Science.gov

Sample records for natural calcium fluoride

  1. Calcium fluoride window mounting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berger, D. Douglas

    1982-10-01

    A technique has been developed for joining a large calcium fluoride crystal to a stainless-steel flange by means of a silver transition ring. The process involves both vacuum brazing using a copper-silver alloy and air brazing using silver chloride. This paper describes the procedure used in fabricating a high-vacuum leak-tight calcium fluoride window assembly.

  2. Process for converting magnesium fluoride to calcium fluoride

    DOEpatents

    Kreuzmann, A.B.; Palmer, D.A.

    1984-12-21

    This invention is a process for the conversion of magnesium fluoride to calcium fluoride whereby magnesium fluoride is decomposed by heating in the presence of calcium carbonate, calcium oxide or calcium hydroxide. Magnesium fluoride is a by-product of the reduction of uranium tetrafluoride to form uranium metal and has no known commercial use, thus its production creates a significant storage problem. The advantage of this invention is that the quality of calcium fluoride produced is sufficient to be used in the industrial manufacture of anhydrous hydrogen fluoride, steel mill flux or ceramic applications.

  3. Component resolved bleaching study in natural calcium fluoride using CW-OSL, LM-OSL and residual TL glow curves after bleaching.

    PubMed

    Angeli, Vasiliki; Polymeris, George S; Sfampa, Ioanna K; Tsirliganis, Nestor C; Kitis, George

    2017-04-01

    Natural calcium fluoride has been commonly used as thermoluminescence (TL) dosimeter due to its high luminescence intensity. The aim of this work includes attempting a correlation between specific TL glow curves after bleaching and components of linearly modulated optically stimulated luminescence (LM-OSL) as well as continuous wave OSL (CW-OSL). A component resolved analysis was applied to both integrated intensity of the RTL glow curves and all OSL decay curves, by using a Computerized Glow-Curve De-convolution (CGCD) procedure. All CW-OSL and LM-OSL components are correlated to the decay components of the integrated RTL signal, apart from two RTL components which cannot be directly correlated with either LM-OSL or CW-OSL component. The unique, stringent criterion for this correlation deals with the value of the decay constant λ of each bleaching component. There is only one, unique bleaching component present in all three luminescence entities which were the subject of the present study, indicating that each TL trap yields at least three different bleaching components; different TL traps can indicate bleaching components with similar values. According to the data of the present work each RTL bleaching component receives electrons from at least two peaks. The results of the present study strongly suggest that the traps that contribute to TL and OSL are the same.

  4. Ion release from calcium and fluoride containing dental varnishes.

    PubMed

    Cochrane, N J; Shen, P; Yuan, Y; Reynolds, E C

    2014-03-01

    A range of dental varnishes have been commercialized recently that contain calcium and inorganic phosphate in addition to fluoride. The aim of this study was to analyse the fluoride, calcium and inorganic phosphate ion release from: (1) MI Varnish containing casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate (CPP-ACP); (2) Clinpro White containing functionalized tricalcium phosphate (fTCP); (3) Enamel Pro containing amorphous calcium phosphate; (4) Bifluorid 5 containing calcium fluoride; and (5) Duraphat (no added calcium control). The varnishes were applied to a standardized surface area of polyvinyl chloride (n = 7 per group) and immersed in 25 g of distilled deionized water which was changed at 1, 4, 24, 72 and 168 hours. The ion release was determined by ion chromatography and expressed as μmol (cumulative) per gram of varnish. All varnishes released measurable fluoride and calcium, however only MI Varnish and Enamel Pro released significant levels of inorganic phosphate. At 24 hours the order of cumulative fluoride release was: 1>3>4>2=5 with 1 significantly higher (p < 0.05) than the rest. At 72 and 168 hours, the cumulative calcium release was: 1>4>3>2=5 with 1 significantly higher (p < 0.05) than the rest. MI Varnish containing CPP-ACP had the highest release of calcium and fluoride ions. © 2014 Australian Dental Association.

  5. Review on fluoride, with special emphasis on calcium fluoride mechanisms in caries prevention.

    PubMed

    ten Cate, J M

    1997-10-01

    Low concentrations of fluoride have a beneficial effect on enamel and dentin de- and remineralization. After fluoride treatments, such as topical applications, rinses or dentifrices, salivary fluoride concentrations decrease exponentially in a biphasic manner to very low concentrations within a few hours. For treatments to be effective over periods longer than the brushing and the following salivary clearance, fluoride needs to be deposited and slowly released. Calcium fluoride (or like) deposits act in such a way, owing to a surface covering of phosphate and/or proteins, which makes the CaF2 less soluble under in vivo conditions than in a pure form in inorganic solutions. Moreover, due to the phosphate groups on the surface of the calcium fluoride globules, fluoride is assumed to be released with decreasing pH when the phosphate groups are protonated in the dental plaque.

  6. Characterization of nanoscopic calcium fluoride films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rehmer, A.; Kemnitz, E.

    2016-09-01

    Nano metal fluorides are appropriate materials for different applications e.g. heterogeneous catalysis, ceramic materials for laser applications and antireflective layers on glass, respectively. An easy way to synthesize such nano metal fluorides is the fluorolytic sol-gel synthesis which was developed some few years ago for HS-AlF3 [1] and MgF2.[2] CaF2 exhibits similar optical properties as MgF2, and thus, is a promising candidate for antireflective (AR) coatings. That means, CaF2 exhibits a lower refractive index (n500 = 1.44) as compared to common soda lime glass (n500 = 1.53). Hence, we present an easy synthesis approach toward nanoscaled CaF2 sols to fabricate finally AR-CaF2 films by dip coating. Irrespective of the choice of the calcium precursor, the CaF2 films are porous in comparison to thin dense CaF2 films which are generated by physical vapor deposition. The characterization of CaF2 films was performed by different analytical methods like HR-SEM, XPS, EDX, EP (ellipsometric porosimetry), DLS (dynamic light scattering) and CA (contact angle measurement). Beside the good optical and mechanical properties, we have investigated the surface properties of CaF2 films on glass and silicon wafer e.g. surface morphology with elemental composition, open porosity, zeta potentials at the surfaces as well as the free energy of interaction between water and the CaF2 film.

  7. A calcium prerinse required to form calcium fluoride in plaque from a sodium fluoride rinse.

    PubMed

    Vogel, G L; Tenuta, L M A; Schumacher, G E; Chow, L C

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine whether a calcium (Ca) prerinse used before a 228 µg/g (ppm) fluoride (F) rinse would induce the formation of 'calcium fluoride-like' (CaF2-like) deposits in human dental plaque. Sixty minutes after the use of the Ca prerinse/F rinse, plaque samples were collected from 10 volunteers, homogenized, and split into 2 aliquots. The plaque mass from one aliquot was then extracted with a 'plaque-like' solution that extracted all the CaF2-like deposits. The total F in both aliquots was then determined and compared. The results demonstrated that, as in previous studies, the Ca prerinse induced large increases in plaque fluid and total plaque F. However, unlike previous results without the Ca prerinse, 30% of the plaque F deposits were CaF2 or CaF2-like. Given that maintaining an elevated F concentration in the vicinity of a developing lesion may play an important role in the cariostatic effect of this ion, and the potential advantages of CaF2-like deposits as an F source, these results suggest that a Ca prerinse may increase the cariostatic effect of topical agents.

  8. Electrical Relaxation in Calcium Fluoride Doped with Thorium and Zirconium.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-09-01

    9, 1055 (1976). 4. M. Ouwerkerk , F. F. Veldkamp, N. H. Andersen, and J . Schoonman, Solid State Ionics, 16, 125 (1985). 5. S. F. Matar, J . M. Reau, P...AD-Al?2 366 ELECTRICAL RELAXATION IN CALCIUM FLUORIDE DOPED WITH L1/ THORIUM AND ZIRCONIUM(U) NAYRL ACADEMY ANNAPOLIS MD DEPT OF PHYSICS J J ...Fluoride Doped with Thorium and Zirconium by John J . Fontanella & Mary C. Wintersgill Prepared for Publication in Crystal Lattice Defects and Amorphous

  9. Fluoride induced endoplasmic reticulum stress and calcium overload in ameloblasts.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ying; Zhang, KaiQiang; Ma, Lin; Gu, HeFeng; Li, Jian; Lei, Shuang

    2016-09-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the involvement of endoplasmic reticulum stress and intracellular calcium overload on the development of dental fluorosis. We cultured and exposed rat ameloblast HAT-7 cells to various concentrations of fluoride and measured apoptosis with flow cytometry and intracellular Ca2+ changes using confocal microscopy, investigated the protein levels of GRP78, calreticulin, XBP1 and CHOP by western blotting, and their transcriptional levels with RT-PCR. We also created an in vivo model of dental fluorosis by exposing animals to various concentrations of fluoride. Subsequently, thin dental tissue slices were analyzed with H&E staining, immunohistochemical staining, and transmission electron microscopy, TUNEL assay was also performed on dental tissue slices for assessment of apoptosis. High fluoride concentration was associated with decreased ameloblast proliferation, elevated ameloblast apoptosis, and increased intracellular Ca2+ in vitro. The translation and transcription of the proteins associated with endoplasmic reticulum stress were significantly elevated with high concentrations of fluoride. Based on immunohistochemical staining, these proteins were also highly expressed in animals exposed to high fluoride concentrations. Histologically, we found significant fluorosis-like changes in tissues from animals exposed to high fluoride concentrations. Transmission electron microscopy cytology indicated significant apoptotic changes in tissues exposed to high concentrations of fluoride. These results indicate that exposure to high levels of fluoride led to endoplasmic reticulum stress which induced apoptosis in cultured ameloblasts and in vivo rat model, suggesting an important role of calcium overload and endoplasmic reticulum stress triggered by high concentrations of fluoride in the development of dental fluorosis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. The influence of saliva on the dissolution of calcium fluoride after application of different fluoride gels in vitro.

    PubMed

    Hellwig, Elmar; Polydorou, Olga; Lussi, Adrian; Kielbassa, Andrej M; Altenburger, Markus J

    2010-10-01

    To determine the formation and dissolution of calcium fluoride on the enamel surface after application of two fluoride gel-saliva mixtures. From each of 80 bovine incisors, two enamel specimens were prepared and subjected to two different treatment procedures. In group 1, 80 specimens were treated with a mixture of an amine fluoride gel (1.25% F-; pH 5.2; 5 minutes) and human saliva. In group 2, 80 enamel blocks were subjected to a mixture of sodium fluoride gel (1.25% F; pH 5.5; 5 minutes) and human saliva. Subsequent to fluoride treatment, 40 specimens from each group were stored in human saliva and sterile water, respectively. Ten specimens were removed after each of 1 hour, 24 hours, 2 days, and 5 days and analyzed according to potassium hydroxide-soluble fluoride. Application of amine fluoride gel resulted in a higher amount of potassium hydroxide-soluble fluoride than did sodium fluoride gel 1 hour after application. Saliva exerted an inhibitory effect according to the dissolution rate of calcium fluoride. However, after 5 days, more than 90% of the precipitated calcium fluoride was dissolved in the amine fluoride group, and almost all potassium hydroxide-soluble fluoride was lost in the sodium fluoride group. Calcium fluoride apparently dissolves rapidly, even at almost neutral pH. Considering the limitations of an in vitro study, it is concluded that highly concentrated fluoride gels should be applied at an adequate frequency to reestablish a calcium fluoride-like layer.

  11. Tamarind (Tamarindus indica) fruit shell carbon: A calcium-rich promising adsorbent for fluoride removal from groundwater.

    PubMed

    Sivasankar, V; Rajkumar, S; Murugesh, S; Darchen, A

    2012-07-30

    Tamarindus indica fruit shells (TIFSs) are naturally calcium rich compounds. They were impregnated with ammonium carbonate and then carbonized, leading to ammonium carbonate activated ACA-TIFS carbon. The resulting materials and carbon arising from virgin fruit shells V-TIFS were characterized and assayed as adsorbent for the removal of fluoride anions from groundwater. The fluoride scavenging ability of TIFS carbons was due to naturally dispersed calcium compounds. X-ray diffraction (XRD) showed that TIFS carbon contained a mixture of calcium oxalate and calcium carbonate. Batch studies on the fluoride removal efficiency of TIFS carbons with respect to contact time, pH, initial fluoride concentration, and co-ion interference were conducted. Applicability of various kinetic models (viz., pseudo-first-order, pseudo-second-order, intra-particle diffusion and Elovich) and sorption isotherms were tested for batch techniques. The fluoride removal capacity of TIFS carbons was found to be 91% and 83% at a pH of 7.05 for V-TIFS and ACA-TIFS carbons, respectively. The practical applicability of TIFS carbons using groundwater samples was approved. The fluoride removal was greater in groundwater without hydrogen carbonate ions than those containing these ions. The characterizations of fluoride unloaded and loaded TIFS carbons were done by SEM and XRD studies.

  12. Pyrochemical recovery of plutonium from calcium fluoride reduction slag

    DOEpatents

    Christensen, D.C.

    A pyrochemical method of recovering finely dispersed plutonium metal from calcium fluoride reduction slag is claimed. The plutonium-bearing slag is crushed and melted in the presence of at least an equimolar amount of calcium chloride and a few percent metallic calcium. The calcium chloride reduces the melting point and thereby decreases the viscosity of the molten mixture. The calcium reduces any oxidized plutonium in the mixture and also causes the dispersed plutonium metal to coalesce and settle out as a separate metallic phase at the bottom of the reaction vessel. Upon cooling the mixture to room temperature, the solid plutonium can be cleanly separated from the overlying solid slag, with an average recovery yield on the order of 96 percent.

  13. Distribution of fluoride and calcium in plaque biofilms after the use of conventional and low-fluoride dentifrices.

    PubMed

    Pessan, Juliano Pelim; Pinto Alves, Karina Mirela Ribeiro; Italiani, Flávia de Moraes; Ramires, Irene; Lauris, José Roberto Pereira; Whitford, Gary Milton; Toumba, Kyriacos Jack; Robinson, Colin; Buzalaf, Marilia Afonso Rabelo

    2014-07-01

    The distribution of fluoride and calcium in plaque after the use of fluoride dentifrices has not yet been determined. To evaluate fluoride and calcium distribution in sections of biofilms generated in situ after the use of conventional and low-fluoride dentifrices. Children (n = 11, 8–10 years old) brushed with placebo (fluoride-free), low-fluoride (513 mgF/kg), and conventional (1072 mgF/kg) dentifrices twice daily for 1 week, following a double-blind, cross-over protocol. Biofilms were generated using Leeds in situ devices, which were collected 1 and 12 h after brushing, and sectioned through their depth. Sections were grouped (10 x 5 μm) for fluoride and calcium analysis. Sections 4 lm thick were used for image analysis and determination of biomass fraction. Results were analysed by ANOVA, Tukey’s test, and linear regression analysis (P < 0.05). Fluoride and calcium were mostly located at the outer sections of biofilms for all dentifrices tested, and these ions were directly correlated throughout most of biofilm’s sections. Results for conventional dentifrice were significantly higher than for the placebo, but did not differ from those for the low-fluoride dentifrice. The use of a low-fluoride dentifrice did not promote a higher fluoride uptake in inner biofilms’ sections, as hypothesized. As plaque fluoride was significantly elevated only after the use of the conventional dentifrice, the recommendation of low-fluoride formulations should be done with caution, considering both risks and benefits.

  14. Effect of oral calcium and calcium + fluoride treatments on mouse bone properties during suspension

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simske, S. J.; Luttges, M. W.; Allen, K. A.; Spooner, B. S. (Principal Investigator)

    1992-01-01

    The bone effects of oral dosages of calcium chloride with or without supplementary sodium fluoride were assessed in antiorthostatically suspended mice. Two calcium dosages were used to replace half (3.1 mM) or all(6.3 mM) of the dietary calcium lost due to reduced food intake by the suspended mice. Two groups of 6.3 mM CaCl2-treated mice were additionally treated with 0.25 or 2.5 mM NaF. The results indicate that supplementation of the mouse drinking water with calcium salts prevents bone changes induced by short-term suspension, while calcium salts in combination with fluoride are less effective as fluoride dosage increases. However, the calcium supplements change the relationship between the femur mechanical properties and the mineral composition of the bone. Because of this, it appears that oral calcium supplements are effective through a mechanism other than simple dietary supplementation and may indicate a dependence of bone consistency on systemic and local fluid conditions.

  15. Effect of oral calcium and calcium + fluoride treatments on mouse bone properties during suspension

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simske, S. J.; Luttges, M. W.; Allen, K. A.; Spooner, B. S. (Principal Investigator)

    1992-01-01

    The bone effects of oral dosages of calcium chloride with or without supplementary sodium fluoride were assessed in antiorthostatically suspended mice. Two calcium dosages were used to replace half (3.1 mM) or all(6.3 mM) of the dietary calcium lost due to reduced food intake by the suspended mice. Two groups of 6.3 mM CaCl2-treated mice were additionally treated with 0.25 or 2.5 mM NaF. The results indicate that supplementation of the mouse drinking water with calcium salts prevents bone changes induced by short-term suspension, while calcium salts in combination with fluoride are less effective as fluoride dosage increases. However, the calcium supplements change the relationship between the femur mechanical properties and the mineral composition of the bone. Because of this, it appears that oral calcium supplements are effective through a mechanism other than simple dietary supplementation and may indicate a dependence of bone consistency on systemic and local fluid conditions.

  16. Gum containing calcium fluoride reinforces enamel subsurface lesions in situ.

    PubMed

    Kitasako, Y; Sadr, A; Hamba, H; Ikeda, M; Tagami, J

    2012-04-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the effect of chewing gum containing phosphoryl oligosaccharides of calcium (POs-Ca) and a low concentration of fluoride (F) on the hardness of enamel subsurface lesions, utilizing a double-blind, randomized, and controlled in situ model. Fifteen individuals wore removable lingual appliances with 3 bovine-enamel insets containing subsurface demineralized lesions. Three times a day for 14 days, they chewed one of the 3 chewing gums (placebo, POs-Ca, POs-Ca+F). After the treatment period, cross-sectional mineral content, nanoindentation hardness, and fluoride ion mapping by time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (TOF-SIMS) were evaluated. Although there were no statistical differences in overall mineral content and hardness recovery rates between POs-Ca and POs-Ca+F subsurface lesions (p > 0.05), nanoindentation at 1-μm distance increments from the surface showed statistical differences in hardness recovery rate between POs-Ca and POs-Ca+F in the superficial 20-μm region (p < 0.05). Fluoride mapping revealed distribution of the ion up to 20 μm from the surface in the POs-Ca+F group. Nanoindentation and TOF-SIMS results highlighted the benefits of bioavailability of fluoride ion on reinforcement of the superficial zone of subsurface lesions in situ (NCT01377493).

  17. Mechanical Properties of Calcium Fluoride-Based Composite Materials

    PubMed Central

    Kleczewska, Joanna; Pryliński, Mariusz; Podlewska, Magdalena; Sokołowski, Jerzy; Łapińska, Barbara

    2016-01-01

    Aim of the study was to evaluate mechanical properties of light-curing composite materials modified with the addition of calcium fluoride. The study used one experimental light-curing composite material (ECM) and one commercially available flowable light-curing composite material (FA) that were modified with 0.5–5.0 wt% anhydrous calcium fluoride. Morphology of the samples and uniformity of CaF2 distribution were analyzed using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (EDS). Mechanical properties were tested after 24-hour storage of specimens in dry or wet conditions. Stored dry ECM enriched with 0.5–1.0 wt% CaF2 showed higher tensile strength values, while water storage of all modified ECM specimens decreased their tensile strength. The highest Vickers hardness tested after dry storage was observed for 2.5 wt% CaF2 content in ECM. The addition of 2.0–5.0 wt% CaF2 to FA caused significant decrease in tensile strength after dry storage and overall tensile strength decrease of modified FA specimens after water storage. The content of 2.0 wt% CaF2 in FA resulted in the highest Vickers hardness tested after wet storage. Commercially available composite material (FA), unmodified with fluoride addition, demonstrated overall significantly higher mechanical properties. PMID:28004001

  18. The Role of Calcium in Ameliorating the Oxidative Stress of Fluoride in Rats.

    PubMed

    Mohamed, N E

    2016-03-01

    The present study was carried out to investigate the effects of fluoride toxicity on some biochemical, hormonal, and histological parameters of female rats and the protective role of calcium against such effects. Adult female albino rats were divided into five groups; control group received distilled water for 60 days, calcium group received calcium carbonate with dose of 50 mg/kg three times per week for 60 days, fluoride group received sodium fluoride with dose of 20 mg/kg three times per week for 60 days, calcium + fluoride group received calcium carbonate (50 mg/kg) then after 2 h received sodium fluoride (20 mg/kg) three times per week for 60 days, and fluoride + calcium group received sodium fluoride (20 mg/kg) three times per week for 30 days then received calcium carbonate (50 mg/kg) three times per week for another 30 days. The results showed that the levels of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, urea, creatinine, alkaline phosphatase, triiodothyronine, thyroxine, parathormone, phosphorous, magnesium, alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, and gamma glutamyl transferase were significantly increased in rats treated with fluoride while serum estradiol, calcium, and organ glutathione were significantly decreased. The histological examination of the femur bone revealed that fluoride treatment induced thinning of bone trabeculae with wilding of marrow space, demineralization, and loss of trabeculae interconnections. Also, the histological examination of hepatic and renal tissues of fluoride-treated rats showed some damages in these tissues while administration of calcium carbonate for 30 or 60 days during fluoride treatment minimized such damages. It could be concluded that administration of calcium to female rats can ameliorate the hazardous effects of fluoride observed in the biochemical, hormonal, and histological parameters.

  19. Antibacterial and physical properties of calcium-phosphate and calcium-fluoride nanocomposites with chlorhexidine

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Lei; Weir, Michael D.; Xu, Hockin H. K.; Kraigsley, Alison M.; Lin, Nancy J.; Lin-Gibson, Sheng; Zhou, Xuedong

    2012-01-01

    Objectives Previous studies have developed calcium phosphate and fluoride releasing composites. Other studies have incorporated chlorhexidine (CHX) particles into dental composites. However, CHX has not been incorporated in calcium phosphate and fluoride composites. The objectives of this study were to develop nanocomposites containing amorphous calcium phosphate (ACP) or calcium fluoride (CaF2) nanoparticles and CHX particles, and investigate S. mutans biofilm formation and lactic acid production for the first time. Methods Chlorhexidine was frozen via liquid nitrogen and ground to obtain a particle size of 0.62 µm. Four nanocomposites were fabricated with fillers of: Nano ACP; nano ACP+10% CHX; nano CaF2; nano CaF2+10% CHX. Three commercial materials were tested as controls: A resin-modified glass ionomer, and two composites. S. mutans live/dead assay, colony-forming unit (CFU) counts, biofilm metabolic activity, and lactic acid were measured. Results Adding CHX fillers to ACP and CaF2 nanocomposites greatly increased their antimicrobial capability. ACP and CaF2 nanocomposites with CHX that were inoculated with S. mutans had a growth medium pH > 6.5 after 3 d, while the control commercial composites had a cariogenic pH of 4.2. Nanocomposites with CHX reduced the biofilm metabolic activity by 10–20 folds and reduced the acid production, compared to the controls. CFU on nanocomposites with CHX were three orders of magnitude less than that on commercial composite. Mechanical properties of nanocomposites with CHX matched a commercial composite without fluoride. Significance The novel calcium phosphate and fluoride nanocomposites could be rendered antibacterial with CHX to greatly reduce biofilm formation, acid production, CFU and metabolic activity. The antimicrobial and remineralizing nanocomposites with good mechanical properties may be promising for a wide range of tooth restorations with anti-caries capabilities. PMID:22317794

  20. PHz current switching in calcium fluoride single crystal

    SciTech Connect

    Kwon, Ojoon; Kim, D.

    2016-05-09

    We demonstrate that a current can be induced and switched in a sub-femtosecond time-scale in an insulating calcium fluoride single crystal by an intense optical field. This measurement indicates that a sizable current can be generated and also controlled by an optical field in a dielectric medium, implying the capability of rapid current switching at a rate of optical frequency, PHz (10{sup 15} Hz), which is a couple of orders of magnitude higher than that of contemporary electronic signal processing. This demonstration may serve to facilitate the development of ultrafast devices in PHz frequency.

  1. The anti-caries efficacy of calcium carbonate-based fluoride toothpastes.

    PubMed

    Lynch, R J M; ten Cate, J M

    2005-01-01

    To summarise clinical support for the anti-caries efficacy of fluoride toothpastes containing sodium monofluorophosphate (SMFP) and to discuss the possible means by which the abrasive particles in calcium carbonate-based SMFP toothpastes might complement and/or enhance fluoride efficacy. The anti-caries efficacy of fluoride has been proven beyond any reasonable doubt, and the efficacy of SMFP, when incorporated into a variety of compatible toothpaste formulations, has been established in numerous clinical trials. Calcium carbonate-based toothpastes may also influence caries by effecting an increase in plaque calcium levels; an inverse relationship between plaque calcium and caries is well-established. It has also been reported that plaque fluoride levels are dependent on plaque calcium levels. Hence elevated plaque calcium resulting from the use of calcium carbonate-based toothpastes has the potential to elevate plaque fluoride, itself linked to reduced caries experience. It has been shown that calcium carbonate particles are retained by plaque and this may also influence caries by neutralising harmful plaque acids and concurrently liberating calcium. Fluoride delivered from calcium carbonate-based SMFP toothpastes is an effective means of reducing caries. Further, calcium carbonate may confer additional benefits through elevation of oral calcium levels and neutralisation of plaque-acids.

  2. Fluoride varnishes with calcium glycerophosphate: fluoride release and effect on in vitro enamel demineralization.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, Thiago Saads; Peters, Bianca Glerean; Rios, Daniela; Magalhães, Ana Carolina; Sampaio, Fabio Correia; Buzalaf, Marília Afonso Rabelo; Bönecker, Marcelo José Strazzeri

    2015-01-01

    The aims of this study were (1) to assess the amount of fluoride (F) released from varnishes containing calcium glycerophosphate (CaGP) and (2) to assess the effect of the experimental varnishes on in vitro demineralization. Six test groups using 5 varnishes: base varnish (no active ingredients); Duraphat® (2.26% NaF); Duofluorid® (5.63% NaF/CaF2); experimental varnish 1 (1% CaGP/5.63% NaF/CaF2); experimental varnish 2 (5% CaGP/5.63% NaF/CaF2); and no varnish were set up. In stage 1, 60 acrylic blocks were randomly distributed into 6 groups (n = 10). Then 300 µg of each varnish was applied to each block. The blocks were immersed in deionized water, which was changed after 1, 8, 12, 24, 48 and 72 hours. Fluoride concentration in the water was analyzed using a fluoride electrode. In stage 2, 60 bovine enamel samples were distributed into 6 groups (n = 10), and treated with 300 µg of the respective varnish. After 6 h the varnish was removed and the samples were subjected to a 7-day in vitro pH cycle (6 h demineralization/18 h remineralization per day). The demineralization was measured using surface hardness. The results showed that both experimental varnishes released more fluoride than Duofluorid® and Duraphat® (p < 0.05), but Duraphat® showed the best preventive effect by decreasing enamel hardness loss (p < 0.05). Therefore, we conclude that even though (1) the experimental varnishes containing CaGP released greater amounts of F, (2) they did not increase in the preventive effect against enamel demineralization.

  3. Phytic acid plus calcium, but not phytic acid alone, decreases fluoride bioavailability in the rat

    SciTech Connect

    Cerklewski, F.L. )

    1991-03-15

    Results of in vitro studies have suggested that fluoride becomes insoluble when some soy-based infant formulas are diluted with fluoridated water because of the presence of phytate, added calcium or a combination of these factors. The present study was designed to test this hypothesis in vivo. Male albino rats were fed a purified diet containing phytic acid, calcium and fluoride for 4 weeks in a factorial design of treatments. Phytic acid was added to the diet by chemically reacting a phytic acid concentrate with casein prior to diet preparation to mimic a soy-protein. Food intake, weight gain and femur P were unaffected by dietary treatments. Both phytic acid and supplemental calcium alone had little or no effect upon fluoride uptake into either bone or teeth. The combination of phytic acid plus supplemental calcium, however, significantly increased % of fluoride intake found in the feces which was reflected in a significant decrease in fluoride concentration of femur, 2nd molar teeth and vertebrate bone. These results provide evidence that insoluble complex formation produced by a calcium and phytate interaction can explain reduced fluoride solubility in some soy-based infant formulas as well as decreased fluoride absorbability in vivo.

  4. Compositional dependence of calcium phosphate layer formation in fluoride Bioglasses.

    PubMed

    Kim, C Y; Clark, A E; Hench, L L

    1992-09-01

    Bioglasses form a double layer composed of apatite and a silica-rich layer when placed in a simulated physiological solution as well as in living tissue [A.E. Clark, C.G. Pantano, and L. L. Hench, "Auger spectroscopic analysis of bioglass corrosion films," J. Am. Ceram. Soc., 59(1-2), 37-39 (1976).]. In the present work, the mechanisms of the calcium phosphate layer and the silica-rich layer formation of fluoride Bioglasses in Tris-buffer solution are studied as a function of the SiO2 content. Fourier Transform Infrared Reflection Spectroscopy (FTIRS) is used to investigate the mechanism of formation of calcium phosphate and silica-rich layers on the glass surface. Ion concentration in reacted solution and elemental depth profiles are obtained by Induced Coupled Plasma Atomic Emission Spectrometry (ICP) and Auger Electron Spectroscopy (AES), respectively. Si--O bonds with one nonbridging oxygen and Si--O--Si bonds form at the early stage of reaction. Strong phosphorus ion uptake occurs when an amorphous calcium phosphate layer crystallizes. Glasses with high silica content (conventional glass) form the silica-rich layer first followed by a calcium phosphate layer on top. However, glasses with low silica content (invert glass) form both layers simultaneously. The rate of apatite formation decreases with increasing SiO2 content, especially in the region of conventional glass compositions. Ion release rates decreases as SiO2 content increases, with a significant change occurring at the compositional boundary between invert and conventional glasses.

  5. Calcium fluoride formation on sound enamel using fluoride solutions with and without lactate.

    PubMed

    Harding, A M; Zero, D T; Featherstone, J D; McCormack, S M; Shields, C P; Proskin, H M

    1994-01-01

    The formation of calcium (Ca) fluoride (CaF2) on bovine enamel blocks during clinically relevant treatment times using neutral fluoride (F) solutions (0.26 mol/l F) with and without 0.1 mol/l lactate was investigated. Uncoated and pellicle-coated blocks were evaluated for alkali-soluble (1 mol/l KOH, three consecutive 24-hour treatments) Ca, PO4, and F after treatment by the F solutions for 0, 5, 15, 30, and 60 min. There was an overall time-related increase in F recovery, while Ca tended to remain at baseline levels. Less F was recovered from the pellicle-coated blocks. The addition of lactate to the F treatment solution did not result in an overall increase in alkali-soluble F recovery, but did result in the formation of cuboidal shaped crystals which closely approached the morphology of pure CaF2. A 1:2 stoichiometric ratio Ca:2F (mol:mol) was not established based on chemical analyses. The ultrastructural and elemental composition of surface deposits on the samples, as determined using scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and energy-dispersive spectroscopy, established the presence of CaF2 after 24-hour F treatments; however, it was not possible to directly demonstrate the formation of CaF2 after clinically relevant treatment times.

  6. Calcium mobilization and phosphoinositide turnover in fluoride-activated human neutrophils

    SciTech Connect

    Strnad, C.F.; Wong, K.

    1986-05-01

    Fluoride ion, at concentrations above 10 mM, has been found to activate a superoxide production response in human neutrophils which is strongly dependent on the presence of extracellular calcium. In an attempt to further explore the calcium requirement of fluoride-induced neutrophil activation, intracellular calcium concentrations were monitored through use of the fluorescent calcium probe, Quin 2. Fluoride ion, at concentrations between 10 and 20 mM, was found to elicit a rise in intracellular calcium levels which was characterized by a lag period of 4 to 10 min and a prolonged duration of action (greater than 20 min). In contrast, the chemotactic peptide, formylmethionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine (FMLP), induced a rise in intracellular calcium concentration which peaked within 1 min. Preincubation of cells with 1 ..mu..g/ml pertussis toxin resulted in inhibition of the FMLP-induced response, but not that elicited by fluoride. Furthermore, anion exchange chromatography indicated that inositol phosphate accumulation occurred in fluoride-treated cells in association with calcium mobilization. Recent evidence suggests that the FMLP receptor is coupled to phospholipase C and phosphoinositide turnover through a guanine nucleotide binding protein susceptible to inhibition by pertussis toxin. Present results suggest that fluoride ion may serve to activate this protein in a manner resistant to inhibition by pertussis toxin.

  7. [Natural fluorides. The distinction between technically produced and naturally occurring fluorides in caries prophylaxis].

    PubMed

    Newesely, H

    1977-06-01

    In the controversial discussion of the bio-availability of fluoride in caries prophylaxis by fluoridation, fluorides coming from the geochemical circulation to the biochemical circulation are sometimes differentiated from synthetic fluorides introduced into fluoride medication. The question as to whether such a differentiation is essential can be answered from the physical-chemical point of view. This requires a wide field of scientific research starting with geochemistry and the knowledge of fluoride deposits, sedimentology, hydrology, technology of inorganic and organic fluorine compounds, thermodynamics of dissolved fluorides, up to biocrystallography and biochemistry of fluorine.

  8. Calcium Pre-Rinse Greatly Increases Overnight Salivary Fluoride after a 228 ppm Fluoride Rinse

    PubMed Central

    Vogel, G.L.; Chow, L.C.; Carey, C.M.

    2008-01-01

    Background Large increases in salivary fluoride were reported 1 h after a calcium pre-rinse/NaF rinse. Aims This study examined the persistence of these increases. Methods 12 subjects rinsed in the evening with water, with a 228 μg/g (ppm) F rinse or with 150 mmol/l calcium lactate followed by a 228 μg/g F rinse. In a second experiment these same patients rinsed with a 912 μg/g F rinse. Saliva samples were obtained the morning after rinsing, centrifuged and the supernatants analyzed. Results The Ca pre-rinse/228 μg/g F rinse induced an increase in overnight salivary F over the 912 μg/g F rinse (≈2.5 times) and a statistically significant increase over the 228 μg/g F rinse (≈5.5 times). Conclusions The results suggest that a Ca pretreatment may increase the cariostatic effect of topical F agents. PMID:18781069

  9. Formation of phosphate-containing calcium fluoride at the expense of enamel, hydroxyapatite and fluorapatite.

    PubMed

    Christoffersen, J; Christoffersen, M R; Arends, J; Leonardsen, E S

    1995-01-01

    During the caries process complex reactions involving calcium, phosphate, hydrogen and fluoride ions as main species take place. In this study the precipitation and dissolution reactions occurring in suspensions of enamel, hydroxyapatite (HAP) and fluorapatite (FAP) on addition of fluoride were investigated under well-defined conditions. pH and pF were monitored; calcium and phosphate concentrations were measured at selected times; the solid phases were examined by infra-red, X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy. Precipitation of phosphate-containing calcium fluoride crystals, CaF2(P), can cause severe reduction in the calcium ion concentration and release of hydrogen ions from the precipitated phosphate. These reactions result in considerable dissolution of enamel, HAP and even of FAP. More of the added mineral dissolves with 50 mmol/l fluoride than with 10 mmol/l fluoride, mainly due to the greater reduction in calcium ion concentration. This work shows that phosphate-containing calcium fluoride is most likely an important compound to be considered in the caries process.

  10. Optical Zeeman Spectroscopy of Calcium Fluoride, CaF.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steimle, Timothy; Kokkin, Damian L.; Delvin, Jack; Tarbutt, Michael

    2015-06-01

    Recently laser cooling has been demonstrated for the diatomic radical calcium fluoride, CaF. The mechanism of magneto-optical trapping for diatomic molecules has been elucidated recently by Tarbutt where a rate model was used to model the interaction of molecules with multiple frequencies of laser light. It was shown that the correct choice of laser polarization depends on the sign of the upper state magnetic g-factor. The magnetic tuning of the low rotational levels in the X^2σ^+, A^2Π and B^2σ^+ electronic states of CaF, have been experimentally investigated using high resolution optical Zeeman spectroscopy of a cold molecular beam sample. The observed Zeeman-induced shifts and splittings were successfully modeled using a traditional effective Hamiltonian approach to account for the interaction between the (ν=0) A^2Π and (ν=0) B^2σ^+ states. The determined magnetic g-factors for the X^2σ^+, A^2Π and B^2σ^+ states are compared to those predicted by perturbation theory. V. Zhelyazkova, A. Cournol, T.E. Wall, A. Matsushima, J.J. Hudson, E.A. Hinds, M.R. Tarbutt and B.E. Sauer, Phys. Rev. A 89, 053416 (2014) M. R. Tarbutt, New J. Phys 17, 015007 (2015)

  11. 229Thorium-doped calcium fluoride for nuclear laser spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Dessovic, P; Mohn, P; Jackson, R A; Winkler, G; Schreitl, M; Kazakov, G; Schumm, T

    2014-03-12

    The (229)thorium isotope presents an extremely low-energy isomer state of the nucleus which is expected around 7.8 eV, in the vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) regime. This unique system may bridge between atomic and nuclear physics, enabling coherent manipulation and precision spectroscopy of nuclear quantum states using laser light. It has been proposed to implant (229)thorium into VUV transparent crystal matrices to facilitate laser spectroscopy and possibly realize a solid-state nuclear clock. In this work, we validate the feasibility of this approach by computer modelling of thorium doping into calcium fluoride single crystals. Using atomistic modelling and full electronic structure calculations, we find a persistent large band gap and no additional electronic levels emerging in the middle of the gap due to the presence of the dopant, which should allow direct optical interrogation of the nuclear transition.Based on the electronic structure, we estimate the thorium nuclear quantum levels within the solid-state environment. Precision laser spectroscopy of these levels will allow the study of a broad range of crystal field effects, transferring Mössbauer spectroscopy into the optical regime.

  12. Fluoride affects calcium homeostasis and osteogenic transcription factor expressions through L-type calcium channels in osteoblast cell line.

    PubMed

    Duan, Xiao-Qin; Zhao, Zhi-Tao; Zhang, Xiu-Yun; Wang, Ying; Wang, Huan; Liu, Da-Wei; Li, Guang-Sheng; Jing, Ling

    2014-12-01

    Osteoblast L-type voltage-dependent calcium channels (VDCC) play important roles in maintaining intracellular homeostasis and influencing multiple cellular processes. In particular, they contribute to the activities and functions of osteoblasts (OBs). In order to study how L-type VDCC modulate calcium ion (Ca(2+)) homeostasis and the expression of osteogenic transcription factors in OBs exposed to fluoride, MC3T3-E1 cells were exposed to a gradient of concentrations of fluoride (0, 2.0, 5.0, 10.0 mg/L) in combination with 10 μM nifedipine, a specific inhibitor of VDCC, for 48 h. We examined messenger RNA (mRNA) and protein levels of Cav1.2, the main subunit of VDCC, and c-fos, c-jun, runt-related transcription factor 2 (Runx2), osterix (OSX), and intracellular free Ca(2+) ([Ca(2+)]i) concentrations in MC3T3-E1 cells. Our results showed that [Ca(2+)]i levels increased in a dose-dependent manner with increase in concentration of fluoride. Meantime, results indicated that lower concentrations of fluoride (less than 5 mg/L, especially 2 mg/L) can lead to high expression of Cav1.2 and enhance osteogenic function, while high concentration of fluoride (10 mg/L) can induce decreased Cav1.2 and osteogenic transcriptional factors in MC3T3E1 cells exposed to fluoride. However, the levels of [Ca(2+)]i, Cav1.2, c-fos, c-jun, Runx2, and OSX induced by fluoride were significantly altered and even reversed in the presence of nifedipine. These results demonstrate that L-type calcium channels play a crucial role in Ca(2+) homeostasis and they affect the expression of osteogenic transcription factors in fluoride-treated osteoblasts.

  13. The Effect of Salivary Calcium and Fluoride Toothpaste on the Formation of KOH-Soluble Fluoride: In Vitro Study

    PubMed Central

    Peroš, Kristina; Šutej, Ivana; Rošin-Grget, Kata

    2015-01-01

    Objective The aim of this in vitro preliminary study was to assess the effect of smokers’ saliva (assuming their higher calcium concentration) in combination with fluoridated toothpaste on the enamel uptake of alkali-soluble (KOH-soluble) fluoride. Materials and methods Four enamel slabs were cut from each of 14 impacted third molars and randomly assigned into 4 groups. Unstimulated saliva samples were collected from two age and sex matched volunteers. One of the samples was taken from a heavy smoker and the other sample was taken from a non-smoker. Two groups (A and B) were shaken in saliva (A in smoker's saliva, B in nonsmoker's saliva) for 5 min and then shaken for 3 min in a toothpaste/deionized water slurry (1:3 w/w). One of the groups (group C) received no saliva treatment and was only shaken in toothpaste slurry for 3 min. The treatment was repeated after a 6-hour period. One of the groups (D) served as a control group with no treatment. Results Calcium concentration in the smoker’s saliva was higher than in the nonsmoker’s saliva. The enamel uptake of KOH-soluble fluoride in group A was significantly higher than that in the other two treatment groups, B and C. The enamel uptake of KOH-soluble fluoride in all 3 groups was statistically different from that in the control group. Conclusion These results demonstrate that saliva collected from a heavy smoker, which had higher salivary calcium concentration, enhances enamel uptake of alkali-soluble fluoride and encourages us to conduct a large-scale study. PMID:27688406

  14. Relationship of naturally occurring fluoride in Carroll County, Maryland to aquifers, well depths, and fluoride supplementation prescribing behaviors.

    PubMed

    Osso, Diane; Tinanoff, Norman; Romberg, Elaine; Syme, Sheryl; Roberts, Michael

    2008-01-01

    Systemic fluorides are effective in the prevention of dental caries but over ingestion can lead to dental fluorosis. Fluoride supplements may be under-prescribed for children residing in areas where drinking water is derived from wells, because of a lack of knowledge of dental providers or the effort required to test wells for fluoride before prescribing supplements. The purpose of this study was to determine the possible factors associated with fluoride content of well water in a specific county in Maryland, and to determine whether there is a relationship between the amount of naturally occurring fluoride in the well water and the child's fluoride supplementation use. This study analyzed the fluoride prescribing behavior and the fluoride content of wells from a sample of 197 Carroll County, Md residents. Those individuals that answered a questionnaire about well depth and use of fluoride supplements subsequently were mailed a water testing kit. Water samples were tested for fluoride using a fluoride specific ion electrode. Derivations of well water supplies (aquifers) were obtained from a county geologist. Variance in well depth and aquifer type were correlated to the levels of naturally occurring fluoride. Supplementation practices of children residing in the participating sampled households were compared to results of fluoride analyses of individual wells. Results showed that Carroll County well water contains negligible to low levels of fluoride (0.08-0.24 ppm). Pearson r testing showed a positive relationship between well depth and fluoride, r = 0.23 (p < or = .01). ANOVA results showed no significant difference between the 3 aquifers fluoride, p = 0.23. Analysis of the supplementation behavior indicated that the majority (58%) of the children that should have received fluoride supplements were receiving the incorrect dosage or not being supplemented. Fluoride content of well water may be related to well depths. Fluoride supplementation practices generally

  15. Apatite precipitation on a novel fast-setting calcium silicate cement containing fluoride

    PubMed Central

    Ranjkesh, Bahram; Chevallier, Jacques; Salehi, Hamideh; Cuisinier, Frédéric; Isidor, Flemming; Løvschall, Henrik

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Aim: Calcium silicate cements are widely used in endodontics. Novel fast-setting calcium silicate cement with fluoride (Protooth) has been developed for potential applications in teeth crowns including cavity lining and cementation. Objective: To evaluate the surface apatite-forming ability of Protooth compositions as a function of fluoride content and immersion time in phosphate-buffered saline (PBS). Material and methods: Three cement compositions were tested: Protooth (3.5% fluoride and 10% radiocontrast), ultrafast Protooth (3.5% fluoride and 20% radiocontrast), and high fluoride Protooth (15% fluoride and 25% radiocontrast). Powders were cap-mixed with liquid, filled to the molds and immersed in PBS. Scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray analysis, and Raman spectroscopy were used to characterize the precipitations morphology and composition after 1, 7, 28, and 56 days. Apatite/belite Raman peak height indicated the apatite thickness. Results: Spherical calcium phosphate precipitations with acicular crystallites were formed after 1-day immersion in PBS and Raman spectra disclosed the phosphate band at 965 cm−1, supporting the apatite formation over Protooth compositions. The apatite deposition continued and more voluminous precipitations were observed after 56 days over the surface of all cements. Raman bands suggested the formation of β-type carbonated apatite over Protooth compositions. High fluoride Protooth showed the most compact deposition with significantly higher apatite/belite ratio compared to Protooth and ultrafast Protooth after 28 and 56 days. Conclusions: Calcium phosphate precipitations (apatite) were formed over Protooth compositions after immersion in PBS with increasing apatite formation as a function of time. High fluoride Protooth exhibited thicker apatite deposition. PMID:27335901

  16. Aqueous Glycosylation of Unprotected Sucrose Employing Glycosyl Fluorides in the Presence of Calcium Ion and Trimethylamine

    PubMed Central

    Pelletier, Guillaume; Zwicker, Aaron; Allen, C. Liana; Schepartz, Alanna; Miller, Scott J.

    2016-01-01

    We report a synthetic glycosylation reaction between sucrosyl acceptors and glycosyl fluoride donors to yield the derived trisaccharides. This reaction proceeds at room temperature in an aqueous solvent mixture. Calcium salts and a tertiary amine base promote the reaction with high site-selectivity for either the 3′-position or 1′-position of the fructofuranoside unit. Because non-enzymatic aqueous oligosaccharide syntheses are underdeveloped, mechanistic studies were carried out in order to identify the origin of the selectivity, which we hypothesized was related to the structure of hydroxyl group array in sucrose. The solution conformation of various mono-deoxysucrose analogs revealed the cooperative nature of the hydroxyl group in mediating both this aqueous glycosyl bond-forming reaction and the site-selectivity at the same time. PMID:26859619

  17. Fluoride

    MedlinePlus

    ... by teeth and helps to strengthen teeth, resist acid, and block the cavity-forming action of bacteria. Fluoride usually is prescribed for children and adults whose homes have water that is not fluoridated (already has fluoride added). ...

  18. Calcium fluoride windows for high-energy chemical lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klein, Claude A.

    2006-10-01

    The development of high-energy lasers requires optical windows capable of handling megajoule beam energies without compromising the system's performance. Calcium fluoride (CaF2) has been identified as a prime candidate for windows operating at chemical laser wavelengths due to very low bulk absorption and exceptionally small thermal lensing coefficients; it is, however, vulnerable to structural failure owing to poor mechanical strength characteristics and a large thermal stress factor. It is, therefore, essential to properly assess the ultimate potential of this material, which we attempt to do here in the following manner: (a) We assemble reliable numbers for all pertinent properties of (111)-oriented CaF2 single crystals and polycrystalline isotropic aggregates (PIAs), such as fusion-cast CaF2, which requires addressing issues relating to the elastic properties, the stress-optic coefficients, and the flexural strength. (b) We provide correct analytical expressions for evaluating the impact of pressure- and beam-induced effects on wave-front phase distortions and mechanical failure modes, taking advantage of a previous investigation [J. Appl. Phys. 98, 043103 (2005)]. (c) We perform detailed calculations on "model" windows made of either (111)CaF2 or (PIA )CaF2 that transmit optimally truncated Gaussian beams at wavelengths of 1.15 and 3.39μm, for run times such that lateral heat conduction and surface cooling can be ignored. Our main conlusions are as follows: (a) With CaF2 windows thermal lensing, as measured in terms of the Strehl ratio and on assuming coating absorptances of no more than 3×10-5, is of no consequence in the sense that catastrophic failure may occur at fluence levels way below the threshold for optical distortion. (b) Evidence of a poor Weibull shape factor (m ≃3.5) degrades the design safety margins, which requires operating at peak intensities of no more than 100kW/cm2 to achieve optimum on-target fluences. (c) Regarding the issue of (111

  19. Liquid Fluoride Salt Experimentation Using a Small Natural Circulation Cell

    SciTech Connect

    Yoder Jr, Graydon L; Heatherly, Dennis Wayne; Williams, David F; Elkassabgi, Yousri M.; Caja, Joseph; Caja, Mario; Jordan, John; Salinas, Roberto

    2014-04-01

    A small molten fluoride salt experiment has been constructed and tested to develop experimental techniques for application in liquid fluoride salt systems. There were five major objectives in developing this test apparatus: Allow visual observation of the salt during testing (how can lighting be introduced, how can pictures be taken, what can be seen) Determine if IR photography can be used to examine components submerged in the salt Determine if the experimental configuration provides salt velocity sufficient for collection of corrosion data for future experimentation Determine if a laser Doppler velocimeter can be used to quantify salt velocities. Acquire natural circulation heat transfer data in fluoride salt at temperatures up to 700oC All of these objectives were successfully achieved during testing with the exception of the fourth: acquiring velocity data using the laser Doppler velocimeter. This paper describes the experiment and experimental techniques used, and presents data taken during natural circulation testing.

  20. Antibacterial Properties of Calcium Fluoride-Based Composite Materials: In Vitro Study.

    PubMed

    Łukomska-Szymańska, Monika; Zarzycka, Beata; Grzegorczyk, Janina; Sokołowski, Krzysztof; Półtorak, Konrad; Sokołowski, Jerzy; Łapińska, Barbara

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate antibacterial activity of composite materials modified with calcium fluoride against cariogenic bacteria S. mutans and L. acidophilus. One commercially available conventional light-curing composite material containing fluoride ions (F2) and two commercially available flowable light-curing composite materials (Flow Art and X-Flow) modified with 1.5, 2.5, and 5.0 wt% anhydrous calcium fluoride addition were used in the study. Composite material samples were incubated in 0.95% NaCl at 35°C for 3 days; then dilution series of S. mutans and L. acidophilus strains were made from the eluates. Bacteria dilutions were cultivated on media afterwards. Colony-forming unit per 1 mL of solution (CFU/mL) was calculated. Composite materials modified with calcium fluoride highly reduced (p < 0.001) bacteria growth compared to commercially available composite materials containing fluoride compounds. The greatest reduction in bacteria growth was observed for composite materials modified with 1.5% wt. CaF2. All three tested composite materials showed statistically greater antibacterial activity against L. acidophilus than against S. mutans.

  1. Antibacterial Properties of Calcium Fluoride-Based Composite Materials: In Vitro Study

    PubMed Central

    Zarzycka, Beata; Grzegorczyk, Janina; Sokołowski, Krzysztof; Półtorak, Konrad; Sokołowski, Jerzy

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate antibacterial activity of composite materials modified with calcium fluoride against cariogenic bacteria S. mutans and L. acidophilus. One commercially available conventional light-curing composite material containing fluoride ions (F2) and two commercially available flowable light-curing composite materials (Flow Art and X-Flow) modified with 1.5, 2.5, and 5.0 wt% anhydrous calcium fluoride addition were used in the study. Composite material samples were incubated in 0.95% NaCl at 35°C for 3 days; then dilution series of S. mutans and L. acidophilus strains were made from the eluates. Bacteria dilutions were cultivated on media afterwards. Colony-forming unit per 1 mL of solution (CFU/mL) was calculated. Composite materials modified with calcium fluoride highly reduced (p < 0.001) bacteria growth compared to commercially available composite materials containing fluoride compounds. The greatest reduction in bacteria growth was observed for composite materials modified with 1.5% wt. CaF2. All three tested composite materials showed statistically greater antibacterial activity against L. acidophilus than against S. mutans. PMID:28053976

  2. Loss on drying, calcium concentration and pH of fluoride dentifrices

    PubMed Central

    Brito, Arella Cristina Muniz; Dantas, Lívia Rocha; De Brito, André Luiz Fiquene; Muniz, Ana Cristina Silva; Ramos, Ianny Alves; Cardoso, Andreia Medeiros Rodrigues; Xavier, Alidianne Fábia Cabral; Cavalcanti, Alessandro Leite

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Fluoride dentifrices containing calcium carbonate have advantages such as control of dental plaque and progression of dental caries, also contributing to oral hygiene, represent most dentifrices marketed in Brazil. Aim: To evaluate the physicochemical properties of seven fluoride dentifrices containing calcium carbonate in relation to hydrogen potential (pH), loss on drying and calcium concentration. Materials and Methods: Data collection was performed using the potentiometric method for pH ranges, gravimetric analysis for loss on drying and atomic absorption spectrometry for the concentration of calcium ions. All tests were performed in triplicate and the analysis was performed entirely at random according to one-way analysis of variance at 5% significance level. Results: The pH values were alkaline and ranged from 8.67 (Oral-B 123®) to 10.03 (Colgate Máxima Proteção Anticáries®). The results of loss on drying ranged from 33.81% (Oral-B 123®) to 61.13% (Close Up®), with significant differences between brands tested. In relation to the calcium content, the highest and lowest concentrations were found in dentifrices Even® (155.55 g/kg) and Colgate Ultra Branco® (129 g/kg), respectively, with significant difference (P < 0.05). Conclusion: Fluoride dentifrices analyzed showed alkaline pH and high levels of loss on drying and calcium concentration. However, these physicochemical characteristics differed according to the different brands tested. PMID:25821380

  3. Evaluation of the remineralization potential of amorphous calcium phosphate and fluoride containing pit and fissure sealants using scanning electron microscopy.

    PubMed

    Choudhary, Prashant; Tandon, Shobha; Ganesh, M; Mehra, Anshul

    2012-01-01

    To evaluate the remineralization potential of Amorphous Calcium Phosphate (ACP) and Fluoride containing pit and Fissure Sealants using Scanning Electron Microscopy. Thirty maxillary first premolars were divided into three groups of ten each and were randomly selected for ACP containing (Aegis- Opaque White, Bosworth Co. Ltd.), Fluoride containing (Teethmate F1 Natural Clear, Kuraray Co. Ltd.), resin based (Concise- Opaque White, 3M ESPE Co. Ltd.) pit and fissure sealant applications. The Concise group served as a control. The teeth weresubjected to the pH-cycling regimen for a period of two weeks. After two weeks, the teeth were sectioned bucco-lingually into 4mm sections and were observed under Scanning Electron Microscope at 50X, 250X, 500X, 1000X and 1500X magnifications. The qualitative changes at the tooth surface and sealant interface were examined and presence of white zone at the interface was considered positive for remineralization. Both ACP containing (Aegis) and Fluoride containing (Teethmate F1) group showed white zone at the tooth surface-sealant interface. The resin based group (Concise) showed regular interface between the sealant and the tooth structure, but no clear cut white zone was observed. Both, Aegis and Teethmate F1 have the potential to remineralize. Release of Amorphous Calcium Phosphate molecules in Aegis group and formation of Fluoroapetite in Teethmate F1 group, were probably responsible for the remineralization.

  4. Physiologic Conditions Affect Toxicity of Ingested Industrial Fluoride

    PubMed Central

    Sauerheber, Richard

    2013-01-01

    The effects of calcium ion and broad pH ranges on free fluoride ion aqueous concentrations were measured directly and computed theoretically. Solubility calculations indicate that blood fluoride concentrations that occur in lethal poisonings would decrease calcium below prevailing levels. Acute lethal poisoning and also many of the chronic effects of fluoride involve alterations in the chemical activity of calcium by the fluoride ion. Natural calcium fluoride with low solubility and toxicity from ingestion is distinct from fully soluble toxic industrial fluorides. The toxicity of fluoride is determined by environmental conditions and the positive cations present. At a pH typical of gastric juice, fluoride is largely protonated as hydrofluoric acid HF. Industrial fluoride ingested from treated water enters saliva at levels too low to affect dental caries. Blood levels during lifelong consumption can harm heart, bone, brain, and even developing teeth enamel. The widespread policy known as water fluoridation is discussed in light of these findings. PMID:23840230

  5. Physiologic conditions affect toxicity of ingested industrial fluoride.

    PubMed

    Sauerheber, Richard

    2013-01-01

    The effects of calcium ion and broad pH ranges on free fluoride ion aqueous concentrations were measured directly and computed theoretically. Solubility calculations indicate that blood fluoride concentrations that occur in lethal poisonings would decrease calcium below prevailing levels. Acute lethal poisoning and also many of the chronic effects of fluoride involve alterations in the chemical activity of calcium by the fluoride ion. Natural calcium fluoride with low solubility and toxicity from ingestion is distinct from fully soluble toxic industrial fluorides. The toxicity of fluoride is determined by environmental conditions and the positive cations present. At a pH typical of gastric juice, fluoride is largely protonated as hydrofluoric acid HF. Industrial fluoride ingested from treated water enters saliva at levels too low to affect dental caries. Blood levels during lifelong consumption can harm heart, bone, brain, and even developing teeth enamel. The widespread policy known as water fluoridation is discussed in light of these findings.

  6. Thermodynamics of the conversion of calcium and magnesium fluorides to the parent metal oxides and hydrogen fluoride

    SciTech Connect

    West, M.H.; Axler, K.M.

    1997-02-01

    The authors have used thermodynamic modeling to examine the reaction of calcium fluoride (CaF{sub 2}) and magnesium fluoride (MgF{sub 2}) with water (H{sub 2}O) at elevated temperatures. The calculated, equilibrium composition corresponds to the global free-energy minimum for the system. Optimum, predicted reaction temperatures and reactant mole ratios are reported for the recovery of hydrogen fluoride (HF), a valuable industrial feedstock. Complete conversion of MgF{sub 2} is found at 1,000 C and a ratio of 40 moles of H{sub 2}O per 1 mole of MgF{sub 2}. For CaF{sub 2}, temperatures as high as 1,400 C are required for complete conversion at a corresponding mole ratio of 40 moles of H{sub 2}O per 1 mole of CaF{sub 2}. The authors discuss the presence of minor chemical constituents as well as the stability of various potential container materials for the pyrohydrolysis reactions at elevated temperatures. CaF{sub 2} and MgF{sub 2} slags are available as wastes at former uranium production facilities within the Department of Energy Complex and other facilities regulated by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission. Recovery of HF from these wastes is an example of environmental remediation at such facilities.

  7. In situ evaluation of low-fluoride toothpastes associated to calcium glycerophosphate on enamel remineralization.

    PubMed

    Zaze, A C S F; Dias, A P; Amaral, J G; Miyasaki, M L; Sassaki, K T; Delbem, A C B

    2014-12-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the effect of low-fluoride toothpastes with calcium glycerophosphate (CaGP) on enamel remineralization in situ. Volunteers (n=10) wore palatal devices holding four bovine enamel blocks. The treatments involved 5 experimental phases of 3 days each according to the following toothpastes: placebo, 500 ppm F (500 NaF), 500 ppm F with 0.25% CaGP (500 NaF CaGP), 500 ppm F with 0.25% CaGP (500 MFP CaGP) and 1100 ppm F (1100; positive control). After this experimental period, the fluoride, calcium, and phosphorus ion concentrations from enamel were determined. Surface and cross-sectional hardness were also performed. Data were analysed by 1-way ANOVA, Student-Newman-Keuls' test and by Pearson's correlation. The addition of 0.25% CaGP improved the remineralization potential of low-fluoride toothpastes and the NaF as source of fluoride yielded the best results (p<0.001) as evidenced by the hardness analysis. The 1100 ppm F toothpaste provided higher presence of fluoride in the enamel after remineralization (p<0.001). The addition of CaGP to the NaF and MFP toothpastes led to similar calcium concentration in the enamel as the observed with the positive control (p=0.054). Toothpastes with 500 ppm F (NaF or MFP) and CaGP showed similar remineralization potential than 1100 ppm F toothpaste. Toothpastes containing 500 ppm F associated to CaGP, with both fluoride source (NaF or MFP), showed a potential of remineralization similar to commercial toothpaste. Although there is a need for confirmation in the clinical setting, these results point to an alternative for improving the risk-benefit relationship between fluorosis and dental caries in small children. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Enamel subsurface lesion remineralisation with casein phosphopeptide stabilised solutions of calcium, phosphate and fluoride.

    PubMed

    Cochrane, N J; Saranathan, S; Cai, F; Cross, K J; Reynolds, E C

    2008-01-01

    Casein phosphopeptide stabilised amorphous calcium phosphate (CPP-ACP) and amorphous calcium fluoride phosphate (CPP-ACFP) solutions have been shown to remineralise enamel subsurface lesions. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of ion composition of CPP-ACP and CPP-ACFP solutions on enamel subsurface lesion remineralisation in vitro. CPP-bound and free calcium, phosphate and fluoride ion concentrations in the solutions were determined after ultrafiltration. The ion activities of the free ion species present were calculated using an iterative computational program. The mineral deposited in the subsurface lesions was analysed using transverse microradiography and electron microprobe. CPP was found to stabilise high concentrations of calcium, phosphate and fluoride ions at all pH values (7.0-4.5). Remineralisation of the subsurface lesions was observed at all pH values tested with a maximum at pH 5.5. The CPP-ACFP solutions produced greater remineralisation than the CPP-ACP solutions at pH 5.5 and below. The mineral formed in the subsurface lesions was consistent with hydroxyapatite and fluorapatite for remineralisation with CPP-ACP and CPP-ACFP, respectively. The activity gradient of the neutral ion pair CaHPO(4)(0) into the lesion was significantly correlated with remineralisation and together with HF(0) were identified as important species for diffusion.

  9. Study on Treatment of acidic and highly concentrated fluoride waste water using calcium oxide-calcium chloride

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, T.; Gao, X. R.; Zheng, T.; Wang, P.

    2016-08-01

    There are problems with treating acidic waste water containing high concentration fluorine by chemical precipitation, including the low sludge setting velocity and the high difficulty of reaching the criterion. In Heilongjiang province, a graphite factory producing high-purity graphite generates acidic waste water with a high concentration of fluorine. In this paper, the effect of removals on the concentration of fluoride with the combined treatment of calcium oxide and calcium chloride were discussed with regard to acid waste water. The study improved the sludge characteristics by using polyacrylamide (PAM) and polymeric aluminum chloride (PAC). The effect of different coagulants on sludge was evaluated by the sludge settlement ratio (SV), sludge volume index (SVI) and sludge moisture content. The results showed that the optimal combination for 100 ml waste water was calcium oxide addition amount of 14 g, a calcium chloride addition amount of 2.5 g, a PAM addition amount of 350 mg/L, and the effluent fluoride concentration was below 6 mg/L. PAM significantly improved the sludge settling velocity. The sludge settlement ratio reduced from 87.6% to 60%. The process for wastewater treatment was easily operated and involved low expenditure.

  10. In Vitro Properties of Orthodontic Adhesives with Fluoride or Amorphous Calcium Phosphate

    PubMed Central

    Chow, Clara Ka Wai; Wu, Christine D.; Evans, Carla A.

    2011-01-01

    This in vitro study evaluated the efficacy of orthodontic adhesives with fluoride or amorphous calcium phosphate (ACP) in reducing bacterial adhesion and enamel demineralization. Forty human premolars each sectioned buccolingually into three parts were bracketed with control resin (Transbond XT) or adhesives containing ACP (Aegis Ortho) or fluoride (QuickCure). Artificial lesions induced by pH cycling were examined by X-ray photoelectron spectrophotometry (XPS) and polarized light microscopy (PLM). After 28 days, Aegis Ortho demonstrated the lowest calcium and phosphorous content by XPS analysis. After 42 days, reductions in lesion depth areas were 23.6% for Quick Cure and 20.3% for Aegis Ortho (P < 0.05). In the presence of 1% sucrose, adhesion of Streptococcus mutans to Aegis Ortho and Quick Cure was reduced by 41.8% and 37.7% (P < 0.05) as compared to Transbond XT. Composites containing ACP or fluoride reduced bacterial adherence and lesion formation as compared to a composite without ACP or fluoride. PMID:21912546

  11. Effects of acute sodium fluoride exposure on kidney function, water homeostasis, and renal handling of calcium and inorganic phosphate.

    PubMed

    Santoyo-Sanchez, Mitzi Paola; del Carmen Silva-Lucero, Maria; Arreola-Mendoza, Laura; Barbier, Olivier Christophe

    2013-06-01

    Fluoride compounds are abundant and widely distributed in the environment at a variety of concentrations. Further, fluoride induces toxic effects in target organs such as the liver and kidney. In this study, we performed an early analysis of renal function using a clearance technique in Wistar rats acutely exposed to fluoride at a plasma concentration of 0.625 μg/ml. Our results revealed that fluoride, at a concentration close to the concentration present in the serum after environmental exposure, induced a significant tubular dysfunction, resulting in diluted urine, impaired protein reabsorption, and increased calcium and phosphate urinary excretion. Our work demonstrates that even acute exposures to low concentrations of NaF may induce renal damage and confirms that, after exposure, the kidney participates directly in the calcium and phosphate deficiencies observed in fluoride-exposed populations.

  12. Report on the Study of Radiation Damage in Calcium Fluoride and Magnesium Fluoride Crystals for use in Excimer Laser Applications

    SciTech Connect

    None, None

    1999-10-04

    A study was performed to investigate the effects of radiation damage in calcium fluoride and magnesium fluoride crystals caused by gamma rays and UV photons from excimer lasers. The purpose was to study and correlate the damage caused by these two different mechanisms in various types of material used for fabricating optical elements in high power excimer lasers and lens systems of lithography tools. These optical systems are easily damaged by the laser itself, and it is necessary to use only the most radiation resistant materials for certain key elements. It was found that a clear correlation exists between the, radiation induced damage caused by high energy gamma rays and that produced by UV photons from the excimer laser. This correlation allows a simple procedure to be developed to select the most radiation resistant material at the ingot level, which would be later used to fabricate various components of the optical system. This avoids incurring the additional cost of fabricating actual optical elements with material that would later be damaged under prolonged use. The result of this screening procedure can result in a considerable savings in the overall cost of the lens and laser system.

  13. Synaptosomal calcium influx is activated by sodium fluoride

    SciTech Connect

    Jope, R.S.; Lally, K.M.

    1988-03-15

    Neuronal calcium channels can be modulated by changes in membrane potential or by activation of channel-associated receptors. The latter may be modulated by guanine nucleotide binding proteins. NaF, which activates guanine nucleotide binding proteins, caused a large stimulation of /sup 45/Ca/sup 2 +/ uptake by synaptosomes prepared from rat brain. Stimulation of /sup 45/Ca/sup 2 +/ influx by NaF (i) was apparent in media containing either 5 mM-K+ or 50 mM-K+, (ii) was slower than the fast-phase of voltage-dependent /sup 45/Ca/sup 2 +/ influx but continued for a longer period of time than did depolarization-induced /sup 45/Ca/sup 2 +/ influx, and (iii) was not mimicked or modified by a number of drugs, including ouabain, dinitrophenol, sodium azide or sodium vanadate. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that NaF activates a guanine nucleotide binding protein associated with receptor-coupled calcium channels, resulting in stimulation of calcium influx.

  14. Combinatorial incorporation of fluoride and cobalt ions into calcium phosphates to stimulate osteogenesis and angiogenesis.

    PubMed

    Birgani, Zeinab Tahmasebi; Gharraee, Nazli; Malhotra, Angad; van Blitterswijk, Clemens A; Habibovic, Pamela

    2016-02-29

    Bone healing requires two critical mechanisms, angiogenesis and osteogenesis. In order to improve bone graft substitutes, both mechanisms should be addressed simultaneously. While the individual effects of various bioinorganics have been studied, an understanding of the combinatorial effects is lacking. Cobalt and fluoride ions, in appropriate concentrations, are known to individually favor the vascularization and mineralization processes, respectively. This study investigated the potential of using a combination of fluoride and cobalt ions to simultaneously promote osteogenesis and angiogenesis in human mesenchymal stromal cells (hMSCs). Using a two-step biomimetic method, wells of tissue culture plates were coated with a calcium phosphate (CaP) layer without or with the incorporation of cobalt, fluoride, or both. In parallel, hMSCs were cultured on uncoated well plates, and cultured with cobalt and/or fluoride ions within the media. The results revealed that cobalt ions increased the expression of angiogenic markers, with the effects being stronger when the ions were added as a dissolved salt in cell medium as compared to incorporation into CaP. Cobalt ions generally suppressed the ALP activity, the expression of osteogenic genes, and the level of mineralization, regardless of delivery method. Fluoride ions, individually or in combination with cobalt, significantly increased the expression of many of the selected osteogenic markers, as well as mineral deposition. This study demonstrates an approach to simultaneously target the two essential mechanisms in bone healing: angiogenesis and osteogenesis. The incorporation of cobalt and fluoride into CaPs is a promising method to improve the biological performance of fully synthetic bone graft substitutes.

  15. Effect of a calcium phosphate and fluoride paste on prevention of enamel demineralization.

    PubMed

    Nakata, Takuya; Kitasako, Yuichi; Sadr, Alireza; Nakashima, Syozi; Tagami, Junji

    2017-08-24

    This study aimed to examine the anti-demineralization capacities of (a) tetracalcium phosphate (TTCP) and dicalcium phosphate anhydrous (DCPA) and 950 ppm fluoride paste, (b) casein phosphopeptide amorphous calcium phosphate paste and (c) 950 ppm fluoride solution using optical coherence tomography (OCT). Enamel blocks were cut from the bovine incisors and treated using one of the above-mentioned three materials or deionized water as control (n=10). All samples were subjected to a demineralization gel for 1 h followed by a remineralization solution for 23 h. This experimental cycle was repeated for 28 days. The specimens were imaged using OCT at baseline and at four stages and measured lesion depth using image analysis software (ImageJ). Repeated measures ANOVA revealed that demineralization time, material and their interaction significantly affected the optical lesion depth (p<0.001). TTCP and DCPA and 950 ppm fluoride paste and 950 ppm fluoride solution showed significantly lower lesion progress compare to other groups (p<0.05).

  16. Efficacy of calcium- and fluoride-containing materials for the remineralization of primary teeth with early enamel lesion.

    PubMed

    Memarpour, Mahtab; Soltanimehr, Elham; Sattarahmady, Naghmeh

    2015-09-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the efficacy of different products containing fluoride, calcium and phosphate for enamel remineralization in eroded primary teeth. A total of 90 sound primary canine teeth were randomly divided into 5 groups of 18 teeth each: 1) control (polished enamel), 2) 5% DuraShield sodium fluoride varnish, 3) 500 ppm fluoridated toothpaste, 4) casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate (CPP-ACP) cream, and 5) Clinpro White varnish containing functionalized tri-calcium phosphate (fTCP). Enamel microhardness (EMH) was measured in all samples before and after demineralization and after 28 days of remineralization. Also 8 samples in groups 2 to 5 and four samples of sound and demineralized enamel were examined with atomic force microscopy (AFM). All data were analyzed with one-way ANOVA (p<0.05). Mean microhardness of demineralized enamel was significantly lower than in enamel at baseline (p<0.001). Remineralization significantly increased microharness in groups 2 to 5 compared to the control group (p<0.001). Percent EMH after remineralization with CPP-ACP was significantly higher than after fTCP (p=0.029), toothpaste (p< 0.001) or fluoride varnish (p<0.001); however, there was no significant difference between toothpaste and fluoride varnish (p=0.062). Microhardness increased more after fTCP treatment than after treatment with sodium fluoride varnish (p<0.001) or fluoridated toothpaste (p=0.045). AFM images showed that enamel roughness decreased most after treatment with fTCP, followed by CPP-ACP, toothpaste and fluoride varnish. The efficacy of CPP-ACP cream for remineralizing eroded enamel was greater than fluoride toothpaste, fluoride varnish or fTCP varnish. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. In vitro effect of calcium nanophosphate and high-concentrated fluoride agents on enamel erosion: an AFM study.

    PubMed

    Medeiros, Isabella Cavalcante; Brasil, Veruska Lima Moura; Carlo, Hugo Lemes; Santos, Rogerio Lacerda Dos; De Lima, Bruno Alessandro Silva Guedes; De Carvalho, Fabíola Galbiatti

    2014-05-01

    Calcium nanophosphate paste can provide ions to remineralize enamel. There are, however, no data available about the remineralizing effect of this paste on the prevention of enamel erosion, when compared with highly concentrated fluoride agents. To analyze the effect of calcium nanophosphate paste, fluoride gel, and varnish to protect against enamel erosion using surface Knoop hardness (KNH) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). Forty enamel blocks (4 × 4 mm) of third molars were used for 4 groups (n = 10): 1.23% fluoride gel (Fluorgel-DFL(®) ); calcium nanophosphate paste (Desensibilize NanoP-FGM(®) ); fluoride varnish (Duraphat-Colgate(®) ) and control (without agent). The specimens were immersed in cola drink for 5 min and 2 h in artificial saliva, 4× per day for 5 days. The agents were applied before the first erosive cycle. KNH values were obtained before and after the erosive challenge. The surface morphology was evaluated by AFM. anova, Tukey's, and T-Student tests were applied. After erosion, no significant difference was found for KNH among gel, nanophosphate, and varnish groups; however, they showed higher KNH than control group. Gel and nanophosphate paste showed a protective layer formation on enamel surface by AFM. The calcium nanophosphate paste showed similar protection against enamel erosion compared with high-concentrated fluoride agents, even containing lower fluoride concentration. © 2013 BSPD, IAPD and John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. The fractional urinary fluoride excretion of adults consuming naturally and artificially fluoridated water and the influence of water hardness: a randomized trial.

    PubMed

    Villa, A; Cabezas, L; Anabalón, M; Rugg-Gunn, A

    2009-09-01

    To assess whether there was any significant difference in the average fractional urinary fluoride excretion (FUFE) values among adults consuming (NaF) fluoridated Ca-free water (reference water), naturally fluoridated hard water and an artificially (H2SiF6) fluoridated soft water. Sixty adult females (N=20 for each treatment) participated in this randomized, double-blind trial. The experimental design of this study provided an indirect estimation of the fluoride absorption in different types of water through the assessment of the fractional urinary fluoride excretion of volunteers. Average daily FUFE values (daily amount of fluoride excreted in urine/daily total fluoride intake) were not significantly different between the three treatments (Kruskal-Wallis; p = 0.62). The average 24-hour FUFE value (n=60) was 0.69; 95% C.I. 0.65-0.73. The results of this study suggest that the absorption of fluoride is not affected by water hardness.

  19. Enhancement of luminescence in white emitting strontium fluoride core @ calcium fluoride shell nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumam, Nandini; Singh, Ningthoujam Premananda; Singh, Laishram Priyobarta; Srivastava, Sri Krishna

    2015-09-01

    Synthesis of lanthanide-doped fluoride SrF2:3Dy and SrF2:3Dy@CaF2 nanoparticles with different ratios of core to shell (1:0.5, 1:1 and 1:2) has been carried out by employing ethylene glycol route. X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns reveal that the structure of the prepared nanoparticles was of cubical shape, which is also evident in TEM images. The size of the nanoparticles for core (SrF2:3Dy) is found to increase when core is covered by shell (CaF2). It is also evident from Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) that ethylene glycol successfully controls the growth and acts as a shape modifier by regulating growth rate. In the photoluminescence investigation, emission spectra of SrF2:3Dy is found to be highly enhanced when SrF2:3Dy is covered by CaF2 due to the decrease of cross relaxation amongst the Dy3+-Dy3+ ions. Such type of enhancement of luminescence in homonanostructure SrF2:3Dy@CaF2 (core@shell) has not been studied so far, to the best of the authors' knowledge. This luminescent material exhibits prominently white light emitting properties as shown by the Commission Internationale d'Eclairage (CIE) chromaticity diagram. The calculated correlate colour temperature (CCT) values for SrF2:3Dy, SrF2:3Dy@CaF2 (1:0.05), SrF2:3Dy@CaF2 (1:1) and SrF2:3Dy@CaF2 (1:2) are 5475, 5476, 5384 and 5525 K, respectively, which lie in the cold white region.

  20. Erosion protection by calcium lactate/sodium fluoride rinses under different salivary flows in vitro.

    PubMed

    Borges, Alessandra B; Scaramucci, Taís; Lippert, Frank; Zero, Domenick T; Hara, Anderson T

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of a calcium lactate prerinse on sodium fluoride protection in an in vitro erosion-remineralization model simulating two different salivary flow rates. Enamel and dentin specimens were randomly assigned to 6 groups (n = 8), according to the combination between rinse treatments - deionized water (DIW), 12 mM NaF (NaF) or 150 mM calcium lactate followed by NaF (CaL + NaF) - and unstimulated salivary flow rates - 0.5 or 0.05 ml/min - simulating normal and low salivary flow rates, respectively. The specimens were placed into custom-made devices, creating a sealed chamber on the specimen surface connected to a peristaltic pump. Citric acid was injected into the chamber for 2 min, followed by artificial saliva (0.5 or 0.05 ml/min) for 60 min. This cycle was repeated 4×/day for 3 days. Rinse treatments were performed daily 30 min after the 1st and 4th erosive challenges, for 1 min each time. Surface loss was determined by optical profilometry. KOH-soluble fluoride and structurally bound fluoride were determined in specimens at the end of the experiment. Data were analyzed by 2-way ANOVA and Tukey tests (α = 0.05). NaF and CaL + NaF exhibited significantly lower enamel and dentin loss than DIW, with no difference between them for normal flow conditions. The low salivary flow rate increased enamel and dentin loss, except for CaL + NaF, which presented overall higher KOH-soluble and structurally bound fluoride levels. The results suggest that the NaF rinse was able to reduce erosion progression. Although the CaL prerinse considerably increased F availability, it enhanced NaF protection against dentin erosion only under hyposalivatory conditions.

  1. a Study of Epitaxial Growth of Calcium Fluoride on Silicon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Howard, L. K.

    Available from UMI in association with The British Library. The alkaline earth fluorides are good insulators at room temperature and have received significant attention as epitaxial dielectrics on semiconductors, their crystal structure and lattice parameters resembling those of common semiconductors. Such dielectrics enable passivation of semiconductors lacking stable oxides, isolation of devices on one substrate, and fabrication of 3-dimensional epitaxial heterostructures. The CaF_2/Si system was the structure investigated since the room temperature lattice mismatch is only 0.6%. A vacuum system was therefore developed for the deposition of CaF_2 onto silicon, and an RBS system, incorporating detector cooling, developed to establish the dependence of epitaxy on substrate temperature using channeling of 340 keV protons (giving an enhanced depth resolution and improved sensitivity to light elements compared to 2 MeV He^{+ } analysis). Epitaxial growth was obtained on n-type Si(111) and Si(100) substrates at 400-750 ^circC and 575-675^ circC respectively. A reaction between the CaF_2 and silicon occurred at higher temperatures producing non-uniform films. The epitaxy was also dependent on film thickness, the optimum de-channelled fractions obtained in the film of 8.25% and 15.2% for Si(111) and Si(100) substrates respectively were unobtainable for films under 1200 A. The insulator surface morphology was examined using Scanning Electron Microscopy. Epitaxial films on Si(111) were generally smooth, while preferential growth along <110> directions was observed for epitaxial insulators on Si(100), possibly due to slip along the (111) fluorite cleavage planes resulting from differences in the thermal expansion coefficients of CaF_2 and silicon and an increase in lattice mismatch with substrate temperature, although no cracking of the insulator was observed. The insulation and electrical properties of the films were investigated. Film resistivities upto 5E8 Omegacm and

  2. Safety of osteoporosis treatment with sodium fluoride, calcium phosphate and vitamin D.

    PubMed

    Hasling, C; Nielsen, H E; Melsen, F; Mosekilde, L

    1987-01-01

    During an 8-year period, 163 consecutive patients with spinal crush fracture osteoporosis started a 5-year treatment with a combination of sodium fluoride (60 mg/day), calcium phosphate (45 mmol/day) and vitamin D2 (18,000 IU/day), and were followed in the outpatient clinic every 3 months. Fourty-three patients completed the 5-year treatment. Mean observation time was 2.8 years, totalling 460 patient-years. Fifty-one percent of the patients experienced joint-related (37%) or gastrointestinal (25%) side effects at one time or another. All side effects subsided after a median 6-week withdrawal of fluoride. Six percent of the patients withdrew from treatment due to side effects. Mean serum calcium values slightly decreased during treatment and no hypercalcemic episodes were seen. Urinary excretion of calcium did not change during treatment. No changes in renal, bone marrow or thyroid functions could be detected. The liver function might be slightly affected as indicated by minute increases in serum bilirubin and decreases in serum coagulation factors and albumin, but no other changes in liver function were observed.

  3. In vitro enamel remineralization by low-fluoride toothpaste with calcium citrate and sodium trimetaphosphate.

    PubMed

    Hirata, Edo; Danelon, Marcelle; Freire, Isabelle Rodrigues; Delbem, Alberto Carlos Botazzo

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate in vitro the effect of a low fluoride toothpaste (450 µgF/g, NaF) combined with calcium citrate (Cacit) and sodium trimetaphosphate (TMP) on enamel remineralization. Bovine enamel blocks had the enamel surface polished sequentially to determine the surface hardness. After production of artificial carious lesions, the blocks selected by their surface hardness were submitted to remineralization pH cycling and daily treatment with dentifrice suspensions (diluted in deionized water or artificial saliva): placebo, 275, 450, 550 and 1,100 µgF/g and commercial dentifrice (positive control, 1,100 µgF/g). Finally, the surface and cross-section hardness was determined for calculating the change of surface hardness (%SH) and mineral content (%∆Z). Fluoride in enamel was also determined. The data from %SH, %∆Z and fluoride were subjected to two-way analysis of variance followed by Student-Newman-Keuls's test (p<0.05). The mineral gain (%SH and %∆Z) was higher for toothpastes diluted in saliva (p<0.05), except for the 450 µgF/g dentifrice with Cacit/TMP (p>0.05). The 450 Cacit/TMP toothpaste and the positive control showed similar results (p>0.05) when diluted in water. A dose-response was observed between fluoride concentration in toothpastes and fluoride present in enamel, regardless of dilution. It was concluded that it is possible to enhance the remineralization capacity of low F concentration toothpaste by of organic (Cacit) and inorganic (TMP) compounds with affinity to hydroxyapatite.

  4. Effect of Fluoride on the Morphology of Calcium Phosphate Crystals Grown on Acid-Etched Human Enamel

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Y.; Sun, Z.; Moradian-Oldak, J.

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the effect of fluoride ion concentration on the morphology of calcium phosphate crystals grown on acid-etched enamel as a model for tooth enamel erosion. Samples were immersed in calcification solution for 16 h and changes in crystal morphology were monitored by field emission scanning electron microscopy. Without fluoride, plate-like octacalcium phosphate crystals (20 nm thick, 2–10 μm wide) were formed. With 1–10 mg/l fluoride, arrays of denser needle-like nanocrystals (20–30 nm wide, >500 nm in length) were formed. We conclude that there is a minimal fluoride concentration (1 mg/l) that dramatically affects the morphology of calcium phosphate crystals grown on etched enamel in vitro. PMID:19321991

  5. Effect of fluoride on the morphology of calcium phosphate crystals grown on acid-etched human enamel.

    PubMed

    Fan, Y; Sun, Z; Moradian-Oldak, J

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the effect of fluoride ion concentration on the morphology of calcium phosphate crystals grown on acid-etched enamel as a model for tooth enamel erosion. Samples were immersed in calcification solution for 16 h and changes in crystal morphology were monitored by field emission scanning electron microscopy. Without fluoride, plate-like octacalcium phosphate crystals (20 nm thick, 2-10 microm wide) were formed. With 1-10 mg/l fluoride, arrays of denser needle-like nanocrystals (20-30 nm wide, >500 nm in length) were formed. We conclude that there is a minimal fluoride concentration (1 mg/l) that dramatically affects the morphology of calcium phosphate crystals grown on etched enamel in vitro.

  6. Enhancement of luminescence in white emitting strontium fluoride core @ calcium fluoride shell nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Kumam, Nandini; Singh, Ningthoujam Premananda; Singh, Laishram Priyobarta; Srivastava, Sri Krishna

    2015-12-01

    Synthesis of lanthanide-doped fluoride SrF2:3Dy and SrF2:3Dy@CaF2 nanoparticles with different ratios of core to shell (1:0.5, 1:1 and 1:2) has been carried out by employing ethylene glycol route. X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns reveal that the structure of the prepared nanoparticles was of cubical shape, which is also evident in TEM images. The size of the nanoparticles for core (SrF2:3Dy) is found to increase when core is covered by shell (CaF2). It is also evident from Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) that ethylene glycol successfully controls the growth and acts as a shape modifier by regulating growth rate. In the photoluminescence investigation, emission spectra of SrF2:3Dy is found to be highly enhanced when SrF2:3Dy is covered by CaF2 due to the decrease of cross relaxation amongst the Dy(3+)-Dy(3+) ions. Such type of enhancement of luminescence in homonanostructure SrF2:3Dy@CaF2 (core@shell) has not been studied so far, to the best of the authors' knowledge. This luminescent material exhibits prominently white light emitting properties as shown by the Commission Internationale d'Eclairage (CIE) chromaticity diagram. The calculated correlate colour temperature (CCT) values for SrF2:3Dy, SrF2:3Dy@CaF2 (1:0.05), SrF2:3Dy@CaF2 (1:1) and SrF2:3Dy@CaF2 (1:2) are 5475, 5476, 5384 and 5525 K, respectively, which lie in the cold white region. Graphical abstract White light emitting homonanostructure material SrF2:3Dy@CaF2(core@shell).

  7. Addition of a Fluoride-containing Radiopacifier Improves Micromechanical and Biological Characteristics of Modified Calcium Silicate Cements.

    PubMed

    Antonijevic, Djordje; Jeschke, Anke; Colovic, Bozana; Milovanovic, Petar; Jevremovic, Danimir; Kisic, Danilo; vom Scheidt, Annika; Hahn, Michael; Amling, Michael; Jokanovic, Vukoman; Busse, Björn; Djuric, Marija

    2015-12-01

    Calcium silicate cements (CSCs) with the addition of nanohydroxyapatite and calcium carbonate play a critical role in dental applications. To further improve their properties, particularly radiopacity and biointeractivity, the fluoride-containing radiopacifier ytterbium trifluoride (YbF3) was added to their composition, and biological and mechanical characteristics were evaluated. YbF3 was added to 3 different CSCs: cement I (CSC + calcium carbonate), cement II (CSC + nanohydroxyapatite), and Portland cement. Material characterization encompassed measurements of pH, calcium, ytterbium, and fluoride ion release; radiopacity; setting time; porosity; microindentation properties; wettability; and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopic, x-ray diffraction, and scanning electron microscopic analyses. Osteoblast- and osteoclast-like cells were grown on the materials' surface to evaluate their adherence. The addition of calcium carbonate, nanohydroxyapatite, and 30 wt% of YbF3 improved radiopacity and the setting time of experimental cements. The pH values did not differ among the groups. The greatest ytterbium and fluoride releases occurred in the Portland cement + YbF3 group. Combined x-ray diffraction and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopic analysis showed the presence of calcium hydroxide and calcium silicate hydrates. In addition, the presence of calcium ytterbium fluoride and ytterbium oxide proved that YbF3 reacted with cement compounds. Wettability of cement I + YbF3 was superior to other formulations, but its porosity and microindentation properties were weaker than in the Portland cement + YbF3 mixture. Cement II + YbF3 presented micromechanical indentation and porosity characteristics similar to the Portland-based cement formulation. Osteoclast- and osteoblast-like cells adhered to the cements' surfaces without alteration of the cell structural integrity. YbF3-containing CSCs with nanostructured hydroxyapatite and calcium carbonate are well suited for

  8. Fluoride availability from natural resources in The Gambia--implications for oral health care.

    PubMed

    Jordan, Rainer A; Markovic, Ljubisa; Gaengler, Peter

    2008-10-01

    Changing food patterns in combination with ineffective oral hygiene measures and insufficient bioavailability of fluoride from drinking water and other sources seem to impair the dental health status in developing countries, especially in the younger population. Therefore, preventive programmes in controlling dental caries progression should be based on local conditions. For mapping the drinking water fluoride content throughout The Gambia, samples of water from rural community wells, public water taps, commercial mineral water, and from the Gambia-River were measured. Additionally, fluoride concentrations of locally extracted table salt and green tea were determined. Showed the need for supplementary fluoride intake, because natural dietary fluoride availability is very low. Age-related recommendations for oral health care and for additional fluoride bioavailability are given, taking into account local socio-economic conditions in the Republic of The Gambia and similar developing countries.

  9. Fluoride: A naturally-occurring health hazard in drinking-water resources of Northern Thailand.

    PubMed

    Chuah, C Joon; Lye, Han Rui; Ziegler, Alan D; Wood, Spencer H; Kongpun, Chatpat; Rajchagool, Sunsanee

    2016-03-01

    In Northern Thailand, incidences of fluorosis resulting from the consumption of high-fluoride drinking-water have been documented. In this study, we mapped the high-fluoride endemic areas and described the relevant transport processes of fluoride in enriched waters in the provinces of Chiang Mai and Lamphun. Over one thousand surface and sub-surface water samples including a total of 995 collected from shallow (depth: ≤ 30 m) and deep (> 30 m) wells were analysed from two unconnected high-fluoride endemic areas. At the Chiang Mai site, 31% of the shallow wells contained hazardous levels (≥ 1.5 mg/L) of fluoride, compared with the 18% observed in the deep wells. However, at the Lamphun site, more deep wells (35%) contained water with at least 1.5mg/L fluoride compared with the shallow wells (7%). At the Chiang Mai site, the high-fluoride waters originate from a nearby geothermal field. Fluoride-rich geothermal waters are distributed across the area following natural hydrological pathways of surface and sub-surface water flow. At the Lamphun site, a well-defined, curvilinear high-fluoride anomalous zone, resembling that of the nearby conspicuous Mae Tha Fault, was identified. This similarity provides evidence of the existence of an unmapped, blind fault as well as its likely association to a geogenic source (biotite-granite) of fluoride related to the faulted zone. Excessive abstraction of ground water resources may also have affected the distribution and concentration of fluoride at both sites. The distribution of these high-fluoride waters is influenced by a myriad of complex natural and anthropogenic processes which thus created a challenge for the management of water resources for safe consumption in affected areas. The notion of clean and safe drinking water can be found in deeper aquifers is not necessarily true. Groundwater at any depth should always be tested before the construction of wells.

  10. Facet-mediated growth of silver nanoparticles on biaxial calcium fluoride nanorod arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Auer, Mathias; Ye, Dexian

    2017-01-01

    The surface orientation of metal nanoparticles is critical to their physical and chemical properties. This study aims on the understanding of the effect of surface orientation as well as heterogeneous epitaxy of metal nanoparticles at an interface between two materials with a large lattice mismatch. Silver nanoparticles of different diameters were grown on arrays of calcium fluoride (CaF2) nanorods using oblique angle deposition as a model system for this study. Scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) imaging were used to verify that the nanoparticles were selectively grown on the desired {111} facets of the nanorod tips. Using selected area diffraction and dark field imaging in TEM, it was shown that the nanoparticles were grown at a (111) orientation at the CaF2 interface with large lattice strains. Thus biaxially textured CaF2 nanorod arrays can be used as a catalytic support.

  11. Stable UV to IR supercontinuum generation in calcium fluoride with conserved circular polarization states.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Philip J M; Prokhorenko, Valentyn I; Miller, R J Dwayne

    2009-11-23

    The supercontinuum generated with a linearly polarized near-IR (775 nm) pump in rotated calcium fluoride is shown to have intrinsic intensity and polarization modulations. To mask the rotation of the crystal plate, we circularly polarize the pump and find greatly improved output parameters for the generated white light: intensity fluctuations of 0.5% limited only by pump laser stability, and a circular polarization state-matching that of the pump-over the entire visible spectrum. This polarization conservation allows the return of the supercontinuum to a linear polarization state or to a pair of linearly polarized beams with correlated intensity fluctuations. We were also able to extend the supercontinuum source deep into the ultraviolet with a frequency doubled (387 nm) pump, to serve as an new source to probe the region where most molecular photochemistry occurs.

  12. Study on the methylene blue adsorption from wastewaters by pore-expanded calcium fluoride sludge adsorbent.

    PubMed

    Hong, Junming; Lin, Bing; Hong, Gui-Bing; Chang, Chang-Tang

    2014-04-01

    The adsorption of methylene blue (MB) onto pore-expanded calcium fluoride sludge (ECF) by the batch adsorption technique was investigated. The results showed that the adsorption capacity increased with increasing MB concentration but decreased as pH was increased. In order to investigate the adsorption mechanisms, three simplified isotherm models and kinetic models were used in this study. The best-fit adsorption isotherm was achieved with the Temkin model. Furthermore, the pseudo-second-order kinetic model agreed very well with the dynamical behavior for the adsorption of MB onto ECF. Thermodynamic studies revealed that the adsorption process of MB onto ECF was spontaneous and exothermic. The results indicated that ECF adsorbed MB efficiently and could be used as a waste adsorbent for the removal of cationic dyes in wastewater treatment.

  13. Nanoscale “fluorescent stone”: Luminescent Calcium Fluoride Nanoparticles as Theranostic Platforms

    PubMed Central

    Li, Zhanjun; Zhang, Yuanwei; Huang, Ling; Yang, Yuchen; Zhao, Yang; El-Banna, Ghida; Han, Gang

    2016-01-01

    Calcium Fluoride (CaF2) based luminescent nanoparticles exhibit unique, outstanding luminescent properties, and represent promising candidates as nanoplatforms for theranostic applications. There is an urgent need to facilitate their further development and applications in diagnostics and therapeutics as a novel class of nanotools. Here, in this critical review, we outlined the recent significant progresses made in CaF2-related nanoparticles: Firstly, their physical chemical properties, synthesis chemistry, and nanostructure fabrication are summarized. Secondly, their applications in deep tissue bio-detection, drug delivery, imaging, cell labeling, and therapy are reviewed. The exploration of CaF2-based luminescent nanoparticles as multifunctional nanoscale carriers for imaging-guided therapy is also presented. Finally, we discuss the challenges and opportunities in the development of such CaF2-based platform for future development in regard to its theranostic applications. PMID:27877242

  14. Introduction of an interproximal mineralisation model to measure remineralisation caused by novel formulations containing calcium silicate, sodium phosphate salts and fluoride.

    PubMed

    Jones, Siân Bodfel; Davies, Maria; Chapman, Nicholas; Willson, Richard; Hornby, Kate; Joiner, Andrew; West, Nicola X

    2014-06-01

    To introduce a new interproximal mineralisation model and to investigate the effectiveness of novel toothpaste and dual phase gel formulations to remineralise acid softened enamel in a simulated interproximal environment. Specimens were positioned opposite each other with an approximately 100 μm space between enamel surfaces to simulate an interproximal environment. Target specimens were demineralised in 1% (w/v) citric acid, pH3.75. Specimens were daily immersed in artificial saliva (AS) for 1h, treated with formulations, re-immersed in AS for 6h, re-treated and re-immersed in AS for a further 1h. Study 1 evaluated prototype calcium silicate/phosphate fluoride toothpaste formulations. Study 2 evaluated novel calcium silicate/phosphate fluoride toothpaste and dual phase gel formulations. Both studies contained fluoridated and non-fluoridated controls. The surface microhardness of each target enamel block was measured following demineralisation and following days three, seven and fourteen for study one and after days one, three and seven for study two. This new mineralisation model was able to show increased remineralisation from calcium silicate/phosphate fluoride prototype formulations over fluoridated formulations alone, after three and seven days of treatment. Using this new model, the combined application of novel calcium silicate/phosphate fluoride toothpaste and novel calcium silicate/phosphate fluoride dual phase gel showed the greatest amount of remineralisation, which was significantly greater than sodium fluoride and non-fluoride controls. Employing a new interproximal mineralisation model successfully determined the remineralisation potential of novel calcium silicate/phosphate fluoride oral healthcare formulations. Modifying a mineralisation model to include specimens positioned in an interproximal environment allows us to better understand the remineralisation potential of oral healthcare products. It is important to minimise mineral loss at

  15. The effect of supplementation of calcium, vitamin D, boron, and increased fluoride intake on bone mechanical properties and metabolic hormones in rat.

    PubMed

    Ghanizadeh, G; Babaei, M; Naghii, Mohammad Reza; Mofid, M; Torkaman, G; Hedayati, M

    2014-04-01

    Evidence indicates that optimal nutrition plays a role in bone formation and maintenance. Besides major components of mineralization such as calcium, phosphorus, and vitamin D, other nutrients like boron and fluoride have beneficial role, too. In this study, 34 male Wistar rats were divided into five groups: control diet, fluoride, fluoride + boron, fluoride + calcium + vitamin D, and fluoride + boron + calcium + vitamin D. Boron equal to 1.23 mg, calcium and vitamin D equal to 210 mg + 55 IU and fluoride equal to 0.7 mg/rat/day was added to their drinking water for 8 weeks. Plasma blood samples and bones were collected. Findings are evidence that fluoride + boron intake revealed significant positive effects on bone mechanical properties and bone metabolic hormones. These findings suggest that combined intake of these two elements has beneficial effects on bone stiffness and breaking strength comparing to even calcium + vitamin D supplementation. This evidence dealing with health problems related to bone and skeletal system in humans should justify further investigation of the role of boron and fluoride with other elements in relation to bone.

  16. Divalent fluoride doped cerium fluoride scintillator

    DOEpatents

    Anderson, David F.; Sparrow, Robert W.

    1991-01-01

    The use of divalent fluoride dopants in scintillator materials comprising cerium fluoride is disclosed. The preferred divalent fluoride dopants are calcium fluoride, strontium fluoride, and barium fluoride. The preferred amount of divalent fluoride dopant is less than about two percent by weight of the total scintillator. Cerium fluoride scintillator crystals grown with the addition of a divalent fluoride have exhibited better transmissions and higher light outputs than crystals grown without the addition of such dopants. These scintillators are useful in radiation detection and monitoring applications, and are particularly well suited for high-rate applications such as positron emission tomography (PET).

  17. [Fluoride content of bottled natural mineral waters in Spain and prevention of dental caries].

    PubMed

    Maraver, Francisco; Vitoria, Isidro; Almerich-Silla, José Manuel; Armijo, Francisco

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the concentration of fluoride in natural mineral waters marketed in Spain in order to prevent tooth decay without the risk of causing dental fluorosis Descriptive and cross-sectional study during 2012. Natural mineral waters marketed in Spain. Three bottles with different bottling dates of 109 natural mineral waters (97 Spanish and 12 imported brands). Determination of fluoride by ion chromatography Median fluoride concentrations of the natural mineral waters bottled in Spain was 0.22 (range 0.00-4.16; interquartile range:0.37). Most samples (61 brands, 62%) contained less than 0.3mg/L. There are 19 Spanish brands with more than 0.6 mg/L. The median level in imported brands was 0.35 (range 0.10-1.21; interquartile range: 0.23). Only 28 of the 109 brands examined (25.6%) specified the fluoride content on the label. Good correlation was observed between the concentrations indicated and those determined. Fluoride concentrations in natural mineral waters showed high variation. Given the growing consumption of natural mineral waters in Spain, this type of information is important to make proper use of fluoride in the primary prevention of dental caries. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  18. The evolution of standards for naturally occurring fluorides: an example of scientific due process.

    PubMed Central

    Clark, N; Corbin, S

    1983-01-01

    In three quarters of a century of observation and research, the effects of fluoride on dental caries and on general bodily health have been well documented. An expanding data base has allowed a firming up of the guidance and standards for appropriate and safe levels of naturally occurring fluorides for human consumption. Over time, through specific recommendations, the maximum fluoride concentrations deemed appropriate have been altered, but by a process of considered adjustment. Although the Public Health Service has been responsible for the formalization of many of the recommended standards, those recommendations have been based on research from many fronts. In the most recent reconsideration of the standards for natural fluoride, the most exhaustive and thoroughly documented review to date was done, incorporating review by representatives from State, Federal, and private programs. Although the specific example of the development of standards for natural fluoride is used, it should be illustrative of similar processes that are constantly underway in regard to substances and factors with a potential impact on the public's health. Expansion of the data base through research and scientific inquiry will lay the foundation for future reconsideration of the standards for naturally occurring fluorides. PMID:6828638

  19. Factors affecting fluoride and natural organic matter (NOM) removal from natural waters in Tanzania by nanofiltration/reverse osmosis.

    PubMed

    Shen, Junjie; Schäfer, Andrea I

    2015-09-15

    This study examined the feasibility of nanofiltration (NF) and reverse osmosis (RO) in treating challenging natural tropical waters containing high fluoride and natural organic matter (NOM). A total of 166 water samples were collected from 120 sources within northern Tanzania over a period of 16 months. Chemical analysis showed that 81% of the samples have fluoride levels exceeding the WHO drinking guideline of 1.5mg/L. The highest fluoride levels were detected in waters characterized by high ionic strength, high inorganic carbon and on some occasions high total organic carbon (TOC) concentrations. Bench-scale experiments with 22 representative waters (selected based on fluoride concentration, salinity, origin and in some instances organic matter) and 6 NF/RO membranes revealed that ionic strength and recovery affected fluoride retention and permeate flux. This is predominantly due to osmotic pressure and hence the variation of diffusion/convection contributes to fluoride transport. Different membranes had distinct fluoride removal capacities, showing different raw water concentration treatability limits regarding the WHO guideline compliance. BW30, BW30-LE and NF90 membranes had a feed concentration limit of 30-40 mg/L at 50% recovery. NOM retention was independent of water matrices but is governed predominantly by size exclusion. NOM was observed to have a positive impact on fluoride removal. Several mechanisms could contribute but further studies are required before a conclusion could be drawn. In summary, NF/RO membranes were proved to remove both fluoride and NOM reliably even from the most challenging Tanzanian waters, increasing the available drinking water sources. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. An AC phase measuring interferometer for measuring dn/dT of fused silica and calcium fluoride at 193 nm

    SciTech Connect

    Shagam, R.N.

    1998-09-01

    A novel method for the measurement of the change in index of refraction vs. temperature (dn/dT) of fused silica and calcium fluoride at the 193 nm wavelength has been developed in support of thermal modeling efforts for the development of 193 nm-based photolithographic exposure tools. The method, based upon grating lateral shear interferometry, uses a transmissive linear grating to divide a 193 nm laser beam into several beam paths by diffraction which propagate through separate identical material samples. One diffracted order passing through one sample overlaps the undiffracted beam from a second sample and forms interference fringes dependent upon the optical path difference between the two samples. Optical phase delay due to an index change from heating one of the samples causes the interference fringes to change sinusoidally with phase. The interferometer also makes use of AC phase measurement techniques through lateral translation of the grating. Results for several samples of fused silica and calcium fluoride are demonstrated.

  1. A randomized controlled trial: the efficacy of eluoride rinse combined with calcium pre-rinse to increase overnight salivary fluoride.

    PubMed

    Chen, Margaret Sällberg; Strömberg, Elin; Vogel, Gerald Lee; Sandborgh-Englund, Gunilla

    2014-10-01

    Previous studies have shown that a calcium (Ca) pre-rinse given before a 228 ppm fluoride (F) rinse greatly increased salivary fluoride. Objectives. The aim of this randomized controlled trial is to examine if Ca pre-rinse could increase the fluoride concentration in the overnight unstimulated saliva after a 905 ppm F-rinse. Pre-rinses containing 150 mM, 75 mM or 0 mM Ca-lactate prepared by a validated pharmaceutical cGPM procedure were tested by nine subjects in a randomized order immediately followed by a 905 ppm F-rinse. The fluoride concentration was measured in unstimulated saliva collected 10 h later. The Ca pre-treatment significantly increased F level in overnight saliva following the 905 ppm fluoride rinse by 1.7× relative to the 905 ppm F-rinse alone; however, a significant effect was only observed with the highest (150 mM) Ca concentration as pre-rinse. Clinical relevance. High concentration F rinses (905 ppm) are commonly recommended for patients at high-risk of caries. A pre-treatment with high levels of Ca may further improve the cariostatic effect of this ion.

  2. Effect of fluoride varnish with added casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate on the acid resistance of the primary enamel.

    PubMed

    Tuloglu, Nuray; Bayrak, Sule; Tunc, Emine Sen; Ozer, Fusun

    2016-09-26

    This study aimed to investigate the effects of a fluoride varnish with added Casein Phosphopeptide-Amorphous Calcium Phosphate (CPP-ACP) treatments on acid resistance of primary teeth enamel. Enamel specimens obtained from 40 primary incisors (for surface microhardness testing) and 40 primary molars (for demineralization depth measurement) were randomly divided into four groups (n = 10 incisors and 10 molars) each according to surface treatment: no treatment (control), MI varnish (1-8 % sodium fluoride and 1-5 % CPP-ACP), Clinpro White (1-5 % sodium fluoride and <5 % modified tricalcium phosphate), Duraphat (<5 % sodium fluoride). Specimens were stored for 24 h in a moist environment. After varnish residues were removed, specimens were subjected to pH cycling. The effects of fluoride varnishes were evaluated according to surface microhardness, lesion depth and structural changes. Results were analyzed by ANOVA and Tukey's tests. The lowest changes in surface microhardness and lesion depth occurred in MI varnish group, followed by the Clinpro White, Duraphat and no treatment (control) group (for percentage of loss surface microhardness -20.80, -34.60, -57.80 and -73.40; for lesion depth values 23.60 μm ± 3.36, 29.85 μm ± 3.27, 40.37 μm ± 3.41 and 54.56 μm ± 4.16, respectively). Statistically significant differences in both surface microhardness and lesion depth were observed among all groups (P < 0.05). Within the limitations of this in vitro study, fluoride varnish containing CPP-ACP was more effective in increasing the acid resistance of primary enamel than other fluoride varnishes. However, further clinical research is needed to confirm these in vitro results.

  3. The development and validation of a new technology, based upon 1.5% arginine, an insoluble calcium compound and fluoride, for everyday use in the prevention and treatment of dental caries.

    PubMed

    Cummins, D

    2013-08-01

    This paper briefly discusses caries prevalence, the multi-factorial nature of caries etiology, caries risk and the role and efficacy of fluoride. The paper also highlights research on bacterial metabolism which provided understanding of the mouth's natural defenses against caries and the basis for the development of a new technology for the everyday prevention and treatment of caries. Finally, evidence that the technology complements and enhances the anti-caries efficacy of fluoride toothpaste is summarized. Global data show that dental caries is a prevalent disease, despite the successful introduction of fluoride. Caries experience depends on the balance between consumption of sugars and oral hygiene and the use of fluoride. Three scientific concepts are fundamental to new measures to detect, treat and monitor caries: (1) dental caries is a dynamic process, (2) dental caries is a continuum of stages from reversible, pre-clinical to irreversible, clinically detectable lesions, and (3) the caries process is a balance of pathological and protective factors that can be modulated to manage caries. Fluoride functions as a protective factor by arresting and reversing the caries process, but fluoride does not prevent pathological factors that initiate the process. A novel technology, based upon arginine and an insoluble calcium compound, has been identified which targets dental plaque to prevent initiation of the caries process by reducing pathological factors. As the mechanisms of action of arginine and fluoride are highly complementary, a new dentifrice, which combines arginine with fluoride, has been developed and clinically proven to provide superior caries prevention. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. The occurrence and geochemistry of fluoride in some natural waters of Kenya

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaciri, S. J.; Davies, T. C.

    1993-03-01

    In recent years the acquisition of considerable additional data on the hydrogeochemical behaviour of fluoride in natural waters of Kenya has been made possible by extensive surface-water and groundwater sampling campaigns as well as by improvements in analytical techniques. Ultimately, the principal source of fluoride relates to emissions from volcanic activity associated with the East African Rift System. Through various intermediate steps, but also directly, fluoride passes into the natural water system and components of the food chain. Ingestion by man is mainly through drinking water and other beverages. River waters in Kenya generally have a fluoride concentration lower than the recommended level (1.3 ppm) for potable water, thus promoting susceptibility to dental caries. Groundwaters and lake waters show considerably higher fluoride contents, resulting in the widespread incidence of fluorosis in areas where groundwater is the major source of drinking water, and lake fish is a regular component of the diet. This paper presents a synthesis of the data so far obtained on the sources and distribution of fluoride in the hydrological system of Kenya, examines the extent of fluorine toxicity and puts forward recommendations to combat or minimise the problem.

  5. Systemic fluoride.

    PubMed

    Sampaio, Fábio Correia; Levy, Steven Marc

    2011-01-01

    There is substantial evidence that fluoride, through different applications and formulas, works to control caries development. The first observations of fluoride's effects on dental caries were linked to fluoride naturally present in the drinking water, and then from controlled water fluoridation programs. Other systemic methods to deliver fluoride were later suggested, including dietary fluoride supplements such as salt and milk. These systemic methods are now being questioned due to the fact that many studies have indicated that fluoride's action relies mainly on its post-eruptive effect from topical contact with the tooth structure. It is known that even the methods of delivering fluoride known as 'systemic' act mainly through a topical effect when they are in contact with the teeth. The effectiveness of water fluoridation in many geographic areas is lower than in previous eras due to the widespread use of other fluoride modalities. Nevertheless, this evidence should not be interpreted as an indication that systemic methods are no longer relevant ways to deliver fluoride on an individual basis or for collective health programs. Caution must be taken to avoid excess ingestion of fluoride when prescribing dietary fluoride supplements for children in order to minimize the risk of dental fluorosis, particularly if there are other relevant sources of fluoride intake - such as drinking water, salt or milk and/or dentifrice. Safe and effective doses of fluoride can be achieved when combining topical and systemic methods.

  6. Calcium fluoride nanoparticles induced suppression of Streptococcus mutans biofilm: an in vitro and in vivo approach.

    PubMed

    Kulshrestha, Shatavari; Khan, Shakir; Hasan, Sadaf; Khan, M Ehtisham; Misba, Lama; Khan, Asad U

    2016-02-01

    Biofilm formation on the tooth surface is the root cause of dental caries and periodontal diseases. Streptococcus mutans is known to produce biofilm which is one of the primary causes of dental caries. Acid production and acid tolerance along with exopolysaccharide (EPS) formation are major virulence factors of S. mutans biofilm. In the current study, calcium fluoride nanoparticles (CaF2-NPs) were evaluated for their effect on the biofilm forming ability of S. mutans in vivo and in vitro. The in vitro studies revealed 89 % and 90 % reduction in biofilm formation and EPS production, respectively. Moreover, acid production and acid tolerance abilities of S. mutans were also reduced considerably in the presence of CaF2-NPs. Confocal laser scanning microscopy and transmission electron microscopy images were in accordance with the other results indicating inhibition of biofilm without affecting bacterial viability. The qRT-PCR gene expression analysis showed significant downregulation of various virulence genes (vicR, gtfC, ftf, spaP, comDE) associated with biofilm formation. Furthermore, CaF2-NPs were found to substantially decrease the caries in treated rat groups as compared to the untreated groups in in vivo studies. Scanning electron micrographs of rat's teeth further validated our results. These findings suggest that the CaF2-NPs may be used as a potential antibiofilm applicant against S. mutans and may be applied as a topical agent to reduce dental caries.

  7. High accuracy and transferability of a neural network potential through charge equilibration for calcium fluoride

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faraji, Somayeh; Ghasemi, S. Alireza; Rostami, Samare; Rasoulkhani, Robabe; Schaefer, Bastian; Goedecker, Stefan; Amsler, Maximilian

    2017-03-01

    We investigate the accuracy and transferability of a recently developed high-dimensional neural network (NN) method for calcium fluoride, fitted to a database of ab initio density functional theory (DFT) calculations based on the Perdew-Burke-Ernzerhof (PBE) exchange correlation functional. We call the method charge equilibration via neural network technique (CENT). Although the fitting database contains only clusters (i.e., nonperiodic structures), the NN scheme accurately describes a variety of bulk properties. In contrast to other available empirical methods the CENT potential has a much simpler functional form, nevertheless it correctly reproduces the PBE energetics of various crystalline phases both at ambient and high pressure. Surface energies and structures as well as dynamical properties derived from phonon calculations are also in good agreement with PBE results. Overall, the difference between the values obtained by the CENT potential and the PBE reference values is less than or equal to the difference between the values of local density approximation (LDA) and Born-Mayer-Huggins (BMH) with those calculated by the PBE exchange correlation functional.

  8. Polishing test of a poly-crystal calcium fluoride lens: toward the development of TMT WFOS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ozaki, Shinobu; Miyazaki, Satoshi; Tsuzuki, Toshihiro; Tanaka, Yoko

    2016-08-01

    Wide-Field Optical Spectrograph (WFOS) is one of the first-light instruments of Thirty Meter Telescope (TMT), and developed in an international collaboration led by University of California Santa Cruz. It covers the wavelength range from 310 nm to 1 μm which is divided at around 550 nm by a dichroic mirror. Calcium Fluoride (CaF2) is very useful to reduce aberration and has good transmittance even at 310 nm. Because a large mono-crystal CaF2 is difficult to be manufactured, we might have to use a poly-crystal CaF2. Comparing a mono-crystal, the poly-crystal is expected to have worse optical index homogeneity and larger surface figure error after polishing. Those effects on an image quality are unclear. To verify those effects, we conducted a polishing test of a small poly-crystal CaF2 lens as a first step. As a result, we found figure error around the boundary. The figure error is 139 nm PV and 26 nm RMS. Comparing a Zemax simulation, it is confirmed that the figure error does not have significant effect on the image quality.

  9. Water Atomization of Barium Fluoride: Calcium Fluoride for Enhanced Flow Characteristics of PS304 Feedstock Powder Blend

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stanford, Malcolm K.; DellaCorte, Christopher

    2003-01-01

    PS304 is a plasma spray deposited solid lubricant coating with feedstock composed of NiCr, Cr2O3, Ag, and BaF2-CaF2 powders. The effects of rounded BaF2-CaF2 particles on the gravity-fed flow characteristics of PS304 feedstock have been investigated. The BaF2-CaF2 powder was fabricated by water atomization using four sets of process parameters. Each of these powders was then characterized by microscopy and classified by screening to obtain 45 to 106 micron particles and added incrementally from 0 to 10 wt% to the other constituents of the PS304 feedstock, namely nichrome, chromia, and silver powders. The relationship between feedstock flow rate, measured with the Hall flowmeter, and concentration of fluorides was found to be linear in each case. The slopes of the lines were between those of the linear relationships previously reported using angular and spherical fluorides and were closer to the relationship predicted using the rule of mixtures. The results offer a fluoride fabrication technique potentially more cost-effective than gas atomization processes or traditional comminution processes.

  10. Comparative evaluation of the remineralizing efficacy of calcium sodium phosphosilicate agent and fluoride based on quantitative and qualitative analysis.

    PubMed

    Mony, Saranya; Rao, Arathi; Shenoy, Ramya; Suprabha, Baranya Srikrishna

    2015-01-01

    Calcium sodium phosphosilicate (NovaMin) is an agent that is claimed to release calcium and phosphate ions intraorally to help the self-repair process of enamel. It is used extensively as a desensitizing agent, but the chemical reactions that occur may promote apatite formation enhancing remineralization. The present study was undertaken to evaluate the ability of NovaMin to remineralize an experimentally induced demineralized lesion. The evaluation was done based on the quantitative and qualitative analysis of enamel over the period of 15 and 30 days. A sample of 120 noncarious premolar teeth extracted for orthodontic reasons were used for the study. Baseline data for hardness, Ca/PO 4 , and surface characteristics before and after demineralization process was obtained. All the teeth were brushed twice daily at 12 h interval with the test agents using a powered toothbrush for 2 min. The samples were tested on the 15 th and 30 th day. Calcium phosphate ratio and hardness in both the groups improved during the study period. Fluoride group showed higher values for Ca/PO 4 and hardness but was not statistically significant with the P > 0.05. Scanning electron microscope pictures showed that the deposition of the material over the decalcified enamel is more smoother and uniform with NovaMin and more irregular with fluoride. NovaMin is found to be as effective in improving the Ca/PO 4 ratio and hardness in a demineralized enamel as fluoride. Hence, it can be a new alternate material for remineralization of enamel with less toxic effects compared to fluorides.

  11. Stability of fluoride complex with silica and its distribution in natural water systems

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Roberson, C.E.; Barnes, R.B.

    1978-01-01

    Fluoride reacts with silicic acid to form SiF2-6. A fluoride electrode was used to obtain an equilibrium constant of 1030.18 for the reaction:Si(OH) 0 6 + 6F-+4H+ = SiF 2- 6 + 4H2O at 25??C. Although there may be some experimental evidence for existence of traces of species containing less than six F- ions per silicon (n = 6), the species SiF2-6 predominates for n values from about 0.1 to 6. Silicic-acid complexing with fluoride is important only in solutions which have rather low pH and low concentrations of other cations which compete with silicon for fluoride. Computations for cold volcanic condensates from Hawaii indicate that for some samples much of the silicon is complexed by fluoride as SiF2-6. However, in most cooled acidic natural water samples Al and Fe are more important than Si in complexing fluoride. ?? 1978.

  12. Calcium Orthophosphates in Nature, Biology and Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Dorozhkin, Sergey V.

    2009-01-01

    The present overview is intended to point the readers’ attention to the important subject of calcium orthophosphates. These materials are of the special significance because they represent the inorganic part of major normal (bones, teeth and dear antlers) and pathological (i.e. those appearing due to various diseases) calcified tissues of mammals. Due to a great chemical similarity with the biological calcified tissues, many calcium orthophosphates possess remarkable biocompatibility and bioactivity. Materials scientists use this property extensively to construct artificial bone grafts that are either entirely made of or only surface-coated with the biologically relevant calcium ortho-phosphates. For example, self-setting hydraulic cements made of calcium orthophosphates are helpful in bone repair, while titanium substitutes covered by a surface layer of calcium orthophosphates are used for hip joint endoprostheses and as tooth substitutes. Porous scaffolds made of calcium orthophosphates are very promising tools for tissue engineering applications. In addition, technical grade calcium orthophosphates are very popular mineral fertilizers. Thus ere calcium orthophosphates are of great significance for humankind and, in this paper, an overview on the current knowledge on this subject is provided.

  13. Relationship between fluoride intake in Serbian children living in two areas with different natural levels of fluorides and occurrence of dental fluorosis.

    PubMed

    Mandinic, Zoran; Curcic, Marijana; Antonijevic, Biljana; Lekic, Charles P; Carevic, Momir

    2009-06-01

    The amount of fluoride present naturally in drinking water is highly variable, being dependent upon the individual geological environment from which the water is obtained. Chronic exposure to exceeding fluoride doses induces set of toxic effects, i.e. fluorosis. The aim of this study was to examine fluoride content in water and in the most frequently used vegetables, potato and bean, grown in two different Serbian regions, i.e. control region (Valjevo) and high naturally occurring fluoride region (Vranjska Banja), and moreover, to correlate estimated daily intake with dental fluorosis occurrence as an adverse effect of fluoride exposure of schoolchildren in Serbia. Study confirmed significant difference in fluoride content in water, potato and bean, consumed by 12-year-old children in two investigated municipalities. Results of the study indicated positive and statistically significant correlation between daily intake of fluoride and dental fluorosis level in the fluorotic municipality of Vranjska Banja (r = 0.61; p = 0.000017). Obtained relationship could be evaluated by means of binary logistic regression analysis, whereas probability for fluorosis occurrence could be predicted using the following equation: fluorosis occurence (%) = (34.852 x Cwater -12.644 x Cpotato - 9.362 x Cbean - 7.673) x 100 (Chi-Square (3) = 33.033; p < 0.001).

  14. Reuse of hazardous calcium fluoride sludge from the integrated circuit industry.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Ping; Cao, Zhenbang; Ye, YiLi; Qian, Guangren; Lu, Bo; Zhou, Ming; Zhou, Jin

    2013-11-01

    The Chinese integrated circuit industry has been transformed from a small state-owned sector into a global competitor, but chip manufacturing produces large amounts of calcium fluoride sludges (CFS). In China, landfill is a current option for treating CFS. In order to solve the problem of unavailable landfill sites and prevent fluorine from dissolved CFS polluting water sources, CFS was tested as a component for a ceramic product made with sodium borate, sodium phosphate and waste alumina using a low-temperature sintering technology, and the effects of various factors on characteristics of the ceramic were investigated to optimize the process. The best sintering temperature was controlled at 700°C, and the optimal raw material ratio of the ceramic was 11% sodium borate, 54% sodium phosphate, 30% CFS and 5% waste alumina. The CFS ceramic was characterized by a morphological structure and X-ray diffraction. The results indicated that CFS was transformed into Na2Ca(PO4)F as an inert and a main crystalline phase in the ceramic, which was enclosed by the borophosphate glass. Toxicity characteristic leaching procedure, corrosion resistance and compressive strength tests verified CFS ceramic as a qualified construction ceramic material, and the fluorine from CFS was solidified in the inert crystalline phase, which would not be released to cause secondary pollution. This novel technology not only avoids the CFS hydrolyzing reaction forming harmful hydrofluoric acid gas at 800°C and above, but also produces high-performance ceramics as a construction material, in accordance with the concept of sustainable development.

  15. Pulp response to high fluoride releasing glass ionomer, silver diamine fluoride, and calcium hydroxide used for indirect pulp treatment: An in-vivo comparative study

    PubMed Central

    Korwar, Atish; Sharma, Sidhartha; Logani, Ajay; Shah, Naseem

    2015-01-01

    Aims and Objectives: The study aims at determining pulp response of two high fluoride releasing materials silver diamine fluoride (SDF) and Type VII glass ionomer cement (GIC) when used as indirect pulp treatment (IPT) materials. Materials and Methods: Deep Class V cavities were made on four first premolars indicated for extraction for orthodontic reasons. SDF, Type VII GIC, and calcium hydroxide base are given in three premolars, and one is kept control. Premolars were extracted 6 weeks after the procedure and subjected to histopathological examination to determine the pulp response. The results were analyzed using Chi-square test. Results: No inflammatory changes were observed in any of the groups. Significantly more number of specimens in SDF and Type VII GIC groups showed tertiary dentin deposition (TDD) when compared to control group. No significant difference was seen in TDD when intergroup comparison was made. Odontoblasts were seen as short cuboidal cells with dense basophilic nucleus in SDF and Type VII GIC group. Conclusion: The study demonstrated TDD inducing ability of SDF and Type VII GIC and also established the biocompatibility when used as IPT materials. PMID:26321822

  16. Pulp response to high fluoride releasing glass ionomer, silver diamine fluoride, and calcium hydroxide used for indirect pulp treatment: An in-vivo comparative study.

    PubMed

    Korwar, Atish; Sharma, Sidhartha; Logani, Ajay; Shah, Naseem

    2015-01-01

    The study aims at determining pulp response of two high fluoride releasing materials silver diamine fluoride (SDF) and Type VII glass ionomer cement (GIC) when used as indirect pulp treatment (IPT) materials. Deep Class V cavities were made on four first premolars indicated for extraction for orthodontic reasons. SDF, Type VII GIC, and calcium hydroxide base are given in three premolars, and one is kept control. Premolars were extracted 6 weeks after the procedure and subjected to histopathological examination to determine the pulp response. The results were analyzed using Chi-square test. No inflammatory changes were observed in any of the groups. Significantly more number of specimens in SDF and Type VII GIC groups showed tertiary dentin deposition (TDD) when compared to control group. No significant difference was seen in TDD when intergroup comparison was made. Odontoblasts were seen as short cuboidal cells with dense basophilic nucleus in SDF and Type VII GIC group. The study demonstrated TDD inducing ability of SDF and Type VII GIC and also established the biocompatibility when used as IPT materials.

  17. Natural fluoride in drinking water and myocardial infarction: A cohort study in Sweden.

    PubMed

    Näsman, Peggy; Granath, Fredrik; Ekstrand, Jan; Ekbom, Anders; Sandborgh-Englund, Gunilla; Fored, C Michael

    2016-08-15

    Large geographical variation in the coronary heart disease (CHD) incidence is seen worldwide and only a part of this difference is attributed to the classic risk factors. Several environmental factors, such as trace elements in the drinking water have been implicated in the pathogenesis of CHD. The objective was to assess the association between drinking water fluoride exposure and myocardial infarction in Sweden using nationwide registers. This large cohort consisted of 455,619 individuals, born in Sweden between January 1, 1900 and December 31, 1919, alive and living in their municipality of birth at the time of start of follow-up. Estimated individual drinking water fluoride exposure was stratified into four categories: very low (<0.3mg/l), low (0.3-<0.7mg/l), medium (0.7-<1.5mg/l) and high (≥1.5mg/l). In Cox regression analyses, compared to the very low fluoride group, the adjusted Hazard Ratio for the low fluoride group was 0.99 (95% confidence interval, 0.98-1.00), for the medium fluoride group 1.01 (95% confidence interval, 0.99-1.03) and 0.98 (95% confidence interval, 0.96-1.01) for the highest fluoride group. Adding water hardness to the model did not change the results. We conclude that the investigated levels of natural drinking water fluoride content does not appear to be associated with myocardial infarction, nor related to the geographic myocardial infarction risk variation in Sweden. Potential misclassification of exposure and unmeasured confounding may have influenced the results. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Structural, morphological and surface characteristics of two types of octacalcium phosphate-derived fluoride-containing apatitic calcium phosphates.

    PubMed

    Shiwaku, Y; Anada, T; Yamazaki, H; Honda, Y; Morimoto, S; Sasaki, K; Suzuki, O

    2012-12-01

    Octacalcium phosphate (OCP) has been reported to stimulate bone regeneration during hydrolysis into hydroxyapatite (HA). The present study was designed to characterize structural, morphological and surface properties of fluoride-containing apatitic calcium phosphates (CaP) obtained through OCP hydrolysis or direct precipitation of OCP in the presence of 12-230ppm of fluoride (F). The products were characterized by chemical analysis, X-ray diffraction (XRD), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), selected area electron diffraction (SAED) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) as well as measurements of surface area, solubility, osteoblastic activities and bovine serum albumin (BSA) adsorption. XRD analysis re-confirmed that both preparations yielded more apatitic CaP with a higher concentration of F. However, the co-precipitated products (CF-CaP) maintained the properties of OCP, in particular the solubility, whereas the hydrolysis products (HF-CaP) had the characteristics of fluoridated apatite. The crystals of plate-like OCP were changed to the crystals of rod-like CF-CaP and small irregular HF-CaP with the advance of the hydrolysis. The SAED analysis detected both OCP and apatite crystals even in the most hydrolyzed CF-CaP. Mouse bone marrow stromal ST-2 cells grew better on CF-CaP compared with HF-CaP. BSA adsorption was inhibited on HF-CaP more than on CF-CaP. These results show that OCP produces physicochemically distinct apatitic fluoridated CaP during hydrolysis, regarding the structure, the crystal morphology and the protein adsorption, depending on the fluoride introduction route, which provides biologically interesting material. Copyright © 2012 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Evolving Role of Molecular Imaging with (18)F-Sodium Fluoride PET as a Biomarker for Calcium Metabolism.

    PubMed

    Raynor, William; Houshmand, Sina; Gholami, Saeid; Emamzadehfard, Sahra; Rajapakse, Chamith S; Blomberg, Björn Alexander; Werner, Thomas J; Høilund-Carlsen, Poul F; Baker, Joshua F; Alavi, Abass

    2016-08-01

    (18)F-sodium fluoride (NaF) as an imaging tracer portrays calcium metabolic activity either in the osseous structures or in soft tissue. Currently, clinical use of NaF-PET is confined to detecting metastasis to the bone, but this approach reveals indirect evidence for disease activity and will have limited use in the future in favor of more direct approaches that visualize cancer cells in the read marrow where they reside. This has proven to be the case with FDG-PET imaging in most cancers. However, a variety of studies support the application of NaF-PET to assess benign osseous diseases. In particular, bone turnover can be measured from NaF uptake to diagnose osteoporosis. Several studies have evaluated the efficacy of bisphosphonates and their lasting effects as treatment for osteoporosis using bone turnover measured by NaF-PET. Additionally, NaF uptake in vessels tracks calcification in the plaques at the molecular level, which is relevant to coronary artery disease. Also, NaF-PET imaging of diseased joints is able to project disease progression in osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, and ankylosing spondylitis. Further studies suggest potential use of NaF-PET in domains such as back pain, osteosarcoma, stress-related fracture, and bisphosphonate-induced osteonecrosis of the jaw. The critical role of NaF-PET in disease detection and characterization of many musculoskeletal disorders has been clearly demonstrated in the literature, and these methods will become more widespread in the future. The data from PET imaging are quantitative in nature, and as such, it adds a major dimension to assessing disease activity.

  20. Comparison of aluminum modified natural materials in the removal of fluoride ions.

    PubMed

    Teutli-Sequeira, A; Solache-Ríos, M; Martínez-Miranda, V; Linares-Hernández, I

    2014-03-15

    The removal behaviors of fluoride ions from aqueous solutions and drinking water by aluminum modified hematite, zeolitic tuff and calcite were determined. Drinking water containing naturally 8.29 mg of fluoride ions per liter was characterized. The hematite, zeolitic tuff and calcite were aluminum modified by an electrochemical method. The effects of contact time and the dose of adsorbent were determined. The PZC (point of zero charge) values for aluminum modified hematite, zeolitic tuff and calcite were 6.2, 5.8 and 8.4, respectively. Adsorption kinetic data were best fitted to pseudo-second-order and Elovich models and equilibrium data to Langmuir-Freundlich isotherm model. The highest fluoride sorption capacities (10.25 and 1.16 mg/g for aqueous solutions and drinking water respectively) were obtained for aluminum modified zeolite with an adsorbent dosage of 10 g/L and an initial F(-) concentration of 9 and 8.29 mg/L for aqueous solutions and drinking water respectively (the final concentrations were 0.08 and 0.7 mg/L respectively). The main mechanism involved in the adsorption of fluoride ions is chemisorption on heterogeneous materials according to the results obtained by fitting the data to kinetic and isotherm models respectively. Aluminum modified zeolitic tuff showed the best characteristics for the removal of fluoride ions from water.

  1. High fluoride and low calcium levels in drinking water is associated with low bone mass, reduced bone quality and fragility fractures in sheep.

    PubMed

    Simon, M J K; Beil, F T; Rüther, W; Busse, B; Koehne, T; Steiner, M; Pogoda, P; Ignatius, A; Amling, M; Oheim, R

    2014-07-01

    Chronic environmental fluoride exposure under calcium stress causes fragility fractures due to osteoporosis and bone quality deterioration, at least in sheep. Proof of skeletal fluorosis, presenting without increased bone density, calls for a review of fracture incidence in areas with fluoridated groundwater, including an analysis of patients with low bone mass. Understanding the skeletal effects of environmental fluoride exposure especially under calcium stress remains an unmet need of critical importance. Therefore, we studied the skeletal phenotype of sheep chronically exposed to highly fluoridated water in the Kalahari Desert, where livestock is known to present with fragility fractures. Dorper ewes from two flocks in Namibia were studied. Chemical analyses of water, blood and urine were executed for both cohorts. Skeletal phenotyping comprised micro-computer tomography (μCT), histological, histomorphometric, biomechanical, quantitative backscattered electron imaging (qBEI) and energy-dispersive X-ray (EDX) analysis. Analysis was performed in direct comparison with undecalcified human iliac crest bone biopsies of patients with fluoride-induced osteopathy. The fluoride content of water, blood and urine was significantly elevated in the Kalahari group compared to the control. Surprisingly, a significant decrease in both cortical and trabecular bones was found in sheep chronically exposed to fluoride. Furthermore, osteoid parameters and the degree and heterogeneity of mineralization were increased. The latter findings are reminiscent of those found in osteoporotic patients with treatment-induced fluorosis. Mechanical testing revealed a significant decrease in the bending strength, concurrent with the clinical observation of fragility fractures in sheep within an area of environmental fluoride exposure. Our data suggest that fluoride exposure with concomitant calcium deficit (i) may aggravate bone loss via reductions in mineralized trabecular and cortical bone

  2. Access to Fluoridated Water and Adult Dental Caries: A Natural Experiment.

    PubMed

    Peres, M A; Peres, K G; Barbato, P R; Höfelmann, D A

    2016-07-01

    Systematic reviews have found no evidence to support a benefit of water fluoridation (WF) to prevent dental caries in adult populations. The aim of this natural experiment was to investigate whether lifetime access to fluoridated water is associated with dental caries experience among adults from Florianópolis, Brazil. The data originated from a population-based cohort study (EpiFloripa Adult) initiated in 2009 (n = 1,720) when participants were aged 20 to 59 years. The second wave was carried out in 2012 (n = 1,140) and included a dental examination and a face-to-face questionnaire. Participants residing at the same address since the age of 7 y or before were included in the primary analyses. Sensitivity analyses were also performed. WF was implemented in the city in 2 different periods of time: 1982 (60% of the population) and 1996. Dental caries was assessed by the decayed, missing, and filled teeth (DMFT) index. A combination of residential status, participant's age, and year of implementation of WF permitted the creation of participants' lifetime access to fluoridated water: >75%, 50% to 75%, and <50% of a participant's lifetime. Covariates included sex, age, socioeconomic mobility, educational attainment, income, pattern of dental attendance, and smoking. Participants who accessed fluoridate water <50% of their lifetime presented a higher mean rate ratio of DMFT (1.39; 95% CI, 1.05-1.84) compared with those living >75% of their lifetime with residential access to fluoridated water. Participants living between 50% and 75% and <50% of their lives in fluoridated areas presented a decayed and filled teeth mean ratio of 1.34 (95% CI, 1.02-1.75) and 1.47 (95% CI, 1.05-2.04) higher than those with residential access to fluoridated water >75% of their lifetime, respectively. Longer residential lifetime access to fluoridated water was associated with less dental caries even in a context of multiple exposures to fluoride. © International & American Associations for

  3. Mechanisms of Intracellular Calcium Homeostasis in MC3T3-E1 Cells and Bone Tissues of Sprague-Dawley Rats Exposed to Fluoride.

    PubMed

    Duan, Xiao-qin; Li, Yan-hui; Zhang, Xiu-yun; Zhao, Zhi-tao; Wang, Ying; Wang, Huan; Li, Guang-sheng; Jing, Ling

    2016-04-01

    Calcium homeostasis of osteoblasts (OBs) has an important role in the physiology and pathology of bone tissue. In order to study the mechanisms of intracellular calcium homeostasis, MC3T3-E1 cells and Sprague-Dawley rats were treated with different concentrations of fluoride. Then, we examined intracellular-free calcium ion ([Ca(2+)]i) in MC3T3-E1 cells as well as mRNA and protein levels of Cav1.2, the main subunit of L-type voltage-dependent calcium channels (VDCCs), Na(+)/Ca(2+) exchange carriers (NCS), and plasma membrane Ca(2+)-ATPase (PMCA), inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor (IP3R) channels, sarco/endoplasmic reticulum calcium ATPase 2b (SERCA2b)/ATP2A2 in vitro, and rat bone tissues in vivo. Our results showed that [Ca(2+)]i of fluoride-treated OBs increased in a concentration-dependent manner with an increase in the concentration of fluoride. We also found that the low dose of fluoride led to high expression levels of Cav1.2, NCS-1, and PMCA and low expression levels of IP3R and SERCA2b/ATP2A2, while the high dose of fluoride induced an increase in SERCA2b/ATP2A2 levels and decrease in Cav1.2, PMCA, NCS-1, and IP3R levels. These results demonstrate that calcium channels and calcium pumps of plasma and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membranes keep intracellular calcium homeostasis by regulating Cav1.2, NCS-1, PMCA, IP3R, and SERCA2b/ATP2A2 expression.

  4. Strontium hydroxyapatite and strontium carbonate as templates for the precipitation of calcium-phosphates in the absence and presence of fluoride

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sternitzke, Vanessa; Janousch, Markus; Heeb, Michèle B.; Hering, Janet G.; Johnson, C. Annette

    2014-06-01

    The heterogeneous precipitation of calcium-phosphates on calcium hydroxyapatite (Ca10(PO4)6(OH)2 or HAP) in the presence and absence of fluoride is important in the formation of bone and teeth, protection against tooth decay, dental and skeletal fluorosis and defluoridation of drinking water. Strontium hydroxyapatite (Sr10(PO4)6(OH)2 or SrHAP) and strontium carbonate (SrCO3) were used as calcium-free seed templates in precipitation experiments conducted with varying initial calcium-to-phosphate (Ca/P) or calcium-to-phosphate-to-fluoride (Ca/P/F) ratios. Suspensions of SrHAP or SrCO3 seed templates (which were calcium-limited for both templates and phosphate-limited in the case of SrCO3) were reacted at pH 7.3 (25 °C) over 3 days. The resulting solids were examined with Scanning Transmission Electron Microscopy (STEM), X-ray Diffraction (XRD), Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR), and X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS), X-ray Absorption Near Edge Structure (XANES), and Extended X-ray Absorption Fine Structure spectroscopy (EXAFS). Calcium apatite was the predominant phase identified by all techniques independent of the added Ca/P ratios and of the presence of fluoride. It was not possible to make an unambiguous distinction between HAP and fluorapatite (Ca10(PO4)6F2, FAP). The apatite was calcium-deficient and probably contained some strontium.

  5. Simultaneous exposure of excess fluoride and calcium deficiency alters VDR, CaR, and calbindin D 9 k mRNA levels in rat duodenal mucosa.

    PubMed

    Tiwari, S; Gupta, S K; Kumar, K; Trivedi, R; Godbole, M M

    2004-10-01

    Fluoride ingestion reduces intestinal calcium absorption; its molecular basis has not been studied. We studied the mRNA expression of calcium-sensing receptor (CaR), vitamin D receptor (VDR) and calbindin D 9 k (D 9 k) by northern blot analysis in the duodenal mucosa of rats. Weanling pups fed with chow diet containing adequate calcium (0.5% w/w) and drinking water (NaF < 1 ppm) served as controls (Group I) and were studied at 9 and 15 weeks. The pups, born to rats fed with a calcium-deficient diet (0.03%) and excess fluoride water (NaF 50 ppm), were continued on the same diet and water (Group II) until 9 weeks of age. Subsequently, Group II rats were divided into 4 subgroups; 3 subgroups with fluoride free water [II-A adequate calcium, II-B excess calcium (Ca 2%) and II-D calcium deficient], whereas II-C received fluorinated water and adequate calcium diet until 15 weeks. At 9 weeks, as compared to group-I, group-II had decreased VDR (P < 0.001) and D 9 k mRNA (P < 0.001), whereas CaR mRNA levels increased (P < 0.05). At 15 weeks, as compared to group-I, VDR mRNA further reduced in group II-D (P < 0.001) and II-C (P < 0.001), whereas it increased in group II-A. Removal of fluoride ingestion and calcium replenishment increased D 9 k mRNA expression, maximally in adequate calcium group (P < 0.001), while it was further reduced in group II-C (P < 0.001). CaR expression decreased significantly in all the groups. We conclude that excess fluoride reduces the mRNA levels of VDR and D 9 k in the duodenal mucosa of rats, thereby possibly reducing calcium absorption. Calcium supplementation with simultaneous fluoride removal improves their expression.

  6. In vitro evaluation of remineralization efficacy of different calcium- and fluoride-based delivery systems on artificially demineralized enamel surface

    PubMed Central

    Gangrade, Aparajita; Gade, Vandana; Patil, Sanjay; Gade, Jaykumar; Chandhok, Deepika; Thakur, Deepa

    2016-01-01

    Background: Caries is the most common dental disease facing the world population. Caries can be prevented by remineralizing early enamel lesions. Aim: To evaluate remineralization efficacy of stannous fluoride (SnF2), casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate with fluoride (CPP-ACPF) and calcium sucrose phosphate (CaSP). Materials and Methods: Fifty enamel samples were taken; they were divided into five groups (n = 10). Demineralization was carried out with Groups A, B, C, and E. Remineralization was carried out with Groups A, B, and C for 7 days using SnF2, CPP-ACPF, and CaSP, respectively. In Group D, no surface treatment was carried out, to mark as positive control whereas Group E was kept as negative control with only surface demineralization of enamel. Enamel microhardness was tested using Vickers's microhardness tester after 7 day remineralization regime. Statistical Analysis: One-way analysis of variance and post hoc Tukey tests were performed. Results: The mean microhardness values in descending order: Positive control > SnF2> CaSP > CPP-ACPF > negative control. Conclusion: All remineralizing agents showed improved surface remineralization. However, complete remineralization did not occur within 7 days. SnF2 showed the highest potential for remineralization followed by CaSP and CPP-ACPF. PMID:27563180

  7. Study on the influence of additives in an industrial calcium fluoride and waterworks sludge co-melting system.

    PubMed

    Hsiung, Jeng-Shiow; Huang, Yi-Chin; Li, Kung-Cheh; Yang, Shinhao

    2007-09-01

    This work explores the effect of additives on the pouring temperature in a waterworks and industrial calcium fluoride sludge co-melting system. Two kinds of sludge were mixed in various ratios to find a mixing ratio at which the operating temperature for subsequent additive tests was relatively low. Various proportions of either sodium carbonate (Na2CO3) or potassium carbonate (K2CO3) reagent were added to the mixed-sludge samples to elucidate the consequent changes in pouring temperature. The experimental results revealed that the pouring temperature was lowest when calcium fluoride was mixed with waterworks sludge in a ratio of 4:6 (w/w). Adding sodium carbonate or potassium carbonate reagent to the mixed-sludge samples further reduced the pouring temperature. Increasing the amount of sodium carbonate did not significantly reduce the pouring temperature beyond that observed when 2% was added, suggesting that 2% was the optimal additional percentage of sodium carbonate. In contrast, the pouring temperature was increased when over 2% potassium carbonate was added to the mixed-sludge samples, revealing that the optimal additional percentage of potassium carbonate was also 2%. These findings indicate that both sodium carbonate and potassium carbonate can be used as additives to increase the energy efficiency of the melting process, but sodium carbonate is more operationally convenient.

  8. Grounding a natural background level for fluoride in a potentially contaminated crystalline aquifer in south India.

    PubMed

    Sajil Kumar, P J

    2017-09-27

    Fluoride contamination is one of the most alarming issues for those countries that depend on groundwater drinking water supply. A careful examination of the hydrogeochemical conditions and routine monitoring of fluoride level are therefore quintessential. Estimation of natural background level (NBL) of fluoride becomes significant information for assessing the current and future contamination episodes. Vellore District in Tamil Nadu is a hard rock terrain known for its F-rich groundwater. In this study, we attempted to form a benchmark for fluoride using hydrochemical pre-selection (based on TDS and NO3) and cumulative probability plots (CPP). Principle components analysis is (PCA) applied to evaluate the corresponding factor grouping of the total of 68 samples, which is later mapped using geostatistical tool in ArcGIS. From the CPP, we derived the NBL of F as 0.75 mg/L. This value is compared with the observed concentration in each sample and they were spatially plotted based on the NBL. Resultant plot suggests that W-NW part of the study area has exceeded and E-EW regions are below the NBL of F. Spatial variation of the factor scores also supported this observation. Grounding an NBL and extending it to other parts of the potential contaminated aquifers are highly recommended for better understanding and management of the water supply systems.

  9. Synthesized mesoporous silica and calcium aluminate cement fillers increased the fluoride recharge and lactic acid neutralizing ability of a resin-based pit and fissure sealant.

    PubMed

    Surintanasarn, Atikom; Siralertmukul, Krisana; Thamrongananskul, Niyom

    2017-07-12

    This study evaluated the effect of different types of filler in a resin-based pit and fissure sealant on fluoride release, recharge, and lactic acid neutralization. Resin-based sealant was incorporated with 5% w/w of the following fillers: calcium aluminate cement (CAC), synthesized mesoporous silica (SI), a CAC and SI mixture (CAC+SI), glass-ionomer powder (GIC), and acetic acid-treated GIC (GICA). Sealant without filler served as control. The samples were immersed in deionized water or a lactic acid solution and the concentration of fluoride in the water, before and after fluoride recharge, and the lactic acid pH change, respectively, were determined. The CAC+SI group demonstrated the highest fluoride release after being recharged with fluoride gel. The CAC+SI group also demonstrated increased lactic acid pH. These findings suggest that a resin-based sealant containing synthesized mesoporous silica and calcium aluminate cement may enhance remineralization due to fluoride release and higher pH.

  10. Comparative evaluation of the efficacy of fluoride varnish and casein phosphopeptide - Amorphous calcium phosphate in reducing Streptococcus mutans counts in dental plaque of children: An in vivo study.

    PubMed

    Chandak, Shweta; Bhondey, Ashish; Bhardwaj, Amit; Pimpale, Jitesh; Chandwani, Manisha

    2016-01-01

    To assess the comparative efficacy of fluoride varnish and casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate (CPP-ACP) complex visa viz. Streptococcus mutans in plaque, and thereby the role that these two agents could play in the prevention of dental caries. A cluster sample of 120 caries inactive individuals belonging to moderate and high caries risk group were selected from 3-5-year-old age group based on the criteria given by Krassee and were randomized to four groups, namely, fluoride varnish - Group I, CPP-ACP complex - Group II, mixture of CPP-ACP complex -Gourp III, and fluoride and routine oral hygiene procedures as control - Group IV. The results thus obtained were analyzed using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) version 16. A statistically significant difference in the pre and post-application scores of S. mutans (P < 0.01) count was observed in all the groups with CPP-ACP plus fluoride group being the most proficient. Materials such as fluoride varnish, CPP-ACP, and CPP-ACP plus fluoride protects the tooth structure, preserving the integrity of primary dentition, with the most encouraging results being with CPP-ACP plus fluoride.

  11. Evaluation of optimal water fluoridation on the incidence and skeletal distribution of naturally arising osteosarcoma in pet dogs.

    PubMed

    Rebhun, R B; Kass, P H; Kent, M S; Watson, K D; Withers, S S; Culp, W T N; King, A M

    2016-01-14

    Experimental toxicological studies in laboratory animals and epidemiological human studies have reported a possible association between water fluoridation and osteosarcoma (OSA). To further explore this possibility, a case-control study of individual dogs evaluated by the UC Davis Veterinary Medical Teaching Hospital was conducted using ecologic data on water fluoridation based on the owner's residence. The case group included 161 dogs with OSA diagnosed between 2008-2012. Two cancer control groups included dogs diagnosed with lymphoma (LSA) or hemangiosarcoma (HSA) during the same period (n = 134 and n = 145, respectively). Dogs with OSA were not significantly more likely to live in an area with optimized fluoride in the water than dogs with LSA or HSA. Additional analyses within OSA patients also revealed no significant differences in age, or skeletal distribution of OSA cases relative to fluoride status. Taken together, these analyses do not support the hypothesis that optimal fluoridation of drinking water contributes to naturally occurring OSA in dogs.

  12. Fractional urinary fluoride excretion of 6-7-year-old children attending schools in low-fluoride and naturally fluoridated areas in the UK.

    PubMed

    Zohoori, F V; Walls, R; Teasdale, L; Landes, D; Steen, I N; Moynihan, P; Omid, N; Maguire, A

    2013-05-28

    F is an important trace element for bones and teeth. The protective effect of F against dental caries is well established. Urine is the prime vehicle for the excretion of F from the body; however, the relationship between F intake and excretion is complex: the derived fractional urinary F excretion (FUFE) aids understanding of this in different age groups. The present study aimed to investigate the relationships between (1) total daily F intake (TDFI) and daily urinary F excretion (DUFE), and (2) TDFI and FUFE in 6-7-year-olds, recruited in low-F and naturally fluoridated (natural-F) areas in north-east England. TDFI from diet and toothbrushing and DUFE were assessed through F analysis of duplicate dietary plate, toothbrushing expectorate and urine samples using a F-ion-selective electrode. FUFE was calculated as the ratio between DUFE and TDFI. Pearson's correlation and regression analysis were used to investigate the relationship between TDFI and FUFE. A group of thirty-three children completed the study; twenty-one receiving low-F water (0·30 mg F/l) and twelve receiving natural-F water (1·06 mg F/l) at school. The mean TDFI was 0·076 (SD 0·038) and 0·038 (SD 0·027) mg/kg per d for the natural-F and low-F groups, respectively. The mean DUFE was 0·017 (SD 0·007) and 0·012 (SD 0·006) mg/kg per d for the natural-F and low-F groups, respectively. FUFE was lower in the natural-F group (30 %) compared with the low-F group (40 %). Pearson's correlation coefficient for (1) TDFI and DUFE was +0·22 (P= 0·22) and for (2) TDFI and FUFE was − 0·63 (P< 0·001). In conclusion, there was no correlation between TDFI and DUFE. However, there was a statistically significant negative correlation between FUFE and TDFI.

  13. Biocompatibility of fluoride-coated magnesium-calcium alloys with optimized degradation kinetics in a subcutaneous mouse model.

    PubMed

    Drynda, Andreas; Seibt, Juliane; Hassel, Thomas; Bach, Friedrich Wilhelm; Peuster, Matthias

    2013-01-01

    The principle of biodegradation has been considered for many years in the development of cardiovascular stents, especially for patients with congenital heart defects. A variety of materials have been examined with regard to their suitability for cardiovascular devices. Iron- and magnesium-based stents were investigated intensively during the last years. It has been shown, that iron, or iron based alloys have slow degradation kinetics whereas magnesium-based systems exhibit rapid degradation rates. Recently we have developed fluoride coated binary magnesium-calcium alloys with reduced degradation kinetics. These alloys exhibit good biocompatibility and no major adverse effects toward smooth muscle and endothelial cells in in vitro experiments. In this study, these alloys were investigated in a subcutaneous mouse model. Fluoride coated (fc) magnesium, as well as MgCa0.4%, MgCa0.6%, MgCa0.8%, MgCa1.0%, and a commercially available WE43 alloy were implanted in form of (fc) cylindrical plates into the subcutaneous tissue of NMRI mice. After a 3 and 6 months follow-up, the (fc) alloy plates were examined by histomorphometric techniques to assess their degradation rate in vivo. Our data indicate that all (fc) alloys showed a significant corrosion. For both time points the (fc) MgCa alloys showed a higher corrosion rate in comparison to the (fc) WE43 reference alloy. Significant adverse effects were not observed. Fluoride coating of magnesium-based alloys can be a suitable way to reduce degradation rates. However, the (fc) MgCa alloys did not exhibit decreased degradation kinetics in comparison to the (fc) WE43 alloy in a subcutaneous mouse model.

  14. Efficacy of fluoride varnish and casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate for remineralization of primary teeth: a randomized clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Memarpour, Mahtab; Fakhraei, Ebrahim; Dadaein, Shorangize; Vossoughi, Mehrdad

    2015-01-01

    We aimed to evaluate the efficacy of oral hygiene instruction, fluoride varnish and casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate (CPP-ACP) for remineralizing white spot lesions (WSL), and the effect of these on the dmft index in primary teeth. In this 1-year, randomized clinical trial, 140 children aged 12-36 months with WSL in the anterior maxillary teeth were selected and randomly divided into 4 groups of 35 children each. Group 1 (control) received no preventive intervention. In group 2, there was oral hygiene and dietary counseling. In group 3, there was oral hygiene and the application of fluoride varnish at 4, 8 and 12 months after baseline. In group 4, there was oral hygiene and tooth mousse was applied by the parents twice a day over a 12-month period. At baseline and 4, 8 and 12 months after the intervention, the size of WSL in millimeters and the dmft index were recorded. One hundred and twenty-two children completed the study. Data were analyzed using the repeated-measures ANOVA test. In group 1, the mean percent WSL area and dmft index values had increased significantly at 12 months after baseline (p < 0.001). The interventions led to significant decreases in the size of the WSL; the greatest reduction was in group 4 (63%) followed by group 3 (51%) and group 2 (10%) after 12 months. The smallest increase in the dmft index was in group 4 (0.17), followed by groups 3 (0.3) and 2 (0.42). However, there were no significant differences between the groups (p < 0.001). Oral hygiene along with four fluoride varnish applications or constant CPP-ACP during the 12- month period reduced the size of WSL in the anterior primary teeth and caused a small increase in dmft index values.

  15. Phosphate removal from wastewaters by a naturally occurring, calcium-rich sepiolite.

    PubMed

    Yin, Hongbin; Yun, Ye; Zhang, Yinlong; Fan, Chengxin

    2011-12-30

    Developing an easily handled and cost-effective phosphate absorbent is crucial for the control of water eutrophication. In this study, a naturally occurring, calcium-rich sepiolite (NOCS) was evaluated for its feasibility as a phosphate absorbent candidate. Batch studies showed that phosphate sorption on NOCS followed a stepwise isotherm for concentrations between 5 and 1000 mg P/l, and the phosphate sorption was fitted well by the Freundlich equation. The estimated maximum phosphorus sorption capacity was 32.0 mg P/g, which was quite high compared with other natural materials and was comparable to some efficient manmade P absorbents. The NOCS sorption kinetics followed a pseudo-first-order model with an R(2) value of 0.999. The adsorption of phosphate was highly pH dependent. Phosphate adsorption decreased moderately with increasing pH values from 3.0 to 6.0, and it decreased sharply in alkaline conditions. Ionic strength, sulfate, nitrate and chloride anions had no effects on the phosphate removal capacity of NOCS, but fluoride and bicarbonate anions exerted large effects. Phosphorus fractionation indicated that phosphate removed from the solution was primarily formed as a calcium-bound phosphorus precipitation, which was further confirmed by SEM-EDS analysis. Moreover, phosphate was barely (<1.5%) desorbed from the phosphorus-adsorbed sepiolite regardless of pH value. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Selective reflection spectroscopy of a vapour at a calcium fluoride interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Passerat de Silans, T.; Laliotis, A.; Romanelli, M.; Chaves de Souza Segundo, P.; Maurin, I.; Bloch, D.; Ducloy, M.; Sarkisyan, A.; Sarkisyan, D.

    Fluoride materials exhibit surface resonances located in the thermal infrared. This makes them interesting to search for a fundamental temperature dependence of the atom-surface interaction, originating in the near-field thermal emissivity of the surface. Preliminary selective reflection experiments performed on a special Cs vapour cell that includes a CaF{2} interface show a temperature dependence, yet to be analyzed.

  17. Relationship of phosphatidylinositol bisphosphate hydrolysis to calcium mobilization and functional activation in fluoride-treated neutrophils.

    PubMed Central

    English, D; Debono, D J; Gabig, T G

    1987-01-01

    Sodium fluoride (20 mM) effected rapid hydrolysis of phosphatidylinositol bisphosphate (PIP2) in human neutrophils. Intracellular free Ca2+ levels increased after PIP2 hydrolysis but before respiratory burst activation. Both the increase in intracellular free Ca2+ levels and the extent of functional activation were dependent on the availability of extracellular Ca2+. The rate of F(-)-stimulated PIP2 hydrolysis, however, was not affected when the rise in cytosolic Ca2+ was severely limited by depletion of extracellular Ca2+. Fluoride caused the specific hydrolysis of PIP2 in isolated neutrophil plasma membranes. This effect occurred in the presence of low levels of available Ca2+ and was accompanied by the release of inositol phosphates. We conclude that PIP2 hydrolysis is an early event in the response of neutrophils to F-. This response is not Ca2+-regulated but may lead to an influx of Ca2+ from the extracellular medium. Activation of a PIP2-specific phospholipase independent of a change in cytosolic free Ca2+ levels may be the initial event in the stimulus-response pathway triggered by fluoride. PMID:3036911

  18. Relationship of phosphatidylinositol bisphosphate hydrolysis to calcium mobilization and functional activation in fluoride-treated neutrophils.

    PubMed

    English, D; Debono, D J; Gabig, T G

    1987-07-01

    Sodium fluoride (20 mM) effected rapid hydrolysis of phosphatidylinositol bisphosphate (PIP2) in human neutrophils. Intracellular free Ca2+ levels increased after PIP2 hydrolysis but before respiratory burst activation. Both the increase in intracellular free Ca2+ levels and the extent of functional activation were dependent on the availability of extracellular Ca2+. The rate of F(-)-stimulated PIP2 hydrolysis, however, was not affected when the rise in cytosolic Ca2+ was severely limited by depletion of extracellular Ca2+. Fluoride caused the specific hydrolysis of PIP2 in isolated neutrophil plasma membranes. This effect occurred in the presence of low levels of available Ca2+ and was accompanied by the release of inositol phosphates. We conclude that PIP2 hydrolysis is an early event in the response of neutrophils to F-. This response is not Ca2+-regulated but may lead to an influx of Ca2+ from the extracellular medium. Activation of a PIP2-specific phospholipase independent of a change in cytosolic free Ca2+ levels may be the initial event in the stimulus-response pathway triggered by fluoride.

  19. Improved laser damage threshold performance of calcium fluoride optical surfaces via Accelerated Neutral Atom Beam (ANAB) processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirkpatrick, S.; Walsh, M.; Svrluga, R.; Thomas, M.

    2015-11-01

    Optics are not keeping up with the pace of laser advancements. The laser industry is rapidly increasing its power capabilities and reducing wavelengths which have exposed the optics as a weak link in lifetime failures for these advanced systems. Nanometer sized surface defects (scratches, pits, bumps and residual particles) on the surface of optics are a significant limiting factor to high end performance. Angstrom level smoothing of materials such as calcium fluoride, spinel, magnesium fluoride, zinc sulfide, LBO and others presents a unique challenge for traditional polishing techniques. Exogenesis Corporation, using its new and proprietary Accelerated Neutral Atom Beam (ANAB) technology, is able to remove nano-scale surface damage and particle contamination leaving many material surfaces with roughness typically around one Angstrom. This surface defect mitigation via ANAB processing can be shown to increase performance properties of high intensity optical materials. This paper describes the ANAB technology and summarizes smoothing results for calcium fluoride laser windows. It further correlates laser damage threshold improvements with the smoothing produced by ANAB surface treatment. All ANAB processing was performed at Exogenesis Corporation using an nAccel100TM Accelerated Particle Beam processing tool. All surface measurement data for the paper was produced via AFM analysis on a Park Model XE70 AFM, and all laser damage testing was performed at Spica Technologies, Inc. Exogenesis Corporation's ANAB processing technology is a new and unique surface modification technique that has demonstrated to be highly effective at correcting nano-scale surface defects. ANAB is a non-contact vacuum process comprised of an intense beam of accelerated, electrically neutral gas atoms with average energies of a few tens of electron volts. The ANAB process does not apply mechanical forces associated with traditional polishing techniques. ANAB efficiently removes surface

  20. Randomized clinical trial of the efficacy of dentifrices containing 1.5% arginine, an insoluble calcium compound and 1450 ppm fluoride over two years.

    PubMed

    Li, Xue; Zhong, Yisi; Jiang, Xianjun; Hu Deyu; Mateo, Luis R; Morrison, Boyce M; Zhang, Yun-Po

    2015-01-01

    A double blind, randomized, unsupervised, parallel-group clinical trial was conducted on over 5,500 children in Sichuan Province, China. This clinical trial compared the anti-caries efficacy of two test dentifrices to that of a control dentifrice. The test dentifrices contained 1.5% arginine, 1450 ppm fluoride as sodium monofluorophosphate (MFP), and an insoluble calcium compound (either dicalcium phosphate or calcium carbonate). The positive control dentifrice contained 1450 ppm fluoride as sodium fluoride (NaF), in a silica base. The children were randomly assigned one of the toothpastes, and children residing in the same household were assigned the same dentifrice to use at home, twice a day. Three calibrated dentists examined the children at baseline, as well as after one and two years of product use. After one year of product use, there were no statistically significant differences among the three groups with respect to decayed, missing, and filled teeth (DMFT) or to decayed, missing, and filled surfaces (DMFS). After two years of product use, subjects in the two test groups using the dentifrices containing 1.5% arginine, 1450 ppm fluoride as MFP, and an insoluble calcium compound had a statistically significant reduction in DMFT increments of 20.5% and in DMFS increments of 19.6% when compared to subjects in the group using the positive control dentifrice. After two years, there were no statistically significant differences with respect to DMFT or DMFS between the two groups using the dentifrices containing 1.5% arginine, 1450 ppm fluoride as MFP, and an insoluble calcium compound. The use of the two test dentifrices demonstrated significant reductions in decayed, missing, and filled teeth and surfaces, however there was no statistically significant different between the two test dentifrices clinically after two years of using the toothpastes. The results of this two-year clinical investigation support the conclusion that dentifrices containing 1.5% arginine

  1. Concentration of Calcium, Phosphate and Fluoride Ions in Microbial Plaque and Saliva after Using CPP-ACP Paste in 6-9 year-old Children.

    PubMed

    Hr, Poureslami; Ra, Hoseinifar; Re, Hoseinifar; H, Sharifi; P, Poureslami

    2016-06-01

    Dental caries is one of the most common chronic diseases in children. The balance between demineralization and remineralization of the decayed teeth depends on the calcium and phosphate content of the tooth surface. Therefore, if a product such as casein phospho peptides - amorphous calcium phosphate (CPP- ACP) which can significantly increase the availability of calcium and phosphate in the plaque and saliva should have an anti-caries protective effect. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the concentration of calcium, phosphate and fluoride in the plaque and saliva of children before and after applying the CPP-ACP paste. A total of 25 children aged between 6-9 years were selected for this clinical trial study. At first, 1 ml of unstimulated saliva was collected and then 1 mg of the plaque sample was collected from the buccal surfaces of the two first primary molars on the upper jaw. In the next step, CPP-ACP paste (GC Corp, Japan) was applied on the tooth surfaces and then the plaque and saliva sampling was performed after 60 minutes. The amount of calcium ions was measured by Ion meter instrument (Metrohm Co, Swiss) and the amounts of phosphate and fluoride ions were measured by Ion Chromatography instrument (Metrohm Co, Swiss). Data were analyzed using paired t-test at a p < 0.05 level of significance. There were statistically significant differences in the calcium and phosphate concentration of the saliva and plaque before and after applying the CPP-ACP paste. There were also statistically significant differences in the fluoride levels of the plaque before and after applying the CPP-ACP paste. However, there were no statistically significant differences in the fluoride levels of the saliva before and after applying the CPP-ACP paste. In this study, the use of the CPP-ACP paste significantly increased the fluoride levels of the plaque and the calcium and phosphate levels of both saliva and plaque. Hence, CPP-ACP paste can facilitate the remineralization of

  2. Concentration of Calcium, Phosphate and Fluoride Ions in Microbial Plaque and Saliva after Using CPP-ACP Paste in 6-9 year-old Children

    PubMed Central

    HR, Poureslami; Ra, Hoseinifar; Re, Hoseinifar; H, Sharifi; P, Poureslami

    2016-01-01

    Statement of Problem: Dental caries is one of the most common chronic diseases in children. The balance between demineralization and remineralization of the decayed teeth depends on the calcium and phosphate content of the tooth surface. Therefore, if a product such as casein phospho peptides - amorphous calcium phosphate (CPP- ACP) which can significantly increase the availability of calcium and phosphate in the plaque and saliva should have an anti-caries protective effect. Objectives: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the concentration of calcium, phosphate and fluoride in the plaque and saliva of children before and after applying the CPP-ACP paste. Materials and Methods: A total of 25 children aged between 6-9 years were selected for this clinical trial study. At first, 1 ml of unstimulated saliva was collected and then 1 mg of the plaque sample was collected from the buccal surfaces of the two first primary molars on the upper jaw. In the next step, CPP-ACP paste (GC Corp, Japan) was applied on the tooth surfaces and then the plaque and saliva sampling was performed after 60 minutes. The amount of calcium ions was measured by Ion meter instrument (Metrohm Co, Swiss) and the amounts of phosphate and fluoride ions were measured by Ion Chromatography instrument (Metrohm Co, Swiss). Data were analyzed using paired t-test at a p < 0.05 level of significance. Results: There were statistically significant differences in the calcium and phosphate concentration of the saliva and plaque before and after applying the CPP-ACP paste. There were also statistically significant differences in the fluoride levels of the plaque before and after applying the CPP-ACP paste. However, there were no statistically significant differences in the fluoride levels of the saliva before and after applying the CPP-ACP paste. Conclusions: In this study, the use of the CPP-ACP paste significantly increased the fluoride levels of the plaque and the calcium and phosphate levels of both

  3. The calcium fluoride effect on properties of cryolite melts feasible for low-temperature production of aluminum and its alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tkacheva, O.; Dedyukhin, A.; Redkin, A.; Zaikov, Yu.

    2017-07-01

    The CaF2 effect on the liquidus temperature, electrical conductivity and alumina solubility in the potassium-sodium and potassium-lithium cryolite melts with cryolite ratio (CR = (nKF+nMF)/nAlF3, M = Li, Na) 1.3 was studied. The liquidus temperature in the quisi-binary system [KF-LiF-AlF3]-CaF2 changes with the same manner as in the [KF-NaF-AlF3]-CaF2. The electrical conductivity in the KF-NaF-AlF3-CaF2 melt decreases with increasing the CaF2 content, but it slightly raises with the first small addition of CaF2 into the KF-LiF-AlF3-CaF2 melts, enriched with KF, which was explained by the increased K+ ions mobility due to their relatively low ionic potential. The contribution of the Li+ cations in conductivity of the KF-LiF-AlF3-CaF2 electrolyte is not noteworthy. The Al2O3 solubility in the KF-NaF-AlF3 electrolyte rises with the increasing KF content, but the opposite tendency is observed in the cryolite mixtures containing CaF2. The insoluble compounds - KCaAl2F9 or KCaF3 - formed in the molten mixtures containing potassium and calcium ions endorse the increase of the liquidus temperature. The calcium fluoride effect on the side ledge formation in the electrolytic cell during low-temperature aluminum electrolysis is discussed.

  4. [Comparison of the therapeutic effect on skeletal fluorosis and impact on urine fluoride value among fire needle therapy, electroacupuncture and calcium carbonate D3].

    PubMed

    Wang, Tong; Yang, Xu-Guang; Wu, Zhong-Chao; Zhou, Jin-Cao; Chen, Zhong-Jie; Hu, Jing; Jiao, Yue; Zhao, Xiao-Guang

    2014-03-01

    To observe the impacts on skeletal fluorosis pain, joint motor dysfunction and urine fluoride excretion in the treatment with fire needle therapy, electroacupuncture and calcium carbonate D3. The randomized controlled trial was adopted. Ninety-five patients were randomized into a fire needle group (31 cases), an electroacupuncture group (33 cases) and a calcium carbonate D3 group (31 cases). In the fire needle group and the electroacupuncture group, Ashi points, Dazhui (GV 14), Geshu (BL 17), Quchi (LI 11), Hegu (LI 4), Xuehai (SP 10) points were selected and stimulated with fire needle and electroacupuncture separately, three times a week. In the calcium carbonate D3 group, calcium carbonate D3 tablets was prescribed for oral administration, 600 mg each time, twice a day. The duration of treatment was 2 months in the electroacupuncture group and calcium carbonate D3 group and 1 month in the fire needle group. VAS score, the range of motion (ROM) and urine fluoride value were compared before and after treatment in the patients of the three groups. After treatment, VAS value and ROM were improved significantly in the patients of the three groups (all P < 0.05), the difference was not significant in comparison of the three groups (all P > 0.05). After treatment, the urine fluoride value was increased significantly in the fire needle group [(7.89 +/- 3.61) mg/L vs (9.81 +/- 4.17) mg/L, P < 0.01] and was increased in the electroacupuncture group [(7.53 +/- 3.46) mg/L vs (8.97 +/- 4.21) mg/L, P < 0.05]. The difference was not significant in comparison before and after treatment in the calcium carbonate D3 group (P > 0.05). The fire needle therapy, electroacupuncture and calcium carbonate D3 all have the clinical value in the prevention and treatment of skeletal fluorosis and the difference in the therapeutic effect has not been discovered among them yet at present. But it has been found that the fire needle therapy and electroacupuncture display the active significance

  5. Removal of ammonium and heavy metals by cost-effective zeolite synthesized from waste quartz sand and calcium fluoride sludge.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qian; Lin, Bing; Hong, Junming; Chang, Chang-Tang

    2017-02-01

    This study focuses on the effectiveness of zeolite (10% CF-Z [0.5]) hydrothermally synthesized from waste quartz sand and calcium fluoride (CF) for ammonium ion and heavy metal removal. Zeolite was characterized through powder X-ray diffraction, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, micromeritics N2 adsorption/desorption analysis, and field emission scanning electron microscopy. The effects of CF addition, Si/Al ratio, initial ammonium concentration, solution pH, and temperature on the adsorption of ammonium on 10% CF-Z (0.5) were further examined. Results showed that 10% CF-Z (0.5) was a single-phase zeolite A with cubic-shaped crystals and 10% CF-Z (0.5) efficiently adsorbs ammonium and heavy metals. For instance, 91% ammonium (10 mg L(-1)) and 93% lead (10 mg L(-1)) are removed. The adsorption isotherm, kinetics, and thermodynamics of ammonium adsorption on 10% CF-Z (0.5) were also theoretically analyzed. The adsorption isotherm of ammonium and lead on 10% CF-Z (0.5) in single systems indicated that Freundlich model provides the best fit for the equilibrium data, whereas pseudo-second-order model best describes the adsorption kinetics. The adsorption degree of ions on 10% CF-Z (0.5) in mixed systems exhibits the following pattern: lead > ammonium > cadmium > chromium.

  6. Selective reflection spectroscopy at the interface between a calcium fluoride window and Cs vapour

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laliotis, A.; Maurin, I.; Fichet, M.; Bloch, D.; Ducloy, M.; Balasanyan, N.; Sarkisyan, A.; Sarkisyan, D.

    2008-03-01

    A special vapour cell has been built, that allows the measurement of the atom-surface van der Waals interaction exerted by a CaF2 window at the interface with Cs vapour. Mechanical and thermal fragility of fluoride windows make common designs of vapour cells impractical, so that we have developed an all-sapphire sealed cell with an internal CaF2 window. Although some impurities have remained when filling up the prototype cell, leading to line broadening and a shift, the selective reflection spectrum of the Cs D1 line (894 nm) makes apparent the weak van der Waals surface interaction. The uncertainties introduced by the effects of these impurities in the van der Waals measurement are nearly eliminated when comparing the selective reflection signal at the CaF2 interface of interest and at a sapphire window of the same cell. The ratio of the interactions respectively exerted by a sapphire interface and a CaF2 interface is found to be 0.55±0.25, in good agreement with the theoretical evaluation of ˜0.67.

  7. The role of fluoride and casein phosphopeptide/amorphous calcium phosphate in the prevention of erosive/abrasive wear in an in vitro model using hydrochloric acid.

    PubMed

    Wegehaupt, Florian J; Attin, T

    2010-01-01

    To investigate the effect of various fluoride compounds and casein phosphopeptide/amorphous calcium phosphate (CPP-ACP) on the reduction of erosive/abrasive tooth wear. Forty enamel samples were prepared from bovine lower incisors, stratified and allocated to 4 groups (1-4). Samples in group 1 remained untreated and served as negative controls. The test samples were treated for 2 min/day as follows: group 2 amine/sodium fluoride gel (pH 4.8; 12,500 ppm), group 3 sodium fluoride gel (pH 7.1; 12,500 ppm) and group 4 CPP-ACP-containing mousse. De- and remineralization cycling was performed for 20 days with 6 erosive attacks for 20 s with HCl (pH 3.0) per day. Samples were stored in artificial saliva between cycles and overnight. Toothbrushing (15 s; 60 strokes/min; load 2.5 N) with a toothpaste slurry was performed each day before the first and 1 h after the last erosive exposure. Tooth wear was measured by comparing baseline surface profiles with the corresponding posttreatment profiles. Tooth wear was significantly reduced in groups 2 and 3 compared with group 1, while the enamel loss of group 4 was not significantly lower compared to the negative control group 1. Between the fluoride groups 2 and 3, no significant difference in tooth wear was recorded. Erosive/abrasive tooth wear under the conditions used could be reduced significantly by the daily application of fluoride gels, irrespective of the fluoride compound, while the application of CPP-ACP-containing mousse was less effective. Copyright 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  8. Synergistic effects of proanthocyanidin, tri-calcium phosphate and fluoride on artificial root caries and dentine collagen.

    PubMed

    Epasinghe, Don Jeevanie; Kwan, Stephen; Chu, Dora; Lei, May Mei; Burrow, Michael Frances; Yiu, Cynthia Kar Yung

    2017-04-01

    Proanthocyanidin has been shown to enhance dentine collagen stability and remineralization of artificial root caries. To evaluate the effect of proanthocyanidin (PA) in combination with tri-calcium phosphate (TCP) and fluoride (F) on resistance to collagen degradation and remineralization of artificial caries lesions. Demineralized root fragments (n=75) were randomly divided into five groups based on treatments: (i) 6.5% PA, (ii) TCP+F, (iii) TCP+F+6.5% PA, (iv) 1000ppm fluoride (Positive control) and (v) deionized water (control). Each specimen was subjected to pH cycling at 37(o) C for 8days. Lesion depth and mineral loss were evaluated using microradiography and confocal laser scanning microscopy. The type of crystal formation was determined by XRD spectra. To evaluate the stability of root caries lesions against collagenase challenge, highly purified type VII collagenase from Clostridium was added to obtain a remineralizing solution that contained 7.5U/mL collagenase and pH cycling was repeated. The different remineralizing solutions were collected after the pH cycling to assess the amount of hydroxyproline release. Collagen degradation depth and lesion depth were evaluated using transverse microradiography. Resistance to collagen degradation was determined using hydroxyproline assay. Data were analyzed using one-way ANOVA and Tukey multiple comparison tests. Results of one-way ANOVA showed that the test solutions had a significant effect on mineral loss (p<0.001) and lesion depth (p<0.001) of artificial root caries. The lowest lesion depth and mineral loss were observed in the TCP+F+PA (p<0.05) group. The XRD patterns showed hydroxyapatite formation on TCP+F-treated artificial caries lesions, which were not altered by the addition of PA. The addition of PA to TCP+F significantly reduced collagen degradation depth, when compared to TCP only group (p<0.001). Lesion depth was the lowest in the PA and TCP+F+PA groups following collagenase degradation (p<0

  9. What is next for the Dietary Reference Intakes for bone metabolism related nutrients beyond calcium: phosphorus, magnesium, vitamin D, and fluoride?

    PubMed

    Bergman, Christine; Gray-Scott, Darlene; Chen, Jau-Jiin; Meacham, Susan

    2009-02-01

    The science supporting the Dietary Reference Intakes (DRI) for phosphorus, magnesium, vitamin D, and fluoride was examined in this review. Along with the previous article on calcium in this series both of these reviews represent all the DRI for nutrients considered essential for bone metabolism and health, as reported in the Dietary Reference Intakes for Calcium, Phosphorus, Magnesium, Vitamin D, and Fluoride (Institute of Medicine, Food and Nutrition Board (FNB), 1997). The Recomended Dietary Allowances (RDA) or adequate intake (AI), and the tolerable upper intake level (UL) were recommended for each of these essential nutrients. For adults and in the case of fluoride, for infants as well, UL were calculated since all of these nutrients have the potential for mild to detrimental side effects. Dietary intake data and controversies regarding the role these nutrients may play in other chronic diseases have also been discussed. Advances and controversies reported since the publication of the DRI for these nutrients were also addressed in this review. A recent Dietary Reference Intake Research Synthesis Workshop report identified an extensive range of suggested future research directions needed to improve our understanding of these bone-related nutrients and their contributions to human health.

  10. Evaluation of optimal water fluoridation on the incidence and skeletal distribution of naturally arising osteosarcoma in pet dogs

    PubMed Central

    Rebhun, R. B.; Kass, P. H.; Kent, M. S.; Watson, K. D.; Withers, S. S.; Culp, W. T. N.; King, A.M.

    2016-01-01

    Experimental toxicological studies in laboratory animals and epidemiological human studies have reported a possible association between water fluoridation and osteosarcoma (OSA). To further explore this possibility, a case-control study of individual dogs evaluated by the UC Davis Veterinary Medical Teaching Hospital was conducted using ecologic data on water fluoridation based on the owner’s residence. The case group included 161 dogs with OSA diagnosed between 2008–2012. Two cancer control groups included dogs diagnosed with lymphoma (LSA) or hemangiosarcoma (HSA) during the same period (n = 134 and n = 145, respectively). Dogs with OSA were not significantly more likely to live in an area with optimized fluoride in the water than dogs with LSA or HSA. Additional analyses within OSA patients also revealed no significant differences in age, or skeletal distribution of OSA cases relative to fluoride status. Taken together, these analyses do not support the hypothesis that optimal fluoridation of drinking water contributes to naturally occurring OSA in dogs. PMID:26762869

  11. Lubricating Properties of Ceramic-Bonded Calcium Fluoride Coatings on Nickel-Base Alloys from 75 to 1900 deg F

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sliney, Harold E.

    1962-01-01

    The endurance life and the friction coefficient of ceramic-bonded calcium fluoride (CaF2) coatings on nickel-base alloys were determined at temperatures from 75 F to 1900 F. The specimen configuration consisted of a hemispherical rider (3/16-in. rad.) sliding against the flat surface of a rotating disk. Increasing the ambient temperature (up to 1500 F) or the sliding velocity generally reduced the friction coefficient and improved coating life. Base-metal selection was critical above 1500 F. For instance, cast Inconel sliding against coated Inconel X was lubricated effectively to 1500 F, but at 1600 F severe blistering of the coatings occurred. However, good lubrication and adherence were obtained for Rene 41 sliding against coated Rene 41 at temperatures up to 1900 F; no blisters developed, coating wear life was fairly good, and the rider wear rate was significantly lower than for the unlubricated metals. Friction coefficients were 0.12 at 1500 F, 0.15 at 1700 F, and 0.17 at 1800 F and 1900 F. Because of its ready availability, Inconel X appears to be the preferred substrate alloy for applications in which the temperature does not exceed 1500 F. Rene 41 would have to be used in applications involving higher temperatures. Improved coating life was derived by either preoxidizing the substrate metals prior to the coating application or by applying a very thin (less than 0.0002 in.) burnished and sintered overlay to the surface of the coating. Preoxidation did not affect the friction coefficient. The overlay generally resulted in a higher friction coefficient than that obtained without the overlay. The combination of both modifications resulted in longer coating life and in friction coefficients intermediate between those obtained with either modification alone.

  12. Quantitative evaluation of the enamel caries which were treated with casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium fluoride phosphate.

    PubMed

    Yazicioglu, O; Yaman, B C; Güler, A; Koray, F

    2017-06-01

    The aim of this in vivo study was to quantitatively evaluate the remineralization of the enamel caries on smooth and occlusal surfaces using DIAGNOdent, after daily application of casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium fluoride phosphate (CPP-ACFP). Thirty volunteers, aged 18-30 years, with white spot lesions on the smooth and occlusal surfaces of the teeth were included in the study. These white spot lesions were visually examined and the degree of demineralization was quantitatively evaluated using DIAGNOdent. Volunteers with lesions scored as enamel caries on smooth surfaces (n = 109) and on occlusal surfaces (n = 176) were randomly divided into control and study groups. Both groups were instructed regarding oral hygiene and were asked to brush their teeth with the same tooth paste and tooth brush. In the study group, CPP-ACFP was applied daily for 4 min on the existing enamel caries lesions. After 4 weeks, the mineralization changes in enamel caries on the smooth and occlusal surfaces were assessed by DIAGNOdent. Recorded data were statistically analyzed by Wilcoxon signed-rank test and Mann-Whitney U-test. Comparison of DIAGNOdent values evaluated before and after the application of CPP-ACFP showed that the remineralization of enamel caries lesions on smooth and occlusal surfaces occurred in the study group (both, P < 0.001). The control group showed no quantitative changes at the end of 4 weeks (P > 0.05). At the end of the study period, the DIAGNOdent values differed significantly between the control and study groups (P < 0.001). Daily local application of CPP-ACFP for 4 min for 4 weeks results in significant remineralization of the initial caries lesions. CPP-ACFP can be used in the treatment of white spot lesions.

  13. Samarium doped calcium fluoride: A red scintillator and X-ray phosphor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dixie, Laura Catherine; Edgar, Andrew; Bartle, Colin Murray

    2014-07-01

    We report the photoluminescence, X-ray luminescence and scintillation properties of CaF2:Sm2+. Large single crystals of CaF2:Sm2+ were grown by simply slow cooling of the calcium fluorite melt doped with samarium metal. The photoluminescence at room temperature shows a broad red 5d→4f emission band peaked at 725 nm which is well matched to the response of silicon photodetectors, and only a very weak Sm3+ emission is observed. On cooling, the zero phonon lines of the Sm2+ emission can be observed. The lifetime of the broad emission is short at room temperature (46 ns), but temperature dependent, and slows on cooling, reaching a constant value of 1.25 μs below 180 K. The X-ray luminescence comprises both red Sm2+ and Sm3+ emissions and a blue self-trapped exciton band for low Sm concentrations, but just the broad red emission Sm2+ for highly doped (~1%) samples. The scintillation decay at room temperature shows two components, of 58 ns and 870 ns, in an integrated intensity ratio of 0.7:1 for a 0.1% Sm sample. The light output is around 15,000 photons/MeV when cooled by dry ice, with a scintillation decay time of 1.4 μs at that temperature. The performance of the material as an X-ray phosphor and scintillator is discussed.

  14. Ab-initio Calculations of Electronic Properties of Calcium Fluoride (CaF2)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bohara, Bir; Franklin, Lashounda; Malozovsky, Yuriy; Bagayoko, Diola

    We have performed first principle, local density approximation (LDA) calculations of electronic and related properties of cubic calcium fluorite (CaF2) . Our non-relativistic computations employed the Ceperley and Alder LDA potential and the linear combination of atomic orbitals (LCAO) formalism. The implementation of the LCAO formalism followed the Bagayoko, Zhao, and Williams (BZW) method, as enhanced by Ekuma and Franklin (BZW-EF). We discuss the electronic energy bands, including the large band gap, total and partial density of states, electron and hole effective masses, and the bulk modulus. Our calculated, indirect (X- Γ) band gap is 12.98 eV; it is 1 eV above an experimental value of 11.8 eV. The calculated bulk modulus (82.89 GPA) is excellent agreement with the experimental result of 82.0 +/-0.7. Our predicted equilibrium lattice constant is 5.42Å. Acknowledgments: This work is funded in part by the National Science Foundation (NSF) and the Louisiana Board of Regents, through LASiGMA [Award Nos. EPS- 1003897, NSF (2010-15)-RII-SUBR], and NSF HRD-1002541, the US Department of Energy, National, Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) (Award No. DE-NA-0002630), LaSPACE, and LONI-SUBR.

  15. [Influence of natural fluoride concentration in drinking water on dental health of first class pupils in an area with enhanced fluoride content at the beginning of the 21st century].

    PubMed

    Steinmeyer, R

    2011-08-01

    Since the end of the first half of the 20 (th) century it is well-known that fluoride concentrations in drinking water of about 1 ppm reduce the prevalence of dental caries by about 40-60%. This knowledge led to the fluoridation of drinking water during the second half of the 20 (th) century in many countries, including East Germany. Although the natural F (-) content in drinking water in Germany is usually very low, the eastern Eifel is one of the few larger areas in Germany with (nearly) optimal (0.7-1.0 ppm) or moderately enhanced (0.3-0.7 ppm) natural fluoride concentrations in drinking water. 30 years ago, in 1977, the caries prevalence of children of various age groups in the fluoride-rich areas of the eastern Eifel was established by Einwag to be about 40% lower than in adjacent fluoride-poor regions (0.1 ppm). Meanwhile fluoride has become available from many different sources for children of any age: e. g., toothpaste (with 500 ppm fluoride even for very young children who just got the first tooth), fluoridated salt, professional fluoride applications (paid by health insurances), the rising consumption of mineral waters (many of which have a fluoride content >0.3 ppm). This poses the question of the current influence of enhanced natural drinking water fluoride concentrations on caries prevalence in children. The results of the dental examinations of 9 555 pupils (6 or 7 years old) of the first classes of all 63 primary schools in the Landkreis Mayen-Koblenz from 5 years (2004/2005-2008/2009) are compared to the fluoride content of the drinking water. The data show no obvious correlation between dental health and fluoride concentration for any of the dental health parameters investigated. However, in spite of the low geographic resolution of social parameters, there was a notable connection between dental health status and sociodemographic indicators for the respective region. 30 years after the study by Einwag in the same region, the

  16. Enzymatic Activity of Glutathione S-Transferase and Dental Fluorosis Among Children Receiving Two Different Levels of Naturally Fluoridated Water.

    PubMed

    Bonola-Gallardo, Irvin; Irigoyen-Camacho, María Esther; Vera-Robles, Liliana; Campero, Antonio; Gómez-Quiroz, Luis

    2017-03-01

    This study was conducted to measure the activity of the enzyme glutathione S-transferase (GST) in saliva and to compare the activity of this enzyme in children with and without dental fluorosis in communities with different concentrations of naturally fluoridated water. A total of 141 schoolchildren participated in this cross-sectional study. Children were selected from two communities: one with a low (0.4 ppm) and the other with a high (1.8 ppm) water fluoride concentration. Dental fluorosis was evaluated by applying the Thylstrup and Fejerskov Index (TFI) criteria. Stimulated saliva was obtained, and fluoride concentration and GST activity were measured. The GST activity was compared among children with different levels of dental fluorosis using multinomial logistic regression models and odds ratios (OR). The mean age of the children was 10.6 (±1.03) years. Approximately half of the children showed dental fluorosis (52.5 %). The average GST activity was 0.5678 (±0.1959) nmol/min/μg. A higher concentration of fluoride in the saliva was detected in children with a higher GST activity (p = 0.039). A multinomial logistic regression model used to evaluate the GST activity and the dental fluorosis score identified a strong association between TFI = 2-3 (OR = 15.44, p = 0.007) and TFI ≥ 4 (OR = 55.40, p = 0.026) and the GST activity level, compared with children showing TFI = 0-1, adjusted for age and sex. Schoolchildren with higher levels of dental fluorosis and a higher fluoride concentration in the saliva showed greater GST activity. The increased GST activity most likely was the result of the body's need to inactivate free radicals produced by exposure to fluoride.

  17. Effect of fluoride and low versus high levels of dietary calcium on mRNA expression of osteoprotegerin and osteoprotegerin ligand in the bone of rats.

    PubMed

    Yu, Jun; Gao, Yanhui; Sun, Dianjun

    2013-06-01

    The ratio of osteoprotegerin ligand (OPGL) to osteoprotegerin (OPG) determines the delicate balance between bone resorption and synthesis. The main objective of the present study is to investigate the possible role of OPGL and OPG in the bone metabolism of rats exposed to fluoride and the protective or aggravating effect of calcium (Ca). In a 6-month study, 270 weanling male Sprague-Dawley rats weighing between 70 and 90 g were divided randomly into six groups of 45 rats in each group. Three groups (groups I, III, and V)served as controls and drank deionized water and were fed purified rodent diets containing either 1,000 mg Ca/kg (low Ca), 5,000 mg Ca/kg (normal Ca), or 20,000 mg Ca/kg (high Ca). The three experimental groups (groups II, IV, and VI) were given the same diets but they drank water containing 100 mg F ion/L (from NaF). Every 2 months 15 rats were randomly selected from each group and sacrificed for the study. The ratio of OPGL mRNA to OPG mRNA was significantly increased by the sixth month in the distal femur joints of the F-exposed rats. Serum tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase activity and serum calcitonin activity in the F-exposed groups was increased, although changes were not apparent in the serum alkaline phosphatase or Gla-containing proteins, especially in the low calcium and high calcium diet F-exposed groups. The results indicated that OPG and OPGL may play important roles in skeletal fluorosis, and that fluoride may enhance osteoclast formation and induce osteoclastic bone destruction. A high Ca diet did not play a protective role, but rather may aggravate the damage of fluoride.

  18. In vitro effect of calcium-containing prescription-strength fluoride toothpastes on bovine enamel erosion under hyposalivation-simulating conditions.

    PubMed

    Scaramucci, Taís; Borges, Alessandra B; Lippert, Frank; Zero, Domenick T; Hara, Anderson T

    2015-02-01

    To evaluate the ability of calcium-containing prescription-strength fluoride (F) toothpastes in preventing enamel erosion under low salivary flow simulating conditions. Enamel and dentin bovine specimens were assigned to the following groups: A - placebo; B - 1,100 ppm F/NaF (Aquafresh Advanced); C - 5,000 ppm F/NaF (Prevident 5000 Booster); D - 5000 ppm F/NaF+calcium sodium phosphosilicate (Topex Renew); and E - 5,000 ppm F/NaF+tri-calcium phosphate (Clinpro 5000). Specimens were positioned in custom-made devices, creating a sealed chamber on the surface, connected to peristaltic pumps. Citric acid was injected into the chamber for 2 minutes, followed by artificial saliva (0.05 ml/minute), for 60 minutes, 4x/day, for 3 days. Aquafresh was also tested under normal salivary flow (0.5 ml/minute), as reference (Group F). Specimens were exposed to the toothpastes for 2 minutes, 2x/day. After cycling, surface loss (SL) and concentration of loosely- and firmly-bound F were determined. Data were analyzed by ANOVA. Results: Group A (placebo) presented highest surface loss (SL), while Group F had the lowest, for both substrates. For enamel, none of the dentifrices differed from Group B or among each other. For dentin, none of the dentifrices differed from Group B, but Group E showed greater protection than Group C. Group E presented the highest F concentrations for both substrates, only matched by Group D for firmly-bound fluoride on enamel. All fluoridated dentifrices tested reduced SL, with no additional benefit from higher F concentrations. Some formulations, especially Clinpro 5000, increased F availability on the dental substrates, but no further erosion protection was observed.

  19. The prevalence of fluorosis in children is associated with naturally occurring water fluoride concentration in Mexico.

    PubMed

    Mariño, Rodrigo

    2013-09-01

    Fluorosis and dental caries in Mexican schoolchildren residing in areas with different water fluoride concentrations and receiving fluoridated salt. Garcia-Perez A, Irigoyen-Carnacho ME, Borges-Yanez A. Caries Res 2013;47(4):299-308. Rodrigo Mariño Is there an association between the presence of dental fluorosis and fluoride concentration in drinking water? and Is there an association between the severity of fluorosis and dental caries experience in schoolchildren residing in two rural towns in Mexico (with water fluoride concentrations of 0.70 and 1.50 ppm) that also receive fluoridated salt? Government: National Council of Science and Technology (Consejo Nacional de Ciencia y Tecnologia, CONACYT) Other: Autonomous University, Xochimilco (Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana, UAM-X) TYPE OF STUDY/DESIGN: Cross-sectional Level 3: Other evidence Not applicable. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. The artificial nature of fluoridated water: between nations, knowledge, and material flows.

    PubMed

    Sellers, Christopher

    2004-01-01

    An exercise in "historical ontology," this paper charts the contrasting ways fluoridated water and its effects crystallized as objects of knowledge and concern in three quite different realms over the mid twentieth century. Among U.S. health officials and experts, fluoridated water emerged and stabilized as a public health goal, preventing tooth decay. Indian doctors and scientists defined it as a public health problem, causing "skeletal fluorosis." Fluoridated water also acquired an intense presence among laypeople in the United States, especially those voting in local referenda on fluoridation. More often than not rejecting it, suspecting bias and myopia in profluoridation expertise, they cobbled together a lay ontology that proved predictive of the varied and changing flows of fluoridated water itself. The paper concludes by suggesting a principle of environmental symmetry as an aid to this kind of comparative ontology.

  1. Effect of home-bleaching gels modified by calcium and/or fluoride and the application of nano-hydroxyapatite paste on in vitro enamel erosion susceptibility.

    PubMed

    Santos, Luciana Floriani Thives Freitas; Torres, Carlos Rocha Gomes; Caneppele, Taciana Marco Ferraz; Magalhães, Ana Carolina; Borges, Alessandra Buhler

    2016-01-01

    This in vitro study compared the effect of bleaching agents modified by the addition of calcium and/or fluoride and the application of a nano-hydroxyapatite paste after bleaching, on the susceptibility of enamel to erosion. Bovine enamel cylindrical samples (3 mm diameter) were assigned to six groups (n = 20 specimens/group) according to the bleaching agent: no bleaching (C-control), 7.5% hydrogen peroxide gel (HP), HP with 0.5% calcium gluconate (HP+Ca), HP with 0.2% sodium fluoride (HP+F), HP with calcium and fluoride (HP+Ca+F) and HP followed by the application of a nano-hydroxyapatite agent (HP+NanoP). The gels were applied on the enamel surface (1 h) followed by cyclic erosive challenges (Sprite Zero®-2 min), for 14 days. The paste was applied after bleaching for 5 min (HP+NanoP). The enamel surface alteration was measured by contact profilometry (µm) (after 7 and 14 days). C-control (mean ± SD: 2.29 ± 0.37 at 7 days/4.86 ± 0.72 at 14 days) showed significantly lower loss compared to the experimental groups. HP+Ca (3.34 ± 0.37/6.75 ± 1.09) and HP+F (4.49 ± 0.92/7.61 ± 0.90) presented significantly lower enamel loss than HP (4.18 ± 0.50/10.30 ± 1.58) only for 14 days and HP+Ca+F (4.92 ± 1.03/8.12 ± 1.52) showed values similar to the HP+F group. The HP+NanoP (5.51 ± 1.04/9.61 ± 1.21) resulted in enamel loss similar to the HP after 14 days. It was found that 7.5% hydrogen peroxide increased the susceptibility of enamel to erosion. The addition of calcium or fluoride to the bleaching gel reduced the erosion effect, while the nano-hydroxyapatite agent did not provide any protective effect.

  2. Safety Evaluation of Fluoride Content in Tea Infusions Consumed in the Azores-a Volcanic Region with Water Springs naturally Enriched in Fluoride.

    PubMed

    Linhares, Diana Paula Silva; Garcia, Patrícia Ventura; Amaral, Leslie; Ferreira, Teresa; Dos Santos Rodrigues, Armindo

    2017-01-24

    Tea is the second most commonly consumed beverage in the world. It is well recognized that the consumption of tea in high quantities can promote the development of fluorosis. The main objective of this study is to estimate the exposure to fluoride in the Azores through drinking tea prepared with water from different volcanic locations, by i) investigating the fluoride (F) content of various commercial brands of tea (Camellia sinensis) marketed in Azores and ii) comparing tea releasing rates of F according to brewing time, considering the fluoride concentration in the different types of water used for the infusion. Fluoride contents were determined by ion-selective electrode in 30 samples of drinking water from three different locations and in 450 samples of tea (black and green tea) from three different brands. Fluoride concentration in water ranged from 0.29 to 1.56 ppm (Porto Formoso and Sete Cidades village, respectively). Fluoride concentrations increased with brewing time, reaching the highest values in the Azorean black and green tea infusions. For all the studied brands, a negative correlation was found between tea fluoride contents and the pH of the water used to prepare the infusion. Fluoride concentration in infusions was significantly associated with the background fluoride concentration in drinking water. Since the fluoride concentration in groundwater varies accordingly to the geological conditions and tea consumption can contribute to fluoride intake, it is important to define the limits for tea consumption, particularly in fluoride-rich areas. Graphical Abstract Fluoride concentrations in black and green tea for 3 minutes of brewing time and, association between fluoride concentration and pH with brewing time.

  3. The effect of casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate paste and sodium fluoride mouthwash on the prevention of dentine erosion: An in vitro study

    PubMed Central

    Moezizadeh, Maryam; Alimi, Azar

    2014-01-01

    Aim: The purpose was to compare the effect of 0.2% sodium fluoride mouthwash and casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate paste on prevention of dentin erosion. Materials and Methods: Buccal surfaces of 36 sound premolar teeth were ground flat and polished with abrasive discs. Half the polished surfaces were covered with tape to maintain a reference surface. Samples were randomly allocated into three groups. Group A was pretreated with tooth mousse (TM) 4 times a day for 5 days. Group B was pretreated with 0.2% sodium fluoride mouthwash 4 times a day for 5 days. Group C was considered as the control group with no pretreatment. In the next step, the samples were exposed to Coca-Cola 4 times a day for 3 days. After each erosive cycle, the samples were rinsed with deionized water and stored in artificial saliva. The surface loss was determined using profilometry. Results: The erosion in both Groups A and B was less than the control group. The surface loss in mouthwash group was significantly lower than in the control group. Erosion in TM group was more than the mouthwash group and less than the control group. Conclusion: Sodium fluoride mouthwash is more effective for prevention of dentin erosion. PMID:24944448

  4. Effect of fluoride on calcium ion concentration and expression of nuclear transcription factor kappa-B ρ65 in rat hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jing; Zhu, Wen-Jing; Xu, Xiao-Hong; Zhang, Zi-Gui

    2011-07-01

    The study investigated the neurotoxicity of drinking water fluorosis in rat hippocampus. Just weaning male Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were given 15, 30, 60 mg/L NaF solution and tap water for 9 months. The calcium ion concentration ([Ca(2+)]) in synaptosomes was measured by double wavelength fluorescence spectrophotometer and the expression level of nuclear transcription factor kappa-B ρ65 (NF-κB ρ65) in hippocampal CA3 region was measured by immunohistochemistry. The results showed that [Ca(2+)] significantly increased (F = 33.218, P < 0.01) in moderate fluoride group compared with the control group, and the expression level of NF-κB ρ65 in CA3 region presented an increasing trend as fluoride concentration increased. These results indicate that increase of synaptosomes [Ca(2+)] and NF-κB ρ65 expression level may be the molecular basis of central nervous system damage caused by chronic fluoride intoxication. NF-κB ρ65 in CA3 region is probably a target molecule for fluorosis.

  5. Purex Processing of Dissolved Sand, Slag, and Crucible Containing High Levels of Boric Acid and Calcium Fluoride

    SciTech Connect

    Kyser, E.A.

    1998-05-01

    The plutonium solution obtained from the dissolution of SSC in F- Canyon will be high in fluoride. Flowsheet adjustments must be made to increase the plutonium extraction in the solvent extraction cycle to keep Pu losses from being excessive.

  6. [Living conditions of deer in the provinces of Western Pomerania and Lubuskie as revealed by mandibular content of fluoride, calcium and magnesium. II. Detailed statistical analysis with the statistica neural networks software].

    PubMed

    Gutowska, Izabela; Machoy, Zygmunt; Chlubek, Dariusz; Machaliński, Bogusław

    2004-01-01

    Animals from areas contaminated by industrial emissions containing fluoride may accumulate it predominantly in hard tissues. The stable composition of the mandible makes it suitable for the study of accumulation of fluorides and other elements (Mg, Ca). It is also possible to determine the extent of pollution with fluorine compounds around industrial plants and to reveal some of the features of the natural habitat of wild animals. We applied the advanced technique of neural networks to investigate the simultaneous influence of multiple parameters on the accumulation of fluorine, magnesium, and calcium in the mandible of deer and possible interactions between these elements. The first step involved the generation of a neural network. In the present work, networks were created with the Intelligent Problem Solver (IPS). Input data were divided into three sets. One was used for training (Tr) of the network, another for validation (Ve) and control over the training process and the last one for testing (Te). Network quality was checked with the following parameters: Data Mean--average value of variable; Data SD--standard deviation of variable; Error Mean--average value of error; Abs. Mean--average error modulus; Error SD--standard deviation of error; SD Ratio--ratio of standard deviation of error to standard deviation of variable (Error SD/Data SD); Correlation--Pearson's correlation coefficient. For the model to be satisfactory, Pearson's correlation coefficient should be close to 1. In the case of complex problems with an unclear influence of parameters on the process, an analysis of parametric sensitivity must be performed. This task was accomplished automatically with the computer program. It was found that the effect of the same parameters on the accumulation of fluorine, magnesium and calcium varied. The results suggest interactions between the examined elements.

  7. Relative validity of the Iowa Fluoride Study targeted nutrient semi-quantitative questionnaire and the block kids' food questionnaire for estimating beverage, calcium, and vitamin D intakes by children.

    PubMed

    Marshall, Teresa A; Eichenberger Gilmore, Julie M; Broffitt, Barbara; Stumbo, Phyllis J; Levy, Steven M

    2008-03-01

    Food frequency questionnaires are commonly developed and subsequently used to investigate relationships between dietary intake and disease outcomes; such tools should be validated in the population of interest. We investigated the relative validities of the Iowa Fluoride Study targeted nutrient semi-quantitative questionnaire and Block Kids' Food Questionnaire in assessing beverage, calcium, and vitamin D intakes using 3-day diaries for reference. Cross-sectional. Children who completed Iowa Fluoride Study nutrient questionnaire at age 9.0+/-0.7 years (n=223) and/or the Block Kids' Food Questionnaire at age 8.3+/-0.3 years (n=129) and 3-day diaries during similar time periods. Intakes of beverages, calcium, and vitamin D. Spearman correlation coefficients, weighted kappa statistics, and percentages of exact agreement were used to estimate relative validities. Correlations between milk intakes (r=0.572) reported on diaries and the Iowa Fluoride Study nutrient questionnaires were higher than correlations for 100% juice, juice drinks, soda pop, and water (r=0.252 to 0.379). Correlations between milk intakes (r=0.571) and 100% juice intakes (r=0.550) reported on diaries and Block Kids' Food Questionnaires were higher than correlations for other beverages (r=0.223 to 0.326). Correlations with diaries for calcium (r=0.462) and vitamin D (r=0.487) intakes reported on Iowa Fluoride Study nutrient questionnaires were similar to correlations with diaries for calcium (r=0.515) and vitamin D (r=0.512) reported on Block Kids' Food Questionnaires. Weighted kappa statistics were similar between the Iowa Fluoride Study nutrient questionnaires and the Block Kids' Food Questionnaires for milk, 100% juice, and vitamin D, but were higher on the Iowa Fluoride Study nutrient questionnaires than on the Block Kids' Food Questionnaires for calcium. Percentages of exact agreement were higher for calcium, but lower for vitamin D for intakes reported on the Iowa Fluoride Study nutrient

  8. An in vitro comparison of casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate paste, casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate paste with fluoride and casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate varnish on the inhibition of demineralization and promotion of remineralization of enamel.

    PubMed

    Thakkar, Prachi Jayesh; Badakar, Chandrashekhar M; Hugar, Shivayogi M; Hallikerimath, Seema; Patel, Punit M; Shah, Parin

    2017-01-01

    This study aims to determine and compare the extent of inhibition of demineralization and promotion of remineralization of permanent molar enamel with and without application of three remineralizing agents. Forty extracted permanent molars were randomly divided into two groups 1 and 2, longitudinally sectioned into four and divided into subgroups A, B, C, and D. The sections were coated with nail varnish leaving a window of 3 mm × 3 mm. All sections of Group 1 were treated with their respective subgroup-specific agent: Casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate (CPP-ACP) paste for subgroup A, CPP-amorphous calcium phosphate fluoride (ACPF) paste for subgroup B, CPP-ACPF varnish for subgroup C and subgroup D served as a control. The sections were then subjected to demineralization for 12 days following which lesional depth was measured under the stereomicroscope. All the sections of Group 2 were subjected to demineralization for 12 days, examined for lesional depth, then treated with their respective subgroup specific agents and immersed in artificial saliva for 7 days. The sections were then examined again under the stereomicroscope to measure the lesional depth. CPP-ACPF varnish caused significant inhibition of demineralization. All three agents showed significant remineralization of previously demineralized lesions. However, CPP-ACPF varnish showed the greatest remineralization, followed by CPP-ACPF paste and then CPP-ACP paste. This study shows that CPP-ACPF varnish is effective in preventing demineralization as well as promoting remineralization of enamel. Thus, it can be used as an effective preventive measure for pediatric patients where compliance with the use of tooth mousse may be questionable.

  9. Fluoridation Basics

    MedlinePlus

    ... Water Fluoridation Journal Articles for Community Water Fluoridation Water Fluoridation Basics Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir ... because of tooth decay. History of Fluoride in Water In the 1930s, scientists examined the relationship between ...

  10. Calcium

    MedlinePlus

    ... You'll also find calcium in broccoli and dark green, leafy vegetables (especially collard and turnip greens, ... can enjoy good sources of calcium such as dark green, leafy vegetables, broccoli, chickpeas, and calcium-fortified ...

  11. Natural rubber latex coated with calcium phosphate for biomedical application.

    PubMed

    Borges, Felipe Azevedo; Filho, Edson de Almeida; Miranda, Matheus Carlos Romeiro; Dos Santos, Márcio Luiz; Herculano, Rondinelli Donizetti; Guastaldi, Antônio Carlos

    2015-01-01

    Natural rubber latex (NRL) is a flexible biomembrane that possesses angiogenic properties and has recently been used for guided bone regeneration, enhancing healing without fibrous tissue, allergies or rejection. Calcium phosphate (Ca/P) ceramics have chemical, biological, and mechanical properties similar to mineral phase of bone, and ability to bond to the host tissue, although it can disperse from where it is applied. Therefore, to create a composite that could enhance the properties of both materials, NRL biomembranes were coated with Ca/P. NRL biomembranes were soaked in 1.5 times concentrated SBF solution for seven days, avoiding the use of high temperatures. SEM showed that Ca/P has been coated in NRL biomembrane, XRD showed low crystallinity and FTIR showed that is the carbonated type B. Furthermore, hemolysis of erythrocytes, quantified spectrophotometrically using materials (Ca/P, NRL, and NRL + Ca/P) showed no hemolytic effects up to 0.125 mg/mL (compounds and mixtures), indicating no detectable disturbance of the red blood cell membranes. The results show that the biomimetic is an appropriate method to coat NRL with Ca/P without using high temperatures, aiming a new biomembrane to improve guided bone regeneration.

  12. The complex nature of calcium cation interactions with phospholipid bilayers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melcrová, Adéla; Pokorna, Sarka; Pullanchery, Saranya; Kohagen, Miriam; Jurkiewicz, Piotr; Hof, Martin; Jungwirth, Pavel; Cremer, Paul S.; Cwiklik, Lukasz

    2016-12-01

    Understanding interactions of calcium with lipid membranes at the molecular level is of great importance in light of their involvement in calcium signaling, association of proteins with cellular membranes, and membrane fusion. We quantify these interactions in detail by employing a combination of spectroscopic methods with atomistic molecular dynamics simulations. Namely, time-resolved fluorescent spectroscopy of lipid vesicles and vibrational sum frequency spectroscopy of lipid monolayers are used to characterize local binding sites of calcium in zwitterionic and anionic model lipid assemblies, while dynamic light scattering and zeta potential measurements are employed for macroscopic characterization of lipid vesicles in calcium-containing environments. To gain additional atomic-level information, the experiments are complemented by molecular simulations that utilize an accurate force field for calcium ions with scaled charges effectively accounting for electronic polarization effects. We demonstrate that lipid membranes have substantial calcium-binding capacity, with several types of binding sites present. Significantly, the binding mode depends on calcium concentration with important implications for calcium buffering, synaptic plasticity, and protein-membrane association.

  13. The complex nature of calcium cation interactions with phospholipid bilayers

    PubMed Central

    Melcrová, Adéla; Pokorna, Sarka; Pullanchery, Saranya; Kohagen, Miriam; Jurkiewicz, Piotr; Hof, Martin; Jungwirth, Pavel; Cremer, Paul S.; Cwiklik, Lukasz

    2016-01-01

    Understanding interactions of calcium with lipid membranes at the molecular level is of great importance in light of their involvement in calcium signaling, association of proteins with cellular membranes, and membrane fusion. We quantify these interactions in detail by employing a combination of spectroscopic methods with atomistic molecular dynamics simulations. Namely, time-resolved fluorescent spectroscopy of lipid vesicles and vibrational sum frequency spectroscopy of lipid monolayers are used to characterize local binding sites of calcium in zwitterionic and anionic model lipid assemblies, while dynamic light scattering and zeta potential measurements are employed for macroscopic characterization of lipid vesicles in calcium-containing environments. To gain additional atomic-level information, the experiments are complemented by molecular simulations that utilize an accurate force field for calcium ions with scaled charges effectively accounting for electronic polarization effects. We demonstrate that lipid membranes have substantial calcium-binding capacity, with several types of binding sites present. Significantly, the binding mode depends on calcium concentration with important implications for calcium buffering, synaptic plasticity, and protein-membrane association. PMID:27905555

  14. Comparative evaluation of the efficacy of fluoride varnish and casein phosphopeptide – Amorphous calcium phosphate in reducing Streptococcus mutans counts in dental plaque of children: An in vivo study

    PubMed Central

    Chandak, Shweta; Bhondey, Ashish; Bhardwaj, Amit; Pimpale, Jitesh; Chandwani, Manisha

    2016-01-01

    Aim: To assess the comparative efficacy of fluoride varnish and casein phosphopeptide–amorphous calcium phosphate (CPP–ACP) complex visa viz. Streptococcus mutans in plaque, and thereby the role that these two agents could play in the prevention of dental caries. Materials and Methods: A cluster sample of 120 caries inactive individuals belonging to moderate and high caries risk group were selected from 3–5-year-old age group based on the criteria given by Krassee and were randomized to four groups, namely, fluoride varnish – Group I, CPP–ACP complex – Group II, mixture of CPP–ACP complex –Gourp III, and fluoride and routine oral hygiene procedures as control – Group IV. The results thus obtained were analyzed using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) version 16. Results: A statistically significant difference in the pre and post-application scores of S. mutans (P < 0.01) count was observed in all the groups with CPP–ACP plus fluoride group being the most proficient. Conclusion: Materials such as fluoride varnish, CPP–ACP, and CPP–ACP plus fluoride protects the tooth structure, preserving the integrity of primary dentition, with the most encouraging results being with CPP–ACP plus fluoride. PMID:27891308

  15. Anomalous fluoride concentration in groundwater - is it natural or pollution? A stable isotope approach.

    PubMed

    Marimon, Maria Paula Casagrande; Knöller, Kay; Roisenberg, Ari

    2007-06-01

    Fluoride anomalies (up to 11 mg/l) have been detected in groundwater of the central region of Rio Grande do Sul State, Southern Brazil, in an area where fluorosis is endemic. Two hypotheses are investigated concerning the fluoride origin: lithochemical affiliation from regional rock or contamination by fertilisers application. These hypotheses are discussed based on the stable isotope data of water, nitrate, and sulphate, which indicates that the local precipitation is the main groundwater recharge source. The isotopic composition of groundwater sulphate is similar to that of fertiliser sulphate. However, a conclusive assignment of groundwater sulphate to fertiliser origin is not indicated because further possible sulphate sources fall into the same isotopic range. In contrast, the isotopic composition of dissolved nitrate suggests that there is no direct relationship to the use of NPK fertilisers. Hence, an origin of the high fluoride content in groundwater related to long-term rock-water interactions seems likely.

  16. A health risk assessment for fluoride in Central Europe.

    PubMed

    Fordyce, F M; Vrana, K; Zhovinsky, E; Povoroznuk, V; Toth, G; Hope, B C; Iljinsky, U; Baker, J

    2007-04-01

    Like many elements, fluorine (which generally occurs in nature as fluoride) is beneficial to human health in trace amounts, but can be toxic in excess. The links between low intakes of fluoride and dental protection are well known; however, fluoride is a powerful calcium-seeking element and can interfere with the calcified structure of bones and teeth in the human body at higher concentrations causing dental or skeletal fluorosis. One of the main exposure routes is via drinking water and the World Health Organisation currently sets water quality guidelines for the element. In Central Europe, groundwater resources that exceed the guideline value of 1.5 mg l-1 are widespread and effects on health of high fluoride in water have been reported. The aim of the current project was to develop a geographic information system (GIS) to aid the identification of areas where high-fluoride waters and fluorosis may be a problem; hence, where water treatment technologies should be targeted. The development of the GIS was based upon the collation and digitisation of existing information relevant to fluoride risk in Ukraine, Moldova, Hungary and Slovakia assembled for the first time in a readily accessible form. In addition, geochemistry and health studies to examine in more detail the relationships between high-fluoride drinking waters and health effects in the population were carried out in Moldova and Ukraine demonstrating dental fluorosis prevalence rates of 60-90% in adolescents consuming water containing 2-7 mg l-1 fluoride.

  17. Fluorides and non-fluoride remineralization systems.

    PubMed

    Amaechi, Bennett T; van Loveren, Cor

    2013-01-01

    Caries develops when the equilibrium between de- and remineralization is unbalanced favoring demineralization. De- and remineralization occur depending on the degree of saturation of the interstitial fluids with respect to the tooth mineral. This equilibrium is positively influenced when fluoride, calcium and phosphate ions are added favoring remineralization. In addition, when fluoride is present, it will be incorporated into the newly formed mineral which is then less soluble. Toothpastes may contain fluoride and calcium ions separately or together in various compounds (remineralization systems) and may therefore reduce demineralization and promote remineralization. Formulating all these compounds in one paste may be challenging due to possible premature calcium-fluoride interactions and the low solubility of CaF2. There is a large amount of clinical evidence supporting the potent caries preventive effect of fluoride toothpastes indisputably. The amount of clinical evidence of the effectiveness of the other remineralization systems is far less convincing. Evidence is lacking for head to head comparisons of the various remineralization systems. Copyright © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  18. Fluoride and calcium-phosphate coated sponges of the magnesium alloy AX30 as bone grafts: a comparative study in rabbits.

    PubMed

    Lalk, Mareike; Reifenrath, Janin; Angrisani, Nina; Bondarenko, Alexandr; Seitz, Jan-Marten; Mueller, Peter P; Meyer-Lindenberg, Andrea

    2013-02-01

    Biocompatibility and degradation of magnesium sponges (alloy AX30) with a fluoride (MgF(2) sponge, n = 24, porosity 63 ± 6 %, pore size 394 ± 26 μm) and with a fluoride and additional calcium-phosphate coating (CaP sponge, n = 24, porosity 6 ± 4 %, pore size 109 ± 37 μm) were evaluated over 6, 12 and 24 weeks in rabbit femurs. Empty drill holes (n = 12) served as controls. Clinical and radiological examinations, in vivo and ex vivo μ-computed tomographies and histological examinations were performed. Clinically both sponge types were tolerated well. Radiographs and XtremeCT evaluations showed bone changes comparable to controls and mild gas formation. The μCT80 depicted a higher and more inhomogeneous degradation of the CaP sponges. Histomorphometrically, the MgF(2) sponges resulted in the highest bone and osteoid fractions and were integrated superiorly into the bone. Histologically, the CaP sponges showed more inflammation and lower vascularization. MgF(2) sponges turned out to be better biocompatible and promising, biodegradable bone replacements.

  19. Natural variations in calcium isotope composition as a monitor of bone mineral balance in humans.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skulan, J.; Anbar, A.; Thomas, B.; Smith, S.

    2004-12-01

    The skeleton is the largest reservoir of calcium in the human body and is responsible for the short term control of blood levels of this element. Accurate measurement of changes in bone calcium balance is critical to understanding how calcium metabolism responds to physiological and environmental changes and, more specifically, to diagnosing and evaluating the effectiveness of treatments for osteoporosis and other serious calcium-related disorders. It is very difficult to measure bone calcium balance using current techniques, however, because these techniques rely either on separate estimates of bone resorption and formation that are not quantitatively comparable, or on complex and expensive studies of calcium kinetics using administered isotopic tracers. This difficulty is even more apparent and more severe for measurements of short-term changes in bone calcium balance that do not produce detectable changes in bone mineral density. Calcium isotopes may provide a novel means of addressing this problem. The foundation of this isotope application is the ca. 1.3 per mil fractionation of calcium during bone formation, favoring light calcium in the bone. This fractionation results in a steady-state isotopic offset between calcium in bone and calcium in soft tissues, blood and urine. Perturbations to this steady state due to changes in the net formation or resorption of bone should be reflected in changes in the isotopic composition of soft tissues and fluids. Here we present evidence that easily detectable shifts in the natural calcium isotope composition of human urine rapidly reflect changes in bone calcium balance. Urine from subjects in a 17-week bed rest study was analyzed for calcium isotopic composition. Bed rest promotes net resorption of bone, shifting calcium from bone to soft tissues, blood and urine. The calcium isotope composition of patients in this study shifted toward lighter values during bed rest, consistent with net resorption of isotopically

  20. A 12-week clinical study assessing the clinical effects on plaque metabolism of a dentifrice containing 1.5% arginine, an insoluble calcium compound and 1,450 ppm fluoride.

    PubMed

    Santarpia, R Peter; Lavender, Stacey; Gittins, Elizabeth; Vandeven, Mark; Cummins, Diane; Sullivan, Richard

    2014-04-01

    To evaluate the clinical effect on plaque metabolism of a dentifrice containing 1.5% arginine, an insoluble calcium compound and 1,450 ppm fluoride compared to a commercially available dentifrice containing 1,450 ppm fluoride in a silica base. A 12-week, parallel, randomized, double-blind study using 48 subjects was conducted at the Colgate-Palmolive Technology Center (Piscataway, NJ, USA). One group used a test dentifrice containing 1.5% arginine, an insoluble calcium compound and 1,450 ppm fluoride as sodium monofluorophosphate (MFP), and the other group used a commercial silica dentifrice with 1,450 ppm fluoride as sodium fluoride (NaF) as a control. Plaque metabolism analyses were conducted at baseline and after 2, 4, 6, 8, and 12 weeks of assigned product use. The plaque analyses included pH measurements before and after a sucrose rinse, ammonia production and lactic acid production. Subjects using the test dentifrice had significantly higher plaque pH values before (P< or = 0.01) and after (P< or = 0.045) a sucrose challenge than those using the commercially available control dentifrice. Subjects using the test dentifrice also produced higher levels of ammonia and lower levels of lactic acid compared to subjects using the control dentifrice.

  1. In vivo Spectrophotometric Assessment of the Tooth Whitening Effectiveness of Nite White 10% with Amorphous Calcium Phosphate, Potassium Nitrate and Fluoride, Over a 6-month Period

    PubMed Central

    Grobler, Sias R; Majeed, Abdul; Moola, Mohamad H; Rossouw, Roelof J; van Wyk Kotze, Theuns

    2011-01-01

    To clinically evaluate the effectiveness of Nite White 10% carbamide peroxide with amorphous calcium phosphate, potassium nitrate and fluoride over a 6-month follow-up period. Nite White was applied nightly for 14 days, according to the manufacturer’s instructions. The color of teeth 11 and 21 of twenty one subjects was measured with a spectrophotometer (L*; a*; b*). Subjects were instructed to take note of any tooth sensitivity and gingival irritation. For all three components (L*, a* and b*) statistical significant differences (p<0.05) in the values between base-line (pre-bleaching) and; after treatment, after 1-month, after 3-months as well as after 6-months were found (Wilcoxon Signed Rank Sum Test). Significant differences were also found amongst the ΔE*ab (0-14days) values and; ΔE*ab (0-1 month), ΔE*ab (0-3 months) and ΔE*ab (0-6 months). However, no significant differences were found between pairs of ΔE*ab (0-1 month), ΔE*ab (0-3 months) and ΔE*ab (0-6months). The decrease in ΔE*ab was the highest after 1 month (~30%). The highest decrease in L* was about 58% after 1 month. Over the 14-day treatment period tooth sensitivity was 24.5%. Conclusions: Nite White ACP demonstrated significant tooth-whitening (unit increase = 5.29) with a low tooth sensitivity (25%) probably due to the presence of amorphous calcium phosphate, potassium nitrate, and fluoride. The whitening effect decreased the most after one month and then maintained well even after a 6 month period (units 3.89). Clinical implications The product is a good tooth whitener with a color increase of about 5 units accompanied with a low sensitivity. PMID:21566718

  2. Effect of substrate nature on the electrochemical deposition of calcium-deficient hydroxyapatites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gualdrón-Reyes, A. F.; Domínguez-Vélez, V.; Morales-Morales, J. A.; Cabanzo, R.; Meléndez, A. M.

    2017-01-01

    Calcium phosphates were obtained by reducing nitrate ions to produce hydroxide ions on TiO2/stainless steel and TiO2/titanium electrodes. TiO2 coatings on metallic substrates were prepared by sol-gel dip-coating method. The morphology of deposits was observed by FESEM. Chemical nature of calcium phosphate deposits was identified by Raman micro-spectroscopy and FESEM/EDS microanalysis. Electrochemical behavior of nitrate and nitrite reduction on stainless steel and titanium electrodes was studied by linear sweep voltammetry. In addition, voltammetric study of the calcium phosphate electrodeposition on both electrodes was performed. From these measurements was selected the potential to form a calcium phosphate. A catalytic current associated to nitrate reduction reaction was obtained for stainless steel electrode, leading to significant deposition of calcium phosphate. Ca/P ratio for both substrates was less than 1.67. The formation of calcium deficient hydroxyapatite was confirmed by Raman spectroscopy.

  3. Calcium

    MedlinePlus

    ... in luck if you like sardines and canned salmon with bones. Almond milk. previous continue Working Calcium ... drinks, and cereals. Other Considerations for Building Bones Vitamin D is essential for calcium absorption, so it's ...

  4. Mechanism of action of a desensitizing fluoride toothpaste delivering calcium and phosphate ingredients in the treatment of dental hypersensitivity. Part III: Prevention of dye penetration through dentin vs a calcium- and phosphate-free control.

    PubMed

    Winston, Anthony E; Charig, Andrew J; Thong, Stephen

    2010-01-01

    It is generally accepted that the pain of dental hypersensitivity resulting from gum recession is from the movement of fluid within the exposed tubules of dentin, causing changes in pressure on the nerve within the pulpal cavity. One method of treating hypersensitivity is to occlude the tubules, preventing fluid movement. This article discusses the use of a dye penetration technique, which establishes this mechanism of action for a desensitizing fluoride toothpaste containing calcium and phosphate. Two groups of intact teeth were perfectly sealed with enamel paint. Windows 100-micro to 200-micro deep were opened on opposite sides of each tooth at the dentin-enamel junction and briefly etched using 20% polyacrylic acid. One batch of teeth was treated eight times for 30 mins each with a 1:3 slurry of the desensitizing toothpaste and another set with a similar slurry prepared from a calcium- and phosphate-free control. A 0.85% aqueous solution of acid red fuchsin dye was applied to each window and allowed to dry. After a brief rinse, the teeth were sectioned across the windows. Almost no dye penetration was seen in teeth treated with the desensitizing toothpaste; however, extensive penetration through the dentin was visible in the control-treated teeth. The differences in dye penetration for the two sets of teeth were significant by both subjective (P < .001) and objective (P < .01) measures. Tubule occlusion because of calcium and phosphate ions from the desensitizing toothpaste accounts for its tooth desensitizing efficacy.

  5. Calcium

    MedlinePlus

    ... such as canned sardines and salmon Calcium-enriched foods such as breakfast cereals, fruit juices, soy and rice drinks, and tofu. Check the product labels. The exact amount of calcium you need depends on your age and other factors. Growing children and teenagers need more calcium than ...

  6. Topical laser application enhances enamel fluoride uptake and tribological properties.

    PubMed

    Jeng, Y-R; Lin, T-T; Huang, J-S; Peng, S-R; Shieh, D-B

    2013-07-01

    Topical fluoride treatment prevents dental caries. However, the resulting calcium-fluoride-like deposits are soft and have poor wear resistance; therefore, frequent treatment is required. Lasers quickly heat surfaces and can be made portable and suitable for oral remedies. We examined the morphology, nanohardness, elastic modulus, nanowear, and fluoride uptake of fluoride-treated enamel followed by CO2 laser irradiation for 5 and 10 sec, respectively. We found that laser treatments significantly increased the mechanical properties of the calcium-fluoride-like deposits. The wear resistance of the calcium-fluoride-like deposits improved about 34% after laser irradiation for 5 sec and about 40% following irradiation for 10 sec. We also found that laser treatments increased fluoride uptake by at least 23%. Overall, laser treatment significantly improved fluoride incorporation into dental tissue and the wear resistance of the protective calcium-fluoride layer.

  7. Optimal Fluoridation

    PubMed Central

    Lee, John R.

    1975-01-01

    Optimal fluoridation has been defined as that fluoride exposure which confers maximal cariostasis with minimal toxicity and its values have been previously determined to be 0.5 to 1 mg per day for infants and 1 to 1.5 mg per day for an average child. Total fluoride ingestion and urine excretion were studied in Marin County, California, children in 1973 before municipal water fluoridation. Results showed fluoride exposure to be higher than anticipated and fulfilled previously accepted criteria for optimal fluoridation. Present and future water fluoridation plans need to be reevaluated in light of total environmental fluoride exposure. PMID:1130041

  8. Long-Lasting Efficacy of an Experimental 1450 ppm Fluoride/Zinc-Based Dentifrice as Measured by Calcium Buildup Using an In Situ Intra-Oral Device After 12 Hours: A Randomized Clinical Trial.

    PubMed

    Richter, R; Jogun, S; Won, B; Zhang, Y P; Miller, S

    2015-01-01

    To assess the efficacy of an experimental 1450 ppm fluoride as sodium monofluorophosphate (SMFP)/zinc-based dentifrice (Test), a clinically proven 1450 ppm fluoride as SMFP/zinc-based dentifrice (Positive Control), and a 1000 ppm fluoride as SMFP and 450 ppm fluoride as sodium fluoride (NaF) dentifrice (Negative Control) in delivering 12-hour anti-tartar benefits as measured by calcium buildup after a single product brushing. Fourteen (14) adult subjects completed this single-center, double-blind, randomized, cross-over clinical study conducted in Piscataway, New Jersey. An intra-oral appliance was custom-made for each subject as a surface on which the anti-calculus agents' inhibition of early calculus formation could be analyzed. After brushing with their assigned toothpaste, each subject wore their respective appliance for 12 hours overnight. When the appliance was removed, it was washed, suspended in 0.1 MHCL to release Ca2+ from deposits, and analyzed by Inductively Coupled Plasma (ICP) for deposited calcium. There was a one-week washout period between each product use. Statistical analyses were performed on the mean level of calcium (μg). Comparisons of the treatment groups with respect to 12-hour post-brushing (overnight) calcium levels were performed via a two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA), with subjects and products as factors in the ANOVA model. Post-ANOVA pair-wise comparisons of the study treatments were performed using the Tukey's test for multiple comparisons. All statistical tests of hypothesis were two-sided, and employed a level of significance of α = 0.05. At the 12-hour post-brushing examination, the mean level of calcium buildup was 0.46 μg for subjects assigned to the experimental Test dentifrice, 0.41 μg for subjects assigned to the Positive Control dentifrice, and 2.47 μg for subjects assigned to the Negative Control dentifrice. After 12 hours post-brushing, subjects assigned to the experimental Test dentifrice and Positive Control

  9. A clinical study comparing oral formulations containing 7.5% calcium sodium phosphosilicate (NovaMin), 5% potassium nitrate, and 0.4% stannous fluoride for the management of dentin hypersensitivity.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Neeru; Roy, Subrata; Kakar, Ajay; Greenspan, David C; Scott, Randy

    2010-01-01

    To determine and compare the clinical performance of formulations containing 7.5% calcium sodium phosphosilicate (NovaMin), 5% potassium nitrate, and 0.4% stannous fluoride for the management of dentin hypersensitivity. This was a single-center, randomized, double-blind, parallel-group design with a duration of 12 weeks. The study included a total of 120 subjects and measured sensitivity to cold water and air blast by the use of a visual analogue scale. Measurements were taken at baseline, two, four, and 12 weeks. All three products significantly reduced sensitivity versus baseline at each time point, although the calcium sodium phosphosilicate (NovaMin) dentifrice reduced sensitivity significantly more than the others at the two- and four-week time points. At the two-week time point, for air and water, respectively, the dentifrice containing NovaMin reduced sensitivity 45% and 49%, the stannous fluoride gel 30% and 26%, and the potassium nitrate dentifrice 35% and 34%. At the 12-week time point, the dentifrice containing NovaMin reduced sensitivity 87% and 91%, stannous fluoride gel 87% and 85%, and potassium nitrate dentifrice 84% and 79%. In this study, all three products were effective. Compared to the potassium nitrate and stannous fluoride formulations, the dentifrice containing NovaMin provided more substantial and significant improvements at the early time points.

  10. Intake and metabolism of fluoride.

    PubMed

    Whitford, G M

    1994-06-01

    The purpose of this paper is to discuss the major factors that determine the body burden of inorganic fluoride. Fluoride intake 25 or more years ago was determined mainly by measurement of the concentration of the ion in the drinking water supply. This is not necessarily true today because of ingestion from fluoride-containing dental products, the "halo effect", the consumption of bottled water, and the use of water purification systems in the home. Therefore, the concentration of fluoride in drinking water may not be a reliable indicator of previous intake. Under most conditions, fluoride is rapidly and extensively absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract. The rate of gastric absorption is inversely related to the pH of the gastric contents. Overall absorption is reduced by calcium and certain other cations and by elevated plasma fluoride levels. Fluoride removal from plasma occurs by calcified tissue uptake and urinary excretion. About 99% of the body burden of fluoride is associated with calcified tissues, and most of it is not exchangeable. In general, the clearance of fluoride from plasma by the skeleton is inversely related to the stage of skeletal development. Skeletal uptake, however, can be positive or negative, depending on the level of fluoride intake, hormonal status, and other factors. Dentin fluoride concentrations tend to increase throughout life and appear to be similar to those in bone. Research to determine whether dentin is a reliable biomarker for the body burden of fluoride is recommended. The renal clearance of fluoride is high compared with other halogens. It is directly related to urinary pH. Factors that acidify the urine increase the retention of fluoride and vice versa. The renal clearance of fluoride decreases and tissue levels increase when the glomerular filtration rate is depressed on a chronic basis.

  11. Fluoride and Oral Health.

    PubMed

    O'Mullane, D M; Baez, R J; Jones, S; Lennon, M A; Petersen, P E; Rugg-Gunn, A J; Whelton, H; Whitford, G M

    2016-06-01

    The discovery during the first half of the 20th century of the link between natural fluoride, adjusted fluoride levels in drinking water and reduced dental caries prevalence proved to be a stimulus for worldwide on-going research into the role of fluoride in improving oral health. Epidemiological studies of fluoridation programmes have confirmed their safety and their effectiveness in controlling dental caries. Major advances in our knowledge of how fluoride impacts the caries process have led to the development, assessment of effectiveness and promotion of other fluoride vehicles including salt, milk, tablets, toothpaste, gels and varnishes. In 1993, the World Health Organization convened an Expert Committee to provide authoritative information on the role of fluorides in the promotion of oral health throughout the world (WHO TRS 846, 1994). This present publication is a revision of the original 1994 document, again using the expertise of researchers from the extensive fields of knowledge required to successfully implement complex interventions such as the use of fluorides to improve dental and oral health. Financial support for research into the development of these new fluoride strategies has come from many sources including government health departments as well as international and national grant agencies. In addition, the unique role which industry has played in the development, formulation, assessment of effectiveness and promotion of the various fluoride vehicles and strategies is noteworthy. This updated version of 'Fluoride and Oral Health' has adopted an evidence-based approach to its commentary on the different fluoride vehicles and strategies and also to its recommendations. In this regard, full account is taken of the many recent systematic reviews published in peer reviewed literature.

  12. Prevention of secondary caries using silver diamine fluoride treatment and casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate modified glass-ionomer cement.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Irene Shuping; Mei, May Lei; Burrow, Michael F; Lo, Edward Chin-Man; Chu, Chun-Hung

    2017-02-01

    To study the effect of silver diamine fluoride (SDF) treatment and incorporating casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate (CPP-ACP) into a glass-ionomer cement (GIC) to prevent secondary caries. A cervical cavity was prepared on 32 premolars for the following restoration groups: group 1, conventional GIC restoration; group 2, SDF (38%) treatment and conventional GIC restoration; group 3, CPP-ACP (3%) modified GIC; and group 4, SDF treatment and CPP-ACP modified GIC. The restored teeth were thermal-cycled before undergoing a multi-species cariogenic biofilm challenge. The restored teeth were examined by micro-computed tomography (micro-CT), scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM/EDX) and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. Data were analyzed by two-way ANOVA. Micro-CT determined outer lesion depths for groups 1-4 were: 123±6μm, 87±7μm, 79±3μm and 68±5μm respectively. An interaction effect on the outer lesion depth was found between the restorative materials and SDF treatment (p<0.001). Both SDF treatment and modification with CPP-ACP had a significant effect on outer lesion depth (p<0.001). SEM/EDX showed an increase of calcium and phosphorus at the root dentine adjacent to the restoration in groups 3 and 4 (CPP-ACP modified GIC). FTIR revealed that SDF treatment and CPP-ACP modified GIC had a significant effect on amide I-to-hydrogen phosphate ratio on the material-root interface (p=0.001). SDF treatment and incorporation of CPP-ACP into GIC restorative material can prevent secondary root caries development. The results provide useful information to dentists in formulating clinical management protocols and material when treating root caries. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. How Does Fluoride Work?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Fluoride is a natural element found in the earth's crust as well as in water and air. ... Activity: Teeth What Are Dentures? Contact Us Print Resources Send to a Friend Permissions Guidelines About KidsHealth ...

  14. Mechanism of action of a desensitizing fluoride toothpaste delivering calcium and phosphate ingredients in the treatment of dental hypersensitivity. Part II: comparison with a professional treatment for tooth hypersensitivity.

    PubMed

    Charig, Andrew J; Thong, Stephen; Flores, Florita; Gupta, Shivank; Major, Elizabeth; Winston, Anthony E

    2009-01-01

    Tooth hypersensitivity can occur when gum recession causes exposure of dentin. Tiny tubules, which permeate dentin, provide open passageways from the mouth to the intradental nerve in the pulpal cavity. Under such circumstances, stimuli in the mouth can cause pressure on the intradental nerve, leading to pain. Sealing the outside of the tubules with an impermeable substance can effectively treat hypersensitivity. One such clinically proven composition is a professionally applied tooth desensitizer, which has been shown to initially produce a layer of amorphous calcium phosphate (ACP) on the surface of dentin. Under the influence of fluoride, ACP reforms as hydroxyapatite (HAP), which has essentially the same composition as tooth mineral. Three fluoride toothpastes that deliver calcium and phosphate salts to the teeth also have been demonstrated in clinical trials to relieve hypersensitivity. This study compared the mechanism of action of these toothpastes to that of the professional desensitizer. A single application of the professional desensitizer or multiple applications of any of the three toothpastes was shown to reduce dentin permeability. A conventional fluoride toothpaste also was found to inhibit fluid flow through the dentin but to a lesser degree than the other toothpastes. The desensitizer and the three toothpastes were found to occlude the dentinal tubules with a layer of calcium phosphate that had a calcium-to-phosphate ratio consistent with the formation of ACP or HAP. The morphology of the coherent mineral layer formed by Arm & Hammer Enamel Care Sensitive was similar, especially to that produced by the desensitizer. In contrast, the conventional toothpaste left localized areas of surface residue composed of silica particles. The mechanism of action of the three toothpastes that deliver calcium and phosphate salts is the same as that of the professional desensitizer.

  15. On the nature of structural disorder in calcium silicate hydrates with a calcium/silicon ratio similar to tobermorite

    SciTech Connect

    Grangeon, Sylvain; Claret, Francis; Lerouge, Catherine; Warmont, Fabienne; Sato, Tsutomu; Anraku, Sohtaro; Linard, Yannick

    2013-10-15

    Four calcium silicate hydrates (C-S-H) with structural calcium/silicon (Ca/Si) ratios ranging from 0.82 ± 0.02 to 0.87 ± 0.02 were synthesized at room temperature, 50, 80, and 110 °C. Their structure was elucidated by collating information from electron probe micro-analysis, transmission electron microscopy, extended X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy, and powder X-ray diffraction (XRD). A modeling approach specific to defective minerals was used because sample turbostratism prevented analysis using usual XRD refinement techniques (e.g. Rietveld analysis). It is shown that C-S-H with Ca/Si ratio of ∼ 0.8 are structurally similar to nano-crystalline turbostratic tobermorite, a naturally occurring mineral. Their structure thus consists of sheets of calcium atoms in 7-fold coordination, covered by ribbons of silicon tetrahedra with a dreierketten (wollastonite-like) organization. In these silicate ribbons, 0.42 Si per bridging tetrahedron are missing. Random stacking faults occur systematically between successive layers (turbostratic stacking). Layer-to-layer distance is equal to 11.34 Å. Crystallites have a mean size of 10 nm in the a–b plane, and a mean number of 2.6–2.9 layers stacked coherently along the c* axis.

  16. Characterization of calcium isotopes in natural and synthetic barite

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Griffith, E.M.; Schauble, E.A.; Bullen, T.D.; Paytan, A.

    2008-01-01

    The mineral barite (BaSO4) accommodates calcium in its crystal lattice, providing an archive of Ca-isotopes in the highly stable sulfate mineral. Holocene marine (pelagic) barite samples from the major ocean basins are isotopically indistinguishable from each other (??44/40Ca = -2.01 ?? 0.15???) but are different from hydrothermal and cold seep barite samples (??44/40Ca = -4.13 to -2.72???). Laboratory precipitated (synthetic) barite samples are more depleted in the heavy Ca-isotopes than pelagic marine barite and span a range of Ca-isotope compositions, ??44/40Ca = -3.42 to -2.40???. Temperature, saturation state, a Ba2 + / a SO42 -, and aCa2+/aBa2+ each influence the fractionation of Ca-isotopes in synthetic barite; however, the fractionation in marine barite samples is not strongly related to any measured environmental parameter. First-principles lattice dynamical modeling predicts that at equilibrium Ca-substituted barite will have much lower 44Ca/40Ca than calcite, by -9??? at 0 ??C and -8??? at 25 ??C. Based on this model, none of the measured barite samples appear to be in isotopic equilibrium with their parent solutions, although as predicted they do record lower ??44/40Ca values than seawater and calcite. Kinetic fractionation processes therefore most likely control the extent of isotopic fractionation exhibited in barite. Potential fractionation mechanisms include factors influencing Ca2+ substitution for Ba2+ in barite (e.g. ionic strength and trace element concentration of the solution, competing complexation reactions, precipitation or growth rate, temperature, pressure, and saturation state) as well as nucleation and crystal growth rates. These factors should be considered when investigating controls on isotopic fractionation of Ca2+ and other elements in inorganic and biogenic minerals. ?? 2008 Elsevier Ltd.

  17. A clinical investigation of the efficacy of a dentifrice containing 1.5% arginine and 1450 ppm fluoride, as sodium monofluorophosphate in a calcium base, on primary root caries.

    PubMed

    Hu, D Y; Yin, W; Li, X; Feng, Y; Zhang, Y P; Cummins, D; Mateo, L R; Ellwood, R P

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this six-month study was to assess the ability of a new dentifrice containing 1.5% arginine, an insoluble calcium compound, and 1450 ppm fluoride, as sodium monofluorophosphate, to arrest and reverse primary root caries lesions in adults. Three test groups used dentifrices which contained either: 1) 1.5% arginine and 1450 ppm fluoride as sodium monofluorophosphate in a calcium base (experimental); 2) 1450 ppm fluoride as sodium fluoride in a silica base (positive control); or 3) no fluoride in a calcium base (negative control). The study participants were residents of the city of Chengdu, Sichuan Province, China. In order to take part, subjects had to have at least one non-cavitated primary root caries lesion. A total of 412 subjects completed the study. They were aged from 50 to 70 years (mean age 64 +/- 4.1 years) and 53.6% were female. Efficacy for arresting and reversal of primary root caries was assessed by clinical hardness measures and through the use of the Electrical Caries Monitor. After three months of product use, clinical hardness measures showed that 27.7%, 24.6%, and 13.1% of lesions had improved in the experimental, positive, and negative control groups, respectively, and 0.7%, 4.5%, and 16.8% had become worse, respectively. The differences in the distribution of lesion change between the negative control group and both the experimental (p < 0.001) and positive control (p = 0.001) were statistically significant. The Electrical Caries Monitor was also used as an objective measure of lesion severity. The end values increased from baseline to the three-month examinations, but none of the differences between the groups attained statistical significance. After six months, clinical hardness measures showed that only one lesion (0.7%) was worse than at the baseline examination-in the experimental group compared to 9.0% and 18.2% in the positive and negative control groups, respectively. In addition, 61.7%, 56.0%, and 27.0%, respectively

  18. Dental caries experience and enamel opacities in children residing in urban and rural areas of Antigua with different levels of natural fluoride in drinking water.

    PubMed

    Vignarajah, S

    1993-06-01

    In 1988/89, a national study was carried out to investigate the prevalence of caries experience among children aged 5 to 6, 12, and 15 to 19 years and also to measure the level of dental fluorosis among 12 to 14 year-old pupils attending schools in urban and rural areas in Antigua with various levels of natural fluoride in public water. In the first part of the study, all three age groups who were life-long residents of three areas with 0.1-0.2 ppmF (urban), 0.1-0.3 ppmF (rural) and 0.6-1.0 ppmF (rural) showed that the caries levels for each age group were not significantly different among the three fluoride communities or between urban and rural samples. In all three age groups, occlusal surfaces were more frequently affected by caries, and untreated dental caries was common. In part two of the survey, the Tooth Surface Index of Fluorosis (TSIF) was used to record fluorotic enamel defects among children aged 12 to 14 years who were life-long residents of 0.1-0.3 ppm fluoride and 0.6-1.0 ppm fluoride areas. In the low fluoride areas, mottling was absent in 97 per cent of facial surfaces of anterior maxillary teeth. In contrast, in the 0.6-1.0 ppm fluoride area, the value was 87 per cent. In both communities mottling was limited to a whitish colour. Analysis of the highest TSIF scores revealed that statistically significant differences were apparent in children with fluorosis between two communities.

  19. Calcium.

    PubMed

    Williams, Robert J P

    2002-01-01

    This chapter describes the chemical and biological value of the calcium ion. In calcium chemistry, our main interest is in equilibria within static, nonflowing systems. Hence, we examined the way calcium formed precipitates and complex ions in solution. We observed thereafter its uses by humankind in a vast number of materials such as minerals, e.g., marble, concrete, mortars, which parallel the biological use in shells and bones. In complex formation, we noted that many combinations were of anion interaction with calcium for example in the uses of detergents and medicines. The rates of exchange of calcium from bound states were noted but they had little application. Calcium ions do not act as catalysts of organic reactions. In biological systems, interest is in the above chemistry, but extends to the fact that Ca2+ ions can carry information by flowing in one solution or from one solution to another through membranes. Hence, we became interested in the details of rates of calcium exchange. The fast exchange of this divalent ion from most organic binding sites has allowed it to develop as the dominant second messenger. Now the flow can be examined in vitro as calcium binds particular isolated proteins, which it activates as seen in physical mechanical changes or chemical changes and this piece-by-piece study of cells is common. Here, however, we have chosen to stress the whole circuit of Ca2+ action indicating that the cell is organized both at a basal and an activated state kinetic level by the steady state flow of the ion (see Fig. 11). Different time constants of exchange utilizing very similar binding constants lead to: 1) fast responses as in the muscle of an animal; or 2) slower change as in differentiation of an egg or seed. Many other changes of state may relate to Ca2+ steady-state levels of flow in the circuitry and here we point to two: 1) dormancy in reptiles and animals; and 2) sporulation in both bacteria and lower plants. In the other chapters of

  20. The Impact of pH and Calcium on the Uptake of Fluoride by Tea Plants (Camellia sinensis L.)

    PubMed Central

    RUAN, JIANYUN; MA, LIFENG; SHI, YUANZHI; HAN, WENYAN

    2004-01-01

    • Background and Aims Tea plants (Camellia sinensis L.) accumulate large amounts of fluoride (F) from soils containing normal F concentrations. The present experiments examined the effects of pH and Ca on F uptake by this accumulating plant species. • Methods The effect of pH was assessed in two experiments, one using uptake solutions with different pHs, and the other using lime, as CaO, applied to the soil. The effect of Ca was examined by analysing F concentrations in plants supplied with varying amounts of Ca, as Ca(NO3)2, either in uptake solutions or through the soil. • Key results F uptake was highest at solution pH 5·5, and significantly lower at pH 4·0. In the soil experiment, leaf F decreased linearly with the amounts of lime, which raised the soil pH progressively from 4·32 to 4·91, 5·43, 5·89 and, finally, 6·55. Liming increased the water‐soluble F content of the soil. Including Ca in the uptake solution or adding Ca to soil significantly decreased leaf F concentrations. The distribution pattern of F in tea plants was not altered by Ca treatment, with most F being allocated to leaves. The activity of F– in the uptake solution was unaffected and water‐soluble F in the soil was sometimes increased by added Ca. • Conclusions F uptake by tea plants, which are inherently able to accumulate large quantities of F, was affected both by pH and by Ca levels in the medium. The reduced F uptake following Ca application appeared not to be due simply to the precipitation of CaF2 in solution and soil or to the complexing of Ca and F in roots, although these factors cannot be dismissed. It was more likely due to the effect of Ca on the properties of cell wall or membrane permeability in the solution experiments, and to alteration of F speciations and their quantities in soil solutions following Ca application. PMID:14644914

  1. The impact of pH and calcium on the uptake of fluoride by tea plants (Camellia sinensis L.).

    PubMed

    Ruan, Jianyun; Ma, Lifeng; Shi, Yuanzhi; Han, Wenyan

    2004-01-01

    Tea plants (Camellia sinensis L.) accumulate large amounts of fluoride (F) from soils containing normal F concentrations. The present experiments examined the effects of pH and Ca on F uptake by this accumulating plant species. The effect of pH was assessed in two experiments, one using uptake solutions with different pHs, and the other using lime, as CaO, applied to the soil. The effect of Ca was examined by analysing F concentrations in plants supplied with varying amounts of Ca, as Ca(NO3)2, either in uptake solutions or through the soil. F uptake was highest at solution pH 5.5, and significantly lower at pH 4.0. In the soil experiment, leaf F decreased linearly with the amounts of lime, which raised the soil pH progressively from 4.32 to 4.91, 5.43, 5.89 and, finally, 6.55. Liming increased the water-soluble F content of the soil. Including Ca in the uptake solution or adding Ca to soil significantly decreased leaf F concentrations. The distribution pattern of F in tea plants was not altered by Ca treatment, with most F being allocated to leaves. The activity of F- in the uptake solution was unaffected and water-soluble F in the soil was sometimes increased by added Ca. F uptake by tea plants, which are inherently able to accumulate large quantities of F, was affected both by pH and by Ca levels in the medium. The reduced F uptake following Ca application appeared not to be due simply to the precipitation of CaF2 in solution and soil or to the complexing of Ca and F in roots, although these factors cannot be dismissed. It was more likely due to the effect of Ca on the properties of cell wall or membrane permeability in the solution experiments, and to alteration of F speciations and their quantities in soil solutions following Ca application.

  2. Calcium self-diffusion in natural diopside single crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dimanov, Alexandre; Jaoul, Olivier; Sautter, Violaine

    1996-11-01

    We have measured the diffusion coefficient of 44Ca along and perpendicular to c direction in natural Fe-bearing (˜2 at.%) diopside single crystals. Specimens were annealed at temperatures ranging from 1000 to 1250°C, with controlled oxygen fugacity. Diffusion profiles were analysed by Rutherford Back-Scattering Spectrometry (RBS) of α-particles. The diffusion of Ca is isotropic along c and b directions. In addition, the results clearly show two distinct diffusional regimes for the natural diopside, revealed by silica precipitates occurrence in the diopside matrix when T ≥ 1150°C. In this case the oxygen partial pressure pO 2 does not influence the self-diffusion coefficient which is characterized by the activation energy E = 396 ± 38 kJ/mol. For T ≤ 1100°C the diffusional process has a lower activation energy ( E = 264 ± 33 kJ/mol) and varies as ( pO 2) -0.14±0.01 in the investigated range (from 10 -16 atm to 10 -6 atm). These results are consistent with previously reported results on electrical conductivity (Huebner and Voigt, 1988) and high temperature plastic deformation of natural diopside single crystals (Jaoul and Raterron, 1994). According to the point defects model, elaborated by Jaoul and Raterron (1994), the diffusional mechanism of Ca should be essentially interstitial. Furthermore, this mechanism should be the same for different diopside samples with iron content ranging from 0.4 to 2.42 at.%. Indeed, for Ca diffusion in synthetic diopside (0.4 at.% Fe) the activation enthalpy is very similar (281 ± 26 kJ/mol, Dimanov and Ingrin, 1995). On the other hand, the Fe content indoubtly influences the preexponential factor. The present paper reports Ca self-diffusion in diopside as a function of T, pO 2 crystallographic orientation, and Fe content. In fact, among all diffusion coefficients previously reported in diopside, but Si, DCa is the lowest. Thereby, Ca should be a kinetically limiting species for diffusion-controlled processes such as

  3. Small Molecule Fluoride Toxicity Agonists

    PubMed Central

    Nelson1, James W.; Plummer, Mark S.; Blount, Kenneth F.; Ames, Tyler D.; Breaker, Ronald R.

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY Fluoride is a ubiquitous anion that inhibits a wide variety of metabolic processes. Here we report the identification of a series of compounds that enhance fluoride toxicity in Escherichia coli and Streptococcus mutans. These molecules were isolated by using a high-throughput screen (HTS) for compounds that increase intracellular fluoride levels as determined via a fluoride riboswitch-reporter fusion construct. A series of derivatives were synthesized to examine structure-activity relationships, leading to the identification of compounds with improved activity. Thus, we demonstrate that small molecule fluoride toxicity agonists can be identified by HTS from existing chemical libraries by exploiting a natural fluoride riboswitch. In addition, our findings suggest that some molecules might be further optimized to function as binary antibacterial agents when combined with fluoride. PMID:25910244

  4. Small molecule fluoride toxicity agonists.

    PubMed

    Nelson, James W; Plummer, Mark S; Blount, Kenneth F; Ames, Tyler D; Breaker, Ronald R

    2015-04-23

    Fluoride is a ubiquitous anion that inhibits a wide variety of metabolic processes. Here, we report the identification of a series of compounds that enhance fluoride toxicity in Escherichia coli and Streptococcus mutans. These molecules were isolated by using a high-throughput screen (HTS) for compounds that increase intracellular fluoride levels as determined via a fluoride riboswitch reporter fusion construct. A series of derivatives were synthesized to examine structure-activity relationships, leading to the identification of compounds with improved activity. Thus, we demonstrate that small molecule fluoride toxicity agonists can be identified by HTS from existing chemical libraries by exploiting a natural fluoride riboswitch. In addition, our findings suggest that some molecules might be further optimized to function as binary antibacterial agents when combined with fluoride.

  5. Fluoride mouthrinses and fluoride varnishes.

    PubMed

    Petersson, L G

    1993-01-01

    The cariostatic efficacy of rinsing with a 0.05-0.2% neutral sodium fluoride solution has been clearly demonstrated, especially in supervised school-based programmes in moderate and high caries risk children. The cost-benefit effect, however, is questionable in populations with low caries prevalence, and fluoride rinsing programmes are gradually being replaced by more individual fluoride therapy comprising combinations of fluoride toothpastes, tablets, or varnishes. Fluoride varnishes were developed as individual alternatives to conventional topical fluoride application and are today gaining acceptance for clinical application. Two varnishes, Duraphat containing 5% wt NaF and Fluor Protector with 0.9% wt fluor silane, are available commercially. The clinical effects seem to depend mainly on application frequency, especially in high caries risk groups. The cost-benefit effect is high, but can be increased by delegating application to auxiliary personnel in conjunction with regular dental visits. Toxicologically both fluoride mouthrinses and fluoride varnishes are safe if used as directed.

  6. Comparing the efficacy in providing instant relief of dentin hypersensitivity of a new toothpaste containing 8.0% arginine, calcium carbonate, and 1450 ppm fluoride to a benchmark desensitizing toothpaste containing 2% potassium ion and 1450 ppm fluoride, and to a control toothpaste with 1450 ppm fluoride: a three-day clinical study in Mississauga, Canada.

    PubMed

    Ayad, F; Ayad, N; Delgado, E; Zhang, Y P; DeVizio, W; Cummins, D; Mateo, L R

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this double-blind, randomized, parallel-design clinical study was to compare the efficacy in reducing dentin hypersensitivity of a novel toothpaste containing 8.0% arginine, calcium carbonate, and 1450 ppm fluoride to a benchmark desensitizing toothpaste containing 2% potassium ion and 1450 ppm fluoride, and to a control toothpaste containing 1450 ppm fluoride, instantly after a single direct topical self-application using a fingertip, and after subsequent brushing twice daily for three days. Qualifying subjects from the Mississauga, Canada area who presented two hypersensitive teeth with a tactile hypersensitivity score (Yeaple Probe) between 10 and 50 grams of force, and an air blast hypersensitivity score of 2 or 3 (Schiff Sensitivity Scale) participated in this study. The first phase of the study consisted of a single topical application of the assigned product directly onto the hypersensitive surface of each of the two baseline-designated hypersensitive teeth. Study subjects applied a pea-size amount of their assigned toothpaste onto the hypersensitive surface of each tooth, and massaged each surface for one minute. The second phase of the study consisted of twice-daily at-home brushing with the assigned toothpaste for three days. Dentin hypersensitivity assessments, as well as examinations of oral hard and soft tissues, were conducted at baseline, immediately after direct topical application, and after three days of product use. One-hundred and twenty subjects complied with the protocol and completed the study. Relative to the desensitizing toothpaste and the control toothpaste groups, the 8.0% arginine toothpaste group exhibited statistically significant (p < 0.05) reductions in dentin hypersensitivity on both tactile and air blast measures immediately after completion of the first phase of the study. Reductions in sensitivity for the 8.0% arginine toothpaste, compared to the benchmark desensitizing toothpaste and the control toothpaste

  7. Comparing the efficacy in providing instant relief of dentin hypersensitivity of a new toothpaste containing 8.0% arginine, calcium carbonate, and 1450 ppm fluoride relative to a benchmark desensitizing toothpaste containing 2% potassium ion and 1450 ppm fluoride, and to a control toothpaste with 1450 ppm fluoride: a three-day clinical study in New Jersey, USA.

    PubMed

    Nathoo, S; Delgado, E; Zhang, Y P; DeVizio, W; Cummins, D; Mateo, L R

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this double-blind, randomized, parallel-design clinical study was to compare the efficacy in reducing dentin hypersensitivity of a novel toothpaste containing 8.0% arginine, calcium carbonate, and 1450 ppm fluoride to a benchmark desensitizing toothpaste containing 2% potassium ion and 1450 ppm fluoride, and to a control toothpaste containing 1450 ppm fluoride, instantly after a single direct topical self-application using a fingertip, and after subsequent brushing twice daily for three days. Qualifying subjects from the Piscataway, New Jersey, USA area who presented two hypersensitive teeth with a tactile hypersensitivity score (Yeaple Probe) between 10 and 50 grams of force, and an air blast hypersensitivity score of 2 or 3 (Schiff Sensitivity Scale), participated in this study. The first phase of the study consisted of a single topical application of the assigned product directly onto the hypersensitive surface of each of the two baseline-designated hypersensitive teeth. Study subjects applied a pea-size amount of their assigned toothpaste onto the hypersensitive surface of each tooth and massaged each surface for one minute. The second phase of the study consisted of twice-daily at-home brushing with the assigned toothpaste for three days. Dentin hypersensitivity assessments, as well as examinations of oral hard and soft tissues, were conducted at baseline, immediately after direct topical application, and after three days of product use. One-hundred and twenty-five subjects complied with the study protocol and completed the study. Relative to the benchmark desensitizing toothpaste and the control toothpaste groups, the 8.0% arginine toothpaste group exhibited statistically significant (p < 0.05) reductions in dentin hypersensitivity on both tactile and air blast hypersensitivity scores immediately after direct application. Reductions in sensitivity for the 8.0% arginine toothpaste compared to the benchmark desensitizing toothpaste and control

  8. Analysis of Naturally Occurring Fluoride in Commercial Teas and Estimation of Its Daily Intake through Tea Consumption.

    PubMed

    Peng, Chuan-yi; Cai, Hui-mei; Zhu, Xiao-hui; Li, Da-xiang; Yang, Yun-qiu; Hou, Ru-yan; Wan, Xiao-chun

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the levels of fluoride in commercial teas and to estimate the contribution of tea consumption to the fluoride recommended daily allowance. A total of 558 tea products in 6 categories, green tea, black tea, oolong tea, pu'er tea, white tea, and reprocessed tea, were collected in the period from 2010 to 2013. The levels of fluoride in infusions of these teas were determined by a fluoride-ion selective electrode. The mean fluoride level in all of the tea samples was 85.16 mg/kg. For each category of tea, the mean fluoride levels were 63.04, 99.74, 52.19, 101.67, 159.78, and 110.54 mg/kg for green tea, black tea, white tea, pu'er tea, oolong tea, and reprocessed tea, respectively. The fluoride content of tea from 4 tea zones in descending order were Southern tea zone (111.39 mg/kg) > Southwest tea zone (78.78 mg/kg) > Jiangnan tea zone (71.73 mg/kg) > Jiangbei tea zone (64.63 mg/kg). These areas produced teas with lower fluoride levels than available foreign-produced tea (161.11 mg/kg). The mean chronic daily intake (CDI) was 0.02 mg/(kg•day) or 1.27 mg/kg. Generally, consuming tea from these 6 categories does not result in the intake of excessive amounts of fluoride for the general population.

  9. Crystal structure of complex natural aluminum magnesium calcium iron oxide

    SciTech Connect

    Rastsvetaeva, R. K. Aksenov, S. M.; Verin, I. A.

    2010-07-15

    The structure of a new natural oxide found near the Tashelga River (Eastern Siberia) was studied by X-ray diffraction. The pseudo-orthorhombic unit cell parameters are a = 5.6973(1) A, b = 17.1823(4) A, c = 23.5718(5) A, {beta} = 90{sup o}, sp. gr. Pc. The structure was refined to R = 0.0516 based on 4773 reflections with vertical bar F vertical bar > 7{sigma}(F) taking into account the twin plane perpendicular to the z axis (the twin components are 0.47 and 0.53). The crystal-chemical formula (Z = 4) is Ca{sub 2}Mg{sub 2}{sup IV}Fe{sub 2}{sup (2+)IV}[Al{sub 14}{sup VI}O{sub 31}(OH)][Al{sub 2}{sup IV}O][Al{sup IV}]AL{sup IV}(OH)], where the Roman numerals designate the coordination of the atoms. The structure of the mineral is based on wide ribbons of edge-sharing Al octahedra (an integral part of the spinel layer). The ribbons run along the shortest x axis and are inclined to the y and z axes. The adjacent ribbons are shifted with respect to each other along the y axis, resulting in the formation of step-like layers in which the two-ribbon thickness alternates with the three-ribbon thickness. Additional Al octahedra and Mg and Fe{sup 2+} tetrahedra are located between the ribbons. The layers are linked together to form a three-dimensional framework by Al tetrahedra, Ca polyhedra, and hydrogen bonds with the participation of OH groups.

  10. Comparison of the Effect of Fluoride Varnish, Chlorhexidine Varnish and Casein Phosphopeptide- Amorphous Calcium Phosphate (CPP-ACP) Varnish on Salivary Streptococcus mutans Level: A Six Month Clinical Study.

    PubMed

    Patel, Punit Manish; Hugar, Shivayogi M; Halikerimath, Seema; Badakar, Chandrashekhar M; Gokhale, Niraj S; Thakkar, Prachi J; Kohli, Divyata; Shah, Shreyas

    2017-08-01

    Dental caries is the most widespread disease which has a multi factorial origin. Streptococcus mutans is considered to be the chief pathogen in its development. Different varnishes are available which can be used for the prevention of the carious process. To compare the effect of fluoride varnish, chlorhexidine varnish and fluoride varnish containing Casein Phosphopeptide - Amorphous Calcium Phosphate (CPP-ACP) on salivary Streptococcusmutans count in children with mixed dentition over a period of six months. Seventy two children of age 6-12 years with mixed dentition were selected fulfilling inclusion and exclusion criteria and divided into three groups: Group I- Fluoride varnish group; Group II- Chlorhexidine varnish group; Group III- MI varnish (fluoride varnish containing CPP-ACP) group. After thorough oral prophylaxis and restorative treatment the varnishes were applied to the teeth once a week for four consecutive weeks in the respective groups. Salivary Streptococcus mutans count (CFU/ml of saliva) was estimated at baseline, 1 month, 3 months and 6 months after varnish application. Bonferroni post-hoc test and paired t-test for inter group and intra group comparison was used in the study. A statistically significant reduction in salivary S. mutans colony count was seen with all three groups at all the different time intervals. Maximum reduction was noted in chlorhexidine varnish group at all the intervals after varnish application. Prevention of dental caries plays a vital role in paediatric dental practice. The use of dental varnish has proved to be effective in reducing the dental caries. Chlorhexidine varnish was found to show maximum reduction in salivary S. mutans count for six month period, when compared to MI varnish and fluoride varnish. Thus, chlorhexidine varnish can be used as potent caries inhibiting agent and promote good oral health.

  11. Comparison of the Effect of Fluoride Varnish, Chlorhexidine Varnish and Casein Phosphopeptide- Amorphous Calcium Phosphate (CPP-ACP) Varnish on Salivary Streptococcus mutans Level: A Six Month Clinical Study

    PubMed Central

    Hugar, Shivayogi M; Halikerimath, Seema; Badakar, Chandrashekhar M; Gokhale, Niraj S; Thakkar, Prachi J; Kohli, Divyata; Shah, Shreyas

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Dental caries is the most widespread disease which has a multi factorial origin. Streptococcus mutans is considered to be the chief pathogen in its development. Different varnishes are available which can be used for the prevention of the carious process. Aim To compare the effect of fluoride varnish, chlorhexidine varnish and fluoride varnish containing Casein Phosphopeptide – Amorphous Calcium Phosphate (CPP-ACP) on salivary Streptococcus mutans count in children with mixed dentition over a period of six months. Materials and Methods Seventy two children of age 6-12 years with mixed dentition were selected fulfilling inclusion and exclusion criteria and divided into three groups: Group I– Fluoride varnish group; Group II– Chlorhexidine varnish group; Group III– MI varnish (fluoride varnish containing CPP-ACP) group. After thorough oral prophylaxis and restorative treatment the varnishes were applied to the teeth once a week for four consecutive weeks in the respective groups. Salivary Streptococcus mutans count (CFU/ml of saliva) was estimated at baseline, 1 month, 3 months and 6 months after varnish application. Bonferroni post-hoc test and paired t-test for inter group and intra group comparison was used in the study. Results A statistically significant reduction in salivary S. mutans colony count was seen with all three groups at all the different time intervals. Maximum reduction was noted in chlorhexidine varnish group at all the intervals after varnish application. Conclusion Prevention of dental caries plays a vital role in paediatric dental practice. The use of dental varnish has proved to be effective in reducing the dental caries. Chlorhexidine varnish was found to show maximum reduction in salivary S. mutans count for six month period, when compared to MI varnish and fluoride varnish. Thus, chlorhexidine varnish can be used as potent caries inhibiting agent and promote good oral health. PMID:28969274

  12. Natural calcium isotonic composition of urine as a marker of bone mineral balance

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Skulan, J.; Bullen, T.; Anbar, A.D.; Puzas, J.E.; Shackelford, L.; LeBlanc, A.; Smith, S.M.

    2007-01-01

    Background: We investigated whether changes in the natural isotopic composition of calcium in human urine track changes in net bone mineral balance, as predicted by a model of calcium isotopic behavior in vertebrates. If so, isotopic analysis of natural urine or blood calcium could be used to monitor short-term changes in bone mineral balance that cannot be detected with other techniques. Methods: Calcium isotopic compositions are expressed as ??44Ca, or the difference in parts per thousand between the 44Ca/40Ca of a sample and the 44Ca/ 40Ca of a standard reference material. ??44Ca was measured in urine samples from 10 persons who participated in a study of the effectiveness of countermeasures to bone loss in spaceflight, in which 17 weeks of bed rest was used to induce bone loss. Study participants were assigned to 1 of 3 treatment groups: controls received no treatment, one treatment group received alendronate, and another group performed resistive exercise. Measurements were made on urine samples collected before, at 2 or 3 points during, and after bed rest. Results: Urine ??44Ca values during bed rest were lower in controls than in individuals treated with alendronate (P <0.05, ANOVA) or exercise (P <0.05), and lower than the control group baseline (P <0.05, Mest). Results were consistent with the model and with biochemical and bone mineral density data. Conclusion: Results confirm the predicted relationship between bone mineral balance and calcium isotopes, suggesting that calcium isotopic analysis of urine might be refined into a clinical and research tool. ?? 2007 American Association for Clinical Chemistry.

  13. Fluoride laser crystals: old and new

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jenssen, Hans P.; Cassanho, Arlete

    2006-02-01

    The development of oxide and fluoride materials as gain materials of choice for solid state lasers ranges from early materials such as Calcium Fluoride and Calcium Tungstate crystals to the now ubiquitous Nd hosts YLF, YAG and Vanadate. Among Tunable laser materials, MgF II - an early favorite, gave way to superior oxides such as Alexandrite and Ti:Sapphire only to be followed by development of still newer tunable fluoride media, notably, fluoride colquiriites such as Cr-doped LiSAF and LiCaF. Newer fluoride crystals, such as Barium Yttrium Fluoride BaY II F 8 (BYF), KY 3F 10 (KYF) and the tunable Cr doped LiCaGaF 6 are attractive laser materials, but their growth has not been optimized. Key advantages of two of these new crystals are discussed. Crystal growth results for BYF and Cr:LiCaGaF 6 as well as some material characterization are presented.

  14. Knowledge, Attitude, and Behavior of Families Living in a Natural Highly Fluoridated Community at Fort Irwin, California

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-06-01

    caries while minimizing dental fluorosis . Based on the USPHS’ recommen- dations, southern regions of Texas and Florida should maintain an adjusted...to adverse health reasons according to the 1975 I National Interim Primary Drinking Water Regulations. Because EPA considers dental fluorosis to be...of 4 ppm fluoride is well below the concentration of fluoride that may 3 lead to crippling skeletal fluorosis or other adverse health effects. However

  15. Dentifrice Fluoride

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rakita, Philip E.

    2004-05-01

    The effectiveness of the fluoride ion in lowering the incidence of dental caries is a major factor in the field of dental health. Observations and research studies in the first half of the 20th century have lead to the widespread adoption of fluoridated water and the use of inorganic fluoride compounds in oral care products, such as toothpaste and dental rinses. This article provides a brief review of the types of compounds used and the chemistry involved.

  16. Bottled Water and Fluoride

    MedlinePlus

    ... Fluoridation Journal Articles for Community Water Fluoridation Bottled Water Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Consumers drink ... questions about bottled water and fluoride. Does bottled water contain fluoride? Bottled water products may contain fluoride, ...

  17. Water fluoridation and oral health.

    PubMed

    Harding, Máiréad Antoinette; O'Mullane, Denis Martin

    2013-11-01

    Water fluoridation, is the controlled addition of fluoride to the water supply, with the aim of reducing the prevalence of dental caries. Current estimates suggest that approximately 370 million people in 27 countries consume fluoridated water, with an additional 50 million consuming water in which fluoride is naturally occurring. A pre-eruptive effect of fluoride exists in reducing caries levels in pit and fissure surfaces of permanent teeth and fluoride concentrated in plaque and saliva inhibits the demineralisation of sound enamel and enhances the remineralisation of demineralised enamel. A large number of studies conducted worldwide demonstrate the effectiveness of water fluoridation. Objections to water fluoridation have been raised since its inception and centre mainly on safety and autonomy. Systematic reviews of the safety and efficacy of water fluoridation attest to its safety and efficacy; dental fluorosis identified as the only adverse outcome. Water fluoridation is an effective safe means of preventing dental caries, reaching all populations, irrespective of the presence of other dental services. Regular monitoring of dental caries and fluorosis is essential particularly with the lifelong challenge which dental caries presents. Copyright © 2013 by Academy of Sciences and Arts of Bosnia and Herzegovina.

  18. Water fluoridation.

    PubMed

    Parnell, C; Whelton, H; O'Mullane, D

    2009-09-01

    This was to present a summary of the evidence from systematic reviews of the effectiveness and safety of water fluoridation. A search for relevant systematic reviews was conducted using the terms Fluoridation [Mesh] OR "water fluoridation" OR fluoridation OR (water AND fluoride) and was run from 01/01/2000 to 17/10/2008 in Pubmed, Embase, the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews and the Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects in the Cochrane Library. The quality of the systematic reviews was assessed using Scottish Intercollegiate Guideline Network (SIGN) methodology checklists for systematic reviews. Websites of guideline organisations were also searched for relevant evidence-based guidelines, which were appraised using the AGREE instrument. Of the 59 publications identified, 3 systematic reviews and 3 guidelines were included in this review. While the reviews themselves were of good methodological quality, the studies included in the reviews were generally of moderate to low quality. The results of the three reviews showed that water fluoridation is effective at reducing caries in children and adults. With the exception of dental fluorosis, no association between adverse effects and water fluoridation has been established. Water fluoridation reduces caries for all social classes, and there is some evidence that it may reduce the oral health gap between social classes. Water fluoridation, where technically feasible and culturally acceptable, remains a relevant and valid choice as a population measure for the prevention of dental caries.

  19. Prenatal effects of natural calcium supplement on Wistar rats during organogenesis period of pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Lagarto, Alicia; Bellma, Addis; Couret, Micaela; Gabilondo, Tatiana; López, Raisel; Bueno, Viviana; Guerra, Isbel; Rodríguez, Jorge

    2013-01-01

    The potential of oral exposure to calcium and magnesium citrate, a natural product obtained from dolomite, to initiate teratogenesis was analyzed in Wistar rats. Animals received calcium and magnesium citrate oral doses of 250, 500 and 1000 mg/kg during the period of gestation from day 6 to 17 post conception. Maternal, embryo and fetal toxicity was evaluated. Calcium and magnesium citrate exposure did not produce maternal toxicity assessed by clinical observations, body weight gain, food intake, hematology, biochemical parameters and necropsy finding. Signs of embryo-fetal toxicity were not observed. Skeletal and visceral malformations were seen occasionally in all drug-treated and control groups. Skeletal and visceral variations were similar in control and drug-treated groups except for incomplete ossification rib. These finding was spontaneous and unrelated to the drug. In conclusion, in this study we found that the oral exposure to rats of up to 1000 mg/kg of calcium and magnesium citrate during organogenesis did not induce significant maternal and embryo-fetal toxicity. The experimentally derived NOAEL for developmental toxicity was 1000 mg/kg. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  20. In vitro calcium availability in bakery products fortified with tuna bone powder as a natural calcium source.

    PubMed

    Nemati, Mahnaz; Kamilah, Hanisah; Huda, Nurul; Ariffin, Fazilah

    2015-08-01

    Avoidance of dairy products due to lactose intolerance can lead to insufficiency of calcium (Ca) in the body. In an approach to address this problem, tuna bone powder (TBP) was formulated as a calcium supplement to fortify bakery products. In a study, TBP recovered by alkaline treatment contained 38.16 g/100 g of calcium and 23.31 g/100 g of phosphorus. The ratio of Ca:P that was close to 2:1 was hence comparable to that in human bones. The availability of calcium in TBP was 53.93%, which was significantly higher than most calcium salts, tricalcium phosphate (TCP) being the exception. In vitro availability of calcium in TBP-fortified cookies or TCP-fortified cookies were comparable at 38.9% and 39.5%, respectively. These values were higher than the readings from TBP-fortified bread (36.7%) or TCP-fortified bread (37.4%). Sensory evaluation of bakery products containing TBP or TCP elicited comparable scores for the two additives from test panels. Hence, TBP could be used in the production of high calcium bakery products that would enjoy consumer acceptance.

  1. Fluoride Plus Functionalized β-TCP

    PubMed Central

    Karlinsey, R.L.; Pfarrer, A.M.

    2012-01-01

    With more than 50 years of clinical success, fluoride serves as the gold standard agent for preventing tooth decay. In particular, the action of fluoride facilitates saliva-driven remineralization of demineralized enamel and alters solubility beneficially. Still, tooth decay remains problematic, and one way to address it may be through the development of new mineralizing agents. Laboratory and clinical studies have demonstrated that the combination of fluoride and functionalized β-tricalcium phosphate (fTCP) produces stronger, more acid-resistant mineral relative to fluoride, native β-TCP, or fTCP alone. In contrast to other calcium-based approaches that seem to rely on high levels of calcium and phosphate to drive remineralization, fTCP is a low-dose system designed to fit within existing topical fluoride preparations. The functionalization of β-TCP with organic and/or inorganic molecules provides a barrier that prevents premature fluoride-calcium interactions and aids in mineralization when applied via common preparations and procedures. While additional clinical studies are warranted, supplementing with fTCP to enhance fluoride-based nucleation activity, with subsequent remineralization driven by dietary and salivary calcium and phosphate, appears to be a promising approach. PMID:22899679

  2. Fluoride - is it capable of fighting old and new dental diseases? An overview of existing fluoride compounds and their clinical applications.

    PubMed

    Brambilla, E

    2001-01-01

    Since researchers first became aware of the anticaries action of fluoride, they have been investigating the effect of this preventive agent in inhibiting or arresting caries development. Many forms of systemic or topical fluoride have been studied and tested for clinical application. Water, salt, milk fluoridation and the use of fluoride supplements were introduced for systemic fluoridation mainly using sodium fluoride. Solutions, gels, toothpastes and rinses of sodium fluoride, stannous fluoride, amine fluorides, acidulated phosphate fluoride and monofluorophosphate were used for topical fluoridation. More recently nonaqueous fluoride varnishes in an alcoholic solution of natural resins and difluorosilane agents in a polyurethane matrix were introduced. Although all of these fluoridation methods have a caries-preventive action, these benefits and the ease of application is variable. As fluoride is a key component of oral health promotion a coordinated approach on a community and individual basis seems to be needed to maximize the cost-benefit ratio of prevention.

  3. A comparative clinical study investigating the efficacy of a test dentifrice containing 8% strontium acetate and 1040 ppm sodium fluoride versus a marketed control dentifrice containing 8% arginine, calcium carbonate, and 1450 ppm sodium monofluorophosphate in reducing dentinal hypersensitivity.

    PubMed

    Hughes, Nathan; Mason, Stephen; Jeffery, Peter; Welton, Helen; Tobin, Maira; O'Shea, Caoimhe; Browne, Mairead

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this clinical study was to evaluate and compare the efficacy in reducing dentin hypersensitivity of an 8% strontium acetate, 1040 ppm sodium fluoride dentifrice to a marketed control 8% arginine, calcium carbonate, 1450 ppm sodium monofluorophosphate dentifrice after twice-daily brushing for two, four, and eight weeks. This was a randomized, examiner-blind, two-arm parallel group, eight-week longitudinal clinical study with seventy-nine subjects, stratified based on baseline tooth sensitivity (Schiff score, Yeaple). Subjects brushed with either an 8% strontium acetate-based dentifrice or a marketed 8% arginine calcium carbonate dentifrice twice daily for approximately one minute. At screening, baseline, weeks two, four, and eight, subjects' tooth sensitivity was determined through both evaporative (Schiff and Visual Analogue Scale [VAS]) and tactile stimuli (Yeaple probe). Subject assessments using each stimulus were performed by the same examiner throughout the study. Seventy-seven subjects completed this clinical study. Both subject groups exhibited significant cumulative reductions from baseline to Days 14, 28, and 56 in dentin hypersensitivity as measured by Schiff, Yeaple, and VAS (for the 8% strontium acetate group, p < or = 0.0001 for all time points; for the 8% arginine calcium carbonate group, p = 0.0031 for Yeaple at Day 14, p = 0.0015 for VAS at Day 14, and p < 0.0001 for all remaining measures and time points). No significant differences (p > 0.05) were observed between treatments for any of the time points and measures except for tactile sensitivity at Day 56, for which the 8% strontium acetate-based dentifrice was statistically superior (p = 0.0391) to the control 8% arginine calcium carbonate dentifrice. The 8% strontium acetate, 1040 ppm sodium fluoride dentifrice provided significant reductions in dentin hypersensitivity (p < 0.0001) after two, four, and eight weeks of product use. Comparisons to a control 8% arginine calcium

  4. Fluoride in groundwater: toxicological exposure and remedies.

    PubMed

    Jha, S K; Singh, R K; Damodaran, T; Mishra, V K; Sharma, D K; Rai, Deepak

    2013-01-01

    Fluoride is a chemical element that is found most frequently in groundwater and has become one of the most important toxicological environmental hazards globally. The occurrence of fluoride in groundwater is due to weathering and leaching of fluoride-bearing minerals from rocks and sediments. Fluoride when ingested in small quantities (<0.5 mg/L) is beneficial in promoting dental health by reducing dental caries, whereas higher concentrations (>1.5 mg/L) may cause fluorosis. It is estimated that about 200 million people, from among 25 nations the world over, may suffer from fluorosis and the causes have been ascribed to fluoride contamination in groundwater including India. High fluoride occurrence in groundwaters is expected from sodium bicarbonate-type water, which is calcium deficient. The alkalinity of water also helps in mobilizing fluoride from fluorite (CaF2). Fluoride exposure in humans is related to (1) fluoride concentration in drinking water, (2) duration of consumption, and (3) climate of the area. In hotter climates where water consumption is greater, exposure doses of fluoride need to be modified based on mean fluoride intake. Various cost-effective and simple procedures for water defluoridation techniques are already known, but the benefits of such techniques have not reached the rural affected population due to limitations. Therefore, there is a need to develop workable strategies to provide fluoride-safe drinking water to rural communities. The study investigated the geochemistry and occurrence of fluoride and its contamination in groundwater, human exposure, various adverse health effects, and possible remedial measures from fluoride toxicity effects.

  5. Ion release from, and fluoride recharge of a composite with a fluoride-containing bioactive glass

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Harry B.; Gwinner, Fernanda; Mitchell, John C.; Ferracane, Jack L.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Materials that are capable of releasing ions such as calcium and fluoride, that are necessary for remineralization of dentin and enamel, have been the topic of intensive research for many years. The source of calcium has most often been some form of calcium phosphate, and that for fluoride has been one of several metal fluoride or hexafluorophosphate salts. Fluoride-containing bioactive glass (BAG) prepared by the sol-gel method acts as a single source of both calcium and fluoride ions in aqueous solutions. The objective of this investigation was to determine if BAG, when added to a composite formulation, can be used as a single source for calcium and fluoride ion release over an extended time period, and to determine if the BAG-containing composite can be recharged upon exposure to a solution of 5,000 ppm fluoride. Methods BAG 61 (61% Si; 31% Ca; 4% P; 3% F; 1% B) and BAG 81 (81% Si; 11% Ca; 4% P; 3% F; 1% B) were synthesized by the sol gel method. The composite used was composed of 50/50 Bis-GMA/TEGDMA, 0.8% EDMAB, 0.4% CQ, and 0.05% BHT, combined with a mixture of BAG (15%) and strontium glass (85%) to a total filler load of 72% by weight. Disks were prepared, allowed to age for 24 h, abraded, then placed into DI water. Calcium and fluoride release was measured by atomic absorption spectroscopy and fluoride ion selective electrode methods, respectively, after 2, 22, and 222 h. The composite samples were then soaked for 5 min in an aqueous 5,000 ppm fluoride solution, after which calcium and fluoride release was again measured at 2, 22, and 222 h time points. Results Prior to fluoride recharge, release of fluoride ions was similar for the BAG 61 and BAG 81 composites after 2 h, and also similar after 22 h. At the four subsequent time points, one prior to, and three following fluoride recharge, the BAG 81 composite released significantly more fluoride ions (p<0.05). Both composites were recharged by exposure to 5,000 ppm fluoride, although the BAG 81

  6. The anti-caries efficacy of a dentifrice containing 1.5% arginine and 1450 ppm fluoride as sodium monofluorophosphate assessed using Quantitative Light-induced Fluorescence (QLF).

    PubMed

    Yin, W; Hu, D Y; Li, X; Fan, X; Zhang, Y P; Pretty, I A; Mateo, L R; Cummins, D; Ellwood, R P

    2013-08-01

    To compare the efficacy of a new dentifrice containing 1.5% arginine, an insoluble calcium compound and 1450 ppm fluoride to arrest and reverse naturally occurring buccal caries lesions in children relative to a positive control dentifrice containing 1450 ppm fluoride alone. Participants from Chengdu, Sichuan Province, China tested three dentifrices: a new dentifrice containing 1.5% arginine, an insoluble calcium compound, and 1450 ppm fluoride, as sodium monofluorophosphate, a positive control dentifrice containing 1450 ppm fluoride, as sodium fluoride, in a silica base, and a matched negative control dentifrice without arginine and fluoride. Quantitative Light-induced Fluorescence (QLF) was used to assess buccal caries lesions at baseline and after 3 and 6 months of product use. 438 participants (initial age 9-13 years (mean 11.1±0.78) and 48.6% female) completed the study. No adverse events attributable to the products were reported during the course of the study. The subject mean ΔQ (mm(2)%), representing lesion volume, was 27.26 at baseline. After 6 months of product use, the ΔQ values for the arginine-containing, positive and negative control dentifrices were 13.46, 17.99 and 23.70 representing improvements from baseline of 50.6%, 34.0% and 13.1%. After 6 months product use, the differences between the pair wise comparisons for all three groups were statistically significant (p<0.01). The arginine-containing dentifrice demonstrated an improvement after only 3 months that was almost identical to that achieved by the conventional 1450 ppm fluoride dentifrice after 6 months. The new dentifrice containing 1.5% arginine, an insoluble calcium compound, and 1450 ppm fluoride provides statistically significantly superior efficacy in arresting and reversing buccal caries lesions to a conventional dentifrice containing 1450 ppm fluoride alone. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Biomimetic Synthesis of Calcium-Deficient Hydroxyapatite in a Natural Hydrogel

    SciTech Connect

    Hutchens, Stacy A; Benson, Roberto S.; Evans, Barbara R; O'Neill, Hugh Michael; Rawn, Claudia J

    2006-01-01

    A novel composite material consisting of calcium-deficient hydroxyapatite (CdHAP) biomimetically deposited in a bacterial cellulose hydrogel was synthesized and characterized. Cellulose produced by Gluconacetobacter hansenii was purified and sequentially incubated in solutions of calcium chloride followed by sodium phosphate dibasic. A substantial amount of apatite (50-90% of total dry weight) was homogeneously incorporated throughout the hydrogel after this treatment. X-ray diffractometry (XRD) showed that CdHAP crystallites had formed in the cellulose. XRD further demonstrated that the CdHAP was comprised of 10-50nm anisotropic crystallites elongated in the c-axis, similar to natural bone apatite. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy demonstrated that hydroxyl IR bands of the cellulose shifted to lower wave numbers indicating that a coordinate bond had possibly formed between the CdHAP and the cellulose hydroxyl groups. FTIR also suggested that the CdHAP had formed from an octacalcium phosphate precursor similar to physiological bone. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images confirmed that uniform ?1 mm spherical CdHAP particles comprised of nanosized crystallites with a lamellar morphology had formed in the cellulose. The synthesis of the composite mimics the natural biomineralization of bone indicating that bacterial cellulose can be used as a template for biomimetic apatite formation. This composite may have potential use as an orthopedic biomaterial.

  8. Biomimetic synthesis of calcium-deficient hydroxyapatite in a natural hydrogel.

    PubMed

    Hutchens, Stacy A; Benson, Roberto S; Evans, Barbara R; O'Neill, Hugh M; Rawn, Claudia J

    2006-09-01

    A novel composite material consisting of calcium-deficient hydroxyapatite (CdHAP) biomimetically deposited in a bacterial cellulose hydrogel was synthesized and characterized. Cellulose produced by Gluconacetobacter hansenii was purified and sequentially incubated in solutions of calcium chloride followed by sodium phosphate dibasic. A substantial amount of apatite (50-90% of total dry weight) was homogeneously incorporated throughout the hydrogel after this treatment. X-ray diffractometry (XRD) showed that CdHAP crystallites had formed in the cellulose. XRD further demonstrated that the CdHAP was comprised of 10-50 nm anisotropic crystallites elongated in the c-axis, similar to natural bone apatite. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy demonstrated that hydroxyl IR bands of the cellulose shifted to lower wave numbers indicating that a coordinate bond had possibly formed between the CdHAP and the cellulose hydroxyl groups. FTIR also suggested that the CdHAP had formed from an octacalcium phosphate precursor similar to physiological bone. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images confirmed that uniform approximately 1 microm spherical CdHAP particles comprised of nanosized crystallites with a lamellar morphology had formed in the cellulose. The synthesis of the composite mimics the natural biomineralization of bone indicating that bacterial cellulose can be used as a template for biomimetic apatite formation. This composite may have potential use as an orthopedic biomaterial.

  9. Parameters influencing ciprofloxacin, ofloxacin, amoxicillin and sulfamethoxazole retention by natural and converted calcium phosphates.

    PubMed

    Bouyarmane, H; El Hanbali, I; El Karbane, M; Rami, A; Saoiabi, A; Saoiabi, S; Masse, S; Coradin, T; Laghzizil, A

    2015-06-30

    The retention of four antibiotics, ciprofloxacin, ofloxacin, amoxicillin and sulfamethoxazole by a natural phosphate rock (francolite) was studied and compared with a converted hydroxyapatite powder. The maximum sorption capacities were found to correlate with the molecular weight of the molecules. The mechanisms of sorption depended mostly on the charge of the antibiotic whereas the kinetics of the process was sensitive to their hydrophobic/hydrophilic character. The two materials showed slightly distinct affinities for the various antibiotics but exhibited similar maximum sorption capacities despite different specific surface areas. This was mainly attributed to the more pronounced hydrophobic character of the francolite phase constituting the natural phosphate. These data enlighten that the retention properties of these mineral phases depend on a complex interplay between the inter-molecular and molecule-solid interactions. These findings are relevant to understand better the contribution of calcium phosphates in the fate and retention of antibiotics in soils. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. [Fluoride emission from different soil minerals at high temperatures].

    PubMed

    Wu, W; Xie, Z; Xu, J; Liu, C

    2001-03-01

    The emission characteristics of fluoride pollutants from montmorillonite, kaolinite, vermiculite, geothite and allophane were studied to elucidate the mechanism of fluoride-releasing from soils during brick and tile making at high temperatures from 300 degrees C to 1000 degrees C. The rate of fluoride emission varied with temperature, mineral type, heating time, specific surface area and cations added to minerals. The escape of crystalline water resulting from crystal lattice collapse at a certain high temperature was found to affect the rate of fluoride emission. Calcium compounds could decrease fluoride emission rate from montmorillonite. At 800 degrees C, the rate of fluoride emission from Ca-treated montmorillonite decreased by 59.6% compared to untreated montmorillonite. The order for fluoride-fixing capacity of the 5 calcium compounds at 800 degrees C was as follows: CaCO3 > CaO > Ca3(PO4)2 > Ca(OH)2 > CaSO4.

  11. Other Fluoride Products

    MedlinePlus

    ... What's this? Submit What's this? Submit Button Other Fluoride Products Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir On ... August 17, 2001;50(RR-14):1–42. Fluoride Products Fluoride Toothpaste Form Concentrations of fluoride in ...

  12. Acute toxicity of ingested fluoride.

    PubMed

    Whitford, Gary Milton

    2011-01-01

    This chapter discusses the characteristics and treatment of acute fluoride toxicity as well as the most common sources of overexposure, the doses that cause acute toxicity, and factors that can influence the clinical outcome. Cases of serious systemic toxicity and fatalities due to acute exposures are now rare, but overexposures causing toxic signs and symptoms are not. The clinical course of systemic toxicity from ingested fluoride begins with gastric signs and symptoms, and can develop with alarming rapidity. Treatment involves minimizing absorption by administering a solution containing calcium, monitoring and managing plasma calcium and potassium concentrations, acid-base status, and supporting vital functions. Approximately 30,000 calls to US poison control centers concerning acute exposures in children are made each year, most of which involve temporary gastrointestinal effects, but others require medical treatment. The most common sources of acute overexposures today are dental products - particularly dentifrices because of their relatively high fluoride concentrations, pleasant flavors, and their presence in non-secure locations in most homes. For example, ingestion of only 1.8 ounces of a standard fluoridated dentifrice (900-1,100 mg/kg) by a 10-kg child delivers enough fluoride to reach the 'probably toxic dose' (5 mg/kg body weight). Factors that may influence the clinical course of an overexposure include the chemical compound (e.g. NaF, MFP, etc.), the age and acid-base status of the individual, and the elapsed time between exposure and the initiation of treatment. While fluoride has well-established beneficial dental effects and cases of serious toxicity are now rare, the potential for toxicity requires that fluoride-containing materials be handled and stored with the respect they deserve. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  13. Differences in loosely bound fluoride formation and anticaries effect of resin-based fluoride varnishes.

    PubMed

    Maas, Jorge R S; Junior, Italo M Faraco; Lodi, Carolina S; Delbem, Alberto C B

    2013-05-01

    OBJECTIVE.  Our in vitro study evaluated calcium fluoride formation in enamel and the anticaries effect of seven resin-based varnishes under cariogenic challenge. METHODS.  Enamel blocks were subjected to pH cycling. The experimental groups received fluoride varnish application, the positive control received topical fluoride gel treatment, and the negative control did not receive any treatment. The pH cycling surface hardness (SH1 ) and integrated loss of subsurface hardness (ΔKHN) were then determined. We measured the amount of fluoride released into the demineralizing and remineralizing (DE-RE) solutions used in pH cycling. The fluoride concentration in the enamel was determined 24 h after application of the products as loosely bound fluoride and firmly bound fluoride. RESULTS.  Higher deposits of loosely bound fluoride were observed for Duofluorid, followed by Biophat. For Duraphat, Bifluorid, Duraflur, and Duofluorid, no difference was observed in the SH1 and ΔKHN values, with the lowest mineral loss compared to the other groups. The Bifluorid and Duofluorid groups released high fluoride amounts into the DE-RE, and statistically significant difference was noted between them. CONCLUSIONS.  The anticaries effect showed no correlation with higher deposited fluoride amounts, resin type, or fluoride source.

  14. URINARY FLUORIDE OUTPUT IN CHILDREN FOLLOWING THE USE OF A DUAL-FLUORIDE VARNISH FORMULATION

    PubMed Central

    Olympio, Kelly Polido Kaneshiro; Cardoso, Vanessa Eid da Silva; Bijella, Maria Fernanda Borro; Pessan, Juliano Pelim; Delbem, Alberto Carlos Botazzo; Buzalaf, Marília Afonso Rabelo

    2009-01-01

    Objective: This study evaluated the bioavailability of fluoride after topical application of a dual-fluoride varnish commercially available in Brazil, when compared to Duraphat™. Material and methods: The urinary fluoride output was evaluated in seven 5-year-old children after application of the fluoride varnishes, in two different phases. In the first phase (I), children received topical application of the fluoride varnish Duofluorid XII (2.92% fluorine, calcium fluoride + 2.71% fluorine, sodium fluoride, FGM™). After 1-month interval (phase II), the same amount (0.2 mL) of the fluoride varnish Duraphat (2.26% fluorine, sodium fluoride, Colgate™) was applied. Before each application all the volunteers brushed their teeth with placebo dentifrice for 7 days. Urinary collections were carried out 24 h prior up to 48 h after the applications. Fluoride intake from the diet was also estimated. Fluoride concentration in diet samples and urine was analyzed with the fluoride ion-specific electrode and a miniature calomel reference electrode coupled to a potentiometer. Data were tested by ANOVA and Tukey's post hoc test (p<0.05). Results: There were significant differences in the urinary fluoride output between phases I and II. The use of Duofluorid XII did not significantly increase the urinary fluoride output, when compared to baseline levels. The application of Duraphat caused a transitory increase in the urinary fluoride output, returning to baseline levels 48 h after its use. Conclusions: The tested varnish formulation, which has been shown to be effective in in vitro studies, also can be considered safe. PMID:19466247

  15. Clinical efficacy in reducing dentin hypersensitivity of a dentifrice containing 8.0% arginine, calcium carbonate, and 1450 ppm fluoride compared to a dentifrice containing 8% strontium acetate and 1040 ppm fluoride under consumer usage conditions before and after switch-over.

    PubMed

    Schiff, T; Mateo, L R; Delgado, E; Cummins, D; Zhang, Y P; DeVizio, W

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this 16-week, double-blind, randomized, switch-over design study was to compare the efficacy in reducing dentin hypersensitivity of a dentifrice containing 8.0% arginine, calcium carbonate, and 1450 ppm fluoride as sodium monofluorophosphate (Colgate Sensitive Pro-Relief [also marketed as elmex Sensitive Professional]) to a desensitizing dentifrice containing 8% strontium acetate and 1040 ppm fluoride as sodium fluoride (Sensodyne Rapid Relief) under relevant consumer usage conditions. Qualifying subjects from the San Francisco, CA, USA area, who presented two hypersensitive teeth with a tactile hypersensitivity score (Yeaple Probe) between 10 and 50 grams of force and an air blast hypersensitivity score of 2 or 3 (Schiff Cold Air Sensitivity Scale), participated in this two-phase double-blind study. Subjects were randomly assigned to one of two test groups. The first phase of the study consisted of twice-daily at-home brushing with the first assigned dentifrice for eight weeks. The second phase of the study consisted of switching product use to the second assigned dentifrice for a second eight-week period. Dentin hypersensitivity examinations, which comprised tactile and air blast hypersensitivity measures, as well as examinations of oral hard and soft tissues, were conducted at baseline, at the completion of the first study phase, and at two weeks and eight weeks of the second phase. One-hundred and twenty-one subjects complied with the study protocol and completed the study. Study Phase I: Subjects who brushed twice daily for eight weeks with the arginine/calcium carbonate dentifrice experienced statistically significant improvements in mean tactile and air blast hypersensitivity scores (51.3% and 39.4%, respectively) relative to that experienced by subjects who brushed with the strontium acetate dentifrice. Study Phase II: Subjects who brushed with the arginine/calcium carbonate dentifrice for the first eight weeks of the study and then

  16. Effect of toothpaste with natural calcium carbonate/perlite on extrinsic tooth stain.

    PubMed

    Matheson, J R; Cox, T F; Baylor, N; Joiner, A; Patil, R; Karad, V; Ketkar, V; Bijlani, N S

    2004-01-01

    The current study was designed to determine the effect of natural calcium carbonate toothpaste containing Perlite and microgranules (Whitening toothpaste) on extrinsic tooth stain compared to a standard commercial toothpaste formulation with precipitated calcium carbonate (PCC) as abrasive and a commercial toothpaste with dicalcium phosphate dihydrate (DCPD) as abrasive. The toothpastes were evaluated in a double blind, three-cell, stratified (tobacco use; baseline tooth stain level), parallel group design study involving 600 subjects with extrinsic tooth stain. Subjects brushed twice daily with their allocated toothpaste for four weeks. Extrinsic tooth stain was measured using the Macpherson modification of the Lobene stain index. ANCOVA showed significant differences between toothpastes (p=0.037). Subsequent multiple comparisons using pairwise t-tests, showed the Whitening toothpaste to be superior to the DCPD toothpaste (p=0.014) and the PCC toothpaste (p=0.067). When a Box-Cox transformation was made to the data (y0.6) to improve normality, these two differences were more accurately estimated at p=0.004 and p=0.03 respectively. The Whitening toothpaste has been shown to be significantly more effective in tooth stain removal than the two standard commercial toothpaste formulations.

  17. Removal of humic substances from water by means of calcium-ion-enriched natural zeolites.

    PubMed

    Capasso, S; Colella, C; Coppola, E; Iovino, P; Salvestrini, S

    2007-03-01

    The ability of the natural zeolited Neapolitan Yellow Tuff (NYT) enriched with calcium ions to remove humic acids from water was evaluated by batch adsorption equilibrium tests and dynamic experiments carried out by percolating humic acid solutions through a small NYT column (breakthrough curves). Under the experimental condition explored, the sorption capacity increases with the ionic strength and has the highest value at pH 7.4. The partition coefficient for a low concentration of humic acid ([humic acid] --> 0), at pH 7.4 in 0.01 M sodium chloride, was approximately 1000 L/kg, versus the value of approximately 100 L/kg in the absence of the alkaline metal salt. Therefore, after humic acids have been adsorbed in a column filled with the calcium-ion-enriched tuff, a reduction of the salt concentration in the ongoing solution enhances the release of the adsorbed material. These findings show that NYT can be used for the removal of humic acids from water.

  18. REDUCTION OF FLUORIDE TO METAL

    DOEpatents

    Carlson, O.N.; Schmidt, F.A.; Spedding, F.H.

    1960-08-30

    A process is given for making yttrium metal by reducing yttrium fluoride with calcium plus magnesium. Calcium is added in an excess of from 10 to 20% and magnesium in a quantity to yield a magnesium--yttrium alloy containing from 12 to 25% magnesium when the reaction mass is heated in an inert atmosphere at from 900 to 1106 deg C, but preferably above the melting point of the alloy. Calcium chloride may be added so as to obtain a less viscous slag containing from 30 to 60% calcium chloride. After removal of the slag the alloy is vacuum-heated at about 1100 deg C for volatilization of the magnesium and calcium.

  19. Cantilever-enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy applied in the research of natural and synthetic calcium phosphate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brangule, A.; Gross, K. A.; Stepanova, V.

    2017-04-01

    This study demonstrates the significant potential of cantilever-enhanced Fourier transform infrared photoacoustic spectroscopy (FTIR PAS) principles. The improved sensitivity and reproducibility of this method presents a potent tool in the study of biomaterials. The article discusses aspects of the application of cantilever-enhanced FTIR PAS in the research of natural and biological calcium phosphate and the statistical evaluation of the FTIR PAS sampling method. The improved constructions of the FTIR PAS accessory reduce limitations of the conventional capacitive microphone and provide a sensitive tool for samples or processes unreachable by more traditional transmittance methods, or ATR sampling technique. The most common and important applications have been discussed in-depth to show the wide range of problems solved by FTIR PAS.

  20. Thermodynamic modeling of hydrogen fluoride production relevant to actinide residue treatment

    SciTech Connect

    West, M.H.; Axler, K.M.

    1995-02-01

    This report addresses issues specific to generation of hydrogen fluoride via reaction of calcium fluoride with sulfuric acid. This process has been established on a commercial scale and is under consideration for treatment of calcium fluoride residues from uranium processing. Magnesium fluoride slags are also available as a product of uranium processing. The technique of using sulfuric acid for the production of hydrogen fluoride from magnesium fluoride is also under consideration as a residue processing scheme. In the current study, thermodynamic modeling was used to investigate these chemical processing systems. Results presented herein reveal information relevant to selection of processing temperatures and conditions. Details include predicted effects in system composition based on operating temperatures for both the calcium fluoride and the magnesium fluoride systems.

  1. Effects of natural organic matter on calcium and phosphorus co-precipitation.

    PubMed

    Sindelar, Hugo R; Brown, Mark T; Boyer, Treavor H

    2015-11-01

    Phosphorus (P), calcium (Ca) and natural organic matter (NOM) naturally occur in all aquatic ecosystems. However, excessive P loads can cause eutrophic or hyper-eutrophic conditions in these waters. As a result, P regulation is important for these impaired aquatic systems, and Ca-P co-precipitation is a vital mechanism of natural P removal in many alkaline systems, such as the Florida Everglades. The interaction of P, Ca, and NOM is also an important factor in lime softening and corrosion control, both critical processes of drinking water treatment. Determining the role of NOM in Ca-P co-precipitation is important for identifying mechanisms that may limit P removal in both natural and engineered systems. The main goal of this research is to assess the role of NOM in inhibiting Ca and P co-precipitation by: (1) measuring how Ca, NOM, and P concentrations affect NOM's potential inhibition of co-precipitation; (2) determining the effect of pH; and (3) evaluating the precipitated solids. Results showed that Ca-P co-precipitation occurs at pH 9.5 in the presence of high natural organic matter (NOM) (≈30 mg L(-1)). The supersaturation of calcite overcomes the inhibitory effect of NOM seen at lower pH values. Higher initial P concentrations lead to both higher P precipitation rates and densities of P on the calcite surface. The maximum surface density of co-precipitated P on the precipitated calcite surface increases with increasing NOM levels, suggesting that NOM does prevent the co-precipitation of Ca and P.

  2. Fluoridated Water

    MedlinePlus

    ... based on a review of more than 50 human epidemiological (population) studies produced over the past 40 years, concluded that optimal fluoridation of drinking water “does not pose a detectable cancer risk to humans” as evidenced by extensive human epidemiological data reported ...

  3. A clinical trial to evaluate the effects of prophylactic fluoride agents on the superelastic properties of nickel-titanium wires.

    PubMed

    Vo, Jossette; Chudasama, Dipak N; Rinchuse, Donald J; Day, Richard

    2010-01-01

    To study the effects of a prophylactic fluoride regimen on the mechanical properties of nickel-titanium (Ni-Ti) archwires under clinical conditions. The unloading properties of 100 Ni-Ti wires were tested using a three-point bending test at five deflections (0.5 mm, 1.0 mm, 2.0 mm. 3.0 mm, and 3.1 mm). Sixty-six 0.016 3 0.022-inch Ni-Ti wires were tested after being used intraorally for 6 weeks using two protocols. Thirty-three wires were evaluated after the use of fluoride-containing Crest toothpaste (sodium fluoride 0.243%, 0.15% w/v fluoride ion) and Equate fluoride rinse (sodium fluoride 0.05%, fluoride ion 0.0226%). Another 33 wires were examined after a nonfluoridated natural toothpaste (Tom's of Maine; calcium carbonate, xylitol, myrrh, propolis, sodium lauryl sulfate, carrageenan, spearmint and peppermint oils, glycerin, and water) was used. Another 34 Ni-Ti wires served as a control; they were tested as received. Statistical analyses were carried out with a linear-mixed model (analysis of variance [ANOVA]). Force degradation occurred within both groups of intraorally used wires but not in the unused archwires. When compared to unexposed wires, those with fluoride exposure exhibited slightly higher force degradation at 3.1 and 3.0 mm deflection, but they displayed less force degradation at 0.5 and 1.0 mm deflection. Topical fluoride regimens decreased the unloading property of Ni-Ti wires at higher deflections but increased it at lower deflections. © 2010 Quintessence Publishing Co, Inc.

  4. Carbide/fluoride/silver self-lubricating composite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sliney, Harold E. (Inventor)

    1988-01-01

    A self-lubricating, friction and wear reducing composite material for use over a wide temperature spectrum from cryogenic temperature to about 900.degree. C. in a chemically reactive environment comprising silver, barium fluoride/calcium fluoride eutectic, and metal bonded chromium carbide.

  5. Carbide-fluoride-silver self-lubricating composite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sliney, Harold E. (Inventor)

    1987-01-01

    A self-lubricating, friction and wear reducing composite material is described for use over a wide temperature spectrum from cryogenic temperature to about 900 C in a chemically reactive environment comprising silver, barium fluoride/calcium fluoride eutectic, and metal bonded chromium carbide.

  6. Widespread Genetic Switches and Toxicity Resistance Proteins for Fluoride

    PubMed Central

    Weinberg, Zasha; Roth, Adam; Stockbridge, Randy B.; Breaker, Ronald R.

    2014-01-01

    Most riboswitches are metabolite-binding RNA structures located in bacterial messenger RNAs where they control gene expression. We have discovered a riboswitch class in many bacterial and archaeal species whose members are selectively triggered by fluoride but reject other small anions, including chloride. These fluoride riboswitches activate expression of genes that encode putative fluoride transporters, enzymes that are known to be inhibited by fluoride, and additional proteins of unknown function. Our findings indicate that most organisms are naturally exposed to toxic levels of fluoride and that many species use fluoride-sensing RNAs to control the expression of proteins that alleviate the deleterious effects of this anion. PMID:22194412

  7. Widespread genetic switches and toxicity resistance proteins for fluoride.

    PubMed

    Baker, Jenny L; Sudarsan, Narasimhan; Weinberg, Zasha; Roth, Adam; Stockbridge, Randy B; Breaker, Ronald R

    2012-01-13

    Most riboswitches are metabolite-binding RNA structures located in bacterial messenger RNAs where they control gene expression. We have discovered a riboswitch class in many bacterial and archaeal species whose members are selectively triggered by fluoride but reject other small anions, including chloride. These fluoride riboswitches activate expression of genes that encode putative fluoride transporters, enzymes that are known to be inhibited by fluoride, and additional proteins of unknown function. Our findings indicate that most organisms are naturally exposed to toxic levels of fluoride and that many species use fluoride-sensing RNAs to control the expression of proteins that alleviate the deleterious effects of this anion.

  8. Mechanochemical dissociation of calcium carbonate: laboratory data and relation to natural emissions of CO 2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinelli, Giovanni; Plescia, Paolo

    2004-05-01

    This paper investigates the possible role of mechanochemical CO 2 production due to stimulation from the action of friction on calcite. This experimentation has two objectives: firstly, to obtain information on the effect of the mechanical disassociation of carbon dioxide from the carbonates and, secondly, to simulate the conditions that may arise during a tectonic action. The action of disassociation has been observed on pure calcium carbonate from analyses ground at different times in a ring-roller mill. The ring-roller mill is a grinding system that mainly works through friction and, to a lesser extent, by non-hydrostatic compression. It has been observed that the grinding action determines an abundant release of carbon dioxide, with a non-linear trend that emulates the trend in the decrease in crystallinity. This indicates a close connection between crystallinity and the dissociation of carbonate. The Authors hypothesize a carbon dioxide release mechanism linked to the factures induced by the friction and the increase in the structural disorder induced in the lattice by the plastic sliding. This mechanism could play an important role in the natural release of CO 2, along with the other carbon dioxide sources that are already known of.

  9. Bi-layered calcium phosphate cement-based composite scaffold mimicking natural bone structure

    PubMed Central

    He, Fupo; Ye, Jiandong

    2013-01-01

    In this study, a core/shell bi-layered calcium phosphate cement (CPC)-based composite scaffold with adjustable compressive strength, which mimicked the structure of natural cortical/cancellous bone, was fabricated. The dense tubular CPC shell was prepared by isostatic pressing CPC powder with a specially designed mould. A porous CPC core with unidirectional lamellar pore structure was fabricated inside the cavity of dense tubular CPC shell by unidirectional freeze casting, followed by infiltration of poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) and immobilization of collagen. The compressive strength of bi-layered CPC-based composite scaffold can be controlled by varying thickness ratio of dense layer to porous layer. Compared to the scaffold without dense shell, the pore interconnection of bi-layered scaffold was not obviously compromised because of its high unidirectional interconnectivity but poor three dimensional interconnectivity. The in vitro results showed that the rat bone marrow stromal cells attached and proliferated well on the bi-layered CPC-based composite scaffold. This novel bi-layered CPC-based composite scaffold is promising for bone repair. PMID:27877603

  10. Cellular lightweight concrete containing high-calcium fly ash and natural zeolite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jitchaiyaphum, Khamphee; Sinsiri, Theerawat; Jaturapitakkul, Chai; Chindaprasirt, Prinya

    2013-05-01

    Cellular lightweight concrete (CLC) with the controlled density of approximately 800 kg/m3 was made from a preformed foam, Type-I Portland cement (OPC), fly ash (FA), or natural zeolite (NZ), and its compressive strength, setting time, water absorption, and microstructure of were tested. High-calcium FA and NZ with the median particle sizes of 14.52 and 7.72 μm, respectively, were used to partially replace OPC at 0, 10wt%, 20wt%, and 30wt% of the binder (OPC and pozzolan admixture). A water-to-binder mass ratio (W/B) of 0.5 was used for all mixes. The testing results indicated that CLC containing 10wt% NZ had the highest compressive strength. The replacement of OPC with NZ decreased the total porosity and air void size but increased the capillary porosity of the CLC. The incorporation of a suitable amount of NZ decreased the setting time, total porosity, and pore size of the paste compared with the findings with the same amount of FA. The total porosity and cumulative pore volume decreased, whereas the gel and capillary pores increased as a result of adding both pozzolans at all replacement levels. The water absorption increased as the capillary porosity increased; this effect depended on the volume of air entrained and the type or amount of pozzolan.

  11. Debating Water Fluoridation Before Dr. Strangelove.

    PubMed

    Carstairs, Catherine

    2015-08-01

    In the 1930s, scientists learned that small amounts of fluoride naturally occurring in water could protect teeth from decay, and the idea of artificially adding fluoride to public water supplies to achieve the same effect arose. In the 1940s and early 1950s, a number of studies were completed to determine whether fluoride could have harmful effects. The research suggested that the possibility of harm was small. In the early 1950s, Canadian and US medical, dental, and public health bodies all endorsed water fluoridation. I argue in this article that some early concerns about the toxicity of fluoride were put aside as evidence regarding the effectiveness and safety of water fluoridation mounted and as the opposition was taken over by people with little standing in the scientific, medical, and dental communities. The sense of optimism that infused postwar science and the desire of dentists to have a magic bullet that could wipe out tooth decay also affected the scientific debate.

  12. Fluoride release from aged resin composites containing fluoridated glass filler.

    PubMed

    Itota, Toshiyuki; Al-Naimi, Omar T; Carrick, Thomas E; Yoshiyama, Masahiro; McCabe, John F

    2005-11-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the fluoride release from aged resin composites containing different types of fluoridated glass filler into both deionized distilled water and lactic acid solution. Three resin composites, UniFil S (containing fluoro-alumino-silicate glass filler), Reactmer (containing pre-reacted glass-ionomer filler) and Beautifil (containing both types of fillers) were used. A conventional glass-ionomer cement, Ketac-Fil, was used as a control. Five disk specimens of each material were prepared and aged in water for 10 weeks. After aging, specimens were immersed in deionized distilled water for a further 6 days and then in aqueous lactic acid (pH 4.0) for 2 days. This process was repeated twice more and the specimens were subsequently immersed in water for a further 12 days. Fluoride release was measured every 2 days throughout the post-aging period. The amount of fluoride release for aged UniFil S and Beautifil markedly increased in acid solution compared with water storage. The difference was not so great for aged Reactmer and Ketac-Fil. UniFil S and Beautifil gave significantly greater fluoride release in water following immersion in acid solution (p<0.05, two-way ANOVA and Scheffe's test), but Reactmer and Ketac-Fil showed no such increase in fluoride release after acid immersion. These results suggested that the nature of the fluoridated glass filler within a resin composite and the way in which the material interacts with an acidic environment affected the amount of fluoride released.

  13. Pilot-scale fluoride-containing wastewater treatment by the ballasted flocculation process.

    PubMed

    Wang, Bin-Yuan; Chen, Zhong-Lin; Zhu, Jia; Shen, Ji-Min; Han, Ying

    2013-01-01

    A pilot-scale ballasted flocculation system was used to remove fluoride from one type of industrial wastewater. The system included the formation of calcium fluoride (CaF2) using calcium hydroxide followed by coagulation sedimentation. Calcium fluoride was recycled as nuclei for enhancing CaF2 precipitation and as a ballasting agent for improving fluoride removal and flocculation efficiency. Factors affecting fluoride and turbidity removal efficiencies, including pH in the CaF2-reacting tank and coagulation-mixing tank, sludge recycling ratio, and dosages of FeCl3 and polyacrylamide (PAM), were investigated in the pilot-scale system. The recycled CaF2 precipitates improved CaF2 formation kinetics, enhanced fluoride removal and flocculation performance. Under the optimized condition, the ballast flocculation process reduced fluoride concentration from 288.9 to 10.67 mg/L and the turbidity from 129.6 NTU to below 2.5 NTU.

  14. Fluoride absorption: independence from plasma fluoride levels

    SciTech Connect

    Whitford, G.M.; Williams, J.L.

    1986-04-01

    The concept that there are physiologic mechanisms to homeostatically regulate plasma fluoride concentrations has been supported by results in the literature suggesting an inverse relationship between plasma fluoride levels and the absorption of the ion from the gastrointestinal tract of the rat. The validity of the relationship was questioned because of possible problems in the experimental design. The present work used four different methods to evaluate the effect of plasma fluoride levels on the absorption of the ion in rats: (i) the percentage of the daily fluoride intake that was excreted in the urine; (ii) the concentration of fluoride in femur epiphyses; (iii) the net areas under the time-plasma fluoride concentration curves after intragastric fluoride doses; and (iv) the residual amounts or fluoride in the gastrointestinal tracts after the intragastric fluoride doses. None of these methods indicated that plasma fluoride levels influence the rate or the degree or fluoride absorption. It was concluded that, unless extremely high plasma fluoride levels are involved (pharmacologic or toxic doses), the absorption of the ion is independent of plasma levels. The results provide further evidence that plasma fluoride concentrations are not homeostatically regulated.

  15. The effective use of fluorides in public health.

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Sheila; Burt, Brian A.; Petersen, Poul Erik; Lennon, Michael A.

    2005-01-01

    Dental caries remain a public health problem for many developing countries and for underprivileged populations in developed countries. This paper outlines the historical development of public health approaches to the use of fluoride and comments on their effectiveness. Early research and development was concerned with waterborne fluorides, both naturally occurring and added, and their effects on the prevalence and incidence of dental caries and dental fluorosis. In the latter half of the 20th century, the focus of research was on fluoride toothpastes and mouth rinses. More recently, systematic reviews summarizing these extensive databases have indicated that water fluoridation and fluoride toothpastes both substantially reduce the prevalence and incidence of dental caries. We present four case studies that illustrate the use of fluoride in modern public health practice, focusing on: recent water fluoridation schemes in California, USA; salt fluoridation in Jamaica; milk fluoridation in Chile; and the development of "affordable" fluoride toothpastes in Indonesia. Common themes are the concern to reduce demands for compliance with fluoride regimes that rely upon action by individuals and their families, and the issue of cost. We recommend that a community should use no more than one systemic fluoride (i.e. water or salt or milk fluoridation) combined with the use of fluoride toothpastes, and that the prevalence of dental fluorosis should be monitored in order to detect increases in or higher-than-acceptable levels. PMID:16211158

  16. Removal of fluoride from fluoride contaminated industrial waste water by electrolysis.

    PubMed

    Joshi, Vijaya A; Nanoti, Madan V

    2003-01-01

    Wastewater containing fluoride are generally treated with lime or calcium salt supplemented with aluminium salts. Wastewater generated from different industries does not always behave in the same way due to the presence of interfering contaminants. A number of techniques have been developed and studied for the removal of excessive fluoride. Most of these are based on use of aluminium salt. In alum coagulation the sorption properties of product of hydrolysis of aluminium salts and capacity of fluoride for complex formation plays a very important role. These hydrolysis products of aluminium can be produced by passing direct current through aluminium electrode. The text presented in the paper deals with the various aspect of removal of fluoride by electrolysis using aluminium electrode from fluoride chemical based industrial wastewater.

  17. Fluoride overdose

    MedlinePlus

    ... cream (also called acid cream, used to etch designs in drinking glasses) Roach powders Other products may ... the mouth into the lungs, and a breathing machine (ventilator) Calcium or milk Chest x-ray EKG ( ...

  18. Atomic force microscopic comparison of remineralization with casein-phosphopeptide amorphous calcium phosphate paste, acidulated phosphate fluoride gel and iron supplement in primary and permanent teeth: An in-vitro study

    PubMed Central

    Agrawal, Nikita; Shashikiran, N. D.; Singla, Shilpy; Ravi, K. S.; Kulkarni, Vinaya Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Context: Demineralization of tooth by erosion is caused by frequent contact between the tooth surface and acids present in soft drinks. Aim: The present study objective was to evaluate the remineralization potential of casein-phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate (CPP-ACP) paste, 1.23% acidulated phosphate fluoride (APF) gel and iron supplement on dental erosion by soft drinks in human primary and permanent enamel using atomic force microscopy (AFM). Materials and Methods: Specimens were made from extracted 15 primary and 15 permanent teeth which were randomly divided into three treatment groups: CPP-ACP paste, APF gel and iron supplement. AFM was used for baseline readings followed by demineralization and remineralization cycle. Results and Statistics: Almost all group of samples showed remineralization that is a reduction in surface roughness which was higher with CPP-ACP paste. Statistical analysis was performed using by one-way ANOVA and Mann-Whitney U-test with P < 0.05. Conclusions: It can be concluded that the application of CPP-ACP paste is effective on preventing dental erosion from soft drinks. PMID:24808700

  19. Atomic force microscopic comparison of remineralization with casein-phosphopeptide amorphous calcium phosphate paste, acidulated phosphate fluoride gel and iron supplement in primary and permanent teeth: An in-vitro study.

    PubMed

    Agrawal, Nikita; Shashikiran, N D; Singla, Shilpy; Ravi, K S; Kulkarni, Vinaya Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Demineralization of tooth by erosion is caused by frequent contact between the tooth surface and acids present in soft drinks. The present study objective was to evaluate the remineralization potential of casein-phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate (CPP-ACP) paste, 1.23% acidulated phosphate fluoride (APF) gel and iron supplement on dental erosion by soft drinks in human primary and permanent enamel using atomic force microscopy (AFM). Specimens were made from extracted 15 primary and 15 permanent teeth which were randomly divided into three treatment groups: CPP-ACP paste, APF gel and iron supplement. AFM was used for baseline readings followed by demineralization and remineralization cycle. Almost all group of samples showed remineralization that is a reduction in surface roughness which was higher with CPP-ACP paste. Statistical analysis was performed using by one-way ANOVA and Mann-Whitney U-test with P < 0.05. It can be concluded that the application of CPP-ACP paste is effective on preventing dental erosion from soft drinks.

  20. Dental fluorosis in children exposed to multiple sources of fluoride: implications for school fluoridation programs.

    PubMed Central

    Rozier, R G; Dudney, G G

    1981-01-01

    Naturally occurring fluorides of varying levels made possible a study do determine if continuous, lifetime use of home drinking water fluoridated to optimum levels combined with the use of school fluoridated water beginning at school age causes objectionable levels of dental fluorosis as defined by Dr. H. Trendley Dean in 1936. Examinations were performed on 120 children who had fluoride concentrations in home well water ranging from 0.1 to 6.5 ppm and attended a school with a private water source containing 4.5 ppm natural fluoride (5.6 times the optimum for community fluoridation in the area). Fluorosis scores were calculated for each of four groups formed according to fluoride concentrations in home water supplies. The group with an average concentration of 0.87 ppm was found to have a Community Index of Dental Fluorosis well within Dean's normal limits. The results suggest that children consuming water at home containing the optimal fluoride concentration and drinking water at school containing the recommended fluoride level (4.5 times the optimum) are not at risk to dental fluorosis that impairs appearance. If this finding is corroborated by future clinical studies, the target population for school fluoridation can be expanded and the administration of these programs facilitated. PMID:7302108

  1. Effect of Praval bhasma (Coral calx), a natural source of rich calcium on bone mineralization in rats.

    PubMed

    Reddy, Prabhakara N; Lakshmana, M; Udupa, U Venkatesh

    2003-12-01

    Praval bhasma (PB; Coral calx) is a natural source of rich calcium widely used in traditional system of Indian medicine as a supplement in the treatment of variety of bone metabolic disorders associated with calcium deficiency. The present study was designed to investigate the inhibitory effects of Praval bhasma on the progress of bone loss induced by ovariectomy and concurrent calcium deficiency (CD-OVX). Twenty-four female rats were ovariectomized, 12 sham operated, divided into three groups of 12 each, fed on low calcium diet (0.04% Ca) and treated either with vehicle or Praval bhasma (65 mg/kg body weight, twice a day) for 16 weeks. Compared to sham rats, CD-OVX animals showed an increase in urinary excretion of calcium (Ca) and phosphorus (P), decreased femoral weight and density which were significantly reversed in Praval bhasma treated animals. Measurement of cortical bone morphometric indices by CT-scanning technique showed increased medullary width and cross-sectional area, decreased periosteal area (PA), combined cortical thickness (CCT) and cortical area (CA)/periosteal area in CD-OVX animals compared to sham and PB-treated group. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) study revealed porous and erosive appearance of the distal femur at the epiphysis and reduced Ca:P ratio in CD-OVX animals compared to sham and PB-treated group. Ash weight, percent ash, ash Ca and ash P levels were lower in CD-OVX animals than in sham or PB group. Histological examination of decalcified femurs showed narrowed and disappearance of trabeculae and widened medullary spaces and decreased impact strength as measured by impact test in CD-OVX animals compared to sham and PB-treated group. The present study concludes that Praval bhasma is effective in the prevention of calcium and estrogen deficient bone loss and justify the continuing use of this ayurvedic preparation in traditional system of Indian medicine for management of bone metabolic disorders such as osteoporosis.

  2. Natural and anthropogenic drivers of calcium depletion in a northern forest during the last millennium

    PubMed Central

    Leys, Bérangère A.; Likens, Gene E.; Craine, Joseph M.; Lacroix, Brice; McLauchlan, Kendra K.

    2016-01-01

    The pace and degree of nutrient limitation are among the most critical uncertainties in predicting terrestrial ecosystem responses to global change. In the northeastern United States, forest growth has recently declined along with decreased soil calcium (Ca) availability, suggesting that acid rain has depleted soil Ca to the point where it may be a limiting nutrient. However, it is unknown whether the past 60 y of changes in Ca availability are strictly anthropogenic or partly a natural consequence of long-term ecosystem development. Here, we report a high-resolution millennial-scale record of Ca and 16 other elements from the sediments of Mirror Lake, a 15-ha lake in the White Mountains of New Hampshire surrounded by northern hardwood forest. We found that sedimentary Ca concentrations had been declining steadily for 900 y before regional Euro-American settlement. This Ca decline was not a result of serial episodic disturbances but instead the gradual weathering of soils and soil Ca availability. As Ca availability was declining, nitrogen availability concurrently was increasing. These data indicate that nutrient availability on base-poor, parent materials is sensitive to acidifying processes on millennial timescales. Forest harvesting and acid rain in the postsettlement period mobilized significant amounts of Ca from watershed soils, but these effects were exacerbated by the long-term pattern. Shifting nutrient limitation can potentially occur within 10,000 y of ecosystem development, which alters our assessments of the speed and trajectory of nutrient limitation in forests, and could require reformulation of global models of forest productivity. PMID:27298361

  3. Direct estimates of natural selection in Iberia indicate calcium absorption was not the only driver of lactase persistence in Europe.

    PubMed

    Sverrisdóttir, Oddny Ósk; Timpson, Adrian; Toombs, Jamie; Lecoeur, Cecile; Froguel, Philippe; Carretero, Jose Miguel; Arsuaga Ferreras, Juan Luis; Götherström, Anders; Thomas, Mark G

    2014-04-01

    Lactase persistence (LP) is a genetically determined trait whereby the enzyme lactase is expressed throughout adult life. Lactase is necessary for the digestion of lactose--the main carbohydrate in milk--and its production is downregulated after the weaning period in most humans and all other mammals studied. Several sources of evidence indicate that LP has evolved independently, in different parts of the world over the last 10,000 years, and has been subject to strong natural selection in dairying populations. In Europeans, LP is strongly associated with, and probably caused by, a single C to T mutation 13,910 bp upstream of the lactase (LCT) gene (-13,910*T). Despite a considerable body of research, the reasons why LP should provide such a strong selective advantage remain poorly understood. In this study, we examine one of the most widely cited hypotheses for selection on LP--that fresh milk consumption supplemented the poor vitamin D and calcium status of northern Europe's early farmers (the calcium assimilation hypothesis). We do this by testing for natural selection on -13,910*T using ancient DNA data from the skeletal remains of eight late Neolithic Iberian individuals, whom we would not expect to have poor vitamin D and calcium status because of relatively high incident UVB light levels. None of the eight samples successfully typed in the study had the derived T-allele. In addition, we reanalyze published data from French Neolithic remains to both test for population continuity and further examine the evolution of LP in the region. Using simulations that accommodate genetic drift, natural selection, uncertainty in calibrated radiocarbon dates, and sampling error, we find that natural selection is still required to explain the observed increase in allele frequency. We conclude that the calcium assimilation hypothesis is insufficient to explain the spread of LP in Europe.

  4. Review of fluoride removal from drinking water.

    PubMed

    Mohapatra, M; Anand, S; Mishra, B K; Giles, Dion E; Singh, P

    2009-10-01

    Fluoride in drinking water has a profound effect on teeth and bones. Up to a small level (1-1.5mg/L) this strengthens the enamel. Concentrations in the range of 1.5-4 mg/L result in dental fluorosis whereas with prolonged exposure at still higher fluoride concentrations (4-10mg/L) dental fluorosis progresses to skeletal fluorosis. High fluoride concentrations in groundwater, up to more than 30 mg/L, occur widely, in many parts of the world. This review article is aimed at providing precise information on efforts made by various researchers in the field of fluoride removal for drinking water. The fluoride removal has been broadly divided in two sections dealing with membrane and adsorption techniques. Under the membrane techniques reverse osmosis, nanofiltration, dialysis and electro-dialysis have been discussed. Adsorption, which is a conventional technique, deals with adsorbents such as: alumina/aluminium based materials, clays and soils, calcium based minerals, synthetic compounds and carbon based materials. Studies on fluoride removal from aqueous solutions using various reversed zeolites, modified zeolites and ion exchange resins based on cross-linked polystyrene are reviewed. During the last few years, layered double oxides have been of interest as adsorbents for fluoride removal. Such recent developments have been briefly discussed.

  5. Comparing the efficacy in reducing dentin hypersensitivity of a new toothpaste containing 8.0% arginine, calcium carbonate, and 1450 ppm fluoride to a benchmark commercial desensitizing toothpaste containing 2% potassium ion: an eight-week clinical study in Rome, Italy.

    PubMed

    Docimo, R; Montesani, L; Maturo, P; Costacurta, M; Bartolino, M; Zhang, Y P; DeVizio, W; Delgado, E; Cummins, D; Dibart, S; Mateo, L R

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this double-blind dentin hypersensitivity clinical study was to investigate the effectiveness of a new desensitizing toothpaste containing 8.0% arginine, calcium carbonate, and 1450 ppm fluoride as sodium monofluorophosphate (MFP), compared to that of a benchmark commercially available desensitizing toothpaste containing 2% potassium ion, dosed as 5.0% potassium nitrate, and 1450 ppm fluoride as sodium fluoride (NaF). A total of 80 subjects were entered into the study, and stratified into two balanced groups according to their baseline mean tactile and mean air blast sensitivity scores. The two groups were randomly assigned to use either the new arginine toothpaste or the benchmark commercially available desensitizing toothpaste containing 2% potassium ion. Subjects were instructed to brush their teeth twice daily (morning and evening) for one minute with their assigned toothpaste and a commercially available soft-bristled toothbrush. Dentin hypersensitivity examinations, which included tactile and air blast sensitivity measures, were conducted at baseline, one week, two weeks, four weeks, and eight weeks. Subject examinations were conducted by the same dental examiner at each examination period. This clinical study demonstrated that the new toothpaste, containing 8.0% arginine and 1450 ppm fluoride as MFP in a calcium carbonate base, provided a significant reduction in dentin hypersensitivity when used over a period of eight weeks. The study also showed that the new arginine toothpaste provided significantly greater reductions (p < 0.05) in dentin hypersensitivity in response to tactile (38.9%, 28.8%, and 11.6%) and air blast (16.8%, 26.4%, and 33.8%) stimuli than the benchmark commercial desensitizing toothpaste containing 2% potassium ion and 1450 ppm fluoride as NaF in a silica base, after two weeks, four weeks, and eight weeks of product use, respectively. A new toothpaste containing 8.0% arginine, calcium carbonate, and 1450 ppm fluoride as

  6. The Effect of Casein Phosphopeptide-Amorf Calcium Phosphate and Acidulated Phosphate Fluoride Gel on Dental Erosion in Primary Teeth: An in Vitro Study.

    PubMed

    Maden, Eda Arat; Acar, Özge; Altun, Ceyhan; Polat, Günseli Güven

    This study aimed to investigate the effect of acidulated phosphate fluoride (APF) gel and casein phosphopeptide/amorphous calciumphosphate (CPP-ACP) on the dental erosion produced by carbonated soft drink in primary teeth. This study evaluated by an in vitro model the effect of APF gel and CPP-ACP on the dental enamel previously subjected to erosive challenge with carbonated soft drink. Sixty sound human primary molars were prepared by embedding the crown sections in acrylic resin blocks leaving the enamel surfaces exposed. The surface roughness of the enamel was measured with prophilometry at baseline. Specimens were randomly divided into three treatment groups (n:20): artificial saliva, CPP-ACP, 1.23% APF gel. All specimens were then exposed to an erosive challenge of carbonated soft drink and artificial saliva for 20 cycles of 20 seconds each. Demineralization-remineralization cycles was repeated twice at eight-hour intervals and roughness values were measured. Enamel samples were treated with artificial saliva, CPP-ACP, 1.23% APF gel applied for 10 min after erosive challenge. The arithmetic average roughness (Ra) readings were recorded after remineralization agents were applied. The mean surface roughness in all groups increased significantly after erosion process and decreased after remineralization treatment. After treatment, the mean surface roughness of the 1.23% APF gel group was significantly less than the other groups and the mean surface roughness of the artificial saliva group was significantly more than the other groups. 1.23% APF gel showed the highest protective effect against erosive enamel loss. Under the conditions of this study, artificial saliva, CPP-ACP and 1.23% APF treatments were able to reduce erosive enamel loss produced by carbonated soft drink in primary teeth. However, 1.23% APF gel showed the highest protective effect against erosive enamel loss.

  7. Salt fluoridation: a review.

    PubMed

    Pollick, Howard F

    2013-06-01

    Salt fluoridation is sometimes suggested as a prospect for communities that have a low water fluoride concentration and have no possibility of implementing community water fluoridation. School-based milk fluoridation programs also are practiced in some countries as an alternative. This paper reviews the evidence of effectiveness in dental caries prevention and risks of dental fluorosis in countries where salt or milk fluoridation is practiced.

  8. Gramicidin D enhances the antibacterial activity of fluoride.

    PubMed

    Nelson, James W; Zhou, Zhiyuan; Breaker, Ronald R

    2014-07-01

    Fluoride is a toxic anion found in many natural environments. One of the major bacterial defenses against fluoride is the cell envelope, which limits passage of the membrane-impermeant fluoride anion. Accordingly, compounds that enhance the permeability of bacterial membranes to fluoride should also enhance fluoride toxicity. In this study, we demonstrate that the pore-forming antibiotic gramicidin D increases fluoride uptake in Bacillus subtilis and that the antibacterial activity of this compound is potentiated by fluoride. Polymyxin B, another membrane-targeting antibiotic with a different mechanism of action, shows no such improvement. These results, along with previous findings, indicate that certain compounds that destabilize bacterial cell envelopes can enhance the toxicity of fluoride.

  9. Preparation and characterization of bio resin natural tannin/poly (vinylidene fluoride): A high dielectric performance nano-composite for electrical storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdalla, S.; Pizzi, A.; Al-Ghamdi, Maryam A.; AlWafi, Reem

    2017-09-01

    We have prepared films of polymer nano-composite (PNC) of poly [vinylidene-fluoride] (PVDF) and bio resin natural tannin (BRNT) nanoparticles. The α and γ electro-active phases were detected, and the addition of BRNT drastically increases the formation of the α-phase. Addition of BRNT produces up to 98% of electro-active phases. Robust electrostatic interactions arise between charges at the BRNT-surfaces, and differences in electron affinity between CH2 and CF2 groups created dielectric dipoles. The addition of BRNT has not only enhanced the formation of the electrically active phases but also makes each dipole in the phase has its specific characteristics for example its own relaxation time. The AC-electrical permittivity showed that the dielectric constant of 10%wt-BRNT nanoparticles in PVDF has a value 44 ε0, which is four times more than the dielectric constant of the as-prepared PVDF films. These data show the importance of these polymers as easy, flexible, and durable energy storage materials.

  10. Preparation and pre-characterization of epoxidized natural rubber (ENR) / poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) (ENR/PVDF) thin film composite membrane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mod, Norliyana; Othaman, Rizafizah

    2015-09-01

    Epoxidised Natural Rubber (ENR) / Poly (Vinylidene Fluoride) (PVDF) (ENR/PVDF) (60:40 wt%) thin film composite membrane was prepared by using solution casting technique. The focuses of this paper are to prepare ENR/PVDF membrane with ratio of ENR to PVDF 60:40 wt%, and to study the effectiveness of treating Palm Oil Mill Effluent (POME) using the membrane. The prepared membrane was analyzed using optical microscope and the treatment of POME was investigated using dead-end stirred cell. Treated and untreated POME was analyzed to test the percentage of biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) and chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal. Optical microscope micrographs showed that the surface of the membrane was slightly uneven. The rate of flux which passed through the membrane was 0.60 L/hm2. Both BOD and COD decreased by 23.6 % and 49.32 % respectively, after single treatment. This showed that the membrane can be used for POME treatment. The value of BOD and COD removal can be increased by recycling the treated POME for more than two cycles, which will be further studied by authors.

  11. Similar healthy osteoclast and osteoblast activity on nanocrystalline hydroxyapatite and nanoparticles of tri-calcium phosphate compared to natural bone.

    PubMed

    MacMillan, Adam K; Lamberti, Francis V; Moulton, Julia N; Geilich, Benjamin M; Webster, Thomas J

    2014-01-01

    While there have been numerous studies to determine osteoblast (bone forming cell) functions on nanocrystalline compared to micron crystalline ceramics, there have been few studies which have examined osteoclast activity (including tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase, formation of resorption pits, size of resorption pits, and receptor activator of nuclear factor κB [RANK]). This is despite the fact that osteoclasts are an important part of maintaining healthy bone since they resorb bone during the bone remodeling process. Moreover, while it is now well documented that bone formation is enhanced on nanoceramics compared to micron ceramics, some have pondered whether osteoblast functions (such as osteoprotegerin and RANK ligand [RANKL]) are normal (ie, non-diseased) on such materials compared to natural bone. For these reasons, the objective of the present in vitro study was to determine various functions of osteoclasts and osteoblasts on nanocrystalline and micron crystalline hydroxyapatite as well as tri-calcium phosphate materials and compare such results to cortical and cancellous bone. Results showed for the first time similar osteoclast activity (including tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase, formation of resorption pits, size of resorption pits, and RANK) and osteoblast activity (osteoprotegerin and RANKL) on nanocrystalline hydroxyapatite compared to natural bone, whereas osteoclast and osteoblast functions on micron crystalline versions of these ceramics were much different than natural bone. In this manner, this study provides additional evidence that nanocrystalline calcium phosphates can serve as suitable synthetic analogs to natural bone to improve numerous orthopedic applications. It also provides the first data of healthy osteoclast and osteoblast functions on nanocrystalline calcium phosphates compared to natural bone.

  12. The content of fluoride, calcium and magnesium in the hair of young men of the Bantu language group from Tanzania versus social conditioning.

    PubMed

    Rębacz-Maron, Ewa; Baranowska-Bosiacka, Irena; Gutowska, Izabela; Krzywania, Natalia; Chlubek, Dariusz

    2013-12-01

    The present study aimed at analysing the content of fluorine (F), calcium (Ca) and magnesium (Mg) in the hair of young male students (n =52) of a secondary school in Mafinga in Tanzania (Africa) who participated in anthropological examinations. Ca and Mg concentrations were determined using atomic absorption spectrophotometer while F levels using a potentiometric method. F in the hair of boys from older group (≥16 years old; n =24) was significantly higher than in the younger group (<16 years old; n =28) versus Ca and Mg levels. High carbohydrate diet was predominant- mainly based on corn or bean and meat served once a week, with few fruit and raw vegetables. Collective catering in the dormitory reflected habits and culinary preferences at home. The lack of balanced diet, with majority of the nutritional energy supplied by easily accessible and cheap carbohydrates, was reflected in dietary deficiencies, characterised, among others, by visible skin conditions and tooth decay.

  13. Inhibition of dentin demineralization by fluoride in vitro.

    PubMed

    ten Cate, J M; Damen, J J; Buijs, M J

    1998-01-01

    Compared with the knowledge accumulated on enamel-fluoride interactions, relatively little data is available regarding fluoride effects on dentin. This applies to both laboratory and clinical studies into the efficacy of fluoride schemes for the prevention of root surface caries. This study aimed to determine the effects of fluoride and pH on the demineralization of dentin, such as to provide information necessary to develop preventive programmes. Bovine dentin blocks were subjected to undersaturated calcium- and phosphate-containing solutions in the pH range 4.0-6.0 with fluoride added at concentrations between 0.5 and 10 ppm. Non-fluoride solutions served as controls. Mineral loss was assessed chemically and by transversal microradiography. Comparisons were made with similar studies on enamel demineralization. The results showed that demineralization of dentin depends on both pH and fluoride concentration in the demineralizing solution. Inhibition of demineralization that could be relevant from a clinical point of view was found at fluoride values 5-10 times the corresponding values for enamel. Also rapid depletion of fluoride from the solutions was observed, indicating the high uptake capacity of dentin for fluoride. Lesion depth depended on pH of the solution while the fluoride levels were associated with the surface layer, both in mineral content and depth. For dentin we propose a demineralization mechanism where acid penetrates rapidly into the tissue, presumably through the tubules, after which the released calcium and phosphate is partly trapped by the inward diffusing fluoride. This leads to the formation of a surface layer, which may even be hypermineralized compared to sound dentin.

  14. Fluoride stimulates ( sup 3 H)thymidine incorporation and alkaline phosphatase production by human osteoblasts

    SciTech Connect

    Khokher, M.A.; Dandona, P. )

    1990-11-01

    The effect of sodium fluoride on alkaline phosphatase (ALP) release and ({sup 3}H)thymidine uptake by human osteoblasts in culture was investigated. Sodium fluoride stimulated both ALP release and ({sup 3}H)thymidine uptake at concentrations of sodium fluoride greater than 250 mumol/L. This stimulation was similar in magnitude to that induced by 1,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol. The fluoride-induced increase in ALP was inhibited by verapamil, a calcium channel blocker. We conclude that sodium fluoride stimulates osteoblasts to proliferate and to release ALP. This stimulation by fluoride is dependent on calcium influx. Fluoride-induced stimulation of human osteoblasts may be relevant to its effect in enhancing bone formation in patients with osteoporosis.

  15. Fluoride and Water (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Fluoride and Water KidsHealth > For Parents > Fluoride and Water A A ... to 19-year-olds continue Fluoride and the Water Supply For more than 60 years, water fluoridation ...

  16. Private Well Water and Fluoride

    MedlinePlus

    ... well. What do I need to know about fluoride and groundwater from a well? Fluoride is present ... well has less than the recommended level of fluoride for preventing tooth decay? The recommended fluoride level ...

  17. Fluoride and Water (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Fluoride and Water KidsHealth > For Parents > Fluoride and Water Print A ... to 19-year-olds continue Fluoride and the Water Supply For more than 60 years, water fluoridation ...

  18. A glass-encapsulated calcium phosphate wasteform for the immobilization of actinide-, fluoride-, and chloride-containing radioactive wastes from the pyrochemical reprocessing of plutonium metal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Donald, I. W.; Metcalfe, B. L.; Fong, S. K.; Gerrard, L. A.; Strachan, D. M.; Scheele, R. D.

    2007-03-01

    Chloride-containing radioactive wastes are generated during the pyrochemical reprocessing of Pu metal. Immobilization of these wastes in borosilicate glass or Synroc-type ceramics is not feasible due to the very low solubility of chlorides in these hosts. Alternative candidates have therefore been sought including phosphate-based glasses, crystalline ceramics and hybrid glass/ceramic systems. These studies have shown that high losses of chloride or evolution of chlorine gas from the melt make vitrification an unacceptable solution unless suitable off-gas treatment facilities capable of dealing with these corrosive by-products are available. On the other hand, both sodium aluminosilicate and calcium phosphate ceramics are capable of retaining chloride in stable mineral phases, which include sodalite, Na 8(AlSiO 4) 6Cl 2, chlorapatite, Ca 5(PO 4) 3Cl, and spodiosite, Ca 2(PO 4)Cl. The immobilization process developed in this study involves a solid state process in which waste and precursor powders are mixed and reacted in air at temperatures in the range 700-800 °C. The ceramic products are non-hygroscopic free-flowing powders that only require encapsulation in a relatively low melting temperature phosphate-based glass to produce a monolithic wasteform suitable for storage and ultimate disposal.

  19. Practitioner's guide to fluoride.

    PubMed

    Scheifele, Erik; Studen-Pavlovich, Deborah; Markovic, Nina

    2002-10-01

    The current health care trend is to provide evidence-based recommendations and treatment. Many literature reviews have shown fluoride's effectiveness against caries. The current use of fluoride in the prevention of dental caries is based on community, professional, and individual strategies. Personalized fluoride regimens should include a risk analysis and a review of the patient's current fluoride exposure. The future of fluoride may be found in its slow release and retention in the oral cavity through various modalities. Because of the many uncertainties still associated with fluoride, further research is needed.

  20. Biomonitoring Equivalents for interpretation of urinary fluoride.

    PubMed

    Aylward, L L; Hays, S M; Vezina, A; Deveau, M; St-Amand, A; Nong, A

    2015-06-01

    Exposure to fluoride is widespread due to its natural occurrence in the environment and addition to drinking water and dental products for the prevention of dental caries. The potential health risks of excess fluoride exposure include aesthetically unacceptable dental fluorosis (tooth mottling) and increased skeletal fragility. Numerous organizations have conducted risk assessments and set guidance values to represent maximum recommended exposure levels as well as recommended adequate intake levels based on potential public health benefits of fluoride exposure. Biomonitoring Equivalents (BEs) are estimates of the average biomarker concentrations corresponding to such exposure guidance values. The literature on daily urinary fluoride excretion rates as a function of daily fluoride exposure was reviewed and BE values corresponding to the available US and Canadian exposure guidance values were derived for fluoride in urine. The derived BE values range from 1.1 to 2.1mg/L (1.2-2.5μg/g creatinine). Concentrations of fluoride in single urinary spot samples from individuals, even under exposure conditions consistent with the exposure guidance values, may vary from the predicted average concentrations by several-fold due to within- and across-individual variation in urinary flow and creatinine excretion rates and due to the rapid elimination kinetics of fluoride. Thus, the BE values are most appropriately applied to screen population central tendency estimates for biomarker concentrations rather than interpretation of individual spot sample concentrations. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  1. FLUORIDE: A REVIEW OF USE AND EFFECTS ON HEALTH

    PubMed Central

    Kanduti, Domen; Sterbenk, Petra; Artnik, Barbara

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Appropriate oral health care is fundamental for any individual’s health. Dental caries is still one of the major public health problems. The most effective way of caries prevention is the use of fluoride. Aim: The aim of our research was to review the literature about fluoride toxicity and to inform physicians, dentists and public health specialists whether fluoride use is expedient and safe. Methods: Data we used in our review were systematically searched and collected from web pages and documents published from different international institutions. Results: Fluoride occurs naturally in our environment but we consume it in small amounts. Exposure can occur through dietary intake, respiration and fluoride supplements. The most important factor for fluoride presence in alimentation is fluoridated water. Methods, which led to greater fluoride exposure and lowered caries prevalence, are considered to be one of the greatest accomplishments in the 20th century`s public dental health. During pregnancy, the placenta acts as a barrier. The fluoride, therefore, crosses the placenta in low concentrations. Fluoride can be transmitted through the plasma into the mother’s milk; however, the concentration is low. The most important action of fluoride is topical, when it is present in the saliva in the appropriate concentration. The most important effect of fluoride on caries incidence is through its role in the process of remineralization and demineralization of tooth enamel. Acute toxicity can occur after ingesting one or more doses of fluoride over a short time period which then leads to poisoning. Today, poisoning is mainly due to unsupervised ingestion of products for dental and oral hygiene and over-fluoridated water. Conclusion: Even though fluoride can be toxic in extremely high concentrations, it`s topical use is safe. The European Academy of Paediatric Dentistry (EAPD) recommends a preventive topical use of fluoride supplements because of their

  2. The effect of single-application fluoride treatment on simulated gastric erosion and erosion-abrasion of enamel in vitro.

    PubMed

    Austin, Rupert S; Stenhagen, Kjersti Refsholt; Hove, Lene Hystad; Tveit, Anne Bjørg; Moazzez, Rebecca V; Bartlett, David W

    2014-01-01

    To compare single-application fluoride formulations on enamel erosion and erosion-abrasion in vitro. Enamel specimens were pretreated with either sodium, tin, titanium, or sodium/calcium fluoride and subjected to either an erosion model or an erosion-abrasion model, after which optical profilometry was used to measure enamel step height loss. For erosion, the titanium fluoride (P < .001) reduced enamel loss, whereas the calcium, tin, and sodium treatments showed no significant effects (P > .05). For erosion-abrasion, the titanium fluoride increased enamel loss in comparison to control (P < .001). Titanium fluoride has differing effects on enamel loss from erosion and erosion-abrasion models.

  3. Impact of uranyl-calcium-carbonato complexes on uranium(VI) adsorption to synthetic and natural sediments

    SciTech Connect

    Stewart, B.D.; Mayes, Melanie; Fendorf, Scott

    2010-01-01

    Adsorption on soil and sediment solids may decrease aqueous uranium concentrations and limit its propensity for migration in natural and contaminated settings. Uranium adsorption will be controlled in large part by its aqueous speciation, with a particular dependence on the presence of dissolved calcium and carbonate. Here we quantify the impact of uranyl speciation on adsorption to both goethite and sediments from the Hanford Clastic Dike and Oak Ridge Melton Branch Ridgetop formations. Hanford sediments were preconditioned with sodium acetate and acetic acid to remove carbonate grains, and Ca and carbonate were reintroduced at defined levels to provide a range of aqueous uranyl species. U(VI) adsorption is directly linked to UO{sub 2}{sup 2+} speciation, with the extent of retention decreasing with formation of ternary uranyl-calcium-carbonato species. Adsorption isotherms under the conditions studied are linear, and K{sub d} values decrease from 48 to 17 L kg{sup -1} for goethite, from 64 to 29 L kg{sup -1} for Hanford sediments, and from 95 to 51 L kg{sup -1} for Melton Branch sediments as the Ca concentration increases from 0 to 1 mM at pH 7. Our observations reveal that, in carbonate-bearing waters, neutral to slightly acidic pH values ({approx}5) and limited dissolved calcium are optimal for uranium adsorption.

  4. Exploring the short-term impact of community water fluoridation cessation on children's dental caries: a natural experiment in Alberta, Canada.

    PubMed

    McLaren, L; Patterson, S; Thawer, S; Faris, P; McNeil, D; Potestio, M L; Shwart, L

    2017-05-01

    Dental caries (tooth decay) is common and can be serious. Dental caries is preventable, and community water fluoridation is one means of prevention. There is limited current research on the implications of fluoridation cessation for children's dental caries. Our objective was to explore the short-term impact of community water fluoridation cessation on children's dental caries, by examining change in caries experience in population-based samples of schoolchildren in two Canadian cities, one that discontinued community water fluoridation and one that retained it. We used a pre-post cross-sectional design. We examined dental caries indices (deft [number of decayed, extracted, or filled primary teeth] and DMFT [number of decayed, missing, or filled permanent teeth]) among grade 2 schoolchildren in 2004/05 and 2013/14 in two similar cities in the province of Alberta, Canada: Calgary (cessation of community water fluoridation in 2011) and Edmonton (still fluoridated). We compared change over time in the two cities. For Calgary only, we had a third data point from 2009/10, and we considered trends across the three points. We observed a worsening in primary tooth caries (deft) in Calgary and Edmonton, but changes in Edmonton were less consistent and smaller. This effect was robust to adjustment for covariates available in 2013/14 and was consistent with estimates of total fluoride intake from biomarkers from a subsample. This finding occurred despite indication that treatment activities appeared better in Calgary. The worsening was not observed for permanent teeth. For prevalence estimates only (% with >0 deft or DMFT), the three data points in Calgary suggest a trend that, though small, appears consistent with an adverse effect of fluoridation cessation. Our results suggest an increase in dental caries in primary teeth during a time period when community fluoridation was ceased. That we did not observe a worsening for permanent teeth in the comparative analysis could

  5. Grout formulation for disposal of low-level and hazardous waste streams containing fluoride

    DOEpatents

    McDaniel, E.W.; Sams, T.L.; Tallent, O.K.

    1987-06-02

    A composition and related process for disposal of hazardous waste streams containing fluoride in cement-based materials is disclosed. the presence of fluoride in cement-based materials is disclosed. The presence of fluoride in waste materials acts as a set retarder and as a result, prevents cement-based grouts from setting. This problem is overcome by the present invention wherein calcium hydroxide is incorporated into the dry-solid portion of the grout mix. The calcium hydroxide renders the fluoride insoluble, allowing the grout to set up and immobilize all hazardous constituents of concern. 4 tabs.

  6. Method for the Analysis of Total Fluoride in Fluoride-Releasing Dental Varnishes

    PubMed Central

    Carey, C.M.; Coleman, S.S.

    2016-01-01

    Today’s fluoride-releasing varnishes (F-varnish) contain a wide variety of ingredients which present analytical challenges for measuring their total fluoride content. This study reports improved methods to measure fluoride content in F-varnishes. Six different commercially available F-varnishes that contain difluorosilane (0.1% F) or NaF (2.26% F) alone or in combination with calcium-phosphates were analyzed. In a vial, 1–3 drops (0.05–0.15 g) of varnish product was dispensed, dissolved in chloroform, equilibrated in TISAB and analyzed via fluoride ion-selective electrode. The average weight percentage of fluoride for all F-varnishes containing NaF ranged from 2.03 to 2.24% F, which is within 90% of the declared label concentration of 2.26% F. Analysis of the difluorosilane-containing product required an additional hydrolysis step. ANOVA found no significant difference between the 5% NaF varnishes at p < 0.05. This method for fluoride analysis yields reliable and reproducible results and can be used for a wide variety of F-varnishes. The standard uncertainty for this method is ±4%. This method may become the basis for national and international standards that ensure the F-varnish products used in clinical practice have the fluoride content declared in the product literature. PMID:24557443

  7. Method for the analysis of total fluoride in fluoride-releasing dental varnishes.

    PubMed

    Carey, C M; Coleman, S S

    2014-01-01

    Today's fluoride-releasing varnishes (F-varnish) contain a wide variety of ingredients which present analytical challenges for measuring their total fluoride content. This study reports improved methods to measure fluoride content in F-varnishes. Six different commercially available F-varnishes that contain difluorosilane (0.1% F) or NaF (2.26% F) alone or in combination with calcium-phosphates were analyzed. In a vial, 1-3 drops (0.05-0.15 g) of varnish product was dispensed, dissolved in chloroform, equilibrated in TISAB and analyzed via fluoride ion-selective electrode. The average weight percentage of fluoride for all F-varnishes containing NaF ranged from 2.03 to 2.24% F, which is within 90% of the declared label concentration of 2.26% F. Analysis of the difluorosilane-containing product required an additional hydrolysis step. ANOVA found no significant difference between the 5% NaF varnishes at p < 0.05. This method for fluoride analysis yields reliable and reproducible results and can be used for a wide variety of F-varnishes. The standard uncertainty for this method is ±4%. This method may become the basis for national and international standards that ensure the F-varnish products used in clinical practice have the fluoride content declared in the product literature. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  8. How Does Fluoride Work?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Work? A A A There's fluoride in your toothpaste and even in your water. But how does ... enamel from plaque and sugars. By using fluoride toothpaste, for instance, everyone can enjoy some cavity protection. ...

  9. Nature of the chemical bond and origin of the inverted dipole moment in boron fluoride: a generalized valence bond approach.

    PubMed

    Fantuzzi, Felipe; Cardozo, Thiago Messias; Nascimento, Marco Antonio Chaer

    2015-05-28

    The generalized product function energy partitioning (GPF-EP) method has been applied to investigate the nature of the chemical bond and the origin of the inverted dipole moment of the BF molecule. The calculations were carried out with GPF wave functions treating all of the core electrons as a single Hartree-Fock group and the valence electrons at the generalized valence bond perfect-pairing (GVB-PP) or full GVB levels, with the cc-pVTZ basis set. The results show that the chemical structure of both X (1)Σ(+) and a (3)Π states is composed of a single bond. The lower dissociation energy of the excited state is attributed to a stabilizing intraatomic singlet coupling involving the B 2sp-like lobe orbitals after bond dissociation. An increase of electron density on the B atom caused by the reorientation of the boron 2sp-like lobe orbitals is identified as the main responsible effect for the electric dipole inversion in the ground state of BF. Finally, it is shown that π back-bonding from fluorine to boron plays a minor role in the electron density displacement to the bonding region in both states. Moreover, this effect is associated with changes in the quasi-classical component of the electron density only and does not contribute to covalency in either of the states. Therefore, at least for the case of the BF molecule, the term back-bonding is misleading, since it does not contribute to the bond formation.

  10. Fluoridation update 2014.

    PubMed

    Allukian, Myron; Wong, Chloe

    2014-01-01

    This year more than 4 million people living in 140 communities in Massachusetts will have the health and economic benefits of community water fluoridation. However Massachusetts is ranked only 37th in the country for fluoridation, with just 62 percent of the population on a public water supply living in fluoridated communities. Nationally, more than 210 million Americans, about 74.6 percent of the U.S. population on a community water supply live in fluoridated communities.

  11. Effect of proteolysis and calcium equilibrium on functional properties of natural cheddar cheese during ripening and the resultant processed cheese.

    PubMed

    Wang, Fang; Zhang, Xiaoying; Luo, Jie; Guo, Huiyuan; Zeng, Steve S; Ren, Fazheng

    2011-04-01

    The changes in proteolysis, calcium (Ca) equilibrium, and functional properties of natural Cheddar cheeses during ripening and the resultant processed cheeses were investigated. For natural Cheddar cheeses, the majority of the changes in pH 4.6 soluble nitrogen as a percentage of total nitrogen (pH 4.6 SN/TN) and the soluble Ca content occurred in the first 90 d of ripening, and subsequently, the changes were slight. During ripening, functional properties of natural Cheddar cheeses changed, that is, hardness decreased, meltability was improved, storage modulus at 70 °C (G'T=70) decreased, and the maximum tan delta (TDmax) increased. Both pH 4.6 SN/TN and the soluble Ca were correlated with changes in functional properties of natural Cheddar cheeses during ripening. Kendall's partial correlation analysis indicated that pH 4.6 SN/TN was more significantly correlated with changes in hardness and TDmax. For processed cheeses manufactured from natural Cheddar cheeses with different ripening times, the soluble Ca content did not show significant difference, and the trends of changes in hardness, meltability, G'T=70, and TDmax were similar to those of natural Cheddar cheeses. Kendall's partial correlation analysis suggested that only pH 4.6 SN/TN was significantly correlated with the changes in functional properties of processed cheeses.

  12. Manufacture and properties of fluoride cement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malata-Chirwa, Charles David

    This research work aimed at characterising composition, hydration and physical properties of fluoride cement, by studying samples of the cement obtained from Malawi, and comparing them to ordinary Portland cement. By confirming the suitable characteristics of fluoride cement through this work, the results of the research work provide a good basis for the wider adoption of fluoride cement as an alternative to ordinary Portland cement, especially in developing economies. Numerous accounts have been cited regarding the production and use of fluoride cement. Since there have not been conclusive agreement as to its properties, this study was limited to the theories of successful incorporation of fluoride compounds in the manufacture of fluoride cement. Hence, the properties and characteristics reported in this study relate to the cement currently manufactured in Malawi, and, on a comparative basis only, to that manufactured in other parts of the world. Samples of the fluoride cement used in the study were obtained by synthetic manufacture of the cement using common raw materials for the manufacture of fluoride cement that is limestone, silica sand, and fluorspar. These samples were subjected to several comparative tests used to characterise cements including examination under x-ray diffractometer, scanning electron microscopy and tests for setting time and compressive strength. Under similar laboratory conditions, it was possible to prove that fluoride cement hardens more rapidly than ordinary Portland cement. Also observed during the experimental work is that fluoride cement develops higher compressive strengths than ordinary Portland cement. The hardening and setting times are significantly different between the two cements. Also the nature of the hydration products, that is the microstructural development is significantly different in the two cements. The differences brought about between the two cements are because of the presence of fluorine during the clinkering

  13. Characterization of calcium oxide catalysts from natural sources and their application in the transesterification of sunflower oil.

    PubMed

    Correia, Leandro Marques; Saboya, Rosana Maria Alves; Campelo, Natália de Sousa; Cecilia, Juan Antonio; Rodríguez-Castellón, Enrique; Cavalcante, Célio Loureiro; Vieira, Rodrigo Silveira

    2014-01-01

    The catalytic activities of calcium oxide obtained from natural sources (crab shell and eggshell) were characterized and evaluated in the transesterification of vegetable oil. These catalysts are mainly composed of calcium carbonate, which is partially converted into CaO after calcination (900°C for 2h). The catalysts have some advantages, such as abundant occurrence, low cost, porous structure, and nontoxic. The materials were characterized by XRD, FTIR, TG/DTG, CO2-TPD, XPS, SEM, and BET methods. The thermal treatment produces small particles of CaCO3 and CaO that are responsible for the catalytic activity. The conversion from triglycerides to methyl ester was not observed in transesterification carried out using natural crab shell and eggshell. Under optimized reaction conditions, the conversions to YFAME using the calcined catalysts were: crab shell (83.10±0.27 wt.%) and eggshell (97.75±0.02 wt.%). These results, showed that these materials have promising viability in transesterification for biodiesel production.

  14. A Review of Enamel Remineralisation Potential of Calcium- and Phosphate-based Remineralisation Systems.

    PubMed

    Ekambaram, Manikandan; Mohd Said, Siti N B; Yiu, Cynthia K Y

    2017-08-07

    Along with calcium and phosphate ions, fluoride ions promote remineralisation of noncavitated carious lesions to form fluorapatite. However, the supply of calcium and phosphate ions from saliva may not be adequate for effective remineralisation in patients with high caries risk. Therefore, an additional supply of calcium and phosphate ions is mandatory to enhance effective remineralisation with fluoride ions. Several calcium- and phosphate-based remineralisation agents are available for clinical use. However, the nature of the incorporated calcium and phosphate ions and the method of their stabilisation are not similar. Therefore, this review summarises research findings on the enamel remineralisation potential of calcium- and phosphate-based remineralisation agents. Appropriate key words were used and the Pubmed electronic database was searched to retrieve articles. Screening through titles and abstracts identified relevant articles. Full text review of the identified relevant articles was performed and the significant findings were summarised and presented in this review. Several studies including laboratory-based studies, in situ and randomised controlled clinical trials showed casein phosphopeptide amorphous calcium phosphate (CPP-ACP)-containing remineralisation agents to have superior remineralisation potential compared to other forms of calcium- and phosphate-based remineralisation agents, such as functionalised tri-calcium phosphate (fTCP) and amorphous calcium phosphate (ACP). More long-term clinical studies are necessary to compare the enamel remineralisation potential of calcium- and phosphate-based agents that contain fTCP and ACP with those containing CPP-ACP. Additional well-designed randomised controlled clinical trials are also necessary to justify long-term clinical supplemental use of products containing CPP-ACP.

  15. Preferred natural food of breeding Kakapo is a high value source of calcium and vitamin D.

    PubMed

    von Hurst, P R; Moorhouse, R J; Raubenheimer, D

    2016-11-01

    The Kakapo, a large NZ native parrot, is under severe threat of extinction. Kakapo breed only in years when the local podocarps, including rimu (Dacrydium cupressinum), are fruiting heavily, and the fruit are the preferred food both in the diet of breeding females and for provisioning chicks. Attempts to provide a supplementary food during years of poor fruit supply have failed to encourage breeding. Nutrient analysis of rimu berries reveals high calcium content (8.4mg/g dry matter) which would be essential for both egg shell production and the growing skeleton of the chick. Vitamin D is also critical for these processes and for the maintenance of calcium homeostasis, but the source of vitamin D for these nocturnal, ground-dwelling vegetarians is unknown. To examine the vitamin D status of adult Kakapo, and to investigate the possibility that rimu berries provide vitamin D as well as calcium, thus differentiating them from the supplementary foods provided to date. Previously collected and frozen serum from 10 adult birds (6 females, 4 males) was assayed for 25(OH)D3 and D2. Two batches of previously frozen rimu berries were analysed for vitamin D3 and D2. Vitamin D status of the 10 adult birds was very low; mean 4.9nmol/l, range 1-14nmol/l 25(OH)D3. No 25(OH)D2 was detected in any of the birds. High levels of D2 and moderate levels of D3 were found in the rimu berries. Traditionally it has been considered that the D3 isoform of this endogenously produced secosteroid is produced only in animals. However, D3 has been reported in the leaves of plants of the Solanacae family (tomato, potato, capsicum). The avian vitamin D receptor (VDR) is thought to have a much greater affinity for the D3 form. Therefore if rimu fruit are able to provide breeding Kakapo with D3, and are a plentiful source of calcium, they could be the perfect food package for breeding and nesting birds. Of wider importance, this finding challenges conventional understanding that D3 production is

  16. Magnesium hydrogen carbonate natural mineral water enriched with K(+)-citrate and vitamin B6 improves urinary abnormalities in patients with calcium oxalate nephrolithiasis.

    PubMed

    Bren, A; Kmetec, A; Kveder, R; Kaplan-Pavlovcic, S

    1998-01-01

    The influence of drinking magnesium hydrogen carbonate natural mineral water enriched with potassium citrate on urinary metabolic abnormalities was prospectively studied in 27 patients with recurrent calcium oxalate nephrolithiasis. The mean 24-hour urinary pH shifted from 6.34 to 6.93 (p < 0.01), the mean urinary magnesium/urinary creatinine ratio rose from 0.47 to 0.67 (p < 0.01), the mean urinary citrate/urinary creatinine ratio increased from 0.26 to 0.35 (p NS), and the mean 24-hour urinary calcium decreased from 7.98 to 6.05 mmol (p < 0.05). The effects of magnesium hydrogen carbonate natural mineral water enriched with potassium citrate were found to be favorable on urinary calcium, urinary magnesium/urinary creatinine ratio and urinary pH in patients with calcium oxalate nephrolithiasis.

  17. Water fluoridation in 40 Brazilian cities: 7 year analysis

    PubMed Central

    MOIMAZ, Suzely Adas Saliba; SALIBA, Nemre Adas; SALIBA, Orlando; SUMIDA, Doris Hissako; de SOUZA, Neila Paula; CHIBA, Fernando Yamamoto; GARBIN, Cléa Adas Saliba

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: Fluoride levels in the public water supplies of 40 Brazilian cities were analyzed and classified on the basis of risk/benefit balance. Material and Methods: Samples were collected monthly over a seven-year period from three sites for each water supply source. The samples were analyzed in duplicate in the laboratory of the Center for Research in Public Health - UNESP using an ion analyzer coupled to a fluoride-specific electrode. Results: A total of 19,533 samples were analyzed, of which 18,847 were artificially fluoridated and 686 were not artificially fluoridated. In samples from cities performing water fluoridation, 51.57% (n=9,720) had fluoride levels in the range of 0.55 to 0.84 mg F/L; 30.53% (n=5,754) were below 0.55 mg F/L and 17.90% (n=3,373) were above 0.84 mg F/L (maximum concentration=6.96 mg F/L). Most of the cities performing fluoridation that had a majority of samples with fluoride levels above the recommended parameter had deep wells and more than one source of water supply. There was some variability in the fluoride levels of samples from the same site and between collection sites in the same city. Conclusions: The majority of samples from cities performing fluoridation had fluoride levels within the range that provides the best combination of risks and benefits, minimizing the risk of dental fluorosis while preventing dental caries. The conduction of studies about water distribution systems is suggested in cities with high natural fluoride concentrations in order to optimize the use of natural fluoride for fluoridation costs and avoid the risk of dental fluorosis. PMID:23559106

  18. Water fluoridation in 40 Brazilian cities: 7 year analysis.

    PubMed

    Moimaz, Suzely Adas Saliba; Saliba, Nemre Adas; Saliba, Orlando; Sumida, Doris Hissako; Souza, Neila Paula de; Chiba, Fernando Yamamoto; Garbin, Cléa Adas Saliba

    2013-01-01

    Fluoride levels in the public water supplies of 40 Brazilian cities were analyzed and classified on the basis of risk/benefit balance. Samples were collected monthly over a seven-year period from three sites for each water supply source. The samples were analyzed in duplicate in the laboratory of the Center for Research in Public Health - UNESP using an ion analyzer coupled to a fluoride-specific electrode. A total of 19,533 samples were analyzed, of which 18,847 were artificially fluoridated and 686 were not artificially fluoridated. In samples from cities performing water fluoridation, 51.57% (n=9,720) had fluoride levels in the range of 0.55 to 0.84 mg F/L; 30.53% (n=5,754) were below 0.55 mg F/L and 17.90% (n=3,373) were above 0.84 mg F/L (maximum concentration=6.96 mg F/L). Most of the cities performing fluoridation that had a majority of samples with fluoride levels above the recommended parameter had deep wells and more than one source of water supply. There was some variability in the fluoride levels of samples from the same site and between collection sites in the same city. The majority of samples from cities performing fluoridation had fluoride levels within the range that provides the best combination of risks and benefits, minimizing the risk of dental fluorosis while preventing dental caries. The conduction of studies about water distribution systems is suggested in cities with high natural fluoride concentrations in order to optimize the use of natural fluoride for fluoridation costs and avoid the risk of dental fluorosis.

  19. The compressibility of a natural composition calcium ferrite-type aluminous phase to 70 GPa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ono, Shigeaki; Hirose, Kei; Kikegawa, Takumi; Saito, Yoko

    2002-08-01

    In situ X-ray diffraction (XRD) experiments of a calcium ferrite-type aluminous phase that is a sodium host mineral of subducted oceanic crusts into the Earth's lower mantle have been carried out using a laser-heated diamond anvil cell (LHDAC), up to a pressure of 70 GPa with synchrotron radiation source at the Photon Factory (PF) in Japan. The sample was heated using a Nd:YAG laser at each pressure increment to relax the deviatoric stress in the sample. XRD measurements were carried out at 300 K using an angle-dispersive technique. The pressure was determined from an internal platinum pressure calibrant. A Birch-Murnaghan equation of state (EOS) was determined from the experimental unit cell parameters: volume V0=244.07 (±55) Å 3, density ρ0=4.143 g/cm 3, bulk modulus K0=253 (±14) GPa, and K0'=3.6 (±0.6). When the first pressure derivative of the bulk modulus K0' was fixed at 4, the value of K0=243 (±2) GPa was obtained. The density of the calcium ferrite-type aluminous phase is lower than those of co-existing Mg-, Ca-perovskite, and hexagonal aluminous phase in subducted oceanic crusts.

  20. Natural mineral bottled waters available on the Polish market as a source of minerals for the consumers. Part 1. Calcium and magnesium.

    PubMed

    Gątarska, Anna; Tońska, Elżbieta; Ciborska, Joanna

    2016-01-01

    Natural mineral waters may be an essential source of calcium, magnesium and other minerals. In bottled waters, minerals occur in an ionized form which is very well digestible. However, the concentration of minerals in underground waters (which constitute the material for the production of bottled waters) varies. In view of the above, the type of water consumed is essential. The aim of the study was to estimate the calcium and magnesium contents in products available on the market and to evaluate calcium and magnesium consumption with natural mineral water by different consumer groups with an assumed volume of the consumed product. These represented forty different brands of natural mineral available waters on Polish market. These waters were produced in Poland or other European countries. Among the studied products, about 30% of the waters were imported from Lithuania, Latvia, Czech Republic, France, Italy and Germany. The content of calcium and magnesium in mineral waters was determined using flame atomic absorption spectrometry in an acetylene-air flame. Further determinations were carried out using atomic absorption spectrometer--ICE 3000 SERIES-THERMO-England, equipped with a GLITE data station, background correction (a deuterium lamp) as well as other cathode lamps. Over half of the analysed natural mineral waters were medium-mineralized. The natural mineral waters available on the market can be characterized by a varied content of calcium and magnesium and a high degree of product mineralization does not guarantee significant amounts of these components. Among the natural mineral waters available on the market, only a few feature the optimum calcium-magnesium proportion (2:1). Considering the mineralization degree of the studied products, it can be stated that the largest percentage of products with significant calcium and magnesium contents can be found in the high-mineralized water group. For some natural mineral waters, the consumption of 1 litre daily may

  1. Prevention of enamel demineralization with a novel fluoride strip: enamel surface composition and depth profile.

    PubMed

    Lee, Bor-Shiunn; Chou, Po-Hung; Chen, Shu-Yu; Liao, Hua-Yang; Chang, Che-Chen

    2015-08-21

    There is no topically applicable low concentration fluoride delivery device available for caries prevention. This study was aimed to assess the use of a low concentration (1450 ppm) fluoride strip as an effective fluoride delivery system against enamel demineralization. The enamel surface composition and calcium-deficient hydroxyapatite or toothpaste treatments were investigated using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. In vitro enamel demineralization was assayed using a pH cycling model and the dissolution of calcium ions from the treated specimens was quantified using ion chromatography. After 24-hr fluoride-strip treatment, the enamel was covered with a CaF2 layer which showed a granular morphology of 1 μm in size. Below the CaF2 layer was a region of mixed fluorapatite and CaF2. Fluoride infiltrated extensively in enamel to produce highly fluorinated fluorohydroxyapatite. In comparison, low-fluoride-level fluorinated fluorohydroxyapatite was formed on the enamel specimen exposed to toothpaste. The treatments with the fluoride strip as short as 1 hr significantly inhibited enamel demineralization. The fluoride strip was effective for topical fluoride delivery and inhibited in vitro demineralization of enamel by forming CaF2 and fluoride-containing apatites at the enamel surface. It exhibited the potential as an effective fluoride delivery device for general use in prevention of caries.

  2. Prevention of enamel demineralization with a novel fluoride strip: enamel surface composition and depth profile

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Bor-Shiunn; Chou, Po-Hung; Chen, Shu-Yu; Liao, Hua-Yang; Chang, Che-Chen

    2015-01-01

    There is no topically applicable low concentration fluoride delivery device available for caries prevention. This study was aimed to assess the use of a low concentration (1450 ppm) fluoride strip as an effective fluoride delivery system against enamel demineralization. The enamel surface composition and calcium-deficient hydroxyapatite or toothpaste treatments were investigated using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. In vitro enamel demineralization was assayed using a pH cycling model and the dissolution of calcium ions from the treated specimens was quantified using ion chromatography. After 24-hr fluoride-strip treatment, the enamel was covered with a CaF2 layer which showed a granular morphology of 1 μm in size. Below the CaF2 layer was a region of mixed fluorapatite and CaF2. Fluoride infiltrated extensively in enamel to produce highly fluorinated fluorohydroxyapatite. In comparison, low-fluoride-level fluorinated fluorohydroxyapatite was formed on the enamel specimen exposed to toothpaste. The treatments with the fluoride strip as short as 1 hr significantly inhibited enamel demineralization. The fluoride strip was effective for topical fluoride delivery and inhibited in vitro demineralization of enamel by forming CaF2 and fluoride-containing apatites at the enamel surface. It exhibited the potential as an effective fluoride delivery device for general use in prevention of caries. PMID:26293361

  3. Effect of ACP-CPP Chewing Gum and Natural Chewable Products on Plaque pH, Calcium and Phosphate Concentration

    PubMed Central

    Sultan, Saima; Chaudhary, Seema; Manuja, Naveen; Kaur, Harsimran; Amit, Sinha Ashish; Lingesha, Ravishankar Telgi

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Numerous epidemiological studies have documented dental caries as the major public health problems throughout the world. It is gradually increasing in the underdeveloped and developing countries especially in children due to increasing popularity of refined sugars. Aim The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of natural chewable products (Tulsi, sesame seeds, fennel seeds, coconut) and ACP-CPP chewing gum on plaque pH, calcium and phosphate concentration. Materials and Methods A randomized controlled trial, with a cross-over study design, was conducted. Ten subjects aged 15-17 years who agreed to refrain from oral hygiene practice for 48 hours prior to the sample collection were selected for the study. The baseline plaque pH, calcium and phosphate was measured and repeated after 5 and 30 minutes. It was ensured that each study participant was subjected to all the products making an effective sample of ten subjects per product. The data was statistically analysed. Results The mean pH in all the study groups increased after 5 minutes and 30 minutes compared to baseline, except for coconut group at 30 minutes and fennel group at 5 minutes. Highest increase in plaque calcium concentration was found in fennel group followed by recaldent and sesame, respectively. Whereas, the highest increase in plaque phosphate was found in recaldent group followed by sesame group and fennel group respectively. Conclusion Plant products can be effective, inexpensive, easily accessible methods of maintaining oral health. Further studies are recommended to confirm long term effects. PMID:27190943

  4. Geochemistry and water quality assessment of central Main Ethiopian Rift natural waters with emphasis on source and occurrence of fluoride and arsenic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rango, Tewodros; Bianchini, Gianluca; Beccaluva, Luigi; Tassinari, Renzo

    2010-07-01

    Drinking water supply for the Main Ethiopian Rift (MER) area principally relies on groundwater wells and springs and is characterized by natural source of elevated fluoride concentration. New analyses reveal that the F - geochemical anomaly is associated with other potentially toxic elements such as As, U, Mo and B. Particularly, 35% of the 23 investigated groundwater wells and 70% of the 14 hot springs (and geothermal wells) show arsenic concentrations above the recommended limit of 10 μg/L ( WHO, 2006). Arsenic in groundwater wells has a positive correlation with Na + ( R2 = 0.63) and alkalinity ( HCO3-; R2 = 0.70) as well as with trace elements such as U ( R2 = 0.70), Mo ( R2 = 0.79) and V ( R2 = 0.68). PHREEQC speciation modelling indicates that Fe oxides and hydroxides are stable in water systems, suggesting their role as potential adsorbents that could influence the mobility of arsenic. Chemical analyses of leachates from MER rhyolitic rocks and their weathered and re-worked fluvio-lacustrine sediments were performed to evaluate their contribution as a source of the mentioned geochemical anomalies. These leachates were obtained from a 1-year leaching experiment on powdered rocks and sediments mixed with distilled water (10 g:50 ml). They contain as much as 220 μg/L of As, 7.6 mg/L of F -, 181 μg/L of Mo, 64 μg/L of U and 254 μg/L of V suggesting that the local sediments represent the main source and reservoir of toxic elements. These elements, originally present in the glassy portion of the MER rhyolitic rocks were progressively concentrated in weathered and re-deposited products. Therefore, together with the renowned F - problem, the possible presence of further geochemical anomalies have to be considered in water quality issues and future work has to investigate their possible health impact on the population of MER and other sectors of the East African Rift.

  5. The effects of fluoride based fire-fighting foams on soil microbiota activity and plant growth during natural attenuation of perfluorinated compounds.

    PubMed

    Montagnolli, Renato Nallin; Matos Lopes, Paulo Renato; Matos Cruz, Jaqueline; Marina Turini Claro, Elis; Quiterio, Gabriela Mercuri; Bidoia, Ederio Dino

    2017-03-01

    The use of fluoride based foams increases the effectiveness of fire-fighting operations, but they are also accompanied by major drawbacks regarding environmental safety of perfluorinated compounds (PFCs). The main concern with PFCs release is due to their well-known persistence and bioaccumulative potential, as they have been detected in many environmental samples. There is a significant knowledge gap on PFC toxicity to plants, even though such data could be useful towards bioremediation procedures. It is consensus that a realistic assessment of fire-fighting foam toxicity should cover as many test organisms as possible, however, few studies combine the performance of ecotoxicological tests with a detailed study of microbial communities in soil contaminated with firefighting foams. Our research evaluated the effects of natural attenuation of PFCs on the development of arugula and lettuce seeds. The effects of variable PFCs amounts were also observed in soil microbiota using the 2,6 dichlorophenol-indophenol redox dye as microbial metabolism indicator. We aimed to determine whether aqueous film forming foams toxicity increased or decreased over time in a simulated contamination scenario. We argued that the long-term biotransformation of fire-fighting foams should be taken in to account when evaluating toxicity, focusing on a time-based monitoring analysis, since potentially toxic intermediates may be formed though biodegradation. The phyto-toxicity of PFCs to lettuce and arugula was high, increasing as a function of the concentration and decreasing as a function of exposure time to the environment. However, very specific concentrations throughout biodegradation result in the formation of non-inhibiting intermediates. Therefore, variable biodegradation-dependent germination rates may be misleading on non-time-based monitoring approaches. Also, the low phyto-toxicity after 240days does not exclude the potential for PFC bioaccumulation in plants. We also proposed that

  6. The selection and prevalence of natural and fortified calcium food sources in the diets of adolescent girls

    PubMed Central

    Rafferty, Karen; Watson, Patrice; Lappe, Joan M.

    2010-01-01

    Objective To assess the impact of calcium-fortified foods and dairy foods on selected nutrient intakes in the diets of adolescent girls. Design Randomized controlled trial, secondary analysis. Setting and Participants 149 adolescent girls from a Midwestern metropolitan area participated in randomized controlled trials of bone physiology from 1997 to 2008. Intervention Subjects randomly assigned to a high calcium (HC) diet supplying 1500 mg calcium/day, or their usual diet (UC). Main Outcome Measures Dietary intake was assessed from 3-day food records and calcium intakes categorized by food source. Food group composites, representing calcium-fortified and dairy food categories, were examined for their relative nutrient contributions. Students t tests were used to evaluate differences in selected nutrient intakes between the two study groups. Results Dairy foods contributed 68% of the total mean 1494 mg calcium/d in the HC group, and calcium-fortified foods contributed 304 mg calcium. In the UC group dairy foods contributed 69% of the total mean 765 mg calcium/d and calcium-fortified foods contributed 50 mg Ca. Nutrient profiles of the dairy composites differed significantly from the calcium-fortified composites (p< 0.05). Conclusions and Implications Dairy foods were the primary source of calcium selected by these adolescent girls; calcium-fortified foods augmented calcium intakes. PMID:21392712

  7. Natural Abundance 43Ca NMR as a Tool for Exploring Calcium Biomineralization: Renal Stone Formation and Growth

    SciTech Connect

    Bowers, Geoffrey M.; Kirkpatrick, Robert J.

    2011-12-07

    Renal stone diseases are a global health issue with little effective therapeutic recourse aside from surgery and shock-wave lithotripsy, primarily because the fundamental chemical mechanisms behind calcium biomineralization are poorly understood. In this work, we show that natural abundance 43Ca NMR at 21.1 T is an effective means to probe the molecular-level Ca2+ structure in oxalate-based kidney stones. We find that the 43Ca NMR resonance of an authentic oxalate-based kidney stone cannot be explained by a single pure phase of any common Ca2+-bearing stone mineral. Combined with XRD results, our findings suggest an altered calcium oxalate monohydrate-like Ca2+ coordination environment for some fraction of Ca2+ in our sample. The evidence is consistent with existing literature hypothesizing that nonoxalate organic material interacts directly with Ca2+ at stone surfaces and is the primary driver of renal stone aggregation and growth. Our findings show that 43Ca NMR spectroscopy may provide unique and crucial insight into the fundamental chemistry of kidney stone formation, growth, and the role organic molecules play in these processes.

  8. Retention of fluoride ions from aqueous solution using porous hydroxyapatite. Structure and conduction properties.

    PubMed

    Hammari, L E L; Laghzizil, A; Barboux, P; Lahlil, K; Saoiabi, A

    2004-10-18

    Synthetic porous calcium hydroxyapatite (noted p-HAp) treated with different fluoride concentrations at room temperature in the presence of carbonate, sodium chloride and phosphate-rich media was investigated. The fluoridation rate of the porous calcium hydroxyapatite was 89% using 1 mol/L [F(-)] solution compared with 30% for crystalline hydroxyapatite (c-HAp). The high specific surface area of p-HAp (235 m(2)g(-1)) compared with c-HAp sample (47 m(2)g(-1)) has an important effect on the removal of fluoride ions from aqueous solution, when p-HAp was treated with high fluoride concentration to produce calcium fluorohydroxyapatite materials. Fluoride adsorption on porous hydroxyapatites (p-HAp) modified their structural and conduction properties.

  9. Fluoride and chlorhexidine release from filled resins.

    PubMed

    Shen, C; Zhang, N-Z; Anusavice, K J

    2010-09-01

    Resin-based materials that release either fluoride or chlorhexidine have been formulated for inhibiting caries activity. It is not known if the two agents, when incorporated into one material, would interact and affect their release potential. We hypothesized that the ratio of fluoride to chlorhexidine incorporated into a resin, and the pH of the storage medium, will affect their releases from the material. The material investigated contained 23 wt% of filler, and the ratios of calcium fluoride to chlorhexidine diacetate were 8/2, 5/5, and 2/8. The release was conducted in pH 4, 5, and 6 acetate buffers. The results showed that release of either agent increased as the pH of the medium decreased. The presence of fluoride salt substantially reduced the chlorhexidine release, while the presence of a specific quantity of chlorhexidine significantly increased fluoride release. This interaction can be utilized to optimize the release of either agent for therapeutic purposes.

  10. Fluoride and Chlorhexidine Release from Filled Resins

    PubMed Central

    Shen, C.; Zhang, N.-Z.; Anusavice, K.J.

    2010-01-01

    Resin-based materials that release either fluoride or chlorhexidine have been formulated for inhibiting caries activity. It is not known if the two agents, when incorporated into one material, would interact and affect their release potential. We hypothesized that the ratio of fluoride to chlorhexidine incorporated into a resin, and the pH of the storage medium, will affect their releases from the material. The material investigated contained 23 wt% of filler, and the ratios of calcium fluoride to chlorhexidine diacetate were 8/2, 5/5, and 2/8. The release was conducted in pH 4, 5, and 6 acetate buffers. The results showed that release of either agent increased as the pH of the medium decreased. The presence of fluoride salt substantially reduced the chlorhexidine release, while the presence of a specific quantity of chlorhexidine significantly increased fluoride release. This interaction can be utilized to optimize the release of either agent for therapeutic purposes. PMID:20581354

  11. Palmitoleic acid calcium salt: a lubricant and bactericidal powder from natural lipids.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Yoshiaki; Kawamura, Yuki; Yamazaki, Yuki; Kijima, Tatsuro; Morikawa, Toshiya; Nonomura, Yoshimune

    2015-01-01

    Palmitoleic acid is a promising bactericidal agent for cleansing products with alternative bactericidal abilities. In this study, we focus on the physical and biological activity of palmitoleic acid calcium salt (C16:1 fatty acid Ca salt) because it forms via an ion-exchange reaction between palmitoleic acid and Ca ions in tap water, and remains on the skin surface during the cleansing process. Here, we prepared C16:1 fatty acid Ca salt to investigate its crystal structure and physical and bactericidal properties. The Ca salt was a plate-shaped lamellar crystalline powder with a particle diameter of several micrometers to several tens of micrometers; it exhibited significant lubricity and alternative bactericidal activity against Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) and Propionibacterium acnes (P. acnes). We also examined other fatty acid Ca salts prepared from lauric acid (C12:0 fatty acid), palmitic acid (C16:0 fatty acid), and oleic acid (C18:1 fatty acid). The bactericidal activities and lubricity of the fatty acid Ca salts changed with the alkyl chain length and the degree of unsaturation. The C16:1 fatty acid Ca salt exhibited the strongest selective bactericidal ability among the four investigated fatty acid Ca salts. These findings suggest that C16:1 fatty acid and its Ca salt have potential applications in cleansing and cosmetic products.

  12. Effects of oral doses of fluoride on nestling European starlings

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fleming, W.J.; Grue, C.E.; Schuler, C.A.; Bunck, C.M.

    1987-01-01

    Nestling European starlings (Sturnus vulgaris), raised and fed by free-living adults, were given daily oral doses of either distilled water, 193 mg sodium as Na2CO3 per kg of body weight (sodium control group), or 6, 10, 13, 17,23, 30, 40, 80, 160 mg of the fluoride ion as NaF in distilled water per kg of body weight (mg/kg). Dosing began when nestlings were 24-48 hr old and continued for 16 days. The 24-hr LD50 of fluoride for day-old starlings was 50 mg/kg. The 16-day LD50 was 17 mg/kg. The sodium control group did not differ from the water control group with respect to any of the measured variables. Growth rates were significantly reduced in the 13 and 17 mg of fluoride/kg groups; weights of birds given higher dose levels were omitted from growth comparisons because of high, fluoride-induced mortality. Although pre-fledging weights for the 10, 13, and 17 mg of fluoride/kg groups averaged 3.6 to 8.6% less than controls at 17 days, this difference was not significant. Feather and bone growth of the fluoride and control groups were not different, except for keel length measured at 17 days of age which averaged less in the fluoride groups. Liver and spleen weights were not affected by fluoride treatments. No histological damage related to fluoride treatments was found in liver, spleen, or kidney. The logarithm of bone fluoride and magnesium concentration increased with the logarithm of increasing fluoride treatment levels and were significantly correlated with each other. Fluoride treatments had no effect on percent calcium or phosphorus in bone or plasma alkaline phosphatase activity. Oral doses of fluoride appear to be more toxic than equivalent dietary levels. Most birds probably acquire fluoride through their diet. Therefore, the results of the study may overestimate the potential effects of fluorides on songbirds living in fluoride-contaminated environments.

  13. Removal of fluoride ion by bone char produced from animal biomass.

    PubMed

    Kawasaki, Naohito; Ogata, Fumihiko; Tominaga, Hisato; Yamaguchi, Isao

    2009-01-01

    Bone char (BC) was prepared by carbonizing four types of animal biomass, and the adsorption of fluoride ions and elution of phosphate ions were investigated. It was found that the BC yield decreased as carbonization temperature increased, and that carbonization temperature had no significant effect on surface pH, base or acid consumptions. Fluoride ion adsorption was increased in BC produced at a low carbonization temperature. The adsorption mechanism of fluoride ion on BCs might be monolayer adsorption. BC can potentially be used to remove fluoride ions in drinking water. However, it was found that phosphate ions from BC are eluted due to adsorption of fluoride ions, and that ingestion of large amounts of phosphate ions inhibits reabsorption of calcium in the human body. Thus there is a need to study the elution behavior of phosphate ions. The adsorption mechanisms of fluoride ions onto BC would be a physical adsorption onto BC and phosphate ion in BC is exchanged to fluoride ion.

  14. Laser-Induced Damage of Calcium Fluoride

    SciTech Connect

    Espana, A.; Joly, A.G.; Hess, W.P.; Dickinson, J.T.

    2004-01-01

    As advances continue to be made in laser technology there is an increasing demand for materials that have high thresholds for laser-induced damage. Laser damage occurs when light is absorbed, creating defects in the crystal lattice. These defects can lead to the emission of atoms, ions and molecules from the sample. One specific field where laser damage is of serious concern is semiconductor lithography, which is beginning to use light at a wavelength of 157 nm. CaF2 is a candidate material for use in this new generation of lithography. In order to prevent unnecessary damage of optical components, it is necessary to understand the mechanisms for laser damage and the factors that serve to enhance it. In this research, we study various aspects of laser interactions with CaF2, including impurity absorbance and various forms of damage caused by incident laser light. Ultraviolet (UV) laser light at 266 nm with both femtosecond (fs) and nanosecond (ns) pulse widths is used to induce ion and neutral particle emission from cleaved samples of CaF2. The resulting mass spectra show significant differences suggesting that different mechanisms for desorption occur following excitation using the different pulse durations. Following irradiation by ns pulses at 266 nm, multiple single-photon absorption from defect states is likely responsible for ion emission whereas the fs case is driven by a multi-photon absorption process. This idea is further supported by the measurements made of the transmission and reflection of fs laser pulses at 266 nm, the results of which reveal a non-linear absorption process in effect at high incident intensities. In addition, the kinetic energy profiles of desorbed Ca and K contaminant atoms are different indicating that a different mechanism is responsible for their emission as well. Overall, these results show that purity plays a key role in the desorption of atoms from CaF2 when using ns pulses. On the other hand, once the irradiance reaches high levels, like that of the fs case, significant desorption is possible due to multi-photon absorption by the intrinsic material.

  15. The water fluoridation debate.

    PubMed

    McGrady, Michael G; Ellwood, Roger P; Pretty, Iain A

    2011-01-01

    Water fluoridation schemes have been employed for over 50 years. Water fluoridation has been a source of continuous debate between those who advocate its use as a public health measure and those who oppose it. There have been no new fluoridation schemes in the U.K. for nearly 30 years owing to principally legislative, but also geographic, financial, and political reasons. However, in early 2008, the U.K. Secretary of State for Health promoted the use of water fluoridation schemes for areas in England with the highest rates of decay. This article, the third and final article of three, aims to discuss the arguments surrounding water fluoridation and its continued relevance as a public health measure. This article aims to provide an update for general practitioners for the background and the current status of the water fluoridation debate and to enable them to answer non-clinical questions raised by patients.

  16. Plasma-sprayed metal-glass fluoride coatings for lubrication to 1170 K (1650 F)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sliney, H. E.

    1974-01-01

    Plasma spray of Nichrome matrix composite contains dispersed glass for oxidation protection and calcium fluoride for lubrication. Coatings can be applied to bearing journals and bearing bores. Coating was easily machinable and had excellent bond strength on substrate metal.

  17. Nature and origin of the calcium asymmetry-arising during gravitropic response in etiolated pea epicotyls

    SciTech Connect

    Migliaccio, F.; Galston, A.W.

    1987-10-01

    Seven day old etiolated pea epicotyls were loaded symmetrically with /sup 3/H-indole 3-acetic acid (IAA) or /sup 45/Ca/sup 2 +/, then subjected to 1.5 hours of 1g gravistimulation. Epidermal peels taken from top and bottom surfaces after 90 minutes showed an increase in IAA on the lower side and of Ca/sup 2 +/ on the upper side. Inhibitors of IAA movement (TIBA, 9-hydroxyfluorene carboxylic acid) block the development of both IAA and Ca/sup 2 +/ asymmetries, but substances known to interfere with normal Ca/sup 2 +/ transport do not significantly alter either IAA or Ca/sup 2 +/ asymmetries. These substances, however, are active in modifying both Ca/sup 2 +/ uptake and efflux through oat and pea leaf protoplast membranes. The authors conclude that the /sup 45/Ca/sup 2 +/ fed to pea epicotyls occurs largely in the cell wall, and that auxin movement is primary and Ca/sup 2 +/ movement secondary in gravitropism. They hypothesize that apoplastic Ca/sup 2 +/ changes during the graviresponse because it is displaced by H/sup +/ secreted through auxin-induced proton release. This proposed mechanism is supported by localized pH experiments, in which filter paper soaked in various buffers was applied to one side of a carborundum-abraded epicotyls. Buffer at pH 3 increased calcium loss from the side to which it is applied, whereas pH 7 buffer decreases it. Moreover, 10 micromolar IAA and 1 micromolar fusicoccin, which promote H/sup +/ efflux, increase Ca/sup 2 +/ release from pea epicotyl segments, whereas cycloheximide, which inhibits H/sup +/ efflux, has the reverse effect.

  18. In vitro fluoride uptake by bovine enamel from aesthetic restorative materials.

    PubMed

    Ahiropoulos, Vasilis; Helvatjoglu-Antoniades, Maria; Papadogiannis, Yannis

    2008-07-01

    The purposes of this in vitro study were to determine whether different types of fluoride-containing restoratives produce differing levels of fluoride uptake by bovine enamel, and to determine the effect of time on this uptake. Seven aesthetic restorative materials were evaluated. Forty bovine enamel slabs were prepared for each tested material, five of which were used to determine baseline fluoride concentrations. Each slab was attached to a disc of the tested material and suspended in synthetic saliva for up to 64 days. After removal, the specimens were acid etched with perchloric acid, and the dissolved enamel was analysed for fluoride and calcium. Fluoride was determined by direct potensiometric analysis, whereas the amount of calcium was evaluated by means of atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Higher values of fluoride uptake, not significantly different, were recorded in the first two groups. A statistically significant difference was found in fluoride uptake between Fuji II LC and the three compomers in all test intervals. No significant differences were found in the amounts of fluoride uptake between the three compomers. The highest fluoride uptake from all compomers was recorded by F2000. Enamel acquired significant amounts of fluoride from all materials with variations during the test intervals.

  19. A pilot study on the use of natural calcium isotope (44Ca/40Ca) fractionation in urine as a proxy for the human body calcium balance.

    PubMed

    Heuser, Alexander; Eisenhauer, Anton

    2010-04-01

    We explored the possibility of using natural calcium (Ca) isotope variations in the urine (delta(44/40)Ca(urine)) as a proxy for the Ca balance in the human body. We chose two test persons extremely different in their health status, gender and age (4-year-old healthy boy and a 60-year-old woman known to suffer from osteoporosis). During a 5 day interval the Ca isotope composition of the individual diet (delta(44/40)Ca(diet)) was monitored for both test persons to be in general agreement to the Ca isotope composition of the normal western European diet ( approximately -1.02+/-0.1 per thousand). However, measurements showed that (1) delta(44/40)Ca(urine) of both test persons are approximately 1.37 and approximately 2.49 per thousand, respectively, heavier than delta(44/40)Ca(diet) and that (2) the delta(44/40)Ca(urine-boy) is approximately 1.1 per thousand heavier when compared to the value of the woman. The individual offset between diet and test persons is interpreted to reflect individual Ca reabsorption rates in the kidneys being the result of Rayleigh type Ca isotope fractionation related to the partitioning of Ca between the glomerular filtrate and filtered residue. The relative difference between delta(44/40)Ca(urine-boy) and delta(44/40)Ca(urine-woman) of approximately 1.1 per thousand may reflect individual differences in the balance of bone mineralization and demineralization processes related to age, gender and health status. By arbitrarily defining an equilibrium value for Delta(44/40)Ca(diet-urine) of -1.93 per thousand being the arithmetic mean of delta(44/40)Ca(urine) for both test persons the measured delta(44/40)Ca(urine) values may be applied to model the individual bone mineralization and demineralization processes in a qualitative way. Note, second order influences of intestinal Ca absorption during sequestration of Ca between intestine and blood have to be subject of further studies.

  20. Streptozotocin Aggravated Osteopathology and Insulin Induced Osteogenesis Through Co-treatment with Fluoride.

    PubMed

    Yang, Chen; Zhang, Mengmeng; Li, Yagang; Wang, Yan; Mao, Weixian; Gao, Yuan; Xu, Hui

    2015-12-01

    The role of insulin in the mechanism underlying the excessive fluoride that causes skeletal lesion was studied. The in vitro bone marrow stem cells (BMSC) collected from Kunming mice were exposed to varying concentrations of fluoride with or without insulin. The cell viability and early differentiation of BMSC co-treated with fluoride and insulin were measured by using cell counting kit-8 and Gomori modified calcium-cobalt method, respectively. We further investigated the in vivo effects of varying dose of fluoride on rats co-treated with streptozotocin (STZ). Wistar rats were divided into six groups which included normal control, 10 mg fluoride/kg day group, 20 mg fluoride/kg day group, STZ control, STZ+10 mg fluoride/kg day group, and STZ+20 mg fluoride/kg day group. The rats were administered with sodium fluoride (NaF) by gavage with water at doses 10 and 20 mg fluoride/kg day for 2 months. In a period of one month, half of rats in every group were treated with streptozotocin (STZ) once through intraperitoneal injection at 52 mg/kg body weight. The serum glucose, HbA1c, and insulin were determined. Bone mineral content and insulin release were assessed. The results showed insulin combined with fluoride stimulated BMSC cell viability in vitro. The bone mineral content reduced in rats treated with higher dose of fluoride and decreased immensely in rat co-treated with fluoride and STZ. Similarly, a combination treatment of a high dose of fluoride and STZ decreased insulin sensitivity and activity. To sum up, these data indicated fluoride influenced insulin release, activity, and sensitivity. Furthermore, the insulin state in vivo interfered in the osteogenesis in turn and implied there was a close relation between insulin and bone pathogenesis in the mechanism of fluoride toxicity.

  1. Distribution of fluoride in ground water of West Virginia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mathes, M.V.; Waldron, M.C.

    1993-01-01

    This report describes the results of a study by the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the West Virginia Geological and Economic Survey, to evaluate the distribution of fluoride in ground water of West Virginia. Fluoride is a natural chemical constituent in domestic and public water supplies in West Virginia. Fluoride concentrations of about 1.0 milligram per liter in drinking water are beneficial to dental health. Concentrations greater than 2.0 milligrams per liter, however, could harm teeth and bones. Fluoride concentra- tions in ground water of West Virginia range from less than 0.1 to 12 milligrams per liter. Fluoride concentrations that exceed 2.0 milligrams per liter are found in wells drilled to all depths, wells drilled in all topographic settings, and wells drilled into most geologic units. Most fluoride concentrations that exceed 2.0 milligrams per liter are located at sites clustered in the northwestern part of the State.

  2. Withanolides, a new class of natural cholinesterase inhibitors with calcium antagonistic properties.

    PubMed

    Choudhary, M Iqbal; Nawaz, Sarfraz Ahmad; ul-Haq, Zaheer; Lodhi, M Arif; Ghayur, M Nabeel; Jalil, Saima; Riaz, Naheed; Yousuf, Sammer; Malik, Abdul; Gilani, Anwarul Hassan; ur-Rahman, Atta

    2005-08-19

    The withanolides 1-3 and 4-5 isolated from Ajuga bracteosa and Withania somnifera, respectively, inhibited acetylcholinesterase (AChE, EC 3.1.1.7) and butyrylcholinesterase (BChE, EC 3.1.1.8) enzymes in a concentration-dependent fashion with IC50 values ranging between 20.5 and 49,2 microm and 29.0 and 85.2 microm for AChE and BChE, respectively. Lineweaver-Burk as well as Dixon plots and their secondary replots indicated that compounds 1, 3, and 5 are the linear mixed-type inhibitors of AChE, while 2 and 4 are non-competitive inhibitors of AChE with K(i) values ranging between 20.0 and 45.0 microm. All compounds were found to be non-competitive inhibitors of BChE with K(i) values ranging between 27.7 and 90.6 microm. Molecular docking study revealed that all the ligands are completely buried inside the aromatic gorge of AChE, while compounds 1, 3, and 5 extend up to the catalytic triad. A comparison of the docking results showed that all ligands generally adopt the same binding mode and lie parallel to the surface of the gorge. The superposition of the docked structures demonstrated that the non-flexible skeleton of the ligands always penetrates the aromatic gorge through the six-membered ring A, allowing their simultaneous interaction with more than one subsite of the active center. The affinity of ligands with AChE was found to be the cumulative effects of number of hydrophobic contacts and hydrogen bonding. Furthermore, all compounds also displayed dose-dependent (0.005-1.0 mg/mL) spasmolytic and Ca2+ antagonistic potentials in isolated rabbit jejunum preparations, compound 4 being the most active with an ED50 value of 0.09 +/- 0.001 mg/mL and 0.22 +/- 0.01 microg/mL on spontaneous and K+ -induced contractions, respectively. The cholinesterase inhibitory potential along with calcium antagonistic ability and safe profile in human neutrophil viability assay could make compounds 1-5 possible drug candidates for further study to treat Alzheimer's disease and

  3. Batch investigations on P immobilization from wastewaters and sediment using natural calcium rich sepiolite as a reactive material.

    PubMed

    Yin, Hongbin; Kong, Ming; Fan, Chengxin

    2013-09-01

    Phosphorus from wastewaters and sediment flux to surface water represents a major source of lake eutrophication. Active filtration and in situ capping (which refers to placement of a covering or cap over an in-situ deposit of contaminated sediment) are widely used as a means to immobilize phosphorus from wastewaters and sediment, to mitigate lake eutrophication. There is, however, a need to develop more efficient means of immobilizing phosphorus through the development of binding agents. In this study, natural calcium-rich sepiolite (NCSP) was calcined at a range of temperatures, to enhance its phosphorus removal capacity. Batch studies showed that the 900 °C calcinated NCSP (NCSP900) exhibited excellent sorption performance, attaining a phosphorus removal efficiency of 80.0%-99.9% in the range of 0.05 mg/L-800 mg/L phosphorus concentrations with a dosage of 20 g/L. The material displayed rapid sorption rate (maximum amount of 99.9% of phosphate removal with 5 min) and could lower the very high phosphate concentration (200 mg/L) to less than 0.1 mg/L after 4 h adsorption. It was also noted that factors such as pH, competing anions (except [Formula: see text] ) and humic acid, had no effect on phosphorus removal capacity. The sediment immobilization experiment indicated that NCSP900 had the capacity to transform reactive phosphorus into inert-phosphorus and significantly reduce the amount of algal-bioavailable phosphorus. The excellent phosphorus binding performance of NCSP900 was mainly due to the improvement of point of zero charge (pHPZC) as well as the transformation of the inert-calcium of NCSP to active free CaO during calcination. Phosphorus speciation indicated that phosphorus was mainly captured by relatively stable calcium-bound phosphorus (Ca-P) precipitation, which can account for 80.1% of the total phosphorus. This study showed that NCSP900 could be used as an efficient binding agent for the sequestration of phosphorus from wastewaters and sediment.

  4. Effect of chemical environment on the dynamics of water confined in calcium silicate minerals: natural and synthetic tobermorite.

    PubMed

    Monasterio, Manuel; Gaitero, Juan J; Manzano, Hegoi; Dolado, Jorge S; Cerveny, Silvina

    2015-05-05

    Confined water in the slit mesopores of the mineral tobermorite provides an excellent model system for analyzing the dynamic properties of water confined in cement-like materials. In this work, we use broadband dielectric spectroscopy (BDS) to analyze the dynamic of water entrapped in this crystalline material. Two samples, one natural and one synthetic, were analyzed, and despite their similar structure, the motion of confined water in their zeolitic cavity displays considerably different behavior. The water dynamics splits into two different behaviors depending on the chemical nature of the otherwise identical structural environment: water molecules located in areas where the primary building units are SiO4 relax slowly compared to water molecules located in cavities built with both AlO4 and SiO4. Compared to water confined in regular porous systems, water restricted in tobermorite is slower, indicating that the mesopore structure induces high disorder in the water structure. A comparison with water confined in the C-S-H gel is also discussed in this work. The strong dynamical changes in water due to the presence of aluminum might have important implications in the chemical transport of ions within hydrated calcium silicates, a process that governs the leaching and chemical degradation of cement.

  5. Bioavailability of fluoride in drinking water: a human experimental study.

    PubMed

    Maguire, A; Zohouri, F V; Mathers, J C; Steen, I N; Hindmarch, P N; Moynihan, P J

    2005-11-01

    It has been suggested that systemic fluoride absorption from drinking water may be influenced by the type of fluoride compound in the water and by water hardness. Using a human double-blind cross-over trial, we conducted this study to measure c(max), T(max), and Area Under the Curve (AUC) for plasma F concentration against time, following the ingestion of naturally fluoridated hard and soft waters, artificially fluoridated hard and soft waters, and a reference water. Mean AUC over 0 to 8 hours was 1330, 1440, 1679, 1566, and 1328 ng F.min.mL(-1) for naturally fluoridated soft, naturally fluoridated hard, artificially fluoridated soft, artificially fluoridated hard, and reference waters, respectively, with no statistically significant differences among waters for AUC, c(max), or T(max). Any differences in fluoride bioavailability between drinking waters in which fluoride is present naturally or added artificially, or the waters are hard or soft, were small compared with large within- and between-subject variations in F absorption. Abbreviations used: F, fluoride; AUC, Area under the Curve for plasma F concentration against time; AUC(0-3), Area under the Curve for plasma F concentration against time for 0 to 3 hours following water ingestion; AUC(0-8), Area under the Curve for plasma F concentration against time for 0 to 8 hours following water ingestion; c(max), maximum plasma F concentration corrected for baseline plasma F and dose (i.e., F concentration of individual waters); T(max), time of c(max).

  6. Fluoride in dental erosion.

    PubMed

    Magalhães, Ana Carolina; Wiegand, Annette; Rios, Daniela; Buzalaf, Marília Afonso Rabelo; Lussi, Adrian

    2011-01-01

    Dental erosion develops through chronic exposure to extrinsic/intrinsic acids with a low pH. Enamel erosion is characterized by a centripetal dissolution leaving a small demineralized zone behind. In contrast, erosive demineralization in dentin is more complex as the acid-induced mineral dissolution leads to the exposure of collagenous organic matrix, which hampers ion diffusion and, thus, reduces further progression of the lesion. Topical fluoridation inducing the formation of a protective layer on dental hard tissue, which is composed of CaF(2) (in case of conventional fluorides like amine fluoride or sodium fluoride) or of metal-rich surface precipitates (in case of titanium tetrafluoride or tin-containing fluoride products), appears to be most effective on enamel. In dentin, the preventive effect of fluorides is highly dependent on the presence of the organic matrix. In situ studies have shown a higher protective potential of fluoride in enamel compared to dentin, probably as the organic matrix is affected by enzymatical and chemical degradation as well as by abrasive influences in the clinical situation. There is convincing evidence that fluoride, in general, can strengthen teeth against erosive acid damage, and high-concentration fluoride agents and/or frequent applications are considered potentially effective approaches in preventing dental erosion. The use of tin-containing fluoride products might provide the best approach for effective prevention of dental erosion. Further properly designed in situ or clinical studies are recommended in order to better understand the relative differences in performance of the various fluoride agents and formulations. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  7. Debating Water Fluoridation Before Dr. Strangelove

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    In the 1930s, scientists learned that small amounts of fluoride naturally occurring in water could protect teeth from decay, and the idea of artificially adding fluoride to public water supplies to achieve the same effect arose. In the 1940s and early 1950s, a number of studies were completed to determine whether fluoride could have harmful effects. The research suggested that the possibility of harm was small. In the early 1950s, Canadian and US medical, dental, and public health bodies all endorsed water fluoridation. I argue in this article that some early concerns about the toxicity of fluoride were put aside as evidence regarding the effectiveness and safety of water fluoridation mounted and as the opposition was taken over by people with little standing in the scientific, medical, and dental communities. The sense of optimism that infused postwar science and the desire of dentists to have a magic bullet that could wipe out tooth decay also affected the scientific debate. PMID:26066938

  8. Drinking water quality and fluoride concentration.

    PubMed

    Frazão, Paulo; Peres, Marco A; Cury, Jaime A

    2011-10-01

    This paper aimed to analyze the fluoride concentration in drinking water, taking into account the balance between the benefits and risks to health, in order to produce scientific backing for the updating of the Brazilian legislation. Systematic reviews studies, official documents and meteorological data were examined. The temperatures in Brazilian state capitals indicate that fluoride levels should be between 0.6 and 0.9 mg F/l in order to prevent dental caries. Natural fluoride concentration of 1.5 mg F/l is tolerated for consumption in Brazil if there is no technology with an acceptable cost-benefit ratio for adjusting/removing the excess. Daily intake of water with a fluoride concentration > 0.9 mg F/l presents a risk to the dentition among children under the age of eight years, and consumers should be explicitly informed of this risk. In view of the expansion of the Brazilian water fluoridation program to regions with a typically tropical climate, Ordinance 635/75 relating to fluoride added to the public water supply should be revised.

  9. PRODUCTION OF THORIUM FLUORIDE

    DOEpatents

    Zachariasen, W.H.

    1959-08-11

    A process is presented for producing anhydrous thorium fluoride comprising the step of contacting a saturated aqueous solution of thorium nitrate with an aqueous solution of hydrofluoric acid having a concentration of about 45 to 50% by weight at a temperature above 70 deg C whereby anhydrous thorium fluoride precipitates.

  10. Indium fluoride glass fibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saad, Mohammed

    2012-03-01

    Fluoride glasses are the only material that transmit light from ultraviolet to mid-infrared and can be drawn into industrial optical fibers. The mechanical and optical properties of new indium fluoride glass fibers have been investigated. Multimode fiber 190 microns, has very high mechanical strength greater than 100 kpsi and optical loss as low as 45 dB/km between 2 and 4 microns. Unlike chalcogenide glass fibers, indium fluoride fiber has a wide transmission window from 0.3 to 5.5 microns without any absorption peak. Indium fluoride glass fibers are the technology of choice for all application requiring transmission up to 5 micron such as infrared contour measure (IRCM) and chemical sensing. Furthermore, Indium fluoride glasses have low phonon energy and can be heavily doped and co-doped whit rare-earth elements. Therefore they are very promising candidates for infrared fiber lasers.

  11. Enhanced enamel benefits from a novel toothpaste and dual phase gel containing calcium silicate and sodium phosphate salts.

    PubMed

    Hornby, Kate; Ricketts, Stephen R; Philpotts, Carole J; Joiner, Andrew; Schemehorn, Bruce; Willson, Richard

    2014-06-01

    To investigate the enamel health benefits of a novel toothpaste and a dual phase gel containing calcium silicate, sodium phosphate and fluoride. Enamel demineralisation was assessed using two pH cycling protocols with either lactic acid or citric acid as the acid challenge. Remineralisation of lactic acid softened and citric acid softened enamel was assessed using a number of protocols. All demineralisation and remineralisation evaluation was by surface microhardness measurements. The novel calcium silicate/phosphate fluoride toothpaste inhibited enamel demineralisation to a significantly (p<0.05) greater extent than control formulations, including a fluoride control. The novel calcium silicate/phosphate fluoride toothpaste also showed significant (p<0.05) remineralisation of lactic acid and citric acid softened enamel compared to fluoride and non-fluoride controls. The addition of the novel calcium silicate/phosphate fluoride dual phase gel provided enhanced remineralisation of citric acid softened enamel compared to fluoride and non-fluoride controls. These studies show that formulations containing calcium silicate, sodium phosphate salts and fluoride provide enhanced enamel demineralisation and remineralisation in vitro benefits. The novel oral care formulations containing calcium silicate, sodium phosphate salts and fluoride is a new approach to the protection of enamel from acid attacks and the repair of demineralised enamel, leading to increased dental hard tissue benefits. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Rapidly assessing changes in bone mineral balance using natural stable calcium isotopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morgan, Jennifer L. L.; Skulan, Joseph L.; Gordon, Gwyneth W.; Romaniello, Stephen J.; Smith, Scott M.; Anbar, Ariel D.

    2012-06-01

    The ability to rapidly detect changes in bone mineral balance (BMB) would be of great value in the early diagnosis and evaluation of therapies for metabolic bone diseases such as osteoporosis and some cancers. However, measurements of BMB are hampered by difficulties with using biochemical markers to quantify the relative rates of bone resorption and formation and the need to wait months to years for altered BMB to produce changes in bone mineral density large enough to resolve by X-ray densitometry. We show here that, in humans, the natural abundances of Ca isotopes in urine change rapidly in response to changes in BMB. In a bed rest experiment, use of high-precision isotope ratio MS allowed the onset of bone loss to be detected in Ca isotope data after about 1 wk, long before bone mineral density has changed enough to be detectable with densitometry. The physiological basis of the relationship between Ca isotopes and BMB is sufficiently understood to allow quantitative translation of changes in Ca isotope abundances to changes in bone mineral density using a simple model. The rate of change of bone mineral density inferred from Ca isotopes is consistent with the rate observed by densitometry in long-term bed rest studies. Ca isotopic analysis provides a powerful way to monitor bone loss, potentially making it possible to diagnose metabolic bone disease and track the impact of treatments more effectively than is currently possible.

  13. Rapidly assessing changes in bone mineral balance using natural stable calcium isotopes

    PubMed Central

    Morgan, Jennifer L. L.; Skulan, Joseph L.; Gordon, Gwyneth W.; Romaniello, Stephen J.; Smith, Scott M.; Anbar, Ariel D.

    2012-01-01

    The ability to rapidly detect changes in bone mineral balance (BMB) would be of great value in the early diagnosis and evaluation of therapies for metabolic bone diseases such as osteoporosis and some cancers. However, measurements of BMB are hampered by difficulties with using biochemical markers to quantify the relative rates of bone resorption and formation and the need to wait months to years for altered BMB to produce changes in bone mineral density large enough to resolve by X-ray densitometry. We show here that, in humans, the natural abundances of Ca isotopes in urine change rapidly in response to changes in BMB. In a bed rest experiment, use of high-precision isotope ratio MS allowed the onset of bone loss to be detected in Ca isotope data after about 1 wk, long before bone mineral density has changed enough to be detectable with densitometry. The physiological basis of the relationship between Ca isotopes and BMB is sufficiently understood to allow quantitative translation of changes in Ca isotope abundances to changes in bone mineral density using a simple model. The rate of change of bone mineral density inferred from Ca isotopes is consistent with the rate observed by densitometry in long-term bed rest studies. Ca isotopic analysis provides a powerful way to monitor bone loss, potentially making it possible to diagnose metabolic bone disease and track the impact of treatments more effectively than is currently possible. PMID:22652567

  14. Direct activation of the mitochondrial calcium uniporter by natural plant flavonoids.

    PubMed

    Montero, Mayte; Lobatón, Carmen D; Hernández-Sanmiguel, Esther; Santodomingo, Jaime; Vay, Laura; Moreno, Alfredo; Alvarez, Javier

    2004-11-15

    During cell activation, mitochondria play an important role in Ca2+ homoeostasis due to the presence of a fast and specific Ca2+ channel in its inner membrane, the mitochondrial Ca2+ uniporter. This channel allows mitochondria to buffer local cytosolic [Ca2+] changes and controls the intramitochondrial Ca2+ levels, thus modulating a variety of phenomena from respiratory rate to apoptosis. We have described recently that SB202190, an inhibitor of p38 MAPK (mitogen-activated protein kinase), strongly activated the uniporter. We show in the present study that a series of natural plant flavonoids, widely distributed in foods, produced also a strong stimulation of the mitochondrial Ca2+ uniporter. This effect was of the same magnitude as that induced by SB202190 (an approx. 20-fold increase in the mitochondrial Ca2+ uptake rate), developed without measurable delay and was rapidly reversible. In intact cells, the mitochondrial Ca2+ peak induced by histamine was also largely increased by the flavonoids. Stimulation of the uniporter by either flavonoids or SB202190 did not require ATP, suggesting a direct effect on the uniporter or an associated protein which is not mediated by protein phosphorylation. The most active compound, kaempferol, increased the rate of mitochondrial Ca2+ uptake by 85+/-15% (mean+/-S.E.M., n=4) and the histamine-induced mitochondrial Ca2+ peak by 139+/-19% (mean+/-S.E.M., n=5) at a concentration of 1 microM. Given that flavonoids can reach this concentration range in plasma after ingestion of flavonoid-rich food, these compounds could be modulating the uniporter under physiological conditions.

  15. Direct activation of the mitochondrial calcium uniporter by natural plant flavonoids

    PubMed Central

    2004-01-01

    During cell activation, mitochondria play an important role in Ca2+ homoeostasis due to the presence of a fast and specific Ca2+ channel in its inner membrane, the mitochondrial Ca2+ uniporter. This channel allows mitochondria to buffer local cytosolic [Ca2+] changes and controls the intramitochondrial Ca2+ levels, thus modulating a variety of phenomena from respiratory rate to apoptosis. We have described recently that SB202190, an inhibitor of p38 MAPK (mitogen-activated protein kinase), strongly activated the uniporter. We show in the present study that a series of natural plant flavonoids, widely distributed in foods, produced also a strong stimulation of the mitochondrial Ca2+ uniporter. This effect was of the same magnitude as that induced by SB202190 (an approx. 20-fold increase in the mitochondrial Ca2+ uptake rate), developed without measurable delay and was rapidly reversible. In intact cells, the mitochondrial Ca2+ peak induced by histamine was also largely increased by the flavonoids. Stimulation of the uniporter by either flavonoids or SB202190 did not require ATP, suggesting a direct effect on the uniporter or an associated protein which is not mediated by protein phosphorylation. The most active compound, kaempferol, increased the rate of mitochondrial Ca2+ uptake by 85±15% (mean±S.E.M., n=4) and the histamine-induced mitochondrial Ca2+ peak by 139±19% (mean±S.E.M., n=5) at a concentration of 1 μM. Given that flavonoids can reach this concentration range in plasma after ingestion of flavonoid-rich food, these compounds could be modulating the uniporter under physiological conditions. PMID:15324303

  16. Fluorides in groundwater and its impact on health.

    PubMed

    Shailaja, K; Johnson, Mary Esther Cynthia

    2007-04-01

    Fluoride is a naturally occurring toxic mineral present in drinking water and causes yellowing of teeth, tooth problems etc. Fluorspar, Cryolite and Fluorapatite are the naturally occurring minerals, from which fluoride finds its path to groundwater through infiltration. In the present study two groundwater samples, Station I and Station II at Hyderabad megacity, the capital of Andhra Pradesh were investigated for one year from January 2001 to December 2001. The average fluoride values were 1.37 mg/l at Station I and 0.91 mg/l at Station II. The permissible limit given by BIS (1983) 0.6-1.2 mg/l and WHO (1984) 1.5 mg/l for fluoride in drinking water. The groundwaters at Station I exceeded the limit while at Station II it was within the limits. The study indicated that fluoride content of 0.5 mg/l is sufficient to cause yellowing of teeth and dental problems.

  17. Exploring the multifactorial nature of autism through computational systems biology: calcium and the Rho GTPase RAC1 under the spotlight.

    PubMed

    Zeidán-Chuliá, Fares; Rybarczyk-Filho, José Luiz; Salmina, Alla B; de Oliveira, Ben-Hur Neves; Noda, Mami; Moreira, José Cláudio F

    2013-06-01

    Autism is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by impaired social interaction and communication accompanied with repetitive behavioral patterns and unusual stereotyped interests. Autism is considered a highly heterogeneous disorder with diverse putative causes and associated factors giving rise to variable ranges of symptomatology. Incidence seems to be increasing with time, while the underlying pathophysiological mechanisms remain virtually uncharacterized (or unknown). By systematic review of the literature and a systems biology approach, our aims were to examine the multifactorial nature of autism with its broad range of severity, to ascertain the predominant biological processes, cellular components, and molecular functions integral to the disorder, and finally, to elucidate the most central contributions (genetic and/or environmental) in silico. With this goal, we developed an integrative network model for gene-environment interactions (GENVI model) where calcium (Ca(2+)) was shown to be its most relevant node. Moreover, considering the present data from our systems biology approach together with the results from the differential gene expression analysis of cerebellar samples from autistic patients, we believe that RAC1, in particular, and the RHO family of GTPases, in general, could play a critical role in the neuropathological events associated with autism.

  18. Dioxins, furans, biphenyls, arsenic, thorium and uranium in natural and anthropogenic sources of phosphorus and calcium used in agriculture.

    PubMed

    Avelar, A C; Ferreira, W M; Pemberthy, D; Abad, E; Amaral, M A

    2016-05-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the presence of dioxins, furans and biphenyls, and the inorganic contaminants such as arsenic (As), thorium (Th) and uranium (U) in three main products used in Agriculture in Brazil: feed grade dicalcium phosphate, calcined bovine bone meal and calcitic limestone. The first two are anthropogenic sources of phosphorus and calcium, while calcitic limestone is a natural unprocessed mineral. Regarding to dioxin-like substances, all samples analyzed exhibited dioxins (PCDD) and furans (PCDF) and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (dl-PCBs) concentrations below limit of detection (LOD). In general, achieved is in accordance with regulation in Brazil where is established a maximum limit in limestone used in the citric pulp production (0.50pg WHO-TEQ g(-1)). In addition, reported data revealed very low levels for limestone in comparison with similar materials reported by European legislation. As result for toxic metals, achieved data were obtained using Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA). On one hand, limestone sample exhibits the largest arsenic concentration. On another hand, dicalcium phosphate exhibited the largest uranium concentration, which represents a standard in animal nutrition. Therefore, it is phosphorus source in the animal feed industry can be a goal of concern in the feed field.

  19. Calcium and Magnesium Self-Diffusion in Natural Diopside Single Crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, X. Y.; Ganguly, J.; Ito, M.; Hervig, R. L.

    2006-12-01

    the c-axis is ~ 350 kJ/mol. These results will be updated with additional experimental data and applied to the modeling of exsolution processes in natural clinopyroxenes.

  20. Calcium supplements

    MedlinePlus

    ... TYPES OF CALCIUM SUPPLEMENTS Forms of calcium include: Calcium carbonate: Over-the-counter (OTC) antacid products, such as Tums and Rolaids, contain calcium carbonate. These sources of calcium do not cost much. ...

  1. Effect of home-used water purifier on fluoride concentration of drinking water in southern Iran

    PubMed Central

    Jaafari-Ashkavandi, Zohreh; Kheirmand, Mehdi

    2013-01-01

    Background: Fluoride in drinking water plays a key role in dental health. Due to the increasing use of water-purifier, the effect of these devices on fluoride concentration of drinking water was evaluated. Materials and Methods: Drinking water samples were collected before and after passing through a home water-purifier, from four different water sources. The fluoride, calcium and magnesium concentration of the samples were measured using the quantitative spectrophotometery technique. Data were analyzed by the Wilcoxon test. P value < 0.1 was considered as significant. Results: The result showed that the concentration of fluoride was 0.05-0.61 ppm before purification and was removed completely afterward. Furthermore, other ions reduced significantly after treatment by the water purifier. Conclusion: This study revealed that this device decreases the fluoride content of water, an issue which should be considered in low and high-fluoridated water sources. PMID:24130584

  2. Current concepts on the theories of the mechanism of action of fluoride.

    PubMed

    ten Cate, J M

    1999-12-01

    The caries-preventive effect of fluoride is mainly attributed to the effects on demineralization/remineralization at the tooth oral fluids interface. Sub ppm levels of fluoride in saliva are effective in shifting the balance from demineralization, leading to caries, to remineralization. This is attributed to the fluoride-enhanced precipitation of calcium phosphates, and the formation of fluorhydroxyapatite in the dental tissues. Low fluoride levels are found in saliva after toothbrushing with fluoride containing dentifrices. Similar concentrations are ineffective in interfering with processes of growth and metabolism of bacteria, and also do not result in a significantly reduced dissolution of tooth mineral as a result of (firmly bound) fluoride incorporation. Comparative studies of fluoride efficacy have shown that higher concentrations in solution are needed in pH-cycling studies of dentine than in enamel to maintain the mineral balance or to induce remineralization. This is attributed to the greater solubility of the dentine and the smaller size of the dentine crystallites compared to enamel. Fluoride slow-release devices, in the form of fluoride-releasing restorative materials, may serve to increase the fluoride levels in saliva and plaque to levels at which caries can be prevented, also in high-risk patients. Research questions for the next millennium and future perspectives for fluoride applications should be found in the retention and slow release of fluoride after various combinations of fluoride treatment, the combination of fluoride and anti-microbial treatment, the individualization of caries prevention, and the combination of preventive schemes with new developments in caries diagnosis.

  3. Serum fluoride and sialic acid levels in osteosarcoma.

    PubMed

    Sandhu, R; Lal, H; Kundu, Z S; Kharb, S

    2011-12-01

    Osteosarcoma is a rare malignant bone tumor most commonly occurring in children and young adults presenting with painful swelling. Various etiological factors for osteosarcoma are ionizing radiation, family history of bone disorders and cancer, chemicals (fluoride, beryllium, and vinyl chloride), and viruses. Status of fluoride levels in serum of osteosarcoma is still not clear. Recent reports have indicated that there is a link between fluoride exposure and osteosarcoma. Glycoproteins and glycosaminoglycans are an integral part of bone and prolonged exposure to fluoride for long duration has been shown to cause degradation of collagen and ground substance in bones. The present study was planned to analyze serum fluoride, sialic acid, calcium, phosphorus, and alkaline phosphatase levels in 25 patients of osteosarcoma and age- and sex-matched subjects with bone-forming tumours other than osteosarcoma and musculo-skeletal pain (controls, 25 each). Fluoride levels were analyzed by ISE and sialic acid was analyzed by Warren's method. Mean serum fluoride concentration was found to be significantly higher in patients with osteosarcoma as compared to the other two groups. The mean value of flouride in patients with other bone-forming tumors was approximately 50% of the group of osteosarcoma; however, it was significantly higher when compared with patients of group I. Serum sialic acid concentration was found to be significantly raised in patients with osteosarcoma as well as in the group with other bone-forming tumors as compared to the group of controls. There was, however, no significant difference in the group of patients of osteosarcoma when compared with group of patients with other bone-forming tumors. These results showing higher level of fluoride with osteosarcoma compared to others suggesting a role of fluoride in the disease.

  4. Fluoridation: strategies for success.

    PubMed Central

    Isman, R

    1981-01-01

    Of 19 referenda on community water fluoridation held in the first six months of 1980, 17 were defeated. Among the postulated reasons are a growing distrust of government and the health establishment. The public remains largely ignorant of the purpose and benefits of fluoridation. The emotionalism surrounding the issue has made it difficult to generate public support outside of the health professions. Opponents have also learned to fight fluoridation with increasingly sophisticated techniques. Some of the strategies used in recent successful campaigns in Oakland, California, and Portland, Oregon are described; recommendations that can be applied to communities considering fluoridation include careful wording of ballot measures so they are unequivocally clear and simple; timing ballot measures with elections likely to draw the largest voter turnout; broadening the base of political and financial support; using a figurehead if possible; and making maximum use of the media. PMID:7246838

  5. Fluoride in diet

    MedlinePlus

    ... broken through the gums have changes in the enamel that covers the teeth. Faint white lines or ... regarding fluoride intake from reconstituted infant formula and enamel fluorosis: a report of the American Dental Association ...

  6. Fluoridation: strategies for success.

    PubMed

    Isman, R

    1981-07-01

    Of 19 referenda on community water fluoridation held in the first six months of 1980, 17 were defeated. Among the postulated reasons are a growing distrust of government and the health establishment. The public remains largely ignorant of the purpose and benefits of fluoridation. The emotionalism surrounding the issue has made it difficult to generate public support outside of the health professions. Opponents have also learned to fight fluoridation with increasingly sophisticated techniques. Some of the strategies used in recent successful campaigns in Oakland, California, and Portland, Oregon are described; recommendations that can be applied to communities considering fluoridation include careful wording of ballot measures so they are unequivocally clear and simple; timing ballot measures with elections likely to draw the largest voter turnout; broadening the base of political and financial support; using a figurehead if possible; and making maximum use of the media.

  7. Effects of manganese, calcium, magnesium and zinc on nickel-induced suppression of murine natural killer cell activity

    SciTech Connect

    Smialowicz, R.J.; Rogers, R.R.; Riddle, M.M.; Luebke, R.W.; Fogelson, L.D.; Rowe, D.G.

    1987-01-01

    The effects that divalent metals have on nickel-induced suppression of natural killer (NK) cell activity were studied in mice. Male CBA/J mice were given a single intramuscular injection of the following: nickel chloride, 4.5-36 ..mu..g/g; manganese chloride, 20-80 ..mu..g/g; magnesium acetate, 50-200 ..mu..g/g; zinc acetate, 2-8 ..mu..g/g; or calcium acetate, 12.5-50 ..mu..g/g. Twenty-four hours after metal injection, splenic NK cell activity was assessed using a /sup 51/Cr-release assay. Ni significantly suppressed NK activity, while Mn significantly enhanced NK activity. No alteration in NK activity was observed in mice injected with Mg, Ca, or Zn. The injection of Ni and Mn in combination at a single site resulted in the enhancement of NK activity, although this enhancement was at a level below that observed following the injection of Mn alone. Injection of Mg, Zn, or Ca in combination with Ni did not affect NK activity compared to saline controls. In contrast, the injection of Ni in one thigh followed immediately by Mn, Mg, Ca, or Zn into the other thigh resulted in significant suppression of NK activity for all metals compared with saline controls. An interesting finding was that the injection of Ni followed immediately by Mn into the opposite thigh resulted in even greater reduction in NK activity than Ni alone. Suppression of NK activity by Ni and Mn injected at separate sites was not seen when Mn injection preceded Ni injection by 1 h.

  8. Effects of life-long fluoride intake on bone measures of adolescents: a prospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Levy, S M; Warren, J J; Phipps, K; Letuchy, E; Broffitt, B; Eichenberger-Gilmore, J; Burns, T L; Kavand, G; Janz, K F; Torner, J C; Pauley, C A

    2014-04-01

    Controversy persists concerning the impact of community water fluoridation on bone health in adults, and few studies have assessed relationships with bone at younger ages. Ecological studies of fluoride's effects showed some increase in bone mineral density of adolescents and young adults in areas with fluoridated water compared with non-fluoridated areas. However, none had individual fluoride exposure measures. To avoid ecological fallacy and reduce bias, we assessed associations of average daily fluoride intake from birth to age 15 yr for Iowa Bone Development Study cohort members with age 15 yr dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) bone outcomes (whole body, lumbar spine, and hip), controlling for known determinants (including daily calcium intake, average daily time spent in moderate-to-vigorous intensity physical activity, and physical maturity). Mean (SD) daily fluoride intake was 0.66 mg (0.24) for females and 0.78 mg (0.30) for males. We found no significant relationships between daily fluoride intake and adolescents' bone measures in adjusted models (for 183 females, all p values ≥ .10 and all partial R(2) ≤ 0.02; for 175 males, all p values ≥ .34 and all partial R(2) ≤ 0.01). The findings suggest that fluoride exposures at the typical levels for most US adolescents in fluoridated areas do not have significant effects on bone mineral measures.

  9. Potential fluoride contamination in the drinking water of Marks Nagar, Unnao district, Uttar Pradesh, India.

    PubMed

    Jha, S K; Nayak, A K; Sharma, Y K

    2010-06-01

    This study was conducted in the summer season (May, 2007). The fluoride concentration along with other physico-chemical parameters in ground water samples was determined in Marks Nagar of Unnao district, Uttar Pradesh (India), since it is the only source of drinking water for the villagers. The fluoride concentration in the water varied from 0.8 to 13.9 mgl(-1) with a mean of 4.02 mgl(-1). The correlation analysis revealed that fluoride had a positive correlation with pH, CO(3), HCO(3), and sodium adsorption ratio (SAR), whereas a negative correlation with Ca and Mg was found. A soil profile was also dug in the area to assess depth-wise fluoride content in the soil. The soil samples and underneath calcium carbonate (CaCO(3)) concretion were analyzed for fluoride content. The percent of soluble fluoride to total fluoride in the soil varied from 25.15 to 4.76% down the soil profile. The soluble fluoride was found to decrease with the increase in the clay content in the soil. The total leachable fluoride in CaCO(3) concretions was found to be 6.08%. It was inferred from this study that the soil and underneath layer of CaCO(3) concretions may be the potential source of fluoride contamination in the shallow drinking water sources of the area.

  10. Quality of our groundwater resources: arsenic and fluoride

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nordstrom, D. Kirk

    2011-01-01

    Groundwater often contains arsenic or fluoride concentrations too high for drinking or cooking. These constituents, often naturally occurring, are not easy to remove. The right combination of natural or manmade conditions can lead to elevated arsenic or fluoride which includes continental source rocks, high alkalinity and pH, reducing conditions for arsenic, high phosphate, high temperature and high silica. Agencies responsible for safe drinking water should be aware of these conditions, be prepared to monitor, and treat if necessary.

  11. Relationship of fluoride in drinking water to other drinking water parameters

    SciTech Connect

    Lynch, C.F.

    1987-01-01

    Fluoride in drinking water and 32 other drinking water variables were evaluated in an epidemiologic study of 158 municipalities in the State of Iowa. The study included three study groups: two for controlled fluoridation and one for natural fluoride. Previous epidemiologic studies of fluoride in drinking water have rarely addressed other drinking water parameters. The results indicated that controlled fluoridation municipalities were more likely to have initiated other treatment practices such as chlorination. Natural fluoride drinking water concentrations were positively correlated with water source depth, and thereby related to other depth-associated variables such as radium 226, strontium, and nitrogen. Future epidemiologic studies evaluating the safety of fluoride in drinking water should address the potential for confounding by other water variables and treatment processes.

  12. Fluoride content in caffeinated, decaffeinated and herbal teas.

    PubMed

    Chan, J T; Koh, S H

    1996-01-01

    The fluoride contents of infusions prepared from 44 different brands and types of teas were measured. Fluoride concentrations ranged from 0.34 to 3.71 ppm (mean = 1.50 ppm) in caffeinated tea infusions, 0.02-0.14 ppm (mean = 0.05 ppm) in herbal tea infusions, and 1.01-5.20 ppm (mean = 3.19) in decaffeinated tea infusions. This is the first report of the fluoride content of decaffeinated teas. The mean fluoride content of decaffeinated tea infusions is significantly (p < 0.01) higher than the corresponding caffeinated tea. The use of mineral water containing a naturally high fluoride level during the process of decaffeination is the most likely explanation of the above observation.

  13. A clinical investigation using quantitative light-induced fluorescence (QLF) of the anticaries efficacy of a dentifrice containing 1.5% arginine and 1450 ppm fluoride as sodium monofluorophosphate.

    PubMed

    Yin, W; Hu, D Y; Fan, X; Feng, Y; Zhang, Y P; Cummins, D; Mateo, L R; Pretty, I A; Ellwood, R P

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the ability of a new dentifrice containing arginine, an insoluble calcium compound, and fluoride to arrest or reverse naturally occurring buccal caries lesions measured using Quantitative Light-induced Fluorescence (QLF). Three study groups used dentifrices which contained 1) 1.5% arginine and 1450 ppm fluoride as sodium monofluorophosphate (experimental), 2) 1450 ppm fluoride as sodium monofluorophosphate (positive control), and 3) no fluoride (negative control). All three dentifrices were formulated in the same calcium base. The study participants were from three schools in the city of Chengdu, Sichuan Province, China. A total of 446 of 450 recruited subjects completed the study. Of these, 147 were in the experimental, 148 in the positive control, and 151 in the negative control groups. The initial age of the children was 10-12 years (mean 11.4 +/- 0.54); 47.5% were female. Using QLF, assessments of buccal caries lesions were made at baseline and after three and six months of product use. For AQ, representing lesion volume, the baseline mean value for the three groups was 27.30, and at the three-month examination the mean values were 16.76, 19.25, and 25.89 for the experimental, positive, and negative control dentifrices, respectively. This represents improvements from baseline of 38.6%, 29.5%, and 5.2%. At six months, the deltaQ values for the three groups were 13.46, 18.47, and 24.18, representing improvements from baseline of 50.7%, 32.3%, and 11.4%. For all QLF metrics, deltaF (loss of fluorescence), area, and deltaQ, the differences between the negative control and both the experimental and positive control groups were statistically significant (p < or = 0.01). The differences between the experimental and positive control groups attained statistical significance for deltaQ (p < or = 0.003) at the six-month examination. It is concluded that both of the fluoride-containing toothpastes are significantly better at

  14. Fluorine--a current literature review. An NRC and ATSDR based review of safety standards for exposure to fluorine and fluorides.

    PubMed

    Prystupa, Jeff

    2011-02-01

    A review of the literature of the element fluorine and its bonded-form, fluoride, was undertaken. Generally regarded as safe, an expanding body of literature reveals that fluoride's toxicity has been unappreciated, un-scrutinized, and hidden for over 70 years. The context for the literature search and review was an environmental climate-change study, which demonstrated widespread fluoride contamination by smokestack emissions from coal-fired electricity-generating plants. The objective of this review is to educate and inform regarding the ubiquitous presence and harmful nature of this now ever-present corrosive and reactive toxin. Methods include examination of national health agency reviews, primarily the National Research Council (NRC), Agency for Toxic Substances & Disease Registry (ATSDR), standard medical toxicology references, text books, as well as reports and documents from both private and public research as well as consumer-based NGOs. Study criteria were chosen for relevancy to the subject of the toxicity of fluoride. Fluoride is the extreme electron scavenger, the most corrosive of all elements, as well as the most-reactive. Fluoride appears to attack living tissues, via several mechanisms. Fluoride renders strong evidence that it is a non-biological chemical, demonstrating no observed beneficial function or role in organic chemistry, beyond use as a pesticide or insecticide. Fluorine has a strong role to play in industry, having been utilized extensively in metals, plastics, paints, aluminium, steel, and uranium production. Due to its insatiable appetite for calcium, fluorine and fluorides likely represent a form of chemistry that is incompatible with biological tissues and organ system functions. Based on an analysis of the affects of fluoride demonstrated consistently in the literature, safe levels have not been determined nor standardized. Mounting evidence presents conflicting value to its presence in biological settings and applications. Evidence

  15. Stage-specific changes in calcium concentration in crustacean (Callinectes sapidus) Y-organs during a natural molting cycle, and their relation to the hemolymphatic ecdysteroid titer.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hsiang-Yin; Dillaman, Richard M; Roer, Robert D; Watson, R Douglas

    2012-09-01

    Secretion of ecdysteroid molting hormones by crustacean Y-organs is suppressed by molt-inhibiting hormone (MIH). The suppressive effect of MIH on ecdysteroidogenesis is mediated by one or more cyclic nucleotide second messengers. In addition, existing data indicate that ecdysteroidogenesis is positively regulated (stimulated) by intracellular Ca(++). Despite the apparent critical role of calcium in regulating ecdysteroidogenesis, the level of Ca(++) in Y-organ cells has not been previously measured during a natural molting cycle for any crustacean species. In studies reported here, a fluorescent calcium indicator (Fluo-4) was used to measure Ca(++) levels in Y-organs during a molting cycle of the blue crab, Callinectes sapidus. Mean calcium fluorescence increased 5.8-fold between intermolt (C4) and stage D3 of premolt, and then dropped abruptly, reaching a level in postmolt (A) that was not significantly different from that in intermolt (P>0.05). The level of ecdysteroids in hemolymph of Y-organ donor crabs (measured by radioimmunoassay) showed an overall pattern similar to that observed for calcium fluorescence, rising from 2.9 ng/mL in intermolt to 357.1 ng/mL in D3 (P<0.05), and then dropping to 55.3 ng/mL in D4 (P<0.05). The combined results are consistent with the hypothesis that ecdysteroidogenesis is stimulated by an increase in intracellular Ca(++). Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Fluoride content of infant foods.

    PubMed

    Steele, Jaime L; Martinez-Mier, E Angeles; Sanders, Brian J; Jones, James E; Jackson, Richard D; Soto-Rojas, Armando E; Tomlin, Angela M; Eckert, George J

    2014-01-01

    Excessive fluoride consumption during the first 2 years of life is associated with an increased risk of dental fluorosis. Estimates of fluoride intake from various sources may aid in determining a child's risk for developing fluorosis. This study sought to assess the fluoride content of commercially available foods for infants, and to guide dentists who are advising parents of young children about fluoride intake. Three samples each of 20 different foods (including fruits and vegetables, as well as chicken, turkey, beef/ham, and vegetarian dinners) from 3 manufacturers were analyzed (in duplicate) for their fluoride content. Among the 360 samples tested, fluoride concentration ranged from 0.007-4.13 μg fluoride/g food. All foods tested had detectable amounts of fluoride. Chicken products had the highest mean levels of fluoride, followed by turkey products. Consuming >1 serving per day of the high fluoride concentration products in this study would place children over the recommended daily fluoride intake. Fluoride from infant foods should be taken into account when determining total daily fluoride intake.

  17. High index fluoride materials for 193nm immersion lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nawata, T.; Inui, Y.; Masada, I.; Nishijima, E.; Satoh, H.; Fukuda, T.

    2006-03-01

    We tried to investigate various kinds of metal fluoride materials which have higher gravity than CaF II and cubic crystal system, and we found out barium lithium fluoride (BaLiF 3) and potassium yttrium fluoride (KY 3F 10) as candidates for the last lens material. We have developed unique Czochralski (CZ) machines and techniques for the growth of large calcium fluoride single crystals. And we applied these technologies to the growth of fluoride high index materials. We have succeeded to grow the large BaLiF 3 single crystal with 120mm in diameter and a KY 3F 10 single crystal, and measured their basic properties such as refractive index, VUV transmittance, birefringence, and so on. As a result of our basic research, we found out that BaLiF 3 single crystal is transparent at VUV region, and the refractive index at 193nm is 1.64, and KY 3F 10 single crystal has the index of 1.59 at the wavelength of 193nm which is slightly higher than fused silica. We expect that these fluoride high index materials are useful for the last lens material of the next generation immersion lithography.

  18. Phosphate reduction in a hydroxyapatite fluoride removal system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Egner, A.

    2012-12-01

    Fluorosis is a widespread disease that occurs as a result of excess fluoride consumption and can cause severe tooth and bone deformations. To combat fluorosis, several previous studies have examined the potential to replace traditional bone char filters with synthetic hydroxyapatite. Calcite particles with a synthetic hydroxyapatite coating have been shown to effectively removed fluoride, yet the low-cost method for forming these particles leaves high amounts of phosphate both in synthesis waste-water and in filter effluent. High phosphate in filter effluent is problematic because consumption of extremely high phosphate can leach calcium from bones, further exacerbating the fluoride effect. This study examines ways of reducing and reusing waste. In particular, a method of fluoride removal is explored in which fluorapatite coatings may be formed directly. In preliminary studies, batches of 4.1g of Florida limestone (<710 μm) were equilibrated with 100 mL of 10ppm fluoride. In a control batch containing lime but no added phosphate, 14% treatment was achieved, but with added phosphate, 100% treatment was achieved in all batches. Batches with lower levels of phosphate took longer to reach 100% treatment, ranging from less than 24 hours in the highest phosphate batches to approximately 42 hours in the lowest batches. The lower levels tested were well within reasonable levels for drinking water and reached 0ppm fluoride in 42 hours or less.

  19. Permeability and fluoride release of lining materials containing amine fluorides.

    PubMed

    Nordbö, H; Eriksen, H M

    1976-11-01

    The addition of amine fluorides to a copal recin (Copalite) and a chlorine caoutchouc varnish (Pergut S-40) has been studied. The permeability of Copalite films was only slightly increased whereas the excellent film-forming qualities of Pergut S-40 were destroyed by the addition of fluorides. A high fluoride release was found initially from test films of the materials but within 2-3 weeks a decrease to very low fluoride levels was observed.

  20. Aqueous geochemistry of fluoride enriched groundwater in arid part of Western India.

    PubMed

    Singh, Chander Kumar; Mukherjee, Saumitra

    2015-02-01

    Fluoride-enriched water has become a major public health issue in India. The present study tries to evaluate the geochemical mechanism of fluoride enrichment in groundwater of western India. Total 100 groundwater samples were collected for the study spreading across the entire study area. The results of the analyzed parameters formed the attribute database for geographical information system (GIS) analysis and final output maps. A preliminary field survey was conducted and fluoride testing was done using Hach make field kits. The fluoride concentration ranges from 0.08 to 6.6 mg/L (mean 2.4 mg/L), with 63 % of the samples containing fluoride concentrations that exceed the World Health Organization (WHO) drinking water guideline value of 1.5 mg/L and 85 % samples exceeding the Bureau of Indian Standards (BIS) guidelines of 1 mg/L. The study also reveals high concentration of nitrate that is found to be above WHO standrads. The dominant geochemical facies present in water are Na-Cl-HCO3 (26 samples), Na-Ca-Cl-HCO3 (20 samples), Na-Cl (14 samples), and Na-Ca-Mg-Cl-HCO3 (11 samples); however, sodium and bicarbonate being the major component in all the water types of 100 samples, which in fact has a tendency to increase fluoride concentration in water by dissolving fluoride from fluorite. The thermodynamic considerations between the activities of calcium, fluoride, and bicarbonate suggest that fluoride concentration is being governed by activity of calcium ion. X-ray diffraction analysis of sediments reveals calcite and fluorite are the main solubility-control minerals controlling the aqueous geochemistry of high fluoride groundwater. The results indicate that the fluoride concentration in groundwater is mainly governed by geochemical composition of rocks, such as metamorphic granites and sedimentary rocks, alkaline hydrogeological environment, climatic conditions, high temperature and lesser rainfall, and geochemical processes such as weathering, evaporation

  1. Potential exposure and risk of fluoride intakes from tea drinks produced in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Lung, Shih-Chun Candice; Cheng, Hui-Wen; Fu, Chi Betsy

    2008-03-01

    Tea is the second most commonly consumed drink in the world. Excess fluoride intakes from tea drinks may cause health effects. This work assesses infusible fluoride levels in popular tea sold in Taiwan and evaluates potential exposure factors. Lungjing, pouchong, tienguanyin, oolong, pureh, and black tea specimens were purchased from different counties in Taiwan. Fluoride levels were evaluated in one complete cycle of tea making as well as at different calcium carbonate contents in water, with glass or porcelain teapots, and with/without adding sugar. Oolong tea leaves in each manufacturing step were also analyzed for infusible fluoride. Potential fluoride intakes and risks are estimated based on a national survey. Among six kinds of tea, black tea had the highest fluoride concentrations (8.64+/-2.96 mg/l), whereas pureh (1.97+/-2.70 mg/l) had the lowest levels. Higher percentages of infusible fluoride can be rinsed away from tea leaves curved lengthways compared to those curved end-to-end in the first 2.5 min. The use of glass or porcelain teapots and calcium carbonate content (up to 400 mg/l) in water would not affect infusible fluoride levels, whereas adding sugar increased the infusible fluoride in the first few minutes. In addition, it was found that the critical step during the manufacturing process affecting the percentage of infusible fluoride was ball rolling rather than fermentation. Furthermore, intakes of high amounts (> or =5 l/week) of certain tea may result in excess risks of dental or skeletal fluorosis. Tea lovers could be exposed to excess fluoride and may be at risk of fluorosis.

  2. Urinary fluoride excretion after application of fluoride varnish and use of fluoride toothpaste in young children.

    PubMed

    Lockner, Frida; Twetman, Svante; Stecksén-Blicks, Christina

    2017-01-20

    The efficacy and safety of combined use of topical fluoride products are essential issues that must be monitored. To assess urinary excretion of fluoride after application of two different dental varnishes containing 2.26% fluoride in 3- to 4-year-old children and to compare the levels with and without parallel use of fluoride toothpaste. Fifteen healthy children were enrolled to a randomized crossover trial that was performed in two parts: Part I with twice-daily tooth brushing with fluoride toothpaste and Part II with twice-daily brushing with a non-fluoride toothpaste. After a 1-week run-in period, 0.1 mL of the two fluoride varnishes (Duraphat and Profluorid Varnish) was topically applied in a randomized order. Baseline and experimental urine was collected during 6-h periods. The fluoride content was determined with an ion-sensitive electrode. There was a statistically significant increase in the 6-h fluoride excretion after application of both experimental varnishes, with and without parallel use of fluoride toothpaste (P < 0.01). When fluoridated toothpaste was used, the mean fluoride excretion was 0.20 mg/6 h after application of Duraphat and 0.29 mg/6 h after application of Profluorid Varnish (P = 0.18). Topical applications of 0.1 mL of fluoride varnish significantly increased the 6-h fluoride excretion. As some individuals displayed excretion levels exceeding the optimal fluoride exposure, a restricted use of fluoride toothpaste in connection with the varnish applications would decrease fluoride exposure. © 2017 BSPD, IAPD and John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. MOLTEN FLUORIDE NUCLEAR REACTOR FUEL

    DOEpatents

    Barton, C.J.; Grimes, W.R.

    1960-01-01

    Molten-salt reactor fuel compositions consisting of mixtures of fluoride salts are reported. In its broadest form, the composition contains an alkali fluoride such as sodium fluoride, zirconium tetrafluoride, and a uranium fluoride, the latter being the tetrafluoride or trifluoride or a mixture of the two. An outstanding property of these fuel compositions is a high coeffieient of thermal expansion which provides a negative temperature coefficient of reactivity in reactors in which they are used.

  4. Fluoride-containing restorative materials.

    PubMed

    Burke, F M; Ray, N J; McConnell, R J

    2006-02-01

    Dental practitioners are exposed to an increasing number of dental materials, which claim the benefits of fluoride release. The purpose of this paper is to critically review the literature of these materials. Glass ionomers, resin modified glass ionomers, compomers, resin composites, fissure sealants and amalgam are discussed. It is clear that a long-term measurable release of fluoride can be observed from certain restorative materials, in vitro, particularly glass ionomer cement, resin modified glass ionomer cement, fluoridated cements, fluoridated dental amalgam and certain fissure sealants. In general, the rate of fluoride release is not constant but exhibits a relatively rapid initial rate, which decreases with time. However, the fluoride release profiles may be dependent on specific formulation and on experimental design and sampling methods. These materials may feature greater longevity, a reduced incidence of marginal failure, an elevated concentration of fluoride in contingent plaque, together with an antibacterial action when compared with non-fluoride releasing materials. In addition, fluoride-releasing materials may perform better in caries inhibition in artificial caries model studies than non-fluoridated materials. While any, or all, of these anti-cariogenic effects may be associated with fluoride release, a direct relationship between fluoride release profiles and such effects has not been determined in vivo.

  5. Effect of trimetaphosphate and fluoride association on hydroxyapatite dissolution and precipitation in vitro.

    PubMed

    Delbem, Alberto Carlos Botazzo; Souza, José Antonio Santos; Zaze, Ana Carolina Soares Fraga; Takeshita, Eliana Mitsue; Sassaki, Kikue Takebayashi; Moraes, João Carlos Silos

    2014-01-01

    The present study analyzed the action of sodium trimetaphosphate (TMP) and/or fluoride on hydroxyapatite. Hydroxyapatite powder was suspended in different solutions: deionized water, 500 µg F/mL, 1,100 µg F/mL, 1%TMP, 3%TMP, 500 µg F/mL plus 1%TMP and 500 µg F/mL plus 3%TMP. The pH value of the solutions was reduced to 4.0 and after 30 min, raised to 7.0 (three times). After pH-cycling, the samples were analyzed by X-ray diffraction and infrared spectroscopy. The concentrations of calcium fluoride, fluoride, calcium and phosphorus were also determined. Adding 1% or 3% TMP to the solution containing 500 µg F/mL produced a higher quantity of calcium fluoride compared to samples prepared in a 1,100 µg F/mL solution. Regarding the calcium concentration, samples prepared in solutions of 1,100 µg F/mL and 500 µg F/mL plus TMP were statistically similar and showed higher values. Using solutions of 1,100 µg F/mL and 500 µg F/mL plus TMP resulted in a calcium/phosphorus ratio close to that of hydroxyapatite. It is concluded that the association of TMP and fluoride favored the precipitation of a more stable hydroxyapatite.

  6. Effect of a steel mesh and human dental plaque on fluoride uptake in vitro.

    PubMed

    Mellberg, J R; Fletcher, R; Grote, N E

    1991-01-01

    Blocks of bovine enamel, covered with a steel mesh or a steel mesh plus plaque or with neither, were treated in vitro with a 20% slurry of a fluoride dentifrice for 1 h. An initial experiment showed that fluoride in blocks without mesh or plaque increased significantly, whereas fluoride in blocks covered with a steel mesh harboring intraorally accumulated plaque did not. A follow-up experiment showed that enamel blocks covered with the mesh but without plaque acquired a small amount of fluoride, but significantly less than the blocks without mesh. These experiments indicate that covering enamel specimens with mesh, as is done during in situ experiments, may significantly influence the transport of fluoride to the enamel and, therefore, the amount of fluoride acquired by the specimens and perhaps the degree of de- or remineralization. They also suggest that the fluoride distribution to some areas of the natural dentition may be inadequate.

  7. Fluoride caused thyroid endocrine disruption in male zebrafish (Danio rerio).

    PubMed

    Jianjie, Chen; Wenjuan, Xue; Jinling, Cao; Jie, Song; Ruhui, Jia; Meiyan, Li

    2016-02-01

    Excessive fluoride in natural water ecosystem has the potential to detrimentally affect thyroid endocrine system, but little is known of such effects or underlying mechanisms in fish. In the present study, we evaluated the effects of fluoride on growth performance, thyroid histopathology, thyroid hormone levels, and gene expressions in the HPT axis in male zebrafish (Danio rerio) exposed to different determined concentrations of 0.1, 0.9, 2.0 and 4.1 M of fluoride to investigate the effects of fluoride on thyroid endocrine system and the potential toxic mechanisms caused by fluoride. The results indicated that the growth of the male zebrafish used in the experiments was significantly inhibited, the thyroid microtrastructure was changed, and the levels of T3 and T4 were disturbed in fluoride-exposed male fish. In addition, the expressional profiles of genes in HPT axis displayed alteration. The expressions of all studied genes were significantly increased in all fluoride-exposed male fish after exposure for 45 days. The transcriptional levels of corticotrophin-releasing hormone (CRH), thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), thyroglobulin (TG), sodium iodide symporter (NIS), iodothyronine I (DIO1), and thyroid hormone receptor alpha (TRα) were also elevated in all fluoride-exposed male fish after 90 days of exposure, while the inconsistent expressions were found in the mRNA of iodothyronineⅡ (DIO2), UDP glucuronosyltransferase 1 family a, b (UGT1ab), transthyretin (TTR), and thyroid hormone receptor beta (TRβ). These results demonstrated that fluoride could notably inhibit the growth of zebrafish, and significantly affect thyroid endocrine system by changing the microtrastructure of thyroid, altering thyroid hormone levels and endocrine-related gene expressions in male zebrafish. All above indicated that fluoride could pose a great threat to thyroid endocrine system, thus detrimentally affected the normal function of thyroid of male zebrafish. Copyright © 2015

  8. The Selection and Prevalence of Natural and Fortified Calcium Food Sources in the Diets of Adolescent Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rafferty, Karen; Watson, Patrice; Lappe, Joan M.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To assess the impact of calcium-fortified food and dairy food on selected nutrient intakes in the diets of adolescent girls. Design: Randomized controlled trial, secondary analysis. Setting and Participants: Adolescent girls (n = 149) from a midwestern metropolitan area participated in randomized controlled trials of bone physiology…

  9. The Selection and Prevalence of Natural and Fortified Calcium Food Sources in the Diets of Adolescent Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rafferty, Karen; Watson, Patrice; Lappe, Joan M.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To assess the impact of calcium-fortified food and dairy food on selected nutrient intakes in the diets of adolescent girls. Design: Randomized controlled trial, secondary analysis. Setting and Participants: Adolescent girls (n = 149) from a midwestern metropolitan area participated in randomized controlled trials of bone physiology…

  10. Effects of Life-long Fluoride Intake on Bone Measures of Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Levy, S.M.; Warren, J.J.; Phipps, K.; Letuchy, E.; Broffitt, B.; Eichenberger-Gilmore, J.; Burns, T.L.; Kavand, G.; Janz, K.F.; Torner, J.C.; Pauley, C.A.

    2014-01-01

    Controversy persists concerning the impact of community water fluoridation on bone health in adults, and few studies have assessed relationships with bone at younger ages. Ecological studies of fluoride’s effects showed some increase in bone mineral density of adolescents and young adults in areas with fluoridated water compared with non-fluoridated areas. However, none had individual fluoride exposure measures. To avoid ecological fallacy and reduce bias, we assessed associations of average daily fluoride intake from birth to age 15 yr for Iowa Bone Development Study cohort members with age 15 yr dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) bone outcomes (whole body, lumbar spine, and hip), controlling for known determinants (including daily calcium intake, average daily time spent in moderate-to-vigorous intensity physical activity, and physical maturity). Mean (SD) daily fluoride intake was 0.66 mg (0.24) for females and 0.78 mg (0.30) for males. We found no significant relationships between daily fluoride intake and adolescents’ bone measures in adjusted models (for 183 females, all p values ≥ .10 and all partial R2 ≤ 0.02; for 175 males, all p values ≥ .34 and all partial R2 ≤ 0.01). The findings suggest that fluoride exposures at the typical levels for most US adolescents in fluoridated areas do not have significant effects on bone mineral measures. PMID:24470542

  11. Fluoride removal from groundwater by limestone treatment in presence of phosphoric acid.

    PubMed

    Gogoi, Sweety; Nath, Suresh K; Bordoloi, Shreemoyee; Dutta, Robin K

    2015-04-01

    Fluoride removal from groundwater has been studied by addition of dilute phosphoric acid (PA) to the influent water before limestone treatment through laboratory plug-flow column experiments and bench-scale plug-flow pilot tests. In this PA-enhanced limestone defluoridation (PAELD) technique, fluoride is removed from 0.526 mM to 0.50-52.60 μM in 3 h with near neutral final pH. The presence of PA increases the fluoride removal capacity of limestone to 1.10 mg/g compared to 0.39 mg/g reported in its absence. The changes in fluoride removal with variation in initial PA concentration, initial fluoride concentration and the final pH have been found to be statistically significant with p < 0.05. The estimated recurring cost is US$ ≈0.58/m(3) water. Simple scrubbing and rinsing is a preferable method for regeneration of limestone as it is almost equally effective with lime or NaOH. Sorption of fluoride by calcium phosphates produced in situ in the reactor is the dominant mechanism of fluoride removal in the PAELD. Precipitation of CaF2 and sorption of fluoride by the limestone also contribute to the fluoride removal. High efficiency, capacity, safety, environment-friendliness, low cost and simplicity of operation make the PAELD a potential technique for rural application.

  12. Oral fluoride reservoirs and the prevention of dental caries.

    PubMed

    Vogel, Gerald Lee

    2011-01-01

    Current models for increasing the anti-caries effects of fluoride (F) agents emphasize the importance of maintaining a cariostatic concentration of F in oral fluids. The concentration of F in oral fluids is maintained by the release of this ion from bioavailable reservoirs on the teeth, oral mucosa and - most importantly, because of its association with the caries process - dental plaque. Oral F reservoirs appear to be of two types: (1) mineral reservoirs, in particular calcium fluoride or phosphate-contaminated 'calcium-fluoride-like' deposits; (2) biological reservoirs, in particular (with regard to dental plaque) F held to bacteria or bacterial fragments via calcium-fluoride bonds. The fact that all these reservoirs are mediated by calcium implies that their formation is limited by the low concentration of calcium in oral fluids. By using novel procedures which overcome this limitation, the formation of these F reservoirs after topical F application can be greatly increased. Although these increases are associated with substantive increases in salivary and plaque fluid F, and hence a potential increase in cariostatic effect, it is unclear if such changes are related to the increases in the amount of these reservoirs, or changes in the types of F deposits formed. New techniques have been developed for identifying and quantifying these deposits which should prove useful in developing agents that enhance formation of oral F reservoirs with optimum F release characteristics. Such research offers the prospect of decreasing the F content of topical agents while simultaneously increasing their cariostatic effect. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  13. Fluoride release from fluoride varnishes under acidic conditions.

    PubMed

    Lippert, F

    2014-01-01

    The aim was to investigate the in vitro fluoride release from fluoride varnishes under acidic conditions. Poly(methyl methacrylate) blocks (Perspex, n=3 per group) were painted with 80 ± 5 mg fluoride varnish (n=10) and placed into artificial saliva for 30 min. Then, blocks were placed into either 1% citric acid (pH 2.27) or 0.3% citric acid (pH 3.75) solutions (n=3 per solution and varnish) for 30 min with the solutions being replaced every 5 min. Saliva and acid solutions were analyzed for fluoride content. Data were analyzed using three-way ANOVA (varnish, solution, time). The three-way interaction was significant (p>0.0001). Fluoride release and release patterns varied considerably between varnishes. Fluoride release in saliva varied by a factor of more than 10 between varnishes. Some varnishes (CavityShield, Nupro, ProFluorid, Vanish) showed higher fluoride release in saliva than during the first 5 min of acid exposure, whereas other varnishes (Acclean, Enamel-Pro, MI Varnish, Vella) showed the opposite behavior. There was little difference between acidic solutions. Fluoride release from fluoride varnishes varies considerably and also depends on the dissolution medium. Bearing in mind the limitations of laboratory research, the consumption of acidic drinks after fluoride varnish application should be avoided to optimize the benefit/risk ratio.

  14. Sensitivity of two biomarkers for biomonitoring exposure to fluoride in children and women: A study in a volcanic area.

    PubMed

    Linhares, Diana Paula Silva; Garcia, Patrícia Ventura; Amaral, Leslie; Ferreira, Teresa; Cury, Jaime A; Vieira, Waldomiro; Rodrigues, Armindo Dos Santos

    2016-07-01

    The natural enrichment of water with fluoride is related to natural sources such as volcanic activity, with it being documented that fluorosis, an endemic and widespread disease in volcanic areas, is associated to the ingestion of high levels of fluoride through water. Thus, in this study, we aimed to define the fluoride concentration in drinking waters of volcanic origin and compare the sensitivity of urine and nail clippings as biomarkers for fluoride exposure in adults and children. Samples of drinking water from four villages in São Miguel Island (Azores) were used and the fluoride concentration was determined, as well the fluoride content in urine and toenails clippings from 66 children and 63 adults from these villages. A validated diet questionnaire, assessing sources of fluoride, was recorded for each participant. The fluoride determination in urine and nail clipping samples was made using a fluoride-specific electrode. A positive correlation was found between the fluoride daily intake and fluoride content in children urine (rs = 0.475; p < 0.001) and in their nail clippings (rs = 0.475; p < 0.001), while in adult women, the fluoride daily intake correlated positively with fluoride content nail clippings (rs = 0.495, p < 0.001). This reveals that nail clippings are more reliable as biomarkers of chronic exposure to fluoride than urine for populations of different ages (children vs. adults). Furthermore, nail clippings are more suitable than urine fluoride levels to assess long term exposure to fluoride in areas where the exposure to fluoride in drinking water is considered within, or slightly above, the recommended legal values. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. The origin of fluoride in groundwater supply to Hermosillo City, Sonora, México

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valenzuela-Vásquez, L.; Ramírez-Hernández, J.; Reyes-López, J.; Sol-Uribe, A.; Lázaro-Mancilla, O.

    2006-10-01

    Anomalous high fluoride concentration up to 7.59 mg/dm3 is found in groundwater from “La Victoria” area. This water is used to supply drinking water to Hermosillo City, Sonora. Geochemistry of groundwater, relationship between physicochemical parameters, hydrogeology and geologic setting were correlated to define the origin and the geochemical mechanisms of groundwater fluorine enrichment. High fluoride concentration is associated with high bicarbonates, pH and temperature, and it decreases toward the west and south of the area. Fluoride is in negative correlation to calcium concentration. Sodium sulphate facies of regional deep water flow are related to high fluoride concentration. High electric resistivity rocks associated with granites from the Sierra Bachoco basement might be the deep source of fluoride. Outcropping of Sierra Bachoco in the west causes upward regional flow. Groundwater of longer residence time can be pumped there. The anomalous area is restricted to “La Victoria” because calcareous paleozoic rocks outcrop to the south.

  16. Uniform partial dissolution of bone mineral by using fluoride and phosphate ions combination.

    PubMed

    DePaula, Carl Alex; Pan, Yong; Guzelsu, Nejat

    2008-01-01

    Mineral content is one of the main predictors of the mechanical properties of bone tissue. The contribution of the bone mineral phase to the mechanical properties of bone has been investigated by reducing the mineral content of bone with different in vitro treatment techniques such as hydrochloric acid (HCl), ethylenedinitrilo tetraacetic acid (EDTA), and fluoride ion treatment. In this study, we propose a new treatment technique which combines fluoride and phosphate ions. Bovine femur specimens were used to determine the mechanical properties of cortical bone after different fluoride phosphate ion combination treatments. The treatment solutions, which contain different fluoride and phosphate ion concentrations, dissolved part of the bone mineral in a uniform manner throughout the bone samples. Dissolution by products, which precipitated in the bone tissue, contained calcium fluoride with phosphate ions (CaF(2)/P) and fluorapatite/fluorhydroxyapatite-type material (FAp/FHAp) and acted as filler. Depending on the fluoride and phosphate concentration in a treatment solution, the precipitated material's ratio of FAp/FHAp to total fluoride containing phase (FAp/FHAp + CaF(2)/P) in bone tissue also changed. High fluoride ion content in treatment solutions generated more CaF(2)/P type of precipitate, and low fluoride ion concentration generated more FAp/FHAp type precipitates as compared to high fluoride concentration treatments. These experiments show that phosphate ions are another important parameter of a treatment solution, in addition to ionic strength, pH, and the duration of treatment. In vitro, phosphate fluoride combinations partially dissolve bone mineral content in a wider range than fluoride treatment alone in a uniform manner. With this new technique one can control more precisely the partial dissolution of the bone mineral and mineral phase's contribution to mechanical properties of bone tissue.

  17. Ferrimyoglobin-Fluoride.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russo, Steven O.; Hanania, George I. H.

    1990-01-01

    Described is an experiment which is designed to investigate the reaction of the protein ferrimyoglobin with fluoride. The activity uses readily available apparatus and the technique of optical absorbance for measurement of concentrations. Experimental design, procedures, and treatment of the equilibrium data are detailed. (CW)

  18. Heavy Metal Fluoride Glasses.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-04-01

    relatively low refractive Indices in the visible range of about 1.5-1.9 and fairly good chemical resistance towards water and weak acids. Their...particularly interesting to compare with crystalline fluorides (Refs. 25, 37) such as 7800 spinel-type Li2NiF4 ; 7700 rutile-type NiF2 ; 7500 perovskite-type

  19. Fluorine (soluble fluoride)

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Fluorine ( soluble fluoride ) ; CASRN 7782 - 41 - 4 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for No

  20. Ferrimyoglobin-Fluoride.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russo, Steven O.; Hanania, George I. H.

    1990-01-01

    Described is an experiment which is designed to investigate the reaction of the protein ferrimyoglobin with fluoride. The activity uses readily available apparatus and the technique of optical absorbance for measurement of concentrations. Experimental design, procedures, and treatment of the equilibrium data are detailed. (CW)

  1. Other Fluoride Products

    MedlinePlus

    ... About CDC.gov . Oral Health home Oral Health Basics Children's Oral Health Protecting Your Child's Teeth Brush Up on Healthy Teeth Adult Oral Health ... concentration of fluoride in a small amount of material in close contact with the teeth for many hours. Varnishes must be reapplied at ...

  2. Salt fluoridation and oral health.

    PubMed

    Marthaler, Thomas M

    2013-11-01

    The aim of this paper is to make known the potential of fluoridated salt in community oral health programs, particularly in South Eastern Europe. Since 1922, the addition of iodine to salt has been successful in Switzerland. Goiter is virtually extinct. By 1945, the caries-protective effect of fluorides was well established. Based on the success of water fluoridation, a gynecologist started adding of fluoride to salt. The sale of fluoridated salt began in 1956 in the Swiss Canton of Zurich, and several other cantons followed suit. Studies initiated in the early seventies showed that fluoride, when added to salt, inhibits dental caries. The addition of fluoride to salt for human consumption was officially authorized in 1980-82. In Switzerland 85% of domestic salt consumed is fluoridated and 67% in Germany. Salt fluoridation schemes are reaching more than one hundred million in Mexico, Colombia, Peru and Cuba. The cost of salt fluoridation is very low, within 0.02 and 0.05 € per year and capita. Children and adults of the low socio-economic strata tend to have substantially more untreated caries than higher strata. Salt fluoridation is by far the cheapest method for improving oral health. Salt fluoridation has cariostatic potential like water fluoridation (caries reductions up to 50%). In Europe, meaningful percentages of users have been attained only in Germany (67%) and Switzerland (85%). In Latin America, there are more than 100 million users, and several countries have arrived at coverage of 90 to 99%. Salt fluoridation is by far the cheapest method of caries prevention, and billions of people throughout the world could benefit from this method. Copyright © 2013 by Academy of Sciences and Arts of Bosnia and Herzegovina.

  3. Compliance with fluoride gel use in irradiated patients.

    PubMed

    Epstein, J B; van der Meij, E H; Emerton, S M; Le, N D; Stevenson-Moore, P

    1995-01-01

    Patients who undergo radiation therapy that includes the salivary glands frequently experience severe xerostomia. The standard of care for these patients who have natural teeth has become daily application of fluoride by means of custom-fabricated carriers. The purpose of this study was to determine patient compliance with fluoride gel application using carriers. Using a structured verbal questionnaire, we interviewed 76 patients who had completed radiation therapy for head and neck cancer. Thirty of these patients were seen regularly in the dental clinic of the Cancer Agency (group 1); the remaining 46 were not seen on a regular basis (group 2). Overall, 43% of patients reported using fluoride gel regularly (once a day). In group 1, 67% of patients used fluoride regularly, as did 28% of patients in group 2 (p = 0.001). There were no significant differences between the groups in frequency of toothbrushing and use of dental floss. Compliance with the use of fluoride in carriers was not associated with differences in other oral care measures in the two groups, which suggests that fluoride application in carriers achieves limited compliance in relation to daily oral health care measures. Regular follow-up of patients after radiation therapy is needed to assess their need for, and compliance with, daily fluoride application.

  4. Effect of Fluoride Gels on Microhardness and Surface Roughness of Bleached Enamel

    PubMed Central

    China, Ana L.P; Souza, Nayara M; Gomes, Yasmin do S. B. de L; Alexandrino, Larissa D; Silva, Cecy M

    2014-01-01

    The effect of bleaching treatments containing added calcium and combined with neutral or acidic fluoride gels on tooth enamel was investigated in vitro through Knoop microhardness (KHN) and surface roughness (SR) measurements. A total of 60 bovine incisors were tested, including 30 for SR measurements and 30 for KHN measurements. The specimens were divided into 12 groups and subjected to a bleaching agent with hydrogen peroxide 35% (Whiteness HP 35% Maxx, FGM) or hydrogen peroxide 35% with calcium (Whiteness HP 35% Blue Calcium, FGM) and a fluoride treatment flugel acidulated phosphate fluoride (APF) or flugel neutral fluoride (NF). Control specimens were submitted to bleaching treatments without fluoride. Microhardness tests were performed using a Knoop indentor. Roughness measurements were obtained using a roughness analyzer. Measurements were obtained before and after treatment. The specimens were stored in distilled water at 37 °C between treatments. The results were analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics. Treatments using APF combined with 35% HP caused a decrease in microhardness, while NF combined with HP 35% Ca increased the enamel hardness. Fluoride gels did not alter the SR of the bleached enamel. PMID:25419249

  5. Mapping of fluoride endemic areas and assessment of fluoride exposure.

    PubMed

    Viswanathan, Gopalan; Jaswanth, A; Gopalakrishnan, S; Siva ilango, S

    2009-02-15

    The prevalence of fluorosis is mainly due to the consumption of more fluoride through drinking water. It is necessary to find out the fluoride endemic areas to adopt remedial measures to the people on the risk of fluorosis. The objectives of this study are to estimate the fluoride exposure through drinking water from people of different age group and to elucidate the fluoride endemic areas through mapping. Assessment of fluoride exposure was achieved through the estimation fluoride level in drinking water using fluoride ion selective electrode method. Google earth and isopleth technique were used for mapping of fluoride endemic areas. From the study it was observed that Nilakottai block of Dindigul district in Tamil Nadu is highly fluoride endemic. About 88% of the villages in this block have fluoride level more than the prescribed permissible limit in drinking water. Exposure of fluoride among different age groups was calculated in this block, which comprises 32 villages. The maximum estimated exposure doses were 0.19 mg/kg/day for infants, 0.17 mg/kg/day for children and 0.10 mg/kg/day for adults. When compared with adequate intake of minimal safe level exposure dose of 0.01 mg/kg/day for infants and 0.05 mg/kg/day for other age groups, a health risk due to fluorosis to the people in Nilakottai block has become evident. From the results, the people in Nilakottai block are advised to consume drinking water with fluoride level less than 1 mg/l. It has been recommended to the government authorities to take serious steps to supply drinking water with low fluoride concern for the fluorosis affected villages.

  6. Health Effects Associated with Water Fluoridation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richmond, Virginia L.

    1979-01-01

    Discussion is presented concerning fluoridation of water supplies. Correlation between fluoride in drinking water and improved dental health is reviewed. Relationship is expressed between fluoridation and reduced tooth decay. Use of fluoride in treating skeletal disorders is discussed. Author advocates fluoridating water supplies. (SA)

  7. Use of fluorides in dental caries management.

    PubMed

    Chu, C H; Mei, May L; Lo, Edward C M

    2010-01-01

    Fluoride is commonly and widely used to prevent and even arrest caries. The clinical effects of fluorides depend on the chemical compounds utilized and the methods used to apply the fluoride ion to the surface of the tooth. Fluorosis has been reported in conjunction with increased doses of fluoride. A coordinated approach to fluoride delivery is essential to avoid the risk of fluorosis.

  8. Health Effects Associated with Water Fluoridation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richmond, Virginia L.

    1979-01-01

    Discussion is presented concerning fluoridation of water supplies. Correlation between fluoride in drinking water and improved dental health is reviewed. Relationship is expressed between fluoridation and reduced tooth decay. Use of fluoride in treating skeletal disorders is discussed. Author advocates fluoridating water supplies. (SA)

  9. A hybrid approach for treating fluorided water and biogeophysical monitoring of treatment processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, K. P.

    2016-12-01

    A laboratory experiment has been conducted for investigating the possibility of development of novel techniques for treating fluoride contamination and monitoring of physico-chemical alterations caused by biogeochemical processes in the media. In the present study, high adsorption capacity and ion-exchange property of natural zeolites have been utilized in treating fluoride contamination. The preset goals are achieved by designing and constructing experimental setup consisting of three columns, first one is filled with 450 ppm fluorided water prepared by dissolving sodium fluoride in deionized water, the second is filled with zeolite and fluorided water, and the third is filled with zeolite, fluorided water, sodium lactate and the bacterial seed. The first and the second columns were poisoned with sodium azide for preventing the growth of microorganisms. The self-potential (SP) signals associated with physico-chemical alterations in natural zeolite induced by biogeochemical processes are measured by using Cu-CuSO4 gel electrodes. Liquid-phase analysis of samples from column two and three show the reduced concentrations of fluoride and aluminum and it indicates the possibility of precipitation of insoluble aluminum fluoride. This is further confirmed by the presence of fluoride and aluminum in the solid samples as detected by energy dispersive X-ray analysis. The distinct SP of the order of -50 mV and 200 mV have been associated with biostimulated fluoride remediation and geochemical fluoride remediation processes respectively. Thus, there is a possibility of non-invasive monitoring of fluoride remediation processes driven by both microbes and chemical processes. It is found that after thirty-day nitrate and sulfate is introduced in column two due chemical interaction between water and natural zeolite. Furthermore, this study demonstrates that a hybrid approach, a combination of ion exchange and adsorption properties of natural zeolite and the bioremediation is more

  10. Drinking water fluoridation and oral health inequities in Canadian children.

    PubMed

    McLaren, Lindsay; Emery, J C Herbert

    2012-02-01

    One argument made in favour of drinking water fluoridation is that it is equitable in its impact on oral health. We examined the association between exposure to fluoridation and oral health inequities among Canadian children.PARTICIPANTS, SETTING AND INTERVENTION: We analyzed data from 1,017 children aged 6-11 from Cycle 1 of the Canadian Health Measures Survey, a cross-sectional, nationally representative survey that included a clinic oral health examination and a household interview. The outcome measure was a count of the number of decayed, missing (because of caries or periodontal disease) or filled teeth, either deciduous or permanent (dmftDMFT). Data were analyzed using linear (ordinary least squares) and multinomial logistic regression; we also computed the concentration index for education-related inequity in oral health. Water fluoridation status (the intervention) was assigned on the basis of the site location of data collection. Fluoridation was associated with better oral health (fewer dmftDMFT), adjusting for socio-economic and behavioural variables, and the effect was particularly strong for more severe oral health problems (three or more dmftDMFT). The effect of fluoridation on dmftDMFT was observed across income and education categories but appeared especially pronounced in lower education and higher income adequacy households. dmftDMFT were found to be disproportionately concentrated in lower-education households, though this did not vary by fluoridation status. The robust main effect of fluoridation on dmftDMFT and the beneficial effect across socio-economic groups support fluoridation as a beneficial and justifiable population health intervention. Fluoridation was equitable in the sense that its benefits were particularly apparent in those groups with the poorest oral health profiles, though the nature of the findings prompts consideration of the values underlying the judgement of health equity.

  11. Calcium Carbonate

    MedlinePlus

    Calcium carbonate is a dietary supplement used when the amount of calcium taken in the diet is not ... for healthy bones, muscles, nervous system, and heart. Calcium carbonate also is used as an antacid to relieve ...

  12. VS-501: a novel, nonabsorbed, calcium- and aluminum-free, highly effective phosphate binder derived from natural plant polymer

    PubMed Central

    Wu-Wong, J Ruth; Chen, Yung-wu; Gaffin, Robert; Hall, Andy; Wong, Jonathan T; Xiong, Joseph; Wessale, Jerry L

    2014-01-01

    Inadequate control of serum phosphate in chronic kidney disease can lead to pathologies of clinical importance. Effectiveness of on-market phosphate binders is limited by safety concerns and low compliance due to high pill size/burden and gastrointestinal (GI) discomfort. VS-501 is a nonabsorbed, calcium- and aluminum-free, chemically modified, plant-derived polymer. In vitro studies show that VS-501 has a high density and a low swell volume when exposed to simulated gastric fluid (vs. sevelamer). When male Sprague–Dawley (SD) rats on normal diet were treated with VS-501 or sevelamer, serum phosphate was not significantly altered, but urinary phosphate levels decreased by >90%. VS-501 had no effect on serum calcium (Ca) or urinary Ca, while 3% sevelamer significantly increased serum and urine Ca. In 5/6 nephrectomized (NX) uremic SD rats on high-phosphate diet, increasing dietary phosphate led to an increase in serum and urine phosphate, which was prevented in rats treated with VS-501 or sevelamer (0.2–5% in food). High-phosphate diet also increased serum fibroblast growth factor-23 and parathyroid hormone in 5/6 NX rats that was prevented by VS-501 or sevelamer. VS-501 or sevelamer increased fecal phosphate in a dose-dependent manner. More aortic calcification was observed in 5/6 NX rats treated with 5% sevelamer, while VS-501 and sevelamer did not show significant effects on cardiac parameters, fibrosis, intestine histology, and intestinal sodium-dependent phosphate cotransporter gene expression. These results suggest that VS-501 is effective in binding phosphate with no effects on calcium homeostasis, and may have improved pill burden and GI side effects. PMID:25197556

  13. Calcium-permeable presynaptic kainate receptors involved in excitatory short-term facilitation onto somatostatin interneurons during natural stimulus patterns.

    PubMed

    Sun, H Y; Bartley, A F; Dobrunz, L E

    2009-02-01

    Schaffer collateral synapses in hippocampus show target-cell specific short-term plasticity. Using GFP-expressing Inhibitory Neuron (GIN) transgenic mice that express enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) in a subset of somatostatin-containing interneurons (SOM interneurons), we previously showed that Schaffer collateral synapses onto SOM interneurons in stratum (S.) radiatum have unusually large (up to 6-fold) paired-pulse facilitation. This results from a low initial release probability and the enhancement of facilitation by synaptic activation of presynaptic kainate receptors. Here we further investigate the properties of these kainate receptors and examine their effects on short-term facilitation during physiologically derived stimulation patterns, using excitatory postsynaptic currents recorded in S. radiatum interneurons during Schaffer collateral stimulation in acute slices from juvenile GIN mice. We find that GluR5 and GluR6 antagonists decrease short-term facilitation at Schaffer collateral synapses onto SOM interneurons with no additive effects, suggesting that the presynaptic kainate receptors are heteromers containing both GluR5 and GluR6 subunits. The calcium-permeable receptor antagonist 1-napthyl acetyl spermine (NASPM) both mimics and occludes the effect of the kainate receptor antagonists, indicating that the presynaptic kainate receptors are calcium permeable. Furthermore, Schaffer collateral synapses onto SOM interneurons show up to 11-fold short-term facilitation during physiologically derived stimulus patterns, in contrast to other interneurons that have less than 1.5-fold facilitation. Blocking the kainate receptors reduces facilitation in SOM interneurons by approximately 50% during the physiologically derived patterns and reduces the dynamic range. Activation of calcium-permeable kainate receptors containing GluR5/GluR6 causes a dramatic increase in short-term facilitation during physiologically derived stimulus patterns, a mechanism

  14. Fluoride ion release and solubility of fluoride enriched interim cements.

    PubMed

    Lewinstein, Israel; Block, Jonathan; Melamed, Guy; Dolev, Eran; Matalon, Shlomo; Ormianer, Zeev

    2014-08-01

    Interim and definitive restorations cemented with interim cements for a prolonged interval are susceptible to bacterial infiltration and caries formation. The purpose of this in vitro study was to evaluate the long-term fluoride release and solubility of aged ZnO-based interim cements enriched separately with 0.4% NaF and SnF2. Four different brands of cements (Tempbond, Tempbond NE, Procem, and Freegenol) were tested for fluoride release and solubility. For every test, 6 disk specimens of each cement with NaF and SnF2, and 6 with no fluoride enrichment (control) were fabricated, for a total of 72 specimens. The disks were incubated in deionized water. Fluoride ion release was recorded at 1, 7, 14, 21, 63, 91, and 182 days. Solubility was calculated as weight percent after 90 days of incubation. The data were analyzed by analysis of variance with repeated measures and the Tukey honestly significant difference post hoc test (P<.05). Cements mixed with fluorides released fluoride ions for at least 182 days. Cements mixed with NaF released more fluoride ions than those mixed with SnF2 (P<.001). The cumulative release rates from all the tested cements mixed with either NaF or SnF2 were linear with respect to t(½) (r>.97), indicating a diffusion-controlled fluoride release. Cement and fluoride types were the main affecting factors in fluoride ion release. The addition of fluorides slightly increased the solubility of the cements. Given their long-term sustained and diffusive controlled release, these fluorides, particularly NaF when mixed with ZnO-based interim cements, may be useful for caries prevention under provisionally cemented restorations. Copyright © 2014 Editorial Council for the Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. A review on fluoride varnishes: an alternative topical fluoride treatment.

    PubMed

    Clark, D C

    1982-06-01

    The in vitro, in vivo and clinical research on topical fluoride varnishes in surveyed. The probable mechanisms of action for fluoride varnishes is discussed and this effect demonstrated from the results of in vitro and in vivo research. Findings from clinical studies are summarized and selected results are used to estimate expected preventive effects from the treatment. The practical advantages and limitations of fluoride varnishes are also reviewed and indications for the future used of these preventive agents are considered.

  16. Baltimore and the Beginnings of the Fluoride Controversy.

    PubMed

    Daws, Steven

    2015-01-01

    The fluoridation of municipal water as a preventive dental health measure has proven to be a contentious issue from its very outset. In 1952, Baltimore became the first major city in the United States to artificially add fluoride to its water supply. This study draws largely on print media sources as a means of discerning public sentiment, in order to evaluate the nature of Baltimore's fluoride controversy in its infancy. Initial response was influenced by prior exposure to the substance within the context of dentistry, as well as a continued trend of conservatism within the community. Logistical issues during implementation due to the necessary upscale of established practices to accommodate Baltimore's population served to further exacerbate concerns. Much of the opposition was predicated on the breadth of the measure, as evidenced by the myriad of personal concerns put forth in objection. Personal concerns developed into demands for personal autonomy, providing a philosophical foundation for the anti-fluoridation movement that persists today.

  17. Fluoride removal performance of glass derived hydroxyapatite

    SciTech Connect

    Liang, Wen; Zhan, Lei; Piao, Longhua; Russel, Christian

    2011-02-15

    Research highlights: {yields} Novel sodium calcium borate glass derived hydroxyapatite (G-HAP) is prepared. {yields} Micro-G-HAP adsorbs F{sup -} ions in solutions more effectively than commercial nano-HAP. {yields} The adsorption kinetics and isotherms are well fitted by a second order kinetic model and Freundlich isotherm model. -- Abstract: A novel sodium calcium borate glass derived hydroxyapatite (G-HAP) with different ranges of particle size was prepared by immersion sodium calcium borate glass in 0.1 M K{sub 2}HPO{sub 4} solution by the ratio of 50 g L{sup -1} for 7 days. The unique advantage of G-HAP for the adsorption of fluoride ions in solutions was studied. The effects of size and quantity of particles, pH value and adsorption time on adsorption performance were investigated. The maximum adsorption capacity was 17.34 mg g{sup -1} if 5 g L{sup -1}, <100 {mu}m G-HAP was added to a solution with an initial pH value of 6.72 and the adsorption time was 12 h. The results showed that the micro-G-HAP could immobilize F{sup -} in solution more effectively than commercial nano-HAP, which makes potential application of the G-HAP in removing the fluoride ions from wastewater. The adsorption kinetics and isotherms for F{sup -} could be well fitted by a second order kinetic model and Freundlich isotherm model respectively, which could be used to describe the adsorption behavior. The mechanism of G-HAP in immobilizing F{sup -} from aqueous solutions was investigated by the X-ray diffraction (XRD), infrared spectra (IR) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM).

  18. Influence of Phosphatidylcholine and Calcium on Self-Association and Bile Salt Mixed Micellar Binding of the Natural Bile Pigment, Bilirubin Ditaurate.

    PubMed

    Neubrand, Michael W; Carey, Martin C; Laue, Thomas M

    2015-11-17

    Recently [Neubrand, M. W., et al. (2015) Biochemistry 54, 1542-1557], we determined a concentration-dependent monomer-dimer-tetramer equilibrium in aqueous bilirubin ditaurate (BDT) solutions and explored the nature of high-affinity binding of BDT monomers with monomers and micelles of the common taurine-conjugated bile salts (BS). We now investigate, employing complementary physicochemical methods, including fluorescence emission spectrophotometry and quasi-elastic light scattering spectroscopy, the influence of phosphatidylcholine (PC), the predominant phospholipid of bile and calcium, the major divalent biliary cation, on these self-interactions and heterointeractions. We have used short-chain, lyso and long-chain PC species as models and contrasted our results with those of parallel studies employing unconjugated bilirubin (UCB) as the fully charged dianion. Both bile pigments interacted with the zwitterionic headgroup of short-chain lecithins, forming water-soluble (BDT) and insoluble ion-pair complexes (UCB), respectively. Upon micelle formation, BDT monomers apparently remained at the headgroup mantle of short-chain PCs, but the ion pairs with UCB became internalized within the micelle's hydrophobic core. BDT interacted with the headgroups of unilamellar egg yolk (EY) PC vesicles; however, with the simultaneous addition of CaCl2, a reversible aggregation took place, but not vesicle fusion. With mixed EYPC/BS micelles, BDT became bound to the hydrophilic surface (as with simple BS micelles), and in turn, both BDT and BS bound calcium, but not other divalent cations. The calcium complexation of BDT and BS was enhanced strongly with increases in micellar EYPC, suggesting calcium-mediated cross-bridging of hydrophilic headgroups at the micelle's surface. Therefore, the physicochemical binding of BDT to BS in an artificial bile medium is influenced not only by BS species and concentration but also by long-chain PCs and calcium ions that exert a specific rather

  19. Effects of fluoride on in vitro enamel demineralization analyzed by ¹⁹F MAS-NMR.

    PubMed

    Mohammed, N R; Kent, N W; Lynch, R J M; Karpukhina, N; Hill, R; Anderson, P

    2013-01-01

    The mechanistic action of fluoride on inhibition of enamel demineralization was investigated using (19)F magic angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance (MAS-NMR). The aim of this study was to monitor the fluoride-mineral phase formed on the enamel as a function of the concentration of fluoride ions [F(-)] in the demineralizing medium. The secondary aim was to investigate fluorapatite formation on enamel in the mechanism of fluoride anti-caries efficacy. Enamel blocks were immersed into demineralization solutions of 0.1 M acetic acid (pH 4) with increasing concentrations of fluoride up to 2,262 ppm. At and below 45 ppm [F(-)] in the solution, (19)F MAS-NMR showed fluoride-substituted apatite formation, and above 45 ppm, calcium fluoride (CaF2) formed in increasing proportions. Further increases in [F(-)] caused no further reduction in demineralization, but increased the proportion of CaF2 formed. Additionally, the combined effect of strontium and fluoride on enamel demineralization was also investigated using (19)F MAS-NMR. The presence of 43 ppm [Sr(2+)] in addition to 45 ppm [F(-)] increases the fraction of fluoride-substituted apatite, but delays formation of CaF2 when compared to the demineralization of enamel in fluoride-only solution.

  20. Prevention and reversal of dental caries: role of low level fluoride.

    PubMed

    Featherstone, J D

    1999-02-01

    Dental caries is a bacterially based disease that progresses when acid produced by bacterial action on dietary fermentable carbohydrates diffuses into the tooth and dissolves the mineral, that is, demineralization. Pathological factors including acidogenic bacteria (mutans streptococci and lactobacilli), salivary dysfunction, and dietary carbohydrates are related to caries progression. Protective factors which include salivary calcium, phosphate and proteins, salivary flow, and fluoride in saliva can balance, prevent or reverse dental caries. Fluoride works primarily via topical mechanisms which include (1) inhibition of demineralization at the crystal surfaces inside the tooth, (2) enhancement of remineralization at the crystal surfaces (the resulting remineralized layer is very resistant to acid attack), and (3) inhibition of bacterial enzymes. Fluoride in drinking water and in fluoride-containing products reduces tooth decay via these mechanisms. Low but slightly elevated levels of fluoride in saliva and plaque provided from these sources help prevent and reverse caries by inhibiting demineralization and enhancing remineralization. The level of fluoride incorporated into dental mineral by systemic ingestion is insufficient to play a significant role in caries prevention. The effect of systemically ingested fluoride on caries is minimal. Fluoride "supplements" can be best used as a topical delivery system by sucking or chewing tablets or lozenges prior to ingestion.

  1. Fluoride removal by Al, Ti, and Fe hydroxides and coexisting ion effect.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jianfeng; Brutus, Timothy E; Cheng, Jiemin; Meng, Xiaoguang

    2017-07-01

    Batch experiments were conducted to evaluate fluoride removal by Al, Fe, and Ti-based coagulants and adsorbents, as well as the effects of coexisting ions and formation of aluminum-fluoride complexes on fluoride removal by co-precipitation with alum (Al2(SO4)3·18H2O). Aluminum sulfate was more efficient than the other coagulants for fluoride removal in the pH range between 6 and 8. Nano-crystalline TiO2 was more effective for fluoride removal than Al and Fe hydroxides in a pH range of 3-5. Coexisting anions in water decreased the removal of fluoride in the order: phosphate (2.5mg/L)>arsenate (0.1mg/L)>bicarbonate (200mg/L)>sulfate (100mg/L)=nitrate (100mg/L)>silicate (10mg/L) at a pH of 6.0. The effect of silicate became more significant at pH>7.0. Calcium and magnesium improved the removal of fluoride. Zeta-potential measurements determined that the adsorption of fluoride shifted the PZC of Al(OH)3 precipitates from 8.9 to 8.4, indicating the chemical adsorption of fluoride at the surface. The presence of fluoride in solution significantly increased the soluble aluminum concentration at pH<6.5. A Visual MINTEQ modeling study indicated that the increased aluminum solubility was caused by the formation of AlF(2+), AlF2(+), and AlF3 complexes. The AlFx complexes decreased the removal of fluoride during co-precipitation with aluminum sulfate. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  2. Magnesium fluoride recovery method

    DOEpatents

    Gay, Richard L.; McKenzie, Donald E.

    1989-01-01

    A method of obtaining magnesium fluoride substantially free from radioactive uranium from a slag containing the same and having a radioactivity level of at least about 7000 pCi/gm. The slag is ground to a particle size of about 200 microns or less. The ground slag is contacted with an acid under certain prescribed conditions to produce a liquid product and a particulate solid product. The particulate solid product is separated from the liquid and treated at least two more times with acid to produce a solid residue consisting essentially of magnesium fluoride substantially free of uranium and having a residual radioactivity level of less than about 1000 pCi/gm. In accordance with a particularly preferred embodiment of the invention a catalyst and an oxidizing agent are used during the acid treatment and preferably the acid is sulfuric acid having a strength of about 1.0 Normal.

  3. Feasibility and costs of water fluoridation in remote Australian Aboriginal communities

    PubMed Central

    Ehsani, Jonathon P; Bailie, Ross

    2007-01-01

    Background Fluoridation of public water supplies remains the key potential strategy for prevention of dental caries. The water supplies of many remote Indigenous communities do not contain adequate levels of natural fluoride. The small and dispersed nature of communities presents challenges for the provision of fluoridation infrastructure and until recently smaller settlements were considered unfavourable for cost-effective water fluoridation. Technological advances in water treatment and fluoridation are resulting in new and more cost-effective water fluoridation options and recent cost analyses support water fluoridation for communities of less than 1,000 people. Methods Small scale fluoridation plants were installed in two remote Northern Territory communities in early 2004. Fluoride levels in community water supplies were expected to be monitored by local staff and by a remote electronic system. Site visits were undertaken by project investigators at commissioning and approximately two years later. Interviews were conducted with key informants and documentation pertaining to costs of the plants and operational reports were reviewed. Results The fluoridation plants were operational for about 80% of the trial period. A number of technical features that interfered with plant operation were identified and addressed though redesign. Management systems and the attitudes and capacity of operational staff also impacted on the effective functioning of the plants. Capital costs for the wider implementation of these plants in remote communities is estimated at about $US94,000 with recurrent annual costs of $US11,800 per unit. Conclusion Operational issues during the trial indicate the need for effective management systems, including policy and funding responsibility. Reliable manufacturers and suppliers of equipment should be identified and contractual agreements should provide for ongoing technical assistance. Water fluoridation units should be considered as a potential

  4. Fluoride in groundwater, Varaha River Basin, Visakhapatnam District, Andhra Pradesh, India.

    PubMed

    Rao, N Subba

    2009-05-01

    Excess intake of fluoride through drinking water causes fluorosis on human beings in many States of the country (India), including Andhra Pradesh. Groundwater quality in the Varaha River Basin located in the Visakhapatnam District of Andhra Pradesh has been studied, with reference to fluoride content, for its possible sources for implementing appropriate management measures, according to the controlling mechanism of fluoride concentration in the groundwater. The area occupied by the river basin is underlain by the Precambrian Eastern Ghats, over which the Recent sediments occur. Results of the chemical data of the groundwater suggest that the considerable number of groundwater samples show fluoride content greater than that of the safe limit prescribed for drinking purpose. Statistical analysis shows that the fluoride has a good positive relation, with pH and bicarbonate. This indicates an alkaline environment, as a dominant controlling mechanism for leaching of fluoride from the source material. Other supplementary factors responsible for the occurrence of fluoride in the groundwater are evapotranspiration, long contact time of water with the aquifer material, and agricultural fertilizers. A lack of correlation between fluoride and chloride, and a high positive correlation between fluoride and bicarbonate indicate recharge of the aquifer by the river water. However, the higher concentration of fluoride observed in the groundwater in some locations indicates insufficient dilution by the river water. That means the natural dilution did not perform more effectively. Hence, the study emphasizes the need for surface water management structures, with people's participation, for getting more effective results.

  5. Magnesium fluoride recovery method

    SciTech Connect

    Gay, R.L.; McKenzie, D.E.

    1989-10-17

    A method of obtaining magnesium fluoride substantially free from radioactive uranium from a slag formed in the production of metallic uranium by the reduction of depleted uranium tetrafluoride with metallic magnesium in a retort wherein the slag contains the free metals magnesium and uranium and also oxides and fluorides of the metals. The slag having a radioactivity level of at least about 7,000 rhoCi/gm. The method comprises the steps of: grinding the slag to a median particle size of about 200 microns; contacting the ground slag in a reaction zone with an acid having a strength of from about 0.5 to 1.5 N for a time of from about 4 to about 20 hours in the presence of a catalytic amount of iron; removing the liquid product; treating the particulate solid product; repeating the last two steps at least one more time to produce a solid residue consisting essentially of magnesium fluoride substantially free of uranium and having a residual radioactivity level of less than about 1000 rhoCi/gm.

  6. Magnesium fluoride recovery method

    SciTech Connect

    Gay, R.L.; McKenzie, D.E.

    1989-10-17

    This patent describes a method of obtaining magnesium fluoride substantially free from radioactive uranium from a slag formed in the production of metallic uranium by the reduction of depleted uranium tetrafluoride with metallic magnesium in a retort wherein the slag contains the free metals magnesium and uranium and also oxides and fluorides of the metals, the slag having a radioactivity level of at least about 7,000 pCi/gm. The method comprises: grinding the slag to a median particle size of about 200 microns; contacting the ground slag in a reaction zone with an acid having a strength of from about 0.5 to 1.5 N for a time of from about 4 to about 20 hours in the presence of a catalytic amount of iron, the reaction zone being maintained at a temperature within the range of from about 60{degrees} to 90{degrees} C. and the weight of ratio of slag to acid being within the range of from about 1:2 to 1:6 to produce a liquid product and a particulate solid product; removing the liquid product; treating the particulate solid product; and repeating steps at least one more time to produce a solid residue consisting essentially of magnesium fluoride substantially free of uranium and having a residual radioactivity level of less than about 1000 pCi/gm.

  7. Calcium Phosphates and Human Beings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dorozhkin, Sergey V.

    2006-05-01

    This article describes the general importance of calcium phosphates for human beings. The basic information on the structure and chemical properties of the biologically relevant calcium phosphates is summarized. Basic facts on the natural occurrence and the industrial use of natural calcium phosphates are discussed. Fundamental details on the presence of calcium phosphates in major calcified tissues (bones and teeth) of humans and mammals, as well as on biomaterials made of calcium phosphates are discussed. The article will be of value for chemistry teachers for expansion of their general background and point the students' attention to the rapidly growing topic of bone-substituting biomaterials.

  8. Young children and fluoride toothpaste.

    PubMed

    Rock, W P

    1994-07-09

    Studies have shown a higher prevalence of enamel mottling in children who live in fluoridated areas than in those from low fluoride areas. It is possible that the additive effect of fluoride ingestion from water and toothpaste may be responsible since it is known that young children may swallow up to half of the toothpaste on the brush. Parents must supervise toothbrushing for young children, low fluoride paste should be used, and the brush merely smeared with paste. The commonly recommended pea-sized quantity may be too much.

  9. [Water fluoridation and public health].

    PubMed

    Barak, Shlomo

    2003-11-01

    Fluoridation in Israel was first mooted in 1973 and finally incorporated into law in November 2002 obligating the Ministry of Health to add fluoride to the nation's water supply. Epidemiology studies in the USA have shown that the addition of one part per million of fluoride to the drinking water reduced the caries rate of children's teeth by 50% to 60% with no side effects. Both the WHO in 1994 and the American Surgeon General's report of 2000 declared that fluoridation of drinking water was the safest and most efficient way of preventing dental caries in all age groups and populations. Opposition to fluoridation has arisen from "antifluoridation" groups who object to the "pollution" of drinking water by the addition of chemicals and mass medication in violation of the "Patient's Rights" law and the Basic Law of Human Dignity and Liberty. A higher prevalence of hip fractures in elderly osteoporotic women and osteosarcoma in teenagers has been reported in areas where excess fluoride exists in the drinking water. However, none of the many independent professional committees reviewing the negative aspects of fluoridation have found any scientific evidence associating fluoridation with any ill-effects or health problems. In Israel, where dental treatment is not included in the basket of Health Services, fluoridation is the most efficient and cheapest way of reducing dental disease, especially for the poorer members of the population.

  10. Anti-erosive potential of amine fluoride, cerium chloride and laser irradiation application on dentine.

    PubMed

    Wegehaupt, Florian J; Sener, Beatrice; Attin, Thomas; Schmidlin, Patrick R

    2011-12-01

    Ninety-six dentine samples were prepared from human premolars and randomly assigned to eight groups (G1-G8). Samples were treated for 30s with the following solutions: placebo (G1/G2), amine fluoride (Elmex fluid; G3/G4), cerium chloride (G5/G6) and combined fluoride/cerium chloride application (G7/G8). Samples of groups G2, G4, G6 and G8 were additionally irradiated with a carbon dioxide laser through the solutions for 30s. Acid resistance was assessed in a six-time 5-min consecutive lactic acid (pH 3.0) erosion model and calcium release was determined by atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS). Furthermore, six additional samples per group were prepared and subjected to EDS-analysis. In the non-irradiated groups, specimens of G1 (placebo) showed the highest calcium release when compared to the other treatments (G3, G5 and G7). The highest acid resistance was observed for G7. In G3, calcium release was lower than in G5, but higher than in G7. In general (except for the placebo groups), calcium release in the laser-irradiated groups was higher compared with the respective non-irradiated groups. EDS showed a replacement of calcium by cerium and of phosphor by fluoride. The highest anti-erosive potential was found after combined cerium chloride and amine fluoride application. Laser irradiation had not adjunctive effect. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Water fluoridation for the prevention of dental caries.

    PubMed

    Iheozor-Ejiofor, Zipporah; Worthington, Helen V; Walsh, Tanya; O'Malley, Lucy; Clarkson, Jan E; Macey, Richard; Alam, Rahul; Tugwell, Peter; Welch, Vivian; Glenny, Anne-Marie

    2015-06-18

    Dental caries is a major public health problem in most industrialised countries, affecting 60% to 90% of school children. Community water fluoridation was initiated in the USA in 1945 and is currently practised in about 25 countries around the world; health authorities consider it to be a key strategy for preventing dental caries. Given the continued interest in this topic from health professionals, policy makers and the public, it is important to update and maintain a systematic review that reflects contemporary evidence. To evaluate the effects of water fluoridation (artificial or natural) on the prevention of dental caries.To evaluate the effects of water fluoridation (artificial or natural) on dental fluorosis. We searched the following electronic databases: The Cochrane Oral Health Group's Trials Register (to 19 February 2015); The Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL; Issue 1, 2015); MEDLINE via OVID (1946 to 19 February 2015); EMBASE via OVID (1980 to 19 February 2015); Proquest (to 19 February 2015); Web of Science Conference Proceedings (1990 to 19 February 2015); ZETOC Conference Proceedings (1993 to 19 February 2015). We searched the US National Institutes of Health Trials Registry (ClinicalTrials.gov) and the World Health Organization's WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform for ongoing trials. There were no restrictions on language of publication or publication status in the searches of the electronic databases. For caries data, we included only prospective studies with a concurrent control that compared at least two populations - one receiving fluoridated water and the other non-fluoridated water - with outcome(s) evaluated at at least two points in time. For the assessment of fluorosis, we included any type of study design, with concurrent control, that compared populations exposed to different water fluoride concentrations. We included populations of all ages that received fluoridated water (naturally or artificially

  12. A critical study on efficiency of different materials for fluoride removal from aqueous media

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Fluoride is a persistent and non-biodegradable pollutant that accumulates in soil, plants, wildlife and in human beings. Therefore, knowledge of its removal, using best technique with optimum efficiency is needed. The present survey highlights on efficacy of different materials for the removal of fluoride from water. The most important results of extensive studies on various key factors (pH, agitation time, initial fluoride concentration, temperature, particle size, surface area, presence and nature of counter ions and solvent dose) fluctuate fluoride removal capacity of materials are reviewed. PMID:23497619

  13. Water fluoridation and osteoporotic fracture.

    PubMed

    Hillier, S; Inskip, H; Coggon, D; Cooper, C

    1996-09-01

    Osteoporotic fractures constitute a major public health problem. These fractures typically occur at the hip, spine and distal forearm. Their pathogenesis is heterogeneous, with contributions from both bone strength and trauma. Water fluoridation has been widely proposed for its dental health benefits, but concerns have been raised about the balance of skeletal risks and benefits of this measure. Fluoride has potent effects on bone cell function, bone structure and bone strength. These effects are mediated by the incorporation of fluoride ions in bone crystals to form fluoroapatite, and through an increase in osteoblast activity. It is believed that a minimum serum fluoride level of 100 ng/ml must be achieved before osteoblasts will be stimulated. Serum levels associated with drinking water fluoridated to 1 ppm are usually several times lower than this value, but may reach this threshold at concentrations of 4 ppm in the drinking water. Animal studies suggest no effect of low-level (0-3 ppm) fluoride intake on bone strength, but a possible decrease at higher levels. Sodium fluoride has been used to treat established osteoporosis for nearly 30 years. Recent trials of this agent, prescribed at high doses, have suggested that despite a marked increase in bone mineral density, there is no concomitant reduction in vertebral fracture incidence. Furthermore, the increase in bone density at the lumbar spine may be achieved at the expense of bone mineral in the peripheral cortical skeleton. As a consequence, high dose sodium fluoride (80 mg daily) is not currently used to treat osteoporosis. At lower doses, recent trials have suggested a beneficial effect on both bone density and fracture. The majority of epidemiological evidence regarding the effect of fluoridated drinking water on hip fracture incidence is based on ecological comparisons. Although one Finnish study suggested that hip fracture rates in a town with fluoridated water were lower than those in a matching town

  14. Drinking water fluoridation and bone.

    PubMed

    Allolio, B; Lehmann, R

    1999-01-01

    Drinking water fluoridation has an established role in the prevention of dental caries, but may also positively or negatively affect bone. In bone fluoride is incorporated into hydroxylapatite to form the less soluble fluoroapatite. In higher concentrations fluoride stimulates osteoblast activity leading to an increase in cancellous bone mass. As optimal drinking water fluoridation (1 mg/l) is widely used, it is of great interest, whether long-term exposition to artificial water fluoridation has any impact on bone strength, bone mass, and -- most importantly -- fracture rate. Animal studies suggest a biphasic pattern of the effect of drinking water fluoridation on bone strength with a peak strength at a bone fluoride content of 1200 ppm followed by a decline at higher concentrations eventually leading to impaired bone quality. These changes are not paralleled by changes in bone mass suggesting that fluoride concentrations remain below the threshold level required for activation of osteoblast activity. Accordingly, in most epidemiological studies in humans bone mass was not altered by optimal drinking water fluoridation. In contrast, studies on the effect on hip fracture rate gave conflicting results ranging from an increased fracture incidence to no effect, and to a decreased fracture rate. As only ecological studies have been performed, they may be biased by unknown confounding factors -- the so-called ecological fallacy. However, the combined results of these studies indicate that any increase or decrease in fracture rate is likely to be small. It has been calculated that appropriately designed cohort studies to solve the problem require a sample size of >400,000 subjects. Such studies will not be performed in the foreseeable future. Future investigations in humans should, therefore, concentrate on the effect of long-term drinking water fluoridation on bone fluoride content and bone strength.

  15. Fluoride-related bone disease associated with habitual tea consumption.

    PubMed

    Hallanger Johnson, Julie E; Kearns, Ann E; Doran, Patric M; Khoo, Teck Kim; Wermers, Robert A

    2007-06-01

    Acquired osteosclerosis is a rare disorder of bone formation but an important consideration in adults with sclerotic bones or elevated bone density results. In such patients, malignancy, hepatitis C, and fluorosis should all be considered when making a diagnosis. We describe 4 patients evaluated at our Metabolic Bone Disease Clinic from May 1, 1997, to July 1, 2006, whose bone disorders resulted from chronic fluoride exposure due to excessive tea intake. Three of these patients had toxic serum fluoride levels (> 15 micromol/L). Although the clinical presentation of the patients varied, all 4 had an unexpectedly elevated spine bone mineral density that was proportionately higher than the bone mineral density at the hip. Other clinical features included gastrointestinal symptoms such as nausea, vomiting, and weight loss; lower extremity pain sometimes associated with stress fractures of the lower extremities; renal insufficiency; and elevated alkaline phosphatase levels. Readily available, tea often contains high levels of fluoride. Obsessive-compulsive drinking behaviors and renal insufficiency may predispose to excessive fluoride consumption and accumulation. The current cases show that fluoride-related bone disease is an important clinical consideration in patients with dense bones or gastrointestinal symptoms and a history of excessive tea consumption. Furthermore, fluoride excess should be considered in all patients with a history of excessive tea consumption, especially due to its insidious nature and nonspecific clinical presentation.

  16. Fluoride and organic weak acids as modulators of microbial physiology.

    PubMed

    Marquis, Robert E; Clock, Sarah A; Mota-Meira, Marilaine

    2003-01-01

    Fluoride is widely used as an anticaries agent in drinking water and a variety of other vehicles. This use has resulted in major health benefits. However, there are still open questions regarding the mechanisms of anticaries action and the importance of antimicrobial effects in caries reduction. Fluoride acts in multiple ways to affect the metabolism of cariogenic and other bacteria in the mouth. F(-)/HF can bind directly to many enzymes, for example, heme-containing enzymes or other metalloenzymes, to modulate metabolism. Fluoride is able also to form complexes with metals such as aluminum or beryllium, and the complexes, notably AlF(4)(-) and BeF(3)(-).H(2)O, can mimic phosphate with either positive or negative effects on a variety of enzymes and regulatory phosphatases. The fluoride action that appears to be most important for glycolytic inhibition at low pH in dental plaque bacteria derives from its weak-acid properties (pK(a)=3.15) and the capacity of HF to act as a transmembrane proton conductor. Since many of the actions of fluoride are related to its weak-acid character, it is reasonable to compare fluoride action to those of organic weak acids, including metabolic acids, food preservatives, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agents and fatty acids, all of which act to de-energize the cell membrane by discharging DeltapH. Moreover, with the realization that the biofilm state is the common lifestyle for most microorganisms in nature, there is need to consider interactions of fluoride and organic weak acids with biofilm communities. Hopefully, this review will stimulate interest in the antimicrobial effects of fluoride or other weak acids and lead to more effective use of the agents for disease control and other applications.

  17. Occurrence of fluoride in ground waters of Saudi Arabia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alabdulaaly, Abdulrahman I.; Al-Zarah, Abdullah I.; Khan, Mujahid A.

    2013-09-01

    The presence of elevated levels of fluoride in groundwater is considered a global problem. Fluoride in water derives mainly from dissolution of natural minerals in the rocks and soils with which water interacts. The most common fluorine-bearing minerals are fluorite, apatite and micas. Anthropogenic sources of fluoride include agricultural fertilizers and combustion of coal. In the present research, a survey of wells ( n = 1,060) was undertaken in all the 13 regions of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia to assess the contained fluoride (F) levels. The results indicated variation in fluoride levels from 0.10 to 5.4 mg/L as F throughout the kingdom. The average fluoride levels in milligrams per liter as F were as follows in descending order: 1.80 (Hadwood Shamalyah), 1.37 (Hail), 1.33 (Eastern Province), 1.16 (Al Jouf), 1.11 (Qassim), 1.01 (Riyadh), 0.90 (Madina Al Munnawara), 0.81 (Tabouk), 0.74 (Makkah Al- Mukaramma), 0.73 (Jizan), 0.66 (Asir), 0.64 (Najran), and 0.60 (Al Baha). The results indicated that fluoride levels exceeded the USEPA maximum contaminant limits for drinking water (4 mg/L) in several wells ( n = 7) in different regions of the kingdom and that 13.96 % of the wells exceeded the World Health Organization recommended levels (1.5 mg/L). The results were also compared with the secondary USEPA contaminant standards of 2.0 mg/L for fluorides.

  18. Fluoride Content in Alcoholic Drinks.

    PubMed

    Goschorska, Marta; Gutowska, Izabela; Baranowska-Bosiacka, Irena; Rać, Monika Ewa; Chlubek, Dariusz

    2016-06-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the role of alcoholic drinks as a potential source of dietary fluoride by means of measuring fluoride levels in selected alcoholic drinks available on the Polish market that are also diverse in terms of the percentage content of ethanol. The study was conducted on 48 types of drinks with low, medium, and high alcohol content available on the Polish market and offered by various manufacturers, both Polish and foreign. Fluoride concentrations in individual samples were measured by potentiometric method with a fluoride ion-selective electrode. The highest fluoride levels were determined in the lowest percentage drinks (less than 10 % v/v ethanol), with the lowest fluoride levels observed in the highest percentage drinks (above 40 % v/v ethanol). In terms of types of alcoholic drinks, the highest fluoride levels were determined in beers and wines, while the lowest levels were observed in vodkas. These data confirm the fact that alcoholic beverages need to be considered as a significant source of fluoride delivered into the body.

  19. Effect of dispersion preparation technique of calcium carbonate (CaCO3) fillers on mechanical properties of natural rubber (NR) latex films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suki, Fairus Mazlia Mat; Rashid, Azura A.

    2017-07-01

    The calcium carbonate fillers are added to natural rubber (NR) latex compound in order to reduce the cost of the compound. The CaCO3 powder need to be prepared in dispersion form before added into the latex medium to avoid the instability of the NR latex compound. The ball milling is a conventional dispersion preparation technique used to prepare the dispersions for powder ingredients for latex compound. The combination of ultrasonic and ball milling technique has shown the reduction in particle size of the resulted dispersions. In this study, effect of ultrasonic parameters (duration, speed, concentration) together with ball milling technique (duration, speed) was carried out. The effect of dispersion preparation technique on CaCO3 particle was examined by means of particle size and zeta potential measurement. In addition, the morphology of the CaCO3 particle also were investigated by using transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and the mechanical properties of NR latex film were investigated based on tensile and tear test. The results showed that a combination of both ultrasonic and ball milling has produced smaller particle size. It was also found that, smaller size CaCO3 particles greatly influenced the mechanical properties of calcium carbonate/natural rubber latex (CaCO3/NRL) films. This is due to the ability of the CaCO3 to be homogeneously dispersed in NR latex compounds which able to improve the mechanical properties of the NR latex films together as well as to reduce the cost of the compound.

  20. Caries management with fluoride agents.

    PubMed

    Lam, Anty; Chu, C H

    2012-11-01

    Dental caries is the single most common, chronic oral disease of childhood. It is progressive and cumulative, and becomes more complex over time. The Surgeon General's Report on Oral Health revealed that more than 51 million school hours are lost each year as a result of dental problems. Contemporary caries management philosophy has changed from the traditional surgical approach to a medical model that emphasizes prevention. Among various strategies for caries prevention or reduction, fluoride therapy has been highly promoted. Various in-office and over-the-counter fluoride products are available for caries prevention. Dental professionals should identify and assess the caries risk level of patients and optimize the use of fluorides in caries management. Since multiple sources of fluoride exposure exist, a coordinated approach to fluoride delivery is essential.

  1. Method of repressing the precipitation of calcium fluozirconate

    DOEpatents

    Newby, B.J.; Rhodes, D.W.

    1973-12-25

    Boric acid or a borate salt is added to aqueous solutions of fluoride containing radioactive wastes generated during the reprocessing of zirconium alloy nuclear fuels which are to be converted to solid form by calcining in a fluidized bed. The addition of calcium nitrate to the aqueous waste solutions to prevent fluoride volatility during calcination, causes the precipitation of calcium fluozirconate, which tends to form a gel at fluoride concentrations of 3.0 M or greater. The boron containing species introduced into the solution by the addition of the boric acid or borate salt retard the formation of the calcium fluozirconate precipitate and prevent formation of the gel. These boron containing species can be introduced into the solution by the addition of a borate salt but preferably are introduced by the addition of an aqueous solution of boric acid. (Official Gazette)

  2. Tealeaves may release or absorb fluoride, depending on the fluoride content of water.

    PubMed

    Malde, Marian Kjellevold; Greiner-Simonsen, Rita; Julshamn, Kåre; Bjorvatn, Kjell

    2006-08-01

    As the tea plant (Camellia sinensis) is known to accumulate fluoride from the soil, the tealeaves may contain high concentrations of fluoride, which is easily released during infusion. In this study, we have tested the possible effect of original fluoride concentration in the water on the fluoride release from tea. Moreover, we wanted to test the possible capacity of tealeaves (commercially available tea) to absorb fluoride from high-fluoride water. In low-fluoride water, fluoride is easily released from tealeaves. Depending upon the fluoride content of the water, dried tealeaves are able also to absorb fluoride. Thus, if a cup of tea is made from high-fluoride water, the fluoride concentration of the infusion may actually be lower than the original fluoride concentration of the water.

  3. WET FLUORIDE SEPARATION METHOD

    DOEpatents

    Seaborg, G.T.; Gofman, J.W.; Stoughton, R.W.

    1958-11-25

    The separation of U/sup 233/ from thorium, protactinium, and fission products present in neutron-irradiated thorium is accomplished by dissolving the irradiated materials in aqueous nitric acid, adding either a soluble fluoride, iodate, phosphate, or oxalate to precipltate the thorium, separating the precipltate from the solution, and then precipitating uranlum and protactinium by alkalizing the solution. The uranium and protactinium precipitate is removcd from the solution and dissolved in nitric acid. The uranyl nitrate may then be extracted from the acid solution by means of ether, and the protactinium recovered from the aqueous phase.

  4. Examination of Liquid Fluoride Salt Heat Transfer

    SciTech Connect

    Yoder Jr, Graydon L

    2014-01-01

    The need for high efficiency power conversion and energy transport systems is increasing as world energy use continues to increase, petroleum supplies decrease, and global warming concerns become more prevalent. There are few heat transport fluids capable of operating above about 600oC that do not require operation at extremely high pressures. Liquid fluoride salts are an exception to that limitation. Fluoride salts have very high boiling points, can operate at high temperatures and low pressures and have very good heat transfer properties. They have been proposed as coolants for next generation fission reactor systems, as coolants for fusion reactor blankets, and as thermal storage media for solar power systems. In each case, these salts are used to either extract or deliver heat through heat exchange equipment, and in order to design this equipment, liquid salt heat transfer must be predicted. This paper discusses the heat transfer characteristics of liquid fluoride salts. Historically, heat transfer in fluoride salts has been assumed to be consistent with that of conventional fluids (air, water, etc.), and correlations used for predicting heat transfer performance of all fluoride salts have been the same or similar to those used for water conventional fluids an, water, etc). A review of existing liquid salt heat transfer data is presented, summarized, and evaluated on a consistent basis. Less than 10 experimental data sets have been found in the literature, with varying degrees of experimental detail and measured parameters provided. The data has been digitized and a limited database has been assembled and compared to existing heat transfer correlations. Results vary as well, with some data sets following traditional correlations; in others the comparisons are less conclusive. This is especially the case for less common salt/materials combinations, and suggests that additional heat transfer data may be needed when using specific salt eutectics in heat transfer

  5. Naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM) from a former phosphoric acid processing plant.

    PubMed

    Beddow, H; Black, S; Read, D

    2006-01-01

    In recent years there has been an increasing awareness of the radiological impact of non-nuclear industries that extract and/or process ores and minerals containing naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM). These industrial activities may result in significant radioactive contamination of (by-) products, wastes and plant installations. In this study, scale samples were collected from a decommissioned phosphoric acid processing plant. To determine the nature and concentration of NORM retained in pipe-work and associated process plant, four main areas of the site were investigated: (1) the 'Green Acid Plant', where crude acid was concentrated; (2) the green acid storage tanks; (3) the Purified White Acid (PWA) plant, where inorganic impurities were removed; and (4) the solid waste, disposed of on-site as landfill. The scale samples predominantly comprise the following: fluorides (e.g. ralstonite); calcium sulphate (e.g. gypsum); and an assemblage of mixed fluorides and phosphates (e.g. iron fluoride hydrate, calcium phosphate), respectively. The radioactive inventory is dominated by 238U and its decay chain products, and significant fractionation along the series occurs. Compared to the feedstock ore, elevated concentrations (< or =8.8 Bq/g) of 238U were found to be retained in installations where the process stream was rich in fluorides and phosphates. In addition, enriched levels (< or =11 Bq/g) of 226Ra were found in association with precipitates of calcium sulphate. Water extraction tests indicate that many of the scales and waste contain significantly soluble materials and readily release radioactivity into solution.

  6. Topical fluoride for caries prevention

    PubMed Central

    Weyant, Robert J.; Tracy, Sharon L.; Anselmo, Theresa (Tracy); Beltrán-Aguilar, Eugenio D.; Donly, Kevin J.; Frese, William A.; Hujoel, Philippe P.; Iafolla, Timothy; Kohn, William; Kumar, Jayanth; Levy, Steven M.; Tinanoff, Norman; Wright, J. Timothy; Zero, Domenick; Aravamudhan, Krishna; Frantsve-Hawley, Julie; Meyer, Daniel M.

    2015-01-01

    Background A panel of experts convened by the American Dental Association (ADA) Council on Scientific Affairs presents evidence-based clinical recommendations regarding professionally applied and prescription-strength, home-use topical fluoride agents for caries prevention. These recommendations are an update of the 2006 ADA recommendations regarding professionally applied topical fluoride and were developed by using a new process that includes conducting a systematic review of primary studies. Types of Studies Reviewed The authors conducted a search of MEDLINE and the Cochrane Library for clinical trials of professionally applied and prescription-strength topical fluoride agents—including mouthrinses, varnishes, gels, foams and pastes—with caries increment outcomes published in English through October 2012. Results The panel included 71 trials from 82 articles in its review and assessed the efficacy of various topical fluoride caries-preventive agents. The panel makes recommendations for further research. Practical Implications The panel recommends the following for people at risk of developing dental caries: 2.26 percent fluoride varnish or 1.23 percent fluoride (acidulated phosphate fluoride) gel, or a prescription-strength, home-use 0.5 percent fluoride gel or paste or 0.09 percent fluoride mouthrinse for patients 6 years or older. Only 2.26 percent fluoride varnish is recommended for children younger than 6 years. The strengths of the recommendations for the recommended products varied from “in favor” to “expert opinion for.” As part of the evidence-based approach to care, these clinical recommendations should be integrated with the practitioner's professional judgment and the patient's needs and preferences. PMID:24177407

  7. Determination of Stability Constants of Hydrogen and Aluminum Fluorides with a Fluoride-Selective Electrode

    SciTech Connect

    Baumann, E.W.

    2003-01-06

    The ability to directly determine free fluoride ion concentration (or mean activity) simplifies gathering and interpretation of experimental data for studies of metal complexes. In this work, the new lanthanum fluoride electrode was used to measure free fluoride ion in an investigation of the hydrogen-fluoride and aluminum-fluoride systems in NH4NO3.

  8. Urinary Fluoride Concentration in Children with Disabilities Following Long-Term Fluoride Tablet Ingestion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Hsiu-Yueh; Chen, Jung-Ren; Hung, Hsin-Chia; Hsiao, Szu-Yu; Huang, Shun-Te; Chen, Hong-Sen

    2011-01-01

    Urine is the most commonly utilized biomarker for fluoride excretion in public health and epidemiological studies. Approximately 30-50% of fluoride is excreted from urine in children. Urinary fluoride excretion reflects the total fluoride intake from multiple sources. After administering fluoride tablets to children with disabilities, urinary…

  9. Urinary Fluoride Concentration in Children with Disabilities Following Long-Term Fluoride Tablet Ingestion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Hsiu-Yueh; Chen, Jung-Ren; Hung, Hsin-Chia; Hsiao, Szu-Yu; Huang, Shun-Te; Chen, Hong-Sen

    2011-01-01

    Urine is the most commonly utilized biomarker for fluoride excretion in public health and epidemiological studies. Approximately 30-50% of fluoride is excreted from urine in children. Urinary fluoride excretion reflects the total fluoride intake from multiple sources. After administering fluoride tablets to children with disabilities, urinary…

  10. Formation of Fluorohydroxyapatite with Silver Diamine Fluoride.

    PubMed

    Mei, M L; Nudelman, F; Marzec, B; Walker, J M; Lo, E C M; Walls, A W; Chu, C H

    2017-09-01

    Silver diamine fluoride (SDF) is found to promote remineralization and harden the carious lesion. Hydroxyapatite crystallization is a crucial process in remineralization; however, the role of SDF in crystal formation is unknown. We designed an in vitro experiment with calcium phosphate with different SDF concentrations (0.38, 1.52, 2.66, 3.80 mg/mL) to investigate the effect of this additive on the nucleation and growth of apatite crystals. Two control groups were also prepared-calcium phosphate (CaCl2·2H2O + K2HPO4 in buffer solution) and SDF (Ag[NH3]2F in buffer solution). After incubation at 37 (o)C for 24 h, the shape and organization of the crystals were examined by bright-field transmission electron microscopy and electron diffraction. Unit cell parameters of the obtained crystals were determined with powder X-ray diffraction. The vibrational and rotational modes of phosphate groups were analyzed with Raman microscopy. The transmission electron microscopy and selected-area electron diffraction confirmed that all solids precipitated within the SDF groups were crystalline and that there was a positive correlation between the increased percentage of crystal size and the concentration of SDF. The powder X-ray diffraction patterns indicated that fluorohydroxyapatite and silver chloride were formed in all the SDF groups. Compared with calcium phosphate control, a contraction of the unit cell in the a-direction but not the c-direction in SDF groups was revealed, which suggested that small localized fluoride anions substituted the hydroxyl anions in hydroxyapatite crystals. This was further evidenced by the Raman spectra, which displayed up-field shift of the phosphate band in all the SDF groups and confirmed that the chemical environment of the phosphate functionalities indeed changed. The results suggested that SDF reacted with calcium and phosphate ions and produced fluorohydroxyapatite. This preferential precipitation of fluorohydroxyapatite with reduced

  11. On the nature and origin of the calcium asymmetry arising during gravitropic response in etiolated pea epicotyls

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Migliaccio, F.; Galston, A. W.

    1987-01-01

    Seven day old etiolated pea epicotyls were loaded symmetrically with 3H-indole 3-acetic acid (IAA) or 45Ca2+, then subjected to 1.5 hours of 1g gravistimulation. Epidermal peels taken from top and bottom surfaces after 90 minutes showed an increase in IAA on the lower side and of Ca2+ on the upper side. Inhibitors of IAA movement (TIBA, 9-hydroxyfluorene carboxylic acid) block the development of both IAA and Ca2+ asymmetries, but substances known to interfere with normal Ca2+ transport (nitrendipine, nisoldipine, Bay K 8644, A 23187) do not significantly alter either IAA or Ca2+ asymmetries. These substances, however, are active in modifying both Ca2+ uptake and efflux through oat and pea leaf protoplast membranes. We conclude that the 45Ca2+ fed to pea epicotyls occurs largely in the cell wall, and that auxin movement is primary and Ca2+ movement secondary in gravitropism. We hypothesize that apoplastic Ca2+ changes during graviresponse because it is displaced by H+ secreted through auxin-induced proton release. This proposed mechanism is supported by localized pH experiments, in which filter paper soaked in various buffers was applied to one side of a carborundum-abraded epicotyls. Buffer at pH 3 increases calcium loss from the side to which it is applied, whereas pH 7 buffer decreases it. Moreover, 10 micromolar IAA and 1 micromolar fusicoccin, which promote H+ efflux, increase Ca2+ release from pea epicotyl segments, whereas cycloheximide, which inhibits H+ efflux, has the reverse effect. We suggest that Ca2+ does not redistribute actively during gravitropism: the asymmetry arises because of its release from the wall adjacent to the region of high IAA concentration, proton secretion, and growth. Thus, the asymmetric distribution of Ca2+ appears to be a consequence of growth stimulation, not a critical step in the early phase of the graviresponse.

  12. On the nature and origin of the calcium asymmetry arising during gravitropic response in etiolated pea epicotyls

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Migliaccio, F.; Galston, A. W.

    1987-01-01

    Seven day old etiolated pea epicotyls were loaded symmetrically with 3H-indole 3-acetic acid (IAA) or 45Ca2+, then subjected to 1.5 hours of 1g gravistimulation. Epidermal peels taken from top and bottom surfaces after 90 minutes showed an increase in IAA on the lower side and of Ca2+ on the upper side. Inhibitors of IAA movement (TIBA, 9-hydroxyfluorene carboxylic acid) block the development of both IAA and Ca2+ asymmetries, but substances known to interfere with normal Ca2+ transport (nitrendipine, nisoldipine, Bay K 8644, A 23187) do not significantly alter either IAA or Ca2+ asymmetries. These substances, however, are active in modifying both Ca2+ uptake and efflux through oat and pea leaf protoplast membranes. We conclude that the 45Ca2+ fed to pea epicotyls occurs largely in the cell wall, and that auxin movement is primary and Ca2+ movement secondary in gravitropism. We hypothesize that apoplastic Ca2+ changes during graviresponse because it is displaced by H+ secreted through auxin-induced proton release. This proposed mechanism is supported by localized pH experiments, in which filter paper soaked in various buffers was applied to one side of a carborundum-abraded epicotyls. Buffer at pH 3 increases calcium loss from the side to which it is applied, whereas pH 7 buffer decreases it. Moreover, 10 micromolar IAA and 1 micromolar fusicoccin, which promote H+ efflux, increase Ca2+ release from pea epicotyl segments, whereas cycloheximide, which inhibits H+ efflux, has the reverse effect. We suggest that Ca2+ does not redistribute actively during gravitropism: the asymmetry arises because of its release from the wall adjacent to the region of high IAA concentration, proton secretion, and growth. Thus, the asymmetric distribution of Ca2+ appears to be a consequence of growth stimulation, not a critical step in the early phase of the graviresponse.

  13. 49 CFR 173.163 - Hydrogen fluoride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Hydrogen fluoride. 173.163 Section 173.163... Hydrogen fluoride. (a) Hydrogen fluoride (hydrofluoric acid, anhydrous) must be packaged as follows: (1) In... filling ratio of 0.84. (b) A cylinder removed from hydrogen fluoride service must be condemned...

  14. 49 CFR 173.163 - Hydrogen fluoride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Hydrogen fluoride. 173.163 Section 173.163... Hydrogen fluoride. (a) Hydrogen fluoride (hydrofluoric acid, anhydrous) must be packaged as follows: (1) In... filling ratio of 0.84. (b) A cylinder removed from hydrogen fluoride service must be condemned...

  15. 49 CFR 173.163 - Hydrogen fluoride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Hydrogen fluoride. 173.163 Section 173.163... Hydrogen fluoride. (a) Hydrogen fluoride (hydrofluoric acid, anhydrous) must be packaged as follows: (1) In... filling ratio of 0.84. (b) A cylinder removed from hydrogen fluoride service must be condemned...

  16. 49 CFR 173.163 - Hydrogen fluoride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Hydrogen fluoride. 173.163 Section 173.163... Hydrogen fluoride. (a) Hydrogen fluoride (hydrofluoric acid, anhydrous) must be packaged as follows: (1) In... filling ratio of 0.84. (b) A cylinder removed from hydrogen fluoride service must be condemned...

  17. Effect of fluoride solutions on the structure and hardness of plastic brackets.

    PubMed

    Tziafa, Christina; Zinelis, Spiros; Makou, Margarita; Eliades, Theodore; Eliades, George

    2010-01-01

    To investigate the surface morphology, structure, molecular and elemental composition, and hardness of plastic brackets exposed to fluoride solutions. Two types of plastic brackets (Silkon Plus and SpiritMB) were exposed to three fluoride solutions 10 times for 1 minute each and then subjected to attenuated total relectance-Fournier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), x-ray energy dispersive microanalysis (EDS), and Vickers hardness (HV) testing. Hardness data were analyzed via two-way ANOVA and Tukey tests at the .05 level of significance with brackets and fluoride solution as predictors. ATR-FTIR spectroscopy showed that both bracket types consisted of polycarbonate. After treatment with acidulated phosphate fluoride, an increased contribution of -OH peaks at 3,200 cm-1(stretching [str]) and 1,640 cm-1 (a type of vibration [b]) was observed in both brackets. SEM revealed that the acidulated phosphate fluoride solution had a strong effect on the morphology and surface structure of the two brackets; a general deterioration with projections of the reinforcing fibers was observed. EDS showed evidence of aluminum, calcium, silicon, magnesium, and titanium, which could be attributed to the reinforcing glass fiber constituents. Hardness ranged in the order of 20 HV with no difference among the two bracket types and the three fluoride exposures. Repeated exposure of plastic brackets to fluoride solutions has a pronounced effect on their structure and morphology, but not their hardness. © 2010 BY QUINTESSENCE PUBLISHING CO, INC.

  18. Hydrogen fluoride saccharification of wood: lignin fluoride content, isolation of. cap alpha. -D-glucopyranosyl fluoride and posthydrolysis of reversion products

    SciTech Connect

    Hardt, H.; Lamport, D.J.A.

    1982-04-01

    Wood chips from bigtooth aspen (Populus grandidentata Michx.) were saccharified by reaction with hydrogen fluoride either anhydrous or containing up to 10% v/v water. The reaction products were separated into a solid lignin fraction and a water-soluble saccharide fraction. The fluoride content of the lignin (determined after alkaline fusion) was initially about 1 mg/g wood, but was lowered to 0.1 mg/g wood by grinding and washing. Thus little or no chemical binding of fluoride to lignin occurred during hydrogen fluoride (HF) solvolysis. Analysis of the water-soluble fraction by gel filtration on Biogel P2 columns showed a range of low-molecular-weight oligosaccharides an only 10-20% sugar monomers. Thus considerable reversion occurred during HF evacuation. Posthydrolysis conditions were optimized for these reversion products by varying temperature and acid concentration. Optimal conditions at 1 h were 140/sup 0/C with 100mN sulfuric acid or 225mN hydrofluoric acid resulting in monomer yields of > 90% for 0.5% sugar solutions and > 80% for 10% sugar solutions. After reaction of pure cellulose (filter paper) with hydrogen fluoride in the absence of water, and terminating the reaction with calcium carbonate, the reaction intermediate ..cap alpha..-D-glucopyranosylfluride was isolated with a maximal yield of 0.2 g/g paper. Upon purification via paper chromatography glucosyfluoride was identified by its specific rotation and also by gas chromotography-mass spectrometer of its tetra-O-trimethylsilyl derivative.

  19. Comparison of the incipient lesion enamel fluoride uptake from various prescription and OTC fluoride toothpastes and gels.

    PubMed

    Schemehorn, B R; DiMarino, J C; Movahed, N

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this in vitro study was to compare the fluoride uptake into incipient enamel lesions of a novel 970 ppm F- ion SnF2 over-the-counter (OTC) gel (Enamelon Preventive Treatment Gel) and a novel 1150 ppm F- ion OTC toothpaste (Enamelon), each delivering amorphous calcium phosphate (ACP), to the uptake from two different prescription strength, 5000 ppm F- ion dentifrices containing tri-calcium phosphate (TCP) and a prescription 900 ppm F- ion paste containing casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate (CPP-ACP). The test procedure followed method #40 in the US-FDA Anticaries Drug Products for OTC Human Use, Final Monograph testing procedures. Eight sets of twelve incisor enamel cores were mounted in Plexiglas rods and the exposed surfaces were polished. The indigenous fluoride levels of each specimen were determined prior to treatment. The treatments were performed using slurries of a negative control (water) and the following products applied to a set of sound enamel cores: 5000 ppm F- ion, sodium fluoride (NaF) prescription (Rx) dentifrice "A" containing TCP; 5000 ppm F- ion, NaF Rx dentifrice "B" containing TCP; 900 ppm F- ion, NaF Rx paste with CPP-ACP; 1150 ppm F- ion, NaF OTC toothpaste; 1150 ppm F- ion, stannous fluoride (SnF2) OTC toothpaste delivering ACP (Enamelon); 1100 ppm F- ion, SnF2 OTC toothpaste; and 970 ppm F- ion, SnF2 OTC gel delivering ACP (Enamelon Preventive Treatment Gel). The twelve specimens of each group were immersed into 25 ml of their assigned slurry with constant stirring (350 rpm) for 30 minutes. Following treatment, one layer of enamel was removed from each specimen and analyzed for fluoride and calcium. The pre-treatment fluoride (indigenous) level of each specimen was subtracted from the post-treatment value to determine the change in enamel fluoride due to the test treatment. The increase in the average fluoride uptake for treated enamel cores was: 10,263 ± 295 ppm for the 970 ppm F- ion, Enamelon Preventive

  20. Evaluation of acquired acid resistance of enamel surrounding orthodontic brackets irradiated by laser and fluoride application.

    PubMed

    Fekrazad, Reza; Ebrahimpour, Leila

    2014-11-01

    Demineralization of enamel around orthodontic brackets is a clinical problem which can lead to some esthetic concerns like white spot lesions. The aim of this in vitro study was to evaluate the effect of the Er, Cr:YSGG laser and fluoride application on the acid resistance of enamel adjacent to orthodontic brackets. A total of 60 healthy, permanent, human premolars were selected and bonded with brackets, then they were randomly assigned to four groups (n = 15): topical APF gel (1.23% F, pH 3.5, for 4 min); Er,Cr:YSGG laser (P:0.25 W, E:12.5 mJ, RR:20 Hz, PD:140 μs, 11% air, without water, for 10 s); fluoride + laser group (F + L), and control group (C). All specimens were demineralized for 10 days in a 0.2 M acetate buffer solution, and the calcium content were subsequently determined with atomic absorption spectrometry. There were significant differences between the calcium content of F + L and F group in comparison to control group. The least concentration of calcium was seen in F + L group, and the most value was observed in C group. Combination of Er, Cr:YSGG laser with fluoride and fluoride alone decreased enamel solubility significantly more than laser alone. In addition, combination of laser and fluoride leads to less consumption of fluoride amount. And patients can use it at the beginning of treatment instead of daily use of fluoride. So we suggest using it in preventing enamel demineralization around orthodontic brackets.

  1. Ion release, fluoride charge of and adhesion of an orthodontic cement paste containing microcapsules.

    PubMed

    Burbank, Brant D; Slater, Michael; Kava, Alyssa; Doyle, James; McHale, William A; Latta, Mark A; Gross, Stephen M

    2016-02-01

    Dental materials capable of releasing calcium, phosphate and fluoride are of great interest for remineralization. Microencapsulated aqueous solutions of these ions in orthodontic cement demonstrate slow, sustained release by passive diffusion through a permeable membrane without the need for dissolution or etching of fillers. The potential to charge a dental material formulated with microencapsulated water with fluoride by toothbrushing with over the counter toothpaste and the effect of microcapsules on cement adhesion to enamel was determined. Orthodontic cements that contained microcapsules with water and controls without microcapsules were brushed with over-the-counter toothpaste and fluoride release was measured. Adhesion measurements were performed loading orthodontic brackets to failure. Cements that contained microencapsulated solutions of 5.0M Ca(NO3)2, 0.8M NaF, 6.0MK2HPO4 or a mixture of all three were prepared. Ion release profiles were measured as a function of time. A greater fluoride charge and re-release from toothbrushing was demonstrated compared to a control with no microcapsules. Adhesion of an orthodontic cement that contained microencapsulated remineralizing agents was 8.5±2.5MPa compared to the control without microcapsules which was of 8.3±1.7MPa. Sustained release of fluoride, calcium and phosphate ions from cement formulated with microencapsulated remineralizing agents was demonstrated. Orthodontic cements with microcapsules show a release of bioavailable fluoride, calcium, and phosphate ions near the tooth surface while having the ability to charge with fluoride and not effect the adhesion of the material to enamel. Incorporation of microcapsules in dental materials is promising for promoting remineralization. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. [Effect of topical fluoride application on young permanent teeth enamel demineralized by juice drinks].

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiao-Li; Niu, Xiao-Yong

    2010-12-01

    To observe the capability of enamel surface resisting juice drinks erosion and the remineralization process of etched enamel after topical fluoride application on young permanent teeth enamel. The change of surface microhardness(SMH) of young permanent teeth enamel fluoride which was immersed in orange juice in advance and then applied on its etched part was evaluated.The change of SMH of young permanent teeth enamel treated by 0.1%NaF solution and fluoride toothpaste in advance and then immersed by juice drinks was observed. The change of enamel SMH was measured by a Leitzs microhardness tester. The morphological change of enamel surface was observed under scanning electron microscope (SEM). The change of calcium and phosphate contents in juice drinks before and after enamel immersion was analyzed by Roche biochemical analyzer. One-way ANOVA was performed using SPSS 15.0 software package. Juice drinks led to the dissolution of calcium and phosphate in young permanent teeth enamel while the SMH of enamel decreased. The SMH of young permanent teeth enamels immersed in orange juice and then topical application of fluoride increased significantly (Plt;0.05). But for those young permanent teeth enamels treated with fluoride or fluorin enhanced toothpaste, the dissolution of calcium and phosphate and the SMH decreased significantly after juice drinks immersion(P<0.05). The variable degree of etching and remineralization of the enamel either treated by juice drinks or by fluoride in each experimental group was found by SEM. Enamel demineralization can be caused by juices drinks. Topical fluoride treatment on enamel can not only enhance enamel's resistance to the acid etch caused by soft drinks but also promote the remineralization of enamel immersed by beverages. Supported by Excellent Middle-Aged Science Foundation of Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine(Grant No.040407).

  3. Elevated fluoride products enhance remineralization of advanced enamel lesions.

    PubMed

    ten Cate, J M; Buijs, M J; Miller, C Chaussain; Exterkate, R A M

    2008-10-01

    Caries prevention might benefit from the use of toothpastes containing over 1500 ppm F. With few clinical studies available, the aim of this pH-cycling study was to investigate the dose response between 0 and 5000 ppm F of de- and remineralization of advanced (> 150 microm) enamel lesions. Treatments included sodium and amine fluoride, and a fluoride-free control. Mineral uptake and loss were assessed from solution calcium changes and microradiographs. Treatments with 5000 ppm F both significantly enhanced remineralization and inhibited demineralization when compared with treatments with 1500 ppm F. Slight differences in favor of amine fluoride over sodium fluoride were observed. The ratio of de- over remineralization rates decreased from 13.8 to 2.1 in the range 0 to 5000 ppm F. As much as 71 (6)% of the remineralized mineral was calculated to be resistant to dissolution during subsequent demineralization periods. With 5000-ppm-F treatments, more demineralizing episodes per day (10 vs. 2 for placebo) would still be repaired by remineralization.

  4. Reducing Exposure to High Fluoride Drinking Water in Estonia—A Countrywide Study

    PubMed Central

    Indermitte, Ene; Saava, Astrid; Karro, Enn

    2014-01-01

    Fluoride is a naturally occurring contaminant in groundwater in Estonia. There are several regions in Estonia with fluoride contents in public water supplies as high as 7 mg/L. Long-term exposure to high-fluoride drinking water may have several adverse health effects, primarily dental fluorosis. The opportunities for exposure reduction rely highly on water treatment technologies. Since 2004 public water suppliers in Estonia have made efforts to diminish fluoride content in drinking water systems. A follow-up study on a country level was carried out in 2004–2012 to analyze the changes in population exposure to excessive (over 1.5 mg/L) fluoride in drinking water and to get information about the reduction methods applied by public water supplies (PWS) to optimize the fluoride levels in public water system. The results showed that bigger PWS have been more effective in fluoride reduction measures than small PWS. The main methods used to lower the fluoride content were reverse osmosis technology and replacement of water sources with new ones (new drilled wells). As a result of all the measures taken the overall high-fluoride exposure has been reduced substantially (82%). PMID:24637908

  5. Evaluating the impact of municipal water fluoridation on the aquatic environment.

    PubMed Central

    Osterman, J W

    1990-01-01

    Although highly beneficial for dental health, low concentrations of fluoride in environmental waters may be toxic to several organisms. In an era of heightened public awareness about the environment, this may lead city officials to withhold implementing water fluoridation for environmental reasons. This paper presents a mass balance approach to evaluate this perceived risk. Generally speaking, fluoridated water loss during use, dilution of sewage by rain and ground water infiltrate, fluoride removal during secondary sewage treatment, and diffusion dynamics at effluent outfall combine to eliminate fluoridation-related environmental effects. In Montreal, water fluoridation would raise average aquatic fluoride levels in the waste water plume immediately below effluent outfall by only 0.05-0.09 mg/l. Downstream, these changes would be only 0.02-0.05 mg/l at 1 km, and 0.01-0.03 mg/l at 2 km below outfall. Overall river fluoride concentrations theoretically would be raised by 0.001-0.002 mg/l, a value not measurable by current analytical techniques. All resulting concentrations would be well below those recommended for environmental safety and would not exceed natural levels found elsewhere in Quebec. A literature review did not reveal any examples of municipal water fluoridation causing recommended environmental concentrations to be exceeded, although excesses occurred in several cases of severe industrial water pollution. PMID:2400035

  6. Reducing exposure to high fluoride drinking water in Estonia-a countrywide study.

    PubMed

    Indermitte, Ene; Saava, Astrid; Karro, Enn

    2014-03-14

    Fluoride is a naturally occurring contaminant in groundwater in Estonia. There are several regions in Estonia with fluoride contents in public water supplies as high as 7 mg/L. Long-term exposure to high-fluoride drinking water may have several adverse health effects, primarily dental fluorosis. The opportunities for exposure reduction rely highly on water treatment technologies. Since 2004 public water suppliers in Estonia have made efforts to diminish fluoride content in drinking water systems. A follow-up study on a country level was carried out in 2004-2012 to analyze the changes in population exposure to excessive (over 1.5 mg/L) fluoride in drinking water and to get information about the reduction methods applied by public water supplies (PWS) to optimize the fluoride levels in public water system. The results showed that bigger PWS have been more effective in fluoride reduction measures than small PWS. The main methods used to lower the fluoride content were reverse osmosis technology and replacement of water sources with new ones (new drilled wells). As a result of all the measures taken the overall high-fluoride exposure has been reduced substantially (82%).

  7. Fluoride-induced chronic renal failure.

    PubMed

    Lantz, O; Jouvin, M H; De Vernejoul, M C; Druet, P

    1987-08-01

    Renal fluoride toxicity in human beings is difficult to assess in the literature. Although experimental studies and research on methoxyflurane toxicity have shown frank renal damage, observations of renal insufficiency related to chronic fluoride exposure are scarce. We report a case of fluoride intoxication related to potomania of Vichy water, a highly mineralized water containing 8.5 mg/L of fluoride. Features of fluoride osteosclerosis were prominent and end-stage renal failure was present. The young age of the patient, the long duration of high fluoride intake, and the absence of other cause of renal insufficiency suggest a causal relationship between fluoride intoxication and renal failure.

  8. An assessment of fluoride in the coastal aquifer of the Bara tract in Bharuch district, Gujarat (India).

    PubMed

    Nayak, A K; Chinchmalatpure, Anil R; Rao, G Gururaja; Jha, S K; Khandelwal, M K

    2009-11-01

    The fluoride (F) concentration in the coastal aquifers of Bara tract in Bharuch district, Gujarat was determined by potentiometric method using an ion-selective electrode. The fluoride concentration in these aquifers varies between 0.060 to 3.51 mg/L. It was also found that F has a positive correlation with pH and HCO(3)(-) whereas negatively correlated with Ca(2+), indicating that high fluoride in ground water is associated with low calcium content. This suggests that the higher pH of water promotes the leaching of fluoride and thus affects the concentration of fluoride in the ground water. It was also found that there exists no relationship between F, EC, and ground water table from surface in the ground water.

  9. Active biomonitoring of airborne fluoride near an HF producing factory using standardised grass cultures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Franzaring, J.; Klumpp, A.; Fangmeier, A.

    In order to study the pollution gradient in the vicinity of an HF producing factory, a biomonitoring programme was performed employing VDI standardised grass cultures. Specimen plants of Lolium multiflorum cv. Lema were exposed at 11 sites over five monthly periods and the biomass produced was used for subsequent F-analyses. Meteorological data from the study region confirmed that wind direction accounted for changes in the pollution pattern over periods of time. Fluoride concentrations in the grass cultures, however, were unrelated to temperature and precipitation sums during the exposures. The biomass production of the grass cultures proved to be unrelated to these parameters as well but, with the enhanced growth of the plants, the fluoride concentrations were lower due to the dilution of the element with higher biomass accumulation. Because the contribution of particulate fluoride was unknown, both the washed grass cultures and the washing water were analysed in order to determine the amount of external fluoride. Washing reduced the fluoride concentrations by 22% on average, indicating that most of the element was internal fluoride stemming from stomatal uptake. Larger amounts of fluoride, however, could be washed off from grass cultures exposed at sites close to the factory indicating that dust emissions played a greater role at these locations. Because particulate emissions were supposed to arise from CaF 2 and the waste-product anhydrite, grass cultures were also analysed for calcium and sulphur. While calcium concentrations were generally high but unrelated to fluoride, sulphur concentrations showed a slight relationship to the F-concentrations determined in the unwashed plants. Latter findings indicate the co-deposition of the two elements as surface bound, external loads, but bioindication could not clarify to what extent both elements were partitioned in the gas-to-particle phase. We therefore recommend using the grass culture method in air quality

  10. Calcium Test

    MedlinePlus

    ... Hyperthyroidism Sarcoidosis Tuberculosis Prolonged immobilization Excess vitamin D intake Thiazide diuretics Kidney transplant HIV/AIDS Low total calcium (hypocalcemia) The most common cause of low total calcium is: Low blood protein levels, especially a low level of albumin , which ...

  11. Strontium-90 fluoride data sheet

    SciTech Connect

    Fullam, H.T.

    1981-06-01

    This report is a compilation of available data and appropriate literature references on the properties of strontium-90 fluoride and nonradioactive strontium fluoride. The objective of the document is to compile in a single source pertinent data to assist potential users in the development, licensing, and use of /sup 90/SrF/sub 2/-fueled radioisotope heat sources for terrestrial power conversion and thermal applications. The report is an update of the Strontium-90 Fluoride Data Sheet (BNWL-2284) originally issued in April 1977.

  12. Molten fluoride fuel salt chemistry

    SciTech Connect

    Toth, L.M.; Del Cul, G.D.; Dai, S.; Metcalf, D.H.

    1994-09-01

    The chemistry of molten fluorides is traced from their development as fuels in the Molten Salt Reactor Experiment with important factors in their selection being discussed. Key chemical characteristics such as solubility, redox behavior, and chemical activity are explained as they relate to the behavior of molten fluoride fuel systems. Fission product behavior is described along with processing experience. Development requirements for fitting the current state of the chemistry to modern nuclear fuel system are described. It is concluded that while much is known about molten fluoride behavior, processing and recycle of the fuel components is a necessary factor if future systems are to be established.

  13. Spectral Diversity Crystalline Fluoride Lasers,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-01-01

    2 4.-. i1.34 I R TUNABLE Table IX XeF Pumoe TM3 +: YLF :1 .Tm:YLF exhibits nearly ideal parameters for high energy operation aa3x10-20cm 2 ESAT 0cm e...host crystal, lithium yttrium fluoride, LiYF*4 ( YLF )" 1..0 Introductin Within the realm of crystalline laser materials,. the class of fluorides...on the host crystal, lithium yttrium fluoride, LiYF4 - often shortened as YLF . Tables I and 12 show the mechanical, thermal, and optical properties

  14. Portland Water Fluoridation: A Newspaper Analysis.

    PubMed

    Bianchi, Allison; Bergren, Martha Dewey; Lewis, Patricia Ryan

    2017-03-01

    Portland, Oregon is the largest city in the United States without community water fluoridation (CWF). A newspaper analysis was conducted of the failed 2013 CWF campaign to evaluate anti-fluoridation and pro-fluoridation messaging provided by newspapers during the campaign. News content was categorized by type and slant (pro-fluoridation, anti-fluoridation, or neutral) and 34 variables were tabulated (23 anti-fluoridation, 11 pro-fluoridation). Results showed overall messaging was slightly pro-fluoridation, as compared to anti-fluoridation or neutral content (35%, 32%, and 33% respectively). Editorial content was 85% pro-fluoridation and 15% anti-fluoridation. The most frequent anti-fluoridation variables were alternatives to water fluoridation, mass/forced medication and concerns about the political process. Conversely, tooth decay and social justice were the most commonly cited pro-fluoridation variables. Newspapers can be influential in shaping public policy opinions in the fight for community water fluoridation. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Correlation between water fluoride levels and dental caries in Davangere District, India.

    PubMed

    Acharya, S; Anuradha, K P

    2003-01-01

    Areas with natural fluoride in the drinking water are natural laboratories where the effect of fluoride on dental caries can be studied in a real life situation. This study was conducted to assess the prevalence of dental caries and to study its correlation with fluoride in the drinking water in Davangere District. 1128 school children in the age groups of 12 and 15 years from 12 villages with different concentrations of fluoride in drinking water were studied. Ion Selective electrode method (Orion, USA) was used to estimate Fluoride concentrations in drinking water. Dentition Status (WHO, 1997) was used to assess dental caries status. Results showed that there was a significant trend towards reduction in dental caries with increase in water fluoride levels. A negative correlation between fluoride levels and mean DMFT was seen among the subjects with the Karl Pearson's Correlation Co efficient being -0.65 and -0.72 for the 12 and 15 year olds respectively. It was concluded from the study that although dental caries was negatively associated with increasing fluoride levels, the problem of attendant dental fluorosis should also be considered seriously.

  16. Fluorination utilizing thermodynamically unstable fluorides and fluoride salts thereof

    DOEpatents

    Bartlett, Neil; Whalen, J. Marc; Chacon, Lisa

    2000-12-12

    A method for fluorinating a carbon compound or cationic carbon compound utilizes a fluorination agent selected from thermodynamically unstable nickel fluorides and salts thereof in liquid anhydrous hydrogen fluoride. The desired carbon compound or cationic organic compound to undergo fluorination is selected and reacted with the fluorination agent by contacting the selected organic or cationic organic compound and the chosen fluorination agent in a reaction vessel for a desired reaction time period at room temperature or less.

  17. Study of relation between crystal structure and laser damage of calcium flouride

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azumi, Minako; Nakahata, Eiichiro

    2010-11-01

    The artificially grown calcium fluoride is one of key materials for microlithography and used for excimer laser optics etc. Such calcium fluoride is required high laser durability and laser induced bulk damage threshold (LIDT). However, the artificially grown calcium fluoride is not a complete crystal, and there are a lot of sub-grain boundaries inside the crystal that have the possibility of causing degradation of laser durability and LIDT. Moreover, mechanical properties of calcium fluoride are different according to the crystal axis, therefore there is a possibility that mechanical properties influences LIDT. In this study, we examined the relation between crystal structure and LIDT. First, we examined the relation between the crystal axis and LITD of single crystal calcium fruoride. The relation between the crystallographic axis and LIDT that the laser enters was examined. The ArF excimer laser and the fifth high harmonic of the Nd:YAG laser at 213nm were used for the irradiation source of light. We prepared samples that optical axes were <111>, <110> and <001> from the same crystal. From the result of this examination, when the laser irradiated in <111> axis, LIDT was the highest. Next, we observed the damage with polarizing microscope and optical microscope. The result of this observation suggested that the laser damage of calcium fluoride was related to the crystal orientation. Finally, we investigated the damage mechanism of calcium fluoride. It is thought that the laser irradiation induced stress is relaxed most easily when the optical axis is <111>. Therefore, LIDT of calcium fluoride is supposed to be highest when the optical axis is <111>.

  18. The circumvention of the natural biopurification of calcium along nutrient pathways by atmospheric inputs of industrial lead

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elias, Robert W.; Hirao, Yoshimitsu; Patterson, Clair C.

    1982-12-01

    Biopurification factors for Ca with respect to Sr, Ba, and natural, uncontaminated Pb were measured for different nutrient-consumer pairs in a remote subalpine ecosystem. The factor for Sr is expressed as: (nutrient Sr/Ca) ÷ (consumer Sr/Ca). Similar expressions were used for Ba/Ca and Pb/Ca. It was found that Ca was biopurified of Sr 3-fold, of Ba 16-fold, and of Pb 100-fold in going from rock to sedge leaves. In going from sedge leaf to vole, Ca was biopurified of Sr 4-fold, of Ba 8-fold, and of Pb 16-fold. In going from meadow vole to pine marten, Ca was biopurified of Sr 6-fold, of Ba 7-fold, and of Pb 1.1-fold. Similar ranges of values for these factors were obtained for detrital and amphibian food chains. Fluxes of industrial lead entering the ecosystem as precipitation and dry deposition were measured and it was found that 40% of the lead in soil humus and soil moisture, 82% of the lead in sedge leaves, 92% of the lead in vole, and 97% of the lead in marten was industrial. The natural skeletal Pb/Ca ratio in carnivores (4 × 10 -8) was determined by means of corrections for inputs of industrial lead, food chain relationships, and measured biopurification factors for the ecosystem studied. This represents a 1700-fold reduction of the average Pb/Ca ratio in igneous rocks at the earth's surface (6.4 × 10 -5) by the compounding of successive Pb biopurification factors in transferring Ca from rock to carnivore. The natural ratio is similar to the value of 6 × 10 -8 observed for Pb/Ca in the bones of Peruvians who lived 2000 years ago but is 1/900th of the value of about 3.5 × 10 -5 for the skeletal Pb/Ca ratio found in present day Americans. This study shows experimentally how the Ba/Ca ratio in average surface igneous rock (3 × 10 -3) has been reduced 800-fold through compounding of successive biopurification steps to provide the skeletal Ba/Ca ratio of about 4 × 10 -6 observed in humans. It also provides biopurification factors for Sr and Ba among a

  19. Determination of Fluoride and Chloride in NU Sample Matrices by Ion Chromatography

    SciTech Connect

    Ray, R.

    2003-05-21

    This study is a demonstration of fluoride and chloride determinations in natural uranium (NU) sample matrices as part of technical task request FSS-ALD-2002-00025 deliverable from Central Laboratory Services.

  20. Fluoride glass: Crystallization, surface tension

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Doremus, R. H.

    1988-01-01

    Fluoride glass was levitated acoustically in the ACES apparatus on STS-11, and the recovered sample had a different microstructure from samples cooled in a container. Further experiments on levitated samples of fluoride glass are proposed. These include nucleation, crystallization, melting observations, measurement of surface tension of molten glass, and observation of bubbles in the glass. Ground experiments are required on sample preparation, outgassing, and surface reactions. The results should help in the development and evaluation of containerless processing, especially of glass, in the development of a contaminent-free method of measuring surface tensions of melts, in extending knowledge of gas and bubble behavior in fluoride glasses, and in increasing insight into the processing and properties of fluoride glasses.

  1. Do Fluoride Ions Protect Teeth?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parkin, Christopher

    1998-01-01

    Begins with the procedure and results from an investigation on the effect of fluoride on the reaction between eggshell (substitute teeth) and dilute ethanoic acid. Describes an elegantly modified and improvised apparatus. (DDR)

  2. Do Fluoride Ions Protect Teeth?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parkin, Christopher

    1998-01-01

    Begins with the procedure and results from an investigation on the effect of fluoride on the reaction between eggshell (substitute teeth) and dilute ethanoic acid. Describes an elegantly modified and improvised apparatus. (DDR)

  3. Recommendations for fluoride limits in drinking water based on estimated daily fluoride intake in the Upper East Region, Ghana.

    PubMed

    Craig, Laura; Lutz, Alexandra; Berry, Kate A; Yang, Wei

    2015-11-01

    Both dental and skeletal fluorosis caused by high fluoride intake are serious public health concerns around the world. Fluorosis is particularly pronounced in developing countries where elevated concentrations of naturally occurring fluoride are present in the drinking water, which is the primary route of exposure. The World Health Organization recommended limit of fluoride in drinking water is 1.5 mg F(-) L(-1), which is also the upper limit for fluoride in drinking water for several other countries such as Canada, China, India, Australia, and the European Union. In the United States the enforceable limit is much higher at 4 mg F(-) L(-1), which is intended to prevent severe skeletal fluorosis but does not protect against dental fluorosis. Many countries, including the United States, also have notably lower unenforced recommended limits to protect against dental fluorosis. One consideration in determining the optimum fluoride concentration in drinking water is daily water intake, which can be high in hot climates such as in northern Ghana. The results of this study show that average water intake is about two times higher in Ghana than in more temperate climates and, as a result, the fluoride intake is higher. The results also indicate that to protect the Ghanaian population against dental fluorosis, the maximum concentration of fluoride in drinking water for children under 6-8 years should be 0.6 mg F(-) L(-1) (and lower in the first two years of life), and the limit for older children and adults should be 1.0 mg F(-) L(-1). However, when considering that water treatment is not cost-free, the most widely recommended limit of 1.5 mg F(-) L(-1) - which is currently the limit in Ghana--may be appropriate for older children and adults since they are not vulnerable to dental fluorosis once the tooth enamel is formed.

  4. Calcium copper-titanate thin film growth: tailoring of the operational conditions through nanocharacterization and substrate nature effects.

    PubMed

    Lo Nigro, Raffaella; Toro, Roberta G; Malandrino, Graziella; Fragalà, Ignazio L; Losurdo, Maria; Giangregorio, Michelaria M; Bruno, Giovanni; Raineri, Vito; Fiorenza, Patrick

    2006-09-07

    A novel approach based on a molten multicomponent precursor source has been applied for the MOCVD fabrication of high-quality CaCu(3)Ti(4)O(12) (CCTO) thin films on various substrates. The adopted in situ strategy involves a molten mixture consisting of Ca(hfa)(2).tetraglyme, Ti(tmhd)(2)(O-iPr)(2), and Cu(tmhd)(2) [Hhfa = 1,1,1,5,5,5-hexafluoro-2,4-pentanedione; tetraglyme = 2,5,8,11,14-pentaoxapentadecane; Htmhd = 2,2,6,6-tetramethyl-3,5-heptandione; O-iPr = isopropoxide] precursors. Film structural and morphological characterizations have been carried out by several techniques [X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM)], and in particular the energy filtered TEM mapping and X-ray energy dispersive (EDX) analysis in TEM mode provided a suitable correlation between nanostructural properties of CCTO films and deposition conditions and/or the substrate nature. Correlation between the nanostructure and optical/dielectric properties has been investigated exploiting spectroscopic ellipsometry.

  5. Fluoride enrichment in groundwater of semi-arid urban area: Khan Younis City, southern Gaza Strip (Palestine)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abu Jabal, Mohamed Shaban; Abustan, Ismail; Rozaimy, Mohd Remy; Al-Najar, Hussam

    2014-12-01

    The aim of this study is to determine fluoride enhancement in the groundwater of semi-arid urban area of Khan Younis City, southern Gaza Strip. Physicochemical data for a total of 200 groundwater samples were analyzed. The fluoride concentrations were varied from 0.3 to 6.45 mg/L with average value of 2.87 mg/L. Correlations between fluorides with other measured ions were relatively observed, negative correlation with calcium and the positive correlation with pH, bicarbonate and sodium increase the dissolution/solubility of fluoride bearing minerals, leading to fluoride leaching into the groundwater. Fluoride enrichment in the groundwater of the area is due to water hydrochemistry, mineral-water interaction (mainly calcite and fluorite), fluorite resulted from fluorapatite dissolution. The saturation indexes evaluation indicated that 42% of the samples are over saturated with respect to calcite and 35.5% under saturated with respect to fluorite, while 40.5% approached equilibrium with respect to both calcite and fluorite. At fluoride concentrations of less than 2.2 mg/L fluorite saturation indexes show under-saturation condition for fluorite and at higher fluoride concentrations show near saturation condition.

  6. Kinetic desorption of fluoride in a granitic soil column: Experiments and reactive transport modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Padhi, S.; Tokunaga, T.

    2016-12-01

    The transport of fluoride or other contaminants in subsurface largely depends on their interaction with mineral surfaces of contact. Hence, the methods to evaluate and predict the extent of these interactions are of great importance. The commonly used distribution coefficient (Kd) model does not account for temporally and spatially variable geochemical conditions (Curtis et al., 2006). This study aims to investigate the reactive transport of fluoride in a natural soil column by laboratory experiments and solute transport modeling by introducing surface complexation of fluoride to the transport simulation. For our purpose, column experiments for fluoride sorption and desorption under saturated conditions were conducted in the laboratory on a granitic soil from Tsukuba, Japan. Stable isotopes of water (δ18O and δ2H) were used as conservative tracers to evaluate the flow and transport properties. Existence of physical and chemical nonequilibrium during fluoride transport was evaluated by applying stop flow events. Long tailing during fluoride desorption was observed, and the linear Kd model failed to explain this phenomenon. Hence, a geochemical model considering fluoride sorption in soil by surface complexation was developed to explain fluoride transport in the column. The intrinsic surface complexation constants for fluoride sorption reactions and surface site protonation and deprotonation reactions were corrected from that of the optimized results from batch experiments based as suggested by Sverjensky (2003). The model with fluoride sorption defined by surface complexation explained the observed fluoride desorption data quite satisfactorily, especially the long tailing. An overshoot in the breakthrough curve observed by the simulation during early period of desorption could be due to competitive desorption, which need to be further analyzed. References: (1) Curtis, JP, Davis, JA, Nafiz, DL 2006. Wat. Res. Res., 42, W04404, doi:10.1029/2005WR003979; (2

  7. Fluoride exposure in public drinking water and childhood and adolescent osteosarcoma in Texas.

    PubMed

    Archer, Natalie P; Napier, Thomas S; Villanacci, John F

    2016-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the association between fluoride levels in public drinking water and childhood and adolescent osteosarcoma in Texas; to date, studies examining this relationship have been equivocal. Using areas with high and low naturally occurring fluoride, as well as areas with optimal fluoridation, we examined a wide range of fluoride levels in public drinking water. This was a population-based case-control study, with both cases and controls obtained from the Texas Cancer Registry. Eligible cases were Texas children and adolescents <20 years old diagnosed with osteosarcoma between 1996 and 2006. Controls were sampled from children and adolescents diagnosed with either central nervous system (CNS) tumors or leukemia during the same time frame. Using geocoded patient addresses at the time of diagnosis, we estimated patients' drinking water fluoride exposure levels based on the fluoride levels of their residence's public water system (PWS). Unconditional logistic regression models were used to assess the association between osteosarcoma and public drinking water fluoride level, adjusting for several demographic risk factors. Three hundred and eight osteosarcoma cases, 598 leukemia controls, and 604 CNS tumor controls met selection criteria and were assigned a corresponding PWS fluoride level. PWS fluoride level was not associated with osteosarcoma, either in a univariable analysis or after adjusting for age, sex, race, and poverty index. Stratified analyses by sex were conducted; no association between PWS fluoride level and osteosarcoma was observed among either males or females. No relationship was found between fluoride levels in public drinking water and childhood/adolescent osteosarcoma in Texas.

  8. Fluoride uptake and acid resistance of enamel irradiated with Er:YAG laser.

    PubMed

    Bevilácqua, Flávia M; Zezell, Denise Maria; Magnani, Romeu; da Ana, Patricia A; Eduardo, Carlos de Paula

    2008-04-01

    This study evaluated the resistance to demineralization and fluoride incorporation of enamel irradiated with Er:YAG. A total of 110 bovine teeth were selected and divided into eight groups: unlased, 37% phosphoric acid, and samples irradiated with the Er:YAG laser at several fluences (31.84 J/cm(2), 25.47 J/cm(2), 19.10 J/cm(2), 2.08 J/cm(2), 1.8 J/cm(2), and 0.9 J/cm(2)). The application of acidulated phosphate fluoride was performed after treatments. All samples were immersed in 2 ml of 2.0 M acetic-acetate acid solution at pH 4.5 for 8 h, and fluoride, calcium, and phosphorus ions dissolved were analyzed by atomic absorption spectrometry and spectrophotometry. The phosphoric acid and 31.84 J/cm(2) groups presented the lowest dissolution of calcium and phosphorus ions. Higher fluoride incorporation was observed on 1.8 J/cm(2) and 0.9 J/cm(2) groups. Based on these results, Er:YAG laser was able to decrease acid dissolution and increase fluoride uptake and can be a promissory alternative for preventive dentistry.

  9. The pathophysiological profile of the acute cardiovascular toxicity of sodium fluoride.

    PubMed

    Strubelt, O; Iven, H; Younes, M

    1982-01-01

    The intravenous infusion of sodium fluoride (2 mg/kg X min) into anesthetized rats caused a progressive fall in arterial blood pressure, cardiac output, heart rate and peripheral resistance. Respiratory rate increased during the first 20 min of infusion resulting in increased oxygen and decreased carbon dioxide blood concentrations. Total body oxygen consumption decreased after 30 min of NaF infusion by 29%, whereas the respiratory quotient (RQ) increased from 0.8 to 1.06. Death occurred after a mean dose of 79.6 +/- 4.6 mg/kg NaF. The terminal cardiac event before death was atrioventricular block followed immediately by asystole. Artificial ventilation did not influence the cardiovascular and the lethal effects of fluoride infusion. The plasma concentrations of total and ionized calcium decreased upon NaF infusion. The infusion of extra calcium did not prevent NaF-induced cardiovascular failure but decreased plasma fluoride levels and increased the lethal dose of NaF by 17% (not significant). In isolated atria and perfused hearts in vitro, NaF decreased the force of contraction in a dose-dependent manner. In conclusion, cardiovascular failure resulting from the direct cardiodepressive and vasodilatating effects of fluoride (and not from respiratory depression or hypocalcemia) accounts for the lethal outcome of fluoride intoxication.

  10. Fluoride Intake through Consumption of Tap Water and Bottled Water in Belgium

    PubMed Central

    Vandevijvere, Stefanie; Horion, Benoit; Fondu, Michel; Mozin, Marie-Josée; Ulens, Michèle; Huybrechts, Inge; van Oyen, Herman; Noirfalise, Alfred

    2009-01-01

    There is a tendency to align higher levels of fluoride in natural mineral water with the existing higher levels in tap water. Treatment of natural mineral waters could harm the preservation of their natural character. In this study fluoride intake through bottled and tap water consumption in the Belgian adult population was assessed, taking into account regional differences. A deterministic approach was used whereby consumption quantities of tap water and different brands of bottled water were linked with their respective fluoride concentrations. Data from the national food consumption survey (2004) were used and the Nusser methodology was applied to obtain usual intake estimates. Mean intake of fluoride through total water consumption in Flanders was 1.4±0.7 mg/day (97.5th percentile: 3.1 mg/day), while in the Walloon region it was on average 0.9±0.6 mg/day (97.5th percentile: 2.4 mg/day). The probability of exceeding the UL of 7 mg per day via a normal diet was estimated to be low. Consequently, there is no need to revise the existing norms, but higher fluoride concentrations should be more clearly indicated on the labels. Reliable data about total dietary fluoride intake in children, including intake of fluoride via tooth paste and food supplements, are needed. PMID:19543414

  11. Using Natural Stable Calcium Isotopes to Rapidly Assess Changes in Bone Mineral Balance Using a Bed Rest Model to Induce Bone Loss

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morgan, J. L. L.; Skulan, J. L.; Gordon, G. E.; Smith, Scott M.; Romaniello, S. J.; Anbar, A. D.

    2012-01-01

    Metabolic bone diseases like osteoporosis result from the disruption of normal bone mineral balance (BMB) resulting in bone loss. During spaceflight astronauts lose substantial bone. Bed rest provides an analog to simulate some of the effects of spaceflight; including bone and calcium loss and provides the opportunity to evaluate new methods to monitor BMB in healthy individuals undergoing environmentally induced-bone loss. Previous research showed that natural variations in the Ca isotope ratio occur because bone formation depletes soft tissue of light Ca isotopes while bone resorption releases that isotopically light Ca back into soft tissue (Skulan et al, 2007). Using a bed rest model, we demonstrate that the Ca isotope ratio of urine shifts in a direction consistent with bone loss after just 7 days of bed rest, long before detectable changes in bone mineral density (BMD) occur. The Ca isotope variations tracks changes observed in urinary N-teleopeptide, a bone resorption biomarker. Bone specific alkaline phosphatase, a bone formation biomarker, is unchanged. The established relationship between Ca isotopes and BMB can be used to quantitatively translate the changes in the Ca isotope ratio to changes in BMD using a simple mathematical model. This model predicts that subjects lost 0.25 0.07% ( SD) of their bone mass from day 7 to day 30 of bed rest. Given the rapid signal observed using Ca isotope measurements and the potential to quantitatively assess bone loss; this technique is well suited to study the short-term dynamics of bone metabolism.

  12. Selective Adsorption of Sodium Aluminum Fluoride Salts from Molten Aluminum

    SciTech Connect

    Leonard S. Aubrey; Christine A. Boyle; Eddie M. Williams; David H. DeYoung; Dawid D. Smith; Feng Chi

    2007-08-16

    Aluminum is produced in electrolytic reduction cells where alumina feedstock is dissolved in molten cryolite (sodium aluminum fluoride) along with aluminum and calcium fluorides. The dissolved alumina is then reduced by electrolysis and the molten aluminum separates to the bottom of the cell. The reduction cell is periodically tapped to remove the molten aluminum. During the tapping process, some of the molten electrolyte (commonly referred as “bath” in the aluminum industry) is carried over with the molten aluminum and into the transfer crucible. The carryover of molten bath into the holding furnace can create significant operational problems in aluminum cast houses. Bath carryover can result in several problems. The most troublesome problem is sodium and calcium pickup in magnesium-bearing alloys. Magnesium alloying additions can result in Mg-Na and Mg-Ca exchange reactions with the molten bath, which results in the undesirable pickup of elemental sodium and calcium. This final report presents the findings of a project to evaluate removal of molten bath using a new and novel micro-porous filter media. The theory of selective adsorption or removal is based on interfacial surface energy differences of molten aluminum and bath on the micro-porous filter structure. This report describes the theory of the selective adsorption-filtration process, the development of suitable micro-porous filter media, and the operational results obtained with a micro-porous bed filtration system. The micro-porous filter media was found to very effectively remove molten sodium aluminum fluoride bath by the selective adsorption-filtration mechanism.

  13. Calcium-D-glucarate.

    PubMed

    2002-08-01

    Calcium-D-glucarate is the calcium salt of D-glucaric acid, a substance produced naturally in small amounts by mammals, including humans. Glucaric acid is also found in many fruits and vegetables with the highest concentrations to be found in oranges, apples, grapefruit, and cruciferous vegetables. Oral supplementation of calcium-D-glucarate has been shown to inhibit beta-glucuronidase, an enzyme produced by colonic microflora and involved in Phase II liver detoxification. Elevated beta-glucuronidase activity is associated with an increased risk for various cancers, particularly hormone-dependent cancers such as breast, prostate, and colon cancers. Other potential clinical applications of oral calcium-D-glucarate include regulation of estrogen metabolism and as a lipid-lowering agent.

  14. The role of Fe(III) modified montmorillonite on fluoride mobility: adsorption experiments and competition with phosphate.

    PubMed

    Bia, Gonzalo; De Pauli, Carlos P; Borgnino, Laura

    2012-06-15

    Fluoride adsorption onto Fe(III) modified montmorillonite was investigated using batch experiments. The effect of reaction time, pH, ionic strength and phosphate, as a competitive anion, was evaluated. Kinetics indicated that adsorption obeys a pseudo-first-order rate law which involves two steps. The fast one (bulk transport/surface reaction) occurs instantaneously. The slower (diffusion in pores) takes hours to complete. The adsorption rate increases by increasing the fluoride concentration and by decreasing pH. The presence of phosphate reduces fluoride adsorption and reveals that both ions are in competition for surface sites. The reduction in fluoride adsorption when phosphate is present depends on the order of adsorbate addition. The higher fluoride adsorption occurs when both anions are added simultaneously, whereas when either fluoride or phosphate is added first, the fluoride adsorption is lower. The presence of fluoride does not have a measurable effect on phosphate adsorption. The results obtained contribute to our understanding of the mobility of fluoride in surface water which has naturally high levels of fluoride, in both the presence and absence of phosphate. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Assessment of fluoride contaminations in groundwater of hard rock aquifers in Madurai district, Tamil Nadu (India)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thivya, C.; Chidambaram, S.; Rao, M. S.; Thilagavathi, R.; Prasanna, M. V.; Manikandan, S.

    2015-07-01

    The fluoride contamination in drinking water is already gone to the alarming level and it needs the immediate involvement and attention of all people to solve this problem. Fluoride problem is higher in hard rock terrains in worldwide and Madurai is such type of hard rock region. Totally 54 samples were collected from the Madurai district of Tamilnadu with respect to lithology. The samples collected were analysed for major cations and anions using standard procedures. The higher concentration of fluoride is noted in the Charnockite rock types of northern part of the study area. 20 % of samples are below 0.5 ppm and 6 % of samples are above 1.5 ppm exceeding the permissible limit. The affinity between the pH and fluoride ions in groundwater suggests that dissolution of fluoride bearing minerals in groundwater. The higher concentration of fluoride ions are observed in the lower EC concentration. The isotopic study suggests that fluoride is geogenic in nature. In factor scores, fluoride is noted in association with pH which indicates the dissolution process.

  16. Assessment of fluoride contaminations in groundwater of hard rock aquifers in Madurai district, Tamil Nadu (India)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thivya, C.; Chidambaram, S.; Rao, M. S.; Thilagavathi, R.; Prasanna, M. V.; Manikandan, S.

    2017-05-01

    The fluoride contamination in drinking water is already gone to the alarming level and it needs the immediate involvement and attention of all people to solve this problem. Fluoride problem is higher in hard rock terrains in worldwide and Madurai is such type of hard rock region. Totally 54 samples were collected from the Madurai district of Tamilnadu with respect to lithology. The samples collected were analysed for major cations and anions using standard procedures. The higher concentration of fluoride is noted in the Charnockite rock types of northern part of the study area. 20 % of samples are below 0.5 ppm and 6 % of samples are above 1.5 ppm exceeding the permissible limit. The affinity between the pH and fluoride ions in groundwater suggests that dissolution of fluoride bearing minerals in groundwater. The higher concentration of fluoride ions are observed in the lower EC concentration. The isotopic study suggests that fluoride is geogenic in nature. In factor scores, fluoride is noted in association with pH which indicates the dissolution process.

  17. Calcium supplement: humanity's double-edged sword.

    PubMed

    Bunyaratavej, Narong; Buranasinsup, Shutipen

    2011-10-01

    The principle aim of the present study is to investigate the dark side of calcium, pollutions in calcium preparation especially lead (Pb), mercury (Hg) and cadmium (Cd). The collected samples were the different calcium salts in the market and 18 preparations which were classified into 3 groups: Calcium carbonate salts, Chelated calcium and natural-raw calcium. All samples were analyzed for lead, cadmium and mercury by inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS) technique, in house method based on AOAC (2005) 999.10 by ICP-MS. The calcium carbonate and the natural-raw calcium in every sample contained lead at 0.023-0.407 mg/kg of calcium powder. Meanwhile, the natural-raw calcium such as oyster, coral and animal bone showed amount of lead at 0.106-0.384 mg/kg with small amounts of mercury and cadmium. The chelated calcium such as calcium gluconate, calcium lactate and calcium citrate are free of lead.

  18. Relationship between intracellular Ca²⁺ and ROS during fluoride-induced injury in SH-SY5Y cells.

    PubMed

    Xu, Zhixia; Xu, Bayi; Xia, Tao; He, Weihong; Gao, Ping; Guo, Lijuan; Wang, Zhenglun; Niu, Qiang; Wang, Aiguo

    2013-06-01

    The mechanisms underlying the neurotoxicology of endemic fluorosis still remain obscure. To explore lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) leakage, intracellular Ca²⁺ concentration ([Ca²⁺]i ) and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production induced by fluoride, human neuroblastoma (SH-SY5Y) cells were incubated with sodium fluoride (NaF, 20, 40, 80 mg/L) for 24 h, with 40 mg/L NaF for 3, 6, 12, 18, 24 h, and N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC), ethyleneglycol-bis-(β-aminoethyl ether)-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid (EGTA), 1,2-bis(O-aminophenoxy)ethane-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid tetra(acetoxymethyl) ester (BAPTA-AM) alone or combined with fluoride (40 mg/L) respectively for 12 h in vitro. The results showed that the LDH levels in the 40 and 80 mg/L fluoride-treated groups were significantly higher than that of the control group (in the test level of 0.05, the difference were statistical significance). [Ca²⁺]i and ROS reached a peak at 3 h and 12 h respectively after exposure to 40 mg/L fluoride. Fluoride coincubated with NAC (antioxidant) dramatically decreased ROS and LDH levels compared with the fluoride only group (in the test level of 0.05, the difference were statistical significance). However, fluoride-induced increase in [Ca²⁺]i was not affected by NAC. BAPTA-AM (intracellular calcium chelator) markedly lowered fluoride-induced increase of [Ca²⁺]i , ROS and LDH levels while EGTA (extracellular calcium chelator) have no effects on them. These results indicate that fluoride-related Ca²⁺ release from the site of intracellular calcium storage causes the elevation of ROS contributing to the cytotoxicity in SH-SY5Y cells. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Fluoride bioavailability in saliva and plaque

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Different fluoride formulations may have different effects on caries prevention. It was the aim of this clinical study to assess the fluoride content, provided by NaF compared to amine fluoride, in saliva and plaque. Methods Eight trained volunteers brushed their teeth in the morning for 3 minutes with either NaF or amine fluoride, and saliva and 3-day-plaque-regrowth was collected at 5 time intervals during 6 hours after tooth brushing. The amount of collected saliva and plaque was measured, and the fluoride content was analysed using a fluoride sensitive electrode. All subjects repeated all study cycles 5 times, and 3 cycles per subject underwent statistical analysis using the Wilcoxon-Mann-Whitney test. Results Immediately after brushing the fluoride concentration in saliva increased rapidly and dropped to the baseline level after 360 minutes. No difference was found between NaF and amine fluoride. All plaque fluoride levels were elevated after 30 minutes until 120 minutes after tooth brushing, and decreasing after 360 minutes to baseline. According to the highly individual profile of fluoride in saliva and plaque, both levels of bioavailability correlated for the first 30 minutes, and the fluoride content of saliva and plaque was back to baseline after 6 hours. Conclusions Fluoride levels in saliva and plaque are interindividually highly variable. However, no significant difference in bioavailability between NaF and amine fluoride, in saliva, or in plaque was found. PMID:22230722

  20. Studies of fluoride varnishes in Finland.

    PubMed

    Seppä, L

    1991-01-01

    Despite the artificial fluoridation of drinking water in Kuopio, part of the children have high caries incidence. We therefore started our studies on fluoride varnishes in 1977 in an attempt to find a feasible means of applying fluoride topically in children at high risk of caries. In our first trial, the sodium fluoride varnish Duraphat was found to be effective in preventing caries, but the effectiveness of the silane fluoride varnish Fluor Protector could not be unequivocally established, despite the fact that Fluor Protector deposited markedly more fluoride in enamel than Duraphat. In a second study in children in a low-fluoride area, use of Duraphat was found to be more effective than fortnightly fluoride rinses or Fluor Protector. Increasing the frequency of application from two to four times a year did not increase the effectiveness of Duraphat even in highly caries-prone children in a 2-year trial. On the basis of peak values of fluoride in parotid saliva after application, use of either fluoride varnishes was considered safe. Although the fluoride content of the enamel remained elevated for at least two years after discontinuation of treatment with both varnishes, the caries preventive effect did not continue after the applications were stopped. This shows that increasing the fluoride content of enamel is not the main mechanism by which fluoride varnishes prevent caries, and that the applications need to be continued as long as caries is a problem.

  1. Health effects of groundwater fluoride contamination.

    PubMed

    Nayak, Bishwajit; Roy, Madan Mohan; Das, Bhaskar; Pal, Arup; Sengupta, Mrinal Kumar; De, Shankar Prasad; Chakraborti, Dipankar

    2009-04-01

    The people in Berhait block, Sahibganj district, Jharkhand state, India, have been exposed chronically to fluoridecontaminated groundwater. Hereby, we report the clinical effects of chronic exposure to fluoride. The study population was a convenience sample of 342 adults and 258 children living in the affected area. All volunteers filled out questionnaires and were examined. Well water from the six affected villages and urine samples were analyzed for fluoride using an ion-sensitive electrode. Twenty nine percent of 89 well water samples had fluoride concentrations above the Indian permissible limit of fluoride in drinking water. Eighty-five children and 72 adults had clinical fluorosis. Urine fluoride concentrations in children were 0.758-2.88 mg/L whereas in adults they were 0.331-10.36 mg/L. Clinical effects of fluoride included abnormal tooth enamel in children; adults had joint pain and deformity of the limbs and spine, along with ligamentous calcifications and exostosis formations in seven patients. Elevated urine fluoride concentrations supported the clinical diagnosis of fluorosis. Owing to insufficient fluoride-safe wells and lack of awareness of the danger of fluoride toxicity, villagers often drink fluoride-contaminated water. Villagers of Berhait block, including children, are at risk from chronic fluoride toxicity. To combat the situation, villagers need fluoride-safe water, education, and awareness of the danger about fluoride toxicity.

  2. Fluoride content of tank water in Australia.

    PubMed

    Cochrane, N J; Hopcraft, M S; Tong, A C; Thean, H l; Thum, Y S; Tong, D E; Wen, J; Zhao, S C; Stanton, D P; Yuan, Y; Shen, P; Reynolds, E C

    2014-06-01

    The aims of this study were to: (1) analyse the fluoride content of tank water; (2) determine whether the method of water collection or storage influenced fluoride content; and (3) survey participant attitudes towards water fluoridation. Plastic tubes and a questionnaire were distributed through dentists to households with water tanks in Victoria. A midstream tank water sample was collected and fluoride analysed in triplicate using ion chromatography All samples (n = 123) contained negligible amounts of fluoride, with a mean fluoride concentration of <0.01 ppm (range: <0.01-0.18 ppm). No statistically significant association was found between fluoride content and variables investigated such as tank material, tank age, roof material and gutter material. Most people did not know whether their tank water contained fluoride and 40.8% preferred to have access to fluoridated water. The majority thought fluoride was safe and more than half of the respondents supported fluoridation. Fluoride content of tank water was well below the optimal levels for caries prevention. People who rely solely on tank water for drinking may require additional exposure to fluoride for optimal caries prevention. © 2014 Australian Dental Association.

  3. New fluoride MI Varnish as root canal sealer: An in vitro analysis of bacterial leakage.

    PubMed

    Rao, Dhanu G; Trivedi, Malay Vishnuprasad; Havale, Raghavendra; Shrutha, S P

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate and compare the sealing ability of root canal obturation after the application of fluoride varnish (MI Varnish) containing 5% sodium fluoride and casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate, fluoride varnish, and AH Plus and AH-Plus as root canal sealer by bacterial penetration test. Root canals of 65 single-rooted and single-canalled teeth were prepared. They were divided into three experimental groups (n = 15) and two control groups (n = 10). The root canal walls in Group I were coated with AH Plus, Group II were coated with AH Plus and fluoride varnish, and Group III were coated with fluoride varnish. All the teeth were obturated with gutta-percha using the lateral condensation technique. Enterococcus faecalis were used as test bacteria to determine the leakage during 100 days. The data were analyzed using log-rank test and Kaplan-Meier survival analysis. Group III showed significantly less bacterial penetration as compared to Group I (P = 0.01) and Group II (P = 0.03). However, there was no statistical significance between Groups I and II (P = 0.672). It can be concluded from the present study that fluoride varnish can be used as a root canal sealer. However, further in vitro and in vivo studies are required.

  4. Broadband submicron flattened dispersion compensating fiber with asymmetrical fluoride doped core

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lucki, M.; Zeleny, R.

    2013-05-01

    The goal of this paper is to investigate selected fluoride optical materials and to present a photonic crystal fiber designed for specific applications in dispersion compensation by using those materials. The idea how to restrict chromatic dispersion is to increase the index contrast by using calcium fluoride or barium fluoride in the first ring of holes, which lower the effective index. In general, fluoride materials compared to standard silica glass in many aspects offer better mechanical and optical properties. The use of fluorides allows achieving broadband dispersion suppression impossible to achieve in standard fibers with similar geometry. The presented result comprises a numerical model of a photonic crystal fiber in a submicron lattice, specific for its negative dispersion coefficient achieved for broad spectrum of telecommunication wavelengths, i.e. 1300 - 1700 nm. The core consists of pure silica surrounded by three doped regions and three air-holes. Holes doped with fluoride materials enhance negative dispersion coefficient to -438 ps.nm-1.km-1. The diameter of doped regions is about 1 micrometer. Simulations were done by using the full-vector FDFD method. The wavelength evolution of refractive index of materials was introduced by using the Sellmeier approximation. The major advantage of the designed fibers is their material composition, low attenuation and broadband utilization.

  5. Chronic fluoride toxicity: dental fluorosis.

    PubMed

    Denbesten, Pamela; Li, Wu

    2011-01-01

    Dental fluorosis occurs as a result of excess fluoride ingestion during tooth formation. Enamel fluorosis and primary dentin fluorosis can only occur when teeth are forming, and therefore fluoride exposure (as it relates to dental fluorosis) occurs during childhood. In the permanent dentition, this would begin with the lower incisors, which complete mineralization at approximately 2-3 years of age, and end after mineralization of the third molars. The white opaque appearance of fluorosed enamel is caused by a hypomineralized enamel subsurface. With more severe dental fluorosis, pitting and a loss of the enamel surface occurs, leading to secondary staining (appearing as a brown color). Many of the changes caused by fluoride are related to cell/matrix interactions as the teeth are forming. At the early maturation stage, the relative quantity of amelogenin protein is increased in fluorosed enamel in a dose-related manner. This appears to result from a delay in the removal of amelogenins as the enamel matures. In vitro, when fluoride is incorporated into the mineral, more protein binds to the forming mineral, and protein removal by proteinases is delayed. This suggests that altered protein/mineral interactions are in part responsible for retention of amelogenins and the resultant hypomineralization that occurs in fluorosed enamel. Fluoride also appears to enhance mineral precipitation in forming teeth, resulting in hypermineralized bands of enamel, which are then followed by hypomineralized bands. Enhanced mineral precipitation with local increases in matrix acidity may affect maturation stage ameloblast modulation, potentially explaining the dose-related decrease in cycles of ameloblast modulation from ruffle-ended to smooth-ended cells that occur with fluoride exposure in rodents. Specific cellular effects of fluoride have been implicated, but more research is needed to determine which of these changes are relevant to the formation of fluorosed teeth. As further

  6. Chronic Fluoride Toxicity: Dental Fluorosis

    PubMed Central

    DenBesten, Pamela; Li, Wu

    2012-01-01

    Dental fluorosis occurs as a result of excess fluoride ingestion during tooth formation. Enamel fluorosis and primary dentin fluorosis can only occur when teeth are forming, and therefore fluoride exposure (as it relates to dental fluorosis) occurs during childhood. In the permanent dentition, this would begin with the lower incisors, which complete mineralization at approximately 2–3 years of age, and end after mineralization of the third molars. The white opaque appearance of fluorosed enamel is caused by a hypomineralized enamel subsurface; with more severe dental fluorosis, pitting and a loss of the enamel surface occurs, leading to secondary staining (appearing as a brown color). Many of the changes caused by fluoride are related to cell/matrix/mineral interactions as the teeth are forming. At the early maturation stage, the relative quantity of amelogenin protein is increased in fluorosed enamel in a dose-related manner. This appears to result from a delay in the removal of amelogenins as the enamel matures. In vitro, when fluoride is incorporated into the mineral, more protein binds to the forming mineral, and protein removal by proteinases is delayed. This suggests that altered protein/mineral interactions are in part responsible for retention of amelogenins and the resultant hypomineralization that occurs in fluorosed enamel. Fluoride also appears to enhance mineral precipitation in forming teeth, resulting in hypermineralized bands of enamel, which are then followed by hypomineralized bands. Enhanced mineral precipitation with local increases in matrix acidity may affect maturation stage ameloblast modulation, potentially explaining the doserelated decrease in cycles of ameloblast modulation from ruffleended to smooth-ended cells that occur with fluoride exposure in rodents. Specific cellular effects of fluoride have been implicated, but more research is needed to determine which of these changes are relevant to the formation of fluorosed teeth. As

  7. Influence of cadmium on caries and the cariostatic properties of fluoride in rats

    SciTech Connect

    Shearer, T.R.; Britton, J.L.; DeSart, D.J.; Johnson, J.R.

    1980-05-01

    Cadmium injections during molar tooth development in the rat were strongly caries-promoting in female rats. Cadmium also partially negated the cariostatic effect of fluoridated drinking water in both male and female rats. The mechanism for the caris-promoting propeties of cadmium is unknown, but may be related to cadmium uptake into enamel and dentin. Cadmium was taken up into molar enamel and dentin in proportion to the amount of cadmium administered, but cadmium did not influence uptake of fluoride onto erupted enamel. Calcium and ash concentrations in molar enamel were not altered by cadmium administration.

  8. Modified zirconium-eriochrome cyanine R determination of fluoride

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thatcher, L.L.

    1957-01-01

    The Eriochrome Cyanine R method for determining fluoride in natural water has been modified to provide a single, stable reagent solution, eliminate interference from oxidizing agents, extend the concentration range to 3 p.p.m., and extend the phosphate tolerance. Temperature effect was minimized; sulfate error was eliminated by precipitation. The procedure is sufficiently tolerant to interferences found in natural and polluted waters to permit the elimination of prior distillation for most samples. The method has been applied to 500 samples.

  9. Historical biomonitoring of fluoride pollution by determining fluoride contents in roe deer (Capreolus capreolus L.) antlers and mandibles in the vicinity of the largest Slovene thermal power plant.

    PubMed

    Jelenko, Ida; Pokorny, Boštjan

    2010-12-15

    Roe deer antlers/mandibles are a useful tool for determination of ambient fluoride pollution. Antlers have a well-defined annual cycle of growth, therefore they represent a natural standardisation of samples during winter months. On the contrary, mandibles accumulate fluorides during the whole life of an organism, thus they reflect aggregated effect of fluoride pollution trough the life-span of an organism. Both tissues are easily available; mandibles are often systematically collected with the purpose of cognitive management and control, and antlers could be gathered from private well-dated hunters' collections. Considering these benefits, fluoride contents were measured in 141 antlers (period 1960-2007) and 220 mandibles (period 1997-2009) of roe deer, shot in the vicinity of the largest Slovene Thermal Power Plant of Šoštanj (ŠTPP) as one of the major sources of fluorides in Slovenia. Fluoride contents in antlers significantly differed among age categories, and ranged from 110 to 1210 mg/kg in yearlings, 130 to 2340 mg/kg in young adults, and 250 to 2590 mg/kg in older adults, respectively. Fluoride levels in mandibles were also significantly different among age categories, and ranged from 30.0 to 227 mg/kg in fawns, 33.8 to 383 mg/kg in yearlings, and 61.5 to 1020 mg/kg in adults, respectively. Comparison of these results with previously reported fluoride contents in antlers and mandibles of roe deer from different areas of Europe revealed that the study area has never been extensively contaminated with fluorides. Moreover, trends of fluoride contents in both tissues confirmed a significant decrease of fluoride pollution in the area after the years 1995 and 2000, when flue-gas cleaning devices were constructed on the ŠTPP. Indeed, highly positive correlations between annual emissions from the ŠTPP and mean annual fluoride contents in antlers/mandibles confirmed that both tissues may be a useful tool for assessing temporal trends in ambient fluoride

  10. 49 CFR 173.163 - Hydrogen fluoride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Hydrogen fluoride. (a) Hydrogen