Science.gov

Sample records for nationwide blood collection

  1. Blood Collection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    The method that is used for the collection, storage and real-time analysis of blood and other bodily fluids has been licensed to DBCD, Inc. by NASA. The result of this patent licensing agreement has been the development of a commercial product that can provide serum or plasma from whole blood volumes of 20 microliters to 4 milliliters. The device has a fibrous filter with a pore size of less than about 3 microns, and is coated with a mixture of mannitol and plasma fraction protein. The coating causes the cellular fraction to be trapped by the small pores, leaving the cellular fraction intact on the fibrous filter while the acellular fraction passes through the filter for collection in unaltered form from the serum sample collection chamber. The method used by this product is useful to NASA for blood analysis on manned space missions.

  2. 77 FR 2349 - Proposed Information Collection (Nation-wide Customer Satisfaction Surveys) Activity: Comment...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-17

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS Proposed Information Collection (Nation-wide Customer Satisfaction Surveys) Activity: Comment... forms of information technology. Title: Nation-wide Customer Satisfaction Surveys, VA Forms 10-1465-...

  3. 77 FR 64382 - Agency Information Collection (Nation-Wide Customer Satisfaction Surveys) Activities Under OMB...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-19

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS Agency Information Collection (Nation-Wide Customer Satisfaction Surveys) Activities Under OMB....'' SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Title: Nation-wide Customer Satisfaction Surveys, VA Forms 10-1465- 2 through...

  4. 75 FR 25320 - Agency Information Collection (Nation-wide Customer Satisfaction Surveys) Activities Under OMB...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-07

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS Agency Information Collection (Nation-wide Customer Satisfaction Surveys) Activities Under OMB... INFORMATION: Title: Nation-wide Customer Satisfaction Surveys, VA Forms 1465-2 through 1465-4. OMB...

  5. 75 FR 9277 - Proposed Information Collection (Nation-Wide Customer Satisfaction Surveys) Activity: Comment...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-01

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS Proposed Information Collection (Nation-Wide Customer Satisfaction Surveys) Activity: Comment.... Title: Nation-wide Customer Satisfaction Surveys, VA Forms 1465-2 through 1465-4. OMB Control...

  6. Blood component collection by apheresis.

    PubMed

    Burgstaler, Edwin A

    2006-07-01

    Apheresis component collection is a rapidly growing area in the blood collection field. Several instruments with varying capabilities are available. This is a brief review of the equipment available for granulocyte and apheresis component collection and indications for their use. In the United States, granulocytes are collected with the Fenwal CS3000, Fenwal CS3000 Plus, COBE (Gambro) Spectra, Haemonetics LN9000, and Fresenius AS 104. The use of hetastarch for sedimenting agent and stimulation with G-CSF and G-CSF plus dexamethasone have substantially increased granulocyte yields. Plateletapheresis is performed in the United States on the Fenwal CS3000, Fenwal CS3000 Plus, Fenwal Amicus, COBE (Gambro) Spectra, Gambro Trima Version 4, Gambro Trima Accel (Version 5), and Haemonetics LN9000. Automated red blood cell (RBC) collections are performed with the Haemonetics MCS+LN8150, Gambro Trima Version 4, Gambro Trima Accel (Version 5), Amicus, and Baxter Alyx. The RBC can be collected concurrently (with other components) in some instruments or separately in others. Plasma is collected concurrently on several instruments. Plasmapheresis for plasma only is performed on the Fenwal Autopheresis C and Haemonetics PCS2. Granulocyte yields range from 0.46 x 10(10) to 1.0 x 10(10) for unstimulated donors and 2.1 x 10(10) to 2.6 x 10(10) for donors stimulated with dexamethasone or prednisone. The use of G-CSF and G-CSF with dexamethasone has substantially increased granulocyte yields with yields of 4.1 x 10(10) to 10.8 x 10(10) reported. Platelet collection rates of 0.045-0.115 x 10(11) plt/min have been reported. Collection efficiencies of 46-85.7% have been reported. Automated (apheresis) component collection has the advantages of controlled volumes or doses of component, efficient use of the donor, multiple components from the same donor, better inventory control, and better quality control due to less manipulation of the individual components. Disadvantages of automated

  7. Data mining analysis of factors influencing children's blood pressure in a nation-wide health survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wasiewicz, Piotr; Kulaga, Zbigniew; Litwin, Mieczyslaw

    2009-06-01

    Blood pressure in childhood and adolescents is important indicator of good health and strong predictor of BP in adulthood. Genetic susceptibility, environmental and socioeconomic factors are related both with life style, obesity and cardiovascular risk including elevated BP. Increased body mass index is strictly correlated with BP, and obesity and overweight is main intermediate phenotype of childhood hypertension. However, despite current obesity epidemic available data do not fully support the hypothesis that it has resulted in increase of BP in children. We analysed data obtained from 7591 children participating in nation-wide health survey using data mining methodology. Results reveal relationships of obesity and high blood pressure with school environment characteristics.

  8. PAH contents in road dust on principal roads collected nationwide in Japan and their influential factors.

    PubMed

    Ozaki, Noriatsu; Akagi, Yuma; Kindaichi, Tomonori; Ohashi, Akiyoshi

    2015-01-01

    Fifty-four road dust samples were collected from principal roads (n = 37) and residential roads (n = 17) nationwide in Japan from March 2010 to November 2012. Sixteen polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and ignition loss (IL) were determined. The total PAH contents ranged from 62 to 6,325 ng g(-1) with a geometric mean of 484 ng g(-1). The IL ranged from 0.8 to 17% with a mean of 6%. The PAH contents were correlated with the IL contents, and the IL contents were dependent on the population density. From the PAH pattern analysis, the PAHs from road dust are considered to be mainly from diesel emissions.

  9. Collecting Family Health History using an Online Social Network: a Nationwide Survey among Potential Users

    PubMed Central

    Welch, Brandon M.; O’Connell, Nathaniel S.; Qanungo, Suparna; Halbert-Hughes, Chanita; Schiffman, Joshua D.

    2015-01-01

    Family health history (FHx) is one of the most important risk factors for disease. Unfortunately, collection and use of FHx is under-utilized in the clinical setting. Efforts to improve collection of FHx have had minimal impact. A novel approach to collect FHx using social networking capabilities is being explored. We conducted a nationwide survey of 5,258 respondents to 1- assess the interest in using an online social network for FHx, 2- identify if such a tool would have clinical utility, and 3- identify notable trends and potential concerns. We found survey respondents to be very supportive of the proposed approach and interesting trends related to age, education, and race were identified. Results from this survey will be used to guide future research and development of a proposed FHx social network application. PMID:26958272

  10. Evolutionary analysis of HBV "S" antigen genetic diversity in Iranian blood donors: a nationwide study.

    PubMed

    Pourkarim, Mahmoud Reza; Sharifi, Zohre; Soleimani, Ali; Amini-Bavil-Olyaee, Samad; Elsadek Fakhr, Ahmed; Sijmons, Steven; Vercauteren, Jurgen; Karimi, Gharib; Lemey, Philippe; Maes, Piet; Alavian, Seyed Moayed; Van Ranst, Marc

    2014-01-01

    The genetic diversity of the HBV S gene has a significant impact on the prophylaxis and treatment of hepatitis B infection. The effect of selective pressure on this genetic alteration has not yet been studied in Iranian blood donors. To explore HBV evolution and to analyze the effects and patterns of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) mutations on blood screening assays, 358 Iranian blood donors diagnosed as asymptomatic HBV carriers were enrolled in this nationwide study. Large S and partial S genes were amplified and sequenced. HBV (sub) genotypes and synonymous and nonsynonymous mutations were investigated. The impact of naturally occurring mutations on HBsAg ELISA results was explored. Phylogenetic analyses revealed that isolated strains were of genotype D. The dominant subgenotype/subtype was D1/ayw2. Deletions and naturally occurring stop codons in the pre-S1 and major hydrophilic region (MHR) were identified. In total, 32.8% of the studied strains harbored 195 single or multiple mutations in the MHR, the majority of which were located at the first loop of the "a determinant" domain. The ayw2 subtype showed a significant effect on the ELISA signal/cut-off value and carried fewer mutations in the MHR. Nonsynonymous/synonymous substitution value indicated that negative selection was the dominant evolutionary force in the HBV S gene. This nationwide study revealed that mutation frequency of HBsAg among Iranian blood donors was much higher than previous reports from the different local regions. These findings regarding the significant differences in reactivity of ELISA among different subtypes of HBV and its correlation with the number of mutations at the MHR will be valuable to public health authorities.

  11. The heritability of blood donation: a population-based nationwide twin study.

    PubMed

    Pedersen, Ole Birger; Axel, Skytthe; Rostgaard, Klaus; Erikstrup, Christian; Edgren, Gustaf; Nielsen, Kaspar René; Ullum, Henrik; Kyvik, Kirsten Ohm; Hjalgrim, Henrik

    2015-09-01

    Voluntary blood donation is believed to be mostly motivated by altruism. Because studies have suggested that altruistic personality is determined by both genetic and environmental factors, we speculated that willingness to donate blood could also be governed by constitutional factors. This hypothesis was tested in a study among Danish twins. The nationwide Danish Twin Register, which is virtually complete for all twins born since 1968, was linked with Danish portion of the Scandinavian Donation and Transfusion (SCANDAT) Database, which includes information on all active Danish blood donors from 2002 to 2012, to establish blood donor status for Danish twins, who at age 17 years became eligible for donation in 2002 or later. Casewise concordance in monozygotic (MZ) and dizygotic (DZ) twins were presented and heritability was estimated in Mx by variance component analysis in a liability threshold model. A total of 274 MZ and 484 same-sex DZ twins age 17 to 27 years were identified as donors in SCANDAT. There was no difference between MZ and DZ twins with regard to age at first donation or number of donations. Casewise concordance rates were 0.61 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.56-0.67) and 0.41 (95% CI, 0.36-0.47) in MZ and DZ twin pairs, respectively. Heritability analysis using the ACE model found that additive genetic and shared environmental effects accounted for 0.53 (95% CI, 0.33-0.73) and 0.28 (95% CI, 0.10-0.45) of the variance in the motivation to donate blood, respectively. Becoming a volunteer blood donor is determined by both genetic and environmental factors shared within families. © 2015 AABB.

  12. Blood collection kit for Space Lab 1

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1981-02-02

    S81-26158 (Feb 1981) --- A close-up view of a training version of a STS-40/SLS-1 blood kit. Blood samples from crewmembers are critical to a number of Space Life Sciences-1 (SLS-1) investigations. One day's collection equipment, color coded for each crewmember, is neatly organized in the kit.

  13. 75 FR 2557 - Interim Policy for the Sharing of Information Collected by the Coast Guard Nationwide Automatic...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-15

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard Interim Policy for the Sharing of Information Collected by the Coast Guard Nationwide Automatic Identification System AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of policy and request for comments. SUMMARY: The Coast Guard has developed an interim policy for the access and sharing of information...

  14. Aspergillus DNA contamination in blood collection tubes

    PubMed Central

    Harrison, Elizabeth; Stahlberger, Thomas; Whelan, Ruth; Sugrue, Michele; Wingard, John R.; Alexander, Barbara D.; Follett, Sarah A.; Bowyer, Paul; Denning, David W.

    2010-01-01

    Fungal PCR-based diagnostic methods are at risk of contamination. Sample collection containers were investigated for fungal DNA contamination using real-time PCR assays. Up to 18% of blood collection tubes were contaminated with fungal DNA, probably A. fumigatus. Lower proportions of contamination in other vessels were observed. PMID:20638611

  15. 21 CFR 640.13 - Collection of the blood.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Collection of the blood. 640.13 Section 640.13...) BIOLOGICS ADDITIONAL STANDARDS FOR HUMAN BLOOD AND BLOOD PRODUCTS Red Blood Cells § 640.13 Collection of the blood. (a) The source blood shall be collected as prescribed in § 640.4. (b) Source blood may also...

  16. Collecting and analyzing cord blood gases.

    PubMed

    Riley, R J; Johnson, J W

    1993-03-01

    The analysis of cord blood respiratory gases and acid-base values is an important adjunct for determining the extent and cause of fetal acidosis at delivery. Although the quality and reliability of the blood gas instruments have improved dramatically, constant vigilance still is required and mandated to ensure accurate and precise results. Failure to control the many sampling and analysis variables that affect cord blood gas results will limit their usefulness. Most preanalytic problems become a minor concern when the blood gas analyses are done within a few minutes after obtaining the sample. Comparison of data among centers requires, not only that reference ranges be stated, but also that various corrections or factors that were used to adjust the results be described. Perhaps, a consensus could be reached to establish the optimal method of collection and the best methods for analyzing and reporting the results from cord blood gas and acid-base studies.

  17. Laboratory Diagnostics and Quality of Blood Collection

    PubMed Central

    Lima-Oliveira, Gabriel; Lippi, Giuseppe; Salvagno, Gian Luca; Picheth, Geraldo; Guidi, Gian Cesare

    2015-01-01

    Summary Diagnostic blood samples collected by phlebotomy are the most common type of biological specimens drawn and sent to laboratory medicine facilities for being analyzed, thus supporting caring physicians in patient diagnosis, follow-up and/or therapeutic monitoring. Phlebotomy, a relatively invasive medical procedure, is indeed critical for the downstream procedures accomplished either in the analytical phase made in the laboratory or in the interpretive process done by the physicians. Diagnosis, management, treatment of patients and ultimately patient safety itself can be compromised by poor phlebotomy quality. We have read with interest a recent article where the authors addressed important aspects of venous blood collection for laboratory medicine analysis. The authors conducted a phlebotomy survey based on the Clinical and Laboratory Standard Institute (CLSI) H03-A6 document (presently replaced by the GP41-A6 document) in three government hospitals in Ethiopia to evaluate 120 professionals (101 non-laboratory professionals vs. 19 laboratory professionals) as regards the venous blood collection practice. The aim of this mini (non-systematic) review is to both take a cue from the above article and from current practices we had already observed in other laboratory settings, and discuss four questionable activities performed by health care professionals during venous blood collection. We refer to: i) diet restriction assessment; ii) puncture site cleansing; iii) timing of tourniquet removal and; iv) mixing specimen with additives. PMID:28356839

  18. 21 CFR 640.4 - Collection of the blood.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Collection of the blood. 640.4 Section 640.4 Food... ADDITIONAL STANDARDS FOR HUMAN BLOOD AND BLOOD PRODUCTS Whole Blood § 640.4 Collection of the blood. (a) Supervision. Blood shall be drawn from the donor by a qualified physician or under his supervision...

  19. 21 CFR 640.4 - Collection of the blood.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Collection of the blood. 640.4 Section 640.4 Food... ADDITIONAL STANDARDS FOR HUMAN BLOOD AND BLOOD PRODUCTS Whole Blood § 640.4 Collection of the blood. (a) Supervision. Blood shall be drawn from the donor by a qualified physician or under his supervision...

  20. 21 CFR 864.6150 - Capillary blood collection tube.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Capillary blood collection tube. 864.6150 Section... blood collection tube. (a) Identification. A capillary blood collection tube is a plain or heparinized glass tube of very small diameter used to collect blood by capillary action. (b) Classification. Class...

  1. 21 CFR 864.6150 - Capillary blood collection tube.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Capillary blood collection tube. 864.6150 Section... blood collection tube. (a) Identification. A capillary blood collection tube is a plain or heparinized glass tube of very small diameter used to collect blood by capillary action. (b) Classification. Class...

  2. 21 CFR 864.6150 - Capillary blood collection tube.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Capillary blood collection tube. 864.6150 Section... blood collection tube. (a) Identification. A capillary blood collection tube is a plain or heparinized glass tube of very small diameter used to collect blood by capillary action. (b) Classification. Class...

  3. 21 CFR 864.6150 - Capillary blood collection tube.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Capillary blood collection tube. 864.6150 Section... blood collection tube. (a) Identification. A capillary blood collection tube is a plain or heparinized glass tube of very small diameter used to collect blood by capillary action. (b) Classification. Class...

  4. 21 CFR 862.1675 - Blood specimen collection device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Blood specimen collection device. 862.1675 Section... Systems § 862.1675 Blood specimen collection device. (a) Identification. A blood specimen collection device is a device intended for medical purposes to collect and to handle blood specimens and to...

  5. 21 CFR 862.1675 - Blood specimen collection device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Blood specimen collection device. 862.1675 Section... Systems § 862.1675 Blood specimen collection device. (a) Identification. A blood specimen collection device is a device intended for medical purposes to collect and to handle blood specimens and to...

  6. 21 CFR 862.1675 - Blood specimen collection device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Blood specimen collection device. 862.1675 Section... Systems § 862.1675 Blood specimen collection device. (a) Identification. A blood specimen collection device is a device intended for medical purposes to collect and to handle blood specimens and to...

  7. 21 CFR 862.1675 - Blood specimen collection device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Blood specimen collection device. 862.1675 Section... Systems § 862.1675 Blood specimen collection device. (a) Identification. A blood specimen collection device is a device intended for medical purposes to collect and to handle blood specimens and to...

  8. 21 CFR 862.1675 - Blood specimen collection device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Blood specimen collection device. 862.1675 Section... Systems § 862.1675 Blood specimen collection device. (a) Identification. A blood specimen collection device is a device intended for medical purposes to collect and to handle blood specimens and to...

  9. [Peripheral blood hematopoietic stem cell collection].

    PubMed

    Bojanić, Ines; Mazić, Sanja; Cepulić, Branka Golubić

    2009-01-01

    Summary. Peripheral blood hematopoietic stem cells (PBSC) have numerous advatages in comparison with traditionally used bone marrow. PBSC collection by leukapheresis procedure is simpler and better tolerated than bone marrow harvest. PBCS are mobilized by myelosupressive chemotherapy or/and hematopoietic growth factors. Leukapheresis product contains PBSC along with lineage commited progenitors and precursors which contribute to faster hematopoietic recovery. In "poor mobilizers" options are large-volume leukapheresis (LVL) procedure or second generation of mobilising agents (pegfilgrastim, CXCR4 receptor antagonists). Total blood volume is processed 2-3 times in standard procedure compared to more than 3 times in LVL. LVL yields significantly higher numbers of CD34+ cells. Adverse effects of leukapheresis are electrolyte disbalance (hypocalcemia) caused by citrat administration and risk of bleeding due to trobocytopenia and heparin administration. PBSC collection and product quality control are regulated by national and international standards and recommendations.

  10. Nationwide survey of policies and practices related to capillary blood sampling in medical laboratories in Croatia.

    PubMed

    Krleza, Jasna Lenicek

    2014-01-01

    Capillary sampling is increasingly used to obtain blood for laboratory tests in volumes as small as necessary and as non-invasively as possible. Whether capillary blood sampling is also frequent in Croatia, and whether it is performed according to international laboratory standards is unclear. All medical laboratories that participate in the Croatian National External Quality Assessment Program (N = 204) were surveyed on-line to collect information about the laboratory's parent institution, patient population, types and frequencies of laboratory tests based on capillary blood samples, choice of reference intervals, and policies and procedures specifically related to capillary sampling. Sampling practices were compared with guidelines from the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) and the World Health Organization (WHO). Of the 204 laboratories surveyed, 174 (85%) responded with complete questionnaires. Among the 174 respondents, 155 (89%) reported that they routinely perform capillary sampling, which is carried out by laboratory staff in 118 laboratories (76%). Nearly half of respondent laboratories (48%) do not have a written protocol including order of draw for multiple sampling. A single puncture site is used to provide capillary blood for up to two samples at 43% of laboratories that occasionally or regularly perform such sampling. Most respondents (88%) never perform arterialisation prior to capillary blood sampling. Capillary blood sampling is highly prevalent in Croatia across different types of clinical facilities and patient populations. Capillary sampling procedures are not standardised in the country, and the rate of laboratory compliance with CLSI and WHO guidelines is low.

  11. 21 CFR 640.13 - Collection of the blood.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2011-04-01 2010-04-01 true Collection of the blood. 640.13 Section 640.13 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) BIOLOGICS ADDITIONAL STANDARDS FOR HUMAN BLOOD AND BLOOD PRODUCTS Red Blood Cells § 640.13 Collection of the blood....

  12. Nationwide survey of policies and practices related to capillary blood sampling in medical laboratories in Croatia

    PubMed Central

    Krleza, Jasna Lenicek

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Capillary sampling is increasingly used to obtain blood for laboratory tests in volumes as small as necessary and as non-invasively as possible. Whether capillary blood sampling is also frequent in Croatia, and whether it is performed according to international laboratory standards is unclear. Materials and methods: All medical laboratories that participate in the Croatian National External Quality Assessment Program (N = 204) were surveyed on-line to collect information about the laboratory’s parent institution, patient population, types and frequencies of laboratory tests based on capillary blood samples, choice of reference intervals, and policies and procedures specifically related to capillary sampling. Sampling practices were compared with guidelines from the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) and the World Health Organization (WHO). Results: Of the 204 laboratories surveyed, 174 (85%) responded with complete questionnaires. Among the 174 respondents, 155 (89%) reported that they routinely perform capillary sampling, which is carried out by laboratory staff in 118 laboratories (76%). Nearly half of respondent laboratories (48%) do not have a written protocol including order of draw for multiple sampling. A single puncture site is used to provide capillary blood for up to two samples at 43% of laboratories that occasionally or regularly perform such sampling. Most respondents (88%) never perform arterialisation prior to capillary blood sampling. Conclusions: Capillary blood sampling is highly prevalent in Croatia across different types of clinical facilities and patient populations. Capillary sampling procedures are not standardised in the country, and the rate of laboratory compliance with CLSI and WHO guidelines is low. PMID:25351353

  13. 21 CFR 640.13 - Collection of the blood.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Collection of the blood. 640.13 Section 640.13 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) BIOLOGICS ADDITIONAL STANDARDS FOR HUMAN BLOOD AND BLOOD PRODUCTS Red Blood Cells § 640.13 Collection of...

  14. 21 CFR 640.13 - Collection of the blood.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Collection of the blood. 640.13 Section 640.13 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) BIOLOGICS ADDITIONAL STANDARDS FOR HUMAN BLOOD AND BLOOD PRODUCTS Red Blood Cells § 640.13 Collection of...

  15. 21 CFR 640.13 - Collection of the blood.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Collection of the blood. 640.13 Section 640.13 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) BIOLOGICS ADDITIONAL STANDARDS FOR HUMAN BLOOD AND BLOOD PRODUCTS Red Blood Cells § 640.13 Collection of...

  16. 76 FR 48167 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Blood...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-08

    ... banks, certain transfusion services, other blood product manufacturers, and independent laboratories... Collection; Comment Request; Blood Establishment Registration and Product Listing, Form FDA 2830 AGENCY: Food... blood establishment registration and product listing requirements in the Agency's regulations and...

  17. A nationwide multicentre study in Turkey for establishing reference intervals of haematological parameters with novel use of a panel of whole blood.

    PubMed

    Ozarda, Yesim; Ichihara, Kiyoshi; Bakan, Ebubekir; Polat, Harun; Ozturk, Nurinnisa; Baygutalp, Nurcan K; Taneli, Fatma; Guvenc, Yesim; Ormen, Murat; Erbayraktar, Zubeyde; Aksoy, Nurten; Sezen, Hatice; Demir, Meltem; Eskandari, Gulcin; Polat, Gurbuz; Mete, Nuriye; Yuksel, Hatice; Vatansev, Husamettin; Gun, Fatma; Akin, Okhan; Ceylan, Ozlem; Noyan, Tevfik; Gozlukaya, Ozgul; Aliyazicioglu, Yuksel; Kahraman, Sevim; Dirican, Melahat; Tuncer, Gul Ozlem; Kimura, Shogo; Eker, Pinar

    2017-06-15

    A nationwide multicentre study was conducted to establish well-defined reference intervals (RIs) of haematological parameters for the Turkish population in consideration of sources of variation in reference values (RVs). K2-EDTA whole blood samples (total of 3363) were collected from 12 laboratories. Sera were also collected for measurements of iron, UIBC, TIBC, and ferritin for use in the latent abnormal values exclusion (LAVE) method. The blood samples were analysed within 2 hours in each laboratory using Cell Dyn and Ruby (Abbott), LH780 (Beckman Coulter), or XT-2000i (Sysmex). A panel of freshly prepared blood from 40 healthy volunteers was measured in common to assess any analyser-dependent bias in the measurements. The SD ratio (SDR) based on ANOVA was used to judge the need for partitioning RVs. RIs were computed by the parametric method with/without applying the LAVE method. Analyser-dependent bias was found for basophils (Bas), MCHC, RDW and MPV from the panel test results and thus those RIs were derived for each manufacturer. RIs were determined from all volunteers' results for WBC, neutrophils, lymphocytes, monocytes, eosinophils, MCV, MCH and platelets. Gender-specific RIs were required for RBC, haemoglobin, haematocrit, iron, UIBC and ferritin. Region-specific RIs were required for RBC, haemoglobin, haematocrit, UIBC, and TIBC. With the novel use of a freshly prepared blood panel, manufacturer-specific RIs' were derived for Bas, Bas%, MCHC, RDW and MPV. Regional differences in RIs were observed among the 7 regions of Turkey, which may be attributed to nutritional or environmental factors, including altitude.

  18. A nationwide multicentre study in Turkey for establishing reference intervals of haematological parameters with novel use of a panel of whole blood

    PubMed Central

    Ozarda, Yesim; Ichihara, Kiyoshi; Bakan, Ebubekir; Polat, Harun; Ozturk, Nurinnisa; Baygutalp, Nurcan K.; Taneli, Fatma; Guvenc, Yesim; Ormen, Murat; Erbayraktar, Zubeyde; Aksoy, Nurten; Sezen, Hatice; Demir, Meltem; Eskandari, Gulcin; Polat, Gurbuz; Mete, Nuriye; Yuksel, Hatice; Vatansev, Husamettin; Gun, Fatma; Akin, Okhan; Ceylan, Ozlem; Noyan, Tevfik; Gozlukaya, Ozgul; Aliyazicioglu, Yuksel; Kahraman, Sevim; Dirican, Melahat; Tuncer, Gul Ozlem; Kimura, Shogo; Eker, Pinar

    2017-01-01

    Introduction A nationwide multicentre study was conducted to establish well-defined reference intervals (RIs) of haematological parameters for the Turkish population in consideration of sources of variation in reference values (RVs). Materials and methods K2-EDTA whole blood samples (total of 3363) were collected from 12 laboratories. Sera were also collected for measurements of iron, UIBC, TIBC, and ferritin for use in the latent abnormal values exclusion (LAVE) method. The blood samples were analysed within 2 hours in each laboratory using Cell Dyn and Ruby (Abbott), LH780 (Beckman Coulter), or XT-2000i (Sysmex). A panel of freshly prepared blood from 40 healthy volunteers was measured in common to assess any analyser-dependent bias in the measurements. The SD ratio (SDR) based on ANOVA was used to judge the need for partitioning RVs. RIs were computed by the parametric method with/without applying the LAVE method. Results Analyser-dependent bias was found for basophils (Bas), MCHC, RDW and MPV from the panel test results and thus those RIs were derived for each manufacturer. RIs were determined from all volunteers’ results for WBC, neutrophils, lymphocytes, monocytes, eosinophils, MCV, MCH and platelets. Gender-specific RIs were required for RBC, haemoglobin, haematocrit, iron, UIBC and ferritin. Region-specific RIs were required for RBC, haemoglobin, haematocrit, UIBC, and TIBC. Conclusions With the novel use of a freshly prepared blood panel, manufacturer-specific RIs’ were derived for Bas, Bas%, MCHC, RDW and MPV. Regional differences in RIs were observed among the 7 regions of Turkey, which may be attributed to nutritional or environmental factors, including altitude. PMID:28694726

  19. A nationwide survey of hepatitis E viral infection in French blood donors.

    PubMed

    Mansuy, Jean Michel; Gallian, Pierre; Dimeglio, Chloé; Saune, Karine; Arnaud, Catherine; Pelletier, Bertrand; Morel, Pascal; Legrand, Dominique; Tiberghien, Pierre; Izopet, Jacques

    2016-04-01

    Most cases of hepatitis E viral (HEV) infection in developed countries are autochthonous. Nevertheless, the reported seroprevalence of HEV varies greatly depending on the geographical area and the performance of the immunoassay used. We used validated assays to determine the prevalence of anti-HEV immunoglobulin G (IgG) and IgM among 10,569 French blood donors living in mainland France and three overseas areas. Epidemiological information was collected using a specific questionnaire. We found an overall IgG seroprevalence of 22.4% (8%-86.4%) depending on the geographical area (P < 0.001). The presence of anti-HEV IgG was associated with increasing age (P < 0.001) and eating pork meat (P = 0.03), pork liver sausages (P < 0.001), game meat (P < 0.01), offal (P < 0.001), and oysters (P = 0.02). Conversely, drinking bottled water was associated with a lower rate of anti-HEV IgG (P = 0.02). Overall IgM seroprevalence was 1% (0%-4.6%). The frequency of anti-HEV IgM was higher in donors living in a high anti-HEV IgG seroprevalence area (1.9% versus 0.7%, P < 0.001) and in those eating pork liver sausage (1.4% versus 0.7%, P < 0.01), pâté (1% versus 0.4, P = 0.04), and wild boar (1.3% versus 0.7%, P < 0.01). HEV is endemic in France and hyperendemic in some areas; eating habits alone cannot totally explain the exposure to HEV, and contaminated water could contribute to the epidemiology of HEV infection in France. © 2015 by the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases.

  20. [Blood donation: Representations and issues associated with blood product collection].

    PubMed

    Loquier, B; Zegierman, A; Pelletier, B

    2015-08-01

    In order to answer to its aim of standardised self-sufficiency, the Établissement français du sang (main French national platform for blood donation) needs to know well the donors, what moves them, what motivates them, and the meaning that they give to their action. This knowledge allows the EFS to better understand the different sensitivities among donors, and therefore to improve the strategy regarding loyalty or/and newcomers. In this paper we follow, without attempting to be fully exhaustive, the evolution of the research regarding blood donation. The aim is to highlight the role played by social and historical representations regarding donation in general. In a given community, its norms, and its values influence both the image of donors as well as the meaning attached to the act itself of donation. Moreover, these norms have also influenced the way that research has tried to analyse this topic. The initial studies conducted in this field tried generally to understand the meaning and the symbolism attached to the act of blood donation. Later on, researchers started to focus on the assessment of notions such as generosity, and then solidarity. Nowadays, research is more focused on describing the population that gives blood. They are more scrutinised through their socio-demographic traits (who they are) than through the specific study of how they donate, the reasons behind the decision to act and the notion of satisfaction. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  1. Umbilical Cord Blood: Counselling, Collection, and Banking.

    PubMed

    Armson, B Anthony; Allan, David S; Casper, Robert F

    2015-09-01

    Objectif : Analyser les données probantes actuelles sur le counseling, le prélèvement et la mise en banque, en ce qui a trait au sang de cordon ombilical, et fournir des lignes directrices aux professionnels canadiens de la santé en ce qui concerne la sensibilisation des patientes, le consentement éclairé, les aspects techniques et les options pour la mise en banque de sang de cordon au Canada. Options : Prélèvement sélectif ou systématique et mise en banque du sang de cordon ombilical, en vue de futures greffes autologues (chez le patient même) ou allogéniques (lien de parenté ou non) de cellules souches visant la prise en charge de troubles malins et bénins chez les enfants et les adultes. Le sang de cordon peut être prélevé au moyen de techniques in utero ou ex utero. Issues : Counseling, prélèvement et mise en banque en ce qui a trait au sang de cordon ombilical, formation des professionnels de la santé, indications du prélèvement de sang de cordon, risques et avantages à court et à long terme, morbidité maternelle et périnatale, satisfaction parentale et coûts de santé. Résultats : La littérature publiée a été récupérée par l’intermédiaire de recherches menées dans Medline et PubMed à partir de septembre 2013, au moyen d’un vocabulaire contrôlé (p. ex. « fetal blood », « pregnancy », « transplantation », « ethics ») et de mots clés (p. ex. « umbilical cord blood », « banking », « collection », « pregnancy », « transplantation », « ethics », « public », « private ») MeSH appropriés. Les résultats ont été restreints aux analyses systématiques, aux études observationnelles et aux essais comparatifs randomisés / essais cliniques comparatifs. Aucune limite n’a été imposée en matière de date, mais les résultats ont été limités aux articles publiés en anglais ou en français. Les recherches ont été mises à jour de façon régulière et int

  2. Interferences from blood collection tube components on clinical chemistry assays.

    PubMed

    Bowen, Raffick A R; Remaley, Alan T

    2014-01-01

    Improper design or use of blood collection devices can adversely affect the accuracy of laboratory test results. Vascular access devices, such as catheters and needles, exert shear forces during blood flow, which creates a predisposition to cell lysis. Components from blood collection tubes, such as stoppers, lubricants, surfactants, and separator gels, can leach into specimens and/or adsorb analytes from a specimen; special tube additives may also alter analyte stability. Because of these interactions with blood specimens, blood collection devices are a potential source of pre-analytical error in laboratory testing. Accurate laboratory testing requires an understanding of the complex interactions between collection devices and blood specimens. Manufacturers, vendors, and clinical laboratorians must consider the pre-analytical challenges in laboratory testing. Although other authors have described the effects of endogenous substances on clinical assay results, the effects/impact of blood collection tube additives and components have not been well systematically described or explained. This review aims to identify and describe blood collection tube additives and their components and the strategies used to minimize their effects on clinical chemistry assays.

  3. Interferences from blood collection tube components on clinical chemistry assays

    PubMed Central

    Bowen, Raffick A.R.; Remaley, Alan T.

    2014-01-01

    Improper design or use of blood collection devices can adversely affect the accuracy of laboratory test results. Vascular access devices, such as catheters and needles, exert shear forces during blood flow, which creates a predisposition to cell lysis. Components from blood collection tubes, such as stoppers, lubricants, surfactants, and separator gels, can leach into specimens and/or adsorb analytes from a specimen; special tube additives may also alter analyte stability. Because of these interactions with blood specimens, blood collection devices are a potential source of pre-analytical error in laboratory testing. Accurate laboratory testing requires an understanding of the complex interactions between collection devices and blood specimens. Manufacturers, vendors, and clinical laboratorians must consider the pre-analytical challenges in laboratory testing. Although other authors have described the effects of endogenous substances on clinical assay results, the effects/impact of blood collection tube additives and components have not been well systematically described or explained. This review aims to identify and describe blood collection tube additives and their components and the strategies used to minimize their effects on clinical chemistry assays. PMID:24627713

  4. Utility of collecting blood cultures through newly inserted intravenous catheters.

    PubMed

    Isaacman, D J; Karasic, R B

    1990-11-01

    We prospectively examined the utility of obtaining blood cultures through newly inserted intravenous catheters in 99 children who required both a blood culture and placement of an intravenous catheter. Two blood cultures were collected from each patient, one through a freshly inserted intravenous catheter and another through a butterfly needle at a separate venipuncture site. A standardized technique of skin preparation with povidone-iodine was used. The rate of contamination was 1.0% (95% confidence intervals, 0 to 3.0%) for each method. Ten patients had blood cultures yielding true pathogens; in five of these bacteremic children, only one of two sets of blood cultures was positive. We conclude that blood cultures can be collected through freshly placed intravenous catheters without increasing the risk of contamination. These results also raise the possibility that obtaining two blood cultures instead of a single culture may improve the detection of bacteremia in children.

  5. Nationwide Investigation of the Pyrethroid Susceptibility of Mosquito Larvae Collected from Used Tires in Vietnam

    PubMed Central

    Kawada, Hitoshi; Higa, Yukiko; Nguyen, Yen T.; Tran, Son H.; Nguyen, Hoa T.; Takagi, Masahiro

    2009-01-01

    Pyrethroid resistance is envisioned to be a major problem for the vector control program since, at present, there are no suitable chemical substitutes for pyrethroids. Cross-resistance to knockdown agents, which are mainly used in mosquito coils and related products as spatial repellents, is the most serious concern. Since cross-resistance is a global phenomenon, we have started to monitor the distribution of mosquito resistance to pyrethroids. The first pilot study was carried out in Vietnam. We periodically drove along the national road from the north end to the Mekong Delta in Vietnam and collected mosquito larvae from used tires. Simplified susceptibility tests were performed using the fourth instar larvae of Aedes aegypti, Aedes albopictus, and Culex quinquefasciatus. Compared with the other species, Ae. aegypti demonstrated the most prominent reduction in susceptibility. For Ae. aegypti, significant increases in the susceptibility indices with a decrease in the latitude of collection points were observed, indicating that the susceptibility of Ae. aegypti against d-allethrin was lower in the southern part, including mountainous areas, as compared to that in the northern part of Vietnam. There was a significant correlation between the susceptibility indices in Ae. aegypti and the sum of annual pyrethroid use for malaria control (1998–2002). This might explain that the use of pyrethroids as residual treatment inside houses and pyrethroid-impregnated bed nets for malaria control is attributable to low pyrethroid susceptibility in Ae. aegypti. Such insecticide treatment appeared to have been intensively administered in the interior and along the periphery of human habitation areas where, incidentally, the breeding and resting sites of Ae. aegypti are located. This might account for the strong selection pressure toward Ae. aegypti and not Ae. albopictus. PMID:19274072

  6. Nationwide investigation of the pyrethroid susceptibility of mosquito larvae collected from used tires in Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Kawada, Hitoshi; Higa, Yukiko; Nguyen, Yen T; Tran, Son H; Nguyen, Hoa T; Takagi, Masahiro

    2009-01-01

    Pyrethroid resistance is envisioned to be a major problem for the vector control program since, at present, there are no suitable chemical substitutes for pyrethroids. Cross-resistance to knockdown agents, which are mainly used in mosquito coils and related products as spatial repellents, is the most serious concern. Since cross-resistance is a global phenomenon, we have started to monitor the distribution of mosquito resistance to pyrethroids. The first pilot study was carried out in Vietnam. We periodically drove along the national road from the north end to the Mekong Delta in Vietnam and collected mosquito larvae from used tires. Simplified susceptibility tests were performed using the fourth instar larvae of Aedes aegypti, Aedes albopictus, and Culex quinquefasciatus. Compared with the other species, Ae. aegypti demonstrated the most prominent reduction in susceptibility. For Ae. aegypti, significant increases in the susceptibility indices with a decrease in the latitude of collection points were observed, indicating that the susceptibility of Ae. aegypti against d-allethrin was lower in the southern part, including mountainous areas, as compared to that in the northern part of Vietnam. There was a significant correlation between the susceptibility indices in Ae. aegypti and the sum of annual pyrethroid use for malaria control (1998-2002). This might explain that the use of pyrethroids as residual treatment inside houses and pyrethroid-impregnated bed nets for malaria control is attributable to low pyrethroid susceptibility in Ae. aegypti. Such insecticide treatment appeared to have been intensively administered in the interior and along the periphery of human habitation areas where, incidentally, the breeding and resting sites of Ae. aegypti are located. This might account for the strong selection pressure toward Ae. aegypti and not Ae. albopictus.

  7. Correlation between mass and volume of collected blood with positivity of blood cultures.

    PubMed

    Neves, Lariessa; Marra, Alexandre Rodrigues; Camargo, Thiago Zinsly Sampaio; dos Santos, Maura Cristina; Zulin, Flávia; da Silva, Patrícia Candido; de Moura, Natália Ariede; Victor, Elivane da Silva; Pasternak, Jacyr; dos Santos, Oscar Fernando Pavão; Edmond, Michael B; Martino, Marines Dalla Valle

    2015-08-28

    The collection of blood cultures is an extremely important method in the management of patients with suspected infection. Microbiology laboratories should monitor blood culture collection. Over an 8-month period we developed a prospective, observational study in an adult Intensive Care Unit (ICU). We correlated the mass contained in the blood vials with blood culture positivity and we also verified the relationship between the mass of blood and blood volume collected for the diagnosis of bloodstream infection (BSI), as well as we explored factors predicting positive blood cultures. We evaluated 345 patients with sepsis, severe sepsis or septic shock for whom blood culture bottles were collected for the diagnosis of BSI. Of the 55 patients with BSI, 40.0% had peripheral blood culture collection only. BSIs were classified as nosocomial in 34.5%. In the multivariate model, the blood culture mass (in grams) remained a significant predictor of positivity, with an odds ratio 1.01 (i.e., for each additional 1 mL of blood collected there was a 1% increase in positivity; 95% CI 1.01-1.02, p = 0.001; Nagelkerke R Square [R(2)] = 0.192). For blood volume collected, the adjusted odds ratio was estimated at 1.02 (95% CI: 1.01-1.03, p < 0.001; R(2) = 0.199). For each set of collected blood cultures beyond one set, the adjusted odds ratio was estimated to be 1.27 (95% CI: 1.14-1.41, p < 0.001; R(2) = 0.221). Our study was a quality improvement project that showed that microbiology laboratories can use the weight of blood culture bottles to determine if appropriate volume has been collected to improve the diagnosis of BSI.

  8. Nationwide outbreak of red eye syndrome associated with transfusion of leukocyte-reduced red blood cell units.

    PubMed

    Alonso-Echanove, Juan; Sippy, Brian D; Chin, Arthur E; Cairns, Lisa; Haley, Rebecca; Epstein, Jay S; Richards, Michael J; Edelhauser, Henry; Hedberg, Katrina; Kuehnert, Matthew J; Jarvis, William R; Pearson, Michele L

    2006-11-01

    To characterize red eye reactions occurring within 24 hours after receipt of units of leukocyte-reduced red blood cells, determine their etiology, and investigate their potential link to transfusion. We conducted a survey of transfusion facilities nationwide to determine the scope and magnitude of the reactions; performed case-control and cohort studies among transfused patients at the facility where most reactions occurred; and performed animal experiments, using cellulose acetate derivatives extracted from leukocyte-reduction filters and filter precursors, to reproduce reactions. From January 1, 1997, through January 15, 1998, we identified 159 reactions in 117 patients from 17 states. Reactions were characterized by conjunctival erythema or hemorrhage (in 100% of patients), eye pain (in 62%), photophobia (in 46%), and decreased visual acuity (in 32%). Symptom onset occurred 1-24 hours after initiation of transfusion and resolved within a median of 5 days. Reactions were associated with transfusion sessions that included units of red blood cells filtered with a specific brand of filter, the LeukoNet filter (HemaSure) (odds ratio, 100.4; P<.001). There was a dose-response relationship between the number of LeukoNet-filtered units transfused and the attack rate for reactions, ranging from 0.8% among sessions in which 1 unit was transfused to 27.3% among sessions in which 3 or more units were transfused (P<.001). A similar ocular syndrome was elicited in rabbits injected with cellulose acetate derivatives extracted from unused LeukoNet filters or filter precursors. No reactions were reported after LeukoNet filters were withdrawn from the market. This transfusion-associated red eye syndrome was linked to a specific brand of leukocyte-reduction filter and likely resulted from cellulose acetate derivatives leached from the filter membrane.

  9. Evacuated blood-collection tubes--the backflow hazard.

    PubMed Central

    Katz, L.; Johnson, D. L.; Neufeld, P. D.; Gupta, K. G.

    1975-01-01

    Five cases of nosocomial infection caused by Serratia marcescens were traced to backflow of blood from nonsterile evacuated blood-collection tubes. The mechanism of backflow was investigated theoretically and the conditions were determined under which backflow can occur. The theory was confirmed by experiments conducted on a simulated venous system and by measurements of the venous pressure in the brachial vein of a patient during application and removal of a tourniquet. Various possible solutions to the backflow hazard include strict adherence to correct venipuncture technique, sterilization of all blood-collection tubes, improvement of the vacuum in the tubes and incorporation of a check valve into the system. PMID:1095169

  10. Good practices in collecting umbilical cord and placental blood 1

    PubMed Central

    Lopes, Lauren Auer; Bernardino, Elizabeth; Crozeta, Karla; Guimarães, Paulo Ricardo Bittencourt

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objective: to identify the factors related to the quality of umbilical cord and placental blood specimens, and define best practices for their collection in a government bank of umbilical cord and placental blood. Method: this was a descriptive study, quantitative approach, performed at a government umbilical cord and placental blood bank, in two steps: 1) verification of the obstetric, neonatal and operational factors, using a specific tool for gathering data as non-participant observers; 2) definition of best practices by grouping non-conformities observed before, during and after blood collection. The data was analyzed using descriptive statistics and the following statistical software: Statistica(r) and R(r). Results: while there was a correlation with obstetrical and neonatal factors, there was a larger correlation with operational factors, resulting in the need to adjust the professional practices of the nursing staff and obstetrical team involved in collecting this type of blood. Based on these non-conformities we defined best practices for nurses before, during and after blood collection. Conclusion: the best practices defined in this study are an important management tool for the work of nurses in obtaining blood specimens of high cell quality. PMID:27556876

  11. Modern banking, collection, compatibility testing and storage of blood and blood components.

    PubMed

    Green, L; Allard, S; Cardigan, R

    2015-01-01

    The clinical practice of blood transfusion has changed considerably over the last few decades. The potential risk of transfusion transmissible diseases has directed efforts towards the production of safe and high quality blood. All transfusion services now operate in an environment of ever-increasing regulatory controls encompassing all aspects of blood collection, processing and storage. Stringent donor selection, identification of pathogens that can be transmitted through blood, and development of technologies that can enhance the quality of blood, have all led to a substantial reduction in potential risks and complications associated with blood transfusion. In this article, we will discuss the current standards required for the manufacture of blood, starting from blood collection, through processing and on to storage. © 2014 The Association of Anaesthetists of Great Britain and Ireland.

  12. Incidence of human T-lymphotropic virus 1 infection in adolescent and adult blood donors in Japan: a nationwide retrospective cohort analysis.

    PubMed

    Satake, Masahiro; Iwanaga, Masako; Sagara, Yasuko; Watanabe, Toshiki; Okuma, Kazu; Hamaguchi, Isao

    2016-11-01

    Human T-lymphotropic virus 1 (HTLV-1) infection has an especially high prevalence in Japan. Transmission has been confirmed in infancy through breastfeeding; however, little is known about the epidemiological aspects of new HTLV-1 infections later in life. We aimed to estimate the nationwide annual number of new HTLV-1 infections among adolescents and adults in Japan. In this retrospective cohort analysis, we assessed new HTLV-1 infections of repeat blood donors aged 16-69 years between Jan 1, 2005, and Dec 31, 2006, in the Japanese Red Cross Blood Centres database. We used results of antibody tests done in repeat blood samples collected until Dec 31, 2011, to assess the number who seroconverted to HTLV-1. We calculated the incidence density by dividing the number of seroconverters by the number of person-years of follow-up, and then extrapolated densities to regional populations to estimate the annual number of new HTLV-1 infections. We included 3 375 821 HTLV-1-seronegative blood donors (2 100 915 men and 1 274 906 women). Within a median follow-up of 4·5 years (IQR 2·3-5·8), 532 people (204 men and 328 women) had seroconverted. The incidence density was significantly higher in women (6·88 per 100 000 person-years; 95% CI 6·17-7·66) than in men (2·29 per 100 000 person-years; 95% CI 1·99-2·62; p<0·0001). The estimated annual number of new HTLV-1 infections was 4190 (95% CI 4064-4318) with 975 (914-1038) infections in men and 3215 (3104-3328) in women. New HTLV-1 infections in adolescents and adults are an important public health concern in Japan and preventive strategies are needed to reduce new transmission. Ministry of Health, Labour, and Welfare of Japan; Japan Agency for Medical Research and Development. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Cord blood banking in London: the first 1000 collections.

    PubMed

    Armitage, S; Warwick, R; Fehily, D; Navarrete, C; Contreras, M

    1999-07-01

    The London Cord Blood Bank was established with the aim of collecting, processing and storing 10000 unrelated stem cell donations for the significant number of children in the UK requiring transplantation, for whom a matched unrelated bone marrow donor cannot be found. Collection is performed at two hospitals by dedicated cord blood bank staff after delivery of the placenta. Mothers are interviewed regarding medical, ethnic and behavioural history by nurse counsellors and sign a detailed consent form. Donations are returned to the bank for processing. Volume reduction is undertaken by a simple, closed, semi-automated blood processing system, with excellent recovery of progenitor cells. Units are cryopreserved and stored in the vapour phase of liquid nitrogen. Blood samples from mothers and cord blood donations are tested for the UK mandatory red cell and microbiology markers for blood donors. Donations are typed for HLA-A, B and DR at medium resolution (antigen split) level using sequence-specific oligonucleotide probing and sequence-specific priming techniques. The selection of collection hospitals on the basis of ethnic mix has proven effective, with 41.5% of donations derived from non-European caucasoid donors. Bacterial contamination of collections has been dramatically reduced by implementation of improved umbilical cord decontamination protocols.

  14. Blood product collection and supply: a matter of money?

    PubMed

    de Kort, W; Wagenmans, E; van Dongen, A; Slotboom, Y; Hofstede, G; Veldhuizen, I

    2010-04-01

    Previous studies have shown that countries with a low or medium Human Development Index (HDI) transfuse far fewer blood products than countries with a high HDI. HDI comprises both economical and non-economical elements. We considered the hypothesis that non-economical, cultural differences may be additional factors in understanding blood donation and blood supply differences. We quantified the explained variance, r(2), in: the number of donors, the number of whole blood collections and the number of red blood cell units supplied to hospitals for 25 European countries. Candidate predictors were Hofstede's cultural dimensions, the demographic factor Old Age Dependency Ratio and the three components of HDI: Gross National Income, Life Expectancy and the Educational Development Index. The cultural dimension Power Distance was the best sole predictor of whole blood collection (r(2) = 56.8%) and the number of donors (r(2) = 25.1%). The Educational Development Index best predicted the number of red blood cell units (r(2) = 45.0%). Multivariable models including the cultural dimension Power Distance and the Educational Development Index gave the best results in predicting the number of whole blood collections and red blood cell units supplied and, to a lesser extent, the number of donors, with adjusted r(2) values of 63.6%, 51.9% and 28.6%, respectively. In contrast, Gross National Income made no significant predictive contribution to any of the multivariable models. Neither did the other cultural dimensions, Life Expectancy or Old Age Dependency Ratio. The effects of education level and cultural aspects should be taken into account as influencers on donation behaviour. The concept of power distance, in particular, presents a challenge to blood donor managers in cross-cultural and multi-cultural donor management contexts.

  15. Blood Collection from the American Horseshoe Crab, Limulus Polyphemus

    PubMed Central

    Armstrong, Peter; Conrad, Mara

    2008-01-01

    The horseshoe crab has the best-characterized immune system of any long-lived invertebrate. The study of immunity in horseshoe crabs has been facilitated by the ease in collecting large volumes of blood and from the simplicity of the blood. Horseshoe crabs show only a single cell type in the general circulation, the granular amebocyte. The plasma has the salt content of sea water and only three abundant proteins, hemocyanin, the respiratory protein, the C-reactive proteins, which function in the cytolytic destruction of foreign cells, including bacterial cells, and α2-macroglobulin, which inhibits the proteases of invading pathogens. Blood is collected by direct cardiac puncture under conditions that minimize contamination by lipopolysaccharide (a.k.a., endotoxin, LPS), a product of the Gram-negative bacteria. A large animal can yield 200 - 400 mL of blood. For the study of the plasma, blood cells are immediately removed from the plasma by centrifugation and the plasma can then be fractionated into its constituent proteins. The blood cells are conveniently studied microscopically by collecting small volumes of blood into LPS-free isotonic saline (0.5 M NaCl) under conditions that permit direct microscopic examination by placing one of more LPS-free coverglasses on the culture dish surface, then mounting those coverglasses in simple observation chambers following cell attachment. A second preparation for direct observation is to collect 3 - 5 mL of blood in a LPS-free embryo dish and then explanting fragments of aggregated amebocytes to a chamber that sandwiches the tissue between a slide and a coverglass. In this preparation, the motile amebocytes migrate onto the coverglass surface, where they can readily be observed. The blood clotting system involves aggregation of amebocytes and the formation of an extracellular clot of a protein, coagulin, which is released from the secretory granules of the blood cells. Biochemical analysis of washed blood cells requires

  16. Blood collection from the American horseshoe crab, Limulus polyphemus.

    PubMed

    Armstrong, Peter; Conrad, Mara

    2008-10-13

    The horseshoe crab has the best-characterized immune system of any long-lived invertebrate. The study of immunity in horseshoe crabs has been facilitated by the ease in collecting large volumes of blood and from the simplicity of the blood. Horseshoe crabs show only a single cell type in the general circulation, the granular amebocyte. The plasma has the salt content of sea water and only three abundant proteins, hemocyanin, the respiratory protein, the C-reactive proteins, which function in the cytolytic destruction of foreign cells, including bacterial cells, and alpha2-macroglobulin, which inhibits the proteases of invading pathogens. Blood is collected by direct cardiac puncture under conditions that minimize contamination by lipopolysaccharide (a.k.a., endotoxin, LPS), a product of the Gram-negative bacteria. A large animal can yield 200 - 400 mL of blood. For the study of the plasma, blood cells are immediately removed from the plasma by centrifugation and the plasma can then be fractionated into its constituent proteins. The blood cells are conveniently studied microscopically by collecting small volumes of blood into LPS-free isotonic saline (0.5 M NaCl) under conditions that permit direct microscopic examination by placing one of more LPS-free coverglasses on the culture dish surface, then mounting those coverglasses in simple observation chambers following cell attachment. A second preparation for direct observation is to collect 3 - 5 mL of blood in a LPS-free embryo dish and then explanting fragments of aggregated amebocytes to a chamber that sandwiches the tissue between a slide and a coverglass. In this preparation, the motile amebocytes migrate onto the coverglass surface, where they can readily be observed. The blood clotting system involves aggregation of amebocytes and the formation of an extracellular clot of a protein, coagulin, which is released from the secretory granules of the blood cells. Biochemical analysis of washed blood cells requires

  17. On the improvement of blood sample collection at clinical laboratories.

    PubMed

    Grasas, Alex; Ramalhinho, Helena; Pessoa, Luciana S; Resende, Mauricio G C; Caballé, Imma; Barba, Nuria

    2014-01-09

    Blood samples are usually collected daily from different collection points, such hospitals and health centers, and transported to a core laboratory for testing. This paper presents a project to improve the collection routes of two of the largest clinical laboratories in Spain. These routes must be designed in a cost-efficient manner while satisfying two important constraints: (i) two-hour time windows between collection and delivery, and (ii) vehicle capacity. A heuristic method based on a genetic algorithm has been designed to solve the problem of blood sample collection. The user enters the following information for each collection point: postal address, average collecting time, and average demand (in thermal containers). After implementing the algorithm using C programming, this is run and, in few seconds, it obtains optimal (or near-optimal) collection routes that specify the collection sequence for each vehicle. Different scenarios using various types of vehicles have been considered. Unless new collection points are added or problem parameters are changed substantially, routes need to be designed only once. The two laboratories in this study previously planned routes manually for 43 and 74 collection points, respectively. These routes were covered by an external carrier company. With the implementation of this algorithm, the number of routes could be reduced from ten to seven in one laboratory and from twelve to nine in the other, which represents significant annual savings in transportation costs. The algorithm presented can be easily implemented in other laboratories that face this type of problem, and it is particularly interesting and useful as the number of collection points increases. The method designs blood collection routes with reduced costs that meet the time and capacity constraints of the problem.

  18. On the improvement of blood sample collection at clinical laboratories

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Blood samples are usually collected daily from different collection points, such hospitals and health centers, and transported to a core laboratory for testing. This paper presents a project to improve the collection routes of two of the largest clinical laboratories in Spain. These routes must be designed in a cost-efficient manner while satisfying two important constraints: (i) two-hour time windows between collection and delivery, and (ii) vehicle capacity. Methods A heuristic method based on a genetic algorithm has been designed to solve the problem of blood sample collection. The user enters the following information for each collection point: postal address, average collecting time, and average demand (in thermal containers). After implementing the algorithm using C programming, this is run and, in few seconds, it obtains optimal (or near-optimal) collection routes that specify the collection sequence for each vehicle. Different scenarios using various types of vehicles have been considered. Unless new collection points are added or problem parameters are changed substantially, routes need to be designed only once. Results The two laboratories in this study previously planned routes manually for 43 and 74 collection points, respectively. These routes were covered by an external carrier company. With the implementation of this algorithm, the number of routes could be reduced from ten to seven in one laboratory and from twelve to nine in the other, which represents significant annual savings in transportation costs. Conclusions The algorithm presented can be easily implemented in other laboratories that face this type of problem, and it is particularly interesting and useful as the number of collection points increases. The method designs blood collection routes with reduced costs that meet the time and capacity constraints of the problem. PMID:24406140

  19. Collection, Storage, and Preparation of Human Blood Cells

    PubMed Central

    Dagur, Pradeep K.; McCoy, J. Philip

    2015-01-01

    Human peripheral blood is often studied by flow cytometry in both the research and clinical laboratories. The methods for collection, storage, and preparation of peripheral blood will vary depending on the cell lineage to be examined as well as the type of assay to be performed. This unit presents protocols for collection of blood, separation of leukocytes from whole blood by lysis of erythrocytes, isolating mononuclear cells by density gradient separation, and assorted non-flow sorting methods, such as magnetic bead separations, for enriching specific cell populations, including monocytes, T lymphocytes, B lymphocytes, neutrophils,, , and platelets prior to flow cytometric analysis. A protocol is also offered for cryopreservation of cells since clinical research often involves retrospective flow cytometric analysis of samples stored over a period of months or years. PMID:26132177

  20. Collecting factors related to the haemolysis of blood specimens.

    PubMed

    Fang, Li; Fang, Shu-Hui; Chung, Yun-Ho; Chien, Shang-Tao

    2008-09-01

    The purpose of the study is to explore the collecting factors for the haemolysis of the blood specimens in a regional hospital in South Taiwan. Blood collecting is one of the most common procedures used in hospital. However, it often faces the risk of haemolysis of blood specimens during laboratory testing and the specimens collected can be easily rejected by the laboratory. This is a descriptive and cross-sectional study. The purposive samples were collected from the blood specimens of the hospitalized patients or the emergency-room patients by using structured observational checklists which included demographic characteristics, caring factors and material factors. A total of 274 blood specimens was collected. Specimens obtained from non-antecubital sites were 3.35 times at risk of haemolysis as many as those from antecubital sites (p = 0.001). Blood collected into tubes through steel needles were 3.7 times more at risk of haemolysis as that through syringes (after removing needles) (p = 0.002). Specimens delivered by ward assistants were 8.7 times more at risk for haemolysis as those by the laboratory staff (p < 0.01). These findings suggest that nurse supervisors establish a protocol related to preventing haemolysis. Future research should explore the effectiveness of this protocol to verify the relationship between different gauges of steel needles or catheters and haemolysis. Nurse educators are encouraged to include the factors affecting and preventing haemolysis into the in service education. Therefore, findings may assist healthcare professionals in minimizing the risk of haemolysis and improve the quality of care.

  1. An analysis of mobile whole blood collection labor efficiency.

    PubMed

    Rose, William N; Dayton, Paula J; Raife, Thomas J

    2011-07-01

    Labor efficiency is desirable in mobile blood collection. There are few published data on labor efficiency. The variability in the labor efficiency of mobile whole blood collections was analyzed. We determined to improve our labor efficiency using lean manufacturing principles. Workflow changes in mobile collections were implemented with the goal of minimizing labor expenditures. To measure success, data on labor efficiency measured by units/hour/full-time equivalent (FTE) were collected. The labor efficiency in a 6-month period before the implementation of changes, and in months 1 to 6 and 7 to 12 after implementation was analyzed and compared. Labor efficiency in the 6-month period preceding implementation was 1.06 ± 0.4 units collected/hour/FTE. In months 1 to 6, labor efficiency declined slightly to 0.92 ± 0.4 units collected/hour/FTE (p = 0.016 vs. preimplementation). In months 7 to 12, the mean labor efficiency returned to preimplementation levels of 1.09 ±0.4 units collected/hour/FTE. Regression analysis correlating labor efficiency with total units collected per drive revealed a strong correlation (R(2) = 0.48 for the aggregate data from all three periods), indicating that nearly half of labor efficiency was associated with drive size. The lean-based changes in workflow were subjectively favored by employees and donors. The labor efficiency of our mobile whole blood drives is strongly influenced by size. Larger drives are more efficient, with diminishing returns above 40 units collected. Lean-based workflow changes were positively received by employees and donors. © 2011 American Association of Blood Banks.

  2. The cost of blood collection in Greece: an economic analysis.

    PubMed

    Fragoulakis, Vassilis; Stamoulis, Kostas; Grouzi, Elisabeth; Maniadakis, Nikolaos

    2014-07-01

    The goal of this study was to estimate the cost of production of 1 unit of blood from a National Health Service perspective in Greece. In agreement with guidelines, the cost of blood production in this study accounted only for the resources expended for collection, processing, laboratory testing, and storage. Hence, the costs associated with donor recruitment, pretransfusion preparation, transfusion administration, follow-up management of adverse events, and other long-term relevant costs were not taken into consideration. The indirect cost of blood donations for donors (productivity loss) was also considered. A questionnaire was used to collect data regarding personnel time, annual blood quantities collected, percentage of wastage, utilization of consumables, institutional overhead, information technology expenditure, medical equipment utilized, nuclear acid tests, and other factors. Data gathered by 53 hospitals across the country were assessed. A model was constructed with economic data collected by the National School of Public Health and the Ministry of Health. All data refer to the year 2013. The weighted mean direct cost of producing 1 unit of blood was estimated at €131.49 (SD, €22.12; minimum/maximum, €94.96-€239.20). The mean total indirect cost was estimated at €34 per unit of blood. The cost distribution was positively skewed (skewness, 1.642 [0.327]). The major cost component was the cost of personnel, accounting for 32.5% of total costs, and the average of blood unit wastage was estimated at 4.90%. There were no differences between the cost of producing 1 unit of blood in Athens compared with the rest of the country (Mann-Whitney test, P = 0.341). This study suggests that the cost of producing 1 unit of blood is not insignificant. These figures need to be complemented with those concerning the cost of transfusion to have a complete picture of producing and using 1 unit of blood locally. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier HS Journals, Inc. All

  3. 21 CFR 864.6150 - Capillary blood collection tube.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Capillary blood collection tube. 864.6150 Section 864.6150 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Manual Hematology Devices § 864.6150...

  4. Using heat to reduce blood collection time in pediatric clients.

    PubMed

    Becht, D K; Anderson, M A

    1996-11-01

    Several states now require that all children attending day care, nursery schools, and kindergarten have evidence of a blood lead screening. Obtaining the requisite blood sample can be difficult because of inherent problems with pediatric clients. The purpose of this research was to explore if the application of heat to promote vasodilation affected finger stick collection time in pediatric clients. Subjects, ages 2 through 6 years, were randomly assigned to a control or intervention group (N = 63). For the intervention group, heat was applied for 1 min by placement of an infant heel warmer on the hand selected for the finger stick. A stopwatch was used to measure the time of blood collection in both the control and intervention groups. A two-tailed t test revealed statistical significance between the two groups (p = .008). Findings suggest the application of heat to promote vasodilation does reduce collection time in pediatric clients. Nurse practitioners may use this intervention to facilitate collection of blood samples in pediatric clients.

  5. Apheresis techniques for collection of peripheral blood progenitor cells.

    PubMed

    Moog, Rainer

    2004-12-01

    The combination of effective mobilisation protocols and efficient use of apheresis machines has caused peripheral blood progenitor cells (PBPC) transplantation to grow rapidly. The development of apheresis technology has improved over the years. Today PBSC procedures have changed towards systems to minimise operator interaction and to reduce the collection of undesired cells such as polymorphonuclear cells and platelets using functionally closed, sterile environments for PBSC collection in keeping with Good Manufacturing Practice guidelines. Blood cell separators with continuous flow technique allow the processing of more blood than intermittent flow devices resulting in higher PBSC yields. Large volume leukapheresis with the processing of 3-4-fold donor's/patient's blood volume can increase the number of collected progenitor cells. Therefore, intermittent flow cell separators are indicated if only single vein access is available. Anticoagulant induced hypocalcaemia is an often observed side effect in long lasting PBPC harvesting and monitoring of electrolytes should be performed especially at the end of the apheresis procedure to supplement low levels of potassium, calcium or magnesium. Refinement and improvement of collection techniques continue to add to the armamentarium of current approaches for cancer and non-malignant conditions and will enable future strategies.

  6. Platelet concentrates, from whole blood or collected by apheresis?

    PubMed

    van der Meer, Pieter F

    2013-04-01

    Platelet concentrates can be isolated from donated whole blood with the platelet-rich plasma-method or the buffy coat-method. Alternatively, platelets can be obtained by apheresis, harvesting the platelets but returning all other cells to the donor. The quality and characteristics of platelets during storage are affected by a number of factors, such as anticoagulant, centrifugation and processing after collection, and pre- or post storage pooling, but when comparing literature on the various methods, most differences balance out. To have sufficient platelets to treat an adult patient, whole-blood-derived platelet concentrates need pooling of multiple donations, thereby increasing the risk of infectious agent transmission at least two-fold as compared with apheresis units. Allo immunization rates, acute reaction rates, and transfusion related acute lung injury rates are not different. Apheresis donation procedures have fewer adverse events. All these factors need to be considered and weighed when selecting a method of platelet collection for a blood center.

  7. Hematological assessment in pet guinea pigs (Cavia porcellus): blood sample collection and blood cell identification.

    PubMed

    Zimmerman, Kurt; Moore, David M; Smith, Stephen A

    2015-01-01

    Pet guinea pigs are presented to veterinary clinics for routine care and treatment of clinical diseases. In addition to obtaining clinical history and exam findings, diagnostic testing may be required, including hematological assessments. This article describes common blood collection methods, including venipuncture sites, the volume of blood that can be safely collected, and handling of the blood. Hematological parameters for normal guinea pigs are provided for comparison with in-house or commercial test results. A description of the morphology of guinea pig leukocytes is provided to assist in performing a differential count.

  8. Hematological assessment in pet rabbits: blood sample collection and blood cell identification.

    PubMed

    Moore, David M; Zimmerman, Kurt; Smith, Stephen A

    2015-01-01

    Pet rabbits are presented to veterinary clinics for routine care and treatment of clinical diseases. In addition to obtaining clinical history, additional diagnostic testing may be required, including hematological assessments. This article describes common blood collection methods, including venipuncture sites, volume of blood that can be safely collected, and handling of the blood. Hematological parameters for normal rabbits are provided for comparison with in-house or commercial test results. A description of the morphology of rabbit leukocytes is provided to assist in performing a differential count. Differential diagnoses are provided for abnormal values identified in the hemogram.

  9. Hematological Assessment in Pet Guinea Pigs (Cavia porcellus): Blood Sample Collection and Blood Cell Identification.

    PubMed

    Zimmerman, Kurt; Moore, David M; Smith, Stephen A

    2015-09-01

    Pet guinea pigs are presented to veterinary clinics for routine care and treatment of clinical diseases. In addition to obtaining clinical history and exam findings, diagnostic testing may be required, including hematological assessments. This article describes common blood collection methods, including venipuncture sites, the volume of blood that can be safely collected, and handling of the blood. Hematological parameters for normal guinea pigs are provided for comparison with in-house or commercial test results. A description of the morphology of guinea pig leukocytes is provided to assist in performing a differential count.

  10. An update on the GLOB blood group system and collection.

    PubMed

    Hellberg, A; Westman, J S; Olsson, M L

    2013-01-01

    The P blood group antigen of the GLOB system is a glycolipid structure, also known as globoside, on the red blood cells (RBCs) of almost all individuals worldwide. The P antigen is intimately related to the Pk and NOR antigens discussed in the review about the P1PK blood group system. Naturally occurring anti-P is present in the serum of individuals with the rare globoside-deficient phenotypes p, P1k, and P2k and has been implicated in hemolytic transfusion reactions as well as unfavorable outcomes of pregnancy. The molecular genetic basis of globoside deficiency is absence of functional P synthase as a result of mutations at the B3GALNT1 locus. Other related glycolipid structures, the LKE and PX2 antigens, remain in the GLOB blood group collection pending further evidence about the genes and gene products responsible for their synthesis.

  11. Blood donor well-being: a primary responsibility of blood collection agencies.

    PubMed

    Reiss, Robert F

    2011-01-01

    Current FDA regulations and AABB standards do not adequately protect the well-being of blood donors. Several practices have adverse consequences for donors, including: elevated incidence of donation related reactions and injuries, iron deficiency anemia in premenopausal women, and inadequate counseling of donors to obtain medical follow-up for health risks identified during pre-donation health screening. These practices can be improved without impacting negatively on the national blood supply. In addition to revising current blood collection operations, blood centers should explore the feasibility of establishing expanded donor health screening programs and determining their effectiveness in improving donor health, donor recruitment, and donor retention.

  12. Comparison of blood microsampling with DBS and conventional blood collection techniques used in a midazolam biostudy.

    PubMed

    Lachance, Sylvain; Théberge, Marie-Claude; Havard, Guy; Anctil, Dominique; Barrière, Olivier; Croteau, Sara; Pellerin, Brigitte; Lévesque, Ann

    2016-04-01

    Quantitative DBS LC-MS/MS assay for midazolam was used to compare two sample collection techniques (venipuncture and finger prick) and the midazolam concentrations measured in plasma samples, DBS and dried plasma spots. Midazolam was extracted from DBS cards and compared with whole blood collected from usual venipuncture. Dried plasma spots were also compared with plasma. The blood volume used as well as the temperature impact during the blood and plasma deposits was evaluated. Midazolam was administrated to six healthy subjects during a clinical trial to obtained blood and plasma samples for the statistical comparison. The method for midazolam using DBS was validated and showed an excellent performance. Excellent correlations were observed when the same collection procedures were used.

  13. 21 CFR 864.9100 - Empty container for the collection and processing of blood and blood components.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... of blood and blood components. 864.9100 Section 864.9100 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION... Used In Establishments That Manufacture Blood and Blood Products § 864.9100 Empty container for the collection and processing of blood and blood components. (a) Identification. An empty container for...

  14. 21 CFR 864.9100 - Empty container for the collection and processing of blood and blood components.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... of blood and blood components. 864.9100 Section 864.9100 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION... Used In Establishments That Manufacture Blood and Blood Products § 864.9100 Empty container for the collection and processing of blood and blood components. (a) Identification. An empty container for...

  15. 21 CFR 864.9100 - Empty container for the collection and processing of blood and blood components.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... of blood and blood components. 864.9100 Section 864.9100 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION... Used In Establishments That Manufacture Blood and Blood Products § 864.9100 Empty container for the collection and processing of blood and blood components. (a) Identification. An empty container for...

  16. 21 CFR 864.9100 - Empty container for the collection and processing of blood and blood components.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... of blood and blood components. 864.9100 Section 864.9100 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION... Used In Establishments That Manufacture Blood and Blood Products § 864.9100 Empty container for the collection and processing of blood and blood components. (a) Identification. An empty container for...

  17. The use of vascular access ports for blood collection in feline blood donors

    PubMed Central

    Aubert, Isabelle; Abrams-Ogg, Anthony C.G.; Sylvestre, Anne M.; Dyson, Doris H.; Allen, Dana G.; Johnstone, Ian B.

    2011-01-01

    We investigated vascular access ports for feline blood donation. Eight cats were anesthetized for conventional blood collection by jugular venipuncture at the beginning and end of the study. In-between conventional collections, vascular access ports were used for collection with or without sedation every 6 to 8 wk for 6 mo. Ports remained functional except for one catheter breakage, but intermittent occlusions occurred. Systolic blood pressure was lower during conventional collection. Behavioral abnormalities occurred during 3 port collections. Packed red cells prepared from collected blood were stored at 4°C for 25 d and assessed for quality pre- and post-storage. With both collection methods, pH and glucose level declined, and potassium level, lactate dehydrogenase activity and osmotic fragility increased. There were no differences between methods in pre-storage albumin and HCO3− levels, and pre and post-storage hematocrit, lactate dehydrogenase activity, and glucose and potassium levels. Pre-storage pH and pCO2 were higher with conventional collection, and pre- and post-storage osmotic fragility were greater with port collection. One port became infected, but all cultures of packed red cells were negative. Tissue inflammation was evident at port removal. In a second study of conventional collection in 6 cats, use of acepromazine in premedication did not exacerbate hypotension. The use of vascular access ports for feline blood donation is feasible, is associated with less hypotension, and may simplify donation, but red cell quality may decrease, and effects on donors must be considered. PMID:21461192

  18. 21 CFR 864.9125 - Vacuum-assisted blood collection system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Vacuum-assisted blood collection system. 864.9125... Blood and Blood Products § 864.9125 Vacuum-assisted blood collection system. (a) Identification. A vacuum-assisted blood collection system is a device intended for medical purposes that uses a vacuum...

  19. 21 CFR 864.9125 - Vacuum-assisted blood collection system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Vacuum-assisted blood collection system. 864.9125... Blood and Blood Products § 864.9125 Vacuum-assisted blood collection system. (a) Identification. A vacuum-assisted blood collection system is a device intended for medical purposes that uses a vacuum...

  20. 21 CFR 864.9125 - Vacuum-assisted blood collection system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Vacuum-assisted blood collection system. 864.9125... Blood and Blood Products § 864.9125 Vacuum-assisted blood collection system. (a) Identification. A vacuum-assisted blood collection system is a device intended for medical purposes that uses a vacuum...

  1. 21 CFR 864.9125 - Vacuum-assisted blood collection system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Vacuum-assisted blood collection system. 864.9125... Blood and Blood Products § 864.9125 Vacuum-assisted blood collection system. (a) Identification. A vacuum-assisted blood collection system is a device intended for medical purposes that uses a vacuum...

  2. 21 CFR 640.64 - Collection of blood for Source Plasma.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2011-04-01 2010-04-01 true Collection of blood for Source Plasma. 640.64... (CONTINUED) BIOLOGICS ADDITIONAL STANDARDS FOR HUMAN BLOOD AND BLOOD PRODUCTS Source Plasma § 640.64 Collection of blood for Source Plasma. (a) Supervision. All blood for the collection of Source Plasma shall...

  3. 21 CFR 640.64 - Collection of blood for Source Plasma.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Collection of blood for Source Plasma. 640.64... (CONTINUED) BIOLOGICS ADDITIONAL STANDARDS FOR HUMAN BLOOD AND BLOOD PRODUCTS Source Plasma § 640.64 Collection of blood for Source Plasma. (a) Supervision. All blood for the collection of Source Plasma...

  4. 21 CFR 640.64 - Collection of blood for Source Plasma.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Collection of blood for Source Plasma. 640.64... (CONTINUED) BIOLOGICS ADDITIONAL STANDARDS FOR HUMAN BLOOD AND BLOOD PRODUCTS Source Plasma § 640.64 Collection of blood for Source Plasma. (a) Supervision. All blood for the collection of Source Plasma shall...

  5. 21 CFR 640.64 - Collection of blood for Source Plasma.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Collection of blood for Source Plasma. 640.64... (CONTINUED) BIOLOGICS ADDITIONAL STANDARDS FOR HUMAN BLOOD AND BLOOD PRODUCTS Source Plasma § 640.64 Collection of blood for Source Plasma. (a) Supervision. All blood for the collection of Source Plasma shall...

  6. 21 CFR 640.64 - Collection of blood for Source Plasma.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Collection of blood for Source Plasma. 640.64... (CONTINUED) BIOLOGICS ADDITIONAL STANDARDS FOR HUMAN BLOOD AND BLOOD PRODUCTS Source Plasma § 640.64 Collection of blood for Source Plasma. (a) Supervision. All blood for the collection of Source Plasma shall...

  7. Hematologic Assessment in Pet Rats, Mice, Hamsters, and Gerbils: Blood Sample Collection and Blood Cell Identification.

    PubMed

    Lindstrom, Nicole M; Moore, David M; Zimmerman, Kurt; Smith, Stephen A

    2015-09-01

    Hamsters, gerbils, rats, and mice are presented to veterinary clinics and hospitals for prophylactic care and treatment of clinical signs of disease. Physical examination, history, and husbandry practice information can be supplemented greatly by assessment of hematologic parameters. As a resource for veterinarians and their technicians, this article describes the methods for collection of blood, identification of blood cells, and interpretation of the hemogram in mice, rats, gerbils, and hamsters.

  8. Hematologic assessment in pet rats, mice, hamsters, and gerbils: blood sample collection and blood cell identification.

    PubMed

    Lindstrom, Nicole M; Moore, David M; Zimmerman, Kurt; Smith, Stephen A

    2015-01-01

    Hamsters, gerbils, rats, and mice are presented to veterinary clinics and hospitals for prophylactic care and treatment of clinical signs of disease. Physical examination, history, and husbandry practice information can be supplemented greatly by assessment of hematologic parameters. As a resource for veterinarians and their technicians, this article describes the methods for collection of blood, identification of blood cells, and interpretation of the hemogram in mice, rats, gerbils, and hamsters.

  9. Awareness of cord blood collection and the impact on banking.

    PubMed

    Bhandari, Rusha; Lindley, Amy; Bhatla, Deepika; Babic, Aleksandar; Mueckl, Kathy; Rao, Rakesh; Brooks, Paula; Geiler, Vicki; Gross, Gilad; Al-Hosni, Mohamad; Shenoy, Shalini

    2017-07-01

    Umbilical cord blood (UCB) is an important source of hematopoietic stem cells for transplantation especially in minority populations with limited chances of finding a histocompatible volunteer donor in the registry. UCB has the advantages of early availability, successful outcomes despite some histocompatibility mismatch, and low incidence of chronic graft-versus-host disease. Public cord blood banks that disseminate UCB products for transplant depend on voluntary donation at participating hospitals and obstetrical providers for collection. Using survey questionnaires, we evaluated attitudes toward UCB donation, the frequency of donation, and provider opinions on UCB collection in the greater St. Louis metropolitan area that caters to minority ethnicities in significant numbers. Our data suggest that nervousness and lack of information regarding the donation and utility of the product were ubiquitous reasons for not donating. Additionally, irrespective of age or level of education, women relied on healthcare providers for information regarding UCB donation. Providers reported primarily time constraints to discussing UCB donation at prenatal visits (54%). Of the interviewees, 62% donated UCB. Fallout due to refusal or preferring private banking was miniscule. These results suggest that dedicated personnel focused on disseminating information, obtaining consent, and collecting the UCB product at major hospitals can enrich cord blood banks especially with minority cords. Sustained and focused efforts could improve upon a relatively high wastage rate and ensure a robust supply of UCB products at local public banks. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Finger stick blood collection for gene expression profiling and storage of tempus blood RNA tubes

    PubMed Central

    Rinchai, Darawan; Anguiano, Esperanza; Nguyen, Phuong; Chaussabel, Damien

    2017-01-01

    With this report we aim to make available a standard operating procedure (SOP) developed for RNA stabilization of small blood volumes collected via a finger stick. The anticipation that this procedure may be improved through peer-review and/or readers public comments is another element motivating the publication of this SOP. Procuring blood samples from human subjects can, among other uses, enable assessment of the immune status of an individual subject via the profiling of RNA abundance using technologies such as real time PCR, NanoString, microarrays or RNA-sequencing. It is often desirable to minimize blood volumes and employ methods that are the least invasive and can be practically implemented outside of clinical settings. Finger stick blood samples are increasingly used for measurement of levels of pharmacological drugs and biological analytes. It is a simple and convenient procedure amenable for instance to field use or self-collection at home using a blood sample collection kit. Such methodologies should also enable the procurement of blood samples at high frequency for health or disease monitoring applications. PMID:28357036

  11. Prevention of hemolysis in blood samples collected from intravenous catheters.

    PubMed

    Lippi, Giuseppe; Avanzini, Paola; Cervellin, Gianfranco

    2013-05-01

    Samples drawn through intravenous catheters are frequently hemolyzed. We planned a prospective, randomized study to establish whether hemolysis in samples drawn from intravenous catheters may be reduced using S-Monovette® tubes collected by manual aspiration as compared with standard vacuum tubes. We studied 52 consecutive patients admitted to the ED. Blood was drawn through a 20-gauge intravenous catheter. A 5.0mL, Becton Dickinson Vacutainer® SST II Plus serum tube was collected and discarded. In the odd group of patients (i.e., n. 1, 3, 5, etc.), a second SST II tube was drawn with vacuum ("BD-V"), followed by a 5.5mL S-Monovette® serum tube collected with manual aspiration ("SD-A") and an identical S-Monovette collected by vacuum ("SD-V"). In the pair group of patients (i.e., n. 2, 4, 6, etc.), the sequence was modified to "SD-A", "SD-V" and "BD-V". Serum was separated and tested for lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), potassium and cell-free hemoglobin. The mean concentration of potassium (+2.7% in BD-V and +1.7% in SD-V, respectively), LDH (+15% in BD-V and +7% in SD-V, respectively) and cell-free hemoglobin was significantly increased when samples were collected with vacuum tubes as compared with manual aspiration. No significant differences were observed between SD-V and BD-V. The frequency of hemolyzed samples was higher when blood was collected with the vacuum as compared with SD-A (i.e., 2%), but did not differ between BD-V and SD-V (i.e., 29 versus 31%; p=0.70). S-Monovette can be used with vacuum or aspiration collection. This latter approach allows blood drawing with limited shear stress and less likelihood of generating spuriously hemolysis. Copyright © 2013 The Canadian Society of Clinical Chemists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Intraoperative hemodilution and autologous platelet rich plasma collection: two techniques for collecting fresh autologous blood.

    PubMed

    Triulzi, D J; Ness, P M

    1995-03-01

    Intraoperative hemodilution (IH) and autologous platelet rich plasma (APRP) collection are two techniques used to obtain autologous blood in the operating room. They have been used to reduce allogeneic blood exposure in patients undergoing both cardiac and non-cardiac surgery. Both components have the advantage of providing fresh blood not subject to the storage lesion. Whole blood (IH) or platelet rich plasma is removed from the patient as anesthesia is induced and replaced with acellular fluid. The blood is transfused back after bypass or major bleeding has ceased. Although used commonly, the data supporting the use of either technique are controversial. Methodologic problems which have confounded studies evaluating their utility include: poorly defined transfusion criteria, concommitant use of other blood conservation techniques (i.e. cell salvage, pharmacologic agents, hypothermia, controlled hypotension) and changing transfusion practices with greater tolerance of normovolemic anemia. Randomized controlled studies with well defined up to date transfusion criteria are needed to identify patients likely to benefit from these techniques.

  13. Collaborative and workflow-oriented digital portfolio: Creating a web-based tool to support a nationwide program of practices evaluation in the blood transfusion area.

    PubMed

    Staccini, Pascal; Hergon, Eric; Joubert, Michel; Fieschi, Marius

    2007-01-01

    The French National Blood Transfusion Institute received approval from the French National Health Authority to organize a nationwide program for the evaluation of professional practices in the area of blood transfusion. Major issues of the project were: (1) managing numerous physicians spread nationwide; (2) tracking and storing the physician's entire process (from his/her enrollment to his/her lifelong follow-up); (3) creating a collaborative technique for processing an evaluation program; (4) enhancing exchanges between participants; (5) proposing effective implementation of the assessment. As faculty members with experience in distance learning, we considered the digital/electronic portfolio to be one of the most suitable techniques to support such a project. Due to the lack of methods and tools to meet users' expectations, the decision was made to prototype a new and innovative assessment environment. A team was formed to complete the design phase within 6 months (information content, roles and functions). Implementation of the prototype, which includes tests, was also planned over a 6-month period. The methodology involves two approaches: one concerns business process modelling; the other is related to object-oriented methods for design and implementation. This primary work was aimed at describing a specific object, the evaluation program, which can be shared between players within a web-based collaborative platform. Four types of players were identified: (1) physicians enrolled into the assessment program; (2) tutors assigned to follow physicians' assessment process; (3) program directors who manage the content of the assessment program and the application of follow-up rules; (4) supervisors who administrate the global system. The evaluation program is composed of a set of actions, which has to be performed by the physicians. These actions are directly related to the activities of the business processes to which the candidate belongs. For each action

  14. Prevalence of blood donor iron deficiency and feasibility ferritin-based iron replacement: a blood collection agency-based study.

    PubMed

    Gorlin, J; Katz, L; Elsmore, D; Kirbach, K; Erickson, Y; Hove, A; Black, C; Walsh-Jahnke, R

    2016-08-01

    Iron depletion is high in frequent whole-blood donors. It is of interest to blood centres to develop ways to mitigate this risk while maintaining the current blood supply. Our feasibility study shows that blood collection agencies can measure iron stores and safely offer iron replacement in frequent blood donors with low ferritin to reduce the risk of iron depletion and future donor deferrals for low haemoglobin. © 2016 International Society of Blood Transfusion.

  15. Bacteriological safety of blood collected for transfusion at university of gondar hospital blood bank, northwest ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Wondimu, Hailegebriel; Addis, Zelalem; Moges, Feleke; Shiferaw, Yitayal

    2013-01-01

    Background. Transfusion associated bacterial infection has remained more frequent with a sever risk of morbidity and mortality. This study assessed the bacteriological safety of blood collected for transfusion. Method. A cross-sectional study was conducted at University of Gondar hospital blood bank from December 2011 to June 2012. Bacterial isolation, identification, and antimicrobial susceptibility tests were done as per the standard procedure. Chi-square test and P value were used to assess associations between risk factors and the bacterial isolation rate. Results. Twenty-one (15.33%) blood units were found contaminated with bacteria, and 95.24% contamination was due to external sources. The commonly isolated bacteria were Staphylococcus aureus, Coagulase negative Staphylococci, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella species, Streptococci species, Enterobacter species, and Citrobacter species. All of the bacteria isolated were 100% sensitive to Gentamicin, Chloramphenicol, Amoxicillin, and Doxycycline. Multiple antimicrobial resistances were observed in 66.7% of the isolates. Not using glove by phlebotomist, touching disinfected phlebotomy site and double puncture at the same hand or both hands of a donor were found to be risk factors for bacterial contamination. Conclusion. Bacterial contamination of blood to be transfused is a common problem in the hospital. So attention should be given to activities performed at the blood bank for safe transfusion practices.

  16. Comparison of Blood Loss in Induced vs. Spontaneous Vaginal Delivery Using Specialized Blood Collection Bag

    PubMed Central

    Rai, Lavanya; Mohan, Akshara

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To compare third stage blood loss in induced vs. spontaneous vaginal deliveries and to correlate the amount of blood loss with the decrease in haemoglobin following deliveries. Setting: Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Kasturba Hospital Manipal, Karnataka, India. Materials and Methods: Blood loss following placental deliveries was measured by using special collection bags in 150 pregnant ladies who delivered vaginally by labour induction and it was compared with that of another 50 women who had spontaneous vaginal deliveries. Haemoglobin values were recorded for each patient prior to labour and after delivery of child. Results: The mean blood loss in induced group was 30 mL more than that in spontaneous group (202 ± 117 mL vs. 172 ± 114 mL), but this was not statistically significant (p=0.12). However, when different methods of induction were compared, oxytocin group was found to have significantly higher blood loss (327 ± 140 mL) as compared to that in other types of labour inductions as well as spontaneous deliveries. Labour induction using prostaglandins did not produce more blood loss as compared that produced by spontaneous deliveries. Both induced and spontaneous delivery groups showed statistically significant drops in post-delivery haemoglobin values, but the drop was relatively more in induced group as compared to that in spontaneous vaginal delivery group (0.96gm/dL vs. 0.56gm/dL), which appeared to be statistically significant (p=0.002). Conclusion: Labour induction using prostaglandins is safe as compared to oxytocin usage. Accurate estimation of blood loss is important in all types of deliveries, in order to detect postpartum haemorrhage early, so that appropriate measures can be undertaken. PMID:24959480

  17. An Analysis of and Recommendations for the Peruvian Blood Collection and Transfusion System

    PubMed Central

    George, Paul E; Vidal, Julio; Garcia, Patricia J

    2016-01-01

    Background Peru experienced a crisis in its blood collection and supply system in the mid-2000s, as contaminated blood led to several transfusion-transmitted infections (TTI), occurring in the backdrop of extremely low voluntary donation rates and a national blood supply shortage. Thus, the Peruvian Ministry of Health (MINSA) implemented a national investigation on the safety and quality of the Peruvian blood collection/transfusion network. Methods Every Peruvian blood bank was evaluated by MINSA from 2007–2008. These evaluations consisted of an update of the national registry of blood banks and visits to each blood bank from MINSA oversight teams. Information was collected on the condition of the blood bank personnel, equipment, supplies, and practices. Further, previously-collected blood at each blood bank was randomly selected and screened for TTI-causing pathogens. Results Uncovered in this investigation was a fragmented, under-equipped, and poorly-staffed blood collection and transfusion network, consisting of 241 independent blood banks and resulting in suboptimal allocation of resources. Further, blood with evidence of TTI-causing pathogens (including Hepatitis B, Hepatitis C, and syphilis) and set for transfusion was discovered at three separate blood banks as part of the random screening process. Conclusion Using the successful reorganizations of national blood supply systems in other Latin American countries as examples, Peru would be well-served to form large, high-volume, regional blood collection and transfusion centers, responsible for blood collection and screening for the entire country. The small, separate blood banks would then be transformed into a network of blood transfusion centers, not responsible for blood collection. This reorganization would allow Peru to better utilize its resources, standardize the blood collection and transfusion process, and increase voluntary donation, resulting in a safer, more abundant national blood product. PMID

  18. Tethered-restraint system for blood collection from ferrets

    SciTech Connect

    Jackson, R.K.; Kieffer, V.A.; Sauber, J.S.; King, G.L.

    1988-10-01

    The laboratory ferret, Mustela putorius furo, recently has come into prominence as a laboratory animal for use in biomedical research. This laboratory has adopted the use of this species because the ferret's emetic response to radiation occurs at a lower dose and has a more rapid onset than that of dogs. One approach for determining the physiological basis of this response is to measure serum levels of various circulating substances before and after irradiation. However, blood collection from the ferret can be difficult because the lack of easily accessible veins and seasonal accumulation of subcutaneous body fat. This report describes a method of tethered-restraint for the ferret in which an in-dwelling venous jugular catheter is implanted for withdrawing blood samples. No interference with the animal's normal activities occurs during the sampling procedure. Each animal is conditioned to the tethered-restraint prior to surgical placement of the catheter. The technique provides a minimally stressful method of restraint. A similar tethering system has been used successfully on several other animal species, such as non-human primates and rats.

  19. Good practices in collecting umbilical cord and placental blood.

    PubMed

    Lopes, Lauren Auer; Bernardino, Elizabeth; Crozeta, Karla; Guimarães, Paulo Ricardo Bittencourt

    2016-08-18

    to identify the factors related to the quality of umbilical cord and placental blood specimens, and define best practices for their collection in a government bank of umbilical cord and placental blood. this was a descriptive study, quantitative approach, performed at a government umbilical cord and placental blood bank, in two steps: 1) verification of the obstetric, neonatal and operational factors, using a specific tool for gathering data as non-participant observers; 2) definition of best practices by grouping non-conformities observed before, during and after blood collection. The data was analyzed using descriptive statistics and the following statistical software: Statistica(r) and R(r). while there was a correlation with obstetrical and neonatal factors, there was a larger correlation with operational factors, resulting in the need to adjust the professional practices of the nursing staff and obstetrical team involved in collecting this type of blood. Based on these non-conformities we defined best practices for nurses before, during and after blood collection. the best practices defined in this study are an important management tool for the work of nurses in obtaining blood specimens of high cell quality. identificar fatores relacionados à qualidade das amostras do sangue de cordão umbilical e placentário e definir boas práticas para sua coleta em um banco público de sangue de cordão umbilical e placentário. pesquisa descritiva, abordagem quantitativa, realizada em um banco público de sangue de cordão umbilical e placentário, desenvolvida em duas etapas: 1) verificação dos fatores obstétricos, neonatais e operacionais, obtidos por coleta em instrumento próprio e observação não participante; 2) definição das boas práticas, por meio do agrupamento de não-conformidades observadas antes, durante e após a coleta do sangue. Os dados foram analisados por meio da estatística descritiva, utilizando-se dos softwares Statistica(r) e R(r). houve

  20. The Bleeder's Digest: A Campus Blood Collection Reference Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bean, Melissa; And Others

    This manual was written for students and blood donor recruiters interested in starting a campus blood program or in improving an already existing blood program. Contents include discussions of the reasons for blood programs, goals, elements of successful programs, organization of student committees, and comprehensive planning for annual campus and…

  1. Effects of collecting blood into plastic heparinised vacutainer tubes and storage conditions on blood gas analysis values in horses.

    PubMed

    Noël, P G; Couëtil, L; Constable, P D

    2010-11-01

    Plastic heparinised vacutainer tubes are used for blood gas analysis in horses. This collection method may not be ideal because influx of atmospheric O(2) through the permeable plastic wall of the vacutainer tube and loss of CO(2) into the gas phase above the blood sample should increase blood PO(2) and decrease PCO(2), respectively. To determine the effects of collecting blood into plastic vacutainer tubes and storage conditions on blood gas analysis values. Blood was obtained from 6 healthy horses and tonometered at 37 °C with 12% O(2) and 5% CO(2). Three ml aliquots of tonometered blood were collected using a glass syringe or vacutainer tube and stored in iced water or at room temperature for 0, 5, 15, 30, 60 and 120 min. Blood samples from vacutainer tubes were collected aerobically (tube opened for 5 s) or anaerobically (tube remained closed). Blood gas analysis was performed in duplicate using a Radiometer ABL5. Data was analysed using repeated measures analysis of variance and P < 0.05 was significant. Compared to the glass syringe, tonometered blood collected in vacutainer tubes had an immediate, significant, sustained and marked increase in PO(2) and an immediate, significant, transient but small decrease in PCO(2). Blood PO(2) and PCO(2) were higher when vacutainer tubes were stored in iced water instead of at room temperature. Measured blood pH and calculated values for plasma bicarbonate and total CO(2) concentration and base excess of extracellular fluid were similar when blood was collected in glass syringes or vacutainer tubes and values were not altered by storage temperature or time. Plastic heparinised vacutainer tubes should not be used to collect samples for measurement of blood PCO(2) and PO(2). Vacutainer tubes provide an accurate method for measuring plasma bicarbonate concentration, total CO(2) concentration and base excess. © 2010 EVJ Ltd.

  2. Geographic distribution of blood collections in Haiti before and after the 2010 earthquake.

    PubMed

    Bjork, A; Jean Baptiste, A E; Noel, E; Jean Charles, N P D; Polo, E; Pitman, J P

    2017-05-01

    The January 2010 Haiti earthquake destroyed the National Blood Transfusion Center and reduced monthly national blood collections by > 46%. Efforts to rapidly scale-up blood collections outside of the earthquake-affected region were investigated. Blood collection data for 2004-2014 from Haiti's 10 administrative departments were grouped into four regions: Northern, Central, Port-au-Prince and Southern. Analyses compared regional collection totals during the study period. Collections in Port-au-Prince accounted for 52% of Haiti's blood supply in 2009, but fell 96% in February 2010. Haiti subsequently increased blood collections in the North, Central and Southern regions to compensate. By May 2010, national blood collections were only 10·9% lower than in May 2009, with 70% of collections coming from outside of Port-au-Prince. By 2013 national collections (27 478 units) had surpassed 2009 levels by 30%, and Port-au-Prince collections had recovered (from 11 074 units in 2009 to 11 670 units in 2013). Haiti's National Blood Safety Program managed a rapid expansion of collections outside of Port-au-Prince following the earthquake. Annual collections exceeded pre-earthquake levels by 2012 and continued rising annually. Increased regional collections provided a greater share of the national blood supply, reducing dependence on Port-au-Prince for collections.

  3. [Who are the recipients of labile blood products? A multicenter nation-wide study--a "donation day." Blood banks, health facilities].

    PubMed

    Quaranta, J-F; Berthier, F; Courbil, R; Courtois, F; Chenais, F; Waller, C; Leconte des Floris, M-F; Andreu, G; Fontaine, O; Le Niger, C; Puntous, M; Mercadier, A; Nguyen, L; Pélissier, E; Gondrexon, G; Staccini, P

    2009-03-01

    During the years 1994-2001, a progressive decrease of the number of blood units transfused has been reported in France. In contrast, since 2002, there is an increasing number of blood units issuing (+7.6% between 2001 and 2006) and this must be investigated. On behalf of the French Society of Blood Transfusion, the "Recipients" working group promoted a nation wide survey with the support of the regional blood transfusion centres. This survey was aimed at describing the profiles of the transfused patients: socio-demographical patterns, and reasons of the blood transfusion (main and associated diagnoses). A cross-sectional survey was designed. All the patients who received a blood unit during a specific day were considered as the population of the study. They were identified by the regional transfusion centres by means of the "individual issuing form". Survey forms were fully filled for 90% of the patients. It has been considered as a good answer rate. Seven thousand four hundred and twenty-two blood units, delivered to 3450 patients were analyzed. Three groups of pathologies were found as a reason of transfusion: haematology-oncology (52.70% of the prescriptions) with 892 patients (27.8%) for haematological malignancies; surgical procedures (23.99%); intensive care and medicine procedures (21.92%). More than 50% of the recipients are 70 years old and more. This result is explained by the age distribution of inpatients. In a context of lack of donors and consequently difficulties to provide patients with optimal number of blood units, this study is helpful. Variability of blood unit issuings must be detected, analyzed and monitored in real time by the actors of the transfusion process, using computerized dashboards: the blood units provider (in order to adjust the strategy of blood units provision) and the health care establishment as well as care blood components prescribers (reasons of blood transfusion and evaluation of practices).

  4. 21 CFR 640.4 - Collection of the blood.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... laboratory. If transported, the blood must be placed in temporary storage having sufficient refrigeration... contain blood mixed with the appropriate anticoagulant. (h) Storage. Whole Blood must be placed in storage..., and storage system approved for such use by the Director, CBER....

  5. 21 CFR 640.4 - Collection of the blood.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... laboratory. If transported, the blood must be placed in temporary storage having sufficient refrigeration... contain blood mixed with the appropriate anticoagulant. (h) Storage. Whole Blood must be placed in storage..., and storage system approved for such use by the Director, CBER....

  6. 21 CFR 640.4 - Collection of the blood.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... laboratory. If transported, the blood must be placed in temporary storage having sufficient refrigeration... contain blood mixed with the appropriate anticoagulant. (h) Storage. Whole Blood must be placed in storage..., and storage system approved for such use by the Director, CBER....

  7. Nationwide Snapshot

    SciTech Connect

    Mapes, Terry S.; Iverson, Megan M.; Fassbender, Linda L.; Britt, Michelle L.

    2011-09-01

    The purpose of this effort was to create a nationwide snapshot of the current residential building practices in the United States, and to identify trends in building practices as they relate to building energy efficiency. Information on typical insulation levels, heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) efficiencies, window profiles, and other residential building components and assemblies provided a foundation for (1) identifying trends in residential building practices over time, (2) assessing energy-efficiency improvements in single-family homes over time and correlating them with the applicable building energy codes if possible, and (3) identifying building energy code adoption and compliance needs. This report seeks to identify trends in the residential building practice from 1996 to 2009.

  8. The design, rationale, and baseline characteristics of a nationwide cohort registry in China: blood pressure and clinical outcome in TIA or ischemic stroke

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Jie; Liu, Yi; Tao, Yongli; Xie, Xuewei; Gu, Hongqiu; Pan, Yuesong; Zhao, Xingquan; Wang, Yongjun; Yan, Aoshuang; Wang, Yilong

    2016-01-01

    Background The relationship between poststroke blood pressure (BP) and clinical outcomes in ischemic stroke (IS) is still controversial. However, there is no large BP database for IS or transient ischemic attack (TIA) in China. This study aims to describe the rationale, study design, and baseline characteristics of a nationwide BP database in IS or TIA patients in China. Materials and methods The BOSS (blood pressure and clinical outcome in TIA or ischemic stroke) study was a hospital-based, prospective cohort study aiming to assess BP parameters and clinical outcome in IS/TIA patients. BP parameters were based on office BP, ambulatory BP, and home BP. Clinical outcomes included stroke recurrence, combined vascular events, and disability. Electronic case-report forms were used to record baseline and follow-up data. The patients were followed up for clinical outcomes at 3 months through face-to-face interview and at 12 months by telephone. Results Between October 2012 and February 2014, the BOSS registry recruited 2,608 patients from 61 hospitals, with a mean age of 62.5 years, 32.4% of whom were female, 88.9% with an entry diagnosis of IS, and 86% diagnosed with hypertension. The rates of patients lost-to-follow-up were 3.1% at 3 months and 5.1% at 1 year; 93% of patients completed ambulatory BP monitoring during hospitalization and 94.7% finished a 3-month BP diary. Conclusion The BOSS registry will provide important evidence about BP management in the acute phase and secondary prevention for IS/TIA patients. PMID:27942205

  9. The design, rationale, and baseline characteristics of a nationwide cohort registry in China: blood pressure and clinical outcome in TIA or ischemic stroke.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jie; Liu, Yi; Tao, Yongli; Xie, Xuewei; Gu, Hongqiu; Pan, Yuesong; Zhao, Xingquan; Wang, Yongjun; Yan, Aoshuang; Wang, Yilong

    2016-01-01

    The relationship between poststroke blood pressure (BP) and clinical outcomes in ischemic stroke (IS) is still controversial. However, there is no large BP database for IS or transient ischemic attack (TIA) in China. This study aims to describe the rationale, study design, and baseline characteristics of a nationwide BP database in IS or TIA patients in China. The BOSS (blood pressure and clinical outcome in TIA or ischemic stroke) study was a hospital-based, prospective cohort study aiming to assess BP parameters and clinical outcome in IS/TIA patients. BP parameters were based on office BP, ambulatory BP, and home BP. Clinical outcomes included stroke recurrence, combined vascular events, and disability. Electronic case-report forms were used to record baseline and follow-up data. The patients were followed up for clinical outcomes at 3 months through face-to-face interview and at 12 months by telephone. Between October 2012 and February 2014, the BOSS registry recruited 2,608 patients from 61 hospitals, with a mean age of 62.5 years, 32.4% of whom were female, 88.9% with an entry diagnosis of IS, and 86% diagnosed with hypertension. The rates of patients lost-to-follow-up were 3.1% at 3 months and 5.1% at 1 year; 93% of patients completed ambulatory BP monitoring during hospitalization and 94.7% finished a 3-month BP diary. The BOSS registry will provide important evidence about BP management in the acute phase and secondary prevention for IS/TIA patients.

  10. Relationship between blood manganese levels and children's attention, cognition, behavior, and academic performance--a nationwide cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Bhang, Soo-Young; Cho, Soo-Churl; Kim, Jae-Won; Hong, Yun-Chul; Shin, Min-Sup; Yoo, Hee Jeong; Cho, In Hee; Kim, Yeni; Kim, Bung-Nyun

    2013-10-01

    Manganese (Mn) is neurotoxic at high concentrations. However, Mn is an essential element that can protect against oxidative damage; thus, extremely low levels of Mn might be harmful. Our aim was to examine whether either high or low environmental Mn exposure is related to academic and attention function development among school-aged children. This cross-sectional study included 1089 children 8-11 years of age living in five representative areas in South Korea. Blood Mn, blood lead, and urine cotinine were measured. We assessed IQ with the Wechsler Abbreviated Scale of Intelligence; attention with a computerized continuous performance test called the Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) Diagnostic System (ADS), the Korean version of the Stroop Color-Word Test, the Children's Color Trails Test (CCTT), and the ADHD Rating Scale; academic functions with the Learning Disability Evaluation Scale (LDES); and emotional and behavioral problems with the Korean version of the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL). We further assessed the presence of ADHD using a highly structured diagnostic interview, the Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children Version IV (DISC-IV). The median blood concentration of Mn was 14.14 µg/L. We observed a nonlinear association between the CCTT2 completion time and the CPT commission error (F=3.14, p=0.03 and F=4.05, p=0.01, respectively). We divided the data into three groups: lower (<8.154 µg/L), and upper 5th percentile (>21.453 µg/L) and middle 90th percentile to determine whether a lack or overload of Mn could cause adverse effects. After adjusting for urine cotinine, blood lead, children's IQ, and other potential confounders, the high Mn group showed lower scores in thinking (B=-0.83, p=0.006), reading (B=-0.93, p=0.004), calculations (B=-0.72, p=0.005), and LQ (B=-4.06, p=0.006) in the LDES and a higher commission error in the CPT (B=8.02, p=0.048). The low Mn group showed lower color scores in the Stroop test (B=-3.24, p=0.040). We

  11. Estimation of sodium and potassium intakes assessed by two 24 h urine collections in healthy Japanese adults: a nationwide study.

    PubMed

    Asakura, Keiko; Uechi, Ken; Sasaki, Yuki; Masayasu, Shizuko; Sasaki, Satoshi

    2014-10-14

    Excess Na intake and insufficient K intake are well-known risk factors for CVD. International comparative studies have reported that Japan has the highest intake of Na and the lowest intake of K in the world. However, no recent study has precisely assessed Na and K intakes in Japanese adults. In the present study, Na and K intakes were estimated from two 24 h urine collections implemented in twenty-three out of forty-seven prefectures in Japan. Apparently healthy men (n 384) and women (n 376), aged 20 to 69 years, who had been working in welfare facilities were recruited, with data collection conducted in February and March 2013. The mean Na excretion was 206·0 mmol/d in men and 173·9 mmol/d in women. The respective values of K excretion were 51·6 and 47·2 mmol/d. The excretion of both Na and K varied considerably among the prefectures, and was higher in subjects with a higher BMI. In contrast, only K excretion was associated with age. After estimating the usual intakes of Na and K, it was found that none of the male subjects met the recommended Na intake values of the WHO, and that only 3·2 % met those of the Japanese government. The respective values for females were 0·1 and 5·0 %. For K intake, 7·5 % of the total subjects met the recommended values of the WHO and 21·7 % met those of the Japanese government. These findings suggest that there is an urgent need for the development of an effective intervention programme to reduce Na intake and promote K intake in the Japanese population.

  12. Frequencies and ethnic distribution of ABO and Rh(D) blood groups in Mauritania: results of first nationwide study.

    PubMed

    Hamed, C T; Bollahi, M A; Abdelhamid, I; Med Mahmoud, M A; Ba, B; Ghaber, S; Habti, N; Houmeida, A

    2012-04-01

    There is no data available on the ABO/Rh(D) frequencies in the Mauritanian population. We retrospectively analysed records of a 5-year database that contained ABO/Rh phenotype and ethnic origin of 10 116 volunteers giving blood at the national blood transfusion centre to derive the frequencies of ABO/Rh(D) groups in the Mauritanian population. The two race categories in the country and their sub-ethnic groups: the Moors (whites and black) and the black Africans (Pulhars, Soninkes and Wolof) were included in this study. Globally, group O had the highest frequency (49.10%) followed by A (28.28%), B (18.56%) and AB (4.05%). This order more common in North African populations was found in four of the five ethnic groups composing our population. Allele frequencies were, respectively, 70.20%, 17.74% and 12.04% giving the same order of O > A > B. We observed no significant variation in these frequencies between the different ethnic groups. Rhesus study showed that with a percentage of 94.23% Rh(D) positive is by far the most prevalent, while Rh(D) negative is present only in 5.77% of the total population. This frequency distribution supports the mixed-race composition of the Mauritanian population. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  13. Why and how does collective red blood cells motion occur in the blood microcirculation?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghigliotti, Giovanni; Selmi, Hassib; Asmi, Lassaad El; Misbah, Chaouqi

    2012-10-01

    The behaviour of red blood cells (RBCs), modelled as vesicles, in Poiseuille flow, mimicking the microvasculature, is studied with numerical simulations in two dimensions. RBCs moving in the centre of the Poiseuille flow (as in blood capillaries) are shown to attract each other and form clusters only due to hydrodynamic interactions, provided that their distance at a given time is below a certain critical value. This distance depends on physical parameters, such as the flow strength. Our simulations reveal that clusters are unstable above a threshold value in the number of forming RBCs, beyond which one or few cells escape the pack by a self-regulating mechanism that select the marginally stable size. This size selection depends on the flow strength as well as on the RBC swelling ratio. The results are interpreted via the analysis of the perturbation of the flow field induced by the vesicles and the interplay with bending and tension forces. This sheds a novel light on the process of collective motion of RBCs observed in vivo.

  14. Pediatric blood sample collection from a pre-existing peripheral intravenous (PIV) catheter.

    PubMed

    Braniff, Heather; DeCarlo, Ann; Haskamp, Amy Corey; Broome, Marion E

    2014-01-01

    Aiming to minimize pain in a hospitalized child, the purpose of this observational study was to describe characteristics of blood samples collected from pre-existing peripheral intravenous (PIV) catheters in pediatric patients. One hundred and fifty blood samples were reviewed for number of unusable samples requiring a specimen to be re-drawn. Success of the blood draw and prevalence of the loss of the PIV following blood collection was also measured. Findings included one clotted specimen, success rate of 91.3%, and 1.3% of PIVs becoming non-functional after collection. Obtaining blood specimens from a pre-existing PIV should be considered in a pediatric patient.

  15. Nursing blood specimen collection techniques and hemolysis rates in an emergency department: analysis of venipuncture versus intravenous catheter collection techniques.

    PubMed

    Lowe, Glynnis; Stike, Rose; Pollack, Marc; Bosley, Jenny; O'Brien, Patti; Hake, Amy; Landis, Greta; Billings, Natalie; Gordon, Pam; Manzella, Steve; Stover, Tina

    2008-02-01

    Re-collection of hemolyzed blood specimens delays patient care in overcrowded emergency departments. Our emergency department was unable to meet a benchmark of a 2% hemolysis rate for the collection of blood samples. Our hypothesis was that hemolysis rates of blood specimens differ dependent on the blood collection technique by venipuncture or intravenous catheter draw. A prospective, cross-over study of blood collection techniques in a 64,000 annual visit, community teaching hospital emergency department was conducted. Eleven experienced registered nurses with more than 2 years' ED experience completed a standardized phlebotomy retraining session. Registered nurses were randomly assigned to collect samples via intravenous catheters or venipuncture. After nurses collected 70 samples, they then collected samples via the other method. A standardized data collection form was completed. Blood samples were processed and assessed for hemolysis using standard procedures by laboratory technicians who were blinded to the collection method. A total of 853 valid samples were collected; 355 samples (41.6%) were drawn via venipuncture and 498 samples (58.4%) were drawn through an intravenous catheter. Of these, 28 intravenous catheter samples (5.6%) were found to be hemolyzed, whereas only 1 venipuncture sample (0.3%) was hemolyzed. This finding was significant (x2 < 0.001). Experienced ED nurses can reduce the number of hemolyzed specimens by collecting via venipuncture instead of through intravenous catheters. This practice should be considered as standard of care in the ED setting. Total samples by nurse were affected by EMS patients arriving with existing intravenous lines, and nurse schedules affected total samples per nurse.

  16. A.I.e. in-flight blood collection system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hank, J. M.

    1977-01-01

    The hardware selected to obtain and partially process human blood samples during the Skylab missions is described and consists of the following three major items: a centrifuge, an evacuation regulator, and a Beta cloth bag.

  17. Collection of fetal blood for stem cell research and therapy.

    PubMed

    Iffy, L; Varadi, V; Portuondo, N; Ende, N

    2006-09-01

    Stem cell research has generated novel therapeutic opportunities at the expense of new ethical and legal problems. Its promoters recommended early clamping of the umbilical cord to maximize the amount of acquired fetal blood. Fear has been expressed, therefore, that the donor could be compromised by this approach. Actually, the problem is more complex than generally assumed. In certain clinical situations the neonate may benefit from or become harmed by additional blood volume. Gravity influences the direction of umbilical blood flow and, thus the consequences of early or delayed cord clamping. Therefore, vaginal birth promotes blood flow from the placenta to the fetus, whereas delivery by cesarean section usually has the opposite effect. Largely ignored in the course of the relevant debates, the above facts require consideration. The controversy may be beneficial in the long run by drawing attention to this relatively neglected aspect of perinatal medicine.

  18. 21 CFR 864.9100 - Empty container for the collection and processing of blood and blood components.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Empty container for the collection and processing of blood and blood components. 864.9100 Section 864.9100 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES...

  19. Proposal of blood-collecting needle approach to semi-invasive method.

    PubMed

    Yamaguchi, Masaki; Kawabata, Yuji; Yamazaki, Katsuya; Kobayashi, Masashi; Ito, Takehito

    2004-12-01

    Many diabetic patients carry a portable self-monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG)-analyzer in order to collect their own blood and examine their glucose levels; this allows them to determine such factors as insulin dose, diet and exercise to stay healthy. However, the test causes physical and mental stress for the subjects. The authors aim to develop a semi-invasive blood-collecting needle which does not need a power source for the pump mechanism. In this study, we fabricated a capillary action needle that can collect the blood sample automatically. A blood-collecting needle was fabricated from 25 gage sized medical needle (diameter of 0.5 mm, stainless steel) by cutting process, and it had a half-opened crevice in the tip. In order to evaluate the physical characteristics of the blood-collecting needle, the relationship between the size and suction time and/or suction volume were measured using an isotonic sodium chloride solution, whole rabbit blood, and whole human blood with anticoagulant. Next, in order to evaluate the degree of invasion, the diameters of erythema in auricles of rabbits were observed for 2 days using a CCD camera-type microscope. The mean suction time of the isotonic sodium chloride solution and the whole rabbit blood were 1.5 s (n = 10) and 9.0 s (n = 5), respectively. Selection of a suitable size of the blood-collecting needle enabled the collection of 0.1 microL of whole human blood in 10 s. Moreover, it was shown, by comparing the observed diameter of the erythema, that the invasiveness of the blood-collecting needle was smaller than for commercial needles of the equal diameter. It became clear that this fulfils the fundamental functions of a semi-invasive blood-collecting needle.

  20. Evaluation of a novel dried blood spot collection device (HemaSpot™) to test blood samples collected from dogs for antibodies to Leishmania infantum.

    PubMed

    Rosypal, Alexa C; Pick, Leanne D; Hernandez, Jaime O Esquivel; Lindsay, David S

    2014-09-15

    Collection of blood samples from veterinary and wildlife patients is often challenging because the samples have to be collected on farm or in the wild under various environmental conditions. This poses many technical problems associated with venipuncture materials, their safe use and disposal, transportation and processing of collected samples. Dried blood spot (DBS) sample collection techniques offer a simple and practical alternative to traditional blood collection methods to obtain blood samples from animals for parasite antibody evaluation. The DBS collection devices are compact, simple to use, and are particularly useful for large number of samples. Additionally, DBS samples take up less space and they are easier to transport than traditional venipuncture-collected blood samples. Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is a potentially fatal parasitic disease of dogs and humans and it is frequently diagnosed by antibody tests. Immunochromatographic tests (ICT) for antibodies to Leishmania infantum are commercially available for dogs and they produce qualitative results in minutes. Measurement of canine antibodies to L. infantum with the ICT using traditional venipuncture has been validated previously, but the use of DBS samples has not been evaluated using this method. The purpose of the present study was to determine the ability of DBS samples to detect antibodies to L. infantum in dogs using a commercial ICT assay. One hundred plasma samples from dogs experimentally infected with the LIVT-1 strain of L. infantum were collected by venipuncture and frozen. Individual samples were thawed, and then 80 μl plasma (2 drops) was aliquotted onto the 8-spoked disk pad on individual DBS sample collection devices (HemaSpot™, Spot-On Sciences, Austin, TX), dried, and stored in the dark at room temperature. After one month and six months, respectively, 2 spokes of the 8 spokes of the disk pad of each DBS sample were removed and eluted in 200 μl PBS. The eluate was used to test

  1. Blood collection, components preparation and distribution in Iran, 2008-2012.

    PubMed

    Omidkhoda, Azadeh; Amini Kafi-Abad, Sedigheh; Pourfatollah, Ali Akbar; Maghsudlu, Mahtab

    2016-02-01

    The information about the dynamics of blood collection, components preparation and distribution in Iran was measured and compared during 2008-2012. The survey instruments were based on collecting data from all 220 blood collections and blood processing centers over the country, registering them in the validated data base and reporting them to headquarter of Iranian Blood Transfusion Organization. Total blood collection increased during this period, and in 2012 represented a 12.6 percent increase compared to that in 2008. On average, red blood cells, fresh frozen plasma and platelet concentrate were prepared from 95.5 ± 2.4, 81 ± 3.8 and 47 ± 8.8 percent of all whole blood collection. From 2008 to 2011, the distribution of whole blood and fresh frozen plasma revealed different patterns. For whole blood, declines were noted, while for fresh frozen plasma increases were reported. In addition the distribution of red blood cells and platelet concentrate did not change considerably. Also between 2008 and 2012, the mean percentage of outdated and discarded units was 3.6 ± 1 and 5.2 ± 4.6. This study as a first national survey provides comprehensive information about the blood supply, components preparation and distribution, and helps to define strategy for the future. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Cord blood collection for banking and the risk of maternal hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Amat, Lluís; Sabrià, Joan; Martínez, Eva; Rodríguez, Núria L; Querol, Sergio; Lailla, Josep M

    2011-09-01

    We determined the effect of cord blood collection before placental expulsion on postpartum maternal blood loss in a retrospective study between a group of cord blood donors and a group of non-donors. The study was conducted in a university hospital blood bank and obstetric services and included Spanish women entered in a European study project (EUPHRATES) and who had consented to donate cord blood for public banking purposes. We measured blood volume lost during delivery by a bag collection method, as well as the need for transfusion and postpartum anemia symptoms. Deliveries at which cord blood was collected presented a significant increase in blood loss (321 ± 273 vs. 255 ± 237 ml, p=0.02). Instrumental deliveries were associated with higher postpartum blood loss than spontaneous deliveries. Cord blood collection can increase intrapartum blood loss, especially at instrumental deliveries. Additional staff who handle the collection are required to allow the leading clinician to focus on maternal care. © 2011 The Authors Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica© 2011 Nordic Federation of Societies of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  3. Utilization of nursing teams in the collection of blood.

    PubMed

    Rutman, R; Bray, J; Miller, W V

    1978-01-01

    The practice of nursing is group oriented. This was recognized in the past, but has only recently gained full acknowledgment by nursing managment. The concept of team assignment for the nursing staff was implemented in the blood program several years ago. The problems of the professional nurse in blood banking are not the same as in an acute or an extended care facility. Team assignments can improve both the delivery of care and the efficiency of the operation in the blood program. This paper describes many of the problems incurred under the system of conventional staffing and will show how these problems can be either eliminated or modified through the use of team assignment. Two centers experienced with permanent team assignments report these conclusions.

  4. Under-filled blood collection tubes containing K2EDTA as anticoagulant are acceptable for automated complete blood counts, white blood cell differential, and reticulocyte count.

    PubMed

    Xu, M; Robbe, V A; Jack, R M; Rutledge, J C

    2010-10-01

    Current laboratory standards from Clinical Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) and manufacturer's (Becton Dickinson) data indicate that under-filling K(2)EDTA blood collection tubes can result in erroneous hematology values. To accommodate under-filled tubes and reduce collection volumes while optimizing our automation, we explored the acceptable limit of under-filled tubes for hematology values. We collected 8.0 ml of blood from 30 normal adult volunteers. Each donation was aliquoted in the following volumes: 4.0, 2.0, 1.0, 0.5 ml x 2. These samples were analyzed within 1 h of blood collection on Sysmex XE-2100 (Sysmex America Inc., Mundelein, IL, USA) for complete blood count, reticulocyte, and white blood cell differentials. Results of the under-filled tubes were compared to those of the standard volume. The Deming regression analysis show excellent correlation for all parameters between each under-filled blood collection volume compared to a standard 4 ml volume. The Bland and Altman analysis shows good agreement between both 1.0 and 2.0 ml compared to a 4.0 ml volume. The 0.5 ml compared to a 4.0 ml volume, however, shows increased variation on many parameters. In addition all three collection volumes show negative bias compared to the standard volume for platelet count, but the difference is considered insignificant with a percent difference of 5.5%, 3.2%, and 1.5% for 0.5, 1.0, and 2.0 ml collection volume respectively. Finally for 0.5 ml collection volume we noticed a low level of false positive flagging rate for white blood cell. Acceptable complete blood count values of under-filled powdered K(2)EDTA tubes can be obtained with as little as 1.0 ml of blood.

  5. Variations in data collection methods between national databases affect study results: a comparison of the nationwide inpatient sample and national surgical quality improvement program databases for lumbar spine fusion procedures.

    PubMed

    Bohl, Daniel D; Russo, Glenn S; Basques, Bryce A; Golinvaux, Nicholas S; Fu, Michael C; Long, William D; Grauer, Jonathan N

    2014-12-03

    There has been an increasing use of national databases to conduct orthopaedic research. Questions regarding the validity and consistency of these studies have not been fully addressed. The purpose of this study was to test for similarity in reported measures between two national databases commonly used for orthopaedic research. A retrospective cohort study of patients undergoing lumbar spinal fusion procedures during 2009 to 2011 was performed in two national databases: the Nationwide Inpatient Sample and the National Surgical Quality Improvement Program. Demographic characteristics, comorbidities, and inpatient adverse events were directly compared between databases. The total numbers of patients included were 144,098 from the Nationwide Inpatient Sample and 8434 from the National Surgical Quality Improvement Program. There were only small differences in demographic characteristics between the two databases. There were large differences between databases in the rates at which specific comorbidities were documented. Non-morbid obesity was documented at rates of 9.33% in the Nationwide Inpatient Sample and 36.93% in the National Surgical Quality Improvement Program (relative risk, 0.25; p < 0.05). Peripheral vascular disease was documented at rates of 2.35% in the Nationwide Inpatient Sample and 0.60% in the National Surgical Quality Improvement Program (relative risk, 3.89; p < 0.05). Similarly, there were large differences between databases in the rates at which specific inpatient adverse events were documented. Sepsis was documented at rates of 0.38% in the Nationwide Inpatient Sample and 0.81% in the National Surgical Quality Improvement Program (relative risk, 0.47; p < 0.05). Acute kidney injury was documented at rates of 1.79% in the Nationwide Inpatient Sample and 0.21% in the National Surgical Quality Improvement Program (relative risk, 8.54; p < 0.05). As database studies become more prevalent in orthopaedic surgery, authors, reviewers, and readers should

  6. A decision support system for quantitative measurement of operational efficiency in a blood collection facility.

    PubMed

    Kros, John F; Yim Pang, Robyn

    2004-04-01

    A decision support system (DSS) is presented that allows users to input, analyze, and output data derived from blood banking operations. The DSS developed is a hybrid system that is both data and model driven. The system provides information, models, and data manipulation tools to assist users in the quantitative measurement of the operational efficiency in a blood collection facility. A relational database was developed to address the four major variables, which impact the cost per unit of blood being collected. Using visual basic, a user interface and mathematical model were developed establishing the relationships to analyze cost per unit of collected blood. Using inputs from users and historical financial data, the DSS calculates the cost per unit as each of the major variables is altered. Real life situations by the mobile operations team at a blood collection facility were used to test the DSS.

  7. 77 FR 38838 - Compliance Policy Guide Sec. 230.110-Registration of Blood Banks, Other Firms Collecting...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-29

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Compliance Policy Guide Sec. 230.110--Registration of Blood Banks, Other Firms Collecting, Manufacturing, Preparing, or Processing Human Blood or Blood Products... Registration of Blood Banks, Other Firms Collecting, Manufacturing, Preparing, or Processing Human Blood...

  8. Blood collection procedures in hematology: knowledge and practice among laboratory personnel.

    PubMed

    Chaturvedi, Sujata; Suri, Vaishali; Pant, Ishita; Rusia, Usha

    2006-07-01

    Blood collection is an important preanalytical component of haematological testing. This questionnaire based study was conducted on laboratory personnel to elicit their knowledge and practice regarding blood collection procedures for haematological testing. Questionnaire comprised of 37 multiple choice questions, of which 10 questions each were related to essential and desirable knowledge, 10 to practice and 7 to educational and job profile. Ninety four laboratory personnel participated in the study. Analysis was done on SPSS software. Percentages of unsatisfactory scores were 42.6%, 4.3%, 17% and 6% in the essential knowledge, desirable knowledge, practice and total scoring respectively. 91.5%, however, had a satisfactory total score. Importance needs to be given to blood collection procedures both, individually and collectively. The study highlights the deficient areas which need to addressed by all laboratorians. Such studies should also be conducted among nursing and resident staff- the other groups concerned with blood collection.

  9. Impact of blood sample collection and processing methods on glucose levels in community outreach studies.

    PubMed

    Turchiano, Michael; Nguyen, Cuong; Fierman, Arthur; Lifshitz, Mark; Convit, Antonio

    2013-01-01

    Glucose obtained from unprocessed blood samples can decrease by 5%-7% per hour due to glycolysis. This study compared the impact of glucose degradation on measured glucose values by examining two different collection methods. For the first method, blood samples were collected in tubes containing sodium fluoride (NaF), a glycolysis inhibitor. For the second method, blood samples were collected in tubes containing a clot activator and serum gel separator and were centrifuged to separate the serum and plasma 20 minutes after sample collection. The samples used in the two methods were collected during the same blood draw and were assayed by the clinical laboratory 2-4 hours after the samples were obtained. A total of 256 pairs of samples were analyzed. The average glucose reading for the centrifuged tubes was significantly higher than the NaF tubes by 0.196 ± 0.159 mmol/L (P < 0.01) or 4.2%. This study demonstrates the important role collection methods play in accurately assessing glucose levels of blood samples collected in the field, where working environment may be suboptimal. Therefore, blood samples collected in the field should be promptly centrifuged before being transported to clinical labs to ensure accurate glucose level measurements.

  10. Translational research in pediatrics II: blood collection, processing, shipping, and storage.

    PubMed

    Gillio-Meina, Carolina; Cepinskas, Gediminas; Cecchini, Erin L; Fraser, Douglas D

    2013-04-01

    Translational research often involves tissue sampling and analysis. Blood is by far the most common tissue collected. Due to the many difficulties encountered with blood procurement from children, it is imperative to maximize the quality and stability of the collected samples to optimize research results. Collected blood can remain whole or be fractionated into serum, plasma, or cell concentrates such as red blood cells, leukocytes, or platelets. Serum and plasma can be used for analyte studies, including proteins, lipids, and small molecules, and as a source of cell-free nucleic acids. Cell concentrates are used in functional studies, flow cytometry, culture experiments, or as a source for cellular nucleic acids. Before initiating studies on blood, a thorough evaluation of practices that may influence analyte and/or cellular integrity is required. Thus, it is imperative that child health researchers working with human blood are aware of how experimental results can be altered by blood sampling methods, times to processing, container tubes, presence or absence of additives, shipping and storage variables, and freeze-thaw cycles. The authors of this review, in an effort to encourage and optimize translational research using blood from pediatric patients, outline best practices for blood collection, processing, shipment, and storage.

  11. Blood cells in rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss milt: relation to milt collection method and sampling period.

    PubMed

    Ciereszko, A; Wlasow, T; Dobosz, S; Goryczko, K; Glogowski, J

    2004-10-01

    The presence of blood cells in milt of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) collected every week between the middle at the end of the spawning season, either by stripping or by catheterization was investigated. Basic sperm biological and biochemical characteristics were also evaluated. Because milt often becomes contaminated with blood during collection, we also studied the influence of experimental blood contamination on sperm motility and biochemical parameters of seminal plasma. We demonstrated the presence of blood cells (erythrocytes, lymphoid, and phagocytes) in rainbow trout milt collected by both methods. Both sampling period and collection method influenced sperm characteristics, however the relationship between these characteristics and blood cells are not clear at present. A high number of blood cells in milt was found in some samples, possibly due to inflammation, because at the same time we observed bacteria and elevated levels of protein and antiproteinase activity in contaminated samples. Experimental contamination of milt with blood did not influence sperm motility, protein concentration and LDH activity of the 5-day-stored semen. Our study demonstrated that blood cells were present in rainbow trout milt. Blood cells may also appear in milt as a result of bleeding and their elevated levels are present during inflammation.

  12. [Collection and transfusion of peripheral blood stem cells].

    PubMed

    Höcker, P; Wagner, A

    1991-01-01

    Harvesting of peripheral blood stem cells (PBSC) by cytapheresis was performed in 57 patients, who underwent chemotherapy. The best yields were obtained when the leukocyte count was above 1 x 10(9)/l and the platelet count was raised above 80 x 10(9)/l. Using a Haemonetics V-50 or a Baxter CS-3000, 374 PBSC-aphereses were performed with a median of six aphereses per patient. The median number of PBSC (CFU-GM) retransfused in 22 patients who received PBSC for hematological reconstitution only was 3.26 x 10(4)/kg. For 22 patients who received autologous bone marrow plus BPSC, the median number of retransfused PBSC was 2.14 x 10(4)/kg. Myeloid engraftment was achieved in all patients, but megakaryopoiesis was delayed when the number of PBSC was less than 5.0 x 10(4)/kg. The results demonstrate that harvesting of a sufficient number of PBSC after chemotherapy is feasible but further measures like the use of rh GM-CSF will be necessary to reduce apheresis procedures and to obtain high yields to ensure rapid and complete engraftment.

  13. In vitro analysis of cell salvage blood collection with a laparoscopic suction device.

    PubMed

    Nagarsheth, Nimesh P; Fenske, Suzanne Silverman; Shah, Apurva; Moshier, Erin; Stahl, Rosalyn; Shander, Aryeh

    2013-01-01

    To determine whether cell salvage blood collection with a laparoscopic suction device is inferior to use of a traditional Yankauer suction device. Prospective, in vitro study. Academic teaching hospital. Individual units of donated packed red blood cells were diluted with normal saline solution to a hematocrit level of 21%. The blood was divided into 2 equal parts and then suctioned with either a laparoscopic suction device or a Yankauer plastic suction catheter tip connected to double-lumen cell salvage tubing with a diluted heparin drip and a vacuum pressure of 100 mm Hg. Collected blood was processed with a cell salvage device. Red blood cell volume was calculated by multiplying the hematocrit level by the total volume of blood product at the time of testing. Mean hemolysis indexes were compared between the laparoscopic and Yankauer method of blood collection by use of a 2-sample t test. Assuming a clinically acceptable limit of loss to be 7%, percent loss in red blood cell volume was tested with a 95% one-sided confidence limit to assess noninferiority. The mean hemolysis index was 43.33 with laparoscopic suction method and 34.67 with the Yankauer suction method. The mean difference was 8.67 and was not considered significant (p = .074). The percent loss in red blood cell volume after collection and cell salvage processing was 33.2% with the laparoscopic suction method and 29.57% with the Yankauer method. The mean difference was 3.63% and was within the acceptable 7% loss limit for noninferiority (p = .0278). Laparoscopic blood collection is not inferior to the standard Yankauer method for cell salvage collection. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  14. Optimizing donor selection for public cord blood banking: influence of maternal, infant, and collection characteristics on cord blood unit quality.

    PubMed

    Page, Kristin M; Mendizabal, Adam; Betz-Stablein, Brigid; Wease, Stephen; Shoulars, Kevin; Gentry, Tracy; Prasad, Vinod K; Sun, Jessica; Carter, Shelly; Balber, Andrew E; Kurtzberg, Joanne

    2014-02-01

    Banked unrelated donor umbilical cord blood (CB) has improved access to hematopoietic stem cell transplantation for patients without a suitably matched donor. In a resource-limited environment, ensuring that the public inventory is enriched with high-quality cord blood units (CBUs) addressing the needs of a diverse group of patients is a priority. Identification of donor characteristics correlating with higher CBU quality could guide operational strategies to increase the yield of banked high-quality CBUs. Characteristics of 5267 CBUs donated to the Carolinas Cord Blood Bank, a public bank participating in the National Cord Blood Inventory, were retrospectively analyzed. Eligible CBUs, collected by trained personnel, were processed using standard procedures. Routine quality and potency metrics (postprocessing total nucleated cell count [post-TNCC], CD34+, colony-forming units [CFUs]) were correlated with maternal, infant, and collection characteristics. High-quality CBUs were defined as those with higher post-TNCC (>1.25 × 10(9)) with CD34+ and CFUs in the upper quartile. Factors associated with higher CD34+ or CFU content included a shorter interval from collection to processing (<10 hr), younger gestational age (34-37 weeks; CD34+ and CFUs), Caucasian race, higher birthweight (>3500 g), and larger collection volumes (>80 mL). We describe characteristics identifying high-quality CBUs, which can be used to inform strategies for CBU collection for public banks. Efforts should be made to prioritize collections from larger babies born before 38 weeks of gestation. CBUs should be rapidly transported to the processing laboratory. The lower quality of CBUs from non-Caucasian donors highlights the challenges of building a racially diverse public CB inventory. © 2013 American Association of Blood Banks.

  15. Non-invasive Serial Blood Collection in Guinea Pigs (Cavia porcellus)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-07-01

    NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Adkins, AL, Moran, AV 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e. TASK NUMBER 6.2 5f. WORK UNIT ...technicians. The toenail clip method provided an easily trained, easily performed method of blood collection that yielded up to one milliliter of blood...collection, toenail clips, toenail bleeds 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT 18. NUMBER OF PAGES 19a. NAME OF

  16. Comparison of Submental Blood Collection with the Retroorbital and Submandibular Methods in Mice (Mus musculus)

    PubMed Central

    Regan, Rainy D; Fenyk-Melody, Judy E; Tran, Sam M; Chen, Guang; Stocking, Kim L

    2016-01-01

    Nonterminal blood sample collection of sufficient volume and quality for research is complicated in mice due to their small size and anatomy. Large (>100 μL) nonterminal volumes of unhemolyzed or unclotted blood currently are typically collected from the retroorbital sinus or submandibular plexus. We developed a third method—submental blood collection—which is similar in execution to the submandibular method but with minor changes in animal restraint and collection location. Compared with other techniques, submental collection is easier to perform due to the direct visibility of the target vessels, which are located in a sparsely furred region. Compared with the submandibular method, the submental method did not differ regarding weight change and clotting score but significantly decreased hemolysis and increased the overall number of high-quality samples. The submental method was performed with smaller lancets for the majority of the bleeds, yet resulted in fewer repeat collection attempts, fewer insufficient samples, and less extraneous blood loss and was qualitatively less traumatic. Compared with the retroorbital technique, the submental method was similar regarding weight change but decreased hemolysis, clotting, and the number of overall high-quality samples; however the retroorbital method resulted in significantly fewer incidents of insufficient sample collection. Extraneous blood loss was roughly equivalent between the submental and retroorbital methods. We conclude that the submental method is an acceptable venipuncture technique for obtaining large, nonterminal volumes of blood from mice. PMID:27657712

  17. Maternal blood contamination of collected cord blood can be identified using DNA methylation at three CpGs.

    PubMed

    Morin, Alexander M; Gatev, Evan; McEwen, Lisa M; MacIsaac, Julia L; Lin, David T S; Koen, Nastassja; Czamara, Darina; Räikkönen, Katri; Zar, Heather J; Koenen, Karestan; Stein, Dan J; Kobor, Michael S; Jones, Meaghan J

    2017-01-01

    Cord blood is a commonly used tissue in environmental, genetic, and epigenetic population studies due to its ready availability and potential to inform on a sensitive period of human development. However, the introduction of maternal blood during labor or cross-contamination during sample collection may complicate downstream analyses. After discovering maternal contamination of cord blood in a cohort study of 150 neonates using Illumina 450K DNA methylation (DNAm) data, we used a combination of linear regression and random forest machine learning to create a DNAm-based screening method. We identified a panel of DNAm sites that could discriminate between contaminated and non-contaminated samples, then designed pyrosequencing assays to pre-screen DNA prior to being assayed on an array. Maternal contamination of cord blood was initially identified by unusual X chromosome DNA methylation patterns in 17 males. We utilized our DNAm panel to detect contaminated male samples and a proportional amount of female samples in the same cohort. We validated our DNAm screening method on an additional 189 sample cohort using both pyrosequencing and DNAm arrays, as well as 9 publically available cord blood 450K data sets. The rate of contamination varied from 0 to 10% within these studies, likely related to collection specific methods. Maternal blood can contaminate cord blood during sample collection at appreciable levels across multiple studies. We have identified a panel of markers that can be used to identify this contamination, either post hoc after DNAm arrays have been completed, or in advance using a targeted technique like pyrosequencing.

  18. Implementation of concurrent red blood cell and platelet collection by apheresis in a university haemapheresis unit.

    PubMed

    Moog, R

    2004-04-01

    The present study analyses the number of concurrently collected red blood cell (RBC) units in plateletpheresis donors and the reasons why donors were deferred from multicomponent collection. Donors undergoing concurrent collection of RBCs and platelets (PLTs) were retrospectively evaluated for haemoglobin values and the reasons for deferral over a period of 1 year. A total of 404 RBC units were concurrently collected with PLTs. An average of 1.8 RBC units per year was collected from each donor. The baseline haemoglobin values were almost equal for the RBC donations. An RBC unit was not collected in 190 aphereses. Most frequent reasons for the noncollection of an RBC product were a donation interval of less than 3 months (20.5%), haematoma and blood flow problems (18.9%) and low pre-haemoglobin values (17.4%). Donor eligibility has to be taken into account to optimize concurrent RBC collection in plateletpheresis.

  19. Optimizing Donor Selection for Public Cord Blood Banking: Influence of Maternal, Infant and Collection Characteristics on Cord Blood Unit Quality

    PubMed Central

    Page, Kristin M.; Mendizabal, Adam; Betz-Stablein, Brigid; Wease, Stephen; Shoulars, Kevin; Gentry, Tracy; Prasad, Vinod K.; Sun, Jessica; Carter, Shelly; Balber, Andrew E.; Kurtzberg, Joanne

    2013-01-01

    Background Banked unrelated donor umbilical cord blood (CB) has improved access to hematopoietic stem cell transplantation for patients without a suitably matched donor. In a resource-limited environment, ensuring that the public inventory is enriched with high-quality cord blood units (CBUs) addressing the needs of a diverse group of patients is a priority. Identification of donor characteristics correlating with higher CBU quality could guide operational strategies to increase the yield of banked high-quality CBUs. Methods Characteristics of 5267 CBUs donated to the Carolinas Cord Blood Bank, a public bank participating in the National Cord Blood Inventory, were retrospectively analyzed. Eligible CBUs, collected by trained personnel, were processed using standard procedures. Routine quality and potency metrics [post-processing total nucleated cell count (post-TNCC), CD34+, colony-forming units (CFUs)] were correlated with maternal, infant, and collection characteristics. Results High-quality CBUs were defined as those with higher post-TNCC (>1.25×109), and CD34+ + CFU in the upper quartile. Factors associated with higher CD34+ or CFU content included a shorter interval from collection to processing (<10 hours), younger gestational age (34–37 weeks; CD34++CFU) Caucasian race, higher birth weight (>3500grams) and larger collection volumes (>80ml). Conclusions We describe characteristics identifying high-quality CBUs, which can be used to inform strategies for CBU collection for public banks. Efforts should be made to prioritize collections from larger babies born before 38 weeks of gestation. CBUs should be rapidly transported to the processing laboratory. The lower quality of CBUs from non-Caucasian donors highlights the challenges of building a racially diverse public CB inventory. PMID:23711284

  20. An assessment of various blood collection and transfer methods used for malaria rapid diagnostic tests.

    PubMed

    Luchavez, Jennifer; Lintag, Ma Eichelle; Coll-Black, Mary; Baik, Fred; Bell, David

    2007-11-15

    Four blood collection and transfer devices commonly used for malaria rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) were assessed for their consistency, accuracy and ease of use in the hands of laboratory technicians and village health workers. Laboratory technicians and village health workers collected blood from a finger prick using each device in random order, and deposited the blood either on filter paper or into a suitable casette-type RDT. Consistency and accuracy of volume delivered was determined by comparing the measurements of the resulting blood spots/heights with the measurements of laboratory-prepared pipetted standard volumes. The effect of varying blood volumes on RDT sensitivity and ease of use was also observed. There was high variability in blood volume collected by the devices, with the straw and the loop, the most preferred devices, usually transferring volumes greater than intended, while the glass capillary tube and the plastic pipette transferring less volume than intended or none at all. Varying the blood volume delivered to RDTs indicated that this variation is critical to RDT sensitivity only when the transferred volume is very low. None of the blood transfer devices assessed performed consistently well. Adequate training on their use is clearly necessary, with more development efforts for improved designs to be used by remote health workers, in mind.

  1. An assessment of various blood collection and transfer methods used for malaria rapid diagnostic tests

    PubMed Central

    Luchavez, Jennifer; Lintag, Ma Eichelle; Coll-Black, Mary; Baik, Fred; Bell, David

    2007-01-01

    Background Four blood collection and transfer devices commonly used for malaria rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) were assessed for their consistency, accuracy and ease of use in the hands of laboratory technicians and village health workers. Methods Laboratory technicians and village health workers collected blood from a finger prick using each device in random order, and deposited the blood either on filter paper or into a suitable casette-type RDT. Consistency and accuracy of volume delivered was determined by comparing the measurements of the resulting blood spots/heights with the measurements of laboratory-prepared pipetted standard volumes. The effect of varying blood volumes on RDT sensitivity and ease of use was also observed. Results There was high variability in blood volume collected by the devices, with the straw and the loop, the most preferred devices, usually transferring volumes greater than intended, while the glass capillary tube and the plastic pipette transferring less volume than intended or none at all. Varying the blood volume delivered to RDTs indicated that this variation is critical to RDT sensitivity only when the transferred volume is very low. Conclusion None of the blood transfer devices assessed performed consistently well. Adequate training on their use is clearly necessary, with more development efforts for improved designs to be used by remote health workers, in mind. PMID:18001481

  2. Simplified enrollment for autologous transfusion: automatic referral of presurgical patients for assessment for autologous blood collections.

    PubMed

    Moore, S B; Swenke, P K; Foss, M L; Rand, J A; Cabanela, M E; Kavanagh, B; Taswell, H F

    1992-04-01

    We implemented a pilot program at our institution for automatic referral of patients for presurgical assessment for preoperative and intraoperative collection of autologous blood. Although patients and clinicians support the use of autologous transfusion, often a request for collection of autologous blood is not initiated. During 11 months, 269 patients (82%) of three orthopedic surgeons entered the program, and 218 underwent operation and were dismissed from the hospital. A total of 940 units of autologous blood (675 preoperatively and 265 intraoperatively) was collected from these 218 patients, and 84% of the units were transfused. Throughout hospitalization, 86% of the patients received only autologous blood, whereas 14% received various proportions of homologous and autologous blood. In contrast, only 26% of a concomitant control group of 220 consecutive orthopedic surgical patients not participating in the automatic-referral program received only autologous blood. Thus, the automatic-referral program increased the percentage of elective orthopedic surgical patients who received only autologous blood from 26% to 86% (P less than 0.001). This study also showed that the same amount of blood was used for autologous transfusions as was routinely used for homologous transfusions in similar cases. The automatic-referral system was convenient for physicians and patients and offered the benefits of reduction of transfusion-associated risks and amelioration of patient anxieties.

  3. Virtual Global Transplant Laboratory Standard Operating Procedures for Blood Collection, PBMC Isolation, and Storage

    PubMed Central

    Higdon, Lauren E.; Lee, Karim; Tang, Qizhi; Maltzman, Jonathan S.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Research on human immune responses frequently involves the use of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) immediately, or at significantly delayed timepoints, after collection. This requires PBMC isolation from whole blood and cryopreservation for some applications. It is important to standardize protocols for blood collection, PBMC isolation, cryopreservation, and thawing that maximize survival and functionality of PBMC at the time of analysis. This resource includes detailed protocols describing blood collection tubes, isolation of PBMC using a density gradient, cryopreservation of PBMC, and thawing of cells as well as preparation for functional assays. For each protocol, we include important considerations, such as timing, storage temperatures, and freezing rate. In addition, we provide alternatives so that researchers can make informed decisions in determining the optimal protocol for their application. PMID:27795993

  4. Design of a donor-driven data collection strategy for operational improvement of blood donation process.

    PubMed

    Padman, R; Heuston, M; Ashley, S; Bhortake, A; Carey, R; Dua, S; Mihelic, M; Rajderkar, S; Saini, V

    2010-07-01

    Prior studies have noted that donor retention may be negatively impacted by the total time it takes to complete the blood donation process. To gain a comprehensive understanding of the blood donation process and examine opportunities for operational improvements, an educational partnership established between a blood bank and a university designed and implemented a donor-driven data collection strategy. A large amount of real-time, comprehensive, donor-reported data was collected as donors navigated the process, which has enabled a thorough analysis of the process and its potential improvements. In this paper, we describe the design and implementation efforts, examine the challenges in operationalizing a donor-driven data collection approach, and present insights and recommendations for its application in similar settings. © 2010 American Association of Blood Banks.

  5. Virtual Global Transplant Laboratory Standard Operating Procedures for Blood Collection, PBMC Isolation, and Storage.

    PubMed

    Higdon, Lauren E; Lee, Karim; Tang, Qizhi; Maltzman, Jonathan S

    2016-09-01

    Research on human immune responses frequently involves the use of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) immediately, or at significantly delayed timepoints, after collection. This requires PBMC isolation from whole blood and cryopreservation for some applications. It is important to standardize protocols for blood collection, PBMC isolation, cryopreservation, and thawing that maximize survival and functionality of PBMC at the time of analysis. This resource includes detailed protocols describing blood collection tubes, isolation of PBMC using a density gradient, cryopreservation of PBMC, and thawing of cells as well as preparation for functional assays. For each protocol, we include important considerations, such as timing, storage temperatures, and freezing rate. In addition, we provide alternatives so that researchers can make informed decisions in determining the optimal protocol for their application.

  6. Overexpression of Renin in the collecting duct causes elevated blood pressure.

    PubMed

    Ramkumar, Nirupama; Ying, Jian; Stuart, Deborah; Kohan, Donald E

    2013-08-01

    Renin is synthesized in the collecting duct and is regulated differently than renin in the juxtaglomerular apparatus. However, the physiological relevance of collecting duct renin remains unknown, particularly with regard to its ability to regulate blood pressure. We used gene targeting to generate mice with overexpression of renin in the collecting duct. A conditional mutant mouse line was created with the mouse renin transcript distal to a "transcriptional stop sequence" such that gene expression only occurred when the stop sequence was excised. These mice were bred with mice transgenic for the aquaporin-2 promoter driving Cre recombinase in order to achieve collecting duct-specific overexpression of renin. RNA analysis confirmed kidney-specific recombination, and medullary renin mRNA levels were increased 5-fold in collecting duct renin mice. Blood pressure was recorded by telemetry and plasma and urine was collected in 24-hour metabolic cages on normal, high-, and low-Na+ diets. Although no significant differences in 24-hour urinary Na+ excretion between targeted and control mice were detected, renin overexpresser mice had elevated blood pressure compared with controls on a high-Na+ diet. Urinary renin excretion was 2-fold higher in targeted mice as compared with controls on normal and low-Na+ diets. Plasma renin concentration was significantly suppressed in targeted mice as compared with controls on normal and high-Na+ diets. Taken together, these results suggest that collecting duct-derived renin has the potential to modulate blood pressure independent of the systemic renin-angiotensin system.

  7. Molecular Epidemiology of Macrolide-Resistant Isolates of Streptococcus pneumoniae Collected from Blood and Respiratory Specimens in Norway

    PubMed Central

    Littauer, P.; Sangvik, M.; Caugant, D. A.; Høiby, E. A.; Simonsen, G. S.; Sundsfjord, A.

    2005-01-01

    Norway has a low prevalence of antimicrobial resistance, including macrolide-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae (MRSP). In a nationwide surveillance program, a total of 2,200 S. pneumoniae isolates were collected from blood cultures and respiratory tract specimens. Macrolide resistance was detected in 2.7%. M-type macrolide resistance was found in 60% of resistant isolates, and these were mainly mef(A)-positive, serotype-14 invasive isolates. The erm(B)-encoded macrolide-lincosamide-streptogramin B (MLSB) type dominated among the noninvasive isolates. One strain had an A2058G mutation in the 23S rRNA gene. Coresistance to other antibiotics was seen in 96% of the MLSB-type isolates, whereas 92% of the M-type isolates were susceptible to other commonly used antimicrobial agents. Serotypes 14, 6B, and 19F accounted for 84% of the macrolide-resistant isolates, with serotype 14 alone accounting for 67% of the invasive isolates. A total of 29 different sequence types (STs) were detected by multilocus sequence typing. Twelve STs were previously reported international resistant clones, and 75% of the macrolide-resistant isolates had STs identical or closely related to these clones. Eleven isolates displayed 10 novel STs, and 7/11 of these “Norwegian strains” coexpressed MLSB and tetracycline resistance, indicating the presence of Tn1545. The invasive serotype-14 isolates were all classified as ST9 or single-locus variants of this clone. ST9 is a mef-positive M-type clone, commonly known as England14-9, reported from several European countries. These observations suggest that the import of major international MRSP clones and the local spread of Tn1545 are the major mechanisms involved in the evolution and dissemination of MRSP in Norway. PMID:15872231

  8. A Review of Factors Influencing the Banking of Collected Umbilical Cord Blood Units

    PubMed Central

    Allan, David; Petraszko, Tanya; Elmoazzen, Heidi; Smith, Susan

    2013-01-01

    Umbilical cord blood banking efforts have increased dramatically in the past two decades in response to increasing demand for alternative sources of blood stem cells to support patients requiring hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Transplant centres have accumulated increasing expertise in their understanding of umbilical cord blood characteristics that are associated with improved outcome following transplantation. These characteristics and factors can assist transplant centres in selecting cord blood units from the worldwide inventory of banked units. Umbilical cord blood banks, therefore, need to remain agile in adjusting the inventory of the banks to address shifts or changes in the needs of transplant centres. Public umbilical cord blood banks face the challenge of building inventory while managing limited resources and are faced with decisions regarding which units can be stored and which units that have been collected should be discarded or used for other endeavours such as research. To this end, we sought to review parameters influencing the decision to bank a collected cord blood unit. In this paper, we will address parameters associated with graft potency and address other factors that guide the decision to bank collected units. PMID:23533442

  9. Nationwide Databases in Orthopaedic Surgery Research.

    PubMed

    Bohl, Daniel D; Singh, Kern; Grauer, Jonathan N

    2016-10-01

    The use of nationwide databases to conduct orthopaedic research has expanded markedly in recent years. Nationwide databases offer large sample sizes, sampling of patients who are representative of the country as a whole, and data that enable investigation of trends over time. The most common use of nationwide databases is to study the occurrence of postoperative adverse events. Other uses include the analysis of costs and the investigation of critical hospital metrics, such as length of stay and readmission rates. Although nationwide databases are powerful research tools, readers should be aware of the differences between them and their limitations. These include variations and potential inaccuracies in data collection, imperfections in patient sampling, insufficient postoperative follow-up, and lack of orthopaedic-specific outcomes.

  10. Effects of post-sampling analysis time, type of blood samples and collection tubes on values of blood gas testing.

    PubMed

    Smajić, Jasmina; Kadić, Damira; Hasić, Sabaheta; Serdarević, Nafija

    2015-08-01

    To investigate effects of post-sampling analysis time, a type of blood samples and collection tubes on blood gas testing. This study included 100 patients at the Clinic for Pulmonary Diseases, Clinical Centre Sarajevo. The partial pressure of oxygen (pO2) and carbon dioxide (pCO2), and the oxygen saturation level of hemoglobin (sO2) were analyzed in the arterial blood samples (ABS) and capillary blood samples (CBS) by a potentiometric method using a blood gas analyzer ABL 555 (Radiometer, Copenhagen, Denmark). Paired measurements of ABS were performed within 15 minutes and after 60 minutes from sampling and compared. The results of CBS obtained within 15 minutes were compared with matching ABS results, as well as the results obtained from CBS within 15 minutes taken into glass and plastic tubes. pO2 and sO2 values were significantly lower after 60 minutes compared to those within 15 minutes in ABS (9.20±1.89 vs. 9.51±1.95 and 91.25±5.03 vs. 92.40±4.5; p<0.01, respectively). Values of pO2 and sO2 in CBS were significantly lower than values obtained in ABS (8.92±2.07 vs. 9.51±1.95 and 91.25±4.86 vs. 92.40±4.50; p<0.01, respectively). Obtained pO2 and sO2 values in CBS in the plastic tubes were higher than those in the glass tubes (8.50±1.98 vs. 7.89±2.0 and 89.66±11.04 vs. 88.23±11.22, p<0.01 respectively). pCO2 blood values were not influenced significantly (p>0.05). The length of post-sampling analysis time, a type of blood samples and collection tubes have significant impact on blood oxygen parameters. Analysis within 15 minutes after blood sampling is considered as appropriate. Copyright© by the Medical Assotiation of Zenica-Doboj Canton.

  11. Appraisal of Collection Techniques and Storage Temperatures on Turkey Plasma Cholinesterase Levels and Blood Glutathione Concentrations

    PubMed Central

    Mukherjee, T. K.; Fuller, G. W.; Friars, G. W.

    1969-01-01

    The effects of different blood collection procedures, various storage temperatures and durations of storage on the levels of plasma cholinesterase and whole blood glutathione in turkeys were investigated. Collection of blood through vacutainers yielded satisfactory results. Whereas the plasma cholinesterase activity remained unchanged even after three weeks of storage at -17.8°C., blood glutathione concentration was unaffected only when the samples were stored at -28.9°C for the three weeks. The range of mean activity was from 4.64 to 4.71 ΔpH/hour x 10 for cholinesterase and from 44.85 to 47.91 mgm/100 ml for glutathione. PMID:4242775

  12. Collection, processing, and banking of umbilical cord blood stem cells for transplantation and regenerative medicine.

    PubMed

    Badowski, Michael S; Harris, David T

    2012-01-01

    Collection and banking of umbilical cord blood can provide a virtually unlimited source of ethnically diverse stem cell donors. It can be used in place of bone marrow or peripheral blood stem cells for hematologic transplants as well as in a variety of regenerative medicine applications. In this study, we review the latest developments in cord blood banking. We have banked over 300,000 collections at our facility, which were processed by either Ficoll or AXP methodologies. An average 95-99% processing efficiency was obtained. Processed samples can be frozen in either cryovials or bags and banked in the vapor phase of a liquid nitrogen dewar for prolonged periods of time. In conclusion, it is possible to simply and reproducibly harvest, process, and bank cord blood samples using currently available technology.

  13. Blood meal identification and feeding habits of uranotaenia species collected in the ryukyu archipelago.

    PubMed

    Toma, Takako; Miyagi, Ichiro; Tamashiro, Mikako

    2014-09-01

    To know the blood meal in the stomach of Uranotaenia species, blood-fed mosquitoes were collected by 4 methods at different sites in the mountain forest of 3 islands, Amamioshima, Okinawajima, and Iriomotejima in the Ryukyu Archipelago, Japan from 2005 to 2012. One hundred twenty-four blood-fed Uranotaenia mosquitoes of 7 species (Ur. jacksoni, nivipleura, ohamai, yaeyamana, annandalei, lateralis, and macfarlanei) were collected. The collection rates are 0.26, 0.6, 0.31, and 0.66 by black light trap, black light blue with dry ice trap, frog call trap, and sweeping net, respectively. The blood meals of 107 females (86.3%) were successfully identified by a polymerase chain reaction-based method. All Uranotaenia species fed on cold-blooded animals, especially amphibians (99.1%), and notably on frogs. They would feed readily on available frogs in a given region having no close connection with the breeding (calling) season of each frog. They also fed on reptiles (0.9%), but not on warm-blooded animals.

  14. Continued decline in blood collection and transfusion in the United States–2015

    PubMed Central

    Ellingson, Katherine D.; Sapiano, Mathew R. P.; Haass, Kathryn A.; Savinkina, Alexandra A.; Baker, Misha L.; Chung, Koo-Whang; Henry, Richard A.; Berger, James J.; Kuehnert, Matthew J.; Basavaraju, Sridhar V.

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND In 2011 and 2013, the National Blood Collection and Utilization Survey (NBCUS) revealed declines in blood collection and transfusion in the United States. The objective of this study was to describe blood services in 2015. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS The 2015 NBCUS was distributed to all US blood collection centers, all hospitals performing at least 1000 surgeries annually, and a 40% random sample of hospitals performing 100 to 999 surgeries annually. Weighting and imputation were used to generate national estimates for units of blood and components collected, deferred, distributed, transfused, and outdated. RESULTS Response rates for the 2015 NBCUS were 78.4% for blood collection centers and 73.9% for transfusing hospitals. In 2015, 12,591,000 units of red blood cells (RBCs) (95% confidence interval [CI], 11,985,000–13,197,000 units of RBCs) were collected, and 11,349,000 (95% CI, 10,592,000–11,747,000) were transfused, representing declines since 2013 of 11.6% and 13.9%, respectively. Total platelet units distributed (2,436,000; 95% CI, 2,230,000–2,642,000) and transfused (1,983,000; 95% CI, 1,816,000=2,151,000) declined by 0.5% and 13.1%, respectively, since 2013. Plasma distributions (3,714,000; 95% CI, 3,306,000–4,121,000) and transfusions (2,727,000; 95% CI, 2,594,000–2,859,000) in 2015 declined since 2013. The median price paid per unit in 2015—$211 for leukocyte-reduced RBCs, $524 for apheresis platelets, and $54 for fresh frozen plasma—was less for all components than in 2013. CONCLUSIONS The 2015 NBCUS findings suggest that continued declines in demand for blood products resulted in fewer units collected and distributed Maintaining a blood inventory sufficient to meet routine and emergent demands will require further monitoring and understanding of these trends. PMID:28591469

  15. Emergency whole-blood use in the field: a simplified protocol for collection and transfusion.

    PubMed

    Strandenes, Geir; De Pasquale, Marc; Cap, Andrew P; Hervig, Tor A; Kristoffersen, Einar K; Hickey, Matthew; Cordova, Christopher; Berseus, Olle; Eliassen, Håkon S; Fisher, Logan; Williams, Steve; Spinella, Philip C

    2014-05-01

    Military experience and recent in vitro laboratory data provide a biological rationale for whole-blood use in the treatment of exsanguinating hemorrhage and have renewed interest in the reintroduction of fresh whole blood and cold-stored whole blood to patient care in austere environments. There is scant evidence to support, in a field environment, that a whole blood-based resuscitation strategy is superior to a crystalloid/colloid approach even when augmented by a limited number of red blood cell (RBC) and plasma units. Recent retrospective evidence suggests that, in this setting, resuscitation with a full compliment of RBCs, plasma, and platelets may offer an advantage, especially under conditions where evacuation is delayed. No current evacuation system, military or civilian, is capable of providing RBC, plasma, and platelet units in a prehospital environment, especially in austere settings. As a result, for the vast minority of casualties, in austere settings, with life-threatening hemorrhage, it is appropriate to consider a whole blood-based resuscitation approach to provide a balanced response to altered hemostasis and oxygen debt, with the goal of reducing the risk of death from hemorrhagic shock. To optimize the successful use of fresh whole blood/cold-stored whole blood in combat field environments, proper planning and frequent training to maximize efficiency and safety will be required. Combat medics will need proper protocol-based guidance and education if whole-blood collection and transfusion are to be successfully and safely performed in austere environments. In this article, we present the Norwegian Naval Special Operation Commando unit-specific remote damage control resuscitation protocol, which includes field collection and transfusion of whole blood. This protocol can serve as a template for others to use and adjust for their own military or civilian unit-specific needs and capabilities for care in austere environments.

  16. A Novel Needle-Free Blood Draw Device for Sample Collection From Short Peripheral Catheters

    PubMed Central

    Nachamkin, Irving

    2017-01-01

    A new US Food and Drug Administration-cleared needleless blood collection device (PIVO; Velano Vascular, San Francisco, CA) for short peripheral catheters was compared with conventional venipuncture for collecting blood samples for routine laboratory analysis from adult healthy volunteers. The PIVO device was comparable with venipuncture in terms of providing high-integrity samples (no hemolysis or clotting), equivalent laboratory values, and better patient experience as assessed by pain scores. Further studies to assess the overall utility of the PIVO device are warranted. PMID:28419012

  17. Blood-sucking bugs as a gentle method for blood-collection in water budget studies using doubly labelled water.

    PubMed

    Voigt, Christian C; Michener, Robert; Wibbelt, Gudrun; Kunz, Thomas H; von Helversen, Otto

    2005-11-01

    During doubly-labelled water (DLW) experiments, blood collection by venous puncture may traumatize animals and consequently affect the animals' behaviour and energy budget. Recent studies have shown that blood-sucking bugs (Triatominae; Heteroptera) can be used instead of conventional needles to obtain blood from animals. In this paper, we validate the bug method in captive nectar-feeding bats, Glossophaga soricina, for water budget analysis by comparing the daily water flux estimated with the DLW method with values measured by an energy balance method. As the mean daily water flux of the DLW method was not significantly deviating from the expected value, blood-sucking bugs may substitute more invasive methods of blood collection in DLW experiments. Based on the DLW estimates, daily energy and water intake rates were calculated and compared to values measured with the energy balance method. The DLW method and the energy balance method yielded on average similar results regarding the daily energy intake (DLW method: 48.8+/-14.2 kJ d(-1) versus energy balance method: 48.1+/-9.9 kJ d(-1)) and daily water intake (DLW method: 13.7+/-2.4 mL d(-1) versus energy balance method: 14.7+/-3.0 mL d(-1)). Based on the calculated water and sugar intake per day, we estimated the sugar concentration of ingested nectar to equal on average 16.2+/-2.4% (mass/mass), which fell close to the measured sugar concentration of 17% (mass/mass) bats fed on during the experiment. We conclude that it is possible to extrapolate mean daily energy and water intake for animal groups, populations and species based on DLW estimates, but due to the large variance of results (low accuracy), it seems inadequate to calculate values for single individuals.

  18. Blood groups and human groups: collecting and calibrating genetic data after World War Two.

    PubMed

    Bangham, Jenny

    2014-09-01

    Arthur Mourant's The Distribution of the Human Blood Groups (1954) was an "indispensable" reference book on the "anthropology of blood groups" containing a vast collection of human genetic data. It was based on the results of blood-grouping tests carried out on half-a-million people and drew together studies on diverse populations around the world: from rural communities, to religious exiles, to volunteer transfusion donors. This paper pieces together sequential stages in the production of a small fraction of the blood-group data in Mourant's book, to examine how he and his colleagues made genetic data from people. Using sources from several collecting projects, I follow how blood was encountered, how it was inscribed, and how it was turned into a laboratory resource. I trace Mourant's analytical and representational strategies to make blood groups both credibly 'genetic' and understood as relevant to human ancestry, race and history. In this story, 'populations' were not simply given, but were produced through public health, colonial and post-colonial institutions, and by the labour and expertise of subjects, assistants and mediators. Genetic data were not self-evidently 'biological', but were shaped by existing historical and geographical identities, by political relationships, and by notions of kinship and belonging.

  19. Blood groups and human groups: Collecting and calibrating genetic data after World War Two

    PubMed Central

    Bangham, Jenny

    2014-01-01

    Arthur Mourant's The Distribution of the Human Blood Groups (1954) was an “indispensable” reference book on the “anthropology of blood groups” containing a vast collection of human genetic data. It was based on the results of blood-grouping tests carried out on half-a-million people and drew together studies on diverse populations around the world: from rural communities, to religious exiles, to volunteer transfusion donors. This paper pieces together sequential stages in the production of a small fraction of the blood-group data in Mourant's book, to examine how he and his colleagues made genetic data from people. Using sources from several collecting projects, I follow how blood was encountered, how it was inscribed, and how it was turned into a laboratory resource. I trace Mourant's analytical and representational strategies to make blood groups both credibly ‘genetic’ and understood as relevant to human ancestry, race and history. In this story, ‘populations’ were not simply given, but were produced through public health, colonial and post-colonial institutions, and by the labour and expertise of subjects, assistants and mediators. Genetic data were not self-evidently ‘biological’, but were shaped by existing historical and geographical identities, by political relationships, and by notions of kinship and belonging. PMID:25066898

  20. Thrombin generation during collection of blood from donors taking oral contraceptives.

    PubMed

    Skjønsberg, O H; Kierulf, P; Engebretsen, L F; Gjønnes, G; Godal, H C

    1987-01-01

    Thrombin generation, as evidenced by plasma fibrinopeptide A (FPA) concentrations, was studied during blood collection from donors taking oral contraceptives (OC). 450 ml blood were drawn into Fenwal PVC bags from 26 OC users and 28 nonusers. Blood samples for determination of FPA, beta-thromboglobulin (BTG), thrombotest (TT), prekallikrein (PKK), antithrombin-III (AT-III) and factor VIII procoagulant activity (FVIII:C) were drawn from the bags immediately after ending blood donation and following storage for 24 h at 4 degrees C. The FPA concentrations following donation were significantly higher in the OC than in the control group (p less than 0.05). The levels of PKK were also higher in blood obtained from OC users (p less than 0.001), as was the FVIII:C level, the latter difference, however, was not significant (p = 0.06). No cold-promoted activation of factor VII, as evidenced from TT, was detected following storage at 4 degrees C, neither was any change observed in the FPA, PKK and AT-III levels. The BTG concentrations increased significantly during storage, most pronounced in the control group (p less than 0.05). The decay of FVIII:C was similar in the two groups, averaging 24.7%. No correlation was observed between the FPA levels and the other parameters determined. We conclude that thrombin generation is more pronounced during routine blood collection from donors taking OC.

  1. Mobilization and collection of peripheral blood stem cells: guidelines for blood volume to process, based on CD34-positive blood cell count in adults and children.

    PubMed

    Anguita-Compagnon, A T; Dibarrart, M T; Palma, J; Paredes, L; Mosso, C; Montalva, R; Salas, L; Araos, D; Delgado, I; Majlis, A

    2010-01-01

    We report 189 mobilizations and 489 collections of peripheral blood stem cells (PBSC) performed in 139 autologous transplantation patients and in 28 donors for allogeneic transplantations whose ages ranged from 2-68 years. We observed a correlation (P < .001; Pearson's coefficient 0.64) between CD34-positive cells and granulocyte-macrophage colony-forming units examined to estimate PBSC. In a subset of 287 collections (97 adults and 49 children) we obtained peripheral blood (PB) CD34-positive cell counts at 2 to 4 hours before leukapheresis. We noted a correlation between PB CD34-positive cell counts before leukapheresis and the number of CD34-positive cells per kilogram of body weight collected in the whole apheresis of the day (P < .001; Pearson's coefficient 0.82). An even better correlation was obtained between PB CD34-positive cells preapheresis and the yield of each individual blood volume (BV) processed (P < .001; Pearson's coefficient 0.87). Healthy donors and patients in each age group behaved similarly. In addition, the collection yield was greater among children than adults. These findings allowed us to develop a simple predictive model to estimate the BV to process for a target dose of CD34-positive cells per kilogram, based on the level of PBSC before apheresis in children and adults.

  2. Blood collection from the facial (maxillary)/musculo-cutaneous vein in true frogs (family Ranidae).

    PubMed

    Forzán, María J; Vanderstichel, Raphaël V; Ogbuah, Christopher T; Barta, John R; Smith, Todd G

    2012-01-01

    Collection of blood from amphibians, as in other classes of vertebrate animals, is essential to evaluate parameters of health, diagnose hemoparasitism, identify viral and bacterial pathogens, and measure antibodies. Various methods of blood collection have been described for amphibians. Most can be cumbersome (venipucture of femoral vein, ventral abdominal vein or lingual venus plexus) or result in pain or deleterious health consequences (cardiac puncture and toe-clipping). We describe an easy and practical technique to collect blood from frogs and toads that can be used in multiple species and is minimally invasive. The technique consists of puncturing either the facial or, less commonly, the musculo-cutaneous vein and collecting the blood with a capillary tube. These veins run dorsal and parallel to the maxillary bone and can be accessed by quick insertion and withdrawal of a needle through the skin between the upper jawline and the rostral or caudal side of the tympanum. The needle should be of 27 or 30 gauge for anurans weighing more or less than 25 g, respectively. Although the technique has been used by some amphibian researchers for years, it is little known by others and has never been fully described in a peer-reviewed publication.

  3. 21 CFR 864.9125 - Vacuum-assisted blood collection system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Vacuum-assisted blood collection system. 864.9125 Section 864.9125 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Products Used In Establishments That...

  4. An improved technique for peripheral blood stem cell collection in small patients.

    PubMed

    Landolfo, A; Angioni, A; Deb, G; Jenkner, A; Orlando, P; Donfrancesco, A; Balloni, P

    1991-03-01

    Peripheral Blood Stem Cell collection in adults is a consolidated method for autografting. The same procedure is less easily performed in pediatric patients due to low weight, vascular access problems and anticoagulant side effects. Great efforts have been made to overcome technical difficulties and make apheresis in children a reliable and safe procedure.

  5. EFLM WG-Preanalytical phase opinion paper: local validation of blood collection tubes in clinical laboratories.

    PubMed

    Lippi, Giuseppe; Cornes, Michael P; Grankvist, Kjell; Nybo, Mads; Simundic, Ana-Maria

    2016-05-01

    The selection or procurement of blood collection devices in healthcare facilities is often an underestimated issue. This is probably due to different factors including the lack of knowledge of policymakers, hospital administrators and even laboratory managers about the importance of preanalytical quality and phlebotomy process, as well as to the absence of reliable guidelines or recommendations on how to precisely assess the quality of blood collection devices around the globe. With the awareness that a gap remains between manufacturers' and local validation of blood collection devices, the Working Group for Preanalytical Phase (WG-PRE) of the European Federation of Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine (EFLM) has drafted a consensus document aimed to provide a set of essential requisites, technical criteria (e.g. presence of physical defects, malfunctioning, safety problems) and clinical issues for supporting laboratory professionals in organization blood collection tubes tenders and validating new devices before local routine implementation. The laboratory professionals should also make sure that the tenders accurately and strictly define the responsibilities for validation experiments and the potential consequences in the case the validation outcome shows that tubes due not fulfill the expectations.

  6. Retraction: The effect of anticoagulant choice on collection of cord blood.

    PubMed

    2014-09-01

    "The effect of anticoagulant choice on collection of cord blood" by M. Badowski, C. Shultz and D.T. Harris. Transfusion. First published online: June 12, 2014. The above article, published online on June 12, 2014 on Wiley Online Library (wileyonlinelibrary.com), has been withdrawn for legal reasons by agreement between the authors, the journal Editor in Chief, Paul M. Ness, MD, the AABB, and Wiley Periodicals, Inc. The withdrawal has been agreed due to violation of a research agreement between the Cord Blood Registry, which commissioned the article, and the authors. Badowski M, Shultz C and Harris DT. The effect of anticoagulant choice on collection of cord blood. Transfusion. 2014. doi: 10.1111/trf.12744. First published online: 12 JUN 2014. © 2014 AABB.

  7. Nationwide Eclipse Ballooning Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colman Des Jardins, Angela; Berk Knighton, W.; Larimer, Randal; Mayer-Gawlik, Shane; Fowler, Jennifer; Harmon, Christina; Koehler, Christopher; Guzik, Gregory; Flaten, James; Nolby, Caitlin; Granger, Douglas; Stewart, Michael

    2016-05-01

    The purpose of the Nationwide Eclipse Ballooning Project is to make the most of the 2017 rare eclipse event in four main areas: public engagement, workforce development, partnership development, and science. The Project is focused on two efforts, both student-led: online live video of the eclipse from the edge of space and the study of the atmospheric response to the eclipse. These efforts, however, involving more than 60 teams across the US, are challenging in many ways. Therefore, the Project is leveraging the NASA Space Grant and NOAA atmospheric science communities to make it a success. The first and primary topic of this poster is the NASA Space Grant supported online live video effort. College and high school students on 48 teams from 31 states will conduct high altitude balloon flights from 15-20 locations across the 8/21/2017 total eclipse path, sending live video and images from near space to a national website. Video and images of a total solar eclipse from near space are fascinating and rare. It’s never been done live and certainly not in a network of coverage across a continent. In addition to the live video to the web, these teams are engaged in several other science experiments as secondary payloads. We also briefly highlight the eclipse atmospheric science effort, where about a dozen teams will launch over one hundred radiosondes from across the 2017 path, recording an unprecedented atmospheric data sample. Collected data will include temperature, density, wind, humidity, and ozone measurements.

  8. Hemolysis rates in blood samples: differences between blood collected by clinicians and nurses and the effect of phlebotomy training.

    PubMed

    Cadamuro, Janne; von Meyer, Alexander; Wiedemann, Helmut; Klaus Felder, Thomas; Moser, Franziska; Kipman, Ulrike; Haschke-Becher, Elisabeth; Mrazek, Cornelia; Simundic, Ana-Maria

    2016-12-01

    Hemolytic samples are one of the most challenging preanalytical issues in laboratory medicine. Even causes leading to hemolytic specimen are various, including phlebotomy practices. Respective educational interventions as well as the reduction of the number of people involved in blood collections are claimed to influence the sample quality for the better. In our hospital 70 junior doctors were in charge of routine phlebotomy until 2012, when this task was shifted to 874 nurses, including a preceding training in phlebotomy and preanalytics. Our aim was to evaluate the impact of this training effect and the increase of people involved on sample quality. The hemolysis index (HI) of 43,875 samples was measured before (n=21,512) and after (n=22,363) the switch of blood collection responsibilities. Differences in overall hemolysis rates and the amount of plasma samples with a concentration of free hemoglobin (fHb) above 0.5 g/L and 1 g/L were calculated. Overall HI as well as the percentage of samples with an fHb concentration >0.5 g/L decreased after the responsibility for phlebotomy changed. The rate of samples with an fHb concentration >1 g/L remained unchanged. Hemolysis rates were reduced upon passing phlebotomy tasks from untrained physicians on to a trained nursing staff. We therefore conclude that the number of people performing phlebotomy seems to play a minor role, compared to the effect of a standardized training. However, whether a reduction in the number of people involved in blood collection could lead to further improvement of sample quality, remains to be investigated in future studies.

  9. Optimizing blood collection, transport and storage conditions for cell free DNA increases access to prenatal testing.

    PubMed

    Wong, David; Moturi, Sharmili; Angkachatchai, Vach; Mueller, Reinhold; DeSantis, Grace; van den Boom, Dirk; Ehrich, Mathias

    2013-08-01

    Fetal mutations and fetal chromosomal abnormalities can be detected by molecular analysis of circulating cell free fetal DNA (ccffDNA) from maternal plasma. This comprehensive study was aimed to investigate and verify blood collection and blood shipping conditions that enable Noninvasive Prenatal Testing. Specifically, the impact of shipping and storage on the stability and concentration of circulating cell-free DNA (ccfDNA) in Streck® Cell-Free DNA™ Blood Collection Tubes (Streck BCTs, Streck, Omaha NE). These BCTs were designed to minimize cellular degradation, and thus effectively prevent dilution of fetal ccf DNA by maternal genomic DNA, was evaluated. Peripheral venous maternal blood was collected into Streck BCTs to investigate four aspects of handling and processing conditions: (1) time from blood draw to plasma processing; (2) storage temperature; (3) mechanical stress; and (4) lot-to-lot tube variations. Maternal blood stored in Streck BCTs for up to 7 days at ambient temperature provides stable concentrations of ccffDNA. The amount of fetal DNA did not change over a broad range of storage temperatures (4°C, 23°C, 37°C, 40°C), but the amount of total (largely maternal) DNA increased in samples stored at 23°C and above, indicating maternal cell degradation and genomic DNA release at elevated temperatures. Shipping maternal blood in Streck BCTs, did not affect sample quality. Maternal plasma DNA stabilized for 0 to 7 days in Streck BCTs can be used for non-invasive prenatal molecular applications, when temperatures are maintained within the broad parameters assessed in this study. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Safety of large-volume leukapheresis for collection of peripheral blood progenitor cells.

    PubMed

    Reik, R A; Noto, T A; Fernandez, H F

    1997-01-01

    Large volume leukapheresis (LVL) reduces the number of procedures required to obtain adequate peripheral blood progenitor cells (PBPCs) for autologous hematopoietic reconstitution. LVL involves the processing of > 15 L or 5 patient blood volumes using high flow rates. We report our experience with LVL evaluating its efficiency and adverse effects in 71 adult patients with hematologic or solid organ malignancies. All were mobilized with chemotherapy and granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF). All collections used a double lumen apheresis catheter. Mean values per LVL were as follows: blood processed, 24.6 L; patient blood volumes processed, 5.9; ACD-A used, 1,048 ml; heparin used, 6,148 units; collect time, 290 min; blood flow rate, 89 ml/min. Eighty percent of the collections were completed in one or two procedures to obtain > or = 6.0 x 10(8) MNCs/kg body weight. The most frequent side effect (39%) was parasthesia due to citrate-related hypocalcemia. This was managed with oral calcium supplements and/or slower flow rates. Post-LVL electrolyte changes were generally asymptomatic. Prophylactic oral potassium supplements were administered in 57% of cases. Other reactions included hypotension (4%), prolonged parasthesia (1.4%), and headache (1.4%). Catheter problems in 9 (13%) of the procedures were attributed to clot formation (37%) or positional effects (63%). No bleeding occurred. Post-LVL decreases in hematocrit and platelet count averaged 3.5% and 46%, respectively. Six (4%) of the procedures required red blood cell transfusions. Platelet transfusions were given in 19 (13%) of the procedures. We conclude that adverse reactions with LVL are similar to those reported for conventional PBPC collections, making it safe and efficacious as an outpatient procedure.

  11. A novel device for collecting and dispensing fingerstick blood for point of care testing.

    PubMed

    Sauer-Budge, Alexis F; Brookfield, Samuel J; Janzen, Ronald; McGray, Sarah; Boardman, Anna; Wirz, Holger; Pollock, Nira R

    2017-01-01

    The increased world-wide availability of point-of-care (POC) tests utilizing fingerstick blood has led to testing scenarios in which multiple separate fingersticks are performed during a single patient encounter, generating cumulative discomfort and reducing testing efficiency. We have developed a device capable of a) collection of up to 100 μL of fingerstick blood from a single fingerstick by capillary action, and b) dispensing this blood in variable increments set by the user. We tested the prototype device both in a controlled laboratory setting and in a fingerstick study involving naive device users, and found it to have accuracy and precision similar to a conventional pipettor. The users also found the device to be easy to use, and recommended minor ergonomic improvements. Our device would allow performance of multiple POC tests from a single fingerstick blood sample, thus providing a novel functionality that may be of use in many testing settings worldwide.

  12. A novel device for collecting and dispensing fingerstick blood for point of care testing

    PubMed Central

    Janzen, Ronald; McGray, Sarah; Boardman, Anna; Wirz, Holger

    2017-01-01

    The increased world-wide availability of point-of-care (POC) tests utilizing fingerstick blood has led to testing scenarios in which multiple separate fingersticks are performed during a single patient encounter, generating cumulative discomfort and reducing testing efficiency. We have developed a device capable of a) collection of up to 100 μL of fingerstick blood from a single fingerstick by capillary action, and b) dispensing this blood in variable increments set by the user. We tested the prototype device both in a controlled laboratory setting and in a fingerstick study involving naive device users, and found it to have accuracy and precision similar to a conventional pipettor. The users also found the device to be easy to use, and recommended minor ergonomic improvements. Our device would allow performance of multiple POC tests from a single fingerstick blood sample, thus providing a novel functionality that may be of use in many testing settings worldwide. PMID:28837616

  13. Comparison of blood chemistry values for samples collected from juvenile chinook salmon by three methods

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Congleton, J.L.; LaVoie, W.J.

    2001-01-01

    Thirteen blood chemistry indices were compared for samples collected by three commonly used methods: caudal transection, heart puncture, and caudal vessel puncture. Apparent biases in blood chemistry values for samples obtained by caudal transection were consistent with dilution with tissue fluids: alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), creatine kinase (CK), triglyceride, and K+ were increased and Na+ and Cl- were decreased relative to values for samples obtained by caudal vessel puncture. Some enzyme activities (ALT, AST, LDH) and K+ concentrations were also greater in samples taken by heart puncture than in samples taken by caudal vessel puncture. Of the methods tested, caudal vessel puncture had the least effect on blood chemistry values and should be preferred for blood chemistry studies on juvenile salmonids.

  14. The antimicrobial activity of mecillinam, nitrofurantoin, temocillin and fosfomycin and comparative analysis of resistance patterns in a nationwide collection of ESBL-producing Escherichia coli in Norway 2010-2011.

    PubMed

    Zykov, Ilya Nikolaevich; Sundsfjord, Arnfinn; Småbrekke, Lars; Samuelsen, Ørjan

    2016-02-01

    The prevalence of extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Escherichia coli in Norway has been steadily increasing during the last 10-15 years as part of a global pandemic. ESBL producers frequently express co-resistance to other important antimicrobial drug classes, limiting therapeutic options. This has led to regained interest in older antimicrobial agents. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antimicrobial activity of mecillinam, nitrofurantoin, temocillin and fosfomycin, as well as to perform a comparative analysis of resistance patterns in a nationwide collection of ESBL-producing E. coli. A nationwide collection of all 105 clinical isolates of ESBL-producing E. coli from the Norwegian Organisation for Surveillance of Antimicrobial Resistance (NORM) during 2010-2011 was analyzed. Detection and identification of ESBL-encoding genes were performed by PCR and sequencing for confirmation of ESBL variants of blaTEM and blaSHV (2010) or microarray (2011). Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) or MIC correlates were determined using MIC gradient tests or VITEK 2, respectively. Comparative analysis of resistance patterns was performed. All isolates were susceptible to fosfomycin, temocillin (urinary tract breakpoint) and meropenem. For mecillinam and nitrofurantoin, 6% and 9% of the isolates, respectively, were non-susceptible. A high level of susceptibility was also observed for amikacin (95%). In contrast, the non-susceptibility proportions to ampicillin (100%), cefotaxime (97%), ceftazidime (77%), aztreonam (87%), gentamicin (42%), tobramycin (52%), ciprofloxacin (76%) and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (71%) were higher. Overall, the in vitro susceptibility to nitrofurantoin, fosfomycin, mecillinam and temocillin was high, indicating that these drugs are good options for treating uncomplicated urinary tract infections caused by ESBL-producing E. coli.

  15. Influence of maternal, infant, and collection characteristics on high-quality cord blood units in Guangzhou Cord Blood Bank.

    PubMed

    Wu, Shaoqing; Xie, Guie; Wu, Jieying; Chen, Jingsong; Lu, Yan; Li, Yan; Tang, Xuewei; Liao, Can

    2015-09-01

    The operation of cord blood banks (CBBs) requires immense labor, material, and financial resources. Thus, increasing the ratio of high-quality cord blood units (HQCBUs) in storage that are qualified for clinical use is critical for the efficient use of limited resources. Understanding the factors that contribute to HQCBUs, including maternal, fetal, and processing conditions, may improve the number of HQCBUs in storage. The maternal, fetal, and processing conditions of 4613 CBUs at the Guangzhou Cord Blood Bank were analyzed retrospectively to determine their effect on HQCBUs. All CBUs were obtained following strict standard operation procedures. Several factors may contribute to HQCBUs: fetal age older than 37 gestational weeks, female fetus, large cord blood (CB) volume (>80 mL), high birthweight (>3500 g), vaginal delivery, and a shorter amount of time between CB collection and processing (12 hr). We report for the first time that α-thalassemia carriers exhibit a postprocessing total nucleated cell count (p-TNCC) increase to at least 1.25 × 10(9) and an increase of the CD34+ cell count to at least 6.01 × 10(6) . Meconium-stained amniotic fluid and mothers younger than 25 years of age exhibited increased p-TNCC to at least 1.25 × 10(9) , and colony-forming units increased to at least 23.24 × 10(5) . We identified several factors that affect HQCBUs. These results may be used as a reference for updating CB collection strategies, with priority given to collecting CBUs from female fetuses older than 37 gestational weeks, at high birthweight, and born by vaginal delivery from mothers younger than 25 years of age, especially newborns with one parent carrying the trait or with meconium-stained amniotic fluid. The collected CBUs should be sent to the laboratory as soon as possible for priority processing, which will help to increase the number and ratio of HQCBUs and the effective use of CBB resources. © 2015 AABB.

  16. 76 FR 43696 - Nationwide Cyber Security Review (NCSR) Assessment

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-21

    ... SECURITY Nationwide Cyber Security Review (NCSR) Assessment AGENCY: National Protection and Programs... of Cybersecurity and Communications (CS&C), National Cyber Security Division (NCSD), Cyber Security... (Pub. L. 104-13, 44 U.S.C. Chapter 35): New Information Collection Request, Nationwide Cyber Security...

  17. Performance of Streck cfDNA Blood Collection Tubes for Liquid Biopsy Testing

    PubMed Central

    Medina Diaz, Inga; Nocon, Annette; Mehnert, Daniel H.; Fredebohm, Johannes; Diehl, Frank; Holtrup, Frank

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Making liquid biopsy testing widely available requires a concept to ship whole blood at ambient temperatures while retaining the integrity of the cell-free DNA (cfDNA) population and stability of blood cells to prevent dilution of circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA) with wild-type genomic DNA. The cell- and DNA-stabilizing properties of Streck Cell-Free DNA BCT blood collection tubes (cfDNA BCTs) were evaluated to determine if they can be utilized in combination with highly sensitive mutation detection technologies. Methods Venous blood from healthy donors or patients with advanced colorectal cancer (CRC) was collected in cfDNA BCTs and standard K2EDTA tubes. Tubes were stored at different temperatures for various times before plasma preparation and DNA extraction. The isolated cfDNA was analyzed for overall DNA yield of short and long DNA fragments using qPCR as well as for mutational changes using BEAMing and Plasma Safe-Sequencing (Safe-SeqS). Results Collection of whole blood from healthy individuals in cfDNA BCTs and storage for up to 5 days at room temperature did not affect the DNA yield and mutation background levels (n = 60). Low-frequency mutant DNA spiked into normal blood samples as well as mutant circulating tumor DNA in blood samples from CRC patients collected in cfDNA BCTs were reliably detected after 3 days of storage at room temperature. However, blood samples stored at ≤ 10°C and at 40°C for an extended period of time showed elevated normal genomic DNA levels and an abnormally large cellular plasma interface as well as lower plasma volumes. Conclusion Whole blood shipped in cfDNA BCTs over several days can be used for downstream liquid biopsy testing using BEAMing and Safe-SeqS. Since the shipping temperature is a critical factor, special care has to be taken to maintain a defined room temperature range to obtain reliable mutation testing results. PMID:27832189

  18. Healthcare Chip for Checking Health Condition from Analysis of Trace Blood Collected by Painless Needle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oki, Akio; Takai, Madoka; Ogawa, Hiroki; Takamura, Yuzuru; Fukasawa, Takayuki; Kikuchi, Jun; Ito, Yoshitaka; Ichiki, Takanori; Horiike, Yasuhiro

    2003-06-01

    A healthcare chip for checking the health condition at home has been studied based on the analysis of a trace amount of blood collected by a painless needle. A microcapillary as the main component for the blood flow was fabricated by molding its reverse pattern made of a quartz plate on a cheap and disposable poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) plate with an area of 2 cm× 2 cm. The painless needle was fabricated by polishing the tip of a stainless steel tube (SUS) with a 100 μm diameter at an angle of 10 degrees using chemical mechanical polishing (CMP) and subsequently finishing it by electropolishing. Coating the 2-methacryloyloxyethyl phosphorylcholine (MPC) polymer on the inner surface of the capillary effectively suppressed the adsorption of corpuscles. A quartz electroosmosis flow pump embedded in the PET plate introduced the blood into a U-shaped capillary through the needle and the blood was centrifugally separated into the corpuscles and plasma on the chip. The plasma was then conveyed to ion-sensitive field-effect transistors (ISFETs) set on the capillary and the Na+ and K+ ion concentrations were measured with high selectivity. Finally, a series of chip operations from blood collection to measurements of the pH, Na+ and K+ ion concentrations was demonstrated.

  19. Enhancing capillary blood collection: The influence of nicotinic acid and nonivamide.

    PubMed

    Moro, Christian; Bass, Jessica; Scott, Anna Mae; Canetti, Elisa F D

    2017-01-19

    Nicotinic acid and nonivamide are often applied topically during capillary blood collection to induce vasodilation. These molecules may have an influence on immune effector cell activity in nearby tissues. This study investigates whether the induction of flushing by nicotinic acid and nonivamide causes an inflammatory response that influences the composition of immune cells present in a capillary blood sample. Females aged between 18 and 30 years old provided capillary blood samples. Experimental samples were taken from an earlobe treated with nicotinic acid and nonivamide with controls obtained from the untreated earlobe. Immunophenotypic analyses were conducted using polychromatic flow cytometry to determine whether any changes occurred in leucocyte subpopulations (CD3, CD4, CD8, CD19, CD56, and CD14) and granulocytic functional-related surface antigen markers (CD11b, CD18, CD16b, and CD66b). No significant differences were observed between experimental and control samples in the mean percent of parent for the lymphocyte, monocyte, or granulocyte subpopulations, or in the median fluorescence intensity of particular surface markers expressed on these leucocytes. The topical application of nicotinic acid and nonivamide is a possible method to improve capillary blood collection for immunological assessments. The use of these agents may increase the safety and compliance of patients who suffer from needle phobia or are unable to provide venous blood samples. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Alkylphenol Polyethoxylate Derivatives in Groundwater and Blood Samples Collected from Pig Herds in Taiwan

    PubMed Central

    CHIU, Tai-Shun; HSIEH, Chi-Ying; MIAW, Chang-Ling; LIN, Chao-Nan; CHANG, Tsung-Chou; YEN, Chia-Hung; CHIOU, Ming-Tang

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Alkylphenol polyethoxylate (APEO) derivatives, such as nonylphenol monoethoxylate (NP1EO), nonylphenol diethoxylate (NP2EO), nonylphenol (NP) and octylphenol (OP), have been detected in the surface water, sediment, food and groundwater of numerous countries. Because groundwater is the main source of water for pig herds, the aim of this study was to measure the concentrations of APEO derivatives in groundwater and blood samples that were collected from pig herds raised near the Wuluo River in Southern Taiwan. The mean concentrations of NP, OP, NP1EO and NP2EO in the groundwater supply for 10 pig herds were 0.04 µg/l, 0.26 ± 0.23 µg/l, 0.74 ± 0.69 µg/l and 0.17 ± 0.22 µg/l, respectively. NP was detected in all blood samples collected from 5 of the 10 pig herds. The highest concentrations detected in the blood samples collected from six-week-old piglets and sows were 12.00 µg/l and 56.94 µg/l, respectively. Blood samples from 4 of the 5 herds showed OP contamination. The highest OP concentrations detected in 6-week-old piglets and sows were 275.58 µg/l and 566.32 µg/l, respectively. These results indicate that APEO derivatives accumulated in the groundwater supply and the bloodstreams of the pigs. PMID:24694943

  1. Alkylphenol polyethoxylate derivatives in groundwater and blood samples collected from pig herds in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Chiu, Tai-Shun; Hsieh, Chi-Ying; Miaw, Chang-Ling; Lin, Chao-Nan; Chang, Tsung-Chou; Yen, Chia-Hung; Chiou, Ming-Tang

    2014-07-01

    Alkylphenol polyethoxylate (APEO) derivatives, such as nonylphenol monoethoxylate (NP1EO), nonylphenol diethoxylate (NP2EO), nonylphenol (NP) and octylphenol (OP), have been detected in the surface water, sediment, food and groundwater of numerous countries. Because groundwater is the main source of water for pig herds, the aim of this study was to measure the concentrations of APEO derivatives in groundwater and blood samples that were collected from pig herds raised near the Wuluo River in Southern Taiwan. The mean concentrations of NP, OP, NP1EO and NP2EO in the groundwater supply for 10 pig herds were 0.04 µg/l, 0.26 ± 0.23 µg/l, 0.74 ± 0.69 µg/l and 0.17 ± 0.22 µg/l, respectively. NP was detected in all blood samples collected from 5 of the 10 pig herds. The highest concentrations detected in the blood samples collected from six-week-old piglets and sows were 12.00 µg/l and 56.94 µg/l, respectively. Blood samples from 4 of the 5 herds showed OP contamination. The highest OP concentrations detected in 6-week-old piglets and sows were 275.58 µg/l and 566.32 µg/l, respectively. These results indicate that APEO derivatives accumulated in the groundwater supply and the bloodstreams of the pigs.

  2. Improved long-term stability of blood cocaine in evacuated collection tubes.

    PubMed

    Baselt, R C; Yoshikawa, D; Chang, J; Li, J

    1993-07-01

    A study was undertaken to determine if a relatively minor modification of our existing specimen collection tubes could enhance the long-term stability of blood cocaine. We added cocaine, benzoylecgonine (BE) and ethanol to whole sheep blood in glass tubes that were prepared to contain one of several combinations of preservatives and anticoagulant. On day 1 and at intervals of up to one year, the drugs were measured by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (cocaine and BE) or headspace gas chromatography (ethanol). Storage of blood containing 200 ng/mL cocaine at 4 degrees C for one year resulted in 100% loss of the drug using our normal 10 mL specimen collection tubes containing 100 mg sodium fluoride and 20 mg potassium oxalate. The substitution of oxalic acid for potassium oxalate reduced this loss to 76% without any significant effect on the benzoylecgonine or ethanol concentrations. Further addition of 10 mg echothiophate iodide, a quaternary ammonium compound, brought the cocaine loss down to 60% of the original concentration by one year. Further work will be required to determine if oxalic acid and/or echothiophate iodide could be used in blood collection vials intended for forensic toxicological purposes without any detrimental effect on other assays.

  3. Clinical impact of a new automated system employed for peripheral blood stem cell collection.

    PubMed

    Del Fante, Claudia; Perotti, Cesare; Viarengo, Gianluca; Bellotti, Laura; Parisi, Cristina; Marchesi, Andrea; Tinelli, Carmine; Salvaneschi, Laura

    2006-12-01

    At the moment, PBSC collections can be performed using semi-automated or automated cell separator devices. The automated methods offer the advantages of a decreased working load for dedicated personnel and high standardization of the collection procedure. Herein we report our single institutional experience in 80 PBSC collections employing the new automated COM.TEC Fresenius autoMNC program that provides the ability to predict the total number of CD34(+) cells collected, based on the pre-leukapheresis CD34(+) cell count in peripheral blood. Fourty-eight patients and 21 healthy donors were mobilized with chemotherapy + G-CSF or G-CSF alone, respectively. Eighty leukapheresis collections were performed starting with a CD34(+) cell count in peripheral blood at least of 20/microL. Collection parameters and related side effects were evaluated. The mean CD34(+) cell collection efficiency in patients and donors was 81.8% (sd 27.6) and 95.1% (sd 15.6), respectively. The mean difference between real and predicted CD34(+) cells was +30.2% (sd 92.9) for patients and +4.6% (sd 30.3) for donors. The mean leukapheresis bag volume was 240.7 ml (sd 67.3) and 310.3 ml (sd 86.8) with a mean HCT of 10.9% (sd 34.4) and 9.2% (sd 3.9) for patients and donors, respectively. The automated PBSC collection with the new program COM.TEC Fresenius autoMNC demonstrated a very high CD34(+) cell collection efficiency. Moreover, the ability to predict the CD34(+) cell yield permits improved management of the leukapheresis collection, with the only disadvantage of larger leukapheresis volume and higher hematocrit.

  4. Effect of hypergravity on catecholamine levels in telemetrically collected blood of rats during centrifugation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kvetnansky, R.; Petrak, J.; Mravec, B.; Tillinger, A.; Jurani, M.; Baranovska, M.; Hapala, I.; Frollo, I.

    2005-08-01

    Hypergravity is known to activate the sympathoadrenal system (SAS). Rats subjected to various accelerations (+G) exhibited increased levels of plasma epinephrine (EPI) and partly also norepinephrine (NE). However, the collection of blood was performed after centrifugation finished and therefore plasma NE and EPI levels could have been affected by the process of deceleration. The aim of this study was to evaluate plasma EPI and NE levels in blood collected directly during the centrifugation after reaching different +G, using newly developed remote controlled equipment. Such telemetrically regulated equipment for multiple blood sampling allows us to investigate selective effects of hypergravity during centrifugation. All animals had a polyethylene tubing in the tail artery which was connected to a pre-programmed device for three blood withdrawals (0.6 ml each) into individual syringes, performed at any chosen time intervals. Plasma EPI and NE levels were measured at hypergravity between +1G - +5G. Plasma EPI levels showed a huge, hypergravity dependent increase at the interval of 10-20 min. After the blood collection was completed, the centrifuge was turned off and another blood sampling was performed immediately after the centrifuge stopped (10 min). In these samples plasma EPI levels showed a significant reduction compared to the 20 min interval of centrifugation but the EPI levels at 4G-6G were still significantly elevated compared to pre- centrifugation levels. Plasma NE levels showed less pronounced changes (increased after 6G only) with a slower return to control levels.Thus, our data has shown completely different responses of the adrenomedullary (epinephrine) and sympathoneural (norepinephrine) systems to hypergravitation. This data shows that the increased gravitation and not the stressful situations connected with centrifugation is the factor responsible for massive activation of the adrenomedullary system. The mechanism of small activation of the

  5. The Incidence and Prevalence of Thromboangiitis Obliterans in Taiwan: A Nationwide, Population-based Analysis of Data Collected from 2002 to 2011.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Jie-Fu; Chen, Yi-Ming; Chen, Der-Yuan; Lin, Ching-Heng; Chen, Hsin-Hua

    2016-07-01

    To estimate the incidence and prevalence of thromboangiitis obliterans in Taiwan in the period spanning from 2002 to 2011. We identified all incident and prevalent cases with a diagnosis of thromboangiitis obliterans (International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision code 443.1) in the period spanning from 2002 to 2011 using Taiwan's National Health Insurance Research Database. We calculated the age- and sex-specific incidence and prevalence rates of thromboangiitis obliterans during the study period. From 2002 to 2011, 158 patients were diagnosed with thromboangiitis obliterans; of these, 76% were men. Most (63%) of the patients were <50 years old when they were first diagnosed. After reaching 20 years of age, the incidence rate increased with age and peaked among those aged ≥60 years. The average incidence rate of thromboangiitis obliterans during the 2002-2011 period was 0.068 per 105 years. The incidence of thromboangiitis obliterans decreased with time, from 0.10 per 105 years in 2002 to 0.04 per 105 years in 2011. The prevalence increased from 0.26 × 10-5 in 2002 to 0.65 × 10-5 in 2011. This is the first epidemiologic study of thromboangiitis obliterans using claims data from a general population in Taiwan. This nationwide, population-based study found that the incidence and prevalence of thromboangiitis obliterans in Taiwan in the 2002-2011 period were lower than those in other countries before 2000. This study also revealed a trend of decreasing incidence with simultaneous increasing prevalence of thromboangiitis obliterans in Taiwan from 2002 to 2011.

  6. Prevalence of blood doping in samples collected from elite track and field athletes.

    PubMed

    Sottas, Pierre-Edouard; Robinson, Neil; Fischetto, Giuseppe; Dollé, Gabriel; Alonso, Juan Manuel; Saugy, Martial

    2011-05-01

    No reliable estimate of the prevalence of doping in elite sports has been published. Since 2001, the international governing body for athletics has implemented a blood-testing program to detect altered hematological profiles in the world's top-level athletes. A total of 7289 blood samples were collected from 2737 athletes out of and during international athletic competitions. Data were collected in parallel on each sample, including the age, sex, nationality, and birth date of the athlete; testing date; sport; venue; and instrument technology. Period prevalence of blood-doping in samples was estimated by comparing empirical cumulative distribution functions of the abnormal blood profile score computed for subpopulations with stratified reference cumulative distribution functions. In addition to an expected difference between endurance and nonendurance athletes, we found nationality to be the major factor of heterogeneity. Estimates of the prevalence of blood doping ranged from 1% to 48% for subpopulations of samples and a mean of 14% for the entire study population. Extreme cases of secondary polycythemia highlighted the health risks associated with blood manipulations. When applied at a population level, in this case the population of samples, hematological data can be used to estimate period prevalence of blood doping in elite sports. We found that the world's top-level athletes are not only heterogeneous in physiological and anthropometric factors but also in their doping behavior, with contrasting attitudes toward doping between countries. When applied at the individual level, the same biomarkers, as formalized in the Athlete Biological Passport paradigm, can be used in analysis of the observed different physiological characteristics and behavioral heterogeneities.

  7. Evaluation of methods for collecting blood-engorged mosquitoes from habitats within a wildlife refuge.

    PubMed

    Friesen, Kristina M; Johnson, Gregory D

    2013-06-01

    Mortality of American white pelican (Pelecanus erythrorhynchos) chicks attributed to West Nile virus (WNV) prompted field studies on the bionomics of mosquitoes on a wildlife refuge in northern Montana. One component of these studies was to identify blood meal sources for Culex tarsalis, the primary vector of WNV in the region, and the potential bridge vectors Aedes vexans and Culiseta inornata. To accomplish this, 3 methods were evaluated to collect bloodfed mosquitoes: a gasoline powered aspirator, CO2-baited light traps, and fiber pots in shelterbelts consisting of stands of deciduous trees and shrubs and marshes along the lake edge. Fiber pots were also deployed in open fields of prairie grasses. Overall, fiber pots were the most efficient method for collecting engorged Cx. tarsalis and Cs. inornata, largely due to shorter sampling and processing times. Aedes vexans was not collected in fiber pots but was more abundant in aspiration samples than the other 2 species. The optimal location for collecting Cx. tarsalis was dependent on trapping method. Aspirations and fiber pot placements collected more Cx. tarsalis in shelterbelts, while CO2-baited light traps collected more Cx. tarsalis in the marsh habitat. Sixteen avian and 4 mammalian hosts were identified from bloodfed Cx. tarsalis with 46 blood meals derived from birds and 49 from mammals. Aedes vexans and Cs. inornata fed predominantly on white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) and cattle (Bos taurus), respectively. Humans were identified as hosts in 33% of engorged Cx. tarsalis, 4% of engorged Ae. vexans, and 18% of engorged Cs. inornata.

  8. Collection of peripheral progenitor cells: a comparison between Amicus and Cobe-Spectra blood cell separators.

    PubMed

    Adorno, Gaspare; Del Proposto, Gianpaolo; Palombi, Francesca; Bruno, Antonio; Ballatore, Giovanna; Postorino, Massimiliano; Tendas, Andrea; Del Poeta, Giovanni; Isacchi, Giancarlo; Amadori, Sergio

    2004-04-01

    The authors compared the efficiency of two different blood cell separators (Amicus and Cobe-Spectra) in collecting peripheral blood progenitor cells for autologous or homologous transplantation. A total number of 129 procedures were performed, 36 with Spectra, 93 with Amicus. There was no difference between Spectra and Amicus efficiencies for CD34+ cell collection (46.685% vs 46.235%; p=n.s) but the platelet efficiencies were 17.31% and 12.54% respectively (p=0.04) and, if autologous and allogeneic collections were considered separately, a marked difference resulted in allogeneic platelet efficiency between 6 Spectra and 23 Amicus procedures (26.83% vs 8.68%, p=0.0004). The authors were able to demonstrate that in 70 Amicus autologous collections there was a different platelet efficiency, if peripheral count was considered: 12 procedures performed with a platelet count > 100 x 10(9)/l had a very low efficiency (6.86%), but this value increased if platelet count lowered (13.02% if between 100 and 50 x 10(9)/l, 22.63% if between 50 and 0 x 10(9)/l, 23 and 35 procedures respectively). The study is preliminary and the number of collections is little, but the overall data suggest that Spectra (AutoPBSC, V 6.0) and Amicus separators have the same efficiency for collecting CD34+ cells while Amicus procedures have a very low platelet contamination, especially with donors.

  9. 25OHD analogues and vacuum blood collection tubes dramatically affect the accuracy of automated immunoassays

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Songlin; Cheng, Xinqi; Fang, Huiling; Zhang, Ruiping; Han, Jianhua; Qin, Xuzhen; Cheng, Qian; Su, Wei; Hou, Li’an; Xia, Liangyu; Qiu, Ling

    2015-01-01

    Variations in vitamin D quantification methods are large, and influences of vitamin D analogues and blood collection methods have not been systematically examined. We evaluated the effects of vitamin D analogues 25OHD2 and 3-epi 25OHD3 and blood collection methods on vitamin D measurement, using five immunoassay systems and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Serum samples (332) were selected from routine vitamin D assay requests, including samples with or without 25OHD2 or 3-epi 25OHD3, and analysed using various immunoassay systems. In samples with no 25OHD2 or 3-epi 25OHD3, all immunoassays correlated well with LC-MS/MS. However, the Siemens system produced a large positive mean bias of 12.5 ng/mL and a poor Kappa value when using tubes with clot activator and gel separator. When 25OHD2 or 3-epi 25OHD3 was present, correlations and clinical agreement decreased for all immunoassays. Serum 25OHD in VACUETTE tubes with gel and clot activator, as measured by the Siemens system, produced significantly higher values than did samples collected in VACUETTE tubes with no additives. Bias decreased and clinical agreement improved significantly when using tubes with no additives. In conclusion, most automated immunoassays showed acceptable correlation and agreement with LC-MS/MS; however, 25OHD analogues and blood collection tubes dramatically affected accuracy. PMID:26420221

  10. Attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder is associated with reduced blood pressure and serum vitamin D levels: results from the nationwide German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Children and Adolescents (KiGGS).

    PubMed

    Meyer, Thomas; Becker, Andreas; Sundermann, Jessika; Rothenberger, Aribert; Herrmann-Lingen, Christoph

    2017-02-01

    Alterations in blood pressure in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), specifically during dopaminergic stimulant intake, are not fully understood. It has been reported that vitamin D deficiency might modify dopaminergic pathways and thus influence ADHD symptoms. Using data from the nationwide German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Children and Adolescents (KiGGS) study, we compared blood pressure and vitamin D levels in healthy controls to both diagnosed ADHD patients and suspected ADHD subjects, as defined by a value of ≥7 on the hyperactivity-inattention subscale of the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire. In a total cohort of n = 6922 study participants aged 11-17 years, mean arterial blood pressure was significantly higher in controls (86.7 ± 8.2 mmHg) than in the two groups of confirmed (85.5 ± 7.8 mmHg, p = 0.004, n = 430) and suspected ADHD patients (84.6 ± 8.2, p < 0.001, n = 399). In addition, we found an inverse association between vitamin D and blood pressure in both ADHD groups (p < 0.003). Regression analyses adjusted for age, sex, body-mass index, psychotropic medication use, and serum vitamin D levels confirmed that low blood pressure was a significant and independent predictor of ADHD. Furthermore, we observed that vitamin D mediated the effect of systolic blood pressure on ADHD diagnosis (b = 0.007, 95 % confidence interval [CI] 0.001-0.013, p = 0.021, R (2) = 0.050). In a large and representative national sample of German adolescents, we found a significant association between low blood pressure and ADHD symptoms. In addition, we observed that circulating vitamin D mediated the inverse relation between blood pressure and ADHD, although the effect size was very low. These findings highlight the role of dysregulated pathways of the autonomic nervous system in ADHD.

  11. Critical review and meta-analysis of spurious hemolysis in blood samples collected from intravenous catheters

    PubMed Central

    Lippi, Giuseppe; Cervellin, Gianfranco; Mattiuzzi, Camilla

    2013-01-01

    Background: A number of preanalytical activities strongly influence sample quality, especially those related to sample collection. Since blood drawing through intravenous catheters is reported as a potential source of erythrocyte injury, we performed a critical review and meta-analysis about the risk of catheter-related hemolysis. Materials and methods: We performed a systematic search on PubMed, Web of Science and Scopus to estimate the risk of spurious hemolysis in blood samples collected from intravenous catheters. A meta-analysis with calculation of Odds ratio (OR) and Relative risk (RR) along with 95% Confidence interval (95% CI) was carried out using random effect mode. Results: Fifteen articles including 17 studies were finally selected. The total number of patients was 14,796 in 13 studies assessing catheter and evacuated tubes versus straight needle and evacuated tubes, and 1251 in 4 studies assessing catheter and evacuated tubes versus catheter and manual aspiration. A significant risk of hemolysis was found in studies assessing catheter and evacuated tubes versus straight needle and evacuated tubes (random effect OR 3.4; 95% CI = 2.9–3.9 and random effect RR 1.07; 95% CI = 1.06–1.08), as well as in studies assessing catheter and evacuated tubes versus catheter and manual aspiration of blood (OR 3.7; 95% CI = 2.7–5.1 and RR 1.32; 95% CI = 1.24–1.40). Conclusions: Sample collection through intravenous catheters is associated with significant higher risk of spurious hemolysis as compared with standard blood drawn by straight needle, and this risk is further amplified when intravenous catheter are associated with primary evacuated blood tubes as compared with manual aspiration. PMID:23894864

  12. Critical review and meta-analysis of spurious hemolysis in blood samples collected from intravenous catheters.

    PubMed

    Lippi, Giuseppe; Cervellin, Gianfranco; Mattiuzzi, Camilla

    2013-01-01

    A number of preanalytical activities strongly influence sample quality, especially those related to sample collection. Since blood drawing through intravenous catheters is reported as a potential source of erythrocyte injury, we performed a critical review and meta-analysis about the risk of catheter-related hemolysis. We performed a systematic search on PubMed, Web of Science and Scopus to estimate the risk of spurious hemolysis in blood samples collected from intravenous catheters. A meta-analysis with calculation of Odds ratio (OR) and Relative risk (RR) along with 95% Confidence interval (95% CI) was carried out using random effect mode. Fifteen articles including 17 studies were finally selected. The total number of patients was 14,796 in 13 studies assessing catheter and evacuated tubes versus straight needle and evacuated tubes, and 1251 in 4 studies assessing catheter and evacuated tubes versus catheter and manual aspiration. A significant risk of hemolysis was found in studies assessing catheter and evacuated tubes versus straight needle and evacuated tubes (random effect OR 3.4; 95% CI = 2.9-3.9 and random effect RR 1.07; 95% CI = 1.06-1.08), as well as in studies assessing catheter and evacuated tubes versus catheter and manual aspiration of blood (OR 3.7; 95% CI = 2.7-5.1 and RR 1.32; 95% CI = 1.24-1.40). Sample collection through intravenous catheters is associated with significant higher risk of spurious hemolysis as compared with standard blood drawn by straight needle, and this risk is further amplified when intravenous catheter are associated with primary evacuated blood tubes as compared with manual aspiration.

  13. A method for determining the concentration of haptoglobin in cattle blood following haemolysis caused at collection.

    PubMed

    Slocombe, L L; Colditz, I G

    2012-08-01

    This study aimed to develop an in-house assay for haptoglobin determination in bovine blood samples, assess the effect of haemolysis on the reported haptoglobin concentration and develop a method to correct for haemolysis interference. The assay developed is highly repeatable (92.3% across plates and 94.8% between assays). A correction equation (Hp(corrected)=Hp(raw)-Hp(endogenous activity)-Hp(due to Hb); where Hp(due to Hb)=0.118×Hb(free)+0.015) was developed based around the linear relationship of haptoglobin and haemoglobin (by-product of haemolysis) and endogenous interference, tested and validated for use with haemolysed samples. The method described in this paper allows samples inadvertently haemolysed at collection to be analysed, with the reported haptoglobin concentration being an accurate reflection of the physiological levels in the animal's blood at the time of collection. Crown Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier India Pvt Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Femoral catheters: safety and efficacy in peripheral blood stem cell collection.

    PubMed

    Adorno, G; Zinno, F; Bruno, A; Lanti, A; Ballatore, G; Masi, M; Cudillo, L; Del Poeta, G; Riccitelli, A; Del Principe, M I; Pepe, R; Marchitelli, E; Morosetti, M; Meloni, C; Isacchi, G; Amadori, S

    1999-10-01

    Central venous access is necessary in patients candidate for peripheral blood stem cell (PBSC) collection. We report our experience with a dual lumen femoral catheter (Gamcath, 11 french), initially designed for hemodialysis. We studied 147 patients and performed 488 collections after mobilization with either G-CSF alone or chemotherapy + G-CSF, when the white blood cell count exceeded 1 x 10(9)/L, or when a measurable population of CD34+ cells (20/microL) was detected in peripheral blood. All patients received systemic anticoagulation with a low weight heparin and ultrasound examination was performed after the removal of the catheter. Seven patients developed thrombosis (4.7%), ten experienced hematomas at the site of catheter placement (6.8%) despite prophylactic platelet transfusions, while only one patient (0.6%) had a catheter-related infection. In conclusion, the short-term use of large bore femoral catheters in setting up PBSC collection seems to be associated with minimal risk of infection and low thrombotic incidence.

  15. Peripheral blood stem cell collection in allogeneic donors: impact of venous access.

    PubMed

    Hölig, Kristina; Blechschmidt, Matthias; Kramer, Michael; Zimmer, Kristin; Kroschinsky, Frank; Poppe-Thiede, Kirsten; Bornhäuser, Martin; Ehninger, Gerhard

    2012-12-01

    Peripheral blood stem cell (PBSC) collection is accepted as a routine procedure in related and unrelated healthy donors worldwide. Venous access can be accomplished by peripheral veins or a central venous catheter (CVC). STUDY DESING AND METHODS: We compared efficacy and tolerability of 40 PBSC collections via CVC with 6267 PBSC collections via peripheral veins in healthy allogeneic donors. Results of the leukapheresis procedures and side effects in the donors were evaluated. The median CD34+ cell counts on Day 5 and the results of the stem cell collection were not significantly different between the two groups of allogeneic donors. Pain or problems at the site of puncture or catheter insertion occurred in 58.6% of the donors with a CVC versus 37.8% of the donors with peripheral venous access (p = 0.03). The incidence and severity of paresthesia during the leukapheresis was not significantly different in both groups of donors (p = 0.09). During follow-up no major adverse events related to CVC were reported. Central femoral lines proved to be safe and tolerable in healthy allogeneic donors but peripheral venous access should be preferred, whenever possible. © 2012 American Association of Blood Banks.

  16. Collection of blood stem cells from patients with sickle cell anemia.

    PubMed

    Richard, Robert E; Siritanaratkul, Noppadol; Jonlin, Erica; Skarpidi, Eva; Heimfeld, Shelly; Blau, C Anthony

    2005-01-01

    Prior to initiating gene therapy trials for sickle cell disease (SCD), methods to collect sufficient numbers of hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells will need to be developed. Bone marrow harvest entails significant morbidity that could be severe in patients with SCD. In addition, an ability to perform repeated stem cell collections so that several transfers of genetically modified cells could be attempted would be advantageous. In other settings, apheresis collection of mobilized blood stem cells has become the preferred source of stem cells for transplantation. Unfortunately, patients with SCD do not tolerate granulocyte-colony stimulating factor and therefore cannot be mobilized using these conventional methods. In this pilot study, we investigated whether withdrawal of hydroxyurea therapy results in an increase in circulating numbers of CD34+ cells and hematopoietic progenitors. In addition, we performed leukapheresis in one patient with severe SCD in an attempt to determine whether blood stem cell collection can be performed safely in patients who would be candidates for SC gene therapy trials. Our results highlight some of the potential difficulties in initiating gene therapy clinical trials for sickle cell disease.

  17. Use of a simple, inexpensive device for collection of blood during acute normovolaemic haemodilution in a Jehovah's Witness patient.

    PubMed

    Dunseth, C; Collins, L; Reddy, S; Schlueter, A J

    2016-02-01

    Postoperative anaemia is a concern for patients who refuse blood products or have rare blood types. Acute normovolaemic haemodilution (ANH) is a potential solution for these challenging populations. However, protocols for ANH provide limited detail on preparation of blood collection systems. This report describes a novel protocol for ANH and an example of a patient who clearly benefited from ANH. © 2015 International Society of Blood Transfusion.

  18. Peripheral blood stem cell collection and transplantation in paediatric malignancies: a monocentric experience.

    PubMed

    Petris, M G; De Silvestro, G; Cesaro, S; Messina, C; Marson, P; Destro, R; Gazzola, M V; Masiero, L; Carli, M; Varotto, S; Calore, E; Scarzello, G; Zanesco, L

    1998-12-01

    Thirty-seven patients underwent peripheral blood stem cell (PBSC) collection from May 1994 to May 1997. Twenty-five were males and 12 were females, the median age at collection was 11.5 years (range 1-27.4) and the median weight was 38 kg (range 9-80). As mobilising chemotherapy, cyclophosphamide, etoposide, doxorubicin and cytosine arabinoside were the drugs most frequently used in association with G-CSF for a total of 47 courses. Sixty-one aphereses were performed with a median collection of CD34+ and CFU-GM cells/kg of 3.6 x 10(6) (range 0.6-31.8) and 24.4 x 10(4) (range 0.1-1260), respectively. Minimal residual disease (MRD) was found in five of the 30 investigated aphereses. Twenty-one of the 37 patients underwent high-dose chemotherapy with autologous stem cell rescue: in seven the stem cell source was peripheral blood and bone marrow. The median duration of hospitalization was 18 days for the PBSC group and 23 days for the PBSC/ABMT group. Overall survival was 78.7% at a median follow-up of 18 months (range 2-31) and the DFS was 52% without difference depending on stem cell source. Compared to a historical group of ABMT patients, the PBSC group showed a statistical advantage in terms of neutrophils and platelet engraftment, blood and platelet requirements, and length of hospitalization. PBSC collection is a feasible procedure also in the paediatric setting providing that vascular access is adequate. As already reported, PBSC transplant results in faster engraftment and shorter hospitalization that could allow a better utilization of health financial resources. The question whether the source of stem cells could influence transplant outcome would require a prospective randomised study.

  19. Factors associated with nursing students' adherence to venous blood collection practice guidelines - A cross sectional study.

    PubMed

    Nilsson, Karin; Brulin, Christine; Grankvist, Kjell; Juthberg, Christina

    2017-03-01

    Venous blood specimen collection is a common procedure that nursing students perform during pre-registration courses, and training for such collections takes place on campus as well as at clinical placements. However, levels of adherence to practice guidelines are still suboptimal among both nursing students and healthcare staff. We aimed to explore nursing students' adherence to the Swedish national venous blood specimen collection practice guidelines regarding patient identification and test request management and how this adherence is related to clinical experience, capability beliefs, research use, and the perceived social climate in clinical contexts. A survey with a cross-sectional design was conducted among 305 nursing students at a medium-sized university in Sweden. Descriptive statistics and logistic regression were used for data analysis. The survey showed that 82% of the students adhered to patient identification guideline practices and 80% to test request management practices. Factors associated with correct patient identification procedures were semester and frequency of research use. Factors associated with correct test request management were previous healthcare work experience, semester, and capability beliefs regarding academic abilities and evidence-based practice. We conclude that there is a need to develop educational tools to train students in research use and evidence-based practice in order to enhance guideline practice adherence and improve patient safety.

  20. Dried Blood Spot Collection of Health Biomarkers to Maximize Participation in Population Studies

    PubMed Central

    Ostler, Michael W.; Porter, James H.; Buxton, Orfeu M.

    2014-01-01

    Biomarkers are directly-measured biological indicators of disease, health, exposures, or other biological information. In population and social sciences, biomarkers need to be easy to obtain, transport, and analyze. Dried Blood Spots meet this need, and can be collected in the field with high response rates. These elements are particularly important in longitudinal study designs including interventions where attrition is critical to avoid, and high response rates improve the interpretation of results. Dried Blood Spot sample collection is simple, quick, relatively painless, less invasive then venipuncture, and requires minimal field storage requirements (i.e. samples do not need to be immediately frozen and can be stored for a long period of time in a stable freezer environment before assay). The samples can be analyzed for a variety of different analytes, including cholesterol, C-reactive protein, glycosylated hemoglobin, numerous cytokines, and other analytes, as well as provide genetic material. DBS collection is depicted as employed in several recent studies. PMID:24513728

  1. Large-volume leukaphereses may be more efficient than standard-volume leukaphereses for collection of peripheral blood progenitor cells.

    PubMed

    Passos-Coelho, J L; Machado, M A; Lúcio, P; Leal-Da-Costa, F; Silva, M R; Parreira, A

    1997-10-01

    To overcome the need for multiple leukaphereses to collect enough PBPC for autologous transplantation, large-volume leukaphereses (LVL) are used to process multiple blood volumes per session. We compared the efficiency of CD34+ cell collection by LVL (n = 63; median blood volumes processed 11.1) with that of standard-volume leukaphereses (SVL) (n = 38; median blood volumes processed 1.9). To achieve this in patients with different peripheral blood concentrations of CD34+ cells, we analyzed the ratio of CD34+ cells collected per unit of blood volume processed, divided by the number of CD34+ cells in total blood volume at the beginning of apheresis. For LVL, 30% (9%-323%) of circulating CD34+ cells were collected per blood volume compared with 42% (7%-144%) for SVL (p = 0.02). However, in LVL patients, peripheral blood CD34+ cells/L decreased a median of 54% during LVL (similar data for SVL not available). The number of CD34+ cells collected per blood volume processed after 4 and 8 blood volumes and at the end of LVL were 0.32 (0.01-2.05), 0.24 (0.01-1.68), and 0.22 (0.01-2.40) x 10(6) CD34+ cells/kg, respectively (p = 0.0007), despite the 54% decrease in peripheral blood CD34+ cells/L throughout LVL. A median 66% decrease in the platelet count was also observed during LVL. Thus, LVL may be more efficient than SVL for PBPC collection, allowing, in most patients, the collection in one LVL of sufficient PBPC to support autologous transplantation.

  2. A new voluntary blood collection method for the Andean bear (Tremarctos ornatus) and Asiatic black bear (Ursus thibetanus).

    PubMed

    Otaki, Yusuke; Kido, Nobuhide; Omiya, Tomoko; Ono, Kaori; Ueda, Miya; Azumano, Akinori; Tanaka, Sohei

    2015-01-01

    Various training methods have been developed for animal husbandry and health care in zoos and one of these trainings is blood collection. One training method, recently widely used for blood collection in Ursidae, requires setting up a sleeve outside the cage and gives access to limited blood collection sites. A new voluntary blood collection method without a sleeve was applied to the Andean bear (Tremarctos ornatus) and Asiatic black bear (Ursus thibetanus) with access to various veins at the same time. The present study evaluated the effectiveness of this new method and suggests improvements. Two Andean and two Asiatic black bears in Yokohama and Nogeyama Zoological Gardens, respectively, were trained to hold a bamboo pipe outside their cages. We could, thereby, simultaneously access superficial dorsal veins, the dorsal venous network of the hand, the cephalic vein from the carpal joint, and an area approximately 10 cm proximal to the carpal joint. This allowed us to evaluate which vein was most suitable for blood collection. We found that the cephalic vein, approximately 10 cm proximal to the carpal joint, was the most suitable for blood collection. This new method requires little or no modification of zoo facilities and provides a useful alternative method for blood collection. It could be adapted for use in other clinical examinations such as ultrasound examination. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Large-volume leukapheresis for peripheral blood stem cell collection in patients with hematologic malignancies.

    PubMed

    Malachowski, M E; Comenzo, R L; Hillyer, C D; Tiegerman, K O; Berkman, E M

    1992-10-01

    Large-volume leukapheresis (LVL, 15-35 L) was performed in two groups of patients (n = 10) with hematologic malignancies to obtain peripheral blood stem cells for bone marrow rescue following high-dose chemotherapy. The target cell count was 7 x 10(8) mononuclear cells (MNCs = lymphocytes and monocytes) per kg of body weight. Group A patients (n = 4) were studied on Day 1 of LVL, and components were collected from them as four sequential samples. Total MNCs collected averaged 1.29 x 10(10), total colony-forming-units granulocyte-macrophage (CFU-GM) averaged 12.1 x 10(6), and a 1.8-fold mobilization of CFU-GM was observed (p < 0.05, Sample 1 vs. Sample 4). Group B patients (n = 6) were studied throughout the three consecutive planned days of 5-hour LVL. An average of three LVL procedures per patient was performed (range, 1.25-4), and an average of 27 L (range, 24-33) of blood per LVL was processed. The blood:ACD-A ratio was 24:1 with 3000 units of heparin per 500 mL of ACD-A; heparin was also added to the collection bags. The component had an average hematocrit (Hct) of 0.02 and MNC content of 93 percent. The patients' pre-LVL and post-LVL average Hct varied significantly (before Day 1, 0.36 +/- 0.08; after Day 3, 0.28 +/- 0.06; p < 0.05). Platelet counts also decreased, with post-Day 3 counts averaging 19 percent of the average pre-Day 1 counts (p < 0.05). A decrease in the average MNC count after LVL was significant on Day 1 only (p < 0.05).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  4. Evaluation of sample hemolysis in blood collected by S-Monovette using vacuum or aspiration mode.

    PubMed

    Lippi, Giuseppe; Avanzini, Paola; Musa, Roberta; Sandei, Franca; Aloe, Rosalia; Cervellin, Gianfranco

    2013-01-01

    In vitro hemolysis can be induced by several biological and technical sources, and may be worsened by forced aspiration of blood in vacuum tubes. This study was aimed to compare the probability of hemolysis by drawing blood with a commercial evacuated blood collection tube, and S-Monovette used either in the "vacuum" or "aspiration" mode. The study population consisted in 20 healthy volunteers. A sample was drawn into 4.0 mL BD Vacutainer serum tube from a vein of one upper arm. Two other samples were drawn with a second venipuncture from a vein of the opposite arm, into 4.0 mL S-Monovette serum tubes, by both vacuum an aspiration modes. After separation, serum potassium, lactate dehydrogenase (LD) and hemolysis index (HI) were tested on Beckman Coulter DxC. In no case the HI exceed the limit of significant hemolysis. As compared with BD Vacutainer, no significant differences were observed for potassium and LD using S-Monovette with vacuum method. Significant increased values of both parameters were however found in serum collected into BD Vacutainer and S-Monovette by vacuum mode, compared to serum drawn by S-Monovette in aspiration mode. The mean potassium bias was 2.2% versus BD Vacutainer and 2.4% versus S-Monovette in vacuum mode, that of LD was 2.7% versus BD Vacutainer and 2.1% versus S-Monovette in vacuum mode. None of these variations exceeded the allowable total error. Although no significant macro-hemolysis was observed with any collection system, the less chance of producing micro-hemolysis by S-Monovette in aspiration mode suggest that this device may be used when a difficult venipuncture combined with the vacuum may increase the probability of spurious hemolysis.

  5. Comparison of glucose determinations on blood samples collected in three types of tubes.

    PubMed

    Li, Geling; Cabanero, Michael; Wang, Zhenglong; Wang, Huiying; Huang, Tao; Alexis, Herol; Eid, Ikram; Muth, Gilad; Pincus, Matthew R

    2013-01-01

    Because of the metabolism of serum glucose in collection tubes containing blood samples, serum glucose levels may be found to decrease over time. Several types of collection tubes have been designed to, at least partially, block glucose metabolism by red blood cells in blood collection tubes that may not be analyzed immediately after blood collection. These include red-top collection tubes with serum separator, grey-top tubes with a fluoride glycolysis inhibitor, and heparin-containing green-top tubes which prevent clot formation. As part of a quality assurance project, we investigated whether glucose levels differed in the three tube types from each of 18 volunteers on a prolonged standing of 4 hours. We then determined the glucose concentrations of all three tubes from each of the 18 volunteers. We used refrigerated samples over a five-day period to determine if the initial values were reproducible. Surprisingly, after standing for four hours at room temperature, we found that the glucose levels in the three tubes from each volunteer were statistically indistinguishable from one another using the two-tailed paired t-test. Also, a linear regression analysis showed that the values of glucose for the three pairs of two tube types were closely correlated with one another, with correlation coefficients of >0.97, slopes close to 1, and Y-intercepts close to 0. These results suggest that blood collection in any of these tubes will render similar values for serum glucose even after standing for four hours. The tubes were then refrigerated at 4°C and re-analyzed after another six hours and then once per day for the next four days. Beginning at the first day at the six-hour determination, the glucose levels in the red- and grey-top tubes were statistically indistinguishable from one another but not in the red- and green-top tubes and in the grey- and green-top tubes. This was due to a steady decrease in the glucose levels in the green-top tubes. The glucose levels in the

  6. Pain assessment during blood collection from sedated and mechanically ventilated children

    PubMed Central

    Dantas, Layra Viviane Rodrigues Pinto; Dantas, Thiago Silveira Pinto; Santana-Filho, Valter Joviniano; Azevedo-Santos, Isabela Freire; DeSantana, Josimari Melo

    2016-01-01

    Objective This study assessed pain and observed physiological parameters in sedated and mechanically ventilated children during a routine procedure. Methods This observational study was performed in a pediatric intensive care unit. Thirty-five children between 1 month and 12 years of age were assessed before, during, and five minutes after an arterial blood collection for gas analysis (painful procedure). Face, Legs, Activity, Cry and Consolability scale was used to assess pain. In addition, patients' heart rate, respiratory rate, peripheral saturation of oxygen and blood pressure (diastolic and systolic) were recorded. COMFORT-B scale was applied before the pain and physiological parameter assessments to verify sedation level of the subjects. Results There was an increase in Face, Legs, Activity, Cry and Consolability score (p = 0.0001) during painful stimuli. There was an increase in heart rate (p = 0.03), respiratory rate (p = 0.001) and diastolic blood pressure (p = 0.006) due to pain caused by the routine procedure. Conclusions This study suggests that assessments of pain using standard scales, such as Face, Legs, Activity, Cry and Consolability score, and other physiological parameters should be consistently executed to optimize pain management in pediatric intensive care units. PMID:27096676

  7. Attic dust and human blood samples collected near a former wood treatment facility.

    PubMed

    Hensley, A R; Scott, A; Rosenfeld, P E; Clark, J J J

    2007-10-01

    A wood treatment facility operating in southern Alabama released dioxins and other hazardous substances into the surrounding community over a period of approximately 35 years. The facility used a variety of chemical insecticides including pentachlorophenol (PCP), chromated copper arsenate (CCA), and creosote (which contains polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs)) to treat wood. The health risks associated with the released contaminants are numerous and significant. To evaluate the historic exposure to the contaminants from the facility, blood samples and health surveys were collected from 21 current and past residents of the adjacent, isolated community and analyzed for concentrations of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (dioxins) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (furans). In addition, attic dust sampling was performed in 11 buildings located within a 1-mile radius of the former wood treatment facility. The average total dioxin toxic equivalent (TEQ) concentration in the residents' blood samples was 36.6 pg/g lipids. In the attic dust, the average total dioxin TEQ concentration, benzo[a]pyrene (PAH) TEQ concentration, and arsenic concentration were 145 ng/kg, 0.98 and 29.8 mg/kg, respectively. The concentrations of dioxins measured in the blood samples exceed the 90th percentile total dioxin levels found in the general US adult population. Concentrations of dioxin, arsenic, and PAHs found in the attic samples exceeded the US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) Region 4 soil exposure cancer risk preliminary remediation goal (PRG) values. These findings indicate a very significant potential for related health effects in these communities.

  8. Genetic heterogeneity at the glycosyltransferase loci underlying the GLOB blood group system and collection.

    PubMed

    Hellberg, A; Ringressi, A; Yahalom, V; Säfwenberg, J; Reid, M E; Olsson, M L

    2004-05-01

    The aim of this study was to further explore the molecular genetic bases of the clinically important but rare blood group phenotypes p, P(1) (k) and P(2) (k) by analysis of the 4-alpha-galactosyltransferase (P(k)) and 3-beta-N-acetylgalactosaminyltransferase (P) genes responsible for synthesis of the related P(k) (Gb(3)) and P (Gb(4)) antigens respectively. Lack of these glycolipid moieties is associated with severe transfusion reactions and recurrent spontaneous abortions but also offers immunity against certain infectious agents. Blood samples from 20 p and 11 P(1) (k) or P(2) (k) individuals of different geographic and ethnic origin were investigated. DNA sequencing by capillary electrophoresis was performed following amplification of the coding regions in the P(k) or P genes. In the P(k) gene, nine novel and five previously described mutations were detected. One of the newly found mutations introduced an immediate stop, five shifted the reading frame introducing premature stop codons and three were missense mutations causing amino acid substitutions in conserved regions of the transferase. Four new and two previously described mutations in the P gene were found. Three of the novel alleles reported here carried nonsense mutations whilst the fourth allele had a missense mutation. The finding of 13 novel mutations in 14 alleles emphasizes further the genetic heterogeneity at the glycosyltransferase loci underlying the GLOB blood group system and collection.

  9. Renal collecting duct NOS1 maintains fluid-electrolyte homeostasis and blood pressure.

    PubMed

    Hyndman, Kelly A; Boesen, Erika I; Elmarakby, Ahmed A; Brands, Michael W; Huang, Paul; Kohan, Donald E; Pollock, David M; Pollock, Jennifer S

    2013-07-01

    Nitric oxide is a pronatriuretic and prodiuretic factor. The highest renal NO synthase (NOS) activity is found in the inner medullary collecting duct. The collecting duct (CD) is the site of daily fine-tune regulation of sodium balance, and led us to hypothesize that a CD-specific deletion of NOS1 would result in an impaired ability to excrete a sodium load leading to a salt-sensitive blood pressure phenotype. We bred AQP2-CRE mice with NOS1 floxed mice to produce flox control and CD-specific NOS1 knockout (CDNOS1KO) littermates. CDs from CDNOS1KO mice produced 75% less nitrite, and urinary nitrite+nitrate (NOx) excretion was significantly blunted in the knockout genotype. When challenged with high dietary sodium, CDNOS1KO mice showed significantly reduced urine output, sodium, chloride, and NOx excretion, and increased mean arterial pressure relative to flox control mice. In humans, urinary NOx is a newly identified biomarker for the progression of hypertension. These findings reveal that NOS1 in the CD is critical in the regulation of fluid-electrolyte balance, and this new genetic model of CD NOS1 gene deletion will be a valuable tool to study salt-dependent blood pressure mechanisms.

  10. Non-surgical cannulation of the vena cava for chronic blood collection in mature swine.

    PubMed

    Smith, C A; Ficken, M D

    1991-06-01

    A nonsurgical cannulation technique for blood collections from mature swine was evaluated. Primiparous Yorkshire-Landrace sows (n = 6) received an indwelling jugular vein cannulae for 7 days duration. Recannulation was performed at monthly intervals for a total of 14 months. During cannulation, sows were restrained in a standing position using a rope snout snare. A 12-gauge by 10 cm needle was inserted into the jugular vein. Sterilized polyvinyl chloride tubing was advanced through the needle into the vein and a blunted 18-gauge needle and attached intermittent injection hub was inserted into the free end of the tubing. Surgical tape was used to form a butterfly on the tubing by suturing the tape to the animals' skin. Foam padding, livestock cement, and elastic tape helped to keep the tubing in position. Problems with cannulae patency and maintenance were few. No behavioral problems or systemic signs of illness were noted and necropsy examinations performed after the final cannulation revealed few abnormalities associated with chronic intermittent cannulation. This technique provides a safe, quick, effective means for multiple and repeated cannulae placement for blood collection from mature swine with minimal effects on the animal and without the risks associated with surgical techniques.

  11. Collection of equine cord blood and placental tissues in 40 thoroughbred mares.

    PubMed

    Bartholomew, S; Owens, S D; Ferraro, G L; Carrade, D D; Lara, D J; Librach, F A; Borjesson, D L; Galuppo, L D

    2009-11-01

    Stem cells derived from umbilical cord tissue (UCT) and umbilical cord blood (UCB) in human subjects and horses can be obtained in a minimally invasive fashion with successful propagation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). Currently there are no detailed protocols documenting a procedure to harvest UCB and UCT safely for equine stem cell propagation. UCB and UCT could be collected without harm to mare or foal. To develop a standard and safe method for UCB and UCT collection, and prospectively to compare foal and mare health between groups of animals where tissue was and was not collected. This study was conducted at a Thoroughbred breeding facility in central California in 2008. UCB and UCT were collected from 40 mare and foal pairs. Clinical parameters including time for foal to stand and nurse, time for mare to pass the placenta, and foal haematology data at age 24 h were documented and compared to a control group, consisting of the succeeding 40 mare and foal pairs. UCB was obtained successfully from 36 of 40 (90%) mares and UCT from 38 of 40 (95%) mares. Bacterial contamination was documented in 6 out of 36 (16.6%) UCB samples. There were no significant differences in time to stand or nurse for foals or time to pass the placenta for mares, between the experimental and control groups. There were no clinically relevant differences identified in haematological data obtained from foals with and without UCB collection. UCB and UCT can be harvested safely without harm to mares or foals. UCB and UCT samples collected in an inherently contaminated environment can be successfully disinfected and transported with minimal bacterial overgrowth for use in cell culture to isolate MSCs.

  12. Cleaning the IceMole: collection of englacial samples from Blood Falls, Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mikucki, J.; Digel, I.; Chua, M.; Davis, J.; Ghosh, D.; Lyons, W. B.; Welch, K. A.; Purcell, A.; Francke, G.; Feldmann, M.; Espe, C.; Heinen, D.; Dachwald, B.; Kowalski, J.; Tulaczyk, S. M.

    2016-12-01

    The Minimally Invasive Direct Glacial Access project (MIDGE) used a maneuverable thermoelectric melting probe called the IceMole to collect the first englacial samples of brine from Blood Falls, Antarctica. In order to maintain the scientific integrity of samples collected and minimize impact to this specially protected ecosystem, microbial and chemical contamination of the IceMole needed to be minimized. Guidelines have been established for research in Antarctic subglacial systems by the scientific and regulatory community and have been detailed by the "Code of Conduct for the Exploration and Research of Subglacial Aquatic Environments" put forth by the Scientific Committee on Antarctic Research (SCAR) Action Group, and was submitted to the Antarctic Treaty System. This Code of Conduct (CoC) recognizes the ecological importance and pristine nature of subglacial habitats and recommends a path forward towards clean exploration. Similarly, the US and European space agencies (NASA and ESA) have detailed instrument preparation protocols for the exploration of icy worlds in our solar system for planetary protection. Given the synergistic aims of these two groups we have adopted protocols from both subglacial and space exploration approaches. Here we present our approach to cleaning the IceMole in the field and report on ability to reduce the bioload inherent on the melter. Specifically our protocol reduced the exterior bio-load by an order of magnitude, to levels common in most clean rooms, and 1-3 orders of magnitude below that of Taylor Glacier ice surrounding Blood Falls. Our results indicate that the collection of englacial samples for microbiological analysis is feasible with melting probes.

  13. Measurement of hematological, clinical chemistry, and infection parameters from hirudinized blood collected in universal blood sampling tubes.

    PubMed

    Menssen, H D; Brandt, N; Leben, R; Müller, F; Thiel, E; Melber, K

    2001-08-01

    Hirudin, the anticoagulatory polypeptide of the leech Hirudo medicinalis, strongly inhibits thrombus formation by specifically interacting with thrombin. For diagnostic purposes, hirudin should be superior to other anticlotting compounds because it only minimally alters the mineral, protein, and cellular blood constituents. To test this hypothesis, hirudinized and routinely processed venous blood from 80 healthy volunteers and patients was subjected to a variety of automated blood tests. A strong correlation was found between the results of automated complete blood counts obtained from K(2)-ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) anticoagulated and hirudinized blood (1000 antithrombin units [ATU] hirudin/ml). In addition, clinical chemistry and serological infection parameters (asparlat amintransferase [ASAT], lactate dehydrogenase [LDH], sodium, and so on, and antibodies against hepatitis B and C and human immunodeficiency virus [HIV]1/2, respectively) correlated well when measured in serum as compared with hirudinized plasma. Contrary to single clotting factors, global coagulation parameters (activated partial thromboplastin time [aPTT], prothrombin time [PT]) could not be measured in hirudinized blood. Recombinant hirudin neither interfered with immunophenotyping of mononuclear cells using FACScan analysis, nor did it alter the detection of Wilms' tumor gene expression by RT-PCR technology even at high doses (5000 ATU hirudin). Thus, a hirudin-containing blood sampling tube can be designed as a universal blood sampling tube (UBT) for testing the majority of diagnostic blood parameters.

  14. Diclofenac residues in blood plasma and tissues of vultures collected from Ahmedabad, India.

    PubMed

    Muralidharan, S; Dhananjayan, V

    2010-10-01

    The study reports residues of diclofenac, a non-steroidal anti inflammatory drug, in tissues of 11 White-backed Vulture, Gyps bengalensis collected between 2005 and 2007 and blood plasma of 12 White-backed Vulture, four Egyptian Vulture, Neophron percnopterus and two Griffon Vulture, Gyps fulvus collected during 2005. Samples were analysed using High Performance Liquid Chromatograhy (HPLC) equipped with UV detector. One of the White-backed Vultures collected during 2005 had substantial urate deposits on its viscera and diclofenac was detected in its liver (1.42 ppm wet weight) and kidney (1.18 ppm wet weight), which is suggestive of diclofenac exposure and intoxication. Although uric acid crystals were not observed in the remaining birds received during 2005, the residues of diclofenac detected were at levels higher than the toxic limits (0.25-1 ppm). No residues were detected in any of the tissues of birds collected during 2006 and 2007 (6 birds). About 89% (16 of 18) of plasma samples collected during 2005 had diclofenac residues (White-backed vulture: BDL to 0.17 ppm; Egyptian vulture: BDL to 0.09 ppm; Griffon vulture: 0.07-0.14 ppm). However, plasma diclofenac concentrations were less than the concentrations reported to be toxic. Although use of diclofenac for treating cattle has been banned in India, regular monitoring is recommended to assess the effectiveness of the ban on the drug in support of the conservation of these species.

  15. Events at blood collection area due to nonconforming blood bags and plateletpheresis kits: need for timely corrective and preventive actions.

    PubMed

    Verma, Anupam; Sachan, Deepti; Elhence, Priti; Pandey, Hem; Dubey, Anju

    2012-07-01

    Good blood banking practice requires that every effort should be made to detect any deviation or defect in blood bank products and to identify any potential risk to blood donor or recipient(s). We report the findings of an exercise that provide an insight into why feedback from the user side is crucial. Various events involving blood bags and plateletpheresis kits and the corresponding appropriate actions instituted for remedial measures were recorded. These scattered events were recorded for 6 months following the use of a new batch of improved blood bags with add-on features. Several events related to plateletpheresis kits from three different manufacturers were also recorded for 1 year. The affected blood bags were utilized with no untoward incident. The complaint was closed following satisfactory response from the blood bag manufacturing company that acted in a timely manner in addressing the root causes of the problems. However, corrective and preventive actions (CAPA) could not be implemented for plateletpheresis kits. The rate of undesirable events was higher with plateletpheresis kits as compared with whole blood bags (1.75% vs. 0.06%). As defects or deviations that trigger the need for CAPA can stem from numerous sources, it is important to clearly identify and document the problems and level of risk so that appropriate investigations can be instituted and remedial actions can be taken in a timely manner. This study demonstrates the usefulness of a quality initiative to collate and analyze blood product faults in conjunction with blood product manufacturers. © 2012 American Association of Blood Banks.

  16. Measurement of glycosylated whole-blood protein for assessing glucose control in diabetes: collection and storage of capillary blood on filter paper.

    PubMed

    Little, R R; Wiedmeyer, H M; England, J D; Knowler, W C; Goldstein, D E

    1985-02-01

    We present data on the use of filter-paper blood collection for measurement of glycosylated whole-blood proteins (gWB) (hemoglobin and plasma proteins). A capillary blood sample, obtained by fingerprick, is spotted directly onto filter paper (Schleicher & Schuell 903). The blood spot is washed briefly with alcohol (ethanol or isopropanol) to remove free glucose and dried before shipment to the laboratory. In the laboratory, the blood is eluted from the paper and analyzed for gWB by a colorimetric method. The gWB is primarily a measure of glycosylated hemoglobin (gHb) with a small contribution from glycosylated plasma protein. Concentrations of gWB and gHb are highly correlated (r = 0.91). The filter-paper method offers advantages over currently available methods for quantifying gHb and may be particularly useful in screening for diabetes and for assessing glycemic control in patients from remote areas.

  17. Blood

    MedlinePlus

    ... The liquid part, called plasma, is made of water, salts, and protein. Over half of your blood is plasma. The solid part of your blood contains red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets. Red ...

  18. [Comparison of the determination of cyclosporin-A in blood samples collected on filter paper and by the ordinary technique].

    PubMed

    Azevedo, L S; Manrique, R; Sabbaga, E

    1995-01-01

    Monitoring cyclosporin-A (CsA) blood levels is of utmost importance for the rational use of this drug. Although many centers perform transplants, in Brazil there are few laboratories able to measure CsA blood levels. Therefore making blood samples reach the laboratory emerged as a problem. Collection of blood on filter paper has been a technique used for a long time in special cases. PURPOSE--To confirm the usefulness of measuring CsA blood levels in blood samples collected on filter paper and in the usual way. METHOD--We studied twenty renal cadaver kidney recipients who were receiving CsA, azathioprine and prednisone. Ninety five blood samples were collected and divided into two aliquots. One of them was sent routinely to one laboratory to perform whole blood CsA measurements. From the other aliquot, 20 microliters were pipetted on filter paper. When dried they were mailed to the other laboratory, where, after elution, CsA was measured. In both cases radioimmunoassay with polyclonal antibody was used. RESULTS--Linear correlation between both measurements revealed r = 0.81 with no statistical difference. CONCLUSION--The technique showed to be useful in clinical practice. In countries with continental size, as Brazil, it may be very helpful.

  19. Luteinizing hormone releasing factor in rat hypophysial portal blood collected during electrical stimulation of the hypothalamus

    PubMed Central

    Harris, G. W.; Ruf, K. B.

    1970-01-01

    1. Ovulation was induced in Nembutal-blocked pro-oestrous rats by electrical stimulation of the hypothalamus. 2. The same type of electrical stimulation was applied during the collection of hypophysial portal blood. 3. Pooled hypophysial portal plasma from donors in pro-oestrus, oestrus and met-oestrus was assayed for ovarian ascorbic acid depleting (OAAD) activity. 4. Electrical stimulation of the hypothalamus increased the OAAD activity, believed to be due to luteinizing hormone releasing factor (LRF), in pro-oestrus and met-oestrus, but not in oestrus. 5. It is concluded that the hypothalamic nerve fibres responsible for releasing LRF into the hypophysial portal vessels are depleted of their store of this releasing factor, or are refractory to electrical stimulation, during oestrus. PMID:5499765

  20. Evaluation of the short- and long-term effectiveness and safety of fully covered self-expandable metal stents for drainage of pancreatic fluid collections: results of a Spanish nationwide registry.

    PubMed

    Vazquez-Sequeiros, Enrique; Baron, Todd H; Pérez-Miranda, Manuel; Sánchez-Yagüe, Andres; Gornals, Joan; Gonzalez-Huix, Ferran; de la Serna, Carlos; Gonzalez Martin, Juan Angel; Gimeno-Garcia, Antonio Z; Marra-Lopez, Carlos; Castellot, Ana; Alberca, Fernando; Fernandez-Urien, Ignacio; Aparicio, Jose Ramon; Legaz, Maria Luisa; Sendino, Oriol; Loras, Carmen; Subtil, Jose Carlos; Nerin, Juan; Perez-Carreras, Mercedes; Diaz-Tasende, Jose; Perez, Gustavo; Repiso, Alejandro; Vilella, Angels; Dolz, Carlos; Alvarez, Alberto; Rodriguez, Santiago; Esteban, Jose Miguel; Juzgado, Diego; Albillos, Agustin

    2016-09-01

    Initial reports suggest that fully covered self-expandable metal stents (FCSEMSs) may be better suited for drainage of dense pancreatic fluid collections (PFCs), such as walled-off pancreatic necrosis. The primary aim was to analyze the effectiveness and safety of FCSEMSs for drainage of different types of PFCs in a large cohort. The secondary aim was to investigate which type of FCSEMS is superior. This was a retrospective, noncomparative review of a nationwide database involving all hospitals in Spain performing EUS-guided PFC drainage. From April 2008 to August 2013, all patients undergoing PFC drainage with an FCSEMS were included in a database. The main outcome measurements were technical success, short-term (2 weeks) and long-term (6 months) effectiveness, adverse events, and need for surgery. The study included 211 patients (pseudocyst/walled-off pancreatic necrosis, 53%/47%). The FCSEMSs used were straight biliary (66%) or lumen-apposing (34%). Technical success was achieved in 97% of patients (95% confidence interval [CI], 93%-99%). Short-term- and long-term clinical success was obtained in 94% (95% CI, 89%-97%) and 85% (95% CI, 79%-89%) of patients, respectively. Adverse events occurred in 21% of patients (95% CI, 16%-27%): infection (11%), bleeding (7%), and stent migration and/or perforation (3%). By multivariate analysis, patient age (>58 years) and previous failed drainage were the most important factors associated with negative outcome. An FCSEMS is effective and safe for PFC drainage. Older patients with a history of unsuccessful drainage are more likely to fail EUS-guided drainage. The type of FCSEMS does not seem to influence patient outcome. Copyright © 2016 American Society for Gastrointestinal Endoscopy. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Blood Culture Collection through Peripheral Intravenous Catheters Increases the Risk of Specimen Contamination among Adult Emergency Department Patients

    PubMed Central

    Self, Wesley H.; Speroff, Theodore; McNaughton, Candace D.; Wright, Patty W.; Miller, Geraldine; Johnson, James G.; Daniels, Titus L.; Talbot, Thomas R.

    2017-01-01

    Five hundred five blood cultures collected through a peripheral intravenous catheter (PIV) in an emergency department were matched to cultures obtained by dedicated venipuncture from the same patient within 10 minutes. The relative risk of contamination for cultures collected through PIVs compared with dedicated venipuncture was 1.83 (95% confidence interval, 1.08–3.11). PMID:22476282

  2. Blood culture collection through peripheral intravenous catheters increases the risk of specimen contamination among adult emergency department patients.

    PubMed

    Self, Wesley H; Speroff, Theodore; McNaughton, Candace D; Wright, Patty W; Miller, Geraldine; Johnson, James G; Daniels, Titus L; Talbot, Thomas R

    2012-05-01

    Five hundred five blood cultures collected through a peripheral intravenous catheter (PIV) in an emergency department were matched to cultures obtained by dedicated venipuncture from the same patient within 10 minutes. The relative risk of contamination for cultures collected through PIVs compared with dedicated venipuncture was 1.83 (95% confidence interval, 1.08-3.11).

  3. Retrospective evaluation of unexpected events during collection of blood donations performed with and without sedation in cats (2010-2013).

    PubMed

    Doolin, Kerry S; Chan, Daniel L; Adamantos, Sophie; Humm, Karen

    2017-09-01

    Describe unexpected events (UEs) that occurred during blood donation in cats with and without sedation. Retrospective observational study (2010-2013). University teaching hospital. Client-owned healthy cats enrolled in a blood donation program. None. Blood collection for transfusion was performed 115 times from 32 cats. Seventy donation events were in unsedated cats and 45 in sedated cats. For each collection, the anticipated blood volume to be collected, actual blood volume collected, sedation protocol, and any UE in the peridonation period were recorded. There were 6 categories of UEs: movement during donation, donor anxiety, inadequate collected blood volume, jugular vessel related UEs, additional sedation requirement, and cardiorespiratory distress. Fisher's exact test was used to compare the frequency of UEs between sedated and unsedated cats. UEs were recorded in 54 of 115 collections. In the donor population, movement was reported as an UE in 0 cats that donated under sedation and 24/70 (34.3%) cats that donated without sedation (P < 0.001). Donor anxiety occurred in 2/45 (4.4%) cats that donated under sedation and 14/70 (20.0%) cats that donated unsedated (P = 0.014). Unsedated donation did not increase the likelihood of inadequate donation volume, jugular vessel related UEs, or cardiorespiratory distress. Eight of 45 (17.8%) sedated donations required additional sedation. Movement during donation and signs of donor anxiety were more frequent in unsedated cats. These were considered minor issues, expected in unsedated cats being gently restrained. Blood collection from unsedated feline donors is a viable alternative to sedated donation. © Veterinary Emergency and Critical Care Society 2017.

  4. A new strategy for umbilical cord blood collection developed at the first Colombian public cord blood bank increases total nucleated cell content.

    PubMed

    Vanegas, Diana; Triviño, Lady; Galindo, Cristian; Franco, Leidy; Salguero, Gustavo; Camacho, Bernardo; Perdomo-Arciniegas, Ana-María

    2017-09-01

    The total nucleated cell dosage of umbilical cord blood (UCB) is an important factor in determining successful allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation after a minimum human leukocyte antigen donor-recipient match. The northern South American population is in need of a new-generation cord blood bank that cryopreserves only units with high total nucleated cell content, thereby increasing the likelihood of use. Colombia set up a public cord blood bank in 2014; and, as a result of its research for improving high total nucleated cell content, a new strategy for UCB collection was developed. Data from 2933 collected and 759 cryopreserved cord blood units between 2014 and 2015 were analyzed. The correlation of donor and collection variables with cellularity was evaluated. Moreover, blood volume, cell content, CD34+ count, clonogenic capacity, and microbial contamination were assessed comparing the new method, which combines in utero and ex utero techniques, with the conventional strategies. Multivariate analysis confirmed a correlation between neonatal birth weight and cell content. The new collection method increased total nucleated cell content in approximately 26% and did not alter pre-cryopreservation and post-thaw cell recovery, viability, or clonogenic ability. Furthermore, it showed a remarkably low microbial contamination rate (1.2%). The strategy for UCB collection developed at the first Colombian public cord blood bank increases total nucleated cell content and does not affect unit quality. The existence of this bank is a remarkable breakthrough for Latin-American patients in need of this kind of transplantation. © 2017 The Authors Transfusion published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of AABB.

  5. Development of a PCR Assay to Detect Low Level Trypanosoma cruzi in Blood Specimens Collected with PAXgene Blood DNA Tubes for Clinical Trials Treating Chagas Disease.

    PubMed

    Wei, Bo; Chen, Lei; Kibukawa, Miho; Kang, John; Waskin, Hetty; Marton, Matthew

    2016-12-01

    Chagas disease is caused by the parasitic infection of Trypanosoma cruzi (T. cruzi). The STOP CHAGAS clinical trial was initiated in 2011 to evaluate posaconazole in treating Chagas disease, with treatment success defined as negative qualitative PCR results of detecting the parasites in blood specimens collected post-treatment. PAXgene Blood DNA tubes were utilized as a simple procedure to collect and process blood specimens. However, the PAXgene blood specimens challenged published T. cruzi PCR methods, resulting in poor sensitivity and reproducibility. To accurately evaluate the treatment efficacy of the clinical study, we developed and validated a robust PCR assay for detecting low level T. cruzi in PAXgene blood specimens. The assay combines a new DNA extraction method with a custom designed qPCR assay, resulting in limit of detection of 0.005 and 0.01 fg/μl for K98 and CL Brener, two representative strains of two of T. cruzi's discrete typing units. Reliable qPCR standard curves were established for both strains to measure parasite loads, with amplification efficiency ≥ 90% and the lower limit of linearity ≥ 0.05 fg/μl. The assay successfully analyzed the samples collected from the STOP CHAGAS study and may prove useful for future global clinical trials evaluating new therapies for asymptomatic chronic Chagas disease.

  6. Development of a PCR Assay to Detect Low Level Trypanosoma cruzi in Blood Specimens Collected with PAXgene Blood DNA Tubes for Clinical Trials Treating Chagas Disease

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Bo; Chen, Lei; Kibukawa, Miho; Kang, John; Waskin, Hetty; Marton, Matthew

    2016-01-01

    Chagas disease is caused by the parasitic infection of Trypanosoma cruzi (T. cruzi). The STOP CHAGAS clinical trial was initiated in 2011 to evaluate posaconazole in treating Chagas disease, with treatment success defined as negative qualitative PCR results of detecting the parasites in blood specimens collected post-treatment. PAXgene Blood DNA tubes were utilized as a simple procedure to collect and process blood specimens. However, the PAXgene blood specimens challenged published T. cruzi PCR methods, resulting in poor sensitivity and reproducibility. To accurately evaluate the treatment efficacy of the clinical study, we developed and validated a robust PCR assay for detecting low level T. cruzi in PAXgene blood specimens. The assay combines a new DNA extraction method with a custom designed qPCR assay, resulting in limit of detection of 0.005 and 0.01 fg/μl for K98 and CL Brener, two representative strains of two of T. cruzi’s discrete typing units. Reliable qPCR standard curves were established for both strains to measure parasite loads, with amplification efficiency ≥ 90% and the lower limit of linearity ≥ 0.05 fg/μl. The assay successfully analyzed the samples collected from the STOP CHAGAS study and may prove useful for future global clinical trials evaluating new therapies for asymptomatic chronic Chagas disease. PMID:27906977

  7. The relationship between vacuum and hemolysis during catheter blood collection: a retrospective analysis of six large cohorts.

    PubMed

    Mrazek, Cornelia; Simundic, Ana-Maria; Wiedemann, Helmut; Krahmer, Florian; Felder, Thomas Klaus; Kipman, Ulrike; Hoppe, Uta; Haschke-Becher, Elisabeth; Cadamuro, Janne

    2017-07-26

    Blood collection through intravenous (IV) catheters is a common practice at emergency departments (EDs). This technique is associated with higher in vitro hemolysis rates and may even be amplified by the use of vacuum collection tubes. Our aim was to investigate the association of five different vacuum tubes with hemolysis rates in comparison to an aspiration system under real-life conditions and to propose an equation to estimate the amount of hemolysis, depending on the vacuum collection tube type. We retrospectively evaluated hemolysis data of plasma samples from our ED, where blood is drawn through IV catheters. Over the past 5 years, we compared 19,001 hemolysis index values amongst each other and against the respective vacuum pressure (Pv) of the collection tubes, which were used within the six observational periods. The highest hemolysis rates were associated with full-draw evacuated tubes. Significantly reduced hemolysis was observed for two kinds of partial-draw tubes. The hemolysis rate of one partial-draw blood collection tube was comparable to those of the aspiration system. Regression analysis of Pv and mean free hemoglobin (fHb) values yielded the formula fHb (g/L)=0.0082*Pv2-0.1143*Pv+ 0.5314 with an R2 of 0.99. If IV catheters are used for blood collection, hemolysis rates directly correlate with the vacuum within the tubes and can be estimated by the proposed formula. By the use of partial-draw vacuum blood collection tubes, hemolysis rates in IV catheter collections can be reduced to levels comparable with collections performed by aspiration systems.

  8. Risk Model for Distal Gastrectomy When Treating Gastric Cancer on the Basis of Data From 33,917 Japanese Patients Collected Using a Nationwide Web-based Data Entry System.

    PubMed

    Kurita, Nobuhiro; Miyata, Hiroaki; Gotoh, Mitsukazu; Shimada, Mitsuo; Imura, Satoru; Kimura, Wataru; Tomita, Naohiro; Baba, Hideo; Kitagawa, Yukou; Sugihara, Kenichi; Mori, Masaki

    2015-08-01

    To establish a risk model for distal gastrectomy in Japanese patients with gastric cancer. Risk stratification for distal gastrectomy in Japanese patients with gastric cancer improves surgical outcomes. The National Clinical Database was constructed for risk determination in gastric cancer-related gastrectomy among Japanese individuals. Data from 33,917 gastric cancer cases (1737 hospitals) were used. The primary outcomes were 30-day and operative mortalities. Data were randomly assigned to risk model development (27,220 cases) and test validation (6697 cases) subsets. Stepwise selection was used for constructing 30-day and operative mortality logistic models. The 30-day, in-hospital, and operative mortality rates were 0.52%, 1.16%, and 1.2%, respectively. The morbidity was 18.3%. The 30-day and operative mortality models included 17 and 21 risk factors, respectively. Thirteen variables overlapped: age, need for total assistance in activities of daily living preoperatively or within 30 days after surgery, cerebrovascular disease history, more than 10% weight loss, uncontrolled ascites, American Society of Anesthesiologists score (≥ class 3), white blood cell count more than 12,000/μL or 11,000/μL, anemia (hemoglobin: males, <13.5 g/dL; females, <12.5 g/dL; or hematocrit: males, <37%; females <32%), serum albumin less than 3.5 or 3.8 g/dL, alkaline phosphatase more than 340 IU/L, serum creatinine more than 1.2 mg/dL, serum Na less than 135 mEq/L, and prothrombin time-international normalized ratio more than 1.25 or 1.1. The C-indices for the 30-day and operative mortalities were 0.785 (95% confidence interval, 0.705-0.865; P < 0.001) and 0.798 (95% confidence interval, 0.746-0.851; P < 0.001), respectively. The risk model developed using nationwide Japanese data on distal gastrectomy in gastric cancer can predict surgical outcomes.

  9. Cost Analysis of Strategies to Reduce Blood Culture Contamination in the Emergency Department: Sterile Collection Kits and Phlebotomy Teams

    PubMed Central

    Self, Wesley H.; Talbot, Thomas R.; Paul, Barbara R.; Collins, Sean P.; Ward, Michael J.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Blood culture collection practices that reduce contamination, such as sterile blood culture collection kits and phlebotomy teams, increase upfront costs for collecting cultures but may lead to net savings by eliminating downstream costs associated with contamination. The study objective was to compare overall hospital costs associated with three collection strategies: usual care, sterile kits, and phlebotomy teams. Design Cost analysis. Setting This analysis was conducted from the perspective of a hospital leadership team selecting a blood culture collection strategy for an adult emergency department (ED) with 8,000 cultures drawn annually. Methods Total hospital costs associated with three strategies were compared: (1) usual care with nurses collecting cultures without a standardized protocol; (2) sterile kits with nurses using a dedicated sterile collection kit; (3) phlebotomy teams with cultures collected by laboratory-based phlebotomists. In the base case, contamination rates associated with usual care, sterile kits, and phlebotomy teams were assumed to be 4.34%, 1.68%, and 1.10%, respectively. Total hospital costs included costs of collecting cultures and hospitalization costs according to culture results—negative, true positive, and contaminated. Results Compared to usual care, annual net savings using the sterile kit and phlebotomy team strategies were $483,219 and $288,980, respectively. Both strategies remained less costly than usual care across a broad range of sensitivity analyses. Conclusions EDs with high blood culture contamination rates should strongly consider evidence-based strategies to reduce contamination. In addition to improving quality, implementing a sterile collection kit or phlebotomy team strategy is likely to result in net cost savings. PMID:25026619

  10. Cost analysis of strategies to reduce blood culture contamination in the emergency department: sterile collection kits and phlebotomy teams.

    PubMed

    Self, Wesley H; Talbot, Thomas R; Paul, Barbara R; Collins, Sean P; Ward, Michael J

    2014-08-01

    Blood culture collection practices that reduce contamination, such as sterile blood culture collection kits and phlebotomy teams, increase up-front costs for collecting cultures but may lead to net savings by eliminating downstream costs associated with contamination. The study objective was to compare overall hospital costs associated with 3 collection strategies: usual care, sterile kits, and phlebotomy teams. Cost analysis. This analysis was conducted from the perspective of a hospital leadership team selecting a blood culture collection strategy for an adult emergency department (ED) with 8,000 cultures drawn annually. Total hospital costs associated with 3 strategies were compared: (1) usual care, with nurses collecting cultures without a standardized protocol; (2) sterile kits, with nurses using a dedicated sterile collection kit; and (3) phlebotomy teams, with cultures collected by laboratory-based phlebotomists. In the base case, contamination rates associated with usual care, sterile kits, and phlebotomy teams were assumed to be 4.34%, 1.68%, and 1.10%, respectively. Total hospital costs included costs of collecting cultures and hospitalization costs according to culture results (negative, true positive, and contaminated). Compared with usual care, annual net savings using the sterile kit and phlebotomy team strategies were $483,219 and $288,980, respectively. Both strategies remained less costly than usual care across a broad range of sensitivity analyses. EDs with high blood culture contamination rates should strongly consider evidence-based strategies to reduce contamination. In addition to improving quality, implementing a sterile collection kit or phlebotomy team strategy is likely to result in net cost savings.

  11. Blood

    MedlinePlus

    ... that die or are lost from the body. White Blood Cells White blood cells (WBCs, and also ... of severe pain. previous continue Diseases of the White Blood Cells Neutropenia (pronounced: new-truh-PEE-nee- ...

  12. Evaluation of new automated hematopoietic progenitor cell analysis in the clinical management of peripheral blood stem cell collections

    PubMed Central

    Peerschke, Ellinor I.; Moung, Christine; Pessin, Melissa S.; Maslak, Peter

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND Successful peripheral blood stem cell transplantation (PBSCT) depends on the collection and infusion of adequate numbers of peripheral blood progenitor cells (PBPCs). Several predictors of PBPC yield are used currently, including white blood cell (WBC) count and CD34 analysis. This study evaluated the utility of the new automated hematopoietic progenitor cell count available on Sysmex XN hematology analyzers (XN-HPCs) in PBSCT. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS The performance characteristics of XN-HPC, CD34+, and WBC analysis were compared using 107 matched peripheral blood and apheresis samples. RESULTS Good correlation was observed between XN-HPC and CD34+ cell counts in peripheral blood (r = 0.88; slope, 0.81) and apheresis collections (r = 0.91; slope, 0.89). Moreover, peripheral blood XN-HPC and CD34 analysis showed comparable ability to predict successful PBPC harvests (≥ 2 × 106 CD34+ cells/kg). At a cutoff of 20 × 106 progenitor cells/L, peripheral blood XN- HPC and CD34 analysis both showed negative predictive values (NPVs) of 100% and positive predictive values (PPVs) of 55.4 and 63%, respectively. Using an optimized cutoff of 38 × 106 progenitor cells/L, derived from receiver operating characteristic analysis, the PPV for XN-HPC and CD34 analysis increased to 71.4 and 78.9%, respectively, with relatively unchanged NPVs (XN-HPC 97.7%, CD34+ 98.0%). In contrast, the correlation between peripheral blood WBC and CD34 analysis was poor (r = 0.48; slope, 669.85), and the peripheral blood WBC count (cutoff, 10 × 109/L) was a poor predictor of PBPC harvest (NPV 60%, PPV 43.1%). CONCLUSION XN-HPC compares favorably with CD34 analysis and may be a surrogate for CD34 analysis to predict optimal timing of PBPC collections. PMID:25808236

  13. Bridging the gap between sample collection and laboratory analysis: using dried blood spots to identify human exposure to chemical agents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamelin, Elizabeth I.; Blake, Thomas A.; Perez, Jonas W.; Crow, Brian S.; Shaner, Rebecca L.; Coleman, Rebecca M.; Johnson, Rudolph C.

    2016-05-01

    Public health response to large scale chemical emergencies presents logistical challenges for sample collection, transport, and analysis. Diagnostic methods used to identify and determine exposure to chemical warfare agents, toxins, and poisons traditionally involve blood collection by phlebotomists, cold transport of biomedical samples, and costly sample preparation techniques. Use of dried blood spots, which consist of dried blood on an FDA-approved substrate, can increase analyte stability, decrease infection hazard for those handling samples, greatly reduce the cost of shipping/storing samples by removing the need for refrigeration and cold chain transportation, and be self-prepared by potentially exposed individuals using a simple finger prick and blood spot compatible paper. Our laboratory has developed clinical assays to detect human exposures to nerve agents through the analysis of specific protein adducts and metabolites, for which a simple extraction from a dried blood spot is sufficient for removing matrix interferents and attaining sensitivities on par with traditional sampling methods. The use of dried blood spots can bridge the gap between the laboratory and the field allowing for large scale sample collection with minimal impact on hospital resources while maintaining sensitivity, specificity, traceability, and quality requirements for both clinical and forensic applications.

  14. Bridging the Gap between Sample Collection and Laboratory Analysis: Using Dried Blood Spots to Identify Human Exposure to Chemical Agents.

    PubMed

    Hamelin, Elizabeth I; Blake, Thomas A; Perez, Jonas W; Crow, Brian S; Shaner, Rebecca L; Coleman, Rebecca M; Johnson, Rudolph C

    2016-05-13

    Public health response to large scale chemical emergencies presents logistical challenges for sample collection, transport, and analysis. Diagnostic methods used to identify and determine exposure to chemical warfare agents, toxins, and poisons traditionally involve blood collection by phlebotomists, cold transport of biomedical samples, and costly sample preparation techniques. Use of dried blood spots, which consist of dried blood on an FDA-approved substrate, can increase analyte stability, decrease infection hazard for those handling samples, greatly reduce the cost of shipping/storing samples by removing the need for refrigeration and cold chain transportation, and be self-prepared by potentially exposed individuals using a simple finger prick and blood spot compatible paper. Our laboratory has developed clinical assays to detect human exposures to nerve agents through the analysis of specific protein adducts and metabolites, for which a simple extraction from a dried blood spot is sufficient for removing matrix interferents and attaining sensitivities on par with traditional sampling methods. The use of dried blood spots can bridge the gap between the laboratory and the field allowing for large scale sample collection with minimal impact on hospital resources while maintaining sensitivity, specificity, traceability, and quality requirements for both clinical and forensic applications.

  15. The effective reduction of tourniquet application time after minor modification of the CLSI H03-A6 blood collection procedure.

    PubMed

    Lima-Oliveira, Gabriel; Lippi, Giuseppe; Salvagno, Gian Luca; Montagnana, Martina; Picheth, Geraldo; Guidi, Gian Cesare

    2013-01-01

    The phlebotomists' procedures are a still source of laboratory variability. The aim of this study was to verify the efficacy of minor modification in procedure for collection of diagnostic blood specimens by venipuncture from CLSI H03-A6 document is able to reduce the tourniquet application time. Thirty phlebotomists were invited to participate. Each phlebotomist was trained individually to perform the new venipuncture procedure that shortens the time of tourniquet release and removal. The phlebotomy training program was delivered over 8h. After training, all phlebotomists were monitored for 20 working days, to guarantee the adoption of the correct new procedures for collection of diagnostic blood specimens. After this time frame the phlebotomists were evaluated to verify whether the new procedure for blood collection derived from CLSI H03-A6 document was effective to improve the quality process by decrease in tourniquet application time. We compared the tourniquet application time and qualitative difference of phlebotomy procedures between laboratories before and after phlebotomy training. The overall mean +/- SD tourniquet application time before and afterthis intervention were 118 +/- 1 s and 30 +/- 1 s respectively. Minor modifications in procedure for blood collection were able to reduce significantly the tourniquet application time (-88 s, P < 0.001). The minor modifications in procedure for collection of diagnostic blood specimens by venipuncture from CLSI H03-A6 document were able to reduce the tourniquet application time. Now the proposed new procedure for collection of diagnostic blood specimens by venipuncture could be considered usefulness and should be put into practice by all quality laboratory managers and/or phlebotomy coordinators to avoid preanalytical errors regard venous stasis and guarantee patient safety.

  16. [Prenatal diagnosis of Down syndrome: study of correlations between two types of blood collection tubes].

    PubMed

    Laudat, Antoine; Girard, Philippe; Burc-Struxiano, Laurence

    2015-01-01

    In the perspective of a future request of accreditation according to the NF EN 15189 standard of the sector of prenatal diagnosis of the trisomy 21 foetal, we compared the results obtained for AFP, hCG, free hCG, PAPP-A and for the risks, according to 2 types of blood collection tubes: sterile tube and sterile tube with inert gel barrier. For 107 patients, the study of the Passing-Bablok regressions between the results from the 2 kinds of tubes, showed perfect correlations for measured biochemical markers (AFP, hCG, free hCG and PAPP-A) as well as for the estimated risks. A patient who presented a higher risk of foetal trisomy 21 (risk at 1/244) for the serum from the sterile tube was not in the high-risk area for the serum from the sterile tube with inert gel barrier (risk at 1/295). The fact that these 2 values of risk are very close to the threshold fixed to 1/250 can probably explain the observed conflict. Working on sterile tube, this study confirms that the requests of prenatal diagnosis of the trisomy 21 foetal taken from tube with inert gel barrier which we receive of outer laboratories.

  17. Influence of blood collection in plastic vs. glass evacuated serum-separator tubes on hormone and tumour marker levels.

    PubMed

    Smets, Eva M L; Dijkstra-Lagemaat, Josien E; Blankenstein, Marinus A

    2004-04-01

    Introduction of preanalytical automation in our laboratory required the use of plastic blood collection tubes. Because of possible interference caused by adsorption of components to the plastic wall and because there is virtually no literature on this subject, we investigated the influence of collection of serum in plastic tubes on the results of nearly all our immunoassays for hormones and tumour markers. Blood from healthy volunteers was collected simultaneously in glass and plastic tubes, or sera prepared from blood collected in glass tubes were brought into the plastic tubes under investigation. Hormone and tumour marker levels were measured in the pairs thus obtained. Results were analysed using paired t-tests or Wilcoxon signed rank tests. We found small but statistically significant differences (p<0.05) between glass and plastic for free triiodothyronine, progesterone, prolactin, prostate-specific antigen and pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A. Non-significant trends (0.05blood collection tubes could occur without any implications for the interpretation of results.

  18. Microcontroller-based system for collecting anaerobic blood samples from a running greyhound.

    PubMed

    Schmalzried, R T; Toll, P W; Devore, J J; Fedde, M R

    1992-04-01

    Many physiological variables change rapidly in the blood during sprint exercise. To characterize the dynamics and extent of these changes, blood samples must be obtained during exercise. We describe herein a portable, microcontroller-based system used to automatically obtain repeated, anaerobic, arterial blood samples from greyhounds before, during, and following a race on a track. In addition, the system also records the blood temperature in the pulmonary artery each time a blood sample is taken. The system has been tested for more than 2 years and has proven to be reliable and effective.

  19. Method and Apparatus for the Collection Storage and Real Time Analysis of Blood and Other Bodily Fluids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitson, Peggy A. (Inventor); Clift, Vaughan L. (Inventor)

    1997-01-01

    The present invention provides an apparatus for separating a relatively large volume of blood into cellular and acellular fractions without the need for centrifugation. The apparatus comprises a housing divided by a fibrous filter into a blood sample collection chamber having a volume of at least about 1 milliliter and a serum sample collection chamber. The fibrous filter has a pore size of less than about 3 microns, and is coated with a mixture of mannitol and plasma fraction protein (or an animal or vegetable equivalent thereof). The coating causes the cellular fraction to be trapped by the small pores, leaving the cellular fraction intact on the fibrous filter while the acellular fraction passes through the filter for collection in unaltered form from the serum sample collection chamber.

  20. Method and Apparatus for the Collection, Storage, and Real Time Analysis of Blood and Other Bodily Fluids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whiitson, Peggy A. (Inventor); Clift, Vaughan L. (Inventor)

    1999-01-01

    The present invention provides a method and apparatus for separating a blood sample having a volume of up to about 20 milliliters into cellular and acellular fractions. The apparatus includes a housing divided by a fibrous filter into a blood sample collection chamber having a volume of at least about 1 milliliter and a serum sample collection chamber. The fibrous filter has a pore size of less than about 3 microns, and is coated with a mixture including between about 1-40 wt/vol % mannitol and between about 0.1-15 wt/vol % of plasma fraction protein (or an animal or vegetable equivalent thereof). The coating causes the cellular fraction to be trapped by the small pores, leaving the cellular fraction intact on the fibrous filter while the acellular fraction passes through the filter for collection in unaltered form from the serum sample collection chamber.

  1. Evaluation of Streck BCT and PAXgene Stabilised Blood Collection Tubes for Cell-Free Circulating DNA Studies in Plasma.

    PubMed

    Warton, Kristina; Yuwono, Nicole L; Cowley, Mark J; McCabe, Mark J; So, Alwin; Ford, Caroline E

    2017-06-19

    Blood samples for studies of circulating DNA in disease are often collected in clinical settings where prompt processing of samples is not possible. In order to avoid problems associated with leukocyte lysis after prolonged blood storage, stabilised blood tubes have been developed containing preservatives that prevent cell lysis. We evaluated Streck BCT tubes and PAXgene ccfDNA tubes, as well as standard EDTA blood collection tubes, in terms of DNA yield and fragment size. Blood was collected in EDTA, Streck BCT or PAXgene ccfDNA tubes and stored for 1 h at 4 °C, or 4 days at room temperature. DNA was extracted using the QIAamp Circulating Nucleic Acids kit, and visualised on an agarose gel or quantitated by qPCR. Ratios of a 247-base and a 115-base amplicon of the Alu repetitive element were used to infer size distribution. While plasma DNA in EDTA tube blood samples increased by ~10- to 20-fold after 4 days of storage at room temperature, both Streck BCT tubes and PAXgene ccfDNA tubes maintained stable plasma DNA concentrations. A slight decrease in DNA yield following 1 h of blood storage at 4 °C was observed in Streck BCT and PAXgene ccfDNA tubes relative to EDTA tubes. This decrease was reversed by increasing the proteinase digest step of the DNA extraction protocol to 60 min, as recommended by Streck tube product literature. Visualisation of the extracted DNA on an agarose gel showed that after 4 days of room temperature storage, samples collected in EDTA tubes contained abundant high-molecular weight DNA, which was partially fragmented in a ladder pattern. A slight increase in high-molecular weight DNA in samples stored for 4 days at room temperature in Streck BCT tubes was also observed, but this was not reflected in a change in large and small Alu fragment ratios as measured by qPCR. Tubes containing preservative to prevent cell lysis can extend the scope for blood collection in clinical settings; however, slight differences between samples

  2. Procedure-related complications and adverse events associated with pediatric autologous peripheral blood stem cell collection.

    PubMed

    Cooling, Laura; Hoffmann, Sandra; Webb, Dawn; Meade, Micheal; Yamada, Chisa; Davenport, Robertson; Yanik, Gregory

    2017-02-01

    Autologous peripheral blood hematopoietic progenitor cell collection (A-HPCC) in pediatric patients is considered relatively safe although technically challenging. Very little is known regarding the incidence, risk factors and impact of procedure-related adverse events (AE) on pediatric A-HPCC outcomes. Prospective 4.5-year review of AE associated with pediatric A-HPCC. AE were graded by severity and type. Potential demographic and procedural risk factors, and the impact on product quality, were compared by t-test, chi-square, and linear regression. Sixty-two children underwent 110 A-HPCC, including 36 (58%) under 20 kg. Fifty-five AE were documented in 25.4% A-HPCCs and 39% of children (citrate 25%, access 19%, technical 11%, cardiovascular 0%, allergic 1.8%). No AE were noted in children < 10 kg anticoagulated with heparin. Access and technical AE accounted for 73% of severe AE, with line-related problems underlying most technical AE (87.5%, P = 0.006). AE were more likely in older (P = 0.012), heavier patients (P = 0.02), who frequently required more than one A-HPCC (P = 0.012). In contrast, young children were more likely to experience citrate AE with gastrointestinal symptoms (median age, 6 years; P = 0.076). AE had no impact on CD34 collection rates; however, mean CD34 yields (4.2 vs. 20.4 million/kg; P = 0.0035) were decreased in patients with technical AE due to lower peripheral CD34 counts and a high number of aborted procedures (37%). Venous access and flow-related issues are a major factor associated with moderate and severe AE, effecting ∼10% of patients. AE are more frequent with increasing patient age, weight, and number of procedures. J. Clin. Apheresis 32:35-48, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Emergency Whole Blood Use in the Field: A Simplified Protocol for Collection and Transfusion

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-01-01

    Personnel ABO blood type must be analyzed by a cer- tified laboratory routinely performing these tests . As an in- herent part of the blood type, persons...titers. A titer value is the reciprocal value of the highest dilution of a serum tested for an antibody. De- spite the fact that there is no...antibodies. Determination of ABO titers is highly recommended for whole-blood transfusion programs that intend to use of type O to patients other than

  4. An overview of restraint and blood collection techniques in exotic pet practice.

    PubMed

    Dyer, Stephen M; Cervasio, Erika L

    2008-09-01

    As more data about blood test results become available, blood sampling becomes increasingly important as a diagnostic tool. The increased availability of biochemistry analyzers that sample small volumes of blood has made it possible to get diagnostic profiles and hematology results from pets that have only small volumes of blood to contribute. This article describes techniques for restraint, phlebotomy, and sample preparation of several of the more popular exotic animals in the pet trade. The species covered include birds, lizards, chelonians, snakes, frogs, salamanders, fish, rabbits, ferrets, guinea pigs, mice, rats, hamsters, gerbils, hedgehogs, sugar gliders, and giant spiders (tarantulas).

  5. The collection and conservation in Italy of stem cells from umbilical cord blood.

    PubMed

    Ricci, G; Conti, A; Paternoster, M; Buccelli, P

    2009-03-01

    The blood contained in the umbilical cord offers a precious source of pluripotent stem cells, easily obtainable without invasive procedures, a source that, unlike embryonic stem cells, affords greater respect for ethical concerns. In relation to the therapeutic potential of these stem cells, personalized blood banks for newborns have been created and in various countries systems of research and cryoconservation of umbilical cord blood have been created, especially in private facilities. This facilitates promotion of the culture of donation and development of a network of umbilical cord blood sources, and spurs research to evaluate the real therapeutic potential of these cells. Italy has long prohibited management of umbilical cord blood in private form. Today, with new laws, Italy has achieved the indispensable legislative update in acknowledgment of social needs. Actually, the achieved system is solid autologous conservation. It guarantees to conserve a greater number of umbilical cords in public and private facilities.

  6. Capillary blood draws in the NICU: the use of the Innovac quick-draw whole blood collection system versus traditional capillary blood draws.

    PubMed

    Phillips, Charles; Clifton-Koeppel, Robin; Sills, Jack; Lomax, Jacqueline M; Rapini, Molly; Huffman, Matt L; Modanlou, Houchang D

    2011-01-01

    (1) To determine the rate of damaged and discarded capillary blood draws in the NICU; (2) to compare the rate of damaged and discarded samples between traditional capillary blood draws and the Innovac Quick-Draw device; (3) to determine whether in-service training for nurses on capillary blood draws decreased the rate of damaged and discarded blood samples. During Phase I of the study, the rate of capillary blood draws by the traditional method was determined. At the completion of Phase I, the manufacturer provided in-service training to senior nurses in the NICU with the use of the Innovac Quick-Draw device. Additional in-service training was also provided for the traditional capillary blood draw technique. Within a month of in-service training, an openly randomized study (Phase II) was carried out comparing traditional versus Innovac device capillary blood draws. All infants admitted to the NICU between June 2008 and June 2009 were eligible to be in the study. There were no exclusion criteria based on weight, gestational age, or gender because the sampling method was the only variable being assessed. Phase I lasted two months, whereas Phase II lasted approximately four months. Occurrence of damaged capillary samples with the Innovac device versus the traditional method. In Phase I, the rate of damaged and discarded samples was 10 percent (28/278). In Phase II, the rate of damaged and discarded samples for traditional and Innovac device was 7.2 percent and 10 percent, respectively. Comparisons between traditional and Innovac for different type of samples were as follows: complete blood count, 11.0 percent (12/104) vs. 13.4 percent (14/104); serum electrolytes, 6.4 percent (6/94) vs. 9.5 percent (9/95); C-reactive protein, 5.7 percent (4/70) vs. 8.0 percent (5/62); and liver panel, 5.3 percent (7/131) vs. 8.3 percent (9/108). There were no statistically significant differences of damaged and discarded samples for the overall or individual sample type comparisons.

  7. Identification of host blood from engorged mosquitoes collected in western Uganda using cytochrome oxidase I gene sequences.

    PubMed

    Crabtree, Mary B; Kading, Rebekah C; Mutebi, John-Paul; Lutwama, Julius J; Miller, Barry R

    2013-07-01

    Emerging infectious disease events are frequently caused by arthropod-borne viruses (arboviruses) that are maintained in a zoonotic cycle between arthropod vectors and vertebrate wildlife species, with spillover to humans in areas where human and wildlife populations interface. The greater Congo basin region, including Uganda, has historically been a hot spot for emergence of known and novel arboviruses. Surveillance of arthropod vectors is a critical activity in monitoring and predicting outbreaks of arboviral disease, and identification of blood meals in engorged arthropods collected during surveillance efforts provides insight into the ecology of arboviruses and their vectors. As part of an ongoing arbovirus surveillance project we analyzed blood meals from engorged mosquitoes collected at five sites in western Uganda November 2008-June 2010. We extracted DNA from the dissected and triturated abdomens of engorged mosquito specimens. Mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase I gene sequence was amplified by PCR and sequenced to identify the source of the mosquito host blood. Blood meals were analyzed from 533 engorged mosquito specimens; 440 of these blood meals were successfully identified from 33 mosquito species. Species identifications were made for 285 of the 440 identified specimens with the remainder identified to genus, family, or order. When combined with published arbovirus isolation and serologic survey data, our results suggest possible vector-reservoir relationships for several arboviruses, including Rift Valley fever virus and West Nile virus.

  8. Prevalence of Bacterial Contamination when using a Diversion Pouch during Blood Collection: A Single Center Study in Malaysia

    PubMed Central

    JUMAAH, Norlaili; JOSHI, Sanmukh Ratilal; SANDAI, Doblin

    2014-01-01

    Background: The implementation of diversion pouches is to minimise the risk of bacterial contamination as the initial blood flow is prevented from entering primary bag collections as it is diverted into a pouch. This study was carried out to determine the prevalence of bacterial contamination in the diversion pouches used during blood collections in the Transfusion Department of Hospital Seberang Jaya, Penang, Malaysia. Methods: BD Bactec™ Fx instrument detection system was performed on 702 samples of 20 mL of diverting blood in diversion pouch. The inocullum volume was 10 mL for both aerobic and anaerobic bottles cultures and incubated for 5 days in the BD Bactec™ Fx instrument. Positive sample was flagged by BD Bactec™ Fx instrument and subculture to identify the species of organism. Results: The results showed that of 702 samples, 12 (1.7%) were contaminated. The bacterial species identified were coagulase negative Staphylococcus, Staphylococcus aureus and Gram positive Bacilli. Conclusion: The results strongly suggest that the usage of diversion pouch is of significant importance in reducing bacterial contamination during blood collection. PMID:25246835

  9. Effect of sample collection on alpha-galactosidase A enzyme activity measurements in dried blood spots on filter paper.

    PubMed

    Olivova, Petra; van der Veen, Kristen; Cullen, Emmaline; Rose, Michael; Zhang, X Kate; Sims, Katherine B; Keutzer, Joan; Browning, Marsha F

    2009-05-01

    Fabry disease is an X-linked lysosomal storage disorder due to deficiency of alpha galactosidase A (AGAL, EC 3.2.1.22). Despite increasing utilization of dried blood spot (DBS) as samples for AGAL enzyme assays, the effects of blood sample collection techniques on enzyme activity have not been studied. DBS samples were prepared by spotting blood collected into an ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) tube and by direct application of blood from a finger prick or a venipuncture syringe. AGAL activity was measured quantitatively by detecting the fluorescence of 4-methylumbelliferone (4-MU) generated using the substrate 4-methylumbelliferyl-alpha-D-glucopyranoside (4-MUGal) in an acidic pH for 20 h. N-acetyl-D-galactosamine (GalNAc) was used to inhibit alpha-galactosidase B (EC 3.2.1.49). We studied 88 previously diagnosed Fabry disease patients and 690 healthy controls. Average AGAL activity in DBS samples prepared using EDTA tubes was higher compared to those spotted directly irrespective of disease status. The study confirms the need for collection method-specific reference ranges using DBS samples.

  10. Detection of West Nile virus RNA in mosquitoes and identification of mosquito blood meals collected at alligator farms in Louisiana.

    PubMed

    Unlu, Isik; Kramer, Wayne L; Roy, Alma F; Foil, Lane D

    2010-07-01

    Since 2001, alligator farms in the United States have sustained substantial economic losses because of West Nile virus (WNV) outbreaks in American alligators (Alligator mississippiensis). Once an initial infection is introduced into captive alligators, WNV can spread among animals by contaminative transmission. Some outbreaks have been linked to feeding on infected meat or the introduction of infected hatchlings, but the initial source of WNV infection has been uncertain in other outbreaks. We conducted a study to identify species composition and presence of WNV in mosquito populations associated with alligator farms in Louisiana. A second objective of this study was to identify the origin of mosquito blood meals collected at commercial alligator farms. Mosquitoes were collected from 2004 to 2006, using Centers for Disease Control light traps, gravid traps, backpack aspirators, and resting boxes. We collected a total of 58,975 mosquitoes representing 24 species. WNV was detected in 41 pools of females from 11 mosquito species: Anopheles crucians, Anopheles quadrimaculatus, Coquillettidia perturbans, Culex coronator, Culex erraticus, Culex nigripalpus, Culex quinquefasciatus, Mansonia titillans, Aedes sollicitans, Psorophora columbiae, and Uranotaenia lowii. The blood meal origins of 213 field-collected mosquitoes were identified based on cytochrome B sequence identity. Alligator blood was detected in 21 mosquitoes representing six species of mosquitoes, including Cx. quinquefasciatus and Cx. nigripalpus. Our results showed that mosquitoes of species that are known to be competent vectors of WNV fed regularly on captive alligators. Therefore, mosquitoes probably are important in the role of transmission of WNV at alligator farms.

  11. Optimal time to start peripheral blood stem cell collection in children with high-risk solid tumors.

    PubMed

    Sung, Ki Woong; Chueh, Hee Won; Lee, Na Hee; Kim, Dong Hwan; Lee, Soo Hyun; Yoo, Keon Hee; Koo, Hong Hoe; Kang, Eun Suk; Kim, Dae Won

    2014-01-01

    In order to clarify the optimal timing for peripheral blood stem cell (PBSC) collection, PBSC collection records of 323 children who were scheduled to undergo autologous stem cell transplantation from two study periods differing in the timing of PBSC collection were analyzed. In the early study period (March 1998 to August 2007, n=198), PBSC collection was initiated when the peripheral WBC count exceeded 1,000/µL during recovery from chemotherapy. Findings in this study period indicated that initiation of PBSC collection at a higher WBC count might result in a greater CD34(+) cell yield. Therefore, during the late study period (September 2007 to December 2012, n=125), PBSC collection was initiated when the WBC count exceeded 4,000/µL. Results in the late study period validated our conclusion from the early study period. Collection of a higher number of CD34(+) cells was associated with a faster hematologic recovery after transplant in the late study period. Initiation of PBSC collection at WBC count > 4,000/µL was an independent factor for a greater CD34(+) cell yield. In conclusion, PBSC collection at a higher WBC count is associated with a greater CD34(+) cell yield, and consequently a faster hematologic recovery after transplant.

  12. The Danish Centre for Strategic Research in Type 2 Diabetes (DD2) study: implementation of a nationwide patient enrollment system.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, Jens Steen; Thomsen, Reimar W; Steffensen, Charlotte; Christiansen, Jens S

    2012-01-01

    This paper aims to describe the patient enrollment system and implementation strategy for the new nationwide Danish Centre for Strategic Research in Type 2 Diabetes (DD2) project. The paper will also describe the design, current content, and pilot testing of the DD2 registration form. The challenge of the DD2 project was to construct a registration system functioning in the entire Danish health care system, where new type 2 diabetes patients are initially met, and with the capacity to enroll 200 newly diagnosed diabetes patients per week nationwide. This requires a fast and simple registration that is part of everyday clinical practice in hospital outpatient clinics and general practitioner (GP) clinics. The enrollment system is thus built on a tested, rational design where patients need only one visit and only specific limited data about physical activity, anthropometric measures, and family history of diabetes are collected during a brief patient interview. Later, supplemental data will be extracted by computerized linkage with existing databases. The feasibility of this strategy was verified in a pilot study. For maximum flexibility, three different ways to fill in the DD2 registration form were provided and an interactive webpage was constructed. The DD2 project also involves collection of blood and urine samples from each diabetes patient, to be stored in a biobank. Clinicians may obtain the samples themselves or refer patients to the nearest clinical biochemical department. GPs have the additional option of referring patients to the nearest hospital outpatient diabetes clinic to obtain interview data, clinical data, and samples. At present, the enrollment system is in use at 17 hospital outpatient diabetes clinics and 45 GP clinics nationwide, together enrolling 40 new type 2 diabetes patients per week in the DD2 project. A total of 990 patients have now been enrolled and the DD2 is ready to expand nationwide.

  13. Microfluidic evaluation of red cells collected and stored in modified processing solutions used in blood banking.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yimeng; Giebink, Adam; Spence, Dana M

    2014-01-01

    The most recent American Association of Blood Banks survey found that 40,000 units of blood are required daily for general medicine, hematology/oncology, surgery, and for accident and trauma victims. While blood transfusions are an extremely important component of critical healthcare, complications associated with transfusion of blood components still exist. It is well-established that the red blood cell (RBC) undergoes many physical and chemical changes during storage. Increased oxidative stress, formation of advanced glycation endproducts, and microparticle formation are all known to occur during RBC storage. Furthermore, it is also known that patients who receive a transfusion have reduced levels of available nitric oxide (NO), a major determinant in blood flow. However, the origin of this reduced NO bioavailability is not completely understood. Here, we show that a simple modification to the glucose concentration in the solutions used to process whole blood for subsequent RBC storage results in a remarkable change in the ability of these cells to stimulate NO. In a controlled in vitro microflow system, we discovered that storage of RBCs in normoglycemic versions of standard storage solutions resulted in RBC-derived ATP release values 4 weeks into storage that were significantly greater than day 1 release values for those RBCs stored in conventional solutions. During the same storage duration, microfluidic technologies enabled measurements of endothelium-derived NO that were stimulated by the ATP release from the stored RBCs. In comparison to currently accepted processing solutions, the NO production increased by more than 25% in the presence of the RBCs stored in the normoglycemic storage solutions. Control experiments using inhibitors of ATP release from the RBCs, or ATP binding to the endothelium, strongly suggest that the increased NO production by the endothelium is directly related to the ability of the stored RBCs to release ATP. We anticipate these

  14. Assessment of Cardiac Troponin I Responses in Nonhuman Primates during Restraint, Blood Collection, and Dosing in Preclinical Safety Studies.

    PubMed

    Reagan, William J; Barnes, Robert; Harris, Peter; Summers, Sandy; Lopes, Sarah; Stubbs, Makeida; Blackwell, David; Steidl-Nichols, Jill

    2017-02-01

    Limited information has been published on the use of cardiac troponin I (cTnI) as a biomarker of cardiac injury in monkeys. The purpose of these studies was to characterize the cTnI response seen in cynomolgus macaques during routine dosing and blood collection procedures typically used in preclinical safety studies and to better understand the pathogenesis of this response. We measured cTnI using two different methods, the Siemens Immulite cTnI assay and the more sensitive Siemens Troponin I-Ultra assay. We were able to demonstrate that after oral, subcutaneous, or intravenous dosing of common vehicles, as well as serial chair restraint for venipuncture blood collection, that minimal to mild transient increases in cTnI could be detected in monkeys with both assays. cTnI values typically peaked at 2, 3, 4, or 6 hr after sham dosing and returned to baseline at 22 or 24 hr. In addition, marked increases in heart rate (HR) and blood pressure (BP) occurred in monkeys during the restraint procedures, which likely initiated the cTnI release in these animals. Monkeys that were very well acclimated to the chairing procedures and had vascular access ports for blood sampling did not have marked increases in HRs and BP or increases in cTnI.

  15. Adjustment of Cell-Type Composition Minimizes Systematic Bias in Blood DNA Methylation Profiles Derived by DNA Collection Protocols.

    PubMed

    Shiwa, Yuh; Hachiya, Tsuyoshi; Furukawa, Ryohei; Ohmomo, Hideki; Ono, Kanako; Kudo, Hisaaki; Hata, Jun; Hozawa, Atsushi; Iwasaki, Motoki; Matsuda, Koichi; Minegishi, Naoko; Satoh, Mamoru; Tanno, Kozo; Yamaji, Taiki; Wakai, Kenji; Hitomi, Jiro; Kiyohara, Yutaka; Kubo, Michiaki; Tanaka, Hideo; Tsugane, Shoichiro; Yamamoto, Masayuki; Sobue, Kenji; Shimizu, Atsushi

    2016-01-01

    Differences in DNA collection protocols may be a potential confounder in epigenome-wide association studies (EWAS) using a large number of blood specimens from multiple biobanks and/or cohorts. Here we show that pre-analytical procedures involved in DNA collection can induce systematic bias in the DNA methylation profiles of blood cells that can be adjusted by cell-type composition variables. In Experiment 1, whole blood from 16 volunteers was collected to examine the effect of a 24 h storage period at 4°C on DNA methylation profiles as measured using the Infinium HumanMethylation450 BeadChip array. Our statistical analysis showed that the P-value distribution of more than 450,000 CpG sites was similar to the theoretical distribution (in quantile-quantile plot, λ = 1.03) when comparing two control replicates, which was remarkably deviated from the theoretical distribution (λ = 1.50) when comparing control and storage conditions. We then considered cell-type composition as a possible cause of the observed bias in DNA methylation profiles and found that the bias associated with the cold storage condition was largely decreased (λ adjusted = 1.14) by taking into account a cell-type composition variable. As such, we compared four respective sample collection protocols used in large-scale Japanese biobanks or cohorts as well as two control replicates. Systematic biases in DNA methylation profiles were observed between control and three of four protocols without adjustment of cell-type composition (λ = 1.12-1.45) and no remarkable biases were seen after adjusting for cell-type composition in all four protocols (λ adjusted = 1.00-1.17). These results revealed important implications for comparing DNA methylation profiles between blood specimens from different sources and may lead to discovery of disease-associated DNA methylation markers and the development of DNA methylation profile-based predictive risk models.

  16. Increased preoperative collection of autologous blood with recombinant human erythropoietin therapy in tertiary care hospitals of Jammu

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Kumkum; Sharma, Sumit B.; Pukhta, Imran A.; Sharma, Amit B.; Salaria, Abdul Q.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: To study whether the administration of recombinant human erythropoietin increases the amount of autologous blood that can be collected before orthopaedic surgery. Materials and Methods: We conducted a randomized controlled trial of recombinant human erythropoietin in 68 adults scheduled for elective orthopedic procedures. The patients received either erythropoietin 600 units/kg of body weight or placebo intravenously every 5th day prior to each phlebotomy for 21 days during which time up to 5 units of blood was collected. Patients were excluded from donation when their hematocrit values were less than 33%. All patients received iron sulphate 325mg orally 3 times daily. The mean number of units collected per patient was 4.33 ± 0.4 for erythropoietin group and 3.05± 0.71 for the placebo group. Results: The mean packed red cell volume donated by patients who received erythropoietin was 32% greater than that donated by patients who received placebo (196.3 vs. 169.4 ml, p<0.05). 68% in the placebo group and 9% of patients treated with erythropoietin were unable to donate ≥4 units. No adverse effects were attributed to erythropoietin. While participating in the study, complications developed in 2 patients one in each group necessitating their removal from the study. Conclusion: We conclude that recombinant human erythropoietin increases the ability of the patients about to undergo elective surgery to donate autologous blood units. PMID:23559764

  17. Motivating factors and deterrents for blood donation among donors at a university campus-based collection center.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Shan; Hoffman, Matthew; Lu, Qun; Goldfinger, Dennis; Ziman, Alyssa

    2011-11-01

    Insight into motivating factors and barriers for blood donation, especially for young people and underrepresented minorities, is important to donor recruitment and retention. We surveyed donors at a new blood collection facility based on a large, ethnically diverse university campus. Individuals who had donated or attempted to donate at the facility during the first 17 months of its operation were invited by e-mail to respond to an anonymous, Web-based questionnaire. Respondents were asked to provide demographic characteristics, rate the importance of various motivating and deterring factors for blood donation, and indicate how they prefer to be contacted by the blood center. More than 30% of the 1619 invitees responded, 95.6% (n = 479) of whom gave complete responses. The respondents were ethnically diverse, and 79.1% were between 18 and 28 years of age. Altruism was by far the most important motivating factor for donation. However, incentives were also rated as important or very important by 72.2% of the respondents. Inconvenience due to time or location constraints was the most important deterrent. E-mailing was the most preferred contact method and chosen by 80.3% of those surveyed. Some differences were noted in the responses from members of different age, sex, and ethnic groups. Although overall altruism and inconvenience were the major motivating factor and deterrent for blood, some demographic differences existed in donor attitude toward incentive programs and preference for the method of contact used by blood centers for recruitment purposes. © 2011 American Association of Blood Banks.

  18. 77 FR 10756 - Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Opinions and Perspectives About the Current Blood Donation...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-23

    ... U.S. with respect to men who have sex with men (MSM) is that any man who discloses having had sex... targeted to the Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual and Transgender (LGBT) community reported donating blood at least... donation for the MSM population as in the U.S.; this ] study was conducted in 2009 and 2010 and...

  19. 77 FR 35408 - Proposed Collection; Comment Request: Opinions and Perspectives About the Current Blood Donation...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-13

    ... donation in the U.S. with respect to men who have sex with men (MSM) is that any man who discloses having... publication targeted to the Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual and Transgender (LGBT) community reported donating blood at... donation for the MSM population as in the U.S.; this study was conducted in 2009 and 2010 and...

  20. Clinically relevant differences in prothrombin time and INR values related to blood sample collection in plastic vs glass tubes.

    PubMed

    Fiebig, Eberhard W; Etzell, Joan E; Ng, Valerie L

    2005-12-01

    We compared prothrombin times (PTs) and international normalized ratios (INRs) for blood samples drawn into plastic vs glass collection tubes. We collected 60 venous blood samples into 4.5-mL glass and 2 plastic tubes (2.7 and 3.5 mL). An additional 153 samples, including 63 from warfarin-anticoagulated patients, were collected only in glass and 2.7-mL plastic tubes. The PTs and INRs were determined following routine laboratory procedures. A subset of 35 frozen aliquot samples was analyzed with a different instrument-reagent combination. The PTs and INRs for samples in plastic tubes were significantly lower than for samples in glass tubes. The mean INR differences increased with INR magnitude from approximately -0.1 (INR, 1.5) to -0.7 (INR, 4.5). Of the plastic tube INRs, 50% were more than 10% lower than INRs from samples collected in glass tubes. Therapeutic monitoring based on plastic-tube INRs could result in higher doses of warfarin.

  1. Blood

    MedlinePlus

    ... spans vary from a few days to months. New cells are constantly being formed in the bone marrow. ... the bloodstream and are constantly being replaced by new cells. Blood also contains important proteins called clotting factors , ...

  2. Autologous blood collection in anemic patients using low-dose erythropoietin therapy.

    PubMed

    Mott, L S; Bechinski, J; Jones, M J

    1997-06-01

    Autologous donation of blood for use during elective surgery is being recommended and used more frequently. Autologous donation and transfusion represent the safest way to handle elective surgical blood requirements because they eliminate the risk of transfusion-transmitted disease and alloimmunization, and significantly reduce the other risks associated with homologous transfusion. Many individuals, particularly women and the elderly, do not have sufficient initial hemoglobin concentration or hemopoietic reserve to effectively use autologous donation. Use of standard-dose recombinant human erythropoietin (rHuEPO) (600 units/kg) to mitigate these limitations is costly. The optimal dose, interval, and route of administration for rHuEPO therapy has yet to be perfected. This article describes a program using low-dose (< 100 units/kg) rHuEPO and also discusses the effectiveness, cost savings, and clinical indications for the use of low-dose rHuEPO.

  3. Reference individuals, blood collection, treatment of samples and descriptive data from the questionnaire in the Nordic Reference Interval Project 2000.

    PubMed

    Felding, P; Rustad, P; Mårtensson, A; Kairisto, V; Franzson, L; Hyltoft Petersen, P; Uldall, A

    2004-01-01

    The rules for recruitment of reference individuals, inclusion and preparation of individuals, blood collection, treatment of samples (and control materials) and analysis at the 102 medical laboratories attending the Nordic Reference Interval Project (NORIP) are given as well as the rules for central exclusion of reference individuals. The individuals (18-91-year-olds) should be evenly distributed on age and gender groups. The 3002 reference individuals who contributed at least one reference value to the finally suggested reference intervals were characterized using the information in the questionnaire. Gender, age and country are the main entries in the tables. Other variables in the cross-tables or figure are height, weight, body mass index, ethnic origin, heredity for diabetes, chronic disease, oestrogens or oral contraceptives, other medication, hard physical activity, previous blood donations, smoking habits, use of alcohol, hours since last meal and time of blood collection (hour, day of week, month, year). The Danes had the highest alcohol consumption and the Icelanders had the highest body mass index. The information in this article may interest potential users of the Nordic Reference Interval Project bio-bank and database (NOBIDA) in which serum, Li-heparin plasma and EDTA buffy coat from the mentioned individuals are stored below -80 degrees C.

  4. Deconvolving an Estimate of Breath Measured Blood Alcohol Concentration from Biosensor Collected Transdermal Ethanol Data£

    PubMed Central

    Dumett, M; Rosen, G; Sabat, J; Shaman, A; Tempelman, L; Wang, C; Swift, RM

    2008-01-01

    Biosensor measurement of transdermal alcohol oncentration in perspiration exhibits significant variance from subject to subject and device to device. Short duration data collected in a controlled clinical setting is used to calibrate a forward model for ethanol transport from the blood to the sensor. The calibrated model is then used to invert transdermal signals collected in the field (short or long duration) to obtain an estimate for breath measured blood alcohol concentration. A distributed parameter model for the forward transport of ethanol from the blood through the skin and its processing by the sensor is developed. Model calibration is formulated as a nonlinear least squares fit to data. The fit model is then used as part of a spline based scheme in the form of a regularized, non-negatively constrained linear deconvolution. Fully discrete, steepest descent based schemes for solving the resulting optimization problems are developed. The adjoint method is used to accurately and efficiently compute requisite gradients. Efficacy is demonstrated on subject field data. PMID:19255617

  5. In vitro parameters of cryopreserved leucodepleted and non-leucodepleted red blood cells collected by apheresis or from whole blood and stored in AS-3 for 21 days after thawing.

    PubMed

    Bohoněk, Miloš; Petráš, Marek; Turek, Ivo; Urbanová, Jaroslava; Hrádek, Tomáš; Staropražská, Věra; Koštířová, Jitka; Horčičková, Dana; Duchková, Simona

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the in vitro quality of cryopreserved red blood cells obtained from different sources with or without leucodepletion and stored at 4±2 °C in AS-3 for up to 21 days. Red blood cells were collected by four methods: double erythrocytapheresis, whole blood collection with buffy coat removal, double erythrocytapheresis with in-line leucofiltration, or whole blood collection with in-line leucofiltration. All four types of red blood cells were frozen in 40% glycerol after collection and stored at a temperature below -65 °C for at least 30 days, thawed, deglycerolised and subsequently reconstituted in AS-3. The in vitro haematological and biochemical properties of the thawed red blood cells were tested on days 0, 7, 14, and 21 after deglycerolisation and reconstitution. Overall, 72 units were processed. Leucodepletion of cryopreserved red blood cells units reduced haemolysis, lowered ammonia concentration, preserved pH and osmolality and led to sustained higher concentrations of ATP. In contrast, the source of red blood cells (apheresis or whole blood) did not affect their quality. The quality of all investigated red blood cells units was the same as or even better than that of erythrocytes obtained from double erythrocytapheresis with a 24-hour survival of at least 86% after up to 3 weeks of storage in AS-3.

  6. Survey of Blood Collection Centers and Implementation of Guidance for Prevention of Transfusion-Transmitted Zika Virus Infection--Puerto Rico, 2016.

    PubMed

    Vasquez, Amber M; Sapiano, Mathew R P; Basavaraju, Sridhar V; Kuehnert, Matthew J; Rivera-Garcia, Brenda

    2016-04-15

    Since November 2015, Puerto Rico has reported active mosquito-borne transmission of Zika virus. Because of the potential for Zika virus to be transmitted through transfusion of blood components, and because a high percentage of persons infected with Zika virus are asymptomatic, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) recommended that blood collections cease in areas of the United States affected by active vector-borne transmission of Zika virus until laboratory screening of blood donations or pathogen reduction technology (PRT) for treatment of blood components can be implemented. To inform efforts to maintain the safety and availability of the blood supply in Puerto Rico, CDC, in collaboration with the Puerto Rico Department of Health, conducted a rapid assessment of blood collection and use on the island. A total of 139,369 allogeneic red blood cell (RBC) units, 45,243 platelet units, and 56,466 plasma units were collected in or imported to Puerto Rico during 2015, and 135,966 allogeneic RBC units, 13,526 therapeutic platelet units, and 25,775 plasma units were transfused. Because of the potential for local Zika virus transmission in areas with a competent mosquito vector, other areas of the United States should develop plans to ensure local blood safety and adequacy. Blood collection organizations and public health agencies should collaborate to maintain the safety and availability of local blood supplies in accordance with FDA guidance.

  7. Identification of hybrids of painted and milky storks using FTA card-collected blood, molecular markers, and morphologies.

    PubMed

    Yee, Elsie Yoke Sim; Zainuddin, Zainal Zahari; Ismail, Ahmad; Yap, Chee Kong; Tan, Soon Guan

    2013-10-01

    Suspicious hybrids of painted storks and milky storks were found in a Malaysian zoo. Blood of these birds was sampled on FTA cards for DNA fingerprinting. Of 44 optimized primers, 6 produced diagnostic markers that could identify hybrids. The markers were based on simple, direct PCR-generated multilocus banding patterns that provided two sets of genetic data, one for each of the two stork species and another for the hybrids. It also revealed that large DNA fragments (3,000 bp) could be amplified from blood collected on FTA cards. When the results of each individual bird's DNA fingerprint were compared with plumage characters, the hybrids were found to express a range of intermediate phenotypic traits of the pure breeds with no dominant plumage characteristic from either parental species.

  8. Effects of Clove Oil as a Euthanasia Agent on Blood Collection Efficiency and Serum Cortisol Levels in Danio rerio.

    PubMed

    Davis, Daniel J; Klug, Jenna; Hankins, Miriam; Doerr, Holly M; Monticelli, Stephanie R; Song, Ava; Gillespie, Catherine H; Bryda, Elizabeth C

    2015-09-01

    Zebrafish are an important laboratory animal model for biomedical research and are increasingly being used for behavioral neuroscience. Tricaine methanesulfonate (MS222) is the standard agent used for euthanasia of zebrafish. However, recent studies of zebrafish behavior suggest that MS222 may be aversive, and clove oil might be a possible alternative. In this study, we compared the effects of MS222 or clove oil as a euthanasia agent in zebrafish on the volume of blood collected and on serum levels of cortisol. Greater amounts of serum could be collected and lower serum levels of cortisol were present in fish euthanized with clove oil compared with equipotent dose of MS222. Euthanasia with clove oil did not blunt the expected elevation of serum cortisol levels elicited by an acute premortem stress. According to our findings, clove oil is a fast-acting agent that minimizes the cortisol response to euthanasia in zebrafish and allows the collection of large volumes of blood postmortem. These results represent a significant refinement in euthanasia methods for zebrafish.

  9. Thalidomide in newly diagnosed multiple myeloma: influence of thalidomide treatment on peripheral blood stem cell collection yield.

    PubMed

    Breitkreutz, I; Lokhorst, H M; Raab, M S; Holt, B van der; Cremer, F W; Herrmann, D; Glasmacher, A; Schmidt-Wolf, I G H; Blau, I W; Martin, H; Salwender, H; Haenel, A; Sonneveld, P; Goldschmidt, H

    2007-06-01

    In a phase III randomized, multicenter study, the German-speaking Myeloma-Multicenter Group (GMMG) and the Dutch-Belgian Hemato-Oncology Cooperative Group (HOVON) group investigated the influence of thalidomide (Thal) on the outcome of peripheral blood stem cell (PBSC) collection in multiple myeloma (MM) before peripheral autologous blood stem cell transplantation (ABSCT). We analyzed the data of 398 myeloma patients after induction with Thal, doxorubicin and dexamethasone (TAD) in comparison with vincristine, doxorubicin and dexamethasone (VAD) followed by mobilization with cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, dexamethasone (CAD) and PBSC collection. Within both the study groups, patients treated with TAD showed to collect significantly fewer CD34(+) cells compared with VAD (GMMG, TAD: median 9.8 x 10(6)/kg; range 2.0-33.6; VAD: median 10.9 x 10(6)/kg range 3.0-36.0; P=0.02) (HOVON, TAD: median 7.4 x 10(6)/kg; range 2.0-33.0; VAD: median 9.4 x 10(6)/kg; range 0.0-48.7; P=0.009). However, engraftment after peripheral autologous stem cell transplantation showed no difference between Thal and VAD groups. We conclude that Thal as a part of induction regimen is associated with better response rates (GMMG-HD3: CR/PR 79%, VAD: CR/PR 58%; HOVON-50: TAD: CR/PR 81%, VAD: CR/PR 61%), but significantly affects the yield of PBSC collection. Nevertheless, the number of total CD34(+) cells collected was sufficient for double autologous transplantation in 82% of the Thal patients, with at least 2.5 x 10(6)/kg CD34(+) cells.

  10. Prototype Device for Computerized Blood Sampling and Data Collection in Freely Moving Swine

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Collecting biofluid samples or physiological and behavioral data from animals presents challenges from excessive human intervention, and the stress of manual sampling. Our objective was to construct a device capable of protecting external leads and tubing used to facilitate automated sampling, dosin...

  11. Large-volume leukapheresis for peripheral blood progenitor cell collection in low body weight pediatric patients: a single center experience.

    PubMed

    Cecyn, Karin Zattar; Seber, Adriana; Ginani, Valéria Cortez; Gonçalves, Alexandra Vieira; Caram, Eliana Maria; Oguro, Tsutomu; Oliveira, Olga Maria Wanderley; Carvalho, Maria Mercês; Bordin, José Orlando

    2005-06-01

    Peripheral blood progenitor cells (PBPC) have became the preferred source of stem cells for autologous transplantation because of easier accessibility, rapid engraftment, and lower tumor cell contamination. In pediatric patients is very important to optimize peripheral blood stem cells (PBSC) harvesting to obtain a sufficient number of cells with a reduced number of leukapheresis. In this study we prospectively analyzed data on 43 large volume leukapheresis (LVL) from 20 consecutive low body weight pediatric patients with various malignancies. Patients' mean body weight was 16.6 kg (range, 8.9-32.0 kg), and the median age was 4 years (range, 1-10 y ears). Instead of saline, it was used irradiated and leukoreduced red blood cell (RBC) units to prime the machine in 15 patients weighting 25 kg or less. The median number of LVL was 2 (range, 1-4) and a mean of 5.2 patient's blood volume was processed per session lasting 165 min (range, 118-239). The mean number of CD34+ cells, one day before leukapheresis was 49 mm(-3) (range, 9-219). The PBPC collection yielded 24.7 x 10(8) total nucleated cells/kg (range, 6.2-74.0), 10.7 x 10(6) kg(-1) CD34+ cells (range, 3.6-53.7); 49.8 x 10(4) CFU-GM/kg (range, 6.4-198.1), and 65.6 x 10(4) BFU-E/kg (range, 7.6-198.1). The platelet count decreased significantly after each procedure 39.8 +/- 9.1 x 10(9) mm(-3) (range, 18.000-76.000) (p < 0.001). In conclusion, our data show that LVL for collection of PBPC in low weight pediatric patients is a safe and efficient procedure, but it may expose the patient to the risk of thrombocytopenia.

  12. Effect of blood sample handling post-collection on Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae antibody titres.

    PubMed

    Neumann, Eric J; Bonistalli, Kathryn N

    2009-06-01

    A study was conducted to determine the effect of blood sample mishandling on the performance of an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for the detection of antibodies against Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae. Eleven sample maltreatments (storage at -10 degrees C, storage at 4 degrees C, heat treatment of clotted blood, haemolysis, repetitive freeze-thaw cycling, and substitution of plasma in place of serum) were simulated in a laboratory environment and then run concurrently against a gold standard sample (storage at -80 degrees C). The mishandling treatment groups that simulated high levels of haemolysis had significantly lower optical density (OD) readings when compared to the gold standard. However, the magnitude of the effects was relatively small and only samples with OD values close to the cut-off changed state from positive to negative. Heat treatment had a minor, but non-significant, effect on OD values. Findings from this study suggested that immunoglobulin G antibody was stable in the face of most common sample mishandling events.

  13. Molecular identification of blood source animals from black flies (Diptera: Simuliidae) collected in the alpine regions of Japan.

    PubMed

    Imura, Takayuki; Sato, Yukita; Ejiri, Hiroko; Tamada, Asumi; Isawa, Haruhiko; Sawabe, Kyoko; Omori, Sumie; Murata, Koichi; Yukawa, Masayoshi

    2010-01-01

    One of vector-borne avian protozoa, Leucocytozoon lovati, has been found in the Japanese rock ptarmigans (Lagopus mutus japonicus), the endangered bird species distributed in the alpine regions in Japan. Vector arthropod species of L. lovati has also been estimated as Simuliidae black flies distributed in the same habitat of the host bird, however, possible blood meals of the black flies were not identified yet. To reveal host animals of black flies, we estimated the blood resources by using molecular techniques. Black flies were collected at Mt. Chogatake, one of the alpine regions of Japan in which Japanese rock ptarmigans live in June 2005. The analyzed 144 specimens were morphologically identified into five species including Simulium japonicum (n = 87), Prosimulium hirtipes (n = 48), Prosimulium yezoense (n = 3), Twinnia japonensis (n = 3), and Cnephia mutata (n = 3). Individually extracted DNA from the black flies was subjected to polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification targeting the partial mitochondrial cytochrome b gene of birds or mammals to identify the blood meals. Of 144 black flies examined, 34 specimens were PCR positive for avian hosts (23.6%). No mammalian-derived bloods were detected from the samples studied through. Sequences amplified from 11 black flies consist of S. japonicum, P. hirtipes, and C. mutata showed high similarity to that of the Japanese rock ptarmigan. Therefore, present results conclusively suggest that these three species of black flies might suck the bloods of Japanese rock ptarmigans and could be the vector for L. lovati infection among this endangered bird species of Japan.

  14. Adjustment of Cell-Type Composition Minimizes Systematic Bias in Blood DNA Methylation Profiles Derived by DNA Collection Protocols

    PubMed Central

    Shiwa, Yuh; Hachiya, Tsuyoshi; Furukawa, Ryohei; Ohmomo, Hideki; Ono, Kanako; Kudo, Hisaaki; Hata, Jun; Hozawa, Atsushi; Iwasaki, Motoki; Matsuda, Koichi; Minegishi, Naoko; Satoh, Mamoru; Tanno, Kozo; Yamaji, Taiki; Wakai, Kenji; Hitomi, Jiro; Kiyohara, Yutaka; Kubo, Michiaki; Tanaka, Hideo; Tsugane, Shoichiro; Yamamoto, Masayuki; Sobue, Kenji; Shimizu, Atsushi

    2016-01-01

    Differences in DNA collection protocols may be a potential confounder in epigenome-wide association studies (EWAS) using a large number of blood specimens from multiple biobanks and/or cohorts. Here we show that pre-analytical procedures involved in DNA collection can induce systematic bias in the DNA methylation profiles of blood cells that can be adjusted by cell-type composition variables. In Experiment 1, whole blood from 16 volunteers was collected to examine the effect of a 24 h storage period at 4°C on DNA methylation profiles as measured using the Infinium HumanMethylation450 BeadChip array. Our statistical analysis showed that the P-value distribution of more than 450,000 CpG sites was similar to the theoretical distribution (in quantile-quantile plot, λ = 1.03) when comparing two control replicates, which was remarkably deviated from the theoretical distribution (λ = 1.50) when comparing control and storage conditions. We then considered cell-type composition as a possible cause of the observed bias in DNA methylation profiles and found that the bias associated with the cold storage condition was largely decreased (λadjusted = 1.14) by taking into account a cell-type composition variable. As such, we compared four respective sample collection protocols used in large-scale Japanese biobanks or cohorts as well as two control replicates. Systematic biases in DNA methylation profiles were observed between control and three of four protocols without adjustment of cell-type composition (λ = 1.12–1.45) and no remarkable biases were seen after adjusting for cell-type composition in all four protocols (λadjusted = 1.00–1.17). These results revealed important implications for comparing DNA methylation profiles between blood specimens from different sources and may lead to discovery of disease-associated DNA methylation markers and the development of DNA methylation profile-based predictive risk models. PMID:26799745

  15. An updated nation-wide epidemiological survey of feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) infection in Japan.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Yuki; Nakamura, Yuichi; Ura, Asami; Hirata, Momoko; Sakuma, Masato; Sakata, Yoshimi; Nishigaki, Kazuo; Tsujimoto, Hajime; Setoguchi, Asuka; Endo, Yasuyuki

    2010-08-01

    An updated nation-wide epidemiological survey of feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) infection was conducted in Japan. Blood samples were collected from 1,770 outdoor accessing cats from March to October 2008. Serologically, 410 cats (23.2%) were positive for anti-FIV antibody. Proviral DNA of the FIV env V3-V5 region isolated from 348 cases could be phylogenetically analyzed. The present study disclosed a geographic distribution of four subtypes (A, B, C and D) of FIV in Japan. Even though an FIV vaccine was introduced in Japan, we do not currently know whether this vaccine is effective against all strains of FIV in Japan or not. Therefore, close attention still has to be paid to epidemic and genotypic trends of FIV.

  16. Design and implementation of the first nationwide, web-based Chinese Renal Data System (CNRDS).

    PubMed

    Xie, Fengbo; Zhang, Dong; Wu, Jinzhao; Zhang, Yunfeng; Yang, Qing; Sun, Xuefeng; Cheng, Jing; Chen, Xiangmei

    2012-02-28

    In April 2010, with an endorsement from the Ministry of Health of the People's Republic of China, the Chinese Society of Nephrology launched the first nationwide, web-based prospective renal data registration platform, the Chinese Renal Data System (CNRDS), to collect structured demographic, clinical, and laboratory data for dialysis cases, as well as to establish a kidney disease database for researchers and policy makers. The CNRDS program uses information technology to facilitate healthcare professionals to create a blood purification registry and to deliver an evidence-based care and education protocol tailored to chronic kidney disease, as well as online forum for communication between nephrologists. The online portal https://www.cnrds.net is implemented as a Java web application using an Apache Tomcat web server and a MySQL database. All data are stored in a central databank to establish a Chinese renal database for research and publication purposes. Currently, over 270,000 clinical cases, including general patient information, diagnostics, therapies, medications, and laboratory tests, have been registered in CNRDS by 3,669 healthcare institutions qualified for hemodialysis therapy. At the 2011 annual blood purification forum of the Chinese Society of Nephrology, the CNRDS 2010 annual report was reviewed and accepted by the society members and government representatives. CNRDS is the first national, web-based application for collecting and managing electronic medical records of patients with dialysis in China. It provides both an easily accessible platform for nephrologists to store and organize their patient data and acts as a communication platform among participating doctors. Moreover, it is the largest database for treatment and patient care of end-stage renal disease (ESRD) patients in China, which will be beneficial for scientific research and epidemiological investigations aimed at improving the quality of life of such patients. Furthermore, it is a

  17. Design and implementation of the first nationwide, web-based Chinese Renal Data System (CNRDS)

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background In April 2010, with an endorsement from the Ministry of Health of the People's Republic of China, the Chinese Society of Nephrology launched the first nationwide, web-based prospective renal data registration platform, the Chinese Renal Data System (CNRDS), to collect structured demographic, clinical, and laboratory data for dialysis cases, as well as to establish a kidney disease database for researchers and policy makers. Methods The CNRDS program uses information technology to facilitate healthcare professionals to create a blood purification registry and to deliver an evidence-based care and education protocol tailored to chronic kidney disease, as well as online forum for communication between nephrologists. The online portal https://www.cnrds.net is implemented as a Java web application using an Apache Tomcat web server and a MySQL database. All data are stored in a central databank to establish a Chinese renal database for research and publication purposes. Results Currently, over 270,000 clinical cases, including general patient information, diagnostics, therapies, medications, and laboratory tests, have been registered in CNRDS by 3,669 healthcare institutions qualified for hemodialysis therapy. At the 2011 annual blood purification forum of the Chinese Society of Nephrology, the CNRDS 2010 annual report was reviewed and accepted by the society members and government representatives. Conclusions CNRDS is the first national, web-based application for collecting and managing electronic medical records of patients with dialysis in China. It provides both an easily accessible platform for nephrologists to store and organize their patient data and acts as a communication platform among participating doctors. Moreover, it is the largest database for treatment and patient care of end-stage renal disease (ESRD) patients in China, which will be beneficial for scientific research and epidemiological investigations aimed at improving the quality of life of

  18. Blood Meal Analysis and Virus Detection in Blood-Fed Mosquitoes Collected During the 2006–2007 Rift Valley Fever Outbreak in Kenya

    PubMed Central

    Omondi, David; Masiga, Daniel; Mutai, Collins; Mireji, Paul O.; Ongus, Juliette; Linthicum, Ken J.; Sang, Rosemary

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Background: Rift Valley fever (RVF) is a zoonosis of domestic ruminants in Africa. Blood-fed mosquitoes collected during the 2006–2007 RVF outbreak in Kenya were analyzed to determine the virus infection status and animal source of the blood meals. Materials and Methods: Blood meals from individual mosquito abdomens were screened for viruses using Vero cells and RT-PCR. DNA was also extracted and the cytochrome c oxidase 1 (CO1) and cytochrome b (cytb) genes amplified by PCR. Purified amplicons were sequenced and queried in GenBank and Barcode of Life Database (BOLD) to identify the putative blood meal sources. Results: The predominant species in Garissa were Aedes ochraceus, (n=561, 76%) and Ae. mcintoshi, (n=176, 24%), and Mansonia uniformis, (n=24, 72.7%) in Baringo. Ae. ochraceus fed on goats (37.6%), cattle (16.4%), donkeys (10.7%), sheep (5.9%), and humans (5.3%). Ae. mcintoshi fed on the same animals in almost equal proportions. RVFV was isolated from Ae. ochraceus that had fed on sheep (4), goats (3), human (1), cattle (1), and unidentified host (1), with infection and dissemination rates of 1.8% (10/561) and 50% (5/10), respectively, and 0.56% (1/176) and 100% (1/1) in Ae. mcintoshi. In Baringo, Ma. uniformis fed on sheep (38%), frogs (13%), duikers (8%), cattle (4%), goats (4%), and unidentified hosts (29%), with infection and dissemination rates of 25% (6/24) and 83.3% (5/6), respectively. Ndumu virus (NDUV) was also isolated from Ae. ochraceus with infection and dissemination rates of 2.3% (13/561) and 76.9% (10/13), and Ae. mcintoshi, 2.8% (5/176) and 80% (4/5), respectively. Ten of the infected Ae. ochraceus had fed on goats, sheep (1), and unidentified hosts (2), and Ae. mcintoshi on goats (3), camel (1), and donkey (1). Conclusion: This study has demonstrated that RVFV and NDUV were concurrently circulating during the outbreak, and sheep and goats were the main amplifiers of these viruses respectively. PMID:25229704

  19. The UK Biobank sample handling and storage protocol for the collection, processing and archiving of human blood and urine.

    PubMed

    Elliott, Paul; Peakman, Tim C

    2008-04-01

    UK Biobank is a large prospective study in the UK to investigate the role of genetic factors, environmental exposures and lifestyle in the causes of major diseases of late and middle age. Extensive data and biological samples are being collected from 500,000 participants aged between 40 and 69 years. The biological samples that are collected and how they are processed and stored will have a major impact on the future scientific usefulness of the UK Biobank resource. The aim of the UK Biobank sample handling and storage protocol is to specify methods for the collection and storage of participant samples that give maximum scientific return within the available budget. Processing or storage methods that, as far as can be predicted, will preclude current or future assays have been avoided. The protocol was developed through a review of the literature on sample handling and processing, wide consultation within the academic community and peer review. Protocol development addressed which samples should be collected, how and when they should be processed and how the processed samples should be stored to ensure their long-term integrity. The recommended protocol was extensively tested in a series of validation studies. UK Biobank collects about 45 ml blood and 9 ml of urine with minimal local processing from each participant using the vacutainer system. A variety of preservatives, anti-coagulants and clot accelerators is used appropriate to the expected end use of the samples. Collection of other material (hair, nails, saliva and faeces) was also considered but rejected for the full cohort. Blood and urine samples from participants are transported overnight by commercial courier to a central laboratory where they are processed and aliquots of urine, plasma, serum, white cells and red cells stored in ultra-low temperature archives. Aliquots of whole blood are also stored for potential future production of immortalized cell lines. A standard panel of haematology assays is

  20. Blood meal identification and prevalence of avian malaria parasite in mosquitoes collected at Kushiro wetland, a subarctic zone of Japan.

    PubMed

    Ejiri, Hiroko; Sato, Yukita; Kim, Kyeong Soon; Tsuda, Yoshio; Murata, Koichi; Saito, Keisuke; Watanabe, Yukiko; Shimura, Yoshiharu; Yukawa, Masayoshi

    2011-07-01

    In Japan, the prevalence of avian Plasmodium in birds and mosquitoes has been partially examined in the temperate and subtropical zones; however, mosquitoes in the Japanese subarctic zone have not been adequately investigated. In this study, mosquito collections and avian Plasmodium detections from the mosquito samples were carried out to demonstrate the avian Plasmodium transmission between vector mosquitoes and birds inhabiting in Kushiro Wetland, subarctic zone of Japan. A total of 5657 unfed mosquitoes from 18 species and 320 blood-fed mosquitoes from eight species was collected in summer 2008, 2009, and 2010. Three Aedes esoensis that fed on Hokkaido Sika Deer and one unfed Culex pipiens group were found to be positive for avian Plasmodium by polymerase chain reaction. This is the first report of the detection of avian Plasmodium DNA from mosquitoes distributing in the subarctic zone of Japan. The blood meals were successfully identified to captive or wild animals, including seven mammalian species, four bird species, and one amphibian species. These results indicated that infected birds with avian Plasmodium inhabited and direct contacts occurred between the infected birds and mosquitoes in Kushiro Wetland, Hokkaido, Japan.

  1. Race and ethnicity influences collection of G-CSF mobilized peripheral blood progenitor cells from unrelated donors, a CIBMTR analysis

    PubMed Central

    Hsu, Jack W.; Wingard, John R.; Logan, Brent R.; Chitphakdithai, Pintip; Akpek, Gorgun; Anderlini, Paolo; Artz, Andrew S.; Bredeson, Chris; Goldstein, Steven; Hale, Gregory; Hematti, Pieman; Joshi, Sarita; Kamble, Rammurti T.; Lazarus, Hillard M.; O'Donnell, Paul V.; Pulsipher, Michael A.; Savani, Bipin; Schears, Raquel M.; Shaw, Bronwen E.; Confer, Dennis L.

    2014-01-01

    Little information exists on the effect of race and ethnicity on collection of peripheral blood stem cells (PBSC) for allogeneic transplantation. We studied 10776 donors from the National Marrow Donor Program who underwent PBSC collection from 2006-2012. Self-reported donor race/ethnic information included Caucasian, Hispanic, Black/African American (AA), Asian/Pacific Islander (API), and Native American (NA). All donors were mobilized with subcutaneous filgrastim (G-CSF) at an approximate dose of 10 µg/kg/d for 5 days. Overall, AA donors had the highest median yields of mononuclear cells (MNC)/L and CD34+ cells/L blood processed (3.1 × 109 and 44 × 106 respectively) while Caucasians had the lowest median yields at 2.8 × 109 and 33.7 × 106 respectively. Multivariate analysis of CD34+/L mobilization yields using Caucasians as the comparator and controlling for age, gender, body mass index, and year of apheresis revealed increased yields in overweight and obese AA and API donors. In Hispanic donors, only male obese donors had higher CD34+/L mobilization yields compared to Caucasian donors. No differences in CD34+/L yields were seen between Caucasian and NA donors. Characterization of these differences may allow optimization of mobilization regimens to allow enhancement of mobilization yields without compromising donor safety. PMID:25316111

  2. Concentrations of drugs determined in blood samples collected from suspected drugged drivers in England and Wales.

    PubMed

    Burch, Hilary J; Clarke, Elizabeth J; Hubbard, Alison M; Scott-Ham, Michael

    2013-05-01

    This communication reports the blood concentrations of alcohol and drugs from 376 cases of alleged driving under the influence of drugs analysed at the Forensic Science Service Chorley and London laboratories between February 2010 and March 2011. The samples were analysed for alcohol, amphetamine, benzodiazepines, cocaine, MDMA, opiates, γ-hydroxybutyrate (GHB), ketamine, methadone and methylmethcathinone (the 4-isomer of which is known as mephedrone). The results were interpreted with respect to the number and type of drugs of abuse detected and the concentrations measured. Alcohol was quantified in 113 cases (30%), and of these a level in excess of the prescribed UK limit for driving of 80 mg% was present in 90 cases. In 80 cases, only the concentration of alcohol was measured, the concentrations of both drugs and alcohol were measured in 33 cases. In the remaining 263 cases, only the concentrations of relevant drugs of abuse were measured. The most common drug of abuse quantified was cocaine which was detected in 92 cases, either as the active drug or as its major metabolite benzoylecgonine, followed by diazepam which was quantified in 76 cases. Concentrations of some new drugs, and drugs rarely reported in driving under the influence cases are also presented. Crown Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Standard Operating Procedure; Red Blood Cells Collected in the CPDA-1 800 ml Primary PVC Plastic Bag Collection System and Stored for 3 to 6 Days Prior to Glycerolization in the Primary 800 ml Bag Using 40% W/V Glycerol and Storage at -80 C, Washed in the Haemonetics Blood Processor 115, and Stored at 4 C for up to 24 Hours Prior to Transfusion

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1997-01-01

    contains 63 ml of citrate-phosphate-dextrose-adenine (CPDA-1) anticoagulant . After collection of 450 ml of blood in the primary collection bag, the unit...a non- anticoagulated blood sample for serum should be collected from the venipuncture site after the unit of whole blood is collected. The serum...hematocrit of 75 + 5 V% is prepared. All the visible plasma is removed. Ideally, a non- anticoagulated blood sample for serum should be collected from

  4. Population Dynamics of Blood-Fed Female Mosquitoes and Comparative Efficacy of Resting Boxes in Collecting them from the Northwestern Part of Riverside County, California.

    PubMed

    Sandhu, Tejbir S; Williams, Gregory W; Haynes, Bryan W; Dhillon, Major S

    2013-01-01

    Testing of blood-fed mosquitoes plays an integral role in arbovirus surveillance and in understanding its interaction mechanisms between host, vector and reservoir. The present study was undertaken to evaluate the efficacy of two different traps (gravid and resting boxes) for collection of blood-fed mosquitoes in the northwestern part of Riverside County. Three trapping sites were selected in the Northwest Mosquito and Vector Control District of Riverside County, California. At each site resting boxes and gravid traps were set; and mosquitoes were collected on a weekly basis between July-December 2009. Mosquitoes were transported over blue ice, identified up to species level on chill table, and classified as male, female and blood-fed females. During this study period, 3953 mosquitoes (826 blood-fed females) belonging to three different genera and eight species were collected; resting boxes collecting maximum number (seven) of mosquito species. Overall as well as individually in each trap kind, the most abundant mosquito species collected was Cx. quinquefasciatus. The proportion of blood-fed females of the Culex species collected in resting boxes was 28.8 times more, while of blood-fed females of Cx. quinquefasciatus was 32.2 times more than the proportion collected from gravid traps. Overall, the proportion of blood-fed female mosquitoes collected for each species trapped was highest in resting boxes. Additionally, resting boxes showed the advantage of extremely low running and maintenance cost; generation of no hazardous waste; quick turnaround time in terms of mosquito collection per man-hour spent; and they were less prone to vandalism or thefts.

  5. Population Dynamics of Blood-Fed Female Mosquitoes and Comparative Efficacy of Resting Boxes in Collecting them from the Northwestern Part of Riverside County, California

    PubMed Central

    Sandhu, Tejbir S; Williams, Gregory W; Haynes, Bryan W; Dhillon, Major S

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: Testing of blood-fed mosquitoes plays an integral role in arbovirus surveillance and in understanding its interaction mechanisms between host, vector and reservoir. The present study was undertaken to evaluate the efficacy of two different traps (gravid and resting boxes) for collection of blood-fed mosquitoes in the northwestern part of Riverside County. Materials and Methods: Three trapping sites were selected in the Northwest Mosquito and Vector Control District of Riverside County, California. At each site resting boxes and gravid traps were set; and mosquitoes were collected on a weekly basis between July-December 2009. Mosquitoes were transported over blue ice, identified up to species level on chill table, and classified as male, female and blood-fed females. Results: During this study period, 3953 mosquitoes (826 blood-fed females) belonging to three different genera and eight species were collected; resting boxes collecting maximum number (seven) of mosquito species. Overall as well as individually in each trap kind, the most abundant mosquito species collected was Cx. quinquefasciatus. The proportion of blood-fed females of the Culex species collected in resting boxes was 28.8 times more, while of blood-fed females of Cx. quinquefasciatus was 32.2 times more than the proportion collected from gravid traps. Conclusions: Overall, the proportion of blood-fed female mosquitoes collected for each species trapped was highest in resting boxes. Additionally, resting boxes showed the advantage of extremely low running and maintenance cost; generation of no hazardous waste; quick turnaround time in terms of mosquito collection per man-hour spent; and they were less prone to vandalism or thefts. PMID:23599612

  6. Prothrombin activation fragment 1 + 2 as a marker of coagulation activation in cord blood collection for banking.

    PubMed

    Juutistenaho, S; Vahtera, E; Aranko, K; Kekomäki, R

    2010-08-01

    There have been efforts to increase the quality of cord blood (CB) collections aimed at banking and transplantation. Yet, the effect of CB collection techniques on haemostatic activation is scarcely studied, despite the unique nature of the neonatal haemostatic system. The aim of this study was to explore coagulation system and platelet (PLT) activation during CB collection at a national CB bank. At three time points over a 9-year period (in 1998, 2000 and 2006), CB collections were assessed to evaluate the collection process during bank setup and changes in procedures. Thrombin generation and PLT activation were assessed with prothrombin activation fragment 1 + 2 (F1 + 2) and PLT factor 4 (PF4), respectively. The median F1 + 2 level was 2.8 nmol L(-1) in 1998 (n = 11), 0.7 nmol L(-1) in 2000 (n = 10) and 0.7 nmol L(-1) in 2006 (n = 6), the decrease being statistically significant (1998 vs 2000, P < 0.001; 1998 vs 2006, P = 0.01). The median PF4 level was 117 IU mL(-1) in 1998 and 104 IU mL(-1) in 2000. PF4 was not measured in 2006. The level of F1 + 2 correlated with that of PF4 (n = 21; Spearman's Rho = 0.59, P = 0.006). Haemostatic activation, assessed as a part of CB bank process control, decreased from the first to the subsequent sample series. F1 + 2 may be a candidate for quality control in CB banking; however, further studies are needed to optimise the analyses and to assess the effect of haemostatic activation on CB quality.

  7. Autologous peripheral blood stem cell harvest: Collection efficiency and factors affecting it

    PubMed Central

    Tiwari, Aseem K.; Pandey, Prashant; Subbaraman, Harini; Bhargava, Rahul; Rawat, Ganesh; Madiraju, Shivani; Raina, Vimarsh; Bhargava, Richa

    2016-01-01

    Background: Harvest of hematopoietic progenitor cells via leukapheresis is being used increasingly for transplants in India. Adequate yield of cells per kilogram body weight of recipient is required for successful engraftment. Collection efficiency (CE) is an objective quality parameter used to assess the quality of leukapheresis program. In this study, we calculated the CE of the ComTec cell separator (Fresenius Kabi, Germany) using two different formulae (CE1 and CE2) and analyzed various patient and procedural factors, which may affect it. Materials and Methods: One hundred and one consecutive procedures in 77 autologous donors carried out over 3 years period were retrospectively reviewed. Various characteristics like gender, age, weight, disease status, hematocrit, preprocedure total leukocyte count, preprocedure CD34 positive (CD34+) cells count, preprocedure absolute CD34+ cell count and processed apheresis volume effect on CE were compared. CE for each procedure was calculated using two different formulae, and results were compared using statistical correlation and regression analysis. Results: The mean CE1 and CE2 was 41.2 and 49.1, respectively. CE2 appeared to be more accurate indicator of overall CE as it considered the impact of continued mobilization of stem cells during apheresis procedure, itself. Of all the factors affecting CE, preprocedure absolute CD34+ was the only independent factor affecting CE. Conclusion: The only factor affecting CE was preprocedure absolute CD34+ cells. Though the mean CE2 was higher than CE1, it was not statistically significant. PMID:27011680

  8. Improving the Diet for the Rearing of Glossina brevipalpis Newstead and Glossina austeni Newstead: Blood Source and Collection – Processing – Feeding Procedures

    PubMed Central

    De Beer, Chantel J.; Venter, Gert J.; Vreysen, Marc J. B.

    2016-01-01

    One of the challenges to maintain tsetse fly (Diptera: Glossinidae) colonies is the sustainable supply of high quality blood meals. The effect of using anticoagulants during collection of the blood, the addition of phagostimulants to the blood meals as well as using mixtures of bovine and porcine blood in different proportions for feeding on colony productivity was assessed. Defibrinated bovine blood was found to be suitable to maintain both the Glossina brevipalpis Newstead and Glossina austeni Newstead colonies. Blood collected with the anticoagulants sodium citrate, citric sodium combination, citrate phosphate dextrose adenine and citric acid did not affect colony performance of both species. Defibrinated bovine and porcine blood in a 1:1 ratio or the feeding of either bovine or porcine blood on alternating days improved pupae production of G. austeni and can be used to enhance colony growth. Bovine blood is appropriate to maintain G. brevipalpis colonies, however, feeding either bovine or porcine blood on alternating days did improve productivity. Adding the phagostimulants inosine tri-phosphate, cytosine mono-phosphate and guanosine mono-phosphate to the blood at a concentration of 10−4 M improved pupae production of the G. brevipalpis colony. The addition of adenosine tri-phosphate and inosine tri-phosphate improved the performance of the G. austeni colony. Decisions on the most suitable rearing diet and feeding protocols will not only depend on the biological requirements of the species but also on the continuous supply of a suitable blood source that can be collected and processed in a cost-effective way. PMID:28006007

  9. Isolation of endothelial colony-forming cells from blood samples collected from the jugular and cephalic veins of healthy adult horses.

    PubMed

    Sharpe, Ashley N; Seeto, Wen J; Winter, Randolph L; Zhong, Qiao; Lipke, Elizabeth A; Wooldridge, Anne A

    2016-10-01

    OBJECTIVE To evaluate optimal isolation of endothelial colony-forming cells (ECFCs) from peripheral blood of horses. SAMPLE Jugular and cephalic venous blood samples from 17 adult horses. PROCEDURES Each blood sample was divided; isolation was performed with whole blood adherence (WBA) and density gradient centrifugation (DGC). Isolated cells were characterized by uptake of 1,1'-dioctadecyl-3,3,3',3'-tetramethylindocarbocyanine perchlorate-labeled acetylated low-density lipoprotein (DiI-Ac-LDL), vascular tubule formation, and expression of endothelial (CD34, CD105, vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-2, and von Willebrand factor) and hematopoietic (CD14) cell markers by use of indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA) and flow cytometry. RESULTS Colonies with cobblestone morphology were isolated from 15 of 17 horses. Blood collected from the cephalic vein yielded colonies significantly more often (14/17 horses) than did blood collected from the jugular vein (8/17 horses). Of 14 cephalic blood samples with colonies, 13 were obtained with DGC and 8 with WBA. Of 8 jugular blood samples with colonies, 8 were obtained with DGC and 4 with WBA. Colony frequency (colonies per milliliter of blood) was significantly higher for cephalic blood samples and samples isolated with DGC. Cells formed vascular tubules, had uptake of DiI-Ac-LDL, and expressed endothelial markers by use of IFA and flow cytometry, which confirmed their identity as ECFCs. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Maximum yield of ECFCs was obtained for blood samples collected from both the jugular and cephalic veins and use of DGC to isolate cells. Consistent yield of ECFCs from peripheral blood of horses will enable studies to evaluate diagnostic and therapeutic uses.

  10. Cord blood banks collect units with different HLA alleles and haplotypes to volunteer donor banks: a comparative report from Swiss Blood stem cells.

    PubMed

    Meyer-Monard, S; Passweg, J; Troeger, C; Eberhard, H-P; Roosnek, E; de Faveri, G Nicoloso; Chalandon, Y; Rovo, A; Kindler, V; Irion, O; Holzgreve, W; Gratwohl, A; Müller, C; Tichelli, A; Tiercy, J-M

    2009-05-01

    Allogeneic haematopoietic SCT is a standard therapy for many patients with haematological diseases. A major aim of public umbilical cord blood (UCB) banking is to establish an inventory with a large HLA diversity. Few studies have compared HLA diversity between UCB banks and volunteer unrelated donor (VUD) registries and examined whether UCB banks indeed collect more units with rare alleles and haplotypes. This study compares HLA-A/B/DRB1 allele frequencies and inferred A/B/DRB1-haplotypes in 1602 UCB units and 3093 VUD from two centres in distinct recruitment areas in Switzerland. The results show that the frequencies of HLA-DRB1 alleles as well as of the HLA-A/B/DRB1 haplotypes differ between UCB and VUD. Ten DRB1 alleles occurred at a 2- to 12-fold higher relative frequency in UCB than in VUD and 27 rare alleles were identified in UCB. Out of these 27 alleles, 15 were absent in the entire VUD data set of the national registry. This difference in allele frequencies was found only by intermediate/high-resolution typing. Targeted recruitment of UCB units from non-Caucasian donors could further increase HLA allele and haplotype diversity of available donors. Intermediate or high-resolution DNA typing is essential to identify rare alleles or allele groups.

  11. Method and apparatus for the collection, storage, and real time analysis of blood and other bodily fluids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitson, Peggy A. (Inventor); Clift, Vaughan L. (Inventor)

    1994-01-01

    The present invention provides a simple, portable, relatively inexpensive apparatus for accurately and efficiently collecting, separating, testing, and even storing between about 1-20 ml, preferably about 1-10 ml, of blood or other bodily fluid in situ. The apparatus includes a collection chamber bounded on its sides by an opening in a sheet of material, preferably clear plastic, abutting a filter card. The filter card is made of fibrous material, preferably less than about a millimeter thick, having an average pore size of less than about 3 microns. Preferably, the fibers are glass and the fibrous material has an average pore size of about 1 micron. The fibrous material is treated with a carbohydrate/protein mixture which contains between about 1-40 percent wt/vol carbohydrate and about 0.1-15 percent wt/vol nonspecific protein, preferably between about 10-20 percent carbohydrate and about 5-8 percent protein. A preferred carbohydrate/protein mixture comprises about 10 percent mannitol and about 6 percent albumin. The blood or other fluid moves through the filter card by capillary action aided by an absorbent matrix with a high Klemm factor which abuts the filter card. The absorbent matrix and/or filter card can be treated with a wide spectrum of test reagents. The speed, cleanliness, and efficiency of the separation process can be altered by: (a) changing the absolute concentration of the carbohydrate/protein mixture; (b) applying positive or negative pressure to one side of the filter; and/or (c) varying the relative density and pore size of the filter card and absorbent matrix.

  12. Determination of reference intervals and comparison of venous blood gas parameters using standard and non-standard collection methods in 24 cats.

    PubMed

    Bachmann, Karin; Kutter, Annette Pn; Schefer, Rahel Jud; Marly-Voquer, Charlotte; Sigrist, Nadja

    2017-08-01

    Objectives The aim of this study was to determine in-house reference intervals (RIs) for venous blood analysis with the RAPIDPoint 500 blood gas analyser using blood gas syringes (BGSs) and to determine whether immediate analysis of venous blood collected into lithium heparin (LH) tubes can replace anaerobic blood sampling into BGSs. Methods Venous blood was collected from 24 healthy cats and directly transferred into a BGS and an LH tube. The BGS was immediately analysed on the RAPIDPoint 500 followed by the LH tube. The BGSs and LH tubes were compared using paired t-test or Wilcoxon matched-pairs signed-rank test, Bland-Altman and Passing-Bablok analysis. To assess clinical relevance, bias or percentage bias between BGSs and LH tubes was compared with the allowable total error (TEa) recommended for the respective parameter. Results Based on the values obtained from the BGSs, RIs were calculated for the evaluated parameters, including blood gases, electrolytes, glucose and lactate. Values derived from LH tubes showed no significant difference for standard bicarbonate, whole blood base excess, haematocrit, total haemoglobin, sodium, potassium, chloride, glucose and lactate, while pH, partial pressure of carbon dioxide and oxygen, actual bicarbonate, extracellular base excess, ionised calcium and anion gap were significantly different to the samples collected in BGSs ( P <0.05). Furthermore, pH, partial pressure of carbon dioxide and oxygen, extracellular base excess, ionised calcium and anion gap exceeded the recommended TEa. Conclusions and relevance Assessment of actual and standard bicarbonate, whole blood base excess, haematocrit, total haemoglobin, sodium, potassium, chloride, glucose and lactate can be made based on blood collected in LH tubes and analysed within 5 mins. For pH, partial pressure of carbon dioxide and oxygen, extracellular base excess, anion gap and ionised calcium the clinically relevant alterations have to be considered if analysed in LH

  13. Significant Reduction in Preanalytical Errors for Nonphlebotomy Blood Draws After Implementation of a Novel Integrated Specimen Collection Module.

    PubMed

    Le, Rachel D; Melanson, Stacy E F; Petrides, Athena K; Goonan, Ellen M; Bixho, Ida; Landman, Adam B; Brogan, Anne Marie; Bates, David W; Tanasijevic, Milenko J

    2016-10-01

    Most preanalytical errors at our institution occur during nonphlebotomy blood draws. We implemented an electronic health record (EHR), interfaced the EHR to the laboratory information system, and designed a new specimen collection module. We studied the effects of the new system on nonphlebotomy preanalytical errors. We used an electronic database of preanalytical errors and calculated the number and type of the most common errors in the emergency department (ED) and inpatient nursing for 3-month periods before (August-October 2014) and after (August-October 2015) implementation. The level of staff compliance with the new system was also assessed. The average monthly preanalytical errors decreased significantly from 7.95 to 1.45 per 1,000 specimens in the ED (P < 0001) and 11.75 to 3.25 per 1,000 specimens in inpatient nursing (P < 0001). The rate of decrease was similar for mislabeled, unlabeled, wrong specimen received and no specimen received errors. Most residual errors (80% in the ED and 67% in inpatient nursing) occurred when providers did not use the new system as designed. Implementation of a customized specimen collection module led to a significant reduction in preanalytical errors. Improved compliance with the system may lead to further reductions in error rates. © American Society for Clinical Pathology, 2016. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. Innovative Strategies for Decreasing Blood Collection Wait Times for Patients in Early-Phase Cancer Clinical Trials.

    PubMed

    Mengistu, Bayabel; Ray, Dina; Lockett, Passion; Dorsey, Vivian; Phipps, Ron A; Subramanian, Harihara; Atkins, Johnique T; El Osta, Badi; Falchook, Gerald S; Karp, Daniel D

    2016-07-01

    Long wait times are a primary source of dissatisfaction among patients enrolled in early-phase clinical trials. We hypothesized that an automated patient check-in system with readily available display for increasing awareness of waiting intervals would improve patient flow and use of our rooms, with decreased turnover time and increased throughput. We recorded in-room wait times for patients seen in our clinic and observed the logistics involved in the blood collection process to delineate causes for delays. We then implemented a three-step strategy to alleviate the causes of these delays: (1) changing the collection of materials and the review of faxed orders, (2) improving our LabTracker automated database system that included wait time calculators and real-time information regarding patient status, and (3) streamlining lower complexity appointments. After our intervention, we observed a 19% decrease in mean wait times and a 30% decrease in wait times among patients waiting the longest (95th percentile). We also observed an increase in staff productivity during this process. Modifications in LabTracker provided the biggest reduction in mean wait times (17%). We observed a significant decrease in mean wait times after implementing our intervention. This decrease led to increased staff productivity and cost savings. Once wait times became a measurable metric, we were able to identify causes for delays and improve our operations, which can be performed in any patient care facility. Copyright © 2016 by American Society of Clinical Oncology.

  15. Effect of collection, transport, processing and storage of blood specimens on the activity of lysosomal enzymes in plasma and leukocytes.

    PubMed

    Burin, M; Dutra-Filho, C; Brum, J; Mauricio, T; Amorim, M; Giugliani, R

    2000-09-01

    This study was designed to evaluate the effect of different conditions of collection, transport and storage on the quality of blood samples from normal individuals in terms of the activity of the enzymes ss-glucuronidase, total hexosaminidase, hexosaminidase A, arylsulfatase A and ss-galactosidase. The enzyme activities were not affected by the different materials used for collection (plastic syringes or vacuum glass tubes). In the evaluation of different heparin concentrations (10% heparin, 5% heparin, and heparinized syringe) in the syringes, it was observed that higher doses resulted in an increase of at least 1-fold in the activities of ss-galactosidase, total hexosaminidase and hexosaminidase A in leukocytes, and ss-glucuronidase in plasma. When the effects of time and means of transportation were studied, samples that had been kept at room temperature showed higher deterioration with time (72 and 96 h) before processing, and in this case it was impossible to isolate leukocytes from most samples. Comparison of heparin and acid citrate-dextrose (ACD) as anticoagulants revealed that ss-glucuronidase and hexosaminidase activities in plasma reached levels near the lower normal limits when ACD was used. In conclusion, we observed that heparin should be used as the preferable anticoagulant when measuring these lysosomal enzyme activities, and we recommend that, when transport time is more than 24 h, samples should be shipped by air in a styrofoam box containing wet ice.

  16. Nutrition: blood sample collection

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2007-03-20

    ISS014-E-17550 (20 March 2007) --- Astronaut Michael E. Lopez-Alegria, Expedition 14 commander and NASA space station science officer, prepares to insert a test sample in the Minus Eighty Degree Laboratory Freezer for ISS (MELFI) as part of the Nutritional Status Assessment (NUTRITION) experiment in the Destiny laboratory of the International Space Station. MELFI is a low temperature freezer facility with nominal operating temperatures of -80, -26 and +4 degrees Celsius that will preserve experiment materials over long periods.

  17. Nutrition: blood sample collection

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2007-03-20

    ISS014-E-17547 (20 March 2007) --- Astronaut Michael E. Lopez-Alegria, Expedition 14 commander and NASA space station science officer, prepares to insert a test sample in the Minus Eighty Degree Laboratory Freezer for ISS (MELFI) as part of the Nutritional Status Assessment (NUTRITION) experiment in the Destiny laboratory of the International Space Station. MELFI is a low temperature freezer facility with nominal operating temperatures of -80, -26 and +4 degrees Celsius that will preserve experiment materials over long periods.

  18. The design and evaluation of a shaped filter collection device to sample and store defined volume dried blood spots from finger pricks.

    PubMed

    Polley, Spencer D; Bell, David; Oliver, James; Tully, Frank; Perkins, Mark D; Chiodini, Peter L; González, Iveth J

    2015-02-05

    Dried blood spots are a common medium for collecting patient blood prior to testing for malaria by molecular methods. A new shaped filter device for the quick and simple collection of a designated volume of patient blood has been designed and tested against conventional blood spots for accuracy and precision. Shaped filter devices were laser cut from Whatman GB003 paper to absorb a 20 μl blood volume. These devices were used to sample Plasmodium falciparum infected blood and the volume absorbed was measured volumetrically. Conventional blood spots were made by pipetting 20 μl of the same blood onto Whatman 3MM paper. DNA was extracted from both types of dried blood spot using Qiagen DNA blood mini or Chelex extraction for real-time PCR analysis, and PURE extraction for malaria LAMP testing. The shaped filter devices collected a mean volume of 21.1 μl of blood, with a coefficient of variance of 8.1%. When used for DNA extraction by Chelex and Qiagen methodologies the mean number of international standard units of P. falciparum DNA recovered per μl of the eluate was 53.1 (95% CI: 49.4 to 56.7) and 32.7 (95% CI: 28.8 to 36.6), respectively for the shaped filter device, and 54.6 (95% CI: 52.1 to 57.1) and 12.0 (95% CI: 9.9 to 14.1), respectively for the 3MM blood spots. Qiagen extraction of 200 μl of whole infected blood yielded 853.6 international standard units of P. falciparum DNA per μl of eluate. A shaped filter device provides a simple way to quickly sample and store a defined volume of blood without the need for any additional measuring devices. Resultant dried blood spots may be employed for DNA extraction using a variety of technologies for nucleic acid amplification without the need for repeated cleaning of scissors or punches to prevent cross contamination of samples and results are comparable to traditional DBS.

  19. Advanced lytic lesion is a poor mobilization factor in peripheral blood stem cell collection in patients with multiple myeloma.

    PubMed

    Jung, Sung-Hoon; Yang, Deok-Hwan; Ahn, Jae-Sook; Kim, Yeo-Kyeoung; Kim, Hyeoung-Joon; Lee, Je-Jung

    2014-12-01

    This study examined the incidence and predictors of peripheral blood stem cell (PBSC) mobilization failure in patients with multiple myeloma (MM). Retrospective data for 104 patients who received granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) alone or with cyclophosphamide as mobilization regimens were analyzed. The rates of mobilization failure using two definitions of failure (< 2 × 10(6) and < 4 × 10(6) CD34(+) cells/kg) following the first collection attempt were 16.3 and 33.7%, respectively. Predictors of mobilization failure were evaluated using logistic regression analysis which included age, advanced osteolytic lesions, bone marrow cellularity before mobilization, platelet count, body mass index before mobilization, and mobilization method. Lytic bone lesions were assessed using a conventional skeletal survey, and advanced osteolytic lesions were defined as lytic lesions in more than three skeletal sites regardless of the number of lytic lesions. On multivariate analysis, advanced osteolytic lesions [hazard ratio (HR) = 10.95, P = 0.001] and age ≥60 years (HR = 5.45, P = 0.016) were associated with a PBSC yield < 2 × 10(6) CD34(+) cells/kg, and advanced osteolytic lesions (HR = 5.08, P = 0.006), white blood cell count ≤4,000/µL before mobilization (HR = 4.72, P = 0.005), and G-CSF only mobilization (HR 10.52, P < 0.001) were associated with PBSC yield < 4 × 10(6) CD34(+) cells/kg. The data suggest that an advanced osteolytic lesion is a significant predictor of mobilization failure in MM patients.

  20. The post-occipital spinal venous sinus of the Nile crocodile Crocodylus niloticus: its anatomy and use for blood sample collection and intravenous infusions.

    PubMed

    Myburgh, Jan G; Kirberger, Robert M; Steyl, Johan C A; Soley, John T; Booyse, Dirk G; Huchzermeyer, Fritz W; Lowers, Russel H; Guillette, Louis J

    2014-05-05

    The post-occipital sinus of the spinal vein is often used for the collection of blood samples from crocodilians. Although this sampling method has been reported for several crocodilian species, the technique and associated anatomy has not been described in detail in any crocodilian, including the Nile crocodile (Crocodylus niloticus). The anatomy of the cranial neck region was investigated macroscopically, microscopically, radiographically and by means of computed tomography. Latex was injected into the spinal vein and spinal venous sinus of crocodiles to visualise the regional vasculature. The spinal vein ran within the vertebral canal, dorsal to and closely associated with the spinal cord and changed into a venous sinus cranially in the post-occipital region. For blood collection, the spinal venous sinus was accessed through the interarcuate space between the atlas and axis (C1 and C2) by inserting a needle angled just off the perpendicular in the midline through the craniodorsal cervical skin, just cranial to the cranial borders of the first cervical osteoderms. The most convenient method of blood collection was with a syringe and hypodermic needle. In addition, the suitability of the spinal venous sinus for intravenous injections and infusions in live crocodiles was evaluated. The internal diameter of the commercial human epidural catheters used during these investigations was relatively small, resulting in very slow infusion rates. Care should be taken not to puncture the spinal cord or to lacerate the blood vessel wall using this route for blood collection or intravenous infusions.

  1. A convenient method to measure blood-plasma concentration ratio using routine plasma collection in in vivo pharmacokinetic studies.

    PubMed

    Berezhkovskiy, Leonid M; Zhang, Xiaolin; Cheong, Jonathan

    2011-12-01

    A practical time-saving method of determination of equilibrium blood-plasma concentration ratio is described. The method is based on the analysis of compound plasma concentrations in regular blood sample and the blood sample diluted with blank plasma. Since only plasma concentrations are analyzed, the method can be conveniently applied in routine pharmacokinetic studies with minimal additional work for obtaining blood-plasma ratio. The method can also be easily used in in vitro experiment. The results obtained by suggested method are in good agreement with that obtained by common in vitro measurements of blood-plasma ratio.

  2. Development of an animal-borne blood sample collection device and its deployment for the determination of cardiovascular and stress hormones in submerged phocid seals.

    PubMed

    Takei, Yoshio; Suzuki, Ippei; Wong, Marty Kwok-Shing; Milne, Ryan; Moss, Simon; Sato, Katsufumi; Hall, Ailsa

    2016-08-31

    An animal-borne blood sampler with data logging functions was developed for phocid seals which collected two blood samples for the comparison of endocrinological/biochemical parameters under two different conditions. The sampler can be triggered by preset hydrostatic pressure, acceleration (descending or ascending), temperature and time, and also manually by light. The sampling was reliable with >78% successful attempts to collect blood samples. Contamination of fluids in the tubing to the next blood sample was <1%, following the prior clearance of the tubing to a waste syringe. In captive harbor seals (Phoca vitulina) the automated blood sampling method was less stressful than direct blood withdrawal as plasma levels of stress hormones were lower in the former (p<0.05 for ACTH and p=0.078 for cortisol). HPLC analyses showed that both cortisol and cortisone were circulating in seal blood. Using the sampler, plasma levels of cardiovascular hormones, atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP), arginine vasopressin (AVP), and angiotensin II (AngII), were compared in grey seals (Halichoerus grypus), between samples collected when the animals were on land and in the water. HPLC analyses determined that [Met(12)] ANP (1-28) and various forms of angiotensins (AngII, III and IV) were circulating in seal blood. Although water immersion profoundly changes the plasma levels of cardiovascular hormones in terrestrial mammals, there were only tendencies towards an increase in ANP (p=0.069) and a decrease in AVP (p=0.074) in the seals. These results suggest that cardiovascular regulation in phocid seals may have undergone adaptation during evolution of the carnivore to a semi-aquatic lifestyle.

  3. 33 CFR 330.6 - Authorization by nationwide permit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Authorization by nationwide permit. 330.6 Section 330.6 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE NATIONWIDE PERMIT PROGRAM § 330.6 Authorization by nationwide permit. (a) Nationwide permit verification. (1)...

  4. Evaluation of Trapper-Collected Nobuto Filter-Paper Blood Samples for Distemper and Parvovirus Antibody Detection in Coyotes (Canis latrans) and Raccoons (Procyon lotor).

    PubMed

    Kamps, Amanda J; Dubay, Shelli A; Langenberg, Julie; Maes, Roger K

    2015-07-01

    Blood samples are often collected from free-ranging wildlife for antibody detection. However, filter-paper (FP) strips are more cost efficient and easy to collect and store. We evaluated trapper-collected FP strips and body-cavity blood for canine distemper (CDV) and parvovirus (CPV-2) antibody detection in raccoons (Procyon lotor) and coyotes (Canis latrans). From 2008 to 2010, licensed trappers near Madison and Milwaukee, Wisconsin, US collected paired samples from harvested animals. Canine distemper antibodies were detected using virus neutralization and parvovirus antibodies were detected using hemagglutination inhibition. Titers ≥ 1:32 for CDV and ≥ 1:25 for CPV-2 were considered evidence of exposure. Using Cohen's kappa test of agreement, FP strip titers agreed with sera for CDV in coyotes (n = 28, K = 0.772) and raccoons (n = 29, K = 0.858) and for CPV-2 in coyotes (n = 40, K = 0.775) and raccoons (n = 70, K = 0.646). However, raccoons determined to be exposed to CPV-2 from sera were unexposed by FP strips in 35% of the samples. Titer results may be affected by quality and volume of blood samples, interval between collection and processing, small sample sizes, and diagnostic testing procedures. Filter-paper strips can be useful for detecting CDV and CPV-2 exposure in coyotes and raccoons with correct field sample collection and appropriate diagnostic testing procedures.

  5. Impact of Angiotensin Type 1A Receptors in Principal Cells of the Collecting Duct on Blood Pressure and Hypertension.

    PubMed

    Chen, Daian; Stegbauer, Johannes; Sparks, Matthew A; Kohan, Donald; Griffiths, Robert; Herrera, Marcela; Gurley, Susan B; Coffman, Thomas M

    2016-06-01

    The main actions of the renin-angiotensin system to control blood pressure (BP) are mediated by the angiotensin type 1 receptors (AT1Rs). The major murine AT1R isoform, AT1AR, is expressed throughout the nephron, including the collecting duct in both principal and intercalated cells. Principal cells play the major role in sodium and water reabsorption. Although aldosterone is considered to be the dominant regulator of sodium reabsorption by principal cells, recent studies suggest a role for direct actions of AT1R. To specifically examine the contributions of AT1AR in principal cells to BP regulation and the development of hypertension in vivo, we generated inbred 129/SvEv mice with deletion of AT1AR from principal cells (PCKO). At baseline, we found that BPs measured by radiotelemetry were similar between PCKOs and controls. During 1-week of low-salt diet (<0.02% NaCl), BPs fell significantly (P<0.05) and to a similar extent in both groups. On a high-salt (6% NaCl) diet, BP increased but was not different between groups. During the initial phase of angiotensin II-dependent hypertension, there was a modest but significant attenuation of hypertension in PCKOs (163±6 mm Hg) compared with controls (178±2 mm Hg; P<0.05) that was associated with enhanced natriuresis and decreased alpha epithelial sodium channel activation in the medulla of PCKOs. However, from day 9 onward, BPs were indistinguishable between groups. Although effects of AT1AR on baseline BP and adaptation to changes in dietary salt are negligible, our studies suggest that direct actions of AT1AR contribute to the initiation of hypertension and epithelial sodium channel activation. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.

  6. P1PK, GLOB, and FORS blood group systems and GLOB collection: biochemical and clinical aspects. Do we understand it all yet?

    PubMed

    Kaczmarek, Radoslaw; Buczkowska, Anna; Mikołajewicz, Katarzyna; Krotkiewski, Hubert; Czerwinski, Marcin

    2014-07-01

    Antigens belonging to the P1PK, GLOB, and FORS blood group systems and the GLOB blood group collection represent a closely related set of 13 glycosphingolipids (GSLs). They are synthesized by the coordinated action of glycosyltransferases, encoded by at least 7 different loci. Three of these enzymes show either different activity or a different mRNA expression profile due to genetic polymorphisms, resulting in blood group diversity. In recent years, significant progress has been made in understanding the molecular background and biological functions of these GSLs. Their medical significance is often related to the existence of natural antibodies, as they may cause complications after transfusions and during pregnancies. In addition, GSLs belonging to these blood group systems are receptors for several pathogens. This review summarizes the present knowledge about the complicated network of enzymatic interactions leading to synthesis of these GSLs, as well as their clinical implications.

  7. Measurement of thyroid hormones in donkey (Equus asinus) blood and milk: validation of ELISA kits and evaluation of sample collection, handling and storage.

    PubMed

    Todini, Luca; Malfatti, Alessandro; Salimei, Elisabetta; Fantuz, Francesco

    2010-11-01

    Donkey's milk is well tolerated by human infants with cow's milk allergy and is useful in the treatment of human immune-related diseases and in the prevention of atherosclerosis. Thyroid hormones (TH) stimulate lactation and active triiodothyronine (T3) in colostrum and milk could take paracrine action supporting lactogenesis in the mother, and play physiological roles for the suckling offspring (systemic or within the gastrointestinal tract). The aims were to measure TH concentrations in donkey blood and milk, validate ELISA methods, evaluate the effects of sample collection and post-collection handling and the stability of TH in milk and blood serum and plasma samples. In milk and blood samples obtained from lactating jennies total concentrations of TH were assayed using competitive-type ELISA kits. Good validation results were obtained for both TH concentrations in blood serum and plasma and T3 in milk samples extracted with cold (-20°C) ethanol alkalinized (pH 9·0) with NH4OH. In most of the milk extract samples, thyroxine (T4) concentrations resulted below the sensitivity threshold. Intra- and inter-assay coefficients of variations of TH concentrations in different blood and milk samples were below 10%. Parallelism tests gave displacement lines parallel to those of the calibrators for both TH in blood serum and plasma and for T3 in milk extracts. Mean recovery rates were between 95% and 123%, but the concentration values approaching the highest calibrators were overestimated. Therefore, serum and plasma samples for T3 assay must be previously diluted with buffer. Both TH concentrations in blood serum and plasma and T3 in milk did not change during storage for up to 6 months at -20°C. In conclusion, the ELISA methods tested in the present study are suitable for determination of both TH concentrations in donkey blood samples, and for T3 measurement in milk, after extraction with cold alkaline ethanol.

  8. Nationwide Plan Review Phase 2 Report

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-06-16

    health risk , and safety are not developed at identified shelter site locations. Shelters face barriers to supplying medical services and sharing ...Planning is a key preparedness activity and a shared responsibility of all levels of government. The Department is committed to modernizing the...Nationwide Plan Review by DHS based on an analysis of 2004 population, risk , and need. Nationwide Plan Review: Phase 2 Report Page viii data, and

  9. The post-occipital spinal venous sinus of the Nile crocodile (Crocodylus niloticus): Its anatomy and use for blood sample collection and intravenous infusions.

    PubMed

    Myburgh, Jan G; Kirberger, Robert M; Steyl, Johan C A; Soley, John T; Booyse, Dirk G; Huchzermeyer, Fritz W; Lowers, Russel H; Guillette, Louis J

    2014-05-05

    The post-occipital sinus of the spinal vein is often used for the collection of blood samples from crocodilians. Although this sampling method has been reported for several crocodilian species, the technique and associated anatomy has not been described in detail in any crocodilian, including the Nile crocodile (Crocodylus niloticus). The anatomy of the cranial neck region was investigated macroscopically, microscopically, radiographically and by means of computed tomography. Latex was injected into the spinal vein and spinal venous sinus of crocodiles to visualise the regional vasculature. The spinal vein ran within the vertebral canal, dorsal to and closely associated with the spinal cord and changed into a venous sinus cranially in the post-occipital region. For blood collection, the spinal venous sinus was accessed through the interarcuate space between the atlas and axis (C1 and C2) by inserting a needle angled just off the perpendicular in the midline through the craniodorsal cervical skin, just cranial to the cranial borders of the first cervical osteoderms. The most convenient method of blood collection was with a syringe and hypodermic needle. In addition, the suitability of the spinal venous sinus for intravenous injections and infusions in live crocodiles was evaluated. The internal diameter of the commercial human epidural catheters used during these investigations was relatively small, resulting in very slow infusion rates. Care should be taken not to puncture the spinal cord or to lacerate the blood vessel wall using this route for blood collection or intravenous infusions.

  10. Using improved technology for filter paper-based blood collection to survey wild Sika deer for antibodies to hepatitis E virus

    PubMed Central

    Zimmerman, Carl; Stone, Roger; Engle, Ronald E.; Elkins, William; Nardone, Glenn A.; Emerson, Suzanne U.; Purcell, Robert H.

    2009-01-01

    Recent reports from Japan implicated wild Sika deer (Cervus nippon) in the zoonotic transmission of hepatitis E to humans. Seroprevalence studies were performed to determine if imported feral populations of Sika deer in Maryland and Virginia posed a similar risk of transmitting hepatitis E virus (HEV). Hunters collected blood on filter paper disks from freshly killed deer. The disks were desiccated and delivered to a collection point. The dried filters were weighed to estimate the amount of blood absorbed and were eluted and collected in one tube via a novel extraction system. The procedure was quantified and validated with negative and positive serum and blood samples obtained from domestic Sika deer before and after immunization with HEV recombinant capsid protein, respectively. None of the 155 tested samples contained antibody to HEV, suggesting that Sika deer in these populations, unlike those in Japan, do not pose a significant zoonotic threat for hepatitis E. However, the new method developed for collecting and eluting the samples should prove useful for field studies of many other pathogens. PMID:17336401

  11. Using improved technology for filter paper-based blood collection to survey wild Sika deer for antibodies to hepatitis E virus.

    PubMed

    Yu, Claro; Zimmerman, Carl; Stone, Roger; Engle, Ronald E; Elkins, William; Nardone, Glenn A; Emerson, Suzanne U; Purcell, Robert H

    2007-06-01

    Recent reports from Japan implicated wild Sika deer (Cervus nippon) in the zoonotic transmission of hepatitis E to humans. Seroprevalence studies were performed to determine if imported feral populations of Sika deer in Maryland and Virginia posed a similar risk of transmitting hepatitis E virus (HEV). Hunters collected blood on filter paper discs from freshly killed deer. The discs were desiccated and delivered to a collection point. The dried filters were weighed to estimate the amount of blood absorbed and were eluted and collected in one tube via a novel extraction system. The procedure was quantified and validated with negative and positive serum and blood samples obtained from domestic Sika deer before and after immunization with HEV recombinant capsid protein, respectively. None of the 155 tested samples contained antibody to HEV, suggesting that Sika deer in these populations, unlike those in Japan, do not pose a significant zoonotic threat for hepatitis E. However, the new method developed for collecting and eluting the samples should prove useful for field studies of many other pathogens.

  12. Volume-dependent collection of peripheral blood progenitor cells during large-volume leukapheresis for patients with solid tumours and haematological malignancies.

    PubMed

    Cassens, U; Ostkamp-Ostermann, P; van der Werf, N; Garritsen, H; Ostermann, H; Sibrowski, W

    1999-12-01

    We investigated the efficacy of peripheral blood progenitor cell (PBPC) collection during large-volume leukapheresis (LVL) in patients with solid tumours and haematological malignancies (n = 18). The time- and volume-dependent harvest of leucocytes (WBC), mononuclear cells (MNC), CD34+ cells and colony-forming cells (CFU-GM) during LVL was analysed in six sequentially filled collection bags processing four times the patient's blood volumes. The amounts of leucocytes (WBC) and the purity of mononuclear cells (MNC%) did not show any significant changes during LVL. The percentage of CD34+ cells remained constant for the first three bags but consecutively decreased from initially 1.71% CD34+ cells in the beginning of LVL to finally 1.34% CD34+ cells (P = 0.02). The mean numbers of colony-forming cells (CFU-GM) decreased from 74 microL-1 to 59 microL-1 during LVL (P = 0.16). Furthermore, the comparison of volume-dependent PBPC collection for patients with high, medium and low total yields of CD34+ cells showed similar kinetics on different levels for the three groups. We concluded that - relative to the initial total amount of PBPC harvested - comparable numbers of progenitor cells can be collected during all stages of LVL with a slight decreasing trend processing four times the patient's blood volumes.

  13. A Comparison of Discovered Regularities in Blood Glucose Readings across Two Data Collection Approaches Used with a Type 1 Diabetic Youth.

    PubMed

    Lee, Victor; Thurston, Travis; Thurston, Chris

    2017-07-05

    Type 1 diabetes requires frequent testing and monitoring of blood glucose levels in order to determine appropriate type and dosage of insulin administration. This can lead to thousands of individual measurements over the course of a lifetime of a single individual, of which very few are retained as part of a permanent record. The third author, aged 9, and his family have maintained several years of written records since his diagnosis with Type 1 diabetes at age 20 months, and have also recently begun to obtain automated records from a continuous glucose monitor. This paper compares regularities identified within aggregated manually-collected and automatically-collected blood glucose data visualizations by the family involved in monitoring the third author's diabetes. 7,437 handwritten entries of the third author's blood sugar readings were obtained from a personal archive, digitized, and visualized in Tableau data visualization software. 6,420 automatically collected entries from a Dexcom G4 Platinum continuous glucose monitor were obtained and visualized in Dexcom's Clarity data visualization report tool. The family was interviewed three times about diabetes data management and their impressions of data as presented in data visualizations. Interviews were audiorecorded or recorded with handwritten notes. The aggregated visualization of manually-collected data revealed consistent habitual times of day when blood sugar measurements were obtained. The family was not fully aware that their existing life routines and the third author's entry into formal schooling had created critical blind spots in their data that were often unmeasured. This was realized upon aggregate visualization of CGM data, but the discovery and use of these visualizations were not realized until a new healthcare provider required the family to find and use them. The lack of use of CGM aggregate visualization was reportedly because the default data displays seemed to provide already abundant

  14. A nationwide study of the epidemiology of relapsing polychondritis

    PubMed Central

    Horváth, Anna; Páll, Nóra; Molnár, Katalin; Kováts, Tamás; Surján, György; Vicsek, Tamás; Pollner, Péter

    2016-01-01

    Objective Relapsing polychondritis (RP) is a rare autoimmune inflammatory disease that attacks mainly cartilaginous structures or causes serious damage in proteoglycan-rich structures (the eyes, heart, blood vessels, inner ear). This study shows results regarding the epidemiology, progression, and associations of this highly variable disease by collecting all cases from a 124-million-person-year Central European nationwide cohort. Methods We used the Hungarian Health Care Database to identify all persons with possible RP infection. We followed patients who had International Classification of Diseases 10th edition code M94.1 at least once in their inpatient or outpatient records between January 1, 2002 and December 31, 2013 in Hungary. We classified these patients into disease severity groups by their drug consumption patterns between January 1, 2010 and December 31, 2013. We analyzed the regional distribution of RP incidences as well. Overall maps of comorbidity are presented with network layouts. Results We identified 256 patients with RP among cumulatively 11.5 million registered inhabitants. We classified these patients into four severity classes as “extremely mild” (n=144), “mild” (n=22), “moderate” (n=41), and “severe” (n=4). Two additional groups were defined for patients without available drug data as “suspected only” (n=23) and “confirmed but unknown treatment” (n=22). The age and sex distributions of patients were similar to worldwide statistics. Indeed, the overall survival was good (95% confidence interval for 5 years was 83.6%–92.9% and for 10 years was 75.0%–88.3% which corresponds to the overall survival of the general population in Hungary), and the associations with other autoimmune disorders were high (56%) in Hungary. Almost any disease can occur with RP; however, the symptoms of chromosomal abnormalities are only incidental. Spondylosis can be a sign of the activation of RP, while Sjögren syndrome is the most frequent

  15. Lead consumption of 18- to 36-month-old children as determined from duplicate diet collections: nutrient intakes, blood lead levels, and effects on growth.

    PubMed

    Stanek, K; Manton, W; Angle, C; Eskridge, K; Kuehneman, A; Hanson, C

    1998-02-01

    To determine the amount of lead ingested in food by means of duplicate diet collections, nutrient intakes, and anthropometric measurements of young children. Once a month for a year, data were collected from 24-hour duplicate diets, hand wipes, a dust index, and anthropometric measurements. Quarterly, venous blood samples were obtained. Thermal ionization spectrometry by means of a lead-205 tracer was used to determine lead present in food, blood, and the hand wipes. A dust index was determined on the basis of observation of dust on surfaces in the home. Anthropometric measurements obtained were height, weight, head circumference, and mid-upper arm circumference. Subjects were 21 children, aged 18 to 36 months, who resided in homes located in an urban area with potentially high lead levels. Lead contamination in food and on hands, and blood lead values, were determined. Pearson correlation coefficients were used to determine relationships between lead content in food, blood, and hand wipes and growth. Multiple regression analyses examined the effect of food types and dust lead on lead levels in food, and the effect of these variables on head circumference. Mean blood levels were 0.3089 +/- 0.1496 micromol/L; 12 samples contained more than 0.4826 micromol/L. Total intake of lead from food was 4.95 microg/day and ranged from 1.10 to -22.10 microg/day. More than a fourth of the diets collected exceeded 6.00 microg/day. Foods considered home prepared were moderately related to blood lead level, and the dust index and hand wipe lead levels were related to total food lead. Home-handled foods, canned foods, and hand-wipe lead were significant predictors of the lead content in food. A negative relationship was found between head circumference and blood lead level. Level of lead in food was directly related to hand-wipe lead. This finding underscores the need for dietitians and other health professionals to stress the importance of cleanliness in environments that are

  16. Impact of the phlebotomy training based on CLSI/NCCLS H03-a6 - procedures for the collection of diagnostic blood specimens by venipuncture.

    PubMed

    Lima-Oliveira, Gabriel; Lippi, Giuseppe; Salvagno, Gian Luca; Montagnana, Martina; Picheth, Geraldo; Guidi, Gian Cesare

    2012-01-01

    The activities involving phlebotomy, a critical task for obtaining diagnostic blood samples, are poorly studied as regards the major sources of errors and the procedures related to laboratory quality control. The aim of this study was to verify the compliance with CLSI documents of clinical laboratories from South America and to assess whether teaching phlebotomists to follow the exact procedure for blood collection by venipuncture from CLSI/NCCLS H03-A6 - Procedures for the Collection of Diagnostic Blood Specimens by Venipuncture might improve the quality of the process. A survey was sent by mail to 3674 laboratories from South America to verify the use of CLSI documents. Thirty skilled phlebotomists were trained with the CLSI H03-A6 document to perform venipuncture procedures for a period of 20 consecutive working days. The overall performances of the phlebotomists were further compared before and after the training program. 2622 from 2781 laboratories that did answer our survey used CLSI documents to standardize their procedures and process. The phlebotomists' training for 20 days before our evaluation completely eliminated non-conformity procedures for: i) incorrect friction of the forearm, during the cleaning of the venipuncture site to ease vein location; ii) incorrect sequence of vacuum tubes collection; and iii) inadequate mixing of the blood in primary vacuum tubes containing anticoagulants or clot activators. Unfortunately the CLSI H03-A6 document does not caution against both unsuitable tourniquet application time (i.e., for more than one minute) and inappropriate request to clench the fist repeatedly. These inadequate procedures were observed for all phlebotomists. We showed that strict observance of the CLSI H03-A6 document can remarkably improve quality, although the various steps for collecting diagnostic blood specimens are not a gold standard, since they may still permit errors. Tourniquet application time and forearm clench should be verified by

  17. Urine collection as an alternative to blood sampling: a noninvasive means of determining isotopic enrichment to study amino acid flux in neonates.

    PubMed

    Wykes, L J; Ball, R O; Menendez, C E; Pencharz, P B

    1990-08-01

    The validity of measuring isotopic enrichment of amino acids in urine was tested in neonates during different feeding regimens and tracer administration protocols, and with different amino acid tracers. Twenty infants, fed enterally or parenterally, were given primed, constant infusions of 15N-glycine, L-[1-13C]leucine, and L-[1-13C]phenylalanine. Urine was collected every 2 h for 16 h. Blood was sampled only when required clinically. At baseline, enrichment in plasma and urine did not differ for any amino acid. At isotopic steady state, leucine enrichment was similar in plasma and urine, while the agreement was slightly weaker for glycine and phenylalanine, probably because of problems inherent in drawing blood samples from neonates. Study protocol did not affect the agreement. Since urine collection involves minimal invasive procedures, this approach could facilitate more indepth tracer studies in infants and children.

  18. Acceptability of study procedures (self-collected introital swabs, blood draws and stool sample collection) by students 10-16 years for an HPV vaccine effectiveness study: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Nakalembe, Miriam; Mutyaba, Twaha; Mirembe, Florence

    2016-03-16

    A cohort study was planned to evaluate vaccine immunogenicity and effect of malaria and helminth co-infections on the bivalent Human papilloma virus (HPV) vaccine. The study would involve self collected introital swabs, blood draws and stool sample collection. We therefore conducted a pilot study to assess the acceptability of these procedures among the students and their parents. A cross-sectional study among forty four students from two purposively selected primary schools of Western Uganda. Exit interviews and two focus group discussions (FGD) (for parents) were conducted. Acceptability was measured by willingness to undergo the procedures again, recommending the procedures to others as well as proportion of introital swabs positive for β globulin. FGD determined acceptability of the parents and explored opinions and perceptions that would influence their decisions. HPV-16/18 and β globulin deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) were analysed using a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) kit. All the students (100%) in the study were willing to provide a self- collected introital swab and a stool sample as well as recommending their friends while (86.3%) were willing for blood draws. There were 40/44 (90.1%) self collected introital swabs that had positive result for human β globulin though none of them was positive for HPV-16/18. In the FGD, it emerged that parents concerns were on the blood draws and introital swab collection which were addressed. The study procedures were highly acceptable among this study population of students and their parents. Follow-up to assess HPV vaccine effectiveness and factors that may influence the vaccine in this age group is feasible.

  19. Developing a Successful State-Level Environmental Education Organization: A Nationwide Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smaldone, David; Dey, Shannon E.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to conduct a nationwide assessment of state-level environmental education (EE) organizations to determine the components that are essential to the establishment and success of these organizations. E-mail surveys were used to collect data from North American Association for Environmental Education state affiliates, and…

  20. Alcohol Education Provided to Opioid Treatment Program Patients: Results of a Nationwide Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strauss, Shiela M.; Harris, Gavin; Katigbak, Carina; Rindskopf, David M.; Singh, Sheena; Greenblum, Ilana; Brown, Lawrence S.; Kipnis, Steven; Kritz, Steven A.; Parrino, Mark W.

    2010-01-01

    Alcohol-related problems are especially common among opioid treatment program (OTP) patients, suggesting that educating OTP patients about alcohol and its harmful effects needs to be a priority in OTPs. Using data collected in interviews with a nationwide U.S. sample of OTP directors (N = 200) in 25 states, we identified factors that differentiate…

  1. Alcohol Education Provided to Opioid Treatment Program Patients: Results of a Nationwide Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strauss, Shiela M.; Harris, Gavin; Katigbak, Carina; Rindskopf, David M.; Singh, Sheena; Greenblum, Ilana; Brown, Lawrence S.; Kipnis, Steven; Kritz, Steven A.; Parrino, Mark W.

    2010-01-01

    Alcohol-related problems are especially common among opioid treatment program (OTP) patients, suggesting that educating OTP patients about alcohol and its harmful effects needs to be a priority in OTPs. Using data collected in interviews with a nationwide U.S. sample of OTP directors (N = 200) in 25 states, we identified factors that differentiate…

  2. Developing a Successful State-Level Environmental Education Organization: A Nationwide Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smaldone, David; Dey, Shannon E.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to conduct a nationwide assessment of state-level environmental education (EE) organizations to determine the components that are essential to the establishment and success of these organizations. E-mail surveys were used to collect data from North American Association for Environmental Education state affiliates, and…

  3. Developmental stages of fish blood flukes, Cardicola forsteri and Cardicola opisthorchis (Trematoda: Aporocotylidae), in their polychaete intermediate hosts collected at Pacific bluefin tuna culture sites in Japan.

    PubMed

    Ogawa, Kazuo; Shirakashi, Sho; Tani, Kazuki; Shin, Sang Phil; Ishimaru, Katsuya; Honryo, Tomoki; Sugihara, Yukitaka; Uchida, Hiro'omi

    2017-02-01

    Farming of Pacific bluefin tuna (PBT), Thunnus orientalis, is a rapidly growing industry in Japan. Aporocotylid blood flukes of the genus Cardicola comprising C. orientalis, C. opisthorchis and C. forsteri are parasites of economic importance for PBT farming. Recently, terebellid polychaetes have been identified as the intermediate hosts for all these parasites. We collected infected polychaetes, Terebella sp., the intermediate host of C. opisthorchis, from ropes and floats attached to tuna cages in Tsushima, Nagasaki Prefecture, Japan. Also, Neoamphitrite vigintipes (formerly as Amphitrite sp. sensu Shirakashi et al., 2016), the intermediate host of C. forsteri, were collected from culture cages in Kushimoto, Wakayama Prefecture, Japan. The terebellid intermediate hosts harbored the sporocysts and cercariae in their body cavity. Developmental stages of these blood flukes were molecularly identified using species specific PCR primers. In this paper, we describe the cercaria and sporocyst stages of C. opisthorchis and C. forsteri and compare their morphological characteristics among three Cardicola blood flukes infecting PBT. We also discuss phylogenetic relations of the six genera of the terebellid intermediate hosts (Artacama, Lanassa, Longicarpus, Terebella, Nicolea and Neoamphitrite) of blood flukes infecting marine fishes, based on their morphological characters.

  4. Relationship between salt consumption measured by 24-h urine collection and blood pressure in the adult population of Vitória (Brazil)

    PubMed Central

    Rodrigues, S.L.; Souza, P.R.; Pimentel, E.B.; Baldo, M.P.; Malta, D.C.; Mill, J.G.; Szwarcwald, C.L.

    2015-01-01

    High salt intake is related to an increase in blood pressure and development of hypertension. However, currently, there are no national representative data in Brazil using the gold standard method of 24-h urine collection to measure sodium consumption. This study aimed to determine salt intake based on 24-h urine collection in a sample of 272 adults of both genders and to correlate it with blood pressure levels. We used a rigorous protocol to assure an empty bladder prior to initiating urine collection. We excluded subjects with a urine volume <500 mL, collection period outside of an interval of 23-25 h, and subjects with creatinine excretion that was not within the range of 14.4-33.6 mg/kg (men) and 10.8-25.2 mg/kg (women). The mean salt intake was 10.4±4.1 g/day (d), and 94% of the participants (98% of men and 90% of women) ingested more than the recommended level of 5 g/d. We found a positive association between salt and body mass index (BMI) categories, as well as with salt and blood pressure, independent of age and BMI. The difference in systolic blood pressure reached 13 mmHg between subjects consuming less than 6 g/d of salt and those ingesting more than 18 g/d. Subjects with hypertension had a higher estimated salt intake than normotensive subjects (11.4±5.0 vs 9.8±3.6 g/d, P<0.01), regardless of whether they were under treatment. Our data indicate the need for interventions to reduce sodium intake, as well the need for ongoing, appropriate monitoring of salt consumption in the general population. PMID:26132095

  5. The Collection, Purification, and Cryopreservation of Canine Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells Obtained as a By-Product of Platelet Apheresis Procedures.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-08-23

    the foreleg. A Haemonetics pediatric bowl (125 ml capacity) was used for collection, and the blood was anticoagulated with acid-citrate-dextrose (NIH...for 10 minutes in a Sorvall RC-3B refrigerated centrifuge maintained at 22 ± 2 C. The platelet-rich plasma ( PRP ) was expressed into a 600 ml...polyvinylchloride (PVC) transfer pack with a • .) plasma expressor (Fenwal #4R4414). The PRP was frozen, as previously described, 16 for future use. A small

  6. Effective collection of peripheral blood stem cells in children weighing 20 kilogram or less in a single large-volume apheresis procedure.

    PubMed

    Salazar-Riojas, Rosario; García-Lozano, José Alberto; Valdés-Galván, Mayra; Martínez-González, Odra; Cantú-Rodríguez, Olga Graciela; González-Llano, Oscar; Gómez-De León, Andrés; Jaime-Pérez, José Carlos; Gómez-Almaguer, David; Gutiérrez-Aguirre, César Homero

    2015-10-01

    Peripheral blood stem cell (PBSC) transplantation has become a routine procedure in pediatric oncology. A special group of PBSC donors are children weighing 20 kg or less. Limited vascular access and low blood volume puts them at a higher risk. Central line placement and a priming apheresis machine are recommended to avoid these complications. PBSC collections performed from July 2006 to May 2013 in children weighing less than 20 kg were included. All donors had a central venous catheter (CVC). An apheresis machine was primed with packet red blood cells. Twenty-seven PBSC collections were performed in 22 children weighing 20 kg or less, 14 for allogeneic and 8 for autologous transplantation, in order to collect at least 2 × 10(6) CD34+ cells/kg. In the allogeneic group, median age and weight were 3 years (0.8-7) and 15.5 kg (8-20). In the autologous group, median age and weight were 3 years (2-7) and 15.35 kg (12.5-19.5). A single large-volume apheresis was sufficient to obtain the CD34+ cells needed in 78.5% and 75% of the allogeneic and autologous groups, respectively, with a median 11.84 × 10(6) and 5.79 × 10(6) CD34+ cells collected per kilogram of weight of the recipient. No serious complications related to the apheresis procedure or CVC placement occurred. PBSC collection in a single large-volume apheresis for allogeneic and autologous transplants in children weighing 20 kg or less is a safe and effective procedure when based on standardized protocols. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Evaluation of concurrent collection of in-line filtered platelets and packed red blood cells by multicomponent apheresis with three last-generation apparatuses.

    PubMed

    Picker, S M; Radojska, S M; Gathof, B S

    2006-07-01

    Multicomponent apheresis enables the collection and procession of different blood products in a single donation. Different apparatuses vary in terms of principle and efficiency. Knowledge of them is essential to analyse cost effectiveness. A total of 30 donors, well matched for baseline parameters, were randomly assigned to the concurrent collection of red blood cells (RBCs) and platelets (PLTs) with the Baxter Amicus (AM), the Haemonetics MCS plus (MCS+), and the Gambro Trima Accel (TA). The procedures were prospectively evaluated, focusing on yield, time, efficiency, citrate donor load and in vitro quality. PLT yield (x 10(11)/unit; mean +/- standard deviation) was 3.09 +/- 0.34 (AM), 2.53 +/- 0.35 (MCS+), 2.51 +/- 0.32 (TA). Absolute RBC mass (ml/unit; mean +/- standard deviation) was 177.4 +/- 2.7 (AM), 161.5 +/- 0.7 (MCS+), and 163.7 +/- 5.4 (TA). The programmed RBC collection target of 160-180 ml was reached by all instruments, whereas the programmed PLT yield of 3.0 x 10(11) was met satisfactorily by AM only. All units contained < 1 x 10(6) WBCs. In vitro RBC quality was equivalent among the systems. No significant differences were noted with collection efficiency, processed whole blood or citrate donor load. Owing to high collection and draw rates, the TA was the fastest of all the systems. The MCS+ had the longest donation/needle time and the highest PLT activation, but compensated with significantly lower draw and citrate infusion rates. The overall processing time was longest with the AM, as a result of manual procedures from donor disconnection to the final products. Multicomponent apheresis was performed safely and efficiently with all three instruments. There was no 'magic apparatus' as each system combined advantages and pitfalls for the diverse parameters evaluated.

  8. Study protocol: first nationwide comparative audit of acute lower gastrointestinal bleeding in the UK

    PubMed Central

    Oakland, Kathryn; Guy, Richard; Uberoi, Raman; Seeney, Frances; Collins, Gary; Grant-Casey, John; Mortensen, Neil; Murphy, Mike; Jairath, Vipul

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Acute lower gastrointestinal bleeding (LGIB) is a common indication for emergency hospitalisation worldwide. In contrast to upper GIB, patient characteristics, modes of investigation, transfusion, treatment and outcomes are poorly described. There are minimal clinical guidelines to inform care pathways and the use of endoscopy, including (diagnostic and therapeutic yields), interventional radiology and surgery are poorly defined. As a result, there is potential for wide variation in practice and clinical outcomes. Methods and analysis The UK Lower Gastrointestinal Bleeding Audit is a large nationwide audit of adult patients acutely admitted with LGIB or those who develop LGIB while hospitalised for another reason. Consecutive, unselected presentations with LGIB will be enrolled prospectively over a 2-month period at the end of 2015 and detailed data will be collected on patient characteristics, comorbidities, use of anticoagulants, transfusion, timing and modalities of diagnostic and therapeutic procedures, clinical outcome, length of stay and mortality. These will be audited against predefined minimum standards of care for LGIB. It is anticipated that over 80% of all acute hospitals in England and some hospitals in Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland will participate. Data will be collected on the availability and organisation of care, provision of diagnostic and therapeutic GI endoscopy, interventional radiology, surgery and transfusion protocols. Ethics and dissemination This audit will be conducted as part of the national comparative audit programme of blood transfusion through collaboration with specialists in gastroenterology, surgery and interventional radiology. Individual reports will be provided to each participant site as well as an overall report and disseminated through specialist societies. Results will also be published in peer-reviewed journals. The study has been funded by National Health Services (NHS) Blood and Transplant and the

  9. Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)-Infected Patients Accept Finger Stick Blood Collection for Point-Of-Care CD4 Testing

    PubMed Central

    Scott, Lesley; Potgieter, Joachim; Kestens, Luc; Stevens, Wendy

    2016-01-01

    Introduction HIV-infected patients require antiretroviral treatment for life. To improve access to care, CD4 enumeration and viral load tests have been redesigned to be used as point-of-care techniques using finger-stick blood. Accurate CD4 counting in capillary blood requires a free flowing blood drop that is achieved by blade incision. The aim of this study was to assess the attitude of the patients toward blade-based finger-stick blood donation. Methods Four hundred and ninety-nine patients were included (299 patients from South Africa and 200 from Belgium). They completed a questionnaire to express their preference for finger stick or venipuncture, after undergoing both. The South African patient cohort was divided in two groups, receiving either single or multiple finger stick for CD4 and other HIV-related tests. The Belgian patients received a single finger stick for CD4 testing, and were asked to respond directly and again after two days. Results The majority of the patients preferred the finger stick to the venipuncture. The perceived pain using the blade was superior to a small needle, but similar to a large needle. They preferred up to three finger sticks over one venipuncture. Up to 30% of the patients changed their mind over two days. The main reason for choosing a finger stick was continued bleeding after venipuncture. The most cited objection to finger stick was pain/soreness. Conclusion Patient perceptions support the implementation of donating capillary blood with blade-based finger stick during CD4 point-of-care testing. PMID:27556894

  10. Measurement of brevetoxin levels by radioimmunoassay of blood collection cards after acute, long-term, and low-dose exposure in mice.

    PubMed Central

    Woofter, Ricky; Dechraoui, M-Yasmine Bottein; Garthwaite, Ian; Towers, Neale R; Gordon, Christopher J; Córdova, José; Ramsdell, John S

    2003-01-01

    We developed a radioimmunoassay (RIA) using a sheep anti-brevetoxin antiserum to evaluate detection of brevetoxin on blood collection cards from mice treated with the brevetoxin congener PbTx-3. The RIA has high affinity for PbTx-3 [half-maximal effective concentration (EC(50)) +/- SE = 1.2 +/- 0.2 nM; n = 10] and recognizes both type 1 and type 2 brevetoxins, but not ciguatoxin. Direct comparison of the RIA with a radiolabeled [(3)H]-PbTx-3 receptor-binding assay (RBA) revealed excellent sensitivity, congener selectivity, and minimal interference from blood matrix. We first analyzed blood samples from an acute time course exposure, using a maximal nonlethal dose [180 microg/kg body weight (bw)] for 0.5, 1, 2, 4, and 24 hr. Mean blood brevetoxin levels were 36 nM at 30 min and stayed above 20 nM during the 1-4 hr time points. We next analyzed blood brevetoxin levels after longer exposure (0.5, 1, 2, 3, 4, or 7 days). Mean blood brevetoxin levels were 26.0 nM at 0.5 days, decreased to 8.2 nM at 1.0 day, and maintained a significant level (p < 0.05) of 1.3 nM at day 2. We next determined the lowest measurable dose using increasing concentrations of PbTx-3 (10-300 micro g/kg bw). Analysis of the blood samples at 60 min revealed a linear relationship between administered and internal doses (r(2) = 0.993). All doses of brevetoxin administered were detectable at 1 hr, with significant levels found for the lowest administered dose of 10 micro g/kg bw--a dose that was 10-fold lower than the lowest observable effect level. This RIA provides an optimal first-tier detection of brevetoxin from blood collection cards and, used in combination with the RBA and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry, should provide a complete panel of methods to biomonitor brevetoxin exposure. PMID:14527838

  11. Evaluation of two-step haemoglobin screening with HemoCue for blood donor qualification in mobile collection sites.

    PubMed

    Gómez-Simón, A; Plaza, E M; Torregrosa, J M; Ferrer-Marín, F; Sánchez-Guiu, I; Vicente, V; Lozano, M L; Rivera, J

    2014-11-01

    Inaccuracy of fingerstick haemoglobin compromises donor's health and losses blood donations. We evaluated the benefit of double haemoglobin screening with HemoCue. Blood donors underwent fingerstick screening by HemoCue and were driven for donation if capillary haemoglobin was within the regulatory range. Those failing were drawn venous blood and donated if their venous haemoglobin determined with HemoCue was acceptable. Of 276 605 donor clinic visits, 10 011 (3·6%) were assessed by two-step haemoglobin screening using HemoCue, because of low (n = 9444) or high (n = 567) capillary haemoglobin. Among these, 2561 (25·6%) were deemed eligible [recovered donations]. The recovery rate was 23·8% and 55·0% among donors presenting with low and high capillary haemoglobin, respectively. In both categories of attempted donations, capillary and venous haemoglobin with HemoCue correlated significantly in recovered donors (R(2)  ≈ 0·5-0·7) but not in deferred visits (R(2)  < 0·15). Venous haemoglobin with HemoCue and by haematological analyzer significantly correlated in all donations attempts (R(2)  ≈ 0·7). Donors presenting with low capillary haemoglobin showed small bias between capillary and venous haemoglobin by HemoCue (-2·4 ± 6·2 g/l), fingerstick haemoglobin and venous haemoglobin with counter (1·3 ± 7·3 g/l), and venous haemoglobin with HemoCue and counter (3·7 ± 3·9 g/l). This bias was slightly greater in donors with high capillary haemoglobin (-7·5 ± 7·8, 13·7 ± 7·5, and 6·2 ± 7·5, respectively). Double haemoglobin screening by HemoCue reached an accuracy of 87·3% for qualifying donors presenting with low fingerstick haemoglobin. Double haemoglobin measurement with HemoCue [fingerstick and venous blood if required] is feasible and allows a significant recovery of blood donations. © 2014 International Society of Blood Transfusion.

  12. Safety and efficacy of G-CSF mobilization and collection of autologous peripheral blood stem cells in children with cerebral palsy.

    PubMed

    Moon, Jin-Hwa; Kim, Mi Jung; Song, Soon-Young; Lee, Young-Jun; Choi, Yun Young; Kim, Seung Hyun; Lee, Young-Ho

    2013-12-01

    We hypothesized that mobilized peripheral blood stem cells (PBSCs) could be useful for treating neurological impairments and therefore assessed the safety of administering G-CSF followed by collecting PBSC in children with cerebral palsy (CP). G-CSF (10 μg/kg/day) was administered subcutaneously for 5 days, and apheresis was performed to collect PBSC via central venous catheter. G-CSF-related events occurred in 3 patients (fever in 2, irritability in 1). No catheter-related complications were reported. None of the patients needed platelet transfusion or calcium replacement during apheresis. Mobilization with G-CSF followed by PBSC collection appears to be safe and feasible in CP children. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. A Study to Develop a Methodology Determining the Feasibility of Establishing a Blood Collection Program in an Army Healthcare Facility

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-05-01

    to detect the antibody to the AIDS virus. The Public Health Service mandated HTLV -III testing in all federal facilities. 28 Other risk factors are...EVALUATION OF ALTERNATIVES The preceeding discussion gives a cognitive appreciation for many of the factors which impact on assessing the feasibility of...Military Implementation of Public Helath Service Provisional Recommendations Concerning Testing Blood and Plasma for Antibodies to HTLV -III, 13 March

  14. 77 FR 546 - Adjustment of Nationwide Significant Risk Threshold

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-05

    ... Federal Railroad Administration Adjustment of Nationwide Significant Risk Threshold AGENCY: Federal... nationwide significant risk threshold. SUMMARY: In accordance with Appendix D to Title 49 Code of Federal... Nationwide Significant Risk Threshold (NSRT). This action is needed to ensure that the public has the proper...

  15. 75 FR 82136 - Adjustment of Nationwide Significant Risk Threshold

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-29

    .... FRA-1999-6439, Notice No. 22] Adjustment of Nationwide Significant Risk Threshold AGENCY: Federal... Nationwide Significant Risk Threshold. SUMMARY: In accordance with Appendix D to Title 49 Code of Federal... Nationwide Significant Risk Threshold (NSRT). This action is needed to ensure that the public has the proper...

  16. FDA review summary: Mozobil in combination with granulocyte colony-stimulating factor to mobilize hematopoietic stem cells to the peripheral blood for collection and subsequent autologous transplantation.

    PubMed

    Brave, Michael; Farrell, Ann; Ching Lin, Sue; Ocheltree, Terrance; Pope Miksinski, Sarah; Lee, Shwu-Luan; Saber, Haleh; Fourie, Jeanne; Tornoe, Christoffer; Booth, Brian; Yuan, Weishi; He, Kun; Justice, Robert; Pazdur, Richard

    2010-01-01

    On December 15, 2008, the US Food and Drug Administration approved plerixafor (Mozobil; Genzyme Corp.), a new small-molecule inhibitor of the CXCR4 chemokine receptor, for use in combination with granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) to mobilize hematopoietic stem cells (HSC) to the peripheral blood for collection and subsequent autologous transplantation in patients with non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) and multiple myeloma (MM). This summary reviews the database supporting this approval. The safety and efficacy of plerixafor were demonstrated by 2 multicenter, randomized, placebo-controlled studies in patients with NHL and MM who were eligible for autologous HSC transplantation. The primary efficacy end points were the collection of > or = 5 x 10(6) CD34+ cells/kg from the peripheral blood in 4 or fewer apheresis sessions in patients with NHL or > or = 6 x 10(6) CD34+ cells/kg from the peripheral blood in 2 or fewer apheresis sessions in patients with MM. The 2 randomized studies combined enrolled 600 patients (298 with NHL and 302 with MM). Fifty-nine percent of patients with NHL who were mobilized with G-CSF and plerixafor had peripheral blood HSC collections of > or = 5 x 10(6) CD34+ cells/kg in 4 or fewer apheresis sessions, compared with 20% of patients with NHL who were mobilized with G-CSF and placebo (p < 0.001). Seventy-two percent of patients with MM who were mobilized with Mozobil and G-CSF had peripheral blood HSC collections of > or = 6 x 10(6) CD34+ cells/kg in 2 or fewer apheresis sessions, compared with 34% of patients with MM who were mobilized with placebo and G-CSF (p < 0.001). Common adverse reactions included diarrhea, nausea, vomiting, flatulence, injection site reactions, fatigue, arthralgia, headache, dizziness, and insomnia. This report describes the Food and Drug Administration review supporting the approval of plerixafor. Copyright 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  17. Comparison of samples obtained from 3.2% sodium citrate glass and two 3.2% sodium citrate plastic blood collection tubes used in coagulation testing.

    PubMed

    Gosselin, Robert C; Janatpour, Kim; Larkin, Edward C; Lee, Yanlap P; Owings, John T

    2004-12-01

    We sought to compare coagulation test results obtained from patients using 2 plastic blood collection tubes and the traditional glass blood collection tube. Blood specimens were obtained from 241 patients in 3.2% buffered sodium citrate using standard glass tubes, in 3.2% buffered sodium citrate in plastic tubes, and in 3.2% sodium citrate "sandwich" tubes (plastic within plastic). All samples were obtained and processed contemporaneously and tested for prothrombin time (PT) and activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT). Residual plasma was frozen at -70 degrees C for future testing, including fibrinogen, antithrombin, plasminogen, protein C and protein S (functional and antigenic), dilute Russell viper venom time (DRVVT), ristocetin cofactor, factor XIII, D dimer, anti-Xa activity, and prothrombin fragment. Although paired t test analysis revealed statistically significant differences (P < .05) between glass and plastic for PT, aPTT, fibrinogen, protein C (functional and antigenic), functional protein S, DRVVT and confirmation method, antithrombin, and factor XIII, these differences were not considered clinically significant.

  18. Positive Reinforcement Training for Blood Collection in Grizzly Bears (Ursus arctos horribilis) Results in Undetectable Elevations in Serum Cortisol Levels: A Preliminary Investigation.

    PubMed

    Joyce-Zuniga, Nicole M; Newberry, Ruth C; Robbins, Charles T; Ware, Jasmine V; Jansen, Heiko T; Nelson, O Lynne

    2016-01-01

    Training nonhuman animals in captivity for participation in routine husbandry procedures is believed to produce a lower stress environment compared with undergoing a general anesthetic event for the same procedure. This hypothesis rests largely on anecdotal evidence that the captive subjects appear more relaxed with the trained event. Blood markers of physiological stress responses were evaluated in 4 captive grizzly bears (Ursus arctos horribilis) who were clicker-trained for blood collection versus 4 bears who were chemically immobilized for blood collection. Serum cortisol and immunoglobulin A (IgA) and plasma β-endorphin were measured as indicators of responses to stress. Plasma β-endorphin was not different between the groups. Serum IgA was undetectable in all bears. Serum cortisol was undetectable in all trained bears, whereas chemically immobilized bears had marked cortisol elevations (p < .05). The highest cortisol elevations were found in 2 bears with extensive recent immobilization experience. These findings support the use of positive reinforcement training for routine health procedures to minimize anxiety.

  19. 'Two's company--Three's a crowd': the collection of umbilical cord blood for commercial stem cell banks in England and the midwifery profession.

    PubMed

    Machin, Laura L; Brown, Nik; McLeod, Danae

    2012-06-01

    to explore how lay and professional stakeholders within umbilical cord blood banking discussed midwives' and privately employed phlebotomists' roles in light of commercial UCB collection, and what insights this offers of midwifery authority and power. qualitative study using face-to-face, semi-structured interviews that were digitally recorded, transcribed and coded according to themes relating to the research aims. across England. 61 interviews were conducted between April 2009 and August 2010 with lay and professional stakeholders within umbilical cord blood banking. the space and access requirements for privately employed phlebotomists to conduct their work were discussed and highlighted the discursive and spatial boundary-work conducted by, or on behalf of, midwives to retain their authority over the umbilical cord blood and labour rooms. midwives were portrayed as accommodating privately employed phlebotomists to some extent. It was implied that midwives did so because phlebotomists conformed to implicit boundaries, which required respecting midwives' authority over the labour ward, room and the umbilical cord blood. In turn, midwives' power was protected. the findings highlight the important role of spatial boundaries and the significance of the organisation of spaces when implementing new services within health care. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Report: Nationwide Identification of Hardrock Mining Sites

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Report #2004-P-00005, March 31, 2004. We identified 156 hardrock mining sites nationwide that have the potential to cost between $7 billion and $24 billion total to clean up (at a maximum total cost to EPA of approximately $15 billion).

  1. Validation and Clinical Evaluation of a Novel Method To Measure Miltefosine in Leishmaniasis Patients Using Dried Blood Spot Sample Collection

    PubMed Central

    Rosing, H.; Hillebrand, M. J. X.; Blesson, S.; Mengesha, B.; Diro, E.; Hailu, A.; Schellens, J. H. M.; Beijnen, J. H.

    2016-01-01

    To facilitate future pharmacokinetic studies of combination treatments against leishmaniasis in remote regions in which the disease is endemic, a simple cheap sampling method is required for miltefosine quantification. The aims of this study were to validate a liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method to quantify miltefosine in dried blood spot (DBS) samples and to validate its use with Ethiopian patients with visceral leishmaniasis (VL). Since hematocrit (Ht) levels are typically severely decreased in VL patients, returning to normal during treatment, the method was evaluated over a range of clinically relevant Ht values. Miltefosine was extracted from DBS samples using a simple method of pretreatment with methanol, resulting in >97% recovery. The method was validated over a calibration range of 10 to 2,000 ng/ml, and accuracy and precision were within ±11.2% and ≤7.0% (≤19.1% at the lower limit of quantification), respectively. The method was accurate and precise for blood spot volumes between 10 and 30 μl and for Ht levels of 20 to 35%, although a linear effect of Ht levels on miltefosine quantification was observed in the bioanalytical validation. DBS samples were stable for at least 162 days at 37°C. Clinical validation of the method using paired DBS and plasma samples from 16 VL patients showed a median observed DBS/plasma miltefosine concentration ratio of 0.99, with good correlation (Pearson's r = 0.946). Correcting for patient-specific Ht levels did not further improve the concordance between the sampling methods. This successfully validated method to quantify miltefosine in DBS samples was demonstrated to be a valid and practical alternative to venous blood sampling that can be applied in future miltefosine pharmacokinetic studies with leishmaniasis patients, without Ht correction. PMID:26787691

  2. Validation and Clinical Evaluation of a Novel Method To Measure Miltefosine in Leishmaniasis Patients Using Dried Blood Spot Sample Collection.

    PubMed

    Kip, A E; Rosing, H; Hillebrand, M J X; Blesson, S; Mengesha, B; Diro, E; Hailu, A; Schellens, J H M; Beijnen, J H; Dorlo, T P C

    2016-04-01

    To facilitate future pharmacokinetic studies of combination treatments against leishmaniasis in remote regions in which the disease is endemic, a simple cheap sampling method is required for miltefosine quantification. The aims of this study were to validate a liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method to quantify miltefosine in dried blood spot (DBS) samples and to validate its use with Ethiopian patients with visceral leishmaniasis (VL). Since hematocrit (Ht) levels are typically severely decreased in VL patients, returning to normal during treatment, the method was evaluated over a range of clinically relevant Ht values. Miltefosine was extracted from DBS samples using a simple method of pretreatment with methanol, resulting in >97% recovery. The method was validated over a calibration range of 10 to 2,000 ng/ml, and accuracy and precision were within ±11.2% and ≤7.0% (≤19.1% at the lower limit of quantification), respectively. The method was accurate and precise for blood spot volumes between 10 and 30 μl and for Ht levels of 20 to 35%, although a linear effect of Ht levels on miltefosine quantification was observed in the bioanalytical validation. DBS samples were stable for at least 162 days at 37°C. Clinical validation of the method using paired DBS and plasma samples from 16 VL patients showed a median observed DBS/plasma miltefosine concentration ratio of 0.99, with good correlation (Pearson'sr= 0.946). Correcting for patient-specific Ht levels did not further improve the concordance between the sampling methods. This successfully validated method to quantify miltefosine in DBS samples was demonstrated to be a valid and practical alternative to venous blood sampling that can be applied in future miltefosine pharmacokinetic studies with leishmaniasis patients, without Ht correction.

  3. Nationwide tsunami hazard assessment project in Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirata, K.; Fujiwara, H.; Nakamura, H.; Osada, M.; Ohsumi, T.; Morikawa, N.; Kawai, S.; Aoi, S.; Yamamoto, N.; Matsuyama, H.; Toyama, N.; Kito, T.; Murashima, Y.; Murata, Y.; Inoue, T.; Saito, R.; Akiyama, S.; Korenaga, M.; Abe, Y.; Hashimoto, N.

    2014-12-01

    In 2012, we began a project of nationwide Probabilistic Tsunami Hazard Assessment (PTHA) in Japan to support various measures (Fujiwara et al., 2013, JpGU; Hirata et al., 2014, AOGS). The most important strategy in the nationwide PTHA is predominance of aleatory uncertainty in the assessment but use of epistemic uncertainty is limited to the minimum, because the number of all possible combinations among epistemic uncertainties diverges quickly when the number of epistemic uncertainties in the assessment increases ; we consider only a type of earthquake occurrence probability distribution as epistemic uncertainty. We briefly show outlines of the nationwide PTHA as follows; (i) we consider all possible earthquakes in the future, including those that the Headquarters for Earthquake Research Promotion (HERP) of Japanese Government, already assessed. (ii) We construct a set of simplified earthquake fault models, called "Characterized Earthquake Fault Models (CEFMs)", for all of the earthquakes by following prescribed rules (Toyama et al., 2014, JpGU; Korenaga et al., 2014, JpGU). (iii) For all of initial water surface distributions caused by a number of the CEFMs, we calculate tsunamis by solving a nonlinear long wave equation, using FDM, including runup calculation, over a nesting grid system with a minimum grid size of 50 meters. (iv) Finally, we integrate information about the tsunamis calculated from the numerous CEFMs to get nationwide tsunami hazard assessments. One of the most popular representations of the integrated information is a tsunami hazard curve for coastal tsunami heights, incorporating uncertainties inherent in tsunami simulation and earthquake fault slip heterogeneity (Abe et al., 2014, JpGU). We will show a PTHA along the eastern coast of Honshu, Japan, based on approximately 1,800 tsunami sources located within the subduction zone along the Japan Trench, as a prototype of the nationwide PTHA. This study is supported by part of the research

  4. Emergency Department Crowding Disparity: a Nationwide Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we evaluated national differences in emergency department (ED) crowding to identify factors significantly associated with crowding in institutes and communities across Korea. This was a cross-sectional nationwide observational study using data abstracted from the National Emergency Department Information System (NEDIS). We calculated mean occupancy rates to quantify ED crowding status and divided EDs into three groups according to their occupancy rates (cutoffs: 0.5 and 1.0). Factors potentially related to ED crowding were collected from the NEDIS. We performed a multivariate regression analysis to identify variables significantly associated with ED crowding. A total of 120 EDs were included in the final analysis. Of these, 73 were categorized as 'low crowded' (LC, occupancy rate < 0.50), 37 as 'middle crowded' (MC, 0.50 ≤ occupancy rate < 1.00), 10 EDs as 'high crowded' (HC, 1.00 ≤ occupancy rate). The mean ED occupancy rate varied widely, from 0.06 to 2.33. The median value was 0.39 with interquartile ranges (IQRs) from 0.20 to 0.71. Multivariate analysis revealed that after adjustment, ED crowding was significantly associated with the number of visits, percentage of patients referred, number of nurses, and ED disposition. This nationwide study observed significant variety in ED crowding. Several input, throughput, and output factors were associated with crowding. PMID:27478347

  5. Randomised trial investigating the relationship of response rate for blood sample donation to site of biospecimen collection, fasting status and reminder letter: The 45 and Up Study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Various options exist for collecting biospecimens and biomarkers from cohort study participants, and these have important logistic, resource and scientific implications. Evidence on how different collection methods affect participation and data quality is lacking. This parallel-design randomised trial, the Link-Up Study, involved blood sample donation and other data collection among participants in an existing cohort study, The 45 and Up Study. It aimed to investigate the relation of fasting status, reminder letters and data collection site to response rates, data quality and biospecimen yield. Methods Individuals aged 45 and over participating in The 45 and Up Study and living ≤20 km from central Wagga Wagga, NSW (regional area) or ≤10 km from central Parramatta, NSW (urban area) (n = 2340) were randomised, stratified by area of residence, to be invited to give a blood sample and additional data by attending either a clinic established specifically for the trial, with an appointment time (“dedicated clinic”, n = 1336) or an existing local commercial pathology centre (n = 1004). Within dedicated clinic groups, participants were randomised into fasting (n = 668) or non-fasting (n = 668) and, at the Parramatta pathology centre site, reminder letter after two weeks (n = 336) or no reminder (n = 334). Results Overall, 33% (762/2340) of invitees took part in the Link-Up Study; 41% (410/1002) among regional and 26% (352/1338) among urban-area residents (p < 0.0001). At the dedicated clinics, response rates were 38% (257/668) not fasting and 38% fasting (257/668) (participation rate ratio (RR) = 1.00, 95%CI 0.91-1.08, p = 0.98). The response rate was 22% among individuals randomised to attend the Parramatta pathology centre without a reminder and 23% among those sent a reminder letter (RR = 1.01, 0.93-1.09, p = 0.74). In total, the response rate was 38% (514/1336) at the dedicated clinics and 25% (248

  6. CD34+ cell subpopulations detected by 8-color flow cytometry in bone marrow and in peripheral blood stem cell collections: application for MRD detection in leukemia patients.

    PubMed

    Björklund, Elisabet; Gruber, Astrid; Mazur, Joanna; Mårtensson, Anna; Hansson, Mona; Porwit, Anna

    2009-10-01

    Fast development in polychromatic flow cytometry (PFC) makes it possible to study CD34+ cells with two scatter and eight fluorescence parameters. Minimal residual disease (MRD) is determined as persistence of leukemic cells at submicroscopic levels in bone marrow (BM) of patients in complete remission. MRD can be present in collections of hematopoietic stem cell from blood (HSC-B). Using PFC, we have defined patterns of antigen expression in CD34+ cell subpopulations in BM and applied them as templates in MRD analysis. Twelve BM samples from hospital control (HC) patients with no signs of hematological malignancy were studied using five 8-color monoclonal antibody combinations detecting subsets of CD34+ cells. These patterns have been used as templates to determine levels of MRD in HSC-B collections from six AML patients. Several subsets of CD34+ precursor cells were found to be present at very low frequencies (<10(-4)) in BM and/or HSC-B collections. All six HSC-B collections from AML patients showed MRD by 8-color technique and only three by previously applied 3-color method. The 8-color technique showed promising results in efficient detection of different CD34+ subpopulations of HSC-B and in MRD quantification. Monitoring of MRD should become a part of quality control of HSC-B collections.

  7. [Peripheral stem cell collection, search for predictive factors: a multicenter study. Working Group on Transfusion and Therapeutic Techniques of the French Blood Transfusion Society ].

    PubMed

    Clément, A; Coffe, C; Adjizian, J C; Villard, F; Jolly, D; Desbois, I; Léon, A

    2000-10-01

    A multicentric study involving 12 centers was made to investigate the results of peripheral stem cell collection carried out between 1996 and 1997 from 655 patients with hemopathic syndromes or malignant tumors, The aim of this investigation was to determine the predictive factors for transplant quality, and to thereby optimize collection procedures. Information sheets were completed for 1,346 cytapheretic sessions, i.e., 655 grafts. The samples were taken after induction chemotherapy and exposure to hematopoeitic colony-stimulating growth factors (except the LMCs). Each graft was defined as being of good or bad quality depending on the number of CD34+ cells that it contained. Based on the data available in the literature, a workgroup consensus was reached that a level of CD34+ cells +/- 2.10(6)/kg recipient body weight constituted a good transplant criterion. The 2 subgroups (good graft versus lower quality graft) were compared by univariate analysis followed by discriminant multivariate analysis. It was established that a number of parameters were significantly linked to the criterion of collection quality; however, 3 predictive factors emerged from the multivariate analysis--the level of circulating CD34+ cells; the number of cytaphereses; the number of blood volumes treated. It was concluded that the level of circulating CD34+ cells seems to be an essential aspect in predicting the quality of the transplant and the number of cytaphereses required to obtain a sufficiently rich collection. Moreover, it also appears that at least 2 blood volumes should be treated to optimize the results.

  8. High performance collection of cerebrospinal fluid in rats: evaluation of erythropoietin penetration after osmotic opening of the blood-brain barrier.

    PubMed

    Ceaglio, Natalia; Orozco, Gustavo; Etcheverrigaray, Marina; Mattio, Mónica; Kratje, Ricardo; Perotti, Norma; Oggero, Marcos

    2013-09-30

    An important issue to be considered when studying a new drug for treatment of central nervous system (CNS) diseases is its ability to cross the blood-brain barrier (BBB) and distribute throughout the brain. As cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) has demonstrated to be an invaluable reservoir to study CNS availability of therapeutic proteins, we have developed an improved method for CSF sampling from the cisterna magna of rats. The technique enables the simple and rapid collection of adequate quantities (50-75 μl) of blood-free CSF, rendering a high percentage of animal survival (99%) without clinic or neurological consequences. Its success in avoiding blood contamination of CSF lays in the use of a mixture of lidocaine/ephinephrine topically injected in the rat's suboccipital area and neck. Another relevant feature of the methodology is its low cost, since the puncture device can be easily assembled with cheap and available materials and, more importantly, neither expensive stereotaxic equipment nor frame is required. The present method is demonstrated by studying the CSF pharmacokinetics of recombinant human erythropoietin (rhEPO), a well-studied therapeutic candidate for neurological diseases. Moreover, we applied this technique to evaluate a strategy of osmotic disruption of the BBB to achieve a faster delivery of rhEPO into the CNS.

  9. [Measures to prevent patient identification errors in blood collection/physiological function testing utilizing a laboratory information system].

    PubMed

    Shimazu, Chisato; Hoshino, Satoshi; Furukawa, Taiji

    2013-08-01

    We constructed an integrated personal identification workflow chart using both bar code reading and an all in-one laboratory information system. The information system not only handles test data but also the information needed for patient guidance in the laboratory department. The reception terminals at the entrance, displays for patient guidance and patient identification tools at blood-sampling booths are all controlled by the information system. The number of patient identification errors was greatly reduced by the system. However, identification errors have not been abolished in the ultrasound department. After re-evaluation of the patient identification process in this department, we recognized that the major reason for the errors came from excessive identification workflow. Ordinarily, an ultrasound test requires patient identification 3 times, because 3 different systems are required during the entire test process, i.e. ultrasound modality system, laboratory information system and a system for producing reports. We are trying to connect the 3 different systems to develop a one-time identification workflow, but it is not a simple task and has not been completed yet. Utilization of the laboratory information system is effective, but is not yet perfect for patient identification. The most fundamental procedure for patient identification is to ask a person's name even today. Everyday checks in the ordinary workflow and everyone's participation in safety-management activity are important for the prevention of patient identification errors.

  10. [Blood cultures in the paediatric emergency department. Guidelines and recommendations on their indications, collection, processing and interpretation].

    PubMed

    Hernández-Bou, S; Álvarez Álvarez, C; Campo Fernández, M N; García Herrero, M A; Gené Giralt, A; Giménez Pérez, M; Piñeiro Pérez, R; Gómez Cortés, B; Velasco, R; Menasalvas Ruiz, A I; García García, J J; Rodrigo Gonzalo de Liria, C

    2016-05-01

    Blood culture (BC) is the gold standard when a bacteraemia is suspected, and is one of the most requested microbiological tests in paediatrics. Some changes have occurred in recent years: the introduction of new vaccines, the increasing number of patients with central vascular catheters, as well as the introduction of continuous monitoring BC systems. These changes have led to the review and update of different factors related to this technique in order to optimise its use. A practice guideline is presented with recommendations on BC, established by the Spanish Society of Paediatric Emergency Care and the Spanish Society for Paediatric Infectious Diseases. After reviewing the available scientific evidence, several recommendations for each of the following aspects are presented: BC indications in the Emergency Department, how to obtain, transport and process cultures, special situations (indications and interpretation of results in immunosuppressed patients and/or central vascular catheter carriers, indications for anaerobic BC), differentiation between bacteraemia and contamination when a BC shows bacterial growth and actions to take with a positive BC in patients with fever of unknown origin.

  11. Comparison of Ahlstrom grade 226, Munktell TFN, and Whatman 903 filter papers for dried blood spot specimen collection and subsequent HIV-1 load and drug resistance genotyping analysis.

    PubMed

    Rottinghaus, Erin; Bile, Ebi; Modukanele, Mosetsanagape; Maruping, Maruping; Mine, Madisa; Nkengasong, John; Yang, Chunfu

    2013-01-01

    Dried blood spots (DBS) collected onto filter paper have eased the difficulty of blood collection in resource-limited settings. Currently, Whatman 903 (W-903) filter paper is the only filter paper that has been used for HIV load and HIV drug resistance (HIVDR) testing. We therefore evaluated two additional commercially available filter papers, Ahlstrom grade 226 (A-226) and Munktell TFN (M-TFN), for viral load (VL) testing and HIVDR genotyping using W-903 filter paper as a comparison group. DBS specimens were generated from 344 adult patients on antiretroviral therapy (ART) in Botswana. The VL was measured with NucliSENS EasyQ HIV-1 v2.0, and genotyping was performed for those specimens with a detectable VL (≥ 2.90 log(10) copies/ml) using an in-house method. Bland-Altman analysis revealed a strong concordance in quantitative VL analysis between W-903 and A-226 (bias = -0.034 ± 0.246 log(10) copies/ml [mean difference ± standard deviation]) and W-903 and M-TFN (bias = -0.028 ± 0.186 log(10) copies/ml) filter papers, while qualitative VL analysis for virological failure determination, defined as a VL of ≥ 3.00 log(10) copies/ml, showed low sensitivities for A-266 (71.54%) and M-TFN (65.71%) filter papers compared to W-903 filter paper. DBS collected on M-TFN filter paper had the highest genotyping efficiency (100%) compared to W-903 and A-226 filter papers (91.7%) and appeared more sensitive in detecting major HIVDR mutations. DBS collected on A-226 and M-TFN filter papers performed similarly to DBS collected on W-903 filter paper for quantitative VL analysis and HIVDR detection. Together, the encouraging genotyping results and the variability observed in determining virological failure from this small pilot study warrant further investigation of A-226 and M-TFN filter papers as specimen collection devices for HIVDR monitoring surveys.

  12. Prospective, Multicentre, Nationwide Clinical Data from 600 Cases of Acute Pancreatitis

    PubMed Central

    Párniczky, Andrea; Kui, Balázs; Szentesi, Andrea; Balázs, Anita; Szűcs, Ákos; Mosztbacher, Dóra; Czimmer, József; Sarlós, Patrícia; Bajor, Judit; Gódi, Szilárd; Vincze, Áron; Illés, Anita; Szabó, Imre; Pár, Gabriella; Takács, Tamás; Czakó, László; Szepes, Zoltán; Rakonczay, Zoltán; Izbéki, Ferenc; Gervain, Judit; Halász, Adrienn; Novák, János; Crai, Stefan; Hritz, István; Góg, Csaba; Sümegi, János; Golovics, Petra; Varga, Márta; Bod, Barnabás; Hamvas, József; Varga-Müller, Mónika; Papp, Zsuzsanna; Sahin-Tóth, Miklós; Hegyi, Péter

    2016-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to analyse the clinical characteristics of acute pancreatitis (AP) in a prospectively collected, large, multicentre cohort and to validate the major recommendations in the IAP/APA evidence-based guidelines for the management of AP. Design Eighty-six different clinical parameters were collected using an electronic clinical research form designed by the Hungarian Pancreatic Study Group. Patients 600 adult patients diagnosed with AP were prospectively enrolled from 17 Hungarian centres over a two-year period from 1 January 2013. Main Results With respect to aetiology, biliary and alcoholic pancreatitis represented the two most common forms of AP. The prevalence of biliary AP was higher in women, whereas alcoholic AP was more common in men. Hyperlipidaemia was a risk factor for severity, lack of serum enzyme elevation posed a risk for severe AP, and lack of abdominal pain at admission demonstrated a risk for mortality. Abdominal tenderness developed in all the patients with severe AP, while lack of abdominal tenderness was a favourable sign for mortality. Importantly, lung injury at admission was associated with mortality. With regard to laboratory parameters, white blood cell count and CRP were the two most sensitive indicators for severe AP. The most common local complication was peripancreatic fluid, whereas the most common distant organ failure in severe AP was lung injury. Deviation from the recommendations in the IAP/APA evidence-based guidelines on fluid replacement, enteral nutrition and timing of interventions increased severity and mortality. Conclusions Analysis of a large, nationwide, prospective cohort of AP cases allowed for the identification of important determinants of severity and mortality. Evidence-based guidelines should be observed rigorously to improve outcomes in AP. PMID:27798670

  13. A Framework for evaluating the costs, effort, and value of nationwide health information exchange

    PubMed Central

    Zafar, Atif; Overhage, J Marc

    2010-01-01

    Objective The nationwide health information network (NHIN) has been proposed to securely link community and state health information exchange (HIE) entities to create a national, interoperable network for sharing healthcare data in the USA. This paper describes a framework for evaluating the costs, effort, and value of nationwide data exchange as the NHIN moves toward a production state. The paper further presents the results of an initial assessment of the framework by those engaged in HIE activities. Design Using a literature review and knowledge gained from active NHIN technology and policy development, the authors constructed a framework for evaluating the costs, effort, and value of data exchange between an HIE entity and the NHIN. Measurement An online survey was used to assess the perceived usefulness of the metrics in the framework among HIE professionals and researchers. Results The framework is organized into five broad categories: implementation; technology; policy; data; and value. Each category enumerates a variety of measures and measure types. Survey respondents generally indicated the framework contained useful measures for current and future use in HIE and NHIN evaluation. Answers varied slightly based on a respondent's participation in active development of NHIN components. Conclusion The proposed framework supports efforts to measure the costs, effort, and value associated with nationwide data exchange. Collecting longitudinal data along the NHIN's path to production should help with the development of an evidence base that will drive adoption, create value, and stimulate further investment in nationwide data exchange. PMID:20442147

  14. Interleukin-8, interleukin-1β and tumour necrosis factor-α in sequential units of packed red blood cells collected from retired racing Greyhounds.

    PubMed

    Purcell, S L; Claus, M; Hosgood, G; Smart, L

    2017-01-01

    We hypothesised that concentrations of interleukin-8 (IL-8), interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) would increase during storage in the third sequential unit (U3) of canine packed red blood cells (PRBC) collected from terminal donors in haemorrhagic shock. We further hypothesised that leucoreduction would prevent cytokine accumulation in U3 and that cytokine concentrations in U3 would be higher than in the first units (U1) collected from the same dogs. U1 and U3 were each collected from 12 anaesthetised healthy Greyhounds. Removal of leucocytes from half of each PRBC unit produced one leucoreduced (LR) and one non-leucoreduced (NLR) unit. Canine IL-8, IL-1β and TNF-α concentrations were measured in samples collected from the units during storage on days 0, 10, 20, 30 and 37. The IL-8 concentration in U3 NLR units was significantly higher on days 10, 20, 30 and 37 than on day 0 and was significantly higher than in the LR units at all time points. The IL-1β concentration in U3 did not change over time, or between LR and NLR units. TNF-α was not detected in any unit. There were no significant differences in IL-8 or IL-1β concentrations between U3 and U1 at any time point; however, some NLR U3 units had markedly elevated IL-8 concentrations at day 37 (2060-20,682 pg/mL) compared with NLR U1 units (3369-5280 pg/mL). NLR U3 units collected from dogs in haemorrhagic shock showed a significant increase in IL-8 concentrations during storage. Leucoreduction was effective at preventing the accumulation of IL-8. There was no difference detected between U3 and U1. © 2017 Australian Veterinary Association.

  15. Improved light collection and wavelet de-noising enable quantification of cerebral blood flow and oxygen metabolism by a low-cost, off-the-shelf spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diop, Mamadou; Wright, Eric; Toronov, Vladislav; Lee, Ting-Yim; St. Lawrence, Keith

    2014-05-01

    Broadband continuous-wave near-infrared spectroscopy (CW-NIRS) is an attractive alternative to time-resolved and frequency-domain techniques for quantifying cerebral blood flow (CBF) and oxygen metabolism in newborns. However, efficient light collection is critical to broadband CW-NIRS since only a small fraction of the injected light emerges from any given area of the scalp. Light collection is typically improved by optimizing the contact area between the detection system and the skin by means of light guides with large detection surface. Since the form-factor of these light guides do not match the entrance of commercial spectrometers, which are usually equipped with a narrow slit to improve their spectral resolution, broadband NIRS spectrometers are typically custom-built. Nonetheless, off-the-shelf spectrometers have attractive advantages compared to custom-made units, such as low cost, small footprint, and wide availability. We demonstrate that off-the-shelf spectrometers can be easily converted into suitable instruments for deep tissue spectroscopy by improving light collection, while maintaining good spectral resolution, and reducing measurement noise. The ability of this approach to provide reliable cerebral hemodynamics was illustrated in a piglet by measuring CBF and oxygen metabolism under different anesthetic regimens.

  16. Blood Donation

    MedlinePlus

    ... is then separated into its components — red cells, plasma, platelets. Apheresis During apheresis, you are hooked up ... collect and separate blood components, including red cells, plasma, platelets, and return unused components back to the ...

  17. Single genome amplification of proviral HIV-1 DNA from dried blood spot specimens collected during early infant screening programs in Lusaka, Zambia.

    PubMed

    Seu, Lillian; Mwape, Innocent; Guffey, M Bradford

    2014-07-01

    The ability to evaluate individual HIV-1 virions from the quasispecies of vertically infected infants was evaluated in a field setting at the Centre for Infectious Disease Research in Zambia. Infant heel-prick blood specimens were spotted onto dried blood spot (DBS) filter paper cards at government health clinics. Nucleic acid was extracted and used as a template for HIV-1 proviral DNA detection by a commercial Amplicor HIV-1 PCR test (Roche, version 1.5). On samples that tested positive by commercial diagnostic assay, amplification of DNA was performed using an in-house assay of the 5' and 3' region of the HIV-1 genome. Additionally, fragments covering 1200 nucleotides within pol (full length protease and partial reverse transcriptase) and 1400 nucleotides within env (variable 1-variable 5 region) were further analyzed by single genome amplification (SGA). In summary, we have demonstrated an in-house assay for amplifying the 5' and 3' proviral HIV-1 DNA as well as pol and env proviral DNA fragments from DBS cards collected and analyzed entirely in Zambia. In conclusion, this study shows the feasibility of utilizing DBS cards to amplify the whole proviral HIV-1 genome as well as perform SGA on key HIV-1 genes.

  18. Kawasaki Disease in Mongolia: Results From 2 Nationwide Retrospective Surveys, 1996–2008

    PubMed Central

    Davaalkham, Dambadarjaa; Nakamura, Yosikazu; Baigalmaa, Davaakhuu; Davaa, Gombojav; Chimedsuren, Ochir; Sumberzul, Nyamjav; Lkhagvasuren, Tserenkhuu; Uehara, Ritei; Yanagawa, Hiroshi; Kawasaki, Tomisaku

    2011-01-01

    Background Kawasaki disease (KD) has been reported in many countries. However, the incidence of KD in Mongolia is not known. This is the first report of incident cases of KD in Mongolia, which were identified using data from 2 nationwide surveys. Methods Two nationwide retrospective surveys were conducted: medical histories were collected from patients aged 0 to 16 years who were hospitalized countrywide between 1996 and 2008. Hospital records for these patients were also reviewed. Nationwide training seminars on KD were conducted before each survey. Results For the nationwide surveys, the participation rates among all hospitals with pediatric wards were 97% and 94%. Inpatient medical histories from 1996 through 2008 were reviewed, and, among children younger than 16 years, 9 patients with KD were investigated. The age of KD patients ranged from 1.4 to 14 years; 7 of 9 patients were male. Six (67%) patients fulfilled all 6 clinical diagnostic criteria; the other 3 (33%) were defined as having KD based on the presence of 5 such criteria. Fever persisting 5 or more days, bilateral conjunctival congestion, and changes of the lips and oral cavity were the most common symptoms, and cervical lymphadenopathy was the least common symptom. Cardiac sequelae developed in 5 of the patients, 4 of whom were older than 10 years. Conclusions The results of these nationwide surveys reveal that KD cases do exist in Mongolia. However, knowledge of KD among Mongolian pediatricians is likely to be poor. Thus, there is a need to augment their understanding to improve management of KD patients. Further studies are crucial to clarify the epidemiologic characteristics of KD in Mongolia. PMID:21691035

  19. Kawasaki disease in Mongolia: results from 2 nationwide retrospective surveys, 1996-2008.

    PubMed

    Davaalkham, Dambadarjaa; Nakamura, Yosikazu; Baigalmaa, Davaakhuu; Davaa, Gombojav; Chimedsuren, Ochir; Sumberzul, Nyamjav; Lkhagvasuren, Tserenkhuu; Uehara, Ritei; Yanagawa, Hiroshi; Kawasaki, Tomisaku

    2011-01-01

    Kawasaki disease (KD) has been reported in many countries. However, the incidence of KD in Mongolia is not known. This is the first report of incident cases of KD in Mongolia, which were identified using data from 2 nationwide surveys. Two nationwide retrospective surveys were conducted: medical histories were collected from patients aged 0 to 16 years who were hospitalized countrywide between 1996 and 2008. Hospital records for these patients were also reviewed. Nationwide training seminars on KD were conducted before each survey. For the nationwide surveys, the participation rates among all hospitals with pediatric wards were 97% and 94%. Inpatient medical histories from 1996 through 2008 were reviewed, and, among children younger than 16 years, 9 patients with KD were investigated. The age of KD patients ranged from 1.4 to 14 years; 7 of 9 patients were male. Six (67%) patients fulfilled all 6 clinical diagnostic criteria; the other 3 (33%) were defined as having KD based on the presence of 5 such criteria. Fever persisting 5 or more days, bilateral conjunctival congestion, and changes of the lips and oral cavity were the most common symptoms, and cervical lymphadenopathy was the least common symptom. Cardiac sequelae developed in 5 of the patients, 4 of whom were older than 10 years. The results of these nationwide surveys reveal that KD cases do exist in Mongolia. However, knowledge of KD among Mongolian pediatricians is likely to be poor. Thus, there is a need to augment their understanding to improve management of KD patients. Further studies are crucial to clarify the epidemiologic characteristics of KD in Mongolia.

  20. Transfusion significance of Lewis system antibodies. Report on a nationwide survey.

    PubMed

    Waheed, A; Kennedy, M S; Gerhan, S

    1981-01-01

    A nationwide survey of hospital blood banks conducted in February 1979 indicated that the majority of respondents require only reagent tested Lea and/or Leb negative blood for transfusion to patients with Lewis system antibodies in their serum. The policy was followed even if the antibody(ies) no longer was demonstrable in the serum or was reactive at room temperature and below. Only 11.4 per cent select blood for these patients on the basis of major crossmatch compatibility alone; 56 per cent require only reagent tested antigen negative blood for transfusion under all circumstances. The results of this survey and a review of the literature indicate the need for further studies on the transfusion significance of Lewis system antibodies.

  1. LC-MS/MS bioanalysis of loratadine (Claritin) in dried blood spot (DBS) samples collected by subjects in a clinical research study.

    PubMed

    Li, Wenkui; Doherty, John; Moench, Paul; Flarakos, Jimmy; Tse, Francis L S

    2015-03-01

    A high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometric (LC-MS/MS) method has been developed and validated for the quantitative analysis of loratadine, an H1 histamine antagonist, in human dried blood spot (DBS) samples following a single self-administered 10 or 20mg oral dose. The samples were produced by spotting approximately 30μl of whole blood onto PE-226 cards. Two 3-mm discs were cut from the DBS samples and extracted using aqueous methanol containing the internal standard. After transfer and drying of the resulting sample extract, the reconstituted residues were chromatographed using a Waters XSelect C18 column and isocratic elution for MS/MS detection. The possible impact due to hematocrit, volume of blood sample spotted, storage temperature, and humidity, on the accuracy of measured DBS results were investigated. The results showed that only spotted blood volume might have an impact; a small volume (10μl) tended to give a larger negative bias in the measured value than the large volume ones (≥20μl). The current method was fully validated over a dynamic range of 0.200-20.0ng/ml with correlation coefficients (r(2)) for three validation batches equal to or better than 0.990. The intra-day accuracy and precision at the LLOQ were -11.5 to 0.0% bias and 6.4 to 8.9% CV, respectively. For the other QC samples (0.600, 3.00, 10.0 and 15.0ng/ml), the precision ranged from 4.2 to 9.8% CV and from 6.3 to 8.1% CV, respectively, in the intra-day and inter-day evaluations; the accuracy ranged from -1.7 to 10.0% and 2.7 to 5.3% bias, respectively, in the intra-day and inter-day batches. Loratadine is stable in the DBS samples for at least 271 days at ambient temperature in a desiccator, for at least 24h at 60°C and under 80% relative humidity, followed by re-conditioning at ambient temperature in a desiccator. The current methodology has been applied to determine the loratadine levels in DBS samples collected by subjects in a clinical research study to

  2. Safety and efficacy of hematopoietic stem cell collection from mobilized peripheral blood in unrelated volunteers: 12 years of single-center experience in 3928 donors.

    PubMed

    Hölig, Kristina; Kramer, Michael; Kroschinsky, Frank; Bornhäuser, Martin; Mengling, Thilo; Schmidt, Alexander H; Rutt, Claudia; Ehninger, Gerhard

    2009-10-29

    We present results of peripheral blood stem cell (PBSC) mobilization, collection, and follow-up from 3928 consecutive unrelated stem cell donors. Assessments were performed prospectively at baseline, leukapheresis, 1 month, 6 months, and annually after PBSC donation. During follow-up, side effects were recorded by return post questionnaires. The median CD34+ cell counts on day 5 were 67.5/microL in male and 51/microL in female donors. Bone pain and headache were the most common side effects of recombinant human granulocyte-colony stimulating factor. Central venous access was required for 23 donations (0.6%). Throughout the follow-up, the absolute neutrophil counts were slightly below the initial baseline values but remained within the normal range. The majority of the donors reported good or very good health. Malignancies occurred in 12 donors (0.3%), among whom were 1 case of acute myeloid leukemia, 1 case of chronic lymphatic leukemia, and 2 cases of Hodgkin disease. Only the incidence of Hodgkin lymphoma differed significantly from an age-adjusted population. In conclusion, 7.5 microg/kg per day lenograstim proved to be safe and effective for mobilizing hematopoietic stem cells for allogeneic transplantation. Long-term monitoring of healthy PBSC donors remains important to guarantee the safety standards of PBSC mobilization and collection.

  3. Cord blood collection and banking from a population with highly diverse geographic origins increase HLA diversity in the registry and do not lower the proportion of validated cord blood units: experience of the Marseille Cord Blood Bank.

    PubMed

    Bordoni, C; Magalon, J; Gilbertas, C; Gamerre, M; Le Coz, P; Berthomieu, M; Chabannon, C; Di Cristofaro, J; Picard, C

    2015-04-01

    Several Cord Blood (CB) Bank studies suggested that ethnicity impaired CB unit (CBU) qualification. The Bone Marrow Donors Worldwide registries present an over-representation of unrelated donors (UD) from Northwestern European descent. This raises the question of equality of access to hematopoietic stem cells transplant, especially in the Mediterranean zone, which has taken in many waves of immigration. The aim of our study is to address whether, in the Marseille CB Bank, CBU qualification rate is impaired by geographic origin. The study compared biological characteristics of 106 CBU disqualified for total nucleated cell (TNC) count (dCBU) and 136 qualified CBU in relation to registry enrichment and haplotype origin. A high proportion (>80%) of both dCBU and CBU had at least one non-European haplotype and enrich CB and UD registries to a higher extent than those with two European haplotypes (P<0.001). No difference was observed between TNC count and volume according to geographic origin. Our study shows that diverse Mediterranean origins do not have an impact on the CBU qualification rate. Partnership with Mediterranean birth clinics with highly trained staff is a reasonable option to increase the HLA diversity of CB Bank inventories and to improve the representation of minorities.

  4. Dietary sodium and the incidence of hypertension in the Chinese population: a review of nationwide surveys.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhiquan

    2009-09-01

    High dietary salt consumption is considered a risk factor for hypertension. In order to determine the relationship between dietary sodium and blood pressure in the Chinese population, several nationwide epidemiological surveys have been conducted to investigate salt intake and the incidence of high blood pressure. These surveys found that the residents living in the cold northern and northwestern areas of mainland China consume significantly more sodium than people from the south, that the average blood pressure and prevalence of hypertension are higher in the high-salt-consuming population, and that salt consumption correlates with blood pressure. It was also found that the nationwide prevalence of hypertension increased threefold over the past 30 years, but there was no parallel increase in salt consumption. In the same period, due to improved living standards, the occurrence of overweight or obesity in adults has increased significantly, which might contribute to the elevated prevalence of hypertension. Thus, approaches to preventing hypertension should entail both dietary salt restriction and weight control.

  5. Pre-Eclampsia Increases the Risk of Postpartum Haemorrhage: A Nationwide Cohort Study in The Netherlands

    PubMed Central

    von Schmidt auf Altenstadt, Joost F.; Hukkelhoven, Chantal W. P. M.; van Roosmalen, Jos; Bloemenkamp, Kitty W. M.

    2013-01-01

    Background Postpartum haemorrhage is a leading cause of maternal morbidity and mortality worldwide. Identifying risk indicators for postpartum haemorrhage is crucial to predict this life threatening condition. Another major contributor to maternal morbidity and mortality is pre-eclampsia. Previous studies show conflicting results in the association between pre-eclampsia and postpartum haemorrhage. The primary objective of this study was to investigate the association between pre-eclampsia and postpartum haemorrhage. Our secondary objective was to identify other risk indicators for postpartum haemorrhage in the Netherlands. Methods A nationwide cohort was used, containing prospectively collected data of women giving birth after 19 completed weeks of gestation from January 2000 until January 2008 (n =  1 457 576). Data were extracted from the Netherlands Perinatal Registry, covering 96% of all deliveries in the Netherlands. The main outcome measure, postpartum haemorrhage, was defined as blood loss of ≥1000 ml in the 24 hours following delivery. The association between pre-eclampsia and postpartum haemorrhage was investigated with uni- and multivariable logistic regression analyses. Results Overall prevalence of postpartum haemorrhage was 4.3% and of pre-eclampsia 2.2%. From the 31 560 women with pre-eclampsia 2 347 (7.4%) developed postpartum haemorrhage, compared to 60 517 (4.2%) from the 1 426 016 women without pre-eclampsia (odds ratio 1.81; 95% CI 1.74 to 1.89). Risk of postpartum haemorrhage in women with pre-eclampsia remained increased after adjusting for confounders (adjusted odds ratio 1.53; 95% CI 1.46 to 1.60). Conclusion Women with pre-eclampsia have a 1.53 fold increased risk for postpartum haemorrhage. Clinicians should be aware of this and use this knowledge in the management of pre-eclampsia and the third stage of labour in order to reach the fifth Millenium Developmental Goal of reducing maternal mortality ratios with 75% by 2015. PMID

  6. Blood Collection Tubes and Storage Temperature Should Be Evaluated when Using the Siemens ADVIA Centaur XP for Measuring 25-Hydroxyvitamin D.

    PubMed

    Yu, Songlin; Zhou, Weiyan; Cheng, Xinqi; Fang, Huiling; Zhang, Ruiping; Cheng, Qian; Han, Jianhua; Su, Wei; Xia, Liangyu; Qiu, Ling

    2016-01-01

    A significant bias was found when using the Siemens ADVIA Centaur XP system for measurement of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD) with VACUETTE® tubes with Serum Clot Activator and Gel. Here, we examined whether other commonly used tubes or temperatures affected 25OHD results obtained with the Siemens ADVIA Centaur XP system. Serum was collected into five types of vacuum blood collection tubes from three manufacturers, and 25OHD was analyzed using the Siemens ADVIA Centaur XP system and liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) immediately or after storage at 4°C or -80°C for 48 h. Significantly higher 25OHD values were found when using the Siemens ADVIA Centaur XP system with VACUETTE® tubes with serum clot activator and gel and VACUETTE® tubes with clot activator but no gel compared with VACUETTE® tubes with no additives. The 25OHD values in all of these tubes were not significantly different from those obtained by LC-MS/MS. Moreover, after storage at -80°C for 48 h, the values obtained in IMPROVEVACUTER® tubes with serum clot activator and gel significantly increased, with a mean bias of 74.6% compared with the values before storage, on analysis with the Siemens ADVIA Centaur XP system. VACUETTE® tubes containing additives significantly affect the accuracy of 25OHD results obtained using the Siemens ADVIA Centaur XP system. Additionally, the composition of serum collected in IMPROVEVACUTER® tubes was affected by freezing, resulting in different measurements when using the Siemens 25OHD assay platform.

  7. 47 CFR 90.19 - Nationwide Public Safety Broadband Network.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Nationwide Public Safety Broadband Network. 90... Safety Broadband Network. Pursuant to the Middle Class Tax Relief and Job Creation Act of 2012, Public... First Responder Network Authority to deploy a nationwide public safety broadband network as prescribed...

  8. 47 CFR 90.19 - Nationwide Public Safety Broadband Network.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Nationwide Public Safety Broadband Network. 90... Safety Broadband Network. Pursuant to the Middle Class Tax Relief and Job Creation Act of 2012, Public... First Responder Network Authority to deploy a nationwide public safety broadband network as prescribed...

  9. 75 FR 17789 - Nationwide Change in Frequency of Postal Delivery

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-07

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office POSTAL REGULATORY COMMISSION Nationwide Change in Frequency of Postal Delivery AGENCY: Postal Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Postal Service has requested an advisory opinion from the Commission on a proposed nationwide...

  10. 78 FR 70623 - Adjustment of Nationwide Significant Risk Threshold

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-26

    ...-6439, Notice No. 24] Adjustment of Nationwide Significant Risk Threshold AGENCY: Federal Railroad... Risk Threshold. SUMMARY: In accordance with appendix D to title 49 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR... Nationwide Significant Risk Threshold (NSRT). This action is needed to ensure that the public has the proper...

  11. Prevalence of HBV DNA among 20 million seronegative blood donations in China from 2010 to 2015

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Chao; Chang, Le; Ji, Huimin; Guo, Fei; Zhang, Kuo; Lin, Guigao; Zhang, Rui; Li, Jinming; Wang, Lunan

    2016-01-01

    The prevalence of HBV DNA among seronegative blood donations in China has not been studied extensively on a nationwide scale. The aim of this study was to analyse the prevalence, trend, distributions, and serological characteristics of HBV DNA positive/seronegative blood donations. We collected HBV test data from all blood banks of China from 2010 to 2015 and performed supplemental serological tests and quantitative detection of HBV DNA of the seronegative/HBV DNA positive blood donations. We analysed the prevalence of HBV DNA among seronegative blood donations screened by varying nucleotide acid test (NAT) reagents. The analysis results showed that a total of 20,084,187 seronegative blood donations were screened by NAT from 2010 to 2015 in China. The average frequency of HBV DNA among seronegative blood donations was 1/1482, but there has been a steady increase from 1/1861 in 2011 to 1/1269 in 2015. The geographical distribution of seronegative and HBV DNA positive blood donations was roughly consistent with that of HBsAg. The most common serological pattern was HBeAb and HBcAb positive. In conclusion, our study offeres fundamental data of seronegative and HBV DNA positive blood donations throughout China. PMID:27833112

  12. Prevalence of HBV DNA among 20 million seronegative blood donations in China from 2010 to 2015.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chao; Chang, Le; Ji, Huimin; Guo, Fei; Zhang, Kuo; Lin, Guigao; Zhang, Rui; Li, Jinming; Wang, Lunan

    2016-11-11

    The prevalence of HBV DNA among seronegative blood donations in China has not been studied extensively on a nationwide scale. The aim of this study was to analyse the prevalence, trend, distributions, and serological characteristics of HBV DNA positive/seronegative blood donations. We collected HBV test data from all blood banks of China from 2010 to 2015 and performed supplemental serological tests and quantitative detection of HBV DNA of the seronegative/HBV DNA positive blood donations. We analysed the prevalence of HBV DNA among seronegative blood donations screened by varying nucleotide acid test (NAT) reagents. The analysis results showed that a total of 20,084,187 seronegative blood donations were screened by NAT from 2010 to 2015 in China. The average frequency of HBV DNA among seronegative blood donations was 1/1482, but there has been a steady increase from 1/1861 in 2011 to 1/1269 in 2015. The geographical distribution of seronegative and HBV DNA positive blood donations was roughly consistent with that of HBsAg. The most common serological pattern was HBeAb and HBcAb positive. In conclusion, our study offeres fundamental data of seronegative and HBV DNA positive blood donations throughout China.

  13. Epidemiology and Individual, Household and Geographical Risk Factors of Podoconiosis in Ethiopia: Results from the First Nationwide Mapping

    PubMed Central

    Deribe, Kebede; Brooker, Simon J.; Pullan, Rachel L.; Sime, Heven; Gebretsadik, Abeba; Assefa, Ashenafi; Kebede, Amha; Hailu, Asrat; Rebollo, Maria P.; Shafi, Oumer; Bockarie, Moses J.; Aseffa, Abraham; Reithinger, Richard; Cano, Jorge; Enquselassie, Fikre; Newport, Melanie J.; Davey, Gail

    2015-01-01

    Although podoconiosis is one of the major causes of tropical lymphoedema and is endemic in Ethiopia its epidemiology and risk factors are poorly understood. Individual-level data for 129,959 individuals from 1,315 communities in 659 woreda (districts) were collected for a nationwide integrated survey of lymphatic filariasis and podoconiosis. Blood samples were tested for circulating Wuchereria bancrofti antigen using immunochromatographic card tests. A clinical algorithm was used to reach a diagnosis of podoconiosis by excluding other potential causes of lymphoedema of the lower limb. Bayesian multilevel models were used to identify individual and environmental risk factors. Overall, 8,110 of 129,959 (6.2%, 95% confidence interval [CI] 6.1–6.4%) surveyed individuals were identified with lymphoedema of the lower limb, of whom 5,253 (4.0%, 95% CI 3.9–4.1%) were confirmed to be podoconiosis cases. In multivariable analysis, being female, older, unmarried, washing the feet less frequently than daily, and being semiskilled or unemployed were significantly associated with increased risk of podoconiosis. Attending formal education and living in a house with a covered floor were associated with decreased risk of podoconiosis. Podoconiosis exhibits marked geographical variation across Ethiopia, with variation in risk associated with variation in rainfall, enhanced vegetation index, and altitude. PMID:25404069

  14. A nationwide survey of pediatric acquired demyelinating syndromes in Japan

    PubMed Central

    Yamaguchi, Y.; Kira, R.; Ishizaki, Y.; Sakai, Y.; Sanefuji, M.; Ichiyama, T.; Oka, A.; Kishi, T.; Kimura, S.; Kubota, M.; Takanashi, J.; Takahashi, Y.; Tamai, H.; Natsume, J.; Hamano, S.; Hirabayashi, S.; Maegaki, Y.; Mizuguchi, M.; Minagawa, K.; Yoshikawa, H.; Kira, J.; Kusunoki, S.; Hara, T.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the clinical and epidemiologic features of pediatric acquired demyelinating syndromes (ADS) of the CNS in Japan. Methods: We conducted a nationwide survey and collected clinical data on children with ADS aged 15 years or younger, who visited hospitals between 2005 and 2007. Results: Among 977 hospitals enrolled, 723 (74.0%) responded to our inquiries and reported a total of 439 patients as follows: 244 with acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM), 117 with multiple sclerosis (MS), 14 with neuromyelitis optica (NMO), and 64 with other ADS. We collected and analyzed detailed data from 204 cases, including those with ADEM (66), MS (58), and NMO (10). We observed the following: (1) the estimated annual incidence rate of pediatric ADEM in Japan was 0.40 per 100,000 children (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.34–0.46), with the lowest prevalence in the north; (2) the estimated prevalence rate of MS was 0.69 per 100,000 children (95% CI, 0.58–0.80), with the lowest prevalence in the south; (3) NMO in Japan was rare, with an estimated prevalence of 0.06 per 100,000 children (95% CI, 0.04–0.08); and (4) the sex ratio and mean age at onset varied by ADS type, and (5) male/female ratios correlated with ages at onset in each ADS group. Conclusions: Our results clarify the characteristic clinical features of pediatric ADS in the Japanese population. PMID:27742816

  15. Nationwide trends in total shoulder arthroplasty and hemiarthroplasty for osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Trofa, David; Rajaee, Sean S; Smith, Eric L

    2014-04-01

    Recent literature reports an increase in the rate of shoulder arthroplasties, particularly total shoulder arthroplasties (TSAs), being performed in the United States. However, the national epidemiology of use of hemiarthroplasty (HA) and TSA as treatments for glenohumeral osteoarthritis has not been elucidated. We conducted a study to analyze trends in using HA and TSA as treatments for glenohumeral osteoarthritis from 2000 to 2010, and to compare patient characteristics and inpatient complications. US Nationwide Inpatient Sample patients with a primary inpatient diagnosis of shoulder arthritis and a principal procedure of HA or TSA were identified using International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification (ICD-9-CM) procedural codes. From 2000 to 2010 the nationally adjusted population rate of shoulder arthroplasty performed for osteoarthritis increased 3.7-fold. Specifically, the population rate of TSA increased 5.0-fold, and that of HA increased 1.9-fold. In 2010, 80.3% of patients having shoulder arthroplasty for arthritis underwent TSA. TSA patients were older (P < .0001) and had a higher mean number of chronic illnesses (P = .034). TSA-associated discharges had a higher rate of surgical and medical care complications (P = .011) and blood transfusions (P = .041) after adjusting for comorbidities.

  16. Impact of a Nationwide Training Program in Minimally Invasive Distal Pancreatectomy (LAELAPS).

    PubMed

    de Rooij, Thijs; van Hilst, Jony; Boerma, Djamila; Bonsing, Bert A; Daams, Freek; van Dam, Ronald M; Dijkgraaf, Marcel G; van Eijck, Casper H; Festen, Sebastiaan; Gerhards, Michael F; Koerkamp, Bas Groot; van der Harst, Erwin; de Hingh, Ignace H; Kazemier, Geert; Klaase, Joost; de Kleine, Ruben H; van Laarhoven, Cornelis J; Lips, Daan J; Luyer, Misha D; Molenaar, I Quintus; Patijn, Gijs A; Roos, Daphne; Scheepers, Joris J; van der Schelling, George P; Steenvoorde, Pascal; Vriens, Menno R; Wijsman, Jan H; Gouma, Dirk J; Busch, Olivier R; Hilal, Mohammed Abu; Besselink, Marc G

    2016-11-01

    To study the feasibility and impact of a nationwide training program in minimally invasive distal pancreatectomy (MIDP). Superior outcomes of MIDP compared with open distal pancreatectomy have been reported. In the Netherlands (2005 to 2013) only 10% of distal pancreatectomies were in a minimally invasive fashion and 85% of surgeons welcomed MIDP training. The feasibility and impact of a nationwide training program is unknown. From 2014 to 2015, 32 pancreatic surgeons from 17 centers participated in a nationwide training program in MIDP, including detailed technique description, video training, and proctoring on-site. Outcomes of MIDP before training (2005-2013) were compared with outcomes after training (2014-2015). In total, 201 patients were included; 71 underwent MIDP in 9 years before training versus 130 in 22 months after training (7-fold increase, P < 0.001). The conversion rate (38% [n = 27] vs 8% [n = 11], P < 0.001) and blood loss were lower after training and more pancreatic adenocarcinomas were resected (7 [10%] vs 28 [22%], P = 0.03), with comparable R0-resection rates (4/7 [57%] vs 19/28 [68%], P = 0.67). Clavien-Dindo score ≥III complications (15 [21%] vs 19 [15%], P = 0.24) and pancreatic fistulas (20 [28%] vs 41 [32%], P = 0.62) were not significantly different. Length of hospital stay was shorter after training (9 [7-12] vs 7 [5-8] days, P < 0.001). Thirty-day mortality was 3% vs 0% (P = 0.12). A nationwide MIDP training program was feasible and followed by a steep increase in the use of MIDP, also in patients with pancreatic cancer, and decreased conversion rates. Future studies should determine whether such a training program is applicable in other settings.

  17. The bioequivalence of frozen plasma prepared from whole blood held overnight at room temperature compared to fresh-frozen plasma prepared within eight hours of collection.

    PubMed

    Dumont, Larry J; Cancelas, Jose A; Maes, Lou Ann; Rugg, Neeta; Whitley, Pamela; Herschel, Louise; Siegel, Alan H; Szczepiorkowski, Zbigniew M; Hess, John R; Zia, Majid

    2015-03-01

    Overnight, room temperature hold of whole blood (WB) before leukoreduction and component processing offers significant logistic and cost advantages over WB processed within 8 hours. Plasma prepared from WB held at room temperature overnight (PF24RT24WB) may result in a degradation of plasma coagulation protein activities compared to plasma frozen within 8 hours of collection. In this study, we intended to evaluate the bioequivalence (BE) of PF24RT24WB prepared using a new WB collection, leukoreduction, and storage system compared to fresh-frozen plasma (FFP) after 12 months of frozen storage. We conducted a three-center, three-arm evaluation of the LEUKOSEP HWB-600-XL test system (Hemerus Medical LLC) compared to the RZ2000 control (Fenwal, Inc.). FFP was prepared from WB held at room temperature more than 6 hours and placed at less than -18 °C by 8 hours for control (n = 60) and test (n = 60) arms. PF24RT24WB (n = 60) was prepared with the test system from WB held at room temperature and then filtered and processed 20 to 24 hours postcollection. Frozen plasma was tested at 3, 6, and 12 months using a comprehensive panel of protein and coagulation factor assays. The test FFP was BE for all coagulation factors and tested proteins at 12 months. As expected, PF24RT24WB had a reduced Factor (F)VIII activity compared to control FFP (87.1%; 90% confidence interval, 79.4%-93.3%) with the lower confidence limit less than 80%. All other factors were within the BE region. Leukoreduced FFP and PF24RT24WB prepared using the LEUKOSEP HWB-600-XL system has been shown to be BE to control leukoreduced FFP with an expected decrease in FVIII activity after overnight hold. © 2014 AABB.

  18. 78 FR 35612 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Comment Request; Targeted Teacher Shortage Areas...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-13

    ... Agency Information Collection Activities; Comment Request; Targeted Teacher Shortage Areas Nationwide... to this notice will be considered public records. Title of Collection: Targeted Teacher Shortage... Family Education Loan Programs (FFELP) regulations, which address the targeted teacher...

  19. Status Report on Red Blood Cell Freezing: Biochemical Modification and Freeze-Preservation in the Original Polyvinyl Chloride Plastic Collection Bag,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1977-10-08

    Biochemically modified red blood cells must be washed befo re transfusion whether or not they have been frozen to remove the additives used in the solution... transfusions , to future platelet and granulocyte are not available to supply fresh blood transfusions , and to tissue antigens in during emergency situations... transfusion to blood cells instead of whole blood be. remove the cryoprotective agent , gly- Although cryopreservation has been cause patients do not always

  20. Effect of blood plasma collected after adrenocorticotropic hormone administration during the preovulatory period in the sow on oocyte in vitro maturation.

    PubMed

    González, R; Sjunnesson, Y C B

    2013-10-01

    Reproduction may be affected by stressful events changing the female endocrine or metabolic profile. An altered environment during oocyte development could influence the delicate process of oocyte maturation. Here, the effect of simulated stress by media supplementation with blood plasma from sows after adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) administration during the preovulatory period was assessed. Oocytes were matured for 46 hours in the presence of plasma from ACTH-treated sows, or plasma from NaCl-treated control sows, or medium without plasma (BSA group). The plasma used had been collected at 36 and 12 hours (±2 hours) before ovulation (for the first 24 hours + last 22 hours of maturation, respectively). Subsequent fertilization and embryo development were evaluated. Actin cytoskeleton and mitochondrial patterns were studied by confocal microscopy both in the oocytes and the resulting blastocysts. Nuclear maturation did not differ between treatments. Subtle differences were observed in the actin microfilaments in oocytes; however, mitochondrial patterns were associated with the treatment (P < 0.001). These differences in mitochondrial patterns were not reflected by in vitro outcomes, which were similar in all groups. In conclusion, an altered hormonal environment provided by a brief exposure to plasma from ACTH-treated sows during in vitro oocyte maturation could induce alterations in actin cytoskeleton and mitochondrial patterns in oocytes. However, these changes might not hamper the subsequent in vitro embryo development.

  1. Identification of host blood-meal sources and Borrelia in field-collected Ixodes ricinus ticks in north-western Poland.

    PubMed

    Wodecka, Beata; Skotarczak, Bogumila

    2016-01-01

    Forest animals play fundamental roles in the maintenance of Ixodes ricinus and Borrelia species in the forest biotope. To identify the forest vertebrate species that are host for I. ricinus and for the recognition of the reservoirs of Borrelia species, the blood-meal of 325 I. ricinus ticks collected at two forest sites in north-western Poland were analysed. Nested PCR was used to detect polymorphisms in a fragment of the mitochondrial 12S rRNA gene for the identification of the hosts species. The products were digested with the restriction enzymes, a combination that allows the identification of 60 vertebrate species, comprising 17 bird, 4 reptile and 39 mammalian species. Host DNA was detected in 244 (75%) I. ricinus individuals, with the species being detected and classified for 210 (86%) samples. The restriction patterns resulted in the identification of 14 vertebrate species, including 2 species of birds, lizard, badger, rabbit, deer; most of the samples contained DNA from wild boar (Sus scrofa), red fox (Vulpes vulpes), red deer (Cervus elaphus) and roe deer (Capreolus capreolus). Identification of Borrelia species was based on the flaB gene using nested PCR coupled to RFLP. This method allows the identification of all Borrelia species transmitted by I. ricinus in Europe, including B. miyamotoi and 3 genetic variants of B. garinii. In the studied isolates, 2 species belonging to B. burgdorferi sensu lato were identified--B. garinii and B. afzelii, and B. miyamotoi, which are related to relapsing fever borreliae.

  2. Blood collection tubes as medical devices: The potential to affect assays and proposed verification and validation processes for the clinical laboratory.

    PubMed

    Bowen, Raffick A R; Adcock, Dorothy M

    2016-12-01

    Blood collection tubes (BCTs) are an often under-recognized variable in the preanalytical phase of clinical laboratory testing. Unfortunately, even the best-designed and manufactured BCTs may not work well in all clinical settings. Clinical laboratories, in collaboration with healthcare providers, should carefully evaluate BCTs prior to putting them into clinical use to determine their limitations and ensure that patients are not placed at risk because of inaccuracies due to poor tube performance. Selection of the best BCTs can be achieved through comparing advertising materials, reviewing the literature, observing the device at a scientific meeting, receiving a demonstration, evaluating the device under simulated conditions, or testing the device with patient samples. Although many publications have discussed method validations, few detail how to perform experiments for tube verification and validation. This article highlights the most common and impactful variables related to BCTs and discusses the validation studies that a typical clinical laboratory should perform when selecting BCTs. We also present a brief review of how in vitro diagnostic devices, particularly BCTs, are regulated in the United States, the European Union, and Canada. The verification and validation of BCTs will help to avoid the economic and human costs associated with incorrect test results, including poor patient care, unnecessary testing, and delays in test results. We urge laboratorians, tube manufacturers, diagnostic companies, and other researchers to take all the necessary steps to protect against the adverse effects of BCT components and their additives on clinical assays.

  3. Systems Architecture for a Nationwide Healthcare System.

    PubMed

    Abin, Jorge; Nemeth, Horacio; Friedmann, Ignacio

    2015-01-01

    From a national level to give Internet technology support, the Nationwide Integrated Healthcare System in Uruguay requires a model of Information Systems Architecture. This system has multiple healthcare providers (public and private), and a strong component of supplementary services. Thus, the data processing system should have an architecture that considers this fact, while integrating the central services provided by the Ministry of Public Health. The national electronic health record, as well as other related data processing systems, should be based on this architecture. The architecture model described here conceptualizes a federated framework of electronic health record systems, according to the IHE affinity model, HL7 standards, local standards on interoperability and security, as well as technical advice provided by AGESIC. It is the outcome of the research done by AGESIC and Systems Integration Laboratory (LINS) on the development and use of the e-Government Platform since 2008, as well as the research done by the team Salud.uy since 2013.

  4. Collection of non-meconium stool on fecal occult blood cards is an effective method for fecal microbiota studies in infants.

    PubMed

    Wong, Wendy S W; Clemency, Nicole; Klein, Elisabeth; Provenzano, Marina; Iyer, Ramaswamy; Niederhuber, John E; Hourigan, Suchitra K

    2017-09-05

    Effective methods are needed to collect fecal samples from children for large-scale microbiota studies. Stool collected on fecal occult blood test (FOBT) cards that can be mailed provides an effective solution; however, the quality of sequencing resulting from this method is unknown. The aim of this study is to compare microbiota metrics of 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene sequencing from stool and meconium collected on FOBT cards with stool collected in an Eppendorf tube (ET) under different conditions. Eight stool samples from children in diapers aged 0 month-2 years and three meconium samples were collected and stored as follows: (1) ≤ 2 days at room temperature (RT) in an ET, (2) 7 days at - 80 °C in an ET, (3) 3-5 days at RT on a FOBT card, (4) 7 days at RT on a FOBT card, and (5) 7 days at - 80 °C on a FOBT card. Samples stored at - 80 °C were frozen immediately. Each specimen/condition underwent 16S rRNA gene sequencing with replicates on the Illumina MiSeq. Alpha and beta diversity measures and relative abundance of major phyla were compared between storage conditions and container (ET vs. FOBT card), with pairwise comparison between different storage conditions and the "standard" of 7 days at - 80 °C in an ET and fresh stool in an ET. Stool samples clustered mainly by individual diaper (P < 10(-5), Adonis), rather than by storage condition (P = 0.42) or container (P = 0.16). However, meconium samples clustered more by container (P = 0.002) than by individual diaper (P = 0.009) and storage condition (P = 0.02). Additionally, there were no differences in alpha diversity measures and relative abundance of major phyla after Bonferroni correction between stool stored on a FOBT card at RT for 7 days with stool stored in an ET tube at - 80 °C; differences in alpha diversity were seen however when compared to fresh stool in an ET. Overall, based on the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC), the different storage

  5. 47 CFR 90.763 - EA, Regional and nationwide system operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false EA, Regional and nationwide system operations... Frequencies in the 220-222 MHz Band Policies Governing the Licensing and Use of Phase II Ea, Regional and Nationwide Systems § 90.763 EA, Regional and nationwide system operations. (a) A nationwide...

  6. Magnitude of Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Rural and Urban Areas in Benin: Findings from a Nationwide Steps Survey

    PubMed Central

    Houehanou, Yessito Corine Nadège; Lacroix, Philippe; Mizehoun, Gbedecon Carmelle; Preux, Pierre-Marie; Marin, Benoit; Houinato, Dismand Stephan

    2015-01-01

    Data on variations in the frequency of cardiovascular risk factors (CVRF) in sub-Saharan populations are limited, particularly with regard to Benin. Objective To describe and compare the prevalences of CVRF in urban and rural populations of Benin. Methods Subjects were drawn from participants in the Benin Steps survey, a nationwide cross-sectional study conducted in 2008 using the World Health Organisation (WHO) stepwise approach to surveillance of chronic disease risk factors. Subjects aged above 24 and below 65 years were recruited using a five-stage random sampling process within households. Sociodemographic data, behavioral data along with medical history of high blood pressure and diabetes mellitus were collected in Step 1. Anthropometric parameters and blood pressure were measured in Step 2. Blood glucose and cholesterol levels were measured in Step 3. CVRF were defined according to WHO criteria. The prevalences of CVRF were assessed and the relationships between each CVRF and the area of residence (urban or rural), were evaluated using multivariable logistic regression models. Results Of the 6762 subjects included in the study, 2271 were from urban areas and 4491 were from rural areas. High blood pressure was more prevalent in urban than in rural areas, 29.9% (95% confidence intervals (95% CI): 27.4, 32.5) and 27.5% (95% CI: 25.6, 29.5) respectively, p = 0.001 (p-value after adjustment for age and gender). Obesity was more prevalent in urban than in rural areas, 16.4% (95% CI: 14.4, 18.4) and 5.9% (95% CI: 5.1, 6.7), p<0.001. Diabetes was more prevalent in urban than in rural areas, 3.3% (95% CI: 2.1, 4.5) and 1.8% (95% CI: 1.2, 2.4), p = 0.004. Conversely, daily tobacco smoking was more prevalent in rural than in urban areas, 9.3% (95% CI: 8.1, 10.4) and 4.3% (95% CI: 3.1, 5.6), p<0.001. No differences in raised blood cholesterol were noted between the two groups. Conclusion According to our data, CVRF are prevalent among adults in Benin, and variations

  7. Measures of Viral Load using Abbott Real-Time HIV-1 Assay on Venous and Fingerstick Dried Blood Spots from Provider-Collected Specimens in Malawian District Hospitals

    PubMed Central

    Rutstein, Sarah E.; Kamwendo, Deborah; Lugali, Lebah; Thengolose, Isaac; Tegha, Gerald; Fiscus, Susan A.; Nelson, Julie A. E.; Hosseinipour, Mina C.; Sarr, Abdoulaye; Gupta, Sundeep; Chimbwandira, Frank; Mwenda, Reuben; Mataya, Ronald

    2014-01-01

    Background Viral suppression is a key indicator of antiretroviral therapy (ART) response among HIV-infected patients. Dried blood spots (DBS) are an appealing alternative to conventional plasma-based virologic testing, improving access to monitoring in resource-limited settings. However, validity of DBS obtained from fingerstick in field settings remains unknown. Objectives Investigate feasibility and accuracy of DBS vs plasma collected by healthcare workers in real-world settings of remote hospitals in Malawi. Compare venous DBS to fingerstick DBS for identifying treatment failure. Study design We recruited patients from ART clinics at two district hospitals in Malawi, collecting plasma, venous DBS (vDBS), and fingerstick DBS (fsDBS) cards for the first 149 patients, and vDBS and fsDBS only for the subsequent 398 patients. Specimens were tested using Abbott RealTime HIV-1 Assay (lower detection limit 40 copies/ml (plasma) and 550 copies/ml (DBS)). Results 21/149 (14.1%) had detectable viremia (>1.6 log copies/ml), 13 of which were detectable for plasma, vDBS, and fsDBS. Linear regression demonstrated high correlation for plasma vs. DBS (vDBS: β=1.19, R2 0.93 (p<0.0001); fsDBS β=1.20, R2 0.90 (p<0.0001)) and vDBS vs. fsDBS (β=0.88, R2 0.73, (p<0.0001)). Mean difference between plasma and vDBS was 0.51 log copies/ml [SD: 0.33] and plasma and fsDBS 0.46 log copies/ml [SD: 0.30]. At 5000 copies/ml, sensitivity was 100%, and specificity was 98.6% and 97.8% for vDBS and fsDBS, respectively, compared to plasma. Conclusions DBS from venipuncture and fingerstick perform well at the failure threshold of 5000 copies/ml. Fingerstick specimen source may improve access to virologic treatment monitoring in resource-limited settings given task-shifting in high-volume, low-resource facilities. PMID:24906641

  8. Social Media Adoption in Local Health Departments Nationwide

    PubMed Central

    Mueller, Nancy L.; Snider, Doneisha

    2013-01-01

    Objectives. We examined whether characteristics of local health departments (LHD) and their geographic region were associated with using Facebook and Twitter. We also examined the number of tweets per month for Twitter accounts as an indicator of social media use by LHDs. Methods. In 2012, we searched for Facebook and Twitter accounts for 2565 LHDs nationwide, and collected adoption date and number of connections for each account. Number of tweets sent indicated LHD use of social media. LHDs were classified as innovators, early adopters, or nonadopters. Characteristics of LHDs were compared across adoption categories, and we examined geographic characteristics, connections, and use. Results. Twenty-four percent of LHDs had Facebook, 8% had Twitter, and 7% had both. LHDs serving larger populations were more likely to be innovators, tweeted more often, and had more social media connections. Frequency of tweeting was not associated with adoption category. There were differences in adoption across geographic regions, with western states more likely to be innovators. Innovation was also higher in states where the state health department adopted social media. Conclusions. Social media has the potential to aid LHDs in disseminating information across the public health system. More evidence is needed to develop best practices for this emerging tool. PMID:23865660

  9. 78 FR 43887 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Proposed Collection; Comment Request

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-22

    ...) the use of automated collection techniques or other forms of information technology to minimize the... Assessment of Healthcare Providers and Systems (DCAHPS) Survey for Adults in Medicaid Under the Paperwork... Collection: Nationwide Consumer Assessment of Healthcare Providers and Systems (DCAHPS) Survey for Adults in...

  10. Incident Infection and Resistance Mutation Analysis of Dried Blood Spots Collected in a Field Study of HIV Risk Groups, 2007-2010.

    PubMed

    Wei, Xierong; Smith, Amanda J; Forrest, David W; Cardenas, Gabriel A; Beck, Dano W; LaLota, Marlene; Metsch, Lisa R; Sionean, Catlainn; Owen, S Michele; Johnson, Jeffrey A

    2016-01-01

    To assess the utility of cost-effective dried blood spot (DBS) field sampling for incidence and drug resistance surveillance of persons at high risk for HIV infection. We evaluated DBS collected in 2007-2010 in non-clinical settings by finger-stick from HIV-positive heterosexuals at increased risk of HIV infection (n = 124), men who have sex with men (MSM, n = 110), and persons who inject drugs (PWID, n = 58). Relative proportions of recent-infection findings among risk groups were assessed at avidity index (AI) cutoffs of ≤25%, ≤30%, and ≤35%, corresponding to an infection mean duration of recency (MDR) of 220.6, 250.4, and 278.3 days, respectively. Drug resistance mutation prevalence was compared among the risk groups and avidity indices. HIV antibody avidity testing of all self-reported ARV-naïve persons (n = 186) resulted in 9.7%, 11.3% and 14.0% with findings within the 221, 250, and 278-day MDRs, respectively. The proportion of ARV-naïve MSM, heterosexuals, and PWID reporting only one risk category who had findings below the suggested 30% AI was 23.1%, 6.9% and 3.6% (p<0.001), respectively. MSM had the highest prevalence of drug resistance and the only cases of transmitted multi-class resistance. Among the ARV-experienced, MSM had disproportionately more recent-infection results than did heterosexuals and PWID. The disproportionately higher recent-infection findings for MSM as compared to PWID and heterosexuals increased as the MDR window increased. Unreported ARV use might explain greater recent-infection findings and drug resistance in this MSM population. DBS demonstrated utility in expanded HIV testing; however, optimal field handling is key to accurate recent-infection estimates.

  11. Incident Infection and Resistance Mutation Analysis of Dried Blood Spots Collected in a Field Study of HIV Risk Groups, 2007-2010

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Xierong; Smith, Amanda J.; Forrest, David W.; Cardenas, Gabriel A.; Beck, Dano W.; LaLota, Marlene; Metsch, Lisa R.; Sionean, Catlainn; Owen, S. Michele; Johnson, Jeffrey A.

    2016-01-01

    Objective To assess the utility of cost-effective dried blood spot (DBS) field sampling for incidence and drug resistance surveillance of persons at high risk for HIV infection. Methods We evaluated DBS collected in 2007–2010 in non-clinical settings by finger-stick from HIV-positive heterosexuals at increased risk of HIV infection (n = 124), men who have sex with men (MSM, n = 110), and persons who inject drugs (PWID, n = 58). Relative proportions of recent-infection findings among risk groups were assessed at avidity index (AI) cutoffs of ≤25%, ≤30%, and ≤35%, corresponding to an infection mean duration of recency (MDR) of 220.6, 250.4, and 278.3 days, respectively. Drug resistance mutation prevalence was compared among the risk groups and avidity indices. Results HIV antibody avidity testing of all self-reported ARV-naïve persons (n = 186) resulted in 9.7%, 11.3% and 14.0% with findings within the 221, 250, and 278-day MDRs, respectively. The proportion of ARV-naïve MSM, heterosexuals, and PWID reporting only one risk category who had findings below the suggested 30% AI was 23.1%, 6.9% and 3.6% (p<0.001), respectively. MSM had the highest prevalence of drug resistance and the only cases of transmitted multi-class resistance. Among the ARV-experienced, MSM had disproportionately more recent-infection results than did heterosexuals and PWID. Conclusions The disproportionately higher recent-infection findings for MSM as compared to PWID and heterosexuals increased as the MDR window increased. Unreported ARV use might explain greater recent-infection findings and drug resistance in this MSM population. DBS demonstrated utility in expanded HIV testing; however, optimal field handling is key to accurate recent-infection estimates. PMID:27415433

  12. National Information Utility Seeks to Serve Schools Nationwide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Platzer, Nancy

    1985-01-01

    Outlines the pros and cons of the National Information Utility Program, which is designed to provide current updatable courseware to schools nationwide. The information is broadcast over FM radio and television signals to facilities subscribing to the utility. (MD)

  13. National Information Utility Seeks to Serve Schools Nationwide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Platzer, Nancy

    1985-01-01

    Outlines the pros and cons of the National Information Utility Program, which is designed to provide current updatable courseware to schools nationwide. The information is broadcast over FM radio and television signals to facilities subscribing to the utility. (MD)

  14. A Nationwide Analysis of Kidney Autotransplantation.

    PubMed

    Moghadamyeghaneh, Zhobin; Hanna, Mark H; Fazlalizadeh, Reza; Obi, Yoshitsugu; Foster, Clarence E; Stamos, Michael J; Ichii, Hirohito

    2017-02-01

    There are limited data regarding outcomes of patients underwent kidney autotransplantation. This study aims to investigate outcomes of such patients. The nationwide inpatient sample database was used to identify patients underwent kidney autotransplantation during 2002 to 2012. Multivariate analyses using logistic regression were performed to investigate morbidity predictors. A total of 817 patients underwent kidney autotransplantation from 2002 to 2012. The most common indication of surgery was renal artery pathology (22.7%) followed by ureter pathology (17%). Overall, 97.7 per cent of operations were performed in urban teaching hospitals. The number of procedures from 2008 to 2012 were significantly higher compared with the number of them from 2002 to 2007 (473 vs 345, P < 0.01). The overall mortality and morbidity of patients were 1.3 and 46.2 per cent, respectively. The most common postoperative complications were transplanted kidney failure (10.7%) followed by hemorrhagic complications (9.7%). Obesity [adjusted odds ratio (AOR): 9.62, P < 0.01], fluid and electrolyte disorders (AOR: 3.67, P < 0.01), and preoperative chronic kidney disease (AOR: 1.80, P = 0.03) were predictors of morbidity in patients. In conclusion, Kidney autotransplantation is associated with low mortality but a high morbidity rate. The most common indications of kidney autotransplantation are renal artery and ureter pathologies, respectively. A kidney transplant failure rate of 10.7 per cent was observed in patients with kidney autotransplantation. The most common postoperative complication was hemorrhagic in nature.

  15. Implementation of nationwide image sharing system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, SeungWook; Sim, Jungsuk; Ko, Wonsun; Park, ChanHyung; Lee, Jaeha; Lim, DongHyun; Lee, Juhyuk; Han, Jungu; Lee, Jongsu; Hong, HeonPyo; Choi, Bongsuk

    2003-05-01

    Korea is one of the leading countries in PACS implementation, and over 15% of all hospitals has been introducing and running in PACS. With the support of the Ministry of Health and Welfare, the National Computerization of Agency and National Cancer Center had a plan to try integration of PACS with a purpose of sharing medical image information. The target hospitals have been selected with over 500 beds, and the distance between hospitals from 40km and to 250km. As the vendors of PACS and HIS that had implemented in target hospitals were different, the 'sharing host' has been developed for the purpose of their integration, which enables communication through DICOM and HL7. In order to monitor the communication among the sharing hosts, the 'sharing center' also has been developed. This project was completed by November 2002. We expected that approximate of 100 doctors including 50 radiologists would use this project, high patient"s satisfaction and the decrease in national insurance fee for test and evaluation period. This project is the first attempt that the government has tried to integrate the independent PACS and HIS. On the model of this project, the government will try to expand it through all nation-wide.

  16. The challenge of comprehensively mapping children's health in a nation-wide health survey: Design of the German KiGGS-Study

    PubMed Central

    Kurth, Bärbel-Maria; Kamtsiuris, Panagiotis; Hölling, Heike; Schlaud, Martin; Dölle, Rüdiger; Ellert, Ute; Kahl, Heidrun; Knopf, Hiltraud; Lange, Michael; Mensink, Gert BM; Neuhauser, Hannelore; Rosario, Angelika Schaffrath; Scheidt-Nave, Christa; Schenk, Liane; Schlack, Robert; Stolzenberg, Heribert; Thamm, Michael; Thierfelder, Wulf; Wolf, Ute

    2008-01-01

    Background From May 2003 to May 2006, the Robert Koch Institute conducted the German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Children and Adolescents (KiGGS). Aim of this first nationwide interview and examination survey was to collect comprehensive data on the health status of children and adolescents aged 0 to 17 years. Methods/Design Participants were enrolled in two steps: first, 167 study locations (sample points) were chosen; second, subjects were randomly selected from the official registers of local residents. The survey involved questionnaires filled in by parents and parallel questionnaires for children aged 11 years and older, physical examinations and tests, and a computer assisted personal interview performed by study physicians. A wide range of blood and urine testing was carried out at central laboratories. A total of 17 641 children and adolescents were surveyed – 8985 boys and 8656 girls. The proportion of sample neutral drop-outs was 5.3%. The response rate was 66.6%. Discussion The response rate showed little variation between age groups and sexes, but marked variation between resident aliens and Germans, between inhabitants of cities with a population of 100 000 or more and sample points with fewer inhabitants, as well as between the old West German states and the former East German states. By analysing the short non-responder questionnaires it was proven that the collected data give comprehensive and nationally representative evidence on the health status of children and adolescents aged 0 to 17 years. PMID:18533019

  17. Blood Transfusions (For Teens)

    MedlinePlus

    ... re needed. Blood also collects waste products, like carbon dioxide, and takes them to the organs responsible for ... carry oxygen to the body's tissues and remove carbon dioxide. Red blood cells make up about 40%–45% ...

  18. Estimation of Surgery Capacity in Haiti: Nationwide Survey of Hospitals.

    PubMed

    Tran, Tu M; Saint-Fort, Mackenson; Jose, Marie-Djenane; Henrys, Jean Hugues; Pierre Pierre, Jacques B; Cherian, Meena N; Gosselin, Richard A

    2015-09-01

    Haiti's surgical capacity was significantly strained by the 2010 earthquake. As the government and its partners rebuild the health system, emergency and essential surgical care must be a priority. A validated, facility-based assessment tool developed by WHO was completed by 45 hospitals nationwide. The hospitals were assessed for (1) infrastructure, (2) human resources, (3) surgical interventions and emergency care, and (4) material resources for resuscitation. Fisher's exact test was used to compare hospitals by sectors: public compared to private and mixed (public-private partnerships). The 45 hospitals included first-referral level to the national referral hospital: 20 were public sector and 25 were private or mixed sector. Blood banks (33% availability) and oxygen concentrators (58%) were notable infrastructural deficits. For human resources, 69% and 33% of hospitals employed at least one full-time surgeon and anaesthesiologist, respectively. Ninety-eight percent of hospitals reported capacity to perform resuscitation. General and obstetrical surgical interventions were relatively more available, for example 93% provided hernia repairs and 98% provided cesarean sections. More specialized interventions were at a deficit: cataract surgery (27%), cleft repairs (31%), clubfoot (42%), and open treatment of fractures (51%). Deficiencies in infrastructure and material resources were widespread and should be urgently addressed. Physician providers were mal-distributed relative to non-physician providers. Formal task-sharing to midlevel and general physician providers should be considered. The parity between public and private or mixed sector hospitals in availability of Ob/Gyn surgical interventions is evidence of concerted efforts to reduce maternal mortality. This ought to provide a roadmap for strengthening of surgical care capacity.

  19. Nationwide residues of organochlorine compounds in wings of adult mallards and black ducks, 1976-77

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    White, D.H.

    1979-01-01

    Organochlorine residues in wings of adult mallards and black ducks were monitored nationwide during the 1976-77 hunting season. DDE was found in all samples. Levels were unchanged since the 1972-73 collections in all migratory routes except the Pacific Flyway, in which residue levels declined significantly. Dieldrin levels had not changed in any flyway and residues remained low. PCB levels declined significantly in the Atlantic Flyway but remained stable in other flyways. Heptachlor epoxide, mirex, endrin, hexachlorobenzene, and chlordane isomers were detected in low amounts in some samples.

  20. A nationwide survey of NDMA in raw and drinking water in Japan.

    PubMed

    Asami, Mari; Oya, Masami; Kosaka, Koji

    2009-05-15

    A nationwide survey of N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA) in both raw and finished water samples from drinking water treatment plants (DWTPs) in Japan was conducted. NDMA was analyzed by solid-phase extraction (SPE) followed by ultra performance liquid chromatography (UPLC) coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS). NDMA was detected in 15 of 31 raw water samples collected in the summer at concentrations up to 2.6 ng/L, and in 9 of 28 raw water samples collected in winter at concentrations up to 4.3 ng/L. The NDMA concentrations were higher in raw water samples collected from treatment plants with catchment areas that have high population densities. The NDMA concentrations were higher in river water samples collected from the east and west of Japan than in those collected from other areas. NDMA was detected in 10 of 31 finished samples collected in summer at reduced concentrations of up to 2.2 ng/L, while 5 of 28 finished samples collected in winter showed NDMA concentrations up to 10 ng/L. The highest NDMA levels were detected in finished water samples collected from the Yodo River basin DWTP, which uses ozonation. Furthermore, evaluation of the process water produced at six advanced water treatment plants was conducted. Influent from the Yodo River indicated that the NDMA concentration increased during ozonation to as high as 20 ng/L, and then decreased with subsequent biological activated carbon treatment. To our knowledge, this is the first nationwide evaluation of NDMA concentrations in water conducted in Japan to date.

  1. Using the developed cross-flow filtration chip for collecting blood plasma under high flow rate condition and applying the immunoglobulin E detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yeh, Chia-Hsien; Hung, Chia-Wei; Wu, Chun-Han; Lin, Yu-Cheng

    2014-09-01

    This paper presents a cross-flow filtration chip for separating blood cells (white blood cells, red blood cells, and platelets) and obtaining blood plasma from human blood. Our strategy is to flow the sample solution in parallel to the membrane, which can generate a parallel shear stress to remove the clogging microparticles on the membrane, so the pure sample solution is obtained in the reservoir. The cross-flow filtration chip includes a cross-flow layer, a Ni-Pd alloy micro-porous membrane, and a reservoir layer. The three layers are packaged in a polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) frame to create the cross-flow filtration chip. Various dilutions of the blood sample (original, 2 × , 3 × , 5 × , and 10×), pore sizes with different diameters (1 µm, 2 µm, 4 µm, 7 µm, and 10 µm), and different flow rates (1 mL/min, 3 mL/min, 5 mL/min, 7 mL/min, and 10 mL/min) are tested to determine their effects on filtration percentage. The best filtration percentage is 96.2% when the dilution of the blood sample is 10 × , the diameter of pore size of a Ni-Pd alloy micro-porous membrane is 2 µm, and the flow rate is 10 mL/min. Finally, for the clinical tests of the immunoglobulin E (IgE) concentration, the cross-flow filtration chip is used to filter the blood of the allergy patients to obtain the blood plasma. This filtered blood plasma is compared with that obtained using the conventional centrifugation based on the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The results reveal that these two blood separation methods have similar detection trends. The proposed filtration chip has the advantages of low cost, short filtration time, and easy operation and thus can be applied to the separation of microparticles, cells, bacteria, and blood.

  2. [Morphology and biochemistry of various Mustelidae. 2. Effect of different blood collection technics on various plasma enzyme activities in Mink (Mustela vision Schreber, 1777)].

    PubMed

    Zeissler, R; Wenzel, U D

    1978-01-01

    Blood sampling by catheterisation of the abdominal aorta to test plasma haemoglobin and various plasma enzyme activities was compared with two other blood sampling techniques and their application to farm-kept minks under general anaesthesia, cardiac puncture and tail-tip amputation. The plasma haemoglobin values in plasma obtained from the abdominal aorta were significantly lower than those recorded from the two other blood sampling techniques, which applied to plasma enzyme activities, as well. Those findings were equal for males and females. The plasma enzyme activities tested were glutamate oxalo-acetate transaminase, glutamate-pyruvate transaminase, lactate dehydrogenase, alpha-hydroxybutyrate dehydrogenase, and malic dehydrogenase. Some plasma enzyme actvities were tested from a random sample of 164 animals for sex-dependence (88 males and 76 non-pregnant unserved females), with no consideration being given to blood sampling techniques. The standards or physiological indices derived from those tests are reported.

  3. Collection, Separation, Cryopreservation and Characterization of Peripheral Blood and Bone Marrow Stem Cells and Their Use in Treating Lethally Irradiated Dogs.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-10-01

    anticoagulant was used in a ratio of 1 volume of anticoagulant to 7 volumes of blood. Processing of the Buffy Coat :- Thebuffy €oat Containing...platelet rich plasma ( PRP ) depleted of red blood cells and leukocytes was expressed into a 600 ml polyvinyl- chloride transfer pack. The platelet count...was measured in duplicate using phase-contrast microscopy and the platelets in the PRP were frozen as des- cribed previously.(7) An aliquot of the

  4. 21 CFR 640.1 - Whole Blood.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Whole Blood. 640.1 Section 640.1 Food and Drugs... STANDARDS FOR HUMAN BLOOD AND BLOOD PRODUCTS Whole Blood § 640.1 Whole Blood. The proper name of this product shall be Whole Blood. Whole Blood is defined as blood collected from human donors for...

  5. 21 CFR 640.1 - Whole Blood.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2011-04-01 2010-04-01 true Whole Blood. 640.1 Section 640.1 Food and Drugs... STANDARDS FOR HUMAN BLOOD AND BLOOD PRODUCTS Whole Blood § 640.1 Whole Blood. The proper name of this product shall be Whole Blood. Whole Blood is defined as blood collected from human donors for...

  6. 21 CFR 640.1 - Whole Blood.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Whole Blood. 640.1 Section 640.1 Food and Drugs... STANDARDS FOR HUMAN BLOOD AND BLOOD PRODUCTS Whole Blood § 640.1 Whole Blood. The proper name of this product shall be Whole Blood. Whole Blood is defined as blood collected from human donors for...

  7. 21 CFR 640.1 - Whole Blood.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Whole Blood. 640.1 Section 640.1 Food and Drugs... STANDARDS FOR HUMAN BLOOD AND BLOOD PRODUCTS Whole Blood § 640.1 Whole Blood. The proper name of this product shall be Whole Blood. Whole Blood is defined as blood collected from human donors for...

  8. 21 CFR 640.1 - Whole Blood.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Whole Blood. 640.1 Section 640.1 Food and Drugs... STANDARDS FOR HUMAN BLOOD AND BLOOD PRODUCTS Whole Blood § 640.1 Whole Blood. The proper name of this product shall be Whole Blood. Whole Blood is defined as blood collected from human donors for...

  9. Donating Blood

    MedlinePlus

    ... blood transfusion. Blood donors — especially donors with certain blood types — are always in demand. Who Can Donate Blood? ... Natural Disasters: How to Help Blood Blood Transfusions Blood Types Contact Us Print Resources Send to a Friend ...

  10. Nationwide lithological interpretation of cone penetration tests using neural networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Maanen, Peter-Paul; Schokker, Jeroen; Harting, Ronald; de Bruijn, Renée

    2017-04-01

    The Geological Survey of the Netherlands (GSN) systematically produces 3D stochastic geological models of the Dutch subsurface. These voxel models are regarded essential in answering subsurface-related questions on, for example, aggregate resource potential, groundwater flow, land subsidence hazard and the planning and realization of large-scale infrastructural works. GeoTOP is the most recent and detailed generation of 3D voxel models. This model describes 3D stratigraphical and lithological variability up to a depth of 50 m using voxels of 100 × 100 × 0.5 m. Currently, visually described borehole samples are the primary input of these large-scale 3D geological models, both when modeling architecture and composition. Although tens of thousands of cone penetration tests (CPTs) are performed each year, mainly in the reconnaissance phase of construction activities, these data are hardly used as geological model input. There are many reasons why it is of interest to utilize CPT data for geological and lithological modeling of the Dutch subsurface, such as: 1) CPTs are more abundant than borehole descriptions, 2) CPTs are cheaper and easier to gather, and 3) CPT data are more quantitative and uniform than visual sample descriptions. This study uses CPTs and the lithological descriptions of associated nearby undisturbed drilling cores collected by the GSN to establish a nationwide reference dataset for physical and chemical properties of the shallow subsurface. The 167 CPT-core pairs were collected at 160 locations situated in the North, West and South of the Netherlands. These locations were chosen to cover the full extent of geological units and lithological composition in the upper 30 to 40 m of the subsurface in these areas. The distance between the CPT location and associated borehole is small, varying between 0 and 30 m, with an average of 6 m. For each 2 cm CPT interval the data was automatically annotated with the lithoclass from the associated core using a

  11. Report of a nationwide survey on actual administered radioactivities of radiopharmaceuticals for diagnostic reference levels in Japan.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Hiroshi; Ishii, Kazunari; Hosono, Makoto; Imabayashi, Etsuko; Abe, Koichiro; Inubushi, Masayuki; Ohno, Kazuko; Magata, Yasuhiro; Ono, Kinya; Kikuchi, Kei; Wagatsuma, Kei; Takase, Tadashi; Saito, Kyoko; Takahashi, Yasuyuki

    2016-07-01

    The optimization of medical exposure is one of the major issues regarding radiation protection in the world, and The International Committee of Radiological Protection and the International Atomic Energy Agency recommend establishing diagnostic reference levels (DRLs) as tools for dose optimization. Therefore, the development of DRLs based on the latest survey has been required for nuclear medicine-related societies and organizations. This prompted us to conduct a nationwide survey on the actual administered radioactivity to adults for the purpose of developing DRLs in nuclear medicine. A nationwide survey was conducted from November 25, 2014 to January 16, 2015. The questionnaire was sent to all of the 1249 nuclear medicine facilities in Japan, and the responses were collected on a website using an answered form. Responses were obtained from 516 facilities, for a response rate of 41 %. 75th percentile of (99m)Tc-MDP and (99m)Tc-HMDP: bone scintigraphy, (99m)Tc-HM-PAO, (99m)Tc-ECD and (123)I-IMP: cerebral blood flow scintigraphy, (99m)Tc-Tetrofosmin, (99m)Tc-MIBI and (201)Tl-Cl; myocardial perfusion scintigraphy and (18)F-FDG: oncology PET (in-house-produced or delivery) in representative diagnostic nuclear medicine scans were 932, 937, 763, 775, 200, 831, 818, 180, 235 and 252, respectively. More than 90 % of the facilities were within the range of 50 % from the median of these survey results in representative diagnostic nuclear medicine facilities in Japan. Responses of the administered radioactivities recommended by the package insert, texts and guidelines such as 740 MBq ((99m)Tc-MDP and (99m)Tc-HMDP: bone scintigraphy), 740 MBq ((99m)Tc-ECD and (99m)Tc-HM-PAO: cerebral blood flow scintigraphy) and 740 MBq ((99m)Tc-Tetrofosmin and (99m)Tc-MIBI: myocardial perfusion scintigraphy), etc. were numerous. The administered activity of many radiopharmaceuticals of bone scintigraphy ((99m)Tc-MDP and (99m)Tc-HMDP), cerebral blood flow scintigraphy ((99m

  12. [A nationwide survey on the hand washing behavior and awareness].

    PubMed

    Jeong, Jae Sim; Choi, Jun Kil; Jeong, Ihn Sook; Paek, Kyong Ran; In, Hye-Kyung; Park, Ki Dong

    2007-05-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the public's awareness of the importance of hand washing and to compare perceptions on the habit of hand washing with actual hand washing behavior. Data were collected by observing 2,800 participants washing their hands after using public restrooms in seven cities nationwide and by surveying 1,000 respondents (age>14 years) through telephone interviews using a structured questionnaire. Although 94% of the survey respondents claimed to mostly or always wash their hands after using public restrooms, only 63.4% of the observed participants did wash their hands after using public restrooms. Significant factors related to increased adherence to hand washing were female gender, approximate ages of 20 to 39 years by their appearance, and the presence of other people from the observation. About 79% of the survey respondents always washed their hands after using bathrooms at home, 73% washed their hands before handling food, and 67% washed their hands upon returning to their home. However, 93.2% and 86.3% of the survey respondents did not wash their hands after coughing or sneezing and after handling money, respectively. Although most of the survey respondents (77.6%) were aware that hand washing is helpful in preventing communicable diseases, 39.6% of the survey respondents did not do so because they were 'not accustomed' to washing their hands and 30.2% thought that washing their hands is 'annoying'. This is the first comprehensive report on hand washing behavior and awareness of the general population in Korea. The result of this study in terms of individual behavior and awareness of hand washing are comparable with similar studies conducted in other countries. However adherence to hand washing is still low and needs to be increased. The results of this study can be used as a baseline in setting up strategies and activities to promote adherence to hand washing.

  13. [Emergency drills and exercises to prepare the initial response and countermeasures for a disaster: an evacuation simulation for the hospital's outpatient blood collection room in the event of an earthquake].

    PubMed

    Kaneko, Makoto; Nakao, Hiroyuki; Morita, Kazuharu; Sone, Shinji; Masuda, Akiko; Yatomi, Yutaka

    2013-12-01

    In case of a disaster, the clinical laboratory's departmental staff is not only responsible for recovery efforts of routine work and the continuation of emergency tests, but also for protecting patients against both dangers and possible risks in the blood collecting room and physiology laboratory. For this reason, we decided to participate in an emergency drill, which focuses on the initial response to a disaster, specifically evacuation procedures and the cessation of phlebotomy operations. Since there were no existing manuals regarding disasters in our blood collection room, we first made a draft disaster plan. Additionally, since we were absolute beginners with regard to training and had inadequate knowledge of disaster countermeasures, we conducted theoretical simulations in advance. We decided to explain the evacuation details and had each participant in the exercise perform their own role in accordance with our scenario. Furthermore, we asked the participants to discuss the effectiveness of the training and seek out ways to improve our manuals. Although this was the first practice for the blood collection room, we were able to achieve our first goal by raising awareness of disaster prevention activities. The precautions against disaster that eliminate accidents require an immense amount of time and effort. Thus, it is necessary to continue training in order to increase the staffs awareness of disaster defense and to continue to improve our skills in the future.

  14. High prevalence of HIV drug resistance among newly diagnosed infants aged <18 months: results from a nationwide surveillance in Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Inzaule, Seth Chekata; Osi, Samuels Jay; Akinbiyi, Gbenga; Emeka, Asadu; Khamofu, Hadiza; Mpazanje, Rex; Ilesanmi, Oluwafunke; Ndembi, Nicaise; Odafe, Solomon; Sigaloff, Kim C E; Rinke de Wit, Tobias F; Akanmu, Sulaimon

    2017-09-25

    The world-health organization recommends protease-inhibitor-based first-line regimen in infants due to risk of drug resistance from failed prophylaxis used in prevention-of-mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT). However cost and logistics impede implementation in sub-Saharan Africa and >75% of children still receive non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor-based regimen (NNRTI) used in PMTCT. We assessed the national pre-treatment drug resistance prevalence of HIV-infected children <18 months in Nigeria, using the WHO recommended HIV drug resistance surveillance protocol. We used remnant-dried blood spots collected between June 2014 and July 2015 from15 early-infant diagnosis facilities spread across all the six geopolitical regions of Nigeria. Sampling was through a probability-proportional to size approach. HIV drug resistance was determined by population-based sequencing. Overall, in 48% of infants (205 of 430) drug resistance mutations (DRM) were detected, conferring resistance to predominantly NNRTIs (45%). NRTI and multi-class NRTI/NNRTI resistance were present at 22% and 20% respectively, while resistance to protease inhibitors was at 2%. Among 204 infants with exposure to drugs for PMTCT, 57% had DRMs, conferring NNRTI resistance in 54% and multi-class NRTI/NNRTI resistance in 29%. DRMs were also detected in 34% of 132 PMTCT unexposed infants. A high frequency of PDR, mainly NNRTI-associated, was observed in a nationwide surveillance among newly diagnosed HIV-infected children in Nigeria. PDR prevalence was equally high in PMTCT-unexposed infants. Our results support the use of protease inhibitor-based first-line regimens in HIV-infected young children regardless of PMTCT history and underscore the need to accelerate implementation of the newly disseminated guideline in Nigeria.

  15. 78 FR 64929 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Submission to the Office of Management and Budget for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-30

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION Agency Information Collection Activities; Submission to the Office of Management and Budget for Review and Approval; Comment Request; Targeted Teacher Shortage Areas Nationwide Listing Correction In...

  16. Obstetric and Neonatal Adversities, Parity, and Tourette Syndrome: A Nationwide Registry.

    PubMed

    Leivonen, Susanna; Voutilainen, Arja; Chudal, Roshan; Suominen, Auli; Gissler, Mika; Sourander, Andre

    2016-04-01

    To determine the relationships between parity, obstetric adversities, neonatal factors, and Tourette syndrome in a large nationwide cohort. This nationwide, register-based, nested case-control study identified all children diagnosed with Tourette syndrome born between 1991 and 2010 from the Finnish Hospital Discharge Register (n = 767). Each case was matched to 4 controls. Information on parity, obstetric, and neonatal factors was obtained from the Finnish Medical Birth Register. Conditional logistic regression was used to determine the relationship between parity, obstetric, and neonatal factors, and Tourette syndrome. Nulliparity was associated with increased odds for Tourette syndrome (OR 1.7, 95% CI 1.4-2.2), and 3 or more previous births was associated with decreased odds for Tourette syndrome (OR 0.5, 95% CI 0.3-0.9) compared with parity 1-2. Birth weight 4000-4499 g was associated with decreased odds for Tourette syndrome (OR 0.7, 95% CI 0.5-0.9). Low birth weight, gestational age, weight for gestational age, Apgar score at 1 minute, induced labor, birth type or presentation, neonatal treatment, or maternal blood pressure were not associated with Tourette syndrome. Increasing parity and high birth weight are associated with decreased odds for Tourette syndrome. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Nationwide Trends in Molecular Epidemiology of HIV-1 in China.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiaoshan; Li, Wei; Zhong, Ping; Fang, Kun; Zhu, Kexin; Musa, Taha Hussein; Song, Yue; Du, Guoping; Gao, Rong; Guo, Yan; Yan, Wenjuan; Xuan, Yang; Wei, Pingmin

    2016-09-01

    To estimate the nationwide and regional distribution of HIV-1 genotypes in China in the past three decades, province-specific HIV-1 molecular epidemiology data were derived from 260 independent studies of HIV molecular prevalence through searching PubMed, VIP Chinese Journal Database (VIP), China National Knowledge Infrastructure, and Wanfang Data from January 1981 to December 2015. The nationwide and regional distribution of HIV-1 genotypes was estimated by weighting the genotype distribution from each province- and risk-specific subpopulation with the number of reported cases in the corresponding subgroups in the relevant periods. A sharp transition of HIV-1 subtypes and recombinant distribution was observed in various risk groups and regions over time. CRF01_AE has rapidly surged among almost all risk groups and in all areas, and it has become dominant among men who have sex with men and heterosexuals. A wide variety of new circulating recombinant forms (CRFs) and unique recombinant forms (URFs) were rapidly appearing in several risk groups and regions. After 2007, CRF01_AE was the most prevalent strain, accounting for 42.5% of all national infections, followed by CRF07_BC (28.9%), subtype B'/B (10.9%), CRF08_BC (10.0%), and subtype C (2.8%). URFs and other CRFs were responsible for 2.6% and fewer than 1% of infections nationwide, respectively. The nationwide and regional distributions of HIV-1 subtypes and recombinants were sharply shifting in China. CRF01_AE and new CRFs played an increasing role in the nationwide or regional HIV pandemic. The nationwide diversity of HIV-1 poses a formidable challenge to HIV vaccine development and disease prevention.

  18. Best practice for peripheral blood progenitor cell mobilization and collection in adults and children: results of a Società Italiana Di Emaferesi e Manipolazione Cellulare (SIDEM) and Gruppo Italiano Trapianto Midollo Osseo (GITMO) consensus process.

    PubMed

    Pierelli, Luca; Perseghin, Paolo; Marchetti, Monia; Accorsi, Patrizia; Fanin, Renato; Messina, Chiara; Olivieri, Attilio; Risso, Marco; Salvaneschi, Laura; Bosi, Alberto

    2012-04-01

    A large heterogeneity in current mobilization and collection practices is perceived. Moreover, recent evidence introduced novel issues into some specific topics. Optimization of the clinical practice, through the adoption of clinical practice guidelines, previously proved to reduce health care resource use. Two Italian scientific societies, Società Italiana Di Emaferesi e Manipolazione Cellulare (SIDEM) and Gruppo Italiano Trapianto Midollo Osseo (GITMO), perceived the need of hematologists and transfusionists to share a common paradigm in the setting of hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (SCT). The aim of the current position paper is to provide common definitions and criteria for mobilization and collection of peripheral blood stem cells both in autologous and in the allogeneic setting. Current international and national standards (i.e., International Society of Hematotherapy and Graft Engineering) and recommendations (i.e., European Group for Blood and Marrow Transplantation) were harmonized with the Panel recommendations. The Expert Panel consisted of nine members (five transfusionists and four hematologists with both clinical and scientific experience of SCT in both pediatric and adult setting) and one methodologist and first convened on April 19, 2010: they in turn agreed on the questions to be answered by the project. Available literature was reviewed by one expert and the methodologist and presented to the other members. Statements were then formulated. SIDEM and GITMO planned an informal meeting of the Panel every 2 years to discuss relevant updates and possible changes to the recommendations. The efforts of the expert panel members allowed to set up and share a common approach to the mobilization, enumeration, and collection issues in the field of both autologous and allogeneic peripheral blood SCT. © 2011 American Association of Blood Banks.

  19. 78 FR 42088 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Proposed Collection: Public Comment Request

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-15

    ... Collection Request Title: National Hospital Organ Donation Campaign's Activity Scorecard. OMB No. 0915-xxxx... organ donation. HRSA launched a challenge to hospitals nationwide to assist in this effort by conducting... transplantation, are invited to participate in HRSA's National Hospital Organ Donation Campaign to increase...

  20. 75 FR 19405 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Adoption of the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-14

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed... such assistance is derived from section 311(a) of the Public Health Service Act (42 U.S.C. 243(a... Service (IHS). Nationwide adoption of the model FDA Food Code is an important step toward the agency's...

  1. [Effects of endovascular therapy for renal artery stenosis on blood pressure and renal function: retrospective analysis of an unselected patient collective from 1994 to 2007].

    PubMed

    Krug, K B; Rehder, O; Bovenschulte, H; Schwabe, H; Burst, V; Engelmann, U; Thul, R; Mönig, S; Hellmich, M

    2012-11-01

    A retrospective analysis of the long-term success rates of endoluminal therapy of renal artery stenosis in a university hospital was carried out. Preinterventional and postinterventional data contained in the clinical records of all 104 patients who underwent percutaneous transluminal angioplasty (PTA, 25 patients) or stent PTA (79 patients) from 01 January 1994 to 31 December 2007, were documented using an electronically structured questionnaire and a time period classification. Subgroup analyses and statistical calculations were done using t-tests for joint random samples. At day 1 postintervention all patients showed a statistically significant decrease in mean systolic blood pressure (all patients: p=0.002, stent PTA group: p=0.023, PTA group: p=0.022). The significant decrease in mean systolic blood pressure persisted in years 1 and 2 postintervention (all patients: p=0.009 and 0.007, stent PTA group: p=0.039 and 0.015, respectively). Mean blood pressure values remained constant during the other time periods analyzed. In patients with a stent PTA carried out between 2001 and 2007 there was no significant reduction of prescribed antihypertonic drugs (p=0.023 and p=0.046, respectively). Mean serum creatinine concentrations decreased during years 1 and 2 postintervention and increased starting in year 3. In patients with elevated serum creatinine levels prior to the intervention the increase in mean serum creatinine level started in year 5. Endoluminal therapy of arteriosclerotic renal artery stenosis delays further deterioration of renal function and stabilizes blood pressure as well as the number of prescribed antihypertonic drugs. This can be considered a response to treatment in view of the mostly chronic progressive course of the disease.

  2. The basic facts of korean breast cancer in 2011: results of a nationwide survey and breast cancer registry database.

    PubMed

    Kim, Zisun; Min, Sun Young; Yoon, Chan Seok; Lee, Hun Jae; Lee, Jung Sun; Youn, Hyun Jo; Park, Heung Kyu; Noh, Dong-Young; Hur, Min Hee

    2014-06-01

    Breast cancer is the second most frequent malignancy in Korean women, with a continuously increasing incidence. The Korean Breast Cancer Society has constructed a nationwide breast cancer database through an online registration program. The aim of the present study was to report the fundamental facts on Korean breast cancer in 2011, and to analyze the changing patterns in clinical characteristics and breast cancer management in Korea over the last 10 years. Data on newly diagnosed breast cancer patients, including the total number of cases, age, stage, and type of surgery, for the year 2011 were collected from 84 hospitals and clinics nationwide using a questionnaire survey. Additional data relating to the changing patterns of breast cancer in Korea were collected from the online breast cancer registry database and analyzed. According to nationwide survey data, a total of 16,967 patients were newly diagnosed with breast cancer in 2011. The crude incidence of female breast cancer, including invasive cancer and in situ cancer, was 67 cases per 100,000 women. Analysis of the survey and registry data gave equivalent results in terms of age distribution, stage, and type of surgery. The median age at diagnosis was 50 years, and the proportion of postmenopausal women (51.3%) was higher than that of premenopausal women (48.7%) with breast cancer. The incidence of stage 0 and stage I breast cancer increased continuously over the last 10 years (56.3% in 2011), and breast conserving surgery (65.7%) was performed more frequently than total mastectomy (33.8%). The total number of breast reconstruction surgeries increased approximately 8-fold. We conclude that the clinical characteristics of breast cancer have changed over the past 10 years in Korea, and surgical management has changed accordingly. Analysis of nationwide registry data will contribute to a better understanding of the characteristics of breast cancer in Korea.

  3. Molecular detection of bovine leukemia virus in peripheral blood of Iranian cattle, camel and sheep.

    PubMed

    Nekoei, S; Hafshejani, T Taktaz; Doosti, A; Khamesipour, F

    2015-01-01

    Bovine leukemia virus (BLV) is a deltaretrovirus which infects and induces proliferation of B-lymphocytes in the peripheral blood circulation and in lymphoid organs primarily of cattle, leading to leukemia/lymphoma. This study was carried out to investigate the presence of BLV in cattle, sheep and camels from the Chaharmahal va Bakhtiary and Isfahan provinces in Iran. A total of 874 blood samples collected from cattle, sheep and camels were used in this study to detect BLV using a nested-PCR. The results from this study indicated that 17.2% (n=874) of all blood samples collected were positive for BLV. The percentages of blood samples positive for BLV from cattle, sheep and camels were 22.1 (n=657), 5.3 (n=95) and 0 (n=122) respectively. The results from this study showed that BLV infected cattle and sheep. Camels seemed to be resistant to BLV infection. This study contributes to the nationwide effort to obtain baseline information on the prevalence of BLV, which will assist in planning the control strategy for the disease in Iran.

  4. Attributing causal agents to nationwide maps of forest disturbance

    Treesearch

    Gretchen G. Moisen; Todd A. Schroeder; Karen Schleeweis; Chris Toney; Warren B. Cohen; Samuel N. Goward

    2012-01-01

    Currently in its third phase, the North American Forest Dynamics (NAFD) project has launched nationwide processing of historic Landsat data to provide a comprehensive annual, wall-to-wall analysis of U.S. disturbance history over the last 30+ years. Because understanding the cause of disturbance is important to quantifying carbon dynamics, work is underway to attribute...

  5. 75 FR 66806 - Nationwide Life Insurance Company, et al.,

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-29

    ... Investment Option already purchased or to be purchased in the future if: (i) Shares of a current underlying... Contracts and the capacity to add other types of investment options; (ii) make the investment decision... series of Nationwide Variable Insurance Trust (the ``Trust'' or ``NVIT'') for shares of series of...

  6. Student Consumer Knowledge: Results of a Nationwide Test.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brobeck, Stephen

    A nationwide test of consumer knowledge of high school students conducted in 1991 found that seniors are unprepared for critical purchasing decisions needed after they graduate. Random samples of the population, 428 high school seniors, were asked 250 questions about a range of consumer subjects such as credit, checking/saving accounts, auto…

  7. Language Identity among Iranian English Language Learners: A Nationwide Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rezaei, Saeed; Khatib, Mohammad; Baleghizadeh, Sasan

    2014-01-01

    The present study is a nationwide survey of language identity among English language learners in Iran. The participants who completed the survey in this research included 1851 English language learners from different parts of the country who belonged to different genders, age groups and English language proficiency levels. The main instrument was…

  8. Where Are We Now? Statistics on Capstone Courses Nationwide

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howe, Susannah

    2010-01-01

    Capstone design courses are an increasingly common component of engineering curricula nationwide, but how much do we really know about the current practices? How do capstone courses differ across departments and institutions? How have capstone courses changed in the past 10 years? This paper highlights data from a survey of engineering capstone…

  9. Nationwide Techer Opinion Poll, 1979. NEA Research Memo, September 1979.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Education Association, Washington, DC.

    The 1979 Nationwide Teacher Opinion Poll conducted by the National Education Association was sent to 2,148 of the nation's approximately 2,185,000 public school teachers. The response rate to the poll was 82.7 percent. In this report the analysis of the responses are grouped according to the following topical areas: (1) teacher demographics; (2)…

  10. Nationwide Survey of the Undergraduate Physical Chemistry Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fox, Laura J.; Roehrig, Gillian H.

    2015-01-01

    A nationwide survey of the undergraduate physical chemistry course was conducted to investigate the depth and breadth of content that is covered, how content is delivered, how student understanding is assessed, and the experiences and beliefs of instructors. The survey was administered to instructors of physical chemistry (N = 331) at American…

  11. Planning for a Nationwide System of Library Statistics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palmer, David C., Ed.

    A design for a nationwide system of library statistics is provided along with specific recommendations for its structure and development. The proposed system depends upon a much more active role of the states and upon the input of research, interaction of advisory groups, inservice training, and relatively small amounts of money at strategic…

  12. Language Identity among Iranian English Language Learners: A Nationwide Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rezaei, Saeed; Khatib, Mohammad; Baleghizadeh, Sasan

    2014-01-01

    The present study is a nationwide survey of language identity among English language learners in Iran. The participants who completed the survey in this research included 1851 English language learners from different parts of the country who belonged to different genders, age groups and English language proficiency levels. The main instrument was…

  13. Nationwide Survey of the Undergraduate Physical Chemistry Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fox, Laura J.; Roehrig, Gillian H.

    2015-01-01

    A nationwide survey of the undergraduate physical chemistry course was conducted to investigate the depth and breadth of content that is covered, how content is delivered, how student understanding is assessed, and the experiences and beliefs of instructors. The survey was administered to instructors of physical chemistry (N = 331) at American…

  14. 76 FR 22409 - Nationwide Cyber Security Review (NCSR) Assessment

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-21

    ... SECURITY Nationwide Cyber Security Review (NCSR) Assessment AGENCY: National Protection and Programs...), Office of Cybersecurity and Communications (CS&C), National Cyber Security Division (NCSD), Cyber... a cyber network security assessment so that a full measure of gaps and capabilities can be completed...

  15. Differences in both matrix metalloproteinase 9 concentration and zymographic profile between plasma and serum with clot activators are due to the presence of amorphous silica or silicate salts in blood collection devices.

    PubMed

    Mannello, Ferdinando; Tanus-Santos, Jose E; Meschiari, Cesar A; Tonti, Gaetana A

    2008-03-01

    Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are promising diagnostic tools, and blood sampling/handling alters MMP concentrations between plasma and serum and between serum with and without clot activators. To explain the higher MMP-9 expression in serum collected with clot accelerators relative to serum with no additives and to plasma, we analyzed the effects of increasing amounts of silica and silicates (components of clot activators) in citrate plasma, serum, and buffy coats collected in both plastic and glass tubes from 50 healthy donors, and we analyzed the effects of silica and silicate on cultured leukemia cells. The levels of MMP-2 did not show significant changes between glass and plastic tubes, between serum and plasma, between serum with and without clot accelerators, or between silica and silicate treatments. No modification of MMP-9 expression was obtained by the addition of silica or silicate to previously separated plasma and serum. Increasing the amounts of nonsoluble silica and soluble silicate added to citrate and empty tubes prior to blood collection resulted in increasing levels of MMP-9 relative to citrate plasma and serum. Silica and silicate added to buffy coats and leukemia cells significantly induced MMP-9 release/secretion, demonstrating that both silica and silicate induce the release of pro- and complexed MMP-9 forms. We recommend limiting the misuse of serum and avoiding the interfering effects of clot activators.

  16. Follow-up of healthy donors receiving granulocyte colony-stimulating factor for peripheral blood progenitor cell mobilization and collection. Results of the Spanish Donor Registry.

    PubMed

    de la Rubia, Javier; de Arriba, Felipe; Arbona, Cristina; Pascual, María J; Zamora, Concha; Insunza, Andrés; Martínez, Dorleta; Paniagua, Carmen; Díaz, Miguel A; Sanz, Miguel A

    2008-05-01

    Information about the long-term follow-up and safety of granulocyte colony-stimulating factor administration to healthy donors is limited. The aims of this study were to analyze the side effects of granulocyte colony-stimulating factor administration in donors included in a Spanish Registry of hematopoietic stem cell donors and to determine the long-term outcome of these donors. The Spanish National Donor Registry was developed to record the short- and long-term results of granulocyte colony-stimulating factor administration to mobilize peripheral blood progenitor cells in normal donors. To date, 1436 donors (771 males, 665 females) with a median age of 37 years (range, 1 to 74 years) have been registered. Granulocyte colony-stimulating factor was the only cytokine administered. A baseline investigation was performed in every donor before granulocyte colony-stimulating factor administration and follow-up investigations (controls) were planned at 4 weeks and annually thereafter for up to 5 years after the mobilization. At least one of the scheduled controls was performed in 736 donors, while 320 donors have been followed for 2 years or more. The peripheral white blood cell count decreased significantly from 6.8 x 10(9)/L at baseline to 5.9 x 10(9)/L at 4 weeks after leukapheresis (p<0.0001) and remained at values lower than those observed premobilization until 2 years after mobilization. In contrast, hemoglobin concentration and platelet count returned to normal values within 1 year after mobilization. Bone pain (90%) and headache (33%) were the most frequently reported granulocyte colony-stimulating factor-related side effects. Five patients (0.68%) were diagnosed as having solid tumors (lung cancer in two patients and thyroid carcinoma, choroid melanoma, and colon carcinoma in one patient each) between 10 and 64 months after administration of granulocyte colony-stimulating factor. No hematologic malignancies have been reported. The clinical side effects of

  17. Large-volume leukapheresis using femoral venous access for harvesting peripheral blood stem cells with the Fenwal CS 3000 Plus from normal healthy donors: predictors of CD34+ cell yield and collection efficiency.

    PubMed

    Sohn, Sang Kyun; Kim, Jong Gwang; Chae, Yeo Soo; Kim, Dong Hwan; Lee, Nan Young; Suh, Jang Soo; Lee, Kyu Bo

    2003-01-01

    The current paper reports on the predicting factors associated with satisfactory peripheral blood stem cell collection and the efficacy of large-volume leukapheresis (LVL) using femoral vein catheterization to harvest PBSCs with Fenwal CS 3000 Plus from normal healthy donors for allogeneic transplantation. A total of 113 apheresis procedures in 57 patients were performed. The median number of MNCs, CD3+ cells, and CD34+ cells harvested per apheresis was 5.3 x 10(8)/kg (range, 0.3-11.0 x 10(8)/kg), 3.0 x 10(8)/kg (range, 0.2-6.6 x 10(8)/kg), and 7.9 x 10(6)/kg (range, 0.1-188.9 x 10(6)/kg), respectively. The median collection efficiency of MNCs and CD34+ cells was 49.8% and 49.7%, respectively. A highly significant correlation was found between the collected CD34+ cell counts and the pre-apheresis WBC counts in the donors (P = 0.013), and between the collected CD34+ cell counts and the pre-apheresis peripheral blood (PB) CD34+ cell counts (P<0.001). Harvesting at least >4 x 10(6)/kg CD34+ cells from the 1st LVL was achieved in 44 (77.2%) out of 57 donors and in 19 (90.5%) out of 21 donors with a PB-CD34+ cell count of >40/microl. There was no significant difference in the harvested MNC and CD34+ cell counts between the 1st and 2nd apheresis. The catheter-related complications included catheter obstruction (n = 2) and hematoma at the insertion site (n = 3). Accordingly, LVL using femoral venous access for allogeneic PBSC collection from normal healthy donors would appear to be safe and effective.

  18. Blood Meal Analysis of and Virus Detection in Mosquitoes Collected during a Rift Valley fever Epizootic/Epidemic: Implications for epidemic disease transmission dynamics

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Rift Valley fever (RVF) is a zoonosis of domestic ruminants in Africa. Bloodfed mosquitoes collected during the 2006-2007 RVF outbreak in Kenya were analyzed to determine the virus infection status and animal source of the bloodmeals. Bloodmeals from individual mosquito abdomens were screened for v...

  19. Blood, sweat and plaster casts: Reviewing the history, composition, and scientific value of the Raymond A. Dart Collection of African Life and Death Masks.

    PubMed

    Houlton, T M R; Billings, B K

    2017-09-14

    This paper addresses the history, composition and scientific value of one of the most comprehensive facemask collections in Africa, the Raymond A. Dart Collection of African Life and Death Masks. Housed within the School of Anatomical Sciences at the University of the Witwatersrand (South Africa), it comprises 1110 masks (397 life, 487 death, 226 unknown). Life masks represent populations throughout Africa; death masks predominately southern Africa. Males preponderate by 75%. Recorded ages are error prone, but suggest most life masks are those of <35 year-olds, death masks of 36+ year-olds. A total of 241 masks have associated skeletons, 209 presenting a complete skull. Life masks date between 1927 and c.1980s, death masks 1933 and 1963. This historical collection presents uncanny associations with outmoded typological and evolutionary theories. Once perceived an essential scientific resource, performed craniofacial superimpositions identify the nose as the only stable feature maintained, with the remaining face best preserved in young individuals with minimal body fat. The facemask collection is most viable for teaching and research within the history of science, specifically physical anthropology, and presents some value to craniofacial identification. Future research will have to be conducted with appropriate ethical considerations to science and medicine. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  20. Nationwide occurrence of radon and other natural radioactivity in public water supplies

    SciTech Connect

    Horton, T. R.

    1985-10-01

    The nationwide study, which began in November of 1980, was designed to systematically sample water supplies in all 48 contiguous states. The results of the study will be used, in cooperation with EPA's Office of Drinking Water, to estimate population exposures nationwide and to support possible future standards for radon, uranium, and other natural radioactivity in public water supplies. Samples from more than 2500 public water supplies representing 35 states were collected. Although we sampled only about five percent of the total number of groundwater supplies in the 48 contiguous states of the US, those samples represent nearly 45 percent of the water consumed by US groundwater users in the 48 contiguous states. Sample results are summarized by arithmetic mean, geometric mean, and population weighted arithmetic mean for each state and the entire US. Results include radon, gross alpha, gross beta, Ra-226, Ra-228, total Ra, U-234, U-238, total U, and U-234/U-238 ratios. Individual public water supply results are found in the appendices. 24 refs., 91 figs., 51 tabs.

  1. Inflammatory bowel disease nurse specialists for patients on biological therapies: a nationwide Italian survey

    PubMed Central

    Guarini, Alessandra; Marinis, Francesca De; Kohn, Anna; Orzes, Nicoletta; D’Incà, Renata; Iannone, Teresa; Giaquinto, Antonella; Rivara, Cinzia; Ridola, Lorenzo; Lorenzetti, Roberto; Zullo, Angelo

    2016-01-01

    Background Management of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) patients requires a multidisciplinary approach. Among the working team, the role of IBD nurse is expected to be particularly relevant when managing patients receiving biological therapies. We performed a survey to assess the presence of IBD nurse in centers where patients were receiving biologics. Methods For this Italian nationwide survey a specific questionnaire was prepared. IBD nurse was defined as a nurse directly involved in all phases of biological therapy, from pre-therapy screening, administration and monitoring during therapy, to follow up performed by a dedicated helpline, completed a specific training on biological therapy therapy, and observed international guidelines. Results A total of 53 Italian IBD centers participated in the survey, and 91 valid questionnaires were collected. Overall, 34 (37.4%) nurses could be classified as IBD specialists. IBD nurses had a significantly higher educational level than other nurses, they were more frequently operating in Central or Southern than in Northern Italy, they were working in an Academic center rather than in a General hospital, and in IBD centers with >25 patients on biological therapy. On the contrary, mean age, gender distribution, years of nursing, and years working in the IBD unit did not significantly differ between IBD and other nurses. Conclusions Our nationwide survey showed that the presence of an IBD nurse is still lacking in the majority of Italian IBD centers where patients receive biological therapies, suggesting a prompt implementation. PMID:27708516

  2. Inflammatory bowel disease nurse specialists for patients on biological therapies: a nationwide Italian survey.

    PubMed

    Guarini, Alessandra; Marinis, Francesca De; Kohn, Anna; Orzes, Nicoletta; D'Incà, Renata; Iannone, Teresa; Giaquinto, Antonella; Rivara, Cinzia; Ridola, Lorenzo; Lorenzetti, Roberto; Zullo, Angelo

    2016-01-01

    Management of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) patients requires a multidisciplinary approach. Among the working team, the role of IBD nurse is expected to be particularly relevant when managing patients receiving biological therapies. We performed a survey to assess the presence of IBD nurse in centers where patients were receiving biologics. For this Italian nationwide survey a specific questionnaire was prepared. IBD nurse was defined as a nurse directly involved in all phases of biological therapy, from pre-therapy screening, administration and monitoring during therapy, to follow up performed by a dedicated helpline, completed a specific training on biological therapy therapy, and observed international guidelines. A total of 53 Italian IBD centers participated in the survey, and 91 valid questionnaires were collected. Overall, 34 (37.4%) nurses could be classified as IBD specialists. IBD nurses had a significantly higher educational level than other nurses, they were more frequently operating in Central or Southern than in Northern Italy, they were working in an Academic center rather than in a General hospital, and in IBD centers with >25 patients on biological therapy. On the contrary, mean age, gender distribution, years of nursing, and years working in the IBD unit did not significantly differ between IBD and other nurses. Our nationwide survey showed that the presence of an IBD nurse is still lacking in the majority of Italian IBD centers where patients receive biological therapies, suggesting a prompt implementation.

  3. A nationwide survey on bariatric surgery in France: two years prospective follow-up.

    PubMed

    Basdevant, Arnaud; Paita, Michel; Rodde-Dunet, Marie-Héléne; Marty, Michel; Noguès, Françoise; Slim, Karem; Chevallier, Jean-Marc

    2007-01-01

    Most studies on bariatric surgery outcomes have been performed in clinical trials (eg. the SOS) or reflect the clinical experience and practice of specific and experienced centers. Little is known about the current practice at a nationwide level. This is a systematic nationwide study on the 2-year outcome of all consecutive 1,236 bariatric operations performed in France. Data on mortality, weight loss, complications, and patient satisfaction were collected independently from the medical and surgical team involved in the patients' care. 87.3% of the patients underwent an adjustable gastric banding (ABG), 8.6% a vertical banded gastroplasty (VBG), 3.8% a Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGBP) and 0.3% a biliopancreatic diversion (BPD). Loss of follow-up was 12% at year 1 and 18% at year 2. The rate of laparoscopic procedures was 98% for ABG and 73% for RYGBP. Mortality rate was 0.16% in the operative period and 0.27% during follow-up. Excess weight loss ranged from 43% (AGB) to 66% (RYGBP). Co-morbidities improved in more than 70% of patients. Outcomes of bariatric surgery in routine practice (mortality, weight loss, course of co-morbidities, and quality of life) are similar to the results published in clinical trials.

  4. Urban–rural differences in pediatric traumatic head injuries: A prospective nationwide study

    PubMed Central

    Halldorsson, Jonas G; Flekkoy, Kjell M; Gudmundsson, Kristinn R; Arnkelsson, Gudmundur B; Arnarson, Eirikur Orn

    2007-01-01

    Aims To estimate differences in the incidence of recorded traumatic head injuries by gender, age, severity, and geographical area. Methods The study was prospective and nationwide. Data were collected from all hospitals, emergency units and healthcare centers in Iceland regarding all Icelandic children and adolescents 0–19 years old consecutively diagnosed with traumatic head injuries (N = 550) during a one-year period. Results Annual incidence of minimal, mild, moderate/severe, and fatal head injuries (ICD-9 850–854) was 6.41 per 1000, with 95% confidence interval (CI) 5.9, 7.0. Annual incidence of minimal head injuries (ICD-9 850) treated at emergency units was 4.65 (CI 4.2, 5.1) per 1000, mild head injuries admitted to hospital (ICD-9 850) was 1.50 (CI 1.3, 1.8) per 1000, and moderate/severe nonfatal injuries (ICD-9 851–854) was 0.21 (CI 0.1, 0.3) per 1000. Death rate was 0.05 (CI 0.0, 0.1) per 1000. Young children were at greater risk of sustaining minimal head injuries than older ones. Boys were at greater risk than girls were. In rural areas, incidence of recorded minimal head injuries was low. Conclusions Use of nationwide estimate of the incidence of pediatric head injury shows important differences between urban and rural areas as well as between different age groups. PMID:19300630

  5. Is Canada Ready for Nationwide Collaboration on Medical School Admissions Practices and Policies?

    PubMed

    Hanson, Mark D; Moineau, Geneviève; Kulasegaram, Kulamakan Mahan; Hammond, Robert

    2016-11-01

    The report by the Association of Faculties of Medicine of Canada (AFMC) entitled "The Future of Medical Education in Canada: A Collective Vision for MD Education" includes recommendations to enhance admissions processes and increase national collaboration. To achieve these goals, the AFMC conducted a nationwide environmental scan appraising medical schools' readiness for national collaboration and progress toward establishing "made-in-Canada" admissions processes. A critical narrative review of the academic and gray literature was conducted as part of this environmental scan. Four core admissions practice and policy domains were identified: (1) social accountability strategies, (2) standardized admissions testing, (3) interviewing procedures, and (4) application procedures.In this article, the authors summarize and discuss the findings of this narrative review with regard to the four domains. They provide documentation of historical and present-day admissions factors relevant to Canadian medical schools' readiness for nationwide collaboration and a descriptive analysis of the facilitators and barriers to establishing "made-in-Canada" admissions processes.All four domains had facilitators and barriers. One barrier, however, cut across multiple domains-medical schools' pursuit of prestige and its potential to conflict with the goals of the other domains. The authors recommend holding a national forum to debate these issues and to advance the AFMC's goals, a process that will not be straightforward. Yet, national collaboration holds promise for applicants, medical schools, and Canada's diverse population of patients, so efforts toward this end must continue.

  6. Use of a commercial ELISA for the detection of measles-specific immunoglobulin G (IgG) in dried blood spots collected from children living in low-resource settings.

    PubMed

    Colson, K Ellicott; Potter, Alan; Conde-Glez, Carlos; Hernandez, Bernardo; Ríos-Zertuche, Diego; Zúñiga-Brenes, Paola; Iriarte, Emma; Mokdad, Ali H

    2015-09-01

    Seroepidemiological monitoring of population immunity to vaccine-preventable diseases is critical to prevent future outbreaks. Dried blood spots (DBS), drops of capillary blood dried on filter paper, are an affordable, minimally invasive alternative to venipuncture for collecting blood in field settings. However, few proven methods exist to analyze DBS for the presence of protective antibodies. This study validates a novel technique for measuring measles-specific immunoglobulin G (IgG) in capillary DBS using a commercial ELISA. The predictive performance of a new method for analyzing DBS was tested by comparing matched serum and DBS samples from 50 children. The accuracy, precision, and reliability of the procedure were evaluated, and the optimal cut points to classify positive and negative samples were determined. The method was then applied to 1,588 DBS collected during a large survey of children in Mexico and Nicaragua. Measles-specific IgG in serum samples were 62% negative, 10% equivocal, and 28% positive. In comparisons with matched serum, DBS results were 100% sensitive and 96 · 8% specific, and agreed in 46 of 50 (92%) cases. The inter-assay and intra-assay coefficients of variation from kit-provided controls were greater than desired (24.8% and 8.4%, respectively). However, in predictive simulations the average misclassification was only 3.9%. Procedures were found to be acceptable to surveyors and participants. Analyzing DBS collected in low-resources settings is a feasible and accurate means of measuring population immunity to measles and should be used to generate objective measures of health status and health system performance.

  7. A simple screening method for individuals at risk of developing type 1 diabetes: measurement of islet cell autoantibodies (GADA, IA-2A, and IAA) on dried capillary blood spots collected on filter paper.

    PubMed

    Siraj, E S; Rogers, D G; Gupta, M K; Reddy, S S K

    2012-10-01

    There is limited information regarding the use of dried capillary blood spots collected on a filter paper (FP) to test for islet cell antibodies. The aim of this study was to validate the use of dried capillary blood spots collected on a FP for the analysis of islet cell antibodies. FP eluates were tested using both single and combined assay for antibodies to glutamic acid decarboxylase (GADA) and/or to the protein tyrosine phosphatase like IA-2 (IA-2A), and a single assay for antibodies to insulin (IAA). The results were compared with those of serum assays. Ninety-one subjects were studied. Forty had Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) and 51 were first-degree relatives (FDR) of patients with T1DM. The GADA and IA-2A were measured by radio-binding assays, which utilize 35S-labeled GAD65 and IA-2. IAA was measured by a microtiter plate assay using 125I-labeled insulin. Twenty-six of those with T1DM (65%) and 5 of the FDRs (10%) had at least 1 positive test on the single serum assays. The FP combi-assay for GADA and IA-2A had 97.8% concordance rate when compared with serum single assays for GADA and IA-2A. The concordance rate for individual assays were 96.7% for GADA, and 100% for both IA-2A and IAA There was significant correlation of the antibody levels between FP and serum specimen for all 3 antibodies. We conclude that antibody screening performed using dried capillary blood spots collected on a FP correlates well with serum assays, and provides an easy alternative for population screening.

  8. Nationwide survey of maternal screening for mother-to-child infections in Japan.

    PubMed

    Yamada, Hideto; Tairaku, Shinya; Morioka, Ichiro; Ebina, Yasuhiko; Sonoyama, Ayako; Tanimura, Kenji; Deguchi, Masashi; Nagamata, Satoshi

    2014-05-01

    Mother-to-child infections cause congenital infection with disease and sequelae. To evaluate a state of maternal blood screening for mother-to-child infections in Japan, we for the first time conducted a nationwide survey on obstetric facilities where regular maternity checkups were carried out. A questionnaire assessment involved an annual number of deliveries, scale of facilities and a state of maternal blood screening for eight pathogens. A high rate (73.7%) of reply to the questionnaire was achieved from 1990 facilities, covering 75.1% of annual number of delivery in 2011. The performance rates of blood screening were more than 99% for rubella virus, Treponema pallidum, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), human T cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1), hepatitis B virus, and hepatitis C virus, while the rate was found to be only 4.5% for cytomegalovirus (CMV), and 48.5% for Toxoplasma gondii with large differences in regions. Most of the facilities performed blood tests for rubella virus, Treponema pallidum, HIV, hepatitis B virus and hepatitis C virus once in early pregnancy, while approximately 28% of the facilities performed blood tests for HTLV-1 once during the 2nd or 3rd trimester. Most of the facilities used HA tests for Toxoplasma gondii, whereas there was a wide variation in antibody measurement methods for CMV. Generally, the obstetric facilities in Japan have performed maternal blood screening properly according to the current recommendations. The results of this survey involve important information and are helpful for clinical practitioners. © 2013 Japanese Teratology Society.

  9. Blood Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... blood cells, white blood cells and platelets. Blood disorders affect one or more parts of the blood ... They can be acute or chronic. Many blood disorders are inherited. Other causes include other diseases, side ...

  10. Blood pressure

    MedlinePlus Videos and Cool Tools

    Normal blood pressure is important for proper blood flow to the body's organs and tissues. The force of the blood on the walls of the arteries is called blood pressure. Blood pressure is measured both as the heart ...

  11. Blood Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... Blood Clots) Blood clot in a deep vein. Hemophilia Blood does not clot properly. Hereditary Hemorrhagic Telangiectasia ( ... infants. Blood Disorders Homepage Venous Thromboembolism (Blood Clots) Hemophilia Hereditary Hemorrhagic Telangiectasia (HHT) Sickle Cell Disease Thalassemia ...

  12. The Basic Facts of Korean Breast Cancer in 2013: Results of a Nationwide Survey and Breast Cancer Registry Database

    PubMed Central

    Min, Sun Young; Kim, Zisun; Yoon, Chan Seok; Park, Eun-Hwa; Jung, Kyu-Won

    2016-01-01

    The Korean Breast Cancer Society (KBCS) has reported a nationwide breast cancer data since 1996. We present a comprehensive report on the facts and trends of breast cancer in Korea in 2013. Data on the newly diagnosed patients in the year 2013 were collected from 99 hospitals by using nationwide questionnaire survey. Clinical characteristics such as stage of cancer, histologic types, biological markers, and surgical management were obtained from the online registry database. A total of 19,316 patients were newly diagnosed with breast cancer in 2013. The crude incidence rate of female breast cancer including carcinoma in situ was 76.2 cases per 100,000 women. The median age at diagnosis was 50 years, and the proportions of postmenopausal women with breast cancer accounted for more than half of total patients. The proportion of early breast cancer increased consistently, and the pathologic features have changed accordingly. Breast-conserving surgery was performed in more cases than total mastectomy in the year. The total number of breast reconstruction surgeries markedly increased approaching 3-fold in last 11 years. According to annual percentile change of invasive cancer incidence, the incidence increased rapidly until 2010. And thereafter the increase of it became steadier. For ductal carcinoma in situ, the incidence consistently increased during the same period without any joinpoint. Analysis of nationwide registry data will contribute to defining of the trends and characteristics of breast cancer in Korea. PMID:27066090

  13. The Basic Facts of Korean Breast Cancer in 2013: Results of a Nationwide Survey and Breast Cancer Registry Database.

    PubMed

    Min, Sun Young; Kim, Zisun; Hur, Min Hee; Yoon, Chan Seok; Park, Eun-Hwa; Jung, Kyu-Won

    2016-03-01

    The Korean Breast Cancer Society (KBCS) has reported a nationwide breast cancer data since 1996. We present a comprehensive report on the facts and trends of breast cancer in Korea in 2013. Data on the newly diagnosed patients in the year 2013 were collected from 99 hospitals by using nationwide questionnaire survey. Clinical characteristics such as stage of cancer, histologic types, biological markers, and surgical management were obtained from the online registry database. A total of 19,316 patients were newly diagnosed with breast cancer in 2013. The crude incidence rate of female breast cancer including carcinoma in situ was 76.2 cases per 100,000 women. The median age at diagnosis was 50 years, and the proportions of postmenopausal women with breast cancer accounted for more than half of total patients. The proportion of early breast cancer increased consistently, and the pathologic features have changed accordingly. Breast-conserving surgery was performed in more cases than total mastectomy in the year. The total number of breast reconstruction surgeries markedly increased approaching 3-fold in last 11 years. According to annual percentile change of invasive cancer incidence, the incidence increased rapidly until 2010. And thereafter the increase of it became steadier. For ductal carcinoma in situ, the incidence consistently increased during the same period without any joinpoint. Analysis of nationwide registry data will contribute to defining of the trends and characteristics of breast cancer in Korea.

  14. Granulocyte colony-stimulating factor versus granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor for collection of peripheral blood progenitor cells from healthy donors.

    PubMed

    Fischmeister, G; Gadner, H

    2000-05-01

    The harvesting of peripheral blood progenitor cells (PBPCs) after granulocyte colony-stimulating factor or granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor stimulation instead of bone marrow in healthy donors has become increasingly popular. Donors, given the choice between bone marrow and PBPC donation, often prefer cytapheresis because of the easier access, no necessity for general anesthesia, and no multiple bone marrow punctures. In addition, accelerated engraftment and immunomodulation by granulocyte colony-stimulating factor-mobilized PBPCs are advantageous for the recipient. However, because of donor inconvenience and poor mobilization, there is a need to develop improved procedures. Aspects such as durability of hematopoietic engraftment, characterization of the earliest stem cell, and composition of PBPCs are not yet well defined, and international donor registration and follow-up must be considered when evaluating long-term safety profiles in healthy donors. This review concentrates on the most significant developments on mobilization of PBPCs published during the past year.

  15. 'Science is really needed--that's all I know': informed consent and the non-verbal practices of collecting blood for genetic research in northern Sweden.

    PubMed

    Hoeyer, Klaus

    2003-12-01

    In Vasterbotten County in northern Sweden a start-up biotech company has recently gained all commercial rights to one of the worlds largest population based research biobanks. The biobank and the company have publicly emphasized that all donors have given their informed consent to participate, but within the academy it has become debated whether people have been adequately informed. Based on anthropological fieldwork it is shown that many people do not read the information provided. The data do not, however, suggest that donors themselves perceive a lack of information. This article endeavours to make meaningful the apparent lack of interest among donors in the information they are offered. It is argued that the donation of blood should be analysed in its social and historical context rather than as a response to rational assessment of information of research purposes. It implies a conceptualisation of agency more aware of the intersubjective nature of moral negotiation than usually implied in studies of informed consent.

  16. Structural characterization of tick cement cones collected from in vivo and artificial membrane blood-fed Lone Star ticks (Amblyomma americanum).

    PubMed

    Bullard, Rebekah; Allen, Paige; Chao, Chien-Chung; Douglas, Jessica; Das, Pradipta; Morgan, Sarah E; Ching, Wei-Mei; Karim, Shahid

    2016-07-01

    The Lone Star tick, Amblyomma americanum, is endemic to the southeastern United States and capable of transmitting pathogenic diseases and causing non-pathogenic conditions. To remain firmly attached to the host, the tick secretes a proteinaceous matrix termed the cement cone which hardens around the tick's mouthparts to assist in the attachment of the tick as well as to protect the mouthparts from the host immune system. Cement cones collected from ticks on a host are commonly contaminated with host skin and hair making analysis of the cone difficult. To reduce the contamination found in the cement cone, we have adapted an artificial membrane feeding system used to feed long mouthpart ticks. Cones collected from in vivo and membrane fed ticks are analyzed to determine changes in the cone morphology. Comparisons of the cement cones using light microscopy shows similar structures and color however using scanning electron microscopy the cones have drastically different structures. The in vivo cones contain fibrils, sheets, and are heavily textured whereas cones from membrane fed ticks are remarkably smooth with no distinct structures. Analysis of the secondary protein structures using FTIR-ATR show both in vivo and membrane fed cement cones contain β sheets but only in vivo cement cones contain helical protein structures. Additionally, proteomic analysis using LC-MS/MS identifies many proteins including glycine rich proteins, metalloproteases, and protease inhibitors. Proteomic analysis of the cones identified both secreted and non-secreted tick proteins. Artificial membrane feeding is a suitable model for increased collection of cement cones for proteomic analysis however, structurally there are significant differences. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  17. Mobilization and collection of CD34+ cells for autologous transplantation of peripheral blood hematopoietic progenitor cells in children: analysis of two different granulocyte-colony stimulating factor doses

    PubMed Central

    Eid, Kátia Aparecida de Brito; Miranda, Eliana Cristina Martins; Aguiar, Simone dos Santos

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The use of peripheral hematopoietic progenitor cells (HPCs) is the cell choice in autologous transplantation. The classic dose of granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) for mobilization is a single daily dose of 10 μg/kg of patient body weight. There is a theory that higher doses of granulocyte-colony stimulating factor applied twice daily could increase the number of CD34+ cells collected in fewer leukapheresis procedures. Objective The aim of this study was to compare a fractionated dose of 15 μg G-CSF/kg of body weight and the conventional dose of granulocyte-colony stimulating factor in respect to the number of leukapheresis procedures required to achieve a minimum collection of 3 × 106 CD34+ cells/kg body weight. Methods Patients were divided into two groups: Group 10 – patients who received a single daily dose of 10 μg G-CSF/kg body weight and Group 15 – patients who received a fractioned dose of 15 μg G-CSF/kg body weight daily. The leukapheresis procedure was carried out in an automated cell separator. The autologous transplantation was carried out when a minimum number of 3 × 106 CD34+ cells/kg body weight was achieved. Results Group 10 comprised 39 patients and Group 15 comprised 26 patients. A total of 146 apheresis procedures were performed: 110 (75.3%) for Group 10 and 36 (24.7%) for Group 15. For Group 10, a median of three (range: 1–7) leukapheresis procedures and a mean of 8.89 × 106 CD34+ cells/kg body weight (±9.59) were collected whereas for Group 15 the corresponding values were one (range: 1–3) and 5.29 × 106 cells/kg body weight (±4.95). A statistically significant difference was found in relation to the number of apheresis procedures (p-value <0.0001). Conclusions To collect a minimum target of 3 × 106 CD34+ cells/kg body weight, the administration of a fractionated dose of 15 μg G-CSF/kg body weight significantly decreased the number of leukapheresis procedures performed. PMID:26041417

  18. 21 CFR 640.53 - Testing the blood.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Testing the blood. 640.53 Section 640.53 Food and... ADDITIONAL STANDARDS FOR HUMAN BLOOD AND BLOOD PRODUCTS Cryoprecipitate § 640.53 Testing the blood. (a) Blood... sample of blood collected at the time of collecting the source blood, and such sample container shall...

  19. 21 CFR 640.53 - Testing the blood.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Testing the blood. 640.53 Section 640.53 Food and... ADDITIONAL STANDARDS FOR HUMAN BLOOD AND BLOOD PRODUCTS Cryoprecipitate § 640.53 Testing the blood. (a) Blood... sample of blood collected at the time of collecting the source blood, and such sample container shall...

  20. Planning for hazardous campus waste collection.

    PubMed

    Liu, Kun-Hsing; Shih, Shao-Yang; Kao, Jehng-Jung

    2011-05-15

    This study examines a procedure developed for planning a nation-wide hazardous campus waste (HCW) collection system. Alternative HCW plans were designed for different collection frequencies, truckloads, storage limits, and also for establishing an additional transfer station. Two clustering methods were applied to group adjacent campuses into clusters based on their locations, HCW quantities, the type of vehicles used and collection frequencies. Transportation risk, storage risk, and collection cost are the major criteria used to evaluate the feasibility of each alternative. Transportation risk is determined based on the accident rates for each road type and collection distance, while storage risk is calculated by estimating the annual average HCW quantity stored on campus. Alternatives with large trucks can reduce both transportation risk and collection cost, but their storage risks would be significantly increased. Alternatives that collect neighboring campuses simultaneously can effectively reduce storage risks as well as collection cost if the minimum quantity to collect for each group of neighboring campuses can be properly set. The three transfer station alternatives evaluated for northern Taiwan are cost effective and involve significantly lower transportation risk. The procedure proposed is expected to facilitate decision making and to support analyses for formulating a proper nation-wide HCW collection plan. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Sudden cardiac death: a nationwide cohort study among the young.

    PubMed

    Risgaard, Bjarke

    2016-12-01

    Sudden cardiac death (SCD) is a tragic event affecting millions of individuals worldwide. Although several studies have investigated the epidemiology of SCD, these studies may have been affected by reporting and referral biases, which are reflected in the very different incidence rates and causes of deaths that have previously been reported. Among SCD victims aged < 36 years, inherited cardiac diseases are well known to play an important role. However, the extent to which inherited cardiac diseases also play a role in SCD victims aged < 50 years has not been completely described. Additionally, SCD in children is of particular interest. These deaths are often described as a part of the deaths of young adolescents up to 40 years of age, and the focus has recently shifted towards the prevention of these deaths. The SCD incidence rate among patients with psychiatric disease has also gained significant attention. Finally, the incidence rate of sports-related sudden cardiac death (SrSCD) has been thoroughly investigated in young competitive athletes. However, whether competitive athletes are at increased risk for SrSCD compared with non-competitive athletes remains unknown. These data should be available prior to discussing optimal screening strategies for (competitive) athletes. In this thesis, we investigated the SCD burden in Danes aged 1-49 years between 2007 and 2009. By using the unique Danish death certificates, autopsy reports, discharge summaries, and registries, we included all deaths in a nationwide setting. We described the incidence rates and causes of death, and we performed a sub-group analysis of SCD in children (1-18 years, 2000-2006). Furthermore, we described the SCD burden in competitive and non-competitive athletes and investigated how often SCD occurred in patients with previous psychiatric disease. SCD has an incidence rate of 8.6 (95% confidence interval (CI) 8.0-9.2) per 100,000 person-years in persons aged 1-49 years. We found a steep increase

  2. 1990 Nationwide Truck Activity and Commodity Survey selected tabulations

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-06-01

    The Nationwide Truck Activity and Commodity Survey (NTACS) provides detailed activity data for a sample of trucks covered in the 1987 Truck Inventory and Use Survey (TIUS) for days selected at random over a 12-month period ending in 1990. The NTACS was conducted by the US Bureau of the Census for the US Department of Transportation (DOT). A Public Use File for the NTACS was developed by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) under a reimbursable agreement with the DOT. The content of the Public Use File and the detailed design of the NTACS are described in the ORNL Report [open quotes]Technical Documentation for the 1990 Nationwide Truck Activity and Commodity Survey Public Use File[close quotes]. (1992). ORNL Technical Report No. TM-12188, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN 37831. The main purpose of this summary report is to provide selected tables based on the public use file.

  3. Development of a Web-Based Nationwide Korean Pediatric Dental Sedation Registry.

    PubMed

    Choi, Sung Chul; Yang, Yeonmi; Yoo, Seunghoon; Kim, Jiyeon; Jeong, Taesung; Shin, Teo Jeon

    2017-09-22

    Finding a balance between sedation efficacy and safety remains an ongoing challenge. In children, the risk of sedation-related complications is relatively high. It is of utmost importance to determine the factors related to improved overall sedation outcomes. However, most previous reports have been based on small samples at single institutions. The Korean Academy of Pediatric Dentistry (KAPD) developed a Korean Pediatric Dental Sedation Registry using a web-based platform. Specialists in pediatric dental sedation selected the itemized list included within the registry through an extensive literature review. The web-based registry was built into the KAPD homepage to facilitate easy access to the sedation data. All teaching and university hospitals agreed to participate in the Korean Pediatric Dental Sedation Registry. This is the first attempt to collect sedation data on a nationwide scale in the field of pediatric dentistry. The sedation database established with the registry may facilitate standardizing and improving pediatric dental sedation clinical practices.

  4. CSDC: a nationwide screening platform for stroke control and prevention in China.

    PubMed

    Jinghui Yu; Huajian Mao; Mei Li; Dan Ye; Dongsheng Zhao

    2016-08-01

    As a leading cause of severe disability and death, stroke places an enormous burden on Chinese society. A nationwide stroke screening platform called CSDC (China Stoke Data Center) has been built to support the national stroke prevention program and stroke clinical research since 2011. This platform is composed of a data integration system and a big data analysis system. The data integration system is used to collect information on risk factors, diagnosis history, treatment, and sociodemographic characteristics and stroke patients' EMR. The big data analysis system support decision making of stroke control and prevention, clinical evaluation and research. In this paper, the design and implementation of CSDC are illustrated, and some application results are presented. This platform is expected to provide rich data and powerful tool support for stroke control and prevention in China.

  5. Unhealthy lifestyle, poor mental health, and its correlation among adolescents: a nationwide cross-sectional survey.

    PubMed

    Tanihata, Takeo; Kanda, Hideyuki; Osaki, Yoneatsu; Ohida, Takashi; Minowa, Masumi; Wada, Kiyoshi; Suzuki, Kenji; Hayashi, Kenji

    2015-03-01

    The objective was to study the relationship between mental health and lifestyles of adolescents using samples representative of Japanese adolescents nationwide. The survey was conducted between December 2004 and January 2005 among students enrolled in randomly selected junior and senior high schools. Self-administered questionnaires addressed lifestyles, sleeping habits, and mental health status. Of 103 650 questionnaires collected, 85 158 were analyzed. Population characteristics associated with poor mental health were being female, being a senior high school student, skipping breakfast, not participating in extracurricular activities, not consulting parents about personal matters, parental smoking, students' smoking or alcohol use, poor subjective sleep assessment, and short or long sleeping duration. Smoking and anxiety disorders are associated with an elevation in acculturative stress in adolescents. Prepossessing adolescents are in subclinical depression. Results suggest that lifestyles approaches in preventions that target students can be effective in reaching high-risk populations. © 2012 APJPH.

  6. NASA Nationwide and the Year of the Solar System (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferrari, K.

    2010-12-01

    NASA depends on the efforts of several volunteer networks to help implement its formal and informal education goals, to disseminate its key messages related to space and Earth science missions and to support broad public initiatives such as the upcoming Year of the Solar System (YSS), sponsored by the Planetary Science Education and Public Outreach Forum (SEPOF). These highly leveraged networks include programs such as Solar System Ambassadors, Solar System Educators, Night Sky Network, and NASA Explorer Schools. Founded in June 2008, NASA Nationwide: A Consortium of Formal and Informal Education Networks is a program that brings together these volunteer networks by creating an online community and shared resources which broadens the member networks’ base of support and provides opportunities to coordinate, cooperate, and collaborate with each other. Since its inception, NASA Nationwide has grown to include twelve NASA-funded volunteer networks as members and collaborates with three other NASA networks as affiliates. NASA Nationwide’s support for the Year of the Solar System includes management of several recently completed Solar System Nights kits, which will be made available regionally to collaborative teams of volunteers and affiliates for use in connecting with students in underserved, underrepresented and rural populations. In the latter part of 2010, the program will be further enhanced by the debut of the public NASA Nationwide website to showcase the successful efforts of these volunteers, provide information about member organizations and advertise their upcoming events in support of the Year of the Solar System. Through its broad reach and the dedicated enthusiasm of its members, NASA Nationwide will be an essential factor utilized to help achieve Year of the Solar System goals and ensure the ultimate success of the initiative.

  7. Development of a nationwide network for technology transfer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fong, Louis B. C.; Brockman, Paul R.

    1987-01-01

    The winter and spring of 1987 saw the cooperative nationwide network for technology transfer translated from concept to reality. The most obvious of the network relationships which were developed or which are anticipated are summarized. The objective was to help assure that every U.S. business which has the capacity to exploit, or the need to obtain new technology in any form, has access to the technology it needs or can use.

  8. Blood plasma collected after adrenocorticotropic hormone administration during the preovulatory period in the sow negatively affects in vitro fertilization by disturbing spermatozoa function.

    PubMed

    González, R; Kumaresan, A; Bergqvist, A S; Sjunnesson, Y C B

    2015-04-15

    Successful fertilization is essential for reproduction and might be negatively affected by stressful events, which could alter the environment where fertilization occurs. The aim of the study was to determine whether an altered hormonal profile in blood plasma caused by adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) administration could affect in vitro fertilization in the pig model. In experiment 1, gametes were exposed for 24 hours to plasma from ACTH-treated, non-ACTH-treated sows, or medium with BSA. Fertilization, cleavage, and blastocyst rates were lower in the ACTH group compared with the no ACTH or BSA control groups (P < 0.01). In experiment 2, the exposure of matured oocytes for 1 hour before fertilization to the same treatments did not have an impact on their ability to undergo fertilization or on embryo development. In experiment 3, spermatozoa were incubated for 0, 1, 4, and 24 hours under the same conditions. There was no effect of treatment on sperm viability. The percentage of acrosome-reacted spermatozoa remained higher in the ACTH group compared with the non-ACTH-treated group through the incubation period (P < 0.001). Protein tyrosine phosphorylation (PTP) patterns were also affected by treatment (P < 0.001). The presence of an atypical PTP pattern was higher in the ACTH group at all the analyzed time points compared with the BSA and no ACTH groups (P < 0.001). In conclusion, this altered environment may not affect oocyte competence but might affect the sperm fertilizing ability through alterations in the acrosome reaction and correct sequence of PTP patterns.

  9. Nephrogenic Systemic Fibrosis in Denmark– A Nationwide Investigation

    PubMed Central

    Elmholdt, Tina R.; Olesen, Anne B. B.; Jørgensen, Bettina; Kvist, Stinne; Skov, Lone; Thomsen, Henrik S.; Marckmann, Peter; Pedersen, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Background Nephrogenic systemic fibrosis is a debilitating and painful disorder with an increased stimulation of the connective tissue in the skin and systemic tissues. The disease is associated with exposure to gadolinium-based contrast agent used in magnetic resonance imaging in patients with renal impairment. Methods The prevalence of nephrogenic systemic fibrosis has so far never been determined at a national level. In 2009, Denmark was the first country to design a guideline for the tracing of nephrogenic systemic fibrosis patients. The aim of this paper is to communicate the main findings of this quest. Results The outcome of the nationwide investigation revealed that Denmark had 65 patients with nephrogenic systemic fibrosis and thereby the highest prevalence of nephrogenic systemic fibrosis worldwide with 65 per 5.6 million inhabitants, or 12 per million. Conclusions The nationwide investigation in Denmark revealed the highest prevalence of NSF worldwide. This may be rooted in a high level of awareness of NSF both among doctors, politicians and, not least, the media, combined with the fact that a nationwide NSF investigation was initiated. PMID:24349178

  10. Myocardial infarction in Singapore: a nationwide 10-year study of multiethnic differences in incidence and mortality.

    PubMed

    Tan, A T H; Emmanuel, S C; Tan, B Y; Teo, W S; Chua, T S J; Tan, B H

    2002-07-01

    Cardiovascular diseases have progressively increased in importance as a major contributor of morbidity and mortality in Asia. However, many countries in Asia do not have nationwide systematically-collected and standardised data on myocardial infarction (MI). To accurately document the extent of atherosclerotic coronary heart disease in Singapore, a nationwide myocardial infarct registry was established in the mid-1986. Possible myocardial infarct events were identified through daily national lists of cardiac enzymes, hospital discharge codes, mortuary records and the national death registry. Data obtained from clinical history, cardiac enzymes and 12-lead electrocardiogram Minnesota codes were entered into an algorithm based on the WHO MONICA study. Cases identified as "definite" MI were included in the decade's review for this study. From 1988 to 1997, 13,048 myocardial infarct events were diagnosed with 3367 deaths. There was a 39.1% decline in mortality, with an average decline of 6.5% per year [95% confidence intervals (CI), -3.9% to -9.1%]. However, the decline in incidence was only 20.8% with an average decline of 2.4% per year (95% CI, -6.6% to -1.2%). The highest incidence and mortality rates for both genders were seen in the Indians, followed by the Malays and the Chinese. Over 10 years, from 1988 to 1997, we documented a significant fall in mortality from MI in Singapore. There was a smaller decline in the incidence of infarction. Singapore implemented a National Healthy Lifestyle Programme in 1992 as a 10-year effort. The disparity in the incidence and mortality may suggest that a more dramatic and immediate impact has taken place in mortality through therapeutic programmes; primary preventive programmes would be more difficult to evaluate and have a more gradual impact. Only with continual accurate data collection through the whole country, over a much longer period, can the relative value of preventive and therapeutic programmes in coronary heart

  11. Impaired fasting glucose prevalence in two nationwide cohorts of obese children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Hagman, E; Reinehr, T; Kowalski, J; Ekbom, A; Marcus, C; Holl, R W

    2014-01-01

    Impaired fasting glucose (IFG), a pre-stage to type 2 diabetes in adults, is also present in obese children. A large variation of the occurrence has been recorded, but the true prevalence is unknown due to lack of larger representative cohort studies. This study was implemented to investigate the prevalence of IFG in two nationwide cohorts of obese children and to find factors that affect the risk of IFG. A cross-sectional study based on data collected from two nationwide registers of obese children in Germany and Sweden, respectively. Subjects included were 2-18 years old. 32,907 subjects with fasting glucose were eligible in Germany and 2726 in Sweden. Two cutoff limits for IFG were used: 5.6-6.9 mmol l(-1) according to the American Diabetes Association (ADA) and 6.1-6.9 mmol l(-1)according to the World Health Organization (WHO). Variables collected were gender, age and degree of obesity. Logistic regression was used to calculate odds ratios. The total prevalence of IFG among obese children in the German cohort according to the ADA was 5.7% and according to the WHO it was 1.1%. In Sweden, the corresponding prevalence was 17.1% and 3.9%, respectively. IFG risk was correlated with increasing age, male sex and degree of obesity. IFG is highly prevalent among obese children. Age and degree of obesity are positively correlated with the risk of having IFG. There are large regional differences. After adjustments, obese children in Sweden, due to unknown reasons, have a 3.4- to 3.7-fold higher risk of having IFG than obese children in Germany.

  12. Impact of surgeon volume on incidence of neck hematoma after thyroid and parathyroid surgery: ten years' analysis of nationwide in-patient sample database.

    PubMed

    Dehal, Ahmed; Abbas, Ali; Al-Tememi, Mohammed; Hussain, Farabi; Johna, Samir

    2014-10-01

    The study's objective is to examine the impact of surgeon experience on the incidence and the severity of neck hematoma after thyroid and parathyroid surgery using a nationwide database. The Nationwide In-patient Sample is a nationwide clinical and administrative database. We used the International Classification of Diseases, 9th Revision diagnosis and procedures codes to identify adult patients who underwent thyroid and parathyroid surgery and subsequently developed neck hematoma. Patient and hospital characteristics were collected along with surgeon volume to predict patient outcomes. Surgical procedures were stratified into three groups according to surgeon volume: low (less than 10 operations), intermediate (10 to 99), and high (100 or more). We identified 147,344 thyroid and parathyroid surgery performed between 2000 and 2009 nationwide. Overall incidence of postoperative neck hematoma was 1.5 per cent (n = 2210). This was 2.1, 1.4, and 0.9 per cent among procedures performed by low-volume, intermediate-volume, and high-volume surgeons, respectively. After adjusting for other confounders, compared with procedures performed by low-volume surgeons, those performed by intermediate- (odds ratio [OR], 0.7; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.6 to 0.8; P < 0.01) and high-volume surgeons (OR, 0.5; 95% CI, 0.4 to 0.6; P < 0.01) were less to likely to develop neck hematoma. Surgeon experience is significantly associated with the development of neck hematoma after thyroid and parathyroid surgery.

  13. Evaluating a Nationwide Recreational Football Intervention: Recruitment, Attendance, Adherence, Exercise Intensity, and Health Effects

    PubMed Central

    Fløtum, Liljan av; Ottesen, Laila S.; Krustrup, Peter

    2016-01-01

    The present study evaluated a nationwide exercise intervention with Football Fitness in a small-scale society. In all, 741 adult participants (20–72 yrs) were successfully recruited for Football Fitness training in local football clubs, corresponding to 2.1% of the adult population. A preintervention test battery including resting heart rate (RHR), blood pressure, and body mass measurements along with performance tests (Yo-Yo Intermittent Endurance level 1 (Yo-Yo IE1), the Arrowhead Agility Test, and the Flamingo Balance Test) were performed (n = 502). Training attendance (n = 310) was 1.6 ± 0.2 sessions per week (range: 0.6–2.9), corresponding to 28.8 ± 1.0 sessions during the 18 wk intervention period. After 18 wks mean arterial pressure (MAP) was −2.7 ± 0.7 mmHg lower (P < 0.05; n = 151) with even greater (P < 0.05) reductions for those with baseline MAP values >99 mmHg (−5.6 ± 1.5 mmHg; n = 50). RHR was lowered (P < 0.05) by 6 bpm after intervention (77 ± 1 to 71 ± 1 bpm). Yo-Yo IE1 performance increased by 41% (540 ± 27 to 752 ± 45 m), while agility and postural balance were improved (P < 0.05) by ~6 and ~45%, respectively. In conclusion, Football Fitness was shown to be a successful health-promoting nationwide training intervention for adult participants with an extraordinary recruitment, a high attendance rate, moderate adherence, high exercise intensity, and marked benefits in cardiovascular health profile and fitness. PMID:27437401

  14. Multifaceted support to improve preventive cardiovascular care: a nationwide, controlled trial in general practice.

    PubMed Central

    Frijling, Bernardd; Hulscher, Marlies E J L; van Leest, Lilian A T M; Braspenning, Jozé C C; van den Hoogen, Henk; Drenthen, Antonius J M; Grol, Richard P T M

    2003-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Multifaceted interventions improve the quality of preventive cardiovascular care in general practice when applied in small-scale research trials. AIM: To test the transferability of observations from research trials on preventive cardiovascular care to a real-world situation and, therefore, evaluate the effectiveness of a nationwide project with a large number of practices. The intervention comprised a combination of conferences, dissemination of manuals, and support from trained non-physicians during outreach visits. DESIGN OF STUDY: A controlled before-and-after trial with two arms: multifaceted support versus no special attention. Analysis after 2 years. SETTING: 617 general practices in The Netherlands. METHOD: Outcomes measures were the compliance rates for 15 indicators. Structure-of-care indicators included the use of reminders, specific computer files, written protocols, and special clinics. Process-of-care indicators included the assessment of modifiable risk factors and use of a minimal contact intervention (MCI) for smoking cessation. Compliance of general practitioners (GPs) was assessed using self-administered questionnaires. RESULTS: The intervention group improved on all eight of the structure-of-care indicators when compared to the control group. A positive effect was also found on the extent to which the GPs measured blood pressure in 60-year-old patients and on the use of an MCI for smoking cessation. No effect was found on the completeness of the risk-factor profiles that the GPs assessed in specific groups of high-risk patients. CONCLUSION: The nationwide intervention appeared to improve certain aspects of preventive cardiovascular care. Nevertheless, the National Association of GPs decided to stop the project. This decision was made within the context of discussions about the heavy workloads and insufficient incomes being experienced by GPs. PMID:14960217

  15. Results of a nationwide screening for Anderson-Fabry disease among dialysis patients.

    PubMed

    Kotanko, Peter; Kramar, Reinhard; Devrnja, Danijela; Paschke, Eduard; Voigtländer, Till; Auinger, Martin; Pagliardini, Severo; Spada, Marco; Demmelbauer, Klaus; Lorenz, Matthias; Hauser, Anna-Christine; Kofler, Hans-Jörg; Lhotta, Karl; Neyer, Ulrich; Pronai, Wolfgang; Wallner, Manfred; Wieser, Clemens; Wiesholzer, Martin; Zodl, Herbert; Födinger, Manuela; Sunder-Plassmann, Gere

    2004-05-01

    Anderson-Fabry disease is possibly underdiagnosed in patients with end-stage renal disease. Nationwide screening was therefore undertaken for Anderson-Fabry disease among dialysis patients in Austria. Screening for alpha-galactosidase A (AGAL) deficiency was performed by a blood spot test. In patients with a positive screening test, AGAL activity in leukocytes was determined. Individuals with decreased leukocyte AGAL activity were subjected to mutation testing in the GLA gene. Fifty (90.9%) of 55 Austrian hemodialysis centers participated in this study; 2480 dialysis patients (80.1% of the Austrian dialysis population) were screened. In 85 patients, the screening test was positive (85 of 2480, 3.42%; women, 3.32%; men, 3.50%). Among these 85 patients, 4 men (in 3 of whom Anderson-Fabry disease was already known before screening) had a severely decreased and 11 subjects had a borderline low AGAL activity. Genetic testing revealed mutations associated with Fabry disease in all four men with severely decreased AGAL activity resulting in a prevalence of 0.161% for the entire study population. A nationwide screening of dialysis patients permitted detection of a hitherto unknown man with Anderson-Fabry disease. The overall prevalence among dialysis patients was at least ten times higher as compared with recent registry data. Screening programs among patients with end-stage renal disease, especially men, should be put in place to identify families with Anderson-Fabry disease who probably may benefit from specific clinical care, and perhaps from enzyme replacement therapy. In dialysis patients, however, there is no evidence to support enzyme replacement therapy at present.

  16. Evaluating a Nationwide Recreational Football Intervention: Recruitment, Attendance, Adherence, Exercise Intensity, and Health Effects.

    PubMed

    Fløtum, Liljan Av; Ottesen, Laila S; Krustrup, Peter; Mohr, Magni

    2016-01-01

    The present study evaluated a nationwide exercise intervention with Football Fitness in a small-scale society. In all, 741 adult participants (20-72 yrs) were successfully recruited for Football Fitness training in local football clubs, corresponding to 2.1% of the adult population. A preintervention test battery including resting heart rate (RHR), blood pressure, and body mass measurements along with performance tests (Yo-Yo Intermittent Endurance level 1 (Yo-Yo IE1), the Arrowhead Agility Test, and the Flamingo Balance Test) were performed (n = 502). Training attendance (n = 310) was 1.6 ± 0.2 sessions per week (range: 0.6-2.9), corresponding to 28.8 ± 1.0 sessions during the 18 wk intervention period. After 18 wks mean arterial pressure (MAP) was -2.7 ± 0.7 mmHg lower (P < 0.05; n = 151) with even greater (P < 0.05) reductions for those with baseline MAP values >99 mmHg (-5.6 ± 1.5 mmHg; n = 50). RHR was lowered (P < 0.05) by 6 bpm after intervention (77 ± 1 to 71 ± 1 bpm). Yo-Yo IE1 performance increased by 41% (540 ± 27 to 752 ± 45 m), while agility and postural balance were improved (P < 0.05) by ~6 and ~45%, respectively. In conclusion, Football Fitness was shown to be a successful health-promoting nationwide training intervention for adult participants with an extraordinary recruitment, a high attendance rate, moderate adherence, high exercise intensity, and marked benefits in cardiovascular health profile and fitness.

  17. Blood clotting

    MedlinePlus Videos and Cool Tools

    ... the external bleeding stops. Clotting factors in the blood cause strands of blood-borne material, called fibrin, to stick together and ... the inside of the wound. Eventually, the cut blood vessel heals, and the blood clot dissolves after ...

  18. Blood typing

    MedlinePlus

    A blood sample is needed. The test to determine your blood group is called ABO typing. Your blood sample is mixed with antibodies against type A and B blood. Then, the sample is checked to see whether ...

  19. Blood culture

    MedlinePlus

    Culture - blood ... A blood sample is needed . The site where blood will be drawn is first cleaned with an antiseptic such ... organism from the skin getting into (contaminating) the blood sample and causing a false-positive result (see ...

  20. Blood transfusions

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000431.htm Blood transfusions To use the sharing features on this ... several sources of blood which are described below. Blood From the Public (Volunteer Blood Donation) The most ...