance of the national ignition facility beam transport tubes

    SciTech Connect

    Bernardin, J.D.; Parietti, L.; Martin, R.A.

    1998-01-01

    This report summarizes an investigation of the thermal issues related to the National Ignition Facility. In particular, the influences of the HVAC system and lighting fixtures on the operational performance of the laser guide beam tubes are reviewed and discussed. An analytical model of the oscillating HVAC air temperatures in the NIF switchyard and target bay will cause significant amounts of beam distortion. However, these negative effects can be drastically reduced by adding thermal insulation to the outside of the beam tubes. A computational fluid dynamics model and an analytical investigation found that the light-fixture to beam-tube separation distance must be on the order of 5.7 m (18.7 ft) to maintain acceptable beam operating performance in the current NIF design. By reducing the fluorescent light fixture power by 33% this separation distance can be reduced to 3.5 m (11.5 ft). If in addition, thermal insulation with a reflective aluminum foil covering is added to the outside of the beam tubes, the separation distance can be reduced further to 1.6m (5.2 ft). A 1.27 cm (0.5 in.) rigid foam insulation sheet with aluminum foil covering will provide adequate insulation for the beam tubes in the NIF switchyards and target bay. The material cost for this amount of insulation would be roughly $30,000.

  7. Examining the relationship between atmospheric aerosols and light extinction at Mount Rainier and North Cascades National Parks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malm, W. C.; Gebhart, K. A.; Molenar, J.; Cahill, T.; Eldred, R.; Huffman, D.

    During the summer of 1990, the National Park Service carried out a study in the state of Washington called the Pacific Northwest Regional Visibility Experiment using Natural Tracers (PREVENT). The goal of the study was to apportion atmospheric aerosols to scattering and extinction and to source types at Mount Rainier and North Cascades National Parks. The study was designed to collect all necessary emissions, meteorology, ambient concentrations, and atmospheric optical data necessary to support a variety of source attribution techniques. This paper will report on the apportionment of various aerosol species to measured fine mass concentrations and ambient scattering coefficients. One highlight of this study was the near-ambient measurement of atmospheric scattering with a modified integrating nephelometer. It is therefore possible to explore the relationship between hygroscopic aerosols and scattering in the ambient atmosphere.

  8. School Lighting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rennhackkamp, W. M. H.

    Research gathered by the Functional Efficiency Division of the National Building Research Institute, South Africa, is aimed at providing lighting conditions under which the school child can produce his maximum effort with the least strain and fatigue. These favorable conditions are outlined along with specific examples of their realization in…

  9. High Resolution X-Ray Diffraction of Macromolecules with Synchrotron Radiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stojanoff, Vivian; Boggon, Titus; Helliwell, John R.; Judge, Russell; Olczak, Alex; Snell, Edward H.; Siddons, D. Peter; Rose, M. Franklin (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    We recently combined synchrotron-based monochromatic X-ray diffraction topography methods with triple axis diffractometry and rocking curve measurements: high resolution X-ray diffraction imaging techniques, to better understand the quality of protein crystals. We discuss these methods in the light of results obtained on crystals grown under different conditions. These non destructive techniques are powerful tools in the characterization of the protein crystals and ultimately will allow to improve, develop, and understand protein crystal growth. High resolution X-ray diffraction imaging methods will be discussed in detail in light of recent results obtained on Hen Egg White Lysozyme crystals and other proteins.

  10. Biological X-ray spectroscopy on 3rd generation synchrotron radiation sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ralston, Corie Y.; Chen, Jie; Peng, Gang; George, Simon J.; van Elp, Jan; Cramer, Stephen P.

    1995-02-01

    Third generation synchrotron radiation sources such as the Advanced Light Source (ALS) at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory deliver 1-2 orders of magnitude more monochromatic flux (and many orders of magnitude higher brightness) than previously available. This paper describes the ring and existing beamlines of the advanced light source, and plans for crystallography and elliptical wiggler stations are discussed. Using nickel metalloprotein spectra recorded at NSLS and SSRL as examples, this paper describes how the higher monochromatic flux available from the ALS will be used for biological soft X-ray spectroscopy.

  11. Biological applications of synchrotron radiation infrared spectromicroscopy.

    PubMed

    Marcelli, Augusto; Cricenti, Antonio; Kwiatek, Wojciech M; Petibois, Cyril

    2012-01-01

    Extremely brilliant infrared (IR) beams provided by synchrotron radiation sources are now routinely used in many facilities with available commercial spectrometers coupled to IR microscopes. Using these intense non-thermal sources, a brilliance two or three order of magnitude higher than a conventional source is achievable through small pinholes (<10 μm) with a high signal to-noise ratio. IR spectroscopy is a powerful technique to investigate biological systems and offers many new imaging opportunities. The field of infrared biological imaging covers a wide range of fundamental issues and applied researches such as cell imaging or tissue imaging. Molecular maps with a spatial resolution down to the diffraction limit may be now obtained with a synchrotron radiation IR source also on thick samples. Moreover, changes of the protein structure are detectable in an IR spectrum and cellular molecular markers can be identified and used to recognize a pathological status of a tissue. Molecular structure and functions are strongly correlated and this aspect is particularly relevant for imaging. We will show that the brilliance of synchrotron radiation IR sources may enhance the sensitivity of a molecular signal obtained from small biosamples, e.g., a single cell, containing extremely small amounts of organic matter. We will also show that SR IR sources allow to study chemical composition and to identify the distribution of organic molecules in cells at submicron resolution is possible with a high signal-to-noise ratio. Moreover, the recent availability of two-dimensional IR detectors promises to push forward imaging capabilities in the time domain. Indeed, with a high current synchrotron radiation facility and a Focal Plane Array the chemical imaging of individual cells can be obtained in a few minutes. Within this framework important results are expected in the next years using synchrotron radiation and Free Electron Laser (FEL) sources for spectro-microscopy and spectral

  12. Synchrotron Self-Compton Emission from the Crab and Other Pulsars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harding, Alice K.; Kalapotharakos, Konstantinos

    2015-01-01

    Results of a simulation of synchrotron-self Compton (SSC) emission from a rotation-powered pulsar are presented. The radiating particles are assumed to be both accelerated primary electrons and a spectrum of electron-positron pairs produced in cascades near the polar cap. They follow trajectories in a slot gap using 3D force-free magnetic field geometry, gaining pitch angles through resonant cyclotron absorption of radio photons, radiating and scattering synchrotron emission at high altitudes out to and beyond the light cylinder. Full angular dependence of the synchrotron photon density is simulated in the scattering and all processes are treated in the inertial observer frame. Spectra for the Crab and Vela pulsars as well as two energetic millisecond pulsars, B1821-24 and B1937+21 are simulated using this model. The simulation of the Crab pulsar radiation can reproduce both the flux level and the shape of the observed optical to hard X-ray emission assuming a pair multiplicity of M+ = 3x10(exp 5), as well as the very-high- energy emission above 50 GeV detected by MAGIC and VERITAS, with both the synchrotron and SSC components reflecting the shape of the pair spectrum. Simulations of Vela, B1821-24 and B1937+21, for M+ up to 10(exp 5), do not produce pair SSC emission that is detectable by current telescopes, indicating that only Crab-like pulsars produce significant SSC components. The pair synchrotron emission matches the observed X-ray spectrum of the millisecond pulsars and the predicted peak of this emission at 1-10 MeV would be detectable with planned Compton telescopes.

  13. Ecdysis period of Rhodnius prolixus head investigated using phase contrast synchrotron microtomography.

    PubMed

    Sena, G; Nogueira, L P; Braz, D; Almeida, A P; Gonzalez, M S; Azambuja, P; Colaço, M V; Barroso, R C

    2016-06-01

    Microtomography using synchrotron sources is a useful tool in biological imaging research since the phase coherence of synchrotron beams can be exploited to obtain images with high contrast resolution. This work is part of a series of works using phase contrast synchrotron microtomography in the study of Rhodnius prolixus head, the insect vector of Chagas' disease, responsible for about 12,000 deaths per year. The control of insect vector is the most efficient method to prevent this disease and studies have shown that the use of triflumuron, a chitin synthesis inhibitor, disrupted chitin synthesis during larval development and it's an alternative method against insect pests. The aim of this work was to investigate the biological effects of treatments with triflumuron in the ecdysis period (the moulting of the R. prolixus cuticle) using the new imaging beamline IMX at LNLS (Brazilian Synchrotron Light Laboratory). Nymphs of R. prolixus were taken from the Laboratory of Biochemistry and Physiology of Insects, Oswaldo Cruz Foundation, Brazil. Doses of 0.05mg of triflumuron were applied directly to the abdomen on half of the insects immediately after feeding. The insects were sacrificed 25days after feeding (intermoulting period) and fixed with glutaraldehyde. The results obtained using phase contrast synchrotron microtomography in R. prolixus showed amazing images of the effects of triflumuron on insects in the ecdysis period, and the formation of the new cuticle on those which were not treated with triflumuron. Both formation and malformation of this insect's cuticle have never been seen before with this technique. PMID:27184550

  14. Theory of Microwave Instability and Coherent Synchrotron Radiation in Electron Storage Rings

    SciTech Connect

    Cai, Y.; /SLAC

    2011-12-09

    Bursting of coherent synchrotron radiation has been observed and in fact used to generate THz radiation in many electron storage rings. In order to understand and control the bursting, we return to the study of the microwave instability. In this paper, we will report on the theoretical understanding, including recent developments, of the microwave instability in electron storage rings. The historical progress of the theories will be surveyed, starting from the dispersion relation of coasting beams, to the work of Sacherer on a bunched beam, and ending with the Oide and Yokoya method of discretization. This theoretical survey will be supplemented with key experimental results over the years. Finally, we will describe the recent theoretical development of utilizing the Laguerre polynomials in the presence of potential-well distortion. This self-consistent method will be applied to study the microwave instability driven the impedances due to the coherent synchrotron radiation. Over the past quarter century, there has been steady progress toward smaller transverse emittances in electron storage rings used for synchrotron light sources, from tens of nm decades ago to the nm range recently. In contrast, there is not much progress made in the longitudinal plane. For an electron bunch in a typical ring, its relative energy spread {sigma}{sub {delta}} remains about 10{sup -3} and its length {sigma}{sub z} is still in between 5 mm to 10 mm. Now the longitudinal emittance ({sigma}{sub {delta}}{sigma}{sub z}) becomes a factor of thousand larger than those in the transverse dimensions. In this paper, we will address questions of: How short a bunch can be? What is the fundamental limit? If there is a limit, is there any mitigation method? Since the synchrotron radiation is so fundamental in electron storage rings, let us start with the coherent synchrotron radiation (CSR).

  15. Synchrotron radiation circular dichroism (SRCD) spectroscopy: An emerging method in structural biology for examining protein conformations and protein interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wallace, B. A.; Gekko, Kunihiko; Vrønning Hoffmann, Søren; Lin, Yi-Hung; Sutherland, John C.; Tao, Ye; Wien, Frank; Janes, Robert W.

    2011-09-01

    Circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy is a well-established technique in structural biology. The use of synchrotron radiation as an intense light source for these measurements extends the applications possible using lab-based instruments. In recent years, there has been a major growth in synchrotron radiation circular dichroism (SRCD) beamlines worldwide, including ones at the NSLS, ISA, SRS, HiSOR, BSRF, NSRRC, SOLEIL, Diamond, TERAS, BESSYII, and ANKA synchrotrons. Through the coordinated efforts of beamline scientists and users at these sites, important proof-of-principle studies have been done enabling the method to be developed for novel and productive studies on biological systems. This paper describes the characteristics of SRCD beamlines and some of the new types of applications that have been undertaken using these beamlines.

  16. A synchrotron beamline for delivering high purity vacuum ultraviolet photons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cavasso Filho, R. L.; Homen, M. G. P.; Fonseca, P. T.; Naves de Brito, A.

    2007-11-01

    We report on the current status and performance of the toroidal grating monochromator beamline at the Brazilian Synchrotron Light Laboratory (Laboratório Nacional de Luz Síncrotron). This beamline provides photons in the vacuum ultraviolet and soft x-ray regions from 12to330eV with three interchangeable gratings. We report on the improvement, which allows the possibility of choosing the light polarization degree from linear to almost circular. Here, we also describe the development of a new apparatus, namely, the mirror-inserted harmonic attenuator and calibrating-device with a long length (MIRHACLLE). All beamlines based on diffraction gratings suffer from the problem of high harmonics contaminations to some extent. The MIRHACLLE provides a way to efficiently suppress high harmonics from 25% to 1ppm in a grazing incidence bending magnet beamline. Its principle of operation relays on the absorption of the high energy photons in a gas phase region. It allows negligible high harmonics contamination for photon energies ranging from 12eV to the gas first ionization threshold, 21.6eV, in the case of neon. We also demonstrate the possibility to use this device for energy calibration and resolution evaluation together with any experiment needing its filtering capabilities. The device is also very cost effective compared to other filters presented previously in the literature.

  17. THE SYNCHROTRON EMISSION MECHANISM IN THE RECENTLY DETECTED VERY HIGH ENERGY RADIATION FROM THE CRAB PULSAR

    SciTech Connect

    George, Machabeli; Zaza, Osmanov E-mail: z.osmanov@astro-ge.org

    2009-08-01

    Interpretation of the recently discovered very high energy (VHE) pulsed emission from the Crab pulsar is presented. By taking into account the fact that Crab pulsar's radiation for the optical and VHE spectrum peak at the same phases, we argue that the source of this broadband emission is spatially localized. It is shown that the only mechanism providing the results of the MAGIC Cherenkov telescope should be synchrotron radiation. We find that in the magnetospheric electron-positron plasma, due to the cyclotron instability, the pitch angle becomes non-vanishing, which leads to an efficient synchrotron mechanism, intensifying on the light cylinder length scales. We also estimate the VHE radiation spectral index to be equal to -1/2.

  18. Photoelectron and photodissociation studies of free atoms and molecules, using synchrotron radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Medhurst, L.J.

    1991-11-01

    High resolution synchrotron radiation and Zero-Kinetic-Energy Photoelectron spectroscopy were used to study two-electron transitions in atomic systems at their ionization thresholds. Using this same technique the core-ionized mainline and satellite states of N{sub 2} and CO were studied with vibrational resolution. Vibrationally resolved synchrotron radiation was used to study the dissociation of N{sub 2}, C{sub 2}H{sub 4}, and CH{sub 3}Cl near the N 1s and C 1s thresholds. The photoelectron satellites of the argon 3s, krypton 4s and xenon 4d subshells were studied with zero kinetic energy photoelectron spectroscopy at their ionization thresholds. In all of these cases, satellites with lower binding energies are enhanced at their thresholds while those closer to the double ionization threshold are suppressed relative to their intensities at high incident light energies.

  19. Applications of infrared synchrotron radiation to microanalysis of advanced composite systems

    SciTech Connect

    Meilunas, R.; Carr, G.L.; Tobin, A.

    1995-12-31

    The utility of characterizing both polymer and ceramic matrix composites, using the enhanced sensitivity provided by an infrared microscope integrated with a synchrotron light source, is investigated. It is shown that by substitution of the conventional infrared globar source in the microscope with high brightness IR synchrotron radiation, an increase in spectral sensitivity for both microtransmission and microreflectance can be obtained over significantly reduced sampling (aperture) areas. The improved microreflectance capability is found to considerably simplify the characterization of structural composites by eliminating the difficult microtome sectioning typically required for IR microanalysis over small (< 10 x 10 micron) sample areas. Application of the technique to thermo-oxidative stability studies of polyimide / carbon fiber composite and silicon carboxide glass (Blackglas) / Nextel fiber ceramic matrix composite systems is presented.

  20. Orbit correction using an eigenvector method with constraints for synchrotron radiation sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harada, Kentaro; Obina, Takashi; Kobayashi, Yukinori; Nakamura, Norio; Takaki, Hiroyuki; Sakai, Hiroshi

    2009-06-01

    An eigenvector method with constraints (EVC) is proposed as a new orbit correction scheme for synchrotron light sources. EVC efficiently corrects the global orbit in a storage ring, and can simultaneously perform exact correction of local orbits without deterioration of the global orbit. To demonstrate the advantages of EVC over the ordinary eigenvector method (EV), we carried out experimental studies at the Photon Factory storage ring (PF-ring) and the Photon Factory Advanced Ring (PF-AR) at the High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK). The performance of EVC was systematically examined at PF-ring and PF-AR. The experimental results agreed well with the simulated ones. Consequently, we confirmed that EVC easily realized orbit correction for both global and local orbits, and that it was very effective for the beam stabilization of synchrotron radiation (SR) sources.

  1. Fabrication of an 8:1 ellipsoidal mirror for a synchrotron x-ray microprobe

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, K.W.; Takacs, P.Z.; Hastings, J.B.; Casstevens, J.M.; Pionke, C.D.

    1987-01-11

    The fabrication of an 8:1 demagnifying ellipsoidal mirror to be used for an x-ray microprobe at the National Synchrotron Light Source X-26 beam port is described. The design aim was to produce a mirror that could be used over the photon energy range from about 3 to 17 keV. The 300-mm long mirror was required to operate at a grazing angle of 5 mr. The semimajor axis was 4500 mm and the semiminor axis 14.142 mm. Surface roughness of 1 nm or less and slope errors of 1 arc second parallel to the long axis and 200 arc seconds parallel to the short direction were specified. Production of the first electroless nickel-coated aluminum mirror using a diamond-turning technique has been completed. The mirror meets the 1 arc sec surface figure specification except for areas near the ends of the mirror. The reasons for these deviations arise from subtle details of the diamond-turning process which have not been fully incorporated in to the computer program that controls the diamond-turning machines. Further work in computer correction of repeatable errors of the diamond-turning machine can eliminate the waviness at the ends of the mirror. The diamond-turned mirror surface was not fully polished under this effort and therefore does not meet the roughness specification; however, surface smoothness of a fully polished cylindrical mirror manufactured using the same techniques does not meet the specification. It can be concluded that it is now technically feasible to meet the required specifications for the mirror and that the x-ray microprobe based on its use can be achieved.

  2. Atomic photoelectron-spectroscopy studies using synchrotron radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Kobrin, P.H.

    1983-02-01

    Photoelectron spectroscopy combined with tunable synchrotron radiation has been used to study the photoionization process in several atomic systems. The time structure of the synchrotron radiation source at the Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory (SSRL) was used to record time-of-flight (TOF) photoelectron spectra of gaseous Cd, Hg, Ne, Ar, Ba, and Mn. The use of two TOF analyzers made possible the measurement of photoelectron angular distributions as well as branching ratios and partial cross sections.

  3. Impact of synchrotron radiation on macromolecular crystallography: a personal view

    PubMed Central

    Dauter, Zbigniew; Jaskolski, Mariusz; Wlodawer, Alexander

    2010-01-01

    The introduction of synchrotron radiation sources almost four decades ago has led to a revolutionary change in the way that diffraction data from macromolecular crystals are being collected. Here a brief history of the development of methodologies that took advantage of the availability of synchrotron sources are presented, and some personal experiences with the utilization of synchrotrons in the early days are recalled. PMID:20567074

  4. A Synchrotron-Based Facility for the in-situ Location, Chemical and Mineralogical Characterization of ~10 um Particles Captured in Aerogel

    SciTech Connect

    Flynn, G.; Sutton, S; Lanzirotti, A

    2009-01-01

    NASA's Stardust mission collected dust from the coma of Comet Wild-2 on January 2nd, 2004, by direct capture into aerogel cells that flew through the dust coma at 6 km/s. Stardust collected several hundred comet particles >10 {mu}m in size. These comet samples were delivered to Earth on January 15th, 2006. We developed a facility at the National Synchrotron Light Source at Brookhaven National Laboratory (Upton, NY, USA) for the in-situ characterization of 10 {mu}m particles collected in aerogel. These analytical instruments allow us to perform extensive chemical, mineralogical, and size-frequency characterization of particles captured in aerogel. These analyses are conducted without any invasive extraction, minimizing the possibility of contamination or particle loss during preparation. This facility was used to determine the chemical composition, the oxidation state, the mineralogy and to provide an indication of the grain size of the Wild-2 particles before they were removed from the aerogel. This information provides a catalog of particle types, allowing a more reasoned allocation of the particles to subsequent investigators based on a relatively detailed knowledge of the chemical composition and mineralogy of each particle. These measurements allowed a comparison of the chemical and mineralogical properties of the Wild-2 particles with other types of extraterrestrial materials, including interplanetary dust particles and meteorites. The success of in-situ analysis for Wild 2 particles demonstrates that synchrotron-based facilities will be important for the analysis of particles collected in aerogel on future earth-orbiting satellites and spacecraft.

  5. Synthetic ultraviolet light filtering chemical contamination of coastal waters of Virgin Islands national park, St. John, U.S. Virgin Islands.

    PubMed

    Bargar, Timothy A; Alvarez, David A; Garrison, Virginia H

    2015-12-15

    Contamination of surface waters by synthetic ultraviolet light (UV) filtering chemicals is a concern for the Virgin Islands National Park (VINP). Discrete water samples were collected from VINP bays to determine UV filter chemical presence in the coastal waters. Spatial distribution and the potential for partitioning between subsurface waters and the sea surface microlayer (SML) were also examined. The UV filter chemicals 4-methylbenzylidene camphor, benzophenone-3, octinoxate, homosalate, and octocrylene were detected at concentrations up to 6073 ng/L (benzophenone-3). Concentrations for benzophenone-3 and homosalate declined exponentially (r(2)=0.86 to 0.98) with distance from the beach. Limited data indicate that some UV filter chemicals may partition to the SML relative to the subsurface waters. Contamination of VINP coastal waters by UV filter chemicals may be a significant issue, but an improved understanding of the temporal and spatial variability of their concentrations would be necessary to better understand the risk they present. PMID:26581812

  6. Synthetic ultraviolet light filtering chemical contamination of coastal waters of Virgin Islands National Park, St. John, U.S. Virgin Islands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bargar, Timothy A.; Alvarez, David; Garrison, Virginia H.

    2015-01-01

    Contamination of surface waters by synthetic ultraviolet light (UV) filtering chemicals is a concern for the Virgin Islands National Park (VINP). Discrete water samples were collected from VINP bays to determine UV filter chemical presence in the coastal waters. Spatial distribution and the potential for partitioning between subsurface waters and the sea surface microlayer (SML) were also examined. The UV filter chemicals 4-methylbenzylidene camphor, benzophenone-3, octinoxate, homosalate, and octocrylene were detected at concentrations up to 6073 ng/L (benzophenone-3). Concentrations for benzophenone-3 and homosalate declined exponentially (r2 = 0.86 to 0.98) with distance from the beach. Limited data indicate that some UV filter chemicals may partition to the SML relative to the subsurface waters. Contamination of VINP coastal waters by UV filter chemicals may be a significant issue, but an improved understanding of the temporal and spatial variability of their concentrations would be necessary to better understand the risk they present.

  7. Synthetic ultraviolet light filtering chemical contamination of coastal waters of Virgin Islands national park, St. John, U.S. Virgin Islands.

    PubMed

    Bargar, Timothy A; Alvarez, David A; Garrison, Virginia H

    2015-12-15

    Contamination of surface waters by synthetic ultraviolet light (UV) filtering chemicals is a concern for the Virgin Islands National Park (VINP). Discrete water samples were collected from VINP bays to determine UV filter chemical presence in the coastal waters. Spatial distribution and the potential for partitioning between subsurface waters and the sea surface microlayer (SML) were also examined. The UV filter chemicals 4-methylbenzylidene camphor, benzophenone-3, octinoxate, homosalate, and octocrylene were detected at concentrations up to 6073 ng/L (benzophenone-3). Concentrations for benzophenone-3 and homosalate declined exponentially (r(2)=0.86 to 0.98) with distance from the beach. Limited data indicate that some UV filter chemicals may partition to the SML relative to the subsurface waters. Contamination of VINP coastal waters by UV filter chemicals may be a significant issue, but an improved understanding of the temporal and spatial variability of their concentrations would be necessary to better understand the risk they present.

  8. Laser synchrotron radiation and beam cooling

    SciTech Connect

    Esarey, E.; Sprangle, P.; Ting, A.

    1995-12-31

    The interaction of intense {approx_gt} 10{sup 18} W/cm{sup 2}, short pulse ({approx_lt} 1 ps) lasers with electron beams and plasmas can lead to the generation of harmonic radiation by several mechanisms. Laser synchrotron radiation may provide a practical method for generating tunable, near monochromatic, well collimated, short pulse x-rays in compact, relatively inexpensive source. The mechanism for the generation of laser synchrotron radiation is nonlinear Thomson scattering. Short wavelengths can be generated via Thomson scattering by two methods, (i) backscattering from relativistic electron beams, in which the radiation frequency is upshifted by the relativistic factor 4{gamma}{sup 2}, and (ii) harmonic scattering, in which a multitude of harmonics are generated with harmonic numbers extending out to the critical harmonic number nc{approx_equal}a{sub 0}{sup 3} {much_gt} 1, where a{sub 0} {approx_equal}10{sup -9}{lambda}I{sup 1/2}, {lambda} is the laser wavelength in {mu}m and I is the laser intensity in W/cm{sup 2}. Laser synchrotron sources are capable of generating short ({approx_lt} ps) x-ray pulses with high peak flux ({approx_gt} 10{sup 21} photons/s) and brightness ({approx_gt}{sup 19} photons/s-mm{sup 2}-mrad{sup 2} 0.1%BW. As the electron beam radiates via Thomson scattering, it can subsequently be cooled, i.e., the beam emittance and energy spread can be reduced. This cooling can occur on rapid ({approximately} ps) time scales. In addition, electron distributions with sufficiently small axial energy spreads can be used to generate coherent XUV radiation via a laser-pumped FEL mechanism.

  9. Ampicillin Trihydrate from Synchrotron Powder Diffraction Data

    SciTech Connect

    Burley,J.; van de Streek, J.; Stephens, P.

    2006-01-01

    The crystal structure of ampicillin trihydrate {l_brace}systematic name: 6-[D(-)-{alpha}-aminophenylacetamido]penicillanic acid trihydrate{r_brace}, C{sub 16}H{sub 19}N{sub 3}O{sub 4}S{center_dot}3H{sub 2}O, a broad-spectrum {beta}-lactam antibiotic of the aminopenicillin type, has been determined from synchrotron X-ray powder diffraction data. The three water molecules form an infinite hydrogen-bonded chain through the crystal structure, with hydrogen bonds to the NH{sub 3}{sup +}, COO{sup -}, C{double_bond}O and NH groups of the ampicillin molecules.

  10. Synchrotron-Radiation-Based Moessbauer Spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Seto, Makoto; Masuda, Ryo; Mitsui, Takaya; Higashitaniguchi, Satoshi; Kitao, Shinji; Kobayashi, Yasuhiro; Inaba, Chika; Yoda, Yoshitaka

    2009-05-29

    We have developed a new method that yields Moessbauer absorption spectra using synchrotron radiation (SR); this method is applicable for almost all Moessbauer nuclides including those that cannot be measured by previous methods using radioisotope (RI) sources. The Moessbauer spectrum of the 68.752 keV excited state of {sup 73}Ge, which cannot be measured using a RI source, was measured using SR. Our results show that this method can be used to perform advanced Moessbauer spectroscopy measurements owing to the excellent features of SR.

  11. Variable-Period Undulators For Synchrotron Radiation

    DOEpatents

    Shenoy, Gopal; Lewellen, John; Shu, Deming; Vinokurov, Nikolai

    2005-02-22

    A new and improved undulator design is provided that enables a variable period length for the production of synchrotron radiation from both medium-energy and high-energy storage rings. The variable period length is achieved using a staggered array of pole pieces made up of high permeability material, permanent magnet material, or an electromagnetic structure. The pole pieces are separated by a variable width space. The sum of the variable width space and the pole width would therefore define the period of the undulator. Features and advantages of the invention include broad photon energy tunability, constant power operation and constant brilliance operation.

  12. Synchrotron beam coherence: a spatially resolved measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tran, C. Q.; Peele, A. G.; Roberts, A.; Nugent, K. A.; Paterson, D.; McNulty, I.

    2005-01-01

    We report a precise and spatially resolved measurement of the complex degree of coherence of a one-dimensional 1.5-keV beam produced by a third-generation synchrotron source. The method of phase-space tomography is used, which requires only measurements of the x-ray intensity. We find that the field is statistically stationary to within experimental error, the correlations are very well approximated by a Gaussian distribution, and the measured coherence length is in excellent agreement with expectations.

  13. Bent approximations to synchrotron radiation optics

    SciTech Connect

    Heald, S.

    1981-01-01

    Ideal optical elements can be approximated by bending flats or cylinders. This paper considers the applications of these approximate optics to synchrotron radiation. Analytic and raytracing studies are used to compare their optical performance with the corresponding ideal elements. It is found that for many applications the performance is adequate, with the additional advantages of lower cost and greater flexibility. Particular emphasis is placed on obtaining the practical limitations on the use of the approximate elements in typical beamline configurations. Also considered are the possibilities for approximating very long length mirrors using segmented mirrors.

  14. Spherical quartz crystals investigated with synchrotron radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Pereira, N. R.; Macrander, A. T.; Hill, K. W.; Baronova, E. O.; George, K. M.; Kotick, J.

    2015-10-15

    The quality of x-ray spectra and images obtained from plasmas with spherically bent crystals depends in part on the crystal’s x-ray diffraction across the entire crystal surface. We employ the energy selectivity and high intensity of synchrotron radiation to examine typical spherical crystals from alpha-quartz for their diffraction quality, in a perpendicular geometry that is particularly convenient to examine sagittal focusing. The crystal’s local diffraction is not ideal: the most noticeable problems come from isolated regions that so far have failed to correlate with visible imperfections. Excluding diffraction from such problem spots has little effect on the focus beyond a decrease in background.

  15. Aspherical lens shapes for focusing synchrotron beams.

    PubMed

    Sanchez del Rio, Manuel; Alianelli, Lucia

    2012-05-01

    Aspherical surfaces required for focusing collimated and divergent synchrotron beams using a single refractive element (lens) are reviewed. The Cartesian oval, a lens shape that produces perfect point-to-point focusing for monochromatic radiation, is studied in the context of X-ray beamlines. Optical surfaces that approximate ideal shapes are compared. Results are supported by ray-tracing simulations. Elliptical lenses, rather than parabolic, are preferred for nanofocusing X-rays because of the higher peak and lower tails in the intensity distribution. Cartesian ovals will improve the gain when using high-demagnification lenses of high numerical aperture. PMID:22514171

  16. Variable-Period Undulators for Synchrotron Radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Shenoy, Gopal; Lewellen, John; Shu, Deming; Vinokurov, Nikolai

    2005-02-22

    A new and improved undulator design is provided that enables a variable period length for the production of synchrotron radiation from both medium-energy and high energy storage rings. The variable period length is achieved using a staggered array of pole pieces made up of high permeability material, permanent magnet material, or an electromagnetic structure. The pole pieces are separated by a variable width space. The sum of the variable width space and the pole width would therefore define the period of the undulator. Features and advantages of the invention include broad photon energy tunability, constant power operation and constant brilliance operation.

  17. Synchrotron and Synchrotron Self-Compton Spectral Signatures and Blazar Emission Models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chiang, James; Boettcher, Markus; White, Nicholas E. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    We find that energy losses due to synchrotron self-Compton (BBC) emission in Blazar jets can produce distinctive signatures in the time-averaged synchrotron and SSC spectra of these objects. For a fairly broad range of particle injection distributions, SSC-loss-dominated synchrotron emission exhibits a spectral dependence Fv approximately v (exp -3/2). The presence or absence of this dependence in the optical and ultraviolet spectra of flat-spectrum radio quasars such as PC 279 and in the soft X-ray spectra of high-frequency BL Lac objects such as Mark 501 gives a robust measure of the importance of SSC losses. Furthermore, for partially cooled particle distributions, spectral breaks of varying sizes can appear in the synchrotron and SSC spectra and will be related to the spectral indices of the emission below the break. These spectral signatures place constraints on the size scale and the nonthermal particle content of the emitting plasma, as well as the observer orientation relative to the jet axis.

  18. High-Speed Synchrotron X-ray Imaging Studies of the Ultrasound Shockwave and Enhanced Flow during Metal Solidification Processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, Dongyue; Lee, Tung Lik; Khong, Jia Chuan; Connolley, Thomas; Fezzaa, Kamel; Mi, Jiawei

    2015-07-01

    The highly dynamic behavior of ultrasonic bubble implosion in liquid metal, the multiphase liquid metal flow containing bubbles and particles, and the interaction between ultrasonic waves and semisolid phases during solidification of metal were studied in situ using the complementary ultrafast and high-speed synchrotron X-ray imaging facilities housed, respectively, at the Advanced Photon Source, Argonne National Laboratory, US, and Diamond Light Source, UK. Real-time ultrafast X-ray imaging of 135,780 frames per second revealed that ultrasonic bubble implosion in a liquid Bi-8 wt pctZn alloy can occur in a single wave period (30 kHz), and the effective region affected by the shockwave at implosion was 3.5 times the original bubble diameter. Furthermore, ultrasound bubbles in liquid metal move faster than the primary particles, and the velocity of bubbles is 70 ~ 100 pct higher than that of the primary particles present in the same locations close to the sonotrode. Ultrasound waves can very effectively create a strong swirling flow in a semisolid melt in less than one second. The energetic flow can detach solid particles from the liquid-solid interface and redistribute them back into the bulk liquid very effectively.

  19. ENVIROSUITE: USING STATE-OF-THE-ART SYNCHROTRON TECHNIQUES TO UNDERSTAND ENVIRONMENTAL REMEDIATION SCIENCE ISSUES AT THE MOLECULAR LEVEL.

    SciTech Connect

    FITTS,J.P.; KALB,P.D.; FRANCIS,A.J.; FUHRMANN,M.; DODGE,C.J.; GILLOW,J.B.

    2004-03-01

    Although DOE's Environmental Management program has made steady progress in cleaning up environmental legacies throughout the DOE complex, there are still significant remediation issues that remain to be solved. For example, DOE faces difficult challenges related to potential mobilization of radionuclides (e.g., actinides) and other hazardous contaminants in soils, removal and final treatment of high-level waste and residuals from leaking tanks, and the long-term stewardship of remediated sites and engineered disposal facilities, to name just a few. In some cases, new technologies and technology applications will be required based on current engineering expertise. In others, however, basic scientific research is needed to understand the mechanisms of how contaminants behave under specific conditions and how they interact with the environment, from which new engineering solutions can emerge. At Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) and Stony Brook University, scientists have teamed to use state-of-the-art synchrotron techniques to help understand the basic interactions of contaminants in the environment. Much of this work is conducted at the BNL National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS), which is a user facility that provides high energy X-ray and ultraviolet photon beams to facilitate the examination of contaminants and materials at the molecular level. These studies allow us to determine how chemical speciation and structure control important parameters such as solubility, which in turn drive critical performance characteristics such as leaching. In one study for example, we are examining the effects of microbial activity on actinide contaminants under conditions anticipated at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant. One possible outcome of this research is the identification of specific microbes that can trap uranium or other contaminants within the intracellular structure and help mitigate mobility. In another study, we are exploring the interaction of contaminants with

  20. Advanced Light Source: Activity report 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-11-01

    The Advanced Light Source (ALS) produces the world`s brightest light in the ultraviolet and soft x-ray regions of the spectrum. The first low-energy third-generation synchrotron source in the world, the ALS provides unprecedented opportunities for research in science and technology not possible anywhere else. This year marked the beginning of operations and the start of the user research program at the ALS, which has already produced numerous high quality results. A national user facility located at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory of the University of California, the ALS is available to researchers from academia, industry, and government laboratories. This report contains the following: (1) director`s message; (2) operations overview; (3) user program; (4) users` executive committee; (5) industrial outreach; (6) accelerator operations; (7) beamline control system; (8) insertion devices; (9) experimental systems; (10) beamline engineering; (11) first results from user beamlines; (12) beamlines for 1994--1995; (13) special events; (14) publications; (15) advisory panels; and (16) ALS staff.

  1. Superbend upgrade of the Advanced Light Source

    SciTech Connect

    Robin, D.; Krupnick, J.; Schlueter, R.; Steier, C.; Marks, S.; Wang, B.; Zbasnik, J.; Benjegerdes, R.; Biocca, A.; Bish, P.; Brown, W.; Byrne, W.; Chen, J.; Decking, W.; DeVries, J.; DeMarco, W.R.; Fahmie, M.; Geyer, A.; Harkins, J.; Henderson, T.; Hinkson, J.; Hoyer, E.; Hull, D.; Jacobson, S.; McDonald, J.; Molinari, P.; Mueller, R.; Nadolski, L.; Nishimura, H.; Nishimura, K.; Ottens, F.; Paterson, J.A.; Pipersky, P.; Portmann, G.; Richie, A.; Rossi, S.; Salvant, B.; Scarvie, T.; Schmidt,A.; Spring, J.; Taylor, C.; Thur, W.; Timossi, C.; Wandesforde, A.

    2004-05-26

    The Advanced Light Source (ALS) is a third generation synchrotron light source located at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL). There was an increasing demand at the ALS for additional high brightness hard x-ray beamlines in the 7 to 40 keV range. In response to that demand, the ALS storage ring was modified in August 2001. Three 1.3 Tesla normal conducting bending magnets were removed and replaced with three 5 Tesla superconducting magnets (Superbends). The radiation produced by these Superbends is an order of magnitude higher in photon brightness and flux at 12 keV than that of the 1.3 Tesla bends, making them excellent sources of hard x-rays for protein crystallography and other hard x-ray applications. At the same time the Superbends did not compromise the performance of the facility in the VUV and soft x-ray regions of the spectrum. The Superbends will eventually feed 12 new beamlines greatly enhancing the facility's capability and capacity in the hard x-ray region. The Superbend project is the biggest upgrade to the ALS storage ring since it was commissioned in 1993. In this paper we present an overview of the Superbend project, its challenges and the resulting impact on the ALS.

  2. The radiation measurement applied to beam lifetime study on the synchrotron radiation facilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yuxiong; Li, Juexin; Liu, Zuping; Cui, Yonggang; Gong, Guanghua; Shao, Beibei

    2003-06-01

    To collect beam loss information from an accelerator radiation field is helpful to machine study and operation. For a synchrotron radiation storage ring, shower electrons give a distinct clue to loss location and a BLM-XS model detector is suitable to detect them. Recently, we set up a new beam loss monitoring system by this method for National Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory (NSRL) storage ring. It does not interfere with the vacuum chamber and machine operation. Different from other systems, the detectors are used in pairs, fixed on opposite sides of the chamber separately. Some interesting phenomena about beam lifetime were observed. We located exactly where an excessive beam loss took place during ramping process and solved the problem. It was proved that gas accumulated at the front ends of photo-beam lines strongly impacted the electron beam and led to beam lifetime decreases. The cause of beam lifetime decrease because of superconducting wiggler is discussed.

  3. Nuclear Bragg scattering studies in [sup 57]Fe with synchrotron radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Haustein, P.E.

    1993-01-01

    Studies of nuclear Bragg x-ray scattering of synchrotron radiation, using crystals of [alpha]-[sup 57]Fe[sub 2]O[sub 3], have been carried out at the NSLS at Brookhaven National Laboratory and at the Cornell University CHESS facility. These studies have demonstrated that nuclear resonance states can be used to produce filtered x-ray beams which have extremely narrow bandwidth, small angular divergence and unique polarization and temporal properties. this combination of characteristics, unobtainable with radioactive sources, makes synchrotron-based Moessbauer spectroscopy feasible and is an important complement to existing methods. A review of the experimental methodology is presented. As well as come suggestions for fuller exploitation of this new technique.

  4. Nuclear Bragg scattering studies in {sup 57}Fe with synchrotron radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Haustein, P.E.

    1993-03-01

    Studies of nuclear Bragg x-ray scattering of synchrotron radiation, using crystals of {alpha}-{sup 57}Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}, have been carried out at the NSLS at Brookhaven National Laboratory and at the Cornell University CHESS facility. These studies have demonstrated that nuclear resonance states can be used to produce filtered x-ray beams which have extremely narrow bandwidth, small angular divergence and unique polarization and temporal properties. this combination of characteristics, unobtainable with radioactive sources, makes synchrotron-based Moessbauer spectroscopy feasible and is an important complement to existing methods. A review of the experimental methodology is presented. As well as come suggestions for fuller exploitation of this new technique.

  5. Synchrotron Facilities and Free Electron Lasers

    SciTech Connect

    Vaclav, Vylet; Liu, James; /SLAC

    2007-12-21

    Synchrotron radiation (SR) is electromagnetic radiation emitted when a charged particle travels along a curved trajectory. Initially encountered as a nuisance around orbits of high energy synchrotron accelerators, it gradually became an indispensable research tool in many applications: crystallography, X-ray lithography, micromechanics, structural biology, microprobe X-ray experiments, etc. So-called first generation SR sources were exploiting SR in parasitic mode at electron accelerators built to study particle collisions. The second generation of SR sources was the first facilities solely devoted to SR production. They were optimized to achieve stable high currents in the accelerator ring to achieve substantially higher photon flux and to provide a large number of SR beam lines for users. Third generation sources were further optimized for increased brilliance, i.e. with photons densely packed into a beam of very small cross-sectional area and minimal angular divergence (see the Appendix for more detailed definitions of flux, brightness and brilliance) and makes extensive use of the insertion devices such as wigglers and undulators. Free Electron Lasers (FELs), the fourth generation SR sources, open new research possibilities by offering extremely short pulses of extremely bright and coherent radiation. The number of SR sources around the world now probably exceeds 100. These facilities vary greatly in size, energy of the electron (or positron) beams, range of photon energies and other characteristics of the photon beams produced. In what follows we will concentrate on describing some common aspects of SR facilities, their operation modes and specific radiation protection aspects.

  6. Performances of BNL high-intensity synchrotrons

    SciTech Connect

    Weng, W.T.

    1998-03-01

    The AGS proton synchrotron was completed in 1960 with initial intensity in the 10 to the 10th power proton per pulse (ppp) range. Over the years, through many upgrades and improvements, the AGS now reached an intensity record of 6.3 {times} 10{sup 13} ppp, the highest world intensity record for a proton synchrotron on a single pulse basis. At the same time, the Booster reached 2.2 {times} 10{sup 13} ppp surpassing the design goal of 1.5 {times} 10{sup 13} ppp due to the introduction of second harmonic cavity during injection. The intensity limitation caused by space charge tune spread and its relationship to injection energy at 50 MeV, 200 MeV, and 1,500 MeV will be presented as well as many critical accelerator manipulations. BNL currently participates in the design of an accumulator ring for the SNS project at Oak Ridge. The status on the issues of halo formation, beam losses and collimation are also presented.

  7. Mapping prehistoric ghosts in the synchrotron

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edwards, N. P.; Wogelius, R. A.; Bergmann, U.; Larson, P.; Sellers, W. I.; Manning, P. L.

    2013-04-01

    The detailed chemical analysis of fossils has the potential to reveal great insight to the composition, preservation and biochemistry of ancient life. Such analyses would ideally identify, quantify, and spatially resolve the chemical composition of preserved bone and soft tissue structures, but also the embedding matrix. Mapping the chemistry of a fossil in situ can place constraints on mass transfer between the enclosing matrix and the preserved organism(s), and therefore aid in distinguishing taphonomic processes from original chemical zonation remnant within the fossils themselves. Conventional analytical methods, such as scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and pyrolysis-gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (Py-GC/MS) have serious limitations in this case, primarily, an inability to provide large (i.e., decimeter) scale chemical maps. Additionally, vacuum chamber size and the need for destructive sampling preclude analysis of large and precious fossil specimens. However, the recent development of Synchrotron Rapid Scanning X-ray Fluorescence (SRS-XRF) at the Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Lightsource (SSRL) allows the non-destructive chemical analysis and imaging of major, minor, and trace element concentrations of large paleontological and archeological specimens in rapid scanning times. Here we present elemental maps of a fossil reptile produced using the new SRS-XRF method. Our results unequivocally show that preserved biological structures are not simply impressions or carbonized remains, but possess a remnant of the original organismal biochemistry. We show that SRS-XRF is a powerful new tool for the study of paleontological and archaeological samples.

  8. Thermal loading considerations for synchrotron radiation mirrors

    SciTech Connect

    Holdener, F.R.; Berglin, E.J.; Fuchs, B.A.; Humpal, H.H.; Karpenko, V.P.; Martin, R.W.; Tirsell, K.G.

    1986-03-26

    Grazing incidence mirrors used to focus synchrotron radiation beams through small distant apertures have severe optical requirements. The surface distortion due to heat loading of the first mirror in a bending magnet beam line is of particular concern when a large fraction of the incident beam is absorbed. In this paper we discuss mirror design considerations involved in minimizing the thermal/mechanical loading on vertically deflecting first surface mirrors required for SPEAR synchrotron radiation beam lines. Topics include selection of mirror material and cooling method, the choice of SiC for the substrate, optimization of the thickness, and the design of the mirror holder and cooling mechanism. Results obtained using two-dimensional, finite-element thermal/mechanical distortion analysis are presented for the case of a 6/sup 0/ grazing incidence SiC mirror absorbing up to 260 W at Beam Line VIII on the SPEAR ring. Test descriptions and results are given for the material used to thermally couple this SiC mirror to a water-cooled block. The interface material is limited to applications for which the equivalent normal heat load is less than 20 W/cm/sup 2/.

  9. Beam halo collimation in heavy ion synchrotrons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strašík, I.; Prokhorov, I.; Boine-Frankenheim, O.

    2015-08-01

    This paper presents a systematic study of the halo collimation of ion beams from proton up to uranium in synchrotrons. The projected Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research synchrotron SIS100 is used as a reference case. The concepts are separated into fully stripped (e.g., 238U92+ ) and partially stripped (e.g., 238U28+ ) ion collimation. An application of the two-stage betatron collimation system, well established for proton accelerators, is intended also for fully stripped ions. The two-stage system consists of a primary collimator (a scattering foil) and secondary collimators (bulky absorbers). Interaction of the particles with the primary collimator (scattering, momentum losses, and nuclear interactions) was simulated by using fluka. Particle-tracking simulations were performed by using mad-x. Finally, the dependence of the collimation efficiency on the primary ion species was determined. The influence of the collimation system adjustment, lattice imperfections, and beam parameters was estimated. The concept for the collimation of partially stripped ions employs a thin stripping foil in order to change their charge state. These ions are subsequently deflected towards a dump location using a beam optical element. The charge state distribution after the stripping foil was obtained from global. The ions were tracked by using mad-x.

  10. Producing Light Oil from a Frozen Reservoir: Reservoir and Fluid Characterization of Umiat Field, National Petroleum Reserve, Alaska

    SciTech Connect

    Hanks, Catherine

    2012-12-31

    Umiat oil field is a light oil in a shallow, frozen reservoir in the Brooks Range foothills of northern Alaska with estimated oil-in-place of over 1 billion barrels. Umiat field was discovered in the 1940’s but was never considered viable because it is shallow, in the permafrost, and far from any transportation infrastructure. The advent of modern drilling and production techniques has made Umiat and similar fields in northern Alaska attractive exploration and production targets. Since 2008 UAF has been working with Renaissance Alaska Inc. and, more recently, Linc Energy, to develop a more robust reservoir model that can be combined with rock and fluid property data to simulate potential production techniques. This work will be used to by Linc Energy as they prepare to drill up to 5 horizontal wells during the 2012-2013 drilling season. This new work identified three potential reservoir horizons within the Cretaceous Nanushuk Formation: the Upper and Lower Grandstand sands, and the overlying Ninuluk sand, with the Lower Grandstand considered the primary target. Seals are provided by thick interlayered shales. Reserve estimates for the Lower Grandstand alone range from 739 million barrels to 2437 million barrels, with an average of 1527 million bbls. Reservoir simulations predict that cold gas injection from a wagon-wheel pattern of multilateral injectors and producers located on 5 drill sites on the crest of the structure will yield 12-15% recovery, with actual recovery depending upon the injection pressure used, the actual Kv/Kh encountered, and other geologic factors. Key to understanding the flow behavior of the Umiat reservoir is determining the permeability structure of the sands. Sandstones of the Cretaceous Nanushuk Formation consist of mixed shoreface and deltaic sandstones and mudstones. A core-based study of the sedimentary facies of these sands combined with outcrop observations identified six distinct facies associations with distinctive permeability

  11. Current status and perspectives of synchrotron radiation in medicine

    SciTech Connect

    Thomlinson, W.

    1996-11-01

    The high flux and brightness, tunable beams, time structure and polarization of synchrotron radiation provide an ideal x-ray source for many medical applications. The present status of synchrotron angiography, multiple energy computed tomography, mammography and radiation therapy at laboratories around the world is reviewed and some future projections for these applications are addressed.

  12. Third generation synchrotron radiation applied to materials science

    SciTech Connect

    Kaufmann, E.N.; Yun, W.

    1993-11-01

    Utility of synchrotron radiation for characterization of materials and ramifications of availability of new third-generation, high-energy, high-intensity sources of synchrotron radiation are discussed. Examples are given of power of x-ray analysis techniques to be expected with these new machines.

  13. Comments on Landau damping due to synchrotron frequency spread

    SciTech Connect

    Ng, K.Y.; /Fermilab

    2005-01-01

    An inductive/space-charge impedance shifts the synchrotron frequency downwards above/below transition, but it is often said that the coherent synchrotron frequency of the bunch is not shifted in the rigid-dipole mode. On the other hand, the incoherent synchrotron frequency due to the sinusoidal rf always spreads in the downward direction. This spread will therefore not be able to cover the coherent synchrotron frequency, implying that there will not be any Landau damping no matter how large the frequency spread is. By studying the dispersion relation, it is shown that the above argument is incorrect, and there will be Landau damping if there is sufficient frequency spread. The main reason is that the coherent frequency of the rigid-dipole mode will no longer remain unshifted in the presence of a synchrotron frequency spread.

  14. Nanofocusing optics for synchrotron radiation made from polycrystalline diamond.

    PubMed

    Fox, O J L; Alianelli, L; Malik, A M; Pape, I; May, P W; Sawhney, K J S

    2014-04-01

    Diamond possesses many extreme properties that make it an ideal material for fabricating nanofocusing x-ray optics. Refractive lenses made from diamond are able to focus x-ray radiation with high efficiency but without compromising the brilliance of the beam. Electron-beam lithography and deep reactive-ion etching of silicon substrates have been used in a transfer-molding technique to fabricate diamond optics with vertical and smooth sidewalls. Latest generation compound refractive lenses have seen an improvement in the quality and uniformity of the optical structures, resulting in an increase in their focusing ability. Synchrotron beamline tests of two recent lens arrays, corresponding to two different diamond morphologies, are described. Focal line-widths down to 210 nm, using a nanocrystalline diamond lens array and a beam energy of E = 11 keV, and 230 nm, using a microcrystalline diamond lens at E = 15 keV, have been measured using the Diamond Light Source Ltd. B16 beamline. This focusing prowess is combined with relatively high transmission through the lenses compared with silicon refractive designs and other diffractive optics. PMID:24718141

  15. Theory of electromagnetic insertion devices and the corresponding synchrotron radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shumail, Muhammad; Tantawi, Sami G.

    2016-07-01

    Permanent magnet insertion devices (IDs), which are the main radiation generating devices in synchrotron light sources and free-electron lasers, use a time-invariant but space-periodic magnetic field to wiggle relativistic electrons for short-wavelength radiation generation. Recently, a high power microwave based undulator has also been successfully demonstrated at SLAC which promises the advantage of dynamic tunability of radiation spectrum and polarization. Such IDs employ transverse elecromagnetic fields which are periodic in both space and time to undulate the electrons. In this paper we develop a detailed theory of the principle of electromagnetic IDs from first principles for both linear and circular polarization modes. The electromagnetic equivalent definitions of undulator period (λu) and undulator deflection parameter (K ) are derived. In the inertial frame where the average momentum of the electron is zero, we obtain the figure-8-like trajectory for the linear polarization mode and the circular trajectory for the circular polarization mode. The corresponding radiation spectra and the intensity of harmonics is also calculated.

  16. Characterization of a next-generation piezo bimorph X-ray mirror for synchrotron beamlines

    PubMed Central

    Alcock, Simon G.; Nistea, Ioana; Sutter, John P.; Sawhney, Kawal; Fermé, Jean-Jacques; Thellièr, Christophe; Peverini, Luca

    2015-01-01

    Piezo bimorph mirrors are versatile active optics used on many synchrotron beamlines. However, many bimorphs suffer from the ‘junction effect’: a periodic deformation of the optical surface which causes major aberrations to the reflected X-ray beam. This effect is linked to the construction of such mirrors, where piezo ceramics are glued directly below the thin optical substrate. In order to address this problem, a next-generation bimorph with piezos bonded to the side faces of a monolithic substrate was developed at Thales-SESO and optimized at Diamond Light Source. Using metrology feedback from the Diamond-NOM, the optical slope error was reduced to ∼0.5 µrad r.m.s. for a range of ellipses. To maximize usability, a novel holder was built to accommodate the substrate in any orientation. When replacing a first-generation bimorph on a synchrotron beamline, the new mirror significantly improved the size and shape of the reflected X-ray beam. Most importantly, there was no evidence of the junction effect even after eight months of continuous beamline usage. It is hoped that this new design will reinvigorate the use of active bimorph optics at synchrotron and free-electron laser facilities to manipulate and correct X-ray wavefronts. PMID:25537582

  17. Characterization of a next-generation piezo bimorph X-ray mirror for synchrotron beamlines.

    PubMed

    Alcock, Simon G; Nistea, Ioana; Sutter, John P; Sawhney, Kawal; Fermé, Jean Jacques; Thellièr, Christophe; Peverini, Luca

    2015-01-01

    Piezo bimorph mirrors are versatile active optics used on many synchrotron beamlines. However, many bimorphs suffer from the `junction effect': a periodic deformation of the optical surface which causes major aberrations to the reflected X-ray beam. This effect is linked to the construction of such mirrors, where piezo ceramics are glued directly below the thin optical substrate. In order to address this problem, a next-generation bimorph with piezos bonded to the side faces of a monolithic substrate was developed at Thales-SESO and optimized at Diamond Light Source. Using metrology feedback from the Diamond-NOM, the optical slope error was reduced to ∼ 0.5 µrad r.m.s. for a range of ellipses. To maximize usability, a novel holder was built to accommodate the substrate in any orientation. When replacing a first-generation bimorph on a synchrotron beamline, the new mirror significantly improved the size and shape of the reflected X-ray beam. Most importantly, there was no evidence of the junction effect even after eight months of continuous beamline usage. It is hoped that this new design will reinvigorate the use of active bimorph optics at synchrotron and free-electron laser facilities to manipulate and correct X-ray wavefronts.

  18. Accounting for low-frequency synchrotron X-ray beam position fluctuations for dynamic visualizations.

    PubMed

    Hinebaugh, J; Challa, P R; Bazylak, A

    2012-11-01

    Synchrotron X-ray radiography on beamline 05B1-1 at the Canadian Light Source Inc. was employed to study dynamic liquid water transport in the porous electrode materials of polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells. Dynamic liquid water distributions were quantified for each radiograph in a sequence, and non-physical liquid water measurements were obtained. It was determined that the position of the beam oscillated vertically with an amplitude of ~25 µm at the sample and a frequency of ~50 mHz. In addition, the mean beam position moved linearly in the vertical direction at a rate of 0.74 µm s(-1). No evidence of horizontal oscillations was detected. In this work a technique is presented to account for the temporal and spatial dependence of synchrotron beam intensity, which resulted in a significant reduction in false water thickness. This work provides valuable insight into the treatment of radiographic time-series for capturing dynamic processes from synchrotron radiation.

  19. Vela Pulsar and Its Synchrotron Nebula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Helfand, D. J.; Gotthelf, E. V.; Halpern, J. P.

    2001-07-01

    We present high-resolution Chandra X-ray observations of PSR B0833-45, the 89 ms pulsar associated with the Vela supernova remnant. We have acquired two observations separated by 1 month to search for changes in the pulsar and its environment following an extreme glitch in its rotation frequency. We find a well-resolved nebula with a toroidal morphology remarkably similar to that observed in the Crab Nebula, along with an axial Crab-like jet. Between the two observations, taken ~3×105 s and ~3×106 s after the glitch, the flux from the pulsar is found to be steady to within 0.75% the 3 σ limit on the fractional increase in the pulsar's X-ray flux is <~10-5 of the inferred glitch energy. We use this limit to constrain parameters of glitch models and neutron star structure. We do find a significant increase in the flux of the nebula's outer arc; if associated with the glitch, the inferred propagation velocity is >~0.7c, similar to that seen in the brightening of the Crab Nebula wisps. We propose an explanation for the X-ray structure of the Vela synchrotron nebula based on a model originally developed for the Crab Nebula. In this model, the bright X-ray arcs are the shocked termination of a relativistic equatorial pulsar wind that is contained within the surrounding kidney-bean shaped synchrotron nebula comprising the postshock, but still relativistic, flow. In a departure from the Crab model, the magnetization parameter σ of the Vela pulsar wind is allowed to be of order unity; this is consistent with the simplest MHD transport of magnetic field from the pulsar to the nebula, where B<=4×10-4 G. The inclination angle of the axis of the equatorial torus with respect to the line of sight is identical to that of the rotation axis of the pulsar as previously measured from the polarization of the radio pulse. The projection of the rotation axis on the sky may also be close to the direction of proper motion of the pulsar if previous radio measurements were confused by

  20. New Homogeneous Standards by Atomic Layer Deposition for Synchrotron X-ray Fluorescence and Absorption Spectroscopies.

    SciTech Connect

    Butterworth, A.L.; Becker, N.; Gainsforth, Z.; Lanzirotti, A.; Newville, M.; Proslier, T.; Stodolna, J.; Sutton, S.; Tyliszczak, T.; Westphal, A.J.; Zasadzinski, J.

    2012-03-13

    Quantification of synchrotron XRF analyses is typically done through comparisons with measurements on the NIST SRM 1832/1833 thin film standards. Unfortunately, these standards are inhomogeneous on small scales at the tens of percent level. We are synthesizing new homogeneous multilayer standards using the Atomic Layer Deposition technique and characterizing them using multiple analytical methods, including ellipsometry, Rutherford Back Scattering at Evans Analytical, Synchrotron X-ray Fluorescence (SXRF) at Advanced Photon Source (APS) Beamline 13-ID, Synchrotron X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy (XAS) at Advanced Light Source (ALS) Beamlines 11.0.2 and 5.3.2.1 and by electron microscopy techniques. Our motivation for developing much-needed cross-calibration of synchrotron techniques is borne from coordinated analyses of particles captured in the aerogel of the NASA Stardust Interstellar Dust Collector (SIDC). The Stardust Interstellar Dust Preliminary Examination (ISPE) team have characterized three sub-nanogram, {approx}1{micro}m-sized fragments considered as candidates to be the first contemporary interstellar dust ever collected, based on their chemistries and trajectories. The candidates were analyzed in small wedges of aerogel in which they were extracted from the larger collector, using high sensitivity, high spatial resolution >3 keV synchrotron x-ray fluorescence spectroscopy (SXRF) and <2 keV synchrotron x-ray transmission microscopy (STXM) during Stardust ISPE. The ISPE synchrotron techniques have complementary capabilities. Hard X-ray SXRF is sensitive to sub-fg mass of elements Z {ge} 20 (calcium) and has a spatial resolution as low as 90nm. X-ray Diffraction data were collected simultaneously with SXRF data. Soft X-ray STXM at ALS beamline 11.0.2 can detect fg-mass of most elements, including cosmochemically important oxygen, magnesium, aluminum and silicon, which are invisible to SXRF in this application. ALS beamline 11.0.2 has spatial resolution

  1. A national facility for biological cryo-electron microscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Saibil, Helen R.; Grünewald, Kay; Stuart, David I.

    2015-01-01

    This review provides a brief update on the use of cryo-electron microscopy for integrated structural biology, along with an overview of the plans for the UK national facility for electron microscopy being built at the Diamond synchrotron. Three-dimensional electron microscopy is an enormously powerful tool for structural biologists. It is now able to provide an understanding of the molecular machinery of cells, disease processes and the actions of pathogenic organisms from atomic detail through to the cellular context. However, cutting-edge research in this field requires very substantial resources for equipment, infrastructure and expertise. Here, a brief overview is provided of the plans for a UK national three-dimensional electron-microscopy facility for integrated structural biology to enable internationally leading research on the machinery of life. State-of-the-art equipment operated with expert support will be provided, optimized for both atomic-level single-particle analysis of purified macromolecules and complexes and for tomography of cell sections. The access to and organization of the facility will be modelled on the highly successful macromolecular crystallography (MX) synchrotron beamlines, and will be embedded at the Diamond Light Source, facilitating the development of user-friendly workflows providing near-real-time experimental feedback.

  2. Synchrotron-based EUV lithography illuminator simulator

    DOEpatents

    Naulleau, Patrick P.

    2004-07-27

    A lithographic illuminator to illuminate a reticle to be imaged with a range of angles is provided. The illumination can be employed to generate a pattern in the pupil of the imaging system, where spatial coordinates in the pupil plane correspond to illumination angles in the reticle plane. In particular, a coherent synchrotron beamline is used along with a potentially decoherentizing holographic optical element (HOE), as an experimental EUV illuminator simulation station. The pupil fill is completely defined by a single HOE, thus the system can be easily modified to model a variety of illuminator fill patterns. The HOE can be designed to generate any desired angular spectrum and such a device can serve as the basis for an illuminator simulator.

  3. Synchrotron studies of narrow band materials

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-01-01

    Since last year, we have had three 3-week blocks of beamtime, in April and November 1991 and February 1992, on the Ames/Montana beamline at the Wisconsin Synchrotron Radiation Center (SRC). These runs continued our program on high temperature superconductors, heavy Fermion and related uranium and rare earth materials, and started some work on transition metal oxides. We have also had beamtime at the Brookhaven NSLS, 5 days of beamtime on the Dragon monochromator, beamline U4B, studying resonant photoemission of transition metal oxides using photon energies around the transition metal 2p edges. Data from past runs has been analyzed, and in some cases combined with photoemission and bremsstrahlung isochromat spectroscopy (BIS) data taken in the home U-M lab. 1 fig.

  4. Synchrotron studies of narrow band materials

    SciTech Connect

    Allen, J.W.

    1993-01-01

    Objective was to determine the single-particle electronic structure of selected narrow band materials in order to understand the relation between their electronic structures and novel low energy properties, such as mixed valence, heavy Fermions, Kondo effect, insulator-metal transitions, non-Fermi liquid behavior, and high-temperature superconductivity. This program supports photoemission spectroscopy (PES) at various synchrotrons. The progress is reported under the following section titles: ZSA (Zaanen-Sawatzky-Allen) systematics and I-M transitions in 3d transition metal oxides, insulator-metal transitions in superconducting cuprates, Fermi liquid and non-Fermi liquid behavior in angular resolved PES lineshapes, heavy-Fermion and non-Fermi liquid 5f electron systems, and Kondo insulators.

  5. Synchrotron radiation — 1873 to 1947

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blewett, John P.

    1988-04-01

    In 1873 Maxwell's treatise "Electricity and Magnetism" made it clear that a changing electric current will emit electromagnetic radiation. By the turn of the century, J.J. Thomson was showing that currents in space could be carried by electrons; accordingly, it was reasonable to believe that electrons, when accelerated, would radiate. By 1912, the theory of radiation from accelerated electrons was worked out and buried in the literature. Radiation from accelerated relativistic electrons did not come into prominence again until the 1940's when, finally, it was observed at the Research Laboratory of the General Electric Company. This paper will discuss the early theoretical treatments and will describe the first observations with the G.E. 100 MeV betatron and 75 MeV synchrotron.

  6. Synchrotron emissivity from mildly relativistic particles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Petrosian, V.

    1981-01-01

    Approximate analytic expressions are presented for evaluation of the frequency and angular dependence of synchrotron emissivity from mildly relativistic particles with arbitrary energy spectrum and pitch angle distribution in a given magnetic field. Results agree with previous expressions for a nonrelativistic Maxwellian particle distribution, and when extrapolated to nonrelativistic and extreme relativistic regimes, they also agree with the previous expressions obtained under those limiting conditions. The results from the analytic expression are compared with results from detailed numerical evaluations. Excellent agreement is found not only at frequencies large compared to the gyro-frequency but also at lower frequencies, in fact, all the way down to the gyro-frequency, where the analytic approximations are expected to be less accurate.

  7. Imaging of coronary arteries using synchrotron radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson, A. C.; Zeman, H.; Thomlinson, W.; Rubenstein, E.; Kernoff, R. S.; Hofstadter, R.; Giacomini, J. C.; Gordon, H. J.; Brown, G. S.

    1989-04-01

    Currently the imaging of coronary arteries is dangerous since it requires that a catheter be inserted into a peripheral artery and threaded up to the heart so that contrast agent can be injected directly into the artery being imaged. Using synchrotron radiation it may be possible to use a much safer venous injection of a contrast agent and still have sufficient image contrast to visualize the coronary arteries. A pair of monochromatized X-ray beams are used which have energies that bracket the iodine K absorption edge where the iodine absorption cross section jumps by a factor of six. Therefore, the logarithmic difference image has excellent sensitivity to contrast agent and minimal sensitivity to tissue and bone. Images have been taken of both dogs and humans. Improvements are being made to the imaging system which will substantially improve the image quality.

  8. Exploring actinide materials through synchrotron radiation techniques.

    PubMed

    Shi, Wei-Qun; Yuan, Li-Yong; Wang, Cong-Zhi; Wang, Lin; Mei, Lei; Xiao, Cheng-Liang; Zhang, Li; Li, Zi-Jie; Zhao, Yu-Liang; Chai, Zhi-Fang

    2014-12-10

    Synchrotron radiation (SR) based techniques have been utilized with increasing frequency in the past decade to explore the brilliant and challenging sciences of actinide-based materials. This trend is partially driven by the basic needs for multi-scale actinide speciation and bonding information and also the realistic needs for nuclear energy research. In this review, recent research progresses on actinide related materials by means of various SR techniques were selectively highlighted and summarized, with the emphasis on X-ray absorption spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction and scattering spectroscopy, which are powerful tools to characterize actinide materials. In addition, advanced SR techniques for exploring future advanced nuclear fuel cycles dealing with actinides are illustrated as well.

  9. A Thick Target for Synchrotrons and Betatrons

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    McMillan, E. M.

    1950-09-19

    If a wide x-ray beam from an electron synchrotron or betatron is desired, in radiographic work with large objects for example, the usually very thin target may be replaced by a thick one, provided the resulting distortion of the x-ray spectrum due to multiple radiative processes is permissible. It is difficult to make the circulating electron beam traverse a thick target directly because of the small spacing between successive turns. Mounting a very thin beryllium, or other low-z material, fin on the edge of the thick target so that the fin projects into the beam will cause the beam to lose sufficient energy, and therefore radium, to strike the thick target the next time around. Sample design calculations are given.

  10. Quadrupole magnet for a rapid cycling synchrotron

    SciTech Connect

    Witte, H.; Berg, J. S.

    2015-05-03

    Rapid Cycling Synchrotrons (RCS) feature interleaved warm and cold dipole magnets; the field of the warm magnets is used to modulate the average bending field depending on the particle energy. It has been shown that RCS can be an attractive option for fast acceleration of particles, for example, muons, which decay quickly. In previous studies it was demonstrated that in principle warm dipole magnets can be designed which can provide the required ramp rates, which are equivalent to frequencies of about 1 kHz. To reduce the losses it is beneficial to employ two separate materials for the yoke; it was also shown that by employing an optimized excitation coil geometry the eddy current losses are acceptable. In this paper we show that the same principles can be applied to quadrupole magnets targeting 30 T/m with a repetition rate of 1kHz and good field quality.

  11. Optical substrate materials for synchrotron radiation beamlines

    SciTech Connect

    Howells, M.R.; Paquin, R.A.

    1997-06-01

    The authors consider the materials choices available for making optical substrates for synchrotron radiation beam lines. They find that currently the optical surfaces can only be polished to the required finish in fused silica and other glasses, silicon, CVD silicon carbide, electroless nickel and 17-4 PH stainless steel. Substrates must therefore be made of one of these materials or of a metal that can be coated with electroless nickel. In the context of material choices for mirrors they explore the issues of dimensional stability, polishing, bending, cooling, and manufacturing strategy. They conclude that metals are best from an engineering and cost standpoint while the ceramics are best from a polishing standpoint. They then give discussions of specific materials as follows: silicon carbide, silicon, electroless nickel, Glidcop{trademark}, aluminum, precipitation-hardening stainless steel, mild steel, invar and superinvar. Finally they summarize conclusions and propose ideas for further research.

  12. A compact and low-weight sputtering unit for in situ investigations of thin film growth at synchrotron radiation beamlines

    SciTech Connect

    Walter, P.; Dippel, A.-C.; Pflaum, K.; Wernecke, J.; Blume, J.; Hurk, J. van den; Klemradt, U.

    2015-05-15

    In this work, we report on a highly variable, compact, and light high-vacuum sputter deposition unit designed for in situ experiments using synchrotron radiation facilities. The chamber can be mounted at various synchrotron beamlines for scattering experiments in grazing incidence geometry. The sample position and the large exit window allow to perform x-ray experiments up to large q values. The sputtering unit is easy to mount on existing experimental setups and can be remote-controlled. In this paper, we describe in detail the design and the performance of the new sputtering chamber and present the installation of the apparatus at different 3rd generation light sources. Furthermore, we describe the different measurement options and present some selected results. The unit has been successfully commissioned and is now available for users at PETRA III at DESY.

  13. A compact and low-weight sputtering unit for in situ investigations of thin film growth at synchrotron radiation beamlines.

    PubMed

    Walter, P; Dippel, A-C; Pflaum, K; Wernecke, J; van den Hurk, J; Blume, J; Klemradt, U

    2015-05-01

    In this work, we report on a highly variable, compact, and light high-vacuum sputter deposition unit designed for in situ experiments using synchrotron radiation facilities. The chamber can be mounted at various synchrotron beamlines for scattering experiments in grazing incidence geometry. The sample position and the large exit window allow to perform x-ray experiments up to large q values. The sputtering unit is easy to mount on existing experimental setups and can be remote-controlled. In this paper, we describe in detail the design and the performance of the new sputtering chamber and present the installation of the apparatus at different 3rd generation light sources. Furthermore, we describe the different measurement options and present some selected results. The unit has been successfully commissioned and is now available for users at PETRA III at DESY.

  14. Repeatability and reproducibility of intracellular molar concentration assessed by synchrotron-based x-ray fluorescence microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merolle, L.; Malucelli, E.; Fratini, M.; Gianoncelli, A.; Notargiacomo, A.; Cappadone, C.; Farruggia, G.; Sargenti, A.; Procopio, A.; Lombardo, M.; Lagomarsino, S.; Iotti, S.

    2016-01-01

    Elemental analysis of biological sample can give information about content and distribution of elements essential for human life or trace elements whose absence is the cause of abnormal biological function or development. However, biological systems contain an ensemble of cells with heterogeneous chemistry and elemental content; therefore, accurate characterization of samples with high cellular heterogeneity may only be achieved by analyzing single cells. Powerful methods in molecular biology are abundant, among them X-Ray microscopy based on synchrotron light source has gaining increasing attention thanks to its extremely sensitivity. However, reproducibility and repeatability of these measurements is one of the major obstacles in achieving a statistical significance in single cells population analysis. In this study, we compared the elemental content of human colon adenocarcinoma cells obtained by three distinct accesses to synchrotron radiation light.

  15. Beam studies at the SPEAR3 synchrotron using a digital optical mask

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, H. D.; Fiorito, R. B.; Corbett, J.; Shkvarunets, A. G.; Tian, K.; Fisher, A.

    2016-05-01

    The 3GeV SPEAR3 synchrotron light source operates in top-up injection mode with up to 500 mA circulating in the storage ring (equivalently 392 nC). Each injection pulse contains 40-80 pC producing a contrast ratio between total stored charge and injected charge of about 6500:1. In order to study transient injected beam dynamics during user operations, it is desirable to optically image the injected pulse in the presence of the bright stored beam. In the present work this is done by imaging the visible component of the synchrotron radiation onto a digital micro-mirror-array device (DMD), which is then used as an optical mask to block out light from the bright central core of the stored beam. The physical masking, together with an asynchronously-gated, ICCD imaging camera, makes it possible to observe the weak injected beam component on a turn-by-turn basis. The DMD optical masking system works similar to a classical solar coronagraph but has some distinct practical advantages: i.e. rapid adaption to changes in the shape of the stored beam, a high extinction ratio for unwanted light and minimum scattering from the primary beam into the secondary optics. In this paper we describe the DMD masking method, features of the high dynamic range point spread function for the SPEAR3 optical beam line and measurements of the injected beam in the presence of the stored beam.

  16. Bili lights

    MedlinePlus

    Phototherapy for jaundice; Bilirubin - bili lights; Neonatal care - bili lights; Newborn care - bili lights ... Phototherapy involves shining fluorescent light from the bili lights on bare skin. A specific wavelength of light can break down bilirubin into a form that ...

  17. The Vela Pulsar and Its Synchrotron Nebula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Helfand, D.; Gotthelf, E.; Halpern, J.

    2000-10-01

    We present high-resolution Chandra X-ray observations of PSR0833-45, the 89 ms pulsar associated with the Vela supernova remnant. We have acquired two observations of the pulsar separated by one month to search for morphological changes in the pulsar and its environment following an extreme glitch in its rotation frequency. We find a well-resolved nebula with a morphology remarkably similar to the torus-like structure observed in the Crab Nebula, along with an axial Crab-like jet. The flux from the pulsar is found to be steady to within 0.75 %; the 3 sigma limit on the fractional increase in the pulsar's X-ray flux is <10-5 of the inferred glitch energy. We use this limit to constrain parameters of glitch models and neutron star structure. We do find a significant increase in the flux of the nebula's outer torus; if associated with the glitch, the inferred propogation velocity is ~0.5c, similar to that seen in the brightening of the Crab Nebula wisps. We propose an explanation for the X-ray structure of the Vela synchrotron nebula based on a model originally developed for the Crab Nebula. In this model, the bright, arc-shaped X-ray wisps are the shocked termination of a relativistic equatorial pulsar wind which is contained within the surrounding kidney-bean shaped synchrotron nebula which comprises the post-shock, but still relativistic, flow. In a departure from the Crab model, the magnetization parameter of the Vela pulsar wind is required to be of order unity; this is consistent with the simplest MHD transport of magnetic field from the pulsar to the nebula, where B ~ 4 x 10-4G.

  18. Liquid metal cooling of synchrotron optics

    SciTech Connect

    Smither, R.K.

    1992-09-01

    The installation of insertion devices at existing synchrotron facilities around the world has stimulated the development of new ways to cool the optical elements in the associated x-ray beamlines. Argonne has been a leader in the development of liquid metal cooling for high heat load x-ray optics for the next generation of synchrotron facilities. The high thermal conductivity, high volume specific heat, low kinematic viscosity, and large working temperature range make liquid metals a very efficient heat transfer fluid. A wide range of liquid metals were considered in the initial phase of this work. The most promising liquid metal cooling fluid identified to date is liquid gallium, which appears to have all the desired properties and the fewest number of undesired features of the liquid metals examined. Besides the special features of liquid metals that make them good heat transfer fluids, the very low vapor pressure over a large working temperature range make liquid gallium an ideal cooling fluid for use in a high vacuum environment. A leak of the liquid gallium into the high vacuum and even into very high vacuum areas will not result in any detectable vapor pressure and may even improve the vacuum environment as the liquid gallium combines with any water vapor or oxygen present in the system. The practical use of a liquid metal for cooling silicon crystals and other high heat load applications depends on having a convenient and efficient delivery system. The requirements for a typical cooling system for a silicon crystal used in a monochromator are pumping speeds of 2 to 5 gpm (120 cc per sec to 600 cc per sec) at pressures up to 100 psi.

  19. Time Resolved Studies of ZnO(Eu) Nanostructure Luminescence Using Short Synchrotron Radiation Pulses

    SciTech Connect

    Heigl, F.; Jurgensen, A.; Zhou, X.-T.; Murphy, M.; Ko, J.Y.P.; Lam, S.; Sham, T.K.; Regier, T.; Blyth, R.I.R.; Coulthard, I.; Zuin, L.; Hu, Y.-F.; Armelao, L.; Gordon, R.A.; Brewe, D.

    2008-10-06

    X-ray excited optical luminescence (XEOL) is a well established technique to study nano structured light emitting materials. XEOL bares the essential features necessary for the study of advanced nano structured materials like element specifity, good quantum efficiency, and easy approach for time resolution. Being sensitive to the geometry of the material on a nano-scale, luminescence gives insight into the phenomenologic correlation of structural, optical, and electronic properties. Besides structural aspects we study the time behavior of nanostructured ZnO (Eu) in a pump-probe like experiment, using the time structure of synchrotron radiation.

  20. Time-dependent Measurements of Dissolution-precipitation Reactions Caused by Caustic Waste Solutions At the Hanford Site Using Synchrotron Computed Microtomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, G.; Jones, K. W.; Um, W.; Rockhold, M. L.; Crandell, L. E.; Peters, C. A.; Lindquist, W. B.

    2012-12-01

    Leaking of caustic (hyper-alkaline) radioactive wastes, generated from plutonium production during the Cold War and stored in underground storage tanks at Hanford Site (Richland, WA), has been detected in the subsurface. The caustic wastes leachate induces primary mineral dissolution (releasing Si) and subsequent secondary precipitation (feldspathoids, such as sodalite and cancrinite) in the sediments. The dissolution-precipitation reactions affect the transport of radioactive elements (90Sr and 137Cs) in the sub-surface through changing the morphology of the sediments. We studied here the changes of the morphology of the sediments caused by exposure of quartz sand or Hanford sediments to simulated tank waste leachates (2 M Na+, 1 M OH-, 1.053 M NO3-, 0.05 M Al3+ and 10-5 M Sr2+) using a series of steady-state-flow saturated column experiments. The 3D structures were determined using synchrotron computed microtomography (CMT) at the National Synchrotron Light Source. Sequential measurements were made at intervals over an exposure time of up to ~620 days with a pixel size of 4 μm in mini columns (ID2.1 mm) packed with quartz sand, or with a pixel size of 11 μm in intermediate size columns (ID19 mm) packed with Hanford sediments. Values for porosity as a function of treatment time were obtained showing major changes. Good agreement was found between the microstructure porosity determinations with results obtained from measurements on the composition of the treatment fluids. The results also show the changes in the three dimensional morphology of the sediment structures as a function of the treatment time. Good agreement was also found between observed and simulated porosity and aqueous chemistry obtained using the reactive transport simulator STOMP. A comparison of the CMT results with complementary high-resolution scanning electron microscopy scans will also be presented.