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Sample records for national voucher programme

  1. A taxonomy and results from a comprehensive review of 28 maternal health voucher programmes.

    PubMed

    Bellows, Ben W; Conlon, Claudia M; Higgs, Elizabeth S; Townsend, John W; Nahed, Matta G; Cavanaugh, Karen; Grainger, Corinne G; Okal, Jerry; Gorter, Anna C

    2013-12-01

    -based distribution of vouchers; and tracking individual claims for performance purposes. Maternal voucher programmes differed on whether contracted providers were given training on clinical or administrative issues; whether some form of service verification was undertaken at facility or community-level; and the relative size of programme management costs in the overall programme budget. Evidence suggests voucher programmes can serve populations with national-level impact. Reaching scale depends on whether the voucher programme can: (i) keep management costs low, (ii) induce a large demand-side response among the bottom two quintiles, and (iii) achieve a quality of care that translates a greater number of facility-based deliveries into a reduction in maternal morbidity and mortality.

  2. A Taxonomy and Results from a Comprehensive Review of 28 Maternal Health Voucher Programmes

    PubMed Central

    Conlon, Claudia M.; Higgs, Elizabeth S.; Townsend, John W.; Nahed, Matta G.; Cavanaugh, Karen; Grainger, Corinne G.; Okal, Jerry; Gorter, Anna C.

    2013-01-01

    -based distribution of vouchers; and tracking individual claims for performance purposes. Maternal voucher programmes differed on whether contracted providers were given training on clinical or administrative issues; whether some form of service verification was undertaken at facility or community-level; and the relative size of programme management costs in the overall programme budget. Evidence suggests voucher programmes can serve populations with national-level impact. Reaching scale depends on whether the voucher programme can: (i) keep management costs low, (ii) induce a large demand-side response among the bottom two quintiles, and (iii) achieve a quality of care that translates a greater number of facility-based deliveries into a reduction in maternal morbidity and mortality.

  3. Household ownership and use of insecticide treated nets among target groups after implementation of a national voucher programme in the United Republic of Tanzania: plausibility study using three annual cross sectional household surveys.

    PubMed

    Hanson, Kara; Marchant, Tanya; Nathan, Rose; Mponda, Hadji; Jones, Caroline; Bruce, Jane; Mshinda, Hassan; Schellenberg, Joanna Armstrong

    2009-07-02

    To evaluate the impact of the Tanzania National Voucher Scheme on the coverage and equitable distribution of insecticide treated nets, used to prevent malaria, to pregnant women and their infants. Plausibility study using three nationally representative cross sectional household and health facility surveys, timed to take place early, mid-way, and at the end of the roll out of the national programme. The Tanzania National Voucher Scheme was implemented in antenatal services, and phased in on a district by district basis from October 2004 covering all of mainland Tanzania in May 2006. 6115, 6260, and 6198 households (in 2005, 2006, and 2007, respectively) in a representative sample of 21 districts (out of a total of 113). A voucher worth $2.45 ( pound1.47, euro1.74) to be used as part payment for the purchase of a net from a local shop was given to every pregnant woman attending antenatal services. Insecticide treated net coverage was measured as household ownership of at least one net and use of a net the night before the survey. Socioeconomic distribution of nets was examined using an asset based index. Steady increases in net coverage indicators were observed over the three year study period. Between 2005 and 2007, household ownership of at least one net (untreated or insecticide treated) increased from 44% (2686/6115) to 65% (4006/6198; P<0.001), and ownership of at least one insecticide treated net doubled from 18% (1062/5961) to 36% (2229/6198) in the same period (P<0.001). Among infants under 1 year of age, use of any net increased from 33% (388/1180) to 56% (707/1272; P<0.001) and use of an insecticide treated net increased from 16% (188/1180) to 34% (436/1272; P<0.001). After adjusting for potential confounders, household ownership was positively associated with time since programme launch, although this association did not reach statistical significance (P=0.09). Each extra year of programme operation was associated with a 9 percentage point increase in

  4. Community-level impact of the reproductive health vouchers programme on service utilization in Kenya.

    PubMed

    Obare, Francis; Warren, Charlotte; Njuki, Rebecca; Abuya, Timothy; Sunday, Joseph; Askew, Ian; Bellows, Ben

    2013-03-01

    This paper examines community-level association between exposure to the reproductive health vouchers programme in Kenya and utilization of services. The data are from a household survey conducted among 2527 women (15-49 years) from voucher and comparable non-voucher sites. Analysis entails cross-tabulations with Chi-square tests and significant tests of proportions as well as estimation of multi-level logit models to predict service utilization by exposure to the programme. The results show that for births occurring after the voucher programme began, women from communities that had been exposed to the programme since 2006 were significantly more likely to have delivered at a health facility and to have received skilled care during delivery compared with those from communities that had not been exposed to the programme at all. There were, however, no significant differences in the timing of first trimester utilization of antenatal care (ANC) and making four or more ANC visits by exposure to the programme. In addition, poor women were significantly less likely to have used safe motherhood services (health facility delivery, skilled delivery care and postnatal care) compared with their non-poor counterparts regardless of exposure to the programme. Nonetheless, a significantly higher proportion of poor women from communities that had been exposed to the programme since 2006 used the services compared with their poor counterparts from communities that had not been exposed to the programme at all. The findings suggest that the programme is associated with increased health facility deliveries and skilled delivery care especially among poor women. However, it has had limited community-level impact on the first trimester timing of antenatal care use and making four or more visits, which remain a challenge despite the high proportion of women in the country that make at least one antenatal care visit during pregnancy.

  5. Costs and effects of the Tanzanian national voucher scheme for insecticide-treated nets

    PubMed Central

    Mulligan, Jo-Ann; Yukich, Joshua; Hanson, Kara

    2008-01-01

    Background The cost-effectiveness of insecticide-treated nets (ITNs) in reducing morbidity and mortality is well established. International focus has now moved on to how best to scale up coverage and what financing mechanisms might be used to achieve this. The approach in Tanzania has been to deliver a targeted subsidy for those most vulnerable to the effects of malaria while at the same time providing support to the development of the commercial ITN distribution system. In October 2004, with funds from the Global Fund to Fight AIDS Tuberculosis and Malaria, the government launched the Tanzania National Voucher Scheme (TNVS), a nationwide discounted voucher scheme for ITNs for pregnant women and their infants. This paper analyses the costs and effects of the scheme and compares it with other approaches to distribution. Methods Economic costs were estimated using the ingredients approach whereby all resources required in the delivery of the intervention (including the user contribution) are quantified and valued. Effects were measured in terms of number of vouchers used (and therefore nets delivered) and treated nets years. Estimates were also made for the cost per malaria case and death averted. Results and Conclusion The total financial cost of the programme represents around 5% of the Ministry of Health's total budget. The average economic cost of delivering an ITN using the voucher scheme, including the user contribution, was $7.57. The cost-effectiveness results are within the benchmarks set by other malaria prevention studies. The Government of Tanzania's approach to scaling up ITNs uses both the public and private sectors in order to achieve and sustain the level of coverage required to meet the Abuja targets. The results presented here suggest that the TNVS is a cost-effective strategy for delivering subsidized ITNs to targeted vulnerable groups. PMID:18279509

  6. Educational Vouchers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pickard, Brent W.; Richards, Donald M.

    1976-01-01

    Summarizes the rationale for educational voucher systems, outlines model voucher systems, discusses implications of voucher systems, and suggests a generalized plan for applying voucher systems in continuing education. (Available from the Department of Educational Administration, The University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada, T6G 2G5;…

  7. Educational Vouchers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pickard, Brent W.; Richards, Donald M.

    1976-01-01

    Summarizes the rationale for educational voucher systems, outlines model voucher systems, discusses implications of voucher systems, and suggests a generalized plan for applying voucher systems in continuing education. (Available from the Department of Educational Administration, The University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada, T6G 2G5;…

  8. National Tuberculosis Control Programme.

    PubMed

    Uke, B T

    1995-01-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) continues to be a major public health problem in India, since there are an estimated 2.5-3 million sputum positive cases and 5-6 million noninfectious cases in the country. The National Tuberculosis Program was established in 1962 with the main objective of reducing the disability and death from TB by effective treatment. Under the District Tuberculosis Program, district TB centers (DTCs) were set up for referral diagnosis, treatment, and community control of TB. Nationally, there are 390 districts with fully equipped DTCs staffed by a team of medical and paramedical personnel. Another 330 TB clinics are mostly located in big cities, caring for the local populace. In addition, 17 tuberculosis training and demonstration centers provide basic training to paramedical personnel, including general practitioners. There are a total of about 47,000 beds available nationwide for TB patients. The majority of patients are treated at home, thus only serious cases or those requiring surgical treatment are admitted. The NTP also stresses health education aimed at the community and general practitioners. Booklets, pamphlets, radio, TV, and newspaper advertisements are utilized for this purpose. International assistance has been provided by UNICEF, WHO, and the Swedish International Development Agency since the 1950s. The National Tuberculosis Institute was established in 1959 in Bangalore and it has engaged in research on epidemiological, sociological, and operations aspects, along with monitoring of the program. Other TB research institutes are the TB Research Center in Madras and the LRS Institute of TB and Allied Diseases in Delhi. BCG vaccination of children up to the age of 1 year continues, although a study showed that vaccination did not protect from adult TB. Evaluation of the NTP comprises quarterly reports for DTCs and countrywide assessment. NTP achievements include 85% coverage of districts, diagnosis of 1,500,000 new cases a year, and short

  9. A realist review to explore how low-income pregnant women use food vouchers from the UK’s Healthy Start programme

    PubMed Central

    Ohly, Heather; Crossland, Nicola; Dykes, Fiona; Lowe, Nicola; Hall-Moran, Victoria

    2017-01-01

    Objectives To explore how low-income pregnant women use Healthy Start food vouchers, the potential impacts of the programme, and which women might experience these impacts and why. Design A realist review. Eligibility criteria for selecting studies Primary or empirical studies (of any design) were included if they contributed relevant evidence or insights about how low-income women use food vouchers from the Healthy Start (UK) or the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants and Children (WIC) programmes. The assessment of ‘relevance’ was deliberately broad to ensure that reviewers remained open to new ideas from a variety of sources of evidence. Analysis A combination of evidence synthesis and realist analysis techniques was used to modify, refine and substantiate programme theories, which were constructed as explanatory ‘context–mechanism–outcome’–configurations. Results 38 primary studies were included in this review: four studies on Healthy Start and 34 studies on WIC. Two main outcome strands were identified: dietary improvements (intended) and financial assistance (unintended). Three evidence-informed programme theories were proposed to explain how aspects of context (and mechanisms) may generate these outcomes: the ‘relative value’ of healthy eating (prioritisation of resources); retailer discretion (pressure to ‘bend the rules’); the influence of other family members (disempowerment). Conclusions This realist review suggests that some low-income pregnant women may use Healthy Start vouchers to increase their consumption of fruits and vegetables and plain cow’s milk, whereas others may use them to reduce food expenditure and save money for other things. PMID:28432063

  10. Capacity Issue Looms for Vouchers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zehr, Mary Ann

    2011-01-01

    State-level momentum in support of vouchers and tax credits that help students go to private schools highlights what has been a largely theoretical issue: private school capacity to support voucher-financed enrollment. Academics say the national supply of seats in secular and religious private schools is sufficient to meet short-term demand from…

  11. High-Stakes Choice: Achievement and Accountability in the Nation's Oldest Urban Voucher Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Witte, John F.; Wolf, Patrick J.; Cowen, Joshua M.; Carlson, Deven E.; Fleming, David J.

    2014-01-01

    This article considers the impact of a high-stakes testing and reporting requirement on students using publicly funded vouchers to attend private schools. We describe how such a policy was implemented during the course of a previously authorized multi-year evaluation of the Milwaukee Parental Choice Program, which provided us with data on voucher…

  12. High-Stakes Choice: Achievement and Accountability in the Nation's Oldest Urban Voucher Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Witte, John F.; Wolf, Patrick J.; Cowen, Joshua M.; Carlson, Deven E.; Fleming, David J.

    2014-01-01

    This article considers the impact of a high-stakes testing and reporting requirement on students using publicly funded vouchers to attend private schools. We describe how such a policy was implemented during the course of a previously authorized multi-year evaluation of the Milwaukee Parental Choice Program, which provided us with data on voucher…

  13. Vouchers: The Battle Continues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrington-Lueker, Donna

    1993-01-01

    California voters rejected Proposition 174, the "Parental Choice in Education" initiative, by a margin of seven to three. Estimated cost of the campaign, a week before the election, was $20.l million. Despite the defeat, Americans for School Choice, a national organization, has announced plans to launch voucher proposals in 25 states by…

  14. Launch vouchers for space science research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Macauley, Molly K.

    1989-01-01

    Recent national space policy proposes the use of space transportation vouchers to increase opportunities for space-based science research and to support the U.S. space transportation industry. Vouchers issued and financially backed by the government would be given to researchers for redemption on any mode of space transportation. This paper examines the economic costs and benefits of vouchers; incentive-based strategies for effective program design; and areas where the voucher scheme is weak. It is concluded that, under plausible assumptions, vouchers may well be a cost-effective way to achieve near-term space transportation for space research payloads.

  15. Demand-side financing for maternal and newborn health: what do we know about factors that affect implementation of cash transfers and voucher programmes?

    PubMed

    Hunter, Benjamin M; Murray, Susan F

    2017-08-31

    Demand-side financing (DSF) interventions, including cash transfers and vouchers, have been introduced to promote maternal and newborn health in a range of low- and middle-income countries. These interventions vary in design but have typically been used to increase health service utilisation by offsetting some financial costs for users, or increasing household income and incentivising 'healthy behaviours'. This article documents experiences and implementation factors associated with use of DSF in maternal and newborn health. A secondary analysis (using an adapted Supporting the Use of Research Evidence framework - SURE) was performed on studies that had previously been identified in a systematic review of evidence on DSF interventions in maternal and newborn health. The article draws on findings from 49 quantitative and 49 qualitative studies. The studies give insights on difficulties with exclusion of migrants, young and multiparous women, with demands for informal fees at facilities, and with challenges maintaining quality of care under increasing demand. Schemes experienced difficulties if communities faced long distances to reach participating facilities and poor access to transport, and where there was inadequate health infrastructure and human resources, shortages of medicines and problems with corruption. Studies that documented improved care-seeking indicated the importance of adequate programme scope (in terms of programme eligibility, size and timing of payments and voucher entitlements) to address the issue of concern, concurrent investments in supply-side capacity to sustain and/or improve quality of care, and awareness generation using community-based workers, leaders and women's groups. Evaluations spanning more than 15 years of implementation of DSF programmes reveal a complex picture of experiences that reflect the importance of financial and other social, geographical and health systems factors as barriers to accessing care. Careful design of DSF

  16. National and regional asthma programmes in Europe.

    PubMed

    Selroos, Olof; Kupczyk, Maciej; Kuna, Piotr; Łacwik, Piotr; Bousquet, Jean; Brennan, David; Palkonen, Susanna; Contreras, Javier; FitzGerald, Mark; Hedlin, Gunilla; Johnston, Sebastian L; Louis, Renaud; Metcalf, Leanne; Walker, Samantha; Moreno-Galdó, Antonio; Papadopoulos, Nikolaos G; Rosado-Pinto, José; Powell, Pippa; Haahtela, Tari

    2015-09-01

    This review presents seven national asthma programmes to support the European Asthma Research and Innovation Partnership in developing strategies to reduce asthma mortality and morbidity across Europe. From published data it appears that in order to influence asthma care, national/regional asthma programmes are more effective than conventional treatment guidelines. An asthma programme should start with the universal commitments of stakeholders at all levels and the programme has to be endorsed by political and governmental bodies. When the national problems have been identified, the goals of the programme have to be clearly defined with measures to evaluate progress. An action plan has to be developed, including defined re-allocation of patients and existing resources, if necessary, between primary care and specialised healthcare units or hospital centres. Patients should be involved in guided self-management education and structured follow-up in relation to disease severity. The three evaluated programmes show that, thanks to rigorous efforts, it is possible to improve patients' quality of life and reduce hospitalisation, asthma mortality, sick leave and disability pensions. The direct and indirect costs, both for the individual patient and for society, can be significantly reduced. The results can form the basis for development of further programme activities in Europe. Copyright ©ERS 2015.

  17. Establishing a national universal vaccination programme.

    PubMed

    Duma, R

    1995-01-01

    The collaborative efforts of healthcare providers, governmental policy and law makers and the public are often needed to provide the pressure necessary to establish a national universal vaccination programme. Key initiatives for those beginning to establish such a programme are the following: secure a scientific consensus or base of support; clarify relevance of the subject to all concerned; increase awareness of everyone (providers and consumers); recruit and involve influential people (angels) for support; seek out agendas within which to review the topic; generate cost-benefit data; encourage a consensus to be reached; identify legislative pathways to be used; convince politicians of the value of such a programme; request budgeting and funding; and, finally, follow up with surveillance studies to demonstrate the benefits of the programme.

  18. United Nations Environment Programme. Annual Review 1981.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Environment Programme, Nairobi (Kenya).

    This edition of the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) annual report is structured in three parts. Part 1 focuses on three contemporary problems (ground water, toxic chemicals and human food chains and environmental economics) and attempts to solve them. Also included is a modified extract of "The Annual State of the Environment…

  19. United Nations Environment Programme. Annual Review 1981.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Environment Programme, Nairobi (Kenya).

    This edition of the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) annual report is structured in three parts. Part 1 focuses on three contemporary problems (ground water, toxic chemicals and human food chains and environmental economics) and attempts to solve them. Also included is a modified extract of "The Annual State of the Environment…

  20. Vouchers: Yea or Nay.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rouk, Ullik

    2000-01-01

    This report from the Southwest Educational Development Laboratory (SEDL) examines the status of publicly funded voucher programs, issues affecting the voucher movement, and program research. No legislature in the five member states served by SEDL has adopted vouchers, but several private programs are in place. Proponents claim vouchers offer an…

  1. Overview of the National Centralized Tokamak programme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kikuchi, M.; Tamai, H.; Matsukawa, M.; Fujita, T.; Takase, Y.; Sakurai, S.; Kizu, K.; Tsuchiya, K.; Kurita, G.; Morioka, A.; Hayashi, N.; Miura, Y.; Itoh, S.; Bialek, J.; Navratil, G.; Ikeda, Y.; Fujii, T.; Kurihara, K.; Kubo, H.; Kamada, Y.; Miya, N.; Suzuki, T.; Hamamatsu, K.; Kawashima, H.; Kudo, Y.; Masaki, K.; Takahashi, H.; Takechi, M.; Akiba, M.; Okuno, K.; Ishida, S.; Ichimura, M.; Imai, T.; Hashizume; Miura, Y. M.; Horiike, H.; Kimura, A.; Tsutsui, H.; Matsuoka, M.; Uesugi, Y.; Sagara, A.; Nishimura, A.; Shimizu, A.; Sakamoto, M.; Nakamura, K.; Sato, K.; Okano, K.; Ida, K.; Shimada, H. R.; Kishimoto, Y.; Azechi, H.; Tanaka, S.; Yatsu, K.; Yoshida, N.; Inutake, M.; Fujiwara, M.; Inoue, N.; Hosogane, N.; Kuriyama, M.; Ninomiya, H.

    2006-03-01

    An overview is given of the National Centralized Tokamak (NCT) programme as a research programme for advanced tokamak research to succeed JT-60U. The mission of NCT is to establish high beta steady-state operation for DEMO and to contribute to ITER. The machine flexibility is pursued in aspect ratio and shape controllability for the demonstration of the high-β steady-state, feedback control of resistive wall modes, wide current and pressure profile control capability and also very long pulse steady-state operation. Existing JT-60 infrastructure such as the heating and current drive system, power supplies and cooling systems will be best utilized for this modification.

  2. Can food vouchers improve nutrition and reduce health inequalities in low-income mothers and young children: a multi-method evaluation of the experiences of beneficiaries and practitioners of the Healthy Start programme in England

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Good nutrition is important during pregnancy, breastfeeding and early life to optimise the health of women and children. It is difficult for low-income families to prioritise spending on healthy food. Healthy Start is a targeted United Kingdom (UK) food subsidy programme that gives vouchers for fruit, vegetables, milk, and vitamins to low-income families. This paper reports an evaluation of Healthy Start from the perspectives of women and health practitioners. Methods The multi-method study conducted in England in 2011/2012 included focus group discussions with 49 health practitioners, an online consultation with 620 health and social care practitioners, service managers, commissioners, and user and advocacy groups, and qualitative participatory workshops with 85 low-income women. Additional focus group discussions and telephone interviews included the views of 25 women who did not speak English and three women from Traveller communities. Results Women reported that Healthy Start vouchers increased the quantity and range of fruit and vegetables they used and improved the quality of family diets, and established good habits for the future. Barriers to registration included complex eligibility criteria, inappropriate targeting of information about the programme by health practitioners and a general low level of awareness among families. Access to the programme was particularly challenging for women who did not speak English, had low literacy levels, were in low paid work or had fluctuating incomes. The potential impact was undermined by the rising price of food relative to voucher value. Access to registered retailers was problematic in rural areas, and there was low registration among smaller shops and market stalls, especially those serving culturally diverse communities. Conclusions Our evaluation of the Healthy Start programme in England suggests that a food subsidy programme can provide an important nutritional safety net and potentially improve

  3. Can food vouchers improve nutrition and reduce health inequalities in low-income mothers and young children: a multi-method evaluation of the experiences of beneficiaries and practitioners of the Healthy Start programme in England.

    PubMed

    McFadden, Alison; Green, Josephine M; Williams, Victoria; McLeish, Jenny; McCormick, Felicia; Fox-Rushby, Julia; Renfrew, Mary J

    2014-02-11

    Good nutrition is important during pregnancy, breastfeeding and early life to optimise the health of women and children. It is difficult for low-income families to prioritise spending on healthy food. Healthy Start is a targeted United Kingdom (UK) food subsidy programme that gives vouchers for fruit, vegetables, milk, and vitamins to low-income families. This paper reports an evaluation of Healthy Start from the perspectives of women and health practitioners. The multi-method study conducted in England in 2011/2012 included focus group discussions with 49 health practitioners, an online consultation with 620 health and social care practitioners, service managers, commissioners, and user and advocacy groups, and qualitative participatory workshops with 85 low-income women. Additional focus group discussions and telephone interviews included the views of 25 women who did not speak English and three women from Traveller communities. Women reported that Healthy Start vouchers increased the quantity and range of fruit and vegetables they used and improved the quality of family diets, and established good habits for the future. Barriers to registration included complex eligibility criteria, inappropriate targeting of information about the programme by health practitioners and a general low level of awareness among families. Access to the programme was particularly challenging for women who did not speak English, had low literacy levels, were in low paid work or had fluctuating incomes. The potential impact was undermined by the rising price of food relative to voucher value. Access to registered retailers was problematic in rural areas, and there was low registration among smaller shops and market stalls, especially those serving culturally diverse communities. Our evaluation of the Healthy Start programme in England suggests that a food subsidy programme can provide an important nutritional safety net and potentially improve nutrition for pregnant women and young

  4. Can vouchers make a difference to the use of private primary care services by older people? Experience from the healthcare reform programme in Hong Kong.

    PubMed

    Yam, Carrie H K; Liu, Su; Huang, Olivia H Y; Yeoh, E K; Griffiths, Sian M

    2011-10-07

    As part of its ongoing healthcare reform, the Hong Kong Government introduced a voucher scheme, intended for encouraging older patients to use primary healthcare services in the private sector, thereby, reducing burden on the overwhelmed public sector. The voucher program is also considered one of the strategies to further develop the public private partnership in healthcare, a policy direction of high political priority as indicated in the Chief Executive Policy Address in 2008-09. This study assessed whether the voucher scheme, as implemented so far, has reached its intended goals, and how it might be further improved in the context of public-private partnership. This was a cross-sectional study using structured questionnaires by face-to-face interviews with older people aged 70 or above in Hong Kong, the target group of the demand-side voucher program. 71.2% of 1,026 older people were aware of the new voucher scheme but only 35.0% had ever used it. The majority of the older people used the vouchers for acute curative services in the private sector (82.4%) and spent less on preventive services. Despite the provision of vouchers valued US$30 per year as an incentive to encourage the use of private primary care services, after 12-months of implementation, 66.2% of all respondents agreed with the statement that "the voucher scheme does not change their health seeking behaviours on seeing public or private healthcare professionals". The most common reasons for no change in their behaviours included "I am used to seeing doctors in the public system" and "The amount of the subsidy is too low". Those who usually used a mix of public and private doctors and those with better self-reported health condition compared to last year were more likely to perceive a change in their own health seeking behaviours. Our study showed that despite a reasonably high awareness of the voucher scheme, its usage was low. The voucher alone was not enough to realize the government's policy of

  5. Can vouchers make a difference to the use of private primary care services by older people? Experience from the healthcare reform programme in Hong Kong

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background As part of its ongoing healthcare reform, the Hong Kong Government introduced a voucher scheme, intended for encouraging older patients to use primary healthcare services in the private sector, thereby, reducing burden on the overwhelmed public sector. The voucher program is also considered one of the strategies to further develop the public private partnership in healthcare, a policy direction of high political priority as indicated in the Chief Executive Policy Address in 2008-09. This study assessed whether the voucher scheme, as implemented so far, has reached its intended goals, and how it might be further improved in the context of public-private partnership. Methods This was a cross-sectional study using structured questionnaires by face-to-face interviews with older people aged 70 or above in Hong Kong, the target group of the demand-side voucher program. Results 71.2% of 1,026 older people were aware of the new voucher scheme but only 35.0% had ever used it. The majority of the older people used the vouchers for acute curative services in the private sector (82.4%) and spent less on preventive services. Despite the provision of vouchers valued US$30 per year as an incentive to encourage the use of private primary care services, after 12-months of implementation, 66.2% of all respondents agreed with the statement that "the voucher scheme does not change their health seeking behaviours on seeing public or private healthcare professionals". The most common reasons for no change in their behaviours included "I am used to seeing doctors in the public system" and "The amount of the subsidy is too low". Those who usually used a mix of public and private doctors and those with better self-reported health condition compared to last year were more likely to perceive a change in their own health seeking behaviours. Conclusions Our study showed that despite a reasonably high awareness of the voucher scheme, its usage was low. The voucher alone was not

  6. National Radiobiology Archives distributed access programmer's guide

    SciTech Connect

    Prather, J. C.; Smith, S. K.; Watson, C. R.

    1991-12-01

    The National Radiobiology Archives is a comprehensive effort to gather, organize, and catalog original data, representative specimens, and supporting materials related to significant radiobiology studies. This provides researchers with information for analyses which compare or combine results of these and other studies and with materials for analysis by advanced molecular biology techniques. This Programmer's Guide document describes the database access software, NRADEMO, and the subset loading script NRADEMO/MAINT/MAINTAIN, which comprise the National Laboratory Archives Distributed Access Package. The guide is intended for use by an experienced database management specialist. It contains information about the physical and logical organization of the software and data files. It also contains printouts of all the scripts and associated batch processing files. It is part of a suite of documents published by the National Radiobiology Archives.

  7. Education and Selective Vouchers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piolatto, Amedeo

    2010-01-01

    A widely accepted result in the literature is that the majority of voters are against the introduction of universal vouchers. Chen and West (2000) predict that voters' attitudes towards selective vouchers (SV) may be different. They claim that voters are indifferent between the no-voucher and SV regimes, unless competition leads to a reduction in…

  8. The Truth About Vouchers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caire, Kaleem M. S.

    2002-01-01

    Based on data from five educational voucher programs in the United States, argues that voucher schools do not "cream" the best students, do serve special-needs students, can improve academic achievement, do not increase racial segregation, and do not harm public schools. Explains why African Americans support educational vouchers. (Contains 18…

  9. Voting down Vouchers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bolick, Clint

    2008-01-01

    In 1999 the Ohio Supreme Court found the Cleveland school voucher program to be constitutional, thereby allowing the three-year-old initiative to continue. However, the school voucher program was ended when Judge Solomon Oliver enjoined the program after the anti-voucher coalition filed suit asking for a preliminary injunction. The judge's…

  10. Evaluation of national malaria control programmes in Africa.

    PubMed Central

    Bryce, J.; Roungou, J. B.; Nguyen-Dinh, P.; Naimoli, J. F.; Breman, J. G.

    1994-01-01

    Evaluation is an essential management tool for the improvement of public health programmes or projects. As malaria morbidity and mortality continue to increase in most countries in Africa, international agencies and malaria control programme managers have identified the strengthening of programme evaluation as an important strategy for improving the efficiency and effectiveness of malaria control programmes. Managers can develop an evaluation strategy only after they have defined programme objectives and planned specific programme activities. Indicators should be directly related to programme objectives and should be selected on the basis of the following criteria: their validity; reliability; ability to detect change within a reasonable time period and as a result of successful programme implementation; ability to be interpreted; and usefulness in guiding programme change. Only those indicators that can be measured with available programme resources should be selected. Managers will also need to identify the sources of indicator data and to determine how often each indicator will be measured. Programme managers should develop criteria or indicators for the following: programme policies and plans; the process of programme implementation; the outcomes of malaria control interventions in disease management and prevention; and programme impact in terms of reductions in malaria-related mortality and morbidity. Key issues related to the management of evaluation activities within a national programme include the need to begin with available resources and build incrementally; to explore options for administering evaluation activities; to select, train and supervise staff who carry out evaluation activities; to develop quality control strategies; and to ensure that data are managed and communicated in ways that support effective programme decision-making. For evaluation to lead to improvements in malaria control programmes it must be clearly defined as a part of the

  11. Vouchers for health: A demand side output-based aid approach to reproductive health services in Kenya.

    PubMed

    Janisch, C P; Albrecht, M; Wolfschuetz, A; Kundu, F; Klein, S

    2010-01-01

    Reaching the United Nation's Millennium Development Goals has been a focus for many countries and development partners. In Kenya, as in many other countries with low levels of development, access to and equity of basic quality health services is limited, especially for the very poor. Among poor populations, maternal mortality is high as access to medical care and financial means are lacking. In 2005, the Governments of Kenya and Germany in cooperation with KfW Banking Group made funds available for the Reproductive Health OBA Voucher Programme offering vouchers for Safe Motherhood, Family Planning and Gender Violence Recovery Services. This programme, herein referred to as Vouchers for Health, was launched in June of 2006 in five Kenyan districts with the aim of providing health services for safe deliveries, long-term family planning methods and victims of gender violence. The way that the programme is being implemented in Kenya demonstrates that the voucher-based approach comprises a variety of key structural elements of a national health insurance scheme: accreditation; quality assurance; reimbursement system; claims processing; integrating the private sector; client choice; provider competition; and access to and equity of services provided.

  12. Vouchers and Voodoo Economics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramirez, Al

    1998-01-01

    The magic of the marketplace is insufficient to guarantee a school voucher system's success or a public-school turnaround. Educators and policymakers must address practical issues such as accountability and instructional space needs. Vouchers may provide a life preserver for a few poor students, but open-market competition does nothing for…

  13. Vouchers and Voodoo Economics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramirez, Al

    1998-01-01

    The magic of the marketplace is insufficient to guarantee a school voucher system's success or a public-school turnaround. Educators and policymakers must address practical issues such as accountability and instructional space needs. Vouchers may provide a life preserver for a few poor students, but open-market competition does nothing for…

  14. Interested in developing a national programme to reduce dietary salt?

    PubMed

    Campbell, N R C; Neal, B C; MacGregor, G A

    2011-12-01

    High dietary salt is a major contributor to increased blood pressure, the leading risk for death worldwide. In several countries, national programmes to reduce dietary salt have been implemented with leadership and involvement of hypertension experts. Other hypertension experts may be interested in assisting or leading a national programme to reduce dietary salt, however, may not have the experience or training to do so. The article is based on the experiences of three hypertension experts who have led the development of national dietary salt reduction programmes in the United Kingdom, Australia and Canada. The article advises developing leadership and a coalition, conducting a nation-specific environmental scan of facilitators and barriers, estimating the national health and financial costs of high dietary salt and the benefits of reducing salt intake, obtaining core documents to provide the scientific rational for the programme, developing a policy statement to outline the required actions to be undertaken, engaging government and industry, using media to gain public support, overcoming industry supported opposition and sustaining the effort long term. Resources and potential sources for international collaboration are provided as well as caveats for developing the programme within the specific nations' context and overall effort to improve health. Developing and leading a national salt reduction programme is a major commitment, however, reducing dietary salt is estimated to be one of the most effective strategies to improve a nation's health.

  15. Education Vouchers: Boon or Bane?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, David G.

    The idea of educational vouchers goes back to Adam Smith in 1778, according to this examination of past and present discussions about vouchers. The author begins by defining educational vouchers and summarizing the idea's history, especially since its revival in 1955 by economist Milton Friedman. Seven models of voucher systems are briefly…

  16. Education Vouchers: Boon or Bane?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, David G.

    The idea of educational vouchers goes back to Adam Smith in 1778, according to this examination of past and present discussions about vouchers. The author begins by defining educational vouchers and summarizing the idea's history, especially since its revival in 1955 by economist Milton Friedman. Seven models of voucher systems are briefly…

  17. Proving the Viability of a School Choice Voucher. Policy Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haller, Scott

    2015-01-01

    A recent Pioneer Institute report written by Ken Ardon and Cara Stilling Candal, "Modeling Urban Scholarship Vouchers in Massachusetts," explores the viability of a school choice voucher program in the Commonwealth. Nationally, school choice has been shown to improve parent satisfaction and student achievement, reduce racial segregation,…

  18. Special Education Vouchers: Four State Approaches. inForum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muller, Eve; Ahearn, Eileen

    2007-01-01

    The National Association of State Directors of Special Education has published documents on home schooling and various aspects of the charter school movement, but not on other types of school choice such as vouchers. This Project Forum document focuses on voucher programs that are specifically designed to provide public funds for parental…

  19. Lessons from sexual and reproductive health voucher program design and function: a comprehensive review

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Developing countries face challenges in financing healthcare; often the poor do not receive the most basic services. The past decade has seen a sharp increase in the number of voucher programs, which target output-based subsidies for specific services to poor and underserved groups. The dearth of literature that examines lessons learned risks the wheel being endlessly reinvented. This paper examines commonalities and differences in voucher design and implementation, highlighting lessons learned for the design of new voucher programmes. Methodology The methodology comprised: discussion among key experts to develop inclusion/exclusion criteria; up-dating the literature database used by the DFID systematic review of voucher programs; and networking with key contacts to identify new programs and obtain additional program documents. We identified 40 programs for review and extracted a dataset of more than 120 program characteristics for detailed analysis. Results All programs aimed to increase utilisation of healthcare, particularly maternal health services, overwhelmingly among low-income populations. The majority contract(ed) private providers, or public and private providers, and all facilitate(d) access to services that are well defined, time-limited and reflect the country’s stated health priorities. All voucher programs incorporate a governing body, management agency, contracted providers and target population, and all share the same incentive structure: the transfer of subsidies from consumers to service providers, resulting in a strong effect on both consumer and provider behaviour. Vouchers deliver subsidies to individuals, who in the absence of the subsidy would likely not have sought care, and in all programs a positive behavioural response is observed, with providers investing voucher revenue to attract more clients. A large majority of programs studied used targeting mechanisms. Conclusions While many programs remain too small to address

  20. Lessons from sexual and reproductive health voucher program design and function: a comprehensive review.

    PubMed

    Grainger, Corinne; Gorter, Anna; Okal, Jerry; Bellows, Ben

    2014-04-29

    Developing countries face challenges in financing healthcare; often the poor do not receive the most basic services. The past decade has seen a sharp increase in the number of voucher programs, which target output-based subsidies for specific services to poor and underserved groups. The dearth of literature that examines lessons learned risks the wheel being endlessly reinvented. This paper examines commonalities and differences in voucher design and implementation, highlighting lessons learned for the design of new voucher programmes. The methodology comprised: discussion among key experts to develop inclusion/exclusion criteria; up-dating the literature database used by the DFID systematic review of voucher programs; and networking with key contacts to identify new programs and obtain additional program documents. We identified 40 programs for review and extracted a dataset of more than 120 program characteristics for detailed analysis. All programs aimed to increase utilisation of healthcare, particularly maternal health services, overwhelmingly among low-income populations. The majority contract(ed) private providers, or public and private providers, and all facilitate(d) access to services that are well defined, time-limited and reflect the country's stated health priorities. All voucher programs incorporate a governing body, management agency, contracted providers and target population, and all share the same incentive structure: the transfer of subsidies from consumers to service providers, resulting in a strong effect on both consumer and provider behaviour. Vouchers deliver subsidies to individuals, who in the absence of the subsidy would likely not have sought care, and in all programs a positive behavioural response is observed, with providers investing voucher revenue to attract more clients. A large majority of programs studied used targeting mechanisms. While many programs remain too small to address national-level need among the poor, large programs

  1. Voucher Programs. Policy Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wixom, Micah Ann

    2017-01-01

    This education Policy Analysis provides a comprehensive look at eligibility requirements, accountability and funding for voucher programs across the states, and includes research findings and legal challenges for this private school choice option.

  2. National infection prevention and control programmes: Endorsing quality of care.

    PubMed

    Stempliuk, Valeska; Ramon-Pardo, Pilar; Holder, Reynaldo

    2014-01-01

    Core components Health care-associated infections (HAIs) are a major cause of morbidity and mortality. In addition to pain and suffering, HAIs increase the cost of health care and generates indirect costs from loss of productivity for patients and society as a whole. Since 2005, the Pan American Health Organization has provided support to countries for the assessment of their capacities in infection prevention and control (IPC). More than 130 hospitals in 18 countries were found to have poor IPC programmes. However, in the midst of many competing health priorities, IPC programmes are not high on the agenda of ministries of health, and the sustainability of national programmes is not viewed as a key point in making health care systems more consistent and trustworthy. Comprehensive IPC programmes will enable countries to reduce the mobility, mortality and cost of HAIs and improve quality of care. This paper addresses the relevance of national infection prevention and control (NIPC) programmes in promoting, supporting and reinforcing IPC interventions at the level of hospitals. A strong commitment from national health authorities in support of national IPC programmes is crucial to obtaining a steady decrease of HAIs, lowering health costs due to HAIs and ensuring safer care.

  3. The National Programme to Eliminate Lymphatic Filariasis from Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Mengistu, Belete; Deribe, Kebede; Kebede, Fikreab; Martindale, Sarah; Hassan, Mohammed; Sime, Heven; Mackenzie, Charles; Mulugeta, Abate; Tamiru, Mossie; Sileshi, Mesfin; Hailu, Asrat; Gebre, Teshome; Fentaye, Amha; Kebede, Biruck

    2017-01-01

    Lymphatic filariasis (LF) is one of the most debilitating and disfiguring diseases common in Ethiopia and is caused by Wuchereria bancrofti. Mapping for LF has shown that 70 woredas (districts) are endemic and 5.9 million people are estimated to be at risk. The national government’s LF elimination programme commenced in 2009 in 5 districts integrated with the onchocerciasis programme. The programme developed gradually and has shown significant progress over the past 6 years, reaching 100% geographical coverage for mass drug administration (MDA) by 2016. To comply with the global LF elimination goals an integrated morbidity management and disability prevention (MMDP) guideline and a burden assessment programme has also been developed; MMDP protocols and a hydrocoele surgical handbook produced for country-wide use. In Ethiopia, almost all LF endemic districts are co-endemic with malaria and vector control aspects of the activities are conducted in the context of malaria programme as the vectors for both diseases are mosquitoes. In order to monitor the elimination, 11 sentinel and spot-check sites have been established and baseline information has been collected. Although significant achievements have been achieved in the scale up of the LF elimination programme, there is still a need to strengthen operational research to generate programme-relevant evidence, to increase access to morbidity management services, and to improve monitoring and evaluation of the LF programme. However, the current status of implementation of the LF national programme indicates that Ethiopia is poised to achieve the 2020 goal of elimination of LF. Nevertheless, to achieve this goal, high and sustained treatment coverage and strong monitoring and evaluation of the programme are essential. PMID:28878429

  4. The United Nations programme on space applications: priority thematic areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haubold, H.

    The Third United Nations Conference on the Exploration and Peaceful Uses of Outer Space (UNISPACE III) was held in 1999 with efforts to identify world wide benefits of developing space science and technology, particularly in the developing nations. One of the main vehicles to implement recommendations of UNISPACE III is the United Nations Programme on Space Applications of the Office for Outer Space Affairs at UN Headquarters in Vienna. Following a process of prioritization by Member States, the Programme focus its activities on (i) knowledge-based themes as space law and basic space science, (ii) application-based themes as disaster management, natural resources management, environmental monitoring, tele-health, and (iii) enabling technologies such as remote sensing satellites, communications satellites, global navigation satellite systems, and small satellites. Current activities of the Programme will be reviewed. Further information available at http://www.oosa.unvienna.org/sapidx.html

  5. Introducing vouchers for malaria prevention in Ghana and Tanzania: context and adoption of innovation in health systems.

    PubMed

    de Savigny, Don; Webster, Jayne; Agyepong, Irene Akua; Mwita, Alex; Bart-Plange, Constance; Baffoe-Wilmot, Aba; Koenker, Hannah; Kramer, Karen; Brown, Nick; Lengeler, Christian

    2012-10-01

    There are striking similarities in health system and other contexts between Tanzania and Ghana that are relevant to the scaling up of continuous delivery of insecticide treated nets (ITNs) for malaria prevention. However, specific contextual factors of relevance to ITN delivery have led implementation down very different pathways in the two countries. Both countries have made major efforts and investments to address this intervention through integrating consumer discount vouchers into the health system. Discount vouchers require arrangements among the public, private and non-governmental sectors and constitute a complex intervention in both health systems and business systems. In Tanzania, vouchers have moved beyond the planning agenda, had policies and programmes formulated, been sustained in implementation at national scale for many years and have become as of 2012 the main and only publicly supported continuous delivery system for ITNs. In Ghana national-scale implementation of vouchers never progressed beyond consideration on the agenda and piloting towards formulation of policy; and the approach was replaced by mass distribution campaigns with less dependency on or integration with the health system. By 2011, Ghana entered a phase with no publicly supported continuous delivery system for ITNs. To understand the different outcomes, we compared the voucher programme timelines, phases, processes and contexts in both countries in reference to the main health system building blocks (governance, human resources, financing, informatics, technologies and service delivery). Contextual factors which provided an enabling environment for the voucher scheme in Tanzania did not do so in Ghana. The voucher scheme was never seen as an appropriate national strategy, other delivery systems were not complementary and the private sector was under-developed. The extensive time devoted to engagement and consensus building among all stakeholders in Tanzania was an important and

  6. United Nations Environment Programme, Annual Review, 1978.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sarsfield, Mairuth, Ed.; Emes, John, Ed.

    The 1978 Annual State of the Environment Report of the United Nations Environment Program (UNEP) focused on four selected environmental problems of international significance: (1) chemicals and the environment; (2) malaria; (3) the use of agricultural and agro-industrial residues to increase the base for food production; and (4) the conservation…

  7. United Nations Environment Programme, Annual Review, 1978.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sarsfield, Mairuth, Ed.; Emes, John, Ed.

    The 1978 Annual State of the Environment Report of the United Nations Environment Program (UNEP) focused on four selected environmental problems of international significance: (1) chemicals and the environment; (2) malaria; (3) the use of agricultural and agro-industrial residues to increase the base for food production; and (4) the conservation…

  8. The National Tuberculosis Programme and its implementation.

    PubMed

    Banerji, D

    1995-01-01

    India has formulated a nationally applicable, socially acceptable, and epidemiologically effective National Tuberculosis Program (NTP), which served as an example for many other countries. In the 1940s, the New Delhi Tuberculosis Center pioneered organized domiciliary treatment of TB cases; the Union Mission Tuberculosis Sanatorium, Madanapalle, had started conducting epidemiological surveys in the late 1930s; the 1954-56 national sample survey of TB is still considered a classic; and this was followed by outstanding longitudinal surveys and epidemiological studies demonstrating that BCG does not provide protection to adults against TB. Halfdan Mahler joined P.V. Benjamin in launching the National BCG Campaign in the 1950s. India demonstrated in the 1950s that home treatment of patients is as efficacious as sanatorium treatment. The National Tuberculosis Institute was set up in 1959 with the specific mandate of making TB services available to larger masses of people. Social science data were also collected to show that TB patients were seeking help from health institutions; they helped diagnose patients in remote rural areas, they proved that the TB program had to be part of the general health services, and they demonstrated the epidemiological potential of a felt-need oriented TB program. The NTP diagnosed TB cases in rural institutions by sputum examination and treated them with chemotherapy. The Tuberculosis Center at district headquarters (DTC) was responsible for providing training to health workers, keeping track of all TB cases and referring them. By 1983-84, the NTP program had been implemented in 353 districts and during that year 1,308,880 cases were treated. Nevertheless, hundreds of thousands of infectious patients are not treated because health authorities put priority on child immunization and are preoccupied with malaria and family planning. The indifference of the bureaucracy and public health leadership is to be blamed for thousands of TB deaths

  9. Great Expectations: Teacher Learning in a National Professional Development Programme

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Armour, Kathleen M.; Makopoulou, Kyriaki

    2012-01-01

    This paper reports findings from an evaluation of a national continuing professional development (CPD) programme for teachers in England. Data showed that the localised implementation, opportunities for interactive learning, and "collective participation" were positive factors. Research participants reported difficulties, however, in…

  10. Vaccines in the national immunization programme.

    PubMed

    Bass, A G

    1993-06-01

    Papua New Guinea has been providing expanded immunization services for more than 14 years. While immunization coverage has risen dramatically, recent surveys have raised serious questions regarding vaccine potency at the service delivery level. Operational practices in vaccine distribution and in the delivery system have been identified in this paper. The international and national standards for vaccine management are described along with the main requirements for maintaining vaccine potency. Quality assurance measures, the responsible personnel and the appropriate intervention points are detailed, along with easily applied guidelines for implementation. An approach to assessing the effectiveness of the quality assurance measures is proposed.

  11. India: new trends in the national programme.

    PubMed

    Katti, A P

    1979-01-01

    India's joint conference of the Central Councils of Health and Family Welfare, meeting during April 1979, scaled down the national family planning target for 1979-80 due to the poor performance by some states during 1978-79. The target is now 9.65 million rather than 10.7 million people. The conference also recommended a country wide campaign to explain the concept of the small family and its benefits and a system of incentives and appropriate community awards. Focusing on specific issues, the conference called for initiating a gigantic effort to reduce infant and child mortality by at least 50%. At this time the infant mortality rate is 122/1000. The conference called for family welfare to be integrated with the national adult education program, approved the goal of primary health care for all by the year 2000, and recommended that a higher percentage of the plan budget be allocated to the minimum needs program in the health sector. Another topic considered was the National Development Council (NDC) decision to transfer most of the centrally sponsored health schemes to the state sector. One of the most closely monitored programs in the country, the Family Welfare Program, is being evaluated periodically by the Ministry of Health and Family Welfare to assess how far the objectives and operational goals have been realized. Some interesting facts emerged from the most recent studies conducted by the Population Research Center on the impact of the Family Welfare Program on marriage age, sterilization, IUD, fertility, abortion and the role of trade unions, Panchayats, and voluntary organizations. There has been a rise in the age of marriage for both male and females in urban and rural areas, but it is small and slow. A vast majority of acceptors were within the reproductive age group, but a substantial percentage of acceptors belong to the low fertility age group with a large number of living children. A majority of acceptors of sterilization or other permanent methods

  12. Cost-effectiveness of a national public access defibrillation programme.

    PubMed

    Moran, Patrick S; Teljeur, Conor; Masterson, Siobhán; O'Neill, Michelle; Harrington, Patricia; Ryan, Máirín

    2015-06-01

    Proposed Irish legislation aimed at increasing survival from out-of-hospital-cardiac-arrest (OHCA) mandates the provision of automated external defibrillators (AEDs) in a comprehensive range of publicly accessible premises in urban and rural areas. This study estimated the clinical and cost effectiveness of the legislation, compared with alternative programme configurations involving more targeted AED placement. We used a cost-utility analysis to estimate the costs and consequences of public access defibrillation (PAD) programmes from a societal perspective, based on AED deployment by building type. Comparator programmes ranged from those that only included building types with the highest incidence of OHCA, to the comprehensive programme outline in the proposed legislation. Data on OHCA incidence and outcomes were obtained from the Irish Out-of-Hospital-Cardiac-Arrest Register (OHCAR). Costs were obtained from the Irish health service, device suppliers and training providers. The incremental cost effectiveness ratio (ICER) for the most comprehensive PAD scheme was €928,450/QALY. The ICER for the most scaled-back programme involving AED placement in transport stations, medical practices, entertainment venues, schools (excluding primary) and fitness facilities was €95,640/QALY. A 40% increase in AED utilisation when OHCAs occur in a public area could potentially render this programme cost effective. National PAD programmes involving widespread deployment of static AEDs are unlikely to be cost-effective. To improve cost-effectiveness any prospective programmes should target locations with the highest incidence of OHCA and be supported by efforts to increase AED utilisation, such as improving public awareness, increasing CPR and AED training, and establishing an EMS-linked AED register. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. National Conference on Urban Family Planning Programme.

    PubMed

    Zhang, G

    1997-02-01

    This news insert relays information on the Second National Conference on China's Urban Family Planning Program held in Nanjing, Jiangsu province, during December 1996. Conference participants included Mme. Peng Peiyun as Minister of the State Family Planning Commission and 200 participants from 30 provinces and State Council departments. The conference aimed to discuss the family planning system in relation to the socialist market economy, improvements in delivery of more and better services to reproductive age couples, and more scientific and reasonable family planning management. The conference was sponsored by the State Family Planning Commission. The program offered the opportunity to exchange experiences in implementing urban family planning programs. The first conference was held in Shanghai in 1992. Significant changes have taken place over the past 10 years. There is now a low birth rate, a low rate of natural increase, and changes in attitudes toward fertility. Family planning is a voluntary practice. The urban population has experienced improvements in the quality of life. People demand more and better services and services for maternal and child health and reproductive health. The process of urbanization is accelerating as more people move to cities and towns and new towns are formed. An increasing number of workers are engaged in joint-venture businesses and in the private sector.

  14. Kidney paired donation: a plea for a Swiss National Programme.

    PubMed

    Hadaya, Karine; Fehr, Thomas; Rüsi, Barbara; Ferrari-Lacraz, Sylvie; Jean, Villard; Ferrari, Paolo

    2015-01-01

    Growing incidence of end-stage renal disease, shortage of kidneys from deceased donors and a better outcome for recipients of kidneys from living donor have led many centres worldwide to favour living donor kidney transplantation programmes. Although criteria for living donation have greatly evolved in recent years with acceptance of related and unrelated donors, an immunological incompatibility, either due to ABO incompatibility and/or to positive cross-match, between a living donor and the intended recipient, could impede up to 40% of such procedures. To avoid refusal of willing and healthy living donors, a number of strategies have emerged to overcome immunological incompatibilities. Kidney paired donation is the safest way for such patients to undergo kidney transplantation. Implemented with success in many countries either as national or multiple regional independent programmes, it could include simple exchanges between any number of incompatible pairs, incorporate compatible pairs and non-directed donors (NDDs) to start a chain of compatible transplantations, lead to acceptance of ABO-incompatible matching, and integrate desensitising protocols. Incorporating all variations of kidney paired donation, the Australian programme has been able to facilitate kidney transplantation in 49% of registered incompatible pairs. This review is a plea for implementing a national kidney paired donation programme in Switzerland.

  15. [Results of the Czech National Breast Cancer screening programme].

    PubMed

    Skovajsová, M; Májek, O; Daneš, J; Bartoňková, H; Ngo, O; Dušek, L

    2014-01-01

    Breast cancer screening based on mammography is an effective tool for lowering mortality rates from this disease. The organised and nationwide Breast Cancer Screening Programme has been underway in the Czech Republic since 2002. Monitoring of the programme is based on data from the Czech National Cancer Registry (CNCR), Breast Cancer Screening Registry, and the Czech National Reference Centre (CNRC). These data sources make it possible to evaluate early performance indicators according to international standards, and to monitor the cancer burden in the Czech population. The CNRC data allow us to document the high validity of the available data as well as to map non-organised mammography examinations (so-called opportunistic screening). Until the mid-1990s, breast cancer incidence and mortality rates saw a slight but continuous increase. In the last 15 years, however, incidence rates have grown more substantially; by contrast, mortality rates have stalled and even started to decline since the 2000s. In the mid-1990s, the proportion of cancers diagnosed at stage I was below 20%; this situation has dramatically improved since then, as more than 40% cases of breast cancer were diagnosed at stage I in 2011. Breast cancer screening coverage currently amounts to 50%; this value reached a plateau in the period 2007-2008, and unfortunately has not shown any further significant increase. Over the last few decades, the breast cancer burden among the Czech population has been significantly reduced - despite the growing incidence rates, mortality rates have decreased, which can be largely attributed to earlier detection of breast cancer based on the screening programme. Further improvements in the programmes effectiveness can only be achieved if the population coverage becomes higher; the programme of personalised invitations to mammography examinations, which was introduced in early 2014, should contribute to the accomplishment of this goal.

  16. Status of national diabetes programmes in the Americas.

    PubMed Central

    White, F.; Nanan, D.

    1999-01-01

    Reported are the responses in the latter half of 1997 of all ministries of health in the Region of the Americas to the Declaration of the Americas on Diabetes, which was adopted by the Directing Council of the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO) in 1996 as a basis for national programme development in diabetes. The short-term targets were the designation of national focal points, the preparation of national estimates of the disease burden, and the development and implementation of national strategies and plans to deal with diabetes. The survey found that most countries recognized diabetes as a significant public health problem. In terms of global relevance, a number of lessons have been learned from this exercise: the role of broadly based participation in gaining recognition at the national health policy level; the wide acceptance of an integrated programme model; the relevance of process-related targets to achieve short-term success; and the critical role of having a designated focal point within the managerial approach. PMID:10680245

  17. National haemophilia programme development in the Republic of Georgia.

    PubMed

    Kirtava, A; Soucie, M; Evatt, B; Mdivinishvili, M; Abashidze, M; Iosava, G

    2005-09-01

    After the dissolution of Soviet Union in 1991, haemophilia care in the Republic of Georgia was negatively affected because of the expense of treatment products, lack of clinical and diagnostic facilities, and the need for trained personnel throughout the country. In 2001, the Georgian Government, working through the Ministry of Health, in collaboration with Georgian Association of Haemophilia and Donors, the Institute of Haematology and Transfusion, and the World Federation of Haemophilia, initiated a National Haemophilia Programme. As part of this programme the first Georgian Haemophilia Treatment Centre (HTC) was established. In this paper, we will describe (i) our outreach efforts to identify patients with haemophilia (PWH), (ii) the diagnostic and clinical services provided to patients by the HTC, and (iii) the results of a patient survey designed to assess patient satisfaction with the care provided. Total of 216 PWH were diagnosed, mean age was 25 years (range 4 months to 75 years); 43% had severe, 33% had moderate and 24% had mild haemophilia A or B. Overall, 183 (85%) had haemophilia A and 33 (15%) had haemophilia B, giving a ratio of 5.6. During the 2-year period, 77% of the expected number of PWH was identified by our outreach programme. Vast majority had comprehensive evaluation including joint assessment and over 60% were tested for blood-borne infections within a year and half period. Our findings showed that haemophilia care was considerably improved since the beginning of the National Haemophilia Programme and the survey of PWH showed a high degree of satisfaction with services provided in the HTC. In conclusion, close collaboration of the government, non-government entities and medical professionals in a Georgian national haemophilia care model; resulted in the successful delivery of the much needed services and care to the people living in Georgia with haemophilia.

  18. The impact of vouchers on the use and quality of health care in developing countries: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Brody, Carinne Meyer; Bellows, Nicole; Campbell, Martha; Potts, Malcom

    2013-01-01

    One approach to delivering healthcare in developing countries is through voucher programmes, where vouchers are distributed to a targeted population for free or subsidised health care. Using inclusion/exclusion criteria, a search of databases, key journals and websites review was conducted in October 2010. A narrative synthesis approach was taken to summarise and analyse five outcome categories: targeting, utilisation, cost efficiency, quality and health outcomes. Sub-group and sensitivity analyses were also performed. A total of 24 studies evaluating 16 health voucher programmes were identified. The findings from 64 outcome variables indicates: modest evidence that vouchers effectively target specific populations; insufficient evidence to determine whether vouchers deliver healthcare efficiently; robust evidence that vouchers increase utilisation; modest evidence that vouchers improve quality; no evidence that vouchers have an impact on health outcomes; however, this last conclusion was found to be unstable in a sensitivity analysis. The results in the areas of targeting, utilisation and quality indicate that vouchers have a positive effect on health service delivery. The subsequent link that they improve health was found to be unstable from the data analysed; another finding of a positive effect would result in robust evidence. Vouchers are still new and the number of published studies is limiting.

  19. The UK's National Programme for IT: Why was it dismantled?

    PubMed

    Justinia, Taghreed

    2017-02-01

    This paper discusses the UK's National Programme for IT (NPfIT), which was an ambitious programme launched in 2002 with an initial budget of some £6.2 billion. It attempted to implement a top-down digitization of healthcare in England's National Health Service (NHS). The core aim of the NPfIT was to bring the NHS' use of information technology into the 21st century, through the introduction of an integrated electronic patient record systems, and reforming the way that the NHS uses information, and hence to improve services and the quality of patient care. The initiative was not trusted by doctors and appeared to have no impact on patient safety. The project was marred by resistance due to the inappropriateness of a centralized authority making top-down decisions on behalf of local organizations. The NPfIT was officially dismantled in September 2011. Deemed the world's largest civil IT programme, its failure and ultimate demise sparked a lot of interest as to the reasons why. This paper summarises the underlying causes that lead to dismantling the NPfIT. At the forefront of those circumstances were the lack of adequate end user engagement, the absence of a phased change management approach, and underestimating the scale of the project.

  20. Vouchers Revisited: The Prospects for Education Vouchers in the Eighties.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ralph, John H.

    Political and social changes that have increased the public's interest in educational vouchers are summarized in three categories. The first category, new support for the arguments made by voucher advocates, includes Milton Friedman's suggestion of a free and competitive market for education, and John E. Coons and Stephen D. Sugarman's…

  1. Prepare Vouchers & Pay Vouchers. Student's Manual and Instructor's Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamer, Jean

    Supporting performance objectives 49 and 50 of the V-TECS (Vocational-Technical Education Consortium of States) Secretarial Catalog, both a set of student materials and an instructor's manual on preparing vouchers and pay vouchers are included in this packet, which is one of a series. The student materials include five business transactions…

  2. National radon programmes and policies: the RADPAR recommendations.

    PubMed

    Bochicchio, F; Hulka, J; Ringer, W; Rovenská, K; Fojtikova, I; Venoso, G; Bradley, E J; Fenton, D; Gruson, M; Arvela, H; Holmgren, O; Quindos, L; McLaughlin, J; Collignan, B; Gray, A; Grosche, B; Jiranek, M; Kalimeri, K; Kephalopoulos, S; Kreuzer, M; Schlesinger, D; Zeeb, H; Bartzis, J

    2014-07-01

    Results from epidemiological studies on lung cancer and radon exposure in dwellings and mines led to a significant revision of recommendations and regulations of international organisations, such as WHO, IAEA, Nordic Countries, European Commission. Within the European project RADPAR, scientists from 18 institutions of 14 European countries worked together for 3 y (2009-12). Among other reports, a comprehensive booklet of recommendations was produced with the aim that they should be useful both for countries with a well-developed radon programme and for countries with little experience on radon issues. In this paper, the main RADPAR recommendations on radon programmes and policies are described and discussed. These recommendations should be very useful in preparing a national action plan, required by the recent Council Directive 2013/59/Euratom.

  3. The Supreme Court and Vouchers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russo, Charles J.; Mawdsley, Ralph D.

    2002-01-01

    Describes the facts and state and federal constitutional law related to "Zelman v. Simons-Harris," a Cleveland school-voucher case before the United States Supreme Court. Argues that the Court will likely uphold the constitutionality of the Cleveland voucher program, finding that it does not advance religion in violation of the First…

  4. Small Satellites and the Nigerian National Space Programme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borroffice, Robert; Chizea, Francis; Sun, Wei; Sweeting, Martin, , Sir

    2002-01-01

    Space technology and access to space have been elusive to most developing countries over the last half of the 21st century, which is attributed to very low par capital income and the lack of awareness of policy/decision makers about the role of space technology in national development. Space technology was seen as very expensive and prestigious, meant only for the major industrialized countries, while the developing countries should focus on building their national economy and providing food, shelter and other social amenities for their ever-growing populations. In the last decade, the trend has changed with many developing countries embracing spaced technology as one of the major ways of achieving sustainable development. The present trend towards the use of small satellites in meeting national needs has aided this transition because, apart from the small size, they are cheaper to build and to launch, with shorter development time, lower complexity, improved effectiveness and reduced operating costs. This in turn has made them more affordable and has opened up new avenues for the acquisition of satellite technology. The collaborative work between National Space Research and Development Agency of Nigeria (NASRDA) and Surrey Satellite and Technology Limited (SSTL) is a programme aimed at building two small satellites as a way of kick- starting the national space programme. The first project, NigeriaSAT-1, is an enhanced microsatellite carrying Earth observation payloads able to provide 32 metre GSD 3 band multispectral images with a 600km swath width. NigeriaSAT-1 is one of six microsatellites forming the Disaster Monitoring Constellation (DMC) alongside microsatellites contributed by Algeria, China, Turkey, Thailand and UK. Through participation in this international constellation, Nigeria will be able to receive images with a daily revisit worldwide. The EO images generated by NigeriaSAT-1 and the partner microsatellites will be used for providing rapid coverage

  5. A national teleradiology programme in Mali: implementation and results.

    PubMed

    Sangaré, Mohamed; Tanner, Lydia; Voss, Sarah; Laureys, Francois; Hollow, David; Touré, Mahamadou

    2015-04-01

    We reviewed the national teleradiology programme in Mali to establish whether it improved diagnosis for patients and improved the referring doctor's ability to give an accurate diagnosis. The teleradiology programme connected the University Hospital in Bamako to all seven regional hospitals in Mali and one private health clinic. The pilot phase began in 2005 in three hospitals. Initially the implementation involved connections via broadband, but subsequently satellite antennae were provided at three remote hospitals in the north. Between 2005 and 2013, X-ray and mammogram images from 5628 patients were read by teleradiology. Radiologists provided the sole diagnosis for 29% of cases (i.e. the referrer did not make a diagnosis) and altered the regional doctor's diagnosis in 12% of cases. The proportion of cases for which the regional doctor gave no diagnosis decreased from 93% to 24% over the same period, indicating an increase in the doctors' confidence and incentive to test their own diagnosis. The percentage of cases for which regional doctors made an inaccurate diagnosis decreased to 3% in 2013. Use of the teleradiology service varied widely between hospitals. Successful implementation depended on local ownership of a network, which was developed in close collaboration with hospital leadership, national radiologists and other healthcare personnel.

  6. Milwaukee Voucher-School Leaders' Views on Accountability: What Are They, and Why Do They Matter?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ford, Michael R.

    2016-01-01

    This article uses originally collected survey data to determine how leaders of private schools in the nation's oldest school-voucher program define accountability and perceive the state agency charged with holding them accountable. The results indicate voucher-school administrators' views on accountability are influenced by their school's level of…

  7. Milwaukee Voucher-School Leaders' Views on Accountability: What Are They, and Why Do They Matter?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ford, Michael R.

    2016-01-01

    This article uses originally collected survey data to determine how leaders of private schools in the nation's oldest school-voucher program define accountability and perceive the state agency charged with holding them accountable. The results indicate voucher-school administrators' views on accountability are influenced by their school's level of…

  8. Piloting a national laboratory electronic programme status reporting system.

    PubMed

    Cassim, Naseem; Coetzee, Lindi; Motlonye, Bahule; Mpele, Nobantu; Glencross, Deborah K

    2013-01-01

    The NHLS performs close to 4 million CD4 tests per annum for the public sector in South Africa through a network of 60 CD4 testing laboratories. CD4 laboratory data provides an assessment of the number of patients on ART and HIV-positive patients in the pre-ART wellness programs. This study aims to develop a laboratory based Comprehensive Care, Management and Treatment of HIV and AIDS (CCMT) programme status reporting system for CD4 testing at three health facilities in the Ekurhuleni health district using a newly developed CCMT request form, the Laboratory Information System (LIMS) and Corporate Data Warehouse (CDW). The study will generate monitoring and evaluation data to assist in the management of health facilities through a national electronic corporate data warehouse.

  9. Vouchers for chronic disease care.

    PubMed

    Watts, Jennifer J; Segal, Leonie

    2008-08-01

    This paper explores the economic implications of vouchers for chronic disease management with respect to achieving objectives of equity and efficiency. Vouchers as a payment policy instrument for health care services have a set of properties that suggest they may address both demand-side and supply-side issues, and contribute to equity and efficiency. They provide a means whereby health care services can be targeted at selected groups, enabling consumer choice of provider, and encouraging competition in the supply of health services. This analysis suggests that, when structured appropriately, vouchers can support consumers to choose services that will meet their health care needs and encourage competition among providers. Although they may not be appropriate across the entire health care system, there are features of vouchers that make them a potentially attractive option, especially for the management of chronic disease.

  10. Developing Multi-Agency Teams: Implications of a National Programme Evaluation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simkins, Tim; Garrick, Ros

    2012-01-01

    This paper explores the factors which influence the effectiveness of formal development programmes targeted at multi-agency teams in children's services. It draws on two studies of the National College for School Leadership's Multi-Agency Teams Development programme, reporting key characteristics of the programme, short-term outcomes in terms of…

  11. Developing Multi-Agency Teams: Implications of a National Programme Evaluation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simkins, Tim; Garrick, Ros

    2012-01-01

    This paper explores the factors which influence the effectiveness of formal development programmes targeted at multi-agency teams in children's services. It draws on two studies of the National College for School Leadership's Multi-Agency Teams Development programme, reporting key characteristics of the programme, short-term outcomes in terms of…

  12. Embedding operational research into national disease control programme: lessons from 10 years of experience in Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Mahendradhata, Yodi; Probandari, Ari; Widjanarko, Bagoes; Riono, Pandu; Mustikawati, Dyah; Tiemersma, Edine W; Alisjahbana, Bachti

    2014-01-01

    There is growing recognition that operational research (OR) should be embedded into national disease control programmes. However, much of the current OR capacity building schemes are still predominantly driven by international agencies with limited integration into national disease control programmes. We demonstrated that it is possible to achieve a more sustainable capacity building effort across the country by establishing an OR group within the national tuberculosis (TB) control programme in Indonesia. Key challenges identified include long-term financial support, limited number of scientific publications, and difficulties in documenting impact on programmatic performance. External evaluation has expressed concerns in regard to utilisation of OR in policy making. Efforts to address this concern have been introduced recently and led to indications of increased utilisation of research evidence in policy making by the national TB control programme. Embedding OR in national disease control programmes is key in establishing an evidence-based disease control programme.

  13. Embedding operational research into national disease control programme: lessons from 10 years of experience in Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Mahendradhata, Yodi; Probandari, Ari; Widjanarko, Bagoes; Riono, Pandu; Mustikawati, Dyah; Tiemersma, Edine W; Alisjahbana, Bachti

    2014-12-01

    There is growing recognition that operational research (OR) should be embedded into national disease control programmes. However, much of the current OR capacity building schemes are still predominantly driven by international agencies with limited integration into national disease control programmes. We demonstrated that it is possible to achieve a more sustainable capacity building effort across the country by establishing an OR group within the national tuberculosis (TB) control programme in Indonesia. Key challenges identified include long-term financial support, limited number of scientific publications, and difficulties in documenting impact on programmatic performance. External evaluation has expressed concerns in regard to utilisation of OR in policy making. Efforts to address this concern have been introduced recently and led to indications of increased utilisation of research evidence in policy making by the national TB control programme. Embedding OR in national disease control programmes is key in establishing an evidence-based disease control programme.

  14. Embedding operational research into national disease control programme: lessons from 10 years of experience in Indonesia

    PubMed Central

    Mahendradhata, Yodi; Probandari, Ari; Widjanarko, Bagoes; Riono, Pandu; Mustikawati, Dyah; Tiemersma, Edine W.; Alisjahbana, Bachti

    2014-01-01

    There is growing recognition that operational research (OR) should be embedded into national disease control programmes. However, much of the current OR capacity building schemes are still predominantly driven by international agencies with limited integration into national disease control programmes. We demonstrated that it is possible to achieve a more sustainable capacity building effort across the country by establishing an OR group within the national tuberculosis (TB) control programme in Indonesia. Key challenges identified include long-term financial support, limited number of scientific publications, and difficulties in documenting impact on programmatic performance. External evaluation has expressed concerns in regard to utilisation of OR in policy making. Efforts to address this concern have been introduced recently and led to indications of increased utilisation of research evidence in policy making by the national TB control programme. Embedding OR in national disease control programmes is key in establishing an evidence-based disease control programme. PMID:25361728

  15. Emergent programme theories of a national quality register - a longitudinal study in Swedish elderly care.

    PubMed

    Nordin, Annika; Andersson Gäre, Boel; Andersson, Ann-Christine

    2017-07-27

    This study aimed to explore programme theories of a national quality register. A programme theory is a bundle of assumptions underpinning how and why an improvement initiative functions. The purpose was to examine and establish programme theories of a national quality register widely used in Sweden: Senior alert. The paper reports on how programme theories among change recipients emerge in relation to the established programme theory of the initiator. A qualitative approach and a longitudinal research design were used. To develop programme theories among change recipients, individual semistructured interviews were conducted. Three sets of interviews were conducted in the period of 2011 to 2013, totalling 22 interviews. In addition, 4 participant observations were made. To develop the initiator's programme theory, an iterative multistage collaboration process between the researchers and the initiator was used. A directed content analysis was used to analyse data. The initiator and change recipients described similar programme logics, but differing programme theories. With time, change recipients' programme theories emerged. Their programme theories converged and became more like the programme theory of the initiator. This study has demonstrated the importance of making both the initiator's and change recipients' programme theories explicit. To learn about conditions for improvement initiatives, comparisons between their programme theories are valuable. Differences in programme theories provide information on how initiators can customize support for their improvement initiatives. Similar programme logics can be underpinned by different programme theories, which can be deceptive. Programme theories emerge over time and need to be understood as dynamic phenomena. © 2017 The Authors Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Evaluation of the national roll-out of parenting programmes across England: the parenting early intervention programme (PEIP)

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Evidence based parenting programmes can improve parenting skills and the behaviour of children exhibiting, or at risk of developing, antisocial behaviour. In order to develop a public policy for delivering these programmes it is necessary not only to demonstrate their efficacy through rigorous trials but also to determine that they can be rolled out on a large scale. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the UK government funded national implementation of its Parenting Early Intervention Programme, a national roll-out of parenting programmes for parents of children 8–13 years in all 152 local authorities (LAs) across England. Building upon our study of the Pathfinder (2006–08) implemented in 18 LAs. To the best of our knowledge this is the first comparative study of a national roll-out of parenting programmes and the first study of parents of children 8–13 years. Methods The UK government funded English LAs to implement one or more of five evidence based programmes (later increased to eight): Triple P, Incredible Years, Strengthening Families Strengthening Communities, Families and Schools Together (FAST), and the Strengthening Families Programme (10–14). Parents completed measures of parenting style (laxness and over-reactivity), and mental well-being, and also child behaviour at three time points: pre- and post-course and again one year later. Results 6143 parents from 43 LAs were included in the study of whom 3325 provided post-test data and 1035 parents provided data at one-year follow up. There were significant improvements for each programme, with effect sizes (Cohen’s d) for the combined sample of 0.72 parenting laxness, 0.85 parenting over-reactivity, 0.79 parent mental well-being, and 0.45 for child conduct problems. These improvements were largely maintained one year later. All four programmes for which we had sufficient data for comparison were effective. There were generally larger effects on both parent and child measures

  17. Schedule of voucher delivery influences initiation of cocaine abstinence.

    PubMed

    Kirby, K C; Marlowe, D B; Festinger, D S; Lamb, R J; Platt, J J

    1998-10-01

    This study examined whether voucher delivery arrangements affect treatment outcome. First, 90 cocaine-dependent adults were randomly assigned to behavioral counseling or counseling plus vouchers for cocaine-free urine samples. The value of each voucher was low at the beginning but increased as the patient progressed (Voucher Schedule 1). Voucher Schedule 1 produced no improvements relative to counseling only. Next, 23 patients received vouchers on either Voucher Schedule 1 or Voucher Schedule 2. Voucher Schedule 2 began with high voucher values, but requirements for earning vouchers increased as the patient progressed. Average durations of cocaine abstinence were 6.9 weeks on Voucher Schedule 2 versus 2.0 weeks on Voucher Schedule 1 (p = .02). This confirms that vouchers can assist in initiating abstinence and that voucher delivery arrangements are critical.

  18. Expanding Global Language Education in Public Primary Schools: The National English Programme in Mexico

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sayer, Peter

    2015-01-01

    The paper examines the recent national programme of English language instruction in the Mexican public primary schools, called the "Programa Nacional de Inglés en Educación Básica" (PNIEB). The programme, initiated in 2009 by the Ministry of Education as part of the national curriculum, represents the largest expansion of English…

  19. Expanding Global Language Education in Public Primary Schools: The National English Programme in Mexico

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sayer, Peter

    2015-01-01

    The paper examines the recent national programme of English language instruction in the Mexican public primary schools, called the "Programa Nacional de Inglés en Educación Básica" (PNIEB). The programme, initiated in 2009 by the Ministry of Education as part of the national curriculum, represents the largest expansion of English…

  20. Programmable beam spatial shaping system for the National Ignition Facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heebner, John; Borden, Michael; Miller, Phil; Hunter, Steve; Christensen, Kim; Scanlan, Michael; Haynam, Chris; Wegner, Paul; Hermann, Mark; Brunton, Gordon; Tse, Eddy; Awwal, Abdul; Wong, Nan; Seppala, Lynn; Franks, Mark; Marley, Ed; Williams, Kevin; Budge, Tracy; Henesian, Mark; Stolz, Christopher; Suratwala, Tayyab; Monticelli, Marcus; Walmer, Dan; Dixit, Sham; Widmayer, Clay; Wolfe, Justin; Bude, Jeff; McCarty, Kelly; DiNicola, Jean-Michel

    2011-03-01

    A system of customized spatial light modulators has been installed onto the front end of the laser system at the National Ignition Facility (NIF). The devices are capable of shaping the beam profile at a low-fluence relay plane upstream of the amplifier chain. Their primary function is to introduce "blocker" obscurations at programmed locations within the beam profile. These obscurations are positioned to shadow small, isolated flaws on downstream optical components that might otherwise limit the system operating energy. The modulators were designed to enable a drop-in retrofit of each of the 48 existing Pre Amplifier Modules (PAMs) without compromising their original performance specifications. This was accomplished by use of transmissive Optically Addressable Light Valves (OALV) based on a Bismuth Silicon Oxide photoconductive layer in series with a twisted nematic liquid crystal (LC) layer. These Programmable Spatial Shaper packages in combination with a flaw inspection system and optic registration strategy have provided a robust approach for extending the operational lifetime of high fluence laser optics on NIF.

  1. Programmable Beam Spatial Shaping System for the National Ignition Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Heebner, J; Borden, M; Miller, P; Hunter, S; Christensen, K; Scanlan, M; Haynam, C; Wegner, P; Hermann, M; Brunton, G; Tse, E; Awwal, A; Wong, N; Seppala, L; Franks, M; Marley, E; Wong, N; Seppala, L; Franks, M; Marley, E; Williams, K; Budge, T; Henesian, M; Stolz, C; Suratwala, T; Monticelli, M; Walmer, D; Dixit, S; Widmayer, C; Wolfe, J; Bude, J; McCarty, K; DiNicola, J M

    2011-01-21

    A system of customized spatial light modulators has been installed onto the front end of the laser system at the National Ignition Facility (NIF). The devices are capable of shaping the beam profile at a low-fluence relay plane upstream of the amplifier chain. Their primary function is to introduce 'blocker' obscurations at programmed locations within the beam profile. These obscurations are positioned to shadow small, isolated flaws on downstream optical components that might otherwise limit the system operating energy. The modulators were designed to enable a drop-in retrofit of each of the 48 existing Pre Amplifier Modules (PAMs) without compromising their original performance specifications. This was accomplished by use of transmissive Optically Addressable Light Valves (OALV) based on a Bismuth Silicon Oxide photoconductive layer in series with a twisted nematic liquid crystal (LC) layer. These Programmable Spatial Shaper packages in combination with a flaw inspection system and optic registration strategy have provided a robust approach for extending the operational lifetime of high fluence laser optics on NIF.

  2. Front-Line Advocacy: Fighting Off a Voucher Measure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grimesey, Robert P., Jr.

    2012-01-01

    In September 2010, the U.S. Senate's Armed Services Committee approved an amendment to the proposed National Defense Authorization Act. The amendment, known as Section 583, authorized a Defense Department pilot voucher program to mitigate the cost of private school tuition for special-needs children of military parents. Sen. Jim Webb, a member of…

  3. Voters versus Vouchers: An Analysis of Referendum Data.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Menendez, Albert J.

    1999-01-01

    The American people do not favor tax support for private or parochial schools. The issue of vouchers has been placed before the electorate 22 times since 1966, and the voters have rejected it 21 times. It makes little sense for state and national legislators to continue to press for unwanted programs. (MLH)

  4. Book Vouchers: An Exploratory Analysis of Their Use and Effectiveness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hurley, Peter M.

    2011-01-01

    Book vouchers serve as one component of need-based financial aid packages at the College of Southern Nevada (CSN), one of the nation's largest community colleges. This study compared the academic performance of Free Application for Federal Student Aid (FAFSA) applicants in attendance at CSN during the 2008-09 and 2009-10 academic years. A basic…

  5. Book Vouchers: An Exploratory Analysis of Their Use and Effectiveness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hurley, Peter M.

    2011-01-01

    Book vouchers serve as one component of need-based financial aid packages at the College of Southern Nevada (CSN), one of the nation's largest community colleges. This study compared the academic performance of Free Application for Federal Student Aid (FAFSA) applicants in attendance at CSN during the 2008-09 and 2009-10 academic years. A basic…

  6. Front-Line Advocacy: Fighting Off a Voucher Measure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grimesey, Robert P., Jr.

    2012-01-01

    In September 2010, the U.S. Senate's Armed Services Committee approved an amendment to the proposed National Defense Authorization Act. The amendment, known as Section 583, authorized a Defense Department pilot voucher program to mitigate the cost of private school tuition for special-needs children of military parents. Sen. Jim Webb, a member of…

  7. 78 FR 36520 - Rural Development Voucher Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-18

    ... Rural Housing Service Rural Development Voucher Program AGENCY: Rural Housing Service, USDA. ACTION... demonstration Rural Development Voucher Program, as authorized under Section 542 of the Housing Act of 1949 as... the Rural Development Voucher Program and also sets forth the general policies and procedures for use...

  8. Maternal and child health voucher scheme in Myanmar: a review of early stage implementation.

    PubMed

    Pilasant, Songyot; Kulpeng, Wantanee; Werayingyong, Pitsaphun; Tritasavit, Nattha; Yamabhai, Inthira; Teerawattananon, Yot; Wangmo, Sangay; Tantivess, Sripen

    2016-10-21

    The Maternal and Child Health Voucher Scheme (MCHVS) was introduced in Myanmar to address the high rate of maternal and infant mortalities. It aimed to increase access to maternal and child health (MCH) services by skilled birth attendants (SBAs) and improve the health of pregnant women and their babies. A study to pilot a voucher scheme was implemented in May 2013 in Yedarshey Township. This paper provides a report on a mid-term review of the programme after 7 months of implementation to determine the outcomes of the programme and its impediments. Quantitative and qualitative approaches were used. Secondary quantitative data were analysed in order to measure the coverage and utilisation of the programme. Semi-structured interviews were conducted in groups and individually with 79 key informants to explore qualitative information on voucher communication, beneficiary's identification, voucher distribution, and challenges for beneficiaries and providers under the MCHVS. The results showed that 63 % of eligible pregnant women who registered to the programme received voucher booklets, while the utilisation of most of the MCH services increased over time; in particular, delivery by SBAs increased significantly (P < 0.01) after implementing MCHVS. Overall, the programme was implemented well in terms of promoting and communicating the programme to people in Yedarshey Township. Although a number of targeted poor pregnant women were included in the programme, some beneficiaries were overlooked for a variety of reasons. Nevertheless, both providers and beneficiaries who experienced the MCHVS service utilisation were satisfied with the programme. The evaluation indicated several programme challenges, i.e. external and internal programme communication, voluntary voucher distributor recruitment, incentive and support for voucher distributors, beneficiary screening criteria, and approaches to increase access of services for pregnant women living in remote areas. Generally

  9. Priorities for the Priority Review Voucher

    PubMed Central

    Ridley, David B.

    2017-01-01

    The U.S. Congress created the priority review voucher program in 2007 to encourage development of drugs for neglected diseases. Under the voucher program, the developer of a drug for a neglected or rare pediatric disease that is approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration receives a bonus priority review voucher for another drug. As of 2016, four vouchers have sold for an average price of $200 million. Recent experience with the voucher program indicates strengths and weaknesses of the program, as well as a need for legislative changes. PMID:27573624

  10. Evaluation of the Undergraduate Physics Programme at Indira Gandhi National Open University: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mishra, Arundhati; Vijayshri; Garg, Suresh

    2009-01-01

    The undergraduate science programme was launched at the Indira Gandhi National Open University (IGNOU) in 1991-92 with an enrolment of 1,210 students. The programme was well received, and enrolments increased over the years. However, the success rates have not kept pace with enrolment. In this paper, the authors report the results of an evaluation…

  11. The National Singing Programme for Primary Schools in England: An Initial Baseline Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Welch, G. F.; Himonides, E.; Papageorgi, I.; Saunders, J.; Rinta, T.; Stewart, C.; Preti, C.; Lani, J.; Vraka, M.; Hill, J.

    2009-01-01

    The "Sing Up" National Singing Programme for primary schools in England was launched in November 2007 under the UK government's "Music Manifesto". "Sing Up" is a four-year programme whose overall aim is to raise the status of singing and increase opportunities for children throughout the country to enjoy singing as…

  12. Accreditation of Library and Information Science Programmes in the Gulf Cooperation Council Nations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rehman, Sajjad ur

    2012-01-01

    This paper investigates the accreditation possibilities and prospects for the library and information science education programmes located in the six member nations of the Gulf Cooperation Council. This paper has been based on the findings of a study focused on the evaluation practices of these programmes and the perceptions of the leading…

  13. Accreditation of Library and Information Science Programmes in the Gulf Cooperation Council Nations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rehman, Sajjad ur

    2012-01-01

    This paper investigates the accreditation possibilities and prospects for the library and information science education programmes located in the six member nations of the Gulf Cooperation Council. This paper has been based on the findings of a study focused on the evaluation practices of these programmes and the perceptions of the leading…

  14. Charters, Vouchers, and Public Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Paul E., Ed.; Campbell, David E., Ed.

    This book presents 15 papers on charters, vouchers, and public education: (1) "Introduction: A New Direction in Public Education?" (Paul E. Peterson and David E. Campbell); (2) "Charter Schools: Taking Stock" (Chester E. Finn, Jr, Bruno V. Manno, and Gregg Vanourek); (3) "School Choice in Michigan" (Michael Mintrom…

  15. Charters, Vouchers, and Public Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Paul E., Ed.; Campbell, David E., Ed.

    This book presents 15 papers on charters, vouchers, and public education: (1) "Introduction: A New Direction in Public Education?" (Paul E. Peterson and David E. Campbell); (2) "Charter Schools: Taking Stock" (Chester E. Finn, Jr, Bruno V. Manno, and Gregg Vanourek); (3) "School Choice in Michigan" (Michael Mintrom…

  16. Reconsidering the Constitutionality of Vouchers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kemerer, Frank R.

    2001-01-01

    Argues that Elizabeth and Andrew Lugg were wrong in criticizing the Wisconsin Supreme Court's decision in "Jackson v. Benson" that the Milwaukee Parental Choice Program does not violated the Establishment Clause. Asserts that in the near future the U.S. Supreme Court is likely to find the use of publicly funded vouchers does not violate…

  17. Cultural Voucher Program; Program Abstract.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Museums Collaborative, Inc., New York, NY.

    A description of the Museums Collaborative Voucher Program, a system through which cultural institutions conduct programs with large, heterogeneous, adult populations in New York City is provided in this paper. The program began with two goals: to broaden the audience served by New York City's cultural institutions and to provide the institutions…

  18. On Thin Ice: How Advocates and Opponents Could Misread the Public's Views on Vouchers and Charter Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farkas, Steve; Johnson, Jean; Foleno, Anthony

    This study explored public opinion with regard to educational vouchers and charter schools. It summarizes findings from an in-depth national survey conducted in 1999 of 1,200 members of the public, including 394 parents of school-age children. The study also examined parents' attitudes in several areas where vouchers and charter schools are now…

  19. On Thin Ice: How Advocates and Opponents Could Misread the Public's Views on Vouchers and Charter Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farkas, Steve; Johnson, Jean; Foleno, Anthony

    This study explored public opinion with regard to educational vouchers and charter schools. It summarizes findings from an in-depth national survey conducted in 1999 of 1,200 members of the public, including 394 parents of school-age children. The study also examined parents' attitudes in several areas where vouchers and charter schools are now…

  20. Tracing It Back: Identifying the Impact of a Trans-National Language Teacher Education Programme on Classroom Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Macalister, John

    2016-01-01

    Language teacher education programmes can be viewed as "change" programmes, particularly in their endeavours to re-shape cognition. However, often such programmes are found to be relatively ineffective in this regard. As a means of facilitating the desired change, trans-national language teacher education programmes, in which students…

  1. The Commercial Market For Priority Review Vouchers.

    PubMed

    Ridley, David B; Régnier, Stephane A

    2016-05-01

    In 2007 the US Congress created the priority review voucher program to encourage the development of drugs for neglected diseases. Under the program, the developer of a drug that treats a neglected disease receives both a faster review of the drug by the Food and Drug Administration and a voucher for a faster review of a different drug. The developer can sell the voucher. We estimated the commercial value of the voucher using US sales of new treatments approved in the period 2007-09. A third of the commercial value of a voucher comes from capturing market share from competitors, nearly half from the value of earlier sales because of the expedited review, and less than a quarter from lengthening the time between approval and the launch of a generic competitor. We estimate that if only one priority review voucher is available in a year, it will be worth more than $200 million, but if four vouchers are available, the value could fall below $100 million. Congress should be cautious about expanding the voucher program, because increasing the number of vouchers sharply decreases the expected price. Lower voucher prices could undermine the incentive to develop new medicines for neglected diseases. Project HOPE—The People-to-People Health Foundation, Inc.

  2. Privatization And Vouchers In Colombia And Chile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arenas, Alberto

    2004-07-01

    The voucher model of financing schooling is becoming increasingly common throughout Latin America, with at least 12 countries using vouchers or voucher-like schemes. The present study focuses on the voucher models of Colombia and Chile, which have the most extensive programs of this type and those of the longest standing in the region. Using empirical evidence, the author compares the two models along four evaluative dimensions: educational quality, segregation, choice and socialization. After weighing the successes and weaknesses of each system, he concludes that, among other characteristics, the most effective and equitable voucher model features: (a) a flexible interpretation of educational quality; (b) financial grants which target solely the poor; (c) vouchers which cover the entire cost of tuition; (d) open enrolment at participating schools; (e) the participation of both secular and religious private schools; (f) accessible and meaningful information to parents; and (g) strong systems of accountability.

  3. Why Indiana Voucher Parents Choose Private Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friedman Foundation for Educational Choice, 2014

    2014-01-01

    In 2011, Indiana enacted the broadest school voucher program in the country. In the program's first year, almost 4,000 families used vouchers to attend participating private schools, with the number of students applying for vouchers more than doubling in each of the following two years, to 9,324 students in 2012-13, and 19,809 in 2013-14. The…

  4. Nutrition advocacy and national development: the PROFILES programme and its application.

    PubMed Central

    Burkhalter, B. R.; Abel, E.; Aguayo, V.; Diene, S. M.; Parlato, M. B.; Ross, J. S.

    1999-01-01

    Investment in nutritional programmes can contribute to economic growth and is cost-effective in improving child survival and development. In order to communicate this to decision-makers, the PROFILES nutrition advocacy and policy development programme was applied in certain developing countries. Effective advocacy is necessary to generate financial and political support for scaling up from small pilot projects and maintaining successful national programmes. The programme uses scientific knowledge to estimate development indicators such as mortality, morbidity, fertility, school performance and labour productivity from the size and nutritional condition of populations. Changes in nutritional condition are estimated from the costs, coverage and effectiveness of proposed programmes. In Bangladesh this approach helped to gain approval and funding for a major nutrition programme. PROFILES helped to promote the nutrition component of an early childhood development programme in the Philippines, and to make nutrition a top priority in Ghana's new national child survival strategy. The application of PROFILES in these and other countries has been supported by the United States Agency for International Development, the United Nations Children's Fund, the World Bank, the Asian Development Bank, the Micronutrient Initiative and other bodies. PMID:10361758

  5. Nutrition advocacy and national development: the PROFILES programme and its application.

    PubMed

    Burkhalter, B R; Abel, E; Aguayo, V; Diene, S M; Parlato, M B; Ross, J S

    1999-01-01

    Investment in nutritional programmes can contribute to economic growth and is cost-effective in improving child survival and development. In order to communicate this to decision-makers, the PROFILES nutrition advocacy and policy development programme was applied in certain developing countries. Effective advocacy is necessary to generate financial and political support for scaling up from small pilot projects and maintaining successful national programmes. The programme uses scientific knowledge to estimate development indicators such as mortality, morbidity, fertility, school performance and labour productivity from the size and nutritional condition of populations. Changes in nutritional condition are estimated from the costs, coverage and effectiveness of proposed programmes. In Bangladesh this approach helped to gain approval and funding for a major nutrition programme. PROFILES helped to promote the nutrition component of an early childhood development programme in the Philippines, and to make nutrition a top priority in Ghana's new national child survival strategy. The application of PROFILES in these and other countries has been supported by the United States Agency for International Development, the United Nations Children's Fund, the World Bank, the Asian Development Bank, the Micronutrient Initiative and other bodies.

  6. National industry's interest in colorectal cancer screening programmes.

    PubMed Central

    Hart, A R; Barone, T L; Wicks, A C; Mayberry, J F

    1994-01-01

    The interest of the largest 200 British industries in developing and financing colorectal screening services for employees was determined. A standard questionnaire asked if the company would advertise screening supply names of employees to local hospitals and finance faecal occult blood testing. The reasons for rejection were noted. Eighty-six companies returned the questionnaire (43% response rate) of which 78 firms (39% of the total mailed) were prepared to advertise screening programmes at the workplace. A quarter of the companies were prepared to both advertise and release employee details. Companies willing to participate employed significantly more people (mean of 17,000 employees) than those rejecting screening (mean of 6100 employees, Mann-Whitney U test = 7, P < 0.05). Fifty-nine industries would consider financing screening, although only five made a definite decision to do so. All companies rejecting (36/36) were concerned about releasing employee information to hospitals. If screening does reduce mortality and community programmes are developed industry could and is prepared to advertise such programmes. If a partnership between hospitals and industry is developed, concerns about employee confidentiality needs to be addressed. PMID:7837182

  7. Sustainability of recurrent expenditure on public social welfare programmes: expenditure analysis of the free maternal care programme of the Ghana National Health Insurance Scheme.

    PubMed

    Ankrah Odame, Emmanuel; Akweongo, Patricia; Yankah, Ben; Asenso-Boadi, Francis; Agyepong, Irene

    2014-05-01

    Sustainability of public social welfare programmes has long been of concern in development circles. An important aspect of sustainability is the ability to sustain the recurrent financial costs of programmes. A free maternal care programme (FMCP) was launched under the Ghana National Health Insurance Scheme (NHIS) in 2008 with a start-up grant from the British Government. This article examines claims expenditure under the programme and the implications for the financial sustainability of the programme, and the lessons for donor and public financing of social welfare programmes. Records of reimbursement claims for services and medicines by women benefitting from the policy in participating facilities in one sub-metropolis in Ghana were analysed to gain an understanding of the expenditure on this programme at facility level. National level financial inflow and outflow (expenditure) data of the NHIS, related to implementation of this policy for 2008 and 2009, were reviewed to put the facility-based data in the national perspective. A total of US$936 450.94 was spent in 2009 by the scheme on FMCP in the sub-metropolis. The NHIS expenditure on the programme for the entire country in 2009 was US$49.25 million, exceeding the British grant of US$10.00 million given for that year. Subsequently, the programme has been entirely financed by the National Health Insurance Fund. The rapidly increasing, recurrent demands on this fund from the maternal delivery exemption programme-without a commensurate growth on the amounts generated annually-is an increasing threat to the sustainability of the fund. Provision of donor start-up funding for programmes with high recurrent expenditures, under the expectation that government will take over and sustain the programme, must be accompanied by clear long-term analysis and planning as to how government will sustain the programme.

  8. Issues in Business Education Programme: Challenges to National Transformation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ajisafe, Olatunbosun Emmanuel; Bolarinwa, Kayode Omotayo; Tuke, Edeh

    2015-01-01

    Transformation engenders change, and change denotes a departure from the old order to a new one. National transformation therefore implies fundamental change in the building block of a nation; change in the social, economic, infrastructural and political landscape of a nation. For transformation to be achieved, it must encompass all levels of…

  9. National tuberculosis programme review: experience over the period 1990-95.

    PubMed Central

    Pio, A.; Luelmo, F.; Kumaresan, J.; Spinaci, S.

    1997-01-01

    Since 1990 the WHO Global Tuberculosis Programme (GTB) has promoted the revision of national tuberculosis programmes to strengthen the focus on directly observed treatment, short-course (DOTS) and close monitoring of treatment outcomes. GTB has encouraged in-depth evaluation of activities through a comprehensive programme review. Over the period 1990-95, WHO supported 12 such programme reviews. The criteria for selection were as follows: large population (Bangladesh, Brazil, China, Ethiopia, India, Indonesia, Mexico, and Thailand); good prospects of developing a model programme for a region (Nepal, Zimbabwe); or at advanced stage of implementation of a model programme for a region (Guinea, Peru). The estimated combined incidence of smear-positive pulmonary tuberculosis was 82 per 100,000 population, about 43% of the global incidence. The prevalence of infection with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) was variable, being very high in Ethiopia and Zimbabwe, but negligible in Bangladesh, China, Nepal and Peru. The programme reviews were conducted by teams of 15-35 experts representing a wide range of national and external institutions. After a 2-3-month preparatory period, the conduct of the review usually lasted 2-3 weeks, including a first phase of meetings with authorities and review of documents, a second phase for field visits, and a third phase of discussion of findings and recommendations. The main lessons learned from the programme reviews were as follows: programme review is a useful tool to secure government commitment, reorient the tuberculosis control policies and replan the activities on solid grounds; the involvement of public health and academic institutions, cooperating agencies, and nongovernmental organizations secured a broad support to the new policies; programme success is linked to a centralized direction which supports a decentralized implementation through the primary health care services; monitoring and evaluation of case management functions

  10. The Impact of the National Newborn Hearing Screening Programme on Educational Services in England

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCracken, Wendy; Young, Alys; Tattersall, Helen; Uus, Kai; Bamford, John

    2005-01-01

    This article presents results related to the impact on educational support services of the introduction of the first phase of the national Newborn Hearing Screening Programme (NHSP) in England. This study was funded by the Department of Health and undertaken as one element of a national evaluation of NHSP across a range of domains. It presents…

  11. The effects of placing an operational research fellow within the Viet Nam National Tuberculosis Programme

    PubMed Central

    Nhung, N. V.; Kumar, A. M. V.; Harries, A. D.

    2016-01-01

    In April 2009, an operational research fellow was placed within the Viet Nam National Tuberculosis Control Programme (NTP). Over the 6 years from 2010 to 2015, the OR fellow co-authored 21 tuberculosis research papers (as principal author in 15 [71%]). This constituted 23% of the 91 tuberculosis papers published in Viet Nam during this period. Of the 21 published papers, 16 (76%) contributed to changes in policy (n = 8) and practice (n = 8), and these in turn improved programme performance. Many papers also contributed important evidence for better programme planning. Highly motivated OR fellows embedded within NTPs can facilitate high-quality research and research uptake. PMID:28123967

  12. The effects of placing an operational research fellow within the Viet Nam National Tuberculosis Programme.

    PubMed

    Hoa, N B; Nhung, N V; Kumar, A M V; Harries, A D

    2016-12-21

    In April 2009, an operational research fellow was placed within the Viet Nam National Tuberculosis Control Programme (NTP). Over the 6 years from 2010 to 2015, the OR fellow co-authored 21 tuberculosis research papers (as principal author in 15 [71%]). This constituted 23% of the 91 tuberculosis papers published in Viet Nam during this period. Of the 21 published papers, 16 (76%) contributed to changes in policy (n = 8) and practice (n = 8), and these in turn improved programme performance. Many papers also contributed important evidence for better programme planning. Highly motivated OR fellows embedded within NTPs can facilitate high-quality research and research uptake.

  13. Evaluation of a nationally funded state-based programme to reduce fatal occupational injuries.

    PubMed

    Chaumont Menendez, Cammie; Castillo, Dawn; Rosenman, Kenneth; Harrison, Robert; Hendricks, Scott

    2012-11-01

    The Fatality Assessment and Control Evaluation (FACE) programme was established by the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health to help prevent occupational traumatic fatalities by funding states to conduct targeted fatality investigations within cause-specific focus areas and associated prevention efforts. To investigate the impact of the state-based FACE programme on two previous focus areas. A longitudinal time-series analysis spanning 22 years compared state fatality rates for occupational falls and electrocutions before and after FACE programme funding with states not receiving FACE programme funding. Lag periods were utilised to allow time for the programme to have an effect, and rates were adjusted for a variety of covariates. Separate analyses were conducted for each injury outcome. A reduction in fall fatality rates that was of borderline significance (1-year lag adjRR=0.92 (0.84 to 1.00)) and a non-significant reduction in electrocution fatality rates (3-year lag adjRR=0.92 (0.82 to 1.03)) were observed in states with FACE programme funding, Best-fit models presented two separate lag periods. While it is challenging to quantitatively evaluate effectiveness of programmes such as FACE, the data suggest the FACE programme may be effective in preventing occupational injury deaths within its outcome focus areas throughout the state. It is important to look for ways to measure intermediate effects more precisely, as well as ways to maintain effects over time.

  14. Evaluation of a nationally funded state-based programme to reduce fatal occupational injuries

    PubMed Central

    Menendez, Cammie Chaumont; Castillo, Dawn; Rosenman, Kenneth; Harrison, Robert; Hendricks, Scott

    2015-01-01

    Background The Fatality Assessment and Control Evaluation (FACE) programme was established by the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health to help prevent occupational traumatic fatalities by funding states to conduct targeted fatality investigations within cause-specific focus areas and associated prevention efforts. Purpose To investigate the impact of the state-based FACE programme on two previous focus areas. Methods A longitudinal time-series analysis spanning 22 years compared state fatality rates for occupational falls and electrocutions before and after FACE programme funding with states not receiving FACE programme funding. Lag periods were utilised to allow time for the programme to have an effect, and rates were adjusted for a variety of covariates. Separate analyses were conducted for each injury outcome. Results A reduction in fall fatality rates that was of borderline significance (1-year lag adjRR=0.92 (0.84 to 1.00)) and a non-significant reduction in electrocution fatality rates (3-year lag adjRR=0.92 (0.82 to 1.03)) were observed in states with FACE programme funding, Best-fit models presented two separate lag periods. Conclusions While it is challenging to quantitatively evaluate effectiveness of programmes such as FACE, the data suggest the FACE programme may be effective in preventing occupational injury deaths within its outcome focus areas throughout the state. It is important to look for ways to measure intermediate effects more precisely, as well as ways to maintain effects over time. PMID:22864251

  15. [Community reinforcement approach plus vouchers for cocaine dependence treatment].

    PubMed

    Secades-Villa, Roberto; García-Rodríguez, Olaya; Alvarez Rodríguez, Helí; Río Rodríguez, Arcadio; Fernández-Hermida, José R; Luis Carballo, José

    2007-01-01

    Cocaine use is an increasingly serious problem in Spain. The absence of effective drugs for the treatment of cocaine addiction and of empirically validated therapy programmes makes it necessary to resort to programmes that have shown their effectiveness in other countries. The aim of the present study was to explore the effectiveness of one of the programmes that has obtained the best results in the United States: the Community Reinforcement Approach (CRA) Plus Vouchers for the treatment of cocaine addiction. We assessed treatment retention and dropout rates and cocaine use during the first three months of intervention. The sample was made up of 37 patients addicted to cocaine who were assigned at random to one of two conditions: experimental (CRA Plus Vouchers) or control (Standard Treatment), both in the outpatient context. The results showed that 85.7% of the experimental group patients completed 12 weeks of treatment, compared to 69.6% of the control group. In the experimental group, 57.1% of the patients maintained continuous abstinence, compared to 39.1% of the control group. These results coincide with those of previous studies, all from outside Spain. Nevertheless, longer-term studies with larger samples are necessary in order to confirm the effectiveness of this program.

  16. Administrative Costs of Education Voucher Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Paul T.

    This paper focuses on the administrative costs of vouchers programs. It considers the tasks that public and private agencies must undertake and estimates the administrative burdens and cash flow that local programs create. It assumes that all voucher programs, including those meant in part to reduce overcrowding, will be voluntary. The paper…

  17. Mitchell v. Helms: Implications for Vouchers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gittins, Naomi E., Ed.

    2000-01-01

    This issue deals with the Supreme Court's recent decision in "Mitchell v. Helms" that is viewed by many as additional legal fire power for voucher proponents in the battle over the constitutionality of such programs. The discussion attempts to sort out how the High Court's decision may affect the future of voucher programs. Specifically, the Court…

  18. Privatizing Education: The Politics of Vouchers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennedy, Sheila Suess

    2001-01-01

    The voucher "air war" is a conflict between two longstanding elements of the American political tradition: a time-honored commitment to maximum personal choice and individual freedom versus an equally compelling belief in need for a common civil infrastructure and communitarian interests. Will embracing vouchers further erode the public…

  19. Voucher Payments and the Public Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Colleen

    This report presents the case for competition in education, tenders the voucher plan as a means of fostering competition and providing choice in education, and discusses some problems associated with education voucher proposals. Two primary problems -- segregation and church-state conflict -- are given particular attention. The author also…

  20. Educational Vouchers: A Review and Prognosis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Castleman, John L.

    1982-01-01

    Advantages and disadvantages of educational voucher systems are discussed, and three approaches--only one of which became operational--are described. Difficulties such as parent and educator opposition, the public-private school issue, and probable high costs of voucher systems, are explored. (PP)

  1. The Legality of School Vouchers: Round Two

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCarthy, Martha

    2006-01-01

    In 2002 the U.S. Supreme Court ruled that state-supported vouchers, which parents can redeem in private schools, do not offend the Establishment Clause of the First Amendment. Thus, the legality of government vouchers to fund education will be determined primarily on the basis of state law. Specifically, programs are being challenged under state…

  2. Vouchers and the Provision of Public Services.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steuerle, C. Eugene, Ed.; Ooms, Van Doorn, Ed.; Peterson, George E., Ed.; Reischauer, Robert D., Ed.

    Studies in this volume provide a comprehensive examination of the use of vouchers. The contributions to this book examine a variety of applications in such areas as education, child care, employment training, housing, food, and health care, and they discuss the dimensions along which vouchers should be compared to alternative delivery mechanisms.…

  3. Educational Vouchers: A Review and Prognosis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Castleman, John L.

    1982-01-01

    Advantages and disadvantages of educational voucher systems are discussed, and three approaches--only one of which became operational--are described. Difficulties such as parent and educator opposition, the public-private school issue, and probable high costs of voucher systems, are explored. (PP)

  4. Ideology and Programme for the National Service Scheme

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miranda, Anselm

    1975-01-01

    The objective of the National Service Scheme in India is to arouse social consciousness among university and college students and to provide opportunities to be of service to the country while undergoing college education. (Author/PG)

  5. Targeted subsidy for malaria control with treated nets using a discount voucher system in Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Mushi, Adiel K; Schellenberg, Joanna R M Armstrong; Mponda, Haji; Lengeler, Christian

    2003-06-01

    During the last decade insecticide-treated nets have become a key strategy for malaria control. Social marketing is an appealing tool for getting such nets to poor rural African communities who are most afflicted by malaria. This approach usually involves subsidized prices to make nets and insecticide more affordable and help establish a commercial market. We evaluated a voucher system for targeted subsidy of treated nets in young children and pregnant women in two rural districts of southern Tanzania. Qualitative work involved focus group discussions with community leaders, male and female parents of children under 5 years. In-depth interviews were held with maternal and child health clinic staff and retail agents. Quantitative data were collected through interviewing more than 750 mothers of children under 5 years during a cluster sample survey of child health. The voucher return rate was extremely high at 97% (7720/8000). However, 2 years after the start of the scheme awareness among target groups was only 43% (45/104), and only 12% of women (12/103; 95% CI 4-48%) had used a voucher towards the cost of a net. We found some evidence of increased voucher use among least poor households, compared with the poorest households. On the basis of these results we renewed our information, education and communication (IEC) campaign about vouchers. Discount vouchers are a feasible system for targeted subsidies, although a substantial amount of time and effort may be needed to achieve high awareness and uptake - by which we mean the proportion of eligible women who used the vouchers - among those targeted. Within a poor society, vouchers may not necessarily increase health equity unless they cover a high proportion of the total cost: since some cash is needed when using a voucher as part-payment, poorer women among the target group are likely to have lower uptake than richer women. The vouchers have two important additional functions: strengthening the role of public health

  6. The Environment Programme for the Whole of the United Nations 1990-95: 13 Broad Programmes, Emphasizing Research, Assessment, Technical Assistance and Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    UNEP News, 1988

    1988-01-01

    Lists titles of 31 environmental programs over 13 broad categories including terrestrial ecosystems, oceans, health and welfare, and energy, industry and transportation. Describes the general objectives, implementing agencies, and the role of UNEP (United Nations Environment Programme). (YP)

  7. The Environment Programme for the Whole of the United Nations 1990-95: 13 Broad Programmes, Emphasizing Research, Assessment, Technical Assistance and Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    UNEP News, 1988

    1988-01-01

    Lists titles of 31 environmental programs over 13 broad categories including terrestrial ecosystems, oceans, health and welfare, and energy, industry and transportation. Describes the general objectives, implementing agencies, and the role of UNEP (United Nations Environment Programme). (YP)

  8. Resistance and renewal: health sector reform and Cambodia's national tuberculosis programme.

    PubMed

    Hill, Peter S; Tan Eang, Mao

    2007-08-01

    Following the destruction of Cambodia's health infrastructure during the Khmer Rouge period (1975-1979) and the subsequent decade of United Nations sanctions, international development assistance has focused on reconstructing the country's health system. The recognition of Cambodia's heavy burden of tuberculosis (TB) and the lapse of TB control strategies during the transition to democracy prompted the national tuberculosis programme's relaunch in the mid-1990s as WHO-backed health sector reforms were introduced. This paper examines the conflicts that arose between health reforms and TB control programmes due to their different operating paradigms. It also discusses how these tensions were resolved during introduction of the DOTS strategy for TB treatment.

  9. Evaluation of the first 5 years of a national eye health programme in Vanuatu.

    PubMed

    Williams, Carmel; Szetu, John L; Ramke, Jacqueline; Palagyi, Anna; du Toit, Renee; Brian, Garry

    2008-03-01

    To evaluate against its objectives the achievements of the first 5 years of a national eye health programme in Vanuatu. Programme clinical activity data were collated from surgical logs, clinic and outreach reports, and patient register books. Cataract surgical outcomes were retrieved from monitoring software. Programme annual reports provided information about management, infrastructure improvements, equipment supplied, repaired or replaced, the supply and use of consumables, and human resource development and deployment. Costs were determined from project budgets and acquittals. The programme promoted eye health, including through the integration of eye care into existing health services; established adequate facilities, at referral hospitals, provincial hospitals and rural health clinics, with equipment and manpower to provide eye care appropriate to the location; established a primary eye care programme; strengthened cataract services, although its effect on any cataract backlog is unknown; developed a diabetic eye disease diagnosis and treatment service, but its reach and effectiveness are unknown; provided accessible comprehensive eye care, but its effect on the prevalence of vision impairment is unknown; and established medical records and data collection systems, but these need more attention. This programme achieved much. However, the evaluation highlighted the limitations of inadequate project design and that, without addressing further human resource development and the Ministry of Health's wavering financial commitment, there are potential risks to ongoing services. That revenue generating capacity was not incorporated into this programme may prove to be a flaw that will limit ongoing access to eye care, especially in rural areas.

  10. Monitoring, reporting and verification for national REDD + programmes: two proposals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herold, Martin; Skutsch, Margaret

    2011-01-01

    Different options have been suggested by Parties to the UNFCCC (United Framework Convention on Climate Change) for inclusion in national approaches to REDD and REDD + (reduced deforestation, reduced degradation, enhancement of forest carbon stocks, sustainable management of forest, and conservation of forest carbon stocks). This paper proposes that from the practical and technical points of view of designing action for REDD and REDD + at local and sub-national level, as well as from the point of view of the necessary MRV (monitoring, reporting and verification), these should be grouped into three categories: conservation, which is rewarded on the basis of no changes in forest stock, reduced deforestation, in which lowered rates of forest area loss are rewarded, and positive impacts on carbon stock changes in forests remaining forest, which includes reduced degradation, sustainable management of forest of various kinds, and forest enhancement. Thus we have moved degradation, which conventionally is grouped with deforestation, into the forest management group reported as areas remaining forest land, with which it has, in reality, and particularly as regards MRV, much more in common. Secondly, in the context of the fact that REDD/REDD + is to take the form of a national or near-national approach, we argue that while systematic national monitoring is important, it may not be necessary for REDD/REDD + activities, or for national MRV, to be started at equal levels of intensity all over the country. Rather, areas where interventions seem easiest to start may be targeted, and here data measurements may be more rigorous (Tier 3), for example based on stakeholder self-monitoring with independent verification, while in other, untreated areas, a lower level of monitoring may be pursued, at least in the first instance. Treated areas may be targeted for any of the three groups of activities (conservation, reduced deforestation, and positive impact on carbon stock increases in

  11. Interval cancers in a national colorectal cancer screening programme

    PubMed Central

    Stanners, Greig; Lang, Jaroslaw; Brewster, David H; Carey, Francis A; Fraser, Callum G

    2016-01-01

    Background Little is known about interval cancers (ICs) in colorectal cancer (CRC) screening. Objective The purpose of this study was to identify IC characteristics and compare these with screen-detected cancers (SCs) and cancers in non-participants (NPCs) over the same time period. Design This was an observational study done in the first round of the Scottish Bowel Screening Programme. All individuals (772,790), aged 50–74 years, invited to participate between 1 January 2007 and 31 May 2009 were studied by linking their screening records with confirmed CRC records in the Scottish Cancer Registry (SCR). Characteristics of SC, IC and NPC were determined. Results There were 555 SCs, 502 ICs and 922 NPCs. SCs were at an earlier stage than ICs and NPCs (33.9% Dukes’ A as against 18.7% in IC and 11.3% in NPC), screening preferentially detected cancers in males (64.7% as against 52.8% in IC and 59.7% in NPC): this was independent of a different cancer site distribution in males and females. SC in the colon were less advanced than IC, but not in the rectum. Conclusion ICs account for 47.5% of the CRCs in the screened population, indicating approximately 50% screening test sensitivity: guaiac faecal occult blood testing (gFOBT) sensitivity is less for women than for men and gFOBT screening may not be effective for rectal cancer. PMID:27536369

  12. Some Thoughts on the Evaluation of the Chilean Voucher System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sapelli, Claudio

    2010-01-01

    Many papers describe the Chilean voucher system as the "textbook" voucher case. But this is mistaken and has prevented research to undertake the key question of how the particular design of the Chilean voucher system determines the results obtained in Chile. This also prevents discussion of how a voucher system with a different design…

  13. The Voucher Movement as a Freedom of Choice Issue.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Picus, Larry

    After describing the history of the educational voucher movement, this paper briefly discusses the various voucher models that have been proposed and considers some of the issues for and against the establishment of voucher systems. Tracing the voucher concept back to Adam Smith, Thomas Paine, and John Stuart Mill, the author notes that after the…

  14. Private Voucher and Scholarship Plans. Trends and Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hadderman, Margaret

    This article examines an increasingly popular alternative to government-funded voucher plans: private voucher and scholarship plans. Through the 1998-99 school year, spending on privately funded voucher programs totalled $61 million. Private vouchers began with the Golden Rule Program in Indianapolis in 1991 and was inspired by insurance CEO J.…

  15. The Voucher Movement as a Freedom of Choice Issue.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Picus, Larry

    After describing the history of the educational voucher movement, this paper briefly discusses the various voucher models that have been proposed and considers some of the issues for and against the establishment of voucher systems. Tracing the voucher concept back to Adam Smith, Thomas Paine, and John Stuart Mill, the author notes that after the…

  16. Managing National Population Education Programmes: Issues and Actions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Paris (France). Population Education Section.

    Population education has been introduced into school curricula in a large number of countries in most regions of the world. The purpose of this document is to help various national population education program leaders to share information and learn from each other. The publication is the result of a cooperative effort involving the participation…

  17. Managing National Population Education Programmes: Issues and Actions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Paris (France). Population Education Section.

    Population education has been introduced into school curricula in a large number of countries in most regions of the world. The purpose of this document is to help various national population education program leaders to share information and learn from each other. The publication is the result of a cooperative effort involving the participation…

  18. [Method report 2007 of the Programme for National Disease Management Guidelines--background and content].

    PubMed

    Weinbrenner, Susanne; Lelgemann, Monika; Ollenschäger, Günter; Kleudgen, Susanne; Niederstadt, Christina; Thole, Henning; Sänger, Sylvia; Zorn, Ulrich; Selbmann, Hans-Konrad; Kopp, Ina

    2007-01-01

    The Programme for National Disease Management Guidelines (German DM-CPG Programme) was established in 2002 by the German Medical Association (umbrella organisation of the German Chambers of Physicians) and joined by the Association of the Scientific Medical Societies (AWMF)--umbrella organisation of more than 150 professional societies--and by the National Association of Statutory Health Insurance Physicians (NASHIP) in 2003. The programme provides a conceptual basis for disease management, focussing on high priority healthcare topics and aiming at the implementation of best practice recommendations for prevention, acute care, rehabilitation and chronic care. It is organised by the German Agency for Quality in Medicine, a founding member of the Guidelines International Network G-I-N. The main objective of the German DM-CPG Programme is to establish consensus among the medical professions on evidence-based key recommendations covering all sectors of healthcare provision and facilitating the coordination of care for the individual patient through time and across interfaces. Within the last year DM-CPGs have been published for asthma, COPD, type 2 diabetes and coronary heart disease. In addition, experts from national patient self-help groups have been developing patient guidance based upon the recommendations for healthcare providers. The article describes background, methods and tools of the DM-CPG programme using the DM-CPG Method Report 2007.

  19. [The National Programme for Disease Management Guidelines. Goals, contents, patient involvement].

    PubMed

    Ollenschläger, G; Kopp, I; Lelgemann, M; Sänger, S; Klakow-Franck, R; Gibis, B; Gramsch, E; Jonitz, G

    2007-03-01

    The Programme for National Disease Management Guidelines (German DM-CPG Programme) aims at the implementation of best practice recommendations for prevention, acute care, rehabilitation and chronic care. The programme, focussing on high priority healthcare topics, has been sponsored since 2003 by the German Medical Association (BAEK), the Association of the Scientific Medical Societies (AWMF), and by the National Association of Statutory Health Insurance Physicians (KBV). It is organised by the German Agency for Quality in Medicine, a founding member of the Guidelines International Network (G-I-N). The main objective of the programme is to establish consensus of the medical professions on evidence-based key recommendations covering all sectors of health care provision and facilitating the coordination of care for the individual patient through time and across disciplines. Within this framework experts from national patient self-help groups have been developing patient guidance based upon the recommendations for healthcare providers. The article describes goals, topics and selected contents of the DM-CPG programme - using asthma as an example.

  20. Price subsidies and the market for mosquito nets in developing countries: A study of Tanzania's discount voucher scheme.

    PubMed

    Gingrich, Chris D; Hanson, Kara; Marchant, Tanya; Mulligan, Jo-Ann; Mponda, Hadji

    2011-07-01

    This study uses a partial equilibrium simulation model to explore how price subsidies for insecticide-treated mosquito nets (ITNs) affect households' purchases of ITNs. The model describes the ITN market in a typical developing country and is applied to the situation in Tanzania, where the Tanzania National Voucher Scheme (TNVS) provides a targeted subsidy to vulnerable population groups by means of a discount voucher. The data for this study come from a nationally-representative household survey completed July-August 2006 covering over 4300 households in 21 districts. The simulation results show the impact of the voucher program on ITN coverage among target households, namely those that experienced the birth of a child. More specifically, the share of target households purchasing an ITN increased from 18 to 62 percent because of the discount voucher. The model also suggests that the voucher program could cause the retail ITN price to rise due to an overall increase in demand. As a result, ITN purchases by households without a voucher may actually decline. The simulation model suggests that additional increases toward the stated goal of 80 percent ITN coverage for pregnant women and children could best be achieved through a combination of "catch up" mass distribution programs and expanding the target group for the voucher program to cover additional households. The model can be employed in other countries considering use of a targeted price subsidy for ITNs, and could be adapted to assess the impact of subsidies for other public health commodities.

  1. The State of the World Environment, 1987. United Nations Environment Programme.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Environment Programme, Nairobi (Kenya).

    One of the main activities assigned to the Governing Council of the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) is to review the world environmental situation to insure that emerging environmental problems of wide international significance receive appropriate and adequate consideration by governments. Accordingly, UNEP has assessed the state of…

  2. Foreign Language Teaching Policies and European Unity: The Dutch National Action Programme.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Els, Theo. J. M.; van Hest, Erna W. C. M.

    1990-01-01

    Describes and reviews the Dutch National Action Programme (NAP) on Foreign Languages, instituted in anticipation of the demands of the 1992 Single European Market. The increasing demand for foreign languages is confirmed, some shortcomings of the current program regarding French and German language learning are identified, and recommendations for…

  3. The State of the World Environment, 1987. United Nations Environment Programme.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Environment Programme, Nairobi (Kenya).

    One of the main activities assigned to the Governing Council of the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) is to review the world environmental situation to insure that emerging environmental problems of wide international significance receive appropriate and adequate consideration by governments. Accordingly, UNEP has assessed the state of…

  4. Malaysia. National Studies. Asia-Pacific Programme of Education for All.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization, Bangkok (Thailand). Principal Regional Office for Asia and the Pacific.

    This study examines the work of the Asia-Pacific Programme of Education for All (APPEAL) since its 1987 inception. Efforts to assess educational achievement at the local, regional, and national levels in Malaysia are examined with a view to achieving universal primary education; eradicating illiteracy; and providing continuing education in support…

  5. Teacher Performance and Student Learning: Linking Evidence from Two National Assessment Programmes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taut, Sandy; Valencia, Edgar; Palacios, Diego; Santelices, Maria V.; Jiménez, Daniela; Manzi, Jorge

    2016-01-01

    This paper investigates the validity of a national, standards-based teacher evaluation programme by examining the relationship between teachers' evaluation results and their students' learning progress. We used census achievement data that assessed the same cohort of students at the end of 8th and 10th grade. We applied multilevel modelling and…

  6. Teacher Performance and Student Learning: Linking Evidence from Two National Assessment Programmes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taut, Sandy; Valencia, Edgar; Palacios, Diego; Santelices, Maria V.; Jiménez, Daniela; Manzi, Jorge

    2016-01-01

    This paper investigates the validity of a national, standards-based teacher evaluation programme by examining the relationship between teachers' evaluation results and their students' learning progress. We used census achievement data that assessed the same cohort of students at the end of 8th and 10th grade. We applied multilevel modelling and…

  7. Learning from Success as Leverage for School Learning: Lessons from a National Programme in Israel

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schechter, Chen; Sykes, Israel; Rosenfeld, Jona

    2008-01-01

    Collective learning from past school experiences (retrospective learning) has traditionally focused on failures and difficulties, depriving school personnel of learning opportunities embedded in their own past professional successes. In this article we present a national programme in Israel that aimed at fostering collective learning, stimulated…

  8. The central role of national programme management for the achievement of malaria elimination: a cross case-study analysis of nine malaria programmes.

    PubMed

    Smith Gueye, Cara; Newby, Gretchen; Tulloch, Jim; Slutsker, Laurence; Tanner, Marcel; Gosling, Roland D

    2016-09-22

    A malaria eradication goal has been proposed, at the same time as a new global strategy and implementation framework. Countries are considering the strategies and tools that will enable progress towards malaria goals. The eliminating malaria case-study series reports were reviewed to identify successful programme management components using a cross-case study analytic approach. Nine out of ten case-study reports were included in the analysis (Bhutan, Cape Verde, Malaysia, Mauritius, Namibia, Philippines, Sri Lanka, Turkey, Turkmenistan). A conceptual framework for malaria elimination programme management was developed and data were extracted and synthesized. Findings were reviewed at a consultative workshop, which led to a revision of the framework and further data extraction and synthesis. Success factors of implementation, programme choices and changes, and enabling factors were distilled. Decentralized programmes enhanced engagement in malaria elimination by sub-national units and communities. Integration of the malaria programme into other health services was also common. Decentralization and integration were often challenging due to the skill and experience levels of newly tasked staff. Accountability for programme impact was not clarified for most programmes. Motivation of work force was a key factor in maintaining programme quality but there were few clear, detailed strategies provided. Different incentive schemes targeted various stakeholders. Training and supervision, although not well described, were prioritized by most programmes. Multi-sectoral collaboration helped some programmes share information, build strategies and interventions and achieve a higher quality of implementation. In most cases programme action was spurred by malaria outbreaks or a new elimination goal with strong leadership. Some programmes showed high capacity for flexibility through introduction of new strategies and tools. Several case-studies described methods for monitoring

  9. Mentoring, coaching and action learning: interventions in a national clinical leadership development programme.

    PubMed

    McNamara, Martin S; Fealy, Gerard M; Casey, Mary; O'Connor, Tom; Patton, Declan; Doyle, Louise; Quinlan, Christina

    2014-09-01

    To evaluate mentoring, coaching and action learning interventions used to develop nurses' and midwives' clinical leadership competencies and to describe the programme participants' experiences of the interventions. Mentoring, coaching and action learning are effective interventions in clinical leadership development and were used in a new national clinical leadership development programme, introduced in Ireland in 2011. An evaluation of the programme focused on how participants experienced the interventions. A qualitative design, using multiple data sources and multiple data collection methods. Methods used to generate data on participant experiences of individual interventions included focus groups, individual interviews and nonparticipant observation. Seventy participants, including 50 programme participants and those providing the interventions, contributed to the data collection. Mentoring, coaching and action learning were positively experienced by participants and contributed to the development of clinical leadership competencies, as attested to by the programme participants and intervention facilitators. The use of interventions that are action-oriented and focused on service development, such as mentoring, coaching and action learning, should be supported in clinical leadership development programmes. Being quite different to short attendance courses, these interventions require longer-term commitment on the part of both individuals and their organisations. In using mentoring, coaching and action learning interventions, the focus should be on each participant's current role and everyday practice and on helping the participant to develop and demonstrate clinical leadership skills in these contexts. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. The Voucher Debate after "Zelman v. Simmons-Harris": The Need to Focus on Core Education Issues. Policy Briefs: Education Reform. Volume 2, Number 1

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fiske, Edward B.; Ladd, Helen F.

    2002-01-01

    The decision of the U.S. Supreme Court in "Zelman v. Simmons-Harris" will significantly alter debate over national education policy in the U.S., mainly because vouchers have suddenly become a more realistic political option. Until June 27, 2002, the day the high court issued its ruling, it was possible in to dismiss voucher proposals out…

  11. National type 2 diabetes prevention programme in Finland: FIN-D2D.

    PubMed

    Saaristo, Timo; Peltonen, Markku; Keinänen-Kiukaanniemi, Sirkka; Vanhala, Mauno; Saltevo, Juha; Niskanen, Leo; Oksa, Heikki; Korpi-Hyövälti, Eeva; Tuomilehto, Jaakko

    2007-04-01

    Current evidence shows that type 2 diabetes (T2D) can be prevented by life-style changes and medication. To meet the menacing diabetes epidemic, there is an urgent need to translate the scientific evidence regarding prevention of T2D into daily clinical practice and public health. In Finland, a national programme for the prevention of T2D has been launched. The programme comprises 3 concurrent strategies for prevention: the population strategy, the high-risk strategy and the strategy of early diagnosis and management. The article describes the implementation strategy for the prevention programme for T2D. The implementation project, FIN-D2D, is being conducted in 5 hospital districts, covering a population of 1.5 million, during the years 2003-2007. The main actors in the FIN-D2D are primary and occupational health care providers. The goals of the project are (1) to reduce the incidence and prevalence of T2D and prevalence of cardiovascular risk factor levels; (2) to identify individuals who are unaware of their T2D; (3) to generate regional and local models and programmes for the prevention of T2D; (4) to evaluate the effectiveness, feasibility and costs of the programme; and (5) to increase the awareness of T2D and its risk factors in the population and to support the population strategy of the diabetes prevention programme. The feasibility, effectiveness and costs of the programme will be evaluated according to a specific evaluation plan. Current research evidence shows that the type 2 diabetes can be effectively prevented in high-risk subjects by life-style changes, which include increased physical activity and weight reduction. FIN-D2D explores ways to implement these methods on a national level.

  12. Perceived Effects of the Malaysian National Tobacco Control Programme on Adolescent Smoking Cessation: A Qualitative Study

    PubMed Central

    Hizlinda, Tohid; Noriah, Mohd Ishak; Noor Azimah, Muhammad; Farah Naaz, Momtaz Ahmad; Anis Ezdiana, Abdul Aziz; Khairani, Omar

    2012-01-01

    Background: The prevalence of teenage smoking has decreased over the past decade following the implementation of the national tobacco control programme. However, the effect of the programme on smoking cessation in teenagers has not been determined. Methods: Twenty-eight participants (12 teenagers, 8 teachers, and 8 doctors) were interviewed using 5 in-depth interviews and 3 group discussions. Social cognitive theory (SCT) was applied as the theoretical framework. Semi-structured interview protocols were used, and thematic analysis and analytic generalisation utilising SCT were performed. Results: The current national tobacco control programme was found to be ineffective in promoting smoking cessation among teenagers. The participants attributed the ineffective campaign to the followings: inadequacy of message content, lack of exposure to the programme, and poor presentation and execution. In addition, the participants perceived the developed tobacco control policies to be a failure based on poor law enforcement, failure of retailers to comply with the law, social availability of cigarettes to teenagers, and easy availability of cheap, smuggled cigarettes. This study highlighted that the programme-related problems (environmental factors) were not the only factors contributing to its perceived ineffectiveness. The cunning behaviour of the teenagers (personal factor) and poor self-efficacy to overcome nicotine addiction (behavioural factor) were also found to hinder cessation. Conclusion: Tobacco control programmes should include strategies beyond educating teenagers about smoking and restricting their access to cigarettes. Strategies to manage the cunning behaviour of teenagers and strategies to improve their self-efficacy should also be implemented. These comprehensive programmes should have a foundation in SCT, as this theory demonstrates the complex interactions among the environmental, personal, and behavioural factors that influence teenage smoking. PMID

  13. Increasing Contraceptive Access for Hard-to-Reach Populations With Vouchers and Social Franchising in Uganda.

    PubMed

    Bellows, Benjamin; Mackay, Anna; Dingle, Antonia; Tuyiragize, Richard; Nnyombi, William; Dasgupta, Aisha

    2017-09-27

    From 2001 to 2011, modern contraceptive prevalence in Uganda increased from 18% to 26%. However, modern method use, in particular use of long-acting reversible contraceptives (LARCs) and permanent methods (PMs), remained low. In the 2011 Uganda Demographic and Health Survey, only 1 of 5 married women used a LARC or PM even though 34% indicated an unmet need for contraception. Between 2011 and 2014, a social franchise and family planning voucher program, supporting 400 private facilities to provide family planning counseling and broaden contraceptive choice by adding LARCs and PMs to the service mix, offered a voucher to enable poor women to access family planning services at franchised facilities. This study analyzes service trends and voucher client demographics and estimates the contribution of the program to increasing contraceptive prevalence in Uganda, using the Impact 2 model developed by Marie Stopes International. Between March 2011 and December 2014, 330,826 women received a family planning service using the voucher, of which 70% of voucher clients chose an implant and 25% chose an intrauterine device. The median age of voucher users was 28 years; 79% had no education or only a primary education; and 48% reported they were unemployed or a housewife. We estimated that by 2014, 280,000 of the approximately 8,600,000 women of reproductive age in Uganda were using a contraceptive method provided by the program and that 120,000 of the clients were "additional users" of contraception, contributing 1.4 percentage points to the national modern contraceptive prevalence rate. The combination of family planning vouchers and a franchise-based quality improvement initiative can leverage existing private health infrastructure to substantially expand family planning access and choice for disadvantaged populations and potentially improve contraceptive prevalence when scaled nationally. © Bellows et al.

  14. Increasing Contraceptive Access for Hard-to-Reach Populations With Vouchers and Social Franchising in Uganda

    PubMed Central

    Bellows, Benjamin; Mackay, Anna; Dingle, Antonia; Tuyiragize, Richard; Nnyombi, William; Dasgupta, Aisha

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT From 2001 to 2011, modern contraceptive prevalence in Uganda increased from 18% to 26%. However, modern method use, in particular use of long-acting reversible contraceptives (LARCs) and permanent methods (PMs), remained low. In the 2011 Uganda Demographic and Health Survey, only 1 of 5 married women used a LARC or PM even though 34% indicated an unmet need for contraception. Between 2011 and 2014, a social franchise and family planning voucher program, supporting 400 private facilities to provide family planning counseling and broaden contraceptive choice by adding LARCs and PMs to the service mix, offered a voucher to enable poor women to access family planning services at franchised facilities. This study analyzes service trends and voucher client demographics and estimates the contribution of the program to increasing contraceptive prevalence in Uganda, using the Impact 2 model developed by Marie Stopes International. Between March 2011 and December 2014, 330,826 women received a family planning service using the voucher, of which 70% of voucher clients chose an implant and 25% chose an intrauterine device. The median age of voucher users was 28 years; 79% had no education or only a primary education; and 48% reported they were unemployed or a housewife. We estimated that by 2014, 280,000 of the approximately 8,600,000 women of reproductive age in Uganda were using a contraceptive method provided by the program and that 120,000 of the clients were “additional users” of contraception, contributing 1.4 percentage points to the national modern contraceptive prevalence rate. The combination of family planning vouchers and a franchise-based quality improvement initiative can leverage existing private health infrastructure to substantially expand family planning access and choice for disadvantaged populations and potentially improve contraceptive prevalence when scaled nationally. PMID:28963175

  15. Genital warts in young Australians five years into national human papillomavirus vaccination programme: national surveillance data.

    PubMed

    Ali, Hammad; Donovan, Basil; Wand, Handan; Read, Tim R H; Regan, David G; Grulich, Andrew E; Fairley, Christopher K; Guy, Rebecca J

    2013-04-18

    To measure the effect on genital warts of the national human papillomavirus vaccination programme in Australia, which started in mid-2007. Trend analysis of national surveillance data. Data collated from eight sexual health services from 2004 to 2011; the two largest clinics also collected self reported human papillomavirus vaccination status from 2009. Between 2004 and 2011, 85,770 Australian born patients were seen for the first time; 7686 (9.0%) were found to have genital warts. Rate ratios comparing trends in proportion of new patients diagnosed as having genital warts in the pre-vaccination period (2004 to mid-2007) and vaccination period (mid-2007 to the end of 2011). Large declines occurred in the proportions of under 21 year old (92.6%) and 21-30 year old (72.6%) women diagnosed as having genital warts in the vaccination period-from 11.5% in 2007 to 0.85% in 2011 (P<0.001) and from 11.3% in 2007 to 3.1% in 2011 (P<0.001), respectively. No significant decline in wart diagnoses was seen in women over 30 years of age. Significant declines occurred in proportions of under 21 year old (81.8%) and 21-30 year old (51.1%) heterosexual men diagnosed as having genital warts in the vaccination period-from 12.1% in 2007 to 2.2% in 2011 (P<0.001) and from 18.2% in 2007 to 8.9% in 2011 (P<0.001), respectively. No significant decline in genital wart diagnoses was seen in heterosexual men over 30 years of age. In 2011 no genital wart diagnoses were made among 235 women under 21 years of age who reported prior human papillomavirus vaccination. The significant declines in the proportion of young women found to have genital warts and the absence of genital warts in vaccinated women in 2011 suggests that the human papillomavirus vaccine has a high efficacy outside of the trial setting. Large declines in diagnoses of genital warts in heterosexual men are probably due to herd immunity.

  16. The United Nations development programme initiative for sustainable energy

    SciTech Connect

    Hurry, S.

    1997-12-01

    Energy is central to current concerns about sustainable human development, affecting economic and social development; economic growth, the local, national, regional, and global environment; the global climate; a host of social concerns, including poverty, population, and health, the balance of payments, and the prospects for peace. Energy is not an end in itself, but rather the means to achieve the goals of sustainable human development. The energy systems of most developing countries are in serious crisis involving insufficient levels of energy services, environmental degradation, inequity, poor technical and financial performance, and capital scarcity. Approximately 2.5 billion people in the developing countries have little access to commercial energy supplies. Yet the global demand for energy continues to grow: total primary energy is projected to grow from 378 exajoules (EJ) per year in 1990 to 571 EJ in 2020, and 832 EJ in 2050. If this increase occurs using conventional approaches and energy sources, already serious local (e.g., indoor and urban air pollution), regional (eg., acidification and land degradation), and global (e.g., climate change) environmental problems will be critically aggravated. There is likely to be inadequate capital available for the needed investments in conventional energy sources. Current approaches to energy are thus not sustainable and will, in fact, make energy a barrier to socio-economic development. What is needed now is a new approach in which energy becomes an instrument for sustainable development. The two major components of a sustainable energy strategy are (1) more efficient energy use, especially at the point of end-use, and (2) increased use of renewable sources of energy. The UNDP Initiative for Sustainable Energy (UNISE) is designed to harness opportunities in these areas to build upon UNDP`s existing energy activities to help move the world toward a more sustainable energy strategy by helping program countries.

  17. 77 FR 39722 - Notice of Proposed Information Collection for Public Comment: Housing Choice Voucher Program...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-05

    ... Fee Study Data Collection for Full National Study AGENCY: Office of the Chief Information Officer, HUD... Housing Choice Voucher (HCV) Program Administrative Fee Study. The purpose of the study is to collect... this study and is for data collection for the full national study. The prior OMB requests have...

  18. Monitoring and evaluating the UK National Health Service Breast Screening Programme: evaluating the variation in radiological performance between individual programmes using PPV-referral diagrams.

    PubMed

    Blanks, R G; Moss, S M; Wallis, M G

    2001-01-01

    A high quality breast cancer screening programme can be defined as one offering both a high cancer detection rate and a low referral rate of women for further investigation. Such a programme will have as few women as possible undergoing further investigations who do not have a final diagnosis of breast cancer--that is, a high positive predictive value of referral for further investigation. This paper introduces a graphical technique to illustrate individual programme performance. The graph plots positive predictive value of referral against referral rate, with the cancer detection rate expressed as "isobars" on the graph. Confidence limits can be expressed as "boxes" on the diagram. The graph not only illustrates programme performance but also enables suggestions to be made to improve performance. The definition of high quality screening is seen to have a subjective element as well as an objective element, as radiologists have to balance screening sensitivity with specificity. The technique is illustrated using data from the individual screening programmes in the UK National Health Service Breast Screening Programme for the screening year 1 April 1998 to 31 March 1999. The methodology could also be applied to other national screening programmes.

  19. Assessing the Higher National Diploma Chemical Engineering programme in Ghana: students' perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boateng, Cyril D.; Cudjoe Bensah, Edem; Ahiekpor, Julius C.

    2012-05-01

    Chemical engineers have played key roles in the growth of the chemical and allied industries in Ghana but indigenous industries that have traditionally been the domain of the informal sector need to be migrated to the formal sector through the entrepreneurship and innovation of chemical engineers. The Higher National Diploma Chemical Engineering programme is being migrated from a subject-based to a competency-based curriculum. This paper evaluates the programme from the point of view of students. Data were drawn from a survey conducted in the department and were analysed using SPSS. The survey involved administering questionnaires to students at all levels in the department. Analysis of the responses indicated that the majority of the students had decided to pursue chemical engineering due to the career opportunities available. Their knowledge of the programme learning outcomes was, however, poor. The study revealed that none of the students was interested in developing indigenous industries.

  20. The effects of cash transfers and vouchers on the use and quality of maternity care services: A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Hunter, Benjamin M; Harrison, Sean; Portela, Anayda; Bick, Debra

    2017-01-01

    Cash transfers and vouchers are forms of 'demand-side financing' that have been widely used to promote maternal and newborn health in low- and middle-income countries during the last 15 years. This systematic review consolidates evidence from seven published systematic reviews on the effects of different types of cash transfers and vouchers on the use and quality of maternity care services, and updates the systematic searches to June 2015 using the Joanna Briggs Institute approach for systematic reviewing. The review protocol for this update was registered with PROSPERO (CRD42015020637). Data from 51 studies (15 more than previous reviews) and 22 cash transfer and voucher programmes suggest that approaches tied to service use (either via payment conditionalities or vouchers for selected services) can increase use of antenatal care, use of a skilled attendant at birth and in the case of vouchers, postnatal care too. The strongest evidence of positive effect was for conditional cash transfers and uptake of antenatal care, and for vouchers for maternity care services and birth with a skilled birth attendant. However, effects appear to be shaped by a complex set of social and healthcare system barriers and facilitators. Studies have typically focused on an initial programme period, usually two or three years after initiation, and many lack a counterfactual comparison with supply-side investment. There are few studies to indicate that programmes have led to improvements in quality of maternity care or maternal and newborn health outcomes. Future research should use multiple intervention arms to compare cost-effectiveness with similar investment in public services, and should look beyond short- to medium-term service utilisation by examining programme costs, longer-term effects on service utilisation and health outcomes, and the equity of those effects.

  1. The effects of cash transfers and vouchers on the use and quality of maternity care services: A systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Hunter, Benjamin M.; Harrison, Sean; Portela, Anayda; Bick, Debra

    2017-01-01

    Background Cash transfers and vouchers are forms of ‘demand-side financing’ that have been widely used to promote maternal and newborn health in low- and middle-income countries during the last 15 years. Methods This systematic review consolidates evidence from seven published systematic reviews on the effects of different types of cash transfers and vouchers on the use and quality of maternity care services, and updates the systematic searches to June 2015 using the Joanna Briggs Institute approach for systematic reviewing. The review protocol for this update was registered with PROSPERO (CRD42015020637). Results Data from 51 studies (15 more than previous reviews) and 22 cash transfer and voucher programmes suggest that approaches tied to service use (either via payment conditionalities or vouchers for selected services) can increase use of antenatal care, use of a skilled attendant at birth and in the case of vouchers, postnatal care too. The strongest evidence of positive effect was for conditional cash transfers and uptake of antenatal care, and for vouchers for maternity care services and birth with a skilled birth attendant. However, effects appear to be shaped by a complex set of social and healthcare system barriers and facilitators. Studies have typically focused on an initial programme period, usually two or three years after initiation, and many lack a counterfactual comparison with supply-side investment. There are few studies to indicate that programmes have led to improvements in quality of maternity care or maternal and newborn health outcomes. Conclusion Future research should use multiple intervention arms to compare cost-effectiveness with similar investment in public services, and should look beyond short- to medium-term service utilisation by examining programme costs, longer-term effects on service utilisation and health outcomes, and the equity of those effects. PMID:28328940

  2. Service impact of a national clinical leadership development programme: findings from a qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Fealy, Gerard M; McNamara, Martin S; Casey, Mary; O'Connor, Tom; Patton, Declan; Doyle, Louise; Quinlan, Christina

    2015-04-01

    The study reported here was part of a larger study, which evaluated a national clinical leadership development programme with reference to resources, participant experiences, participant outcomes and service impact. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the programme's service impact. Clinical leadership development develops competencies that are expressed in context. The outcomes of clinical leadership development occur at individual, departmental and organisational levels. The methods used to evaluate the service impact were focus groups, group interviews and individual interviews. Seventy participants provided data in 18 separate qualitative data collection events. The data contained numerous accounts of service development activities, initiated by programme participants, which improved service and/or improved the culture of the work setting. Clinical leadership development programmes that incorporate a deliberate service impact element can result in identifiable positive service outcomes. The nuanced relationship between leader development and service development warrants further investigation. This study demonstrates that clinical leadership development can impact on service in distinct and identifiable ways. Clinical leadership development programmes should focus on the setting in which the leadership competencies will be demonstrated. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Generating Quitline calls during Australia's National Tobacco Campaign: effects of television advertisement execution and programme placement

    PubMed Central

    Carroll, T; Rock, B

    2003-01-01

    Objective: The study sought to measure the relative efficiency of different television advertisements and types of television programmes in which advertisements were placed, in generating calls to Australia's national Quitline. Design: The study entailed an analysis of the number of calls generated to the Quitline relative to the weight of advertising exposure (in target audience rating points (TARPs) for particular television advertisements and for placement of these advertisements in particular types of television programmes. A total of 238 television advertisement placements and 1769 calls to the Quitline were analysed in Sydney and Melbourne. Results: The more graphic "eye" advertisement conveying new information about the association between smoking and macular degeneration leading to blindness was more efficient in generating quitline calls than the "tar" advertisement, which reinforced the message of tar in a smoker's lungs. Combining the health effects advertisements with a quitline modelling advertisement tended to increase the efficiency of generating Quitline calls. Placing advertisements in lower involvement programmes appears to provide greater efficiency in generating Quitline calls than in higher involvement programmes. Conclusions: Tobacco control campaign planners can increase the number of calls to telephone quitlines by assessing the efficiency of particular advertisements to generate such calls. Pairing of health effect and quitline modelling advertisements can increase efficiency in generating calls. Placement of advertisements in lower involvement programme types may increase efficiency in generating Quitline calls. PMID:12878772

  4. Generating Quitline calls during Australia's National Tobacco Campaign: effects of television advertisement execution and programme placement.

    PubMed

    Carroll, T; Rock, B

    2003-09-01

    The study sought to measure the relative efficiency of different television advertisements and types of television programmes in which advertisements were placed, in generating calls to Australia's national Quitline. The study entailed an analysis of the number of calls generated to the Quitline relative to the weight of advertising exposure (in target audience rating points (TARPs) for particular television advertisements and for placement of these advertisements in particular types of television programmes. A total of 238 television advertisement placements and 1769 calls to the Quitline were analysed in Sydney and Melbourne. The more graphic "eye" advertisement conveying new information about the association between smoking and macular degeneration leading to blindness was more efficient in generating quitline calls than the "tar" advertisement, which reinforced the message of tar in a smoker's lungs. Combining the health effects advertisements with a quitline modelling advertisement tended to increase the efficiency of generating Quitline calls. Placing advertisements in lower involvement programmes appears to provide greater efficiency in generating Quitline calls than in higher involvement programmes. Tobacco control campaign planners can increase the number of calls to telephone quitlines by assessing the efficiency of particular advertisements to generate such calls. Pairing of health effect and quitline modelling advertisements can increase efficiency in generating calls. Placement of advertisements in lower involvement programme types may increase efficiency in generating Quitline calls.

  5. Do Vouchers Lead to Sorting under Random Private School Selection? Evidence from the Milwaukee Voucher Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chakrabarti, Rajashri

    2013-01-01

    This paper analyzes the impact of voucher design on student sorting in the application and enrollment phases of parental choice. Much of the existing literature investigates the question of sorting where private schools can screen students. However, the publicly funded U.S. voucher programs require private schools to accept all students unless…

  6. Educational Vouchers in New Rochelle. Phase I: General Design of Voucher Plan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peat, Marwick, Mitchell and Co., New York, NY.

    Part 1 of this report outlines the concept of vouchers and the nature and objectives of the New Rochelle study. The more pertinent work tasks undertaken to accomplish the objectives are contained in the appendix. The authors describe their position regarding the voucher plan, highlight its major elements, and outline the steps the district should…

  7. Do Vouchers Lead to Sorting under Random Private School Selection? Evidence from the Milwaukee Voucher Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chakrabarti, Rajashri

    2013-01-01

    This paper analyzes the impact of voucher design on student sorting in the application and enrollment phases of parental choice. Much of the existing literature investigates the question of sorting where private schools can screen students. However, the publicly funded U.S. voucher programs require private schools to accept all students unless…

  8. National treatment programme of hepatitis C in Egypt: Hepatitis C virus model of care.

    PubMed

    El-Akel, W; El-Sayed, M H; El Kassas, M; El-Serafy, M; Khairy, M; Elsaeed, K; Kabil, K; Hassany, M; Shawky, A; Yosry, A; Shaker, M K; ElShazly, Y; Waked, I; Esmat, G; Doss, W

    2017-02-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is a major health problem in Egypt as the nation bears the highest prevalence rate worldwide. This necessitated establishing a novel model of care (MOC) to contain the epidemic, deliver patient care and ensure global treatment access. In this review, we describe the process of development of the Egyptian model and future strategies for sustainability. Although the magnitude of the HCV problem was known for many years, the HCV MOC only came into being in 2006 with the establishment of the National Committee for Control of Viral Hepatitis (NCCVH) to set up and implement a national control strategy for the disease and other causes of viral hepatitis. The strategy outlines best practices for patient care delivery by applying a set of service principles through identified clinical streams and patient flow continuums. The Egyptian national viral hepatitis treatment programme is considered one of the most successful and effective public health programmes. To date, more than one million patients were evaluated and more than 850 000 received treatment under the umbrella of the programme since 2006. The NCCVH has been successful in establishing a strong infrastructure for controlling viral hepatitis in Egypt. It established a nationwide network of digitally connected viral hepatitis-specialized treatment centres covering the country map to enhance treatment access. Practice guidelines suiting local circumstances were issued and regularly updated and are applied in all affiliated centres. This review illustrates the model and the successful Egyptian experience. It sets an exemplar for states, organizations and policy-makers setting up programmes for care and management of people with hepatitis C.

  9. INFOMAR - Ireland's National Seabed Mapping Programme: A Tool For Marine Spatial Planning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Furey, T. M.

    2016-02-01

    INFOMAR is Ireland's national seabed mapping programme and is a key action in the national integrated marine plan, Harnessing Our Ocean Wealth. It comprises a multi-platform approach to delivering marine integrated mapping in 2 phases, over a projected 20 year timeline (2006-2026). The programme has three work strands; Data Acquisition, Data Exchange and Integration, and Value Added Exploitation. The Data Acquisition strand includes collection of hydrographic, oceanographic, geological, habitat and heritage datasets that will underpin future sustainable development and management of Ireland's marine resource. INFOMAR outputs are delivered through the Data Exchange and Integration strand. Uses of these outputs are wide ranging and multipurpose, from management plans for fisheries, aquaculture and coastal protection works, to environmental impact assessments, ocean renewable development and integrated coastal zone management. In order to address the evolution and diversification of maritime user requirements, the programme has realigned and developed outputs and new products, in part, through an innovative research funding initiative. Development is also fostered through the Value Added Exploitation strand. INFOMAR outputs and products serve to underpin delivery of Ireland's statutory obligations and enhance compliance with EU and national legislation. This is achieved through co-operation with the agencies responsible for supporting Ireland's international obligations and for the implementation of marine spatial planning. A strategic national seabed mapping programme such as INFOMAR, provides a critical baseline dataset which underpins development of the marine economy, and improves our understanding of the response of marine systems to pressures, and the effect of cumulative impacts. This paper will focus on the evolution and scope of INFOMAR, and look at examples of outputs being harnessed to serve approaches to the management of activities having an impact on the

  10. Evaluation of the national control of diarrhoeal disease programme in the Philippines, 1980-93.

    PubMed Central

    Baltazar, Jane C.; Nadera, Dinah P.; Victora, Cesar G.

    2002-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the impact of the National Control of Diarrhoeal Disease Programme (NCDDP) in the Philippines over the period 1980-93, describing levels and trends in programme activities, and relating them to severe diarrhoea morbidity and mortality among under-5-year-olds. METHODS: Routinely collected data on morbidity and mortality trends were obtained from health statistics reports of the Health Intelligence Service and the NCDDP. Socioeconomic indicators, including annual average family income and expenditures, gross national product, and unemployment rates, were derived from the Philippine population census data collected by the National Statistics Office. FINDINGS: In relation to baseline levels, diarrhoea mortality among infants and young children fell by about 5% annually over the 18-year period under review. The decline was faster than those related to acute respiratory infections (ARIs) among children of similar age and to perinatal causes. Diarrhoea hospital admission rates registered an annual decline of 2.4% relative to the baseline level. CONCLUSION:These findings suggest that the programme had a substantial impact; the period under review also witnessed some degree of improvement in other factors with positive influences on health, such as exclusive breastfeeding, nutrition and environmental sanitation. The quality, particularly completeness and reliability, of the existing data did not allow further analysis, thus, making it difficult to conclude beyond doubt that the observed trends indicate that they were solely due to NCDDP. PMID:12219155

  11. Levels of cardiovascular disease risk factors in Singapore following a national intervention programme.

    PubMed Central

    Cutter, J.; Tan, B. Y.; Chew, S. K.

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the impact of the National Healthy Lifestyle Programme, a noncommunicable disease intervention programme for major cardiovascular disease risk factors in Singapore, implemented in 1992. METHODS: The evaluation was carried out in 1998 by the Singapore National Health Survey (NHS). The reference population was 2.2 million multiracial Singapore residents, 18-69 years of age. A population-based survey sample (n = 4723) was selected by disproportionate stratified and systematic sampling. Anthropometric and blood pressure measurements were carried out on all subjects and blood samples were taken for biochemical analysis. FINDINGS: The 1998 results suggest that the National Healthy Lifestyle Programme significantly decreased regular smoking and increased regular exercise over 1992 levels and stabilized the prevalence of obesity and diabetes mellitus. However, the prevalence of high total blood cholesterol and hypertension increased. Ethnic differences in the prevalence of diabetes mellitus, hypertension, and smoking; and in lipid profile and exercise levels were also observed. CONCLUSION: The intervention had mixed results after six years. Successful strategies have been continued and strengthened. PMID:11693972

  12. National programmes for validating physician competence and fitness for practice: a scoping review

    PubMed Central

    Horsley, Tanya; Lockyer, Jocelyn; Cogo, Elise; Zeiter, Jeanie; Bursey, Ford; Campbell, Craig

    2016-01-01

    Objective To explore and categorise the state of existing literature for national programmes designed to affirm or establish the continuing competence of physicians. Design Scoping review. Data sources MEDLINE, ERIC, Sociological Abstracts, web/grey literature (2000–2014). Selection Included when a record described a (1) national-level physician validation system, (2) recognised as a system for affirming competence and (3) reported relevant data. Data extraction Using bibliographic software, title and abstracts were reviewed using an assessment matrix to ensure duplicate, paired screening. Dyads included both a methodologist and content expert on each assessment, reflective of evidence-informed best practices to decrease errors. Results 45 reports were included. Publication dates ranged from 2002 to 2014 with the majority of publications occurring in the previous six years (n=35). Country of origin—defined as that of the primary author—included the USA (N=32), the UK (N=8), Canada (N=3), Kuwait (N=1) and Australia (N=1). Three broad themes emerged from this heterogeneous data set: contemporary national programmes, contextual factors and terminological consistency. Four national physician validation systems emerged from the data: the American Board of Medical Specialties Maintenance of Certification Program, the Federation of State Medical Boards Maintenance of Licensure Program, the Canadian Revalidation Program and the UK Revalidation Program. Three contextual factors emerged as stimuli for the implementation of national validation systems: medical regulation, quality of care and professional competence. Finally, great variation among the definitions of key terms was identified. Conclusions There is an emerging literature focusing on national physician validation systems. Four major systems have been implemented in recent years and it is anticipated that more will follow. Much of this work is descriptive, and gaps exist for the extent to which systems build

  13. Public-private delivery of insecticide-treated nets: a voucher scheme in Volta Region, Ghana

    PubMed Central

    Kweku, Margaret; Webster, Jayne; Taylor, Ian; Burns, Susan; Dedzo, McDamien

    2007-01-01

    Background Coverage of vulnerable groups with insecticide-treated nets (ITNs) in Ghana, as in the majority of countries of sub-Saharan Africa is currently low. A voucher scheme was introduced in Volta Region as a possible sustainable delivery system for increasing this coverage through scale-up to other regions. Successful scale-up of public health interventions depends upon optimal delivery processes but operational research for delivery processes in large-scale implementation has been inadequate. Methods A simple tool was developed to monitor numbers of vouchers given to each health facility, numbers issued to pregnant women by the health staff, and numbers redeemed by the distributors back to the management agent. Three rounds of interviews were undertaken with health facility staff, retailers and pregnant women who had attended antenatal clinic (ANC). Results During the one year pilot 25,926 vouchers were issued to eligible women from clinics, which equates to 50.7% of the 51,658 ANC registrants during this time period. Of the vouchers issued 66.7% were redeemed by distributors back to the management agent. Initially, non-issuing of vouchers to pregnant women was mainly due to eligibility criteria imposed by the midwives; later in the year it was due to decisions of the pregnant women, and supply constraints. These in turn were heavily influenced by factors external to the programme: current household ownership of nets, competing ITN delivery strategies, and competition for the limited number of ITNs available in the country from major urban areas of other regions. Conclusion Both issuing and redemption of vouchers should be monitored as factors assumed to influence voucher redemption had an influence on issuing, and vice versa. More evidence is needed on how specific contextual factors influence the success of voucher schemes and other models of delivery of ITNs. Such an evidence base will facilitate optimal strategic decision making so that the delivery model

  14. [Results of the Czech National Colorectal Cancer screening programme -  faecal occult blood tests].

    PubMed

    Seifert, B; Májek, O; Zavoral, M; Král, N; Suchánek, S; Ngo, O; Dušek, L

    2014-01-01

    The nationwide Colorectal Cancer Screening Programme was introduced in the Czech Republic in 2000. The aim of this article is to describe the employment of faecal occult blood tests (FOBTs) by the Czech population within the screening programme, and to provide information on the latest results of the programme. Data on the development of the colorectal cancer (CRC) burden in the Czech population is obtained from the Czech National Cancer Registry, a database required by the Czech law that has been collecting comprehensive data on cancer patients since 1977. Data on FOBT employment can be obtained from health care payers, and was provided by the Czech National Reference Centre. Around 8,000 patients are diagnosed with colorectal cancer in the Czech Republic each year, and the number of CRC deaths is about 4,000. Despite the ongoing screening programme, significant improvements in the proportional representation of cancer stages (i.e., improvements in early detection of CRC cases) have yet to be seen. Although the number of FOBTs performed in the Czech Republic has significantly grown in the long term (which is accompanied by an increase in coverage by this screening test), the total coverage of the Czech population aged over 50 was only 25.5% in 2012. The Olomouc Region, the Zlin region, and the Usti nad Labem region had the highest coverage rates by CRC screening based on FOBT (over 28%), while the Capital of Prague had the lowest coverage rate (18%). Since 2008, FOBT positivity rates have seen a continuous and significant increase, reaching 6.9% in 2012. Between 13 to 14% of FOBTs in women are performed by practical gynaecologists. Despite a significant increase in the participation rate in recent years, which was partially improved by the involvement of practical gynaecologists, the programme unfortunately still covers only a quarter of the eligible population. Implementation of effective measures aimed at getting people interested in preventive examinations

  15. Collaborative Framework for Designing a Sustainability Science Programme: Lessons Learned at the National Autonomous University of Mexico

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Charli-Joseph, Lakshmi; Escalante, Ana E.; Eakin, Hallie; Solares, Ma. José; Mazari-Hiriart, Marisa; Nation, Marcia; Gómez-Priego, Paola; Pérez-Tejada, César A. Domínguez; Bojórquez-Tapia, Luis A.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The authors describe the challenges and opportunities associated with developing an interdisciplinary sustainability programme in an emerging economy and illustrate how these are addressed through the approach taken for the development of the first postgraduate programme (MSc and PhD) in sustainability science at the National Autonomous…

  16. Collaborative Framework for Designing a Sustainability Science Programme: Lessons Learned at the National Autonomous University of Mexico

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Charli-Joseph, Lakshmi; Escalante, Ana E.; Eakin, Hallie; Solares, Ma. José; Mazari-Hiriart, Marisa; Nation, Marcia; Gómez-Priego, Paola; Pérez-Tejada, César A. Domínguez; Bojórquez-Tapia, Luis A.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The authors describe the challenges and opportunities associated with developing an interdisciplinary sustainability programme in an emerging economy and illustrate how these are addressed through the approach taken for the development of the first postgraduate programme (MSc and PhD) in sustainability science at the National Autonomous…

  17. Kuwait National Programme for Healthy Living: first 5-year plan (2013-2017).

    PubMed

    Behbehani, Kazem

    2014-01-01

    The Kuwait National Programme for Healthy Living is an initiative to promote the health and well-being for individuals residing in the country. The plan has been created based on current data and available information pertaining to the various lifestyles of the populations living in Kuwait and their impact on health in general and chronic diseases in particular. Leading a healthy lifestyle is important because it means living in an environment, such as the Kuwaiti society, where chronic conditions such as obesity, diabetes, hypertension and coronary heart diseases are significantly reduced. Several factors regarding lifestyles among the various ethnic groups residing in Kuwait have been identified, including inactivity resulting from the lack of need for physical exertion in daily-life activities and social rituals involving the serving of food amongst the various ethnic groups residing in Kuwait. For Kuwaitis and other ethnicities as well, traditional social gatherings include serving food as an integral element of the social ritual. The environments of school and work also contribute to an individual's lifestyle. The goal of the programme is to address the contribution of lifestyle choices and the social environment to health with the goal of creating a healthy environment that will sustain good health and social well-being. This can be accomplished by involving the various stakeholders in promoting the aim of the programme. Finally, addressing the research needs for healthy lifestyle issues can have a huge impact on the outcome of the programmes designed and would aid in creating a healthy living environment.

  18. Sounding Rockets within Swedish National Balloon and Rocket Programme- Providing Access to Space from Esrange

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sjolander, K.; Karlsson, T.; Lockowandt, C.

    2015-09-01

    Initiated in 2012 by the Swedish National Space Board (SNSB), a new programme dedicated for Swedish scientists to gain access to space using balloons and sounding rockets was started. This programme promotes the possibility to ensure continuity in both the science and the technology used. The sounding rocket part of this national programme started with three possible missions. SPIDER (Small Payloads for Investigation of Disturbances in Electrojet by Rockets) from the Space and Plasma physics department of KTH, 0-STATES (Oxygen Species and Thermospheric Airglow in The Earth's Sky) from the Department of Meteorology Stockholm University (MISU) and LEEWAVES (Local Excitation and Effects of Waves on Atmospheric VErtical Structure) that is collaboration between KTH and MISU. These three missions were planned for launches in 2015 and 2016. SSc has been contracted on a launch ticket basis to provide the launch and service to the scientific instrumentation. This paper presents the SPIDER, 0-STATES and LEEWAVES missions focussing on a mission related technical solutions perspective.

  19. Evaluating the implementation of a national clinical programme for diabetes to standardise and improve services: a realist evaluation protocol.

    PubMed

    McHugh, S; Tracey, M L; Riordan, F; O'Neill, K; Mays, N; Kearney, P M

    2016-07-28

    Over the last three decades in response to the growing burden of diabetes, countries worldwide have developed national and regional multifaceted programmes to improve the monitoring and management of diabetes and to enhance the coordination of care within and across settings. In Ireland in 2010, against a backdrop of limited dedicated strategic planning and engrained variation in the type and level of diabetes care, a national programme was established to standardise and improve care for people with diabetes in Ireland, known as the National Diabetes Programme (NDP). The NDP comprises a range of organisational and service delivery changes to support evidence-based practices and policies. This realist evaluation protocol sets out the approach that will be used to identify and explain which aspects of the programme are working, for whom and in what circumstances to produce the outcomes intended. This mixed method realist evaluation will develop theories about the relationship between the context, mechanisms and outcomes of the diabetes programme. In stage 1, to identify the official programme theories, documentary analysis and qualitative interviews were conducted with national stakeholders involved in the design, development and management of the programme. In stage 2, as part of a multiple case study design with one case per administrative region in the health system, qualitative interviews are being conducted with frontline staff and service users to explore their responses to, and reasoning about, the programme's resources (mechanisms). Finally, administrative data will be used to examine intermediate implementation outcomes such as service uptake, acceptability, and fidelity to models of care. This evaluation is using the principles of realist evaluation to examine the implementation of a national programme to standardise and improve services for people with diabetes in Ireland. The concurrence of implementation and evaluation has enabled us to produce formative

  20. In vitro maintenance and cryopreservation of Plant Variety Protection vouchers germplasm of Solanum tuberosum cultivars

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The USDA-ARS, National Center for Genetic Resources Preservation maintains the voucher germplasm of Plant Variety Protection (PVP) potato (S. tuberosum) cultivars registered with the U.S. Plant Variety Protection Office. The potato cultivars are deposited at the Center as tissue culture and are main...

  1. Utah's Vote Raises Bar on Choice: Voucher Program's Defeat May Lead to Strategy Shift

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robelen, Erik W.

    2007-01-01

    The Utah plan, which would have been the nation's first universal voucher program, was effectively vetoed by voters before it ever took effect. The defeat of the Utah program through a ballot referendum highlighted again the political vulnerability of such controversial school choice measures. The law's enactment had set off an intense political…

  2. Innovation and Accountability: Vouchers, Charters, and the Florida Virtual School. Policy Brief.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hacsi, Timothy A.

    2004-01-01

    In the last half-decade Florida has been in tune with, or on the cutting edge of, several national trends in education. Florida has a comprehensive testing program, and has created a range of options for students who seem to be poorly served by traditional public schools. Three Florida programs provide scholarships or vouchers to children from…

  3. Market-Based Higher Education: Does Colorado's Voucher Model Improve Higher Education Access and Efficiency?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hillman, Nicholas W.; Tandberg, David A.; Gross, Jacob P. K.

    2014-01-01

    In 2004, Colorado introduced the nation's first voucher model for financing public higher education. With state appropriations now allocated to students, rather than institutions, state officials expect this model to create cost efficiencies while also expanding college access. Using difference-in-difference regression analysis, we find limited…

  4. School Vouchers and Student Outcomes: Experimental Evidence from Washington, DC

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolf, Patrick J.; Kisida, Brian; Gutmann, Babette; Puma, Michael; Eissa, Nada; Rizzo, Lou

    2013-01-01

    School vouchers are the most contentious form of parental school choice. Vouchers provide government funds that parents can use to send their children to private schools of their choice. Here we examine the empirical question of whether or not a school voucher program in Washington, DC, affected achievement or the rate of high school graduation…

  5. 7 CFR 97.7 - Deposit of Voucher Specimen.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... PLANT VARIETY AND PROTECTION The Application § 97.7 Deposit of Voucher Specimen. (a) Voucher specimen types. As regards the deposit of voucher specimen material for purposes of plant variety protection... self-replication either directly or indirectly. Representative examples include seeds, plant...

  6. 7 CFR 97.7 - Deposit of Voucher Specimen.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... PLANT VARIETY AND PROTECTION The Application § 97.7 Deposit of Voucher Specimen. (a) Voucher specimen... applications under 7 U.S.C. 2321 et seq., the term voucher specimen shall include material that is capable of... cells, cell lines, and plots of vegetative material of self-incompatible parental lines of hybrids....

  7. Race and School Vouchers: Legal, Historical, and Political Contexts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gooden, Mark A.; Jabbar, Huriya; Torres, Mario S., Jr.

    2016-01-01

    This article investigates legal and political issues as they relate to school vouchers serving students of color. Specifically, we draw on the empirical, historical, and legal research to examine whether school vouchers will create a more equitable system of education for poor students of color. First, we present a history of vouchers, including…

  8. School Vouchers and Student Outcomes: Experimental Evidence from Washington, DC

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolf, Patrick J.; Kisida, Brian; Gutmann, Babette; Puma, Michael; Eissa, Nada; Rizzo, Lou

    2013-01-01

    School vouchers are the most contentious form of parental school choice. Vouchers provide government funds that parents can use to send their children to private schools of their choice. Here we examine the empirical question of whether or not a school voucher program in Washington, DC, affected achievement or the rate of high school graduation…

  9. Race and School Vouchers: Legal, Historical, and Political Contexts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gooden, Mark A.; Jabbar, Huriya; Torres, Mario S., Jr.

    2016-01-01

    This article investigates legal and political issues as they relate to school vouchers serving students of color. Specifically, we draw on the empirical, historical, and legal research to examine whether school vouchers will create a more equitable system of education for poor students of color. First, we present a history of vouchers, including…

  10. Educational Vouchers. The Best of ERIC, Number 41.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ERIC Clearinghouse on Educational Management, Eugene, OR.

    This annotated bibliography highlights eleven publications on educational vouchers. Issues discussed include several voucher systems, the value of increased parental decision-making, and nonvoucher systems of educational options. The authors included in the bibliography also discuss how vouchers may promote freedom of choice but reduce equality of…

  11. Colorado's Voucher Legislation and the Consequences for Community Colleges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harbour, Clifford P.; Davies, Timothy Gray; Lewis, Chance W.

    2006-01-01

    In this article, the authors examine the new voucher program used to subsidize undergraduate education at Colorado community colleges and four-year institutions. The authors explain the voucher program and discuss the fiscal and policy conditions that led to its adoption. This baseline account of the voucher program and the underlying conditions…

  12. National GLP programmes and implication of regulatory authorities for pharmaceuticals, pesticides and other chemicals.

    PubMed

    Nakashima, Nobumasa

    2008-01-01

    There are various kinds of good laboratory practice (GLP) monitoring authorities (MAs) in the world. Some countries have only one MA, while others, including Japan, have more than one MA. In addition, each MA has its own relationship with regulatory authorities (RAs), receiving authorities (RcAs) and industry based on the internal regulatory systems. There are eight GLP MAs in Japan. This number is probably the largest in the world. Efforts have been made to establish a close link among MAs and to apply and implement GLP programmes in an efficient, effective and consistent way, namely: i) interministerial meeting on GLP. It is essential to establish a system for information exchange and decision making when there are a number of MAs such as in Japan. To this end, the interministerial meeting on GLP has been set up as a means for MAs, RAs, and RcAs to share information on Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) and foreign countries and make national decisions as a whole country; ii) joint training programme. With the goal of training inspectors and minimizing differences in inspections among MAs, a joint training programme has been started including joint visits to test facilities (TFs) and participation in evaluation committees at other MAs. One of the purposes of this training programme is to get ready for the on-site evaluation visit (OEV) of the OECD by simulating it at MAs in Japan; iii) joint translation programme of the OECD documents. To avoid unnecessary confusion due to differences of interpretation and translation of OECD documents among MAs, these have been translated into Japanese in cooperation with industry. This has also other substantial merits such as cost reduction and time saving for all stakeholders in Japan. Some countries, both members and non-members of the OECD, have also established more than one GLP MA. It is hoped that the Japanese experience can be useful to them.

  13. Progress towards malaria control targets in relation to national malaria programme funding

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Malaria control has been dramatically scaled up the past decade, mainly thanks to increasing international donor financing since 2003. This study assessed progress up to 2010 towards global malaria impact targets, in relation to Global Fund, other donor and domestic malaria programme financing over 2003 to 2009. Methods Assessments used domestic malaria financing reported by national programmes, and Global Fund/OECD data on donor financing for 90 endemic low- and middle-income countries, WHO estimates of households owning one or more insecticide-treated mosquito net (ITN) for countries in sub-Saharan Africa, and WHO-estimated malaria case incidence and deaths in countries outside sub-Saharan Africa. Results Global Fund and other donor funding is concentrated in a subset of the highest endemic African countries. Outside Africa, donor funding is concentrated in those countries with highest malaria mortality and case incidence rates over the years 2000 to 2003. ITN coverage in 2010 in Africa, and declines in case and death rates per person at risk over 2004 to 2010 outside Africa, were greatest in countries with highest donor funding per person at risk, and smallest in countries with lowest donor malaria funding per person at risk. Outside Africa, all-source malaria programme funding over 2003 to 2009 per case averted ($56-5,749) or per death averted ($58,000-3,900,000) over 2004 to 2010 tended to be lower (more favourable) in countries with higher donor malaria funding per person at risk. Conclusions Increases in malaria programme funding are associated with accelerated progress towards malaria control targets. Associations between programme funding per person at risk and ITN coverage increases and declines in case and death rates suggest opportunities to maximize the impact of donor funding, by strategic re-allocation to countries with highest continued need. PMID:23317000

  14. Improving Child Oral Health: Cost Analysis of a National Nursery Toothbrushing Programme

    PubMed Central

    Anopa, Yulia; McMahon, Alex D.; Conway, David I.; Ball, Graham E.; McIntosh, Emma; Macpherson, Lorna M. D.

    2015-01-01

    Dental caries is one of the most common diseases of childhood. The aim of this study was to compare the cost of providing the Scotland-wide nursery toothbrushing programme with associated National Health Service (NHS) cost savings from improvements in the dental health of five-year-old children: through avoided dental extractions, fillings and potential treatments for decay. Methods Estimated costs of the nursery toothbrushing programme in 2011/12 were requested from all Scottish Health Boards. Unit costs of a filled, extracted and decayed primary tooth were calculated using verifiable sources of information. Total costs associated with dental treatments were estimated for the period from 1999/00 to 2009/10. These costs were based on the unit costs above and using the data of the National Dental Inspection Programme and then extrapolated to the population level. Expected cost savings were calculated for each of the subsequent years in comparison with the 2001/02 dental treatment costs. Population standardised analysis of hypothetical cohorts of 1000 children per deprivation category was performed. Results The estimated cost of the nursery toothbrushing programme in Scotland was £1,762,621 per year. The estimated cost of dental treatments in the baseline year 2001/02 was £8,766,297, while in 2009/10 it was £4,035,200. In 2002/03 the costs of dental treatments increased by £213,380 (2.4%). In the following years the costs decreased dramatically with the estimated annual savings ranging from £1,217,255 in 2003/04 (13.9% of costs in 2001/02) to £4,731,097 in 2009/10 (54.0%). Population standardised analysis by deprivation groups showed that the largest decrease in modelled costs was for the most deprived cohort of children. Conclusions The NHS costs associated with the dental treatments for five-year-old children decreased over time. In the eighth year of the toothbrushing programme the expected savings were more than two and a half times the costs of the

  15. Impact of national malaria control scale-up programmes in Africa: magnitude and attribution of effects

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Since 2005, malaria control scale-up has progressed in many African countries. Controlled studies of insecticide-treated mosquito nets (ITNs), indoor residual spraying (IRS), intermittent preventive treatment during pregnancy (IPTp) and malaria case management suggested that when incorporated into national programmes a dramatic health impact, likely more than a 20% decrease in all-cause childhood mortality, was possible. To assess the extent to which national malaria programmes are achieving impact the authors reviewed African country programme data available through 2009. Methods National survey data, published literature, and organization or country reports produced during 2000-2009 were reviewed to assess available malaria financing, intervention delivery, household or target population coverage, and reported health benefits including infection, illness, severe anaemia, and death. Results By the end of 2009, reports were available for ITN household ownership (n = 34) and IPTp use (n = 27) in malaria-endemic countries in Africa, with at least two estimates (pre-2005 and post-2005 intervals). Information linking IRS and case management coverage to impact were more limited. There was generally at least a three-fold increase in household ITN ownership across these countries between pre-2005 (median of 2.4% of households with at least one ITN) and post-2005 (median of 32.5% of households with at least one ITN). Ten countries had temporal data to assess programme impact, and all reported progress on at least one impact indicator (typically on mortality); in under-five year mortality rates most observed a decline of more than 20%. The causal relationship between malaria programme scale-up and reduced child illness and mortality rates is supported by biologic plausibility including mortality declines consistent with experience from intervention efficacy trials, consistency of findings across multiple countries and different epidemiologic settings, and

  16. National GHG inventories: Recent developments under the IPCC/OECD Joint Programme.

    PubMed

    Morlot, J C; Schwengels, P; Lurding, S

    1994-05-01

    This paper summarises key results of the Joint IPCC/OECD Programme, in particular the draft IPCC Guidelines for National GHG Inventories to be released in January 1994. The focus is on how these results are likely to improve the availability and the quality of national inventories of anthropogenic GHG emission sources and removals by sinks. The IPCC/OECD has already received nearly 50 inventories from 35 countries. Most of the data are for 1988, but some reports cover 1989 and 1990. In addition to CO2, many of these inventories include CH4, N2O, NOx, CO, and NMVOC. Detailed analyses of these inventories have provided valuable insights about the strengths and weaknesses of the national inventories, differences in approach to estimation, reporting, available methods and data. These results in turn, have facilitated the development of the draft Guidelines, most notably the proposed reporting system, and also on estimation methods for the different anthropogenic sources and sinks of GHG. The paper previews key aspects of the draft Guidelines for non-CO2 GHG. Experts are urged to actively participate in the IPCC/OECD Programme to continue to improve inventory methods and overall the Guidelines.

  17. Introduction of Hib vaccine into national immunization programmes: a descriptive analysis of global trends.

    PubMed

    Rossi, Isabelle A; Zuber, Patrick L F; Dumolard, Laure; Walker, Damian G; Watt, James

    2007-10-10

    Despite the demonstration of effectiveness and public health impact of Hib conjugate vaccines, the majority of infants from poorest countries do not yet have access to this safe and effective preventive intervention. This paper provides a descriptive analysis of the main characteristics of countries that have included Hib vaccine in their national immunization programmes before 2006. It highlights the importance of regularly analyzing the process of decision-making involved in implementation of public health interventions, in order to learn from cumulative experience and expedite the introduction of future interventions.

  18. The biological research programme of the nuclear microprobe at the National Accelerator Centre, Faure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prozesky, V. M.; Pineda, C. A.; Mesjasz-Przybylowicz, J.; Przybylowicz, W. J.; Churms, C. L.; Springhorn, K. A.; Moretto, Ph; Michelet, C.; Chikte, U.; Wenzl, P.

    2000-03-01

    The nuclear microprobe (NMP) unit of the National Accelerator Centre (NAC) has initiated a focused research programme on studies of biological material, ranging from applications in medicine to agriculture and botany. During this period a state-of-the-art cryo-preparation laboratory was also developed. This research programme has resulted in a wide range of projects, and has shown how well suited the NMP is for studies of biological material in general. This paper reports on some of the problems and demands in this field, as well as some of the results obtained using particle induced X-ray spectroscopy (PIXE) and Rutherford backscattering (RBS). True elemental imaging is routinely performed using the dynamic analysis (DA) method, which forms part of the GeoPIXE suite of programmes. A collaborative project, together with the CENBG group of Bordeaux-Gradignan in France, on the development of a facility with the aim of studying effects of single-events of radiation in living cells was recently established and is discussed.

  19. A successful national control programme for enzootic respiratory diseases in pigs in Switzerland.

    PubMed

    Stärk, K D C; Miserez, R; Siegmann, S; Ochs, H; Infanger, P; Schmidt, J

    2007-12-01

    Before the start of systematic disease control, respiratory diseases in swine in Switzerland caused estimated losses of several million euros per year. In 1993, a national programme to control enzootic respiratory diseases in pigs was proposed, with the aim of reducing the incidence of clinical cases to less than 1%. Enzootic pneumonia (EP) caused by Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae and clinical cases of pleuropneumonia caused by any serotype of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae (APP) would be targeted, in addition to any cases with serological evidence of APP serotype 2. This control programme was initiated in 1996, region by region, and fully implemented by 2004. Clinical, epidemiological and laboratory test results were used to identify the appropriate disease control measures. Partial depopulation was used to control EP on breeding and breeding-finishing farms. Total depopulation was implemented on all farms affected with APP and finishing farms affected with EP Animal trade was strictly regulated during the programme and all suspected cases of respiratory disease in pigs were made notifiable. Continued monitoring is based on clinical suspicion of infection and/or the detection of gross pathological lesions at slaughter, followed by laboratory confirmation. In 2005, the incidence of clinical cases was less than 1%. Regulations have been introduced to control the international trade in live pigs and prevent the re-introduction of respiratory diseases into Switzerland.

  20. Scottish Antimicrobial Prescribing Group (SAPG): development and impact of the Scottish National Antimicrobial Stewardship Programme.

    PubMed

    Nathwani, Dilip; Sneddon, Jacqueline; Malcolm, William; Wiuff, Camilla; Patton, Andrea; Hurding, Simon; Eastaway, Anne; Seaton, R Andrew; Watson, Emma; Gillies, Elizabeth; Davey, Peter; Bennie, Marion

    2011-07-01

    In 2008, the Scottish Management of Antimicrobial Resistance Action Plan (ScotMARAP) was published by the Scottish Government. One of the key actions was initiation of the Scottish Antimicrobial Prescribing Group (SAPG), hosted within the Scottish Medicines Consortium, to take forward national implementation of the key recommendations of this action plan. The primary objective of SAPG is to co-ordinate and deliver a national framework or programme of work for antimicrobial stewardship. This programme, led by SAPG, is delivered by NHS National Services Scotland (Health Protection Scotland and Information Services Division), NHS Quality Improvement Scotland, and NHS National Education Scotland as well as NHS board Antimicrobial Management Teams. Between 2008 and 2010, SAPG has achieved a number of early successes, which are the subject of this review: (i) through measures to optimise prescribing in hospital and primary care, combined with infection prevention measures, SAPG has contributed significantly to reducing Clostridium difficile infection rates in Scotland; (ii) there has been engagement of all key stakeholders at local and national levels to ensure an integrated approach to antimicrobial stewardship within the wider healthcare-associated infection agenda; (iii) development and implementation of data management systems to support quality improvement; (iv) development of training materials on antimicrobial stewardship for healthcare professionals; and (v) improving clinical management of infections (e.g. community-acquired pneumonia) through quality improvement methodology. The early successes achieved by SAPG demonstrate that this delivery model is effective and provides the leadership and focus required to implement antimicrobial stewardship to improve antimicrobial prescribing and infection management across NHS Scotland.

  1. HIV/AIDS, sexual and reproductive health: intersections and implications for national programmes.

    PubMed

    Berer, Marge

    2004-10-01

    HIV and AIDS have a myriad of effects on sexual and reproductive health and rights, and sexual and reproductive health services are critical for women and men with HIV and AIDS. Yet there has been a dearth of visible, in-depth mainstream attention to the links between sexual and reproductive health and prevention and treatment of HIV/AIDS since the early 1990s among major stakeholders internationally. This paper argues that access to essential sexual and reproductive health care should be provided in HIV/AIDS prevention, care and treatment programmes, and appropriate forms of prevention and treatment of HIV/AIDS should be included in all sexual and reproductive health services as a public health priority, particularly in sex education, family planning and abortion services, pregnancy-related care, sexually transmitted infection (STI) services and services addressing sexual violence. The paper analyzes existing barriers to linking and integrating these services, e.g. at country level due to the traditional training of health workers to implement vertical programmes, separate sources of funding for National AIDS Control Programmes and sexual and reproductive health services, and in international donor programme and UN agency structures. This paper calls for leadership to be exercised by donors, all the UN agencies working together, governments, health service managers and providers, NGOs and advocates in both fields to develop and implement these linkages at country level. Finally, it is crucial that UNAIDS, WHO, UNFPA, UNICEF, the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, TB and Malaria and those working to reach the targets set by the Millennium Development Goals come on board in these efforts. Copyright 2004 Oxford University Press

  2. Effectiveness of local support for the adoption of a national programme--a descriptive study.

    PubMed

    Pearce, Christopher; Bartlett, Jenny; Mcleod, Adam; Eustace, Paula; Amos, Rod; Shearer, Marianne

    2014-01-01

    Change management in health care is a complex and time-consuming endeavour, and no less so in implementing technological systems. In deploying a nationwide programme, the personally controlled electronic health record (PCEHR), the Australian Government employed a number of national and local change management programmes. This article describes the processes undertaken and the experiences of introducing the PCEHR into 74 general practices across a specific area of metropolitan Melbourne. An online survey was developed by an independent evaluator and offered to all participating practices. The response rate was 82%. The deployment and testing of the eHealth infrastructure and the roll-out of the PCEHR were deeply supported through face-to-face, locally contextualised support processes. The area Medicare Local (ML), an organisation that provides support services to general practice and allied health in the community, provided support and programme coordination. This support occurred in the environment of a number of other initiatives to improve adoption. The impact and value of this support in the registration and adoption process was explored in an online survey and found to be the key factor in practice engagement and success. ML support was seen as instrumental in improving adoption and was more effective than other activities. This article highlights the role of local support, in this case, MLs, in the effective implementation of eHealth programmes across a range of stakeholder groups, in particular, general practice, and the potential for the lessons learned from the engagement model of such an entity to be more generally applied.

  3. Coverage of a national cardiovascular risk assessment and management programme (NHS Health Check): Retrospective database study.

    PubMed

    Chang, Kiara Chu-Mei; Soljak, Michael; Lee, John Tayu; Woringer, Maria; Johnston, Desmond; Khunti, Kamlesh; Majeed, Azeem; Millett, Christopher

    2015-09-01

    To determine coverage of NHS Health Check, a national cardiovascular risk assessment programme in England, in the first four years after implementation, and to examine prevalence of high cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk and uptake of statins in high risk patients. Study sample was 95,571 patients in England aged 40-74years continuously registered with 509 practices in the Clinical Practice Research Datalink between April 2009 and March 2013. Multilevel logistic regression models were used to assess predictors of Health Check attendance; elevated CVD risk factors and statin prescribing among attendees. Programme coverage was 21.4% over four years, with large variations between practices (0%-72.7%) and regions (9.4%-30.7%). Coverage was higher in older patients (adjusted odds ratio 2.88, 95% confidence interval 2.49-3.31 for patients 70-74years) and in patients with a family history of premature coronary heart disease (2.37, 2.22-2.53), but lower in Black Africans (0.75, 0.61-0.92) and Chinese (0.68, 0.47-0.96) compared with White British. Coverage was similar in patients living in deprived and affluent areas. Prevalence of high CVD risk (QRISK2≥20%) among attendees was 4.6%. One third (33.6%) of attendees at high risk were prescribed a statin after Health Checks. Coverage of the programme and statin prescribing in high risk individuals was low. Coverage was similar in deprived and affluent groups but lower in some ethnic minority groups, possibly widening inequalities. These findings raise a question about whether recommendations by WHO to develop CVD risk assessment programmes internationally will deliver anticipated health benefits. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  4. Economic Modeling and Analysis of Educational Vouchers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Epple, Dennis; Romano, Richard

    2012-01-01

    The analysis of educational vouchers has evolved from market-based analogies to models that incorporate distinctive features of the educational environment. These distinctive features include peer effects, scope for private school pricing and admissions based on student characteristics, the linkage of household residential and school choices in…

  5. A Proposal for Youth Job Experience Vouchers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orcutt, Guy; Orcutt, Geil

    1979-01-01

    The authors outline a proposal for job experience vouchers as a possible answer to financing the acquisitions of adequate work experience for youth employment programs. The proposal works by giving an incentive to employers to seek out ways of profitably employing new labor market entrants, the underemployed, and the unemployed. (CT)

  6. Milwaukee Voucher Schools: 2009-2010

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Public Policy Forum, 2010

    2010-01-01

    This brochure provides charted reference information for Milwaukee Voucher Schools for the 2009-2010 school year. Schools are grouped by grade level. The following is included: Name, Address, Telephone, Grades; Religion/Denomination; Enrollment; Choice Student Enrollment; Number of Teachers; School Hours; Before/After School Programs;…

  7. RAND Report on Charter Schools and Vouchers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perkins-Gough, Deborah

    2002-01-01

    Highlights some of the major findings of the December 2001 RAND report on charter schools and vouchers prepared by Brain P. Gill, P. Michael Timpane, Karen E. Ross, and Dominic J. Brewer. The report can be ordered from RAND at www.rand.org/publications. (PKP)

  8. The "Developing" Achievement Gap: Colombian Voucher Reform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stern, Jonathan M. B.

    2014-01-01

    The achievement gap in many developing countries is defined in terms of rich/poor and public/private. The prevailing explanation for the "developing" achievement gap is an underfunded, inefficient, and/or inadequately supplied public school sector. Via an analysis of a Colombian voucher experiment, this article examines the extent to…

  9. Fact Sheet on Vouchers. Argument and Evidence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Educator, 1995

    1995-01-01

    Much controversy surrounds the idea of vouchers parents could apply to private education. Information about existing private school admission policies, student characteristics, student achievement, market competition, and costs is summarized in this fact sheet. The superiority claimed for private school education can be explained by student…

  10. Relief Plans Spurring Debate over Vouchers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robelen, Erik W.

    2005-01-01

    Washington is a safe distance from the powerful winds that have wreaked havoc on the Gulf Coast, but a political storm continued to brew in the capital over President Bush's plan to help pay the costs of private school tuition for students displaced by Hurricane Katrina. As voucher opponents decried the president's plan, Louisiana's two U.S.…

  11. Indiana Grapples with Impact of Voucher Law

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zubrzycki, Jaclyn

    2012-01-01

    As the 3,919 students who participated in the first year of Indiana's new, wide-reaching school voucher program near the end of the first semester in their new schools, the program faces its next challenge: A state court hearing opened on Dec. 19 on a lawsuit arguing the program violates Indiana's constitution. The Choice Scholarship program, one…

  12. Educational Vouchers for Universal Pre-Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levin, Henry M.; Schwartz, Heather L.

    2007-01-01

    This article considers two issues regarding preschool education. First, it provides a brief set of arguments for government funding of universal, pre-school education. Second, it explores the applicability of a voucher plan using a regulated market approach for the funding of universal, pre-school education. Four criteria are used to assess the…

  13. Economic Modeling and Analysis of Educational Vouchers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Epple, Dennis; Romano, Richard

    2012-01-01

    The analysis of educational vouchers has evolved from market-based analogies to models that incorporate distinctive features of the educational environment. These distinctive features include peer effects, scope for private school pricing and admissions based on student characteristics, the linkage of household residential and school choices in…

  14. The "Developing" Achievement Gap: Colombian Voucher Reform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stern, Jonathan M. B.

    2014-01-01

    The achievement gap in many developing countries is defined in terms of rich/poor and public/private. The prevailing explanation for the "developing" achievement gap is an underfunded, inefficient, and/or inadequately supplied public school sector. Via an analysis of a Colombian voucher experiment, this article examines the extent to…

  15. RAND Report on Charter Schools and Vouchers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perkins-Gough, Deborah

    2002-01-01

    Highlights some of the major findings of the December 2001 RAND report on charter schools and vouchers prepared by Brain P. Gill, P. Michael Timpane, Karen E. Ross, and Dominic J. Brewer. The report can be ordered from RAND at www.rand.org/publications. (PKP)

  16. The value of theory in programmes to implement clinical guidelines: Insights from a retrospective mixed-methods evaluation of a programme to increase adherence to national guidelines for chronic disease in primary care.

    PubMed

    Sheringham, Jessica; Solmi, Francesca; Ariti, Cono; Baim-Lance, Abigail; Morris, Steve; Fulop, Naomi J

    2017-01-01

    Programmes have had limited success in improving guideline adherence for chronic disease. Use of theory is recommended but is often absent in programmes conducted in 'real-world' rather than research settings. This mixed-methods study tested a retrospective theory-based approach to evaluate a 'real-world' programme in primary care to improve adherence to national guidelines for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Qualitative data, comprising analysis of documents generated throughout the programme (n>300), in-depth interviews with planners (clinicians, managers and improvement experts involved in devising, planning, and implementing the programme, n = 14) and providers (practice clinicians, n = 14) were used to construct programme theories, experiences of implementation and contextual factors influencing care. Quantitative analyses comprised controlled before-and-after analyses to test 'early' and evolved' programme theories with comparators grounded in each theory. 'Early' theory predicted the programme would reduce emergency hospital admissions (EHA). It was tested using national analysis of standardized borough-level EHA rates between programme and comparator boroughs. 'Evolved' theory predicted practices with higher programme participation would increase guideline adherence and reduce EHA and costs. It was tested using a difference-in-differences analysis with linked primary and secondary care data to compare changes in diagnosis, management, EHA and costs, over time and by programme participation. Contrary to programme planners' predictions in 'early' and 'evolved' programme theories, admissions did not change following the programme. However, consistent with 'evolved' theory, higher guideline adoption occurred in practices with greater programme participation. Retrospectively constructing theories based on the ideas of programme planners can enable evaluators to address some limitations encountered when evaluating programmes without a theoretical

  17. Monitoring HIV Prevention Programme Outcomes among Key Populations in Kenya: Findings from a National Survey.

    PubMed

    Bhattacharjee, Parinita; McClarty, Leigh M; Musyoki, Helgar; Anthony, John; Kioko, Japheth; Kaosa, Shem; Ogwang, Bernard E; Githuka, George; Sirengo, Martin; Birir, Sarah; Blanchard, James F; Muraguri, Nicholas; Isac, Shajy; Moses, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    In preparation for the implementation of the Kenya AIDS Strategic Framework 2014/15-2018/19, the Kenya National AIDS and STI Control Programme facilitated a national polling booth survey as part of a baseline assessment of HIV-related risk behaviours among FSWs, MSM, and PWID, and their utilization of existing preventive interventions, as well as structural factors that may influence KPs' vulnerability to HIV. The survey was conducted among "key populations" (female sex workers, men who have sex with men, and people who inject drugs) to understand current HIV risk and prevention behaviours, utilization of existing programmes and services, and experiences of violence. In total, 3,448 female sex workers, 1,308 men who have sex with men, and 690 people who inject drugs were randomly selected to participate in polling booth survey sessions from seven priority sites. Survey responses were aggregated and descriptive statistics derived. In general, reported condom use among all key populations was quite high with paying clients, and lower with regular, non-paying partners. Many participants reported unavailability of condoms or clean injecting equipment within the past month. Exposure to, and utilization of, existing HIV prevention services varied significantly among the groups, and was reported least commonly by female sex workers. Encouragingly, approximately three-quarters of all key population members reported receiving an HIV test in the past three months. All key population groups reported experiencing high levels of physical and sexual violence from partners/clients, and/or arrest and violence by law enforcement officials. Although some of the findings are encouraging, there is room for improvement in HIV prevention programmes and services for key populations across Kenya.

  18. Effect of multidisciplinary disease management for hospitalized heart failure under a national health insurance programme.

    PubMed

    Mao, Chun-Tai; Liu, Min-Hui; Hsu, Kuang-Hung; Fu, Tieh-Cheng; Wang, Jong-Shyan; Huang, Yu-Yen; Yang, Ning-I; Wang, Chao-Hung

    2015-09-01

    Multidisciplinary disease management programmes (MDPs) for heart failure have been shown to be effective in Western countries. However, it is not known whether they improve outcomes in a high population density country with a national health insurance programme. In total, 349 patients hospitalized because of heart failure were randomized into control and MDP groups. All-cause death and re-hospitalization related to heart failure were analyzed. The median follow-up period was approximately 2 years. Mean patient age was 60 years; 31% were women; and 50% of patients had coronary artery disease. MDP was associated with fewer all-cause deaths [hazard ratio (HR) = 0.49, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.27-0.91, P = 0.02] and heart failure-related re-hospitalizations (HR = 0.44, 95% CI = 0.25-0.77, P = 0.004). MDP was still associated with better outcomes for all-cause death (HR = 0.53, 95% CI = 0.29-0.98, P = 0.04) and heart failure-related re-hospitalization (HR = 0.46, 95% CI = 0.26-0.81, P = 0.007), after adjusting for age, diuretics, diabetes mellitus, chronic kidney disease, hypertension, sodium, and albumin. However, MDPs' effect on all-cause mortality and heart failure-related re-hospitalization was significantly attenuated after adjusting for angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors/angiotensin II receptor blockers or β-blockers. A stratified analysis showed that MDP combined with guideline-based medication had synergistic effects. MDP is effective in lowering all-cause mortality and re-hospitalization rates related to heart failure under a national health insurance programme. MDP synergistically improves the effectiveness of guidelines-based medications for heart failure.

  19. A national programme for patient and staff dose monitoring in interventional cardiology.

    PubMed

    Sánchez, R; Vano, E; Fernández, J M; Sotil, J; Carrera, F; Armas, J; Rosales, F; Pifarre, X; Escaned, J; Angel, J; Diaz, J F; Bosa, F; Saez, J R; Goicolea, J

    2011-09-01

    A national programme on patient and staff dose evaluation in interventional cardiology made in cooperation with the haemodynamic section of the Spanish Society of Cardiology has recently been launched. Its aim is to propose a set of national diagnostic reference levels (DRLs) for patients as recommended by the International Commission on Radiological Protection and to initiate several optimisation actions to improve radiological protection of both patients and staff. Six hospitals have joined the programme and accepted to submit their data to a central database. First to be acquired were the quality control data of the X-ray systems and radiation doses of patients and professionals. The results from 9 X-ray systems, 1467 procedures and staff doses from 43 professionals were gathered. Provisional DRLs resulted in 44 Gy cm(2) for coronary angiography and 78 Gy cm(2) for interventions. The X-ray systems varied up to a factor of 5 for dose rates in reference conditions. Staff doses showed that 50 % of interventional cardiologists do not use their personal dosemeters correctly.

  20. The Finnish national asthma programme: communication in asthma care--quality assessment of asthma referral letters.

    PubMed

    Tuomisto, Leena E; Erhola, Marina; Marina, Erhola; Kaila, Minna; Minna, Kaila; Brander, Pirkko E; Kauppinen, Ritva; Ritva, Kauppinen; Puolijoki, Hannu; Hannu, Puolijoki; Kekki, Pertti; Pertti, Kekki

    2007-02-01

    The Finnish National Asthma Programme, which was launched in year 1994, considered the management of asthma as a community problem. The role of the primary health care in the management of asthma was emphasized. Optimal asthma management includes good communication between health care professionals. Referral letters are an accepted tool for evaluation of the communication process. The aim of this study was to assess the quality of asthma-related referral letters. All non-acute referral letters (n=3176) to three pulmonary departments were screened in 2001 and all those related to asthma were included (n=1289). The 14 previously derived asthma-specific criteria were applied: occupation, smoking, known allergies, current medication, other diseases, onset of symptoms, wheezing, dyspnoea, specified dyspnoea, cough, specified cough, use of asthma medication, peak-flow follow-up or spirometry with bronchodilatation test as an attachment. The study group was prepared to accept the maximum of 30% of the referral letters to be of poor quality. Twenty-one per cent of the referral letters were graded good, 34% satisfactory and 45% poor. Information on wheezing, smoking habits and current medication was mentioned in 44%, 42% and 41% of asthma letters respectively. The Finnish National Asthma Programme calls for optimizing communication between doctors. The proportion of poor letters was 50% higher than the preset standard and clearly indicates a need for improvement. We found several issues, which need to be better communicated (smoking, lung function tests, wheezing, medication) when referring a patient with suspected asthma.

  1. The Educational Voucher Intrigue: An Analysis of Its Impact on the Alum Rock Community.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gutierrez, Felix; Chacon, Gloria

    The 2 essays on educational vouchers given in this publication are: (1) "The Economics of Educational Vouchers: Schools and Parents", and (2) "The Alum Rock Voucher Program". "The Economics of Educational Vouchers: Schools and Parents" traces the roots of the voucher concept from Adam Smith to the conservative…

  2. The Educational Voucher Intrigue: An Analysis of Its Impact on the Alum Rock Community.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gutierrez, Felix; Chacon, Gloria

    The 2 essays on educational vouchers given in this publication are: (1) "The Economics of Educational Vouchers: Schools and Parents", and (2) "The Alum Rock Voucher Program". "The Economics of Educational Vouchers: Schools and Parents" traces the roots of the voucher concept from Adam Smith to the conservative…

  3. Did cigarette vouchers increase female smokers in China?

    PubMed

    Fang, Hai; Rizzo, John A

    2009-08-01

    From 1960 to 1980, a voucher was required to purchase cigarettes in China. The Chinese government issued vouchers to ration cigarettes, without informing its citizens that smoking was unhealthy. These vouchers were available to all adults, and allowed them to purchase specified numbers of cigarettes. As a result, a number of nonsmokers started smoking during the voucher period. This study included 229 female and 1165 male smokers from the China Health and Nutrition Survey 1989-2006, which provides the year in which each respondent began smoking. The percentages of male and female smokers who started smoking during the voucher period were compared using the chi-square test. Logistic regression analysis was used to study the relative risk of smoking initiation by women during the voucher period, while adjusting for confounding variables. During the voucher period, 46% of female smokers and 39% of male smokers started smoking (p=0.05). Women who did not have a regular job or were less educated were more likely to start smoking. The relative risk of female smokers to have initiated smoking during the voucher period was 4.75, with a p<0.01 in the logistic regression. China's policy of issuing vouchers to ration tobacco consumption had the unintended consequence of encouraging smoking, particularly among women. Issuing cigarette vouchers to every adult, combined with the inexpensive prices of cigarettes, led more women to initiate smoking. Women with low SES were particularly likely to initiate smoking.

  4. Awareness about a national immunization day programme in the Sunsari district of Nepal.

    PubMed Central

    Jha, N.; Pokhrel, S.; Sehgal, R.

    1999-01-01

    The initiative to eradicate poliomyelitis globally by the year 2000 was launched at the Forty-first World Health Assembly in May 1988, when all WHO Member States were challenged to help eradicate poliomyelitis from the world, a gift to the children of the twenty-first century. In Nepal, 100-250 children per year become disabled due to poliomyelitis. The government of Nepal is determined to eradicate the disease from the country by the year 2000 through the National Immunization Day (NID) Programme. Since 1996, about 3.3 million children under 5 years of age have been immunized each year in Nepal. In the present study, we analysed the impact of the campaign in the Sunsari district of Nepal. The study was carried out during the first NID (6 December 1996) to evaluate the local population's awareness of the programme and the impact of the media on such awareness. A total of 843 respondents were interviewed, 39% of whom were illiterate. Two important aspects of the mass campaign (whether a child previously immunized should be immunized again in the NID, and whether children should be brought to the next NID) were clearly understood by the majority of the people (93.1% and 98.8% of the respondents, respectively), although only a small proportion (24.4%) of individuals understood the purpose of the programme. Radio was the single most effective means of providing information, education, and communication about NIDs. The encouraging response, especially from a poor, illiterate rural population, augurs well for the goal of eradicating poliomyelitis from the world. PMID:10444884

  5. Introducing auto-disable syringes to the national immunization programme in Madagascar.

    PubMed Central

    Drain, Paul K.; Ralaivao, Josoa S.; Rakotonandrasana, Alexander; Carnell, Mary A.

    2003-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the safety and coverage benefits of auto-disable (AD) syringes, weighed against the financial and logis- tical costs, and to create appropriate health policies in Madagascar. METHODS: Fifteen clinics in Madagascar, trained to use AD syringes, were randomized to implement an AD syringe only, mixed (AD syringes used only on non-routine immunization days), or sterilizable syringe only (control) programme. During a five-week period, data on administered vaccinations were collected, interviews were conducted, and observations were recorded. FINDINGS: The use of AD syringes improved coverage rates by significantly increasing the percentage of vaccines administered on non-routine immunization days (AD-only 4.3%, mixed 5.7%, control 1.1% (P<0.05)). AD-only clinics eliminated sterilization sessions for vaccinations, whereas mixed clinics reduced the number of sterilization sessions by 64%. AD syringes were five times more expensive than sterilizable syringes, which increased AD-only and mixed clinics' projected annual injection costs by 365% and 22%, respectively. However, introducing AD syringes for all vaccinations would only increase the national immunization budget by 2%. CONCLUSION: The use of AD syringes improved vaccination coverage rates by providing ready-to-use sterile syringes on non-routine immunization days and decreasing the number of sterilization sessions, thereby improving injection safety. The mixed programme was the most beneficial approach to phasing in AD syringes and diminishing logistical complications, and it had minimal costs. AD syringes, although more expensive, can feasibly be introduced into a developing country's immunization programme to improve vaccination safety and coverage. PMID:14576886

  6. An evaluation of staff engagement programmes in four National Health Service Acute Trusts.

    PubMed

    Hewison, Alistair; Gale, Nicola; Yeats, Rowena; Shapiro, Jonathan

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to report the findings from an evaluation project conducted to investigate the impact of two staff engagement programmes introduced to four National Health Service (NHS) hospital Trusts in England. It seeks to examine this development in the context of current policy initiatives aimed at increasing the level of staff involvement in decision-making, and the related literature. A mixed-methods approach incorporating document analysis, interviews, a survey and appreciative inquiry, informed by the principles of impact evaluation design, was used. The main finding to emerge was that leadership was crucial if widespread staff engagement was to be achieved. Indeed, in some of the trusts the staff engagement programmes were seen as mechanisms for developing leadership capability. The programmes had greater impact when they were "championed" by the Chief Executive. Effective communication throughout the organisations was reported to be a prerequisite for staff engagement. Problems were identified at the level of middle management where the lack of confidence in engaging with staff was a barrier to implementation. The nature of the particular organisational context is crucial to the success of efforts to increase levels of staff engagement. The measures that were found to work in the trusts would need to be adapted and applied to best meet the needs of other organisations. Many health care organisations in England will need to harness the efforts of their workforce if they are to meet the significant challenges of dealing with financial restraint and increasing patient demand. This paper provides some insights on how this can be done.

  7. Awareness about a national immunization day programme in the Sunsari district of Nepal.

    PubMed

    Jha, N; Pokhrel, S; Sehgal, R

    1999-01-01

    The initiative to eradicate poliomyelitis globally by the year 2000 was launched at the Forty-first World Health Assembly in May 1988, when all WHO Member States were challenged to help eradicate poliomyelitis from the world, a gift to the children of the twenty-first century. In Nepal, 100-250 children per year become disabled due to poliomyelitis. The government of Nepal is determined to eradicate the disease from the country by the year 2000 through the National Immunization Day (NID) Programme. Since 1996, about 3.3 million children under 5 years of age have been immunized each year in Nepal. In the present study, we analysed the impact of the campaign in the Sunsari district of Nepal. The study was carried out during the first NID (6 December 1996) to evaluate the local population's awareness of the programme and the impact of the media on such awareness. A total of 843 respondents were interviewed, 39% of whom were illiterate. Two important aspects of the mass campaign (whether a child previously immunized should be immunized again in the NID, and whether children should be brought to the next NID) were clearly understood by the majority of the people (93.1% and 98.8% of the respondents, respectively), although only a small proportion (24.4%) of individuals understood the purpose of the programme. Radio was the single most effective means of providing information, education, and communication about NIDs. The encouraging response, especially from a poor, illiterate rural population, augurs well for the goal of eradicating poliomyelitis from the world.

  8. [Childhood vaccinations anno 2004. I. Effectiveness and acceptance of the Dutch National Vaccination Programme].

    PubMed

    Rümke, H C; Visser, H K

    2004-02-21

    Vaccinations are the most effective measures in public health. In the Netherlands after the second world war the morbidity and mortality of infectious diseases were a great problem. Nowadays these diseases are gone or reduced at a minimal level and for the greater part under control. The Dutch National Vaccination Programme aims at 10 infectious diseases. In the Netherlands there has always been a relatively small group of religious people who live together and reject vaccinations. Since the start of the vaccination programme in this group several small epidemics of poliomyelitis and measles have been observed. The other dispersed living non-vaccinated people are protected by herd-immunity, as long as the vaccination coverage is above 90%. During recent years an increasing number of people have doubts over the use and safety of vaccinations. There is a worldwide anti-vaccination movement, in the Netherlands represented by the 'Nederlandse Vereniging Kritisch Prikken'. The finding that there is now a greater spread of areas with a low or insufficient vaccination coverage, is cause for concern because experiences in several countries have shown that infectious diseases with all complications will recur when the vaccination percentage decreases. There is no scientific support for the hypothesis that vaccinations overwhelm or weaken the immune system of infants and there is no objection to start with vaccination at the age of two months. Anthroposofic and homeopathic arguments are neither scientifically, nor practically supported. Good promotion and education about the vaccination programme is of great importance and can be improved. Parents should make decisions based on good, objective information. Possible risks and side effects of vaccination should not be concealed.

  9. Community monitoring of the National Iodine Deficiency Disorders Control Programme in the National Capital Region of Delhi.

    PubMed

    Agarwal, Juhi; Pandav, Chandrakant S; Karmarkar, Madhukar G; Nair, Sirimavo

    2011-05-01

    The present study was conducted to assess the current status of iodine-deficiency disorders (IDD) in the National Capital Region of Delhi (NCR Delhi) and evaluate the implementation and impact of the National Iodine Deficiency Disorders Control Programme (NIDDCP). Cross-sectional study. School-going children (n 1230) in the age group of 6-12 years were enrolled from thirty primary schools in the Municipal Corporation of Delhi. Thirty schools were selected using the probability-proportional-to-size cluster sampling methodology. In each identified school forty-one children were surveyed. Urine and salt samples were collected and studied for iodine concentration. A total of sixty salt samples from retail level were also collected. Schoolchildren aged 6-12 years. The median urinary iodine excretion (UIE) was found to be 198·4 μg/l. The percentage of children with UIE levels of <20·0, 20·0-49·9, 50·0-99·9 and ≥100·0 μg/l was 1·9, 4·3, 9·5 and 84·2%, respectively. The proportion of households consuming adequately iodized salt (salt with iodine levels of at least 15 ppm at consumption level) was 88·8%. The assessment of iodine content of salt revealed that only 6·1% of the families were consuming salt with iodine content less than 7 ppm. At retail level 88·3% of salt samples had >15 ppm iodine. Significant progress has been achieved towards elimination of IDD from NCR Delhi. There is a need for further strengthening of the system to monitor the quality of iodized salt provided to the beneficiaries under the universal salt iodization programme and so eliminate IDD from NCR Delhi.

  10. National mental health programme: Manpower development scheme of eleventh five-year plan.

    PubMed

    Sinha, Suman K; Kaur, Jagdish

    2011-07-01

    Mental disorders impose a massive burden in the society. The National Mental Health Programme (NMHP) is being implemented by the Government of India to support state governments in providing mental health services in the country. India is facing shortage of qualified mental health manpower for District Mental Health Programme (DMHP) in particular and for the whole mental health sector in general. Recognizing this key constraint Government of India has formulated manpower development schemes under NMHP to address this issue. Under the scheme 11 centers of excellence in mental health, 120 PG departments in mental health specialties, upgradation of psychiatric wings of medical colleges, modernization of state-run mental hospitals will be supported. The expected outcome of the Manpower Development schemes is 104 psychiatrists, 416 clinical psychologists, 416 PSWs and 820 psychiatric nurses annually once these institutes/ departments are established. Together with other components such as DMHP with added services, Information, education and communication activities, NGO component, dedicated monitoring mechanism, research and training, this scheme has the potential to make a facelift of the mental health sector in the country which is essentially dependent on the availability and equitable distribution mental health manpower in the country.

  11. National mental health programme: Manpower development scheme of eleventh five-year plan

    PubMed Central

    Sinha, Suman K.; Kaur, Jagdish

    2011-01-01

    Mental disorders impose a massive burden in the society. The National Mental Health Programme (NMHP) is being implemented by the Government of India to support state governments in providing mental health services in the country. India is facing shortage of qualified mental health manpower for District Mental Health Programme (DMHP) in particular and for the whole mental health sector in general. Recognizing this key constraint Government of India has formulated manpower development schemes under NMHP to address this issue. Under the scheme 11 centers of excellence in mental health, 120 PG departments in mental health specialties, upgradation of psychiatric wings of medical colleges, modernization of state-run mental hospitals will be supported. The expected outcome of the Manpower Development schemes is 104 psychiatrists, 416 clinical psychologists, 416 PSWs and 820 psychiatric nurses annually once these institutes/ departments are established. Together with other components such as DMHP with added services, Information, education and communication activities, NGO component, dedicated monitoring mechanism, research and training, this scheme has the potential to make a facelift of the mental health sector in the country which is essentially dependent on the availability and equitable distribution mental health manpower in the country. PMID:22135448

  12. Buruli Ulcer in Cameroon: The Development and Impact of the National Control Programme

    PubMed Central

    Tabah, Earnest Njih; Nsagha, Dickson Shey; Bissek, Anne-Cécile Zoung-Kanyi; Njamnshi, Alfred Kongnyu; Bratschi, Martin W.; Pluschke, Gerd; Um Boock, Alphonse

    2016-01-01

    Background Cameroon is endemic for Buruli ulcer (BU) and organised institutional BU control began in 2002. The objective was to describe the evolution, achievements and challenges of the national BU control programme (NBUCP) and to make suggestions for scaling up the programme. Methods We analysed collated data on BU from 2001 to 2014 and reviewed activity reports NBUCP in Cameroon. Case-detection rates and key BU control indicators were calculated and plotted on a time scale to determine trends in performance. A linear regression analysis of BU detection rate from 2005–2014 was done. The regression coefficient was tested statistically for the significance in variation of BU detection rate. Principal findings In 14 years of BU control, 3700 cases were notified. The BU detection rate dropped significantly from 3.89 to 1.45 per 100 000 inhabitants. The number of BU endemic health districts rose from two to 64. Five BU diagnostic and treatment centres are functional and two more are planned for 2015. The health system has been strengthened and BU research and education has gained more interest in Cameroon. Conclusion/Significance Although institutional BU control Cameroon only began 30 years after the first cases were reported in 1969, a number of milestones have been attained. These would serve as stepping stones for charting the way forward and improving upon control activities in the country if the major challenge of resource allocation is dealt with. PMID:26760499

  13. An online survey of nurses' perceptions, knowledge and expectations of the National Health Service modernization programme.

    PubMed

    Bryson, Maria; Tidy, Natalie; Smith, Michael; Levy, Sharon

    2005-01-01

    We conducted an online survey to investigate nurses' perceptions, knowledge and expectations of the National Health Service (NHS) modernization programme in the UK. The questionnaire was available for 28 days via the Website of the Royal College of Nursing. The questionnaire was completed by 2020 nurses, midwives and health visitors working in all sectors of the health service in a wide range of specialties and environments of care. Less than one-quarter of respondents felt that they had adequate information about NHS information technology (IT) developments. In all, 528 (26%) said this was the first they had heard of the initiatives. Only 383 respondents (19%) felt adequately informed about the development of electronic health records; 470 (23%) felt inadequately informed and 456 (23%) had only heard something about it. The findings of this survey suggest that nursing staff are not widely aware of current IT plans and programmes in the NHS. They suggest that nurses also lack confidence in using advanced IT, which is compounded by lack of training.

  14. Expanding the comprehensive national neonatal screening programme in the United Arab Emirates from 1995 to 2011.

    PubMed

    Al Hosani, H; Salah, M; Osman, H M; Farag, H M; El-Assiouty, L; Saade, D; Hertecant, J

    2014-02-11

    The national neonatal screening programme in the United Arab Emirates currently includes 16 disorders: congenital hypothyroidism, sickle-cell diseases, congenital adrenal hyperplasia, biotinidase deficiency and 12 amino acid, organic acid and fatty acid disorders. This paper reports data since the programme started in January 1995 up to December 2011 on the incidence of screened disorders and the molecular basis of positive screened cases. Screening used a combination of tandem mass spectrometry, molecular technologies and biochemical analysis. A total of 750 365 infants were screened and 717 babies saved from associated morbidity and/or mortality. The incidence of screened disorders were 1:1 873 for congenital hypothyroidism, 1:14 544 for phenylketonuria, 1:3 526 for amino acid, organic acid and fatty acid disorders, 1:9 030 for classical congenital adrenal hyperplasia, 1:8 300 for biotinidase deficiency, 1:2 384 for sickle-cell disease and 1:121 for sickle-cell traits. Coverage of neonatal screening in the population reached 95% in 2010.

  15. Evolution of the National Schistosomiasis Control Programmes in The People's Republic of China.

    PubMed

    Xu, J; Steinman, P; Maybe, D; Zhou, X-N; Lv, S; Li, S-Z; Peeling, R

    2016-01-01

    Schistosomiasis japonica is caused by the parasitic trematode Schistosoma japonicum. It is endemic in The People's Republic of China and has significant impact on human health and socioeconomic development in certain regions. Over the last six decades, the national control programmes evolved in remarkable ways and brought schistosomiasis japonica largely under control. We describe the history and evolution of schistosomiasis control in The People's Republic of China, with an emphasis on shifts in control strategies that evolved with new insights into the biology of the parasite and its intermediate hosts, and the epidemiology of the disease in the country. We also highlight the achievements in controlling the disease in different socioecological settings, and identify persisting challenges to fully eliminate schistosomiasis japonica from the country. To reach the goal of schistosomiasis elimination, further integration of interventions, multisector collaboration, sensitive and effective surveillance are needed to strengthen.

  16. Integration of hepatitis B vaccination into national immunisation programmes. Viral Hepatitis Prevention Board.

    PubMed Central

    Van Damme, P.; Kane, M.; Meheus, A.

    1997-01-01

    Hepatitis B is a major public health problem even though safe and effective vaccines have been available for over 10 years. Because hepatitis B infection is largely asymptomatic with long term complications occurring after many years it has not received the attention it deserves. Strategies to immunise those at high risk have failed to control the disease. Delegates to the World Health Assembly of the World Health Organisation recommended in May 1992 that all countries should integrate hepatitis B vaccination into their national immunisation programmes by 1997. Some western European countries remain unconvinced that the burden of disease warrants the expense of universal vaccination. However, epidemiological data and economic evaluation show that universal hepatitis B vaccination is cost effective in countries with low endemicity and that it will control hepatitis B, reinforcing the necessity for action. PMID:9112852

  17. Depleted Uranium—Experience of the United Nations Environmental Programme Missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Åkerblom, Gustav

    2008-08-01

    Depleted Uranium (DU) is used in ammunition designed for armour-piercing. DU was used in the Gulf war 1991, wars in Bosnia 1994-1995, Kosovo 1999 and Iraq 2003. The United Nations Environmental Programme (UNEP) Post-Conflict Branch investigated sites where DU was used and evaluated health and environmental risks during missions to Kosovo, Serbia and Bosnia. During a mission to Lebanon in 2006, UNEP also sampled areas where DU was supposed to have been used but did not find any DU. Due to the grave risks to the lives of UN personnel, no UNEP mission was carried out in Iraq. UNEP has provided training for personnel engaged in decontamination of DU in Bosnia and Iraq.

  18. The economics of priority review vouchers.

    PubMed

    Dimitri, Nicola

    2010-11-01

    Priority review vouchers (PRVs) were introduced in 2007 by the US Congress as an incentive mechanism to spur pharmaceutical firms' R&D efforts for neglected diseases (NDs). A voucher, which a firm can obtain upon approval of a new treatment for NDs, entitles the holder to prioritize the FDA review for any drug. The proposal generated much controversy regarding its ability to effectively stimulate R&D for NDs. Here, after reviewing the main issues of the debate, i use a stylized economic model to discuss the strength of PRVs as an economic incentive to invest in research. My findings suggest that R&D investments might be higher when the developer could prioritize a valuable compound. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Diffusion of an e-learning programme among Danish General Practitioners: A nation-wide prospective survey

    PubMed Central

    Waldorff, Frans Boch; Steenstrup, Annette Plesner; Nielsen, Bente; Rubak, Jens; Bro, Flemming

    2008-01-01

    Background We were unable to identify studies that have considered the diffusion of an e-learning programme among a large population of general practitioners. The aim of this study was to investigate the uptake of an e-learning programme introduced to General Practitioners as part of a nation-wide disseminated dementia guideline. Methods A prospective study among all 3632 Danish GPs. The GPs were followed from the launching of the e-learning programme in November 2006 and 6 months forward. Main outcome measures: Use of the e-learning programme. A logistic regression model (GEE) was used to identify predictors for use of the e-learning programme. Results In the study period, a total of 192 different GPs (5.3%) were identified as users, and 17% (32) had at least one re-logon. Among responders at first login most have learnt about the e-learning programme from written material (41%) or from the internet (44%). A total of 94% of the users described their ability of conducting a diagnostic evaluation as good or excellent. Most of the respondents used the e-learning programme due to general interest (90%). Predictors for using the e-learning programme were Males (OR = 1.4, 95% CI 1.1; 2.0) and members of Danish College of General Practice (OR = 2.2, 95% CI 1.5; 3.1), whereas age, experience and working place did not seem to be influential. Conclusion Only few Danish GPs used the e-learning programme in the first 6 months after the launching. Those using it were more often males and members of Danish College of General Practice. Based on this study we conclude, that an active implementation is needed, also when considering electronic formats of CME like e-learning. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT00392483. PMID:18439279

  20. Confidence and authority through new knowledge: An evaluation of the national educational programme in paediatric oncology nursing in Sweden.

    PubMed

    Pergert, Pernilla; Af Sandeberg, Margareta; Andersson, Nina; Márky, Ildikó; Enskär, Karin

    2016-03-01

    There is a lack of nurse specialists in many paediatric hospitals in Sweden. This lack of competence is devastating for childhood cancer care because it is a highly specialised area that demands specialist knowledge. Continuing education of nurses is important to develop nursing practice and also to retain them. The aim of this study was to evaluate a Swedish national educational programme in paediatric oncology nursing. The nurses who participated came from all of the six paediatric oncology centres as well as from general paediatric wards. At the time of the evaluation, three groups of registered nurses (n=66) had completed this 2year, part-time educational programme. A study specific questionnaire, including closed and open-ended questions was sent to the 66 nurses and 54 questionnaires were returned. Answers were analysed using descriptive statistics and qualitative content analysis. The results show that almost all the nurses (93%) stayed in paediatric care after the programme. Furthermore, 31% had a position in management or as a consultant nurse after the programme. The vast majority of the nurses (98%) stated that the programme had made them more secure in their work. The nurses were equipped, through education, for paediatric oncology care which included: knowledge generating new knowledge; confidence and authority; national networks and resources. They felt increased confidence in their roles as paediatric oncology nurses as well as authority in their encounters with families and in discussions with co-workers. New networks and resources were appreciated and used in their daily work in paediatric oncology. The programme was of importance to the career of the individual nurse and also to the quality of care given to families in paediatric oncology. The national educational programme for nurses in Paediatric Oncology Care meets the needs of the highly specialised care. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Improving access to maternity services: an overview of cash transfer and voucher schemes in South Asia.

    PubMed

    Jehan, Kate; Sidney, Kristi; Smith, Helen; de Costa, Ayesha

    2012-06-01

    In Nepal, India, Bangladesh and Pakistan, policy focused on improving access to maternity services has led to measures to reduce cost barriers impeding women's access to care. Specifically, these include cash transfer or voucher schemes designed to stimulate demand for services, including antenatal, delivery and post-partum care. In spite of their popularity, however, little is known about the impact or effectiveness of these schemes. This paper provides an overview of five major interventions: the Aama (Mothers') Programme (cash transfer element) in Nepal; the Janani Suraksha Yojana (Safe Motherhood Scheme) in India; the Chiranjeevi Yojana (Scheme for Long Life) in India; the Maternal Health Voucher Scheme in Bangladesh and the Sehat (Health) Voucher Scheme in Pakistan. It reviews the aims, rationale, implementation challenges, known outcomes, potential and limitations of each scheme based on current available data. Increased use of maternal health services has been reported since the schemes began, though evidence of improvements in maternal health outcomes has not been established due to a lack of controlled studies. Areas for improvement in these schemes, identified in this review, include the need for more efficient operational management, clear guidelines, financial transparency, plans for sustainability, evidence of equity and, above all, proven impact on quality of care and maternal mortality and morbidity.

  2. Traditional male circumcision practices among the Kurya of North-eastern Tanzania and implications for national programmes.

    PubMed

    Mshana, Gerry; Wambura, Mwita; Mwanga, Joseph; Mosha, Jacklin; Mosha, Frank; Changalucha, John

    2011-09-01

    The World Health Organisation and the Joint United Nations Programme on AIDS recommend male circumcision (MC) as an additional intervention against HIV infection. Various sub-Saharan African countries are at different stages of rolling out MC programmes. Despite initial fears, studies conducted among traditionally non-circumcising communities in Africa have shown that MC is widely accepted as a biomedical intervention. However, little is known on how traditionally circumcising communities where MC carries considerable social meaning and significance would respond to such programmes. This study was conducted among a traditionally circumcising community in Tarime district in Tanzania as part of a national situation analysis prior to initiating a national MC programme. It employed key informant interviews and focus group discussions for data collection. Results show that the Kurya ethnic group practice MC as a rite of passage from childhood to adulthood. Each clan organises its own circumcision ceremony, which takes place every even numbered years. Clan leaders and traditional circumcisers are central to its organisation. Among the Kurya, there is high regard for traditional MC as it is perceived as upholding cultural practice and identity. It also embodies notions of bravery since anaesthetics are not used. On the other hand, medical MC is not viewed as prestigious since anaesthetics are used to suppress pain. Social pressure for traditional MC is applied through ridiculing of those uncircumcised or circumcised at health facilities. In general, there are positive attitudes towards MC as it is perceived as enhancing personal hygiene and having a protective effect against sexually transmitted infections. For the success of nation-wide MC programmes, there is need to develop programmes that incorporate both clinical and sociocultural interests.

  3. Definition of blindness under National Programme for Control of Blindness: Do we need to revise it?

    PubMed

    Vashist, Praveen; Senjam, Suraj Singh; Gupta, Vivek; Gupta, Noopur; Kumar, Atul

    2017-02-01

    A review appropriateness of the current definition of blindness under National Programme for Control of Blindness (NPCB), Government of India. Online search of peer-reviewed scientific published literature and guidelines using PubMed, the World Health Organization (WHO) IRIS, and Google Scholar with keywords, namely blindness and visual impairment, along with offline examination of reports of national and international organizations, as well as their cross-references was done until December 2016, to identify relevant documents on the definition of blindness. The evidence for the historical and currently adopted definition of blindness under the NPCB, the WHO, and other countries was reviewed. Differences in the NPCB and WHO definitions were analyzed to assess the impact on the epidemiological status of blindness and visual impairment in India. The differences in the criteria for blindness under the NPCB and the WHO definitions cause an overestimation of the prevalence of blindness in India. These variations are also associated with an over-representation of refractive errors as a cause of blindness and an under-representation of other causes under the NPCB definition. The targets for achieving elimination of blindness also become much more difficult to achieve under the NPCB definition. Ignoring differences in definitions when comparing the global and Indian prevalence of blindness will cause erroneous interpretations. We recommend that the appropriate modifications should be made in the NPCB definition of blindness to make it consistent with the WHO definition.

  4. Definition of blindness under National Programme for Control of Blindness: Do we need to revise it?

    PubMed Central

    Vashist, Praveen; Senjam, Suraj Singh; Gupta, Vivek; Gupta, Noopur; Kumar, Atul

    2017-01-01

    A review appropriateness of the current definition of blindness under National Programme for Control of Blindness (NPCB), Government of India. Online search of peer-reviewed scientific published literature and guidelines using PubMed, the World Health Organization (WHO) IRIS, and Google Scholar with keywords, namely blindness and visual impairment, along with offline examination of reports of national and international organizations, as well as their cross-references was done until December 2016, to identify relevant documents on the definition of blindness. The evidence for the historical and currently adopted definition of blindness under the NPCB, the WHO, and other countries was reviewed. Differences in the NPCB and WHO definitions were analyzed to assess the impact on the epidemiological status of blindness and visual impairment in India. The differences in the criteria for blindness under the NPCB and the WHO definitions cause an overestimation of the prevalence of blindness in India. These variations are also associated with an over-representation of refractive errors as a cause of blindness and an under-representation of other causes under the NPCB definition. The targets for achieving elimination of blindness also become much more difficult to achieve under the NPCB definition. Ignoring differences in definitions when comparing the global and Indian prevalence of blindness will cause erroneous interpretations. We recommend that the appropriate modifications should be made in the NPCB definition of blindness to make it consistent with the WHO definition. PMID:28345562

  5. Impact of a national programme of professional development in science education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kudenko, Irina; Ratcliffe, Mary; Redmore, Alison; Aldridge, Catherine

    2011-04-01

    Evaluation of large-scale professional development programmes in a cost-effective but detailed manner presents challenges. Much of the research evidence on the effectiveness of professional development in science education has been the result of small-scale studies that use clustered or stratified sampling methods. Using the evidence collected from the national Network of 10 Science Learning Centres in the UK, this research examines the nature and extent of change on a national scale from large numbers of teachers' involvement in professional development courses. The network administers a common system of 'embedded evaluation', which integrates completion of evaluation forms in the training process, thus making a cross-network study of impact possible. The research employed a triangulated approach of analysis of reported impact from different sources including impact toolkit forms, interviews with participants, a survey of their line managers and evidence from course leaders. The research shows that besides the direct impact on teachers' own classroom practice, there is evidence of wider change involving other teachers and on whole school practice. Use of an evaluation toolkit embedded in the professional development course is regarded as a key process in supporting change and monitoring progress.

  6. Phare Special Preparatory Programme for the European Social Fund: A Composite Report on the National, Supplementary and Local Seminars.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    European Training Foundation, Turin (Italy).

    This document reports on phases 2 and 3 of the Phare Special Preparatory Programme for the European Social Fund (SPP-ESF), which involved national, supplementary, and local seminars to assess the following countries' needs for assistance from the ESF: Bulgaria, the Czech Republic, Estonia, Hungary, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland, Romania, the Slovak…

  7. Policies Regulating the Assignments of the Bachelor of Education Programme of Indira Gandhi National Open University: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bose, Sutapa

    2016-01-01

    This case study examines the policies formulated by the Indira Gandhi National Open University (IGNOU), an open and distance learning university of India for regulating the practices related to the assignments of its Bachelor of Education programme. Following the examination it argues that some policies are formulated in the context of the…

  8. ASE and the New National Curriculum Programme of...Study for Primary Science--Your Views "Were" Heard!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naylor, Stuart

    2013-01-01

    The new National Curriculum Programme of Study for primary science in England includes most of the topics with which primary teachers are familiar. However, when looking at the science enquiry section, the changes are much more far-reaching. Science enquiry has been renamed as "working scientifically" and is integrated with developing…

  9. Knowledge and Practice of Sun Protection in Schools in South Africa Where No National Sun Protection Programme Exists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Caradee Y.; Reeder, Anthony I.; Albers, Patricia N.

    2016-01-01

    Interventions in primary schools that increase sun-protective behaviours and decrease ultraviolet radiation exposure, sunburn incidence and skin cancer risk can be effective. SunSmart School Accreditation Programmes (SSAP) are recommended. Prior to SSAP implementation in South Africa, we explored the feasibility of obtaining national baseline…

  10. International Education in a National Context: Introducing the International Baccalaureate Middle Years Programme in Dutch Public Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Visser, Alderik

    2010-01-01

    Some bilingual secondary schools in the Netherlands have introduced or are introducing the International Baccalaureate (IB) Middle Years Programme (MYP).The implementation of this international scheme at (semi-) public national Dutch schools proves anything but unproblematic. Based on a series of questionnaires filled out by school managers and…

  11. International Education in a National Context: Introducing the International Baccalaureate Middle Years Programme in Dutch Public Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Visser, Alderik

    2010-01-01

    Some bilingual secondary schools in the Netherlands have introduced or are introducing the International Baccalaureate (IB) Middle Years Programme (MYP).The implementation of this international scheme at (semi-) public national Dutch schools proves anything but unproblematic. Based on a series of questionnaires filled out by school managers and…

  12. Knowledge and Practice of Sun Protection in Schools in South Africa Where No National Sun Protection Programme Exists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Caradee Y.; Reeder, Anthony I.; Albers, Patricia N.

    2016-01-01

    Interventions in primary schools that increase sun-protective behaviours and decrease ultraviolet radiation exposure, sunburn incidence and skin cancer risk can be effective. SunSmart School Accreditation Programmes (SSAP) are recommended. Prior to SSAP implementation in South Africa, we explored the feasibility of obtaining national baseline…

  13. ASE and the New National Curriculum Programme of...Study for Primary Science--Your Views "Were" Heard!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naylor, Stuart

    2013-01-01

    The new National Curriculum Programme of Study for primary science in England includes most of the topics with which primary teachers are familiar. However, when looking at the science enquiry section, the changes are much more far-reaching. Science enquiry has been renamed as "working scientifically" and is integrated with developing…

  14. Performance of Revised National Tuberculosis Control Programme (RNTCP) in tribal areas in India.

    PubMed

    Muniyandi, M; Rao, V G; Bhat, J; Yadav, R

    2015-05-01

    The Revised National Tuberculosis Control Programme (RNTCP) provides free diagnostic and treatment services to all tuberculosis (TB) patients registered under it. Equitable access, implying a preference for the most hard-to-reach groups particularly for tribal areas, is a major concern for RNTCP. This study was conducted to assess the performance of RNTCP in terms of case detection and cure rates in areas dominated by tribal groups in India. We used the RNTCP data collected by the Central TB Divison, Government of India. RNTCP has a systematic monitoring mechanism which tracks the outcome of every patient put on treatment. There is a standardized recording and reporting structure in place; indicators are monitored regularly at every level of the health system; and regular supervision ensures quality of the Programme. The main indicators include the number of cases diagnosed and the percentage of patients who are successfully treated. These indicators were used to assess the RNTCP performance in tribal areas. We observed a poor performance in terms of case detection rate (CDR) in tribal and backward districts as compared with other districts in India. Among tribal districts 53 per cent in 2010, 45 per cent in 2011 and 56 per cent in 2012 had CDR of new smear positive <70%. It was also observed that 26 per cent of tribal dominated districts had CDR of <51 per cent in 2012. More than 50 per cent of tribal districts were not able to achieve more than 85 per cent of cure rate. The findings of this study suggested that the overall RNTCP performance in tribal areas was not optimal, and the target of >85 per cent of core rate was achieved by less than half of the tribal districts.

  15. Exploring the decision to participate in the National Health Service Bowel Cancer Screening Programme.

    PubMed

    Ekberg, Merryn; Callender, Matthew; Hamer, Holly; Rogers, Stephen

    2014-09-01

    Cancer is a leading cause of mortality and one of the most feared diseases in modern society. A combination of early detection, accurate diagnosis and effective treatment provides the best defence against cancer morbidity; therefore, promoting cancer awareness and encouraging cancer screening is a priority in any comprehensive cancer control policy. Colorectal cancer is the third most common form of cancer in the UK and in an effort to reduce the high incidence, prevalence, morbidity and mortality rates, the National Health Service (NHS) has introduced the NHS Bowel Cancer Screening Programme (NHS BCSP). For the NHS BCSP to succeed in its goal of reducing the incidence and prevalence rates for colorectal cancer, individuals need to be persuaded to complete the test. Since it was first introduced in 2007, however, participation rates have been low. In an effort to understand why participation rates remain low, this article reports on the findings of a series of focus groups conducted in the East Midlands of England. These focus groups were designed to explore the factors that influence an individual's decision to participate in cancer screening. The findings revealed eight factors that affected participation in the NHS BCSP: (i) the association of screening with entry into old age; (ii) prior experience with health systems; (iii) the support of a significant other; (iv) individual perceptions of risk (and benefit); (v) fear of becoming a cancer patient after the screening test; (vi) lack of disease symptoms; (vii) embarrassment associated with completing the test and (viii) messages that adopt a paternalistic ethos. Overall, our results suggest that more people may participate in the screening programme if it was more sensitive to these psychosocial and contextual factors that shape an individual's decision to be tested.

  16. Engagement in a National Naloxone Programme among people who inject drugs.

    PubMed

    McAuley, Andrew; Munro, Alison; Bird, Sheila M; Hutchinson, Sharon J; Goldberg, David J; Taylor, Avril

    2016-05-01

    Availability of the opioid antagonist naloxone for lay administration has grown substantially since first proposed in 1996. Gaps remain, though, in our understanding of how people who inject drugs (PWID) engage with naloxone programmes over time. This paper aimed to address three specific evidence gaps: the extent of naloxone supply to PWID; supply-source (community or prisons); and the carriage of naloxone among PWID. Analysis of Scotland's Needle Exchange Surveillance Initiative (NESI) responses in 2011-2012 and 2013-2014 was undertaken with a specific focus on the extent of Scotland's naloxone supply to PWID; including by source (community or prisons); and on the carriage of naloxone. Differences in responses between the two surveys were measured using Chi-square tests together with 95% confidence intervals for rate-differences over time. The proportion of NESI participants who reported that they had been prescribed naloxone within the last year increased significantly from 8% (175/2146; 95% CI: 7-9%) in 2011-2012 to 32% (745/2331; 95% CI: 30% to 34%) in 2013-2014. In contrast, the proportion of NESI participants who carried naloxone with them on the day they were interviewed decreased significantly from 16% (27/169; 95% CI: 10% to 22%) in 2011-2012 to 5% (39/741; 95% CI: 4% to 7%) in 2013-2014. The supply of naloxone to PWID has increased significantly since the introduction of a National Naloxone Programme in Scotland in January 2011. In contrast, naloxone carriage is low and decreased between the two NESI surveys; this area requires further investigation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. From training to practice: the impact of ENGAGE, Ireland's national men's health training programme.

    PubMed

    Osborne, Aoife; Carroll, Paula; Richardson, Noel; Doheny, Martin; Brennan, Lorcan; Lambe, Barry

    2016-12-24

    Ireland's National Men's Health Policy recommended developing training programmes tailored to the needs of those working in health and allied health professionals and ENGAGE was developed to meet that recommendation. This study evaluated the impact of ENGAGE on frontline service providers' self-reported knowledge, skills, capacity and practice up to 5-months post training. Between 2012 and 2015, ENGAGE Trainers (n = 57) delivered 62 1-day training programmes to 810 participants. This study was conducted on a subset of those training days (n = 26) and participants. Quantitative methodologies were used to collect pre (n = 295), post (n = 295) and 5-month post (n = 128) training questionnaire data. Overall, participants were highly satisfied with the training immediately post training (8.60 ± 1.60 out of 10) and at 5-month follow up (8.06 ± 1.43 out of 10). Participants' self-reported level of knowledge, skill and capacity in identifying priorities, engaging men and influencing practice beyond their own organisation increased immediately following training (P < 0.001) and, with the exception of improving capacity to engage men and influencing practice beyond their organisation, these improvements were sustained at 5-month post training (P < 0.001). The vast majority of service providers (93.4%) reported that ENGAGE had impacted their work practice up to 5-month post training. The findings suggest that ENGAGE has succeeded in improving service providers' capacity to engage and work with men; improving gender competency in the delivery of health and health related services may increase the utilisation of such services by men and thereby improve health outcomes for men.

  18. Evaluation of a national eye care programme: re-survey after 10 years

    PubMed Central

    Faal, H.; Minassian, D.; Dolin, P.; Mohamed, A.; Ajewole, J.; Johnson, G.

    2000-01-01

    AIM—To re-survey the Gambia after an interval of 10 years to assess the impact of a national eye care programme (NECP) on the prevalence of blindness and low vision.
METHOD—Comparison of two multistage cluster random sample surveys taking into account the marked increase in population in the Gambia, west Africa. Samples of the whole population in 1986 and 1996 were taken. The definition of blindness is presenting vision less than 3/60 in the better eye, or visual fields constricted to less than 10° from fixation. Low vision is less than 6/18 but 3/60 or better. Causes of blindness were determined clinically by three ophthalmologists.
RESULTS—The crude prevalence of blindness fell from 0.70% to 0.42%, a relative reduction of 40%. During the same 10 year period, the population increased by 51% from 775 000 to 1 169 000. When the results were standardised for age, a west to east gradient was found for changes in risk of blindness over the 10 year period. This matched the phased west to east introduction of the NECP interventions. There was a modest but significant increase in the risk of low vision across the whole country.
CONCLUSIONS—The overall reduction in risk of blindness, in those areas where the NECP has been active, appears to justify the programme and the support of donor organisations. The low vision cases due to cataract must now be addressed.

 PMID:10966942

  19. The impact of the National Institute for Health Research Health Technology Assessment programme, 2003-13: a multimethod evaluation.

    PubMed

    Guthrie, Susan; Bienkowska-Gibbs, Teresa; Manville, Catriona; Pollitt, Alexandra; Kirtley, Anne; Wooding, Steven

    2015-08-01

    The National Institute for Health Research (NIHR) Health Technology Assessment (HTA) programme supports research tailored to the needs of NHS decision-makers, patients and clinicians. This study reviewed the impact of the programme, from 2003 to 2013, on health, clinical practice, health policy, the economy and academia. It also considered how HTA could maintain and increase its impact. Interviews (n = 20): senior stakeholders from academia, policy-making organisations and the HTA programme. Bibliometric analysis: citation analysis of publications arising from HTA programme-funded research. Researchfish survey: electronic survey of all HTA grant holders. Payback case studies (n = 12): in-depth case studies of HTA programme-funded research. We make the following observations about the impact, and routes to impact, of the HTA programme: it has had an impact on patients, primarily through changes in guidelines, but also directly (e.g. changing clinical practice); it has had an impact on UK health policy, through providing high-quality scientific evidence - its close relationships with the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) and the National Screening Committee (NSC) contributed to the observed impact on health policy, although in some instances other organisations may better facilitate impact; HTA research is used outside the UK by other HTA organisations and systematic reviewers - the programme has an impact on HTA practice internationally as a leader in HTA research methods and the funding of HTA research; the work of the programme is of high academic quality - the Health Technology Assessment journal ensures that the vast majority of HTA programme-funded research is published in full, while the HTA programme still encourages publication in other peer-reviewed journals; academics agree that the programme has played an important role in building and retaining HTA research capacity in the UK; the HTA programme has played a role in

  20. An assessment of opportunities and challenges for public sector involvement in the maternal health voucher program in Uganda

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Continued inequities in coverage, low quality of care, and high out-of-pocket expenses for health services threaten attainment of Millennium Development Goals 4 and 5 in many sub-Saharan African countries. Existing health systems largely rely on input-based supply mechanisms that have a poor track record meeting the reproductive health needs of low-income and underserved segments of national populations. As a result, there is increased interest in and experimentation with results-based mechanisms like supply-side performance incentives to providers and demand-side vouchers that place purchasing power in the hands of low-income consumers to improve uptake of facility services and reduce the burden of out-of-pocket expenditures. This paper describes a reproductive health voucher program that contracts private facilities in Uganda and explores the policy and implementation issues associated with expansion of the program to include public sector facilities. Methods Data presented here describes the results of interviews of six district health officers and four health facility managers purposefully selected from seven districts with the voucher program in southwestern Uganda. Interviews were transcribed and organized thematically, barriers to seeking RH care were identified, and how to address the barriers in a context where voucher coverage is incomplete as well as opportunities and challenges for expanding the program by involving public sector facilities were investigated. Results The findings show that access to sexual and reproductive health services in southwestern Uganda is constrained by both facility and individual level factors which can be addressed by inclusion of the public facilities in the program. This will widen the geographical reach of facilities for potential clients, effectively addressing distance related barriers to access of health care services. Further, intensifying ongoing health education, continuous monitoring and evaluation, and

  1. An assessment of opportunities and challenges for public sector involvement in the maternal health voucher program in Uganda.

    PubMed

    Okal, Jerry; Kanya, Lucy; Obare, Francis; Njuki, Rebecca; Abuya, Timothy; Bange, Teresah; Warren, Charlotte; Askew, Ian; Bellows, Ben

    2013-10-18

    Continued inequities in coverage, low quality of care, and high out-of-pocket expenses for health services threaten attainment of Millennium Development Goals 4 and 5 in many sub-Saharan African countries. Existing health systems largely rely on input-based supply mechanisms that have a poor track record meeting the reproductive health needs of low-income and underserved segments of national populations. As a result, there is increased interest in and experimentation with results-based mechanisms like supply-side performance incentives to providers and demand-side vouchers that place purchasing power in the hands of low-income consumers to improve uptake of facility services and reduce the burden of out-of-pocket expenditures. This paper describes a reproductive health voucher program that contracts private facilities in Uganda and explores the policy and implementation issues associated with expansion of the program to include public sector facilities. Data presented here describes the results of interviews of six district health officers and four health facility managers purposefully selected from seven districts with the voucher program in southwestern Uganda. Interviews were transcribed and organized thematically, barriers to seeking RH care were identified, and how to address the barriers in a context where voucher coverage is incomplete as well as opportunities and challenges for expanding the program by involving public sector facilities were investigated. The findings show that access to sexual and reproductive health services in southwestern Uganda is constrained by both facility and individual level factors which can be addressed by inclusion of the public facilities in the program. This will widen the geographical reach of facilities for potential clients, effectively addressing distance related barriers to access of health care services. Further, intensifying ongoing health education, continuous monitoring and evaluation, and integrating the voucher

  2. Effect of a national focused course on academic medicine for UK candidates applying for a Clinical Academic Programme.

    PubMed

    Khajuria, A; Cheng, K; Levy, J

    2017-03-01

    Background Academic medicine is crucial for healthcare advancement. However, recruitment of junior doctors into academia remains an area of concern globally. In the UK, a national integrated clinical academic pathway was developed to address these issues, with the Academic Foundation Programme as the 'first opportunity for research'. We aimed to evaluate whether a focused course on academic medicine could enhance knowledge, confidence and preparedness of candidates wishing to apply for an academic programme. Methods UK medical students attended a national course conducted by current UK Academic Foundation Programme doctors that comprised lectures on academic medicine and various aspects of the Academic Foundation Programme. An online questionnaire-based cross-sectional study was conducted with participants rating measures including knowledge, preparedness and confidence related to Academic Foundation Programme applications. Outcomes were measured using Likert scales (1=low; 5=high). Results In total, 103 out of 155 attendees from 11 different UK medical schools responded to the survey (66% response rate). Pre and post-course data showed increase in participants' knowledge (median score 2 vs 4, p < 0.0001), understanding of the application process (median score 2 vs 4, p < 0.0001), confidence (median score 2 vs 4, p < 0.0001) and preparedness (median score 2 vs 4, p < 0.0001) in applying for the Academic Foundation Programme. Conclusion To our knowledge this is the first study in the available literature that demonstrates a focused course on academic medicine may enhance UK medical students' knowledge, confidence and preparedness in applying for a clinical academic programme. Further research will ascertain whether such courses can augment trainee numbers undertaking and remaining within academic medicine.

  3. Use of spirometry and recording of smoking habits of COPD patients increased in primary health care during national COPD programme

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background In Finland, a national programme for COPD prevention and treatment was developed in 1998. The main goals of the programme were to diagnose COPD as early as possible and to encourage people to quit smoking. The role of primary health care was emphasized in the programme. Our aim was to investigate the use of spirometry and recording of smoking habits of COPD patients in primary health care before and during the COPD programme. Methods We compared patients with respiratory symptoms or diseases visiting primary health care during 1997 (before programme) and 2002 (during programme). Patients with respiratory symptoms were divided into two groups: COPD patients and "others". Patient records were thoroughly investigated and data retrieved from them. Results There was a significant increase in the whole study group from 8.0% to 38.9% in the use of spirometry (p < 0.001). This increase was significant both in the COPD group (from 32.0% to 79.6%, p < 0.001) and "others" (from 5.6% to 32.8%, p < 0.001). Written information on smoking habits in patient records increased from 16.6% of all patients in 1997 to 53.2% in 2002 (p < 0.001), and in COPD group from 45.0% to 84.3% (p < 0.001). Conclusions We observed a significant increase in the use of spirometry and knowledge of smoking habits in COPD patients, which may be a result of the Finnish national COPD programme. PMID:21936927

  4. Health system changes under pay-for-performance: the effects of Rwanda's national programme on facility inputs.

    PubMed

    Ngo, Diana K L; Sherry, Tisamarie B; Bauhoff, Sebastian

    2017-02-01

    Pay-for-performance (P4P) programmes have been introduced in numerous developing countries with the goal of increasing the provision and quality of health services through financial incentives. Despite the popularity of P4P, there is limited evidence on how providers achieve performance gains and how P4P affects health system quality by changing structural inputs. We explore these two questions in the context of Rwanda's 2006 national P4P programme by examining the programme's impact on structural quality measures drawn from international and national guidelines. Given the programme's previously documented success at increasing institutional delivery rates, we focus on a set of delivery-specific and more general structural inputs. Using the programme's quasi-randomized roll-out, we apply multivariate regression analysis to short-run facility data from the 2007 Service Provision Assessment. We find positive programme effects on the presence of maternity-related staff, the presence of covered waiting areas and a management indicator and a negative programme effect on delivery statistics monitoring. We find no effects on a set of other delivery-specific physical resources, delivery-specific human resources, delivery-specific operations, general physical resources and general human resources. Using mediation analysis, we find that the positive input differences explain a small and insignificant fraction of P4P's impact on institutional delivery rates. The results suggest that P4P increases provider availability and facility operations but is only weakly linked with short-run structural health system improvements overall. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press in association with The London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. Preparing the Dutch delta for future droughts: model based support in the national Delta Programme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    ter Maat, Judith; Haasnoot, Marjolijn; van der Vat, Marnix; Hunink, Joachim; Prinsen, Geert; Visser, Martijn

    2014-05-01

    Keywords: uncertainty, policymaking, adaptive policies, fresh water management, droughts, Netherlands, Dutch Deltaprogramme, physically-based complex model, theory-motivated meta-model To prepare the Dutch Delta for future droughts and water scarcity, a nation-wide 4-year project, called Delta Programme, is established to assess impacts of climate scenarios and socio-economic developments and to explore policy options. The results should contribute to a national adaptive plan that is able to adapt to future uncertain conditions, if necessary. For this purpose, we followed a model-based step-wise approach, wherein both physically-based complex models and theory-motivated meta-models were used. First step (2010-2011) was to make a quantitative problem description. This involved a sensitivity analysis of the water system for drought situations under current and future conditions. The comprehensive Dutch national hydrological instrument was used for this purpose and further developed. Secondly (2011-2012) our main focus was on making an inventory of potential actions together with stakeholders. We assessed efficacy, sell-by date of actions, and reassessed vulnerabilities and opportunities for the future water supply system if actions were (not) taken. A rapid assessment meta-model was made based on the complex model. The effects of all potential measures were included in the tool. Thirdly (2012-2013), with support of the rapid assessment model, we assessed the efficacy of policy actions over time for an ensemble of possible futures including sea level rise and climate and land use change. Last step (2013-2014) involves the selection of preferred actions from a set of promising actions that meet the defined objectives. These actions are all modeled and evaluated using the complex model. The outcome of the process will be an adaptive management plan. The adaptive plan describes a set of preferred policy pathways - sequences of policy actions - to achieve targets under

  6. Educational Vouchers and Social Cohesion: A Statistical Analysis of Student Civic Attitudes in Sweden, 1999-2009

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shafiq, M. Najeeb; Myers, John P.

    2014-01-01

    This study examines the Swedish national educational voucher scheme and changes in social cohesion. We conduct a statistical analysis using data from the 1999 and 2009 rounds of the International Association for the Evaluation of Educational Achievement's civic education study of 14-year-old students and their attitudes toward the rights of ethnic…

  7. Educational Vouchers and Social Cohesion: A Statistical Analysis of Student Civic Attitudes in Sweden, 1999-2009

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shafiq, M. Najeeb; Myers, John P.

    2014-01-01

    This study examines the Swedish national educational voucher scheme and changes in social cohesion. We conduct a statistical analysis using data from the 1999 and 2009 rounds of the International Association for the Evaluation of Educational Achievement's civic education study of 14-year-old students and their attitudes toward the rights of ethnic…

  8. 50 CFR 82.11 - Forms of vouchers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR (CONTINUED) FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE-WILDLIFE AND SPORT FISH RESTORATION PROGRAM ADMINISTRATIVE PROCEDURES FOR GRANTS-IN-AID (MARINE MAMMAL PROTECTION ACT OF 1972) Administration § 82.11 Forms of vouchers. Vouchers, on forms...

  9. 50 CFR 82.11 - Forms of vouchers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR (CONTINUED) FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE-WILDLIFE SPORT FISH RESTORATION PROGRAM ADMINISTRATIVE PROCEDURES FOR GRANTS-IN-AID (MARINE MAMMAL PROTECTION ACT OF 1972) Administration § 82.11 Forms of vouchers. Vouchers, on forms...

  10. 50 CFR 82.11 - Forms of vouchers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR (CONTINUED) FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE-WILDLIFE AND SPORT FISH RESTORATION PROGRAM ADMINISTRATIVE PROCEDURES FOR GRANTS-IN-AID (MARINE MAMMAL PROTECTION ACT OF 1972) Administration § 82.11 Forms of vouchers. Vouchers, on forms...

  11. 50 CFR 82.11 - Forms of vouchers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR (CONTINUED) FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE-WILDLIFE SPORT FISH RESTORATION PROGRAM ADMINISTRATIVE PROCEDURES FOR GRANTS-IN-AID (MARINE MAMMAL PROTECTION ACT OF 1972) Administration § 82.11 Forms of vouchers. Vouchers, on forms...

  12. 50 CFR 82.11 - Forms of vouchers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR (CONTINUED) FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE-WILDLIFE SPORT FISH RESTORATION PROGRAM ADMINISTRATIVE PROCEDURES FOR GRANTS-IN-AID (MARINE MAMMAL PROTECTION ACT OF 1972) Administration § 82.11 Forms of vouchers. Vouchers, on forms...

  13. Competitive Effects of Means-Tested School Vouchers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Figlio, David N.; Hart, Cassandra M. D.

    2010-01-01

    School choice options--including both voucher and neo-voucher options like tuition tax credit funded scholarship programs--have become increasingly prevalent in recent years (Howell, Peterson, Wolf and Campbell, 2006). One popular argument for school choice policies, drawing from economic theory, is that public schools will improve the education…

  14. School Vouchers in a Climate of Political Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sutton, Lenford C.; King, Richard A.

    2011-01-01

    Legal scrutiny of school voucher policies initially focused on the establishment clause concerning with allocating public dollars to schools sponsored by religious organizations. In recent years, advocates asserted that the exclusion of faith-based organizations from voucher plans that permit expenditures in secular private organizations violates…

  15. Special Education Voucher Programs, Reflective Judgment, and Future Legislative Recommendations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bon, Susan C.; Decker, Janet R.; Strassfeld, Natasha

    2016-01-01

    As of 2015, 17 special education voucher programs (SVPs) existed in 13 states and proposals continue to emerge. Eligible parents utilize these vouchers to enroll their children in private schools and thereby relinquish special education services and protections provided under the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA). Using a…

  16. 24 CFR 982.604 - SRO: Voucher housing assistance payment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false SRO: Voucher housing assistance... Types Single Room Occupancy (sro) § 982.604 SRO: Voucher housing assistance payment. (a) For a person residing in SRO housing, the payment standard is 75 percent of the zero-bedroom payment standard amount on...

  17. Under the Law: Vouchers Multiply Even without Public Support

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Underwood, Julie

    2015-01-01

    Public funding of private K-12 schooling through vouchers continues to be a contentious issue across the U.S., even though a solid majority of Americans continues to oppose them. The voucher plans run the risk of legal challenge for how they handle the rights of students with disabilities and whether they violate state constitutional provisions…

  18. The Impact of Voucher Schemes on the FE Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hughes, Maria

    The impact of voucher schools on the further education (FE) curriculum in Britain was examined in a study of the 22 FE colleges and 3 training and enterprise councils (TECs) involved in the initial pilot testing of the 5 voucher schemes: Youth Credits; Gateway to Learning; Skill Choice; Open Learning Credits; and Adult Training Credits. It was…

  19. Under the Law: Vouchers Multiply Even without Public Support

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Underwood, Julie

    2015-01-01

    Public funding of private K-12 schooling through vouchers continues to be a contentious issue across the U.S., even though a solid majority of Americans continues to oppose them. The voucher plans run the risk of legal challenge for how they handle the rights of students with disabilities and whether they violate state constitutional provisions…

  20. The Saturation Campaign of Lies and Distortions about Educational Vouchers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fuller, Howard L.

    This paper asserts that a campaign of "distortions and lies" about educational vouchers is being conducted by opponents of expanded educational options for low-income parents. It suggests that aspects of the voucher debate are subject to frequent distortion, refuting myths that are being spread. These focus on such issues as: overall admission…

  1. The Great School Debate: Choice, Vouchers, and Charters.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Good, Thomas L.; Braden, Jennifer S.

    This book examines reform in American education over the past 50 years, analyzing why contemporary voucher plans and charter schools have yet to fulfill the expectations of their advocates. The book discusses: a historical perspective, insight into student achievement, voucher plans and charter schools, and policy recommendations. The eight…

  2. Evaluating Voucher Programs: The Milwaukee Parental Choice Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Witte, John F.

    2016-01-01

    This paper is the first summary of two studies and 10 years of evaluating the Milwaukee Parental Choice (voucher) Program (MPCP). This paper discusses school voucher evaluations in general terms and how these studies are carried out. The paper outlines the types of studies completed in "Study I" and "Study II" and the results…

  3. Vouchers and Educational Freedom: A Debate. Policy Analysis No. 269.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bast, Joseph L.; And Others

    Advocates of educational freedom disagree about whether school vouchers would liberate schools and families and lead to greater freedom of choice or trap private schools in a web of subsidy and regulation that would destroy their independence and quality. In this exchange of opinions, Joseph L. Bast and David Harmer argue that voucher plans would…

  4. The Colorado Voucher System: Implications for Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Protopsaltis, Spiros

    2006-01-01

    This past fall, as part of a major higher education reform initiative, Colorado became the first state to implement a voucher system for funding higher education. The vouchers are the culmination of a reform effort initiated in the summer of 2001, when Governor Bill Owens created a blue ribbon panel to examine several issues, among them…

  5. School Vouchers in a Climate of Political Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sutton, Lenford C.; King, Richard A.

    2011-01-01

    Legal scrutiny of school voucher policies initially focused on the establishment clause concerning with allocating public dollars to schools sponsored by religious organizations. In recent years, advocates asserted that the exclusion of faith-based organizations from voucher plans that permit expenditures in secular private organizations violates…

  6. Latest Results from the New York City Voucher Experiment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Paul E.; Howell, William G.

    The voucher intervention sponsored by New York City's School Choice Scholarships Foundation (SCSF) has been a valuable source of information about such programs. It began in 1997, when K-4 public school students were invited to apply to SCSF for a voucher to help defray costs of private school tuition. Over 1,200 of 20,000 applicants were offered…

  7. 7 CFR 97.7 - Deposit of Voucher Specimen.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... self-replication either directly or indirectly. Representative examples include seeds, plant tissue cells, cell lines, and plots of vegetative material of self-incompatible parental lines of hybrids. Seed... PLANT VARIETY AND PROTECTION The Application § 97.7 Deposit of Voucher Specimen. (a) Voucher specimen...

  8. 7 CFR 97.7 - Deposit of Voucher Specimen.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... self-replication either directly or indirectly. Representative examples include seeds, plant tissue cells, cell lines, and plots of vegetative material of self-incompatible parental lines of hybrids. Seed... PLANT VARIETY AND PROTECTION The Application § 97.7 Deposit of Voucher Specimen. (a) Voucher specimen...

  9. 7 CFR 97.7 - Deposit of Voucher Specimen.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... self-replication either directly or indirectly. Representative examples include seeds, plant tissue cells, cell lines, and plots of vegetative material of self-incompatible parental lines of hybrids. Seed... PLANT VARIETY AND PROTECTION The Application § 97.7 Deposit of Voucher Specimen. (a) Voucher specimen...

  10. 24 CFR 982.303 - Term of voucher.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... family one or more extensions of the initial voucher term in accordance with PHA policy as described in... that purpose. (c) Suspension of term. The PHA policy may or may not provide for suspension of the initial or any extended term of the voucher. At its discretion, and in accordance with PHA policy...

  11. What We Know about Vouchers: The Facts behind the Rhetoric.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adelsheimer, Erica

    This report examines research on education vouchers. It discusses how most studies have focused on the systems in place in Milwaukee, Cleveland, and New York City. Although researchers have accused each other of specious findings, some generally consistent results have arisen: families that are served by vouchers are generally low income, parents…

  12. The value of theory in programmes to implement clinical guidelines: Insights from a retrospective mixed-methods evaluation of a programme to increase adherence to national guidelines for chronic disease in primary care

    PubMed Central

    Sheringham, Jessica; Solmi, Francesca; Ariti, Cono; Baim-Lance, Abigail; Morris, Steve; Fulop, Naomi J.

    2017-01-01

    Background Programmes have had limited success in improving guideline adherence for chronic disease. Use of theory is recommended but is often absent in programmes conducted in ‘real-world’ rather than research settings. Materials and methods This mixed-methods study tested a retrospective theory-based approach to evaluate a ‘real-world’ programme in primary care to improve adherence to national guidelines for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Qualitative data, comprising analysis of documents generated throughout the programme (n>300), in-depth interviews with planners (clinicians, managers and improvement experts involved in devising, planning, and implementing the programme, n = 14) and providers (practice clinicians, n = 14) were used to construct programme theories, experiences of implementation and contextual factors influencing care. Quantitative analyses comprised controlled before-and-after analyses to test ‘early’ and evolved’ programme theories with comparators grounded in each theory. ‘Early’ theory predicted the programme would reduce emergency hospital admissions (EHA). It was tested using national analysis of standardized borough-level EHA rates between programme and comparator boroughs. ‘Evolved’ theory predicted practices with higher programme participation would increase guideline adherence and reduce EHA and costs. It was tested using a difference-in-differences analysis with linked primary and secondary care data to compare changes in diagnosis, management, EHA and costs, over time and by programme participation. Results Contrary to programme planners’ predictions in ‘early’ and ‘evolved’ programme theories, admissions did not change following the programme. However, consistent with ‘evolved’ theory, higher guideline adoption occurred in practices with greater programme participation. Conclusions Retrospectively constructing theories based on the ideas of programme planners can enable evaluators to

  13. Breast cancer risk reduction--is it feasible to initiate a randomised controlled trial of a lifestyle intervention programme (ActWell) within a national breast screening programme?

    PubMed

    Anderson, Annie S; Macleod, Maureen; Mutrie, Nanette; Sugden, Jacqueline; Dobson, Hilary; Treweek, Shaun; O'Carroll, Ronan E; Thompson, Alistair; Kirk, Alison; Brennan, Graham; Wyke, Sally

    2014-12-17

    Breast cancer is the most commonly diagnosed cancer and the second cause of cancer deaths amongst women in the UK. The incidence of the disease is increasing and is highest in women from least deprived areas. It is estimated that around 42% of the disease in post-menopausal women could be prevented by increased physical activity and reductions in alcohol intake and body fatness. Breast cancer control endeavours focus on national screening programmes but these do not include communications or interventions for risk reduction. This study aimed to assess the feasibility of delivery, indicative effects and acceptability of a lifestyle intervention programme initiated within the NHS Scottish Breast Screening Programme (NHSSBSP). A 1:1 randomised controlled trial (RCT) of the 3 month ActWell programme (focussing on body weight, physical activity and alcohol) versus usual care conducted in two NHSSBSP sites between June 2013 and January 2014. Feasibility assessments included recruitment, retention, and fidelity to protocol. Indicative outcomes were measured at baseline and 3 month follow-up (body weight, waist circumference, eating and alcohol habits and physical activity). At study end, a questionnaire assessed participant satisfaction and qualitative interviews elicited women's, coaches, and radiographers' experiences. Statistical analysis used Chi squared tests for comparisons in proportions and paired t tests for comparisons of means. Linear regression analyses were performed, adjusted for baseline values, with group allocation as a fixed effect. A pre-set recruitment target of 80 women was achieved within 12 weeks and 65 (81%) participants (29 intervention, 36 control) completed 3 month assessments. Mean age was 58 ± 5.6 years, mean BMI was 29.2 ± 7.0 kg/m(2) and many (44%) reported a family history of breast cancer. The primary analysis (baseline body weight adjusted) showed a significant between group difference favouring the intervention group of 2.04 kg

  14. The Future Of Vouchers: Lessons from the Adoption, Design, and Court Challenges of Florida's Three Voucher Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Douglas N.; Herrington, Carolyn D.; Albee, Amy

    2007-01-01

    This study considers why Florida has been the most aggressive state in adopting school vouchers. Vouchers are consistent with Florida's tradition of aggressive educational accountability policies, arising from the state's moderate social conservatism, openness to privatization, and state demographic characteristics. Even with this fertile…

  15. The impact of charging for insecticide on the Gambian National Impregnated Bednet Programme.

    PubMed

    Cham, M K; Olaleye, B; D'Alessandro, U; Aikins, M; Cham, B; Maine, N; Williams, L A; Mills, A; Greenwood, B M

    1997-09-01

    During the second year of the Gambian National Impregnated Bednet Programme (NIBP) charges for insecticide ($0.50 per net) were introduced into the half of the primary health care villages in the country where insecticide have been provided free of charge the previous year. Free insecticide was provided in the remaining villages that had acted as controls during the previous year. In villages where insecticide was provided free, 77% of nets were treated with insecticide. In contrast, in villages where charges were made coverage was only 14%. During the first year of the NIBP, mortality in children was significantly lower in villages where insecticide was provided free than in the control villages. Introduction of a charge for insecticide into the first group of villages and the provision of free insecticide in the latter abolished this difference. The cash income of rural Gambians is very limited and payment of even $2-3 for insecticide treatment for all the bednets in a household represents a substantial outlay. Further education on the benefits of treatment of nets and/or the provision of cheaper insecticide will be required before the full benefits of this powerful new malaria control measure can be fully realised in the Gambia.

  16. Risk of occupational tuberculosis in National Tuberculosis Programme laboratories in Korea.

    PubMed

    Kim, S J; Lee, S H; Kim, I S; Kim, H J; Kim, S K; Rieder, H L

    2007-02-01

    Mycobacteriology laboratories in the National Tuberculosis Control Programme in Korea. To determine tuberculosis (TB) risk by type of work among laboratory workers compared to non-laboratory workers. Retrospective study of TB incidence among technicians involved in acid-fast bacilli smear microscopy or culture and/or drug susceptibility testing (DST) compared with that among managerial/clerical workers. Two cases developed among 77 non-laboratory workers, two among 88 smear microscopy technicians, and 11 among 76 culture/DST technicians during the observation period. Compared to non-laboratory workers, the relative risk of TB was 1.4 (95% CI 0.2-10.0) among microscopy technicians and 7.8 (95% CI 1.7-34.9) among culture/DST technicians. TB developed among 7/15 DST technicians compared to only 2/59 culture/non-DST technicians. Compared to non-laboratory workers, the relative risk for DST technicians was 21.5 (95% CI 4.5-102.5). DST led to the highest relative risk among all types of mycobacteriology work, while performing smear microscopy alone did not pose an elevated risk compared to clerical work.

  17. Pulmonary tuberculosis in migratory nomadic populations: the missing link in Iran's National Tuberculosis Programme.

    PubMed

    Honarvar, B; Odoomi, N; Rezaei, A; Haghighi, H B; Karimi, M; Hosseini, A; Mazarei, S; Panahi, M; Jamshidi, F; Moghadami, M; Lankarani, K B

    2014-03-01

    To detect pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) in migratory nomadic populations in Fars Province, southern Iran. Cross-sectional study. In this study, 5506 (82.8%) of a total nomad population of 6650 from 1337 tents were screened for PTB. The mean age was 27.4 ± 18.2 years (range 1-109). Based on clinical symptoms, 141/5506 (2.6%) were identified as TB suspects. One male and three female adult new smear-positive PTB cases were detected, giving an incidence rate of 0.7/1000 population compared to 0.08/1000 in the general population of the region, and 28.4/1000 TB suspects. The median time to onset of symptoms in detected cases was 82.5 days. Tribal stigma against female TB patients was one of the main barriers to appropriate health-seeking behaviour. The incidence of smear-positive PTB among migratory nomads is approximately nine-fold higher than in the general population. Active screening of TB in migratory nomads should be integrated into Iran's national TB control programme. The issue of destigmatisation, particularly among female TB patients, should also be addressed.

  18. Protocol for developing the evidence base for a national salt reduction programme for India

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Claire; Mohan, Sailesh; Praveen, Deversetty; Woodward, Mark; Maulik, Pallab K; Shivashankar, Roopa; Amarchand, Ritvik; Webster, Jacqui; Dunford, Elizabeth; Thout, Sudhir Raj; MacGregor, Graham; He, Feng; Reddy, K Srinath; Krishnan, Anand; Prabhakaran, Dorairaj; Neal, Bruce

    2014-01-01

    Introduction The scientific evidence base in support of salt reduction is strong but the data required to translate these insights into reduced population salt intake are mostly absent. The aim of this research project is to develop the evidence base required to formulate and implement a national salt reduction programme for India. Methods and analysis The research will comprise three components: a stakeholder analysis involving government, industry, consumers and civil society organisations; a population survey using an age-stratified and sex-stratified random samples drawn from urban (slum and non-slum) and rural areas of North and South India; and a systematic quantitative evaluation of the nutritional components of processed and restaurant foods. The stakeholder interviews will be analysed using qualitative methods to summarise the main themes and define the broad range of factors influencing the food environment in India. The population survey will estimate the mean daily salt consumption through the collection of 24 h urine samples with concurrent dietary surveys identifying the main sources of dietary sodium/salt. The survey of foods will record the nutritional composition of the chief elements of food supply. The findings from this research will be synthesised and proposals for a national salt reduction strategy for India will be developed in collaboration with key stakeholders. Ethics and dissemination This study has been approved by the Human Research Ethics Committees of the University of Sydney and the Centre for Chronic Disease Control in New Delhi, and also by the Indian Health Ministry's Screening Committee. The project began fieldwork in February 2014 and will report the main results in 2016. The findings will be targeted primarily at public health policymakers and advocates, but will be disseminated widely through other mechanisms including conference presentations and peer-reviewed publications, as well as to the participating communities. PMID

  19. Looking Inside the Black Box: What School Factors Explain Voucher Gains in Washington, DC?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolf, Patrick J.; Hoople, Daniel S.

    2006-01-01

    Several evaluations of private school voucher programs in the United States have reported achievement gains for voucher users, particularly African Americans. These studies tend to be structured as Randomized Field Trials (RFTs) in which participants are assigned to treatment (offered a voucher) and control (not offered a voucher) groups by…

  20. From Theory to Practice: Considerations for Implementing a Statewide Voucher System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doyle, Denis P.

    This monograph analyzes trends in American educational philosophy and history in its proposal to implement an all-public statewide school voucher system. Following an introduction, section 1, "Alternative Voucher Systems," discusses three concepts: universal unregulated vouchers, favored by Milton Friedman; regulated compensatory vouchers,…

  1. Exploring the components of physician volunteer engagement: a qualitative investigation of a national Canadian simulation-based training programme

    PubMed Central

    Sarti, Aimee J; Sutherland, Stephanie; Landriault, Angele; DesRosier, Kirk; Brien, Susan; Cardinal, Pierre

    2017-01-01

    Objectives Conceptual clarity on physician volunteer engagement is lacking in the medical literature. The aim of this study was to present a conceptual framework to describe the elements which influence physician volunteer engagement and to explore volunteer engagement within a national educational programme. Setting The context for this study was the Acute Critical Events Simulation (ACES) programme in Canada, which has successfully evolved into a national educational programme, driven by physician volunteers. From 2010 to 2014, the programme recruited 73 volunteer healthcare professionals who contributed to the creation of educational materials and/or served as instructors. Method A conceptual framework was constructed based on an extensive literature review and expert consultation. Secondary qualitative analysis was undertaken on 15 semistructured interviews conducted from 2012 to 2013 with programme directors and healthcare professionals across Canada. An additional 15 interviews were conducted in 2015 with physician volunteers to achieve thematic saturation. Data were analysed iteratively and inductive coding techniques applied. Results From the physician volunteer data, 11 themes emerged. The most prominent themes included volunteer recruitment, retention, exchange, recognition, educator network and quasi-volunteerism. Captured within these interrelated themes were the framework elements, including the synergistic effects of emotional, cognitive and reciprocal engagement. Behavioural engagement was driven by these factors along with a cue to action, which led to contributions to the ACES programme. Conclusion This investigation provides a preliminary framework and supportive evidence towards understanding the complex construct of physician volunteer engagement. The need for this research is particularly important in present day, where growing fiscal constraints create challenges for medical education to do more with less. PMID:28645956

  2. Preventing and Confronting School Bullying: A Comparative Study of Two National Programmes in Norway

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stephens, Paul

    2011-01-01

    Efforts to prevent and curb school bullying have resulted in a proliferation of anti-school-bullying programmes, many based on intuitive appeal rather than systematic evidence. This article presents a comparative analysis of two Norwegian programmes whose developers have demonstrated the effectiveness of their interventions: the Olweus Programme…

  3. Preventing and Confronting School Bullying: A Comparative Study of Two National Programmes in Norway

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stephens, Paul

    2011-01-01

    Efforts to prevent and curb school bullying have resulted in a proliferation of anti-school-bullying programmes, many based on intuitive appeal rather than systematic evidence. This article presents a comparative analysis of two Norwegian programmes whose developers have demonstrated the effectiveness of their interventions: the Olweus Programme…

  4. Born to Fail? Some Lessons from a National Programme to Improve Education in Poor Districts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abrantes, Pedro; Roldao, Cristina; Amaral, Patricia; Mauritti, Rosario

    2013-01-01

    The article analyses the main benefits of a Portuguese programme, launched in 1996, which was designed to support schools in segregated districts (TEIPs). The first part of the article presents a theoretical framework, before moving on to the main features of the TEIP programme in contemporary Portuguese society and education. An explanation of…

  5. Born to Fail? Some Lessons from a National Programme to Improve Education in Poor Districts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abrantes, Pedro; Roldao, Cristina; Amaral, Patricia; Mauritti, Rosario

    2013-01-01

    The article analyses the main benefits of a Portuguese programme, launched in 1996, which was designed to support schools in segregated districts (TEIPs). The first part of the article presents a theoretical framework, before moving on to the main features of the TEIP programme in contemporary Portuguese society and education. An explanation of…

  6. Impact of Social Franchising on Contraceptive Use When Complemented by Vouchers: A Quasi-Experimental Study in Rural Pakistan

    PubMed Central

    Khurram Azmat, Syed; Tasneem Shaikh, Babar; Hameed, Waqas; Mustafa, Ghulam; Hussain, Wajahat; Asghar, Jamshaid; Ishaque, Muhammad; Ahmed, Aftab; Bilgrami, Mohsina

    2013-01-01

    Background Pakistan has had a low contraceptive prevalence rate for the last two decades; with preference for natural birth spacing methods and condoms. Family planning services offered by the public sector have never fulfilled the demand for contraception, particularly in rural areas. In the private sector, cost is a major constraint. In 2008, Marie Stopes Society – a local NGO started a social franchise programme along with a free voucher scheme to promote uptake of IUCDs amongst the poor. This paper evaluates the effectiveness of this approach, which is designed to increase modern long term contraceptive awareness and use in rural areas of Pakistan. Methodology We used a quasi-experimental study design with controls, selecting one intervention district and one control district from the Sindh and Punjab provinces. In each district, we chose a total of four service providers. A baseline survey was carried out among 4,992 married women of reproductive age (MWRA) in February 2009. Eighteen months after the start of intervention, an independent endline survey was conducted among 4,003 women. We used multilevel logistic regression for analysis using Stata 11. Results Social franchising used alongside free vouchers for long term contraceptive choices significantly increased the awareness of modern contraception. Awareness increased by 5% in the intervention district. Similarly, the ever use of modern contraceptive increased by 28.5%, and the overall contraceptive prevalence rate increased by 19.6%. A significant change (11.1%) was recorded in the uptake of IUCDs, which were being promoted with vouchers. Conclusion Family planning franchise model promotes awareness and uptake of contraceptives. Moreover, supplemented with vouchers, it may enhance the use of IUCDs, which have a significant cost attached. Our research also supports a multi-pronged approach- generating demand through counselling, overcoming financial constraints by offering vouchers, training

  7. Increasing opiate abstinence through voucher-based reinforcement therapy.

    PubMed

    Silverman, K; Wong, C J; Higgins, S T; Brooner, R K; Montoya, I D; Contoreggi, C; Umbricht-Schneiter, A; Schuster, C R; Preston, K L

    1996-06-01

    Heroin dependence remains a serious and costly public health problem, even in patients receiving methadone maintenance treatment. This study used a within-subject reversal design to assess the effectiveness of voucher-based abstinence reinforcement in reducing opiate use in patients receiving methadone maintenance treatment in an inner-city program. Throughout the study subjects received standard methadone maintenance treatment involving methadone, counseling, and urine monitoring (three times per week). Thirteen patients who continued to use opiates regularly during a 5-week baseline period were exposed to a 12-week program in which they received a voucher for each opiate-free urine sample provided: the vouchers had monetary values that increased as the number of consecutive opiate-free urines increased. Subjects continued receiving standard methadone maintenance for 8 weeks after discontinuation of the voucher program (return-to-baseline). Tukey's posthoc contrasts showed that the percentage of urine specimens that were positive for opiates decreased significantly when the voucher program was instituted. (P < or = 0.01) and then increased significantly when the voucher program was discontinued during the return-to-baseline condition (P < or = 0.01). Rates of opiate positive urines in the return-to-baseline condition remained significantly below the rates observed in the initial baseline period (P < or = 0.01). Overall, the study shows that voucher-based reinforcement contingencies can decrease opiate use in heroin dependent patients receiving methadone maintenance treatment.

  8. Contingency Management Voucher Redemption as an Indicator of Delayed Gratification

    PubMed Central

    Fletcher, Jesse B.; Dierst-Davies, Rhodri; Reback, Cathy J.

    2014-01-01

    This prospective analysis tested whether frequency of voucher redemptions during a contingency management (CM) substance use intervention was significantly associated with participants’ ongoing substance use. Homeless, substance-dependent men who have sex with men (N=131) were randomized into either a “full” or “lite” voucher-based CM intervention. All participants earned vouchers for attendance and participation; participants in the CM-full condition also received vouchers for substance abstinence and enactment of prosocial and/or health-promoting behaviors. Multivariate longitudinal negative binomial regression analyses (n = 118) assessed the association between substance use during the intervention and frequency of voucher redemptions. Participants who used methamphetamine (IRR = 0.66; 95% CI=0.44–0.99) and/or opiates (IRR=0.60; 95% CI=0.40–0.99) during the intervention exhibited less time between voucher redemptions than individuals who achieved abstinence from these substances. Voucher redemption logs can be cost-effective and unobtrusive tools for measuring study participants’ tendency to delay gratification. PMID:24674235

  9. National study of newborn hearing screening: programme sensitivity and characteristics of undetected children.

    PubMed

    Korver, A M H; Konings, S; Meuwese-Jongejeugd, A; van Straaten, H L M; Uilenburg, N; Dekker, F W; Wever, C C; Frijns, J H M; Oudesluys-Murphy, A M

    2013-01-01

    The success of universal newborn hearing screening (UNHS) programmes is usually evaluated by determining the effect of the early detection of hearing loss on developmental outcome. However, in practice, these programmes do not detect all children with permanent childhood hearing impairment. In this study we determine the sensitivity of the current UNHS programme and analyse the characteristics of the children not detected by UNHS. We performed a nationwide, population-based, retrospective follow-up study in The Netherlands. All children born in 2003-05 and screened in a hearing screening programme (well babies and neonatal intensive care (NICU) graduates) were included for study. The main outcome measure was the sensitivity of the UNHS programme (based on the proportion of children known to have a permanent childhood hearing impairment in 2008 who were identified by UNHS). We also evaluated age at diagnosis, severity, and aetiology of hearing impairment in the children not detected by UNHS. We found that the sensitivity of the current UNHS programme was 0.83 (0.79 for well babies and 0.96 for NICU graduates). Permanent childhood hearing impairment was confirmed before 36 months of age in 96% of the study cohort. Of the children unidentified by the UNHS, > 50% had moderate hearing loss. No predominant cause of hearing impairment was found in these children. Our current UNHS programme identified the majority of children with a permanent hearing impairment of congenital cause.

  10. Anthrax control and research, with special reference to national programme development in Africa: memorandum from a WHO meeting.

    PubMed

    1994-01-01

    The prevalence of anthrax in both animal and human populations has been increasing in Africa. It was therefore appropriate for this WHO meeting to be convened in an endemic area of the Western Province of Zambia in 1992. The participants reviewed anthrax epidemiology and control in some African countries, elaborated national anthrax control and research programmes in Africa, discussed international cooperation and work plans, and elaborated recommendations for anthrax control in Africa. The discussions centred on anthrax surveillance and reporting systems, diagnosis, vaccine production and immunization, disinfection and decontamination, carcass disposal, treatment of human cases, health systems, as well as intersectorial cooperation between public health services, veterinary services and other services such as wildlife conservation, so that national control programmes could take full account of the conditions prevailing in epidemic situations in Africa. The recommendations are applicable in other regions where anthrax poses similar problems in public, animal and environmental health.

  11. The experiences of districts in implementing a national incentive programme to promote safe delivery in Nepal

    PubMed Central

    Powell-Jackson, Timothy; Morrison, Joanna; Tiwari, Suresh; Neupane, Basu Dev; Costello, Anthony M

    2009-01-01

    Background Nepal's Safe Delivery Incentive Programme (SDIP) was introduced nationwide in 2005 with the intention of increasing utilisation of professional care at childbirth. It provided cash to women giving birth in a health facility and an incentive to the health provider for each delivery attended, either at home or in the facility. We explored early implementation of the programme at the district-level to understand the factors that have contributed to its low uptake. Methods We conducted in ten study districts a series of key informant interviews and focus group discussions with staff from health facilities and the district health office and other stakeholders involved in implementation. Manual content analysis was used to categorise data under emerging themes. Results Problems at the central level imposed severe constraints on the ability of district-level actors to implement the programme. These included bureaucratic delays in the disbursement of funds, difficulties in communicating the policy, both to implementers and the wider public and the complexity of the programme's design. However, some district implementers were able to cope with these problems, providing reasons for why uptake of the programme varied considerably between districts. Actions appeared to be influenced by the pressure to meet local needs, as well individual perceptions and acceptance of the programme. The experience also sheds light on some of the adverse effects of the programme on the wider health system. Conclusion The success of conditional cash transfer programmes in Latin America has led to a wave of enthusiasm for their adoption in other parts of the world. However, context matters and proponents of similar programmes in south Asia should give due attention to the challenges to implementation when capacity is weak and health services inadequate. PMID:19508710

  12. Parents' views of the National Autistic Society's EarlyBird Plus Programme.

    PubMed

    Cutress, Anna L; Muncer, Steven J

    2014-08-01

    Parent training interventions are recommended for parents soon after their child's autism spectrum condition diagnosis with the aim of improving parents' psychological well-being and coping, as well as the child's behaviour. This report explores parents' views of the EarlyBird Plus Programme through data collected routinely in the post-programme questionnaire. Participants' reported increased understanding of autism and improvements in their communication with their child and their ability to manage their child's behaviour. Parents appeared to value the opportunity to meet with other parents, and the programme seemed acceptable to the majority of parents who attended.

  13. Prevalence and risk factors for proteinuria: the National Kidney Foundation of Malaysia Lifecheck Health Screening programme.

    PubMed

    Ong, Loke Meng; Punithavathi, Narayanan; Thurairatnam, Dharminy; Zainal, Hadzlinda; Beh, Mei Li; Morad, Zaki; Lee, Sharleen Ys; Bavanandan, Sunita; Kok, Lai Sun

    2013-08-01

    Treatment of chronic kidney disease (CKD) poses a huge burden to the healthcare system. To address the problem, the National Kidney Foundation of Malaysia embarked on a programme to screen for proteinuria and educate the public on CKD. The public was invited for health screening and the data collected over a 21 month period was analyzed. In total, 40400 adults from all the states in Malaysia were screened. The screening population had a mean age of 41 years, 30.1% had hypertension and 10.6% had diabetes. Proteinuria was detected in 1.4% and haematuria in 8.9% of the participants. Factors associated with the highest risk for proteinuria were the presence of diabetes (adjusted odds ratio (OR) 2.63 (95% confidence interval (CI) 2.16-3.21)), hypertension (OR 2.49 (95% CI 2.03-3.07)) and cardiac disease (OR 2.05 (95% CI 1.50-2.81)). Other risk factors identified were lower educational level, family history of kidney disease, hypercholesterolaemia, obesity and lack of regular exercise. Chinese had the lowest risk for proteinuria among the races (OR 0.71 (95% CI 0.57-0.87) compared with Malays). The combination of high blood glucose and high blood pressure (BP) substantially increased the risk for proteinuria (OR 38.1 for glucose ≥ 10 mmol/L and systolic BP ≥ 180 mm Hg and OR 47.9 for glucose ≥ 10 mmol/L and diastolic BP ≥ 110 mm Hg). The prevalence of proteinuria in Malaysia is similar to other countries. The major risk factors for proteinuria were diabetes, hypertension and cardiac disease. The presence of both high blood pressure and high blood glucose exert a synergistic effect in substantially increasing the risk for proteinuria. © 2013 The Authors. Nephrology © 2013 Asian Pacific Society of Nephrology.

  14. The effect and process evaluations of the national quality improvement programme for palliative care: the study protocol

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The nationwide integration of palliative care best practices into general care settings is challenging but important in improving the quality of palliative care. This is why the Dutch National Quality Improvement Programme for Palliative Care has recently been launched. This four-year programme consists of about 70 implementation trajectories of best practices. A large evaluation study has been set up to evaluate this national programme and separate implementation trajectories. Methods/Design This paper presents the protocol of the evaluation study consisting of a quantitative effect evaluation and a qualitative process evaluation. The effect evaluation has a pre-test post-test design, with measurements before implementation (month 0) and after implementation (month 9) of a best practice. Patients are eligible if they have a life expectancy of less than six months and/or if they are undergoing palliative treatment and provided they are physically and mentally capable of responding to questionnaires. Bereaved relatives are eligible if they have been involved in the care of a deceased patient who died after a sickbed between six weeks and six months ago. Three types of measurement instruments are used: (1) numerical rating scales for six symptoms (pain, fatigue, breathlessness, obstipation, sadness and anxiety), (2) the Consumer Quality Index Palliative Care - patient version and (3) the version for bereaved relatives. The process evaluation consists of analysing implementation plans and reports of the implementation, and individual and group interviews with healthcare professionals. This will be done nine to eleven months after the start of the implementation of a best practice. Discussion This mixed-method evaluation study gives more insight into the effects of the total programme and the separate implementation trajectories. However, evaluation of large quality improvement programmes is complicated due to changing, non-controlled environments. Therefore

  15. An Analysis of Voucher Advocacy: Taking a Closer Look at the Uses and Limitations of "Gold Standard" Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lubienski, Christopher; Brewer, T. Jameson

    2016-01-01

    Voucher proponents have increasingly pursued empirical evidence on the effectiveness of vouchers as a form of education improvement, in addition to advocating for vouchers on moral or ethical grounds. Voucher proponents contend that randomized assignment studies of students in voucher programs have consistently confirmed the effectiveness of…

  16. An Analysis of Voucher Advocacy: Taking a Closer Look at the Uses and Limitations of "Gold Standard" Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lubienski, Christopher; Brewer, T. Jameson

    2016-01-01

    Voucher proponents have increasingly pursued empirical evidence on the effectiveness of vouchers as a form of education improvement, in addition to advocating for vouchers on moral or ethical grounds. Voucher proponents contend that randomized assignment studies of students in voucher programs have consistently confirmed the effectiveness of…

  17. Mobile phones to support adherence to antiretroviral therapy: what would it cost the Indian National AIDS Control Programme?

    PubMed Central

    Rodrigues, Rashmi; Bogg, Lennart; Shet, Anita; Kumar, Dodderi Sunil; De Costa, Ayesha

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Adherence to antiretroviral treatment (ART) is critical to maintaining health and good clinical outcomes in people living with HIV/AIDS. To address poor treatment adherence, low-cost interventions using mobile communication technology are being studied. While there are some studies that show an effect of mobile phone reminders on adherence to ART, none has reported on the costs of such reminders for national AIDS programmes. This paper aims to study the costs of mobile phone reminder strategies (mHealth interventions) to support adherence in the context of India's National AIDS Control Program (NACP). Methods The study was undertaken at two tertiary level teaching hospitals that implement the NACP in Karnataka state, South India. Costs for a mobile phone reminder application to support adherence, implemented at these sites (i.e. weekly calls, messages or both) were studied. Costs were collected based on the concept of avoidable costs specific to the application. The costs that were assessed were one-time costs and recurrent costs that included fixed and variable costs. A sequential procedure for costing was used. Costs were calculated at national-programme level, individual ART-centre level and individual patient level from the NACP's perspective. The assessed costs were pooled to obtain an annual cost per patient. The type of application, number of ART centres and number of patients on ART were varied in a sensitivity analysis of costs. Results The Indian NACP would incur a cost of between 79 and 110 INR (USD 1.27–1.77) per patient per year, based on the type of reminder, the number of patients on ART and the number of functioning ART centres. The total programme costs for a scale-up of the mHealth intervention to reach the one million patients expected to be on treatment by 2017 is estimated to be 0.36% of the total five-year national-programme budget. Conclusions The cost of the mHealth intervention for ART-adherence support in the context of the

  18. Going beyond the vertical: leveraging a national HIV quality improvement programme to address other health priorities in Haiti.

    PubMed

    Joseph, Jean Paul; Jerome, Gregory; Lambert, Wesler; Almazor, Patrick; Cupidon, Colette Eugene; Hirschhorn, Lisa R

    2015-07-01

    Although the central role of quality to achieve targeted population health goals is widely recognized, how to spread the capacity to measure and improve quality across programmes has not been widely studied. We describe the successful leveraging of expertise and framework of a national HIV quality improvement programme to spread capacity and improve quality across a network of clinics in HIV and other targeted areas of healthcare delivery in rural Haiti.The work was led by Zamni LaSante, a Haitian nongovernment organization and its sister organization, Partners In Health working in partnership with the Haitian Ministry of Health in the Plateau Central and Lower Artibonite regions in 12 public sector facilities.Data included routinely collected organizational assessments of facility quality improvement capacity, national HIV performance measures and Zamni LaSante programme records.We found that facility quality improvement capacity increased with spread from HIV to other areas of inpatient and outpatient care, including tuberculosis (TB), maternal health and inpatient services in all 12 supported healthcare facilities. A significant increase in the quality of HIV care was also seen in most areas, including CD4 monitoring, TB screening, HIV treatment (all P < 0.01) and nutritional assessment and prevention of mother-to-child transmission (both P < .05), with an increase in average facility performance from 39 to 72% (P < .01).In conclusion, using a diagonal approach to leverage a national vertical programme for wider benefit resulted in accelerated change in professional culture and increased capacity to spread quality improvement activities across facilities and areas of healthcare delivery. This led to improvement within and beyond HIV care and contributed to the goal of quality of care for all.

  19. The status of fluoride mouthrinse programmes in Japan: a national survey.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, S; Yano, M; Hirakawa, T; Horii, K; Watanabe, T; Tsutsui, A; Sakai, O; Kani, M; Horowitz, A M

    1994-12-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to determine the current status of fluoride mouthrinse programmes throughout Japan. Data collection and analysis took place in 1992. The focus of this study was on schools that were participating in the rinse programme at the time of the survey. Questionnaires were sent by mail to 49 dentist-members of the Association for the Promotion of Fluoride Use in Japan. These members gathered information from the schools and, when necessary, also from local government offices. Starting with a single prefecture in 1970, the rinse programme increased to 32 out of 47 prefectures by 1992. The total number of schools using fluoride mouthrinse was 1,183 (nursery schools and kindergartens 48 per cent, primary schools 46 per cent, and secondary schools 6 per cent). In nursery schools and kindergartens, 60 per cent of the participating schools adopted the daily method using 0.05 per cent NaF solution. In primary and secondary schools, 78 per cent adopted the weekly method using 0.2 per cent NaF solution. The costs for the rinse regimen were paid for by public funds of the prefectural and municipal governments in 71 per cent of the schools. Fifty-four per cent of the schools which first initiated the rinse programmes in their districts identified dentists and dental associations as the most influential in programme acceptance and implementation. Although the number of fluoride rinse programmes is increasing, it is still modest. These results suggest that cooperation between dental organisations, dental schools and prefectural governments can play very important roles in implementing school based rinse programmes.

  20. Healthy universities--time for action: a qualitative research study exploring the potential for a national programme.

    PubMed

    Dooris, Mark; Doherty, Sharon

    2010-03-01

    Despite the absence of national or international steers, there is within England growing interest in the Healthy University approach. This article introduces Healthy Universities; reports on a qualitative study exploring the potential for a national programme contributing to health, well-being and sustainable development; and concludes with reflections and recommendations. The study used questionnaires and interviews with key informants from English higher education institutions and national stakeholder organizations. The findings confirmed that higher education offers significant potential to impact positively on the health and well-being of students, staff and wider communities through education, research, knowledge exchange and institutional practice. There was strong support for extending the healthy settings approach beyond schools and further education, through a National Healthy Higher Education Programme that provides a whole system Healthy University Framework. Informants argued that although there are important public health drivers, it will also be necessary to show how a Healthy Universities can help achieve core business objectives and contribute to related agendas such as sustainability. Two models were discussed: an accreditation scheme with externally assessed standardized achievement criteria; and a flexible and light-touch framework focusing on change-related processes and utilizing self-assessment. While highlighting the appeal of league tables, many informants feared that a top-down approach could backfire, generating resistance and resulting in minimal compliance. In contrast, the majority felt that a process-focused aspirational model would be more likely to win hearts and minds and facilitate system-level change. Key recommendations relate to national programme development, research and evaluation and international collaboration and networking.

  1. Do Vouchers Lead to Sorting under Random Private School Selection? Evidence from the Milwaukee Voucher Program. Working Paper #09-02

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chakrabarti, Rajashri

    2009-01-01

    This paper analyzes the impact of voucher design on student sorting, and more specifically investigates whether there are feasible ways of designing vouchers that can reduce or eliminate student sorting. It studies these questions in the context of the first five years of the Milwaukee voucher program. Much of the existing literature investigates…

  2. The Quality of Work in the Belgian Service Voucher System.

    PubMed

    Mousaid, Sarah; Huegaerts, Kelly; Bosmans, Kim; Julià, Mireia; Benach, Joan; Vanroelen, Christophe

    2017-01-01

    Several European countries implemented initiatives to boost the growth of the domestic cleaning sector. Few studies investigated the quality of work in these initiatives, although effects on workers' health and on social health inequalities can be expected. This study contributes to the scant research on this subject, by investigating the quality of work in the Belgian service voucher system - a subsidized system for domestic work. The applied research methodology includes a qualitative content analysis of parliamentary debates, legislation and previous research about the service voucher system and of 40 in-depth interviews with service voucher workers. The study shows that the legal framework that regulates the system must be further enhanced in order to improve the quality of work in the service voucher system. In addition, the actors involved must be better controlled, and sanctioned in case of non-compliance with legislation. © The Author(s) 2016.

  3. Developing national best practice recommendations for harm reduction programmes: Lessons learned from a community-based project.

    PubMed

    Watson, Tara Marie; Strike, Carol; Challacombe, Laurel; Demel, Geoff; Heywood, Diana; Zurba, Nadia

    2017-03-01

    Through promotion of consistent, evidence-based policy and practice, best practice recommendations can improve service delivery. Nationally relevant best practice recommendations, including guidance for programmes that provide service to people who use drugs, are often created and disseminated by government departments or other national organisations. However, funding priorities do not always align with stakeholder- and community-identified needs for such recommendations, particularly in the case of harm reduction. We achieved success in developing and widely disseminating best practice documents for Canadian harm reduction programmes by bringing together a multi-stakeholder, cross-regional team of people with relevant and diverse experience and expertise. In this commentary, we summarise key elements of our experience to contribute to the literature more detailed and transparent dialogue about team processes that hold much promise for developing best practice resources. We describe our project's community-based principles and process of working together (e.g., regularly scheduled teleconferences to overcome geographic distance and facilitate engagement), and integrate post-project insights shared by our team members. Although we missed some opportunities for power-sharing with our community partners, overall team members expressed that the project offered them valuable opportunities to learn from each other. We aim to provide practical considerations for researchers, other stakeholders, and community members who are planning or already engaged in a process of developing best practice recommendations for programmes and interventions that address drug use.

  4. How does a national poverty programme influence sexual debut among Kenyan adolescents?

    PubMed

    Handa, Sudhanshu; Palermo, Tia; Rosenberg, Molly; Pettifor, Audrey; Halpern, Carolyn Tucker; Thirumurthy, Harsha

    2017-05-01

    Cash transfer programmes have recently emerged as promising interventions for HIV prevention among adolescents in Africa. However, the pathways through which risk reduction occurs are not well understood. We examine data on 1429 adolescents and youth from the Kenya Cash Transfer for Orphans and Vulnerable Children, which has been shown to result in delayed sexual debut among adolescents. We explored three potential mediating pathways: schooling, socio-economic status and psycho-social status. None of these hypothesised mediators greatly altered the main effect. However, school attendance had a larger protective effect on sexual debut among females but was only increased by the programme among males. This gendered pattern of effects may explain why we did not see a mediating effect of the cash transfer through schooling, despite schooling's protective effects against early sexual debut. Results also suggest that cash transfer programmes in Africa can contribute to the reduction of HIV related risk behaviours.

  5. How does a national poverty programme influence sexual debut among Kenyan adolescents?

    PubMed Central

    Handa, Sudhanshu; Palermo, Tia; Rosenberg, Molly; Pettifor, Audrey; Halpern, Carolyn Tucker; Thirumurthy, Harsha

    2016-01-01

    Cash transfer programmes have recently emerged as promising interventions for HIV prevention among adolescents in Africa. However, the pathways through which risk reduction occurs are not well understood. We examine data on 1429 adolescents and youth from the Kenya Cash Transfer for Orphans and Vulnerable Children, which has been shown to result in delayed sexual debut among adolescents. We explored three potential mediating pathways: schooling, socioeconomic status and psychosocial status. None of these hypothesised mediators greatly altered the main effect. However, school attendance had a larger protective effect on sexual debut among females but was only increased by the programme among males. This gendered pattern of effects may explain why we did not see a mediating effect of the cash transfer through schooling, despite schooling’s protective effects against early sexual debut. Results also suggest that cash transfer programmes in Africa can contribute to the reduction of HIV related risk behaviours. PMID:26853950

  6. New Wine in Old Bottles? A Critique of Sweden's New National Training Programme for Head Teachers: Does It Strengthen or Undermine School Equality and Students' Educational Rights and Guarantees?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rapp, Stephan

    2012-01-01

    This research seeks to look at the effect of the new Swedish training programme for head teachers by comparing it with the previous national training programme and does so primarily through an analysis of documents and texts that served to underpin the two different programmes. To put the Swedish teacher-training programme in an international…

  7. New Wine in Old Bottles? A Critique of Sweden's New National Training Programme for Head Teachers: Does It Strengthen or Undermine School Equality and Students' Educational Rights and Guarantees?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rapp, Stephan

    2012-01-01

    This research seeks to look at the effect of the new Swedish training programme for head teachers by comparing it with the previous national training programme and does so primarily through an analysis of documents and texts that served to underpin the two different programmes. To put the Swedish teacher-training programme in an international…

  8. Socioeconomic inequality in salt intake in Britain 10 years after a national salt reduction programme

    PubMed Central

    Ji, Chen; Cappuccio, Francesco P

    2014-01-01

    Objectives The impact of the national salt reduction programme in the UK on social inequalities is unknown. We examined spatial and socioeconomic variations in salt intake in the 2008–2011 British National Diet and Nutrition Survey (NDNS) and compared them with those before the programme in 2000–2001. Setting Cross-sectional survey in Great Britain. Participants 1027 Caucasian males and females, aged 19–64 years. Primary outcome measures Participants’ dietary sodium intake measured with a 4-day food diary. Bayesian geo-additive models used to assess spatial and socioeconomic patterns of sodium intake accounting for sociodemographic, anthropometric and behavioural confounders. Results Dietary sodium intake varied significantly across socioeconomic groups, even when adjusting for geographical variations. There was higher dietary sodium intake in people with the lowest educational attainment (coefficient: 0.252 (90% credible intervals 0.003, 0.486)) and in low levels of occupation (coefficient: 0.109 (−0.069, 0.288)). Those with no qualification had, on average, a 5.7% (0.1%, 11.1%) higher dietary sodium intake than the reference group. Compared to 2000-2001 the gradient of dietary sodium intake from south to north was attenuated after adjustments for confounders. Estimated dietary sodium consumption from food sources (not accounting for discretionary sources) was reduced by 366 mg of sodium (∼0.9 g of salt) per day during the 10-year period, likely the effect of national salt reduction initiatives. Conclusions Social inequalities in salt intake have not seen a reduction following the national salt reduction programme and still explain more than 5% of salt intake between more and less affluent groups. Understanding the socioeconomic pattern of salt intake is crucial to reduce inequalities. Efforts are needed to minimise the gap between socioeconomic groups for an equitable delivery of cardiovascular prevention. PMID:25161292

  9. Index of tobacco control sustainability (ITCS): a tool to measure the sustainability of national tobacco control programmes.

    PubMed

    Jackson-Morris, Angela; Latif, Ehsan

    2017-03-01

    To produce a tool to assess and guide sustainability of national tobacco control programmes. A two-stage process adapting the Delphi and Nominal group techniques. A series of indicators of tobacco control sustainability were identified in grantee/country advisor reports to The International Union Against Tuberculosis and Lung Disease under the Bloomberg Initiative to Reduce Tobacco Control (2007-2015). Focus groups and key informant interviews in seven low and middle-income countries (52 government and civil society participants) provided consensus ratings of the indicators' relative importance. Data were reviewed and the indicators were accorded relative weightings to produce the 'Index of Tobacco Control Sustainability' (ITCS). All 31 indicators were considered 'Critical' or 'Important' by the great majority of participants. There was consensus that a tool to measure progress towards tobacco control sustainability was important. The most critical indicators related to financial policies and allocations, a national law, a dedicated national tobacco control unit and civil society tobacco control network, a national policy against tobacco industry 'Corporate Social Responsibility' (CSR), national mortality and morbidity data, and national policy evaluation mechanisms. The 31 indicators were agreed to be 'critical' or 'important' factors for tobacco control sustainability. The Index comprises the weighted indicators as a tool to identify aspects of national tobacco control programmes requiring further development to augment their sustainability and to measure and compare progress over time. The next step is to apply the ITCS and produce tobacco control sustainability assessments. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  10. The experience of Chinese physicians in the national health diplomacy programme deployed to Sudan.

    PubMed

    Wang, Kai; Gimbel, Sarah; Malik, Elfatih; Hassen, Sara; Hagopian, Amy

    2012-01-01

    Chinese Medical Teams have been working in developing countries since 1963 as a health diplomacy strategy. In 2010, 1252 Chinese medical personnel were assigned to 48 countries. We conducted a review of Chinese literature and governmental websites to describe the history and current distribution of Chinese Medical Teams around the world. In addition, we interviewed members of a 36-member Chinese Medical Team deployed to Sudan (primarily about their motivations to join the programme and the challenges and benefits they face), along with their Sudanese hosts. The most significant challenge health workers described was homesickness. Most members said they were able to maintain motivation through their curiosity and the doctor-friendly environment. All but two rated their own working performance as 'good' or 'very good', while their Sudanese colleagues consistently rated them even higher. Participants reported conflicting beliefs regarding the perceived responsibilities of the team and challenges around communication. Three pillars support the Chinese Medical Team programme in Sudan: bilateral government commitment, the professionalism of the Medical Teams, and the welcoming medical environment. Future success of this or similar Chinese programmes depend on the willingness of both governments to participate, the ongoing commitment of younger Chinese doctors, and the hospitality of physicians in the host country. There are also some threats to the programme, including a potentially diminishing need for Chinese doctors to support increasingly well-trained host country physicians.

  11. Media in Distance Learning: The Nigerian National Teachers Institute Distance Education Programme

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yusuf, Mudasiru Olalere; Falade, Ayotunde Atanda

    2005-01-01

    This study investigated the use of media by distance learners enrolled in the NTI distance education programme. Two hundred and fifty five distance learners drawn from Oyo State, Nigeria, completed a questionnaire to determine the use of media, and factors militating against their effective use by distance learners. Research data were analyzed…

  12. A Critical Evaluation of Training within the South African National Public Works Programme

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mccord, Anna

    2005-01-01

    This article explores the ability of the training and work experience offered under public works programmes to promote employment in South Africa. Public works are a key component of South African labour market policy and are ascribed considerable potential in terms of addressing the core challenge of unemployment. However, despite this policy…

  13. Parents' Views of the National Autistic Society's EarlyBird Plus Programme

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cutress, Anna L.; Muncer, Steven J.

    2014-01-01

    Parent training interventions are recommended for parents soon after their child's autism spectrum condition diagnosis with the aim of improving parents' psychological well-being and coping, as well as the child's behaviour. This report explores parents' views of the EarlyBird Plus Programme through data collected routinely in the post-programme…

  14. Parents' Views of the National Autistic Society's EarlyBird Plus Programme

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cutress, Anna L.; Muncer, Steven J.

    2014-01-01

    Parent training interventions are recommended for parents soon after their child's autism spectrum condition diagnosis with the aim of improving parents' psychological well-being and coping, as well as the child's behaviour. This report explores parents' views of the EarlyBird Plus Programme through data collected routinely in the post-programme…

  15. A Critical Evaluation of Training within the South African National Public Works Programme

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mccord, Anna

    2005-01-01

    This article explores the ability of the training and work experience offered under public works programmes to promote employment in South Africa. Public works are a key component of South African labour market policy and are ascribed considerable potential in terms of addressing the core challenge of unemployment. However, despite this policy…

  16. Results from a survey of national immunization programmes on home-based vaccination record practices in 2013

    PubMed Central

    Young, Stacy L.; Gacic-Dobo, Marta; Brown, David W.

    2015-01-01

    Background Data on home-based records (HBRs) practices within national immunization programmes are non-existent, making it difficult to determine whether current efforts of immunization programmes related to basic recording of immunization services are appropriately focused. Methods During January 2014, WHO and the United Nations Children's Fund sent a one-page questionnaire to 195 countries to obtain information on HBRs including type of record used, number of records printed, whether records were provided free-of-charge or required by schools, whether there was a stock-out and the duration of any stock-outs that occurred, as well as the total expenditure for printing HBRs during 2013. Results A total of 140 countries returned a completed HBR questionnaire. Two countries were excluded from analysis because they did not use a HBR during 2013. HBR types varied across countries (vaccination only cards, 32/138 [23.1%]; vaccination plus growth monitoring records, 31/138 [22.4%]; child health books, 48/138 [34.7%]; combination of these, 27/138 [19.5%] countries). HBRs were provided free-of-charge in 124/138 (89.8%) respondent countries. HBRs were required for school entry in 62/138 (44.9%) countries. Nearly a quarter of countries reported HBR stock-outs during 2013. Computed printing cost per record was national immunization programmes to develop, implement and monitor corrective activities to improve the availability and utilization of HBRs. Much work remains to improve forecasting where appropriate, to prevent HBR stock-outs, to identify and improve sustainable financing options and to explore viable market shaping opportunities. PMID:25733540

  17. Vouchers as demand side financing instruments for health care: a review of the Bangladesh maternal voucher scheme.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Jean-Olivier; Ensor, Tim; Hossain, Atia; Khan, Salam

    2010-07-01

    Demand side financing (DSF) mechanisms transfer purchasing power to specified groups for defined goods and services in order to increase access to specified services. This is an important innovation in health care systems where access remains poor despite substantial subsidies towards the supply side. In Bangladesh, a maternal health DSF pilot in 33 sub-districts was launched in 2007. We report the results of a rapid review of this scheme undertaken during 2008 after 1 year of its setup. Quantitative data collected by DSF committees, facilities and national information systems were assessed alongside qualitative data, i.e. key informant interviews and focus group discussions with beneficiaries and health service providers on the operation of the scheme in 6 sub-districts. The scheme provides vouchers to women distributed by health workers that entitle mainly poor women to receive skilled care at home or a facility and also provide payments for transport and food. After initial setbacks voucher distribution rose quickly. The data also suggest that the rise in facility based delivery appeared to be more rapid in DSF than in other non-DSF areas, although the methods do not allow for a strict causal attribution as there might be co-founding effects. Fears that the financial incentives for surgical delivery would lead to an over emphasis on Caesarean section appear to be unfounded although the trends need further monitoring. DSF provides substantial additional funding to facilities but remains complex to administer, requiring a parallel administrative mechanism putting additional work burden on the health workers. There is little evidence that the mechanism encourages competition due to the limited provision of health care services. The main question outstanding is whether the achievements of the DSF scheme could be achieved more efficiently by adapting the regular government funding rather than creating an entirely new mechanism. Also, improving the quality of health

  18. Peer mentors, mobile phone and pills: collective monitoring and adherence in Kenyatta National Hospital's HIV treatment programme.

    PubMed

    Moyer, Eileen

    2014-01-01

    In 2006, the Kenyan state joined the international commitment to make antiretroviral treatment free in public health institutions to people infected with HIV. Less than a decade later, treatment has reached over 60% of those who need it in Kenya. This paper, which is based on an in-depth ethnographic case study of the HIV treatment programme at Kenyatta National Hospital, conducted intermittently between 2008 and 2014, examines how HIV-positive peer mentors encourage and track adherence to treatment regimens within and beyond the clinic walls using mobile phones and computer technology. This research into the everyday practices of patient monitoring demonstrates that both surveillance and adherence are collective activities. Peer mentors provide counselling services, follow up people who stray from treatment regimens, and perform a range of other tasks related to patient management and treatment adherence. Despite peer mentors' involvement in many tasks key to encouraging optimal adherence, their role is rarely acknowledged by co-workers, hospital administrators, or public health officials. Following a biomedical paradigm, adherence at Kenyatta and in Kenya is framed by programme administrators as something individual clients must do and for which they must be held accountable. This framing simultaneously conceals the sociality of adherence and undervalues the work of peer mentors in treatment programmes.

  19. Peer mentors, mobile phone and pills: collective monitoring and adherence in Kenyatta National Hospital's HIV treatment programme

    PubMed Central

    Moyer, Eileen

    2014-01-01

    In 2006, the Kenyan state joined the international commitment to make antiretroviral treatment free in public health institutions to people infected with HIV. Less than a decade later, treatment has reached over 60% of those who need it in Kenya. This paper, which is based on an in-depth ethnographic case study of the HIV treatment programme at Kenyatta National Hospital, conducted intermittently between 2008 and 2014, examines how HIV-positive peer mentors encourage and track adherence to treatment regimens within and beyond the clinic walls using mobile phones and computer technology. This research into the everyday practices of patient monitoring demonstrates that both surveillance and adherence are collective activities. Peer mentors provide counselling services, follow up people who stray from treatment regimens, and perform a range of other tasks related to patient management and treatment adherence. Despite peer mentors’ involvement in many tasks key to encouraging optimal adherence, their role is rarely acknowledged by co-workers, hospital administrators, or public health officials. Following a biomedical paradigm, adherence at Kenyatta and in Kenya is framed by programme administrators as something individual clients must do and for which they must be held accountable. This framing simultaneously conceals the sociality of adherence and undervalues the work of peer mentors in treatment programmes. PMID:25175291

  20. Psychiatric inpatient expenditures and public health insurance programmes: analysis of a national database covering the entire South Korean population.

    PubMed

    Chung, Woojin

    2010-09-07

    Medical spending on psychiatric hospitalization has been reported to impose a tremendous socio-economic burden on many developed countries with public health insurance programmes. However, there has been no in-depth study of the factors affecting psychiatric inpatient medical expenditures and differentiated these factors across different types of public health insurance programmes. In view of this, this study attempted to explore factors affecting medical expenditures for psychiatric inpatients between two public health insurance programmes covering the entire South Korean population: National Health Insurance (NHI) and National Medical Care Aid (AID). This retrospective, cross-sectional study used a nationwide, population-based reimbursement claims dataset consisting of 1,131,346 claims of all 160,465 citizens institutionalized due to psychiatric diagnosis between January 2005 and June 2006 in South Korea. To adjust for possible correlation of patients characteristics within the same medical institution and a non-linearity structure, a Box-Cox transformed, multilevel regression analysis was performed. Compared with inpatients 19 years old or younger, the medical expenditures of inpatients between 50 and 64 years old were 10% higher among NHI beneficiaries but 40% higher among AID beneficiaries. Males showed higher medical expenditures than did females. Expenditures on inpatients with schizophrenia as compared to expenditures on those with neurotic disorders were 120% higher among NHI beneficiaries but 83% higher among AID beneficiaries. Expenditures on inpatients of psychiatric hospitals were greater on average than expenditures on inpatients of general hospitals. Among AID beneficiaries, institutions owned by private groups treated inpatients with 32% higher costs than did government institutions. Among NHI beneficiaries, inpatients medical expenditures were positively associated with the proportion of patients diagnosed into dementia or schizophrenia categories

  1. The UK's Surplus Source Disposal Programme: successful management of a national radioactive legacy.

    PubMed

    Williams, Clive; Burns, Philip; Wakerley, Malcolm; Watson, Isabelle; Cook, Marianne; Moloney, Barry

    2010-06-01

    Between 2004 and 2009, the Surplus Source Disposal Programme (SSDP) arranged and subsidised the safe disposal or recycling of more than 11,000 unwanted radioactive items containing in total more than 8.5 x 10(14) Bq of activity, from some 500 sites throughout the United Kingdom. Sources were removed principally from universities, schools and colleges, museums, and hospitals. SSDP was funded by the UK Government and managed by the Environment Agency. The programme was delivered at a total cost of pound sterling 7.14 million, nearly pound sterling 2 million less than its initial budget. This was a big success for health and safety, the environment, business and the public purse. Current legislative requirements under the High Activity Sealed Sources Directive, which came into effect during 2005, will prevent a build-up of high activity surplus sources in future. Continuing vigilance may be needed to avoid a build-up of lower activity disused sources.

  2. [Results of the Czech National Colorectal Cancer Screening Programme - colonoscopy examinations].

    PubMed

    Suchánek, S; Májek, O; Zavoral, M; Seifert, B; Ngo, O; Dušek, L

    2014-01-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the most common cancers, and the Central European countries have the highest CRC burden worldwide. CRC screening has repeatedly been proven capable of decreasing CRC mortality and incidence rates. The nationwide Colorectal Cancer Screening Programme in the Czech Republic involves the colonoscopic examination as a diagnostic method (for patients with a positive FOBT result -  screening colonoscopy -  SC), or as a screening method (primary screening colonoscopy -  PSC). The aim of this article is to present the results of colonoscopic examinations performed as part of the Czech screening programme. For the purpose of quality assurance, the Czech programme has been equipped since 2006 with an information system called the Colorectal Cancer Screening Registry, which collects and evaluates data on preventive colonoscopies performed in the colonoscopy screening centres. Performance indicators, as specified in the European Guidelines (and adapted for the Czech programme), are employed to assess preventive colonoscopies performed in the Czech Republic. Since 2006, more than 110,000 SCs and almost 20,000 PSCs were recorded. Approximately 95% of SCs and almost 98% of PSC were classified as total, i.e. examining the entire colonic mucosa up to the caecum. The positive predictive value of FOBT for adenomas has increased slightly and continuously over time, and was 39.7% in 2013. In PSC, the adenoma detection rate (ADR) has recently increased compared to previous years, and was 27.3% in 2013. CRC was detected in 3.7% of individuals undergoing an SC examination and in 1.0% of individuals undergoing a PSC examination. The programme safety is controlled based on the monitoring of complications during colonoscopies; these can occur either during diagnostic colonoscopy (perforation in 0.03% of cases since 2006) or during endoscopic polypectomy (perforation in 0.12% of cases, bleeding in 0.73% of cases since 2006). Our results confirm that the

  3. 75 FR 19417 - Notice of Proposed Information Collection for Public Comment for Housing Choice Voucher (HCV...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-14

    ... Voucher (HCV) Family Self-Sufficiency (FSS) Program AGENCY: Office of the Assistant Secretary for Public... also lists the following information: Title of Proposal: Housing Choice Voucher (HCV) Family...

  4. 'The one with the purse makes policy': Power, problem definition, framing and maternal health policies and programmes evolution in national level institutionalised policy making processes in Ghana.

    PubMed

    Koduah, Augustina; Agyepong, Irene Akua; van Dijk, Han

    2016-10-01

    This paper seeks to advance our understanding of health policy agenda setting and formulation processes in a lower middle income country, Ghana, by exploring how and why maternal health policies and programmes appeared and evolved on the health sector programme of work agenda between 2002 and 2012. We theorized that the appearance of a policy or programme on the agenda and its fate within the programme of work is predominately influenced by how national level decision makers use their sources of power to define maternal health problems and frame their policy narratives. National level decision makers used their power sources as negotiation tools to frame maternal health issues and design maternal health policies and programmes within the framework of the national health sector programme of work. The power sources identified included legal and structural authority; access to authority by way of political influence; control over and access to resources (mainly financial); access to evidence in the form of health sector performance reviews and demographic health surveys; and knowledge of national plans such as Ghana Poverty Reduction Strategy. Understanding of power sources and their use as negotiation tools in policy development should not be ignored in the pursuit of transformative change and sustained improvement in health systems in low- and middle income countries (LMIC).

  5. [Analysis of fourteen French national programmes on physical activity and sports as determinants of health from 2001 to 2006].

    PubMed

    Bréchat, Pierre-Henri; Vogel, Thomas; Berthel, Marc; Kaltenbach, Georges; Le Divenah, Aude; Segouin, Christophe; Rymer, Roland; Lonsdorfer, Jean

    2009-01-01

    Physical activity and sports are considered as one of the determinants of health. The aim of this study is to review the rationale for the formulation of this public health issue and its integration in national action plans. The study shows that fourteen national programmes were drafted and implemented between 2001 and 2006 by seven institutions. The research methodology was based on crossing data obtained from semi-directed interviews and documents regarding the design, implementation and follow-up of these programmes. For the conditions of the success, the fourteen actions scored an average of 175.0 +/- 66.9 out of 300%. Public health actors and professionals must be given more opportunities to involve themselves and engage in developing stronger relationships and linkages, in particular with the institutional and community settings. In general, the most invested parts of a programme are the structural and operational aspects of activities. Six significant points surfaced from the study: consideration of drug use as an addictive behaviour; recognition of the psychological stress of professional athletes; acknowledgment of youth as being at high risk for doping behaviour; integration of the concept that physical activity and sports must take the benefit/risk perspective into account; and the necessity to promote health. Through the exchange of numerous local and regional experiences, an optimisation of their synergistic connections was made possible on a continuum extending from "health promotion through physical activity and sports" to "prevention of drug-use and doping behaviours". Professionals have been able to develop actions in the above-mentioned domains across this continuum that have, to date, remained isolated. Proposals are made to strengthen these dynamics. Other health determinants and public health priorities could be investigated with the same methodology.

  6. Parents' views of including young boys in the Swedish national school-based HPV vaccination programme: a qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    Gottvall, Maria; Stenhammar, Christina; Grandahl, Maria

    2017-01-01

    Objective To explore parents' views of extending the human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination programme to also include boys. Design Explorative qualitative design using individual, face-to-face, interviews and inductive thematic analysis. Setting 11 strategically chosen municipalities in central Sweden. Participants Parents (n=42) who were offered HPV vaccination for their 11–12 years old daughter in the national school-based vaccination programme. Results The key themes were: equality from a public health perspective and perception of risk for disease. Parents expressed low knowledge and awareness about the health benefits of male HPV vaccination, and they perceived low risk for boys to get HPV. Some parents could not see any reason for vaccinating boys. However, many parents preferred gender-neutral vaccination, and some of the parents who had not accepted HPV vaccination for their daughter expressed that they would be willing to accept vaccination for their son, if it was offered. It was evident that there was both trust and distrust in authorities' decision to only vaccinate girls. Parents expressed a preference for increased sexual and reproductive health promotion such as more information about condom use. Some parents shared that it was more important to vaccinate girls than boys since they believed girls face a higher risk of deadly diseases associated with HPV, but some also believed girls might be more vulnerable to side effects of the vaccine. Conclusions A vaccine offered only to girls may cause parents to be hesitant to vaccinate, while also including boys in the national vaccination programme might improve parents' trust in the vaccine. More information about the health benefits of HPV vaccination for males is necessary to increase HPV vaccination among boys. This may eventually lead to increased HPV vaccine coverage among both girls and boys. PMID:28246143

  7. Promotional model: a new direction for the National Programme on Immunization (NPI) and Oral Rehydration Therapy (ORT) in Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Ekerete, P P

    2000-01-01

    The National Programme on Immunization (NPI), which was formerly known as the Expanded Program on Immunization (EPI), and Oral Rehydration Therapy (ORT) were relaunched in 1984 after the problems of vaccine supply had been corrected. The aim of the NPI was to protect children against six childhood killer diseases and ORT to rehydrate the dehydrated child caused by diarrhoea. In order to achieve these objectives, a Partner-in-Health strategy was set up to educate, convince and motivate mothers, pregnant women and the community to accept the programme. To assess the effect of the promotional strategy, the government decided to conduct a National Immunization Coverage survey. The results showed that some states were able to reach the target while some were not. The survey also reported that 32% of the reason for immunization failure was due to lack of information and that 9% was lack of motivation. It therefore became necessary to design a promotional model for effective and rapid implementation of the programme. After an evaluation of the promotional strategy set up by the government, a pilot survey was conducted from which nine promotional elements were selected. These promotional elements were regarded as sources of information and motivation. Based on these, a promotional model was set up which stated that promotion depends on consumer information which in turn depends on the extent of interaction between the consumer and the promotional elements. The implication of the model is the need for the formation of a Public Health Organisation with a Public Health Committee at all levels of government.

  8. Progress of National Multi-tissue Bank in Uruguay in the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) Tissue Banking Programme.

    PubMed

    Alvarez, Inés; Del Carmen Saldías, Ma; Wodowoz, Olga; Pérez Campos, Héctor; Machin, Daniel; Silva, Walter; Sueta, Patricia; Pérez, Natalia; Acosta Md, Ma del Carmen

    2003-01-01

    The transplant law of 1971 based on informed consent, allows people to register their willingness to be a donor upon death. Since 1978 the governmental Institution, the National Bank of Organs and Tissues (BNOT), have been regulated the organ and tissue donation. Important progress was implemented in the BNOT and specially in the National Multi-tissue Bank (NMTB). Since 2001 with the participation in the IAEA Tissue Banking Programme, Quality System Management has been implemented in the NMTB. New bio-production for radiosterilized tissues for the first time and improved procedures were carried out. As a result an increased production of high-quality tissues was obtained and distributed for clinical use.

  9. Changes in geriatric rehabilitation: a national programme to improve quality of care. The Synergy and Innovation in Geriatric Rehabilitation study.

    PubMed

    Holstege, Marije S; Caljouw, Monique A A; Zekveld, Ineke G; van Balen, Romke; de Groot, Aafke J; van Haastregt, Jolanda C M; Schols, Jos M G A; Hertogh, Cees M P M; Gussekloo, Jacobijn; Achterberg, Wilco P

    2015-01-01

    To describe changes in the health service delivery process experienced by professionals, patients and informal caregivers during implementation of a national programme to improve quality of care of geriatric rehabilitation by improving integration of health service delivery processes. Sixteen skilled nursing facilities. Prospective study, comparing three consecutive cohorts. Professionals (elderly care physicians, physiotherapists and nursing staff) rated four domains of health service delivery at admission and at discharge of 1075 patients. In addition, these patients [median age 79 (Interquartile range 71-85) years, 63% females] and their informal caregivers rated their experiences on these domains 4 weeks after discharge. During the three consecutive cohorts, professionals reported improvement on the domain team cooperation, including assessment for intensive treatment and information transfer among professionals. Fewer improvements were reported within the domains alignment with patients' needs, care coordination and care quality. Between the cohorts, according to patients (n = 521) and informal caregivers (n = 319) there were no changes in the four domains of health service delivery. This national programme resulted in small improvements in team cooperation as reported by the professionals. No effects were found on patients' and informal caregivers' perceptions of health service delivery.

  10. National allergy programme had little impact on parent-reported food allergies in children aged 6-7 years.

    PubMed

    Palmu, Sauli; Heikkilä, Paula; Uski, Virpi; Niitty, Siina; Kurikka, Sari; Korppi, Matti

    2017-09-19

    The ten-year Finnish national allergy programme was launched in 2008 to lessen the disease and psychological burden of allergy. This study assessed the prevalence of parent-reported food allergies requiring avoidance diets at primary school in children aged six and seven years. The cohort comprised 1,937 children (51% boys) who started primary school in Tampere, Finland in August 2016. School health nurses charted parent-reported, doctor-diagnosed food allergies requiring avoidance diets as part of the routine health examination. We found that 127 (6.6%) children had parent-reported, doctor-diagnosed allergies to at least one food and 37 (1.9%) were allergic to basic foods, namely cows' milk, wheat and one other grain. All required an avoidance diet. The figure did not differ significantly from the 2.7% and 2.5% found by studies of this age group in 2009 and 2013, respectively. Allergies to fresh fruit and vegetables decreased from 5.8% in 2009 to 3.6% in 2016. We studied the national allergy programme that started in 2008 and found that there was a non-significant overall decrease in the number of children aged 6-7 on avoidance diets for allergies between 2009-2016. The only allergies that showed signficiant decreases were fresh fruit and vegetables. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  11. Systematic review of the use of data from national childhood obesity surveillance programmes in primary care: a conceptual synthesis.

    PubMed

    Henderson, E J; Ells, L J; Rubin, G P; Hunter, D J

    2015-11-01

    This study reviewed the use in primary care of national surveillance data for children to determine the data's potential utility to inform policy and practice decisions on how to prevent and treat childhood obesity. We reviewed the 28 countries identified by the World Obesity Federation as having high-quality comparable body mass index data for children. Literature published from any period up to December 2013 was included. Peer review literature was searched using Web of Science (Core Collection, MEDLINE). Grey literature was searched using the Internet by country name, programme name and national health and government websites. We included studies that (i) use national surveillance obesity data in primary care, or (ii) explore practitioner or parent perspectives about the use of such data. The main uses of national surveillance data in primary care were to identify and recruit obese children and their parents to participate in school and general practice-based research and/or interventions, and to inform families of children's measurements. Findings indicate a need for school staff and practitioners to receive additional training and support to sensitively communicate with families. Translation of these findings into policy and practice could help to improve current uses of national child obesity surveillance data in primary care. © 2015 The Authors. Obesity Reviews published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of World Obesity.

  12. The Private Cost of National Certificate in Education (NCE) through National Teachers Institute Distance Learning Programme in Ekiti State, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borode, Matthew

    2010-01-01

    The study set out to examine the private cost of a National Certificate in Education, through the distance learning mode as organized by the National Teachers Institute (NTI) Ekiti State branch in Nigeria. This was to open the eyes of the prospective students to know what on the average he has to spend, and also to provide data for the state…

  13. [Aims and methodology of the Polish National programme for Standardisation of Clinical Practices in Neonatology and Paediatric Intensive Care. Edition 2007/2008].

    PubMed

    Swietliński, Janusz; Zejda, Jan E; Piróg, Maciej; Dobrzańska, Anna; Helwich, Ewa; Ksiazyk, Janusz; Migdał, Marek; Szczapa, Jerzy; Brozek, Grzegorz; Musialik-Swietlińska, Ewa

    2008-01-01

    In this paper we outline the aims and methods of the Polish National Programme for Standardisation of Clinical Practice in Neonatology and Paediatric Intensive Care, with special reference to infants with low and extremely low birth weight. The aim of this Programme is to adjust the diagnostic and therapeutic procedures to the latest guide lines and recommendations. The first stage consisted of a national level survey in order to identify the diversity of procedures implemented in Medical University Clinical Departments, Neonatology Units and Paediatric Intensive Care Units. The survey also served to confront the legitimacy of the used procedures with the current clinical knowledge and research. It is planned to repeat the survey 24 months after the implementation of the latest recommendations with the aim to assess the impact of the Programme on clinical practice. Partial stages of the Programme were started since 2006. The survey is coordinated by an independent statistics unit. The recommendations are developed on published standards.

  14. Community health workers in national programmes: the case of the family welfare educators of Botswana.

    PubMed

    Walt, G; Ross, D; Gilson, L; Owuor-Omondi, L; Knudsen, T

    1989-01-01

    Community health worker programmes have become a prominent feature of many primary health care schemes in developing countries. This paper, which is based on a larger collaborative study undertaken in 3 countries, focuses on the experiences with such workers in Botswana, and concludes that many of the key issues that were highlighted in the Botswana study are similar to those in other countries. These can be summarized under four headings: unrealistic expectations, poor initial planning, problems of sustainability, and the difficulty of maintaining quality of care. The future success of these workers will depend on their being integrated more systematically into local services, with concomitant strengthening of management support and supervision.

  15. A French national breast and thyroid cancer screening programme for survivors of childhood, adolescent and young adult (CAYA) cancers - DeNaCaPST programme.

    PubMed

    Demoor-Goldschmidt, Charlotte; Drui, Delphine; Doutriaux, Isabelle; Michel, Gérard; Auquier, Pascal; Dumas, Agnès; Berger, Claire; Bernier, Valérie; Bohrer, Sandrine; Bondiau, Pierre-Yves; Filhon, Bruno; Fresneau, Brice; Freycon, Claire; Stefan, Dinu; Helfre, Sylvie; Jackson, Angela; Kerr, Christine; Laprie, Anne; Leseur, Julie; Mahé, Marc-André; Oudot, Caroline; Pluchard, Claire; Proust, Stéphanie; Sudour-Bonnange, Hélène; Vigneron, Céline; Lassau, Nathalie; Schlumberger, Martin; Conter, Cécile Faure; de Vathaire, Florent

    2017-05-12

    Survival of childhood, adolescent and young adult (CAYA) cancers has increased with progress in the management of the treatments and has reached more than 80% at 5 years. Nevertheless, these survivors are at great risk of second cancers and non-malignant co-morbidities in later life. DeNaCaPST is a non-interventional study whose aim is to organize a national screening for thyroid cancer and breast cancer in survivors of CAYA cancers. It will study the compliance with international recommendations, with the aim, regarding a breast screening programme, of offering for every woman living in France, at equal risk, an equal screening. DeNaCaPST trial is coordinated by the INSERM 1018 unit in cooperation with the LEA (French Childhood Cancer Survivor Study for Leukaemia) study's coordinators, the long term follow up committee and the paediatric radiation committee of the SFCE (French Society of Childhood Cancers). A total of 35 centres spread across metropolitan France and la Reunion will participate. FCCSS (French Childhood Cancer Survivor Study), LEA and central registry will be interrogated to identify eligible patients. To participate, centers agreed to perform a complete "long-term follow-up consultations" according to good clinical practice and the guidelines of the SFCE (French Society of Children Cancers). As survival has greatly improved in childhood cancers, detection of therapy-related malignancies has become a priority even if new radiation techniques will lead to better protection for organs at risk. International guidelines have been put in place because of the evidence for increased lifetime risk of breast and thyroid cancer. DeNaCaPST is based on these international recommendations but it is important to recognize that they are based on expert consensus opinion and are supported by neither nonrandomized observational studies nor prospective randomized trials in this specific population. Over-diagnosis is a phenomenon inherent in any screening program and

  16. 77 FR 3435 - Notice of Funding Availability: Rural Development Voucher Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-24

    ...: Rural Development Voucher Program AGENCY: Rural Housing Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of Rural Development Voucher Program Availability. SUMMARY: The U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) in Fiscal Year 2006 established a demonstration Rural Development Voucher Program, as authorized under Section 542 of...

  17. Dynamic Selection Effects in Means-Tested, Urban School Voucher Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howell, William G.

    2004-01-01

    Much of the controversy surrounding school vouchers, and privatization schemes generally, stems from concerns about social stratification. This paper identifies the form and magnitude of selection effects in a means-tested New York City voucher program. It compares students who applied for vouchers, with the eligible population of public-school…

  18. An Analysis of the Ideas Behind, and the Evidence on, Education Vouchers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hind, Ian

    An evaluation of the merits of education vouchers as a means of implementing educational reform is explored in this publication. The paper is divided into five sections. First, the historical and philosophical origins of the concept of vouchers are examined. The second section focuses on education vouchers in the context of recent developments in…

  19. 48 CFR 2452.232-71 - Voucher submission (cost-reimbursement).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Voucher submission (cost-reimbursement). 2452.232-71 Section 2452.232-71 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND... costs to date. All vouchers shall be distributed as follows, except for the final voucher, which...

  20. On the Political Economy of Educational Vouchers. NBER Working Paper No. 17986

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Epple, Dennis N.; Romano, Richard

    2012-01-01

    Two significant challenges hamper analyses of collective choice of educational vouchers. One is the multi-dimensional choice set arising from the interdependence of the voucher, public education spending, and taxation. The other is that household preferences between public and private schooling vary with the policy chosen. Even absent a voucher,…

  1. On the Political Economy of Educational Vouchers. NBER Working Paper No. 17986

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Epple, Dennis N.; Romano, Richard

    2012-01-01

    Two significant challenges hamper analyses of collective choice of educational vouchers. One is the multi-dimensional choice set arising from the interdependence of the voucher, public education spending, and taxation. The other is that household preferences between public and private schooling vary with the policy chosen. Even absent a voucher,…

  2. 24 CFR 982.302 - Issuance of voucher; Requesting PHA approval of assisted tenancy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Issuance of voucher; Requesting PHA... Leasing a Unit § 982.302 Issuance of voucher; Requesting PHA approval of assisted tenancy. (a) When a family is selected, or when a participant family wants to move to another unit, the PHA issues a voucher...

  3. 24 CFR 982.302 - Issuance of voucher; Requesting PHA approval of assisted tenancy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Issuance of voucher; Requesting PHA... Leasing a Unit § 982.302 Issuance of voucher; Requesting PHA approval of assisted tenancy. (a) When a family is selected, or when a participant family wants to move to another unit, the PHA issues a voucher...

  4. 24 CFR 982.302 - Issuance of voucher; Requesting PHA approval of assisted tenancy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Issuance of voucher; Requesting PHA... Leasing a Unit § 982.302 Issuance of voucher; Requesting PHA approval of assisted tenancy. (a) When a family is selected, or when a participant family wants to move to another unit, the PHA issues a voucher...

  5. 24 CFR 982.302 - Issuance of voucher; Requesting PHA approval of assisted tenancy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Issuance of voucher; Requesting PHA... Leasing a Unit § 982.302 Issuance of voucher; Requesting PHA approval of assisted tenancy. (a) When a family is selected, or when a participant family wants to move to another unit, the PHA issues a voucher...

  6. 24 CFR 982.302 - Issuance of voucher; Requesting PHA approval of assisted tenancy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Issuance of voucher; Requesting PHA... Leasing a Unit § 982.302 Issuance of voucher; Requesting PHA approval of assisted tenancy. (a) When a family is selected, or when a participant family wants to move to another unit, the PHA issues a voucher...

  7. Risk factors for redemption of feline neutering vouchers issued by welfare organisations.

    PubMed

    Kinsman, Rachel H; Gruffydd-Jones, Tim J; Clements, Jane; Murray, Jane K

    2017-08-28

    Animal welfare organisations in the UK invest substantial resources to fund subsidised neutering vouchers to increase feline neutering rates. Little evidence exists to quantify factors influencing voucher redemption. This cross-sectional study assessed risk factors (including voucher value and expiry period) for redemption of neutering vouchers issued by staff of the feline welfare charity Cats Protection. Data were collected using telephone interview-administered questionnaires of cat owners who were issued a neutering voucher(s) and from Cats Protection voucher payment records. During the four-month study 2655 owners were issued 3935 vouchers. Multivariable logistic regression analysis revealed that owners of cats that had produced ≥1 litter before voucher request, owners eligible for a voucher due to receiving benefits and owners who rented their homes or lived with family were less likely to redeem vouchers than owners whose cats had not had a litter, were eligible for a voucher for other reasons and/or owners who owned their home, respectively. © British Veterinary Association (unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  8. A Win-Win Solution: The Empirical Evidence on School Vouchers. Second Edition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forster, Greg

    2011-01-01

    This report collects the results of all available empirical studies using the best available scientific methods to measure how school vouchers affect academic outcomes for participants, and all available studies on how vouchers affect outcomes in public schools. Contrary to the widespread claim that vouchers do not benefit participants and hurt…

  9. Socioeconomic inequality in salt intake in Britain 10 years after a national salt reduction programme.

    PubMed

    Ji, Chen; Cappuccio, Francesco P

    2014-08-14

    The impact of the national salt reduction programme in the UK on social inequalities is unknown. We examined spatial and socioeconomic variations in salt intake in the 2008-2011 British National Diet and Nutrition Survey (NDNS) and compared them with those before the programme in 2000-2001. Cross-sectional survey in Great Britain. 1027 Caucasian males and females, aged 19-64 years. Participants' dietary sodium intake measured with a 4-day food diary. Bayesian geo-additive models used to assess spatial and socioeconomic patterns of sodium intake accounting for sociodemographic, anthropometric and behavioural confounders. Dietary sodium intake varied significantly across socioeconomic groups, even when adjusting for geographical variations. There was higher dietary sodium intake in people with the lowest educational attainment (coefficient: 0.252 (90% credible intervals 0.003, 0.486)) and in low levels of occupation (coefficient: 0.109 (-0.069, 0.288)). Those with no qualification had, on average, a 5.7% (0.1%, 11.1%) higher dietary sodium intake than the reference group. Compared to 2000-2001 the gradient of dietary sodium intake from south to north was attenuated after adjustments for confounders. Estimated dietary sodium consumption from food sources (not accounting for discretionary sources) was reduced by 366 mg of sodium (∼0.9 g of salt) per day during the 10-year period, likely the effect of national salt reduction initiatives. Social inequalities in salt intake have not seen a reduction following the national salt reduction programme and still explain more than 5% of salt intake between more and less affluent groups. Understanding the socioeconomic pattern of salt intake is crucial to reduce inequalities. Efforts are needed to minimise the gap between socioeconomic groups for an equitable delivery of cardiovascular prevention. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to

  10. Clinically targeted screening for congenital CMV - potential for integration into the National Hearing Screening Programme.

    PubMed

    Kadambari, S; Luck, S; Davis, A; Williams, Ej; Berrington, J; Griffiths, Pd; Sharland, M

    2013-10-01

    Screening for a condition should only be undertaken if certain strict criteria are met. Congenital CMV (cCMV) is a leading cause of sensorineuronal hearing loss (SNHL) and meets many of these criteria, but is not currently screened for in the UK. Ganciclovir reduces CMV-induced progressive SNHL if treatment is begun in the first month of life. The Newborn Hearing Screening Programme (NHSP) has been shown to identify SNHL at the earliest possible age. The potential of integrating screening for cCMV into the NHSP is discussed to consolidate the link between screening, early diagnosis and management. The early diagnosis and treatment of cCMV may prevent a small proportion of late SNHL. In the absence of any screening programme, we provide evidence that clinically targeted screening through the NHSP is a potential option in the UK, enhancing the diagnostic pathway and enabling appropriate early treatment to reduce long-term morbidity. ©2013 Foundation Acta Paediatrica. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Knowledge and perceptions of national and provincial tuberculosis control programme managers in Pakistan about the WHO Stop TB strategy: a qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Wasiq Mehmood; Smith, Helen; Qadeer, Ejaz

    2016-01-01

    Objective To understand how national and provincial tuberculosis programme managers in Pakistan perceive and engage with the Stop TB strategy, its strengths, weaknesses and their experience in its implementation. National and provincial tuberculosis programme managers play an important role in effective implementation of the Stop TB strategy. Design A qualitative interview study was conducted with 10 national and provincial tuberculosis programme managers to understand how they perceive and engage with the Stop TB strategy, its strengths, weaknesses and their experience in its implementation. Managers were selected purposively; 10 managers were interviewed (six national staff and four from provincial level). Participants National and provincial tuberculosis programme managers in Pakistan. Managers were selected purposively; 10 managers were interviewed (six national staff and four from provincial level). Setting National and provincial tuberculosis programmes in Pakistan Main outcome measures 1. Knowledge and perceptions of national and provincial tuberculosis programme managers about the Stop TB strategy 2. Progress in implementing the strategy in Pakistan 3. Significant success factors 4. Significant implementation challenges 5. Lessons learnt to scale up successful implementation. Results The managers reported that most progress had been made in extending DOTS, health systems strengthening, public -private mixed interventions, MDR-TB care and TB/HIV care. The four factors that contributed significantly to progress were the availability of DOTS services, the public-private partnership approach, comprehensive guidance for TB control and government and donor commitment to TB control. Conclusion This study identified three main challenges as perceived by national and provincial tuberculosis programme managers in terms of implementing the Stop TB strategy: 1. Inadequate political commitment, 2. Issue pertaining to prioritisation of certain components in the TB

  12. Knowledge and perceptions of national and provincial tuberculosis control programme managers in Pakistan about the WHO Stop TB strategy: a qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Khan, Wasiq Mehmood; Smith, Helen; Qadeer, Ejaz; Hassounah, Sondus

    2016-01-01

    To understand how national and provincial tuberculosis programme managers in Pakistan perceive and engage with the Stop TB strategy, its strengths, weaknesses and their experience in its implementation. National and provincial tuberculosis programme managers play an important role in effective implementation of the Stop TB strategy. A qualitative interview study was conducted with 10 national and provincial tuberculosis programme managers to understand how they perceive and engage with the Stop TB strategy, its strengths, weaknesses and their experience in its implementation. Managers were selected purposively; 10 managers were interviewed (six national staff and four from provincial level). National and provincial tuberculosis programme managers in Pakistan. Managers were selected purposively; 10 managers were interviewed (six national staff and four from provincial level). National and provincial tuberculosis programmes in Pakistan. 1. Knowledge and perceptions of national and provincial tuberculosis programme managers about the Stop TB strategy 2. Progress in implementing the strategy in Pakistan 3. Significant success factors 4. Significant implementation challenges 5. Lessons learnt to scale up successful implementation. The managers reported that most progress had been made in extending DOTS, health systems strengthening, public -private mixed interventions, MDR-TB care and TB/HIV care. The four factors that contributed significantly to progress were the availability of DOTS services, the public-private partnership approach, comprehensive guidance for TB control and government and donor commitment to TB control. This study identified three main challenges as perceived by national and provincial tuberculosis programme managers in terms of implementing the Stop TB strategy: 1. Inadequate political commitment, 2. Issue pertaining to prioritisation of certain components in the TB strategy over others due to external influences and 3. Limitations in the overall

  13. Community-based health insurance programmes and the national health insurance scheme of Nigeria: challenges to uptake and integration

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Nigeria has included a regulated community-based health insurance (CBHI) model within its National Health Insurance Scheme (NHIS). Uptake to date has been disappointing, however. The aim of this study is to review the present status of CBHI in SSA in general to highlight the issues that affect its successful integration within the NHIS of Nigeria and more widely in developing countries. Methods A literature survey using PubMed and EconLit was carried out to identify and review studies that report factors affecting implementation of CBHI in SSA with a focus on Nigeria. Results CBHI schemes with a variety of designs have been introduced across SSA but with generally disappointing results so far. Two exceptions are Ghana and Rwanda, both of which have introduced schemes with effective government control and support coupled with intensive implementation programmes. Poor support for CBHI is repeatedly linked elsewhere with failure to engage and account for the ‘real world’ needs of beneficiaries, lack of clear legislative and regulatory frameworks, inadequate financial support, and unrealistic enrolment requirements. Nigeria’s CBHI-type schemes for the informal sectors of its NHIS have been set up under an appropriate legislative framework, but work is needed to eliminate regressive financing, to involve scheme members in the setting up and management of programmes, to inform and educate more effectively, to eliminate lack of confidence in the schemes, and to address inequity in provision. Targeted subsidies should also be considered. Conclusions Disappointing uptake of CBHI-type NHIS elements in Nigeria can be addressed through closer integration of informal and formal programmes under the NHIS umbrella, with increasing involvement of beneficiaries in scheme design and management, improved communication and education, and targeted financial assistance. PMID:24559409

  14. The National Programme for IT: will it be good for children?

    PubMed

    Low, David C

    2009-01-01

    NHS Connecting for Health set up a Child Health Programme in 2007 to map out and make the case for a common core content for electronic child health records. Because of the relatively low level of integration of existing systems, sharing is technically difficult, and a consistent community-based detailed care record does not yet exist. However, Government policy and good clinical care, emphasised by Lord Laming in 2003 and again this year, stress the importance of information sharing and a common record. A record with a common core content, readily available for every child and parent or carer and for each professional delivering their health care, would be an advantage. The basis of one already exists as the Personal Child Health Record. Systems are developing and are in operation in different parts of the country which are beginning to share information between different health organisations as well as integrating different systems.

  15. Need for a roadmap for development of a coordinated national registry programme.

    PubMed

    Wilkins, S; Best, R L; Evans, S M

    2015-11-01

    Clinical quality registries are an overlooked and under-funded arm of clinical research in Australia. Registries are databases for patients with a particular disease, or who undergo a procedure, or use a health resource. Registries, where properly funded and universally adopted, have provided substantial benefits to the quality of healthcare and, in some cases, have had demonstrable effect in reducing costs. There is a lack of a coordinated programme for both funding and development of registries in Australia. A coordinated effort is required to address key gaps in registry coverage and ensure registries comply with appropriate technical and operating principles, and target areas where registries can add value to the health system. This will ensure that Australia is competitive with its international peers in this dynamic environment.

  16. Developing resuscitation programmes in the community: the tasks ahead for the National Resuscitation Council.

    PubMed

    Anantharaman, V

    2011-08-01

    Singapore has a long way to go to becoming a 'heartsafe' society. Given our small size and culture of hard work in our country, we can achieve a state of good first response by our community citizens through public cardiopulmonary resuscitation and automated external defibrillators training programmes at various key sectors and through the implementation of public access defibrillation in a committed manner. For our second-line responders, investing in technology to improve response times and quality of chest compressions with earlier interventions will go a long way toward strengthening the chain of survival in the community. Building on this strong foundation and having a strong hospital-based cardiac arrest management system will ensure that those who achieve return of spontaneous circulation will more likely remain alive and be discharged from hospital in a neurologically optimal state.

  17. Use of interferon-alpha in laryngeal papillomatosis: eight years of the Cuban national programme.

    PubMed

    Deuñas, L; Alcantud, V; Alvarez, F; Arteaga, J; Benítez, A; Bopuza, M; Carniege, L; Cartaya, B; Comas, C; Cotayo, R; Escobar, H; Fernández, H; Fernández, M; Fernández, R; García, M; Iznaga, N; la O, F; Márquez, J; Nordet, D; Pérez, J; Quintero, J; Redonavich, A; Robeleco, M; Rodríguez, H; Strander, H

    1997-02-01

    Laryngeal papillomatosis is one of the first diseases where interferon (IFN) was found to be effective. In 1983, a programme for the treatment of all such cases started in Cuba. Up to December 1991, 125 patients (92 children, 33 adults) have been treated: 102 with leucocyte IFN-alpha, 12 with recombinant IFN-alpha-2b, and 11 have received both preparations. Case management consisted of surgical removal of the lesions followed by an IFN schedule starting with 10(5) IU/kg of weight in children or 6 x 10(6) IU in adults, i.m. daily. The dose was progressively reduced, as long as no relapses occurred. At the end of the one-year schedule the doses were reduced to 5 x 10(4) IU/kg in children or 3 x 10(6) IU in adults, weekly. If there was a relapse, it was removed surgically and the patient returned to a higher dose level. Most cases (89; 71 per cent) have not relapsed after the treatment; 60 of them have been followed for more than three years. In those with relapses, the frequency of recurrence decreased in all but four patients. The treatment seemed to be more effective if initiated less than three months after the disease onset. The tracheostomy could be removed in five out of seven patients who needed it before the IFN treatment and was necessary in only three new cases during IFN treatment. In two of these, decannulation was possible later on. In a total of 14 patients relapses persisted after several cycles of IFN treatment. They were considered resistant to such treatment. No severe side effects were reported. The most frequent ones were fever, drowsiness, increased bronchial secretion, chills and headache. The establishment of this programme has maintained the disease under control in Cuba.

  18. Memorandum of Understanding (MOU) between EPA and United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Then Administrator Jackson signed the first Memorandum of Understanding (MOU) between EPA and United Nations Environment Program (UNEP) during the 26th Session of the UNEP Governing Council Meeting/Global Ministerial Environment Forum in 2011.

  19. Teenagers and young adults with cancer in Europe: from national programmes to a European integrated coordinated project.

    PubMed

    Stark, D; Bielack, S; Brugieres, L; Dirksen, U; Duarte, X; Dunn, S; Erdelyi, D J; Grew, T; Hjorth, L; Jazbec, J; Kabickova, E; Konsoulova, A; Kowalczyk, J R; Lassaletta, A; Laurence, V; Lewis, I; Monrabal, A; Morgan, S; Mountzios, G; Olsen, P R; Renard, M; Saeter, G; van der Graaf, W T; Ferrari, A

    2016-05-01

    Over 14 000 patients aged 15-24 are estimated to be diagnosed with cancer in the European Union (EU) each year. Teenagers and young adults (TYA) often fall down gaps between children's and adults cancer services. The specific challenges of providing optimal care to them are described, but we present a summary of recent progress. Progress to overcome these challenges is happening at different rates across Europe. We summarise the European national projects in this field but more recently we have seen the beginnings of European coordination. Within the EU 7th Funding Programme (FP7) European Network for Cancer Research in Children and Adolescents programme (ENCCA), a specific European Network for Teenagers and Young Adults with Cancer has held a series of scientific meetings, including professionals, patients and caregivers. This group has proposed unanswered research questions and agreed key features of a high-quality service that can improve outcomes for TYA with cancer, including the primacy of collaboration between adult and paediatric services to eliminate the gap in the management of TYA with cancer.

  20. The International Polar Year in Portugal: A New National Polar Programme and a Major Education and Outreach project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mendes-Victor, L.; Vieira, G.; Xavier, J.; Canario, A.

    2008-12-01

    Before the International Polar Year, in Portugal polar research was conducted by a very small group of scientists integrated in foreign projects or research institutions. Portugal was not member of the Scientific Committee for Antarctic Research (SCAR), the European Polar Board (EPB), neither a subscriber of the Antarctic Treaty. In 2004 Portuguese Polar researchers considered the IPY as an opportunity to change this situation and organized the national Committee for the IPY. The objectives were ambitious: to answer the aforementioned issues in defining and proposing a National Polar Programme. In late 2008, close to the end of the IPY, the objectives were attained, except the Antarctic Treaty signature that is, however, in an advanced stage, having been approved by consensus at the National Parliament in early 2007. Portugal joined SCAR in July 2006, the EPB in 2007 and a set of 5 Antarctic research projects forming the roots of the National Polar Programme (ProPolar) have been approved by the Foundation for Science and Technology (FCT-MCTES). Scientifically, the IPY can already be considered a major success in Portugal with an improvement in polar scientific research, in the number of scientists performing field work in the Antarctic, organizing polar science meetings and producing an expected increase in the number of polar science peer- reviewed papers. The Portuguese IPY scientific activities were accompanied by a major education and outreach project funded by the Agencia Ciência Viva (MCTES): LATITUDE60! Education for the Planet in the IPY. This project lead by the universities of Algarve, Lisbon and by the Portuguese Association of Geography Teachers is heavily interdisciplinary, programmed for all ages, from kindergarten to adults, and hoped to bring together scientists and society. LATITUDE60! was a major success and focussed on showing the importance of the polar regions for Earth's environment, emphasising on the implications of polar change for

  1. Integrated approaches to natural resources management in practice: the catalyzing role of National Adaptation Programmes for Action.

    PubMed

    Stucki, Virpi; Smith, Mark

    2011-06-01

    The relationship of forests in water quantity and quality has been debated during the past years. At the same time, focus on climate change has increased interest in ecosystem restoration as a means for adaptation. Climate change might become one of the key drivers pushing integrated approaches for natural resources management into practice. The National Adaptation Programme of Action (NAPA) is an initiative agreed under the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change. An analysis was done to find out how widely ecosystem restoration and integrated approaches have been incorporated into NAPA priority adaptation projects. The data show that that the NAPAs can be seen as potentially important channel for operationalizing various integrated concepts. Key challenge is to implement the NAPA projects. The amount needed to implement the NAPA projects aiming at ecosystem restoration using integrated approaches presents only 0.7% of the money pledged in Copenhagen for climate change adaptation.

  2. Between prevention and therapy: Gio Batta Gori and the National Cancer Institute's Diet, Nutrition and Cancer Programme, 1974-1978.

    PubMed

    Cantor, David

    2012-10-01

    This paper explores the origins of the Diet, Nutrition and Cancer Programme (DNCP) of the National Cancer Institute (NCI) and its fate under its first director, Gio Batta Gori. The DNCP is used to explore the emergence of federal support for research on diet, nutrition and cancer following the 1971 Cancer Act, the complex relations between cancer prevention and therapeutics in the NCI during the 1970s, the broader politics around diet, nutrition and cancer during that decade, and their relations to Senator George McGovern's select committee on Nutrition and Human Needs. It also provides a window onto the debates and struggles over whether NCI research should be funded by contracts or grants, the nature of the patronage system within the federal cancer research agency, how a director, Gio Gori, lost patronage within that system and how a tightening of the budget for cancer research in the mid-to-late 1970s affected the DNCP.

  3. Integrating NASA Remote Sensing Products into the Decision Support Systems of the United Nations World Food Programme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Z.; Milich, L.; Teng, W.; Rui, H.; Kempler, S.

    2005-12-01

    This presentation will describe our collaborative work with the World Food Programme of the United Nations, including web-based information services and tools to address global and regional water related issues, such as, floods and droughts. Set-up in 1963, the World Food Programme (WFP) is the United Nations frontline agency in the fight against global hunger. WFP depends on donors worldwide. The United States of America has been the largest donor. Natural disasters, such as, floods and droughts, occur every year in third world countries and often require emergency food aid. Moving large quantities of foods is not an easy task. Time and planning are required. Accurate and timely environmental information will facilitate decision-making and food distribution and maximize the use of contributions. Few observational data are available for disaster monitoring in remote and poor countries. Satellite observations provide a unique way in providing such data from space. The NASA Goddard Earth Sciences Data and Information Services Center (GES DISC) and Dr. Lenard Milich of WFP have been collaborating for the past three years on ways to integrate Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) data into forward planning exercises for establishing geographic areas (e.g., sub-equatorial Africa, Indonesia, and North Korea) in need of food assistance. To monitor and assess current conditions, the GES DISC has developed a number of rainfall products derived from TRMM and online based tools to facilitate data and information access. These tools will not only benefit the WFP decision-making activities, but also other local agencies and the general public. All data and services are web-based to minimize the cost for data accessing and maximize the use of global rainfall data products.

  4. Præventis, the immunisation register of the Netherlands: a tool to evaluate the National Immunisation Programme.

    PubMed

    van Lier, A; Oomen, P; de Hoogh, P; Drijfhout, I; Elsinghorst, B; Kemmeren, J; Conyn-van Spaendonck, M; de Melker, H

    2012-04-26

    Vaccination coverage is an important performance indicator of any national immunisation programme (NIP). To monitor the vaccination coverage in the Netherlands, an electronic national immunisation register called ‘Præventis’ was implemented in 2005. Præventis has a link with the population register and can produce letters of invitation for the NIP, register and validate administered vaccinations. The database is used to monitor the vaccination process, produce reminder letters, control the stock of vaccines and provides information used for paying the fees to the different executive organisations involved. Præventis provides a crucial tool for the evaluation of the NIP by producing (sub)national vaccination coverage estimates with high accuracy and allowing additional research: identifying populations at high risk for low coverage based on existing data, conducting specific studies where individuals included in the immunisation register are approached for further research, using vaccination coverage data for the interpretation of (sero)surveillance data, and linking the immunisation register with disease registers to address vaccine safety or vaccine effectiveness. The ability to combine Præventis data with data from other databases or disease registers and the ability to approach individuals with additional research questions offers opportunities to identify areas of priority for improving the Dutch NIP.

  5. Sleeping with the enemy: the United Nations Development Programme and its position on the non-communicable disease epidemic.

    PubMed

    Jacob, Anil G; Lal, Pranay G; Buragohain, Anita

    2014-02-01

    The United Nations Development Programme's (UNDP) position on non-communicable diseases (NCDs) is undermined by a key issue at the global institutional level. Fundamentally, the nature of the relationship between international development agencies and the tobacco industry is at odds with the professed public health priorities of the former. At its core, the business model of the tobacco industry is premised on the sale of addictive and disease-causing substances that fuel NCDs in the first place. The role of the United Nations system and, in particular, UNDP is to 'build nations that can withstand crisis', not to collaborate with entities that profit from crises. This simple and well-established fact cannot be overlooked. We outline an array of conflict of interests. If the effects of NCDs are ever to be reversed, then international agencies such as the UNDP ought to adhere to ethical standards in choosing partners and avoid conflict of interests. In the absence of this, the UNDP may well compromise its own agenda and proliferate NCDs rather than containing them.

  6. The dysfunctional consequences of a performance measurement system: the case of the Iranian national hospital grading programme.

    PubMed

    Aryankhesal, Aidin; Sheldon, Trevor A; Mannion, Russell; Mahdipour, Saeade

    2015-07-01

    Performance measurement systems are increasingly used to reward and improve provider performance. However, such initiatives may also inadvertently induce a range of unintended and dysfunctional side-effects. This study explores the unintended and adverse consequences induced by the Iranian national hospital grading programme, which incorporates financial incentives for meeting nationally defined standards. We interviewed key informants across four key groups with a legitimate interest in healthcare performance: four purposively selected hospitals; four health insurance organizations; the Iranian hospital accreditation body; and one grading agency. The transcribed interviews and field notes were analysed thematically, and subsequently, member checking was conducted. Seven dysfunctional consequences were identified: misrepresentation of data by hospitals; increased anxiety and stress among hospital employees; tunnel vision; financial pressures on poorly graded hospitals; incentives to purchase unnecessary equipment; erosion of public trust; and restricting access to hospital services by patients. These were caused by the way the grading system was implemented: poor standards of audit; the way in which the audit process was conducted; and the timing of audits. The pay for performance element of the grading system and the focus on structural aspects in the standards made improvement in grading particularly difficult for those hospitals that had been assessed as under-performing. Although the Iranian hospital grading system has resulted in a significant increase in the adoption of national standards, it has nevertheless induced a range of perverse outcomes. To mitigate these requires further refinement and recalibration of the system. © The Author(s) 2015.

  7. RUBELLA--SHOULD IT BE A PRIORITY IN THE NATIONAL IMMUNIZATION PROGRAMMES?

    PubMed

    Wazir, Mohammad Salim; Iqbal, Shahid

    2015-01-01

    Rubella is a mild infection of childhood and young adults with 75% of cases occurring in age group 15-45 years. In unvaccinated populations, rubella usually occurs in spring with epidemics in 6-9 years cycles. Rubella has devastating effects on growing foetus if contracted by women in the first trimester of pregnancy. Perinatal infection of Rubella contributes to 2-3% of all congenital anomalies. Over the past three decades many resource risk countries have introduced universal or selective immunization programs against rubella with evidence that such interventions reduce the incidence of congenital rubella syndrome. In Pakistan the schedules of the Expanded Program on Immunization (EPI) do not include immunization against rubella and evidence is needed to estimate the risk of congenital rubella with a view to start immunization programmes to combat the menace of Congenital Rubella Syndrome (CRS). Logistically it is easy to add rubella vaccine to the already existing EPI schedules as measles is given on 9th and 15 month with little implications for cost, resulting in great reduction in CRS.

  8. The Impact of School Vouchers on College Enrollment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chingos, Matthew M.; Peterson, Paul E.

    2013-01-01

    In 1996, Cardinal John J. O'Connor, archbishop of New York, proposed to Rudy Crew, chancellor of the New York City public school system, that the city's most troubled public-school students be sent to Catholic schools, where he would see that they were given an education. New York City's mayor at that time, Rudolph Giuliani, a voucher supporter,…

  9. California's Voucher Plan: A Private School Principal's Critique.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Szanto, Hubert S.

    1980-01-01

    Examines the impact the Coons and Sugarman voucher plan would have on both private and public schools. Expresses fear that religious schools would have to abandon their affiliations and that public schools would become dumping grounds for disorderly and low achieving students. (IRT)

  10. 24 CFR 401.556 - Leasing units to voucher holders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Leasing units to voucher holders. 401.556 Section 401.556 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban... PROGRAM (MARK-TO-MARKET) Implementation of the Restructuring Plan After Closing § 401.556 Leasing units...

  11. 24 CFR 401.556 - Leasing units to voucher holders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Leasing units to voucher holders. 401.556 Section 401.556 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban... PROGRAM (MARK-TO-MARKET) Implementation of the Restructuring Plan After Closing § 401.556 Leasing units...

  12. 24 CFR 401.556 - Leasing units to voucher holders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Leasing units to voucher holders. 401.556 Section 401.556 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban... PROGRAM (MARK-TO-MARKET) Implementation of the Restructuring Plan After Closing § 401.556 Leasing units...

  13. Contexts Matter: Selection in Means-Tested School Voucher Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hart, Cassandra M. D.

    2014-01-01

    This study examines public school characteristics, and public and private school market characteristics, associated with participation among elementary-aged students in a means-tested school voucher program in Florida. Participants are more likely than eligible nonparticipants to come from disadvantaged public schools on multiple dimensions. On…

  14. Parental Voucher Enrollment Decisions: Choice within Choice in New Orleans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beabout, Brian R.; Cambre, Belinda M.

    2013-01-01

    Set in the context of a choice-saturated public school system, this study examines the school choice process of low-income parents who participated in Louisiana's 2008 voucher program. Based on semistructured interviews with 16 parents at 1 Catholic school, we report that spirituality, small class and school size, character/values, familiarity,…

  15. Vouchers and Public Policy: When Ideology Trumps Evidence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Belfield, Clive; Levin, Henry M.

    2005-01-01

    The economic model of education policy assumes that there is a substantial consensus on educational goals among constituencies and that the major challenge is to determine the most effective strategies for reaching those goals. Unfortunately, the debate over educational vouchers is complicated by the presence of multiple and competing goals, and…

  16. Proceedings of Hearing: Voucher Systems and Contractor Proposals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California State Legislature, Sacramento. Senate Committee on Education.

    The participants in these hearings that took place prior to the California Supreme Court issuing its decision in the Serrano vs Priest case discuss that case and also the use of education vouchers as one means of education finance reform. Legislators, education finance experts, and interested organizations and citizens express their views on…

  17. Exploring Quality Choices: Vouchers. Closing the Achievement Gap Series

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Read, Tory

    2008-01-01

    The "Closing the Achievement Gap" series explores the Casey Foundation's education investments and presents stories, results, and lessons learned. This publication presents an in-depth look at the Foundation's investment in the District of Columbia voucher effort, summarizing results and lessons learned to-date. The document also includes Casey…

  18. Contexts Matter: Selection in Means-Tested School Voucher Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hart, Cassandra M. D.

    2014-01-01

    This study examines public school characteristics, and public and private school market characteristics, associated with participation among elementary-aged students in a means-tested school voucher program in Florida. Participants are more likely than eligible nonparticipants to come from disadvantaged public schools on multiple dimensions. On…

  19. The Voucher Decision: Charting the New Landscape of School Choice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walsh, Mark; Gehring, John; Gewertz, Catherine; Zehr, Mary Ann; Robelen, Eric W.

    2002-01-01

    These articles highlight reactions to the U.S. Supreme Court's landmark ruling upholding the Cleveland voucher program. "Justices Settle Case, Nettle Policy Debate" (Mark Walsh) discusses how the ruling has rejuvenated the school choice movement and reinvigorated debates over how best to improve education for all students. "Voucher…

  20. Lies and Distortions: The Campaign against School Vouchers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fuller, Howard; Caire, Kaleem

    This report suggests that organized opponents of tax-supported school vouchers purposely issue inaccurate statements about parental school choice, suggesting that their widespread efforts seriously contaminate discussion of this policy issue. Section one suggests that a "big lie" strategy is being used by organized school voucher…

  1. Parental Voucher Enrollment Decisions: Choice within Choice in New Orleans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beabout, Brian R.; Cambre, Belinda M.

    2013-01-01

    Set in the context of a choice-saturated public school system, this study examines the school choice process of low-income parents who participated in Louisiana's 2008 voucher program. Based on semistructured interviews with 16 parents at 1 Catholic school, we report that spirituality, small class and school size, character/values, familiarity,…

  2. A Proposal for State, Income-Targeted, Preschool Vouchers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Witte, John F.

    2007-01-01

    This article proposes that states create low-income targeted voucher programs for 3- and/or 4-year-olds. The basis for this proposal is considerable research demonstrating long-term effects for a number of random assignment and quasi-experimental preschool programs. Benefit-costs rates of return for these programs are between $2 and $16 for every…

  3. Measuring Competitive Effects from School Voucher Programs: A Systematic Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Egalite, Anna J.

    2013-01-01

    Studies of the competition effects from voucher or tuition tax credit scholarship programs on public school student academic outcomes have taken place in seven locations throughout the United States, with the majority of studies taking place in Florida, followed by Wisconsin. This article reviews 21 total studies of the impacts on student academic…

  4. Measuring Competitive Effects from School Voucher Programs: A Systematic Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Egalite, Anna J.

    2013-01-01

    Studies of the competition effects from voucher or tuition tax credit scholarship programs on public school student academic outcomes have taken place in seven locations throughout the United States, with the majority of studies taking place in Florida, followed by Wisconsin. This article reviews 21 total studies of the impacts on student academic…

  5. School Vouchers and Privatization: A Reference Handbook. Contemporary Education Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weil, Danny

    This book looks at the privatization of education as an ideological construct. In exploring and assessing the concept of privatized education, it focuses on the debate over private choice and school vouchers. It also looks at the development of private curriculums and educational materials created by corporations, various scholarship-funding…

  6. Responses of Private and Public Schools to Voucher Funding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Filer, Randall K.; Munich, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    The post-communist Czech Republic provides a laboratory in which to investigate possible responses to the adoption of universal education vouchers. Private schools appear to have arisen in response to distinct market incentives. They are more common in fields where public school inertia has resulted in an under-supply of available slots. They are…

  7. Justices Query Lawyers in Florida Court Showdown over Voucher Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richard, Alan

    2006-01-01

    Florida's Opportunity Scholarships faced their most crucial test in June 2005, as the state supreme court heard arguments in a case about the constitutionality of the voucher program. In more than an hour of oral arguments in "Bush v. Holmes," held June 7, in Tallahassee and shown live on the Internet, lawyers sparred over the…

  8. California's Voucher Plan: A Private School Principal's Critique.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Szanto, Hubert S.

    1980-01-01

    Examines the impact the Coons and Sugarman voucher plan would have on both private and public schools. Expresses fear that religious schools would have to abandon their affiliations and that public schools would become dumping grounds for disorderly and low achieving students. (IRT)

  9. Women, Education and the Law: Vouchers, Tax Credits, & Legal Confusion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    First, Patricia F.

    2003-01-01

    In early 2003, two distinguished researchers in school law analyzed aspects of the law vis-a-vis vouchers and tax credits and the public schools (McCarthy, 2003; Welner, 2003). The issues were confusing, and the author wondered how educators and the public responded. How can policy makers make reasonable decisions about public education without a…

  10. 24 CFR 401.556 - Leasing units to voucher holders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Leasing units to voucher holders. 401.556 Section 401.556 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban... PROGRAM (MARK-TO-MARKET) Implementation of the Restructuring Plan After Closing § 401.556 Leasing units...

  11. Responses of Private and Public Schools to Voucher Funding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Filer, Randall K.; Munich, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    The post-communist Czech Republic provides a laboratory in which to investigate possible responses to the adoption of universal education vouchers. Private schools appear to have arisen in response to distinct market incentives. They are more common in fields where public school inertia has resulted in an under-supply of available slots. They are…

  12. Vouchers and Public Policy: When Ideology Trumps Evidence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Belfield, Clive; Levin, Henry M.

    2005-01-01

    The economic model of education policy assumes that there is a substantial consensus on educational goals among constituencies and that the major challenge is to determine the most effective strategies for reaching those goals. Unfortunately, the debate over educational vouchers is complicated by the presence of multiple and competing goals, and…

  13. 48 CFR 49.302 - Discontinuance of vouchers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Discontinuance of vouchers. 49.302 Section 49.302 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION CONTRACT MANAGEMENT TERMINATION OF CONTRACTS Additional Principles for Cost-Reimbursement Contracts Terminated for...

  14. 48 CFR 49.303 - Procedure after discontinuing vouchers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Procedure after discontinuing vouchers. 49.303 Section 49.303 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION CONTRACT MANAGEMENT TERMINATION OF CONTRACTS Additional Principles for Cost-Reimbursement...

  15. 48 CFR 49.304-3 - Submission of vouchers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Submission of vouchers. 49.304-3 Section 49.304-3 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION CONTRACT MANAGEMENT TERMINATION OF CONTRACTS Additional Principles for Cost-Reimbursement Contracts Terminated for...

  16. 24 CFR 401.556 - Leasing units to voucher holders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Leasing units to voucher holders. 401.556 Section 401.556 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban... PROGRAM (MARK-TO-MARKET) Implementation of the Restructuring Plan After Closing § 401.556 Leasing units...

  17. False Choices: Why School Vouchers Threaten Our Children's Future.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lowe, Robert, Ed.; Miner, Barbara, Ed.

    1992-01-01

    A voucher system of schooling would destroy the few democratic gains made in public education in recent years, worsen inequalities that already permeate education, and block opportunities for meaningful reform. Articles included in this special issue are: (1) an introduction, "Why We Are Publishing False Choices" ("Rethinking…

  18. The Impact of School Vouchers on College Enrollment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chingos, Matthew M.; Peterson, Paul E.

    2013-01-01

    In 1996, Cardinal John J. O'Connor, archbishop of New York, proposed to Rudy Crew, chancellor of the New York City public school system, that the city's most troubled public-school students be sent to Catholic schools, where he would see that they were given an education. New York City's mayor at that time, Rudolph Giuliani, a voucher supporter,…

  19. Evaluation of Distance Education Programmes: The Case of the National University of Lesotho.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Braimoh, Dele; Adeola, O. A.; Lephoto, H. M.

    1999-01-01

    Discussion of part-time distance education for adult learners in Africa focuses on an evaluation of an adult education degree program at the National University of Lesotho (South Africa). Topics include program management; characteristics of adult learners; program delivery; performance assessment; gender differences; and socio-metric variables.…

  20. Building Knowledge, Building Community: Reflecting on the Value of a National Research Programme in Adult Literacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    St Clair, Ralf

    2005-01-01

    In 2003 the National Literacy Secretariat (NLS) of Canada, at that time a branch of the Department of Human Resources and Development Canada, decided to review its research function. This article discusses some of the questions the review raised for the field. Many of these issues are to do with the management of knowledge--what research gets…

  1. Assessing the Higher National Diploma Chemical Engineering Programme in Ghana: Students' Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boateng, Cyril D.; Bensah, Edem Cudjoe; Ahiekpor, Julius C.

    2012-01-01

    Chemical engineers have played key roles in the growth of the chemical and allied industries in Ghana but indigenous industries that have traditionally been the domain of the informal sector need to be migrated to the formal sector through the entrepreneurship and innovation of chemical engineers. The Higher National Diploma Chemical Engineering…

  2. The United Nations University: The Concept, History, Structure, Financing, Objectives, Centres and Programmes. Guest Editorial.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reddy, J.

    2000-01-01

    The United Nations University (UNU) is an international academic organization which brings together leading international scholars to tackle world problems. This article describes for South African scholars, institutions, governments, and their agencies the importance of the work being undertaken by the UNU and encourages their participation. (EV)

  3. Assessing the Higher National Diploma Chemical Engineering Programme in Ghana: Students' Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boateng, Cyril D.; Bensah, Edem Cudjoe; Ahiekpor, Julius C.

    2012-01-01

    Chemical engineers have played key roles in the growth of the chemical and allied industries in Ghana but indigenous industries that have traditionally been the domain of the informal sector need to be migrated to the formal sector through the entrepreneurship and innovation of chemical engineers. The Higher National Diploma Chemical Engineering…

  4. English-Medium Programmes at Austrian Business Faculties: A Status Quo Survey on National Trends and a Case Study on Programme Design and Delivery

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Unterberger, Barbara

    2012-01-01

    Internationalisation processes have accelerated the implementation of English-medium programmes (EMPs) across European higher education institutions. The field of business and management studies has been particularly affected by this trend (Wachter & Maiworm 2008: 46) with numerous new EMPs introduced each year. This paper presents key…

  5. English-Medium Programmes at Austrian Business Faculties: A Status Quo Survey on National Trends and a Case Study on Programme Design and Delivery

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Unterberger, Barbara

    2012-01-01

    Internationalisation processes have accelerated the implementation of English-medium programmes (EMPs) across European higher education institutions. The field of business and management studies has been particularly affected by this trend (Wachter & Maiworm 2008: 46) with numerous new EMPs introduced each year. This paper presents key…

  6. Thirty years of vaccination in Vietnam: Impact and cost-effectiveness of the national Expanded Programme on Immunization.

    PubMed

    Jit, Mark; Dang, Thi Thanh Huyen; Friberg, Ingrid; Hoang, Van Minh; Pham Huy, Tuan Kiet; Walker, Neff; Nguyen, Van Cuong; Tran, Nhu Duong; Toda, Kohei; Hutubessy, Raymond; Fox, Kimberley; Nguyen, Tran Hien

    2015-05-07

    Countries like Vietnam transitioning to middle-income status increasingly bear the cost of both existing and new vaccines. However, the impact and cost-effectiveness of the Expanded Programme on Immunization (EPI) as a whole has never been assessed on a country level. Data on vaccine-preventable disease incidence and mortality from Vietnam's national surveillance was analysed to estimate the likely impact that vaccination in 1980-2010 may have had. Adjustment for under-reporting was made by examining trends in reported mumps incidence and in case-fatality risks for each disease. The same data were separately analysed using the Lives Saved Tool (LiST) to give an alternative estimate of impact. The financial cost of EPI in 1996-2010 was also estimated from the perspective of service provider. National surveillance data suggests that up to 5.7 million diseases cases and 26,000 deaths may have been prevented by EPI. Analysis using LiST suggests that even more deaths (370,000) may have been prevented by measles and pertussis vaccination alone. The cost-effectiveness of EPI is estimated to be around $1000-$27,000 per death prevented. Two separate approaches to assessing EPI impact in Vietnam give different quantitative results but a common conclusion: that EPI has made a substantial impact on mortality and represents good value for money. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  7. Learning Our Way into Communication: The Making of the Communication and Information Strategy "with" the National Agricultural Advisory Services Programme in Uganda

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramirez, Ricardo

    2005-01-01

    This paper reports on the making of the Communication and Information Strategy with the National Agricultural Advisory Services Programme (NAADS) in Uganda. The NAADS is a new organization in government responsible for the implementation of a demand-driven agricultural extension approach. The new extension approach calls for fundamental changes in…

  8. Adding Value to Students in Higher Education: A 5-Year Analysis of Student Attainment of National Governing Body Awards in a UK Outdoor Education Degree Programme

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stott, Tim

    2007-01-01

    Recent interest in ways of assessing the performance and "value-added" aspects of higher education and how universities can enhance graduate employability skills has prompted this study into the acquisition of National Governing Body Award (NGBA) qualifications by students on a UK outdoor education degree programme. Students' age,…

  9. International open trial of uniform multidrug therapy regimen for leprosy patients: Findings & implications for national leprosy programmes.

    PubMed

    Manickam, Ponnaiah; Mehendale, Sanjay M; Nagaraju, Bathyala; Katoch, Kiran; Jamesh, Abdul; Kutaiyan, Ramalingam; Jianping, Shen; Mugudalabetta, Shivakumar; Jadhav, Vitthal; Rajkumar, Prabu; Padma, Jayasree; Kaliaperumal, Kanagasabai; Pannikar, Vijayakumar; Krishnamurthy, Padabettu; Gupte, Mohan D

    2016-10-01

    Uniform therapy for all leprosy patients will simplify leprosy treatment. In this context, we evaluated six-month multidrug therapy (MDT) currently recommended for multibacillary (MB) patients as uniform MDT (U-MDT) in a single-arm open trial under programme conditions. Primary objective was to determine efficacy to prevent five-year cumulative five per cent relapse. Secondary objectives were to assess acceptability, safety and compliance. Newly detected, treatment-naive leprosy patients were enrolled in India (six sites) and P. R. China (two sites). Primary outcome was clinically confirmed relapse of occurrence of one or more new skin patches consistent with leprosy, without evidence of reactions post-treatment. Event rates per 100 person years as well as five-year cumulative risk of relapse, were calculated. A total of 2091 paucibacillary (PB) and 1298 MB leprosy patients were recruited from the 3437 patients screened. Among PB, two relapsed (rate=0.023; risk=0.11%), eight had suspected adverse drug reactions (ADRs) (rate=0.79) and rate of new lesions due toreactions was 0.24 (n=23). Rates of neuritis, type 1 and type 2 reactions were 0.39 (n=37), 0.54 (n=51) and 0.03 (n=3), respectively. Among MB, four relapsed (rate=0.07; risk=0.37%) and 16 had suspected ADR (rate=2.64). Rate of new lesions due to reactions among MB was 1.34 (n=76) and rates of neuritis, type 1 and type 2 reactions were 1.37 (n=78), 2.01 (n=114) and 0.49 (n=28), respectively. Compliance to U-MDT was 99 per cent. Skin pigmentation due to clofazimine was of short duration and acceptable. We observed low relapse, minimal ADR and other adverse clinical events. Clofazimine-related pigmentation was acceptable. Evidence supports introduction of U-MDT in national leprosy programmes. [CTRI No: 2012/ 05/ 002696].

  10. Community reinforcement approach plus vouchers among cocaine-dependent outpatients: twelve-month outcomes.

    PubMed

    Secades-Villa, Roberto; García-Rodríguez, Olaya; García-Fernández, Gloria; Sánchez-Hervás, Emilio; Fernandez-Hermida, José R; Higgins, Stephen T

    2011-03-01

    The aims of this study were to assess the effectiveness of the Community Reinforcement Approach (CRA) plus vouchers treatment in a cohort of Spanish cocaine-dependent outpatients, and to examine the maintenance of treatment effects after the voucher intervention was discontinued. Sixty-four adult outpatients were randomly assigned to one of two treatment conditions, CRA plus vouchers or standard care. The vouchers program was implemented from weeks 1 to 24. Among patients assigned to the CRA plus vouchers condition, 65.5% completed 12 months of treatment versus 28.6% of those assigned to the standard care condition (p = .003). At the 12-month assessment, 58.6% of patients assigned to the CRA plus vouchers condition were abstinent, compared with 25.7% in the standard care condition (p = .008); furthermore, 34.5% of patients assigned to the CRA plus vouchers condition achieved twelve months of continuous cocaine abstinence, versus 17.1% in the standard care condition. Those treated in the CRA plus vouchers condition also achieved greater improvements in psychosocial functioning than those treated in the standard care condition. Overall, these results reveal an extension of the effectiveness of the CRA plus vouchers treatment to a community sample of cocaine-dependent outpatients, while also supporting the maintenance of treatment effects for 6 months after completion of the voucher program.

  11. A national riparian restoration programme in New Zealand: Is it value for money?

    PubMed

    Daigneault, Adam J; Eppink, Florian V; Lee, William G

    2017-02-01

    National scale initiatives are being attempted in New Zealand (NZ) to meet important environmental goals following land-use intensification over recent decades. Riparian restoration to filter agricultural spillover effects is currently the most widely practised mitigation measure but few studies have investigated the cumulative value of these practices at a national level. We use an applied economic land use model the benefits (GHG emissions, N leaching, P loss, sedimentation and biodiversity gain) and relevant costs (fencing, alternative stock water supplies, restoration planting and opportunity costs) of restoring riparian margins (5-50 m) on all streams in NZ flowing through current primary sector land. Extensive sensitivity analysis reveals that depending on margin width and cost assumptions, riparian margin restoration generates net benefits of between NZ$1.7 billion - $5.2 billion/yr and benefit-cost ratios ranging between 1.4 and 22.4. This suggests that even when not monetising the increase in biodiversity or components of stream ecosystem health and other benefits from planting riparian strips, the benefits to climate and freshwater are significantly greater than the implementation costs of riparian restoration. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  12. Do Vouchers Lead to Sorting under Random Private-School Selection? Evidence from the Milwaukee Voucher Program. Staff Report No. 379

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chakrabarti, Rajashri

    2011-01-01

    This paper analyzes the impact of voucher design on student sorting in the application and enrollment phases of parental choice. More specifically, it investigates whether there are feasible ways of designing vouchers that can reduce or eliminate student sorting in these phases. Much of the existing literature investigates the question of…

  13. Resource Allocation and Budgeting for the 1972-73 Mini-Schools of the Alum Rock Voucher Demonstration. Analysis of the Education Voucher Demonstration. A Working Note.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haggart, S. A.; Furry, W. S.

    This Working Note documents the first year's events and outcomes in developing the budgeting system and resource allocation rules to support the Education Voucher Demonstration. The district now has systems for per pupil resource allocation and school/minischool cost center accounting. The basic voucher of $1,041 for grades 7-8, and $788 for…

  14. Do patient surveys work? The influence of a national survey programme on local quality-improvement initiatives

    PubMed Central

    Reeves, R; Seccombe, I

    2008-01-01

    Objectives: To assess current attitudes towards the national patient survey programme in England, establish the extent to which survey results are used and identify barriers and incentives for using them. Design: Qualitative interviews with hospital staff responsible for implementing the patient surveys (survey leads). Setting: National Health Service (NHS) hospital organisations (trusts) in England. Participants: Twenty-four patient survey leads for NHS trusts. Results: Perceptions of the patient surveys were mainly positive and were reported to be improving. Interviewees welcomed the surveys’ regular repetition and thought the questionnaires, survey methods and reporting of results, particularly inter-organisational benchmark charts, were of a good standard. The survey results were widely used in action planning and were thought to support organisational patient-centredness. There was variation in the extent to which trusts disseminated survey findings to patients, the public, staff and their board members. The most common barrier to using results was difficulty engaging clinicians because survey findings were not sufficiently specific to specialties, departments or wards. Limited statistical expertise and concerns that the surveys only covered a short time frame also contributed to some scepticism. Other perceived barriers included a lack of knowledge of effective interventions, and limited time and resources. Actual and potential incentives for using survey findings included giving the results higher weightings in the performance management system, financial targets, Payment by Results (PbR), Patient Choice, a patient-centred culture, leadership by senior members of the organisation, and boosting staff morale by disseminating positive survey findings. Conclusion: The national patient surveys are viewed positively, their repetition being an important factor in their success. The results could be used more effectively if they were more specific to smaller units

  15. The South African National Accelerator Centre: particle therapy and isotope production programmes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, D. T. L.; Mills, S. J.

    1998-06-01

    The National Accelerator Centre (NAC) provides facilities for basic and applied research, radioisotope production and particle therapy. To date, 851 patients have been treated on the 66 MeV p+Be isocentric neutron therapy unit while 191 patients have been treated (mainly for intracranial conditions) on the 200 MeV horizontal proton beam facility. A variety of radioisotopes such as 67Ga, 81Rb/ 81Kr, 111In, 123I, and 201Tl are produced on a regular weekly basis, and more than 1000 consignments of radiopharmaceuticals prepared from these radioisotopes are supplied to more than 30 hospitals and private practices throughout South Africa each year. Some non-medical radioisotopes are also produced.

  16. Ozone depletion and solar ultraviolet radiation: ocular effects, a United nations environment programme perspective.

    PubMed

    Cullen, Anthony P

    2011-07-01

    To describe he role played by the United Nations Environmental Effects Panel with respect to the ocular effects of stratospheric ozone depletion and present the essence of the Health Chapter of the 2010 Assessment. A consideration of solar ultraviolet radiation (UVR) at the Earth's surface as it is affected by atmospheric changes and how these influence sunlight-related eye diseases. A review of the current Assessment with emphasis on pterygium, cataract, ocular melanoma, and age-related macular degeneration. Although the ozone layer is projected to recover slowly in the coming decades, continuing vigilance is required regarding exposure to the sun. Evidence implicating solar UVR, especially UVB, in every tissue of the eye continues to be amassed. The need for ocular UV protection existed before the discovery of the depletion of the ozone layer and will continue even when the layer fully recovers in approximately 2100.

  17. Addition of generic medication vouchers to a pharmacist academic detailing program: effects on the generic dispensing ratio in a physician-hospital organization.

    PubMed

    Bhargava, Vinay; Greg, Mark E; Shields, Mark C

    2010-01-01

    Generic dispensing ratio (GDR) is an important measure of efficiency in pharmacy benefit management. A few studies have examined the effects of academic detailing or generic drug samples on GDR. On July 1, 2007, a physician-hospital organization (PHO) with a pay-for-performance incentive for generic utilization initiated a pilot generic medication voucher program that augmented its existing pharmacist-led academic detailing efforts. No published studies have examined the role of generic medication vouchers in promoting generic drug utilization. To determine if supplementing an existing academic detailing initiative in a PHO with a generic medication voucher program would be more effective in increasing the GDR compared with academic detailing alone. The intervention took place over the 9-month period from July 1, 2007, through March 31, 2008. Vouchers provided patients with the first fill of a 30-day supply of a generic drug at no cost to the patient for 8 specific generic medications obtained through a national community pharmacy chain. The study was conducted in a PHO composed of 7 hospitals and approximately 2,900 physicians (900 primary care providers [PCPs] and 2,000 specialists). Of the approximately 300 PCP practices, 21 practices with at least 2 physicians each were selected on the basis of high prescription volume (more than 500 pharmacy claims for the practice over a 12-month pre-baseline period) and low GDR (practice GDR less than 55% in the 12-month pre-baseline period). These 21 practices were then randomized to a control group of academic detailing alone or the intervention group that received academic detailing plus generic medication vouchers. One of 10 intervention groups declined to participate, and 2 of 11 control groups dropped out of the PHO. GDR was calculated monthly for all pharmacy claims including the 8 voucher medications. GDR was defined as the ratio of the total number of paid generic pharmacy claims divided by the total number of paid

  18. Targeting populations at higher risk for malaria: a survey of national malaria elimination programmes in the Asia Pacific.

    PubMed

    Wen, Shawn; Harvard, Kelly E; Gueye, Cara Smith; Canavati, Sara E; Chancellor, Arna; Ahmed, Be-Nazir; Leaburi, John; Lek, Dysoley; Namgay, Rinzin; Surya, Asik; Thakur, Garib D; Whittaker, Maxine Anne; Gosling, Roly D

    2016-05-10

    Significant progress has been made in reducing the malaria burden in the Asia Pacific region, which is aggressively pursuing a 2030 regional elimination goal. Moving from malaria control to elimination requires National Malaria Control Programmes (NMCPs) to target interventions at populations at higher risk, who are often not reached by health services, highly mobile and difficult to test, treat, and track with routine measures, and if undiagnosed, can maintain parasite reservoirs and contribute to ongoing transmission. A qualitative, free-text questionnaire was developed and disseminated among 17 of the 18 partner countries of the Asia Pacific Malaria Elimination Network (APMEN). All 14 countries that responded to the survey identified key populations at higher risk of malaria in their respective countries. Thirteen countries engage in the dissemination of malaria-related Information, Education, and Communication (IEC) materials. Eight countries engage in diagnostic screening, including of mobile and migrant workers, military staff, and/or overseas workers. Ten countries reported distributing or recommending the use of long-lasting insecticide-treated nets (LLINs) among populations at higher risk with fewer countries engaging in other prevention measures such as indoor residual spraying (IRS) (two countries), spatial repellents (four countries), chemoprophylaxis (five countries), and mass drug administration (MDA) (three countries). Though not specifically tailored to populations at higher risk, 11 countries reported using mass blood surveys as a surveillance tool and ten countries map case data. Most NMCPs lack a monitoring and evaluation structure. Countries in the Asia Pacific have identified populations at higher risk and targeted interventions to these groups but there is limited information on the effectiveness of these interventions. Platforms like APMEN offer the opportunity for the sharing of protocols and lessons learned related to finding, targeting and

  19. Immunosurveillance and the evaluation of national immunization programmes: a population-based approach.

    PubMed Central

    De Melker, H. E.; Conyn-van Spaendonck, M. A.

    1998-01-01

    Mass vaccination can change the epidemiological dynamics of infectious diseases. It may result in a limited persistence of natural and vaccine-induced immunity and a higher mean age of infection, which may lead to a greater risk of complications. The epidemiological situation should be monitored and immunosurveillance based on the assessment of specific antibodies against vaccine-preventable diseases in human serum is one of the tools. In order to estimate the immunity of the Dutch population reliably, a large-scale, population-based, collection of serum samples was established (8359 sera in a nation-wide sampling and 1589 sera from municipalities with low vaccine coverage). In contrast to collecting residual sera from laboratories, this approach gains extensive information by means of a questionnaire regarding the determinants of the immune status and the risk factors for the transmission of infectious diseases in general. The population-based approach gives a better guarantee that the data are representative than collecting sera from laboratories does. PMID:10030714

  20. Epidemiology of occupational injuries by nationality in Qatar: Evidence for focused occupational safety programmes.

    PubMed

    Al-Thani, Hassan; El-Menyar, Ayman; Consunji, Rafael; Mekkodathil, Ahammed; Peralta, Ruben; Allen, Katharine A; Hyder, Adnan A

    2015-09-01

    Occupational injuries are the second leading cause of trauma admission in Qatar. Given the wide diversity of the country's migrant worker populations at risk, this study aimed to analyse and describe the epidemiology of these injuries based on the workers nationality residing in Qatar. A retrospective analysis of trauma registry data on occupational-related injuries was conducted. The analysis included all patients [aged ≥18 years] admitted to the Level I Hamad Trauma Center, from January 1, 2010 to December 31, 2013. Out of 6555 trauma admissions, 2015 (30.7%) patients had occupational injury. The admitted Case Fatality Rate (CFR) was 4.3 per 100 occupational injury related trauma admissions. Overall non-fatal occupational injury rate was 37.34 per 100,000 workers, whereas fatal injury rate was 1.58 per 100,000 workers. Most of the workers experiencing occupational injuries were from Nepal (28%), India (20%) and Bangladesh (9%). Fatal occupational injuries were predominately among Indians (20%), Nepalese (19%), and Filipinos/Bangladeshis (both 8%). Filipinos had the highest admitted CFR at 8.2 deaths per 100 trauma admissions with the next highest being Indians and Indonesians (4.2 per 100 trauma admissions). During the study period, the incidence of severe occupational injuries decreased despite a simultaneous increase in the worker population within Qatar. Almost one in four occupational injuries was a major trauma (ISS≥16). Nepalese and Indian workers represented 29% and 18% of all major trauma cases. Non-fatal occupational injuries appear to follow a pattern distinct from fatal ones. High-risk worker populations as defined by those with high admitted CFRs, experiencing the most severe or fatal injuries, must be the focus of targeted risk factor analysis and occupational safety interventions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Scaling up nurse education: An evaluation of a national PhD capacity development programme in South Africa, in the context of the global shortage of nursing graduates.

    PubMed

    Comiskey, Catherine M; Matthews, Anne; Williamson, Charmaine; Bruce, Judith; Mulaudzi, Mavis; Klopper, Hester

    2015-05-01

    The global shortage of nursing professionals educated at baccalaureate level and beyond has been highlighted. Within America, services are preparing to treat an additional 32 million individuals under the Health Reform Bill. Within South Africa nursing education outputs do not meet demands. Countries are addressing these shortages by developing advanced nurse roles which require research degrees. To evaluate a national PhD programme within the context of a nurse education strategy and a national health insurance plan. A comparative effectiveness research design was employed. The setting was in South Africa between 2011 and 2013, a county with 51.7 million inhabitants. Participants included PhD candidates, programme facilitators, supervisors and key stakeholders. Data from a one day workshop was analysed using an inductive thematic analysis. Three years of evaluation reports were analysed. A mapping of the alignment of the PhD topics with healthcare priorities, and a comparison of the development of nurse education, of the national and international funder were conducted. The evaluation reports rated the programme highly. Three themes were identified from the workshop. These were, "support" with the sub-themes of burden, leveraging and a physical supportive place; "planning" with the sub-themes of the national context and practice, and "quality" with the sub-themes of processes and monitoring and evaluation. The mapping of PhD topics revealed that research was in line with development priorities. However, further investment and infrastructural changes were necessary to sustain the programme and its impact. To address sustainability and capacity in nations scaling up nurse education and healthcare insurance, it was recommended that top-up degrees for diploma educated nurses be developed along with, the implementation of a national nursing strategy for PhD and post-doctoral training encompassing clinical practice implementation and collaboration. Copyright © 2015

  2. Combating childhood obesity: Reactions of children aged 10-11 years towards the National Child Measurement Programme.

    PubMed

    Nnyanzi, Lawrence Achilles

    2015-10-06

    The aim of this study was to explore the reactions of children aged 10-11 years towards being weighed and measured and subsequently told their correct weight as part of the National Child Measurement Programme (NCMP). The study was undertaken in primary schools in a Primary Care Trust (PCT) in the North East of England, UK. One-to-one semi-structured interviews were conducted post-NCMP measurement (and the feedback) with a sample of 21 children, aged 10-11 years, conveniently sampled from the primary schools in the PCT. Findings from the study indicate that the NCMP, especially the weight feedback letter caused annoyance, panic and worry among children who were indicated to have weight problems and oversensitised all children about weight issues, regardless of their weight category. The NCMP is a potentially useful 'wake-up call' to the fact that something needs to be done for children identified to be overweight or obese but needs to be delivered with a sensitivity to the impact of the news on the child.

  3. Awareness and knowledge of National School Health Policy and School Health Programme among public secondary school teachers in Ibadan metropolis

    PubMed Central

    Obembe, Taiwo A.; Osungbade, Kayode O.; Ademokun, Oluwakemi M.

    2016-01-01

    Background: The awareness, knowledge, and involvement of teachers in the implementation of School Health Programme (SHP) in secondary schools are essential in ensuring the effectiveness and overall success of the School Health Policy. This study assessed the awareness and knowledge of teachers on SHP in Ibadan metropolis. Methods: A descriptive cross-sectional study was carried out using a two-stage sampling technique to select 426 secondary school teachers across all the five Urban Local Government Areas (LGAs) in Ibadan metropolis by balloting. Pretested semi-structured questionnaires were used to collect data from 426 teachers. Quantitative data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, Chi-square, and logistics regression tests at 5% level of significance. Results: About one-third of the respondents had heard of National School Health Policy (NSHP); however, few had seen the document. About half of the respondents were aware of the SHP in their schools. Many of the respondents had a good knowledge of SHP. Age and level of education of participants significantly influenced the knowledge of SHP. Above 50 years of age and postgraduate qualification were the significant predictors for the good knowledge of SHP. Conclusions: Awareness of the NSHP was low despite the good knowledge of SHP. This could be due to the tertiary education that most of the respondents had. Concerted efforts of stakeholders are required to intensify the health education awareness campaign to improve teachers’ knowledge based on NSHP. PMID:27630385

  4. Innovation and the English National Health Service: a qualitative study of the independent sector treatment centre programme.

    PubMed

    Turner, Simon; Allen, Pauline; Bartlett, Will; Pérotin, Virginie

    2011-08-01

    Over the past two decades, an international trend of exposing public health services to different forms of economic organisation has emerged. In the English National Health Service (NHS), care is currently provided through a quasi-market including 'diverse' providers from the private and third sector. The predominant scheme through which private sector companies have been awarded NHS contracts is the Independent Sector Treatment Centre (ISTC) programme. ISTCs were designed to produce innovative models of service delivery for elective care and stimulate innovation among incumbent NHS providers. This paper investigates these claims using qualitative data on the impact of an ISTC upon a local health economy (LHE) composed of NHS organisations in England. Using the case of elective orthopaedic surgery, we conducted semi-structured interviews with senior managers from incumbent NHS providers and an ISTC in 2009. We show that ISTCs exhibit a different relationship with frontline clinicians because they counteract the power of professional communities associated with the NHS. This has positive and negative consequences for innovation. ISTCs have introduced new routines unencumbered by the extant norms of professional communities, but they appear to represent weaker learning environments and do not reproduce cooperation across organisational boundaries to the same extent as incumbent NHS providers.

  5. Awareness and knowledge of National School Health Policy and School Health Programme among public secondary school teachers in Ibadan metropolis.

    PubMed

    Obembe, Taiwo A; Osungbade, Kayode O; Ademokun, Oluwakemi M

    2016-01-01

    The awareness, knowledge, and involvement of teachers in the implementation of School Health Programme (SHP) in secondary schools are essential in ensuring the effectiveness and overall success of the School Health Policy. This study assessed the awareness and knowledge of teachers on SHP in Ibadan metropolis. A descriptive cross-sectional study was carried out using a two-stage sampling technique to select 426 secondary school teachers across all the five Urban Local Government Areas (LGAs) in Ibadan metropolis by balloting. Pretested semi-structured questionnaires were used to collect data from 426 teachers. Quantitative data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, Chi-square, and logistics regression tests at 5% level of significance. About one-third of the respondents had heard of National School Health Policy (NSHP); however, few had seen the document. About half of the respondents were aware of the SHP in their schools. Many of the respondents had a good knowledge of SHP. Age and level of education of participants significantly influenced the knowledge of SHP. Above 50 years of age and postgraduate qualification were the significant predictors for the good knowledge of SHP. Awareness of the NSHP was low despite the good knowledge of SHP. This could be due to the tertiary education that most of the respondents had. Concerted efforts of stakeholders are required to intensify the health education awareness campaign to improve teachers' knowledge based on NSHP.

  6. Responding to the multidrug-resistant tuberculosis crisis: mainstreaming programmatic management to the Philippine National Tuberculosis Programme.

    PubMed

    Quelapio, M I D; Mira, N R C; Orillaza-Chi, R B; Belen, V; Muñez, N; Belchez, R; Egos, G E; Evangelista, M; Vianzon, R; Tupasi, T E

    2010-06-01

    The Philippines ranks eighth among 27 priority countries for multidrug-resistant TB (MDR-TB). To describe a model of public-private partnership in MDR-TB management. An exploratory study of integrating MDR-TB management initiated in private-public mix DOTS into the National TB Programme (NTP). Recognising that MDR-TB was a threat to DOTS, the Tropical Disease Foundation initiated MDR-TB management in 1999. An official mandate for the integration of MDR-TB services into the NTP was issued by the Department of Health in 2008. With an increased government budget augmented by support from the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria, 1294 MDR-TB patients were placed on treatment from 1999 to 2008. The treatment success rate improved from 64% in 1999 to 75% in 2005. There are now five MDR-TB treatment centres with 181 treatment sites in Metro Manila, and three culture centres. People trained include 12 master trainers, 31 trainers, 25 treatment centre and 381 treatment site staff. Mainstreaming into the NTP of this unique model of MDR-TB management through a dynamic public-private collaboration can be considered best practice in implementation science of an evidence-based intervention leading to change in health care policy and practice.

  7. Knowledge and practice of sun protection in schools in South Africa where no national sun protection programme exists.

    PubMed

    Wright, Caradee Y; Reeder, Anthony I; Albers, Patricia N

    2016-04-01

    Interventions in primary schools that increase sun-protective behaviours and decrease ultraviolet radiation exposure, sunburn incidence and skin cancer risk can be effective. SunSmart School Accreditation Programmes (SSAP) are recommended. Prior to SSAP implementation in South Africa, we explored the feasibility of obtaining national baseline information and investigated possible associations between strategies regarding sun protection in schools and students' responses to a questionnaire. Principals from randomly selected urban government schools in all nine South African provinces completed a questionnaire and 679 students were surveyed. The mean sun-related knowledge and behaviour scores of students were 4 (range: 1-7) and 3 (range-0-8) out of 9, respectively. The mean school sun protection effort score was 4 out of 14. There were no statistically significant correlations between students' knowledge or behaviour scores and their school score. The World Health Organization recommends an SSAP to address policy, practice and curriculum changes to support sun protection of students. This cross-sectional study demonstrates the feasibility of, and need for, a larger baseline study with longitudinal, multi-variable follow-up which includes other influential factors, such as parent support. Such research could quantify the impact of the SSAP and identify which key factors influence the sun-related knowledge and behaviours of students. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. Redeeming qualities: exploring factors that affect women's use of reproductive health vouchers in Cambodia.

    PubMed

    Brody, Carinne D; Freccero, Julie; Brindis, Claire D; Bellows, Ben

    2013-02-26

    One approach to delivering healthcare in developing countries is through voucher programs, where vouchers are distributed to a specific population for free or subsidized health care. Recent evaluations suggest that vouchers have the potential to extend coverage of priority health services to the poor in developing countries. In Cambodia, a reproductive health voucher program was implemented in January 2011. This study aims to explore women's early experiences accessing health services with their vouchers at accredited clinics. This qualitative exploratory study used focus group methodology to gather information from five groups of older (>25 years) and four groups of younger (18-25 years) women who were eligible for the voucher program in three rural provinces. Focus groups were digitally recorded, transcribed and translated from Khmer into English. Data analysis was an iterative process, which comprised of open coding to find commonalities that reflected categories or themes and axial coding to relate initial themes to each other. Next, a basic framework for analysis was formed by integrating the themes into the framework. Two overarching themes were identified in the data: 1) factors that facilitate voucher use and 2) factors that inhibit voucher use. Within each of these themes, three subthemes were identified: 1) pre-existing factors, 2) distribution factors, and 3) redemption factors. Overall, women expressed positive feelings towards the voucher program, while several areas for program improvement were identified including the importance of addressing pre-existing demand-side barriers to using reproductive health services, the need for more comprehensive counselling during voucher distribution, and the persistent cost of unofficial payments expected by midwives after delivery irrespective of voucher use. Early information from program beneficiaries can lead to timely and responsive changes that can help to maximize program success. This study highlights the

  9. An Evaluation of Alternatives for Processing of Administrative Pay Vouchers: A Simulation Approach.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-09-01

    Finance Travel Voucher Q-GERT Productivity Personnel Forecasts Simulation Model 20. ABSTRACT (Continue on reverse side if necessary end Jdentfly by...Finance Office (ACF) has devised a Point System for use in determining the productivity of the ACF Travel Section (ACFTT). This Point System sets values...5 to 5+) to be assigned to incoming travel vouchers based on voucher complexity. This research had set objectives of (1) building an ACFTT model that

  10. Redeeming qualities: exploring factors that affect women’s use of reproductive health vouchers in Cambodia

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background One approach to delivering healthcare in developing countries is through voucher programs, where vouchers are distributed to a specific population for free or subsidized health care. Recent evaluations suggest that vouchers have the potential to extend coverage of priority health services to the poor in developing countries. In Cambodia, a reproductive health voucher program was implemented in January 2011. This study aims to explore women’s early experiences accessing health services with their vouchers at accredited clinics. Methods This qualitative exploratory study used focus group methodology to gather information from five groups of older (>25 years) and four groups of younger (18–25 years) women who were eligible for the voucher program in three rural provinces. Focus groups were digitally recorded, transcribed and translated from Khmer into English. Data analysis was an iterative process, which comprised of open coding to find commonalities that reflected categories or themes and axial coding to relate initial themes to each other. Next, a basic framework for analysis was formed by integrating the themes into the framework. Results Two overarching themes were identified in the data: 1) factors that facilitate voucher use and 2) factors that inhibit voucher use. Within each of these themes, three subthemes were identified: 1) pre-existing factors, 2) distribution factors, and 3) redemption factors. Overall, women expressed positive feelings towards the voucher program, while several areas for program improvement were identified including the importance of addressing pre-existing demand-side barriers to using reproductive health services, the need for more comprehensive counselling during voucher distribution, and the persistent cost of unofficial payments expected by midwives after delivery irrespective of voucher use. Conclusions Early information from program beneficiaries can lead to timely and responsive changes that can help to maximize

  11. Can programme theory be used as a 'translational tool’ to optimise health service delivery in a national early years’ initiative in Scotland: a case study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Theory-based evaluation (TBE) approaches are heralded as supporting formative evaluation by facilitating increased use of evaluative findings to guide programme improvement. It is essential that learning from programme implementation is better used to improve delivery and to inform other initiatives, if interventions are to be as effective as they have the potential to be. Nonetheless, few studies describe formative feedback methods, or report direct instrumental use of findings resulting from TBE. This paper uses the case of Scotland’s, National Health Service, early years’, oral health improvement initiative (Childsmile) to describe the use of TBE as a framework for providing feedback on delivery to programme staff and to assess its impact on programmatic action. Methods In-depth, semi-structured interviews and focus groups with key stakeholders explored perceived deviations between the Childsmile programme 'as delivered’ and its Programme Theory (PT). The data was thematically analysed using constant comparative methods. Findings were shared with key programme stakeholders and discussions around likely impact and necessary actions were facilitated by the authors. Documentary review and ongoing observations of programme meetings were undertaken to assess the extent to which learning was acted upon. Results On the whole, the activities documented in Childsmile’s PT were implemented as intended. This paper purposefully focuses on those activities where variation in delivery was evident. Differences resulted from the stage of roll-out reached and the flexibility given to individual NHS boards to tailor local implementation. Some adaptations were thought to have diverged from the central features of Childsmile’s PT, to the extent that there was a risk to achieving outcomes. The methods employed prompted national service improvement action, and proposals for local action by individual NHS boards to address this. Conclusions The TBE approach

  12. Stop the pain! A nation-wide quality improvement programme in paediatric oncology pain control.

    PubMed

    Zernikow, Boris; Hasan, Carola; Hechler, Tanja; Huebner, Bettina; Gordon, Deb; Michel, Erik

    2008-10-01

    Little is known about the impact of translation of pain management clinical practice guidelines on pain control in paediatrics. In an effort to overcome this, a longitudinal, nation-wide, multi-centre paediatric quality improvement (QI) study was initiated by the German Society of Pediatric Haematology and Oncology (GPOH) entitled Schmerz-Therapie in der Onkologischen Paediatrie (STOP). The project's primary major aims were to improve paediatric oncology pain control in Germany, and to evaluate the project's impact on the pain management quality. To achieve these aims, STOP encompassed six sequential phases to evaluate present practice, develop recommendations for practical pain control, actively engage participants in improvement strategies, and assess change. The purpose of this paper is to briefly describe STOP in its entirety, report on comparisons between active quality management (QM) departments that actively participated in the project and non-active QM departments regarding differences in pain control, patients' and parents' perspectives on pain control and health professionals' knowledge, and to discuss the impact of STOP as a whole. Four hypotheses were examined: (1) changes in health care professionals' knowledge on pain in paediatric oncology and pain management after a three-year period (2) impact of active participation in the STOP-project; (3) differences in patients' and parents' perspective in active QM versus non-active QM departments; (4) impact of the STOP-project on the health care professionals' knowledge in active QM versus non-active QM departments. Data included surveys, interviews, and standardised pre-/post-intervention documentation of pain control. All German paediatric oncology departments were invited to participate. The prime means of intervention was education (printed material, passive participation; additional lectures and feed-back, active participation). Quality indicators were defined and compared with regards to the four

  13. Do vouchers improve breast cancer screening rates? Results from a randomized trial.

    PubMed Central

    Stoner, T J; Dowd, B; Carr, W P; Maldonado, G; Church, T R; Mandel, J

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the effect of a voucher for free mammography on compliance with recommended mammography screening guidelines. STUDY DESIGN: Vouchers for free mammography distributed to a random sample of women over the age of 50 in two rural southern Minnesota counties. The vouchers were good for one year. Baseline and follow-up data were collected and rates of compliance with current mammography guidelines were observed for the voucher group and a control group of women living in the same counties. METHODS: Logistic regression models were used to estimate the effect of the voucher on compliance with mammography guidelines and the impact of factors potentially influencing the effectiveness of the voucher. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The voucher improved mammography rates primarily through increasing screening among women who were out of compliance at baseline. CONCLUSIONS: Vouchers, even when distributed randomly within a population of rural Midwestern women, can significantly improve compliance rates. Vouchers are no less effective a means of increasing screening among vulnerable women than among other women. PMID:9566175

  14. 24 CFR 982.613 - Group home: Rent and voucher housing assistance payment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT SECTION 8 TENANT BASED ASSISTANCE: HOUSING CHOICE VOUCHER PROGRAM... facilities for food preparation and service, are common facilities or private facilities. (c)...

  15. Voucher-based contingent reinforcement of marijuana abstinence among individuals with serious mental illness.

    PubMed

    Sigmon, Stacey C; Higgins, Stephen T

    2006-06-01

    Previous studies by our group have used money given contingent on abstinence to reduce drug use by individuals with schizophrenia. In this study, we examined the sensitivity of marijuana use by individuals with serious mental illness to voucher-based contingent reinforcement, which represents the first study to date investigating the efficacy of voucher incentives with this population. This within-subject reversal design consisted of three conditions: 4-week baseline, 12-week voucher intervention, and 4-week baseline. During baseline periods, subjects received 10 US dollars vouchers per urine specimen, independent of urinalysis results. During voucher intervention, only specimens testing negative for marijuana earned vouchers, with total possible earnings of 930 US dollars. Seven adults with schizophrenia or other serious mental illnesses participated in the study. The percentage of marijuana-negative specimens was significantly greater during voucher intervention than during baseline periods. These results provide evidence that marijuana use among individuals with serious mental illness is sensitive to voucher-based incentives and further support the potential feasibility of using voucher-based contingency management to reduce substance abuse in this challenging population.

  16. International open trial of uniform multidrug therapy regimen for leprosy patients: Findings & implications for national leprosy programmes

    PubMed Central

    Manickam, Ponnaiah; Mehendale, Sanjay M.; Nagaraju, Bathyala; Katoch, Kiran; Jamesh, Abdul; Kutaiyan, Ramalingam; Jianping, Shen; Mugudalabetta, Shivakumar; Jadhav, Vitthal; Rajkumar, Prabu; Padma, Jayasree; Kaliaperumal, Kanagasabai; Pannikar, Vijayakumar; Krishnamurthy, Padabettu; Gupte, Mohan D.

    2016-01-01

    Background & objectives: Uniform therapy for all leprosy patients will simplify leprosy treatment. In this context, we evaluated six-month multidrug therapy (MDT) currently recommended for multibacillary (MB) patients as uniform MDT (U-MDT) in a single-arm open trial under programme conditions. Primary objective was to determine efficacy to prevent five-year cumulative five per cent relapse. Secondary objectives were to assess acceptability, safety and compliance. Methods: Newly detected, treatment-naive leprosy patients were enrolled in India (six sites) and P. R. China (two sites). Primary outcome was clinically confirmed relapse of occurrence of one or more new skin patches consistent with leprosy, without evidence of reactions post-treatment. Event rates per 100 person years as well as five-year cumulative risk of relapse, were calculated. Results: A total of 2091 paucibacillary (PB) and 1298 MB leprosy patients were recruited from the 3437 patients screened. Among PB, two relapsed (rate=0.023; risk=0.11%), eight had suspected adverse drug reactions (ADRs) (rate=0.79) and rate of new lesions due toreactions was 0.24 (n=23). Rates of neuritis, type 1 and type 2 reactions were 0.39 (n=37), 0.54 (n=51) and 0.03 (n=3), respectively. Among MB, four relapsed (rate=0.07; risk=0.37%) and 16 had suspected ADR (rate=2.64). Rate of new lesions due to reactions among MB was 1.34 (n=76) and rates of neuritis, type 1 and type 2 reactions were 1.37 (n=78), 2.01 (n=114) and 0.49 (n=28), respectively. Compliance to U-MDT was 99 per cent. Skin pigmentation due to clofazimine was of short duration and acceptable. Interpretation & conclusions: We observed low relapse, minimal ADR and other adverse clinical events. Clofazimine-related pigmentation was acceptable. Evidence supports introduction of U-MDT in national leprosy programmes. [CTRI No: 2012/ 05/ 002696] PMID:28256460

  17. A systematic review of the effectiveness of school-based obesity prevention programmes for First Nations, Inuit and Métis youth in Canada.

    PubMed

    Godin, K; Leatherdale, S T; Elton-Marshall, T

    2015-06-01

    First Nations, Inuit and Métis (FNIM) youth are disproportionately affected by obesity and represent known a high-risk group in Canada. School-based prevention programmes may have the potential to effectively influence obesity-related health behaviours (i.e. healthy eating and physical activity) among this population. We conducted a systematic review of nine electronic databases (2003-2014) to identify studies that describe school-based programmes that have been developed to improve obesity-related health behaviours and outcomes among FNIM youth in Canada. The objectives of this review were to identify and evaluate the effectiveness of these programmes and assess the strength of the methodologies used to evaluate them. Fifteen studies, representing seven distinct interventions, met our inclusion criteria. The majority of these programmes did not result in significant improvements in outcomes related to obesity, healthy eating, or physical activity among FNIM youth. The studies varied in design rigour and use of evaluation activities. The lack of literature on effective school-based programmes for FNIM youth in Canada that target obesity-related outcomes highlights a priority area for future intervention development, evaluation and dissemination within the peer-reviewed literature. Further research is needed on interventions involving Métis and Inuit youth, secondary school-aged FNIM youth and FNIM youth living in urban settings. © 2015 World Obesity.

  18. Mandatory and recommended vaccination in the EU, Iceland and Norway: results of the VENICE 2010 survey on the ways of implementing national vaccination programmes.

    PubMed

    Haverkate, M; D'Ancona, F; Giambi, C; Johansen, K; Lopalco, P L; Cozza, V; Appelgren, E

    2012-05-31

    This report provides an updated overview of recommended and mandatory vaccinations in the European Union (EU), Iceland and Norway, considering the differences in vaccine programme implementation between countries. In 2010, the Vaccine European New Integrated Collaboration Effort (VENICE) network, conducted a survey among the VENICE project gatekeepers to learn more about how national vaccination programmes are implemented, whether recommended or mandatory. Information was collected from all 27 EU Member States, Iceland and Norway. In total 15 countries do not have any mandatory vaccinations; the remaining 14 have at least one mandatory vaccination included in their programme. Vaccination against polio is mandatory for both children and adults in 12 countries; diphtheria and tetanus vaccination in 11 countries and hepatitis B vaccination in 10 countries. For eight of the 15 vaccines considered, some countries have a mixed strategy of recommended and mandatory vaccinations. Mandatory vaccination may be considered as a way of improving compliance to vaccination programmes. However, compliance with many programmes in Europe is high, using only recommendations. More information about the diversity in vaccine offer at European level may help countries to adapt vaccination strategies based on the experience of other countries. However, any proposal on vaccine strategies should be developed taking into consideration the local context habits.

  19. Impact and Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of the National School-Based Sexuality Education Programme in Estonia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kivela, Jari; Haldre, Kai; Part, Kai; Ketting, Evert; Baltussen, Rob

    2014-01-01

    Policy-makers making decisions on the implementation of school-based sexuality education (SE) programmes face two important questions: (1) what are the costs of implementing and scaling up SE programmes, and (2) what are the impacts? This paper responds to these questions by retrospectively assessing costs, impact and cost-effectiveness of the…

  20. Pretoria to Khartoum--How We Taught an Internet-Supported Masters' Programme across National, Religious, Cultural and Linguistic Barriers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cronje, Johannes C.

    2006-01-01

    This article tells the story of the design, development and presentation of eighteen months of coursework for a Master's degree programme in Computer-Integrated education at the Sudan University of Science and Technology in Khartoum from 2002 to 2004. The focus is on what was learnt in adapting a programme presented at the University of Pretoria…

  1. Impact and Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of the National School-Based Sexuality Education Programme in Estonia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kivela, Jari; Haldre, Kai; Part, Kai; Ketting, Evert; Baltussen, Rob

    2014-01-01

    Policy-makers making decisions on the implementation of school-based sexuality education (SE) programmes face two important questions: (1) what are the costs of implementing and scaling up SE programmes, and (2) what are the impacts? This paper responds to these questions by retrospectively assessing costs, impact and cost-effectiveness of the…

  2. Evaluating the impact of a national naloxone programme on ambulance attendance at overdose incidents: a controlled time–series analysis

    PubMed Central

    Bouttell, Janet; Barnsdale, Lee; Mackay, Daniel; Lewsey, Jim; Hunter, Carole; Robinson, Mark

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background and Aims It has been suggested that distributing naloxone to people who inject drugs (PWID) will lead to fewer attendances by emergency medical services at opioid‐related overdose incidents if peer administration of naloxone was perceived to have resuscitated the overdose victim successfully. This study evaluated the impact of a national naloxone programme (NNP) on ambulance attendance at opioid‐related overdose incidents throughout Scotland. Specifically, we aimed to answer the following research questions: is there evidence of an association between ambulance call‐outs to opioid‐related overdose incidents and the cumulative number of ‘take‐home naloxone’ (THN) kits in issue; and is there evidence of an association between ambulance call‐outs to opioid‐related overdose incidents in early adopter (pilot) or later adopting (non‐pilot) regions and the cumulative number of THN kits issued in those areas? Design Controlled time–series analysis. Setting Scotland, UK, 2008–15. Participants Pre‐NNP implementation period for the evaluation was defined as 1 April 2008 to 31 March 2011 and the post‐implementation period as 1 April 2011 to 31 March 2015. In total, 3721 ambulance attendances at opioid‐related overdose were recorded for the pre‐NNP implementation period across 158 weeks (mean 23.6 attendances per week) and 5258 attendances across 212 weeks in the post‐implementation period (mean 24.8 attendances per week). Intervention Scotland's NNP; formally implemented on 1 April 2011. Measurements Primary outcome measure was weekly incidence (counts) of call‐outs to opioid‐related overdoses at national and regional Health Board level. Data were acquired from the Scottish Ambulance Service (SAS). Models were adjusted for opioid replacement therapy using data acquired from the Information Services Division on monthly sums of all dispensed methadone and buprenorphine in the study period. Models were adjusted further

  3. 77 FR 9617 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; DoD Voucher Processing (DFARS Case 2011-D054)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-17

    ... Regulation Supplement; DoD Voucher Processing (DFARS Case 2011-D054) AGENCY: Defense Acquisition Regulations... Supplement (DFARS) to update DoD's voucher processing procedures and better accommodate the use of Wide Area...

  4. 20 CFR 645.221 - For what activities and services must local boards use contracts or vouchers?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... vouchers? (a) Local boards and PIC's must provide the following activities and services through vouchers or... is not a local board or a PIC, it may provide such services directly. (b) Local boards and...

  5. 20 CFR 645.221 - For what activities and services must local boards use contracts or vouchers?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... vouchers? (a) Local boards and PIC's must provide the following activities and services through vouchers or... is not a local board or a PIC, it may provide such services directly. (b) Local boards and...

  6. 20 CFR 645.221 - For what activities and services must local boards use contracts or vouchers?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... vouchers? (a) Local boards and PIC's must provide the following activities and services through vouchers or... is not a local board or a PIC, it may provide such services directly. (b) Local boards and...

  7. 20 CFR 645.221 - For what activities and services must local boards use contracts or vouchers?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... vouchers? (a) Local boards and PIC's must provide the following activities and services through vouchers or... is not a local board or a PIC, it may provide such services directly. (b) Local boards and...

  8. Court Showdown over Florida Vouchers Nears

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richard, Alan

    2005-01-01

    This article reports on a nationally-watched case by educators and families which is scheduled to be heard by the Florida Supreme Court. The court is to decide whether Opportunity Scholarships, available to students enrolled in Florida's persistently lowest-rated public schools, run afoul of a prohibition on using public money in religious…

  9. Estimating the costs of implementing the rotavirus vaccine in the national immunisation programme: the case of Malawi.

    PubMed

    Madsen, Lizell B; Ustrup, Marte; Hansen, Kristian S; Nyasulu, Peter S; Bygbjerg, Ib C; Konradsen, Flemming

    2014-02-01

    Worldwide, rotavirus infections cause approximately 453,000 child deaths annually. Two licensed vaccines could be life- and cost-saving in low-income countries where the disease burden is highest. The aim of our study was to estimate the total cost of implementing the rotavirus vaccine in the national immunisation programme of a low-income country. Furthermore, the aim was to examine the relative contribution of different components to the total cost. Following the World Health Organization guidelines, we estimated the resource use and costs associated with rotavirus vaccine implementation, using Malawi as a case. The cost analysis was undertaken from a governmental perspective. All costs were calculated for a 5-years period (2012-2016) and discounted at 5%. The value of key input parameters was varied in a sensitivity analysis. The total cost of rotavirus vaccine implementation in Malawi amounted to US$ 18.5 million over a 5-years period. This translated into US$ 5.8 per child in the birth cohort. With GAVI Alliance financial support, the total cost was reduced to US$ 1.4 per child in the birth cohort. Approximately 83% of the total cost was attributed to vaccine purchase, while 17% was attributed to system costs, with personnel, transportation and cold chain as the main cost components. The total cost of rotavirus vaccine implementation in Malawi is high compared with the governmental health budget of US$ 26 per capita per year. This highlights the need for new financing opportunities for low-income countries to facilitate vaccine implementation and ensure sustainable financing. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Active safety monitoring of measles-mumps-rubella vaccine in the National Immunisation Programme of Sri Lanka

    PubMed

    Sanchayan, K; Fernandopulle, R; Amarasinghe, A; Thiyahiny, S N; Sri Ranganathan, S

    2017-03-31

    This study was designed to report incidence and characteristics of selected adverse events following immunisation which have consistent causal association (AEFIc) with Measles-Mumps-Rubella (MMR) vaccination given at the age of one year in the National Immunisation Programme of Sri Lanka. The data presented here were obtained from a cohort event monitoring study. It was carried out in the Jaffna Regional Directorate of Health Services area from November 2012 to December 2014. A representative sample of 3002 infants who received MMR immunisation were actively followed up for adverse events (AE) using over the phone interviews, self-reporting, and home or hospital visits up to 45 days. All AEs were reviewed by two investigators independently in two step-wise processes to detect the AEFIc. Seven AEFIc were detected using standard case definitions and onset time limit criteria. They were subjected to further analysis to describe the incidence rates and characteristics. Of the 2398 (80%) infants who completed follow up of 45 days, 1321 infants experienced 2621 AEFI. Of them 209 were classified as AEFIc. Incidence of AEFIc was 87/ 1000 immunisation. They were mainly nonserious and resolved completely. There were no fatal or life threatening AEFIs. Incidence per 1000 immunisations; allergic reactions 0.83, injection site reactions 4.58, fever100.4° F or lasting more than  3 days 9.59, macular papular rash 2.92, parotitis 2.92 and generalised convulsions 1.25. The MMR vaccine used in NIP of Sri Lanka had low incidence of AEFIc and were mainly non-serious in nature.

  11. Contribution of medical colleges to tuberculosis control in India under the Revised National Tuberculosis Control Programme (RNTCP): Lessons learnt & challenges ahead

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Surendra K.; Mohan, Alladi; Chauhan, L.S.; Narain, J.P.; Kumar, P.; Behera, D.; Sachdeva, K.S.; Kumar, Ashok

    2013-01-01

    Medical college faculty, who are academicians are seldom directly involved in the implementation of national public health programmes. More than a decade ago for the first time in the global history of tuberculosis (TB) control, medical colleges of India were involved in the Revised National TB Control Programme (RNTCP) of Government of India (GOI). This report documents the unique and extraordinary course of events that led to the involvement of medical colleges in the RNTCP of GOI. It also reports the contributions made by the medical colleges to TB control in India. For more than a decade, medical colleges have been providing diagnostic services (Designated Microscopy Centres), treatment [Directly Observed Treatment (DOT) Centres] referral for treatment, recording and reporting data, carrying out advocacy for RNTCP and conducting operational research relevant to RNTCP. Medical colleges are contributing to diagnosis and treatment of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-TB co-infection and development of laboratory infrastructure for early diagnosis of multidrug-resistant and/or extensively drug-resistant TB (M/XDR-TB) and DOTS-Plus sites for treatment of MDR-TB cases. Overall, at a national level, medical colleges have contributed to 25 per cent of TB suspects referred for diagnosis; 23 per cent of ‘new smear-positives’ diagnosed; 7 per cent of DOT provision within medical college; and 86 per cent treatment success rate among new smear-positive patients. As the Programme widens its scope, future challenges include sustenance of this contribution and facilitating universal access to quality TB care; greater involvement in operational research relevant to the Programme needs; and better co-ordination mechanisms between district, state, zonal and national level to encourage their involvement. PMID:23563371

  12. The importance of a supportive environment in clinical audit: a pilot study of doctors' engagement with the NHS National PET-CT audit programme.

    PubMed

    Ross, Peter; Hubert, Jane; Saunders, Mike; Wong, Wai Lup

    2014-10-01

    The NHS National PET-CT Audit Programme was launched in 2008 as part of a national NHS programme to widen patient access to PET-computed tomography (CT) imaging in England. However, to implement clinical audit effectively, healthcare professionals need to be fully engaged with the process. The purpose of the pilot study was to identify and explore the different factors that influence doctors' engagement with the National NHS PET-CT Audit Programme. A single embedded case study was undertaken, which centred on the NHS National PET-CT Audit Programme. Seven theoretical propositions drawn from a review of the literature were tested and their influence evaluated. A purposeful sample of 13 semistructured interviews with consultant doctors was taken from different hospitals over a 6-month period. The data were analysed using directed thematic content analysis, with the themes compared against the study's propositions. Doctors' perspectives of clinical audit changed in response to the way in which the audit was implemented. The main barriers to engagement were the lack of a common vision and poor communication, which contributed to poor interprofessional relationships and a perceived culture of blame. In contrast, factors that facilitated engagement centred on the adoption of a more supportive and collaborative approach, which in turn facilitated higher levels of trust between professionals. The dissemination of performance data was found to be a key influencing factor. The study makes use of a unique data set and to the best of our knowledge is one of the first studies to document how the dissemination of doctors' performance data positively influences engagement with clinical audit in England. In addition, the study also shows how, contrary to some studies in the literature, clinical audit can reduce professional anxiety by providing a validation of professional competence. The study supports the premise that clinical audit will be fully embraced by doctors only if they

  13. School Vouchers: Publicly Funded Programs in Cleveland and Milwaukee. Report to the Honorable Judd Gregg, U.S. Senate.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaul, Marnie S.

    This report provides information on Cleveland's and Milwaukee's publicly funded school voucher programs, using previous research and reviews of state laws, school district and voucher program records, state budgets, voucher-related reports and articles, and site visits and interviews. Researchers examined eligibility criteria; public and voucher…

  14. The Future of Vouchers as Educational Reform, Political Strategy, Economic Solution, and Public Policy in the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sullivan Brown, Kathleen

    2007-01-01

    This paper examines the burden of vouchers to be all things to all constituencies. Proponents and opponents envision vouchers as accomplishing many objectives. To some, vouchers represent an educational reform that brings change to public schools and saves children from monopolistic bureaucrats. To others, they signify a threat to the very…

  15. The U.S. Supreme Court's Decision in the Cleveland Voucher Case: Where to from Here? Occasional Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kemerer, Frank R.

    This paper discusses the legal implications of "Zelman v. Simmons-Harris," the Supreme Court ruling on education vouchers. The ruling opens the way for vouchers, as concerns the federal judiciary, but the decision did not abrogate many states' restrictive provisions regarding publicly funded voucher and tax-benefit programs. Nor did the decision…

  16. Housing Voucher Receipt and the Quality of Schools Available to Recipient Children. Discussion Paper No. 1418-14

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlson, Deven; Haveman, Robert; Kaplan, Thomas; Wolfe, Barbara

    2014-01-01

    Using data on housing voucher recipients with school-aged children residing across the state of Wisconsin, we perform a three-stage analysis of the relationship between voucher receipt and the educational opportunities of children in recipient households. First, we examine the extent to which voucher receipt results in households relocating to a…

  17. 76 FR 52675 - Notice of Submission of Proposed Information Collection to OMB; Housing Choice Voucher Program...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-23

    ... based on direct measurement of the work actually performed by voucher administrators. The study will... the costs involved in each task, including salaries, benefits, and overhead. Ultimately, the findings... on direct measurement of the work actually performed by voucher administrators. The study...

  18. Why Don't Housing Choice Voucher Recipients Live Near Better Schools? Insights from Big Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellen, Ingrid Gould; Horn, Keren Mertens; Schwartz, Amy Ellen

    2016-01-01

    Housing choice vouchers provide low-income households with additional income to spend on rental housing in the private market. The assistance vouchers provide is substantial, offering the potential to dramatically expand the neighborhood--and associated public schools--that low-income households can reach. However, existing research on the program…

  19. Clinical Trial of Abstinence-Based Vouchers and Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for Cannabis Dependence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Budney, Alan J.; Moore, Brent A.; Rocha, Heath L.; Higgins, Stephen T.

    2006-01-01

    Ninety cannabis-dependent adults seeking treatment were randomly assigned to receive cognitive-behavioral therapy, abstinence-based voucher incentives, or their combination. Treatment duration was 14 weeks, and outcomes were assessed for 12 months post treatment. Findings suggest that (a) abstinence-based vouchers were effective for engendering…

  20. A Model of Cultural Leadership. The Achievements of Privately Funded Vouchers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meyerson, Adam

    1999-01-01

    Describes the privately-funded voucher movement implemented by J. Patrick Rooney, James R. Leininger, Michael S. Joyce, John T. Walton, and Theodore J. Forstmann. An important feature of most of the programs is that parents have to pay partial tuition. Vouchers resources are focused on poor children in inner cities. (MMU)

  1. Non-Religion-Based State Constitutional Challenges to Educational Voucher and Tax Credit Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Preston C., III

    2016-01-01

    This article provides an overview of non-religion-based state constitutional challenges to educational voucher and tax credit/scholarship programs. The first section discusses litigation examining whether education voucher programs violate constitutional provisions requiring the legislature to provide an efficient system of public schools. The…

  2. Vouchers Versus Prizes: Contingency Management Treatment of Substance Abusers in Community Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petry, Nancy M.; Alessi, Sheila M.; Marx, Jacqueline; Austin, Mark; Tardif, Michelle

    2005-01-01

    Contingency management (CM) interventions usually use vouchers as reinforcers, but a new technique awards chances of winning prizes. This study compares these approaches. In community treatment centers, 142 cocaine- or heroin-dependent outpatients were randomly assigned to standard treatment (ST), ST with vouchers, or ST with prizes for 12 weeks.…

  3. Private School Enrollment in an Italian Region after Implementing a Change in the Voucher Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Agasisti, Tommaso; Barbieri, Gianna; Murtinu, Samuele

    2015-01-01

    This article estimates the effect of an administrative change in a voucher policy implemented by an Italian Regional government. The voucher was initiated in 2000, and is intended to help families that want to enroll their children in private schools. In 2008, the policy was changed, making the administrative procedure required for obtaining the…

  4. Pluck & Tenacity: How Five Private Schools in Ohio Have Adapted to Vouchers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Belcher, Ellen

    2014-01-01

    State-funded voucher programs have stoked political controversy, culture clashes, and pitched court battles. Sometimes referred to as "scholarships," these vouchers enable students of limited means (or without access to a good public school) to attend a private school. Roughly 30,000 children in Ohio take advantage of a publicly funded…

  5. On Negative Effects of Vouchers. Evidence Speaks Reports, Vol 1, #18

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dynarski, Mark

    2016-01-01

    Recent research on statewide voucher programs in Louisiana and Indiana has found that public school students that received vouchers to attend private schools subsequently scored lower on reading and math tests compared to similar students that remained in public schools. The magnitudes of the negative impacts were large. A case to use taxpayer…

  6. 77 FR 2682 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; DoD Voucher Processing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-19

    ... Regulation Supplement; DoD Voucher Processing AGENCY: Defense Acquisition Regulations System, Department of Defense (DoD). ACTION: Proposed rule. SUMMARY: DoD is proposing to amend the Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement (DFARS) to update DoD's voucher processing procedures and better accommodate the use...

  7. Free Marketeers, Policy Wonks, and Yankee Democracy: School Vouchers in New Hampshire, 1973-1976

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carl, Jim

    2008-01-01

    In this article, Jim Carl uses archival sources and interviews to chronicle the effort to bring school vouchers to New Hampshire. In 1973, the New Hampshire Department of Education initiated a plan, funded by the U.S. Office of Economic Opportunity, to institute vouchers in a handful of school districts. Though the initiative had the support of…

  8. Dollars to Discriminate: The (Un)Intended Consequences of School Vouchers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eckes, Suzanne E.; Mead, Julie; Ulm, Jessica

    2016-01-01

    Some private, religious schools that accept vouchers have been accused of discriminating against certain populations of students through their admissions processes. Discriminating against disfavored groups (e.g., racial minorities, LGBT students, students with disabilities, religious minorities) in voucher programs raises both legal and policy…

  9. School Voucher Program and Its Enlightenments to the Education Reform in China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shen, Youlu

    2005-01-01

    This article roughly retrospects the idea of school voucher program proposed by Milton Friedman, lately developed by Peacock, Wiseman and Jencks. The reasons like privatization in education, deterioration of public schooling and school choice promote this program. Then taking a simple look at the ramification of voucher program and its value…

  10. Voucher Research Controversy: New Looks at the New York City Evaluation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howell, William G.; Peterson, Paul E.

    2004-01-01

    In "The Education Gap: Vouchers and Urban Schools" (Brookings, 2002), the authors and their colleagues reported that attending a private school had no discernible impact, positive or negative, on the test scores of non-African-American students participating in school voucher programs in Washington, D.C., New York City, and Dayton, Ohio.…

  11. Vouchers, Tests, Loans, Privatization: Will They Help Tackle Corruption in Russian Higher Education?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osipian, Ararat L.

    2009-01-01

    Higher education in Russia is currently being reformed. A standardized computer-graded test and educational vouchers were introduced to make higher education more accessible, fund it more effectively, and reduce corruption in admissions to public colleges. The voucher project failed and the test faces furious opposition. This paper considers…

  12. Randomized Trial of Contingent Prizes versus Vouchers in Cocaine-Using Methadone Patients

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petry, Nancy M.; Alessi, Sheila M.; Hanson, Tressa; Sierra, Sean

    2007-01-01

    Contingency management (CM) interventions frequently utilize vouchers as reinforcers, but a prize-based system is also efficacious. This study compared these approaches. Seventy-four cocaine-dependent methadone outpatients were randomly assigned to standard treatment (ST), ST plus a maximum of $585 in contingent vouchers, or ST plus an expected…

  13. The Constitutionality of Education Vouchers under State and Federal Law. House Research Information Brief.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larson, Lisa

    Many states are looking at education vouchers and asking whether a market solution can improve the quality of public education. The answer partially depends on how government and religion will interact and whether states' constitutions or the religion clauses in the United States Constitution will permit voucher plans to include religious schools.…

  14. 75 FR 39035 - Housing Choice Voucher (HCV) Family Self-Sufficiency (FSS) Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-07

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT Housing Choice Voucher (HCV) Family Self-Sufficiency (FSS) Program AGENCY: Office of... Voucher Program) with public and private resources to enable eligible families to achieve economic...; enter into a Contract of Participation with each eligible family that opts to participate in the...

  15. Private School Enrollment in an Italian Region after Implementing a Change in the Voucher Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Agasisti, Tommaso; Barbieri, Gianna; Murtinu, Samuele

    2015-01-01

    This article estimates the effect of an administrative change in a voucher policy implemented by an Italian Regional government. The voucher was initiated in 2000, and is intended to help families that want to enroll their children in private schools. In 2008, the policy was changed, making the administrative procedure required for obtaining the…

  16. 48 CFR 1852.216-87 - Submission of vouchers for payment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Project management office. (3) The Contracting Officer may designate other recipients as required. (d... the following clause: Submission for Vouchers for Payment (MAR 1998) (a) The designated billing office... the contractor is authorized to submit interim cost vouchers directly to the NASA paying office, the...

  17. Freedom of Choice: Vouchers in American Education. Praeger Series on American Political Culture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carl, Jim

    2011-01-01

    This book reveals that, far from being the result of a groundswell of support for parental choice in American education, the origins of school vouchers are seated in identity politics, religious schooling, and educational entrepreneurship. As the most radical form of "school choice," vouchers remain controversial in education today. The U.S.…

  18. The Effectiveness of Private Voucher Education: Evidence from Structural School Switches

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lara, Bernardo; Mizala, Alejandra; Repetto, Andrea

    2011-01-01

    In this article the authors analyze the effect of private voucher education on student academic performance using new data on Chilean students and a novel identification strategy. Most schools in Chile provide either primary or secondary education. The authors analyze the effect of private voucher education on students who are forced to enroll at…

  19. Are Voucher Schools Putting the Squeeze on MPS? Research Brief. Volume 95, Number 1

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Public Policy Forum, 2007

    2007-01-01

    For seventeen years an underlying rationale for Milwaukee's private school voucher program has been that competition from private schools is needed to bring about improvements in Milwaukee Public Schools (MPS). However, despite an increased availability of vouchers for more eligible children than ever before, demand during the past school year did…

  20. Can Markets Make Citizens? School Vouchers, Political Tolerance, and Civic Engagement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fleming, David J.; Mitchell, William; McNally, Michael

    2014-01-01

    School voucher programs challenge the traditional role of the public school as the builder of citizens, raising the question of whether private schools can provide a civic education of equal quality. In this study, we use survey data from the Milwaukee voucher program to investigate the relative benefits in civic outcomes of attending a voucher…