Science.gov

Sample records for natural circulation calculations

  1. Independent review of SCDAP/RELAP5 natural circulation calculations

    SciTech Connect

    Martinez, G.M.; Gross, R.J.; Martinez, M.J.; Rightley, G.S.

    1994-01-01

    A review and assessment of the uncertainties in the calculated response of reactor coolant system natural circulation using the SCDAP/RELAP5 computer code were completed. The SCDAP/RELAP5 calculation modeled a station blackout transient in the Surry nuclear power plant and concluded that primary system depressurization from natural circulation induced primary system failure is more likely than previously thought.

  2. Thermalhydraulic calculation for boiling water reactor and its natural circulation component

    SciTech Connect

    Trianti, Nuri Nurjanah,; Su’ud, Zaki; Arif, Idam; Permana, Sidik

    2015-09-30

    Thermalhydraulic of reactor core is the thermal study on fluids within the core reactor, i.e. analysis of the thermal energy transfer process produced by fission reaction from fuel to the reactor coolant. This study include of coolant temperature and reactor power density distribution. The purposes of this analysis in the design of nuclear power plant are to calculate the coolant temperature distribution and the chimney height so natural circulation could be occurred. This study was used boiling water reactor (BWR) with cylinder type reactor core. Several reactor core properties such as linear power density, mass flow rate, coolant density and inlet temperature has been took into account to obtain distribution of coolant density, flow rate and pressure drop. The results of calculation are as follows. Thermal hydraulic calculations provide the uniform pressure drop of 1.1 bar for each channels. The optimum mass flow rate to obtain the uniform pressure drop is 217g/s. Furthermore, from the calculation it could be known that outlet temperature is 288°C which is the saturated fluid’s temperature within the system. The optimum chimney height for natural circulation within the system is 14.88 m.

  3. Calculation of the Phenix end-of-life test in natural circulation with the CATHARE code

    SciTech Connect

    Maas, L.; Cocheme, F.

    2012-07-01

    The Inst. of Radiological Protection and Nuclear Safety (IRSN) acts as technical support to French public authorities. As such, IRSN is in charge of safety assessment of operating and under construction reactors, as well as future projects. In this framework, one current objective of IRSN is to evaluate the ability and accuracy of numerical tools to foresee consequences of accidents. One of the advantages pointed up for fast reactors cooled by heavy liquid metal is the possibility of decay heat removal based on natural convection. The promotion of this passive cooling mode in future safety demonstrations will involve the use of adapted and validated numerical codes. After the final shutdown of the Phenix sodium cooled fast reactor in 2009, a set of tests covering different areas was conducted for code validation, including a natural circulation test in the primary circuit. Experimental data were issued by CEA to organize a benchmark exercise in the frame of an IAEA Coordinated Research Project (CRP), with the objective to assess the system-codes capability in simulating the thermal-hydraulics behavior of sodium cooled fast reactors in such accidental conditions. IRSN participated to this benchmark with the CATHARE code. This code, co-developed by CEA, EDF, AREVA and IRSN and widely used for PWR safety studies, was recently extended for sodium applications. This paper presents the CATHARE modeling of the Phenix primary circuit and the results obtained. A relatively good agreement was found with available measurements considering the experimental uncertainties. This work stressed the local aspects of phenomena occurring during the natural convection establishment and the limits of a 0D/1D approach. (authors)

  4. Thermohydraulic model experiments and calculations on the transition from forced to natural circulation for pool-type fast reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Hoffmann, H.; Marten, K.; Weinberg, D.; Kamide, H.

    1990-01-01

    After a reactor scram, the decay heat removal (DHR) is of decisive importance for the safety of the plant. A fully passive DHR system based on natural circulation alone is independent of any power source. The DHE system consists of immersion coolers (ICs) installed in the hot plenum and connected to air coolers, each via intermediate circuits. During the postscram phase, the decay heat is to be removed by natural circulation from the core into the hot plenum and via the ICs and intermediate loops to the air coolers. The function of this DHR system is investigated and demonstrated in model tests with a geometry similar to the reactor, though on a different scale RAMONA is such a three-dimensional model set up on a 1:20 scale. It is operated with water. The steady-state tests for natural-circulation DHR operations have been conducted over a wide range of operational and geometric parameters. To study the transition from nominal to DHR conditions, experiments were defined to investigate the onset of natural circulation in the postscram phase (transient tests). The experiments were analyzed using the one-dimensional LEDHER code. LEDHER is a network analysis code for the long-term DHR of a fast reactor developed at Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corporation in Japan. The results of the experiments and conclusions are summarized.

  5. Numerical Issues for Circulation Control Calculations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swanson, Roy C., Jr.; Rumsey, Christopher L.

    2006-01-01

    Steady-state and time-accurate two-dimensional solutions of the compressible Reynolds-averaged Navier- Stokes equations are obtained for flow over the Lockheed circulation control (CC) airfoil and the General Aviation CC (GACC) airfoil. Numerical issues in computing circulation control flows such as the effects of grid resolution, boundary and initial conditions, and unsteadiness are addressed. For the Lockheed CC airfoil computed solutions are compared with detailed experimental data, which include velocity and Reynolds stress profiles. Three turbulence models, having either one or two transport equations, are considered. Solutions are obtained on a sequence of meshes, with mesh refinement primarily concentrated on the airfoil circular trailing edge. Several effects related to mesh refinement are identified. For example, sometimes sufficient mesh resolution can exclude nonphysical solutions, which can occur in CC airfoil calculations. Also, sensitivities of the turbulence models with mesh refinement are discussed. In the case of the GACC airfoil the focus is on the difference between steady-state and time-accurate solutions. A specific objective is to determine if there is self-excited vortex shedding from the jet slot lip.

  6. Validation of SSC using the FFTF natural-circulation tests

    SciTech Connect

    Horak, W.C.; Guppy, J.G.; Kennett, R.J.

    1982-01-01

    As part of the Super System Code (SSC) validation program, the 100% power FFTF natural circulation test has been simulated using SSC. A detailed 19 channel, 2 loop model was used in SSC. Comparisons showed SSC calculations to be in good agreement with the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF), test data. Simulation of the test was obtained in real time.

  7. Quenching phenomena in natural circulation loop

    SciTech Connect

    Umekawa, Hisashi; Ozawa, Mamoru; Ishida, Naoki

    1995-09-01

    Quenching phenomena has been investigated experimentally using circulation loop of liquid nitrogen. During the quenching under natural circulation, the heat transfer mode changes from film boiling to nucleate boiling, and at the same time flux changes with time depending on the vapor generation rate and related two-phase flow characteristics. Moreover, density wave oscillations occur under a certain operating condition, which is closely related to the dynamic behavior of the cooling curve. The experimental results indicates that the occurrence of the density wave oscillation induces the deterioration of effective cooling of the heat surface in the film and the transition boiling regions, which results in the decrease in the quenching velocity.

  8. Numerical simulation of losses along a natural circulation helium loop

    SciTech Connect

    Knížat, Branislav Urban, František Mlkvik, Marek Ridzoň, František Olšiak, Róbert

    2016-06-30

    A natural circulation helium loop appears to be a perspective passive method of a nuclear reactor cooling. When designing this device, it is important to analyze the mechanism of an internal flow. The flow of helium in the loop is set in motion due to a difference of hydrostatic pressures between cold and hot branch. Steady flow at a requested flow rate occurs when the buoyancy force is adjusted to resistances against the flow. Considering the fact that the buoyancy force is proportional to a difference of temperatures in both branches, it is important to estimate the losses correctly in the process of design. The paper deals with the calculation of losses in branches of the natural circulation helium loop by methods of CFD. The results of calculations are an important basis for the hydraulic design of both exchangers (heater and cooler). The analysis was carried out for the existing model of a helium loop of the height 10 m and nominal heat power 250 kW.

  9. Diagnostic calculations of the circulation in the Martian atmosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Santee, Michelle L.; Crisp, David

    1995-01-01

    The circulation of the Martian atmosphere during late southern summer is derived from atmospheric temperature and dust distributions retrieved from a subset of the Mariner 9 infrared interferometer spectrometer (IRIS) thermal emission spectra (L(sub s) = 343-348 deg). Zonal-mean zonal winds are calculated by assuming gradient wind balance and zero surface zonal wind. Both hemispheres have intense midlatitude westerly jets with velocities of 80-90 m/s near 50 km; in the southern tropics the winds are easterly with velocities of 40 m/s near 50 km. The net effect of the zonal mean meridional circulation and large-scale waves can be approximated by the diabatic circulation, which is defined from the atmospheric thermal structure and net radiative heating rates. The radiative transfer model described by Crisp (1990) and Santee (1993) is used to compute solar heating and thermal cooling rates from diurnal averages of the retrieved IRIS temperature and dust distributions. At pressures below 4 mbar, there are large net radiative heating rates (up to 5 K/d) in the equatorial region and large net radiative cooling rates (up to 12 K/d) in the polar regions. These net radiative heating rates are used in a diagnostic stream function model which solves for the meridional and vertical components of the diabatic circulation simultaneously. We find a two-cell circulation, with rising motion over the equator, poleward flow in both hemispheres, sinking motion over both polar regions, and return flow in the lowest atmospheric levels. The maximum poleward velocity is 3 m/s in the tropics at approx. 55 km altitude, and the maximum vertical velocity is 2.5 cm/s downward over the north pole at approx. 60 km altitude. If these large transport rates are sustained for an entire season, the Martian atmosphere above the 1-mbar level is overturned in about 38 days. This diabatic circulation is qualitatively similar to the terrestrial diabatic circulation at the comparable season, but is more

  10. Calculated Hovering Helicopter Flight Dynamics with a Circulation Controlled Rotor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, W.; Chopra, I.

    1977-01-01

    The influence of the rotor blowing coefficient on the calculated roots of the longitudinal and lateral motion was examined for a range of values of the rotor lift and the blade flap frequency. The control characteristics of a helicopter with a circulation controlled rotor are discussed. The principal effect of the blowing is a reduction in the rotor speed stability derivative. Above a critical level of blowing coefficient, which depends on the flap frequency and rotor lift, negative speed stability is produced and the dynamic characteristics of the helicopter are radically altered.

  11. Diagnostic calculations of the circulation in the Martian atmosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Santee, Michelle L.; Crisp, David

    1995-01-01

    The circulation of the Martian atmosphere during late southern summer is derived from atmospheric temperature and dust distributions retrieved from a subset of the Mariner 9 infrared interferometer spectrometer (IRIS) thermal emission spectra (LS = 343-348 deg) (Santee and Crisp, 1933). Zonal-mean zonal winds are calculated by assuming gradient wind balance and zero surface zonal wind. Both hemispheres have intense midlatitude westerly jets with velocities of 80-90 m/s near 50 km; in the southern tropics the winds are easterly with velocities of 40 m/s near 50 km. The net effect of the zonal-mean meridional circulation and large-scale waves can be approximated by the diabatic ciculation, which is defined from the atmospheric thermal structure and net radiative heating rates. The radiative transfer model described by Crisp (1990) and Santee (1993) is used to compute solar heating and thermal cooling rates from diurnal averages of the retrieved IRIS temperature and dust distributions. At pressures below 4 mbar, there are large net radiative heating rates (up to 5 K/d) in the equatorial region and large net radiative cooling rates (up to 12 K/d) in the polar regions. These net radiative heating rates are used in a diagnostic stream function model which solves for the meridonal and vertical components of the diabatic circulation simultaneously. We find a two cell circulation, with rising motion over the equator, poleward flow in both hemispheres, sinking motion over both polar regions, and return flow in the lowest atmospheric levels. The maximum poleward velocity is 3 m/s in the tropics at approximately 55 km altitude, and the maximum vertical velocity is 2.5 cm/s downward over the north pole at approximately 60 km altitude. If these large transport rates are sustained for an entire season, the Martian atmosphere above the 1-mbar level is overturned in about 38 days. This diabatic circulation is qualitatively similar to the terrestial diabatic circulation at the

  12. Decay heat removal in HTGRs by Natural Circulation

    SciTech Connect

    Tzoref, J.; Saphier, D.

    1990-01-01

    The coolability of a conceptual 1000-MW(thermal) high-temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR) with complete loss of forced circulation is investigated. Similar design concepts have been proposed by several designers. The important question is whether, for the given geometrical configuration and power density, natural circulation can be developed within a sufficiently short period so that passive cooling devices can be used to remove the decay heat. From the present study, it was concluded that if the reactor remains pressurized during the accident, and if passage near a passive cooling device with a minimum 0.3% nominal heat removal capacity of the reactor nominal decay power can be established, then the maximum fuel temperature will always stay below the 1600{degree}C limit, which is the limit for the beginning of fission product release. The generated decay heat under such conditions is partly removed by the developed natural circulation to the passive heat sink, whereas the rest is absorbed by the system large heat capacity. At the beginning of the accident, most of the decay heat is absorbed by the graphite in the thermal shield structure metal. In the course of the accident, the relative part of the heat dominant. The study was performed by using the DSNP modular simulation language. A dynamic model was developed for the natural circulation flow in the primary loop of a medium-size HTGR during loss of forced circulation.

  13. Uncertainty in calculating vorticity from 2D velocity fields using circulation and least-squares approaches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abrahamson, S.; Lonnes, S.

    1995-11-01

    The most common method for determining vorticity from planar velocity information is the circulation method. Its performance has been evaluated using a plane of velocity data obtained from a direct numerical simulation (DNS) of a three dimensional plane shear layer. Both the ability to reproduce the vorticity from the exact velocity field and one perturbed by a 5% random “uncertainty” were assessed. To minimize the sensitivity to velocity uncertainties, a new method was developed using a least-squares approach. The local velocity data is fit to a model velocity field consisting of uniform translation, rigid rotation, a point source, and plane shear. The least-squares method was evaluated in the same manner as the circulation method. The largest differences between the actual and calculated vorticity fields were due to the filter-like nature of the methods. The new method is less sensitive to experimental uncertainty. However the circulation method proved to be slightly better at reproducing the DNS field. The least-squares method provides additional information beyond the circulation method results. Using the correlation overline {Pω ω } and a vorticity threshold criteria to identify regions of rigid rotation (or eddies), the rigid rotation component of the least-squares method indicates these same regions.

  14. Performance of Liquid Metals in Natural Circulation Cooled Nuclear Reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Ceballos, Carlos; Lathouwers, Danny; Verkooijen, Adrian

    2004-07-01

    The inherent safety capability of natural circulation makes reactor design more reliable. Additionally, the construction and operation of a nuclear power plant with natural circulation in the primary cooling circuit is an interesting alternative for nuclear plant designers, due to their lower operational and investment costs obtained by simplifying systems and controls. This paper deals with the feasibility of application of natural circulation in the primary cooling circuit of a liquid metal fast reactor. The methodology employed is a non-dimensional analysis, which describes the relationship between the physical properties and system variables. The performance criterion is bounded by a safety argument, referring to the maximum cladding temperature allowed during operation. The study considers several coolants, which can play a part in reactor cooling systems, such as lead, lead-bismuth and sodium. Bismuth and gallium are included in this analysis, in order to extend the range of properties for reference purposes. The results present a characterization of natural circulation flow in a reactor and compare the cooling capabilities from different liquid metals coolants. (authors)

  15. A probabilistic method of calculating circulation-induced trends

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brox Nilsen, Irene; Stagge, James Howard; Merete Tallaksen, Lena

    2015-04-01

    The water cycle in Europe has changed substantially over the past three decades. Increasing runoff is observed during winter and at northern latitudes in particular. Spring and summer months, as well as southern latitudes, are facing drier conditions. To understand what is driving large-scale changes in runoff, we look into changes in precipitation and temperature and link these to changes in atmospheric circulation. Previous studies have used the method of trend ratios (Cahynová and Huth, 2009) to attribute precipitation and temperature trends to changes in the frequency of circulation types. A trend ratio is the ratio of hypothetical trend, i.e., the trend that would result due to changes in circulation type frequency only, to the observed trend. However, the method of trend ratios has two drawbacks. First, if the observed trend is small, division by a very low value results in a meaningless trend ratio and thus requires a cut-off value to keep the trend ratio within meaningful boundaries. Second, the method does not allow a comparison of the observed trend to the spread of possible outcomes, because the method of hypothetical trends is based on a deterministic model. We propose a new, more robust method for detecting the importance of circulation-induced changes in explaining the observed trends, which has the benefit of being a non-parametric statistical test that assesses the entire range of hypothetical trends. Instead of creating a hypothetical series by replacing the observation on a given day with the long-term climatic mean of a certain month and circulation type (as in the existing trend ratio method), the new approach replaces the observation on a given day with a random sample from the distribution of the variable for the given month and circulation type. The method introduces the possibility to assign a rejection rate, thus allowing statistical significance to be assessed. We apply the method on time series of precipitation and temperature from the

  16. A study of natural circulation in the evaporator of a horizontal-tube heat recovery steam generator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roslyakov, P. V.; Pleshanov, K. A.; Sterkhov, K. V.

    2014-07-01

    Results obtained from investigations of stable natural circulation in an intricate circulation circuit with a horizontal layout of the tubes of evaporating surface having a negative useful head are presented. The possibility of making a shift from using multiple forced circulation organized by means of a circulation pump to natural circulation in vertical heat recovery steam generator is estimated. Criteria for characterizing the performance reliability and efficiency of a horizontal evaporator with negative useful head are proposed. The influence of various design solutions on circulation robustness is considered. With due regard of the optimal parameters, the most efficient and least costly methods are proposed for achieving more stable circulation in a vertical heat recovery steam generator when a shift is made from multiple forced to natural circulation. A procedure for calculating the circulation parameters and an algorithm for checking evaporator performance reliability are developed, and recommendations for the design of heat recovery steam generator, nonheated parts of natural circulation circuit, and evaporating surface are suggested.

  17. FFTF operating experience with sodium natural circulation: slides included

    SciTech Connect

    Burke, T.M.; Additon, S.L.; Beaver, T.R.; Midgett, J.C.

    1981-01-01

    The Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF) has been designed for passive, back-up, safety grade decay heat removal utilizing natural circulation of the sodium coolant. This paper discusses the process by which operator preparation for this emergency operating mode has been assured, in paralled with the design verification during the FFTF startup and acceptance testing program. Over the course of the test program, additional insights were gained through the testing program, through on-going plant analyses and through general safety evaluations performed throughout the nuclear industry. These insights led to development of improved operator training material for control of decay heat removal during both forced and natural circulation as well as improvements in the related plant operating procedures.

  18. Liquid Fluoride Salt Experimentation Using a Small Natural Circulation Cell

    SciTech Connect

    Yoder Jr, Graydon L; Heatherly, Dennis Wayne; Williams, David F; Elkassabgi, Yousri M.; Caja, Joseph; Caja, Mario; Jordan, John; Salinas, Roberto

    2014-04-01

    A small molten fluoride salt experiment has been constructed and tested to develop experimental techniques for application in liquid fluoride salt systems. There were five major objectives in developing this test apparatus: Allow visual observation of the salt during testing (how can lighting be introduced, how can pictures be taken, what can be seen) Determine if IR photography can be used to examine components submerged in the salt Determine if the experimental configuration provides salt velocity sufficient for collection of corrosion data for future experimentation Determine if a laser Doppler velocimeter can be used to quantify salt velocities. Acquire natural circulation heat transfer data in fluoride salt at temperatures up to 700oC All of these objectives were successfully achieved during testing with the exception of the fourth: acquiring velocity data using the laser Doppler velocimeter. This paper describes the experiment and experimental techniques used, and presents data taken during natural circulation testing.

  19. On the stability of natural circulation loops with phase change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haskin, Troy C.

    The stability of a simple, closed-loop, water-cooled natural circulation system was characterized over a range of single phase and two-phase states. The motivation for this investigation is a Next Generation Nuclear Plant safety cooling system called the Reactor Cavity Cooling System (RCCS). One of the proposed designs for the RCCS is a closed-circuit of network piping using water as a working fluid. One of the safety considerations for such a system is the stability of the system at steady-state under a large number of unknown states. This work provides a derivation of the commonly used one-dimensional conservation laws used in thermohydraulic system modeling and a novel discretization scheme that allows for exact integration of the computational domain for accurate calculation of eigenvalues of a linearized system. The steady-state solution of the discretized equations is then performed using a fully nonlinear Jacobian-Free Newton Krylov Method for a number of temperatures, pressures, and heat loads both in single and two-phase conditions. All of the single and two-phase state exhibit linear stability to small perturbations in values. The linear stability is also found to increase with increasing heat load due to the greater inertia of the system damping out small perturbation effectively and with increasing pressure due to the greater stiffness of the fluid. Nonlinear stability was also examined for a point power insertion of varying intensity from two steady-states. The loop exhibited stability for all power insertions from both steady-states, returning to the initial steady value shortly after the pulse.

  20. Diagnostic calculations of the circulation in the Martian atmosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Santee, Michelle; Crisp, D.

    1993-01-01

    The circulation of the martian atmosphere during late southern summer is inferred from observed atmospheric temperature and dust distributions. We use global maps of temperature and dust optical depth (approximately 0-60 km) retrieved from a subset of the Mariner 9 IRIS thermal emission spectra spanning L(sub s) equals 343-348 deg. This thermal structure is characterized by a reversed meridional temperature gradient at altitudes above about 40 km, and temperatures that decrease from equator to pole at lower altitudes. Zonal-mean zonal winds are derived from the zonally averaged temperatures assuming gradient wind balance and midlatitude westerly jets with velocities of 80-90 m s(exp -1) near 50 km; in the southern tropics the winds are easterly with velocities of 40 m s(exp -1) near 50 km. The north-south atmospheric transport includes contributions from both the zonal mean meridional circulation and large-scale waves.

  1. Natural Circulation Patterns in the VHTR Air-Ingress Accident and Related Issues

    SciTech Connect

    Chang Ho Oh; Eung Soo Kim; Hyung Seok Kang

    2010-10-01

    A natural circulation pattern in a Very High Gas-Cooled Reactor during a hypothetical air-ingress accident has been investigated using computational fluid dynamic (CFD) methods in order to compare with the previous 1-D flow path model for the air-ingress analyses. The GT-MHR 600 MWt reactor was selected to be the reference design and modeled by a half symmetric 3-D geometry using FLUENT 6.3, a commercial CFD code. The simulation was carried out as steady-state calculations, and the boundary conditions were either assumed or provided from the 1-D GAMMA code results. Totally, 12 different cases have been estimated, and many notable findings and results have been obtained in this study. According to the simulations, the natural circulation pattern in the reactor was quite different from the previous 1-D assumptions. A large re-circulation flow with thermal stratification phenomena was clearly observed in the hot-leg and the lower plenum in the 3-D model. This re-circulation flow provided approximately an order faster air-ingress speed (0.46 m/s in superficial velocity) than previously predicted values by 1-D modeling (0.02~0.03 m/s). It indicates that the 1-D air-ingress modeling may significantly distort the air-ingress scenario and consequences. In addition, the complicated natural circulation pattern is eventually expected to lead to very complex graphite oxidations and corrosion patterns.

  2. Natural Circulation Patterns in the VHTR Air-Ingress Accident and Related Issues

    SciTech Connect

    Chang H. Oh; Eung S. Kim

    2012-08-01

    Natural circulation patterns in the VHTR during a hypothetical air-ingress accident have been investigated using computational fluid dynamic (CFD) methods in order to compare results from the previous 1-D model which was developed using GAMMA code for the air-ingress analyses. The GT-MHR 600 MWt reactor was selected to be the reference design and modeled by a half symmetric 3-D geometry using FLUENT 6.3, a commercial CFD code. CFD simulations were carried out as the steady-state calculation, and the boundary conditions were either assumed or provided from the 1-D GAMMA code results. Totally, 12 different cases have been reviewed, and many notable results have been obtained through in this work. According to the simulations, natural circulation patterns in the reactor were quite different from the previous 1-D assumptions. A large re-circulation flow with thermal stratification phenomena was clearly observed in the hot-leg and the lower plenum in the 3-D model. This re-circulation flow provided about an order faster air-ingress speed (0.46 m/s in superficial velocity) than previously predicted by 1-D modeling (0.02~0.03 m/s). It indicates that the 1-D air-ingress modeling may significantly distort the air-ingress scenario and consequences. In addition, complicated natural circulation patterns are eventually expected to result in very complex graphite oxidations and corrosion behaviors.

  3. Control of natural circulation loops by electrohydrodynamic pumping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grassi, W.; Testi, D.; Della Vista, D.

    2014-04-01

    The paper analyses the effect of electrohydrodynamic (EHD) pumping on the control of natural circulation loops (NCLs). The two major objectives of the investigation are: finding the optimal configuration of an EHD pump and demonstrating that the NCL flow direction can be inverted by exploiting the EHD phenomena. In the initial experimental set-up, we measured the static pressure rise given by an EHD pump made of three consecutive modules of point-ring electrodes for different dielectric fluids and electrode materials. When reversing the polarity of the applied DC voltage, we observed opposite pumping directions, suggesting the presence of two distinct EHD phenomena, inducing motion on opposite directions: ion-drag pumping and conduction pumping. The former was identified as a more efficient process compared to the latter. Based on these preliminary experiments, we built a NCL, operating with the fluid HFE-7100. Two oppositely mounted optimised pumping sections could be alternately activated, to promote clockwise or anticlockwise motion. In the first series of tests, alternately, the pumping sections were triggered prior to the heat input. In any case, the circulation followed the EHD pumping direction. In other tests, the electric field was applied when natural circulation was already present and the flow was reversed by means of opposite EHD pumping, at both polarities. Simply inverting the polarity of the applied voltage, we could alternate ion-drag and conduction pumping; in this way, we easily controlled the direction of motion by means of a single EHD pumping device.

  4. Naturally forced multidecadal variability of the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Menary, Matthew; Scaife, Adam

    2014-05-01

    The mechanisms by which natural forcing factors alone could drive simulated multidecadal variability in the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC) are assessed in an ensemble of climate model simulations. It is shown for a new state-of-the-art general circulation model, HadGEM2-ES, that the most important of these natural forcings, in terms of the multidecadal response of the AMOC, is solar rather than volcanic forcing. AMOC strengthening occurs through a densification of the North Atlantic, driven by anomalous surface freshwater fluxes due to increased evaporation. These are related to persistent North Atlantic atmospheric circulation anomalies, driven by forced changes in the stratosphere, associated with anomalously weak solar irradiance during the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. Within a period of approximately 100 years the 11-year smoothed ensemble mean AMOC strengthens by 1.5Sv and subsequently weakens by 1.9Sv, representing respectively approximately 3 and 4 standard deviations of the 11-year smoothed control simulation. The solar-induced variability of the AMOC has various relevant climate impacts, such as a northward shift of the intertropical convergence zone, anomalous Amazonian rainfall, and a sustained increase in European temperatures. While this model has only a partial representation of the atmospheric response to solar variability, these results demonstrate the potential for solar variability to have a multidecadal impact on North Atlantic climate.

  5. Study of turbulent natural-circulation flow and low-Prandtl-number forced-convection flow. [LMFBR

    SciTech Connect

    Chung, K.S.; Thompson, D.H.

    1980-01-01

    Calculational methods and results are discussed for the coupled energy and momentum equations of turbulent natural circulation flow and low Prandtl number forced convection flow. The objective of this paper is to develop a calculational method for the study of the thermal-hydraulic behavior of coolant flowing in a liquid metal fast breeder reactor channel under natural circulation conditions. The two-equation turbulence model is used to evaluate the turbulent momentum transport property. Because the analogy between momentum transfer and heat transfer does not generally hold for low Prandtl number fluid and natural circulation flow conditions, the turbulent thermal conductivity is calculated independently using equations similar to the two-equation turbulence model. The numerical technique used in the calculation is the finite element method.

  6. Natural circulation analysis for the advanced neutron source reactor refueling process 11

    SciTech Connect

    Tucker, R.F.; Dasardhi, S.; Elkassabgi, Y.; Yoder, G.L.

    1995-09-01

    During the refueling process of the Advanced Neutron Source Reactor (ANSR), the spent fuel elements must be moved from the primary coolant loop (containing D{sub 2}O), through a heavy water pool, and finally into a light water spent fuel storage area. The present refueling scheme utilizes remote refueling equipment to move the spent fuel elements through a D{sub 2}O filled stack and tunnel into a temporary storage canal. A transfer lock is used to move the spent fuel elements from the D{sub 2}O-filled interim storage canal to a light water pool. Each spent fuel element must be cooled during this process, using either natural circulation or forced convection. This paper presents a summary of the numerical techniques used to analyze natural circulation cooling of the ANSR fuel elements as well as selected results of the calculations. Details of the analysis indicate that coolant velocities below 10 cm/s exist in the coolant channels under single phase natural circulation conditions. Also, boiling does not occur within the channels if power levels are below a few hundred kW when the core transitions to natural circulation conditions.

  7. Calculation of natural ventilation and comfort

    SciTech Connect

    Sherman, M.; Ashley, S.

    1984-01-01

    Natural ventilation can be used to greatly reduce cooling loads and increase human comfort in buildings in hot, humid climates. Airflow rates directly affect a building's heat balance by removing internal gains and directly affect comfort levels by increasing the body's convective and evaporative heat-transfer coefficients; these airflow rates are determined by the wind pressure on the faces of the building (which is calculated from the wind speed and pressure coefficient) and the amount of open area. Wind pressure coefficients can be obtained in three ways: (1) by direct field measurement, (2) by scale-model experiments in a wind-tunnel, and (3) by comparison with standard wind-tunnel data. Measurements made on two buildings at the Kaneohe Marine Corps Air Station (KMCAS) on the island of Oahu, Hawaii, during the summer of 1982 are described. These full-scale measurements of pressure coefficients will be compared to reduced-scale measurements made at the the boundary-layer wind-tunnel at the Naval Civil Engineering Laboratory (NCEL). Estimates of the indoor comfort levels for different window conditions will be used as a basis for determining the acceptability of natural ventilation for cooling.

  8. Pattern of Circulation of Norovirus GII Strains during Natural Infection

    PubMed Central

    Fobisong, Cajetan; Tah, Ferdinand; Lindh, Magnus; Nkuo-Akenji, Theresia; Bergström, Tomas

    2014-01-01

    Norovirus (NoV) is considered a major cause of nonbacterial gastroenteritis among people of all ages worldwide, but the natural course of infection is incompletely known. In this study, the pattern of circulation of NoVs was studied among 146 children and 137 adults in a small community in southwestern Cameroon. The participants provided monthly fecal samples during a year. NoV RNA was detected in at least one sample from 82 (29%) of the participants. The partial VP1 region could be sequenced in 36 NoV GII-positive samples. Three different genotypes were identified (GII.1, GII.4, and GII.17), with each genotype circulating within 2 to 3 months and reappearing after a relapse period of 2 to 3 months. Most infections occurred once, and 2 episodes at most within a year were detected. No difference in the frequency of NoV infection between children and adults was recorded. The same genotype was detected for a maximum of 2 consecutive months in 3 children only, suggesting that a less than 30-day duration of viral shedding in natural infection was common. Reinfection within a year with the same genotype was not observed, consistent with short-term homotypic immune protection. The study revealed that NoV strains are circulating with a limited duration of viral shedding both in the individuals and the population as part of their natural infection. The results also provide evidence of cross-protective immunity of limited duration between genotypes of the same genogroup. PMID:25274996

  9. Pattern of circulation of norovirus GII strains during natural infection.

    PubMed

    Ayukekbong, James Ayukepi; Fobisong, Cajetan; Tah, Ferdinand; Lindh, Magnus; Nkuo-Akenji, Theresia; Bergström, Tomas

    2014-12-01

    Norovirus (NoV) is considered a major cause of nonbacterial gastroenteritis among people of all ages worldwide, but the natural course of infection is incompletely known. In this study, the pattern of circulation of NoVs was studied among 146 children and 137 adults in a small community in southwestern Cameroon. The participants provided monthly fecal samples during a year. NoV RNA was detected in at least one sample from 82 (29%) of the participants. The partial VP1 region could be sequenced in 36 NoV GII-positive samples. Three different genotypes were identified (GII.1, GII.4, and GII.17), with each genotype circulating within 2 to 3 months and reappearing after a relapse period of 2 to 3 months. Most infections occurred once, and 2 episodes at most within a year were detected. No difference in the frequency of NoV infection between children and adults was recorded. The same genotype was detected for a maximum of 2 consecutive months in 3 children only, suggesting that a less than 30-day duration of viral shedding in natural infection was common. Reinfection within a year with the same genotype was not observed, consistent with short-term homotypic immune protection. The study revealed that NoV strains are circulating with a limited duration of viral shedding both in the individuals and the population as part of their natural infection. The results also provide evidence of cross-protective immunity of limited duration between genotypes of the same genogroup. Copyright © 2014, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  10. Experimental Observations of Natural Circulation Flow in the NSTF

    SciTech Connect

    Lisowski, Darius; Kraus, Adam R.; Bucknor, Matthew D.; Hu, Rui; Farmer, Mitchell T.

    2016-09-01

    A 1/2 scale test facility has been constructed at Argonne National Laboratory to study the heat removal performance and natural circulation flow patterns in a Reactor Cavity Cooling System (RCCS). Our test facility, the Natural convection Shutdown heat removal Test Facility (NSTF), supports the broader goal of developing an inherently safe and fully passive ex-vessel decay heat removal for advanced reactor designs. The project, initiated in 2010 to support the Advanced Reactor Technologies (ART), Small Modular Reactor (SMR), and Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) programs, has been conducting experimental operations since early 2014. The following paper provides a summary of some primary design features of the 26-m tall test facility along with a description of the data acquisition suite that guides our experimental practices. Specifics of the distributed fiber optic temperature measurements will be discussed, which introduces an unparalleled level of data density that has never before been implemented in a large scale natural circulation test facility. Results from our test series will then be presented, which provide insight into the thermal hydraulic behavior at steady-state and transient conditions for varying heat flux levels and exhaust chimney configuration states. (C) 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. MODELING STRATEGIES TO COMPUTE NATURAL CIRCULATION USING CFD IN A VHTR AFTER A LOFA

    SciTech Connect

    Yu-Hsin Tung; Richard W. Johnson; Ching-Chang Chieng; Yuh-Ming Ferng

    2012-11-01

    A prismatic gas-cooled very high temperature reactor (VHTR) is being developed under the next generation nuclear plant program (NGNP) of the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Nuclear Energy. In the design of the prismatic VHTR, hexagonal shaped graphite blocks are drilled to allow insertion of fuel pins, made of compacted TRISO fuel particles, and coolant channels for the helium coolant. One of the concerns for the reactor design is the effects of a loss of flow accident (LOFA) where the coolant circulators are lost for some reason, causing a loss of forced coolant flow through the core. In such an event, it is desired to know what happens to the (reduced) heat still being generated in the core and if it represents a problem for the fuel compacts, the graphite core or the reactor vessel (RV) walls. One of the mechanisms for the transport of heat out of the core is by the natural circulation of the coolant, which is still present. That is, how much heat may be transported by natural circulation through the core and upwards to the top of the upper plenum? It is beyond current capability for a computational fluid dynamic (CFD) analysis to perform a calculation on the whole RV with a sufficiently refined mesh to examine the full potential of natural circulation in the vessel. The present paper reports the investigation of several strategies to model the flow and heat transfer in the RV. It is found that it is necessary to employ representative geometries of the core to estimate the heat transfer. However, by taking advantage of global and local symmetries, a detailed estimate of the strength of the resulting natural circulation and the level of heat transfer to the top of the upper plenum is obtained.

  12. Study of natural circulation in a VHTR after a LOFA using different turbulence models

    SciTech Connect

    Yu-Hsin Tung; Yuh-Ming Ferng; Richard W. Johnson; Ching-Chang Chieng

    2013-10-01

    Natural convection currents in the core are anticipated in the event of the failure of the gas circulator in a prismatic gas-cooled very high temperature reactor (VHTR). The paths that the helium coolant takes in forming natural circulation loops and the effective heat transport are of interest. The heated flow in the reactor core is turbulent during normal operating conditions and at the beginning of the LOFA with forced convection, but the flow may significantly be slowed down after the event and laminarized with mixed convection. In the present study, the potential occurrence and effective heat transport of natural circulation are demonstrated using computational fluid dynamic (CFD) calculations with different turbulence models as well as laminar flow. Validations and recommendation on turbulence model selection are conducted. The study concludes that large loop natural convection is formed due to the enhanced turbulence levels by the buoyancy effect and the turbulent regime near the interface of upper plenum and flow channels increases the flow resistance for channel flows entering upper plenum and thus less heat can be removed from the core than the prediction by laminar flow assumption.

  13. Modeling of a coal-fired natural circulation boiler

    SciTech Connect

    Bhambare, K.S.; Mitra, S.K.; Gaitonde, U.N.

    2007-06-15

    Modeling of a natural circulation boiler for a coal-fired thermal power station is presented here. The boiler system is divided into seven subcomponents, and for each section, models based on conservation of mass, momentum, and energy are formulated. The pressure drop at various sections and the heat transfer coefficients are computed using empirical correlations. Solutions are obtained by using SIMULINK. The model is validated by comparing its steady state and dynamic responses with the actual plant data. Open loop responses of the model to the step changes in the operating parameters, such as pressure, temperature, steam flow, feed water flow, are also analyzed. The present model can be used for the development and design of effective boiler control systems.

  14. Transient boiling in two-phase helium natural circulation loops

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Furci, H.; Baudouy, B.; Four, A.; Meuris, C.

    2014-01-01

    Two-phase helium natural circulation loops are used for cooling large superconducting magnets, as CMS for LHC. During normal operation or in the case of incidents, transients are exerted on the cooling system. Here a cooling system of this type is studied experimentally. Sudden power changes are operated on a vertical-heated-section natural convection loop, simulating a fast increase of heat deposition on magnet cooling pipes. Mass flow rate, heated section wall temperature and pressure drop variations are measured as a function of time, to assess the time behavior concerning the boiling regime according to the values of power injected on the heated section. The boiling curves and critical heat flux (CHF) values have been obtained in steady state. Temperature evolution has been observed in order to explore the operating ranges where heat transfer is deteriorated. Premature film boiling has been observed during transients on the heated section in some power ranges, even at appreciably lower values than the CHF. A way of attenuating these undesired temperature excursions has been identified through the application of high enough initial heating power.

  15. Design study of lead bismuth cooled fast reactors and capability of natural circulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oktamuliani, Sri; Su'ud, Zaki

    2015-09-01

    A preliminary study designs SPINNOR (Small Power Reactor, Indonesia, No On-Site Refueling) liquid metal Pb-Bi cooled fast reactors, fuel (U, Pu)N, 150 MWth have been performed. Neutronic calculation uses SRAC which is designed cylindrical core 2D (R-Z) 90 × 135 cm, on the core fuel composed of heterogeneous with percentage difference of PuN 10, 12, 13% and the result of calculation is effective neutron multiplication 1.0488. Power density distribution of the output SRAC is generated for thermal hydraulic calculation using Delphi based on Pascal language that have been developed. The research designed a reactor that is capable of natural circulation at inlet temperature 300 °C with variation of total mass flow rate. Total mass flow rate affect pressure drop and temperature outlet of the reactor core. The greater the total mass flow rate, the smaller the outlet temperature, but increase the pressure drop so that the chimney needed more higher to achieve natural circulation or condition of the system does not require a pump. Optimization of the total mass flow rate produces optimal reactor design on the total mass flow rate of 5000 kg/s with outlet temperature 524,843 °C but require a chimney of 6,69 meters.

  16. Design study of lead bismuth cooled fast reactors and capability of natural circulation

    SciTech Connect

    Oktamuliani, Sri Su’ud, Zaki

    2015-09-30

    A preliminary study designs SPINNOR (Small Power Reactor, Indonesia, No On-Site Refueling) liquid metal Pb-Bi cooled fast reactors, fuel (U, Pu)N, 150 MWth have been performed. Neutronic calculation uses SRAC which is designed cylindrical core 2D (R-Z) 90 × 135 cm, on the core fuel composed of heterogeneous with percentage difference of PuN 10, 12, 13% and the result of calculation is effective neutron multiplication 1.0488. Power density distribution of the output SRAC is generated for thermal hydraulic calculation using Delphi based on Pascal language that have been developed. The research designed a reactor that is capable of natural circulation at inlet temperature 300 °C with variation of total mass flow rate. Total mass flow rate affect pressure drop and temperature outlet of the reactor core. The greater the total mass flow rate, the smaller the outlet temperature, but increase the pressure drop so that the chimney needed more higher to achieve natural circulation or condition of the system does not require a pump. Optimization of the total mass flow rate produces optimal reactor design on the total mass flow rate of 5000 kg/s with outlet temperature 524,843 °C but require a chimney of 6,69 meters.

  17. Natural Circulation Level Optimization and the Effect during ULOF Accident in the SPINNOR Reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Abdullah, Ade Gafar; Su'ud, Zaki; Kurniadi, Rizal; Kurniasih, Neny; Yulianti, Yanti

    2010-12-23

    Natural circulation level optimization and the effect during loss of flow accident in the 250 MWt MOX fuelled small Pb-Bi Cooled non-refueling nuclear reactors (SPINNOR) have been performed. The simulation was performed using FI-ITB safety code which has been developed in ITB. The simulation begins with steady state calculation of neutron flux, power distribution and temperature distribution across the core, hot pool and cool pool, and also steam generator. When the accident is started due to the loss of pumping power the power distribution and the temperature distribution of core, hot pool and cool pool, and steam generator change. Then the feedback reactivity calculation is conducted, followed by kinetic calculation. The process is repeated until the optimum power distribution is achieved. The results show that the SPINNOR reactor has inherent safety capability against this accident.

  18. Dengue serotype circulation in natural populations of Aedes aegypti.

    PubMed

    Dos Santos, Taissa Pereira; Cruz, Oswaldo Gonsalvez; da Silva, Keli Antunes Barbosa; de Castro, Márcia Gonçalves; de Brito, Anielly Ferreira; Maspero, Renato Cesar; de Alcântra, Rosilene; Dos Santos, Flávia Barreto; Honorio, Nildimar A; Lourenço-de-Oliveira, Ricardo

    2017-07-23

    Ae. aegypti is the main vector of dengue (DENV), Zika (ZIKV), and chikungunya (CHIKV) viruses. The transmission dynamics of these arboviruses, especially the arboviral circulation in the mosquito population during low and high transmission seasons in endemic areas are still poorly understood. We conducted an entomological survey to determine dengue infection rates in Ae. aegypti and Aedes albopictus. These collections were performed in 2012-2013 during a Rio de Janeiro epidemic, just before the introduction and spread of ZIKV and CHIKV in the city. MosquiTrap(©) and BG-Sentinel traps were installed in three fixed and seven itinerant neighborhoods each month over ten months. Mosquitoes were in supernatants pools tested and individually confirmed for DENV infection using RT-PCR. A total of 3053 Aedes mosquitos were captured and Ae. aegypti was much more frequent (92.9%) than Ae. albopictus (6.8%). Ae. aegypti females accounted for 71.8% of captured mosquitoes by MosquitTrap(©) and were the only species found naturally infected with DENV (infection rate=0.81%). Only one Ae. aegypti male, collected by BG-sentinel, was also tested positive for DENV. The peak of DENV-positive mosquitoes coincided the season of the highest incidence of human cases. The most common serotypes detected in mosquitoes were DENV-3 (24%) and DENV-1 (24%), followed by DENV-4 (20%), DENV-2 (8%) and DENV-1 plus DENV4 (4%), while 95% of laboratory-confirmed human infections in the period were due to DENV-4. These contrasting results suggest silent maintenance of DENV serotypes during the epidemics, reinforcing the importance of entomological and viral surveillance in endemic areas. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Residual circulations calculated from satellite data - Their relations to observed temperature and ozone distributions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Geller, Marvin A.; Nash, Eric R.; Wu, Mao F.; Rosenfield, Joan E.

    1992-01-01

    Monthly mean residual circulations were calculated from eight years of satellite data. The diabatic circulation is usually found to give a good approximation to the residual circulation, but this is not always the case. In particular, an example is shown at 60 deg S and 30 mbar where the diabatic and residual circulations show very different annual variations. Correlations between the vertical component of the residual circulation and temperature and ozone were computed. The computations indicate that yearly variations of temperatures in the tropics are under radiative control, except during stratospheric warmings. Interannual variations in seasonal mean temperatures are shown to be under dynamical control everywhere. Correlations between seasonal means of the vertical component of the residual circulation and ozone mixing ratios are consistent with what would be expected from the ozone variations being due to differences in the ozone transport, although transport effects cannot easily be distinguished from photochemical effects above the altitude of the ozone mixing ratio peak. Finally, variations in total ozone are examined in comparison with residual circulation variations. A one to two month phase lag is seen in the annual variation in the total ozone at 60 deg N with respect to the maximum downward residual motions. This phase lag is greater at 60 deg N than at 60 deg S. There is evidence at 60 deg S of a greater downward trend in the mean zonal ozone maxima than there is in the minima. A decreasing trend in the maximum descending motion is seen to accompany the ozone trend at 60 deg S.

  20. Residual circulations calculated from satellite data: Their relations to observed temperature and ozone distributions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Geller, Marvin A.; Nash, Eric R.; Wu, Mao Fou; Rosenfield, Joan E.

    1990-01-01

    Monthly mean residual circulations were calculated from eight years of satellite data. The diabatic circulation is usually found to give a good approximation to the residual circulation, but this is not always the case. In particular, an example is shown at 60 deg S and 30 mbar where the diabatic and residual circulations show very different annual variations. Correlations between the vertical component of the residual circulation and temperature and ozone were computed. The computations indicate that yearly variations of temperatures in the tropics are under radiative control, except during stratospheric warmings. Interannual variations in seasonal mean temperatures are shown to be under dynamical control everywhere. Correlations between seasonal means of the vertical component of the residual circulation and ozone mixing ratios are consistent with what would be expected from the ozone variations being due to differences in the ozone transport, although transport effects cannot easily be distinguished from photochemical effects above the altitude of the ozone mixing ratio peak. Finally, variations in total ozone are examined in comparison with residual circulation variations. A one to two month phase lag is seen in the annual variation in the total ozone at 60 deg N with respect to the maximum downward residual motions. This phase lag is greater at 60 deg N than at 60 deg S. There is evidence at 60 deg S of a greater downward trend in the mean zonal ozone maxima than there is in the minima. A decreasing trend in the maximum descending motion is seen to accompany the ozone trend at 60 deg S.

  1. Calculation and Analysis of Heat Transfer Coefficients in a Circulating Fluidized Bed Boiler Furnace

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zhiwei; Yang, Jianhua; Li, Qinghai

    A new way for the circulating fluidized bed (CFB) boiler research is proposed by the supervisory information system (SIS) in power plant level. The heat transfer coefficient in CFB boiler furnace is calculated and analyzed by the SIS calculation analysis in a commercial CFB boiler, the way how to calculate the heat transfer coefficient in SIS is introduced, and the heat transfer coefficient is accurately received by calculating a large amount of data from database. The relation about the heat transfer coefficient to unit load, bed temperature, bed velocity, and suspension density is analyzed; the linear relation could be accepted for the commercial CFB design. A new calculating and simple way for the heat transfer coefficient of CFB boiler is proposed for CFB boiler design. Using this research result, the reheat spray water flux larger than the design value in lots of commercial CFB boilers is analyzed; the main reason is the designed heat transfer coefficient smaller than the actual value.

  2. Investigations on the thermal-hydraulics of a natural circulation cooled BWR fuel assembly

    SciTech Connect

    Kok, H.V.; Hagen, T.H.J.J. van der; Mudde, R.F.

    1995-09-01

    A scaled natural circulation loop facility has been built after the Dodewaard Boiling Water Reactor, which is the only operating natural circulation cooled BWR in the world. The loop comprises one fuel assembly, a riser with a downcomer and a condenser with a cooling system. Freon-12 is used as a scaling liquid. This paper reports on the first measurements done with this facility. Quantities like the circulation flow, carry-under and the void-fraction have been measured as a function of power, pressure, liquid level, riser length, condensate temperature and friction factors. The behavior of the circulation flow can be understood by considering the driving force. Special attention has been paid to the carry-under, which has been shown to have a very important impact on the dynamics of a natural circulation cooled BWR.

  3. Salt marsh productivity with natural and altered tidal circulation.

    PubMed

    Zedler, Joy B; Winfield, Ted; Williams, Phil

    1980-01-01

    The effects of altered tidal circulation on southern California salt marshes are investigated by comparing a well-flushed wetland and two modified wetlands which have reduced tidal flow. The Tijuana Estuary had continuous exchange of seawater but relatively low net aerial primary productivity (0.4-1.0 kg m(-2)yr(-1)) of vascular plants. Low productivity (0.6 kg m(-2)yr(-1)) was also found in the Flood Control Channel of the San Diego River, where tidal exchange was restricted to flow through a riprap dike. High productivity (1.2-2.9 kg m(-2)yr(-1)) in Los Penasquitos Lagoon was attributed to the influences of freshwater impounded behind a sand bar which blocked the mouth of the lagoon during much of the study period.It is hypothesized that elimination of tidal flow during the growing season increased primary productivity of vascular plants because freshwater runoff decreased soil salinity and because nutrients were retained within the marsh. However, we predict that sand bar obstruction can decrease productivity if below-average rainfall leads to hypersalinity of closed lagoons. Comprehensive evaluation of the effects of altered tidal circulation requires longterm study and examination of the total ecosystem.

  4. [Magnetic field numerical calculation and analysis for magnetic coupling of centrifugal blood pump for extracorporeal circulation].

    PubMed

    Hu, Zhaoyan; Lu, Lijun; Zhang, Tianyi; Chen, Zhenglong; Zhang, Tao

    2013-12-01

    This paper mainly studies the driving system of centrifugal blood pump for extracorporeal circulation, with the core being disc magnetic coupling. Structure parameters of disc magnetic coupling are related to the ability of transferring magnetic torque. Therefore, it is necessary to carry out disc magnetic coupling permanent magnet pole number (n), air gap length (L(g)), permanent magnet thickness (L(m)), permanent magnet body inside diameter (R(i)) and outside diameter (R(o)), etc. thoroughly. This paper adopts the three-dimensional static magnetic field edge element method of Ansys for numerical calculation, and analyses the relations of magnetic coupling each parameter to transmission magnetic torque. It provides a good theory basis and calculation method for further optimization of the disc magnetic coupling.

  5. Infrared cooling rate calculations in operational general circulation models - Comparisons with benchmark computations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kiehl, J. T.; Lacis, A. A.; Schwarzkopf, M. D.; Fels, S. B.

    1991-01-01

    The performance of several parameterized models is described with respect to numerical prediction and climate research at GFDL, NCAR, and GISS. The radiation codes of the models were compared to benchmark calculations and other codes for the intercomparison of radiation codes in climate models (ICRCCM). Cooling rates and fluxes calculated from the models are examined in terms of their application to established general circulation models (GCMs) from the three research institutions. The newest radiation parameterization techniques show the most significant agreement with the benchmark line-by-line (LBL) results. The LBL cooling rates correspond to cooling rate profiles from the models, but the parameterization of the water vapor continuum demonstrates uncertain results. These uncertainties affect the understanding of some lower tropospheric cooling, and therefore more accurate parameterization of the water vapor continuum, as well as the weaker absorption bands of CO2 and O3 is recommended.

  6. Comparison of electrical conductivity calculation methods for natural waters

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McCleskey, R. Blaine; Nordstrom, D. Kirk; Ryan, Joseph N.

    2012-01-01

    The capability of eleven methods to calculate the electrical conductivity of a wide range of natural waters from their chemical composition was investigated. A brief summary of each method is presented including equations to calculate the conductivities of individual ions, the ions incorporated, and the method's limitations. The ability of each method to reliably predict the conductivity depends on the ions included, effective accounting of ion pairing, and the accuracy of the equation used to estimate the ionic conductivities. The performances of the methods were evaluated by calculating the conductivity of 33 environmentally important electrolyte solutions, 41 U.S. Geological Survey standard reference water samples, and 1593 natural water samples. The natural waters tested include acid mine waters, geothermal waters, seawater, dilute mountain waters, and river water impacted by municipal waste water. The three most recent conductivity methods predict the conductivity of natural waters better than other methods. Two of the recent methods can be used to reliably calculate the conductivity for samples with pH values greater than about 3 and temperatures between 0 and 40°C. One method is applicable to a variety of natural water types with a range of pH from 1 to 10, temperature from 0 to 95°C, and ionic strength up to 1 m.

  7. Natural circulating passive cooling system for nuclear reactor containment structure

    DOEpatents

    Gou, Perng-Fei; Wade, Gentry E.

    1990-01-01

    A passive cooling system for the contaminant structure of a nuclear reactor plant providing protection against overpressure within the containment attributable to inadvertent leakage or rupture of the system components. The cooling system utilizes natural convection for transferring heat imbalances and enables the discharge of irradiation free thermal energy to the atmosphere for heat disposal from the system.

  8. Investigation of natural circulation instability and transients in passively safe novel modular reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Shanbin

    -hydraulic and nuclear coupled startup transients are performed to investigate the flow instabilities at low pressure and low power conditions. Two different power ramps are chosen to study the effect of power density on the flow instability. The experimental startup transient tests show the existence of three different flow instability mechanisms during the low pressure startup transients, i.e., flashing instability, condensation induced instability, and density wave oscillations. Flashing instability in the chimney section of the test loop and density wave oscillation are the main flow instabilities observed when the system pressure is below 0.5 MPa. They show completely different type of oscillations, i.e., intermittent oscillation and sinusoidal oscillation, in void fraction profile during the startup transients. In order to perform nuclear-coupled startup transients with void reactivity feedback, the Point Kinetics model is utilized to calculate the transient power during the startup transients. In addition, the differences between the electric resistance heaters and typical fuel element are taken into account. The reactor power calculated shows some oscillations due to flashing instability during the transients. However, the void reactivity feedback does not have significant influence on the flow instability during the startup procedure for the NMR-50. Further investigation of very small power ramp on the startup transients is carried out for the thermal-hydraulic startup transients. It is found that very small power density can eliminate the flashing oscillation in the single phase natural circulation and stabilize the flow oscillations in the phase of net vapor generation. Furthermore, initially pressurized startup procedure is investigated to eliminate the main flow instabilities. The results show that the pressurized startup procedure can suppress the flashing instability at low pressure and low power conditions. In order to have a deep understanding of natural

  9. System Analysis for Decay Heat Removal in Lead-Bismuth Cooled Natural Circulated Reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Takaaki Sakai; Yasuhiro Enuma; Takashi Iwasaki; Kazuhiro Ohyama

    2002-07-01

    Decay heat removal analyses for lead-bismuth cooled natural circulation reactors are described in this paper. A combined multi-dimensional plant dynamics code (MSG-COPD) has been developed to conduct the system analysis for the natural circulation reactors. For the preliminary study, transient analysis has been performed for a 100 MWe lead-bismuth-cooled reactor designed by Argonne National Laboratory (ANL). In addition, decay heat removal characteristics of a 400 MWe lead-bismuth-cooled natural circulation reactor designed by Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Institute (JNC) has been evaluated by using MSG-COPD. PRACS (Primary Reactor Auxiliary Cooling System) is prepared for the JNC's concept to get sufficient heat removal capacity. During 2000 sec after the transient, the outlet temperature shows increasing tendency up to the maximum temperature of 430 Centigrade, because the buoyancy force in a primary circulation path is temporary reduced. However, the natural circulation is recovered by the PRACS system and the out let temperature decreases successfully. (authors)

  10. System Analysis for Decay Heat Removal in Lead-Bismuth-Cooled Natural-Circulation Reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Sakai, Takaaki; Enuma, Yasuhiro; Iwasaki, Takashi

    2004-03-15

    Decay heat removal analyses for lead-bismuth-cooled natural-circulation reactors are described in this paper. A combined multidimensional plant dynamics code (MSG-COPD) has been developed to conduct the system analysis for the natural-circulation reactors. For the preliminary study, transient analysis has been performed for a 300-MW(thermal) lead-bismuth-cooled reactor designed by Argonne National Laboratory. In addition, decay heat removal characteristics of a 400-MW(electric) lead-bismuth-cooled natural-circulation reactor designed by the Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Institute (JNC) has been evaluated by using MSG-COPD. The primary reactor auxiliary cooling system (PRACS) is prepared for the JNC concept to get sufficient heat removal capacity. During 2000 s after the transient, the outlet temperature shows increasing tendency up to the maximum temperature of 430 deg. C because the buoyancy force in a primary circulation path is temporarily reduced. However, the natural circulation is recovered by the PRACS system, and the outlet temperature decreases successfully.

  11. Density wave oscillations of a boiling natural circulation loop induced by flashing

    SciTech Connect

    Furuya, Masahiro; Inada, Fumio; Yasuo, Akira

    1995-09-01

    Experiments are conducted to investigate two-phase flow instabilities in a boiling natural circulation loop with a chimney due to flashing in the chimney at lower pressure. The test facility used in this experiment is designed to have non-dimensional values which are nearly equal to those of natural circulation BWR. Stability maps in reference to the heat flux, the inlet subcooling, the system pressure are presented. This instability is suggested to be density wave oscillations due to flashing in the chimney, and the differences from other phenomena such as flow pattern oscillations and geysering phenomena are discussed by investigating the dynamic characteristics, the oscillation period, and the transient flow pattern.

  12. On Stability of Natural-circulation-cooled Boiling Water Reactors during Start-up (Experimental Results)

    SciTech Connect

    Manera, A.; Van der Hagen, T.H.J.J.

    2002-07-01

    The characteristics of flashing-induced instabilities, which are of importance during the start-up phase of natural-circulation Boiling Water Reactors (BWRs), are studied. Experiments at typical start-up conditions (low power and low pressure) are carried out on a steam/water natural circulation loop. The mechanism of flashing-induced instability is analyzed in detail and it is found that non-equilibrium between phases and enthalpy transport plays an important role in the instability process. Pressure and steam volume in the steam dome are found to have a stabilizing effect. The main characteristics of the instabilities have been analyzed. (authors)

  13. COBRA-WC model and predictions for a fast-reactor natural-circulation transient. [LMFBR

    SciTech Connect

    George, T.L.; Basehore, K.L.; Prather, W.A.

    1980-01-01

    The COBRA-WC (Whole Core) code has been used to predict the core-wide coolant and rod temperature distribution in a liquid metal fast reactor during the early part (first 220 seconds) of a natural circulation transient. Approximately one-sixth of the core was modeled including bypass flows and the pressure losses above and below the core region. Detailed temperature and flow distributions were obtained for the two test fuel assemblies. The COBRA-WC model, the approach, and predictions of core-wide transient coolant and rod temperatures during a natural circulation transient are presented in this paper.

  14. Characterization of Circulating Natural Killer Cells in Neotropical Primates

    PubMed Central

    Carville, Angela; Evans, Tristan I.; Reeves, R. Keith

    2013-01-01

    Despite extensive use of nonhuman primates as models for infectious diseases and reproductive biology, imprecise phenotypic and functional definitions exist for natural killer (NK) cells. This deficit is particularly significant in the burgeoning use of small, less expensive New World primate species. Using polychromatic flow cytometry, we identified peripheral blood NK cells as CD3-negative and expressing a cluster of cell surface molecules characteristic of NK cells (i.e., NKG2A, NKp46, NKp30) in three New World primate species – common marmosets, cotton-top tamarins, and squirrel monkeys. We then assessed subset distribution using the classical NK markers, CD56 and CD16. In all species, similar to Old World primates, only a minor subset of NK cells was CD56+, and the dominant subset was CD56–CD16+. Interestingly, CD56+ NK cells were primarily cytokine-secreting cells, whereas CD56–CD16+ NK cells expressed significantly greater levels of intracellular perforin, suggesting these cells might have greater potential for cytotoxicity. New World primate species, like Old World primates, also had a minor CD56–CD16– NK cell subset that has no obvious counterpart in humans. Herein we present phenotypic profiles of New World primate NK cell subpopulations that are generally analogous to those found in humans. This conservation among species should support the further use of these species for biomedical research. PMID:24244365

  15. Distribution and budget of O3 in the troposphere calculated with a chemistry general circulation model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roelofs, Geert-Jan; Lelieveld, Jos

    1995-10-01

    We present results of global tropospheric chemistry simulations with the coupled chemistry/atmospheric general circulation model ECHAM. Ultimately, the model will be used to study climate changes induced by anthropogenic influences on the chemistry of the atmosphere; meteorological parameters that are important for the chemistry, such as temperature, humidity, air motions, cloud and rain characteristics, and mixing processes are calculated on-line. The chemical part of the model describes background tropospheric CH4-CO-NOx-HOx photochemistry. Emissions of NO and CO, surface concentrations of CH4, and stratospheric concentrations of O3 and NOy are prescribed as boundary conditions. Calculations of the tropospheric O3 budget indicate that seasonal variabilities of the photochemical production and of injection from the stratosphere are represented realistically, although some aspects of the model still need improvement. Comparisons of calculated O3 surface concentrations and O3 profiles with available measurements show that the model reproduces O3 distributions in remote tropical and midlatitudinal sites. Also, the model matches typical profiles connected with deep convection in the Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ). However, the model tends to underestimate O3 concentrations at the poles and in relatively polluted regions. These underestimates are caused by the poor representation of tropopause foldings in midlatitudes, which form a significant source of tropospheric O3 from the stratosphere, too weak transport to the poles, and the neglect of higher hydrocarbon chemistry. Also, mixing of polluted continental boundary layer air into the free troposphere may be underestimated. We discuss how these model deficiencies will be improved in the future.

  16. Design and measured performance of a solar chimney for natural circulation solar energy dryers

    SciTech Connect

    Ekechukwu, O.V.; Norton, B.

    1996-02-01

    An experimental solar chimney consisted of a cylindrical polyethylene-clad vertical chamber supported by steel framework and draped internally with a selectively absorbing surface. The performance of the chimney which was monitored extensively is reported. Issues related to the design and construction of solar chimneys for natural circulation solar energy dryers are discussed.

  17. Self-sustained hydrodynamic oscillations in a natural-circulation two-phase-flow boiling loop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jain, K. C.

    1969-01-01

    Results of an experimental and theoretical study of factors affecting self-sustaining hydrodynamic oscillations in boiling-water loops are reported. Data on flow variables, and the effects of geometry, subcooling and pressure on the development of oscillatory behavior in a natural-circulation two-phase-flow boiling loop are included.

  18. The calculative nature of microbe-mineral interactions.

    PubMed

    Caldwell, D E; Caldwell, S J

    2004-04-01

    Microorganisms continually redefine themselves at many levels, including the molecule, cell, and community. Although it was initially assumed that this resulted from the genesis of information within DNA alone, it has since been shown that innovation originates at multiple levels. This occurs through calculative units, each unit consisting of two proliferating structures, one nested within the other and each undergoing changes in structural geometry that affect the proliferation rate of the other. For example, the recombination of genetic structures affects the proliferation of community structures, and the recombination of community structures affects the proliferation of genetic structures. The proliferation of a nested series of structures (e.g., genes proliferating within cells, cells proliferating within communities, communities proliferating within ecosystems) results in a logic circuit that calculates the form and function of each structural element in the series. In this situation each element functions as both a habitat and an inhabitant (environment and organism), and it is this dichotomy that determines the balance of nature. Nested geological structures, such as minerals and continents, also proliferate and redefine themselves in much the same way. Microbe-mineral interactions thus link nested biological calculations to an analogous set of nested geological calculations. Examples include the microorganisms involved in the nucleation (proliferation) of ferric hydroxides, carbonates, silicates, and ice crystals.

  19. Calculating Natural Optical Activity of Molecules from First Principles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Srebro-Hooper, Monika; Autschbach, Jochen

    2017-05-01

    Computations of natural optical activity (OA) from first principles (ab initio) have become indispensable in chiroptical studies of molecular systems. Calculations are used to assign absolute configurations and to analyze chiroptical data, providing a basis for understanding their origin as well as for assigning and predicting experimental results. In this article, methodology for OA computations is outlined and accompanied by a review of selected, mainly recent (ca. 2010-2016) achievements in optical rotation, electronic and vibrational circular dichroism, and Raman OA calculations. We discuss some important aspects of the computational models and methodological developments, along with recently proposed approaches to analyze and interpret OA parameters. We highlight applications of chiroptical computational methods in studies of helicenes and chiral nanoparticles.

  20. Heat transfer to water from a vertical tube bundle under natural-circulation conditions. [PWR; BWR

    SciTech Connect

    Gruszczynski, M.J.; Viskanta, R.

    1983-01-01

    The natural circulation heat transfer data for longitudinal flow of water outside a vertical rod bundle are needed for developing correlations which can be used in best estimate computer codes to model thermal-hydraulic behavior of nuclear reactor cores under accident or shutdown conditions. The heat transfer coefficient between the fuel rod surface and the coolant is the key parameter required to predict the fuel temperature. Because of the absence of the required heat transfer coefficient data base under natural circulation conditions, experiments have been performed in a natural circulation loop. A seven-tube bundle having a pitch-to-diameter ratio of 1.25 was used as a test heat exchanger. A circulating flow was established in the loop, because of buoyancy differences between its two vertical legs. Steady-state and transient heat transfer measurements have been made over as wide a range of thermal conditions as possible with the system. Steady state heat transfer data were correlated in terms of relevant dimensionless parameters. Empirical correlations for the average Nusselt number, in terms of Reynolds number, Rayleigh number and the ratio of Grashof to Reynolds number are given.

  1. Evaluation of natural circulation cooldown tests performed at Diablo Canyon, San Onofre, and Palo Verde nuclear power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Jo, J.H.; Perkins, K.R.; Cavlina, N.

    1988-01-01

    The natural circulation cooldown tests performed at Diablo Canyon, San Onofre, and Palo Verde nuclear power plants were evaluated for the compliance with the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission design requirements. BNL concluded that these tests combined with the supporting analyses demonstrated the natural circulation, boron mixing, and cooldown capability of these plants.

  2. Evaluation Method for Core Thermohydraulics during Natural Circulation in Fast Reactors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamide, Hideki; Nagasawa, Kazuyoshi; Kimura, Nobuyuki; Miyakoshi, Hiroyuki

    Decay heat removal using natural circulation is one of significant functions for a reactor. As the decay heat removal system, a direct reactor auxiliary cooling system has been selected in current designs of fast reactors. In this system, cold sodium is provided in an upper plenum of reactor vessel and it covers the reactor core outlet. The cold sodium can penetrate into the gap region between the subassemblies. This gap flow is referred as inter-wrapper flow (IWF). A numerical estimation method for such phenomena was developed, which modeled each subassembly as a rectangular duct with gap region and also the upper plenum. This numerical simulation method was verified by a sodium test and also a water test. We applied this method to the natural circulation in a 600 MWe class fast reactor. The temperature in the core strongly depended on IWF, flow redistribution in the core, and inter-subassembly heat transfer.

  3. Enhancement of natural circulation type domestic solar hot water system performance by using a wind turbine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramasamy, K. K.; Srinivasan, P. S. S.

    2011-08-01

    Performance improvement of existing 200 litres capacity natural convection type domestic solar hot water system is attempted. A two-stage centrifugal pump driven by a vertical axis windmill having Savonius type rotor is added to the fluid loop. The windmill driven pump circulates the water through the collector. The system with necessary instrumentation is tested over a day. Tests on Natural Circulation System (NCS) mode and Wind Assisted System (WAS) mode are carried out during January, April, July and October, 2009. Test results of a clear day are reported. Daily average efficiency of 25-28 % during NCS mode and 33-37 % during WAS mode are obtained. With higher wind velocities, higher collector flow rates and hence higher efficiencies are obtained. In general, WAS mode provides improvements in efficiency when compared to NCS mode.

  4. An analytical and experimental investigation of natural circulation transients in a model pressurized water reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Massoud, M

    1987-01-01

    Natural Circulation phenomena in a simulated PWR was investigated experimentally and analytically. The experimental investigation included determination of system characteristics as well as system response to the imposed transient under symmetric and asymmetric operations. System characteristics were used to obtain correlation for heat transfer coefficient in heat exchangers, system flow resistance, and system buoyancy heat. Asymmetric transients were imposed to study flow oscillation and possible instability. The analytical investigation encompassed development of mathematical model for single-phase, steady-state and transient natural circulation as well as modification of existing model for two-phase flow analysis of phenomena such as small break LOCA, high pressure coolant injection and pump coast down. The developed mathematical model for single-phase analysis was computer coded to simulate the imposed transients. The computer program, entitled ''Symmetric and Asymmetric Analysis of Single-Phase Flow (SAS),'' were employed to simulate the imposed transients. It closely emulated the system behavior throughout the transient and subsequent steady-state. Modifications for two-phase flow analysis included addition of models for once-through steam generator and electric heater rods. Both programs are faster than real time. Off-line, they can be used for prediction and training applications while on-line they serve for simulation and signal validation. The programs can also be used to determine the sensitivity of natural circulation behavior to variation of inputs such as secondary distribution and power transients.

  5. A Signature of Persistent Natural Thermohaline Circulation Cycles in Observed Climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knight, J.; Allan, R.; Folland, C.; Vellinga, M.; Mann, M.

    2005-12-01

    An ensemble of simulations of 20th Century climate using the HadCM3 coupled climate model forced with estimates of natural and anthropogenic forcings is compared with instrumental temperature data sets. The results show that while external climate forcing can account for most of 20th century climate change, there are also significant multidecadal climate fluctuations that are not produced by forcings. A major part of this variability corresponds to the `Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation' (AMO), which has been identified in observations, and represents coherent fluctuations in temperature throughout most of the Northern Hemisphere. Using a 1400 year calculation with HadCM3 without external forcings, we show the model produces a quasi-periodic internal mode with a pattern, amplitude and characteristic time scale similar to that of the observed AMO. Further, the model implies the AMO is a genuine long-lived quasi-cyclical climate phenomenon related to large-scale oceanic heat transport variations associated with changes in the strength of the thermohaline circulation (THC) of about 2 Sv (10%). In the simulation, stronger cross-equatorial temperature gradients are associated with the anomalous northward ocean heat transport during a warm AMO phase. This causes a northward displacement of the mean ITCZ, leading to more rainfall and the development of anomalously fresh water in the tropical North Atlantic. These sustained anomalies slowly propagate to the subpolar North Atlantic in about 5 decades, where they act to slow the THC. The results also confirm observed links between the AMO and multidecadal variability in north-east Brazil and Sahel precipitation, and Atlantic hurricane formation. In addition, the simulated link between temperature and the THC allows an estimate of possible past changes in THC strength. Our results imply that the THC has undergone distinct strong and weak phases in the 20th century and has strengthened over recent decades. We also produce a

  6. Evaluation of circulating levels and renal clearance of natural amino acids in patients with Cushing's disease.

    PubMed

    Faggiano, A; Pivonello, R; Melis, D; Alfieri, R; Filippella, M; Spagnuolo, G; Salvatore, F; Lombardi, G; Colao, A

    2002-02-01

    Although the hypercortisolism-induced impairment of protein homeostasis is object of several studies, a detailed evaluation of the complete amino acid profile of patients with Cushing's syndrome (CS) has never been performed. The aim of the current open transversal controlled study was to evaluate serum and urinary concentrations as well as renal clearance of the complete series of natural amino acids and their relationship with glucose tolerance in patients with Cushing's disease (CD). Twenty patients with CD (10 active and 10 cured) and 20 sex- and age-matched healthy controls entered the study. Measurement of serum and urinary levels of the complete series of natural amino acids was performed in all patients analyzed by cationic exchange high performance liquid cromatography (HPLC) after 2 weeks of a standardized protein intake regimen. The renal clearance (renal excretion rate) of each amino acid was calculated on the basis of the serum and urinary concentrations of creatinine and the specific amino acid. Fasting glucose and insulin levels, glucose and insulin response to standard glucose load, insulinogenic and homeostasis model insulin resistance (Homa-R) indexes were also evaluated and correlated to the circulating levels and renal clearances of each amino acid. Significantly higher serum (p<0.01) and urinary (p<0.05) levels of alanine and cystine, lower serum and higher urinary levels of leucine, isoleucine and valine (p<0.05) and higher renal excretion rates of leucine, isoleucine and valine (p<0.01) were found in patients with active CD than in patients cured from the disease and in controls. No difference was found between cured patients and controls. Creatinine clearance was similar in active and cured patients and in controls. In patients with active CD, urinary cortisol levels were significantly correlated to urinary cystine levels (r=0.85; p<0.01) and renal excretion rate of leucine (r=-0.76; p<0.05), isoleucine (r=-0.76; p<0.05) and valine (r=-0

  7. Parametric study of natural circulation flow in molten salt fuel in molten salt reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Pauzi, Anas Muhamad; Cioncolini, Andrea; Iacovides, Hector

    2015-04-29

    The Molten Salt Reactor (MSR) is one of the most promising system proposed by Generation IV Forum (GIF) for future nuclear reactor systems. Advantages of the MSR are significantly larger compared to other reactor system, and is mainly achieved from its liquid nature of fuel and coolant. Further improvement to this system, which is a natural circulating molten fuel salt inside its tube in the reactor core is proposed, to achieve advantages of reducing and simplifying the MSR design proposed by GIF. Thermal hydraulic analysis on the proposed system was completed using a commercial computation fluid dynamics (CFD) software called FLUENT by ANSYS Inc. An understanding on theory behind this unique natural circulation flow inside the tube caused by fission heat generated in molten fuel salt and tube cooling was briefly introduced. Currently, no commercial CFD software could perfectly simulate natural circulation flow, hence, modeling this flow problem in FLUENT is introduced and analyzed to obtain best simulation results. Results obtained demonstrate the existence of periodical transient nature of flow problem, hence improvements in tube design is proposed based on the analysis on temperature and velocity profile. Results show that the proposed system could operate at up to 750MW core power, given that turbulence are enhanced throughout flow region, and precise molten fuel salt physical properties could be defined. At the request of the authors and the Proceedings Editor the name of the co-author Andrea Cioncolini was corrected from Andrea Coincolini. The same name correction was made in the Acknowledgement section on page 030004-10 and in reference number 4. The updated article was published on 11 May 2015.

  8. Parametric study of natural circulation flow in molten salt fuel in molten salt reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pauzi, Anas Muhamad; Cioncolini, Andrea; Iacovides, Hector

    2015-04-01

    The Molten Salt Reactor (MSR) is one of the most promising system proposed by Generation IV Forum (GIF) for future nuclear reactor systems. Advantages of the MSR are significantly larger compared to other reactor system, and is mainly achieved from its liquid nature of fuel and coolant. Further improvement to this system, which is a natural circulating molten fuel salt inside its tube in the reactor core is proposed, to achieve advantages of reducing and simplifying the MSR design proposed by GIF. Thermal hydraulic analysis on the proposed system was completed using a commercial computation fluid dynamics (CFD) software called FLUENT by ANSYS Inc. An understanding on theory behind this unique natural circulation flow inside the tube caused by fission heat generated in molten fuel salt and tube cooling was briefly introduced. Currently, no commercial CFD software could perfectly simulate natural circulation flow, hence, modeling this flow problem in FLUENT is introduced and analyzed to obtain best simulation results. Results obtained demonstrate the existence of periodical transient nature of flow problem, hence improvements in tube design is proposed based on the analysis on temperature and velocity profile. Results show that the proposed system could operate at up to 750MW core power, given that turbulence are enhanced throughout flow region, and precise molten fuel salt physical properties could be defined. At the request of the authors and the Proceedings Editor the name of the co-author Andrea Cioncolini was corrected from Andrea Coincolini. The same name correction was made in the Acknowledgement section on page 030004-10 and in reference number 4. The updated article was published on 11 May 2015.

  9. Natural circulation loop using liquid nitrogen for cryo-detection system

    SciTech Connect

    Choi, Yeon Suk

    2014-01-29

    The natural circulation loop is designed for the cryogenic insert in a Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance (FTICR) mass spectrometer. Sensitivity is the key parameter of a FTICR mass spectrometer and the cryo-cooling of the pre-amplifier can reduce the thermal noise level and thereby improve the signal-to-noise ratio. The pre-amplifier consisted of non-magnetic materials is thermally connected to the cooling loop which is passing through the flange maintaining ultra-high vacuum in the ion cell. The liquid nitrogen passes through inside of the loop to cool the pre-amplifier indirectly. At the end, a cryocooler is located to re-condense nitrogen vapor generated due to the heat from the pre-amplifier. The circulating fluid removes heat from the pre-amplifier and transports it to the cryocooler or heat sink. In this paper the natural circulation loop for cryogenic pre-amplifier is introduced for improving the sensitivity of cryo-detector. In addition, the initial cool-down of the system by a cryocooler is presented and the temperature of the radiation shield is discussed with respect to the thickness of shield and the thermal radiation load.

  10. Natural triple excitations in local coupled cluster calculations with pair natural orbitals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riplinger, Christoph; Sandhoefer, Barbara; Hansen, Andreas; Neese, Frank

    2013-10-01

    In this work, the extension of the previously developed domain based local pair-natural orbital (DLPNO) based singles- and doubles coupled cluster (DLPNO-CCSD) method to perturbatively include connected triple excitations is reported. The development is based on the concept of triples-natural orbitals that span the joint space of the three pair natural orbital (PNO) spaces of the three electron pairs that are involved in the calculation of a given triple-excitation contribution. The truncation error is very smooth and can be significantly reduced through extrapolation to the zero threshold. However, the extrapolation procedure does not improve relative energies. The overall computational effort of the method is asymptotically linear with the system size O(N). Actual linear scaling has been confirmed in test calculations on alkane chains. The accuracy of the DLPNO-CCSD(T) approximation relative to semicanonical CCSD(T0) is comparable to the previously developed DLPNO-CCSD method relative to canonical CCSD. Relative energies are predicted with an average error of approximately 0.5 kcal/mol for a challenging test set of medium sized organic molecules. The triples correction typically adds 30%-50% to the overall computation time. Thus, very large systems can be treated on the basis of the current implementation. In addition to the linear C150H302 (452 atoms, >8800 basis functions) we demonstrate the first CCSD(T) level calculation on an entire protein, Crambin with 644 atoms, and more than 6400 basis functions.

  11. Investigation of Natural Circulation Instability and Transients in Passively Safe Small Modular Reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Ishii, Mamoru

    2016-11-30

    The NEUP funded project, NEUP-3496, aims to experimentally investigate two-phase natural circulation flow instability that could occur in Small Modular Reactors (SMRs), especially for natural circulation SMRs. The objective has been achieved by systematically performing tests to study the general natural circulation instability characteristics and the natural circulation behavior under start-up or design basis accident conditions. Experimental data sets highlighting the effect of void reactivity feedback as well as the effect of power ramp-up rate and system pressure have been used to develop a comprehensive stability map. The safety analysis code, RELAP5, has been used to evaluate experimental results and models. Improvements to the constitutive relations for flashing have been made in order to develop a reliable analysis tool. This research has been focusing on two generic SMR designs, i.e. a small modular Simplified Boiling Water Reactor (SBWR) like design and a small integral Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) like design. A BWR-type natural circulation test facility was firstly built based on the three-level scaling analysis of the Purdue Novel Modular Reactor (NMR) with an electric output of 50 MWe, namely NMR-50, which represents a BWR-type SMR with a significantly reduced reactor pressure vessel (RPV) height. The experimental facility was installed with various equipment to measure thermalhydraulic parameters such as pressure, temperature, mass flow rate and void fraction. Characterization tests were performed before the startup transient tests and quasi-steady tests to determine the loop flow resistance. The control system and data acquisition system were programmed with LabVIEW to realize the realtime control and data storage. The thermal-hydraulic and nuclear coupled startup transients were performed to investigate the flow instabilities at low pressure and low power conditions for NMR-50. Two different power ramps were chosen to study the effect of startup

  12. Calculation of a residual mean meridional circulation for a zonal-mean tracer transport model

    SciTech Connect

    Choi, W.K.; Rotman, D.A.; Wuebbles, D.J.

    1995-04-01

    Because of their computational advantages, zonally-averaged chemical-radiative-transport models are widely used to investigate the distribution of chemical species and their change due to the anthropogenic chemicals in the lower and middle atmosphere. In general, the Lagrangian-mean formulation would be ideal to treat transport due to the zonal mean circulation and eddies. However, the Lagrangian formulation is difficult to use in practical applications. The most widely-used formulation for treating global atmospheric dynamics in two-dimensional models is the transformed Eulerian mean (TEM) equations. The residual mean meridional circulation (RMMC) in the TEM system is used to advect tracers. In this study, the authors describe possible solution techniques for obtaining the RMMC in the LLNL two-dimensional chemical-radiative-transport model. In the first section, the formulation will be described. In sections 3 and 4, possible solution procedures will be described for a diagnostic and prognostic case, respectively.

  13. Changes in equatorial zonal circulations and precipitation in the context of the global warming and natural modes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Byeong-Hee; Ha, Kyung-Ja

    2017-07-01

    The strengthening and westward shift of Pacific Walker Circulation (PWC) is observed during the recent decades. However, the relative roles of global warming and natural variability on the change in PWC unclearly remain. By conducting numerical atmospheric general circulation model (AGCM) experiments using the spatial SST patterns in the global warming and natural modes which are obtained by the multi-variate EOF analysis from three variables including precipitation, sea surface temperature (SST), and divergent zonal wind, we indicated that the westward shift and strengthening of PWC are caused by the global warming SST pattern in the global warming mode and the negative Interdecadal Pacific Oscillation-like SST pattern in the natural mode. The SST distribution of the Pacific Ocean (PO) has more influence on the changes in equatorial zonal circulations and tropical precipitation than that of the Indian Ocean (IO) and Atlantic Ocean (AO). The change in precipitation is also related to the equatorial zonal circulations variation through the upward and downward motions of the circulations. The IO and AO SST anomalies in the global warming mode can affect on the changes in equatorial zonal circulations, but the influence of PO SST disturbs the changes in Indian Walker Circulation and Atlantic Walker Circulation which are affected by the anomalous SST over the IO and AO. The zonal shift of PWC is found to be highly associated with a zonal gradient of SST over the PO through the idealized numerical AGCM experiments and predictions of CMIP5 models.

  14. Two-phase flow stability structure in a natural circulation system

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, Zhiwei

    1995-09-01

    The present study reports a numerical analysis of two-phase flow stability structures in a natural circulation system with two parallel, heated channels. The numerical model is derived, based on the Galerkin moving nodal method. This analysis is related to some design options applicable to integral heating reactors with a slightly-boiling operation mode, and is also of general interest to similar facilities. The options include: (1) Symmetric heating and throttling; (2) Asymmetric heating and symmetric throttling; (3) Asymmetric heating and throttling. The oscillation modes for these variants are discussed. Comparisons with the data from the INET two-phase flow stability experiment have qualitatively validated the present analysis.

  15. Research of natural circulation in the experimental helium loop of STU

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    František, Urban; František, RidzoÅ; Branislav, Knížat; Róbert, Olšiak; Jozef, Bereznai; Peter, Mlynár

    2017-09-01

    On the STU experimental helium loop, natural circulation of the helium by residual thermal power of the reactor up to 220 kW, temperature of the helium from l50°C to 520°C and helium pressure up to 7,0 MPa is investigated. Selected measurements are analysed. Measurements realized on experimental device with different operational states of the STU helium loop can be used for cooling loops design corrections and validation of the computational algorithms of the passive heat removal from ALLEGRO nuclear reactor.

  16. Experimental and analytical investigation of two-phase stability in a natural circulation loop

    SciTech Connect

    Dimmick, G.R.; Chatoorgoon, V.

    1985-01-01

    The authors are currently studying the feasibility of pool type reactors, for heating commercial buildings. To investigate thermal hydraulic aspects of reactor design, including the stability under extreme conditions, an electrically heated natural circulation loop was designed and constructed. Experimental tests with this loop show that it is stable under all single phase conditions, an expected result. In tests with two phases present in the circuit, different types of behaviour were observed depending on the experimental conditions. These were either stable flow, non-divergent oscillating flow or divergent oscillating flow. All of these type of behaviour were successfully simulated using the newly developed SPORTS stability computer code.

  17. CFD analyses of natural circulation in the air-cooled reactor cavity cooling system

    SciTech Connect

    Hu, R.; Pointer, W. D.

    2013-07-01

    The Natural Convection Shutdown Heat Removal Test Facility (NSTF) is currently being built at Argonne National Laboratory, to evaluate the feasibility of the passive Reactor Cavity Cooling System (RCCS) for Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP). CFD simulations have been applied to evaluate the NSTF and NGNP RCCS designs. However, previous simulations found that convergence was very difficult to achieve in simulating the complex natural circulation. To resolve the convergence issue and increase the confidence of the CFD simulation results, additional CFD simulations were conducted using a more detailed mesh and a different solution scheme. It is found that, with the use of coupled flow and coupled energy models, the convergence can be greatly improved. Furthermore, the effects of convection in the cavity and the effects of the uncertainty in solid surface emissivity are also investigated. (authors)

  18. Numerical study on the Welander oscillatory natural circulation problem using high-order numerical methods

    DOE PAGES

    Zou, Ling; Zhao, Haihua; Kim, Seung Jun

    2016-11-16

    In this study, the classical Welander’s oscillatory natural circulation problem is investigated using high-order numerical methods. As originally studied by Welander, the fluid motion in a differentially heated fluid loop can exhibit stable, weakly instable, and strongly instable modes. A theoretical stability map has also been originally derived from the stability analysis. Numerical results obtained in this paper show very good agreement with Welander’s theoretical derivations. For stable cases, numerical results from both the high-order and low-order numerical methods agree well with the non-dimensional flow rate analytically derived. The high-order numerical methods give much less numerical errors compared to themore » low-order methods. For stability analysis, the high-order numerical methods could perfectly predict the stability map, while the low-order numerical methods failed to do so. For all theoretically unstable cases, the low-order methods predicted them to be stable. The result obtained in this paper is a strong evidence to show the benefits of using high-order numerical methods over the low-order ones, when they are applied to simulate natural circulation phenomenon that has already gain increasing interests in many future nuclear reactor designs.« less

  19. Numerical study on the Welander oscillatory natural circulation problem using high-order numerical methods

    SciTech Connect

    Zou, Ling; Zhao, Haihua; Kim, Seung Jun

    2016-11-16

    In this study, the classical Welander’s oscillatory natural circulation problem is investigated using high-order numerical methods. As originally studied by Welander, the fluid motion in a differentially heated fluid loop can exhibit stable, weakly instable, and strongly instable modes. A theoretical stability map has also been originally derived from the stability analysis. Numerical results obtained in this paper show very good agreement with Welander’s theoretical derivations. For stable cases, numerical results from both the high-order and low-order numerical methods agree well with the non-dimensional flow rate analytically derived. The high-order numerical methods give much less numerical errors compared to the low-order methods. For stability analysis, the high-order numerical methods could perfectly predict the stability map, while the low-order numerical methods failed to do so. For all theoretically unstable cases, the low-order methods predicted them to be stable. The result obtained in this paper is a strong evidence to show the benefits of using high-order numerical methods over the low-order ones, when they are applied to simulate natural circulation phenomenon that has already gain increasing interests in many future nuclear reactor designs.

  20. Calculations of the time-averaged local heat transfer coefficients in circulating fluidized bed

    SciTech Connect

    Dai, T.H.; Qian, R.Z.; Ai, Y.F.

    1999-04-01

    The great potential to burn a wide variety of fuels and the reduced emission of pollutant gases mainly SO{sub x} and NO{sub x} have inspired the investigators to conduct research at a brisk pace all around the world on circulating fluidized bed (CFB) technology. An accurate understanding of heat transfer to bed walls is required for proper design of CFB boilers. To develop an optimum economic design of the boiler, it is also necessary to know how the heat transfer coefficient depends on different design and operating parameters. It is impossible to do the experiments under all operating conditions. Thus, the mathematical model prediction is a valuable method instead. Based on the cluster renewal theory of heat transfer in circulating fluidized beds, a mathematical model for predicting the time-averaged local bed-to-wall heat transfer coefficients is developed. The effects of the axial distribution of the bed density on the time-average local heat transfer coefficients are taken into account via dividing the bed into a series of sections along its height. The assumptions are made about the formation and falling process of clusters on the wall. The model predictions are in an acceptable agreement with the published data.

  1. Further numerical calculations of the circulation of the atmosphere of Venus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    De Rivas, E. K.

    1975-01-01

    Results of two-dimensional simulations of the deep circulation of Venus are presented. They prove that the high surface temperature can only be explained by the greenhouse effect, and that Goody and Robinson's (1966) dynamical model is not valid. Analytical radiative equilibrium solutions for a semi-grey atmosphere, both with and without an internal heat source, are presented. It is shown that the greenhouse effect is sufficient to produce the high surface temperature if the thermal optical depth is much greater than 100 and the ratio of solar to thermal optical depths does not exceed 0.005. A two-dimensional version of a three-dimensional model is used to test the validity of the new mechanism proposed by Gierasch (1975) to explain the 4-day circulation. Numerical experiments with large horizontal viscosities failed to show strong zonal velocities even for the case of large Prandtl numbers. It is observed that the dissipation of angular momentum introduced by the strong horizontal diffusion more than compensates for the upward transport of angular momentum due to the Hadley cell.

  2. [Physical and physiological principles of calculating vascular resistance in cardiovascular circulation].

    PubMed

    Hennig, E

    1992-01-01

    After reconstructive vascular surgery the quality of perfusion and the risk of failure can be predicted, if the distal outflow resistance of the graft is known. The laws of the hydrodynamics for the calculation of flow resistance in tubes are discussed with respect to their validity in the circulatory system. Because of great differences between the physiological realities and the physical assumption, and problems in monitoring some of the parameters of the equations, the calculation of the physiological vascular resistance according to the a.m. laws is not possible. With "Ohms law" of the hydrodynamic the calculation of the outflow resistance distal of a graft is possible if the flow through the bypass and the pressure losses in the outflow bed are known. Easier to perform is the measurement of the pressure-time integral generated by the injection of a standardized volume into the graft and the calculation of the outflow resistance with the help of a microprocessor.

  3. The Venus nitric oxide night airglow - Model calculations based on the Venus Thermospheric General Circulation Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bougher, S. W.; Gerard, J. C.; Stewart, A. I. F.; Fesen, C. G.

    1990-01-01

    The mechanism responsible for the Venus nitric oxide (0,1) delta band nightglow observed in the Pioneer Venus Orbiter UV spectrometer (OUVS) images was investigated using the Venus Thermospheric General Circulation Model (Dickinson et al., 1984), modified to include simple odd nitrogen chemistry. Results obtained for the solar maximum conditions indicate that the recently revised dark-disk average NO intensity at 198.0 nm, based on statistically averaged OUVS measurements, can be reproduced with minor modifications in chemical rate coefficients. The results imply a nightside hemispheric downward N flux of (2.5-3) x 10 to the 9th/sq cm sec, corresponding to the dayside net production of N atoms needed for transport.

  4. The Venus nitric oxide night airglow - Model calculations based on the Venus Thermospheric General Circulation Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bougher, S. W.; Gerard, J. C.; Stewart, A. I. F.; Fesen, C. G.

    1990-01-01

    The mechanism responsible for the Venus nitric oxide (0,1) delta band nightglow observed in the Pioneer Venus Orbiter UV spectrometer (OUVS) images was investigated using the Venus Thermospheric General Circulation Model (Dickinson et al., 1984), modified to include simple odd nitrogen chemistry. Results obtained for the solar maximum conditions indicate that the recently revised dark-disk average NO intensity at 198.0 nm, based on statistically averaged OUVS measurements, can be reproduced with minor modifications in chemical rate coefficients. The results imply a nightside hemispheric downward N flux of (2.5-3) x 10 to the 9th/sq cm sec, corresponding to the dayside net production of N atoms needed for transport.

  5. Natural circulation in a VVER reactor geometry: Experiments with the PACTEL facility and Cathare simulations

    SciTech Connect

    Raussi, P.; Kainulainen, S.; Kouhia, J.

    1995-09-01

    There are some 40 reactors based on the VVER design in use. Database available for computer code assessment for VVER reactors is rather limited. Experiments were conducted to study natural circulation behaviour in the PACTEL facility, a medium-scale integral test loop patterned after VVER pressurized water reactors. Flow behaviour over a range of coolant inventories was studied with a small-break experiment. In the small-break experiments, flow stagnation and system repressurization were observed when the water level in the upper plenum fell below the entrances to the hot legs. The cause was attributed to the hot leg loop seals, which are a unique feature of the VVER geometry. At low primary inventories, core cooling was achieved through the boiler-condenser mode. The experiment was simulated using French thermalhydraulic system code CATHARE.

  6. Circulation of images and graphic practices in Renaissance natural history: the example of Conrad Gessner.

    PubMed

    Egmond, Florike; Kusukawa, Sachiko

    2016-01-01

    Conrad Gessner's Historia animalium is a compilation of information from a variety of sources: friends, correspondents, books, broadsides, drawings, as well as his own experience. The recent discovery of a cache of drawings at Amsterdam originally belonging to Gessner has added a new dimension for research into the role of images in Gessner's study of nature. In this paper, we examine the drawings that were the basis of the images in the volume of fishes. We uncovered several cases where there were multiple copies of the same drawing of a fish (rather than multiple drawings of the samefish), which problematizes the notion of unique "original" copies and their copies. While we still know very little about the actual mechanism of, or people involved in, commissioning or generating copies of drawings, their very existence suggests that the images functioned as an important medium in the circulation of knowledge in the early modern period.

  7. Heat and Mass Transfer in Nucleate Boiling Regime of HE I in a Natural Circulation Loop

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benkheira, L.; Souhar, M.; Baudouy, B.

    2006-04-01

    This paper is devoted to the experimental study of He I natural circulation loop under nucleate boiling conditions, which simulates the cooling system of the 4 Tesla superconducting solenoid CMS under construction at CERN for the LHC. The test section consists of an electrically heated copper tube of 0.010 m ID and 0.95 m long. Uniform heat fluxes in the range of 0-2000 W/m2 were employed. All data were generated near atmospheric pressure. Reported are results of the boiling curves and the effect of heat flux on the heat transfer coefficient under boiling. An attempt is carried out to predict the boiling incipience and to correlate the heat transfer coefficient based on the combining effect of forced convection and nucleate boiling by a power-type asymptotic model.

  8. Helium I heat transfer in a small natural circulation loop with self-sustaining recondensation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Yu; Four, Aurélien; Baudouy, Bertrand

    2014-01-01

    Heat transfer of helium I in a natural circulation loop is experimentally studied around atmospheric pressure. The test section of the loop has an inner diameter of 4 mm and a height of 23 cm and can be uniformly heated by wire heater. On top of the loop, a condenser is mounted and thermally connected to the second-stage of a 1.5 W at 4.2 K GM cryocooler. Helium can be recondensed in the condenser, where the pressure is regulated around the atmospheric pressure. While the dissipated heat flux is increased from 0 to 1 W, one encounters the different heat transfer regimes as single phase liquid convection, two phase nucleate boiling and single phase vapor convection. The wall superheat varies up to 11 K in the single phase vapor convection regime. The wall temperature measurement allows obtaining the boiling curve and determining the heat transfer coefficient.

  9. Modeling of thermohydraulic transients in a boiling helium natural circulation loop

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Furci, H.; Baudouy, B.

    2016-12-01

    Boiling helium natural circulation loops are a cooling option for superconducting magnets. Previous studies on the field have provided a thorough understanding of their steady state behavior in all boiling regimes. Recent experimental research has lead to the understanding of their transient behavior. In particular, it highlights the impact of the thermohydraulic evolution of the circuit on the onset of transient boiling crisis, which represents a limitation of the cooling system. Hence, the need of modeling this aspect of these systems. In this work we present modeling options of two-phase helium loops departing from the homogeneous equilibrium two-phase flow model. Reasonable additional assumptions are introduced to obtain a simplified model and the effect of these assumptions is evaluated by comparison with the solution of the non-simplified equations system. These methods are compared to experimental data to analyze their success and limitations.

  10. Two-phase flow instability and dryout in parallel channels in natural circulation

    SciTech Connect

    Duffey, R.B.; Rohatgi, U.S.; Hughes, E.D.

    1993-06-01

    The unique feature of parallel channel flows is that the pressure drop or driving head for the flow is maintained constant across any given channel by the flow in all the others, or by having a large downcomer or bypass in a natural circulation loop. This boundary condition is common in all heat exchangers, reactor cores and boilers, it is well known that the two-phase flow in parallel channels can exhibit both so-called static and dynamic instability. This leads to the question of the separability of the flow and pressure drop boundary conditions in the study of stability and dryout. For the areas of practical interest, the flow can be considered as incompressible. The dynamic instability is characterized by density (kinematic) or continuity waves, and the static instability by inertial (pressure drop) or manometric escalations. The static has been considered to be the zero-frequency or lowest mode of the dynamic case. We briefly review the status of the existing literature on both parallel channel static and dynamic instability, and the latest developments in theory and experiment. The difference between the two derivations lies in the retention of the time-dependent terms in the conservation equations. The effects and impact of design options are also discussed. Since dryout in parallel systems follows instability, it has been traditional to determine the dryout power for a parallel channel by testing a single channel with a given (inlet) flow boundary condition without particular regard for the pressure drop. Thus all modern dryout correlations are based on constant or fixed flow tests, a so-called hard inlet, and subchannel and multiple bundle effects are corrected for separately. We review the thinking that lead to this approach, and suggest that for all multiple channel and natural circulation systems close attention should be paid to the actual (untested) pressure drop conditions. A conceptual formulation is suggested as a basis for discussion.

  11. Development of the FHR advanced natural circulation analysis code and application to FHR safety analysis

    DOE PAGES

    Guo, Z.; Zweibaum, N.; Shao, M.; ...

    2016-04-19

    The University of California, Berkeley (UCB) is performing thermal hydraulics safety analysis to develop the technical basis for design and licensing of fluoride-salt-cooled, high-temperature reactors (FHRs). FHR designs investigated by UCB use natural circulation for emergency, passive decay heat removal when normal decay heat removal systems fail. The FHR advanced natural circulation analysis (FANCY) code has been developed for assessment of passive decay heat removal capability and safety analysis of these innovative system designs. The FANCY code uses a one-dimensional, semi-implicit scheme to solve for pressure-linked mass, momentum and energy conservation equations. Graph theory is used to automatically generate amore » staggered mesh for complicated pipe network systems. Heat structure models have been implemented for three types of boundary conditions (Dirichlet, Neumann and Robin boundary conditions). Heat structures can be composed of several layers of different materials, and are used for simulation of heat structure temperature distribution and heat transfer rate. Control models are used to simulate sequences of events or trips of safety systems. A proportional-integral controller is also used to automatically make thermal hydraulic systems reach desired steady state conditions. A point kinetics model is used to model reactor kinetics behavior with temperature reactivity feedback. The underlying large sparse linear systems in these models are efficiently solved by using direct and iterative solvers provided by the SuperLU code on high performance machines. Input interfaces are designed to increase the flexibility of simulation for complicated thermal hydraulic systems. In conclusion, this paper mainly focuses on the methodology used to develop the FANCY code, and safety analysis of the Mark 1 pebble-bed FHR under development at UCB is performed.« less

  12. Development of the FHR advanced natural circulation analysis code and application to FHR safety analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Guo, Z.; Zweibaum, N.; Shao, M.; Huddar, L. R.; Peterson, P. F.; Qiu, S.

    2016-04-19

    The University of California, Berkeley (UCB) is performing thermal hydraulics safety analysis to develop the technical basis for design and licensing of fluoride-salt-cooled, high-temperature reactors (FHRs). FHR designs investigated by UCB use natural circulation for emergency, passive decay heat removal when normal decay heat removal systems fail. The FHR advanced natural circulation analysis (FANCY) code has been developed for assessment of passive decay heat removal capability and safety analysis of these innovative system designs. The FANCY code uses a one-dimensional, semi-implicit scheme to solve for pressure-linked mass, momentum and energy conservation equations. Graph theory is used to automatically generate a staggered mesh for complicated pipe network systems. Heat structure models have been implemented for three types of boundary conditions (Dirichlet, Neumann and Robin boundary conditions). Heat structures can be composed of several layers of different materials, and are used for simulation of heat structure temperature distribution and heat transfer rate. Control models are used to simulate sequences of events or trips of safety systems. A proportional-integral controller is also used to automatically make thermal hydraulic systems reach desired steady state conditions. A point kinetics model is used to model reactor kinetics behavior with temperature reactivity feedback. The underlying large sparse linear systems in these models are efficiently solved by using direct and iterative solvers provided by the SuperLU code on high performance machines. Input interfaces are designed to increase the flexibility of simulation for complicated thermal hydraulic systems. In conclusion, this paper mainly focuses on the methodology used to develop the FANCY code, and safety analysis of the Mark 1 pebble-bed FHR under development at UCB is performed.

  13. The nature of chemical bonds from PNOF5 calculations.

    PubMed

    Matxain, Jon M; Piris, Mario; Uranga, Jon; Lopez, Xabier; Merino, Gabriel; Ugalde, Jesus M

    2012-06-18

    Natural orbital functional theory (NOFT) is used for the first time in the analysis of different types of chemical bonds. Concretely, the Piris natural orbital functional PNOF5 is used. It provides a localization scheme that yields an orbital picture which agrees very well with the empirical valence shell electron pair repulsion theory (VSEPR) and Bent's rule, as well as with other theoretical pictures provided by valence bond (VB) or linear combination of atomic orbitals-molecular orbital (LCAO-MO) methods. In this context, PNOF5 provides a novel tool for chemical bond analysis. In this work, PNOF5 is applied to selected molecules that have ionic, polar covalent, covalent, multiple (σ and π), 3c-2e, and 3c-4e bonds.

  14. Thermalhydraulic aspects of decay heat removal by natural circulation in fast reactor systems

    SciTech Connect

    Roy, C.M.; Hetsroni, G.; Banerjee, S.

    1990-01-01

    Natural convection in enclosures have been studied numerically to provide insight into the scaling laws existing for removal of decay heat in Liquid Metal Fast Reactors (LMFR). Specifically, 3-D simulations have been carried out for natural circulation in a cylinder with small aspect ratio (of the order of 0.5). These results have been compared to the results of an experiment conducted by UCSB, in collaboration with GE, to provide benchmark data for code validation. Parametric studies have been conducted to establish the validity of a 3-D Finite difference code that uses body-fitted grids for simulations of complex geometries. Further, numerical simulations have been carried out to demonstrate the importance of 3-D computer codes as tools in the design and scale-up of prototype LMFRs. It has been shown that the geometry of the passive safety systems is key to safe operation of LMFRs under shutdown conditions. The key phenomena that occur in such situations have bee studied and the available experimental studies have been identified. The future direction for modeling of natural convection recirculating flows in confined enclosures has been proposed. 31 refs.

  15. Thermalhydraulic aspects of decay heat removal by natural circulation in fast reactor systems. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Roy, C.M.; Hetsroni, G.; Banerjee, S.

    1990-12-31

    Natural convection in enclosures have been studied numerically to provide insight into the scaling laws existing for removal of decay heat in Liquid Metal Fast Reactors (LMFR). Specifically, 3-D simulations have been carried out for natural circulation in a cylinder with small aspect ratio (of the order of 0.5). These results have been compared to the results of an experiment conducted by UCSB, in collaboration with GE, to provide benchmark data for code validation. Parametric studies have been conducted to establish the validity of a 3-D Finite difference code that uses body-fitted grids for simulations of complex geometries. Further, numerical simulations have been carried out to demonstrate the importance of 3-D computer codes as tools in the design and scale-up of prototype LMFRs. It has been shown that the geometry of the passive safety systems is key to safe operation of LMFRs under shutdown conditions. The key phenomena that occur in such situations have bee studied and the available experimental studies have been identified. The future direction for modeling of natural convection recirculating flows in confined enclosures has been proposed. 31 refs.

  16. A model of the circulating blood for use in radiation dose calculations

    SciTech Connect

    Hui, T.E.; Poston, J.W. Sr.

    1987-12-31

    Over the last few years there has been a significant increase in the use of radionuclides in leukocyte, platelet, and erythrocyte imaging procedures. Radiopharmaceutical used in these procedures are confined primarily to the blood, have short half-lives, and irradiate the body as they move through the circulatory system. There is a need for a model, to describe the circulatory system in an adult human, which can be used to provide radiation absorbed dose estimates for these procedures. A simplified model has been designed assuming a static circulatory system and including major organs of the body. The model has been incorporated into the MIRD phantom and calculations have been completed for a number of exposure situations and radionuclides of clinical importance. The model will be discussed in detail and results of calculations using this model will be presented.

  17. A model of the circulating blood for use in radiation dose calculations

    SciTech Connect

    Hui, T.E.; Poston, J.W. Sr.

    1987-01-01

    Over the last few years there has been a significant increase in the use of radionuclides in leukocyte, platelet, and erythrocyte imaging procedures. Radiopharmaceutical used in these procedures are confined primarily to the blood, have short half-lives, and irradiate the body as they move through the circulatory system. There is a need for a model, to describe the circulatory system in an adult human, which can be used to provide radiation absorbed dose estimates for these procedures. A simplified model has been designed assuming a static circulatory system and including major organs of the body. The model has been incorporated into the MIRD phantom and calculations have been completed for a number of exposure situations and radionuclides of clinical importance. The model will be discussed in detail and results of calculations using this model will be presented.

  18. Stability analysis of a natural circulation lead-cooled fast reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Qiyue

    This dissertation is aimed at nuclear-coupled thermal hydraulics stability analysis of a natural circulation lead cooled fast reactor design. The stability concerns arise from the fact that natural circulation operation makes the system susceptible to flow instabilities similar to those observed in boiling water reactors. In order to capture the regional effects, modal expansion method which incorporates higher azimuthal modes is used to model the neutronics part of the system. A reduced order model is used in this work for the thermal-hydraulics. Consistent with the number of heat exchangers (HXs), the reactor core is divided into four equal quadrants. Each quadrant has its corresponding external segments such as riser, plenum, pipes and HX forming an equivalent 1-D closed loop. The local pressure loss along the loop is represented by a lumped friction factor. The heat transfer process in the HX is represented by a model for the coolant temperature at the core inlet that depends on the coolant temperature at the core outlet and the coolant velocity. Additionally, time lag effects are incorporated into this HX model due to the finite coolant speed. A conventional model is used for the fuel pin heat conduction to couple the neutronics and thermal-hydraulics. The feedback mechanisms include Doppler, axial/radial thermal expansion and coolant density effects. These effects are represented by a linear variation of the macroscopic cross sections with the fuel temperature. The weighted residual method is used to convert the governing PDEs to ODEs. Retaining the first and second modes, leads to six ODEs for neutronics, and five ODEs for the thermal-hydraulics in each quadrant. Three models are developed. These are: 1) natural circulation model with a closed coolant flow path but without coupled neutronics, 2) forced circulation model with constant external pressure drop across the heated channels but without coupled neutronics, 3) coupled system including neutronics with

  19. An investigation of natural circulation decay heat removal from an SP-100 reactor system for a lunar outpost

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El-Genk, Mohamed S.; Xue, Huimin

    1992-01-01

    A transient thermal-hydraulic model of the decay heat removal from a 550 kWe SP-100 power system for a lunar outpost has been developed and used to assess the coolability of the system by natural circulation after reactor shutdown. Results show that natural circulation of lithium coolant is sufficient to ensure coolability of the reactor core after shutdown. Further improvement of the decay heat removal capability of the system could be achieved by increasing the dimensions of the decay heat exchanger duct. A radiator area of 10-15 m2 would be sufficient to maintain the reactor core safely coolable by natural circulation after shutdown. Increasing the area of the decay heat rejection radiator or the diameter of the heat pipes in the guard vessel wall insignificantly affects the decay heat removal capability of the system.

  20. The low-power low-pressure flow resonance in a natural circulation cooled boiling water reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Hagen, T.H.J.J. van der; Stekelenburg, A.J.C.

    1995-09-01

    The last few years the possibility of flow resonances during the start-up phase of natural circulation cooled BWRs has been put forward by several authors. The present paper reports on actual oscillations observed at the Dodewaard reactor, the world`s only operating BWR cooled by natural circulation. In addition, results of a parameter study performed by means of a simple theoretical model are presented. The influence of relevant parameters on the resonance characteristics, being the decay ratio and the resonance frequency, is investigated and explained.

  1. Thermally induced flow oscillation in vertical two-phase natural circulation loop

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Sang Yong; Ishii, Mamoru

    1988-01-01

    In order to study the two-phase natural circulation during a small break loss of coolant accident in LWR, simulation experiments have been performed using Freon-113 boiling and condensation loop. In quasi-steady state, the flow became relatively stabilized and certain regular patterns of flow oscillations were detected with ranges of periods in 8-/approximately/35 seconds and 2.5-/approximately/4 minutes. In order to find out the nature of these oscillations, one-dimensional field equations for the single-phase (liquid) and two-phase region were set up, and these field equations were integrated along the loop. The homogeneous flow model was used for the two-phase region. Then the characteristic equation was derived using perturbation method. Thermal non-equilibrium and compressibility of each phase were not considered in the present analysis. The characteristic equation derived can be used to obtain the stability criteria. A simplified approach showed that the short-period oscillation were the manometer oscillation. The longer period oscillations were the density wave oscillation which had the period of oscillations close to the residence time of a fluid around the loop.

  2. Interleukin (IL)-18 Binding Protein Deficiency Disrupts Natural Killer Cell Maturation and Diminishes Circulating IL-18.

    PubMed

    Harms, Robert Z; Creer, Austin J; Lorenzo-Arteaga, Kristina M; Ostlund, Katie R; Sarvetnick, Nora E

    2017-01-01

    The cytokine interleukin (IL)-18 is a crucial amplifier of natural killer (NK) cell function. IL-18 signaling is regulated by the inhibitory effects of IL-18 binding protein (IL-18BP). Using mice deficient in IL-18BP (IL-18BPKO), we investigated the impact of mismanaged IL-18 signaling on NK cells. We found an overall reduced abundance of splenic NK cells in the absence of IL-18BP. Closer examination of NK cell subsets in spleen and bone marrow using CD27 and CD11b expression revealed that immature NK cells were increased in abundance, while the mature population of NK cells was reduced. Also, NK cells were polarized to greater production of TNF-α, while dedicated IFN-γ producers were reduced. A novel subset of IL-18 receptor α(-) NK cells contributed to the expansion of immature NK cells in IL-18BPKO mice. Splenocytes cultured with IL-18 resulted in alterations similar to those observed in IL-18BP deficiency. NK cell changes were associated with significantly reduced levels of circulating plasma IL-18. However, IL-18BPKO mice exhibited normal weight gain and responded to LPS challenge with a >10-fold increase in IFN-γ compared to wild type. Finally, we identified that the source of splenic IL-18BP was among dendritic cells/macrophage localized to the T cell-rich regions of the spleen. Our results demonstrate that IL-18BP is required for normal NK cell abundance and function and also contributes to maintaining steady-state levels of circulating IL-18. Thus, IL-18BP appears to have functions suggestive of a carrier protein, not just an inhibitor.

  3. Interleukin (IL)-18 Binding Protein Deficiency Disrupts Natural Killer Cell Maturation and Diminishes Circulating IL-18

    PubMed Central

    Harms, Robert Z.; Creer, Austin J.; Lorenzo-Arteaga, Kristina M.; Ostlund, Katie R.; Sarvetnick, Nora E.

    2017-01-01

    The cytokine interleukin (IL)-18 is a crucial amplifier of natural killer (NK) cell function. IL-18 signaling is regulated by the inhibitory effects of IL-18 binding protein (IL-18BP). Using mice deficient in IL-18BP (IL-18BPKO), we investigated the impact of mismanaged IL-18 signaling on NK cells. We found an overall reduced abundance of splenic NK cells in the absence of IL-18BP. Closer examination of NK cell subsets in spleen and bone marrow using CD27 and CD11b expression revealed that immature NK cells were increased in abundance, while the mature population of NK cells was reduced. Also, NK cells were polarized to greater production of TNF-α, while dedicated IFN-γ producers were reduced. A novel subset of IL-18 receptor α− NK cells contributed to the expansion of immature NK cells in IL-18BPKO mice. Splenocytes cultured with IL-18 resulted in alterations similar to those observed in IL-18BP deficiency. NK cell changes were associated with significantly reduced levels of circulating plasma IL-18. However, IL-18BPKO mice exhibited normal weight gain and responded to LPS challenge with a >10-fold increase in IFN-γ compared to wild type. Finally, we identified that the source of splenic IL-18BP was among dendritic cells/macrophage localized to the T cell-rich regions of the spleen. Our results demonstrate that IL-18BP is required for normal NK cell abundance and function and also contributes to maintaining steady-state levels of circulating IL-18. Thus, IL-18BP appears to have functions suggestive of a carrier protein, not just an inhibitor. PMID:28900426

  4. Calculation of fluid circulation patterns in the vicinity of submerged jets using ORSMAC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, J. E.; Cross, K. E.

    1980-01-01

    As the world demand for electricity is met by large coal or nuclear fueled central generating stations, the effluent streams from these plants will have an increasingly important impact on the local environment. The Nuclear Regulatory Commission has a responsibility to assess the impact of proposed and operating nuclear power plants. To support this NRC mission, a numerical algorithm and associated computer program were developed to predict the temperatures occurring in the immediate vicinity (the near field) of a hot water discharge from a power plant. The algorithm is a natural extension of the classic Marker-and-Cell (MAC) technique developed by F.H. Harlow at the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory. ORSMAC adds the logic for simple turbulence modeling, energy conservation and buoyancy effects to the MAC model. Modern numerical techniques were used wherever practical. The MAC and SMAC (Simplified MAC) algorithms are reviewed, and the ORSMAC algorithm is described. The finite difference analogs are given and discussed. Solutions for several sample problems are presented which illustrate the features of the ORSMAC algorithm. A complete FORTRAN listing is included with input and sample output. Recommendations for further testing are included.

  5. Steam condensation and liquid hold-up in steam generator U-tubes during oscillatory natural circulation

    SciTech Connect

    De Santi, G.F.; Mayinger, F.

    1990-01-01

    In many accident scenarios, natural circulation is an important heat transport mechanism for long-term cooling of light water reactors. In the event of a small pipe break, with subsequent loss of primary cooling fluid loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA), or under abnormal operating conditions, early tripping of the main coolant pumps can be actuated. Primary fluid flow will then progress from forced to natural convection. Understanding of the flow regimes and heat-removal mechanisms in the steam generators during the entire transient is of primary importance to safety analysis. Flow oscillations during two-phase natural circulation experiments for pressurized water reactors (PWRs) with inverted U-tube steam generators occur at high pressure and at a primary inventory range between two-phase circulation and reflex heat removal. This paper deals with the oscillatory flow behavior that was observed in the LOBI-MOD2 facility during the transition period between two-phase natural circulation and reflex condensation.

  6. [Impact of effect of natural disasters on the circulation of causative agents of parasitic diseases].

    PubMed

    Vaserin, Iu I; Khromenkova, E P; Dimidova, L L; Tverdokhlebova, T I; Nagornyĭ, S A; Prokopova, L V; Dumbadze, O S; Murashov, N E; Butaev, T M; Agirov, A Kh; Osmolovskiĭ, S V; Papatsenko, L B; Soldatova, M V

    2005-01-01

    The southern region is marked by a high incidence of parasitic diseases and a significant contamination of environmental objects with the eggs and cysts of their pathogens. Background examinations revealed the greatest soil contamination with helminthic eggs in the Temryuksky District of the Krasnodar Territory and in the towns of Vladikavkaz and Digora of the Republic of North Ossetia (Alania). The least contamination was found in Rostov-on-Don and the towns of the south-western area of the Krasnodar Territory. The eggs of Toxocara and astamination. There is an increase in the proportion of soil positive tests from 26.6 to 50.0, with the high (up to 82.0-100.0%) viability of eggs and a rise in the intensive index of their content per kg of soil (from 2.7 to 4.7-11.0). Toxocara eggs were mainly detected. The established high proportion of seropositive persons (10.7-18.0%) among the local population is an additional verification of the wide circulation of Toxocara eggs in nature. By the helminthic egg contamination index, the soils of localities of the south of Russia are qualified as those of moderate epidemic hazard. The floods accompanied by the increased helminthological contamination of the upper soil layer may lead to a higher human risk for contamination with helminthic diseases.

  7. Results of two-phase natural circulation in hot-leg U-bend simulation experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Ishii, M.; Lee, S.Y.; Abou El-Seoud, S.

    1987-01-01

    In order to study the two-phase natural circulation and flow termination during a small break loss of coolant accident in LWR, simulation experiments have been performed using two different thermal-hydraulic loops. The main focus of the experiment was the two-phase flow behavior in the hot-leg U-bend typical of BandW LWR systems. The first group of experiments was carried out in the nitrogen gas-water adiabatic simulation loop and the second in the Freon 113 boiling and condensation loop. Both of the loops have been designed as a flow visualization facility and built according to the two-phase flow scaling criteria developed under this program. The nitrogen gas-water system has been used to isolate key hydrodynamic phenomena such as the phase distribution, relative velocity between phases, two-phase flow regimes and flow termination mechanisms, whereas the Freon loop has been used to study the effect of fluid properties, phase changes and coupling between hydrodynamic and heat transfer phenomena. Significantly different behaviors have been observed due to the non-equilibrium phase change phenomena such as the flashing and condensation in the Freon loop. The phenomena created much more unstable hydrodynamic conditions which lead to cyclic or oscillatory flow behaviors.

  8. Chaotic Phenomena and Analysis of Natural Circulation Flow Instability under Rolling Motion Condition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, S. C.; Gao, P. Z.

    2010-03-01

    Experimental study on natural circulation flow instability under rolling motion is carried out and the results show that the complex flow oscillations are formed due to the overlapped effect of the rolling motion (trough instability) and density wave oscillation. The system becomes more instable because of the occurrence of complex flow oscillations. Complex flow oscillations only occur in the case of high subcooling and may be divided into two types: regular and irregular complex flow oscillations. Under the same thermo hydraulic conditions, the marginal stability boundary (MSB) of regular complex oscillations is similar to that of density wave oscillation without rolling motion. And the influences of rolling amplitude and rolling period on its MSB are slight. Chaotic characteristics are found in irregular complex oscillation flow under rolling motion condition. Based on the experimental data and G-P method, correlation dimension and Kolmogorov entropy are gotten with time series analysis. The results show that complex oscillation has fractal dimension and positive Kolmogorov entropy and is typical chaotic time series.

  9. Experiments in a single-phase natural circulation mini-loop

    SciTech Connect

    Misale, M.; Garibaldi, P.; Passos, J.C.; de Bitencourt, G. Ghisi

    2007-08-15

    This study reports an experimental investigation related to a rectangular single-phase natural circulation mini-loop, which consists of two horizontal copper tubes (heat transfer sections) and two vertical tubes (legs) made of copper, connected by means of four glass 90 bends. The loop inner diameter is 4 mm. The lower heating section consists of an electrical heating wire made of nicromel on the outside of the copper tube; the upper cooling system consists of a coaxial cylindrical heat exchanger with a water-glycol mixture, set at controlled temperature and flowing through the annulus. The loop has an imposed heat flux in the lower heating section and an imposed temperature in the cooler. The mini-loop was placed onto a table which can assume different inclinations. The parameters investigated during the experiments were: power transferred to the fluid and inclination of the loop. The preliminary results show a stable behaviour with a steady temperature difference across the heat sinks. It has been confirmed that the fluid velocity is very small (order of millimetres per second). (author)

  10. Preliminary numerical studies of an experimental facility for heat removal in natural circulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bertani, C.; De Salve, M.; Caramello, M.; Falcone, N.; Bersano, A.; Panella, B.

    2017-01-01

    In recent years particular attention has been dedicated to passive safety systems for heat removal in nuclear power plants. Passive safety systems can achieve a high level of safety, as they carry out their mission relying solely on physical principles like natural circulation, without any need of operators or energy sources. To qualify these systems and components experimental activities are necessary to study and to understand the governing physical phenomena. The present paper shows the design of an experimental facility to be installed in the laboratories of the Energy Department of Politecnico di Torino. The facility is inspired by the decay heat removal system for ALFRED reactor and comprehends a heated bayonet tube and a heat sink for the heat removal (a heat exchanger inside a pool). The thermal power is in the order of 1 kW. A RELAP5-3D model of the facility has been developed and sensitivity analyses were performed to highlight the geometry of the heat exchanger, the final heat sink, and the mass of water inside the loop. The results of this phase serve to understand the physical limits of the facility, to demonstrate a preliminary feasibility and to optimize the geometry for the desired operating conditions.

  11. A Mass Circulation View of the Low Frequency Nature of the Stratospheric Northern Annular Mode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Y.; Cai, M.

    2016-12-01

    We consider three indices to measure polar stratospheric mass and stratospheric meridional mass circulation variability: anomalies of (i) total mass in the polar stratospheric cap (60-90°N, above the isentropic surface 400 K, PSM), (ii) total adiabatic mass transport across 60°N into the polar stratosphere cap (AMT), (iii) and total diabatic mass transport across 400 K into the polar stratosphere (DMT). It is confirmed that the negative stratospheric Northern Annular Mode (NAM) and normalized PSM indices have a nearly indistinguishable temporal evolution and both indices have the same red-noise-like spectrum with the de-correlation timescale of 4 weeks. In this sense, these two indices are synonymous with each other. This enables us to examine the low-frequency nature of the PSM (or NAM) index in the framework of the mass conservation, namely, dPSM/dt=AMT+DMT . Results indicate that the DMT index tends to be negatively correlated with the PSM index and also has a red-noise-like spectrum with the de-correlation timescale of 3-4 weeks. The AMT index, however, has a large positive correlation with the tendency of the PSM rather than the PSM itself. The temporal variability of the AMT has otherwise white-noise-like spectrum except with a pronounced peak at the 2-week timescale. Therefore, the conservation equation of the PSM behaves like a linear stochastic differential equation with the DMT serving as the thermal damping term and the AMT as the high-frequency white noise source term. It follows that the low-frequency nature of the stratospheric NAM (or PSM) index can be viewed as the red-noise response to a white noise in a fluctuation-dissipation system.

  12. Climatology and natural variability of the global hydrologic cycle in the GLA atmospheric general circulation model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lau, K.-M.; Mehta, V. M.; Sud, Y. C.; Walker, G. K.

    1994-01-01

    Time average climatology and low-frequency variabilities of the global hydrologic cycle (GHC) in the Goddard Laboratory for Atmospheres (GLA) general circulation model (GCM) were investigated in the present work. A 730-day experiment was conducted with the GLA GCM forced by insolation, sea surface temperature, and ice-snow undergoing climatological annual cycles. Ifluences of interactive soil moisture on time average climatology and natural variability of the GHC were also investigated by conducting 365-day experiments with and without interactive soil moisture. Insolation, sea surface temperature, and ice-snow were fixed at their July levels in the latter two experiments. Results show that the model's time average hydrologic cycle variables for July in all three experiments agree reasonably well with observations. Except in the case of precipitable water, the zonal average climates of the annual cycle experiment and the two perpetual July experiments are alike, i.e., their differences are within limits of the natural variability of the model's climate. Statistics of various components of the GHC, i.e., water vapor, evaporation, and precipitation, are significantly affected by the presence of interactive soil moisture. A long-term trend is found in the principal empirical modes of variability of ground wetness, evaporation, and sensible heat. Dominant modes of variability of these quantities over land are physically consistent with one another and with land surface energy balance requirements. The dominant mode of precipitation variability is found to be closely related to organized convection over the tropical western Pacific Ocean. The precipitation variability has timescales in the range of 2 to 3 months and can be identified with the stationary component of the Madden-Julian Oscillation. The precipitation mode is not sensitive to the presence of interactive soil moisture but is closely linked to both the rotational and divergent components of atmospheric

  13. Climatology and natural variability of the global hydrologic cycle in the GLA atmospheric general circulation model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lau, K.-M.; Mehta, V. M.; Sud, Y. C.; Walker, G. K.

    1994-01-01

    Time average climatology and low-frequency variabilities of the global hydrologic cycle (GHC) in the Goddard Laboratory for Atmospheres (GLA) general circulation model (GCM) were investigated in the present work. A 730-day experiment was conducted with the GLA GCM forced by insolation, sea surface temperature, and ice-snow undergoing climatological annual cycles. Ifluences of interactive soil moisture on time average climatology and natural variability of the GHC were also investigated by conducting 365-day experiments with and without interactive soil moisture. Insolation, sea surface temperature, and ice-snow were fixed at their July levels in the latter two experiments. Results show that the model's time average hydrologic cycle variables for July in all three experiments agree reasonably well with observations. Except in the case of precipitable water, the zonal average climates of the annual cycle experiment and the two perpetual July experiments are alike, i.e., their differences are within limits of the natural variability of the model's climate. Statistics of various components of the GHC, i.e., water vapor, evaporation, and precipitation, are significantly affected by the presence of interactive soil moisture. A long-term trend is found in the principal empirical modes of variability of ground wetness, evaporation, and sensible heat. Dominant modes of variability of these quantities over land are physically consistent with one another and with land surface energy balance requirements. The dominant mode of precipitation variability is found to be closely related to organized convection over the tropical western Pacific Ocean. The precipitation variability has timescales in the range of 2 to 3 months and can be identified with the stationary component of the Madden-Julian Oscillation. The precipitation mode is not sensitive to the presence of interactive soil moisture but is closely linked to both the rotational and divergent components of atmospheric

  14. Thermohydraulic model experiments on the transition from forced to natural circulation for pool-type fast reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Hoffmann, H.; Marten, K.; Weinberg, D. )

    1992-09-01

    In this paper, thermohydraulic studies on the transition from forced to natural convection are carried out using the 1:20 scale RAMONA three-dimensional reactor model with water as the simulant fluid. In the investigations, a scram from 40% load operation of a fast reactor is simulated. The core mass flows and the core as well as the hot plenum temperatures are measured as a function of time for various core power levels, coastdown curves of the primary- and secondary-side pumps, and for various delay times for the start of the immersion coolers after a scram. These parameters influence the onset of the natural circulation in the reactor tank. The main result is that the longer the intermediate heat exchanger coolability is ensured and the later the immersion coolers start to operate, the higher is the natural-circulation flow and, hence, the lower are the core temperatures.

  15. Indomethacin Inhibits Circulating PGE2 and Reverses Postexercise Suppression of Natural Killer Cell Activity

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1999-01-01

    after the oral administration of a placebo, the PG inhibitor indomethacin (75 mg/day for 5 days), or naltrexone (reported elsewhere). Circulating...which blocks PGE2 biosynthe- sis via inhibition of cyclooxygenase activity (57). Maxi- mal suppression of PG production occurs with doses between 50...and 150 mg (1). In addition to the indepen- dent effects of PGE2 on NKCA, low circulating levels of PGE2 can synergize with endogenous glucocorticoids

  16. Calculation of Post-Closure Natural Convection Heat and Mass Transfer in Yucca Mountain Drifts

    SciTech Connect

    S. Webb; M. Itamura

    2004-03-16

    Natural convection heat and mass transfer under post-closure conditions has been calculated for Yucca Mountain drifts using the computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code FLUENT. Calculations have been performed for 300, 1000, 3000, and 10,000 years after repository closure. Effective dispersion coefficients that can be used to calculate mass transfer in the drift have been evaluated as a function of time and boundary temperature tilt.

  17. Calculation of unmitigated release from reverse circulation drilling of a borehole three meters south of borehole 41-15-09 near SST 241-SX-115

    SciTech Connect

    SCOTT, D.L.

    1999-05-27

    To more fully characterize the vadose zone near Single Shell Tank 241-SX-115, another borehole will be drilled and sampled by using reverse circulation drilling equipment. Compressed air propels the drill and sweeps out cuttings. Dose calculations in this document are performed for an unmitigated airborne release from the drill string. Doses were found not to exceed TWRS risk guideline values.

  18. Buoyancy Driven Coolant Mixing Studies of Natural Circulation Flows at the ROCOM Test Facility Using ANSYS CFX

    SciTech Connect

    Hohne, Thomas; Kliem, Soren; Rohde, Ulrich; Weiss, Frank-Peter

    2006-07-01

    Coolant mixing in the cold leg, downcomer and the lower plenum of pressurized water reactors is an important phenomenon mitigating the reactivity insertion into the core. Therefore, mixing of the de-borated slugs with the ambient coolant in the reactor pressure vessel was investigated at the four loop 1:5 scaled ROCOM mixing test facility. Thermal hydraulics analyses showed, that weakly borated condensate can accumulate in particular in the pump loop seal of those loops, which do not receive safety injection. After refilling of the primary circuit, natural circulation in the stagnant loops can re-establish simultaneously and the de-borated slugs are shifted towards the reactor pressure vessel (RPV). In the ROCOM experiments, the length of the flow ramp and the initial density difference between the slugs and the ambient coolant was varied. From the test matrix experiments with 0 resp. 2% density difference between the de-borated slugs and the ambient coolant were used to validate the CFD software ANSYS CFX. To model the effects of turbulence on the mean flow a higher order Reynolds stress turbulence model was employed and a mesh consisting of 6.4 million hybrid elements was utilized. Only the experiments and CFD calculations with modeled density differences show a stratification in the downcomer. Depending on the degree of density differences the less dense slugs flow around the core barrel at the top of the downcomer. At the opposite side the lower borated coolant is entrained by the colder safety injection water and transported to the core. The validation proves that ANSYS CFX is able to simulate appropriately the flow field and mixing effects of coolant with different densities. (authors)

  19. Pulsational characteristics of the natural-circulation loop of a large-scale model of a light-boiling boiling-water reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Babykin, A.S.; Balunov, B.F.; Chernykh, N.G.; Smirnov, E.L.; Tisheninova, V.I.; Zhiuitskaya, T.S.

    1985-10-01

    The results of an experimental study of a natural-circulation (NC) loop, whose geometrical and hydraulic characteristics are presented are described. The range of state parameters encompassed in the experiments is also indicated. The authors used a large-scale model of a low-boiling-water reactor, with natural heights and reduced stages of separate elements of the NC loop. The study confirmed that under the conditions the pulsations in the flow rate of the coolant occurs only in the transitional zone from natural circulation of the singlephase medium to natural circulation of the two-phase coolant.

  20. Design of Complex Systems to Achieve Passive Safety: Natural Circulation Cooling of Liquid Salt Pebble Bed Reactors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scarlat, Raluca Olga

    This dissertation treats system design, modeling of transient system response, and characterization of individual phenomena and demonstrates a framework for integration of these three activities early in the design process of a complex engineered system. A system analysis framework for prioritization of experiments, modeling, and development of detailed design is proposed. Two fundamental topics in thermal-hydraulics are discussed, which illustrate the integration of modeling and experimentation with nuclear reactor design and safety analysis: thermal-hydraulic modeling of heat generating pebble bed cores, and scaled experiments for natural circulation heat removal with Boussinesq liquids. The case studies used in this dissertation are derived from the design and safety analysis of a pebble bed fluoride salt cooled high temperature nuclear reactor (PB-FHR), currently under development in the United States at the university and national laboratories level. In the context of the phenomena identification and ranking table (PIRT) methodology, new tools and approaches are proposed and demonstrated here, which are specifically relevant to technology in the early stages of development, and to analysis of passive safety features. A system decomposition approach is proposed. Definition of system functional requirements complements identification and compilation of the current knowledge base for the behavior of the system. Two new graphical tools are developed for ranking of phenomena importance: a phenomena ranking map, and a phenomena identification and ranking matrix (PIRM). The functional requirements established through this methodology were used for the design and optimization of the reactor core, and for the transient analysis and design of the passive natural circulation driven decay heat removal system for the PB-FHR. A numerical modeling approach for heat-generating porous media, with multi-dimensional fluid flow is presented. The application of this modeling

  1. Deficiencies of Circulating Mucosal-associated Invariant T Cells and Natural Killer T Cells in Patients with Multiple Trauma.

    PubMed

    Jo, Young Goun; Choi, Hyun Jung; Kim, Jung Chul; Cho, Young Nan; Kang, Jeong Hwa; Jin, Hye Mi; Kee, Seung Jung; Park, Yong Wook

    2017-05-01

    Mucosal-associated invariant T (MAIT) cells and natural killer T (NKT) cells are known to play important roles in autoimmunity, infectious diseases and cancers. However, little is known about the roles of these invariant T cells in multiple trauma. The purposes of this study were to examine MAIT and NKT cell levels in patients with multiple trauma and to investigate potential relationships between these cell levels and clinical parameters. The study cohort was composed of 14 patients with multiple trauma and 22 non-injured healthy controls (HCs). Circulating MAIT and NKT cell levels in the peripheral blood were measured by flow cytometry. The severity of injury was categorised according to the scoring systems, such as Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE) II score, Simplified Acute Physiology Score (SAPS) II, and Injury Severity Score (ISS). Circulating MAIT and NKT cell numbers were significantly lower in multiple trauma patients than in HCs. Linear regression analysis showed that circulating MAIT cell numbers were significantly correlated with age, APACHE II, SAPS II, ISS category, hemoglobin, and platelet count. NKT cell numbers in the peripheral blood were found to be significantly correlated with APACHE II, SAPS II, and ISS category. This study shows numerical deficiencies of circulating MAIT cells and NKT cells in multiple trauma. In addition, these invariant T cell deficiencies were found to be associated with disease severity. These findings provide important information for predicting the prognosis of multiple trauma. © 2017 The Korean Academy of Medical Sciences.

  2. Do general circulation models underestimate the natural variability in the artic climate?

    SciTech Connect

    Battisti, D.S.; Bitz, C.M.; Moritz, R.E.

    1997-08-01

    The authors examine the natural variability of the arctic climate system simulated by two very different models: the Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory (GFDL) global climate model, and an area-averaged model of the arctic atmosphere-sea ice-upper-ocean system called the polar cap climate model, the PCCM. A 1000-yr integration of the PCCM is performed in which the model is driven by a prescribed, stochastic atmospheric energy flux convergence (D), which has spectral characteristics that are identical to the spectra of the observed D. The standard deviation of the yearly mean sea ice thickness from this model is 0.85 m; the mean sea ice thickness is 3.1 m. In contrast, the standard deviation of the yearly averaged sea ice thickness in the GFDL climate model is found to be about 6% of the climatological mean thickness and only 24% of that simulated by the PCCM. A series of experiments is presented to determine the cause of these disparate results. First, after changing the treatment of sea ice and snow albedo in the (standard) PCCM model to be identical thermodynamically to that in the GFDL model, the PCCM is driven with D from the GFDL control integration to demonstrate that the PCCM model produces an arctic climate similar to that of the GFDL model. Integrations of the PCCM are then examined in which the different prescriptions of the sea ice treatment (GFDL vs standard PCCM) and D (GFDL vs observed) are permutated. The authors present calculations that indicate the variability in the sea ice thickness is extremely sensitive to the spectrum of the atmospheric energy flux convergence. A conservative best estimate for the amplitude of the natural variability in the arctic sea ice volume is presented.The results suggest that most of the global climate models that have been used to evaluate climate change may also have artificially quiescent variability in the Arctic. 24 refs., 6 figs., 3 tabs.

  3. Overall results of and lessons learned from the IAEA CRP on sodium natural circulation test performed during the Phenix end-of-life experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Monti, S.; Toti, A.; Tenchine, D.; Pialla, D.

    2012-07-01

    In 2007, the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) launched the Coordinated Research Project (CRP) 'Control Rod Withdrawal and Sodium Natural Circulation Tests Performed during the Phenix End-of-Life Experiments'. The overall purpose of the CRP, performed within the framework of the IAEA programme in support of innovative fast reactor technology development and deployment, is to improve the Member States' analytical capabilities in the various fields of research and design of sodium-cooled fast reactors through data and codes verification and validation. In particular the CRP, taking advantage of the End-of-Life set of experiments performed before the final shut-down of the French prototype fast breeder power reactor Phenix, aims at improving fast reactor simulation methods and design capabilities in the field of temperature and power distribution evaluation, as well as of the analysis of sodium natural circulation phenomena. The paper presents the overall results of the CRP, including blind calculations and post-test and sensitivity analyses carried out by the CRP participants, as well as lessons learned and recommendations for further future implementations to resolve open issues. (authors)

  4. Experimental investigation on the flow instability behavior of a multi-channel boiling natural circulation loop at low-pressures

    SciTech Connect

    Jain, Vikas; Nayak, A.K.; Vijayan, P.K.; Saha, D.; Sinha, R.K.

    2010-09-15

    Natural circulation as a mode of heat removal is being considered as a prominent passive feature in the innovative nuclear reactor designs, particularly in boiling-water-reactors, due to its simplicity and economy. However, boiling natural circulation system poses many challenges to designer due to occurrence of various kinds of instabilities such as excursive instability, density wave oscillations, flow pattern transition instability, geysering and metastable states in parallel channels. This problem assumes greater significance particularly at low-pressures i.e. during startup, where there is great difference in the properties of two phases. In light of this, a parallel channel loop has been designed and installed that has a geometrical resemblance to the pressure-tube-type boiling-water-reactor, to investigate into the behavior of boiling natural circulation. The loop comprises of four identical parallel channels connected between two common plenums i.e. steam drum and header. The recirculation path is provided by a single downcomer connected between steam drum and header. Experiments have been conducted over a wide range of power and pressures (1-10 bar). Two distinct unstable zones are observed with respect to power i.e. corresponding to low power (Type-I) and high power (Type-II) with a stable zone at intermediate powers. The nature of oscillations in terms of their amplitude and frequency and their evolution for Type-I and Type-II instabilities are studied with respect to the effect of heater power and pressure. This paper discusses the evolution of unstable and stable behavior along with the nature of flow oscillation in the channels and the effect of pressure on it. (author)

  5. An experimental investigation of single-phase natural circulation behavior in a rectangular loop with Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanofluids

    SciTech Connect

    Nayak, A.K.; Gartia, M.R.; Vijayan, P.K.

    2008-10-15

    In this paper, the natural circulation behavior in a rectangular loop was investigated experimentally with water and different concentration of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanofluids (0.3-2% by wt. and particle size 40-80 nm). It was demonstrated that, not only the flow instabilities are suppressed but also the natural circulation flow rates are enhanced with nanofluids. The enhancement in natural circulation flow rate and suppression of instabilities were found to be dependent on the concentration of nanoparticles in water. (author)

  6. Important factors stabilizing stacking interaction between 3-nitropyrrole and natural nucleobases revealed by ab initio calculations.

    PubMed

    Seio, Kohji; Ukawa, Hisashi; Shohda, Koh-ichiro; Sekine, Mitsuo

    2003-01-01

    Stacking energies between canonical nucleobases and a universal base, 3-nitropyrrole (3-NP), were estimated by use of molecular orbital (MO) and molecular mechanics (MM) calculations. The detailed analysis of the energy profiles revealed the importance of the London dispersion energy to stabilize the stacked dimers and electrostatic interactions to determine the orientation of 3-NP to the nucleobases in the dimers. Although the energy profiles of 3-NP/natural base dimers obtained by the MO and MM calculations were qualitatively correlated with each other, the correlations were poorer than those obtained for the stacking between natural bases. The origin of the difference between 3-NP and natural bases will be discussed to understand the possibility and limitation of the current MM calculations for the simulation and design of other universal bases.

  7. Antimicrobial activity of various immunomodulators: independence from normal levels of circulating monocytes and natural killer cells. Technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Morahan, P.S.; Dempsey, W.L.; Volkman, A.; Connor, J.

    1986-01-01

    The effects of /sup 89/Sr treatment on the natural host resistance of CD-1 mice and the enhancement of resistance by immunomodulators to infection with Listeria monocytogenes or herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) were determined. In the CD-1 mouse, single-dose treatment with /sup 89/Sr caused a profound decrease in the number of circulating monocytes (Mo), lymphocytes, and polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN) within 1 week. There was also marked functional impairment of the Mo inflammatory response, as well as markedly decreased spontaneous and activatable cytoxicity by splenic natural killer (NK) cells. Despite this profound cellular suppression, there was no significant change in natural resistance of CD-1 mice to L. monocytogenes of HSV-2 infection. Furthermore, prophylactic treatment of mice with the biologic immunomodulator Corynebacterium parvum or the synthetic immunomodulators maleic anhydride-divinyl ether or avridine in liposomes resulted in comparable enhancement of resistance in /sup 89/Sr-treated and normal mice. These data indicate that natural and immunomodulator-enhanced resistance of CD-1 mice to microbail infections do not depend on normal levels of Mo, PMN, or NK cells. The resistance enhancement may rely on activated tissue macrophages. In contrast to the early changes in circulating leukocytes, the residenet peritoneal cell populations were not markedly altered until after day 30. There then was a distinct decline in lymphocytes and a gradual decline in activated tissue macrophages.

  8. The Essential Role of Circulating Thyroglobulin in Maintaining Dominance of Natural Regulatory T Cell Function to Prevent Autoimmune Thyroiditis.

    PubMed

    Kong, Y M; Brown, N K; Morris, G P; Flynn, J C

    2015-09-01

    Several key findings from the late 1960s to mid-1970s regarding thyroid hormone metabolism and circulating thyroglobulin composition converged with studies pertaining to the role of T lymphocytes in autoimmune thyroiditis. These studies cemented the foundation for subsequent investigations into the existence and antigenic specificity of thymus-derived natural regulatory T cells (nTregs). These nTregs prevented the development of autoimmune thyroiditis, despite the ever-present genetic predisposition, autoantigen (thyroglobulin), and thyroglobulin-reactive T cells. Guided by the hypothalamus-pituitary-thyroid axis as a fixed set-point regulator in thyroid hormone metabolism, we used a murine model and compared at key junctures the capacity of circulating thyroglobulin level (raised by thyroid-stimulating hormone or exogenous thyroglobulin administration) to strengthen self-tolerance and resist autoimmune thyroiditis. The findings clearly demonstrated an essential role for raised circulating thyroglobulin levels in maintaining the dominance of nTreg function and inhibiting thyroid autoimmunity. Subsequent identification of thyroglobulin-specific nTregs as CD4(+)CD25(+)Foxp3(+) in the early 2000s enabled the examination of probable mechanisms of nTreg function. We observed that whenever nTreg function was perturbed by immunotherapeutic measures, opportunistic autoimmune disorders invariably surfaced. This review highlights the step-wise progression of applying insights from endocrinologic and immunologic studies to advance our understanding of the clonal balance between natural regulatory and autoreactive T cells. Moreover, we focus on how tilting the balance in favor of maintaining peripheral tolerance could be achieved. Thus, murine autoimmune thyroiditis has served as a unique model capable of closely simulating natural physiologic conditions.

  9. Circulating natural killer and gammadelta T cells decrease soon after infection of rhesus macaques with lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus.

    PubMed

    Rodas, Juan D; Cairo, Cristiana; Djavani, Mahmoud; Zapata, Juan Carlos; Ruckwardt, Tracy; Bryant, Joseph; Pauza, C David; Lukashevich, Igor S; Salvato, Maria S

    2009-07-01

    Rhesus macaques infected with the WE strain of lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV-WE) serve as a model for human infection with Lassa fever virus. To identify the earliest events of acute infection, rhesus macaques were monitored immediately after lethal infection for changes in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). Changes in CD3, CD4, CD8 and CD20 subsets did not vary outside the normal fluctuations of these blood cell populations; however, natural killer (NK) and gammadelta T cells increased slightly on day 1 and then decreased significantly after two days. The NK subsets responsible for the decrease were primarily CD3-CD8+ or CD3-CD16+ and not the NKT (primarily CD3+CD56+) subset. Macaques infected with a non-virulent arenavirus, LCMV-Armstrong, showed a similar drop in circulating NK and gammadelta T cells, indicating that this is not a pathogenic event. V(3)9 T cells, representing the majority of circulating gammadelta T cells in rhesus macaques, displayed significant apoptosis when incubated with LCMV in cell culture; however, the low amount of cell death for virus-co-cultured NK cells was insufficient to account for the observed disappearance of this subset. Our observations in primates are similar to those seen in LCMV-infected mice, where decreased circulating NK cells were attributed to margination and cell death. Thus, the disappearance of these cells during acute hemorrhagic fever in rhesus macaques may be a cytokine-induced lymphopenia common to many virus infections.

  10. Determination of absolute configuration of natural products: theoretical calculation of electronic circular dichroism as a tool

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Determination of absolute configuration (AC) is one of the most challenging features in the structure elucidation of chiral natural products, especially those with complex structures. With revolutionary advancements in the area of quantum chemical calculations of chiroptical spectroscopy over the pa...

  11. A new method of calculating electrical conductivity with applications to natural waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCleskey, R. Blaine; Nordstrom, D. Kirk; Ryan, Joseph N.; Ball, James W.

    2012-01-01

    A new method is presented for calculating the electrical conductivity of natural waters that is accurate over a large range of effective ionic strength (0.0004-0.7 mol kg-1), temperature (0-95 °C), pH (1-10), and conductivity (30-70,000 μS cm-1). The method incorporates a reliable set of equations to calculate the ionic molal conductivities of cations and anions (H+, Li+, Na+, K+, Cs+, NH4+, Mg2+, Ca2+, Sr2+, Ba2+, F-, Cl-, Br-, SO42-, HCO3-, CO32-, NO3-, and OH-), environmentally important trace metals (Al3+, Cu2+, Fe2+, Fe3+, Mn2+, and Zn2+), and ion pairs (HSO4-, NaSO4-, NaCO3-, and KSO4-). These equations are based on new electrical conductivity measurements for electrolytes found in a wide range of natural waters. In addition, the method is coupled to a geochemical speciation model that is used to calculate the speciated concentrations required for accurate conductivity calculations. The method was thoroughly tested by calculating the conductivities of 1593 natural water samples and the mean difference between the calculated and measured conductivities was -0.7 ± 5%. Many of the samples tested were selected to determine the limits of the method and include acid mine waters, geothermal waters, seawater, dilute mountain waters, and river water impacted by municipal waste water. Transport numbers were calculated and H+, Na+, Ca2+, Mg2+, NH4+, K+, Cl-, SO42-, HCO3-, CO32-, F-, Al3+, Fe2+, NO3-, and HSO4-substantially contributed (>10%) to the conductivity of at least one of the samples. Conductivity imbalance in conjunction with charge imbalance can be used to identify whether a cation or an anion measurement is likely in error, thereby providing an additional quality assurance/quality control constraint on water analyses.

  12. A new method of calculating electrical conductivity with applications to natural waters

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McCleskey, R. Blaine; Nordstrom, D. Kirk; Ryan, Joseph N.; Ball, James W.

    2012-01-01

    A new method is presented for calculating the electrical conductivity of natural waters that is accurate over a large range of effective ionic strength (0.0004–0.7 mol kg-1), temperature (0–95 °C), pH (1–10), and conductivity (30–70,000 μS cm-1). The method incorporates a reliable set of equations to calculate the ionic molal conductivities of cations and anions (H+, Li+, Na+, K+, Cs+, NH4+, Mg2+, Ca2+, Sr2+, Ba2+, F-, Cl-, Br-, SO42-, HCO3-, CO32-, NO3-, and OH-), environmentally important trace metals (Al3+, Cu2+, Fe2+, Fe3+, Mn2+, and Zn2+), and ion pairs (HSO4-, NaSO4-, NaCO3-, and KSO4-). These equations are based on new electrical conductivity measurements for electrolytes found in a wide range of natural waters. In addition, the method is coupled to a geochemical speciation model that is used to calculate the speciated concentrations required for accurate conductivity calculations. The method was thoroughly tested by calculating the conductivities of 1593 natural water samples and the mean difference between the calculated and measured conductivities was -0.7 ± 5%. Many of the samples tested were selected to determine the limits of the method and include acid mine waters, geothermal waters, seawater, dilute mountain waters, and river water impacted by municipal waste water. Transport numbers were calculated and H+, Na+, Ca2+, Mg2+, NH4+, K+, Cl-, SO42-, HCO3-, CO32-, F-, Al3+, Fe2+, NO3-, and HSO4- substantially contributed (>10%) to the conductivity of at least one of the samples. Conductivity imbalance in conjunction with charge imbalance can be used to identify whether a cation or an anion measurement is likely in error, thereby providing an additional quality assurance/quality control constraint on water analyses.

  13. Natural variability of the climate as predicted by a simple ocean model with parameterized thermohaline circulation

    SciTech Connect

    Watts, R.G.; Li, S.

    1995-12-31

    Variability of the Earth`s climate can take place on many time scales as a result of internal features. This natural variability is important to humans since it affects such important human enterprises as agriculture, floods, droughts, etc. The authors investigate natural variability within a simple ocean model.

  14. Calculation of a residual mean meridional circulation for a zonal-mean tracer transport model: Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Choi, W.K.; Rotman, D.A.; Wuebbles, D.J.

    1995-01-01

    Because of their computational advantages, zonally-averaged chemical-radiative-transport models are widely used to investigate the distribution of chemical species and their change due to the anthropogenic chemicals in the lower and middle atmosphere. In general, the Lagrangian-mean formulation would be ideal to treat transport due to the zonal mean circulation and eddies. However, the Lagrangian formulation is difficult to use in practical applications. The most widely-used formulation for treating global atmospheric dynamics in two-dimensional models is the transformed Eulerian mean (TEM) equations. The residual mean meridional circulation (RMMC) in the TEM system is used to advect tracers. In this study, we describe possible solution techniques for obtaining the RMMC in the LLNL two-dimensional chemical-radiative-transport model. In the next section, the formulation will be described. In sections 3 and 4, possible solution procedures will be described for a diagnostic and prognostic case, respectively.

  15. [Circulating lipids in prolonged postoperative parenteral feeding: their changes depending on the nature of energy intake].

    PubMed

    Manelli, J C; Lallemand, J; Kiégel, P; Siccardi, F; Bimar, J

    1977-01-01

    Repeated estimations of circulating total lipids and various fractions were made during the postoperative period in patients receiving parenteral nutrition for more than ten days. The patients were paired in relation to the underlying pathology and divided into two group : the first receiving energy supplements in the form of carbohydrates alone, whilst the second received part of this supply in the form of lipid emulsions (Trive 1000). Total lipids and various plasma fractions, with the exception of free fatty acids, increased progressively during the postoperative period, regardless of the inital values and independently of the lipid content of the nutrition fluids given. There was no significant difference between those patients who received lipid emulsions and those who did not. Free fatty acids remained at levels slightly greater than normal in the group which did not receive lipids. They were significantly higher in the group given lipid emulsions, though it was not possible to precisely define their orgin.

  16. Correlated natural transition orbital framework for low-scaling excitation energy calculations (CorNFLEx)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baudin, Pablo; Kristensen, Kasper

    2017-06-01

    We present a new framework for calculating coupled cluster (CC) excitation energies at a reduced computational cost. It relies on correlated natural transition orbitals (NTOs), denoted CIS(D')-NTOs, which are obtained by diagonalizing generalized hole and particle density matrices determined from configuration interaction singles (CIS) information and additional terms that represent correlation effects. A transition-specific reduced orbital space is determined based on the eigenvalues of the CIS(D')-NTOs, and a standard CC excitation energy calculation is then performed in that reduced orbital space. The new method is denoted CorNFLEx (Correlated Natural transition orbital Framework for Low-scaling Excitation energy calculations). We calculate second-order approximate CC singles and doubles (CC2) excitation energies for a test set of organic molecules and demonstrate that CorNFLEx yields excitation energies of CC2 quality at a significantly reduced computational cost, even for relatively small systems and delocalized electronic transitions. In order to illustrate the potential of the method for large molecules, we also apply CorNFLEx to calculate CC2 excitation energies for a series of solvated formamide clusters (up to 4836 basis functions).

  17. Natural Variability during Snowfall: Observations of Snowflake Microstructure and Calculations of Corresponding Snowfall Scattering Properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gergely, M.; Garrett, T. J.

    2015-12-01

    Significant progress has been achieved in approximating snowflakes and ice-cloud particles by increasingly more realistic and detailed shape models and in calculating associated scattering properties crucial to snowfall remote sensing. The applied approximations of the snowflake microstructure applied for the scattering calculations, however, are still based on few available field measurement data, often integrated over many individual snow storms, and only include several microstructural properties that cannot fully capture the natural variability during snowfall, e.g. different degrees of riming or aggregate snowflakes formed from more than one distinct ice crystal habit. In this study, (i) the natural variability of key microstructural properties during snowfall is quantified for individual snow storms based on high-resolution multi-view snowflake imaging data collected with the Multi-Angle Snowflake Camera (MASC) at Alta ski area (Alta, UT), and (ii) the corresponding variability in snowflake scattering properties is calculated. In addition to snowflake size, orientation and aspect ratio, 'particle complexity' (specifying snowflake perimeter and brightness variations in the MASC snowflake images) is included in the presented approach, yielding a quantitative and objective measure of characteristic snowflake microstructure, including crystal habit and degree of riming, important for realistically modelling snowfall scattering properties. The aim is to present an analysis of the impact of the observed natural microstructural variability on the derived snowflake scattering properties and ultimately on the snowfall radar reflectivity integrated over the obtained variability of snowflake microstructure and scattering properties.

  18. The global distribution of natural tritium in precipitation simulated with an Atmospheric General Circulation Model and comparison with observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cauquoin, A.; Jean-Baptiste, P.; Risi, C.; Fourré, É.; Stenni, B.; Landais, A.

    2015-10-01

    The description of the hydrological cycle in Atmospheric General Circulation Models (GCMs) can be validated using water isotopes as tracers. Many GCMs now simulate the movement of the stable isotopes of water, but here we present the first GCM simulations modelling the content of natural tritium in water. These simulations were obtained using a version of the LMDZ General Circulation Model enhanced by water isotopes diagnostics, LMDZ-iso. To avoid tritium generated by nuclear bomb testing, the simulations have been evaluated against a compilation of published tritium datasets dating from before 1950, or measured recently. LMDZ-iso correctly captures the observed tritium enrichment in precipitation as oceanic air moves inland (the so-called continental effect) and the observed north-south variations due to the latitudinal dependency of the cosmogenic tritium production rate. The seasonal variability, linked to the stratospheric intrusions of air masses with higher tritium content into the troposphere, is correctly reproduced for Antarctica with a maximum in winter. LMDZ-iso reproduces the spring maximum of tritium over Europe, but underestimates it and produces a peak in winter that is not apparent in the data. This implementation of tritium in a GCM promises to provide a better constraint on: (1) the intrusions and transport of air masses from the stratosphere, and (2) the dynamics of the modelled water cycle. The method complements the existing approach of using stable water isotopes.

  19. Evidence for the circulation of antimicrobial-resistant strains and genes in nature and especially between humans and animals.

    PubMed

    Wooldridge, M

    2012-04-01

    The concern over antibiotic-resistant bacteria producing human infections that are difficult to treat has led to a proliferation of studies in recent years investigating resistance in livestock, food products, the environment and people, as well as in the mechanisms of transfer of the genetic elements of resistance between bacteria, and the routes, or risk pathways, by which the spread of resistance might occur. The possibility of transfer of resistant genetic elements between bacteria in mixed populations adds many additional and complex potential routes of spread. There is now considerable evidence that transfer of antimicrobial resistance from food-producing animals to humans directly via the food chain is a likely route of spread. The application of animal wastes to farmland and subsequent leaching into watercourses has also been shown to lead to many potential, but less well-documented, pathways for spread. Often, however, where contamination of water sources, processed foods, and other environmental sites is concerned, specific routes of circulation are unclear and may well involve human sources of contamination. Examination of water sources in particular may be difficult due to dilution and their natural flow. Also, as meat is comparatively easy to examine, and is frequently suspected of being a source of spread, there is some bias in favour of studying this vehicle. Such complexities mean that, with the evidence currently available, it is not possible to prioritise the importance of potential risk pathways and circulation routes.

  20. Walking in the woods with quantum chemistry--applications of quantum chemical calculations in natural products research.

    PubMed

    Tantillo, Dean J

    2013-08-01

    This Highlight describes applications of quantum chemical calculations to problems in natural products chemistry, including the elucidation of natural product structures (distinguishing between constitutional isomers, distinguishing between diastereomers, and assigning absolute configuration) and determination of reasonable mechanisms for their formation.

  1. Algorithms for calculating the dynamics of biocapacity and ecological footprint for natural and artificial ecosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shuvaev, Andrey; Pechurkin, Nickolay

    Calculations of the dynamics of biological capacity (BC) and the ecological footprint (EF) is necessary to quantify the predictions and options to both natural and artificial ecosystems at different levels of the hierarchy. The magnitude of the BC as characteristic of the potential possibilities of the system is determined according to the integrated monitoring of physiological state, or photosynthetic activity, "green area" of the ecosystem. The quantity of the EF is defined as the amount required in the functioning of the system, including the production of the required products and degradation disposal unit. In our study we consider an example of the algorithm for calculating the dynamics of BC and EF for the quantification of the Krasnoyarsk Territory loaded as the natural ecosystem. The main burden was determined by EF, non-utilized emissions of carbon dioxide in the operation of energy businesses in the region. To verify the relevant calculations for BC processed data to ground and space monitor vegetation core areas of the province. In particular, the net primary production is calculated on the basis of the relative normalized vegetation index - NDVI (Normalized Difference Vegetation Index) based on satellite data A comparative evaluation of the contribution of each of the ways to generate energy (thermal and hydro ) in environmental load was made. A comparison of natural ecosystems and loaded specially created life-support systems in space and on the dynamics of BC/EF gives perspective to quantify the predictions and options for development of systems of different levels of the hierarchy. This work was supported by the Russian Foundation for Basic Research, project number 13-06-00060.

  2. Natural circulation decay heat removal from an SP-100, 550 kWe power system for a lunar outpost

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El-Genk, Mohamed S.; Xue, Huimin

    1992-06-01

    This research investigated the decay heat removal from the SP-100 reactor core of a 550-kWe power system for a lunar outpost by natural circulation of lithium coolant. A transient model that simulates the decay heat removal loop (DHRL) of the power system was developed and used to assess the system's decay heat removal capability. The effects of the surface area of the decay heat rejection radiator, the dimensions of the decay heat exchanger (DHE) flow duct, the elevation of the DHE, and the diameter of the rise and down pipes in the DHRL on the decay heat removal capability were examined. Also, to determine the applicability of test results at earth gravity to actual system performance on the lunar surface, the effect of the gravity constant (1 g and 1/6 g) on the thermal behavior of the system after shutdown was investigated.

  3. The simulation of start-up of natural circulation boiler based on the Astrom-Bell model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Tianyu; Zhao, Zhenning; Li, Yuanyuan; Zhu, Xianran

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents a numerical investigation on the dynamic analysis of steam and water system of the natural circulation boiler SHL35.2.5/AI with the software MATLAB/SIMULINK. Based on the four-order Astrom-Bell model, a model applicable the specific boiler was established, casting light on the changes in parameters of designed, cold start and varying load condition. And a curve of cold start is obtained, which can be taken as reference for practical operation. In addition, in the condition of varying load, our model captured the phenomenon of false water level, and according analysis is made. Our study introduces a feasible method of simulation on the dynamic analysis of steam and water system on other boilers as well.

  4. Steady state boiling crisis in a helium vertically heated natural circulation loop - Part 2: Friction pressure drop lessening

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Furci, H.; Baudouy, B.; Four, A.; Meuris, C.

    2016-01-01

    Experiments were conducted on a 2-m high two-phase helium natural circulation loop operating at 4.2 K and 1 atm. Two heated sections with different internal diameter (10 and 6 mm) were tested. The power applied on the heated section wall was controlled in increasing and decreasing sequences, and temperature along the section, mass flow rate and pressure drop evolutions were registered. The post-CHF regime was studied watching simultaneously the evolution of boiling crisis onset along the test section and the evolution of pressure drop and mass flow rate. A significant lessening of friction was observed simultaneous to the development of the post-CHF regime, accompanied by a mass flow rate increase, which lets suppose that the vapor film in the film boiling regime acts as a lubricant. A model was created based on this idea and on heat transfer considerations. The predictions by this model are satisfactory for the low quality post-CHF regime.

  5. Natural circulation decay heat removal from an SP-100, 550 kWe power system for a lunar outpost

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    El-Genk, Mohamed S.; Xue, Huimin

    1992-01-01

    This research investigated the decay heat removal from the SP-100 reactor core of a 550-kWe power system for a lunar outpost by natural circulation of lithium coolant. A transient model that simulates the decay heat removal loop (DHRL) of the power system was developed and used to assess the system's decay heat removal capability. The effects of the surface area of the decay heat rejection radiator, the dimensions of the decay heat exchanger (DHE) flow duct, the elevation of the DHE, and the diameter of the rise and down pipes in the DHRL on the decay heat removal capability were examined. Also, to determine the applicability of test results at earth gravity to actual system performance on the lunar surface, the effect of the gravity constant (1 g and 1/6 g) on the thermal behavior of the system after shutdown was investigated.

  6. Low Circulating Natural Killer Cell Counts are Associated With Severe Disease in Patients With Common Variable Immunodeficiency

    PubMed Central

    Ebbo, Mikael; Gérard, Laurence; Carpentier, Sabrina; Vély, Frédéric; Cypowyj, Sophie; Farnarier, Catherine; Vince, Nicolas; Malphettes, Marion; Fieschi, Claire; Oksenhendler, Eric; Schleinitz, Nicolas; Vivier, Eric

    2016-01-01

    Natural Killer (NK) cells have been shown to exert antiviral and antitumoural activities. Nevertheless most available data are derived from mouse models and functions of these cells in human remain unclear. To evaluate the impact of low circulating NK cell counts and to provide some clues to the role of NK cells in natural conditions, we studied a large cohort of patients with common variable immunodeficiency (CVID) included in a multicenter cohort of patients with primary hypogammaglobulinaemia. Patients were classified into three groups on the basis of their NK cell counts: severe and mild NK cell lymphopenia (< 50 and 50–99 × 106/L respectively), and normal NK cell counts (> 100 × 106/L). Clinical events were analyzed and compared between these three groups of patients. During study period, 457 CVID patients were included: 99 (21.7%) with severe NK cell lymphopenia, 118 (25.8%) with mild NK cell lymphopenia and 240 (52.5%) with normal NK cell counts. Non-infectious complications (57% vs. 36% and 35%), and, particularly, granulomatous complications (25.3% vs. 13.6% and 8.8%), were more frequent in patients with severe NK cell lymphopenia than in other groups. Invasive infections (68.7% vs. 60.2% and 48.8%), including bacteraemia (22.2% vs. 5.9% and 8.3%) and infectious pneumonia (63.6% vs. 59.3% and 44.2%), were also more frequent in this population. However, no difference was observed for viral infections and neoplasms. Low circulating NK cell counts are associated with more severe phenotypes of CVID, which may indicate a protective role of these immune cells against severe bacterial infections and other complications and non-redundant immune functions when the adaptive immune response is not optimal. PMID:27211564

  7. Investigations on natural circulation in reactor models and shutdown heat removal systems for LMFBRs (liquid metal fast breeder reactors)

    SciTech Connect

    Hoffmann, H.; Weinberg, D.; Marten, K. ); Ieda, Yoshiaki )

    1989-11-01

    For sodium-cooled pool-type reactors, studies have been undertaken to remove the decay heat by natural convection alone, as in the case of failure of all power supplies. For this purpose, four immersion coolers (ICs), two each installed at a 180-deg circumferential position with respect to the others, are arranged within the reactor tank. They are connected with natural-drift air coolers through independent intermediate circuits. The primary sodium in the tank as well as the secondary sodium in the intermediate loop circulate by natural convection. The general functioning of this passive shutdown decay heat removal (DHR) system is demonstrated in 1:20 and 1:5 scale test models using water as a simulant fluid for sodium. The model design is based on the thermohydraulics similarity criteria. In the RAMONA three-dimensional 1:20 scale model, experiments were carried out to clarify the steady-state in-vessel thermohydraulics for different parameter combinations (core power, radial power distribution across the core, DHR by 2 or 4 ICs in operation, above-core structure geometry and position, different IC designs). For all mentioned parameters, temperatures and their fluctuations were measured and used to indicate isotherms and lines of identical temperature fluctuations. The flow patterns were observed visually. The experiments were recalculated by an updated version of the single-phase three-dimensional thermohydraulics code COMMIX.

  8. Calculated differential and double differential cross section of DT neutron induced reactions on natural chromium (Cr)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rajput, Mayank; Vala, Sudhirsinh; Srinivasan, R.; Abhangi, M.; Subhash, P. V.; Pandey, B.; Rao, C. V. S.; Bora, D.

    2017-07-01

    Chromium is an important alloying element of stainless steel (SS) and SS is the main constituent of structural material proposed for fusion reactors. Energy and double differential cross section data will be required to estimate nuclear responses in the materials used in fusion reactors. There are no experimental data of energy and double differential cross section, available for neutron induced reactions on natural chromium at 14 MeV neutron energy. In this study, energy and double differential cross section data of (n,p) and (n,α) reactions for all the stable isotopes of chromium have been estimated, using appropriate nuclear models in TALYS code. The cross section data of stable isotopes are later converted into the energy and double differential cross section data of natural Cr using the isotopic abundance. The contribution from compound, pre-equilibrium and direct nuclear reaction to total reaction have also been calculated for 52,50Cr(n,p) and 52Cr(n,α). The calculation of energy differential cross section shows that most of emitted protons and alpha particles are of 3 and 8 MeV respectively. The calculated data is compared with the data from EXFOR data library and is found to be in good agreement.

  9. Natural Circulation in Water Cooled Nuclear Power Plants Phenomena, models, and methodology for system reliability assessments

    SciTech Connect

    Jose Reyes

    2005-02-14

    In recent years it has been recognized that the application of passive safety systems (i.e., those whose operation takes advantage of natural forces such as convection and gravity), can contribute to simplification and potentially to improved economics of new nuclear power plant designs. In 1991 the IAEA Conference on ''The Safety of Nuclear Power: Strategy for the Future'' noted that for new plants the use of passive safety features is a desirable method of achieving simplification and increasing the reliability of the performance of essential safety functions, and should be used wherever appropriate''.

  10. CO2 adsorption and separation from natural gason phosphorene surface: Combining DFT and GCMC calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yayun; Liu, Chao; Hao, Feng; Xiao, Hang; Zhang, Shiwei; Chen, Xi

    2017-03-01

    We have examined the performance of phosphorene-based material, phosphorene slit pores (PSP), in CO2 adsorption and separation from natural gas by using Density Function Theory (DFT) calculation and Grand Canonical Monte Carlo (GCMC) simulations. First, the adsorption of CH4 and CO2molecules on phosphorene sheet were conducted by DFT study. Then, adsorption performances of natural gas components as well as their binary CO2/CH4 gas mixture were investigated at 300 K with the pressure up to 3.0 MPa. The effects of slit pore width, H, and mole ratio of CO2/CH4in the gas phase on the separation of CO2 from mixtures of CO2/CH4 were also investigated. Our DFT calculation results show that the CO2 moleculehas higher adsorption energy than that of CH4, which implies that it can be easily adsorbed to the phosphorene surface than CH4. Detailed GCMC simulations reveal that the phosphorene slit pore has a high performance in separating CO2fromnature gas and achieves the highest gas selectivity at H = 1.0 nm at pressures lower than 0.1 MPa. Moreover, the selectivity of CO2 overCO2/CH4gas mixture increases with increasing the mole ratio of CO2/CH4due to the enhanced adsorbate-adsorbent interactions for the favorable component. Therefore, it is suggested that the phosphorene is a promising candidate for natural gas purification and possessing practical potential applications in gas adsorption.

  11. Magnitude and nature of carbohydrate-aromatic interactions: ab initio calculations of fucose-benzene complex.

    PubMed

    Tsuzuki, Seiji; Uchimaru, Tadafumi; Mikami, Masuhiro

    2009-04-23

    The stable geometries of fucose-benzene complex and the stabilization energies by formation of the complex (E(form)) were studied by ab initio molecular orbital calculations. The benzene ring has close contact with an O-H or C-H bond of fucose in the optimized geometries (OH/pi hydrogen-bonded structures and CH/pi contact structures). The E(form) calculated for the most stable OH/pi hydrogen-bonded structure was -5.1 kcal/mol. The E(form) calculated for the most stable CH/pi contact structure was -4.5 kcal/mol, which shows that significant attraction exists between the nonpolar surface of fucose and a benzene. The E(form) is close to the interaction energies in typical hydrogen-bonded complexes. A few nearly isoenergetic CH/pi contact structures were found by the calculations, which suggests that the directionality of the carbohydrate-aromatic interaction is weak. The dispersion interaction is the major source of the attraction in the complex. The electrostatic contributions to the attraction are relatively small. Although the size of the interaction energy is not largely different from that of typical hydrogen bonds, the nature of the carbohydrate-aromatic interaction, which is sometimes denoted as a CH/pi hydrogen bond, is completely different from that of typical hydrogen bonds, which have strong directionality due to the strong electrostatic interactions.

  12. GROUND WATER ISSUE - CALCULATION AND USE OF FIRST-ORDER RATE CONSTANTS FOR MONITORED NATURAL ATTENUATION STUDIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    This issue paper explains when and how to apply first-order attenuation rate constant calculations in monitored natural attenuation (MNA) studies. First-order attenuation rate constant calculations can be an important tool for evaluating natural attenuation processes at ground-wa...

  13. On the Effectiveness of Nature-Inspired Metaheuristic Algorithms for Performing Phase Equilibrium Thermodynamic Calculations

    PubMed Central

    Fateen, Seif-Eddeen K.; Bonilla-Petriciolet, Adrian

    2014-01-01

    The search for reliable and efficient global optimization algorithms for solving phase stability and phase equilibrium problems in applied thermodynamics is an ongoing area of research. In this study, we evaluated and compared the reliability and efficiency of eight selected nature-inspired metaheuristic algorithms for solving difficult phase stability and phase equilibrium problems. These algorithms are the cuckoo search (CS), intelligent firefly (IFA), bat (BA), artificial bee colony (ABC), MAKHA, a hybrid between monkey algorithm and krill herd algorithm, covariance matrix adaptation evolution strategy (CMAES), magnetic charged system search (MCSS), and bare bones particle swarm optimization (BBPSO). The results clearly showed that CS is the most reliable of all methods as it successfully solved all thermodynamic problems tested in this study. CS proved to be a promising nature-inspired optimization method to perform applied thermodynamic calculations for process design. PMID:24967430

  14. Comparison of ocean surface solar irradiance in the GLA General Circulation Model and satellite-based calculations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chertock, Beth; Sud, Y. C.

    1993-01-01

    A global, 7-year satellite-based record of ocean surface solar irradiance (SSI) is used to assess the realism of ocean SSI simulated by the nine-layer Goddard Laboratory for Atmospheres (GLA) General Circulation Model (GCM). January and July climatologies of net SSI produced by the model are compared with corresponding satellite climatologies for the world oceans between 54 deg N and 54 deg S. This comparison of climatologies indicates areas of strengths and weaknesses in the GCM treatment of cloud-radiation interactions, the major source of model uncertainty. Realism of ocean SSI is also important for applications such as incorporating the GLA GCM into a coupled ocean-atmosphere GCM. The results show that the GLA GCM simulates too much SSI in the extratropics and too little in the tropics, especially in the summer hemisphere. These discrepancies reach magnitudes of 60 W/sq m and more. The discrepancies are particularly large in the July case off the western coast of North America. Positive and negative discrepancies in SSI are shown to be consistent with discrepancies in planetary albedo.

  15. Comparison of ocean surface solar irradiance in the GLA General Circulation Model and satellite-based calculations

    SciTech Connect

    Chertock, B. ); Sud, Y.C. )

    1993-03-01

    A global, 7-year satellite-based record of ocean surface solar irradiance (SSI) is used to assess the realism of ocean SSI simulated by the nine-layer Goddard Laboratory for Atmospheres (GLA) General Circulation Model (GCM). January and July climatologies of net SSI produced by the model are compared with corresponding satellite climatologies for the world oceans between 54[degrees]N and 54[degrees]S. This comparison of climatologies indicates areas of strengths and weaknesses in the GCM treatment of cloud-radiation interactions, the major source of model uncertainty. Realism of ocean SSI is also important for applications such as incorporating the GLA GCM into a coupled ocean-atmosphere GCM. The results show that the GLA GCM simulates too much SSI in the extratropics and too little in the tropics, especially in the summer hemisphere. These discrepancies reach magnitudes of 60 W m[sup [minus]2] and more. The discrepancies are particularly large in the July case off the western coast of North America. In this region of persistent marine stratus, the GCM climatological values exceed the satellite climatological values by as much as 131 W m[sup [minus]2]. Positive and negative discrepancies in SSI are shown to be consistent with discrepancies in planetary albedo.

  16. The enrichment of natural radionuclides in oil shale-fired power plants in Estonia--the impact of new circulating fluidized bed technology.

    PubMed

    Vaasma, Taavi; Kiisk, Madis; Meriste, Tõnis; Tkaczyk, Alan Henry

    2014-03-01

    Burning oil shale to produce electricity has a dominant position in Estonia's energy sector. Around 90% of the overall electric energy production originates from the Narva Power Plants. The technology in use has been significantly renovated - two older types of pulverized fuel burning (PF) energy production units were replaced with new circulating fluidized bed (CFB) technology. Additional filter systems have been added to PF boilers to reduce emissions. Oil shale contains various amounts of natural radionuclides. These radionuclides concentrate and become enriched in different boiler ash fractions. More volatile isotopes will be partially emitted to the atmosphere via flue gases and fly ash. To our knowledge, there has been no previous study for CFB boiler systems on natural radionuclide enrichment and their atmospheric emissions. Ash samples were collected from Eesti Power Plant's CFB boiler. These samples were processed and analyzed with gamma spectrometry. Activity concentrations (Bq/kg) and enrichment factors were calculated for the (238)U ((238)U, (226)Ra, (210)Pb) and (232)Th ((232)Th, (228)Ra) family radionuclides and for (40)K in different CFB boiler ash fractions. Results from the CFB boiler ash sample analysis showed an increase in the activity concentrations and enrichment factors (up to 4.5) from the furnace toward the electrostatic precipitator block. The volatile radionuclide ((210)Pb and (40)K) activity concentrations in CFB boilers were evenly distributed in finer ash fractions. Activity balance calculations showed discrepancies between input (via oil shale) and output (via ash fractions) activities for some radionuclides ((238)U, (226)Ra, (210)Pb). This refers to a situation where the missing part of the activity (around 20% for these radionuclides) is emitted to the atmosphere. Also different behavior patterns were detected for the two Ra isotopes, (226)Ra and (228)Ra. A part of (226)Ra input activity, unlike (228)Ra, was undetectable in the

  17. HIV Type 1 Integrase Natural Polymorphisms in Viral Variants Circulating in FSU Countries.

    PubMed

    Lapovok, Ilya; Laga, Vita; Kazennova, Elena; Bobkova, Marina

    2017-08-15

    Natural variability of integrase (IN) across HIV-1 variants may influence the emergence of resistant viruses. The most apparent explanation of these fact is the IN polymorphism and the associated differences in codon usage, which, in turn, influence the probability and the terms of DRMs acquisition. Possible mechanisms by which polymorphisms affect DRMs emergence remain disputed and should still be clarified because these substitutions may be associated with a reduced activity of some INSTIs and may impact on ART regimen choice depending of HIV-1 subtype. The aim of this work was to assess the prevalence of naturally occurring polymorphisms within the HIV-1 integrase gene, which might influence the susceptibility to INSTIs, among the patients from Russia and former USSR countries, according to HIV-1 subtypes. A study involved 506 HIV-1 IN sequences of INSTI-naive patients from Russia, Ukraine, Armenia, Kyrgyzstan, Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Belarus, and Georgia. Among them, 194 sequences were newly obtained in this study and 312 were downloaded from Los-Alamos database. The proviral DNA was sequenced using an in-house PCR protocol designed on the basis of a well-conserved integrase region in order to detect all HIV-1 variants. The phylogenetic analyses based on IN population sequencing found subtype A6 being the most prevalent (259) (51.2%) in the collection studied, followed by subtype G (36) (7.1%), AG-recombinants (148) (29.3%), subtype B (50) (9.9%), and CRF03_AB (5) (1,0%). The major INSTI resistance-associated mutations (DRMs) were found only in two A6 samples. The prevalence of minor/accessory substitutions depended on HIV-1 variants, while the most notable findings were L74I in subtype A6 (93.1%) and E157Q in subtype B (44.0%). Most of minor DRMs and polymorphic substitutions were concentrated in the central catalytic domain of the IN molecule. Both the DDE triad and HHCC zinc binding motifs were fully conserved. The results of the study suggest a very low

  18. Simulation experiments on two-phase natural circulation in a freon-113 flow visualization loop

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Sang Yong; Ishii, Mamoru

    1988-01-01

    In order to study the two-phase natural circulaton and flow termination during a small break loss of coolant accident in LWR, simulation experiments have been performed using a Freon-113 flow visualization loop. The main focus of the present experiment was placed on the two-phase flow behavior in the hot-leg U-bend typical of B and W LWR systems. The loop was built based on the two-phase flow scaling criteria developed under this program to find out the effect of fluid properties, phase changes and coupling between hydrodynamic and heat transfer phenomena. Significantly different flow behaviors have been observed due to the non-equilibrium phase change phenomena such as the flashing and condensation on the Freon loop in comparison with the previous adiabatic experiment. The phenomena created much more unstable hydrodynamic conditions which lead to cyclic or oscillatory flow behaviors. Also, the void distribution and primary loop flow rate were measured in detail in addition to the important key paramaters, such as the power input, loop friction and the liquid level inside the simulated steam generator.

  19. The nature of selenium hydrogen bonding: gas phase spectroscopy and quantum chemistry calculations.

    PubMed

    Mishra, Kamal K; Singh, Santosh K; Ghosh, Paulami; Ghosh, Debashree; Das, Aloke

    2017-08-25

    Subsequent to the recent re-definition of hydrogen bonding by the IUPAC committee, there has been a growing search for finding the presence of this ever interesting non-covalent interaction between a hydrogen atom in an X-H group and any other atom in the periodic table. In recent gas phase experiments, it has been observed that hydrogen bonding interactions involving S and Se are of similar strength to those with an O atom. However, there is no clear explanation for the unusual strength of this interaction in the case of hydrogen bond acceptors which are not conventional electronegative atoms. In this work, we have explored the nature of Se hydrogen bonding by studying indoledimethyl selenide (indmse) and phenoldimethyl selenide (phdmse) complexes using gas phase IR spectroscopy and quantum chemistry calculations. We have found through various energy decomposition analysis (EDA) methods and natural bond orbital (NBO) calculations that, along with electrostatics and polarization, charge transfer interactions are important to understand Se/S hydrogen bonding and there is a delicate balance between the various interactions that plays the crucial role rather than a single component of the interaction energy. An in-depth understanding of this type of non-covalent interaction has immense significance in biology as amino acids containing S and Se are widely present in proteins and hence hydrogen bonding interactions involving S and Se atoms contribute to the folding of proteins.

  20. General circulation model calculations of the direct radiative forcing by anthropogenic sulfate and fossil-fuel soot aerosol

    SciTech Connect

    Haywood, J.M.; Roberts, D.L.; Slingo, A.

    1997-07-01

    A new radiation code within a general circulation model is used to assess the direct solar and thermal radiative forcing by sulfate aerosol of anthropogenic origin and soot aerosol from fossil-fuel burning. The radiative effects of different aerosol profiles, relative humidity parameterizations, chemical compositions, and internal and external mixtures of the two aerosol types are investigated. The contribution to the radiative forcing from cloudy sky regions is found to be negligible for sulfate aerosol; this is in contrast to recent studies where the cloudy sky contribution was estimated using a method in which the spatial correlation between cloud amount and sulfate burden was ignored. However, the radiative forcing due to fossil-fuel soot aerosol is enhanced in cloudy regions if soot aerosol exists within or above the cloud. The global solar radiative forcing due to sulfate aerosol is estimated to be -0.38 W m{sup -2} and the global thermal radiative forcing is estimated to be +0.01 W m{sup -2}. The hemispheric mean radiative forcings vary by only about 10% for reasonable assumptions about the chemical form of the sulfate aerosol and the relative humidity dependence; the uncertainties in the aerosol loading are far more significant. If a soot/sulfate mass ratio of 0.075 is assumed, then the global solar radiative forcing weakens to -0.18 W m{sup -2} for an external mixture and weakens further for an internal mixture. Additionally, the spatial distribution of the radiative forcing shows strong negative/positive forcing contrasts that may influence the dynamical response of the atmosphere. Although these results are extremely sensitive to the adopted soot/sulfate ratio and the assumed vertical profile, they indicate that fossil-fuel soot aerosol may exert a nonnegligible radiative forcing and emphasize the need to consider each anthropogenic aerosol species. 58 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab.

  1. Prediction of Severe Accident Counter Current Natural Circulation Flows in the Hot Leg of a Pressurized Water Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Boyd, Christopher F.

    2006-07-01

    During certain phases of a severe accident in a pressurized water reactor (PWR), the core becomes uncovered and steam carries heat to the steam generators through natural circulation. For PWR's with U-tube steam generators and loop seals filled with water, a counter current flow pattern is established in the hot leg. This flow pattern has been experimentally observed and has been predicted using computational fluid dynamics (CFD). Predictions of severe accident behavior are routinely carried out using severe accident system analysis codes such as SCDAP/RELAP5 or MELCOR. These codes, however, were not developed for predicting the three-dimensional natural circulation flow patterns during this phase of a severe accident. CFD, along with a set of experiments at 1/7. scale, have been historically used to establish the flow rates and mixing for the system analysis tools. One important aspect of these predictions is the counter current flow rate in the nearly 30 inch diameter hot leg between the reactor vessel and steam generator. This flow rate is strongly related to the amount of energy that can be transported away from the reactor core. This energy transfer plays a significant role in the prediction of core failures as well as potential failures in other reactor coolant system piping. CFD is used to determine the counter current flow rate during a severe accident. Specific sensitivities are completed for parameters such as surge line flow rates, hydrogen content, as well as vessel and steam generator temperatures. The predictions are carried out for the reactor vessel upper plenum, hot leg, a portion of the surge line, and a steam generator blocked off at the outlet plenum. All predictions utilize the FLUENT V6 CFD code. The volumetric flow in the hot leg is assumed to be proportional to the square root of the product of normalized density difference, gravity, and hydraulic diameter to the 5. power. CFD is used to determine the proportionality constant in the range

  2. Evaluation of the efficiency and accuracy of new methods for atmospheric opacity and radiative transfer calculations in planetary general circulation model simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zube, Nicholas Gerard; Zhang, Xi; Natraj, Vijay

    2016-10-01

    General circulation models often incorporate simple approximations of heating between vertically inhomogeneous layers rather than more accurate but computationally expensive radiative transfer (RT) methods. With the goal of developing a GCM package that can model both solar system bodies and exoplanets, it is vital to examine up-to-date RT models to optimize speed and accuracy for heat transfer calculations. Here, we examine a variety of interchangeable radiative transfer models in conjunction with MITGCM (Hill and Marshall, 1995). First, for atmospheric opacity calculations, we test gray approximation, line-by-line, and correlated-k methods. In combination with these, we also test RT routines using 2-stream DISORT (discrete ordinates RT), N-stream DISORT (Stamnes et al., 1988), and optimized 2-stream (Spurr and Natraj, 2011). Initial tests are run using Jupiter as an example case. The results can be compared in nine possible configurations for running a complete RT routine within a GCM. Each individual combination of opacity and RT methods is contrasted with the "ground truth" calculation provided by the line-by-line opacity and N-stream DISORT, in terms of computation speed and accuracy of the approximation methods. We also examine the effects on accuracy when performing these calculations at different time step frequencies within MITGCM. Ultimately, we will catalog and present the ideal RT routines that can replace commonly used approximations within a GCM for a significant increase in calculation accuracy, and speed comparable to the dynamical time steps of MITGCM. Future work will involve examining whether calculations in the spatial domain can also be reduced by smearing grid points into larger areas, and what effects this will have on overall accuracy.

  3. Absence of circulating natural killer (NK) cells in a child with erythrophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis lacking NK cell activity

    SciTech Connect

    Kawai, H.; Komiyama, A.; Aoyama, K.; Miyagawa, Y.; Akabane, T.

    1988-06-01

    A 5-year-old girl who was diagnosed as having erythrophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis died at age 9 years. Peripheral lymphocytes from the patient persistently lacked natural killer (NK) cell activity during the 4-year observation period: the percent lysis values as measured by a 4-hr /sup 51/Cr release assay at a 40:1 effector:target ratio were below 1.0% against K562 and Molt-4 cells as compared with the normal lymphocyte value (mean +/- SD) of 46.2% +/- 5.8% and 43.9% +/- 6.7%, respectively. The patient's lymphocytes never developed NK cell activity by their incubation with target cells for longer time periods or by their stimulation with interferon-alpha, interleukin-2, or polyinosinic-polycytidilic acid. Single cell-in-agarose assay showed the absence of target-binding cells (TBCs): TBC numbers were below 0.3% as compared with the normal lymphocyte value of 8.1% +/- 1.3% (mean +/- SD). Flow cytometry showed a marked decrease in Leu-7+ cells (1.7%) and the absence of Leu-11+ cells (0.4%) in the peripheral blood. These results first demonstrate a case of erythrophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis in which there is the lack of NK cell activity due to the absence of circulating NK cells.

  4. Transient analysis of subcritical/supercritical carbon dioxide based natural circulation loop with end heat exchangers: experimental study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yadav, Ajay Kumar; Ramgopal, Maddali; Bhattacharyya, Souvik

    2017-09-01

    Carbon dioxide (CO2) based natural circulation loops (NCLs) has gained attention due to its compactness with higher heat transfer rate. In the present study, experimental investigations have been carried out to capture the transient behaviour of a CO2 based NCL operating under subcritical as well as supercritical conditions. Water is used as the external fluid in cold and hot heat exchangers. Results are obtained for various inlet temperatures (323-353 K) of water in the hot heat exchanger and a fixed inlet temperature (305 K) of cooling water in the cold heat exchanger. Effect of loop operating pressure (50-90 bar) on system performance is also investigated. Effect of loop tilt in two different planes (XY and YZ) is also studied in terms of transient as well as steady state behaviour of the loop. Results show that the time required to attain steady state decreases as operating pressure of the loop increases. It is also observed that the change in temperature of loop fluid (CO2) across hot or cold heat exchanger decreases as operating pressure increases.

  5. Transient analysis of subcritical/supercritical carbon dioxide based natural circulation loop with end heat exchangers: experimental study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yadav, Ajay Kumar; Ramgopal, Maddali; Bhattacharyya, Souvik

    2017-04-01

    Carbon dioxide (CO2) based natural circulation loops (NCLs) has gained attention due to its compactness with higher heat transfer rate. In the present study, experimental investigations have been carried out to capture the transient behaviour of a CO2 based NCL operating under subcritical as well as supercritical conditions. Water is used as the external fluid in cold and hot heat exchangers. Results are obtained for various inlet temperatures (323-353 K) of water in the hot heat exchanger and a fixed inlet temperature (305 K) of cooling water in the cold heat exchanger. Effect of loop operating pressure (50-90 bar) on system performance is also investigated. Effect of loop tilt in two different planes (XY and YZ) is also studied in terms of transient as well as steady state behaviour of the loop. Results show that the time required to attain steady state decreases as operating pressure of the loop increases. It is also observed that the change in temperature of loop fluid (CO2) across hot or cold heat exchanger decreases as operating pressure increases.

  6. Laser anemometry measurements of natural circulation flow in a scale model PWR reactor system. [Pressurized Water Reactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kadambi, J. R.; Schneider, S. J.; Stewart, W. A.

    1986-01-01

    The natural circulation of a single phase fluid in a scale model of a pressurized water reactor system during a postulated grade core accident is analyzed. The fluids utilized were water and SF6. The design of the reactor model and the similitude requirements are described. Four LDA tests were conducted: water with 28 kW of heat in the simulated core, with and without the participation of simulated steam generators; water with 28 kW of heat in the simulated core, with the participation of simulated steam generators and with cold upflow of 12 lbm/min from the lower plenum; and SF6 with 0.9 kW of heat in the simulated core and without the participation of the simulated steam generators. For the water tests, the velocity of the water in the center of the core increases with vertical height and continues to increase in the upper plenum. For SF6, it is observed that the velocities are an order of magnitude higher than those of water; however, the velocity patterns are similar.

  7. Transmission-blocking activity of tafenoquine (WR-238605) and artelinic acid against naturally circulating strains of Plasmodium vivax in Thailand.

    PubMed

    Ponsa, Narong; Sattabongkot, Jetsumon; Kittayapong, Pattamaporn; Eikarat, Nantana; Coleman, Russell E

    2003-11-01

    The sporontocidal activity of tafenoquine (WR-238605) and artelinic acid was determined against naturally circulating isolates of Plasmodium vivax in western Thailand. Primaquine was used as a negative control and a dihydroacridine-dione (WR-250547) was used as a positive control. Laboratory-reared Anopheles dirus mosquitoes were infected with P. vivax by allowing mosquitoes to feed on blood (placed in an artificial-membrane feeding apparatus) collected from gametocytemic volunteers reporting to local malaria clinics in Tak province, Thailand. Four days post-infection, mosquitoes were refed on uninfected mice treated 90 minutes earlier with a given drug. Drug activity was determined by assessing oocyst and sporozoite development. Neither primaquine nor artelinic acid affected oocyst or sporozoite development at a dose of 100 mg of base drug/kg of mouse body weight. In contrast, tafenoquine and WR-250547 affected sporogonic development at doses as low as 25.0 and 0.39 mg/kg, respectively. The potential role of these compounds in the prevention of malaria transmission is discussed, as are alternative strategies for the use of transmission-blocking antimalarial drugs.

  8. The impact of horizontal resolution of density field on the calculation of the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation at 34°S

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stepanov, Vladimir N.; Iovino, Doroteaciro; Masina, Simona; Storto, Andrea; Cipollone, Andrea

    2016-06-01

    The Atlantic meridional overturning circulation and meridional heat transport (hereafter the AMOC and MHT) at 34°S as simulated by global 1/16° eddy-rich (henceforth GLOB16) and ¼° eddy-permitting (GLOB4) models are compared with observational estimates. Three different methods are used for calculating the modeled AMOC: the first method (MOCmod) is based on simulated velocity fields, while the second (MOCob) relies on the same assumptions as available observed-derived estimates. The third method (MOCob2) is also based on hydrostatic and geostrophic relationships, but relative to a barotropic circulation instead of the definition of velocity at a specific reference depth. All methods correctly reproduce the time-mean GLOB16 AMOC strength, but the value of the non-Ekman component of the GLOB16 AMOC is only about 75% of the observed-derived estimate. The GLOB16 MHT is also significantly less than observation value (slightly more than 60% of the observed). However, the mean AMOC and MHT values at 34°S obtained with coarser resolution GLOB4 model are comparable with the observed-derived estimates. Possible causes for the differences between the eddy-rich model and observational data are studied. It is shown that the density field from the eddy-rich model has high temporal variability along 34°S with spatial scale of about two hundred km that can be due to mesoscale variations, caused by Agulhas "leakage." This results in the decrease of the mean meridional geostrophic velocity, which leads to smaller values of the AMOC and MHT in GLOB16: subsampling GLOB16 density on ¼° or ½° longitude grid along 34°S for MOCob calculation significantly increases the AMOC values. The findings in this paper provide guidance in understanding AMOC and MHT dissimilarities between observation-based estimates and eddy-rich ocean models at 34°S.

  9. 57Fe Mössbauer measurements and electronic structure calculations on natural lawsonites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weber, S.-U.; Grodzicki, M.; Geiger, C. A.; Lottermoser, W.; Tippelt, G.; Redhammer, G. J.; Bernroider, M.; Amthauer, G.

    2007-01-01

    Three natural lawsonites from Syke Rock, Mendocino Co., Reed Ranch, Marin Co., and Blake Gardens, Sonoma Co., all from the Coast Range Region in California, were studied by 57Fe Mössbauer spectroscopy, electron microprobe analysis, and X-ray powder diffraction. The samples contain about 0.6, 1.0, and 1.4 wt% of total iron oxide, respectively. 57Fe Mössbauer spectra are consistent with the assumption that high-spin Fe3+ substitutes for Al in the octahedrally coordinated site. The Mössbauer spectrum of lawsonite from Syke Rock exhibits a second doublet with 57Fe hyperfine parameters typical for octahedrally coordinated high-spin Fe2+. Electronic structure calculations in the local spin density approximation yield quadrupole splittings for Fe3+ in quantitative agreement with experiment indicating, however, that substitution of Al by Fe3+ must be accompanied by local distortion around the octahedral site. Model calculations also reproduce the room temperature hyperfine parameters of ferrous high-spin iron assuming the substitution of Ca by Fe2+. However, it cannot be excluded that Fe2+ may occupy a more asymmetric site within the microstructural cavity occupied by Ca and a H2O molecule.

  10. Experimental Investigation of Natural-Circulation Flow Behavior Under Low-Power/Low-Pressure Conditions in the Large-Scale PANDA Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Auban, Olivier; Paladino, Domenico; Zboray, Robert

    2004-12-15

    Twenty-five tests have been carried out in the large-scale thermal-hydraulic facility PANDA to investigate natural-circulation and stability behavior under low-pressure/low-power conditions, when void flashing might play an important role. This work, which extends the current experimental database to a large geometric scale, is of interest notably with regard to the start-up procedures in natural-circulation-cooled boiling water reactors. It should help the understanding of the physical phenomena that may cause flow instability in such conditions and can be used for validation of thermal-hydraulics system codes. The tests were performed at a constant power, balanced by a specific condenser heat removal capacity. The test matrix allowed the reactor pressure vessel power and pressure to be varied, as well as other parameters influencing the natural-circulation flow. The power spectra of flow oscillations showed in a few tests a major and unique resonance peak, and decay ratios between 0.5 and 0.9 have been found. The remainder of the tests showed an even more pronounced stable behavior. A classification of the tests is presented according to the circulation modes (from single-phase to two-phase flow) that could be assumed and particularly to the importance and the localization of the flashing phenomenon.

  11. Circadian rhythm in circulating CD16-positive natural killer (NK) cells in macaque monkeys, implication of plasma cortisol levels.

    PubMed

    Terao, Keiji; Suzuki, Juri; Ohkura, Satoshi

    2002-10-01

    The daily change in both percentage and absolute number of circulating major lymphocyte subset was determined with young Japanese monkeys and rhesus monkeys. The blood sample was collected at four hour-intervals beginning at 16:00 for 24 hours under the condition of applying tethering system by which blood samples could be collected without restraint. During the dark period (from 20:00 to 08:00), the number of peripheral lymphocytes increased and that of granulocytes decreased, resulting in no significant change in the number of total peripheral white blood cells. The absolute number of CD4+ T, CD8+ T, and CD20+ B cells showed the significant daily change similar to that in number of peripheral lymphocytes, indicating no proportional change in these subsets. The typical proportional change was observed in CD16+ natural killer (NK) cells and the percentage of CD16+ cells decreased during dark period (from 20:00 to 04:00) and increased in the morning (from 08:00 to 12:00). The NK activity determined by killing K562 target cells showed the same changing pattern as that of percentage in CD16+ NK cells. The changing pattern of both percentage and activity of NK cells was consistent with that of plasma cortisol levels. In addition, the intravenous injection of 300 g/kg of cortisol induced increase in plasma cortisol levels and decrease in percentage of CD16+ NK cells during the first 60 min after cortisol injection. These results strongly suggest that the levels of peripheral functional CD16+ NK cells might be directly regulated by plasma cortisol level in macaque monkeys.

  12. Evidences of the circulation of natural philosophical knowledge about Brazil in a 1763 manuscript by António Nunes Ribeiro Sanches.

    PubMed

    Conceição, Gisele C

    2017-01-01

    António Nunes Ribeiro Sanches was a Portuguese physician and the author of several works about education and science in Portugal and its Empire. Many of these texts circulated and were made public through letters written by him and sent to other intellectuals. This article sheds light on an unpublished manuscript written by Sanches in 1763, in which he argued for the recognition of Brazilian natural resources and their exploitation for trade and medicine.

  13. Calculation of unmitigated release from reverse circulation drilling of a borehole three meters south of borehole 41-15-09 near SST 241-SX-115

    SciTech Connect

    SCOTT, D.L.

    1999-05-25

    It is known that underground, single shell tank (SST) 241-SX-115 leaked 50,000 gallons of contaminated liquid to the soil. Now there is a campaign to more fully characterize the plume from that leak. To determine radionuclide concentrations in the vadose zone, boring into the soil and collecting samples of it are needed. It was decided to bore a new hole 3 m (9.8 ft) from existing borehole number 41-15-09, located near the south edge of the tank. Drilling and sampling will be done with the use of reverse circulation drilling, which uses compressed air to power the drill bit and sweep out drillings into separation and sampling equipment. Prior to drilling, however, it was determined that safety assessment calculations were needed to find out if postulated releases from the drilling would pose unacceptable risk to onsite and offsite receptors. Unacceptable risk would require the design and construction of safety significant equipment for prevention or mitigation of the release.

  14. Parameter Calculation Technique for the Waste Treatment Facilities Using Naturally-Aerated Blocks in the Bog Ecosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akhmed-Ogly, K. V.; Savichev, O. G.; Tokarenko, O. G.; Pasechnik, E. Yu; Reshetko, M. V.; Nalivajko, N. G.; Vlasova, M. V.

    2014-08-01

    Technique for the domestic wastewater treatment in the small residential areas and oil and gas facilities of the natural and man-made systems including a settling tank for mechanical treatment and a biological pond with peat substrate and bog vegetation for biological treatment has been substantiated. Technique for parameters calculation of the similar natural and man-made systems has been developed. It was proven that effective treatment of wastewater can be performed in Siberia all year round.

  15. Organic complexation of rare earth elements in natural waters: Evaluating model calculations from ultrafiltration data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pourret, Olivier; Davranche, Mélanie; Gruau, Gérard; Dia, Aline

    2007-06-01

    The Stockholm Humic Model (SHM) and Humic Ion-Binding Models V and VI were compared for their ability to predict the role of dissolved organic matter (DOM) in the speciation of rare earth elements (REE) in natural waters. Unlike Models V and VI, SHM is part of a speciation code that also allows us to consider dissolution/precipitation, sorption/desorption and oxidation/reduction reactions. In this context, it is particularly interesting to test the performance of SHM. The REE specific equilibrium constants required by the speciation models were estimated using linear free-energy relationships (LFER) between the first hydrolysis constants and the stability constants for REE complexation with lactic and acetic acid. Three datasets were used for the purpose of comparison: (i) World Average River Water (Dissolved Organic Carbon (DOC) = 5 mg L -1), previously investigated using Model V, was reinvestigated using SHM and Model VI; (ii) two natural organic-rich waters (DOC = 18-24 mg L -1), whose REE speciation has already been determined with both Model V and ultrafiltration studies, were also reinvestigated using SHM and Model VI; finally, (iii) new ultrafiltration experiments were carried out on samples of circumneutral-pH (pH 6.2-7.1), organic-rich (DOC = 7-20 mg L -1) groundwaters from the Kervidy-Naizin and Petit-Hermitage catchments, western France. The results were then compared with speciation predictions provided by Model VI and SHM, successively. When applied to World Average River Water, both Model VI and SHM yield comparable results, confirming the earlier finding that a large fraction of the dissolved REE in rivers occurs as organic complexes This implies that the two models are equally valid for calculating REE speciation in low-DOC waters at circumneutral-pH. The two models also successfully reproduced ultrafiltration results obtained for DOC-rich acidic groundwaters and river waters. By contrast, the two models yielded different results when compared to

  16. Increased circulating microRNAs miR-342-3p and miR-21-5p in natural sheep prion disease.

    PubMed

    Sanz Rubio, David; López-Pérez, Óscar; de Andrés Pablo, Álvaro; Bolea, Rosa; Osta, Rosario; Badiola, Juan J; Zaragoza, Pilar; Martín-Burriel, Inmaculada; Toivonen, Janne M

    2017-02-01

    Scrapie is a transmissible spongiform encephalopathy (TSE), or prion disease, of sheep and goats. As no simple diagnostic tests are yet available to detect TSEs in vivo, easily accessible biomarkers could facilitate the eradication of scrapie agents from the food chain. To this end, we analysed by quantitative reverse transcription PCR a selected set of candidate microRNAs (miRNAs) from circulating blood plasma of naturally infected, classical scrapie sheep that demonstrated clear scrapie symptoms and pathology. Significant scrapie-associated increase was repeatedly found for miR-342-3p and miR-21-5p. This is the first demonstration, to our knowledge, of circulating miRNA alterations in any animal suffering from TSE. Genome-wide expression studies are warranted to investigate the true depth of miRNA alterations in naturally occurring TSEs, especially in presymptomatic animals, as the presented study demonstrates the potential feasibility of miRNAs as circulating TSE biomarkers.

  17. A study on the effect of various design parameters on the natural circulation flow rate of the ex-vessel core catcher cooling system of EU-APR1400

    SciTech Connect

    Rhee, B. W.; Ha, K. S.; Park, R. J.; Song, J. H.

    2012-07-01

    In this paper, a study on the effect of various design parameters such as the channel gap width, heat flux distribution, down-comer pipe size and two-phase flow slip ratio on the natural circulation flow rate is performed based on a physical model for a natural circulation flow along the flow path of the ex-vessel core catcher cooling system of an EU-APR1400, and these effects on the natural circulation flow rate are analyzed and compared with the minimum flow rate required for the safe operation of the system. (authors)

  18. The use of fractal dimension calculation algorithm to determine the nature of autobiographical memories distribution across the life span

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitina, Olga V.; Nourkova, Veronica V.

    In the given research we offer the technique for the calculation of the density of events which people retrieve from autobiographical memory. We wanted to prove a non-uniformity nature of memories distribution in the course of time and were interested with the law of distribution of these events during life course.

  19. Crystal structure and theoretical calculations of Julocrotine, a natural product with antileishmanial activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moreira, Rafael Y. O.; Brasil, Davi S. B.; Alves, Cláudio N.; Guilhon, Giselle M. S. P.; Santos, Lourivaldo S.; Arruda, Mara S. P.; Müller, Adolfo H.; Barbosa, Patrícia S.; Abreu, Alcicley S.; Silva, Edilene O.; Rumjanek, Victor M.; Souza, Jaime, Jr.; da Silva, Albérico B. F.; Santos, Regina H. De A.

    Julocrotine, N-(2,6-dioxo-1-phenethyl-piperidin-3-yl)-2-methyl-butyramide, is a potent antiproliferative agent against the promastigote and amastigote forms of Leishmania amazonensis (L.). In this work, the crystal structure of Julocrotine was solved by X-ray diffraction, and its geometrical parameters were compared with theoretical calculations at the B3LYP and HF level of theory. IR and NMR spectra also have been obtained and compared with theoretical calculations. IR absorptions calculated with the B3LYP level of theory employed together with the 6-311G+(d,p) basis set, are close to those observed experimentally. Theoretical NMR calculations show little deviation from experimental results. The results show that the theory is in accordance with the experimental data.0

  20. General contraction of Gaussian basis sets. II - Atomic natural orbitals and the calculation of atomic and molecular properties

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Almlof, Jan; Taylor, Peter R.

    1990-01-01

    A recently proposed scheme for using natural orbitals from atomic configuration interaction wave functions as a basis set for linear combination of atomic orbitals (LCAO) calculations is extended for the calculation of molecular properties. For one-electron properties like multipole moments, which are determined largely by the outermost regions of the molecular wave function, it is necessary to increase the flexibility of the basis in these regions. This is most easily done by uncontracting the outermost Gaussian primitives, and/or by adding diffuse primitives. A similar approach can be employed for the calculation of polarizabilities. Properties which are not dominated by the long-range part of the wave function, such as spectroscopic constants or electric field gradients at the nucleus, can generally be treated satisfactorily with the original atomic natural orbital sets.

  1. General contraction of Gaussian basis sets. Part 2: Atomic natural orbitals and the calculation of atomic and molecular properties

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Almloef, Jan; Taylor, Peter R.

    1989-01-01

    A recently proposed scheme for using natural orbitals from atomic configuration interaction (CI) wave functions as a basis set for linear combination of atomic orbitals (LCAO) calculations is extended for the calculation of molecular properties. For one-electron properties like multipole moments, which are determined largely by the outermost regions of the molecular wave function, it is necessary to increase the flexibility of the basis in these regions. This is most easily done by uncontracting the outmost Gaussian primitives, and/or by adding diffuse primitives. A similar approach can be employed for the calculation of polarizabilities. Properties which are not dominated by the long-range part of the wave function, such as spectroscopic constants or electric field gradients at the nucleus, can generally be treated satisfactorily with the original atomic natural orbital (ANO) sets.

  2. General contraction of Gaussian basis sets. II - Atomic natural orbitals and the calculation of atomic and molecular properties

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Almlof, Jan; Taylor, Peter R.

    1990-01-01

    A recently proposed scheme for using natural orbitals from atomic configuration interaction wave functions as a basis set for linear combination of atomic orbitals (LCAO) calculations is extended for the calculation of molecular properties. For one-electron properties like multipole moments, which are determined largely by the outermost regions of the molecular wave function, it is necessary to increase the flexibility of the basis in these regions. This is most easily done by uncontracting the outermost Gaussian primitives, and/or by adding diffuse primitives. A similar approach can be employed for the calculation of polarizabilities. Properties which are not dominated by the long-range part of the wave function, such as spectroscopic constants or electric field gradients at the nucleus, can generally be treated satisfactorily with the original atomic natural orbital sets.

  3. Alkanes in Natural and Synthetic Petroleums: Comparison of Calculated and Actual Compositions.

    PubMed

    Friedel, R A; Sharkey, A G

    1963-03-22

    A similarity exists between the low molecular weight alkane isomers in crude oil and Fischer-Tropsch catalytic synthesis products. The composition of the C(4) through C(7) alkane isomers in a crude oil was calculated quantitatively with the equations previously used to calculate the alkane isomers in Fischer-Tropsch products. These results may have significance in ascertaining the origin of the volatile hydrocarbons in crude oils.

  4. A scaling study of the natural circulation flow of the ex-vessel core catcher cooling system of EU-APR1400 for designing a scale-down test facility for design verification

    SciTech Connect

    Rhee, B. W.; Ha, K. S.; Park, R. J.; Song, J. H.; Revankar, S. T.

    2012-07-01

    In this paper a scaling study on the steady state natural circulation flow along the flow path of the ex vessel core catcher cooling system of EU-APR1400 is described, and the scaling criteria for reproducing the same steady state thermalhydraulic characteristics of the natural circulation flow as a prototype core catcher cooling system in the scale-down test facility are derived in terms of the down-comer pipe diameter and orifice resistance. (authors)

  5. In Oregon, the EPA calculates nature's worth now and in the future

    EPA Science Inventory

    Ecosystem services are the many life-sustaining benefits we receive from nature — clean air and water, food and fiber production, greenhouse gas regulation, maintenance of biodiversity, etc. These ecosystem services are vital to our well-being, yet they are limited and often tak...

  6. In Oregon, the EPA calculates nature's worth now and in the future

    EPA Science Inventory

    Ecosystem services are the many life-sustaining benefits we receive from nature — clean air and water, food and fiber production, greenhouse gas regulation, maintenance of biodiversity, etc. These ecosystem services are vital to our well-being, yet they are limited and often tak...

  7. A Synoptic View of the Ventilation and Circulation of Antarctic Bottom Water from Chlorofluorocarbons and Natural Tracers.

    PubMed

    Purkey, Sarah G; Smethie, William M; Gebbie, Geoffrey; Gordon, Arnold L; Sonnerup, Rolf E; Warner, Mark J; Bullister, John L

    2017-09-06

    Antarctic Bottom Water (AABW) is the coldest, densest, most prolific water mass in the global ocean. AABW forms at several distinct regions along the Antarctic coast and feeds into the bottom limb of the meridional overturning circulation, filling most of the global deep ocean. AABW has warmed, freshened, and declined in volume around the globe in recent decades, which has implications for the global heat and sea level rise budgets. Over the past three decades, the use of tracers, especially time-varying tracers such as chlorofluorocarbons, has been essential to our understanding of the formation, circulation, and variability of AABW. Here, we review three decades of temperature, salinity, and tracer data and analysis that have led to our current knowledge of AABW and how the southern component of deep-ocean ventilation is changing with time. Expected final online publication date for the Annual Review of Marine Science Volume 10 is January 3, 2018. Please see http://www.annualreviews.org/page/journal/pubdates for revised estimates.

  8. Treating Subvalence Correlation Effects in Domain Based Pair Natural Orbital Coupled Cluster Calculations: An Out-of-the-Box Approach.

    PubMed

    Bistoni, Giovanni; Riplinger, Christoph; Minenkov, Yury; Cavallo, Luigi; Auer, Alexander A; Neese, Frank

    2017-07-11

    The validity of the main approximations used in canonical and domain based pair natural orbital coupled cluster methods (CCSD(T) and DLPNO-CCSD(T), respectively) in standard chemical applications is discussed. In particular, we investigate the dependence of the results on the number of electrons included in the correlation treatment in frozen-core (FC) calculations and on the main threshold governing the accuracy of DLPNO all-electron (AE) calculations. Initially, scalar relativistic orbital energies for the ground state of the atoms from Li to Rn in the periodic table are calculated. An energy criterion is used for determining the orbitals that can be excluded from the correlation treatment in FC coupled cluster calculations without significant loss of accuracy. The heterolytic dissociation energy (HDE) of a series of metal compounds (LiF, NaF, AlF3, CaF2, CuF, GaF3, YF3, AgF, InF3, HfF4, and AuF) is calculated at the canonical CCSD(T) level, and the dependence of the results on the number of correlated electrons is investigated. Although for many of the studied reactions subvalence correlation effects contribute significantly to the HDE, the use of an energy criterion permits a conservative definition of the size of the core, allowing FC calculations to be performed in a black-box fashion while retaining chemical accuracy. A comparison of the CCSD and the DLPNO-CCSD methods in describing the core-core, core-valence, and valence-valence components of the correlation energy is given. It is found that more conservative thresholds must be used for electron pairs containing at least one core electron in order to achieve high accuracy in AE DLPNO-CCSD calculations relative to FC calculations. With the new settings, the DLPNO-CCSD method reproduces canonical CCSD results in both AE and FC calculations with the same accuracy.

  9. Calculation of Natural Vibration Frequencies and Transient Response of Partially Submerged, Supercavitating Marine Propellers.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-06-01

    Dynamic Response NASTRAN - DMAP Application Propeller Vibration 20. ABSTRACT (Continue on reveree side if neceeary end Identify by block number) Procedures...by means of a standard NASTRAN structural analysis program. The use of these procedures was demonstrated by analyses of an existing pro- peller, for...submerged, supercavitating marine propellers may be calculated by means of a standard NASTRAN structural analysis program. The use of these procedures was

  10. Calculations of the spectral nature of the microwave emission from soils. [Arizona and Georgia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mo, T.; Schmugge, T. J.; Choudhury, B. J. (Principal Investigator)

    1980-01-01

    The brightness temperatures for a set of soil profiles observed at USDA facilities in Arizona and Georgia were calculated at the wavelengths of 2.8, 6, 11, 21, and 49 cm using a coherent radiative transfer model. The soil moisture sampling depth is found to be a function of wavelength and is in the range 0.06 to 0.1 of a wavelength. The thermal sampling depth also depends on wavelength and is approximately equal to one wavelength at dry soil condition and 0.1 - 0.5 wavelengths at wet soil conditions. Calculated values of emissivity show strong diurnal variations when the soils are wet, while there is little diurnal change when the soil is dry. The soil moistures within the four depth intervals of 0-2, 0-5, 0-9, and 0-15 cm were parameterized as function of the calculated emissivity and brightness temperature. Best-fit parameters and correlation coefficients are presented for five wavelengths. Interrelationships among the effective temperature, surface temperature, and emissivity are displayed.

  11. Calculation of absorbed dose around a facility for disposing of low activity natural radioactive waste (C3-dump).

    PubMed

    Jansen, J T M; Zoetelief, J

    2005-01-01

    A C3-dump is a facility for disposing of low activity natural radioactive waste containing the uranium series 238U, the thorium series 232Th and 40K. Only the external radiation owing to gamma rays, X-rays and annihilation photons is considered in this study. For two situations--the semi-infinite slab and the tourist geometry--the conversion coefficients from specific activity to air kerma rate at 1 m above the relevant level are calculated. In the first situation the waste material is in contact with the air but in the tourist geometry it is covered with a 1.35 m thick layer. For the calculations, the Monte Carlo radiation transport code MCNP is used. The yield and photon energy for each radionuclide are according to the database of Oak Ridge National Laboratory. For the tourist situation, the depth-dose distribution through the covering layer is calculated and extrapolated to determine the exit dose.

  12. Calculation of indoor effective dose factors in ORNL phantoms series due to natural radioactivity in building materials.

    PubMed

    Krstic, D; Nikezic, D

    2009-10-01

    In this paper the effective dose in the age-dependent ORNL phantoms series, due to naturally occurring radionuclides in building materials, was calculated. The absorbed doses for various organs or human tissues have been calculated. The MCNP-4B computer code was used for this purpose. The effective dose was calculated according to ICRP Publication 74. The obtained values of dose conversion factors for a standard room are: 1.033, 0.752 and 0.0538 nSv h-1 per Bq kg-1 for elements of the U and Th decay series and for the K isotope, respectively. The values of effective dose agreed generally with those found in the literature, although the values estimated here for elements of the U series were higher in some cases.

  13. Study on bubbly flow behavior in natural circulation reactor by thermal-hydraulic simulation tests with SF6-Gas and ethanol liquid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kondo, Yoshiyuki; Suga, Keishi; Hibi, Koki; Okazaki, Toshihiko; Komeno, Toshihiro; Kunugi, Tomoaki; Serizawa, Akimi; Yoneda, Kimitoshi; Arai, Takahiro

    2009-02-01

    An advanced experimental technique has been developed to simulate two-phase flow behavior in a light water reactor (LWR). The technique applies three kinds of methods; (1) use of sulfur-hexafluoride (SF6) gas and ethanol (C2H5OH) liquid at atmospheric temperature and a pressure less than 1.0MPa, where the fluid properties are similar to steam-water ones in the LWR, (2) generation of bubble with a sintering tube, which simulates bubble generation on heated surface in the LWR, (3) measurement of detailed bubble distribution data with a bi-optical probe (BOP), (4) and measurement of liquid velocities with the tracer liquid. This experimental technique provides easy visualization of flows by using a large scale experimental apparatus, which gives three-dimensional flows, and measurement of detailed spatial distributions of two-phase flow. With this technique, we have carried out experiments simulating two-phase flow behavior in a single-channel geometry, a multi-rod-bundle one, and a horizontal-tube-bundle one on a typical natural circulation reactor system. Those experiments have clarified a) a flow regime map in a rod bundle on the transient region between bubbly and churn flow, b) three-dimensional flow behaviour in rod-bundles where inter-subassembly cross-flow occurs, c) bubble-separation behavior with consideration of reactor internal structures. The data have given analysis models for the natural circulation reactor design with good extrapolation.

  14. Steady state boiling crisis in a helium vertically heated natural circulation loop - Part 1: Critical heat flux, boiling crisis onset and hysteresis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Furci, H.; Baudouy, B.; Four, A.; Meuris, C.

    2016-01-01

    Experiments were conducted on a 2-m high two-phase helium natural circulation loop operating at 4.2 K and 1 atm. The same loop was used in two experiments with different heated section internal diameter (10 and 6 mm). The power applied on the heated section wall was controlled in increasing and decreasing sequences, and temperature along the section, mass flow rate and pressure drop evolutions were recorded. The values of critical heat flux (CHF) were found at different positions of the test section, and the post-CHF regime was studied. The predictions of CHF by existing correlations were good in the downstream portion of the section, however CHF anomalies have been observed near the entrance, in the low quality region. In resonance with this, the re-wetting of the surface has distinct hysteresis behavior in each of the two CHF regions. Furthermore, hydraulics effects of crisis, namely on friction, were studied (Part 2). This research is the starting point to future works addressing transients conducing to boiling crisis in helium natural circulation loops.

  15. Calculation of the eroei coefficient for natural gas hydrates in laboratory conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siažik, Ján; Malcho, Milan; Čaja, Alexander

    2017-09-01

    In the 1960s, scientists discovered that methane hydrate existed in the gas field in Siberia. Gas hydrates are known to be stable under conditions of high pressure and low temperature that have been recognized in polar regions and in the uppermost part of deep -water sediments below the sea floor. The article deals with the determination of the EROEI coefficient to generate the natural gas hydrate in the device under specific temperature and pressure conditions. Energy returned on energy invested expresses ratio of the amount of usable energy delivered from a particular energy resource to the amount of exergy used to obtain that energy resource. Gas hydrates have been also discussed before decades like potential source mainly for regions with restricted access to conventional hydrocarbons also tactic interest in establishing alternative gas reserves.

  16. Epoxides, cyclic sulfites, and sulfate from natural pentacyclic triterpenoids: theoretical calculations and chemical transformations.

    PubMed

    García-Granados, Andrés; López, Pilar E; Melguizo, Enrique; Moliz, Juan N; Parra, Andrés; Simeó, Yolanda; Dobado, José A

    2003-06-13

    Several triterpenic derivatives, with the A-ring functionalized, were semisynthesized from oleanolic and maslinic acids. The reactivities of sulfites, sulfate, and epoxides in these triterpene compounds were investigated under different reaction conditions. Moreover, contracted A-ring triterpenes (five-membered rings) were obtained, by different treatments of the sulfate 7. From the epoxide 8, deoxygenated and halohydrin derivatives were semisynthesized with several nucleophiles. Ozonolysis and Beckmann reactions were used to yield 4-aza compounds, from five-membered ring olanediene triterpenes. The X-ray structure of sulfate 7 is given and compared with density functional theory geometries. Theoretical (13)C and (1)H chemical shifts (gauge-invariant atomic orbital method at the B3LYP/6-31G*//B3LYP/6-31G* level) and (3)J(H,H) coupling constants were calculated for compounds 5-9 and 34-36, identifying the (R)- or (S)-sulfur and alpha- or beta-epoxide configurations together with 4-aza or 3-aza structures.

  17. Ab initio no-core configuration interaction calculations of electromagnetic observables for p-shell nuclei using natural orbitals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Constantinou, Chrysovalantis; Caprio, Mark A.; Vary, James P.; Maris, Pieter

    2016-09-01

    The goal of ab initio nuclear theory is to provide quantitative predictions of nuclear observables, by solving the many-body problem starting from the internucleon interaction. The solution of the many-body problem involves large spaces with dimensions that grow fast with the number of nucleons and single-particle states included in the space. Convergence of nuclear observables in the employed space using an adequate set of single-particle orbitals is essential for making quantitative predictions. Long-range nuclear observables, such as the matrix elements of the E 2 operator, converge slowly when conventional oscillator single-particle orbitals are used for no-core configuration interaction (NCCI) calculations. Natural orbitals, obtained by diagonalizing the one-body density matrix from an initial NCCI calculation in the harmonic oscillator basis, provide accelerated convergence since they are adapted to the properties of the many-body wave function of the nucleus under study. We explore the convergence of electromagnetic observables of p-shell nuclei obtained using natural orbitals for NCCI calculations. Supported by the US DOE under Grants DE-FG02-95ER-40934, DESC0008485 (SciDAC/NUCLEI), and DE-FG02-87ER40371. Computational resources provided by NERSC (supported by US DOE Contract DE-AC02-05CH11231) and the Notre Dame Center for Research Computing.

  18. An improved calculation of the exergy of natural resources for exergetic life cycle assessment (ELCA).

    PubMed

    De Meester, Bram; Dewulf, Jo; Janssens, Arnold; Van Langenhove, Herman

    2006-11-01

    The focus in environmental research is shifting from emission abatement to critical process analysis, including assessment of resource consumption. The exergy theory offers a thermodynamic methodology to account for the consumption of natural resources. However, exergy data on mineral resources available in the literature are inadequate to apply to exergetic life cycle analysis, due to incompleteness, inconsistencies, and a dated thermochemical basis. An uncertainty assessment of the data has to be performed as well. In this work, three recent thermochemical databases were applied to evaluate the chemical exergy of 85 elements and 73 minerals, 21 of which had not yet been quantified in the literature. The process required the choice of a new reference species for aluminum. Muscovite was selected, giving rise to a chemical exergy of 809.4 kJ/mol for aluminum. The theory proved to be robust for the exergy of chemical elements, as exergy values differing by 1.2% on average from most recent literature were found. On the contrary, the exergy values for minerals differed by factors up to 14 from literature values, due to the application of recent thermochemical values and consistently selected reference species. The consistent dataset of this work will enable straightforward resource intake evaluation through an exergetic life cycle assessment.

  19. CFD Calculation of Internal Natural Convection in the Annulus between Horizontal Concentric Cylinders

    SciTech Connect

    N.D. Francis, Jr; M.T. Itamura; S.W. Webb; D.L. James

    2002-10-01

    The objective of this heat transfer and fluid flow study is to assess the ability of a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code to reproduce the experimental results, numerical simulation results, and heat transfer correlation equations developed in the literature for natural convection heat transfer within the annulus of horizontal concentric cylinders. In the literature, a variety of heat transfer expressions have been developed to compute average equivalent thermal conductivities. However, the expressions have been primarily developed for very small inner and outer cylinder radii and gap-widths. In this comparative study, interest is primarily focused on large gap widths (on the order of half meter or greater) and large radius ratios. From the steady-state CFD analysis it is found that the concentric cylinder models for the larger geometries compare favorably to the results of the Kuehn and Goldstein correlations in the Rayleigh number range of about 10{sup 5} to 10{sup 8} (a range that encompasses the laminar to turbulent transition). For Rayleigh numbers greater than 10{sup 8}, both numerical simulations and experimental data (from the literature) are consistent and result in slightly lower equivalent thermal conductivities than those obtained from the Kuehn and Goldstein correlations.

  20. Absolute structural elucidation of natural products--a focus on quantum-mechanical calculations of solid-state CD spectra.

    PubMed

    Pescitelli, Gennaro; Kurtán, Tibor; Flörke, Ulrich; Krohn, Karsten

    2009-01-01

    In this review article we examine state-of-the-art techniques for the structural elucidation of organic compounds isolated from natural sources. In particular, we focus on the determination of absolute configuration (AC), perhaps the most challenging but inevitable step in the whole process, especially when newly isolated compounds are screened for biological activity. Among the many methods employed for AC assignment that we review, special attention is paid to electronic circular dichroism (CD) and to the modern tools available for quantum-mechanics CD predictions, including TDDFT. In this context, we stress that conformational flexibility often poses a limit to practical CD calculations of solution CD spectra. Many crystalline natural products suitable for X-ray analysis do not contain heavy atoms for a confidential AC assignment by resonant scattering. However, their CD spectra can be recorded in the solid state, for example with the KCl pellet technique, and analyzed possibly by nonempirical means to provide stereochemical information. In particular, solid-state CD spectra can be compared with those calculated with TDDFT or other high-level methods, using the X-ray geometry as input. The solid-state CD/TDDFT approach, described in detail, represents a quick and reliable tool for AC assignment of natural products. (c) 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  1. 57Fe Mössbauer spectroscopy, X-ray single-crystal diffractometry, and electronic structure calculations on natural alexandrite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weber, Sven-Ulf; Grodzicki, Michael; Lottermoser, Werner; Redhammer, Günther J.; Tippelt, Gerold; Ponahlo, Johann; Amthauer, Georg

    2007-09-01

    Natural alexandrite Al2BeO4:Cr from Malyshevo near Terem Tschanka, Sverdlovsk, Ural, Russia, has been characterized by 57Fe Mössbauer spectroscopy, electron microprobe, X-ray single-crystal diffractometry and by electronic structure calculations in order to determine oxidation state and location of iron. The sample contains 0.3 wt% of total iron oxide. The 57Fe Mössbauer spectrum can be resolved into three doublets. Two of them with hyperfine parameters typical for octahedrally coordinated high-spin Fe3+ and Fe2+, respectively, are assigned to iron substituting for Al in the octahedral M2-site. The third doublet is attributed to Fe3+ in hematite. Electronic structure calculations in the local spin density approximation are in reasonable agreement with experimental data provided that expansion and/or distortion of the coordination octahedra are presumed upon iron substitution. The calculated hyperfine parameters of Fe3+ are almost identical for the M1 and M2 positions, but the calculated ligand-field splitting is by far too large for high-spin Fe3+ on M1.

  2. Investigation of the nature and stability of the Martian seasonal water cycle with a general circulation model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richardson, Mark I.; Wilson, R. John

    2002-05-01

    We describe the first use of a general circulation model to study the Martian water cycle. Water is treated as a passive tracer, except for ice-albedo coupling. The model is used to assess which mechanisms and water reservoirs are critical to the seasonal evolution of water and specifically the attainment of an interannually repeatable steady state. The model comes to a reasonable steady state with active surface ice and atmospheric vapor and ice reservoirs. A regolith is not necessary. The mechanism of equilibration results from independent parameters controlling the transport of water between the northern polar and the extratropical atmospheres at different seasons. Water export from the northern summer pole results from weak mixing across a strong vapor gradient, dependent upon northern cap temperatures. Import at other seasons depends on stronger mixing and weak vapor gradients, which are history dependent. Equilibration is achieved when the fluxes balance, minus a small net loss to the south. We find that with a southern residual CO2 cap, the water cycle cannot be completely closed. We conclude that the northern summer cap temperature determines the bulk humidity of the atmosphere, all else being equal. We proceed to show that a water cap exposed in southern summer would be unstable with respect to the north for dynamical as well as thermal reasons. At high obliquity (45°), much higher vapor abundances result in more widespread surface ice with seasonal ice caps overlapping in the equinoctial subtropics, producing year-round stability of water ice just north of the equator.

  3. Studies of Phase Change Materials and a Latent Heat Storage Unit Used for a Natural Circulation Cooling/Latent Heat Storage System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakitani, Katsumi; Honda, Hiroshi

    Experiments were performed to investigate feasibility of using organic materials as a PCM for a latent heat storage unit of a natural circulation cooling/latent heat storage system. This system was designed to cool a shelter accommodating telecommunication equipment located in subtropical deserts or similar regions without using a power source. Taking into account practical considerations and the results of various experiments regarding the thermodynamic properties, thermal degradation, and corrosiveness to metals, lauric acid and iron was selected for the PCM and the latent heat storage unit material, respectively. Cyclic heating and cooling of the latent heat storage unit undergoing solid-liquid phase change was repeated for more than 430 days. The results showed that the heating-cooling curve was almost unchanged between the early stage and the 1,870th cycle. It was concluded that the latent heat storage unit could be used safely for more than ten years as a component of the cooling system.

  4. Phenotypic Features of Circulating Leukocytes from Non-human Primates Naturally Infected with Trypanosoma cruzi Resemble the Major Immunological Findings Observed in Human Chagas Disease

    PubMed Central

    Mattoso-Barbosa, Armanda Moreira; Perdigão-de-Oliveira, Marcelo; Costa, Ronaldo Peres; Elói-Santos, Silvana Maria; Gomes, Matheus de Souza; do Amaral, Laurence Rodrigues; Teixeira-Carvalho, Andréa; Martins-Filho, Olindo Assis; Dick, Edward J.; Hubbard, Gene B.; VandeBerg, Jane F.; VandeBerg, John L.

    2016-01-01

    Background Cynomolgus macaques (Macaca fascicularis) represent a feasible model for research on Chagas disease since natural T. cruzi infection in these primates leads to clinical outcomes similar to those observed in humans. However, it is still unknown whether these clinical similarities are accompanied by equivalent immunological characteristics in the two species. We have performed a detailed immunophenotypic analysis of circulating leukocytes together with systems biology approaches from 15 cynomolgus macaques naturally infected with T. cruzi (CH) presenting the chronic phase of Chagas disease to identify biomarkers that might be useful for clinical investigations. Methods and Findings Our data established that CH displayed increased expression of CD32+ and CD56+ in monocytes and enhanced frequency of NK Granzyme A+ cells as compared to non-infected controls (NI). Moreover, higher expression of CD54 and HLA-DR by T-cells, especially within the CD8+ subset, was the hallmark of CH. A high level of expression of Granzyme A and Perforin underscored the enhanced cytotoxicity-linked pattern of CD8+ T-lymphocytes from CH. Increased frequency of B-cells with up-regulated expression of Fc-γRII was also observed in CH. Complex and imbricate biomarker networks demonstrated that CH showed a shift towards cross-talk among cells of the adaptive immune system. Systems biology analysis further established monocytes and NK-cell phenotypes and the T-cell activation status, along with the Granzyme A expression by CD8+ T-cells, as the most reliable biomarkers of potential use for clinical applications. Conclusions Altogether, these findings demonstrated that the similarities in phenotypic features of circulating leukocytes observed in cynomolgus macaques and humans infected with T. cruzi further supports the use of these monkeys in preclinical toxicology and pharmacology studies applied to development and testing of new drugs for Chagas disease. PMID:26808481

  5. Phenotypic Features of Circulating Leukocytes from Non-human Primates Naturally Infected with Trypanosoma cruzi Resemble the Major Immunological Findings Observed in Human Chagas Disease.

    PubMed

    Sathler-Avelar, Renato; Vitelli-Avelar, Danielle Marquete; Mattoso-Barbosa, Armanda Moreira; Perdigão-de-Oliveira, Marcelo; Costa, Ronaldo Peres; Elói-Santos, Silvana Maria; Gomes, Matheus de Souza; Amaral, Laurence Rodrigues do; Teixeira-Carvalho, Andréa; Martins-Filho, Olindo Assis; Dick, Edward J; Hubbard, Gene B; VandeBerg, Jane F; VandeBerg, John L

    2016-01-01

    Cynomolgus macaques (Macaca fascicularis) represent a feasible model for research on Chagas disease since natural T. cruzi infection in these primates leads to clinical outcomes similar to those observed in humans. However, it is still unknown whether these clinical similarities are accompanied by equivalent immunological characteristics in the two species. We have performed a detailed immunophenotypic analysis of circulating leukocytes together with systems biology approaches from 15 cynomolgus macaques naturally infected with T. cruzi (CH) presenting the chronic phase of Chagas disease to identify biomarkers that might be useful for clinical investigations. Our data established that CH displayed increased expression of CD32+ and CD56+ in monocytes and enhanced frequency of NK Granzyme A+ cells as compared to non-infected controls (NI). Moreover, higher expression of CD54 and HLA-DR by T-cells, especially within the CD8+ subset, was the hallmark of CH. A high level of expression of Granzyme A and Perforin underscored the enhanced cytotoxicity-linked pattern of CD8+ T-lymphocytes from CH. Increased frequency of B-cells with up-regulated expression of Fc-γRII was also observed in CH. Complex and imbricate biomarker networks demonstrated that CH showed a shift towards cross-talk among cells of the adaptive immune system. Systems biology analysis further established monocytes and NK-cell phenotypes and the T-cell activation status, along with the Granzyme A expression by CD8+ T-cells, as the most reliable biomarkers of potential use for clinical applications. Altogether, these findings demonstrated that the similarities in phenotypic features of circulating leukocytes observed in cynomolgus macaques and humans infected with T. cruzi further supports the use of these monkeys in preclinical toxicology and pharmacology studies applied to development and testing of new drugs for Chagas disease.

  6. High efficiency of natural lamellar remanent magnetisation in single grains of ilmeno-hematite calculated using Mössbauer spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCammon, Catherine A.; McEnroe, Suzanne A.; Robinson, Peter; Fabian, Karl; Burton, Benjamin P.

    2009-10-01

    Rocks from large remanent magnetic anomalies on Earth have been found to contain exsolved rhombohedral oxides, which also have been proposed as earth analogues for the rocks creating the observed large remanent anomalies on Mars. Theoretical considerations and previous case studies of natural rocks have shown that the natural magnetisation is carried by lamellar magnetism due to uncompensated moments at the interface between antiferromagnetic hematite and paramagnetic ilmenite. Here, single grains (≈ 250 µm) of titanohematite with ferri-ilmenite exsolution lamellae from Mesoproterozoic metamorphic rock samples in southwest Sweden and the Adirondack Mountains, USA, are studied using room-temperature Mössbauer spectroscopy to identify possible characteristic magnetic signatures of lamellar magnetism. Mössbauer spectra of synthetic samples of titanohematite (Fe 0.95Ti 0.05O 3 and Fe 0.9Ti 0.1O 3) were collected for comparison and showed a dominant six-line magnetic spectrum due to Fe 3+ in titanohematite with a weak sextet due to Fe 2+-Fe 3+ charge transfer. Mössbauer spectra of the natural ilmeno-hematite grains are similar to those for synthetic titanohematite, but contain additionally two paramagnetic doublets corresponding to Fe 2+ and Fe 3+ in ilmenite. However, several grains also contain an additional weak, broad magnetic component that we assign to iron in contact layers according to the lamellar magnetism model. Similar to the previous Mössbauer results for natural hemo-ilmenite, there is no evidence for superparamagnetic behaviour of the nanoscale titanohematite lamellae contained within coarser ferri-ilmenite lamellae, and no evidence for single-domain or superparamagnetic magnetite. The compositions of titanohematite and ferri-ilmenite in the individual ilmeno-hematite grains calculated from the Mössbauer area ratios show that compositions are closer to end-member values than the compositions inferred from electron microprobe and transmission

  7. Circulating Natural IgM Antibodies Against Angiogenin in the Peripheral Blood Sera of Patients with Osteosarcoma as Candidate Biomarkers and Reporters of Tumorigenesis

    PubMed Central

    Savitskaya, Yulia A.; Rico, Genaro; Linares, Luis; González, Roberto; Téllez, René; Estrada, Eréndira; Marín, Norma; Martínez, Elisa; Alfaro, Alfonso; Ibarra, Clemente

    2010-01-01

    Background: Tumor immunology research has led to the identification of a number of tumor-associated self antigens, suggesting that most tumors trigger an immunogenic response, as is the case in osteosarcoma, where the detection of natural serum IgM antibodies might achieve the diagnosis of osteosarcoma. Natural IgM antibodies to tumor-associated proteins may expand the number of available tumor biomarkers for osteosarcoma and may be used together in a serum profile to enhance test sensitivity and specificity. Natural IgM antibodies can be consistently detected in the peripheral blood sera months to years before the tumor is diagnosed clinically. The study of the level of a potential biomarker many months (or years) prior to diagnosis is fundamentally important. Integrated circulating and imaging markers in clinical practice treating osteosarcoma have potential applications for controlling tumor angiogenesis. Objectives: To study the expression of natural IgM antibodies to the tumor antigens of angiogenesis in the peripheral blood sera of osteosarcoma patients and healthy individuals, and to develop serum-based predictive biomarkers. Methods: Peripheral venous blood samples were collected from 117 osteosarcoma patients and 117 patients with other tumors. All diagnosis was histologically confirmed. Staging of patients was performed according to the Enneking Surgical Staging System. The control group consisted of 117 age- and sex- matched healthy individuals. In this study, novel immunoconjugates were designed, synthesized and then used to develop a rapid, specific and sensitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) method to detect angiogenin (ANG)–IgM directly in the peripheral blood sera of humans. Results: Serum ANG–IgM levels are significantly higher in osteosarcoma patients than in healthy individuals (P < 0.005). Serum ANG–IgM levels varied widely, but were highly dependent on the concentration of IgM (r = 0.85; P < 0.0005). We found ANG–IgM in the

  8. Skewed distribution of circulating activated natural killer T (NKT) cells in patients with common variable immunodeficiency disorders (CVID).

    PubMed

    Carvalho, Karina I; Melo, Karina M; Bruno, Fernanda R; Snyder-Cappione, Jennifer E; Nixon, Douglas F; Costa-Carvalho, Beatriz T; Kallas, Esper G

    2010-09-09

    Common variable immunodeficiency disorder (CVID) is the commonest cause of primary antibody failure in adults and children, and characterized clinically by recurrent bacterial infections and autoimmune manifestations. Several innate immune defects have been described in CVID, but no study has yet investigated the frequency, phenotype or function of the key regulatory cell population, natural killer T (NKT) cells. We measured the frequencies and subsets of NKT cells in patients with CVID and compared these to healthy controls. Our results show a skewing of NKT cell subsets, with CD4+ NKT cells at higher frequencies, and CD8+ NKT cells at lower frequencies. However, these cells were highly activated and expression CD161. The NKT cells had a higher expression of CCR5 and concomitantly expression of CCR5+CD69+CXCR6 suggesting a compensation of the remaining population of NKT cells for rapid effector action.

  9. Experimental Study on Thermal-Hydraulics During Start-Up in the Natural Circulation Boiling Water Reactor Concept: Effects of System Pressure and Increasing Heat Flux on the Geysering and Density Wave Oscillation

    SciTech Connect

    Hadid Subki, M.; Masanori Aritomi; Noriyuki Watanabe; Chaiwat Muncharoen

    2002-07-01

    The feasibility study in thermal-hydraulics for the future light water reactor concept is carried out. One of the essential studies is the two-phase flow instability during start-up in the natural circulation boiling water reactor (BWR) concept. It is anticipated that the occurrence of the two-phase flow instabilities during start-up significantly affects the feasibility concept, since it would cause the complexity in raising and maneuvering the power output. The purpose of the current study is to experimentally investigate the driving mechanism of the geysering and density wave oscillation in the natural circulation loop, induced by a range of system operating pressure and increasing heat flux in vertical parallel channels. The pressure range of atmospheric up to about 4 bars, and the input heat flux range of 0 up to 577 kW/m{sup 2} are applied in these experiments. An experimental apparatus of twin boiling upflow channels to simulate natural circulation flow loop has been designed, constructed and operated. The natural circulation in the loop occurs due to the density difference between two-phase region in the channels and the single-phase liquid in the downcomer. The objective of the study is to propose a rational start-up procedure in which the geysering and density wave oscillation can be prevented during startup, according to its system pressure and heat flux. Previous studies have clarified that three (3) kinds of thermo-hydraulics instabilities may occur during start-up in the natural circulation BWR depending on its procedure and reactor configuration, which are (1) geysering induced by condensation, (2) natural circulation induced by hydrostatic head fluctuation in steam separator, and (3) density wave oscillation. (authors)

  10. Coxiella burnetii Circulation in a Naturally Infected Flock of Sheep: Individual Follow-Up of Antibodies in Serum and Milk.

    PubMed

    Joulié, A; Rousset, E; Gasqui, P; Lepetitcolin, E; Leblond, A; Sidi-Boumedine, K; Jourdain, E

    2017-07-01

    The control of Q fever, a zoonotic disease caused by the Coxiella burnetii bacterium, remains a scientific challenge. Domestic ruminants are considered the main reservoir, shedding C. burnetii essentially through parturition products during abortion or birth. Sheep are particularly frequently associated with human outbreaks, but there are insufficient field data to fully understand disease dynamics and to instigate efficient control measures. A longitudinal follow-up study of a naturally infected sheep flock was performed (i) to investigate relationships between seropositivity and bacterial shedding in the vaginal mucus, (ii) to describe the kinetics of antibodies, including responses to vaccination, (iii) to monitor maternal antibodies in ewe lambs, and (iv) to compare serological results for milk and serum samples. For 8 months, we collected blood samples every 3 weeks from 11 aborting and 26 nonaborting dairy ewes, 20 nonaborting suckler ewes, and 9 ewe lambs. Individual milk samples were also obtained from lactating females. All serum and milk samples were tested by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), whereas vaginal swabs were tested by quantitative PCR. We found that some dairy females did not seroconvert despite shedding C. burnetii in their vaginal mucus. Overall, antibody levels in adult females were found to remain stable over time, with exceptions during the mating and lambing periods. Maternal antibodies decreased during the first month after birth. Interestingly, antibody levels in milk were correlated with those in serum. This study provides valuable field data that will help improve Q fever surveillance and within-flock management measures.IMPORTANCE Field data are necessary to improve the surveillance, diagnosis, and sanitary management of Q fever in livestock. Here, we provide extensive serological data obtained from serum and milk samples from infected and vaccinated ewes belonging to a naturally infected flock of sheep. We show that

  11. Natural Killer Cell Assessment in Peripheral Circulation and Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid of Patients with Severe Sepsis: A Case Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Souza-Fonseca-Guimaraes, Paulo; Guimaraes, Fernando; Natânia De Souza-Araujo, Caroline; Maria Boldrini Leite, Lidiane; Cristina Senegaglia, Alexandra; Nishiyama, Anita; Souza-Fonseca-Guimaraes, Fernando

    2017-01-01

    Sepsis is a complex systemic inflammatory syndrome, the most common cause of which is attributed to systemic underlying bacterial infection. The complete mechanisms of the dynamic pro- and anti-inflammatory processes underlying the pathophysiology of sepsis remain poorly understood. Natural killer (NK) cells play a crucial role in the pathophysiology of sepsis, leading to exaggerated inflammation due their rapid response and production of pro-inflammatory cytokines such as interferon gamma (IFN-γ). Several studies have already shown that NK cells undergo lymphopenia in the peripheral blood of patients with sepsis. However, our understanding of the mechanisms behind its cellular trafficking and its role in disease development is restricted to studies in animal models. In this study, we aimed to compare the human NK cell subset (CD56bright or dim) levels in the peripheral blood and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid of sepsis patients. We conducted a case-control study with a sample size consisting of 10 control patients and 23 sepsis patients enrolled at the Hospital Cajuru (Curitiba/PR, Brazil) from 2013 to 2015. Although we were able to confirm previous observations of peripheral blood lymphopenia, no significant differences were detected in NK cell levels in the BAL fluid of these patients. Overall, these findings strengthened the evidence that peripheral blood lymphopenia is likely to be associated with cell death as a consequence of sepsis. PMID:28287491

  12. Natural Killer Cell Assessment in Peripheral Circulation and Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid of Patients with Severe Sepsis: A Case Control Study.

    PubMed

    Souza-Fonseca-Guimaraes, Paulo; Guimaraes, Fernando; Natânia De Souza-Araujo, Caroline; Maria Boldrini Leite, Lidiane; Cristina Senegaglia, Alexandra; Nishiyama, Anita; Souza-Fonseca-Guimaraes, Fernando

    2017-03-12

    Sepsis is a complex systemic inflammatory syndrome, the most common cause of which is attributed to systemic underlying bacterial infection. The complete mechanisms of the dynamic pro- and anti-inflammatory processes underlying the pathophysiology of sepsis remain poorly understood. Natural killer (NK) cells play a crucial role in the pathophysiology of sepsis, leading to exaggerated inflammation due their rapid response and production of pro-inflammatory cytokines such as interferon gamma (IFN-γ). Several studies have already shown that NK cells undergo lymphopenia in the peripheral blood of patients with sepsis. However, our understanding of the mechanisms behind its cellular trafficking and its role in disease development is restricted to studies in animal models. In this study, we aimed to compare the human NK cell subset (CD56(bright or dim)) levels in the peripheral blood and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid of sepsis patients. We conducted a case-control study with a sample size consisting of 10 control patients and 23 sepsis patients enrolled at the Hospital Cajuru (Curitiba/PR, Brazil) from 2013 to 2015. Although we were able to confirm previous observations of peripheral blood lymphopenia, no significant differences were detected in NK cell levels in the BAL fluid of these patients. Overall, these findings strengthened the evidence that peripheral blood lymphopenia is likely to be associated with cell death as a consequence of sepsis.

  13. Impact of aircraft NOx emissions on tropospheric ozone calculated with a chemistry-general circulation model: Sensitivity to higher hydrocarbon chemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kentarchos, A. S.; Roelofs, G. J.

    2002-07-01

    A three-dimensional chemistry-general circulation model has been employed to estimate the impact of current aircraft NOx emissions on tropospheric ozone. The model contains a representation of higher hydrocarbon chemistry, implemented by means of the Carbon Bond Mechanism 4 (CBM4), in order to investigate the potential effect of higher hydrocarbons on aircraft-induced ozone changes. Aircraft NOx emissions increase background NOX (= NO + NO2 + NO3 + 2N2O5 + HNO4) concentrations by 50-70 pptv in the upper troposphere over the Northern Hemisphere, and contribute up to 3 ppbv to upper tropospheric background ozone levels. When higher hydrocarbon chemistry is considered in the simulation, the aircraft-induced ozone perturbations are higher by ~12% during summer and the aircraft-induced ozone production efficiency per NOx molecule increases by ~20%, when compared to a simulation without higher hydrocarbon chemistry.

  14. NIR surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy and bands assignment by DFT calculations of non-natural β-amino acids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iliescu, T.; Maniu, D.; Chis, V.; Irimie, F. D.; Paizs, Cs.; Tosa, M.

    2005-04-01

    FT-Raman and NIR surface-enhanced Raman (SER) spectroscopies have been applied to the vibrational characterization of non-natural β-amino acids, 3-amino-3-(furan-2yl)-propionic acid and 3-amino-3-[(5-benzothiazole-2yl)-furan-2yl]-propionic acid. Semiempirical and density-functional theory (DFT) calculations on both amino acids in their zwitterionic forms have been performed in order to find the optimized structure and to compute the vibrational spectra. The NIR SER spectra in silver hydrosol and Ag-coated filter paper have been recorded, compared and analyzed. Good SER spectra were obtained at the pH values where dipolar ion structures are present proving the chemisorption of β-amino acid molecules on the silver surface via positively charged NH3+ group. The carboxylate anion of both β-amino acids are parallel oriented, whereas the plane of rings is oriented perpendicular to the silver surface.

  15. X-ray magnetic and natural circular dichroism from first principles: Calculation of K - and L1-edge spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouldi, N.; Vollmers, N. J.; Delpy-Laplanche, C. G.; Joly, Y.; Juhin, A.; Sainctavit, Ph.; Brouder, Ch.; Calandra, M.; Paulatto, L.; Mauri, F.; Gerstmann, U.

    2017-08-01

    An efficient first-principles approach to calculate x-ray magnetic circular dichroism (XMCD) and x-ray natural circular dichroism (XNCD) is developed and applied in the near-edge region at the K and L1 edges in solids. Computation of circular dichroism requires precise calculations of x-ray absorption spectra (XAS) for circularly polarized light. For the derivation of the XAS cross section, we used a relativistic description of the photon-electron interaction that results in an additional term in the cross section that couples the electric dipole operator with an operator σ .(ɛ ×r ) that we call the spin position operator. The numerical method relies on pseudopotentials, on the gauge including projected augmented-wave method, and on a collinear spin relativistic description of the electronic structure. We apply the method to calculations of K -edge XMCD spectra of ferromagnetic iron, cobalt, and nickel and of I L1-edge XNCD spectra of α -LiIO3 , a compound with broken inversion symmetry. For XMCD spectra we find that, even if the electric dipole term is the dominant one, the electric quadrupole term is not negligible (8% in amplitude in the case of iron). The term coupling the electric dipole operator with the spin-position operator is significant (28% in amplitude in the case of iron). We obtain a sum rule relating this term to the spin magnetic moment of the p states. In α -LiIO3 we recover the expected angular dependence of the XNCD spectra.

  16. Development of a plant dynamics computer code for analysis of a supercritical carbon dioxide Brayton cycle energy converter coupled to a natural circulation lead-cooled fast reactor.

    SciTech Connect

    Moisseytsev, A.; Sienicki, J. J.

    2007-03-08

    STAR-LM is a lead-cooled pool-type fast reactor concept operating under natural circulation of the coolant. The reactor core power is 400 MWt. The open-lattice core consists of fuel pins attached to the core support plate, (the does not consist of removable fuel assemblies). The coolant flows outside of the fuel pins. The fuel is transuranic nitride, fabricated from reprocessed LWR spent fuel. The cladding material is HT-9 stainless steel; the steady-state peak cladding temperature is 650 C. The coolant is single-phase liquid lead under atmospheric pressure; the core inlet and outlet temperatures are 438 C and 578 C, respectively. (The Pb coolant freezing and boiling temperatures are 327 C and 1749 C, respectively). The coolant is contained inside of a reactor vessel. The vessel material is Type 316 stainless steel. The reactor is autonomous meaning that the reactor power is self-regulated based on inherent reactivity feedbacks and no external power control (through control rods) is utilized. The shutdown (scram) control rods are used for startup and shutdown and to stop the fission reaction in case of an emergency. The heat from the reactor is transferred to the S-CO{sub 2} Brayton cycle in in-reactor heat exchangers (IRHX) located inside the reactor vessel. The IRHXs are shell-and-tube type heat exchangers with lead flowing downwards on the shell side and CO{sub 2} flowing upwards on the tube side. No intermediate circuit is utilized. The guard vessel surrounds the reactor vessel to contain the coolant, in the very unlikely event of reactor vessel failure. The Reactor Vessel Auxiliary Cooling System (RVACS) implementing the natural circulation of air flowing upwards over the guard vessel is used to cool the reactor, in the case of loss of normal heat removal through the IRHXs. The RVACS is always in operation. The gap between the vessels is filled with liquid lead-bismuth eutectic (LBE) to enhance the heat removal by air by significantly reducing the thermal

  17. Successful Antiparasitic Treatment for Cysticercosis is Associated with a Fast and Marked Reduction of Circulating Antigen Levels in a Naturally Infected Pig Model.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez, Armando E; Bustos, Javier A; Garcia, Hector H; Rodriguez, Silvia; Zimic, Mirko; Castillo, Yesenia; Praet, Nicolas; Gabriël, Sarah; Gilman, Robert H; Dorny, Pierre

    2015-12-01

    Taenia solium cysticercosis is a common parasitic infection of humans and pigs. We evaluated the posttreatment evolution of circulating parasite-specific antigen titers in 693 consecutive blood samples from 50 naturally infected cysticercotic pigs, which received different regimes of antiparasitic drugs (N = 39, 7 groups), prednisone (N = 5), or controls (N = 6). Samples were collected from baseline to week 10 after treatment, when pigs were euthanized and carefully dissected at necropsy. Antigen levels decreased proportionally to the efficacy of treatment and correlated with the remaining viable cysts at necropsy (Pearson's p = 0.67, P = 0.000). A decrease of 5 times in antigen levels (logarithmic scale) compared with baseline was found in 20/26 pigs free of cysts at necropsy, compared with 1/24 of those who had persisting viable cysts (odds ratio [OR] = 76.7, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 8.1-3308.6, P < 0.001). Antigen monitoring reflects the course of infection in the pig. If a similar correlation exists in infected humans, this assay may provide a minimally invasive and easy monitoring assay to assess disease evolution and efficacy of antiparasitic treatment in human neurocysticercosis.

  18. Successful Antiparasitic Treatment for Cysticercosis Is Associated with a Fast and Marked Reduction of Circulating Antigen Levels in a Naturally Infected Pig Model

    PubMed Central

    Gonzalez, Armando E.; Bustos, Javier A.; Garcia, Hector H.; Rodriguez, Silvia; Zimic, Mirko; Castillo, Yesenia; Praet, Nicolas; Gabriël, Sarah; Gilman, Robert H.

    2015-01-01

    Taenia solium cysticercosis is a common parasitic infection of humans and pigs. We evaluated the posttreatment evolution of circulating parasite-specific antigen titers in 693 consecutive blood samples from 50 naturally infected cysticercotic pigs, which received different regimes of antiparasitic drugs (N = 39, 7 groups), prednisone (N = 5), or controls (N = 6). Samples were collected from baseline to week 10 after treatment, when pigs were euthanized and carefully dissected at necropsy. Antigen levels decreased proportionally to the efficacy of treatment and correlated with the remaining viable cysts at necropsy (Pearson's p = 0.67, P = 0.000). A decrease of 5 times in antigen levels (logarithmic scale) compared with baseline was found in 20/26 pigs free of cysts at necropsy, compared with 1/24 of those who had persisting viable cysts (odds ratio [OR] = 76.7, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 8.1–3308.6, P < 0.001). Antigen monitoring reflects the course of infection in the pig. If a similar correlation exists in infected humans, this assay may provide a minimally invasive and easy monitoring assay to assess disease evolution and efficacy of antiparasitic treatment in human neurocysticercosis. PMID:26392159

  19. Paradigm Shift in Dendritic Cell-Based Immunotherapy: From in vitro Generated Monocyte-Derived DCs to Naturally Circulating DC Subsets

    PubMed Central

    Wimmers, Florian; Schreibelt, Gerty; Sköld, Annette E.; Figdor, Carl G.; De Vries, I. Jolanda M.

    2014-01-01

    Dendritic cell (DC)-based immunotherapy employs the patients’ immune system to fight neoplastic lesions spread over the entire body. This makes it an important therapy option for patients suffering from metastatic melanoma, which is often resistant to chemotherapy. However, conventional cellular vaccination approaches, based on monocyte-derived DCs (moDCs), only achieved modest response rates despite continued optimization of various vaccination parameters. In addition, the generation of moDCs requires extensive ex vivo culturing conceivably hampering the immunogenicity of the vaccine. Recent studies, thus, focused on vaccines that make use of primary DCs. Though rare in the blood, these naturally circulating DCs can be readily isolated and activated thereby circumventing lengthy ex vivo culture periods. The first clinical trials not only showed increased survival rates but also the induction of diversified anti-cancer immune responses. Upcoming treatment paradigms aim to include several primary DC subsets in a single vaccine as pre-clinical studies identified synergistic effects between various antigen-presenting cells. PMID:24782868

  20. Calculation of natural oscillations of a resonator with a doppler-broadened active medium linear with respect to the field

    SciTech Connect

    Glushchenko, Y.V.; Radina, T.V.; Radin, A.M.

    1995-02-01

    A linear self-consistent model of laser generation in an anisotropic active medium is constructed. The nonreciprocal character of field distributions of waves circulating in a ring resonator in counter directions, which is caused by an active medium, is found and analyzed. Corrections to mode frequencies and threshold gain are determined. 3 refs.

  1. Regulatory role of membrane-bound form interleukin-15 on human uterine microvascular endothelial cells in circulating CD16(-) natural killer cell extravasation into human endometrium.

    PubMed

    Kitaya, Kotaro; Yasuo, Tadahiro

    2013-09-01

    Interleukin (IL)-15 plays a major role in accumulation of unique CD16(-) natural killer (NK) cells in the human endometrium, partly via selective extravasation of peripheral blood (PB) counterparts from local microvascular circulation. While IL-15 exhibits a chemotactic activity for PB CD16(-) NK cells, IL-15 attenuates their binding capacity to dermatan sulfate, the major CD62L ligand expressed on human uterine microvascular endothelial cells (HUtMVECs). These findings suggest that premature action of IL-15 interferes with CD62L-dependent tethering/rolling of PB CD16(-) NK cells on HUtMVECs, which is an early critical process of leukocyte extravasation. In this study, we investigated the mechanisms underlying the IL-15 regulation in the initial CD62L-dependent contact between PB CD16(-) NK cells and HUtMVECs. Unlike other candidate molecules, recombinant IL-15 downregulated CD62L expression on freshly isolated PB CD16(-) NK cells. IL-12 and IL-10, the two known upregulators of CD62L on CD16(-) NK cells, were not detectable in HUtMVECs and endometrial perivascular stromal cells. Binding to immobilized dermatan sulfate increased surface IL-15 receptor-alpha chain expression on CD16(-) NK cells. Under ovarian steroid stimulation, IL-15 was detectable on the surface, but not in the supernatant, of cultured HUtMVECs. Ovarian steroid-induced IL-15 expression on HUtMVECs was not attenuated by chondroitinase ABC (which degrades chondroitin sulfate-A and -C and dermatan sulfate) or sodium acetate buffer (which dissociates cytokines from their cognate receptors). These results suggest that HUtMVECs secrete a less soluble form of IL-15 into local microcirculation. Instead, HUtMVECs bear a membrane-bound form IL-15 under the influence of ovarian steroids, which may be favorable for preventing downregulation of CD62L on PB CD16(-) NK cells and facilitating their initial contact with HUtMVECs.

  2. Differential pathogenesis of lethal mousepox in congenic DBA/2 mice implicates natural killer cell receptor NKR-P1 in necrotizing hepatitis and the fifth component of complement in recruitment of circulating leukocytes to spleen.

    PubMed

    Brownstein, D G; Gras, L

    1997-04-01

    Innate resistance of C57BL/6 (B6) mice to lethal mousepox is controlled by multiple genes. Previously, four resistance genes were localized to specific subchromosomal regions and transferred onto a susceptible DBA/2 (D2) background by serial backcrossing and intercrossing to produce congenic strains. Intraperitoneally inoculated ectromelia virus was uniformly lethal and achieved similar titers in B6 and D2 mice but elicited differential responses in liver, spleen, and circulating blood leukocytes. The distribution of these response phenotypes in congenic strains linked control of phenotypes with specific subchromosomal regions. D2.R1 mice, which carried a differential segment of chromosome 6, exhibited a B6 liver response and intermediate spleen and circulating leukocyte responses. D2.R2 and D2.R4 mice, which carried differential segments of chromosomes 2 and 1, respectively, exhibited a D2 liver response, a B6 spleen response, and an intermediate circulating leukocyte response. The localization of control of liver response phenotypes to chromosome 6 implicates cells that express natural killer (NK) cell receptor NKR-P1 alloantigens. The localization of control of spleen and circulating leukocyte responses to chromosomes 1, 2, and 6 implicates NK cells, the fifth component of complement, and a gene near the selectin gene complex in recruitment of circulating leukocytes to spleen.

  3. The Nature of Polymerization in Silicate Glasses and Melts: Solid State NMR, Modeling and Qauntum Chemicial Calculations.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, S.; Stebbins, J. F.; Mysen, B.; Cody, G. D.

    2002-12-01

    Silicate melts are among the dominant constituents of the upper mantle and crust. The full understanding of atomic scale disorder is essential to the macroscopic properties of the melts such as viscosity and configurational thermodynamic properties. Recently, we quantified the various aspects of the extent of disorder in ›r­’charge-balanced silicate glasses (non bridging (NBO)/T=0)›r­_ using solid state NMR and theoretical analysis, which allowed the degree of randomness of these systems to be determined in terms of the degree of Al-avoidance and degree of phase separations (Lee and Stebbins, Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta. 66, 303). Quantitative estimation of the framework connectivity and the atomic structures of depolymerized silicate melts (NBO/T>0), however, are still poorly known and framework cations and anions have often been assumed to be randomly distributed. Here, we explore the extent of disorder and the nature of polymerization in several binary and ternary silicate glasses with varying NBO/T using O-17 NMR at varying magnetic fields of 7.1, 9.4 and 14.1 T in conjunction with quantum chemical calculations. We also quantify the extent of intermixing among non-framework cations in mixed cation glasses, and calculate corresponding configurational thermodynamic properties. Non-random distribution among cations is clearly demonstrated from the relative populations of oxygen sites and the variation of distribution of structurally relevant NMR parameters with NBO/T from O-17 3QMAS NMR. The proportion of NBO (Na-O-Si) in Na2O-SiO2 glasses increases with NBO/T. Its chemical shift distribution decreases about 18 % from NBO/T of 0.7 to 2, suggesting a reduced configurational disorder around NBO with Na contents. Preferential interactions among framework cations are further manifested in peralkaline Ca- and Na- aluminosilicate glasses where depolymerization of networks selectively occurs at Si rather than Al tetrahedra, forming Na-O-Si or Ca-O-Si. The result is

  4. MELCOR 1.8.5 Simulation of TMI-2 Phase 2 With an Enhanced 2-Dimensional In-Vessel Natural Circulation Model

    SciTech Connect

    Gauntt, Randall O.; Ross, Kyle; Wagner, Kenneth

    2002-07-01

    Phase 2 of the TMI-2 accident (core uncover and melting) is revisited with the latest release of MELCOR (i.e., Version 1.8.5). An enhanced multi-ring multi-level hydro nodalization of the reactor core and upper plenum was developed to permit calculation of natural convection heat transfer between the core and upper internals. Uncertainties in boundary and initial conditions are investigated with particular attention given to the distribution of liquid in the RCS at the beginning of Phase 2 and to the histories of pressure and level in the steam generators. Special attention given to modeling the boiler sides of the once-through steam generators is presented. The modeling is designed to capture the rapid condensation of RCS vapor that would result from spraying cold auxiliary feedwater directly onto the upper portion of a voided steam generator tube bundle. Presentation of key Phase-2 accident signatures including fuel temperatures and hydrogen generation are presented. Comparisons are made between MELCOR calculations, TMI-2 data, and SCDAP/RELAP simulations. A largely improved MELCOR simulation of TMI-2 Phase 2 is obtained. (authors)

  5. Treatment with the natural FXR agonist chenodeoxycholic acid reduces clearance of plasma LDL whilst decreasing circulating PCSK9, lipoprotein(a) and apolipoprotein C-III.

    PubMed

    Ghosh Laskar, M; Eriksson, M; Rudling, M; Angelin, B

    2017-06-01

    The natural farnesoid X receptor (FXR) agonist chenodeoxycholic acid (CDCA) suppresses hepatic cholesterol and bile acid synthesis and reduces biliary cholesterol secretion and triglyceride production. Animal studies have shown that bile acids downregulate hepatic LDL receptors (LDLRs); however, information on LDL metabolism in humans is limited. Kinetics of autologous (125) I-LDL were determined in 12 male subjects at baseline and during treatment with CDCA (15 mg kg(-1) day(-1) ). In seven patients with gallstones treated with CDCA for 3 weeks before cholecystectomy, liver biopsies were collected and analysed for enzyme activities and for specific LDLR binding. Serum samples obtained before treatment and at surgery were analysed for markers of lipid metabolism, lipoproteins and the LDLR modulator proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9). Chenodeoxycholic acid treatment increased plasma LDL cholesterol by ~10% as a result of reduced clearance of plasma LDL-apolipoprotein (apo)B; LDL production was somewhat reduced. The reduction in LDL clearance occurred within 1 day after initiation of treatment. In CDCA-treated patients with gallstones, hepatic microsomal cholesterol 7α-hydroxylase and HMG-CoA reductase activities were reduced by 83% and 54%, respectively, and specific LDLR binding was reduced by 20%. During treatment, serum levels of fibroblast growth factor 19 and total and LDL cholesterol increased, whereas levels of 7α-hydroxy-4-cholesten-3-one, lathosterol, PCSK9, apoA-I, apoC-III, lipoprotein(a), triglycerides and insulin were reduced. Chenodeoxycholic acid has a broad influence on lipid metabolism, including reducing plasma clearance of LDL. The reduction in circulating PCSK9 may dampen its effect on hepatic LDLRs and plasma LDL cholesterol. Further studies of the effects of other FXR agonists on cholesterol metabolism in humans seem warranted, considering the renewed interest for such therapy in liver disease and diabetes. © 2017 The

  6. National Stormwater Calculator: A desktop tool that helps users control runoff to promote the natural movement of water

    EPA Science Inventory

    The primary focus of the National Stormwater Calculator (SWC) is to inform site developers on how well they can meet a desired stormwater retention target, but it can also be used by landscapers and homeowners. The SWC shows users how land use decisions and low impact development...

  7. National Stormwater Calculator: A desktop tool that helps users control runoff to promote the natural movement of water

    EPA Science Inventory

    The primary focus of the National Stormwater Calculator (SWC) is to inform site developers on how well they can meet a desired stormwater retention target, but it can also be used by landscapers and homeowners. The SWC shows users how land use decisions and low impact development...

  8. TROPICAL METEOROLOGY & Climate: Hadley Circulation

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, Jian; Vecchi, Gabriel A.

    2015-01-30

    The Hadley circulation, a prominent circulation feature characterized by rising air near the Equator and sinking air in the subtropics, defines the position of dry subtropical areas and is a fundamental regulator of the earth’s energy and momentum budgets. The character of the Hadley circulation, and its related precipitation regimes, exhibits variation and change in response to both climate variability and radiative forcing changes. The strength and position of the Hadley circulation change from year to year paced by El Niño and La Niña events. Over the last few decades of the twentieth century, the Hadley cell has expanded poleward in both hemispheres, with changes in atmospheric composition (including stratospheric ozone depletion and greenhouse gas increases) thought to have contributed to its expansion. This article introduces the basic phenomenology and driving mechanism of the Hadley circulation and discusses its variations under both natural and anthropogenic climate forcings.

  9. Analytic energy derivatives for the calculation of the first-order molecular properties using the domain-based local pair-natural orbital coupled-cluster theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Datta, Dipayan; Kossmann, Simone; Neese, Frank

    2016-09-01

    The domain-based local pair-natural orbital coupled-cluster (DLPNO-CC) theory has recently emerged as an efficient and powerful quantum-chemical method for the calculation of energies of molecules comprised of several hundred atoms. It has been demonstrated that the DLPNO-CC approach attains the accuracy of a standard canonical coupled-cluster calculation to about 99.9% of the basis set correlation energy while realizing linear scaling of the computational cost with respect to system size. This is achieved by combining (a) localized occupied orbitals, (b) large virtual orbital correlation domains spanned by the projected atomic orbitals (PAOs), and (c) compaction of the virtual space through a truncated pair natural orbital (PNO) basis. In this paper, we report on the implementation of an analytic scheme for the calculation of the first derivatives of the DLPNO-CC energy for basis set independent perturbations within the singles and doubles approximation (DLPNO-CCSD) for closed-shell molecules. Perturbation-independent one-particle density matrices have been implemented in order to account for the response of the CC wave function to the external perturbation. Orbital-relaxation effects due to external perturbation are not taken into account in the current implementation. We investigate in detail the dependence of the computed first-order electrical properties (e.g., dipole moment) on the three major truncation parameters used in a DLPNO-CC calculation, namely, the natural orbital occupation number cutoff used for the construction of the PNOs, the weak electron-pair cutoff, and the domain size cutoff. No additional truncation parameter has been introduced for property calculation. We present benchmark calculations on dipole moments for a set of 10 molecules consisting of 20-40 atoms. We demonstrate that 98%-99% accuracy relative to the canonical CCSD results can be consistently achieved in these calculations. However, this comes with the price of tightening the

  10. Determination of the absolute configuration of the natural product Klaivanolide via density functional calculations of vibrational circular dichroism (VCD).

    PubMed

    Devlin, Frank J; Stephens, Philip J; Figadère, Bruno

    2009-01-01

    The absolute configuration (AC) of the antiprotozoal lactone, Klaivanolide, 1, from Uvaria klaineana, has been determined using Vibrational Circular Dichroism (VCD) spectroscopy. The experimental VCD spectrum of the (+) enantiomer of 1 was measured. To analyze the AC of (+)-1, the conformationally-averaged VCD spectrum of 7-S-1 was calculated using density functional theory (DFT) and the GAUSSIAN 03 program. The B3PW91/TZ2P conformationally-averaged VCD spectrum of 7-S-1 proves that the AC of 1 is 7-S-(+).

  11. WATEQF; a FORTRAN IV version of WATEQ : a computer program for calculating chemical equilibrium of natural waters

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Plummer, L. Niel; Jones, Blair F.; Truesdell, Alfred Hemingway

    1976-01-01

    WATEQF is a FORTRAN IV computer program that models the thermodynamic speciation of inorganic ions and complex species in solution for a given water analysis. The original version (WATEQ) was written in 1973 by A. H. Truesdell and B. F. Jones in Programming Language/one (PL/1.) With but a few exceptions, the thermochemical data, speciation, coefficients, and general calculation procedure of WATEQF is identical to the PL/1 version. This report notes the differences between WATEQF and WATEQ, demonstrates how to set up the input data to execute WATEQF, provides a test case for comparison, and makes available a listing of WATEQF. (Woodard-USGS)

  12. Lower numbers of circulating natural killer T (NK T) cells in individuals with human T lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) associated neurological disease

    PubMed Central

    Ndhlovu, L C; Snyder-Cappione, J E; Carvalho, K I; Leal, F E; Loo, C P; bruno, F R; Jha, A R; Devita, D; Hasenkrug, A M; Barbosa, H M R; Segurado, A C; Nixon, D F; Murphy, E L; Kallas, E G

    2009-01-01

    Human T lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) infects 10–20 million people worldwide. The majority of infected individuals are asymptomatic; however, approximately 3% develop the debilitating neurological disease HTLV-1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP). There is also currently no cure, vaccine or effective therapy for HTLV-1 infection, and the mechanisms for progression to HAM/TSP remain unclear. NK T cells are an immunoregulatory T cell subset whose frequencies and effector functions are associated critically with immunity against infectious diseases. We hypothesized that NK T cells are associated with HAM/TSP progression. We measured NK T cell frequencies and absolute numbers in individuals with HAM/TSP infection from two cohorts on two continents: São Paulo, Brazil and San Francisco, CA, USA, and found significantly lower levels when compared with healthy subjects and/or asymptomatic carriers. Also, the circulating NK T cell compartment in HAM/TSP subjects is comprised of significantly more CD4+ and fewer CD8+ cells than healthy controls. These findings suggest that lower numbers of circulating NK T cells and enrichment of the CD4+ NK T subset are associated with HTLV-1 disease progression. PMID:19778295

  13. Nature of the chemical bond of aqueous Fe2+ probed by soft X-ray spectroscopies and ab initio calculations.

    PubMed

    Atak, Kaan; Bokarev, Sergey I; Gotz, Malte; Golnak, Ronny; Lange, Kathrin M; Engel, Nicholas; Dantz, Marcus; Suljoti, Edlira; Kühn, Oliver; Aziz, Emad F

    2013-10-17

    Aqueous iron(II) chloride is studied by soft X-ray absorption, emission, and resonant inelastic Raman scattering techniques on the Fe L-edge and O K-edge using the liquid-jet technique. Soft X-ray spectroscopies allow in situ and atom-specific probing of the electronic structure of the aqueous complex and thus open the door for the investigation of chemical bonding and molecular orbital mixing. In this work, we combine theoretical ab initio restricted active space self-consistent field and local atomic multiplet calculations with experimental soft X-ray spectroscopic methods for a description of the local electronic structure of the aqueous ferrous ion complex. We demonstrate that the atomic iron valence final states dominate the resonant inelastic X-ray scattering spectra of the complex over the ligand-to-metal charge transfer transitions, which indicates a weak interaction of Fe(2+) ion with surrounding water molecules. Moreover, the oxygen K-edge also shows only minor changes due to the presence of Fe(2+) implying a small influence on the hydrogen-bond network of water.

  14. Reconnaissance estimates of natural recharge to desert basins in Nevada, U.S.A., by using chloride-balance calculations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dettinger, M.D.

    1989-01-01

    A chloride-balance method for estimating average natural recharge to groundwater basins in the Basin and Range Province of the western United States may be a useful alternative or complement to current techniques. The chloride-balance method, as presented in this paper, equates chloride in recharge water and runoff to chloride deposited in mountainous recharge-source areas by precipitation and dry fallout. Given estimates of annual precipitation on these source areas and chloride concentrations of bulk precipitation and recharge water, the rate of recharge can be estimated providing that: (1) no other major sources of chloride exist; (2) direct runoff to discharge areas in the basin is small or can otherwise be taken in account in the balance; and (3) the recharge sources for the basin are correctly delineated. The estimates are sensitive to the estimated rate of input of chloride from the atmosphere; this is the greatest data need for future applications of the method. Preliminary applications of the method to sixteen basins in Nevada, including Las Vegas Valley, indicate that the method can be a useful tool for hydrologists and resource managers. Correlation coefficients between recharge efficiencies for the basins - estimated on the basis of recharge estimates that use the chloride-balance method and two other currently used techniques - range from 0.54 to 0.95, depending on assumptions about where the method may be applied. ?? 1989.

  15. The Effects of Aquatic Vegetation Growth on Discharge Calculation in Natural Watercourses: A High-resolution Study Featuring Novel Techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brignoli, L.; Annable, W. K.

    2016-12-01

    Aquatic and riparian vegetation is known to hinder the accuracy of discharge estimates by increasing flow resistance. Several studies have investigated flow resistance in riparian zones to more accurately estimate high magnitude - low frequency discharge events. However, few studies have addressed errors that arise in low flow discharge estimates resulting from the temporal growth and decay of aquatic vegetation. Accurate low flow estimations are critical in many jurisdictions as they relate to water allocation, assessment of drought severity and habitat sustainability; therefore improving methods for low flow estimation under the influence of aquatic vegetation is warranted. The purpose of this research project is to quantify the effects of aquatic vegetation growth on flow resistance and discharge estimates in natural watercourses. Field methods being used are non-disruptive, repeatable and incorporate the use of remote controlled aerial photogrammetry techniques. Quantification of aquatic vegetation growth effects on flow resistance is achieved by continuously recording water levels before and during vegetation growth. Local control reaches absent in vegetation are also monitored and used as a baseline comparison. In conjunction with these methods, a simple, lab-calibrated apparatus has been developed to estimate vegetation stiffness in-situ. Results show that neglecting flow resistance by aquatic plants at low flow yields discharge overestimations ranging between 50% and 100%, which are exacerbated at low flow. These errors in discharge estimates can be notably reduced by correcting stage-discharge relationships through a parameter related to the cross-sectional distribution of vegetation. Furthermore, it was found that the latter parameter is affected by plants stiffness, as vegetation associated with higher values of flexural rigidity was more often found either floating or emerging from the water surface, as opposed to being fully submerged. Successful

  16. The Nature of Metal-Metal Interactions in Dimeric Hydrides and Halides of Group 11 Elements in the Light of High Level Relativistic Calculations.

    PubMed

    Dem'yanov, Piotr I; Polestshuk, Pavel M; Kostin, Vladimir V

    2017-03-08

    The titular calculations show that charges at metal atoms M are apparently the main factor governing the nature of M⋅⋅⋅M interactions in two-nuclear coinage-metal complexes, and there are certain critical values of positive charges on M atoms, on exceeding which the pair-wise M⋅⋅⋅M interactions and/or the binding between M atoms in such complexes become repulsive despite negative formation energies of such complexes, short M-M internuclear distances, and the existence of a bond critical point (BCP) between M atoms.

  17. Nature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heinhorst, Sabine; Cannon, Gordon

    1997-01-01

    The fact that two of the original articles by this year's Nobel laureates were published in Nature bears witness to the pivotal role of this journal in documenting pioneering discoveries in all areas of science. The prize for Physiology or Medicine was awarded to immunologists Peter C. Doherty (University of Tennessee) and Rolf M. Zinkernagel (University of Zurich, Switzerland), honoring work that, in the 1970s, laid the foundation for our current understanding of the way in which our immune system differentiates between healthy cells and virus-infected ones that are targeted for destruction (p 465 in the October 10 issue of vol. 383). Three researchers share the Chemistry award for their discovery of C60 buckminsterfullerenes. The work by Robert Curl, Richard Smalley (both at Rice University), and Harry Kroto (University of Sussex, UK) has led to a burst of new approaches to materials development and in carbon chemistry (p 561 of the October 17 issue of vol. 383). This year's Nobel prize in physics went to three U.S. researchers, Douglas Osheroff (Stanford University) and David M. Lee and Robert C. Richardson (Cornell University), who were honored for their work on superfluidity, a frictionless liquid state, of supercooled 3He (p 562 of the October 17 issue of vol. 383).

  18. Circulating CD56dim natural killer cells and CD56+ T cells that produce interferon-γ or interleukin-10 are expanded in asymptomatic, E antigen-negative patients with persistent hepatitis B virus infection.

    PubMed

    Conroy, M J; Mac Nicholas, R; Grealy, R; Taylor, M; Otegbayo, J A; O'Dea, S; Mulcahy, F; Ryan, T; Norris, S; Doherty, D G

    2015-03-01

    Infection with hepatitis B virus (HBV) can result in spontaneous resolution or chronic infection, which can remain asymptomatic or can progress to cirrhosis and/or hepatocellular carcinoma. The host immune response is thought to be a major determinant of the outcome of HBV infection and virus-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL) can mediate immunity against the virus and cause liver pathology. Antigen-nonspecific innate lymphocytes may also contribute to HBV infection and liver disease, therefore, we examined the frequencies, phenotypes, cytolytic activities and cytokine profiles of circulating natural killer (NK) cells, CD1d-restricted invariant natural killer T (iNKT) cells and CD56(+) T cells in 102 asymptomatic HBV-infected patients and compared them with those in 66 uninfected control subjects. NK cells expressing low levels of CD56 (CD56(dim)) and CD56(+) T cells were significantly expanded in the circulation of HBV-infected patients compared with control subjects. CD1d expression and iNKT cell frequencies were similar in both groups. Despite these expansions, we did not detect augmented natural or cytokine-induced cytotoxicity in the HBV-infected subjects. All lymphocyte populations studied produced interferon-γ (IFN-γ) significantly more frequently when taken from HBV-infected patients compared with when taken from healthy controls. Additionally, NK cells from the patients more frequently produced interleukin-10. As our HBV-infected cohort consisted of asymptomatic patients with low viral loads, we propose that CD56(dim) NK cells and CD56(+) T cells control HBV infection by noncytolytic mechanisms.

  19. Natural Circulation in the Blanket Heat Removal System During a Loss-of-Pumping Accident (LOFA) Based on Initial Conceptual Design

    SciTech Connect

    Hamm, L.L.

    1998-10-07

    A transient natural convection model of the APT blanket primary heat removal (HR) system was developed to demonstrate that the blanket could be cooled for a sufficient period of time for long term cooling to be established following a loss-of-flow accident (LOFA). The particular case of interest in this report is a complete loss-of-pumping accident. For the accident scenario in which pumps are lost in both the target and blanket HR systems, natural convection provides effective cooling of the blanket for approximately 68 hours, and, if only the blanket HR systems are involved, natural convection is effective for approximately 210 hours. The heat sink for both of these accident scenarios is the assumed stagnant fluid and metal on the secondary sides of the heat exchangers.

  20. Observation of the thermosiphon effect in the circulation of liquid nitrogen in HTS cable cooling system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivanov, Yury; Watanabe, Hirofumi; Hamabe, Makoto; Kawahara, Toshio; Sun, Jian; Yamaguchi, Satarou

    It is traditionally considered that superconducting technology is just the way that will help to overcome the energy crisis and improve the environmental safety of the electricity production. However, real achievements in this field still insufficient to build commercial long power transmission lines. In particular, cooling systems constructed using expensive coolant circulation pumps have to be improved. Our previous calculations show that the use of a thermosiphon effect may reduce both the heat load and the required coolant circulation pump power and, ideally, would completely abandon the forced circulation. Direct experimental verification of this approach has been carried out at the new 200-meter HTS DC experimental facility of the Chubu University. The thermosiphon effect was clearly observed in satisfactory agreement with theory, although the change in elevation of the cryopipe was small. Our results will be used to design an effective HTS cable cooling system based on natural circulation of the coolant.

  1. Dispensing with the DVD Circulation Dilemma

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellis, Mark

    2008-01-01

    Richmond Public Library (RPL) is a four-branch suburban library with the highest per capita circulation of any comparable library in Canada. While DVDs naturally fit into RPL's emphasis on popular material, circulating them using the standard model proved problematic: Long hold queues built up, DVDs idled on the hold shelves, and the circulation…

  2. Dispensing with the DVD Circulation Dilemma

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellis, Mark

    2008-01-01

    Richmond Public Library (RPL) is a four-branch suburban library with the highest per capita circulation of any comparable library in Canada. While DVDs naturally fit into RPL's emphasis on popular material, circulating them using the standard model proved problematic: Long hold queues built up, DVDs idled on the hold shelves, and the circulation…

  3. Dike Emplacement and Hydrothermal Circulation on Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Craft, K.; Lowell, R.; Germanovich, L.

    2010-03-01

    Using a finite element program, we model a dike propagating on Mars and calculate how the resulting surrounding stresses affect circulation in an adjacent porous medium. We also investigate the melting of an ice layer overlying the porous medium.

  4. Molecular structure, Normal Coordinate Analysis, harmonic vibrational frequencies, Natural Bond Orbital, TD-DFT calculations and biological activity analysis of antioxidant drug 7-hydroxycoumarin.

    PubMed

    Sebastian, S; Sylvestre, S; Jayarajan, D; Amalanathan, M; Oudayakumar, K; Gnanapoongothai, T; Jayavarthanan, T

    2013-01-15

    In this work, we report harmonic vibrational frequencies, molecular structure, NBO and HOMO, LUMO analysis of Umbelliferone also known as 7-hydroxycoumarin (7HC). The optimized geometric bond lengths and bond angles obtained by computation (monomer and dimmer) shows good agreement with experimental XRD data. Harmonic frequencies of 7HC were determined and analyzed by DFT utilizing 6-311+G(d,p) as basis set. The assignments of the vibrational spectra have been carried out with the help of Normal Coordinate Analysis (NCA) following the Scaled Quantum Mechanical Force Field Methodology (SQMFF). The change in electron density (ED) in the σ* and π* antibonding orbitals and stabilization energies E(2) have been calculated by Natural Bond Orbital (NBO) analysis to give clear evidence of stabilization originating in the hyperconjugation of hydrogen-bonded interaction. The energy and oscillator strength calculated by Time-Dependent Density Functional Theory (TD-DFT) complements with the experimental findings. The simulated spectra satisfactorily coincides with the experimental spectra. Microbial activity of studied compounds was tested against Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pyogenes, Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia coli, Psuedomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Proteus mirabilis, Shigella flexneri, Salmonella typhi and Enterococcus faecalis. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Molecular structure, Normal Coordinate Analysis, harmonic vibrational frequencies, Natural Bond Orbital, TD-DFT calculations and biological activity analysis of antioxidant drug 7-hydroxycoumarin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sebastian, S.; Sylvestre, S.; Jayarajan, D.; Amalanathan, M.; Oudayakumar, K.; Gnanapoongothai, T.; Jayavarthanan, T.

    2013-01-01

    In this work, we report harmonic vibrational frequencies, molecular structure, NBO and HOMO, LUMO analysis of Umbelliferone also known as 7-hydroxycoumarin (7HC). The optimized geometric bond lengths and bond angles obtained by computation (monomer and dimmer) shows good agreement with experimental XRD data. Harmonic frequencies of 7HC were determined and analyzed by DFT utilizing 6-311+G(d,p) as basis set. The assignments of the vibrational spectra have been carried out with the help of Normal Coordinate Analysis (NCA) following the Scaled Quantum Mechanical Force Field Methodology (SQMFF). The change in electron density (ED) in the σ* and π* antibonding orbitals and stabilization energies E(2) have been calculated by Natural Bond Orbital (NBO) analysis to give clear evidence of stabilization originating in the hyperconjugation of hydrogen-bonded interaction. The energy and oscillator strength calculated by Time-Dependent Density Functional Theory (TD-DFT) complements with the experimental findings. The simulated spectra satisfactorily coincides with the experimental spectra. Microbial activity of studied compounds was tested against Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pyogenes, Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia coli, Psuedomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Proteus mirabilis, Shigella flexneri, Salmonella typhi and Enterococcus faecalis.

  6. Calculating the number of people with Alzheimer's disease in any country using saturated mutation models of brain cell loss that also predict widespread natural immunity to the disease.

    PubMed

    Kramer, Ivan

    2010-06-01

    The series of mutations that cause brain cells to spontaneously and randomly die leading to Alzheimer's disease (AD) is modelled. The prevalence of AD as a function of age in males and females is calculated from two very different mutation models of brain cell death. Once the prevalence functions are determined, the number of people with AD in any country or city can be estimated. The models developed here depend on three independent parameters: the number of mutations necessary for a brain cell associated with AD to spontaneously die, the average time between mutations, and the fraction of the risk population that is immune to developing the disease, if any. The values of these parameters are determined by fitting the model's AD incidence function to the incidence data. The best fits to the incidence rate data predict that as much as 74.1% of males and 79.5% of females may be naturally immune to developing AD. Thus, the development of AD is not a normal or inevitable result of the aging process. These fits also predict that males and females develop AD through different pathways, requiring a different number of mutations to cause the disease. The number of people in the USA with AD in the year 2000 is estimated to be 451,000. It is of paramount importance to determine the nature of the immunity to AD predicted here. Finding ways of blocking the mutations leading to the random, spontaneous death of memory brain cells would prevent AD from developing altogether.

  7. Circulation in blast driven instabilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henry de Frahan, Marc; Johnsen, Eric

    2016-11-01

    Mixing in many natural phenomena (e.g. supernova collapse) and engineering applications (e.g. inertial confinement fusion) is often initiated through hydrodynamic instabilities. Explosions in these systems give rise to blast waves which can interact with perturbations at interfaces between different fluids. Blast waves are formed by a shock followed by a rarefaction. This wave profile leads to complex time histories of interface acceleration. In addition to the instabilities induced by the acceleration field, the rarefaction from the blast wave decompresses the material at the interface, further increasing the perturbation growth. After the passage of the wave, circulation circulation generated by the blast wave through baroclinic vorticity continues to act upon the interface. In this talk, we provide scaling laws for the circulation and amplitude growth induced by the blast wave. Numerical simulations of the multifluid Euler equations solved using a high-order accurate Discontinuous Galerkin method are used to validate the theoretical results.

  8. Satellite Altimetry, Ocean Circulation, and Data Assimilation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fu, Lee-Lueng

    1999-01-01

    Ocean circulation is a critical factor in determining the Earth's climate. Satellite altimetry has been proven a powerful technique for measuring the height of the sea surface for the study of global ocean circulation dynamics. A major objective of my research is to investigate the utility of altimeter data for ocean circulation studies. The 6 years' data record of TOPEX/POSEIDON have been analyzed to study the spatial and temporal characteristics of large-scale ocean variability. A major result obtained in 1998 is the discovery of large-scale oscillations in sea level with a period of 25 days in the Argentine Basin of the South Atlantic Ocean (see diagram). They exhibit a dipole pattern with counterclockwise rotational propagation around the Zapiola Rise (centered at 45S and 317E), a small seamount in the abyssal plain of the basin. The peak-to-trough amplitude is about 10 cm over a distance of 500-1000 km. The amplitude of these oscillations has large seasonal-to-interannual variations. The period and rotational characteristics of these oscillations are remarkably similar to the observations made by two current meters deployed near the ocean bottom in the region. What TOPEX/POSEIDON has detected apparently are manifestations of the movement of the entire water column (barotropic motion). The resultant transport variation is estimated to be about 50 x 10(exp 6) cubic M/S, which is about 50% of the total water transport in the region. Preliminary calculations suggest that these oscillations are topographically trapped waves. A numerical model of the South Atlantic is used to investigate the nature of and causes for these waves. A very important property of sea surface height is that it is directly related to the surface geostrophic velocity, which is related to deep ocean circulation through the density field. Therefore altimetry observations are not only useful for determining the surface circulation but also for revealing information about the deep ocean. Another

  9. Satellite Altimetry, Ocean Circulation, and Data Assimilation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fu, Lee-Lueng

    1999-01-01

    Ocean circulation is a critical factor in determining the Earth's climate. Satellite altimetry has been proven a powerful technique for measuring the height of the sea surface for the study of global ocean circulation dynamics. A major objective of my research is to investigate the utility of altimeter data for ocean circulation studies. The 6 years' data record of TOPEX/POSEIDON have been analyzed to study the spatial and temporal characteristics of large-scale ocean variability. A major result obtained in 1998 is the discovery of large-scale oscillations in sea level with a period of 25 days in the Argentine Basin of the South Atlantic Ocean (see diagram). They exhibit a dipole pattern with counterclockwise rotational propagation around the Zapiola Rise (centered at 45S and 317E), a small seamount in the abyssal plain of the basin. The peak-to-trough amplitude is about 10 cm over a distance of 500-1000 km. The amplitude of these oscillations has large seasonal-to-interannual variations. The period and rotational characteristics of these oscillations are remarkably similar to the observations made by two current meters deployed near the ocean bottom in the region. What TOPEX/POSEIDON has detected apparently are manifestations of the movement of the entire water column (barotropic motion). The resultant transport variation is estimated to be about 50 x 10(exp 6) cubic M/S, which is about 50% of the total water transport in the region. Preliminary calculations suggest that these oscillations are topographically trapped waves. A numerical model of the South Atlantic is used to investigate the nature of and causes for these waves. A very important property of sea surface height is that it is directly related to the surface geostrophic velocity, which is related to deep ocean circulation through the density field. Therefore altimetry observations are not only useful for determining the surface circulation but also for revealing information about the deep ocean. Another

  10. A single acute dose of pinitol from a naturally-occurring food ingredient decreases hyperglycaemia and circulating insulin levels in healthy subjects.

    PubMed

    Hernández-Mijares, Antonio; Bañuls, Celia; Peris, Jose E; Monzó, Nuria; Jover, Ana; Bellod, Lorena; Victor, Victor M; Rocha, Milagros

    2013-11-15

    A limited amount of research suggests that oral ingestion of pinitol (3-O-methyl-d-chiro-inositol) positively influences glucose tolerance in humans. This study assessed the effects of different doses of pinitol supplementation on glucose tolerance, insulin sensitivity and plasma pinitol concentrations. Thirty healthy subjects underwent two one-day trials in which they consumed a nutritive beverage (Fruit Up®) containing 2.5, 4.0 or 6.0g of pinitol and a corresponding placebo equivalent in both energy and carbohydrates. Blood samples were collected frequently over the 240-min test period. The pinitol-enriched beverage reduced serum glucose and insulin at 45 and 60min, but only at a dose of 6.0g. Plasma pinitol concentrations, maximum concentration and AUC increased according to the dose administered. The results show that a single dose of pinitol from a naturally-occurring food ingredient at the highest dose administered acutely influences indices of whole-body glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity in healthy subjects. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Hydrothermal circulation along oceanic detachment fault: Constraints on the nature and conditions of syntectonic silicification at the 13°20'N oceanic core complex (Mid-Atlantic ridge)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonnemains, D.; Verlaguet, A.; Escartin, J.; Mevel, C.; Andreani, M.

    2016-12-01

    To understand the link between extreme strain localization and fluid flow at long-lived oceanic detachment faults, we present results of geological investigations at the active 13°20'N detachment fault along the Mid-Atlantic ridge (ODEMAR cruise, Nov-Dec13) onboard NO Pourquoi pas? using the ROV Victor6000. During this cruise, we identified and sampled 7 fault outcrops on the flanks of detachment microbathymetric corrugations. These fault surfaces, extending up to 100m laterally, with extension-parallel subhorizontal striations. Sampled fault rocks are breccias containing mainly diabase clasts (often altered) and rare ultramafic clasts. Samples also show striated surfaces indicating strain localization at outcrop to sample scales. These fault rocks, which show pervasive syntectonic silicification during fault exhumation, are not documented along other detachments. To constrain the nature and origin of the silicifying fluids and the conditions of fluid-rock interactions, we combined whole-rock and mineral analyses with a study of fluid inclusions in quartz. Highly silicified samples record high homogenization temperatures (250-350°C), while moderate silicification temperatures are lower (150-250°C). In all cases salinities are generally higher than seawater (4-10 wt% eq. NaCl). These high salinity fluids likely record phase separation at high temperature (>400°C), and Raman spectroscopy shows that they contain H2±CH4±CO2. These results suggest an interaction of these fluids with ultramafic rocks undergoing serpentinization reactions (H2 release) in the footwall of the detachment and the presence of a high temperature zone at depth. This is supported by trace element patterns of mafic breccias, which shift towards ultramafic compositions with increasing silicification degree. The detachment fault zone thus channels and records a tectonic mixing between hydrothermal serpentinite fluids, and shallower seawater-like fluids potentially from the mafic hanging wall.

  12. Isotopic constraints on the nature and circulation of deep mantle C-H-O-N fluids: Carbon and nitrogen systematics within ultra-deep diamonds from Kankan (Guinea)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palot, M.; Pearson, D. G.; Stern, R. A.; Stachel, T.; Harris, J. W.

    2014-08-01

    their formation in the lower mantle by fluids that originate either from mantle or subducted carbon sources. A carbon flux from subducted oceanic lithospheric mantle may be important in the latter case. The strictly positive δ15N signatures found both in KK-200B (δ13C > 0‰) and KK-204 (δ13C slightly negative) illustrate that surficial carbon and nitrogen are potentially recycled as deep as the asthenosphere/transition zone and the lower mantle. Calculations of the diffusive relaxation of carbon isotope heterogeneity indicate that these ultra-deep diamonds may have a relatively young age and/or experienced rapid vertical movement to shallower mantle conditions, possibly by plume-related mantle.

  13. Magnitude and nature of carbohydrate-aromatic interactions in fucose-phenol and fucose-indole complexes: CCSD(T) level interaction energy calculations.

    PubMed

    Tsuzuki, Seiji; Uchimaru, Tadafumi; Mikami, Masuhiro

    2011-10-20

    The CH/π contact structures of the fucose-phenol and fucose-indole complexes and the stabilization energies by formation of the complexes (E(form)) were studied by ab initio molecular orbital calculations. The three types of interactions (CH/π and OH/π interactions and OH/O hydrogen bonds) were compared and evaluated in a single molecular system and at the same level of theory. The E(form) calculated for the most stable CH/π contact structure of the fucose-phenol complex at the CCSD(T) level (-4.9 kcal/mol) is close to that for the most stable CH/π contact structure of the fucose-benzene complex (-4.5 kcal/mol). On the other hand the most stable CH/π contact structure of the fucose-indole complex has substantially larger E(form) (-6.5 kcal/mol). The dispersion interaction is the major source of the attraction in the CH/π contact structures of the fucose-phenol and fucose-indole complexes as in the case of the fucose-benzene complex. The electrostatic interactions in the CH/π contact structures are small (less than 1.5 kcal/mol). The nature of the interactions between the nonpolar surface of the carbohydrate and aromatic rings is completely different from that of the conventional hydrogen bonds where the electrostatic interaction is the major source of the attraction. The distributed multipole analysis and DFT-SATP analysis show that the dispersion interactions in the CH/π contact structure of fucose-indole complex are substantially larger than those in the CH/π contact structures of fucose-benzene and fucose-phenol complexes. The large dispersion interactions are responsible for the large E(form) for the fucose-indole complex.

  14. Circulating glioma biomarkers

    PubMed Central

    Kros, Johan M.; Mustafa, Dana M.; Dekker, Lennard J.M.; Sillevis Smitt, Peter A.E.; Luider, Theo M.; Zheng, Ping-Pin

    2015-01-01

    Validated biomarkers for patients suffering from gliomas are urgently needed for standardizing measurements of the effects of treatment in daily clinical practice and trials. Circulating body fluids offer easily accessible sources for such markers. This review highlights various categories of tumor-associated circulating biomarkers identified in blood and cerebrospinal fluid of glioma patients, including circulating tumor cells, exosomes, nucleic acids, proteins, and oncometabolites. The validation and potential clinical utility of these biomarkers is briefly discussed. Although many candidate circulating protein biomarkers were reported, none of these have reached the required validation to be introduced for clinical practice. Recent developments in tracing circulating tumor cells and their derivatives as exosomes and circulating nuclear acids may become more successful in providing useful biomarkers. It is to be expected that current technical developments will contribute to the finding and validation of circulating biomarkers. PMID:25253418

  15. Apparatus Circulates Sterilizing Gas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cross, John H.; Schwarz, Ray P.

    1991-01-01

    Apparatus circulates sterilizing gas containing ethylene oxide and chlorofluorocarbon through laboratory or medical equipment. Confines sterilizing gas, circulating it only through parts to be treated. Consists of two units. One delivers ethylene oxide/chlorofluorocarbon gas mixture and removes gas after treatment. Other warms, humidifies, and circulates gas through equipment to be treated. Process provides reliable sterilization with negligible residual toxicity from ethylene oxide. Particularly suitable for sterilization of interiors of bioreactors, heart/lung machines, dialyzers, or other equipment including complicated tubing.

  16. Variability of summer droughts in Central Europe and relation to large-scale circulation types

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beck, C.

    2009-04-01

    Summer droughts are a recurrent feature of Central European climate with distinct relevance for natural and social systems. In this contribution spatiotemporal variations in Central European summer drought severity during the period 1957 and 2000 are depicted and relations to large-scale North Atlantic-European circulation types are investigated. Temporal variations in drought incidence are estimated via calculation of the standardized precipitation index (SPI) on the basis of 0.5° by 0.5° gridded monthly precipitation sums from the global VASClimO data set available for the period 1951 to 2000. Corresponding variations in large-scale atmospheric circulation dynamics are described by frequency and within-type variations of 18 North Atlantic-European circulation types for the domain 30.0° - 76°N and 37°W - 56°E. Circulation types are derived by applying an automated circulation classification scheme to daily 1.0° by 1.0° gridded MSLP data from the ERA40 reanalysis data-set covering the period 1957 - 2002. The relationship between 3-month (JJA) SPI and circulation type frequencies during the respective 3-month period are analysed using stepwise multiple regression analysis. The relative importance of individual circulation types is assessed by the LMG-estimator and the skill of the multiple regression models is estimated by applying several skill-score statistics to the cross-validated SPI-series. Results highlight the relevance - in terms of relative importance - of anticyclonic and northerly and northeasterly circulation types for Central European summer drought dynamics. Multiple regression models show considerable skill especially in western and north-western parts of the Central European domain. However, a distinct decrease in model skill has to be noticed towards the more continental central and eastern parts. These deficiencies of the approach point to the fact that frequency variations of circulation types are not sufficient to capture the drought

  17. Coronary collateral circulation: its relevance.

    PubMed

    Karrowni, Wassef; El Accaoui, Ramzi N; Chatterjee, Kanu

    2013-11-15

    The interest in coronary collateral circulation (CCC) as "natural bypasses" is growing, especially in patients in whom the extent of coronary atherosclerosis is too severe to allow for conventional revascularization. The anatomic foundation of CCC has been recognized for long time. Recently, reliable methods have become available for the assessment of the adequacy of collateral flow. However, the debate regarding the importance of CCC in the different clinical settings continues. In this article, we present the recent progress in the understanding of anatomy and physiology of the CCC and focus on the studies addressing their functional significance in acute, subacute, and chronic coronary artery disease. In addition, we provide a focused update on the essential role of collateral circulation in the management of coronary chronic total occlusions.

  18. Persistent Changes in Circulating and Intestinal γδ T Cell Subsets, Invariant Natural Killer T Cells and Mucosal-Associated Invariant T Cells in Children and Adults with Coeliac Disease

    PubMed Central

    Dunne, Margaret R.; Elliott, Louise; Hussey, Seamus; Mahmud, Nasir; Kelly, Jacinta; Doherty, Derek G.; Feighery, Conleth F.

    2013-01-01

    Coeliac disease is a chronic small intestinal immune-mediated enteropathy precipitated by exposure to dietary gluten in genetically predisposed individuals. The only current therapy is a lifelong gluten free diet. While much work has focused on the gliadin-specific adaptive immune response in coeliac disease, little is understood about the involvement of the innate immune system. Here we used multi-colour flow cytometry to determine the number and frequency of γδ T cells (Vδ1, Vδ2 and Vδ3 subsets), natural killer cells, CD56+ T cells, invariant NKT cells, and mucosal associated invariant T cells, in blood and duodenum from adults and children with coeliac disease and healthy matched controls. All circulating innate lymphocyte populations were significantly decreased in adult, but not paediatric coeliac donors, when compared with healthy controls. Within the normal small intestine, we noted that Vδ3 cells were the most abundant γδ T cell type in the adult epithelium and lamina propria, and in the paediatric lamina propria. In contrast, patients with coeliac disease showed skewing toward a predominant Vδ1 profile, observed for both adult and paediatric coeliac disease cohorts, particularly within the gut epithelium. This was concurrent with decreases in all other gut lymphocyte subsets, suggesting a specific involvement of Vδ1 cells in coeliac disease pathogenesis. Further analysis showed that γδ T cells isolated from the coeliac gut display an activated, effector memory phenotype, and retain the ability to rapidly respond to in vitro stimulation. A profound loss of CD56 expression in all lymphocyte populations was noted in the coeliac gut. These findings demonstrate a sustained aberrant innate lymphocyte profile in coeliac disease patients of all ages, persisting even after elimination of gluten from the diet. This may lead to impaired immunity, and could potentially account for the increased incidence of autoimmune co-morbidity. PMID:24124528

  19. Persistent changes in circulating and intestinal γδ T cell subsets, invariant natural killer T cells and mucosal-associated invariant T cells in children and adults with coeliac disease.

    PubMed

    Dunne, Margaret R; Elliott, Louise; Hussey, Seamus; Mahmud, Nasir; Kelly, Jacinta; Doherty, Derek G; Feighery, Conleth F

    2013-01-01

    Coeliac disease is a chronic small intestinal immune-mediated enteropathy precipitated by exposure to dietary gluten in genetically predisposed individuals. The only current therapy is a lifelong gluten free diet. While much work has focused on the gliadin-specific adaptive immune response in coeliac disease, little is understood about the involvement of the innate immune system. Here we used multi-colour flow cytometry to determine the number and frequency of γδ T cells (Vδ1, Vδ2 and Vδ3 subsets), natural killer cells, CD56(+) T cells, invariant NKT cells, and mucosal associated invariant T cells, in blood and duodenum from adults and children with coeliac disease and healthy matched controls. All circulating innate lymphocyte populations were significantly decreased in adult, but not paediatric coeliac donors, when compared with healthy controls. Within the normal small intestine, we noted that Vδ3 cells were the most abundant γδ T cell type in the adult epithelium and lamina propria, and in the paediatric lamina propria. In contrast, patients with coeliac disease showed skewing toward a predominant Vδ1 profile, observed for both adult and paediatric coeliac disease cohorts, particularly within the gut epithelium. This was concurrent with decreases in all other gut lymphocyte subsets, suggesting a specific involvement of Vδ1 cells in coeliac disease pathogenesis. Further analysis showed that γδ T cells isolated from the coeliac gut display an activated, effector memory phenotype, and retain the ability to rapidly respond to in vitro stimulation. A profound loss of CD56 expression in all lymphocyte populations was noted in the coeliac gut. These findings demonstrate a sustained aberrant innate lymphocyte profile in coeliac disease patients of all ages, persisting even after elimination of gluten from the diet. This may lead to impaired immunity, and could potentially account for the increased incidence of autoimmune co-morbidity.

  20. Fontan Circulation over Time.

    PubMed

    Wolff, Djoeke; van Melle, Joost P; Bartelds, Beatrijs; Ridderbos, Floris-Jan S; Eshuis, Graziella; van Stratum, Elisabeth B H J; Recinos, Salvador J; Willemse, Brigitte W M; Hillege, Hans; Willems, Tineke P; Ebels, Tjark; Berger, Rolf M F

    2017-08-01

    The unique, unphysiological Fontan circulation is associated with an impaired functional status of the patients that is suggested to deteriorate over time. Unfortunately, previous studies did not integrate both pulmonary and cardiac determinants of functional status. In addition, a comparison with the natural decrease in exercise capacity in healthy subjects (in both children and adults) is lacking. This single-center study aims to investigate the functional status in a cohort of Fontan patients in relation to time since Fontan completion and to identify its determinants, including cardiac characteristics and pulmonary characteristics. Eighty-five consecutive Fontan patients ≥10 years who performed adequate cardiopulmonary exercise testing (respiratory exchange ratio >1.01) were included. Mean time since Fontan completion was 15 ± 9 years (range 2 to 37 years). New York Heart Association functional class was I in 36 patients (42%), II in 41 patients (48%), and III in 8 patients (9%). Peak oxygen uptake during exercise (VO2 index) was 25.7 ± 7.9 ml/min/m(2) (58 ± 14% of predicted). New York Heart Association functional class and peak VO2 index both correlated with time since the Fontan operation; however, peak VO2 as percentage of predicted (VO2(pred)) did not. In multivariate analyses, peak VO2(pred) was independently associated with maximum heart rate, oxygen pulse at peak exercise, and forced expiratory volume in 1 second (R(2) = 0.579) but not with cardiac output in rest. In conclusion, the present data suggest that functional status in Fontan patients is impaired already shortly after Fontan completion, whereas its subsequent deterioration seems to follow the natural decline of aging. Furthermore, functional status in Fontan patients correlates with pulmonary function and cardiac functional parameters during exercise but not with conventional cardiac measurements at rest. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  1. Circulation Systems on Microcomputers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlson, Gary

    1984-01-01

    Reports on the use of microcomputers in comprehensive library circulation systems. Topics covered include system requirements (reliability, completeness); determining circulation system needs (saving money, improving service, modernization); limitations of microcomputers (capacity, kinds of data stored, number of stations or terminals); system…

  2. Interannual variability of the Adriatic Sea circulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beg Paklar, Gordana; Sepic, Jadranka; Grbec, Branka; Dzoic, Tomislav; Kovac, Zarko; Ivatek-Sahdan, Stjepan

    2016-04-01

    The Regional Ocean Modeling System (ROMS) was implemented in order to reproduce interannual variability of the Adriatic Sea circulation. Simulations and model result analysis were performed for a three-year period from 1st January 2011 to 31st December 2013. ROMS model run was forced with realistic atmospheric fields obtained from meteorological model Aladin, climatological river discharges, tides and Mediterranean circulation imposed at the southern open boundary. Atmospheric forcing included momentum, heat and water fluxes calculated interactively from the Aladin surface fields during ROMS model simulations. Model results were compared with available CTD and ADCP measurements and discussed in the light of the climatological circulation and thermohaline properties of the Adriatic Sea and its coastal areas. Interannual variability in the Adriatic circulation is related to the prevailing atmospheric conditions, changes in the hydrological conditions and water mass exchange at the Otranto Strait. Basic features of the Adriatic circulation - basin-wide cyclonic circulation with several embedded smaller cyclonic gyres around main pits - are well reproduced by ROMS model. Modelled temperatures and salinities are within corresponding seasonal intervals, although measured profiles generally indicate stronger stratification than modelled ones. Summer circulation in 2011 with current reversal obtained along the eastern Adriatic coast was related to the sampling results of the early fish stages as well as to ARGO drifter movements. Simulated fields from the Adriatic scale model were used to prescribe the initial and open boundary conditions for the interannual simulation in the middle Adriatic coastal domain.

  3. Computational chemistry of natural products: a comparison of the chemical reactivity of isonaringin calculated with the M06 family of density functionals.

    PubMed

    Glossman-Mitnik, Daniel

    2014-07-01

    The M06 family of density functionals has been assessed for the calculation of the molecular structure and properties of the Isonaringin flavonoid that can be an interesting material for dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSC). The chemical reactivity descriptors have been calculated through chemical reactivity theory within DFT (CR-DFT). The active sites for nucleophilic and electrophilic attacks have been chosen by relating them to the Fukui function indices and the dual descriptor f ((2))(r). A comparison between the descriptors calculated through vertical energy values and those arising from the Janak's theorem approximation have been performed in order to check for the validity of the last procedure.

  4. Venus atmospheric circulation - Observations and implications of the thermal structure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Limaye, S. S.

    1985-01-01

    Thermal structure data obtained by Pioneer Venus (PV) were analyzed and used to make calculations concerning cyclostrophic circulation around Venus. These indicate a balanced zonal (east to west) circulation, with midlatitude jets of peak velocities in the 110-120 m/s range, located between 50 and 40 mb in each hemisphere of the planet near 45 deg latitude. The calculations indicate breakdown of the balance conditions near the upper and lower boundaries at low latitudes. A slight asymmetry in the balanced zonal circulation arises out of an asymmetry in the thermal field. The PV radio occultation data show evidence of a direct meridional circulation that may be important in sustaining the atmospheric circulation of Venus. The value of continuous radio occultation measurements is stressed for studying shortand long-term variations of the atmospheric circulation.

  5. Martian Atmospheric Circulation and Climate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ingersoll, Andrew P.

    2003-01-01

    This proposal is focused on using Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) data and numerical models to address issues of atmospheric mixing of volatiles and aerosols, on defining the mean state of the atmosphere and the degree of variability, and on the processes which exchange volatiles and aerosols between the surface and atmosphere. Specifically, five areas of research were defined: In the first, we proposed to use TES data to examine the general circulation of the atmosphere both through retrieval of the residual circulation, and by comparison of the TES data with a Mars General Circulation Model (GCM). In the second, we proposed to look at synoptic and mesoscale atmospheric mixing processes (baroclinic storms, etc.) by combining TES and MOC Wide Angle data, and by employing a Mars Mesoscale Model. In the third section, we proposed to examine the record of the Martian atmospheric state provided by MGS, Viking, and Mariner 9 - as well as published ground-based observations - in order to assess the nature of interannual variability. In the forth section, we proposed to compare numerical models of the Martian water and dust cycles with TES and MOC data, specifically looking at water ice cloud distributions, dust distribution, etc. In the fifth section, we propose to use the mesoscale model to study the Mars Pathfinder Lander data. This work has now concluded its final of three years.

  6. Extended oil spill spreading with Langmuir circulation.

    PubMed

    Simecek-Beatty, Debra; Lehr, William J

    2017-09-15

    When spilled in the ocean, most crude oils quickly spread into a thin film that ruptures into smaller slicks distributed over a larger area. Observers have also reported the film tearing apart into streaks that eventually merge forming fewer but longer bands of floating oil. Understanding this process is important to model oil spill transport. First, slick area is calculated using a spreading model. Next, Langmuir circulation models are used to approximate the merging of oiled bands. Calculations are performed on Troll blended and Alaska North Slope crude oils and results compared with measurements from the 1990s North Sea field experiments. Langmuir circulation increases the oil area but decreases the surface coverage of oil. This work modifies existing oil spreading formulas by providing a surface area correction due to the effects of Langmuir circulation. The model's simplicity is advantageous in situations with limited data, such as emergency oil spill response. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  7. [Effect of 5 warm-hot nature Chinese drugs for promoting blood circulation and removing blood stasis on 5-HT, NE, and endocrine hormones of rats of cold coagulation and blood stasis syndrome].

    PubMed

    Wang, Peng; Fu, Xian-Jun; Zhou, Yang; Wang, Zhen-Guo

    2014-11-01

    To study the mechanism of warm-hot nature Chinese drugs (WHNCD) for promoting blood circulation and removing blood stasis (PBCRBS) for intervening model rats of cold coagulation and blood stasis syndrome (CCBSS). CCBSS rat model was set up in outbred SD rats using ice water immersion method. Totally 300 successfully modeled CCBSS rats were randomly divided into 5 groups according to the principle of balance weight, 60 in each group. Contents of triothyrone (T3), tetraiodothyroine (T4), progesterone (P), 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT), and noradrenalin (NE) were paralleledly detected in all groups. Then rats in each group were subdivided into 6 subgroups as the model group, the curcuma group, the Ligsticum Chuanxiong group, the safflower group, the Rhizoma Corydalis group, and the Olibanumg group. Besides, 5 normal control groups were set up for 5 indices, 50 rats in total. We need 70 rats (7 groups) to finish observing 1 index, 350 rats in total for 5 indices. Except those in the model group and the normal control group, rats were administered with corresponding decoction at 20 g crude drugs/kg body weight by gastrogavage, 3 mL each time, once daily for 7 successive days. Equal volume of normal saline was given to rats in the normal control group and the model group. Contents of T3, T4, P, 5-HT, and NE were detected before treatment and 1 week after treatment. Compared with before treatment in the same group, T3 increased in the Ligsticum Chuanxiong group and the Olibanumg group, 5-HT increased in the Ligsticum Chuanxiong group, T4, NE, and P increased in all medicated groups (P < 0.05). Compared with the normal control group, contents of T3, T4, 5-HT, NE, and P in the model group decreased (P < 0.05). Compared with the model group, contents of T3, T4, 5-HT, and NE increased in each medicated group (P < 0.05). There was statistical difference in contents of P between the Ligsticum Chuanxiong group and the Olibanumg group (P < 0.05). WHNCD for PBCRBS had regulatory

  8. Towards clarifying the N-M vibrational nature of metallo-phthalocyanines. Infrared spectrum of phthalocyanine magnesium complex: density functional calculations.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xianxi; Zhang, Yuexing; Jiang, Jianzhuang

    2004-08-01

    Infrared frequencies and intensities for the magnesium phthalocyanine complex MgPc have been calculated at density functional B3LYP level using the 6-31G(d) basis set. Detailed assignments of the metal-nitrogen (N-M) vibrational bands in the IR spectrum have been made on the basis of comparison of the calculated data of MgPc with the experimental result and also with that of H(2)Pc. The empirical controversial assignment of the characteristic band at 886-919 cm(-1) for metallo-phthalocyanines is also clearly interpreted. Nevertheless, the previous assignments of N-H stretchings, in-plane bending (IPB) and out-of-plane bending (OPB) modes made based on the comparative calculation of H(2)Pc and D(2)Pc are confirmed again by the present research result.

  9. Cluster classification of mid-latitude summer circulation patterns in the CESM1 Large Ensemble

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horton, D. E.; Mankin, J. S.; Singh, D.; Diffenbaugh, N. S.; Swain, D. L.

    2016-12-01

    Synoptic- to regional-scale circulation patterns drive daily surface weather conditions, while the occurrence and persistence of particular circulation patterns can have an outsized influence on the likelihood of hot, cold, wet, and/or dry extremes. Recent theoretical work has posited that increasing atmospheric greenhouse gas concentrations may exert some influence on mid-latitude circulation pattern behavior, though detection of such changes in observational analyses is likely to be challenging due to the natural variability of the climate system. To assess the influence of altered levels of radiative forcing on the behavior of atmospheric circulation patterns in the context of internal variability, we utilize pre-industrial, historical, and future simulations from the CESM1 Large Ensemble (LENS) Community Project single-model, multi-realization framework. Using self-organizing map clustering analysis, we classify summer mid-atmospheric circulation patterns over select regional mid-latitude Northern Hemisphere domains in each LENS experiment. For each region in each LENS experiment we calculate and compare the full distribution of summer pattern occurrence and duration, in addition to high-impact extreme (maximum) pattern persistence for each modeled year. Our results indicate little to no change in the left-tails and mean occurrence and duration of circulation patterns as increasing levels of radiative forcing are assessed. However, robust changes in the extreme right-tails of the duration and maximum persistence distributions are prevalent. Patterns in which robust right-tail changes are identified are diverse, with cyclonic, anticyclonic, zonal, and dipole patterns all represented. Our results indicate that in CESM1 LENS circulation changes due to increasing radiative forcing exist, but only in the potentially high impact tails of the distribution.

  10. Circulating serotonin in vertebrates.

    PubMed

    Maurer-Spurej, E

    2005-08-01

    The role of circulating serotonin is unclear and whether or not serotonin is present in the blood of non-mammalian species is not known. This study provides the first evidence for the presence of serotonin in thrombocytes of birds and three reptilian species, the endothermic leatherback sea turtle, the green sea turtle and the partially endothermic American alligator. Thrombocytes from a fresh water turtle, American bullfrog, Yellowfin tuna, and Chinook salmon did not contain serotonin. Serotonin is a vasoactive substance that regulates skin blood flow, a major mechanism for endothermic body temperature regulation, which could explain why circulating serotonin is present in warm-blooded species. The temperature sensitivity of human blood platelets with concomitant changes in serotonin content further supports a link between circulating serotonin and thermoregulation. Phylogenetic comparison of the presence of circulating serotonin indicated an evolutionary divergence within reptilian species that might coincide with the emergence of endothermy.

  11. [Cannulae for extracorporeal circulation].

    PubMed

    Fukuda, Ikuo; Yanaoka, H

    2009-07-01

    Since the advent of extracorporeal circulation in 1954, its technique has developed rapidly owing to the progress of technology. Although it facilitated better outcome of cardiac surgery, lack of knowledge and malpractice of extracorporeal circulation may lead to serious complications. This article introduces different types of cannulae and their hydrodynamics during extracorporeal circulation. Characteristics of cannulae for extracorporeal circulation are described from viewpoints of material, requirements and technological background. Arterial perfusion cannulae have various flow patterns and affect shear stress on the aortic wall depending on the shape of each cannula exit. Technological background of venous drainage is also described. As a cardiovascular surgeon, it is important to understand the characteristics of each cannula in order to accomplish successful operation. Safe and effective means of providing sufficient arterial inflow in the presence of extensive aortic disease, such as atherosclerosis with aneurysm or dissections needs to be solved.

  12. Structural Determination of Circulation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blankenburg, William B.

    1981-01-01

    Analyzes the effects of both structural factors (demographics, economic conditions, and competition) and discretionary factors (content, design, and marketing techniques) and concludes that it is the former that determine a newspaper's circulation. (FL)

  13. Island-trapped Waves, Internal Waves, and Island Circulation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-09-30

    model of the depth-integrated flow for the world ocean allowing for island circulations . Geophys. Astrophys. Fluid Dyn., 45:89–112, 1989. J. MacKinnon...Mountain waves in the deep ocean . Nature, 501:321–322, 2013. M. Nikurashin and R. Ferrari. Overturning circulation driven by breaking internal waves...Island-trapped waves, internal waves, and island circulation T. M. Shaun Johnston Scripps Institution of Oceanography University of California

  14. Planetary circulations in the presence of transient and self-induced heating

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Salby, Murry L.; Garcia, Rolando R.

    1993-01-01

    The research program focuses on large-scale circulations and their interaction with the global convective pattern. An 11-year record of global cloud imagery and contemporaneous fields of motion and temperature have been used to investigate organized convection and coherent variability of the tropical circulation operating on intraseasonal time scales. This study provides a detailed portrait of tropical variability associated with the so-called Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO). It reveals the nature, geographical distribution, and seasonality of discrete convective signal, which is a measure of feedback between the circulation and the convective pattern. That discrete spectral behavior has been evaluated in light of natural variability of the ITCZ associated with climatological convection. A composite signature of the MJO, based on cross-covariance statistics of cloud cover, motion, and temperature, has been constructed to characterize the lifecycle of the disturbance in terms of these properties. The composite behavior has also been used to investigate the influence the MJO exerts on the zonal-mean circulation and the involvement of the MJO in transfers of momentum between the atmosphere and the solid Earth. The aforementioned observational studies have led to the production of two animations. One reveals the convective signal in band-pass filtered OLR and compares it to climatological convection. The other is a 3-dimensional visualization of the composite lifecycle of the MJO. With a clear picture of the MJO in hand, feedback between the circulation and the convective pattern can be diagnosed meaningfully in numerical simulations. This process is being explored in calculations with the linearized primitive equations on the sphere in the presence of realistic stability and shear. The numerical framework represents climatological convection as a space-time stochastic process and wave-induced convection in terms of the vertically-integrated moisture flux convergence

  15. Optical Rankine Vortex and Anomalous Circulation of Light

    SciTech Connect

    Swartzlander, Grover A. Jr.; Hernandez-Aranda, Raul I.

    2007-10-19

    Rankine vortex characteristics of a partially coherent optical vortex are explored using classical and physical optics. Unlike a perfectly coherent vortex mode, the circulation is not quantized. Excess circulation is predicted owing to the wave nature of composite vortex fields. Based on these findings, we propose a vortex stellar interferometer.

  16. Library Circulation Systems -- An Overview.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Surace, Cecily J.

    The model circulation system outlined is an on-line real time system in which the circulation file is created from the shelf list and the terminal inquiry system includes the capability to query and browse through the bibliographic system and the circulation subsystem together to determine the availability for circulation of specific documents, or…

  17. Ocean circulation using altimetry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Minster, Jean-Francois; Brossier, C.; Gennero, M. C.; Mazzega, P.; Remy, F.; Letraon, P. Y.; Blanc, F.

    1991-01-01

    Our group has been very actively involved in promoting satellite altimetry as a unique tool for observing ocean circulation and its variability. TOPEX/POSEIDON is particularly interesting as it is optimized for this purpose. It will probably be the first instrument really capable of observing the seasonal and interannual variability of subtropical and polar gyres and the first to eventually document the corresponding variability of their heat flux transport. The studies of these phenomena require data of the best quality, unbiased extraction of the signal, mixing of these satellite data with in situ measurements, and assimilation of the whole set into a dynamic description of ocean circulation. Our group intends to develop responses to all these requirements. We will concentrate mostly on the circulation of the South Atlantic and Indian Oceans: This will be done in close connection with other groups involved in the study of circulation of the tropical Atlantic Ocean, in the altimetry measurements (in particular, those of the tidal issue), and in the techniques of data assimilation in ocean circulation models.

  18. On the North Atlantic circulation

    SciTech Connect

    Schmitz, W.J. Jr.; McCartney, M.S. )

    1993-02-01

    A summary for North Atlantic circulation is proposed to replace the circulation scheme hypothesized by Worthington in 1976. Divergences from the previous model are in thermohaline circulation, cross-equatorical transport and Florida Current sources, flow in the eastern Atlantic, circulation in the Newfoundland Basin, slope water currents, and flow pattern near the Bahamas. The circulation patterns presented here are consistent with the majority of of published accounts of flow components. 77 refs., 14 figs., 3 tabs.

  19. Transverse ageostrophic circulations associated with elevated mixed layers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keyser, D.; Carlson, T. N.

    1984-01-01

    The nature of the frontogenetically forced transverse ageostrophic circulations connected with elevated mixed layer structure is investigated as a first step toward diagnosing the complex vertical circulation patterns occurring in the vicinity of elevated mixed layers within a severe storm environment. The Sawyer-Eliassen ageostrophic circulation equation is reviewed and applied to the elevated mixed layer detected in the SESAME IV data set at 2100 GMT of May 9, 1979. The results of the ageostrophic circulation diagnosis are confirmed and refined by considering an analytic specification for the elevated mixed layer structure.

  20. Atmospheric circulation of Venus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rossow, W. B.

    1985-01-01

    Observational data of Venus are utilized to study rotational effects on atmospheric circulations. The high surface temperature and planetary-scale turbulent motion at cloud tops, and the relation between energy and momentum budget are examined. The limited amount of data available on the vertical and horizontal distribution of net radiative heating, the zonal wind structure, and waves affects the study of the temperature and motion on Venus. The limitations of the scaling analysis used to estimate the properties of the circulation as regards the cyclostrophic balance, the extent of the Hadley circulation, large-scale wave transport, vertical propagation of waves, convection, and turbulence are considered. Hypotheses concerned with the deep, cloud-level, and upper atmospheres of Venus are proposed. Future research in the areas of propagating planetary- scale waves, zonal flow and planetary-scale wave instability processes, and convection is suggested.

  1. Why do metabolites circulate?

    PubMed

    Smith, Dennis A; Dalvie, Deepak

    2012-01-01

    The aim of most metabolism and excretion processes is to remove the drug and drug related material from the body; however, in most cases metabolites are present in abundance in circulation. To allow better in vitro/in vivo correlations a greater understanding of why metabolites formed in organs such as the liver are present in the circulation is necessary. Separating metabolites into highly lipid permeable and low lipid permeable allows the role of passive efflux from the liver and active transport to be dissected. Many drugs form glucuronide metabolites that circulate at high total concentrations and attention is drawn to low lipid permeability, efflux from the liver by MRP3, high plasma protein binding and restricted distribution as the explanation for this. The use of metabolite maps is suggested as a way of displaying complex processes in a simple form.

  2. Ocean circulation modeling by use of radar altimeter data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Olbers, Dirk; Alpers, W.; Hasselmann, K.; Maier-Reimer, E.; Kase, R.; Krauss, W.; Siedler, G.; Willebrand, J.; Zahel, W.

    1991-01-01

    The project will investigate the use of radar altimetry (RA) data in the determination of the ocean circulation models. RA data will be used to verify prognostic experiments of the steady state and seasonal cycle of large-scale circulation models and the statistical steady state of eddy-resolving models. The data will serve as initial and update conditions in data assimilation experiments and as constraints in inverse calculations. The aim of the project is a better understanding of ocean physics, the determination and mapping of ocean currents, and a contribution to the establishment of ocean circulation models for climate studies. The goal of the project is to use satellite radar altimetry data for improving our knowledge of ocean circulation both in a descriptive sense and through the physics that govern the circulation state. The basic tool is a series of ocean circulation models. Depending on the model, different techniques will be applied to incorporate the RA data.

  3. Ocean circulation modeling by use of radar altimeter data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Olbers, Dirk; Alpers, W.; Hasselmann, K.; Maier-Reimer, E.; Kase, R.; Krauss, W.; Siedler, G.; Willebrand, J.; Zahel, W.

    1991-01-01

    The project will investigate the use of radar altimetry (RA) data in the determination of the ocean circulation models. RA data will be used to verify prognostic experiments of the steady state and seasonal cycle of large-scale circulation models and the statistical steady state of eddy-resolving models. The data will serve as initial and update conditions in data assimilation experiments and as constraints in inverse calculations. The aim of the project is a better understanding of ocean physics, the determination and mapping of ocean currents, and a contribution to the establishment of ocean circulation models for climate studies. The goal of the project is to use satellite radar altimetry data for improving our knowledge of ocean circulation both in a descriptive sense and through the physics that govern the circulation state. The basic tool is a series of ocean circulation models. Depending on the model, different techniques will be applied to incorporate the RA data.

  4. First step to investigate nature of electronic states and transport in flower-like MoS2: Combining experimental studies with computational calculations

    PubMed Central

    Pandey, Kavita; Yadav, Pankaj; Singh, Deobrat; Gupta, Sanjeev K.; Sonvane, Yogesh; Lukačević, Igor; Kim, Joondong; Kumar, Manoj

    2016-01-01

    In the present paper, the nature of electronic states and transport properties of nanostructured flower-like molybdenum disulphide grown by hydrothermal route has been studied. The band structure, electronic nature of charge, thermodynamics and the limit of phonon scattering through density functional theory (DFT) has also been studied. The band tail states, dynamics of trap states and transport of carriers was investigated through intensive impedance spectroscopy analysis. The direct fingerprint of density and band tail state is analyzed from the capacitance plot as capacitance reflects the capability of a semiconductor to accept or release the charge carriers with a corresponding change in its Fermi potential levels. A recently introduced infrared photo-carrier radiometry and density functional perturbation theory (DFPT) techniques have been used to determine the temperature dependence of carrier mobility in flower type-MoS2. The present study illustrates that a large amount of trapped charges leads to an underestimation of the measured effective mobility and the potential of the material. Thus, a continuous engineering effort is required to improve the quality of fabricated nanostructures for its potential applications. PMID:27615369

  5. First step to investigate nature of electronic states and transport in flower-like MoS2: Combining experimental studies with computational calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pandey, Kavita; Yadav, Pankaj; Singh, Deobrat; Gupta, Sanjeev K.; Sonvane, Yogesh; Lukačević, Igor; Kim, Joondong; Kumar, Manoj

    2016-09-01

    In the present paper, the nature of electronic states and transport properties of nanostructured flower-like molybdenum disulphide grown by hydrothermal route has been studied. The band structure, electronic nature of charge, thermodynamics and the limit of phonon scattering through density functional theory (DFT) has also been studied. The band tail states, dynamics of trap states and transport of carriers was investigated through intensive impedance spectroscopy analysis. The direct fingerprint of density and band tail state is analyzed from the capacitance plot as capacitance reflects the capability of a semiconductor to accept or release the charge carriers with a corresponding change in its Fermi potential levels. A recently introduced infrared photo-carrier radiometry and density functional perturbation theory (DFPT) techniques have been used to determine the temperature dependence of carrier mobility in flower type-MoS2. The present study illustrates that a large amount of trapped charges leads to an underestimation of the measured effective mobility and the potential of the material. Thus, a continuous engineering effort is required to improve the quality of fabricated nanostructures for its potential applications.

  6. The structure, energetics, and nature of the chemical bonding of phenylthiol adsorbed on the Au(111) surface: implications for density-functional calculations of molecular-electronic conduction.

    PubMed

    Bilić, Ante; Reimers, Jeffrey R; Hush, Noel S

    2005-03-01

    The adsorption of phenylthiol on the Au(111) surface is modeled using Perdew and Wang density-functional calculations. Both direct molecular physisorption and dissociative chemisorption via S-H bond cleavage are considered as well as dimerization to form disulfides. For the major observed product, the chemisorbed thiol, an extensive potential-energy surface is produced as a function of both the azimuthal orientation of the adsorbate and the linear translation of the adsorbate through the key fcc, hcp, bridge, and top binding sites. Key structures are characterized, the lowest-energy one being a broad minimum of tilted orientation ranging from the bridge structure halfway towards the fcc one. The vertically oriented threefold binding sites, often assumed to dominate molecular electronics measurements, are identified as transition states at low coverage but become favored in dense monolayers. A similar surface is also produced for chemisorption of phenylthiol on Ag(111); this displays significant qualitative differences, consistent with the qualitatively different observed structures for thiol chemisorption on Ag and Au. Full contours of the minimum potential energy as a function of sulfur translation over the crystal face are described, from which the barrier to diffusion is deduced to be 5.8 kcal mol(-1), indicating that the potential-energy surface has low corrugation. The calculated bond lengths, adsorbate charge and spin density, and the density of electronic states all indicate that, at all sulfur locations, the adsorbate can be regarded as a thiyl species that forms a net single covalent bond to the surface of strength 31 kcal mol(-1). No detectable thiolate character is predicted, however, contrary to experimental results for alkyl thiols that indicate up to 20%-30% thiolate involvement. This effect is attributed to the asymptotic-potential error of all modern density functionals that becomes manifest through a 3-4 eV error in the lineup of the adsorbate and

  7. A Method for Calculating the Heat Required for Windshield Thermal Ice Prevention Based on Extensive Flight Tests in Natural Icing Conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Alun R; Holdaway, George H; Steinmetz, Charles P

    1947-01-01

    An equation is presented for calculating the heat flow required from the surface of an internally heated windshield in order to prevent the formation of ice accretions during flight in specified icing conditions. To ascertain the validity of the equation, comparison is made between calculated values of the heat required and measured values obtained for test windshields in actual flights in icing conditions. The test windshields were internally heated and provided data applicable to two common types of windshield configurations; namely the V-type and the type installed flush with the fuselage contours. These windshields were installed on a twin-engine cargo airplane and the icing flights were conducted over a large area of the United States during the winters of 1945-46 and 1946-47. In addition to the internally heated windshield investigation, some test data were obtained for a windshield ice-prevention system in which heated air was discharged into the windshield boundary layer. The general conclusions resulting from this investigation are as follows: 1) The amount of heat required for the prevention of ice accretions on both flush- and V-type windshields during flight in specified icing conditions can be calculated with a degree of accuracy suitable for design purposes. 2) A heat flow of 2000 to 2500 Btu per hour per square foot is required for complete and continuous protection of a V-type windshield in fight at speeds up to 300 miles per hour in a moderate cumulus icing condition. For the same degree of protection and the same speed range, a value of 1000 Btu per hour per square foot suffices in a moderate stratus icing condition. 3) A heat supply of 1000 Btu per hour per square foot is adequate for a flush windshield located well aft of the fuselage stagnation region, at speeds up to 300 miles per hour, for flight in both stratus and moderate cumulus icing conditions. 4) The external air discharge system of windshield thermal ice prevention is thermally

  8. 40 CFR 230.23 - Current patterns and water circulation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Potential Impacts on Physical and Chemical Characteristics of the Aquatic Ecosystem § 230.23 Current... water in the aquatic ecosystem. Currents and circulation respond to natural forces as modified by basin...

  9. 40 CFR 230.23 - Current patterns and water circulation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Potential Impacts on Physical and Chemical Characteristics of the Aquatic Ecosystem § 230.23 Current... water in the aquatic ecosystem. Currents and circulation respond to natural forces as modified by basin...

  10. 40 CFR 230.23 - Current patterns and water circulation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Potential Impacts on Physical and Chemical Characteristics of the Aquatic Ecosystem § 230.23 Current... water in the aquatic ecosystem. Currents and circulation respond to natural forces as modified by basin...

  11. 40 CFR 230.23 - Current patterns and water circulation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Potential Impacts on Physical and Chemical Characteristics of the Aquatic Ecosystem § 230.23 Current... water in the aquatic ecosystem. Currents and circulation respond to natural forces as modified by basin...

  12. 40 CFR 230.23 - Current patterns and water circulation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Potential Impacts on Physical and Chemical Characteristics of the Aquatic Ecosystem § 230.23 Current... water in the aquatic ecosystem. Currents and circulation respond to natural forces as modified by basin...

  13. CARS spectroscopy of the NaH2 collision complex: the nature of the Na(32 P)H2 exciplex — ab initio calculations and experimental results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Vivie-Riedle, R.; Hering, P.; Kompa, K. L.

    1990-12-01

    CARS (Coherent Anti-Stokes Raman Scattering) has been used to analyze the rovibronic state distribution of H2 after collision with Na(32 P). New lines, which do not correspond to H2 lines are observed in the CARS spectrum. The experiments point to the formation of a complex of Na(32 P)H2 in A 2 B 2 symmetry. Ab initio calculations of the A 2 B 2 potential were performed. On this surface the vibrational spectra of the exciplex are evaluated. The observed lines can be attributed to vibrational transitions in the complex, in which combinational modes are involved. The connection of experimental and theoretical results indicates that a collisionally stabilized exciplex molecule is formed during the quenching process.

  14. Numerical calculations of two dimensional, unsteady transonic flows with circulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beam, R. M.; Warming, R. F.

    1974-01-01

    The feasibility of obtaining two-dimensional, unsteady transonic aerodynamic data by numerically integrating the Euler equations is investigated. An explicit, third-order-accurate, noncentered, finite-difference scheme is used to compute unsteady flows about airfoils. Solutions for lifting and nonlifting airfoils are presented and compared with subsonic linear theory. The applicability and efficiency of the numerical indicial function method are outlined. Numerically computed subsonic and transonic oscillatory aerodynamic coefficients are presented and compared with those obtained from subsonic linear theory and transonic wind-tunnel data.

  15. Arctic circulation regimes

    PubMed Central

    Proshutinsky, Andrey; Dukhovskoy, Dmitry; Timmermans, Mary-Louise; Krishfield, Richard; Bamber, Jonathan L.

    2015-01-01

    Between 1948 and 1996, mean annual environmental parameters in the Arctic experienced a well-pronounced decadal variability with two basic circulation patterns: cyclonic and anticyclonic alternating at 5 to 7 year intervals. During cyclonic regimes, low sea-level atmospheric pressure (SLP) dominated over the Arctic Ocean driving sea ice and the upper ocean counterclockwise; the Arctic atmosphere was relatively warm and humid, and freshwater flux from the Arctic Ocean towards the subarctic seas was intensified. By contrast, during anticylonic circulation regimes, high SLP dominated driving sea ice and the upper ocean clockwise. Meanwhile, the atmosphere was cold and dry and the freshwater flux from the Arctic to the subarctic seas was reduced. Since 1997, however, the Arctic system has been under the influence of an anticyclonic circulation regime (17 years) with a set of environmental parameters that are atypical for this regime. We discuss a hypothesis explaining the causes and mechanisms regulating the intensity and duration of Arctic circulation regimes, and speculate how changes in freshwater fluxes from the Arctic Ocean and Greenland impact environmental conditions and interrupt their decadal variability. PMID:26347536

  16. Arctic circulation regimes.

    PubMed

    Proshutinsky, Andrey; Dukhovskoy, Dmitry; Timmermans, Mary-Louise; Krishfield, Richard; Bamber, Jonathan L

    2015-10-13

    Between 1948 and 1996, mean annual environmental parameters in the Arctic experienced a well-pronounced decadal variability with two basic circulation patterns: cyclonic and anticyclonic alternating at 5 to 7 year intervals. During cyclonic regimes, low sea-level atmospheric pressure (SLP) dominated over the Arctic Ocean driving sea ice and the upper ocean counterclockwise; the Arctic atmosphere was relatively warm and humid, and freshwater flux from the Arctic Ocean towards the subarctic seas was intensified. By contrast, during anticylonic circulation regimes, high SLP dominated driving sea ice and the upper ocean clockwise. Meanwhile, the atmosphere was cold and dry and the freshwater flux from the Arctic to the subarctic seas was reduced. Since 1997, however, the Arctic system has been under the influence of an anticyclonic circulation regime (17 years) with a set of environmental parameters that are atypical for this regime. We discuss a hypothesis explaining the causes and mechanisms regulating the intensity and duration of Arctic circulation regimes, and speculate how changes in freshwater fluxes from the Arctic Ocean and Greenland impact environmental conditions and interrupt their decadal variability. © 2015 The Authors.

  17. Circulation Aide Training Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bergeson, Alan O.

    This training manual provides instruction on shelving and other duties for student assistants in the learning resources center at the College of Dupage, located in Illinois. It is noted that prospective student circulation aides are required to read the manual and pass a written test on policies and procedures before they are allowed to shelve…

  18. Portable oven air circulator

    DOEpatents

    Jorgensen, Jorgen A.; Nygren, Donald W.

    1983-01-01

    A portable air circulating apparatus for use in cooking ovens which is used to create air currents in the oven which transfer heat to cooking foodstuffs to promote more rapid and more uniform cooking or baking, the apparatus including a motor, fan blade and housing of metallic materials selected from a class of heat resistant materials.

  19. Calculator Cookery.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Humphreys, Casey; And Others

    This valuable collection of materials was developed to incorporate the calculator as an instructional aid in ninth- and tenth-grade general and basic mathematics classes. The materials are also appropriate for grades 7 and 8. After an introductory section which teaches the use of the calculator, four games and activities are described. For these…

  20. [A lumped parameter model of the peripheral extra-corporeal circulation].

    PubMed

    Wang, X; Tan, X; Pei, J; Zheng, P

    2001-09-01

    A three-element model of lumped parameter in peripheral extra-corporeal circulation of an animal has been proposed and set up according to the fluid network theory. GEAR method, appropriate for the computation of the rigid problems, was used to solve the ordinary differential equations, so that a good convergence of the solution to the equations has been achieved. Physiological data of a 20 kg dog, obtained from our animal experiments were used to calculate the pressure and flow rate of important organs. The results of the mathematical model and animal tests showed that the peripheral extra-corporeal circulation could supply enough blood to the important organs, e.g. heart and brain, when the natural heart beating stopped. The results from both theoretical and experiments are critical to the cardiopulmonary cerebral resuscitation for the animals as well as for human beings.

  1. The aerodynamics of circulation control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wood, N. J.

    1981-01-01

    Two dimensional subsonic wind tunnel tests were conducted on a 20% thickness: chord ratio circulation controlled elliptic aerofoil section equipped with forward and reverse blowing slots. Overall performance measurements were made over a range of trailing edge blowing momentum coefficients from 0 to 0.04; some included the effect of leading edge blowing. A detailed investigation of the trailing edge wall jet, using split film probes, hot wire probes and total head tubes, provided measurements of mean velocity components, Reynolds normal and shear stresses, and radial static pressure. The closure of the two dimensional angular momentum and continuity equations was examined using the measured data, with and without correction, and the difficulty of obtaining a satisfactory solution illustrated. Suggestions regarding the nature of the flow field which should aid the understanding of Coanda effect and the theoretical solution of highly curved wall jet flows are presented.

  2. A comparative Study of Circulation Patterns at Active Lava Lakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lev, Einat; Oppenheimer, Clive; Spampinato, Letizia; Hernandez, Pedro; Unglert, Kathi

    2016-04-01

    Lava lakes present a rare opportunity to study magma dynamics in a large scaled-up "crucible" and provide a unique natural laboratory to ground-truth dynamic models of magma circulation. The persistence of lava lakes allows for long-term observations of flow dynamics and of lava properties, especially compared to surface lava flows. There are currently five persistent lava lakes in the world: Halemaumau in Kilauea (Hawaii, USA), Erta Ale (Ethiopia), Nyiragongo (Congo), Erebus (Antarctica), and Villarica (Chile). Marum and Benbow craters of Ambrym volcano (Vanuatu) and Masaya (Nicaragua) have often hosted lava lakes as well. We use visible-light and thermal infrared time-lapse and video footage collected at all above lakes (except Villarica, where the lake is difficult to observe), and compare the circulation patterns recorded. We calculate lake surface motion from the footage using the optical flow method (Lev et al., 2012) to produce 2D velocity fields. We mined both the surface temperature field and the surface velocity field for patterns using machine learning techniques such as "self-organizing maps (SOMs)" and "principle component analysis (PCA)". We use automatic detection technique to study the configuration of crustal plates at the lakes' surface. We find striking differences among the lakes, in flow direction, flow speed, frequency of changes in flow direction and speed, location and consistency of upwelling and downwelling, and crustal plate configuration. We relate the differences to lake size, shallow conduit geometry, lava viscosity, crystal and gas content, and crust integrity.

  3. MEMS Calculator

    National Institute of Standards and Technology Data Gateway

    SRD 166 MEMS Calculator (Web, free access)   This MEMS Calculator determines the following thin film properties from data taken with an optical interferometer or comparable instrument: a) residual strain from fixed-fixed beams, b) strain gradient from cantilevers, c) step heights or thicknesses from step-height test structures, and d) in-plane lengths or deflections. Then, residual stress and stress gradient calculations can be made after an optical vibrometer or comparable instrument is used to obtain Young's modulus from resonating cantilevers or fixed-fixed beams. In addition, wafer bond strength is determined from micro-chevron test structures using a material test machine.

  4. Lost circulation in geothermal wells: survey and evaluation of industry experience

    SciTech Connect

    Goodman, M.A.

    1981-07-01

    Lost circulation during drilling and completion of geothermal wells can be a severe problem, particularly in naturally fractured and/or vugular formations. Geothermal and petroleum operators, drilling service companies, and independent consultants were interviewed to assess the lost circulation problem in geothermal wells and to determine general practices for preventing lost circulation. This report documents the results and conclusions from the interviews and presents recommendations for needed research. In addition, a survey was also made of the lost circulation literature, of currently available lost circulation materials, and of existing lost circulation test equipment.

  5. Learning Circulant Sensing Kernels

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-03-01

    Compressive sensing based high resolution channel estimation for OFDM system. To appear in IEEE Journal of Selected Topics in Signal Processing, Special...and R. D. Nowak. Toeplitz compressed sensing ma- trices with applications to sparse channel estimation . Submitted to IEEE Transactions on Information...various applications. For compressive sens- ing, recent work has used random Toeplitz and circulant sensing matrices and proved their efficiency in theory

  6. Ocean circulation studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koblinsky, C. J.

    1984-01-01

    Remotely sensed signatures of ocean surface characteristics from active and passive satellite-borne radiometers in conjunction with in situ data were utilized to examine the large scale, low frequency circulation of the world's oceans. Studies of the California Current, the Gulf of California, and the Kuroshio Extension Current in the western North Pacific were reviewed briefly. The importance of satellite oceanographic tools was emphasized.

  7. Posterior Circulation Ischemic Stroke.

    PubMed

    Go, Steven

    2015-01-01

    Approximately 20-25% of all acute strokes occur in the posterior circulation. These strokes can be rather difficult to diagnose because they present in such diverse ways, and can easily be mistaken for more benign entities. A fastidious history, physical exam, high clinical suspicion, and appropriate use of imaging are essential for the emergency physician to properly diagnose and treat these patients. Expert stroke neurologist consultation should be utilized liberally.

  8. Ocean circulation studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koblinsky, C. J.

    1984-01-01

    Remotely sensed signatures of ocean surface characteristics from active and passive satellite-borne radiometers in conjunction with in situ data were utilized to examine the large scale, low frequency circulation of the world's oceans. Studies of the California Current, the Gulf of California, and the Kuroshio Extension Current in the western North Pacific were reviewed briefly. The importance of satellite oceanographic tools was emphasized.

  9. The fetal circulation.

    PubMed

    Kiserud, Torvid; Acharya, Ganesh

    2004-12-30

    Accumulating data on the human fetal circulation shows the similarity to the experimental animal physiology, but with important differences. The human fetus seems to circulate less blood through the placenta, shunt less through the ductus venosus and foramen ovale, but direct more blood through the lungs than the fetal sheep. However, there are substantial individual variations and the pattern changes with gestational age. The normalised umbilical blood flow decreases with gestational age, and, at 28 to 32 weeks, a new level of development seems to be reached. At this stage, the shunting through the ductus venosus and the foramen ovale reaches a minimum, and the flow through the lungs a maximum. The ductus venosus and foramen ovale are functionally closely related and represent an important distributional unit for the venous return. The left portal branch represents a venous watershed, and, similarly, the isthmus aorta an arterial watershed. Thus, the fetal central circulation is a very flexible and adaptive circulatory system. The responses to increased afterload, hypoxaemia and acidaemia in the human fetus are equivalent to those found in animal studies: increased ductus venosus and foramen ovale shunting, increased impedance in the lungs, reduced impedance in the brain, increasingly reversed flow in the aortic isthmus and a more prominent coronary blood flow.

  10. Library Circulation Systems: An Overview

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Surace, Cecily J.

    1972-01-01

    The model circulation system outlined is an on-line real time system in which the circulation file is created from the shelf list. The model extends beyond the operational limits of most existing circulation systems and can be considered a reflection of the current state of the art. (36 references) (Author/NH)

  11. Fe Mg diffusion in olivine II: point defect chemistry, change of diffusion mechanisms and a model for calculation of diffusion coefficients in natural olivine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dohmen, Ralf; Chakraborty, Sumit

    2007-08-01

    Analysis of existing data and models on point defects in pure (Fe,Mg)-olivine (Phys Chem Miner 10:27 37,1983; Phys Chem Miner 29:680 694, 2002) shows that it is necessary to consider thermodynamic non-ideality of mixing to adequately describe the concentration of point defects over the range of measurement. In spite of different sources of uncertainties, the concentrations of vacancies in octahedral sites in (Fe,Mg)-olivine are on the order of 10-4 per atomic formula unit at 1,000 1,200 °C according to both the studies. We provide the first explicit plots of vacancy concentrations in olivine as a function of temperature and oxygen fugacity according to the two models. It is found that in contrast to absolute concentrations at ˜1,100 °C and dependence on fO2, there is considerable uncertainty in our knowledge of temperature dependence of vacancy concentrations. This needs to be considered in discussing the transport properties such as diffusion coefficients. Moreover, these defect models in pure (Fe,Mg)-olivine need to be extended by considering aliovalent impurities such as Al, Cr to describe the behavior of natural olivine. We have developed such a formulation, and used it to analyze the considerable database of diffusion coefficients in olivine from Dohmen et al. (Phys Chem Miner this volume, 2007) (Part - I) and older data in the literature. The analysis documents unequivocally for the first time a change of diffusion mechanism in a silicate mineral—from the transition metal extrinsic (TaMED) to the purely extrinsic (PED) domain, at fO2 below 10-10 Pa, and consequently, temperatures below 900 °C. The change of diffusion mechanism manifests itself in a change in fO2 dependence of diffusivity and a slight change in activation energy of diffusion—the activation energy increases at lower temperatures. These are consistent with the predictions of Chakraborty (J Geophys Res 102(B6):12317 12331, 1997). Defect formation enthalpies in the TaMED regime (distinct

  12. Bidecadal Oscillation in Hadley and Walker Circulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minobe, S.

    2002-12-01

    Relation between the Bi-Decadal Oscillation and the Hadley and Walker circulations are investigated using NCEP/NCAR reanalysis data. It is known that the BDO has a global distribution but one action center of the atmospheric circulation anomaly associated with the BDO is Aleutian lows. As a representative time series of the BDO, wintertime (DJF) Aleutian low strength known as NPI, which is SLP averaged over 30-65N, 160E-140W, is used. In order to know the relation between the BDO and zonally averaged Hadley circulation, correlation and regression are calculated between the zonally-averaged vertical-meridional mass stream function in four seasons and the wintertime NPI after a 10-30-year band-pass filter was applied to both data. The most well organized structure in the correlations is observed in winter season, with two positive maxima of correlations (r >0.8) at 20S and 35N, which sandwich relatively weak negative correlations over the equator. The vertical extent of the southern high-correlations penetrate up to 200 hPa from 900 hPa, but the high-correlations in the northern hemisphere occur in the lower troposphere. The symmetry is less prominent in regressions, which are much intense in the northern hemisphere. Dominant positive correlations and regressions indicate that when Aleutian low is strong accompanied by negative NPIs, northward (southward) winds generally prevail in the lower (upper) troposphere in the off-equatorial tropics. For the Walker circulation, correlation and regression are calculated between the wintertime NPI and zonal wind speeds meridionally-averaged between 10S and 10N. High correlations and regressions are located in the middle of the troposphere over the western equatorial Pacific. The present results indicate that the BDO influences the Hadley and Walker circulations substantially. The correlations of stream functions prevailing over both the northern and southern hemispheres have significant implications on the inter

  13. Transients in a circulating fluidized bed boiler

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baskakov, A. P.; Munts, V. A.; Pavlyuk, E. Yu.

    2013-11-01

    Transients in a circulating fluidized bed boiler firing biomass are considered. An attempt is made to describe transients with the use of concepts applied in the automatic control theory. The parameters calculated from an analysis of unsteady heat balance equations are compared with the experimental data obtained in the 12-MW boiler of the Chalmers University of Technology. It is demonstrated that these equations describe the transient modes of operation with good accuracy. Dependences for calculating the time constants of unsteady processes are obtained.

  14. General circulation of the ocean

    SciTech Connect

    Abarbanel, H.D.I.; Young, W.R.

    1986-01-01

    This book is an analysis of the geophysics of ocean circulation and its interaction with the atmosphere. It reviews the new concepts and models which have emerged in the last five years, as well as classical theories and observations. The contributions cover topics such as: the observational basis for large-scale circulation, including surface and deep circulation and subtropical gyres; thermocline theories; inverse methods for ocean circulation; baroclinic theories of the wind-driven circulation; and single layer models. This volume sets the current research literature in context, and suggests promising avenues for future study.

  15. Firewood calculator

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, A.; Curtis, A.B.; Darwin, W.N.

    1981-01-01

    Rotating cardboard discs are used to read off total tree or topwood firewood volume (tons or cords) that can be expected from trees of d.b.h. 6 to 24 inches and tree height 10 to 90 feet. One side of the calculator is used for broadleaved species with deliquescent crowns and the other side for braodleaves with excurrent crowns.

  16. The lens circulation.

    PubMed

    Mathias, Richard T; Kistler, Joerg; Donaldson, Paul

    2007-03-01

    The lens is the largest organ in the body that lacks a vasculature. The reason is simple: blood vessels scatter and absorb light while the physiological role of the lens is to be transparent so it can assist the cornea in focusing light on the retina. We hypothesize this lack of blood supply has led the lens to evolve an internal circulation of ions that is coupled to fluid movement, thus creating an internal micro-circulatory system, which makes up for the lack of vasculature. This review covers the membrane transport systems that are believed to generate and direct this internal circulatory system.

  17. World Ocean Circulation Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clarke, R. Allyn

    1992-01-01

    The oceans are an equal partner with the atmosphere in the global climate system. The World Ocean Circulation Experiment is presently being implemented to improve ocean models that are useful for climate prediction both by encouraging more model development but more importantly by providing quality data sets that can be used to force or to validate such models. WOCE is the first oceanographic experiment that plans to generate and to use multiparameter global ocean data sets. In order for WOCE to succeed, oceanographers must establish and learn to use more effective methods of assembling, quality controlling, manipulating and distributing oceanographic data.

  18. Calculation of local boron dilution accidents with the Hextran code

    SciTech Connect

    Kyrki-Rajamaeki, R.; Stenius, T.

    1995-12-31

    Possibilities of Reactivity Initiated Accidents (RIA) due to local boron dilution slugs entering the core of PWRs have been widely studied in recent years. In Finland the main analysis tool for reactor dynamics RIA calculations has been the three dimensional HEXTRAN code which also includes full circuit models. Reliable calculation of propagating boron fronts is very difficult with standard numerical algorithms because numerical diffusion tends to smoothen the front. Thus the reactivity effect of the boron dilution can be significantly lowered and conservatism of the analyses cannot be guaranteed. In normal flow conditions this problem has been avoided in HEXTRAN analyses by simulating the dilution front directly to the core inlet. In natural circulation conditions there occurs significant numerical diffusion even during the propagation of boron front inside the core. Therefore a new hydraulics solution method PLIM (Piecewise Linear Interpolation Method) has been applied to HEXTRAN. Examples are given of analyses made with HEXTRAN in both flow conditions.

  19. Calculation Software

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    MathSoft Plus 5.0 is a calculation software package for electrical engineers and computer scientists who need advanced math functionality. It incorporates SmartMath, an expert system that determines a strategy for solving difficult mathematical problems. SmartMath was the result of the integration into Mathcad of CLIPS, a NASA-developed shell for creating expert systems. By using CLIPS, MathSoft, Inc. was able to save the time and money involved in writing the original program.

  20. Walker circulation in a transient climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plesca, Elina; Grützun, Verena; Buehler, Stefan A.

    2016-04-01

    response (temperature change by the time of CO2 doubling), which in turn might be related to a decreased ocean heat uptake. This uncertainty across the models we attribute to the multitude of factors controlling ocean and atmosphere heat exchange, both at global and regional scales, as well as to the present capabilities of GCMs in simulating this exchange. References: England, M. H., McGregor, S., Spence, P., Meehl, G. A., Timmermann, A., Cai, W., Gupta, A. S., McPhaden, M. J., Purich, A., and Santoso, A., 2014. Recent intensification of wind-driven circulation in the Pacific and the ongoing warming hiatus. Nature Climate Change 4 (3): 222-227. Ma, J., and Xie, S. P., 2013. Regional Patterns of Sea Surface Temperature Change: A Source of Uncertainty in Future Projections of Precipitation and Atmospheric Circulation*. Journal of Climate, 26 (8): 2482-2501

  1. Radiology of liver circulation

    SciTech Connect

    Hermine, C.L.

    1985-01-01

    This book proposes that careful evaluation of the arterioportogram is the cornerstone in assessing portal flow obstruction, being the most consistent of all observations including liver histology, portal venous pressure, size and number of portosystemic collaterals, and wedged hepatic venous pressure. Very brief chapters cover normal hepatic circulation and angiographic methods. Contrast volumes and flow rates for celiac, hepatic, and superior mesenteric injection are given, with the timing for venous phase radiographs. In the main body of the text, portal obstruction is divided very simply into presinusoidal (all proximal causes) and postsinusoidal (all distal causes, including Budd-Chiari). Changes are discussed regarding the splenic artery and spleen; hepatic artery and its branches; portal flow rate and direction; and arterioportal shunting and portosystemic collateral circulation in minimal, moderate, severe, and very severe portal obstruction and in recognizable entities such as prehepatic portal and hepatic venous obstructions. The major emphasis in this section is the recognition and understanding of flow changes by which level and severity of obstruction are assessed (not simply the anatomy of portosystemic collateral venous flow). Excellent final chapters discuss the question of portal hypertension without obstruction, and the contribution of arterioportography to the treatment of portal hypertension, again with an emphasis on hemodynamics before and after shunt surgery. There is a fascinating final chapter on segmental intrahepatic obstruction without portal hypertension that explains much of the unusual contrast enhancement sometimes seen in CT scanning of hepatic mass lesions.

  2. North Atlantic Circulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molinari, R.; Bryan, K.; Schott, F.

    The intensity of the North Atlantic winddriven and thermohaline circulation and the close proximity of many oceanographic installations make the North Atlantic a particularly favored region of the world ocean from the standpoint of research in ocean circulation. Recent increases in available data and advances in numerical modeling techniques served as the impetus to convene a joint workshop of modelers and observers working on the North Atlantic with the Scientific Committee on Oceanic Research (SCOR) Working Group (WG) 68 (“North Atlantic Circulation”). Goals of the workshop were to provide an update on data sets and models and to discuss the poleward heat flux problem and possible monitoring strategies. The joint Workshop/SCOR WG-68 meeting was convened by F. Schott (chairman of the working group; Rosenstiel School of Marine and Atmospheric Science, Miami, Fla.), K. Bryan (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration/ Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory (NOAA/GFDL)), and R. Molinari (NOAA/Atlantic Oceanographic and Meteorological Laboratory (NOAA/AOML)).

  3. Circulation of Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boitani, P.

    2016-01-01

    Since the dawn of man, contemplation of the stars has been a primary impulse in human beings, who proliferated their knowledge of the stars all over the world. Aristotle sees this as the product of primeval and perennial “wonder” which gives rise to what we call science, philosophy, and poetry. Astronomy, astrology, and star art (painting, architecture, literature, and music) go hand in hand through millennia in all cultures of the planet (and all use catasterisms to explain certain phenomena). Some of these developments are independent of each other, i.e., they take place in one culture independently of others. Some, on the other hand, are the product of the “circulation of stars.” There are two ways of looking at this. One seeks out forms, the other concentrates on the passing of specific lore from one area to another through time. The former relies on archetypes (for instance, with catasterism), the latter constitutes a historical process. In this paper I present some of the surprising ways in which the circulation of stars has occurred—from East to West, from East to the Far East, and from West to East, at times simultaneously.

  4. Efficient quantum circuits for dense circulant and circulant like operators

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, S. S.

    2017-01-01

    Circulant matrices are an important family of operators, which have a wide range of applications in science and engineering-related fields. They are, in general, non-sparse and non-unitary. In this paper, we present efficient quantum circuits to implement circulant operators using fewer resources and with lower complexity than existing methods. Moreover, our quantum circuits can be readily extended to the implementation of Toeplitz, Hankel and block circulant matrices. Efficient quantum algorithms to implement the inverses and products of circulant operators are also provided, and an example application in solving the equation of motion for cyclic systems is discussed. PMID:28572988

  5. Efficient quantum circuits for dense circulant and circulant like operators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, S. S.; Wang, J. B.

    2017-05-01

    Circulant matrices are an important family of operators, which have a wide range of applications in science and engineering-related fields. They are, in general, non-sparse and non-unitary. In this paper, we present efficient quantum circuits to implement circulant operators using fewer resources and with lower complexity than existing methods. Moreover, our quantum circuits can be readily extended to the implementation of Toeplitz, Hankel and block circulant matrices. Efficient quantum algorithms to implement the inverses and products of circulant operators are also provided, and an example application in solving the equation of motion for cyclic systems is discussed.

  6. Cosmological calculations on the GPU

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bard, D.; Bellis, M.; Allen, M. T.; Yepremyan, H.; Kratochvil, J. M.

    2013-02-01

    Cosmological measurements require the calculation of nontrivial quantities over large datasets. The next generation of survey telescopes will yield measurements of billions of galaxies. The scale of these datasets, and the nature of the calculations involved, make cosmological calculations ideal models for implementation on graphics processing units (GPUs). We consider two cosmological calculations, the two-point angular correlation function and the aperture mass statistic, and aim to improve the calculation time by constructing code for calculating them on the GPU. Using CUDA, we implement the two algorithms on the GPU and compare the calculation speeds to comparable code run on the CPU. We obtain a code speed-up of between 10 and 180× faster, compared to performing the same calculation on the CPU. The code has been made publicly available. GPUs are a useful tool for cosmological calculations, even for datasets the size of current surveys, allowing calculations to be made one or two orders of magnitude faster.

  7. WBGT Calculator

    SciTech Connect

    Hunter, Charles H.

    2000-05-22

    This software calculates a Wet Bulb Globe Temperature (WBGT) using standard measurements from a meteorological station. WBGT is used by Industrial Hygenists (IH) to determine heat stress potential to outdoor workers. Through the mid 1990''s, SRS technicians were dispatched several times daily to measure WBGT with a custom hand held instrument and results were dessiminated via telephone. Due to workforce reductions, the WSRC IH Department asked for the development of an automated method to simulate the WBGT measurement using existing real time data from the Atmospheric Technologies Group''s meteorological monitoring network.

  8. Circulating Biomarkers in Bladder Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Nandagopal, Lakshminarayanan; Sonpavde, Guru

    2016-01-01

    Bladder cancer is a molecularly heterogeneous disease characterized by multiple unmet needs in the realm of diagnosis, clinical staging, monitoring and therapy. There is an urgent need to develop precision medicine for advanced urothelial carcinoma. Given the difficulty of serial analyses of metastatic tumor tissue to identify resistance and new therapeutic targets, development of non-invasive monitoring using circulating molecular biomarkers is critically important. Although the development of circulating biomarkers for the management of bladder cancer is in its infancy and may currently suffer from lower sensitivity of detection, they have inherent advantages owing to non-invasiveness. Additionally, circulating molecular alterations may capture tumor heterogeneity without the sampling bias of tissue biopsy. This review describes the accumulating data to support further development of circulating biomarkers including circulating tumor cells, cell-free circulating tumor (ct)-DNA, RNA, micro-RNA and proteomics to improve the management of bladder cancer. PMID:28035318

  9. Jovian large-scale stratospheric circulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    West, R. A.; Friedson, A. J.; Appleby, J. F.

    1992-01-01

    An attempt is made to diagnose the annual-average mean meridional residual Jovian large-scale stratospheric circulation from observations of the temperature and reflected sunlight that reveal the morphology of the aerosol heating. The annual mean solar heating, total radiative flux divergence, mass stream function, and Eliassen-Palm flux divergence are shown. The stratospheric radiative flux divergence is dominated the high latitudes by aerosol absorption. Between the 270 and 100 mbar pressure levels, where there is no aerosol heating in the model, the structure of the circulation at low- to midlatitudes is governed by the meridional variation of infrared cooling in association with the variation of zonal mean temperatures observed by IRIS. The principal features of the vertical velocity profile found by Gierasch et al. (1986) are recovered in the present calculation.

  10. Global ocean circulation by altimetry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wunsch, Carl; Haidvogel, D.

    1991-01-01

    The overall objectives of this project are to determine the general circulation of the oceans and many of its climate and biochemical consequences through the optimum use of altimetry data from TOPEX/POSEIDON and related missions. Emphasis is on the global-scale circulation, as opposed to the regional scale, but some more local studies will be carried out. Because of funding limitations, the primary initial focus will be on the time-dependent global-scale circulation rather than the mean; eventually, the mean circulation must be dealt with as well.

  11. Lost circulation technology development status

    SciTech Connect

    Glowka, D.A.; Schafer, D.M.; Loeppke, G.E.; Scott, D.D.; Wernig, M.D.; Wright, E.K.

    1992-01-01

    Lost circulation is the loss of drilling fluid from the wellbore to fractures or pores in the rock formation. In geothermal drilling, lost circulation is often a serious problem that contributes greatly to the cost of the average geothermal well. The Lost Circulation Technology Development Program is sponsored at Sandia National Laboratories by the US Department of Energy. The goal of the program is to reduce lost circulation costs by 30--50% through the development of mitigation and characterization technology. This paper describes the technical progress made in this program during the period April 1991--March 1992. 8 refs.

  12. Lost Circulation Technology Development Status

    SciTech Connect

    Glowka, David A.; Schafer, Diane M.; Loeppke, Glen E.; Scott, Douglas D.; Wernig, Marcus D.; Wright, Elton K.

    1992-03-24

    Lost circulation is the loss of drilling fluid from the wellbore to fractures or pores in the rock formation. In geothermal drilling, lost circulation is often a serious problem that contributes greatly to the cost of the average geothermal well. The Lost Circulation Technology Development Program is sponsored at Sandia National Laboratories by the U.S. Department of Energy. The goal of the program is to reduce lost circulation costs by 30-50% through the development of mitigation and characterization technology. This paper describes the technical progress made in this program during the period April, 1991-March, 1992.

  13. Separation of Circulating Tokens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghosh Dastidar, Kajari; Herman, Ted

    Self-stabilizing distributed control is often modeled by token abstractions. For a cyber-physical system, tokens may represent physical objects whose movement is controlled. The problem studied in this paper is to ensure that a synchronous system with m circulating tokens has at least d distance between tokens. This problem is first considered in a ring where d is given whilst m and the ring size n are unknown. The protocol solving this problem can be uniform, with all processes running the same program, or it can be non-uniform, with some processes acting only as token relays. The protocol for this first problem is simple, and can be expressed with Petri net formalism. A second problem is to maximize d when m is given, and n is unknown. For the second problem, the paper presents a non-uniform protocol with a single corrective process.

  14. Ocean General Circulation Models

    SciTech Connect

    Yoon, Jin-Ho; Ma, Po-Lun

    2012-09-30

    1. Definition of Subject The purpose of this text is to provide an introduction to aspects of oceanic general circulation models (OGCMs), an important component of Climate System or Earth System Model (ESM). The role of the ocean in ESMs is described in Chapter XX (EDITOR: PLEASE FIND THE COUPLED CLIMATE or EARTH SYSTEM MODELING CHAPTERS). The emerging need for understanding the Earth’s climate system and especially projecting its future evolution has encouraged scientists to explore the dynamical, physical, and biogeochemical processes in the ocean. Understanding the role of these processes in the climate system is an interesting and challenging scientific subject. For example, a research question how much extra heat or CO2 generated by anthropogenic activities can be stored in the deep ocean is not only scientifically interesting but also important in projecting future climate of the earth. Thus, OGCMs have been developed and applied to investigate the various oceanic processes and their role in the climate system.

  15. Greenland Meltwater and Arctic Circulation Regimes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dukhovskoy, D. S.; Proshutinsky, A. Y.; Timmermans, M. L.; Myers, P. G.; Platov, G.

    2015-12-01

    Between 1948 and 1996, wind-driven components of ice drift and surface ocean currents experienced a well-pronounced decadal variability alternating between anticyclonic and cyclonic circulation regimes. During cyclonic regimes, low sea level atmospheric pressure dominated over the Arctic Ocean driving sea ice and the upper ocean clockwise; the Arctic atmosphere was relatively warm and humid and freshwater flux from the Arctic Ocean toward the sub-Arctic seas was intensified. During anticylonic circulation regimes, high sea level pressure dominated over the Arctic driving sea ice and ocean counter-clockwise; the atmosphere was cold and dry and the freshwater flux from the Arctic to the sub-Arctic seas was reduced. Since 1997, however, the Arctic system has been dominated by an anticyclonic circulation regime with a set of environmental parameters that are atypical for these regimes. Of essential importance is to discern the causes and consequences of the apparent break-down in the natural decadal variability of the Arctic climate system, and specifically: Why has the well-pronounced decadal variability observed in the 20th century been replaced by relatively weak interannual changes under anticyclonic circulation regime conditions in the 21st century? We discuss a hypothesis explaining the causes and mechanisms regulating the intensity and duration of Arctic circulation regimes, and speculate how changes in freshwater fluxes from Greenland impact environmental conditions and interrupt their decadal variability. In order to test this hypothesis, numerical experiments with several FAMOS (Forum for Arctic Modeling & Observational Synthesis) ice-ocean coupled models have been conducted. In these experiments, Greenland melt freshwater is tracked by passive tracers being constantly released along the Greenland coast. Propagation pathways and time scales of Greenland meltwater within the sub-Arctic seas are discussed.

  16. Circulating tumor cells

    PubMed Central

    Raimondi, Cristina; Nicolazzo, Chiara; Gradilone, Angela; Giannini, Giuseppe; De Falco, Elena; Chimenti, Isotta; Varriale, Elisa; Hauch, Siegfried; Plappert, Linda; Cortesi, Enrico; Gazzaniga, Paola

    2014-01-01

    The hypothesis of the “liquid biopsy” using circulating tumor cells (CTCs) emerged as a minimally invasive alternative to traditional tissue biopsy to determine cancer therapy. Discordance for biomarkers expression between primary tumor tissue and circulating tumor cells (CTCs) has been widely reported, thus rendering the biological characterization of CTCs an attractive tool for biomarkers assessment and treatment selection. Studies performed in metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC) patients using CellSearch, the only FDA-cleared test for CTCs assessment, demonstrated a much lower yield of CTCs in this tumor type compared with breast and prostate cancer, both at baseline and during the course of treatment. Thus, although attractive, the possibility to use CTCs as therapy-related biomarker for colorectal cancer patients is still limited by a number of technical issues mainly due to the low sensitivity of the CellSearch method. In the present study we found a significant discordance between CellSearch and AdnaTest in the detection of CTCs from mCRC patients. We then investigated KRAS pathway activating mutations in CTCs and determined the degree of heterogeneity for KRAS oncogenic mutations between CTCs and tumor tissues. Whether KRAS gene amplification may represent an alternative pathway responsible for KRAS activation was further explored. KRAS gene amplification emerged as a functionally equivalent and mutually exclusive mechanism of KRAS pathway activation in CTCs, possibly related to transcriptional activation. The serial assessment of CTCs may represent an early biomarker of treatment response, able to overcome the intrinsic limit of current molecular biomarkers represented by intratumor heterogeneity. PMID:24521660

  17. PULMONARY CIRCULATION AT EXERCISE

    PubMed Central

    NAEIJE, R; CHESLER, N

    2012-01-01

    The pulmonary circulation is a high flow and low pressure circuit, with an average resistance of 1 mmHg.min.L−1 in young adults, increasing to 2.5 mmHg.min.L−1 over 4–6 decades of life. Pulmonary vascular mechanics at exercise are best described by distensible models. Exercise does not appear to affect the time constant of the pulmonary circulation or the longitudinal distribution of resistances. Very high flows are associated with high capillary pressures, up to a 20–25 mmHg threshold associated with interstitial lung edema and altered ventilation/perfusion relationships. Pulmonary artery pressures of 40–50 mmHg, which can be achieved at maximal exercise, may correspond to the extreme of tolerable right ventricular afterload. Distension of capillaries that decrease resistance may be of adaptative value during exercise, but this is limited by hypoxemia from altered diffusion/perfusion relationships. Exercise in hypoxia is associated with higher pulmonary vascular pressures and lower maximal cardiac output, with increased likelihood of right ventricular function limitation and altered gas exchange by interstitial lung edema. Pharmacological interventions aimed at the reduction of pulmonary vascular tone have little effect on pulmonary vascular pressure-flow relationships in normoxia, but may decrease resistance in hypoxia, unloading the right ventricle and thereby improving exercise capacity. Exercise in patients with pulmonary hypertension is associated with sharp increases in pulmonary artery pressure and a right ventricular limitation of aerobic capacity. Exercise stress testing to determine multipoint pulmonary vascular pressures-flow relationships may uncover early stage pulmonary vascular disease. PMID:23105961

  18. Atmospheric Circulation of Exoplanets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showman, A. P.; Cho, J. Y.-K.; Menou, K.

    2010-12-01

    We survey the basic principles of atmospheric dynamics relevant to explaining existing and future observations of exoplanets, both gas giant and terrestrial. Given the paucity of data on exoplanet atmospheres, our approach is to emphasize fundamental principles and insights gained from solar system studies that are likely to be generalizable to exoplanets. We begin by presenting the hierarchy of basic equations used in atmospheric dynamics, including the Navier-Stokes, primitive, shallow-water, and two-dimensional nondivergent models. We then survey key concepts in atmospheric dynamics, including the importance of planetary rotation, the concept of balance, and simple scaling arguments to show how turbulent interactions generally produce large-scale east-west banding on rotating planets. We next turn to issues specific to giant planets, including their expected interior and atmospheric thermal structures, the implications for their wind patterns, and mechanisms to pump their east-west jets. Hot Jupiter atmospheric dynamics are given particular attention, as these close-in planets have been the subject of most of the concrete developments in the study of exoplanetary atmospheres. We then turn to the basic elements of circulation on terrestrial planets as inferred from solar system studies, including Hadley cells, jet streams, processes that govern the large-scale horizontal temperature contrasts, and climate, and we discuss how these insights may apply to terrestrial exoplanets. Although exoplanets surely possess a greater diversity of circulation regimes than seen on the planets in our solar system, our guiding philosophy is that the multidecade study of solar system planets reviewed here provides a foundation upon which our understanding of more exotic exoplanetary meteorology must build.

  19. Does Hydrothermal Circulation Matter?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stein, C. A.; Stein, S.; von Herzen, R. P.; Fisher, A. T.

    2006-05-01

    Determining Earth's energy budget and the sources and mechanisms for heat transfer within it depends largely on assumptions of the heat loss from the formation and cooling of oceanic lithosphere, which covers about 60% of Earth's surface. Recently Hofmeister and Criss (2005) have suggested that the total global heat flow is about 30 TW, about 25% less than previously estimated by Pollack et al. (1993). The main difference between the two estimates is whether the effects of heat transfer by hydrothermal circulation are included. Thermal models describe the evolution of the lithosphere by the conductive cooling of hot material as it moves away from spreading centers. The frequently used half-space (boundary layer) and "plate" models generally successfully represent heat flow, depth, and geoid values with age, and depth-dependent properties such as flexural thickness, maximum depth of intraplate earthquakes, and lithospheric thickness. However, such models overpredict the measured heat flow from ridge crest to about 65 Myr crust. This difference is generally assumed to reflect water flow in the crust transporting heat, as shown by the spectacular hot springs at midocean ridges. If so, the observed heat flow is lower than the model's predictions, which assume that all heat is transferred by conduction. Because hydrothermal heat transport is hard to quantify, heat flow is about 50% larger than directly measured. This estimate is consistent with observations of hydrothermal circulation which indicate that the discrepancy is largely a result of the water fluxing along the oceanic basement and upwelling at isolated basement highs and outcrops. Detailed studies at such areas often show high heat flow near these outcrops and low heat flow in the surrounding areas. Hence isolated measurements are biased towards lower values and underpredict the total heat flow.

  20. Pulmonary circulation at exercise.

    PubMed

    Naeije, Robert; Chesler, N

    2012-01-01

    The pulmonary circulation is a high-flow and low-pressure circuit, with an average resistance of 1 mmHg/min/L in young adults, increasing to 2.5 mmHg/min/L over four to six decades of life. Pulmonary vascular mechanics at exercise are best described by distensible models. Exercise does not appear to affect the time constant of the pulmonary circulation or the longitudinal distribution of resistances. Very high flows are associated with high capillary pressures, up to a 20 to 25 mmHg threshold associated with interstitial lung edema and altered ventilation/perfusion relationships. Pulmonary artery pressures of 40 to 50 mmHg, which can be achieved at maximal exercise, may correspond to the extreme of tolerable right ventricular afterload. Distension of capillaries that decrease resistance may be of adaptative value during exercise, but this is limited by hypoxemia from altered diffusion/perfusion relationships. Exercise in hypoxia is associated with higher pulmonary vascular pressures and lower maximal cardiac output, with increased likelihood of right ventricular function limitation and altered gas exchange by interstitial lung edema. Pharmacological interventions aimed at the reduction of pulmonary vascular tone have little effect on pulmonary vascular pressure-flow relationships in normoxia, but may decrease resistance in hypoxia, unloading the right ventricle and thereby improving exercise capacity. Exercise in patients with pulmonary hypertension is associated with sharp increases in pulmonary artery pressure and a right ventricular limitation of aerobic capacity. Exercise stress testing to determine multipoint pulmonary vascular pressures-flow relationships may uncover early stage pulmonary vascular disease.

  1. Results of theoretical and experimental studies of hydrodynamics of circulation loops in circulating fluidized bed reactors and systems with interconnected reactors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryabov, G. A.; Folomeev, O. M.; Sankin, D. A.; Melnikov, D. A.

    2015-02-01

    Problems of the calculation of circulation loops in circulating fluidized bed reactors and systems with interconnected reactors (polygeneration systems for the production of electricity, heat, and useful products and chemical cycles of combustion and gasification of solid fuels)are considered. A method has been developed for the calculation of circulation loop of fuel particles with respect to boilers with circulating fluidized bed (CFB) and systems with interconnected reactors with fluidized bed (FB) and CFB. New dependences for the connection between the fluidizing agent flow (air, gas, and steam) and performance of reactors and for the whole system (solids flow rate, furnace and cyclone pressure drops, and bed level in the riser) are important elements of this method. Experimental studies of hydrodynamics of circulation loops on the aerodynamic unit have been conducted. Experimental values of pressure drop of the horizontal part of the L-valve, which satisfy the calculated dependence, have been obtained.

  2. Gilsonite leads fight against lost circulation

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, D.K.; Grant, H. )

    1989-04-01

    A solid hydrocarbon called Gilsonite is widely and effectively used to prevent or cure loss of slurry circulation while cementing oil and gas wells. The low specific gravity (1.05) and sealing characteristics of this material give it the qualities that make it effective against loss of slurry to permeable zones, natural and induced fractures, and caverns. Since Gilsonite was first used for these purposes in 19576, over 200,000 wells have been cemented with Gilsonite slurries. More than one-half billion sacks of the product have been used to mix lost circulation-preventing slurries to bridge thief zones that were accepting cement slurries and preventing achievement of the desired full sheath of cement around the casing.

  3. Current detection technologies for circulating tumor cells.

    PubMed

    Shen, Zheyu; Wu, Aiguo; Chen, Xiaoyuan

    2017-04-10

    Circulating tumor cells (CTCs) are cancer cells that circulate in the blood stream after being naturally shed from original or metastatic tumors, and can lead to a new fatal metastasis. CTCs have become a hotspot research field during the last decade. Detection of CTCs, as a liquid biopsy of tumors, can be used for early diagnosis of cancers, earlier evaluation of cancer recurrence and chemotherapeutic efficacy, and choice of individual sensitive anti-cancer drugs. Therefore, CTC detection is a crucial tool to fight against cancer. Herein, we classify the currently reported CTC detection technologies, introduce some representative samples for each technology, conclude the advantages and limitations, and give a future perspective including the challenges and opportunities of CTC detection.

  4. Climate modelling: Northern Hemisphere circulation.

    PubMed

    Gillett, Nathan P

    2005-09-22

    Air pressure at sea level during winter has decreased over the Arctic and increased in the Northern Hemisphere subtropics in recent decades, a change that has been associated with 50% of the Eurasian winter warming observed over the past 30 years, with 60% of the rainfall increase in Scotland and with 60% of the rainfall decrease in Spain. This trend is inconsistent with the simulated response to greenhouse-gas and sulphate-aerosol changes, but it has been proposed that other climate influences--such as ozone depletion--could account for the discrepancy. Here I compare observed Northern Hemisphere sea-level pressure trends with those simulated in response to all the major human and natural climate influences in nine state-of-the-art coupled climate models over the past 50 years. I find that these models all underestimate the circulation trend. This inconsistency suggests that we cannot yet simulate changes in this important property of the climate system or accurately predict regional climate changes.

  5. Design Construction and Operation of a Supercritical Carbon Dioxide (sCO2) Loop for Investigation of Dry Cooling and Natural Circulation Potential for Use in Advanced Small Modular Reactors Utilizing sCO2 Power Conversion Cycles.

    SciTech Connect

    Middleton, Bobby D.; Rodriguez, Salvador B.; Carlson, Matthew David

    2015-11-01

    This report outlines the work completed for a Laboratory Directed Research and Development project at Sandia National Laboratories from October 2012 through September 2015. An experimental supercritical carbon dioxide (sCO 2 ) loop was designed, built, and o perated. The experimental work demonstrated that sCO 2 can be uti lized as the working fluid in an air - cooled, natural circulation configuration to transfer heat from a source to the ultimate heat sink, which is the surrounding ambient environment in most ca ses. The loop was also operated in an induction - heated, water - cooled configuration that allows for measurements of physical parameters that are difficult to isolate in the air - cooled configuration. Analysis included the development of two computational flu id dynamics models. Future work is anticipated to answer questions that were not covered in this project.

  6. Constraining the North Atlantic circulation with tritium data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Memery, Laurent; Wunsch, Carl

    1990-01-01

    The North Atlantic circulation derived from an inverse calculation by singular-value decomposition is tested against the historical record of tritium. A forward calculation of the tritium transient is performed using the circulation model, published estimates of atmospheric injection rates, and plausible estimates of the tracer history at the open boundaries of the model. The results do not agree with observations of the interior distributions of tritium. Consideration is given to the possibility of improving the agreement by modifying the atmospheric injection rates and the initial estimates of open boundary time histories, treating the boundary conditions as control variables.

  7. Definition of a generalized diabatic circulation based on a variational approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Medvedev, A. S.

    2007-08-01

    Diabatic-circulation diagnostics with the use of the distributions of heating rates and potential temperature requires that, in each particular case, a special and ambiguously defined correction to the stream function be introduced to turn a globally averaged vertical velocity to zero at any isobaric level. Up to now, the physical nature of this correction has been little explained and it has been usually written in a form that has not been substantiated to a sufficient extent. In this paper, this correction and its uncertainty are related to the eddy term, which is usually neglected in the concept of diabatic velocities. The decomposition of wave fluxes into advective and diffusion components is not unique. As a result, one can formulate a variational problem of minimizing the diffusion component of the wave flux and, thus, the problem of finding advective velocities, which involve the maximum of eddy-induced advection. A unique solution of this problem is obtained, and the relation of the solution to the “standard” diabatic circulation is studied. It is shown that, in the approximation of quasi-horizontal isentropes, the generalized diabatic stream function is identical with the “standard“ stream function. This result partially justifies the correction that is commonly used in calculations of the diabatic circulation.

  8. Miniature Gas-Circulating Machine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swift, Walter L.; Valenzuela, Javier A.; Sixsmith, Herbert; Nutt, William E.

    1993-01-01

    Proposed gas-circulating machine consists essentially of centrifugal pump driven by induction motor. Noncontact bearings suppress wear and contamination. Used to circulate helium (or possibly hydrogen or another gas) in regeneration sorption-compressor refrigeration system aboard spacecraft. Also proves useful in terrestrial applications in which long life, reliability, and low contamination essential.

  9. Temperature field study of hot water circulation pump shaft system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Y. Y.; Kong, F. Y.; Daun, X. H.; Zhao, R. J.; Hu, Q. L.

    2016-05-01

    In the process of engineering application under the condition of hot water circulation pump, problems of stress concentration caused by the temperature rise may happen. In order to study the temperature field in bearing and electric motor chamber of the hot water circulation pump and optimize the structure, in present paper, the model of the shaft system is created through CREO. The model is analyzed by ANSYS workbench, in which the thermal boundary conditions are applied to calculate, which include the calorific values from the bearings, the thermal loss from electric motor and the temperature from the transporting medium. From the result, the finite element model can reflect the distribution of thermal field in hot water circulation pump. Further, the results show that the maximum temperature locates in the bearing chamber.The theoretical guidance for the electric motor heat dissipation design of the hot water circulation pump can be achieved.

  10. Mean meridional circulation in the Southern Hemisphere stratosphere during the polar night

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adler, R. F.

    1973-01-01

    Atmospheric structure derived from satellite, multichannel radiance data is used to calculate zonally averaged vertical motions in the wintertime stratosphere of both hemispheres. The Northern Hemisphere calculations confirm the two celled meridional circulation calculated by previous authors. The Southern Hemisphere results show a three celled structure with descending motion over the South Pole. The variability of the mean meridional circulation in the Southern Hemisphere in relation to the presence or absence of a minor midwinter warming is also discussed.

  11. Testing Mantle Circulation Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Webb, P.; Davies, D.; Davies, J.

    2008-12-01

    Over the past decade, a new family of mantle convection models have been developed, which are conditioned by recent plate motion history (e.g. Bunge et al., 1997). They are commonly known as 'mantle circulation models' and allow for comparisons between present-day model predictions and ever improving seismic tomography images (e.g. Li et al. 2008). In this work, we present results from systematic investigations into the influence of various model parameters upon final model prediction/tomography correlations, to obtain a better understanding of their relative importance. These include a range of material properties, such as the radial viscosity structure, the Clapeyron slope of mineral phase transitions and compressibility; in addition to other aspects, such as the initial condition for the simulation. For our comparisons, we focus in particular on two large robust mid-mantle seismic anomalies, which others have related to the subduction of the Farallon and Tethys plates (e.g. Romanowicz, 1980). While these features are recovered with some fidelity in most simulations, the match can vary greatly. We find that there is a great deal of information in this mismatch, which includes information on the plate motion history.

  12. Sauna bather's circulation.

    PubMed

    Vuori, I

    1988-01-01

    Cutaneous circulation increases greatly in sauna in order to prevent body heating. Blood pressure tends to fall but this is prevented by increased cardiac output by means of faster heart rate and by decreased blood flow to the visceral organs. Cooling in cold air, shower, water or rolling in snow causes rapid cutaneous vasoconstriction, which leads to elevation of arterial blood pressure and increase of central venous blood volume. The effects of both heat and cold are mediated via the sympathetic nervous system. The circulatory responses to sauna are related to the intensity and duration of the heat exposure. An ordinary sauna bath increases cardiac workload about as much as moderate or vigorous walking. Habituation to sauna decreases the sympathetic stimulation and cardiovascular responses. Sudden cooling, for example diving in cold water, causes a severe transitory volume load and pressure load to the heart and increases the possibility of cardiac arrhythmias. The risk of cardiovascular complications in correctly practiced sauna bathing is very small and it is confined to subjects predisposed to the risk because of manifest or latent cardiovascular abnormalities.

  13. Circulating Adiponectin and Risk of Endometrial Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Qiaoli; Wu, Haijian; Cao, Jiang

    2015-01-01

    Background Adiponectin is an insulin-sensitizing hormone produced by adipocytes. It has been suggested to be involved in endometrial tumorigenesis. Published data have shown inconsistent results for the association between circulating adiponectin levels and endometrial cancer. In this study, we conducted a meta-analysis to evaluate the predictive value of circulating adiponectin levels on the development of endometrial cancer. Methods PubMed, Embase, ISI web of knowledge, and Cochrane databases were searched for all eligible studies, and the summary relative risk (SRR) was calculated. Additionally, we performed dose-response analysis with eight eligible studies. Results A total of 1,955 cases and 3,458 controls from 12 studies were included. The SRR for the ‘highest’ vs ‘lowest’ adiponectin levels indicated high adiponectin level reduced the risk of endometrial cancer [SRR = 0.40, 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.33–0.66]. Results from the subgroup analyses were consistent with the overall analysis. The SRR for each 1 µg/ml increase of adiponectin indicated a 3% reduction in endometrial cancer risk (95% CI: 2%–4%), and a 14% reduction for each increase of 5 µg/ml (95% CI: 9%–19%). No evidence of publication bias was found. Conclusions This meta-analysis demonstrates that low level of circulating adiponectin is a risk factor for endometrial cancer. PMID:26030130

  14. PV Theories For Planetary Atmospheric Circulations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allison, Michael; Travis, Larry (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Potential vorticity (or PV) has become an important tool for the diagnosis and modeling of the Earth's atmospheric and oceanic circulations. More recently, the application of PV thinking to numerical simulations and spacecraft observations of other atmospheres, including those of Mars, Venus, and Titan, has encouraged the hope for a unified understanding of planetary circulation regimes encompassing a wide range of rotation, stratification, and forcing parameters. Specifically, the accumulated evidence suggests that zonal-mean winds and temperatures at upper tropospheric levels approximate a state of zero potential vorticity within the bounding latitudes of the westerly jets, while the poleward regions of cyclonic shear conform to a PV state that is well mixed with respect to its polar limit. This review of the prospects for conceptual planetary circulation models will explore the possibility that the zonal-mean state of an atmosphere can be calculated in terms of a simple link between the latitudinal PV and potential temperature variation at an upper baroclinic steering level.

  15. PV Theories For Planetary Atmospheric Circulations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allison, Michael; Travis, Larry (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Potential vorticity (or PV) has become an important tool for the diagnosis and modeling of the Earth's atmospheric and oceanic circulations. More recently, the application of PV thinking to numerical simulations and spacecraft observations of other atmospheres, including those of Mars, Venus, and Titan, has encouraged the hope for a unified understanding of planetary circulation regimes encompassing a wide range of rotation, stratification, and forcing parameters. Specifically, the accumulated evidence suggests that zonal-mean winds and temperatures at upper tropospheric levels approximate a state of zero potential vorticity within the bounding latitudes of the westerly jets, while the poleward regions of cyclonic shear conform to a PV state that is well mixed with respect to its polar limit. This review of the prospects for conceptual planetary circulation models will explore the possibility that the zonal-mean state of an atmosphere can be calculated in terms of a simple link between the latitudinal PV and potential temperature variation at an upper baroclinic steering level.

  16. The Lymphatic Circulation in Adaptations to the Fontan Circulation.

    PubMed

    Menon, Sabarinath; Chennapragada, Murthy; Ugaki, Shinya; Sholler, Gary F; Ayer, Julian; Winlaw, David S

    2017-06-01

    Failing Fontan continues to be major problem for patients on the univentricular pathway. Failing Fontan is often complicated by chylothorax, plastic bronchitis and protein loosing enteropathy. The role of lymphatic circulation in Fontan circulation is still being researched. Newer imaging modalities give insight into the role of abnormal dilatation and retrograde flow in lymphatic channels post Fontan. Interventional strategies targeting abnormal lymphatic channels, provides an alternative management strategy for patients with failing Fontan. This review focuses on the role of lymphatic system in adaptations to Fontan circulation.

  17. Multiple Circulating Cytokines Are Coelevated in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

    PubMed Central

    Todd, Ian; John, Michelle; Bolton, Charlotte E.; Harrison, Timothy

    2016-01-01

    Inflammatory biomarkers, including cytokines, are associated with COPD, but the association of particular circulating cytokines with systemic pathology remains equivocal. To investigate this, we developed a protein microarray system to detect multiple cytokines in small volumes of serum. Fourteen cytokines were measured in serum from never-smokers, ex-smokers, current smokers, and COPD patients (GOLD stages 1–3). Certain individual circulating cytokines (particularly TNFα and IL-1β) were significantly elevated in concentration in the serum of particular COPD patients (and some current/ex-smokers without COPD) and may serve as markers of particularly significant systemic inflammation. However, numerous circulating cytokines were raised such that their combined, but not individual, elevation was significantly associated with severity of disease, and these may be further indicators of, and contributors to, the systemic inflammatory manifestations of COPD. The coelevation of numerous circulating cytokines in COPD is consistent with the insidious development, chronic nature, and systemic comorbidities of the disease. PMID:27524865

  18. Multiple Circulating Cytokines Are Coelevated in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease.

    PubMed

    Selvarajah, Senthooran; Todd, Ian; Tighe, Patrick J; John, Michelle; Bolton, Charlotte E; Harrison, Timothy; Fairclough, Lucy C

    2016-01-01

    Inflammatory biomarkers, including cytokines, are associated with COPD, but the association of particular circulating cytokines with systemic pathology remains equivocal. To investigate this, we developed a protein microarray system to detect multiple cytokines in small volumes of serum. Fourteen cytokines were measured in serum from never-smokers, ex-smokers, current smokers, and COPD patients (GOLD stages 1-3). Certain individual circulating cytokines (particularly TNFα and IL-1β) were significantly elevated in concentration in the serum of particular COPD patients (and some current/ex-smokers without COPD) and may serve as markers of particularly significant systemic inflammation. However, numerous circulating cytokines were raised such that their combined, but not individual, elevation was significantly associated with severity of disease, and these may be further indicators of, and contributors to, the systemic inflammatory manifestations of COPD. The coelevation of numerous circulating cytokines in COPD is consistent with the insidious development, chronic nature, and systemic comorbidities of the disease.

  19. When Prostate Cancer Circulates in the Bloodstream

    PubMed Central

    Vlaeminck-Guillem, Virginie

    2015-01-01

    Management of patients with prostate cancer is currently based on imperfect clinical, biological, radiological and pathological evaluation. Prostate cancer aggressiveness, including metastatic potential, remains difficult to accurately estimate. In an attempt to better adapt therapeutics to an individual (personalized medicine), reliable evaluation of the intrinsic molecular biology of the tumor is warranted, and particularly for all tumor sites (primary tumors and secondary sites) at any time of the disease progression. As a consequence of their natural tendency to grow (passive invasion) or as a consequence of an active blood vessel invasion by metastase-initiating cells, tumors shed various materials into the bloodstream. Major efforts have been recently made to develop powerful and accurate methods able to detect, quantify and/or analyze all these circulating tumor materials: circulating tumors cells, disseminating tumor cells, extracellular vesicles (including exosomes), nucleic acids, etc. The aim of this review is to summarize current knowledge about these circulating tumor materials and their applications in translational research. PMID:26854164

  20. Shaping Meridional Circulation in Solar and Stellar Convection Zones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Featherstone, N. A.; Miesch, M. S.

    2014-12-01

    Meridional circulations play a crucial role in mediating the angular momentum transport within stellar convection zones and, likely, in determining the nature and timing of their dynamos. The length of the solar cycle, for instance, is thought to depend intimately on the transport of magnetic fields by the meridional circulations in the convection zone. We present a series of 3-D nonlinear simulations of solar-like convection, carried out using the Anelastic Spherical Harmonic (ASH) code that are designed to provide insight into those processes responsible for driving and shaping the meridional circulations established within stellar convection zones. These 3-D models have been constructed in such a way as to span the transition between regimes of solar-like differential rotation (fast equator, slow poles) and regimes of so-called ``anti-solar'' differential rotation (slow equator, fast poles). Solar-like states of differential rotation are characterized by multiple cells of meridional circulation in depth at low latitudes, whereas anti-solar states of differential rotation are characterized by a single cell of circulation within each hemisphere. We demonstrate that the transition from single-celled to multi-celled meridional circulation profiles in these two different regimes is directly linked to a change in the nature of the convective Reynolds stress. These results suggest that if convection in the Sun is strongly rotationally-constrained, a multi-cellular meridional circulation profile may well be expected. Transitional regimes do exist, however, and we conclude by examining a simulation wherein convection that is only marginally rotationally constrained can drive both mono-cellular meridional circulation and solar-like differential rotation.

  1. The Role of Atmospheric Circulation Patterns in Climatological Drought Dynamics in Finland during 1962-2011

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmadi, B.; Irannezhad, M.; Kløve, B.; Moradkhani, H.

    2016-12-01

    This study aims at understanding the influences of atmospheric circulation patterns (ACPs) on the development of drought over Finland in recent decades. Using the Standardized Precipitation Evapotranspiration Index (SPEI), the spatio-temporal variability in climatological drought dynamics (in terms of intensity, frequency, duration, and extent) in Finland during 1962 -2011 is evaluated. The SPEI values are calculated in 12-, 3- , and 1- month time steps (SPEI -12, -3, and -1, respectively). The correlations between the SPEI values and the influential ACPs in the Northern Hemisphere are calculated. Droughts seem to intensify in April, August, and September, and generally occur over southern, central, eastern, and western Finland. With significant wetting trends, interestingly, December shows the highest frequency of droughts. Based on the SPEI-12, the probability of drought extent has significantly increased in Finland over time. The Arctic Oscillation and the Scandinavia Pattern are shown to be the most significant ACPs controlling temperature variability and consequently drought conditions in warm months (April-September). Further analysis for the cold months (October-March) demonstrates how ACPs drive precipitation deficit and thereby influence the SPEI values. Although Finland has experienced wetter climate than normal during 1962-2011, this study provides a detailed spatial assessment of climatological drought variability and the plausible atmospheric circulation drivers, which seems important in management of this spatially extensive and recurrently prolonged natural hazard.

  2. Salinity Boundary Conditions and the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation in Depth and Quasi-Isopycnic Coordinate Global Ocean Models

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-06-30

    2006. Investigating the causes of the response of the thermohaline circulation to past and future climate changes . J. Clim. 19, 1365-1387. Sun, S...Global climatic impacts of a collapse of the Atlantic thermohaline circulation , Clim. Change 54, 251– 267. Willebrand, J., et al., 2001. Circulation ...Rahmstorf, S., 1995. Bifurcations of the Atlantic thermohaline circulation in response to changes in the hydrological cycle. Nature 378, 145-149

  3. LLNL Ocean General Circulation Model

    SciTech Connect

    Wickett, M. E.; Caldeira, K.; Duffy, P.

    2005-12-29

    The LLNL OGCM is a numerical ocean modeling tool for use in studying ocean circulation over a wide range of space and time scales, with primary applications to climate change and carbon cycle science.

  4. Circulating Progenitor Cells and Scleroderma

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Scleroderma (systemic sclerosis) is a disease of unknown origins that involves tissue ischemia and fibrosis in the skin and internal organs such as the lungs. The tissue ischemia is due to a lack of functional blood vessels and an inability to form new blood vessels. Bone marrow–derived circulating endothelial progenitor cells play a key role in blood vessel repair and neovascularization. Scleroderma patients appear to have defects in the number and function of circulating endothelial progenitor cells. Scleroderma patients also develop fibrotic lesions, possibly as the result of tissue ischemia. Fibroblast-like cells called fibrocytes that differentiate from a different pool of bone marrow–derived circulating progenitor cells seem to be involved in this process. Manipulating the production, function, and differentiation of circulating progenitor cells represents an exciting new possibility for treating scleroderma. PMID:18638425

  5. Ockham's Razorblade Shaving Wind-Induced Circulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bergmann, Juan Carlos

    2010-05-01

    Terrestrial physical oceanography is fortunate because of the existence of the continents that divide the low-latitude oceans into basins. At first glance, the previous statement appears to be not obvious because an ocean-planet should be much simpler to describe. Simple-case explanation is the central aspect of Ockham's Razorblade: If a theory fails to describe the most-simple case properly, the theory is, at least, ‘not good'. Also Descartes' methodical rules take the most-simple case as starting point. The analysis of wind-induced circulation on an ocean-planet will support the initial statement. Earth's south hemisphere is dominated by the oceans. The continents' influence on the zonal-average zonal-wind climate is relatively small. Therefore, South Hemisphere's zonal wind pattern is a relatively good proxy for that of an ocean planet. Application of this wind-stress pattern to an ocean planet yields reasonable meridional mass-flow results from the polar-regions down to the high-pressure belts: Down-welling and up-welling of water-mass are approximately balanced. However, the entire tropical circulation can in principle not be closed because there is only down-welling - even if the extreme down-welling in the equatorial belt (± 8°, with a singularity at the equator) is disregarded. The only input to the calculations is the observed terrestrial south-hemisphere zonal wind-stress pattern. Meridional stress is irrelevant because it produces a closed zonal Ekman-transport around the ocean planet (sic!). Vertical mass-transport is calculated from the divergence of the wind-induced meridional Ekman-mass-transport, which in its turn is a necessary consequence of angular-momentum conservation. No assumptions are made on how the return-flows at depth are forced because the wind-force equations cannot contribute hereto. This circumstance expresses a fundamental difference to atmospheric circulation, where mechanical forcing is caused by the pressure-fields that

  6. DOE lost circulation technology development

    SciTech Connect

    Glowka, D.A.; Staller, G.E.; Sattler, A.R.

    1996-09-01

    Lost circulation is a problem common in both the geothermal and the solution mining industries. In both cases, drilling is on a relatively large scale (geothermal holes can be as large as 26 inches). Lost circulation technology development for geothermal drilling has been in progress at Sandia National Laboratories for more than 15 years. The initial work centered on lost circulation materials, but testing and modeling indicated that if the aperture of a loss zone is very large (larger than the drill bit nozzles) it cannot be plugged by simply adding materials to the drilling fluid. Thus, the lost circulation work evolved to include: (1) Development of metering techniques that accurately measure and characterize drilling fluid inflow and outflow for rapid diagnosis of los circulation and/or fluid balance while drilling. (2) Construction of a laboratory facility for testing drillable straddle packers (to improve the plugging efficiency of cementing operations) and the actual testing of components of the straddle packer. (3) Construction of a laboratory facility for the testing of candidate porous fabrics as a part of a program to develop a porous packer that places polyurethane foam into a loss zone. (4) Implementing (with Halliburton and CalEnergy Company), a program to test cementitious lost circulation material as an alternative to Portland cement.

  7. Dietary Human Milk Oligosaccharides but Not Prebiotic Oligosaccharides Increase Circulating Natural Killer Cell and Mesenteric Lymph Node Memory T Cell Populations in Noninfected and Rotavirus-Infected Neonatal Piglets.

    PubMed

    Comstock, Sarah S; Li, Min; Wang, Mei; Monaco, Marcia H; Kuhlenschmidt, Theresa B; Kuhlenschmidt, Mark S; Donovan, Sharon M

    2017-06-01

    Background: Human milk oligosaccharides (HMOs) have antimicrobial and immunomodulatory actions. It has previously been reported that these oligosaccharides contribute to the reduced duration of rotavirus-induced diarrhea in pigs.Objective: We measured the effects of HMOs and prebiotic oligosaccharides on immune cell populations from noninfected and rotavirus-infected pigs. We hypothesized that dietary HMOs would modulate systemic and gastrointestinal immunity.Methods: Colostrum-deprived newborn pigs were fed formula, formula with 4 g HMOs/L (2'-fucosyllactose, lacto-N-neotetraose, 6'-sialyllactose, 3'-sialyllactose, and free sialic acid), or formula with 3.6 g short-chain galactooligosaccharides/L and 0.4 g long-chain fructooligosaccharides/L. On day 10, half of the pigs were infected with the porcine rotavirus strain OSU. Peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC), mesenteric lymph node (MLN), and ileal Peyer's patch immune cell populations were assessed with the use of flow cytometry 5 d postinfection. Interferon-γ (IFN-γ)-producing cells were assessed with the use of Enzyme-Linked ImmunoSpot assay.Results: Infection changed immune cell populations with more systemic natural killer (NK) cells, memory effector T cells, and major histocompatibility complex II(+) cells in infected than noninfected pigs (P < 0.06). Regardless of infection status, HMO-fed pigs had nearly twice as many PBMC NK cells, 36% more MLN effector memory T cells, and 5 times more PBMC basophils than formula-fed pigs (P < 0.04). These populations were intermediate in pigs fed prebiotics. PBMCs from HMO-fed noninfected pigs had twice as many IFN-γ-producing cells as did those from formula-fed noninfected pigs (P = 0.017). The PBMCs and MLNs of formula-fed noninfected pigs had 3 times more plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs) than those of HMO-fed noninfected and formula-fed infected pigs (P < 0.04). In the MLNs, the formula-fed noninfected pigs had more macrophages, pDCs, and mature DCs (P < 0

  8. The relationship of maternal characteristics and circulating progesterone concentrations with reproductive outcome in the bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus) after artificial insemination, with and without ovulation induction, and natural breeding.

    PubMed

    O'Brien, J K; Robeck, T R

    2012-08-01

    Bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) undergoing natural breeding and artificial insemination (AI) were examined to characterize serum progesterone concentrations and determine relationships among age, parity, and reproductive outcome. Progesterone profiles of five cycle types (n = 119 total cycles from 54 animals) were characterized as follows: (i) conception and production of a live term calf (conceptive-term, n = 73); (ii) conception and abortion after Day 60 (conceptive-abortion, n = 12); (iii) unknown conception status with prolonged, elevated progesterone and absence of a fetus (conceptive-unknown, n = 14); (iv) conception failure with normal luteal phase progesterone concentrations (non-conceptive, n = 14, AI cycles only); and (v) conception failure with progesterone insufficiency occuring after spontaneous ovulation or owing to premature ovulation induction using GnRH (non-conceptive-PI, n = 6, AI cycles only). By Day 21 post-insemination (PI), progesterone concentrations were similar (P > 0.05) among conceptive-term, conceptive-abortion and conceptive-unknown, and higher (P < 0.05) for conceptive-term than non-conceptive and non-conceptive-PI cycles. Progesterone concentrations of known conceptive cycles peaked by Week 7 PI (P < 0.05) and remained elevated for the remainder of pregnancy (Weeks 8 up to 54, ≥ 5 days pre-partum). During midpregnancy (Days 121-240), conceptive-term cycles had higher (P > 0.05) progesterone concentrations than conceptive-abortion and unknown conception status cycles. Parity was not associated with reproductive outcome based on cycle type (P > 0.05). Age of females in conceptive-unknown (26.5 ± 10.1 yrs) and conceptive-abortion (22.1 ± 9.4 yrs) groups was higher (P < 0.05) than in conceptive-term (15.7 ± 7.2 yrs). The conceptive-unknown cycle type possibly represents undetected early embryonic loss occurring before Day 60 PI. Length of gestation using known conception dates was 376.1 ± 11.0 days and the range of this

  9. RELAP5 posttest calculation of IAEA-SPE-4

    SciTech Connect

    Petelin, S.; Mavko, B.; Parzer, I.; Prosek, A.

    1994-12-31

    The International Atomic Energy Agency`s Fourth Standard Problem Exercise (IAEA-SPE-4) was performed at the PMK-2 facility. The PMK-2 facility is designed to study processes following small- and medium-size breaks in the primary system and natural circulation in VVER-440 plants. The IAEA-SPE-4 experiment represents a cold-leg side small break, similar to the IAEA-SPE-2, with the exception of the high-pressure safety injection being unavailable, and the secondary side bleed and feed initiation. The break valve was located at the dead end of a vertical downcomer, which in fact simulates a break in the reactor vessel itself, and should be unlikely to happen in a real nuclear power plant (NPP). Three different RELAP5 code versions were used for the transient simulation in order to assess the calculations with test results.

  10. Correlations between the modelled potato crop yield and the general atmospheric circulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sepp, Mait; Saue, Triin

    2012-07-01

    Biology-related indicators do not usually depend on just one meteorological element but on a combination of several weather indicators. One way to establish such integral indicators is to classify the general atmospheric circulation into a small number of circulation types. The aim of present study is to analyse connections between general atmospheric circulation and potato crop yield in Estonia. Meteorologically possible yield (MPY), calculated by the model POMOD, is used to characterise potato crop yield. Data of three meteorological stations and the biological parameters of two potato sorts were applied to the model, and 73 different classifications of atmospheric circulation from catalogue 1.2 of COST 733, domain 05 are used to qualify circulation conditions. Correlation analysis showed that there is at least one circulation type in each of the classifications with at least one statistically significant (99%) correlation with potato crop yield, whether in Kuressaare, Tallinn or Tartu. However, no classifications with circulation types correlating with MPY in all three stations at the same time were revealed. Circulation types inducing a decrease in the potato crop yield are more clearly represented. Clear differences occurred between the observed geographical locations as well as between the seasons: derived from the number of significant circulation types, summer and Kuressaare stand out. Of potato varieties, late 'Anti' is more influenced by circulation. Analysis of MSLP maps of circulation types revealed that the seaside stations (Tallinn, Kuressaare) suffer from negative effects of anti-cyclonic conditions (drought), while Tartu suffers from the cyclonic activity (excessive water).

  11. Correlations between the modelled potato crop yield and the general atmospheric circulation.

    PubMed

    Sepp, Mait; Saue, Triin

    2012-07-01

    Biology-related indicators do not usually depend on just one meteorological element but on a combination of several weather indicators. One way to establish such integral indicators is to classify the general atmospheric circulation into a small number of circulation types. The aim of present study is to analyse connections between general atmospheric circulation and potato crop yield in Estonia. Meteorologically possible yield (MPY), calculated by the model POMOD, is used to characterise potato crop yield. Data of three meteorological stations and the biological parameters of two potato sorts were applied to the model, and 73 different classifications of atmospheric circulation from catalogue 1.2 of COST 733, domain 05 are used to qualify circulation conditions. Correlation analysis showed that there is at least one circulation type in each of the classifications with at least one statistically significant (99%) correlation with potato crop yield, whether in Kuressaare, Tallinn or Tartu. However, no classifications with circulation types correlating with MPY in all three stations at the same time were revealed. Circulation types inducing a decrease in the potato crop yield are more clearly represented. Clear differences occurred between the observed geographical locations as well as between the seasons: derived from the number of significant circulation types, summer and Kuressaare stand out. Of potato varieties, late 'Anti' is more influenced by circulation. Analysis of MSLP maps of circulation types revealed that the seaside stations (Tallinn, Kuressaare) suffer from negative effects of anti-cyclonic conditions (drought), while Tartu suffers from the cyclonic activity (excessive water).

  12. The global residual mean circulation in the middle atmosphere for the northern winter period

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gille, John C.; Lyjak, Lawrence V.; Smith, Anne K.

    1987-01-01

    The residual mean circulation (rmc) has been calculated from the transformed thermodynamic equation using LIMS (Limb Infrared Monitor of the Stratosphere) data for the 100-0.1 mb region. For discussion, it has been divided into two components: the diabatic circulation, associated with the diabatic heating, and the transient circulation, more directly connected to eddy activity. The slowly varying diabatic circulation reveals an equator-to-pole circulation at lower levels in the stratosphere, usually overlain by a summer-to-winter pole circulation. However, there are strong seasonal variations, so that the pole-to-pole circulation fills the entire region at the December solstice, while the equator-to-pole circulation extends to above 0.1 mb at the equinoxes. The transient circulation is characterized by rapid variations and small vertical and horizontal scales. Though generally smaller than the diabatic circulation, it can dominate in the lower stratosphere during disturbed conditions. This circulation is consistent with the transformed momentum equation in the lower stratosphere (where drag is expected to be small) during undisturbed periods. It suggests a large drag due to small-scale waves (such as gravity waves) in the mesosphere, although the magnitudes are uncertain. The downward propagation of the semiannual oscillation causes the rmc in the tropics to vary, and it is capable of creating the equatorial water vapor maximum above 10 mb.

  13. The strength of the meridional overturning circulation of the stratosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Linz, Marianna; Plumb, R. Alan; Gerber, Edwin P.; Haenel, Florian J.; Stiller, Gabriele; Kinnison, Douglas E.; Ming, Alison; Neu, Jessica L.

    2017-09-01

    The distribution of gases such as ozone and water vapour in the stratosphere--which affect surface climate--is influenced by the meridional overturning of mass in the stratosphere, the Brewer-Dobson circulation. However, observation-based estimates of the global strength of this circulation are difficult to obtain. Here we present two calculations of the mean strength of the meridional overturning of the stratosphere. We analyse satellite data that document the global diabatic circulation between 2007-2011, and compare these to three reanalysis data sets and to simulations with a state-of-the-art chemistry-climate model. Using measurements of sulfur hexafluoride (SF6) and nitrous oxide, we calculate the global mean diabatic overturning mass flux throughout the stratosphere. In the lower stratosphere, these two estimates agree, and at a potential temperature level of 460 K (about 20 km or 60 hPa in tropics) the global circulation strength is 6.3-7.6 × 109 kg s-1. Higher in the atmosphere, only the SF6-based estimate is available, and it diverges from the reanalysis data and simulations. Interpretation of the SF6-data-based estimate is limited because of a mesospheric sink of SF6; however, the reanalyses also differ substantially from each other. We conclude that the uncertainty in the mean meridional overturning circulation strength at upper levels of the stratosphere amounts to at least 100%.

  14. Circulation Across 52w In The North Atlantic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hall, M.; Joyce, T.; Pickart, R.; Smethie, W.

    The zonal circulation across the 52W meridian in the North Atlantic is described, as deduced from hydrographic and ADCP data. The data were collected in a 1997 cruise as part of the World Ocean Circulation Experiment, from the Grand Banks southeast of Newfoundland down to Suriname, South America (near 7 deg N, 53.5 deg W), and included shipboard and lowered ADCP (SADCP and LADCP) data along with hydro- graphic, nutrient, and CFC data. To analyze the circulation, first, geostrophic velocity shear was calculated using the hydrographic data. Next, an initial reference level ve- locity for each station pair was obtained by comparison of the geostrophic shear with the SADCP and LADCP data. Finally, an inverse calculation was applied, which con- served mass and silica within prescribed tolerance levels in 17 neutral density layers as well as overall. Because LADCP data were lacking over a crucial subset of stations in the northern Deep Western Boundary Current and throughout the Gulf Stream sys- tem, error bars on the final circulation are necessarily large. This result emphasizes the importance of collecting LADCP data concurrently with hydrographic data. Results will be presented in terms of velocity sections, transport streamfunctions, and total transports for major currents. Most surprising in the results is the strength of the deep circulation away from the boundary currents.

  15. Connection between mesopause temperature, circulation and noctilucent clouds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gartner, V.; Memmesheimer, M.

    1985-01-01

    To investigate the connection between mesopause temperature in summer and the induced circulation upon possible formation of the observed polar mesospheric (noctilucent) cloud layer (PMC), a two-dimensional semiempirical model is used to calculate the zonally averaged diabatic circulation. On the basis of the calculations, one may draw the following conclusions: (1) if the large departures from radiative equilibrium which occur at the summer mesopause at high latitudes should be balanced by adiabatic processes of the mean circulation alone, a vigorous circulation is needed (there is some evidence that such a vigorous circulation has been observed); (2) the vertical velocities of some cm/s at the polar summertime mesopause will support the formation of polar mesospheric clouds, because those large wind speeds support larger ice particles against gravitational sedimentation; and (3) a region of mild subsidence in the summertime midlatitude mesosphere due to the effect of nonlinear temperature advection would tend to limit the occurrence of ice particles to latitudes poleward of about 55 deg.

  16. Connection between mesopause temperature, circulation and noctilucent clouds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gartner, V.; Memmesheimer, M.

    1985-01-01

    To investigate the connection between mesopause temperature in summer and the induced circulation upon possible formation of the observed polar mesospheric (noctilucent) cloud layer (PMC), a two-dimensional semiempirical model is used to calculate the zonally averaged diabatic circulation. On the basis of the calculations, one may draw the following conclusions: (1) if the large departures from radiative equilibrium which occur at the summer mesopause at high latitudes should be balanced by adiabatic processes of the mean circulation alone, a vigorous circulation is needed (there is some evidence that such a vigorous circulation has been observed); (2) the vertical velocities of some cm/s at the polar summertime mesopause will support the formation of polar mesospheric clouds, because those large wind speeds support larger ice particles against gravitational sedimentation; and (3) a region of mild subsidence in the summertime midlatitude mesosphere due to the effect of nonlinear temperature advection would tend to limit the occurrence of ice particles to latitudes poleward of about 55 deg.

  17. Laboratory measurements of the generation and evolution of Langmuir circulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melville, W. Kendall; Shear, Robert; Veron, Fabrice

    1998-06-01

    We present laboratory measurements of the generation and evolution of Langmuir circulations as an instability of a wind-driven surface shear layer. The shear layer, which is generated by an accelerating wind starting from rest above a quiescent water surface, both accelerates and deepens monotonically until the inception of the Langmuir circulations. The Langmuir circulations closely follow the initial growth of the wind waves and rapidly lead to vertical mixing of the horizontal momentum and a deceleration of the surface layer. Prior to the appearance of the Langmuir circulations, the depth of the shear layer scales with (vt)1/2 (v is the kinematic viscosity and t is time), in accordance with molecular rather than turbulent transport. For final wind speeds in the range 3 to 5 m s[minus sign]1, the wavenumber of the most unstable Langmuir circulation normalized by the surface wavenumber, k*lc, is 0.68±0.24, at a reciprocal Langmuir number, La[minus sign]1, of 52±21. The observations are compared with available theoretical results, although none are directly applicable to the conditions of the experiments. The implications of this work for the generation and evolution of Langmuir circulations in the ocean and other natural water bodies are discussed.

  18. Application of remote sensing to study nearshore circulation. [and the continental shelf

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zeigler, J.; Lobecker, R.; Stauble, D.; Welch, C.; Haas, L.; Fang, C. S.

    1974-01-01

    The research to use remote sensing techniques for studying the continental shelf is reported. The studies reported include: (1) nearshore circulation in the vincinity of a natural tidal inlet; (2) identification of indicators of biological activity; (3) remote navigation system for tracking free drifting buoys; (4) experimental design of an estuaring tidal circulation; and (5) Skylab support work.

  19. The influence of concentrated heating on the Hadley circulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hou, Arthur Y.; Lindzen, Richard S.

    1992-01-01

    The studies of Lindzen and Hou (1988) of Hadley circulation forced by global heating distributions are extended to situations where heating is latitudinally concentrated. The qualitative effect of narrow heating is examined by means of simple 'equal area' arguments of the type developed by Held and Hou (1980). Numerical calculations for a continuous fluid are carried out, showing that the intensity of the resulting Hadley circulation depends on how the heating is concentrated. It is shown that only a mild concentration is needed to achieve agreement with observations.

  20. CFD Analysis of Circulation Control Airfoils Using Fluent

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McGowan, Gregory; Gopalarathnam, Ashok

    2005-01-01

    In an effort to validate computational fluid dynamics procedures for calculating flows around circulation control airfoils, the commercial flow solver FLUENT was utilized to study the flow around a general aviation circulation control airfoil. The results were compared to experimental and computational fluid dynamics results conducted at the NASA Langley Research Center. The current effort was conducted in three stages: 1. A comparison of the results for free-air conditions to those from experiments. 2. A study of wind-tunnel wall effects. and 3. A study of the stagnation-point behavior.

  1. Equilibrium calculations of firework mixtures

    SciTech Connect

    Hobbs, M.L.; Tanaka, Katsumi; Iida, Mitsuaki; Matsunaga, Takehiro

    1994-12-31

    Thermochemical equilibrium calculations have been used to calculate detonation conditions for typical firework components including three report charges, two display charges, and black powder which is used as a fuse or launch charge. Calculations were performed with a modified version of the TIGER code which allows calculations with 900 gaseous and 600 condensed product species at high pressure. The detonation calculations presented in this paper are thought to be the first report on the theoretical study of firework detonation. Measured velocities for two report charges are available and compare favorably to predicted detonation velocities. However, the measured velocities may not be true detonation velocities. Fast deflagration rather than an ideal detonation occurs when reactants contain significant amounts of slow reacting constituents such as aluminum or titanium. Despite such uncertainties in reacting pyrotechnics, the detonation calculations do show the complex nature of condensed phase formation at elevated pressures and give an upper bound for measured velocities.

  2. Recent progress in circulation control aerodynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nielsen, Jack N.; Biggers, James C.

    1987-01-01

    A workshop on circulation control aerodynamics was held on February 19-21, 1986 at NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, CA. The subjects covered were viscosity and turbulence of Coanda jets, circulation control airfoils, airfoil theory, circulation control airfoil and wing experiments, circulation control rotor theory, X-Wing technology, and fixed-wing technology. The unclassified papers of the Workshop are reviewed in this paper, and Workshop recommendations for future research and development on circulation control are presented.

  3. [Circulating nucleic acids and infertility].

    PubMed

    Scalici, E; Mullet, T; Ferrières Hoa, A; Gala, A; Loup, V; Anahory, T; Belloc, S; Hamamah, S

    2015-09-01

    Circulating nucleic acids (cell-free DNA and microRNAs) have for particularity to be easily detectable in the biological fluids of the body. Therefore, they constitute biomarkers of interest in female and male infertility care. Indeed, in female, they can be used to detect ovarian reserve disorders (polycystic ovary syndrome and low functional ovarian reserve) as well as to assess follicular microenvironment quality. Moreover, in men, their expression levels can vary in case of spermatogenesis abnormalities. Finally, circulating nucleic acids have also the ability to predict successfully the quality of in vitro embryo development. Their multiple contributions during assisted reproductive technology (ART) make of them biomarkers of interest, for the development of new diagnostic and/or prognostic tests, applied to our specialty. Circulating nucleic acids would so offer the possibility of personalized medical care for infertile couples in ART.

  4. Bandwidth broadening for stripline circulator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chao, Hsien-Wen; Wu, Shi-Yao; Chang, Tsun-Hsu

    2017-02-01

    This work provides a detailed analysis and simulation to demonstrate how to broaden the operating bandwidth of a circulator. A double-Y junction circulator is designed, and the shape of the central stripline is optimized with the knowledge of a modified equation. The equation predicts two resonant conditions. The overlapping of the two resonant conditions jointly constitutes the broad bandwidth. The bias magnetic field is simulated and then used in full electromagnetic-wave simulation. The designed circulator was fabricated in the S-band for communication purpose. The measured results agree very well with simulation. The overall operation range is from 1643 to 2027 MHz with the insertion loss less than 0.35 dB, reflection, and isolation better than 20 dB. The mechanism will be discussed.

  5. Noise Reduction Through Circulation Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Munro, Scott E.; Ahuja, K. K.; Englar, Robert J.

    2005-01-01

    Circulation control technology uses tangential blowing around a rounded trailing edge or a leading edge to change the force and moment characteristics of an aerodynamic body. This technology has been applied to circular cylinders, wings, helicopter rotors, and even to automobiles for improved aerodynamic performance. Only limited research has been conducted on the acoustic of this technology. Since wing flaps contribute to the environmental noise of an aircraft, an alternate blown high lift system without complex mechanical flaps could prove beneficial in reducing the noise of an approaching aircraft. Thus, in this study, a direct comparison of the acoustic characteristics of high lift systems employing a circulation control wing configuration and a conventional wing flapped configuration has been made. These results indicate that acoustically, a circulation control wing high lift system could be considerably more acceptable than a wing with conventional mechanical flaps.

  6. Natural convection heat transfer simulation using energy conservative dissipative particle dynamics.

    PubMed

    Abu-Nada, Eiyad

    2010-05-01

    Dissipative particle dynamics with energy conservation (eDPD) was used to study natural convection via Rayleigh-Bénard (RB) problem and a differentially heated enclosure problem (DHE). The current eDPD model implemented the Boussinesq approximation to model the buoyancy forces. The eDPD results were compared to the finite volume solutions and it was found that the eDPD method predict the temperature and flow fields throughout the natural convection domains properly. The eDPD model recovered the basic features of natural convection, such as development of plumes, development of thermal boundary layers, and development of natural convection circulation cells (rolls). The eDPD results were presented via temperature isotherms, streamlines, velocity contours, velocity vector plots, and temperature and velocity profiles. Further useful quantities, such as Nusselt number was calculated from the eDPD results and found to be in good agreement with the finite volume calculations.

  7. Circulating a Good Service Model at Its Core: Circulation!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hernandez, Edmee Sofia; Germain, Carol Anne, Ed.

    2009-01-01

    Circulation is the library's tireless foot soldier: it serves as the front gate to the library's services and resources. This service point is where most patrons enter and leave; and experience their first and last impressions--impressions that linger. In an age when academic libraries are facing meager budgets and declining usage statistics, this…

  8. Circulating a Good Service Model at Its Core: Circulation!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hernandez, Edmee Sofia; Germain, Carol Anne, Ed.

    2009-01-01

    Circulation is the library's tireless foot soldier: it serves as the front gate to the library's services and resources. This service point is where most patrons enter and leave; and experience their first and last impressions--impressions that linger. In an age when academic libraries are facing meager budgets and declining usage statistics, this…

  9. Detection of Circulating Tumor Cells

    PubMed Central

    Terstappen, Leon W. M. M.

    2014-01-01

    The increasing number of treatment options for patients with metastatic carcinomas has created an accompanying need for methods to determine if the tumor will be responsive to the intended therapy and to monitor its effectiveness. Ideally, these methods would be noninvasive and provide quantitative real-time analysis of tumor activity in a variety of carcinomas. Assessment of circulating tumor cells shed into the blood during metastasis may satisfy this need. Here we review the CellSearch technology used for the detection of circulating tumor cells and discuss potential future directions for improvements. PMID:25133014

  10. Seawater bicarbonate removal during hydrothermal circulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Proskurowski, G. K.; Seewald, J.; Sylva, S. P.; Reeves, E.; Lilley, M. D.

    2013-12-01

    High temperature fluids sampled at hydrothermal vents represent a complex alteration product of water-rock reactions on a multi-component mixture of source fluids. Sources to high-temperature hydrothermal samples include the 'original' seawater present in the recharge limb of circulation, magmatically influenced fluids added at depth as well as any seawater entrained during sampling. High-temperature hydrothermal fluids are typically enriched in magmatic volatiles, with CO2 the dominant species, characterized by concentrations of 10's-100's of mmol/kg (1, 2). Typically, the high concentration of CO2 relative to background seawater bicarbonate concentrations (~2.3 mmol/kg) obscures a full analysis of the fate of seawater bicarbonate during high-temperature hydrothermal circulation. Here we present data from a suite of samples collected over the past 15 years from high-temperature hydrothermal vents at 9N, Endeavour, Lau Basin, and the MAR that have endmember CO2 concentrations less than 10 mmol/kg. Using stable and radiocarbon isotope measurements these samples provide a unique opportunity to examine the balance between 'original' seawater bicarbonate and CO2 added from magmatic sources. Multiple lines of evidence from multiple hydrothermal settings consistently points to the removal of ~80% of the 'original' 2.3 mmol/kg seawater bicarbonate. Assuming that this removal occurs in the low-temperature, 'recharge' limb of hydrothermal circulation, this removal process is widely occurring and has important contributions to the global carbon cycle over geologic time. 1. Lilley MD, Butterfield DA, Lupton JE, & Olson EJ (2003) Magmatic events can produce rapid changes in hydrothermal vent chemistry. Nature 422(6934):878-881. 2. Seewald J, Cruse A, & Saccocia P (2003) Aqueous volatiles in hydrothermal fluids from the Main Endeavour Field, northern Juan de Fuca Ridge: temporal variability following earthquake activity. Earth and Planetary Science Letters 216(4):575-590.

  11. Transient analysis of the 1991 Hijiori Shallow Reservoir Circulation Test

    SciTech Connect

    Hyodo, M.; Shinohara, N.; Takasugi, S.; Wright, C.A.; Conant, R..

    1996-01-24

    Like any dynamic system, HDR reservoirs cannot be fully characterized by their steady-state behavior. Circulation tests analysis should be performed on both the steady-state response and the transient response of HDR systems. Transient analysis allows not only estimation of critical reservoir parameters and how these parameters change with operating conditions / history, but transient analysis also aids in evaluating the feasibility of various modes of HDR system operation (base load, load following, etc.). This paper details the transient analysis of NEDO's FY 1991 Shallow Reservoir Circulation Test at the Hijiori HDR site in Japan. Reservoir fluid storage is carefully bounded through the employment of two distinct methods for calculation of the fluid storage from the observed transient response. A brief discussion is also included of the distribution of reservoir fluid storage; the relationship between pressure, reservoir stress, and apparent reservoir capacitance; and appropriate circulation test design to facilitate transient analysis.

  12. Photon and neutrino-pair emission from circulating quantum ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshimura, M.; Sasao, N.

    2016-06-01

    The recent proposal of a photon and a neutrino-pair beam is investigated in detail. Production rates, both differential and total, of a single photon, two photons, and a neutrino pair emitted from quantum ions in circular motion are given for any velocity of ion. This part is an extension of our previous calculations at highest energies to lower energies of circulating ions, and hopefully helps to identify the new process of quantum ion circulation at a low energy ring. We clarify how to utilize the circulating ion for a new source of coherent neutrino beam despite much stronger background photons. Once one verifies that the coherence is maintained in the initial phases of time evolution after laser irradiation, large background photon emission rates are not an obstacle against utilizing the extracted neutrino-pair beam.

  13. Numerical modelling of geothermal and reflux circulation in Enewetak Atoll: Implications for dolomitization

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jones, G.; Whitaker, F.; Smart, P.; Sanford, W.

    2000-01-01

    Two types of regional-scale seawater circulation have been proposed to explain the formation of Enewetak Atoll dolomites: geothermal and reflux circulation. We have used a finite element groundwater flow model to examine the pattern, magnitude and dynamic interaction of these two different circulation mechanisms in Enewetak Atoll. Geothermal circulation is concentrated around the atoll-margin whereas refluxing mesosaline brines flow from the atoll interior towards the margin to restrict and eventually shut off geothermal circulation. Refluxing brines of 36-80??? can account for the salinity signature recorded in dolomite fluid inclusions. Distributions of fluid flux and Mg mass-balance calculations suggest that both geothermal and reflux circulation mechanisms could account for the observed distribution of dolomite in Enewetak Atoll. Furthermore, the atoll interior may be extensively dolomitized as observed in other atolls. (C) 2000 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.Two types of regional-scale seawater circulation have been proposed to explain the formation of Enewetak Atoll dolomites: geothermal and reflux circulation. We have used a finite element groundwater flow model to examine the pattern, magnitude and dynamic interaction of these two different circulation mechanisms in Enewetak Atoll. Geothermal circulation is concentrated around the atoll-margin whereas refluxing mesosaline brines flow from the atoll interior towards the margin to restrict and eventually shut off geothermal circulation. Refluxing brines of 36-80 per mil can account for the salinity signature recorded in dolomite fluid inclusions. Distributions of fluid flux and Mg mass-balance calculations suggest that both geothermal and reflux circulation mechanisms could account for the observed distribution of dolomite in Enewetak Atoll. Furthermore, the atoll interior may be extensively dolomitized as observed in other atolls.

  14. ENDEMIC ORTHOPOXVIRUS CIRCULATING IN PROCYONIDS IN MEXICO.

    PubMed

    Gallardo-Romero, Nadia F; Aréchiga-Ceballos, Nidia; Emerson, Ginny L; Martínez-Martínez, Flor O; Doty, Jeffrey B; Nakazawa, Yoshinori J; Rendón-Franco, Emilio; Muñoz-García, Claudia I; Villanueva-García, Claudia; Ramírez-Cid, Citlali; Gama-Campillo, Lilia M; Gual-Sill, Fernando; Aguilar-Setién, Álvaro; Carroll, Darin S

    2016-07-01

    Limited serosurveillance studies suggested that orthopoxviruses (OPXV) are widespread in the US (e.g., Raccoonpox virus, Skunkpox virus, Volepox virus) and Brazil (Vaccinia virus); however, their animal reservoir(s) remain unconfirmed. Mexican mammal diversity includes several species related to those in which evidence for OPXV infections has been found (Oryzomys, Peromyscus, Microtus, and Procyonidae). The presence of these groups of mammals in Mexico and the evidence of their possible involvement in the maintenance of OPXV in nature suggest the same or similar OPXV are circulating in Mexico. We tested 201 sera from 129 procyonids via modified enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and Western blot (WB) to estimate OPXV antibody prevalence in these animals. We detected a prevalence of 16.67% in Nasua narica (white-nosed coati), 35% in Procyon lotor (raccoon), and 30.4% in Bassariscus astutus (ring-tailed cat) when tested by either ELISA or WB. Western blot results presented protein bands consistent with the size of some OPXV immunodominant bands (14, 18, 32, 36, and 62 kDa). These results support the hypothesis that OPXV circulate in at least three genera of Procyonidae in Central and Southeast Mexico.

  15. In vivo acoustic and photoacoustic focusing of circulating cells

    PubMed Central

    Galanzha, Ekaterina I.; Viegas, Mark G.; Malinsky, Taras I.; Melerzanov, Alexander V.; Juratli, Mazen A.; Sarimollaoglu, Mustafa; Nedosekin, Dmitry A.; Zharov, Vladimir P.

    2016-01-01

    In vivo flow cytometry using vessels as natural tubes with native cell flows has revolutionized the study of rare circulating tumor cells in a complex blood background. However, the presence of many blood cells in the detection volume makes it difficult to count each cell in this volume. We introduce method for manipulation of circulating cells in vivo with the use of gradient acoustic forces induced by ultrasound and photoacoustic waves. In a murine model, we demonstrated cell trapping, redirecting and focusing in blood and lymph flow into a tight stream, noninvasive wall-free transportation of blood, and the potential for photoacoustic detection of sickle cells without labeling and of leukocytes targeted by functionalized nanoparticles. Integration of cell focusing with intravital imaging methods may provide a versatile biological tool for single-cell analysis in circulation, with a focus on in vivo needleless blood tests, and preclinical studies of human diseases in animal models. PMID:26979811

  16. In vivo acoustic and photoacoustic focusing of circulating cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galanzha, Ekaterina I.; Viegas, Mark G.; Malinsky, Taras I.; Melerzanov, Alexander V.; Juratli, Mazen A.; Sarimollaoglu, Mustafa; Nedosekin, Dmitry A.; Zharov, Vladimir P.

    2016-03-01

    In vivo flow cytometry using vessels as natural tubes with native cell flows has revolutionized the study of rare circulating tumor cells in a complex blood background. However, the presence of many blood cells in the detection volume makes it difficult to count each cell in this volume. We introduce method for manipulation of circulating cells in vivo with the use of gradient acoustic forces induced by ultrasound and photoacoustic waves. In a murine model, we demonstrated cell trapping, redirecting and focusing in blood and lymph flow into a tight stream, noninvasive wall-free transportation of blood, and the potential for photoacoustic detection of sickle cells without labeling and of leukocytes targeted by functionalized nanoparticles. Integration of cell focusing with intravital imaging methods may provide a versatile biological tool for single-cell analysis in circulation, with a focus on in vivo needleless blood tests, and preclinical studies of human diseases in animal models.

  17. Neural Control of the Circulation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Gail D.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this brief review is to highlight key concepts about the neural control of the circulation that graduate and medical students should be expected to incorporate into their general knowledge of human physiology. The focus is largely on the sympathetic nerves, which have a dominant role in cardiovascular control due to their effects to…

  18. Modelling Circulation Control by Blowing

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-08-01

    circulation control is initially presented for the Coanda flaw of a wail jot around a circular cylinder in a free stream. The decay in the jet momentum...is desirable that such an approach should be sufficiently general to allow treatment of the many applications of boundary layer control and Coanda

  19. Neural Control of the Circulation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Gail D.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this brief review is to highlight key concepts about the neural control of the circulation that graduate and medical students should be expected to incorporate into their general knowledge of human physiology. The focus is largely on the sympathetic nerves, which have a dominant role in cardiovascular control due to their effects to…

  20. Automated Circulation. SPEC Kit 43.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Association of Research Libraries, Washington, DC. Office of Management Studies.

    Of the 64 libraries responding to a 1978 Association of Research Libraries (ARL) survey, 37 indicated that they used automated circulation systems; half of these were commercial systems, and most were batch-process or combination batch process and online. Nearly all libraries without automated systems cited lack of funding as the reason for not…

  1. Electrochemical Genosensing of Circulating Biomarkers

    PubMed Central

    Campuzano, Susana; Yáñez-Sedeño, Paloma; Pingarrón, José Manuel

    2017-01-01

    Management and prognosis of diseases requires the measurement in non- or minimally invasively collected samples of specific circulating biomarkers, consisting of any measurable or observable factors in patients that indicate normal or disease-related biological processes or responses to therapy. Therefore, on-site, fast and accurate determination of these low abundance circulating biomarkers in scarcely treated body fluids is of great interest for health monitoring and biological applications. In this field, electrochemical DNA sensors (or genosensors) have demonstrated to be interesting alternatives to more complex conventional strategies. Currently, electrochemical genosensors are considered very promising analytical tools for this purpose due to their fast response, low cost, high sensitivity, compatibility with microfabrication technology and simple operation mode which makes them compatible with point-of-care (POC) testing. In this review, the relevance and current challenges of the determination of circulating biomarkers related to relevant diseases (cancer, bacterial and viral infections and neurodegenerative diseases) are briefly discussed. An overview of the electrochemical nucleic acid–based strategies developed in the last five years for this purpose is given to show to both familiar and non-expert readers the great potential of these methodologies for circulating biomarker determination. After highlighting the main features of the reported electrochemical genosensing strategies through the critical discussion of selected examples, a conclusions section points out the still existing challenges and future directions in this field. PMID:28420103

  2. A hybrid fuzzy logic and extreme learning machine for improving efficiency of circulating water systems in power generation plant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aziz, Nur Liyana Afiqah Abdul; Siah Yap, Keem; Afif Bunyamin, Muhammad

    2013-06-01

    This paper presents a new approach of the fault detection for improving efficiency of circulating water system (CWS) in a power generation plant using a hybrid Fuzzy Logic System (FLS) and Extreme Learning Machine (ELM) neural network. The FLS is a mathematical tool for calculating the uncertainties where precision and significance are applied in the real world. It is based on natural language which has the ability of "computing the word". The ELM is an extremely fast learning algorithm for neural network that can completed the training cycle in a very short time. By combining the FLS and ELM, new hybrid model, i.e., FLS-ELM is developed. The applicability of this proposed hybrid model is validated in fault detection in CWS which may help to improve overall efficiency of power generation plant, hence, consuming less natural recourses and producing less pollutions.

  3. The influence of concentrated heating on the Hadley circulation

    SciTech Connect

    Hou, A.Y. ); Lindzen, R.S. )

    1992-07-15

    This study extends the earlier work on Hadley circulations forced by broad, global heating distributions to situations where heating is latitudinally concentrated. In the case of heating symmetrically centered on the equator, concentration unambiguously increases the intensity of the Hadley circulation-by up to a factor of 5. For heating centered off the equator, its effect depends on whether the concentration is drawn symmetrically from both sides of the heating maximum or whether the heat is preferentially drawn from the winter side. In the latter case, concentration again leads to pronounced intensification of the Hadley circulation. Indeed, agreement between the calculated and observed Hadley intensity is achieved with mild concentration, consistent with the observed zonally averaged precipitation, rather than the narrower rainfall association with the ITCZ. This suggests that a weakening of those processes that broaden the zonally averaged rainfall (i.e., the easterly waves and regional land processes) would result in a much stronger Hadley circulation. The implication of this work is that a small change in the tropical heating distribution can profoundly alter the intensity of the Hadley circulation and the baroclinicity in the extratropics. This can, in turn, modulate wave transport in the middle and high latitudes, resulting in significant changes in the global climate. 82 refs., 24 figs.

  4. Emission Corridors Preserving the Atlantic Ocean Thermohaline Circulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zickfeld, K.; Bruckner, T.

    2001-12-01

    The Atlantic thermohaline circulation (THC) transports large amounts of heat northward, acting as a heating system for the northern North Atlantic and north-western Europe. A large number of model simulations have shown the THC to be self-sustaining within certain limits, with well-defined thresholds where the circulation shuts down. Manabe and Stouffer (1993), for example, have simulated a complete shutdown of the THC for a quadrupling of atmospheric CO2. Because of the possibly severe consequences that a collapse of the THC would have upon the North Atlantic and north-western Europe, such an event may be considered as "dangerous anthropogenic interference with the climate system" that Article 2 of the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) calls to avoid. Here we present bundles of emission paths (the so called "emission corridors") that preserve the Atlantic thermohaline circulation. These corridors are calculated on the methodological and conceptual basis of the Tolerable Windows Approach. For this purpose a multi-gas reduced-form climate model has been supplemented by a dynamic Stommel-type boxmodel of the Atlantic thermohaline circulation. Both models allow for the relevant uncertainties (i.e., emissions of non-CO2 greenhouse gases, climate sensitivity, Atlantic hydrological sensitivity) to be taken into account. The sensitivity of emissions corridors with respect to the uncertain parameters is explored and the implications for a climate policy committed to the preservation of the Atlantic thermohaline circulation in the sense of Article 2 are discussed.

  5. Control of glomerular filtration rate by circulating angiotensin II.

    PubMed

    Hall, J E; Coleman, T G; Guyton, A C; Kastner, P R; Granger, J P

    1981-09-01

    Previous studies from our laboratory have provided evidence that the renin-angiotensin system plays an important role in controlling glomerular filtration rate (GFR) through an efferent arteriolar vasoconstrictor mechanism; however, the relative importance of circulating versus intrarenally formed angiotensin II (ANG II) in this control has not been determined. In the present study, the role of circulating ANG II in regulating GFR during reduced renal artery pressure (RAP) was examined in sodium-depleted dogs. After 90 min of infusion of the angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor SQ 14225, which presumably inhibited formation of both circulating and intrarenal ANG II, reduction of RAP to 81 +/- 2 mmHg resulted in marked decreases in GFR, filtration fraction (FF), and calculated efferent arteriolar resistance (RE), whereas renal blood flow (RBF) was maintained approximately 40% above initial control levels determined before SQ 14225 infusion. Replacement of circulating ANG II during SQ 14225 infusion, by intravenous infusion of ANG II at rates that decreased RBF to control levels, increased GFR, FF, and RE to levels not significantly different from control while RAP was maintained constant by aortic constriction. These observations suggest that circulating ANG II plays an important role in regulating RE and GFR during reductions in RAP. The importance of intrarenally formed ANG II in controlling GFR remains to be determined.

  6. Isotopic composition of precipitation during different atmospheric circulation patterns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brenčič, Mihael; Kononova, Nina; Vreča, Polona

    2016-04-01

    Precipitation generating processes depend on atmospheric circulation patterns and consequently it is expected that its water stable isotopic composition of hydrogen and oxygen is related to them. Precipitation generated at similar atmospheric circulation patterns should have similar empirical distribution of δ2H and δ18O values. There are several approaches in which atmospheric circulation patterns are classified as elementary air circulation mechanisms - ECM; in our approach we have applied Dzerdzeevskii classification. Two types of models of relation between ECM and isotopic composition of precipitation are proposed; first is based on the linear combination of δ2H and δ18O values with precipitation amount weighted average (Brenčič et al., 2015) and the second new one is based on the multiple regression approach. Both approaches make possible also to estimate empirical distributions' dispersion parameters. Application of the models is illustrated on the precipitation records from Ljubljana and Portorož GNIP stations, Slovenia. Estimated values of the parameters for empirical distributions of δ2H and δ18O of each ECM subtype have shown that calculated estimates are reasonable. Brenčič, M., Kononova, N.K., Vreča, P., 2015: Relation between isotopic composition of precipitation and atmospheric circulation patterns. Journal of Hydrology 529, 1422-1432: doi: 10.1016/j.jhydrol.2015.08.040

  7. Relation between isotopic composition of precipitation and atmospheric circulation patterns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brenčič, Mihael; Kononova, Nina K.; Vreča, Polona

    2015-10-01

    Precipitation generating processes depend on atmospheric circulation patterns and consequently it is expected that its water stable isotopic composition of hydrogen and oxygen is related to them. Precipitation generated at similar atmospheric circulation patterns should have similar empirical distribution of δ2H and δ18O values. Mathematical model based on the linear combination of δ2H and δ18O values and on precipitation amount weighted average related to elementary air circulation mechanisms - ECM is proposed. The model enables estimation of average δ2H and δ18O values and their standard deviation for the precipitation generated at distinctive atmospheric circulation patterns. Approach in which atmospheric circulation patterns were classified as ECM based on the Dzerdzeevskii classification was applied. Application of the model is illustrated on the long term precipitation record from Ljubljana GNIP station Slovenia. Estimated values of the parameters for empirical distributions of δ2H and δ18O of each ECM subtype have shown that calculated estimates are reasonable. Further applications of the proposed model enable new insight into the understanding of isotopes spatial and temporal distribution in precipitation important also for better understanding of climate proxies.

  8. Atmospheric Circulation Anomalies during Episodes of Enhanced and Reduced Convective Cloudiness over Uruguay.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Díaz, Alvaro; Aceituno, Patricio

    2003-10-01

    Regional and large-scale circulation anomalies associated with periods of enhanced and reduced convective cloudiness over Uruguay are studied for austral spring and summer, when rainfall associated with deep convection is more frequent in this region. The analysis was performed at a submonthly timescale, considering that the essential nature of the mechanisms producing rainfall is not well captured by anomalies calculated on a monthly or seasonal basis in regions where precipitation is highly episodic.Periods of enhanced and reduced convective cloudiness over Uruguay are characterized by a marked dipolar structure in the outgoing longwave radiation anomaly field along eastern South America from 10° to 40°S, with the centers of the dipole located over the South Atlantic convergence zone (SACZ) and over a broad region including Uruguay, southern Brazil, and northeastern Argentina. This dipole, which corresponds to one of the key factors of climate dynamics in South America during spring and summer, seems to be part of a much larger wavelike quasi-barotropic structure that includes alternating centers of negative and positive geopotential height and temperature anomalies in the southern portion of the continent, and farther upstream in the southern Pacific. At the regional scale, periods of enhanced convection and rainfall over Uruguay are associated with the following features: a warm-core anticyclonic circulation anomaly in the middle and upper troposphere, centered on 34°S, 45°W, approximately; an intensified Chaco low in northwestern Argentina that favors a reinforced northwesterly flow of warm and moist air from the Amazon basin; and an anomalously strong subtropical jet along eastern South America. Periods with reduced convective cloudiness over Uruguay are characterized by circulation anomalies that are broadly opposite to those described before, although some significant asymmetries in their intensity are documented. No major differences were detected in

  9. Tracers of Past Ocean Circulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lynch-Stieglitz, J.

    2003-12-01

    Information about how the ocean circulated during the past is useful in understanding changes in ocean and atmospheric chemistry, changes in the fluxes of heat and freshwater between the ocean and atmosphere, and changes in global wind patterns. The circulation of surface waters in the ocean leaves an imprint on sea surface temperature, and is also inextricably linked to the patterns of oceanic productivity. Much valuable information about past ocean circulation has been inferred from reconstructions of surface ocean temperature and productivity, which are covered in separate chapters. Here the focus is on the geochemical tracers that are used to infer the flow patterns and mixing of subsurface water masses.Several decades ago it was realized that chemistry of the shells of benthic foraminifera (carbon isotope and Cd/Ca ratios) carried an imprint of the nutrient content of deep-water masses (Shackleton, 1977; Broecker, 1982; Boyle, 1981). This led rapidly to the recognition that the water masses in the Atlantic Ocean were arrayed differently during the last glacial maximum than they are today, and the hypothesis that the glacial arrangement reflected a diminished contribution of low-nutrient North Atlantic deep water (NADW) ( Curry and Lohmann, 1982; Boyle and Keigwin, 1982). More detailed spatial reconstructions indicated a shallow nutrient-depleted water mass overlying a more nutrient-rich water mass in the glacial Atlantic. These findings spurred advances not only in geochemistry but in oceanography and climatology, as workers in these fields attempted to simulate the inferred glacial circulation patterns and assess the vulnerability of the modern ocean circulation to changes such as observed for the last ice age.While the nutrient distributions in the glacial Atlantic Ocean were consistent with a diminished flow of NADW, they also could have reflected an increase in inflow from the South Atlantic and/or a shallower yet undiminished deep-water mass. Clearly

  10. The strength of the meridional overturning circulation of the stratosphere.

    PubMed

    Linz, Marianna; Plumb, R Alan; Gerber, Edwin P; Haenel, Florian J; Stiller, Gabriele; Kinnison, Douglas E; Ming, Alison; Neu, Jessica L

    2017-09-01

    The distribution of gases such as ozone and water vapour in the stratosphere - which affect surface climate - is influenced by the meridional overturning of mass in the stratosphere, the Brewer-Dobson circulation. However, observation-based estimates of its global strength are difficult to obtain. Here we present two calculations of the mean strength of the meridional overturning of the stratosphere. We analyze satellite data that document the global diabatic circulation between 2007- 2011, and compare these to three re-analysis data sets and to simulations with a state-of-the-art chemistry-climate model. Using measurements of sulfur hexafluoride (SF6) and nitrous oxide, we calculate the global mean diabatic overturning mass flux throughout the stratosphere. In the lower stratosphere, these two estimates agree, and at a potential temperature level of 460 K (about 20 km or 60 hPa in tropics), the global circulation strength is 6.3-7.6 × 10(9) kg/s. Higher in the atmosphere, only the SF6-based estimate is available, and it diverges from the re-analysis data and simulations. Interpretation of the SF6 data-based estimate is limited because of a mesospheric sink of SF6; however, the reanalyses also differ substantially from each other. We conclude that the uncertainty in the mean meridional overturning circulation strength at upper levels of the stratosphere amounts to at least 100 %.

  11. HENRY'S LAW CALCULATOR

    EPA Science Inventory

    On-Site was developed to provide modelers and model reviewers with prepackaged tools ("calculators") for performing site assessment calculations. The philosophy behind OnSite is that the convenience of the prepackaged calculators helps provide consistency for simple calculations,...

  12. HENRY'S LAW CALCULATOR

    EPA Science Inventory

    On-Site was developed to provide modelers and model reviewers with prepackaged tools ("calculators") for performing site assessment calculations. The philosophy behind OnSite is that the convenience of the prepackaged calculators helps provide consistency for simple calculations,...

  13. Passive Safety of the STAR-LM HLMC Natural Convection Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Sienicki, James J.; Petkov, Plamen V.

    2002-07-01

    The STAR-LM 300 to 400 MWt class modular, factory fabricated, fully transportable, proliferation resistant, autonomous, reactor system achieves passive safety by taking advantage of the intrinsic benefits of inert lead-bismuth eutectic heavy liquid metal coolant, 100+% natural circulation heat transport, a fast neutron spectrum core utilizing high thermal conductivity transuranic nitride fuel, redundant passive air cooling of the outside of the guard/containment vessel driven by natural circulation, and seismic isolation where required by site conditions. Postulated loss-of-heat sink without scram, overcooling without scram, and unprotected transient overpower accidents are analyzed for the 300 MWt STAR-LM design using a coupled thermal hydraulics-neutron kinetics plant dynamics analysis computer code. In all cases, STAR-LM is calculated to exhibit passive safety with peak cladding and coolant temperatures remaining within the existing database for lead-bismuth eutectic coolant and ferritic steel core materials. (authors)

  14. TI-59 Drilling engineering manual. [Texas Instruments-59 Calculator Programs

    SciTech Connect

    Chenevert, M.E.; Hollo, R.

    1981-01-01

    Twenty-seven drilling engineering programs to be used with the Texas Instruments 59 programmable calculator are given, with step-by-step explanations on how to input these on the calculator. Programs for basic drilling engineering, drilling fluid viscosity and circulation, hydrostatic pressure due to gas, surge and swab pressure, and well control are given. (JMT)

  15. Thermohaline circulation and its box models simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bazyura, Kateryna; Polonsky, Alexander; Sannikov, Viktor

    2014-05-01

    cases of using linear and nonlinear seawater state equation. In the frame of four-box model it is shown that: 1) The occurrence of the thermohaline catastrophe, which is likely happened at Younger Dryas period or developed as Heinrich events in the past, is improbable in modern climate epoch. 2) Choice of nonlinear seawater equitation of state leads to stabilization of warm mode of THC, which corresponds to modern climate state. 3) Typical white noise in heat and freshwater fluxes leads to generation of multidecadal oscillations of volume transport. Time-scale of these oscillations coincides with Atlantic Multidecadal oscillation periodicity. So, it is shown that that recent climate is characterized by quasi-periodical stable multidecadal THC warm regime. Stocker, T. F., 2000: Past and future reorganisations in the climate system. Quat. Sci.Rev, Vol. 19, P.301-319. Clark U., 2002: The role of the thermohaline circulation in abrupt climate change. Nature. Vol. 415, P.863-869. Rahmstorf S., 2002: Ocean circulation and climate during the past 120000 years. Nature. Vol. 419, P.207-214. Alley, R. B. & Clark, P. U., 1999: The deglaciation of the Northern Hemisphere: a global perspective. Annu.Rev. Earth Planet. Sci. Vol. 27, P.149-182. Griffies S.M., Tziperman E., 1995: A linear thermohaline oscillator driven by stochastic atmospheric forcing. Journal of Climate. Vol. 8. P. 2440-2453.

  16. Circulation of HRSV in Belgium: from multiple genotype circulation to prolonged circulation of predominant genotypes.

    PubMed

    Houspie, Lieselot; Lemey, Philippe; Keyaerts, Els; Reijmen, Eva; Vergote, Valentijn; Vankeerberghen, Anne; Vaeyens, Freya; De Beenhouwer, Hans; Van Ranst, Marc

    2013-01-01

    Molecular surveillance of HRSV in Belgium for 15 consecutive seasons (1996-2011) revealed a shift from a regular 3-yearly cyclic pattern, into a yearly alternating periodicity where HRSV-B is replaced by HRSV-A. Phylogenetic analysis for HRSV-A demonstrated the stable circulation of GA2 and GA5, with GA2 being dominant over GA5 during 5 consecutive seasons (2006-2011). We also identified 2 new genotype specific amino acid mutations of the GA2 genotype (A122 and Q156) and 7 new GA5 genotype specific amino acid mutations (F102, I108, T111, I125, D161, S191 and L217). Several amino acid positions, all located in the second hypervariable region of HRSV-A were found to be under positive selection. Phylogenetic analysis of HRSV-B showed the circulation of GB12 and GB13, where GB13 represented 100% of the isolated strains in 4 out of 5 consecutive seasons (2007-2011). Amino acids under positive selection were all located in the aminoterminal hypervariable region of HRSV-B, except one amino acid located in the conserved region. The genotype distribution within the HRSV-B subgroup has evolved from a co-circulation of multiple genotypes to the circulation of a single predominant genotype. The Belgian GB13 strains circulating since 2006, all clustered under the BAIV branch and contained several branch specific amino acid substitutions. The demographic history of genotypes GA2, GA5 and GB13 demonstrated a decrease in the total GA2 and GA5 population size, coinciding with the global expansion of the GB13 population. The emergence of the GB13 genotype resulted in a newly established balance between the predominant genotypes.

  17. The effects of physical processes on the Hadley circulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rind, D.; Rossow, W. B.

    1984-01-01

    The Hadley cell is involved in the energy, momentum and moisture budgets in the atmosphere; it may be expected to change as sources and sinks of these quantities are altered due to climate perturbations. The nature of the Hadley cell change is complicated since alterations in one budget generally result in alterations in the others. Thus, Hadley cell sensitivity needs to be explored in an interactive system. In the GISS GCM (model I), a number of experiments are performed in which physical processes in each of the three budgets are omitted, the system adjusts, and the resultant circulation is compared to that of the control run. This procedure highlights which effects are most important and reveals the nature of the various interactions. The results emphasize the wide variety of processes that appear capable of influencing the mean circulation. The intensity of the circulation is related to the coherence of the thermal forcing, and to the thermal opacity of the atmosphere. When all frictional forcing is removed, the circulation is restricted to the equatorial region. The latitudinal extent appears to be controlled primarily by eddy processes (Ferrel cell intensity). The implications for climate modeling and climate projections (e.g. rainfall changes) are discussed.

  18. The Circulation of Newly Formed Deep Water in the Atlantic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rhein, M.; Kieke, D.; Steinfeldt, R.

    2012-04-01

    The circulation of newly formed deep water masses (Labrador Sea Water, LSW, and Denmark Strait Overflow Water, DSOW) is examined by discussing the distribution of two parameters (age τ and fraction F of young water) calculated from the chlorofluorocarbon data measured between 1980 and 2005 in the Atlantic. Compared to previous studies, a much larger data set was used with an improved gridding procedure, allowing to resolve the distributions in more detail.

  19. Spaceborne studies of ocean circulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Patzert, W. C.

    1984-01-01

    The history and near-term future of ocean remote sensing to study ocean circulation are examined. Seasat provided the first-ever global data sets of sea surface topography (altimeter) and marine winds (scatterometer) and laid the foundation for the next generation of satellite missions planned for the late 1980s. The future missions are the next generation of altimeter and scatterometer to be flown aboard TOPEX (TOPography EXperiment) and NROSS (Navy Remote Sensing System), respectively. The data from these satellites will be coordinated with measurements made at sea to determine the driving forces of ocean circulation and to study the oceans' role in climate variability. The significance of such studies to such matters as climatic changes, fisheries, commerce, waste disposal, and national defense is noted.

  20. Middle atmosphere general circulation statistics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Geller, M. A.

    1985-01-01

    With the increased availability of remote sensing data for the middle atmosphere from satellites, more analyses of the middle atmosphere circulation are being published. Some of these are process studies for limited periods, and some are statistical analyses of middle atmosphere general circulation statistics. Results from the latter class of studies will be reviewed. These include analysis of the zonally averaged middle atmosphere structure, temperature, and zonal winds; analysis of planetary wave structures, analysis of heat and momentum fluxes; and analysis of Eliassen-and-Palm flux vectors and flux divergences. Emphasis is on the annual march of these quantities; Northern and Southern Hemisphere asymmetries; and interannual variability in these statistics. Statistics involving the global ozone distribution and transports of ozone are also discussed.

  1. Physiology of the fetal circulation.

    PubMed

    Kiserud, Torvid

    2005-12-01

    Our understanding of fetal circulatory physiology is based on experimental animal data, and this continues to be an important source of new insight into developmental mechanisms. A growing number of human studies have investigated the human physiology, with results that are similar but not identical to those from animal studies. It is time to appreciate these differences and base more of our clinical approach on human physiology. Accordingly, the present review focuses on distributional patterns and adaptational mechanisms that were mainly discovered by human studies. These include cardiac output, pulmonary and placental circulation, fetal brain and liver, venous return to the heart, and the fetal shunts (ductus venosus, foramen ovale and ductus arteriosus). Placental compromise induces a set of adaptational and compensational mechanisms reflecting the plasticity of the developing circulation, with both short- and long-term implications. Some of these aspects have become part of the clinical physiology of today with consequences for surveillance and treatment.

  2. Conservation of circulation in magnetohydrodynamics

    PubMed

    Bekenstein; Oron

    2000-10-01

    We demonstrate at both the Newtonian and (general) relativistic levels the existence of a generalization of Kelvin's circulation theorem (for pure fluids) that is applicable to perfect magnetohydrodynamics. The argument is based on the least action principle for magnetohydrodynamic flow. Examples of the new conservation law are furnished. The new theorem should be helpful in identifying new kinds of vortex phenomena distinct from magnetic ropes or fluid vortices.

  3. Monsoon circulation and atmospheric ozone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khrgian, A. Kh.; Nguyen, Van Thang

    1991-01-01

    The effect of the Indonesian-Australian winter monsoon, proceeding from the Asian continent to the south, on the atmospheric ozone is examined. It is shown that large-scale atmospheric circulation phenomena caused by monsoons in the tropical regions of Australia and in south-eastern Asia can cause significant falls in atmospheric ozone concentrations. The common occurrence of such phenomena might explain the higher-than-average incidence of skin cancer in Australia.

  4. Blood circulation under weightless conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kasyan, I. I.; Kopanev, V. I.; Yazdovskiy, V. I.

    1975-01-01

    Biomedical data obtained on men and animals during weightlessness conditions establish instabilities in pulse rate and blood circulation that smooth out in proportion to adaptation to the weightless condition. The unusual slowness of recovery of pulse rate to initial values after space flight stress is attributed to biological simulation of hormonal shifts and discharge of humoral substances into the blood that prevent a rapid recovery of some biological indicators to initial values.

  5. Early concepts and charts of ocean circulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peterson, R. G.; Stramma, L.; Kortum, G.

    in the 1860s and 1870s (i.e. Lightning; Porcupine; Challenger; Gazelle; Vøringen), as well as mounting evidence for the existence of a deep and global thermohaline circulation (Carpenter; Prestwich). The dynamical method for calculating geostrophic flow in the atmosphere (Guldberg and Mohn) and a precursor to our present formulation for quantizing surface wind stress (Zöppritz) were introduced in the 1870s. On a regional scale for the Norwegian Sea, the dynamical method was applied to marine measurements made at depth to yield a three-dimensional view of flow patterns (Mohn). Further insight into the deep circulation came slowly, but with ever increasing numbers of observations being made at and near the surface, the upper-layer circulation in non-polar latitudes was approximately described by the late 1880s (Krümmel).

  6. Glider Observations of Circulation Around an Island

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-09-30

    1 DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A. Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. Glider Observations of Circulation Around an Island...LONG-TERM GOALS A continuing interest in oceanographic research involves the observation and prediction of coastal circulation. A special branch of...of island circulation through observations using underwater gliders, with the ultimate goal of better prediction. OBJECTIVES Given a goal of

  7. Some Demographic Correlates of Changing Newspaper Circulation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eberhard, Wallace B.

    There are varied opinions on the relationship between the circulation penetration of the American daily newspapers and certain demographic indicators. Previous studies have treated the growth of circulation figures by utilizing gross national data and have indicated the role newspaper circulation plays in defining the limits of major urban…

  8. Understanding and Portraying the Global Atmospheric Circulation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrington, John, Jr.; Oliver, John E.

    2000-01-01

    Examines teaching models of atmospheric circulation and resultant surface pressure patterns, focusing on the three-cell model and the meaning of meridional circulation as related to middle and high latitudes. Addresses the failure of the three-cell model to explain seasonal variations in atmospheric circulation. Suggests alternative models. (CMK)

  9. Understanding and Portraying the Global Atmospheric Circulation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrington, John, Jr.; Oliver, John E.

    2000-01-01

    Examines teaching models of atmospheric circulation and resultant surface pressure patterns, focusing on the three-cell model and the meaning of meridional circulation as related to middle and high latitudes. Addresses the failure of the three-cell model to explain seasonal variations in atmospheric circulation. Suggests alternative models. (CMK)

  10. Encoders for block-circulant LDPC codes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Divsalar, Dariush (Inventor); Abbasfar, Aliazam (Inventor); Jones, Christopher R. (Inventor); Dolinar, Samuel J. (Inventor); Thorpe, Jeremy C. (Inventor); Andrews, Kenneth S. (Inventor); Yao, Kung (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    Methods and apparatus to encode message input symbols in accordance with an accumulate-repeat-accumulate code with repetition three or four are disclosed. Block circulant matrices are used. A first method and apparatus make use of the block-circulant structure of the parity check matrix. A second method and apparatus use block-circulant generator matrices.

  11. Meta-analysis: Circulating vitamin D and ovarian cancer risk.

    PubMed

    Yin, Lu; Grandi, Norma; Raum, Elke; Haug, Ulrike; Arndt, Volker; Brenner, Hermann

    2011-05-01

    To review and summarize evidence from longitudinal studies on the association between circulating 25 hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) and the risk of ovarian cancer (OC). Relevant prospective cohort studies and nested case-control studies were identified by systematically searching Ovid Medline, EMBASE, and ISI Web of Knowledge databases and by cross-referencing. The following data were extracted in a standardized manner from eligible studies: first author, publication year, country, study design, characteristics of the study population, duration of follow-up, OC incidence according to circulating vitamin D status and the respective relative risks, and covariates adjusted for in the analysis. Due to the heterogeneity of studies in categorizing circulating vitamin D levels, all results were recalculated for an increase of circulating 25(OH)D by 20ng/ml. Summary relative risks (RRs) were calculated using meta-analysis methods. Overall, ten individual-level studies were included that reported on the association between circulating vitamin D levels and OC incidence. Meta-analysis of studies on OC incidence resulted in a summary RR (95% confidence interval, CI) of 0.83 (0.63-1.08) for an increase of 25(OH)D by 20ng/ml (P=0.160). No indication for heterogeneity and publication bias was found. A tentative inverse association of circulating 25(OH)D with OC incidence was found, which did not reach statistical significance but which requires clarification by additional studies due to potentially high clinical and public health impact. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Caribbean international circulation: are Puerto Rican women tied-circulators?

    PubMed

    Conway, D; Ellis, M; Shiwdhan, N

    1990-01-01

    Aspects of migration between Puerto Rico and the United States are explored. "This examination of the multiple-movement behaviour of a sample of Puerto Rican women seeks to unravel the relations between their circulation patterns, their family and contextual situations and their declared motives for undertaking international mobility. The leading question asked in this study is whether this international mobility behaviour of Puerto Rican women is autonomous or dependent upon the movement or decision-making of others. Structural theory suggests the latter is most likely, but behavioural divergence occurs in return movement."

  13. Year of Expanding into Circulating Biomarkers.

    PubMed

    Jia, Shidong; Kuo, Winston Patrick

    2015-01-01

    This editorial article summarizes the achievements and current challenges for the Journal of Circulating Biomarkers (JCB) regarding a more strategic approach to branding and attracting a high quality variety of articles. More emphasis is placed on fostering engagement with academic and industry sources operating at the cutting-edge of translational technologies applied to the field of circulating biomarkers (interface between extracellular vesicles including exosomes and microvesicles, circulating tumour cells, cell-free circulating DNA and circulating protein markers) and with those in the investment arena seeking and providing private funding for this area of research.

  14. Numerical study of three-dimensional shelf circulation on the Scotian Shelf using a shelf circulation model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohashi, Kyoko; Sheng, Jinyu; Thompson, Keith R.; Hannah, Charles G.; Ritchie, Harold

    2009-09-01

    A numerical shelf circulation model was developed for the Scotian Shelf, using a nested-grid setup consisting of a three-dimensional baroclinic inner model embedded inside a two-dimensional barotropic outer model. The shelf circulation model is based on the Princeton Ocean Model and driven by three-hourly atmospheric forcing provided by a numerical weather forecast model and by tidal forcing specified at the inner model's open boundaries based on pre-calculated tidal harmonic constants. The outer model simulates the depth-mean circulation forced by wind and atmospheric pressure fields over the northwest Atlantic Ocean with a horizontal resolution of 1/12°. The inner model simulates the three-dimensional circulation over the Gulf of St. Lawrence, the Scotian Shelf, and the adjacent slope with a horizontal resolution of 1/16°. The performance of the shelf circulation model is assessed by comparing model results with oceanographic observations made along the Atlantic coast of Nova Scotia and in the vicinity of Sable Island (on the Scotian Shelf) during two periods: October 2000-March 2001 and April-June 2002. Analysis of model results on Sable Island Bank indicates that tidal currents account for as much as ˜80% of the total variance of near-bottom currents, and currents driven by local winds account for ˜30% of the variance of the non-tidal near-bottom currents. Shelf waves generated remotely by winds and propagating into the region also play an important role in the near-bottom circulation on the bank.

  15. Genetic Variants Associated with Circulating Parathyroid Hormone.

    PubMed

    Robinson-Cohen, Cassianne; Lutsey, Pamela L; Kleber, Marcus E; Nielson, Carrie M; Mitchell, Braxton D; Bis, Joshua C; Eny, Karen M; Portas, Laura; Eriksson, Joel; Lorentzon, Mattias; Koller, Daniel L; Milaneschi, Yuri; Teumer, Alexander; Pilz, Stefan; Nethander, Maria; Selvin, Elizabeth; Tang, Weihong; Weng, Lu-Chen; Wong, Hoi Suen; Lai, Dongbing; Peacock, Munro; Hannemann, Anke; Völker, Uwe; Homuth, Georg; Nauk, Matthias; Murgia, Federico; Pattee, Jack W; Orwoll, Eric; Zmuda, Joseph M; Riancho, Jose Antonio; Wolf, Myles; Williams, Frances; Penninx, Brenda; Econs, Michael J; Ryan, Kathleen A; Ohlsson, Claes; Paterson, Andrew D; Psaty, Bruce M; Siscovick, David S; Rotter, Jerome I; Pirastu, Mario; Streeten, Elizabeth; März, Winfried; Fox, Caroline; Coresh, Josef; Wallaschofski, Henri; Pankow, James S; de Boer, Ian H; Kestenbaum, Bryan

    2016-12-07

    Parathyroid hormone (PTH) is a primary calcium regulatory hormone. Elevated serum PTH concentrations in primary and secondary hyperparathyroidism have been associated with bone disease, hypertension, and in some studies, cardiovascular mortality. Genetic causes of variation in circulating PTH concentrations are incompletely understood. We performed a genome-wide association study of serum PTH concentrations among 29,155 participants of European ancestry from 13 cohort studies (n=22,653 and n=6502 in discovery and replication analyses, respectively). We evaluated the association of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) with natural log-transformed PTH concentration adjusted for age, sex, season, study site, and principal components of ancestry. We discovered associations of SNPs from five independent regions with serum PTH concentration, including the strongest association with rs6127099 upstream of CYP24A1 (P=4.2 × 10(-53)), a gene that encodes the primary catabolic enzyme for 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D and 25-dihydroxyvitamin D. Each additional copy of the minor allele at this SNP associated with 7% higher serum PTH concentration. The other SNPs associated with serum PTH concentration included rs4074995 within RGS14 (P=6.6 × 10(-17)), rs219779 adjacent to CLDN14 (P=3.5 × 10(-16)), rs4443100 near RTDR1 (P=8.7 × 10(-9)), and rs73186030 near CASR (P=4.8 × 10(-8)). Of these five SNPs, rs6127099, rs4074995, and rs219779 replicated. Thus, common genetic variants located near genes involved in vitamin D metabolism and calcium and renal phosphate transport associated with differences in circulating PTH concentrations. Future studies could identify the causal variants at these loci, and the clinical and functional relevance of these variants should be pursued.

  16. Conveying Global Circulation Patterns in HDTV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gardiner, N.; Janowiak, J.; Kinzler, R.; Trakinski, V.

    2006-12-01

    The American Museum of Natural History has partnered with the National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) to educate general audiences about weather and climate using high definition video broadcasts built from half-hourly global mosaics of infrared (IR) data from five geostationary satellites. The dataset being featured was developed by NCEP to improve precipitation estimates from microwave data that have finer spatial resolution but poorer temporal coverage. The IR data span +/-60 degrees latitude and show circulation patterns at sufficient resolution to teach informal science center visitors about both weather and climate events and concepts. Design and editorial principles for this media program have been guided by lessons learned from production and annual updates of visualizations that cover eight themes in both biological and Earth system sciences. Two formative evaluations on two dates, including interviews and written surveys of 480 museum visitors ranging in age from 13 to over 60, helped refine the design and implementation of the weather and climate program and demonstrated that viewers understood the program's initial literacy objectives, including: (1) conveying the passage of time and currency of visualized data; (2) geographic relationships inherent to atmospheric circulation patterns; and (3) the authenticity of visualized data, i.e., their origin from earth-orbiting satellites. Surveys also indicated an interest and willingness to learn more about weather and climate principles and events. Expanded literacy goals guide ongoing, biweekly production and distribution of global cloud visualization pieces that reach combined audiences of approximately 10 million. Two more rounds of evaluation are planned over the next two years to assess the effectiveness of the media program in addressing these expanded literacy goals.

  17. Matrix-free constructions of circulant and block circulant preconditioners

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Chao; Ng, Esmond G.; Penczek, Pawel A.

    2001-12-01

    A framework for constructing circulant and block circulant preconditioners (C) for a symmetric linear system Ax=b arising from certain signal and image processing applications is presented in this paper. The proposed scheme does not make explicit use of matrix elements of A. It is ideal for applications in which A only exists in the form of a matrix vector multiplication routine, and in which the process of extracting matrix elements of A is costly. The proposed algorithm takes advantage of the fact that for many linear systems arising from signal or image processing applications, eigenvectors of A can be well represented by a small number of Fourier modes. Therefore, the construction of C can be carried out in the frequency domain by carefully choosing its eigenvalues so that the condition number of C{sup T} AC can be reduced significantly. We illustrate how to construct the spectrum of C in a way such that the smallest eigenvalues of C{sup T} AC overlaps with those of A extremely well while the largest eigenvalues of C{sup T} AC are smaller than those of A by several orders of magnitude. Numerical examples are provided to demonstrate the effectiveness of the preconditioner on accelerating the solution of linear systems arising from image reconstruction application.

  18. Distillation Calculations with a Programmable Calculator.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Charles A.; Halpern, Bret L.

    1983-01-01

    Describes a three-step approach for teaching multicomponent distillation to undergraduates, emphasizing patterns of distribution as an aid to understanding the separation processes. Indicates that the second step can be carried out by programmable calculators. (A more complete set of programs for additional calculations is available from the…

  19. Distillation Calculations with a Programmable Calculator.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Charles A.; Halpern, Bret L.

    1983-01-01

    Describes a three-step approach for teaching multicomponent distillation to undergraduates, emphasizing patterns of distribution as an aid to understanding the separation processes. Indicates that the second step can be carried out by programmable calculators. (A more complete set of programs for additional calculations is available from the…

  20. Trend Analysis and Detection of Changes in the Stratospheric Circulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oman, Luke; Douglass, A. R.; Rodriquez, J. M.; Stolarski, R. S.; Waugh, D. W.

    2010-01-01

    Increases in the circulation of the stratosphere appear to be a robust result of climate change in chemistry-climate models over decadal time scales. To date observations have yet to show a significant change in this circulation. It is important for the design of future observational missions to identify suitable atmospheric constituents and to determine the accuracy and length of record needed to identify a significant trend that can be attributed to circulation change. First, we determine what atmospheric variables can be used as proxies for stratospheric circulation changes. A few examples are changes in tropical lower stratospheric ozone, phase lag of the water vapor tape recorder, CO2, and SF6. Then, using both the Goddard Earth Observing System Chemistry-Climate Model (GEOS CCM) and observations from satellites and balloon soundings, we calculate the number of years needed to detect a significant trend, taking into account observational uncertainty. Model simulations will be evaluated to see how well they represent observed variability. In addition, the impacts of autocorrelation among the output or data and gaps in the observational record will be discussed.

  1. Impact of FGGE on diagnoses of the general circulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosen, R. D.

    1985-01-01

    Several studies have pointed out that a number of significant differences exist in circulation fields derived from the various Level IIIb analyses. For example, differences in the strength of the January Hadley cell between the GFDL and ECMWF analyses are as large as 35 percent, and there are some locations over the Northern Hemisphere where the 200 mb zonal wind in January differs by 10 m/s between these two analyses. Calculations of the global energy cycle based on the GFDL and ECMWF analyses are significantly different as well. In addition, the uncertain quality of some of the FGGE IIIb moisture and vertical motion fields raises doubts about whether new insights into the role of these fields in the general circulation will be gained from the FGGE data. Overall, therefore, a sense of disappointment emerges that the FGGE analyses have thus far failed to live up to the expectation that they would yield more definitive general circulation statistics. The shortcomings in the Level IIIb analyses need to be rectified before full confidence can be placed in results pertaining to the general circulation that are based on such modern data assimilation approaches.

  2. Asymptotic and numerical solutions of the axisymmetric moist Hadley circulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burns, Samuel P.

    A simplified model of the moist axisymmetric Hadley circulation is examined in the asymptotic limit in which surface friction is strong and the meridional wind is weak compared to the zonal wind. This model consists of the Quasi-Equilibrium Tropical Circulation Model (QTCM) equations on an axisymmetric aquaplanet equatorial beta-plane. This model includes two vertical momentum modes, one baroclinic and one barotropic. Prior studies use either continuous stratification, or a shallow water system best viewed as representing the upper troposphere. The analysis here focuses on the interaction of the baroclinic and barotropic modes, and the way in which this interaction allows the constraints on the circulation known from the fully stratified case to be satisfied in an approximate way. The dry equations, with temperature forced by Newtonian relaxation towards a prescribed radiative equilibrium, are solved in chapter 4. At leading order, the resulting circulation has a zonal wind profile corresponding to uniform angular momentum at a level near the tropopause, and zero zonal surface wind, owing to the cancellation of the barotropic and baroclinic modes there. The weak surface winds are calculated from the first order corrections. The broad features of these solutions are similar to those obtained in previous studies of the dry Hadley circulation. The moist equations are solved in chapter 5, with a fixed sea surface temperature at the lower boundary and simple parameterizations of surface fluxes, deep convection, and radiative transfer. The solutions yield the structure of the barotropic and baroclinic winds, as well as the temperature and moisture fields. In addition, we derive expressions for the width and strength of the equatorial precipitating region (ITCZ) and the width of the entire Hadley circulation. The ITCZ width is on the order of a few degrees in the absence of any horizontal diffusion and is relatively insensitive to parameter variations. In chapter 6

  3. Circulation in Enewetak Atoll lagoon

    SciTech Connect

    Atkinson, M.; Smith, S.V.; Stroup, E.D.

    1981-11-01

    Currents at Enewetak Atoll, Marshall Islands, were measured on the reef margins, in the channels, and in the lagoon. Lagoon circulation is dominated by wind-driven downwind surface flow and an upwind middepth return flow. This wind-driven flow has the characteristics of an Ekman spiral in an enclosed sea. Lagoon flushing is accomplished primarily by surf-driven water input over the windward (eastern) reefs and southerly drift out the South Channel. Mean water residence time is 1 month, while water entering the northern portion of the atoll takes about 4 months to exit.

  4. Vasculitis of the mesenteric circulation.

    PubMed

    Koster, Matthew J; Warrington, Kenneth J

    2017-02-01

    Vasculitis of the mesenteric circulation is an uncommon but life-threatening manifestation of systemic vasculitis. Initial symptoms are frequently non-specific and therefore patients often present to primary care physicians and gastroenterologists with abdominal pain or gastrointestinal bleeding. Given the severity of the conditions associated with mesenteric vasculitis, it is imperative to appropriately diagnose and initiate treatment of suspected cases. This review will focus on diseases commonly associated with vasculitis of the mesenteric vessels. Imaging characteristics and clinical features assisting in diagnosis as well as initial approaches to treatment are emphasized. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Linear Four-Chalcogen Interactions in Radical Cationic and Dicationic Dimers of 1,5-(Dichalcogena)canes: Nature of the Interactions Elucidated by QTAIM Dual Functional Analysis with QC Calculations.

    PubMed

    Hayashi, Satoko; Nagata, Kengo; Otsuki, Shota; Nakanishi, Waro

    2017-03-15

    The dynamic and static nature of extended hypervalent interactions of the (B)E···(A)E···(A)E···(B)E type are elucidated for four center-seven electron interactions (4c-7e) in the radical cationic dimers (1·(+)) and 4c-6e in the dicationic dimers (1(2+)) of 1,5-(dichalcogena)canes (2: (A)E(CH2CH2CH2)2(B)E: (A)E, (B)E = S, Se, Te, and O). The quantum theory of atoms-in-molecules dual functional analysis (QTAIM-DFA) is applied for the analysis. Total electron energy densities Hb(rc) are plotted versus Hb(rc) - Vb(rc)/2 [= (ℏ(2)/8m)∇(2)ρb(rc)] at bond critical points (BCPs) of the interactions, where Vb(rc) values show potential energy densities at BCPs. Data from the fully optimized structures correspond to the static nature of the interactions. Those from the perturbed structures around the fully optimized ones are also plotted, in addition to those of the fully optimized ones, which represent the dynamic nature of interactions. The (B)E···(A)E-(A)E···(B)E interactions in 1(2+) are stronger than the corresponding ones in 1·(+), respectively. On the one hand, for 1(2+) with (A)E, (B)E = S, Se, and Te, (A)E···(A)E are all classified by the shared shell interactions and predicted to have the weak covalent nature, except for those in 1a(2+) ((A)E = (B)E = S) and 1d(2+) ((A)E = (B)E = Se), which have the nature of regular closed shell (r-CS)/trigonal bipyramidal adduct formation through charge transfer (CT-TBP). On the other hand, (A)E···(B)E are predicted to have the nature of r-CS/molecular complex formation through charge transfer for 1a(2+), 1b(2+) ((A)E = Se; (B)E = S), and 1d(2+) or r-CS/CT-TBP for 1c(2+) ((A)E = Te; (B)E = S), 1e(2+) ((A)E = Te; (B)E = Se), and 1f(2+) ((A)E = (B)E = Te). The (B)E···(A)E-(A)E···(B)E interactions in 1·(+) and 1(2+) are well-analyzed by applying QTAIM-DFA.

  6. Reverse circulation air drilling can reduce well bore damage

    SciTech Connect

    Graham, R.L.; Foster, J.M.; Amick, P.C.; Shaw, J.S. )

    1993-03-22

    Reverse circulation air drilling coupled with an air dryer at the surface helped eliminate formation damage in several gas wells. During reverse circulation drilling, the air flows down the annulus and up the drill pipe. The following were the three primary objectives of damage-free drilling (DFD): Reducing damage so the initial open flows would more accurately reflect natural permeability. Reducing damage for diagnostic tools (temperature logs, noise logs, mud [gas composition] logs, and borehole television) to better detect liquid and gas entry points. Improving sampling by returning larger cuttings with shorter and more precise lag times. The secondary objectives were to reduce drilling costs through the following: Lowering required circulating air volumes when cuttings are reversed up the drillstring. Reducing water influx from shallow water zones because of annular back pressure during circulation. Improving penetration rates for larger holes. This describes tests while drilling; the borehole television used in investigating air-drilled well bores; permeability tests; cuttings sample; drilling parameters; and operations and results from two field tests.

  7. Isolation and Characterization of Circulating Lymphatic Endothelial Colony Forming Cells

    PubMed Central

    DiMaio, Terri A.; Wentz, Breanna L.; Lagunoff, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Rationale The identification of circulating endothelial progenitor cells has led to speculation regarding their origin as well as their contribution to neovascular development. Two distinct types of endothelium make up the blood and lymphatic vessel system. However, it has yet to be determined whether there are distinct lymphatic-specific circulating endothelial progenitor cells. Objective This study aims to isolate and characterize the cellular properties and global gene expression of lymphatic-specific endothelial progenitor cells. Methods and Results We isolated circulating endothelial colony forming cells (ECFCs) from whole peripheral blood. These cells are endothelial in nature, as defined by their expression of endothelial markers and their ability to undergo capillary morphogenesis in three-dimensional culture. A subset of isolated colonies express markers of lymphatic endothelium, including VEGFR-3 and Prox-1, with low levels of VEGFR-1, a blood endothelial marker, while the bulk of the isolated cells express high VEGFR-1 levels with low VEGFR-3 and Prox-1 expression. The different isolates have differential responses to VEGF-C, a lymphatic endothelial specific cytokine, strongly suggesting that there are lymphatic specific and blood specific ECFCs. Global analysis of gene expression revealed key differences in the regulation of pathways involved in cellular differentiation between blood and lymphatic-specific ECFCs. Conclusion These data indicate that there are two distinguishable circulating ECFC types, blood and lymphatic, which are likely to have discrete functions during neovascularization. PMID:26597759

  8. Programmable calculator stress analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Van Gulick, L.A.

    1983-01-01

    Advanced programmable alphanumeric calculators are well suited for closed-form calculation of pressure-vessel stresses. They offer adequate computing power, portability, special programming features, and simple interactive execution procedures. Representative programs that demonstrate calculator capabilities are presented. Problems treated are stress and strength calculations in thick-walled pressure vessels and the computation of stresses near head/pressure-vessel junctures.

  9. Metastasis and Circulating Tumor Cells

    PubMed Central

    van Dalum, Guus; Holland, Linda

    2012-01-01

    Cancer is a prominent cause of death worldwide. In most cases, it is not the primary tumor which causes death, but the metastases. Metastatic tumors are spread over the entire human body and are more difficult to remove or treat than the primary tumor. In a patient with metastatic disease, circulating tumor cells (CTCs) can be found in venous blood. These circulating tumor cells are part of the metastatic cascade. Clinical studies have shown that these cells can be used to predict treatment response and their presence is strongly associated with poor survival prospects. Enumeration and characterization of CTCs is important as this can help clinicians make more informed decisions when choosing or evaluating treatment. CTC counts are being included in an increasing number of studies and thus are becoming a bigger part of disease diagnosis and therapy management. We present an overview of the most prominent CTC enumeration and characterization methods and discuss the assumptions made about the CTC phenotype. Extensive CTC characterization of for example the DNA, RNA and antigen expression may lead to more understanding of the metastatic process. PMID:27683421

  10. Intestinal circulation during inhalation anesthesia

    SciTech Connect

    Tverskoy, M.; Gelman, S.; Fowler, K.C.; Bradley, E.L.

    1985-04-01

    This study was designed to evaluate the influence of inhalational agents on the intestinal circulation in an isolated loop preparation. Sixty dogs were studied, using three intestinal segments from each dog. Selected intestinal segments were pumped with aortic blood at a constant pressure of 100 mmHg. A mixture of /sub 86/Rb and 9-microns spheres labeled with /sup 141/Ce was injected into the arterial cannula supplying the intestinal loop, while mesenteric venous blood was collected for activity counting. A very strong and significant correlation was found between rubidium clearance and microsphere entrapment (r = 0.97, P less than 0.0001). Nitrous oxide anesthesia was accompanied by a higher vascular resistance (VR), lower flow (F), rubidium clearance (Cl-Rb), and microspheres entrapment (Cl-Sph) than pentobarbital anesthesia, indicating that the vascular bed in the intestinal segment was constricted and flow (total and nutritive) decreased. Halothane, enflurane, and isoflurane anesthesia were accompanied by a much lower arteriovenous oxygen content difference (AVDO/sub 2/) and oxygen uptake than pentobarbital or nitrous oxide. Compared with pentobarbital, enflurane anesthesia was not accompanied by marked differences in VR, F, Cl-Rb, and Cl-Sph; halothane at 2 MAC decreased VR and increased F and Cl-Rb while isoflurane increased VR and decreased F. alpha-Adrenoceptor blockade with phentolamine (1 mg . kg-1) abolished isoflurane-induced vasoconstriction, suggesting that the increase in VR was mediated via circulating catecholamines.

  11. The emerging role of circulating tumor cell detection in genitourinary cancer.

    PubMed

    Small, Alexander C; Gong, Yixuan; Oh, William K; Hall, Simon J; van Rijn, Cees J M; Galsky, Matthew D

    2012-07-01

    Circulating tumor cells are malignant cells in peripheral blood that originate from primary tumors or metastatic sites. The heterogeneous natural history and propensity for recurrence in prostate, bladder and kidney cancers are well suited for improved individualization of care using circulating tumor cells. The potential clinical applications of circulating tumor cells include early diagnosis, disease prediction and prognosis, and selection of appropriate therapies. The PubMed® and Web of Science® databases were searched using the key words circulating tumor cells, CTC, prostate, kidney, bladder, renal cell carcinoma and transitional cell carcinoma. Relevant articles and references from 1994 to 2011 were reviewed for data on the detection and significance of circulating tumor cells in genitourinary cancer. Technical challenges have previously limited the widespread introduction of circulating tumor cell detection in routine clinical care. Recently novel platforms were introduced to detect these cells that offer the promise of overcoming these limitations. We reviewed the current state of circulating tumor cell capture technologies and their clinical applications for genitourinary cancers. In genitourinary cancer circulating tumor cell enumeration has been useful for prognosis in patients with castration resistant prostate cancer. Soon characterizing individual circulating tumor cells in blood will serve as a noninvasive real-time liquid biopsy to monitor molecular changes in cancer, allowing clinicians to custom tailor treatment strategies. Circulating tumor cells will serve as a treatment response biomarker. Finally, circulating tumor cell detection promises to assist in the early detection of clinically localized cancers, facilitating curative therapy. Copyright © 2012 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Arctic Ocean circulation during the anoxic Eocene Azolla event

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Speelman, Eveline; Sinninghe Damsté, Jaap; März, Christian; Brumsack, Hans; Reichart, Gert-Jan

    2010-05-01

    through seawater inflow). Excess vanadium accumulation during the Azolla event (80 ppm), basin volume and surface area, average vanadium sea (1.8 ppb) and river water (1.0 ppb) concentrations, together indicate that an inflow of Nordic Sea water of 0.2 Sv is needed to sustain vanadium levels. The same calculation using molybdenum gives an inflow of only 0.02 Sv. These low inflow rates imply Arctic Ocean (deep) water residence times of 2000 - 20000 years, respectively. Based on climate modeling we calculated a summed net amount of precipitation for the Eocene Arctic Basin (Precipitation - Evaporation + Runoff) of 0.46 Sv. Together these notions indicate that a compensating inflow of saline North Atlantic water occurred, accompanied by an outflow of more fresh waters, resulting in a bi-directional, two-layer flow through the (proto-) Fram Strait. Consequently, the limited exchange of water through the Fram Strait implies that a relatively low export productivity would have been sufficient to render Arctic bottom waters anoxic. Jakobsson, M., Backman, J., Rudels, B., Nycander, J., Frank, M., Mayer, L., Jokat, W., Sangiorgi, F., O'Regan, M., Brinkhuis, H., King, J., Moran, K. (2007). The early Miocene onset of a ventilated circulation regimen in the Arctic Ocean. Nature 447, 986-990.

  13. Characterization of calculation of in-situ retardation factors of contaminant transport using naturally-radionuclides and rock/water interaction occurring U-Series disequilibria timescales. 1997 annual progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Roback, R.; Murrel, M.; Goldstein, S.; Ku, T.L.; Luo, S.

    1997-01-01

    'The research is directed toward a quantitative assessment of contaminant transport rates in fracture-rock systems using uranium-series radionuclides. Naturally occurring uranium-and thorium-series radioactive disequilibria will provide information on the rates of adsorption-desorption and transport of radioactive contaminants as well as on fluid transport and rock dissolution in a natural setting. This study will also provide an improved characterization of preferential flow and contaminant transport at the Idaho Environmental and Engineering Lab. (INEEL) site. To a lesser extent, the study will include rocks in the unsaturated zone. The authors will produce a realistic model of radionuclide migration under unsaturated and saturated field conditions at the INEEL site, taking into account the retardation processes involved in the rock/water interaction. The major tasks are to (1) determine the natural distribution of U, Th, Pa and Ra isotopes in rock minerals. sorbed phases on the rocks, and in fluids from both saturated and unsaturated zones at the site, and (2) study rock/water interaction processes using U/Th series disequilibrium and a statistical analysis-based model for the Geologic heterogeneity plays an important role in transporting contaminants in fractured rocks. Preferential flow paths in the fractured rocks act as a major pathway for transport of radioactive contaminants in groundwaters. The weathering/dissolution of rock by groundwater also influences contaminant mobility. Thus, it is important to understand the hydrogeologic features of the site and their impact on the migration of radioactive contaminants. In this regard, quantification of the rock weathering/dissolution rate and fluid residence time from the observed decay-series disequilibria will be valuable. By mapping the spatial distribution of the residence time of groundwater in fractured rocks, the subsurface preferential flow paths (with high rock permeability and short fluid residence

  14. A blood circulation model for reference man

    SciTech Connect

    Leggett, R.W.; Eckerman, K.F.; Williams, L.R.

    1999-01-01

    This paper describes a dynamic blood circulation model that predicts the movement and gradual dispersal of a bolus of material in the circulation after its intravascular injection into an adult human. The main purpose of the model is to improve the dosimetry of internally deposited radionuclides that decay in the circulation to a significant extent. The total blood volume is partitioned into the blood contents of 24 separate organs or tissues, right heart chambers, left heart chambers, pulmonary circulation, arterial outflow to the systemic tissues (aorta and large arteries), and venous return from the systemic tissues (large veins). As a compromise between physical reality and computational simplicity, the circulation of blood is viewed as a system of first-order transfers between blood pools, with the delay time depending on the mean transit time across the pool. The model allows consideration of incomplete, tissue-dependent extraction of material during passage through the circulation and return of material from tissues to plasma.

  15. Fractal analysis of circulating platelets in type 2 diabetic patients.

    PubMed

    Bianciardi, G; Tanganelli, I

    2015-01-01

    This paper investigates the use of computerized fractal analysis for objective characterization by means of transmission electron microscopy of the complexity of circulating platelets collected from healthy individuals and from type 2 diabetic patients, a pathologic condition in which platelet hyperreactivity has been described. Platelet boundaries were extracted by means of automatically image analysis. Local fractal dimension by box counting (measure of geometric complexity) was automatically calculated. The results showed that the platelet boundary observed by electron microscopy is fractal and that the shape of the circulating platelets is significantly more complex in the diabetic patients in comparison to healthy subjects (p <  0.01), with 100% correct classification. In vitro activated platelets from healthy subjects show an analogous increase of geometric complexity. Computerized fractal analysis of platelet shape by transmission electron microscopy can provide accurate, quantitative, data to study platelet activation in diabetes mellitus.

  16. Improved algorithms for circulation-control airfoils in transonic flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dvorak, Frank A.; Strash, Daniel J.; York, Brian J.; Dash, Sanford M.

    1987-01-01

    A zonal model for aerodynamic analysis of two-dimensional transonic circulation control airfoils has been developed. The present approach combines a transonic full potential method for the global flow field and an integral boundary layer method for regions of the airfoil excluding the wall jet with a parabolized Navier-Stokes code for resolving the wall jet region beyond the slot. Existing methods suffer from two deficiencies: the insensitivity of the calculation to small changes in the Coanda surface geometry; and the inability to predict the shock structure of the underexpanded supersonic wall jets. The present wall jet procedure involves a pressure-split approach in the streamwise sense to enable noniterative solution of the coupled continuity and normal momentum equations for increased surface sensitivity and allows for expansion of applications to sonic slot exit conditions. Encouraging results are obtained in comparison with experimental data for two circulation airfoils with subsonic wall jets.

  17. Improved algorithms for circulation-control airfoils in transonic flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dvorak, Frank A.; Strash, Daniel J.; York, Brian J.; Dash, Sanford M.

    1987-01-01

    A zonal model for aerodynamic analysis of two-dimensional transonic circulation control airfoils has been developed. The present approach combines a transonic full potential method for the global flow field and an integral boundary layer method for regions of the airfoil excluding the wall jet with a parabolized Navier-Stokes code for resolving the wall jet region beyond the slot. Existing methods suffer from two deficiencies: the insensitivity of the calculation to small changes in the Coanda surface geometry; and the inability to predict the shock structure of the underexpanded supersonic wall jets. The present wall jet procedure involves a pressure-split approach in the streamwise sense to enable noniterative solution of the coupled continuity and normal momentum equations for increased surface sensitivity and allows for expansion of applications to sonic slot exit conditions. Encouraging results are obtained in comparison with experimental data for two circulation airfoils with subsonic wall jets.

  18. Tidal and residual circulations in coupled restricted and leaky lagoons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guyondet, Thomas; Koutitonsky, Vladimir G.

    2008-04-01

    Finite element numerical modelling based on field data is used to study the tidal and tidally induced residual circulation dynamics of a coupled "restricted" and "leaky" coastal lagoon system located in the Magdalen Islands, Gulf of Saint-Lawrence. Havre-aux-Maisons Lagoon (HML) is of a "restricted" nature with a neutral inlet in terms of tidal asymmetry. Grande-Entrée Lagoon (GEL) is of a "leaky" nature with a marked ebb dominance at the inlet due to direct interactions between the main astronomical tidal constituents. The imbalance caused by the different tidal filtering characteristics of both inlets combines with the internal morphological asymmetries of the system to produce a residual throughflow from HML to GEL. The residual circulation is also characterized by strongest values at both inlets, very weak residual currents in HML deep basin and a dipole of residual eddies over the deeper areas of GEL. Further investigations including numerical tracer experiments will be necessary to achieve a full understanding of the long term circulation of this lagoonal system.

  19. Linear thermal circulator based on Coriolis forces.

    PubMed

    Li, Huanan; Kottos, Tsampikos

    2015-02-01

    We show that the presence of a Coriolis force in a rotating linear lattice imposes a nonreciprocal propagation of the phononic heat carriers. Using this effect we propose the concept of Coriolis linear thermal circulator which can control the circulation of a heat current. A simple model of three coupled harmonic masses on a rotating platform permits us to demonstrate giant circulating rectification effects for moderate values of the angular velocities of the platform.

  20. Predicting dynamic topography from mantle circulation models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Webb, Peter; Davies, J. Huw

    2013-04-01

    vertical motion is allowed, an excess or deficit of stress exists near the surface. A pointwise force balance between this stress excess and the weight of rock above is used to calculate the anomalous elevation associated with the stress. Here we present some of the results obtained from mantle circulation models. We look at different ways of predicting dynamic topography, including the depth at which the stress field is calculated and by removing lithospheric density anomalies from the calculation. We also assess the impact of crustal thickness and isostasy on the predictions of dynamic topography.

  1. Global atmospheric circulation statistics: Four year averages

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, M. F.; Geller, M. A.; Nash, E. R.; Gelman, M. E.

    1987-01-01

    Four year averages of the monthly mean global structure of the general circulation of the atmosphere are presented in the form of latitude-altitude, time-altitude, and time-latitude cross sections. The numerical values are given in tables. Basic parameters utilized include daily global maps of temperature and geopotential height for 18 pressure levels between 1000 and 0.4 mb for the period December 1, 1978 through November 30, 1982 supplied by NOAA/NMC. Geopotential heights and geostrophic winds are constructed using hydrostatic and geostrophic formulae. Meridional and vertical velocities are calculated using thermodynamic and continuity equations. Fields presented in this report are zonally averaged temperature, zonal, meridional, and vertical winds, and amplitude of the planetary waves in geopotential height with zonal wave numbers 1-3. The northward fluxes of sensible heat and eastward momentum by the standing and transient eddies along with their wavenumber decomposition and Eliassen-Palm flux propagation vectors and divergences by the standing and transient eddies along with their wavenumber decomposition are also given. Large interhemispheric differences and year-to-year variations are found to originate in the changes in the planetary wave activity.

  2. A blood circulation model for reference man

    SciTech Connect

    Leggett, R.W.; Eckerman, K.F.; Williams, L.R.

    1996-12-31

    A dynamic blood circulation model that predicts the movement and gradual dispersion of a bolus of material in the circulation after its intravenous injection into an adult human. The main purpose of the model is improve the dosimetry of internally deposited radionuclides that decay in the circulation to a significant extent. The model partitions the blood volume into 24 separate organs or tissues, right heart chamber, left heart chamber, pulmonary circulation, arterial outflow to the aorta and large arteries, and venous return via the large veins. Model results were compared to data obtained from injection of carbon 11 labeled carbon monoxide or rubidium 86.

  3. Inflammatory response and extracorporeal circulation.

    PubMed

    Kraft, Florian; Schmidt, Christoph; Van Aken, Hugo; Zarbock, Alexander

    2015-06-01

    Patients undergoing cardiac surgery with extracorporeal circulation (EC) frequently develop a systemic inflammatory response syndrome. Surgical trauma, ischaemia-reperfusion injury, endotoxaemia and blood contact to nonendothelial circuit compounds promote the activation of coagulation pathways, complement factors and a cellular immune response. This review discusses the multiple pathways leading to endothelial cell activation, neutrophil recruitment and production of reactive oxygen species and nitric oxide. All these factors may induce cellular damage and subsequent organ injury. Multiple organ dysfunction after cardiac surgery with EC is associated with an increased morbidity and mortality. In addition to the pathogenesis of organ dysfunction after EC, this review deals with different therapeutic interventions aiming to alleviate the inflammatory response and consequently multiple organ dysfunction after cardiac surgery. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Uranus atmospheric dynamics and circulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allison, Michael; Beebe, Reta F.; Conrath, Barney J.; Hinson, David P.; Ingersoll, Andrew P.

    The observations, models, and theories relevant to the atmospheric dynamics and meteorology of Uranus are discussed. The available models for the large-scale heat transport and atmospheric dynamics as well as diagnostic interpretations of the Voyager data are reviewed. Some pertinent ideas and questions regarding the global circulation balance are considered, partly in comparison with other planetary atmospheres. The available data indicate atmospheric rotation at midlatitudes nearly 200 m/s faster than that of the planetary magnetic field. Analysis of the dynamical deformation of the shape and size of isobaric surfaces measured by the Voyager radio-occultation experiment suggests a subrotating equator at comparable altitudes. Infrared temperature retrievals above the cloud deck indicate a smaller equator-to-pole contrast than expected for purely radiative-convective equilibrium, but show local variations implying a latitudinally correlated decrease with altitude in the cloud-tracked wind.

  5. Uranus atmospheric dynamics and circulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allison, Michael; Beebe, Reta F.; Conrath, Barney J.; Hinson, David P.; Ingersoll, Andrew P.

    1991-01-01

    The observations, models, and theories relevant to the atmospheric dynamics and meteorology of Uranus are discussed. The available models for the large-scale heat transport and atmospheric dynamics as well as diagnostic interpretations of the Voyager data are reviewed. Some pertinent ideas and questions regarding the global circulation balance are considered, partly in comparison with other planetary atmospheres. The available data indicate atmospheric rotation at midlatitudes nearly 200 m/s faster than that of the planetary magnetic field. Analysis of the dynamical deformation of the shape and size of isobaric surfaces measured by the Voyager radio-occultation experiment suggests a subrotating equator at comparable altitudes. Infrared temperature retrievals above the cloud deck indicate a smaller equator-to-pole contrast than expected for purely radiative-convective equilibrium, but show local variations implying a latitudinally correlated decrease with altitude in the cloud-tracked wind.

  6. Uranus atmospheric dynamics and circulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allison, Michael; Beebe, Reta F.; Conrath, Barney J.; Hinson, David P.; Ingersoll, Andrew P.

    1991-01-01

    The observations, models, and theories relevant to the atmospheric dynamics and meteorology of Uranus are discussed. The available models for the large-scale heat transport and atmospheric dynamics as well as diagnostic interpretations of the Voyager data are reviewed. Some pertinent ideas and questions regarding the global circulation balance are considered, partly in comparison with other planetary atmospheres. The available data indicate atmospheric rotation at midlatitudes nearly 200 m/s faster than that of the planetary magnetic field. Analysis of the dynamical deformation of the shape and size of isobaric surfaces measured by the Voyager radio-occultation experiment suggests a subrotating equator at comparable altitudes. Infrared temperature retrievals above the cloud deck indicate a smaller equator-to-pole contrast than expected for purely radiative-convective equilibrium, but show local variations implying a latitudinally correlated decrease with altitude in the cloud-tracked wind.

  7. Clouds, circulation and climate sensitivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bony, Sandrine; Stevens, Bjorn; Frierson, Dargan M. W.; Jakob, Christian; Kageyama, Masa; Pincus, Robert; Shepherd, Theodore G.; Sherwood, Steven C.; Siebesma, A. Pier; Sobel, Adam H.; Watanabe, Masahiro; Webb, Mark J.

    2015-04-01

    Fundamental puzzles of climate science remain unsolved because of our limited understanding of how clouds, circulation and climate interact. One example is our inability to provide robust assessments of future global and regional climate changes. However, ongoing advances in our capacity to observe, simulate and conceptualize the climate system now make it possible to fill gaps in our knowledge. We argue that progress can be accelerated by focusing research on a handful of important scientific questions that have become tractable as a result of recent advances. We propose four such questions below; they involve understanding the role of cloud feedbacks and convective organization in climate, and the factors that control the position, the strength and the variability of the tropical rain belts and the extratropical storm tracks.

  8. Molecular Dynamics Calculations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    winning videos in a competition held at the meeting of the American Physical Society's Division of Fluid Dynamics, held in Atlanta, Georgia, in November 1994. Of great interest was the result that in every shock there were a few high-speed precursor particles racing ahead of the shock, carrying information about its impending arrival. Most recently, Dr. Woo has been applying molecular dynamics techniques to the problem of determining the drag produced by the space station truss structure as it flies through the thin residual atmosphere of low-Earth orbit. This problem is made difficult by the complex structure of the truss and by the extreme supersonic nature of the flow. A fully filled section of the truss has already been examined, and drag predictions have been made. Molecular dynamics techniques promise to make realistic drag calculations possible even for very complex partially filled truss segments flying at arbitrary angles.

  9. Core Cracking and Hydrothermal Circulation Profoundly Affect Ceres' Geophysical Evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neveu, Marc; Desch, Steven J.; Castillo-Rogez, Julie C.

    2014-11-01

    The dwarf planet (1)Ceres is about to be visited by the Dawn spacecraft [1]. In addition to a recent report of water vapor emission [2], observations and models of Ceres suggest that its evolution was shaped by interactions between liquid water and silicate rock [3,4].Hydrothermal processes in a heated core require both fractured rock and liquid. Using a new core cracking model coupled to a thermal evolution code [5], we find volumes of fractured rock always large enough for significant interaction to occur. Therefore, liquid persistence is key. It is favored by antifreezes such as ammonia [4], by silicate dehydration which releases liquid, and by hydrothermal circulation itself, which enhances heat transport into the hydrosphere. The heating effect from silicate hydration seems minor. Hydrothermal circulation can profoundly affect Ceres' evolution: it prevents core dehydration via “temperature resets”, global cooling events lasting ~50 Myr, followed by ~1 Gyr periods during which Ceres' interior is nearly isothermal and its hydrosphere largely liquid. Whether Ceres has experienced such extensive hydrothermalism may be determined through examination of its present-day structure. A large, fully hydrated core (radius 420 km) suggests that extensive hydrothermal circulation prevented core dehydration. A small, dry core (radius 350 km) suggests early dehydration from short-lived radionuclides, with shallow hydrothermalism at best. Intermediate structures with a partially dehydrated core seem ambiguous, compatible both with late partial dehydration without hydrothermal circulation, and with early dehydration with extensive hydrothermal circulation. Thus, gravity measurements by the Dawn orbiter [1] could help discriminate between scenarios for Ceres' evolution.References:[1] Russell C. T. & Raymond C. A. (2011) Sp. Sci. Rev. 163, 3-23.[2] Küppers M. et al. (2014) Nature 505, 525-527.[3] Rivkin A. et al. (2011) Sp. Sci. Rev. 163, 95-116.[4] Castillo-Rogez J. C. & Mc

  10. The Martian Upper Atmosphere Circulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bougher, S. W.; Bell, J. M.; Baird, D. T.; Murphy, J. R.

    2005-08-01

    New Mars spacecraft datasets and 3-D modeling capabilities are emerging to characterize the Mars thermospheric circulation patterns for the first time. Upper atmosphere wind constraints are available from recent aerobraking and Mars Express measurements. Mars Global Surveyor (1997-1999) and Mars Odyssey (2001-2002) Accelerometer datasets obtained during aerobraking operations provide density and temperature distributions over limited local time and latitude regions at lower thermospheric altitudes ( ˜100-160 km) [e.g. Keating et al., 1998; 2002; 2003; Withers et al., 2003]. Latitudinal gradients of these fields (i.e. into the winter polar night) vary greatly with the changing Martian seasons. The winter polar warming features observed serve as a tracer of the strength and variability of the Martian thermospheric wind patterns during solstice conditions [Keating et al., 2003; Bougher et al., 2005].Accelerometer data is also being used to estimate cross-track (zonal) wind speeds in the Mars lower thermosphere ( ˜100-130 km) [Baird et al., 2005], yielding values as large as 300-400 m/sec. Most recently, the Mars Express SPICAM instrument discovered nitric oxide (NO) nightglow spectral features in the γ and δ -bands from limb observations (Ls = 74) [Bertaux et al., 2005]. These observed UV nightglow emissions are brightest in the winter polar night region. The solstice winds required to produce the Mars winter polar warming features are also responsible for transporting dayside produced N and O atoms to the nightside where radiative recombination and UV chemiluminescence occurs. These new dynamical constraints for the Martian upper atmosphere are now investigated using coupled MGCM (NASA Ames) and MTGCM (Michigan) simulations for aphelion (Ls = 90) and perihelion (Ls = 270) conditions appropriate to MGS and Odyssey aerobraking datasets described above. Seasonal variations in the thermospheric circulation, and the underlying mechanisms likely responsible for these

  11. [Circulating tumor cells: liquid biopsy].

    PubMed

    Alix-Panabières, Catherine; Pierga, Jean-Yves

    2014-01-01

    The detection and molecular characterization of circulating tumor cells (CTCs) are one of the most active areas of translational cancer research, with more than 400 clinical studies having included CTCs as a biomarker. The aims of research on CTCs include: a) estimation of the risk for metastatic relapse or metastatic progression (prognostic information); b) stratification and real-time monitoring of therapies; c) identification of therapeutic targets and resistance mechanisms; and d) understanding metastasis development in cancer patients. This review focuses on the technologies used for the enrichment and detection of CTCs. We outline and discuss the current technologies that are based on exploiting the physical and biological properties of CTCs. A number of innovative technologies to improve methods for CTC detection have recently been developed, including CTC microchips, filtration devices, quantitative reverse-transcription PCR assays, and automated microscopy systems. Molecular characterization studies have indicated, however, that CTCs are very heterogeneous, a finding that underscores the need for multiplex approaches to capture all of the relevant CTC subsets. We therefore emphasize the current challenges of increasing the yield and detection of CTCs that have undergone an epithelial-mesenchymal transition. Increasing assay analytical sensitivity may lead, however, to a decrease in analytical specificity (e.g., through the detection of circulating normal epithelial cells). A considerable number of promising CTC detection techniques have been developed in recent years. The analytical specificity and clinical utility of these methods must be demonstrated in large prospective multicenter studies to reach the high level of evidence required for their introduction into clinical practice.

  12. Roadmap for cardiovascular circulation model.

    PubMed

    Safaei, Soroush; Bradley, Christopher P; Suresh, Vinod; Mithraratne, Kumar; Muller, Alexandre; Ho, Harvey; Ladd, David; Hellevik, Leif R; Omholt, Stig W; Chase, J Geoffrey; Müller, Lucas O; Watanabe, Sansuke M; Blanco, Pablo J; de Bono, Bernard; Hunter, Peter J

    2016-12-01

    Computational models of many aspects of the mammalian cardiovascular circulation have been developed. Indeed, along with orthopaedics, this area of physiology is one that has attracted much interest from engineers, presumably because the equations governing blood flow in the vascular system are well understood and can be solved with well-established numerical techniques. Unfortunately, there have been only a few attempts to create a comprehensive public domain resource for cardiovascular researchers. In this paper we propose a roadmap for developing an open source cardiovascular circulation model. The model should be registered to the musculo-skeletal system. The computational infrastructure for the cardiovascular model should provide for near real-time computation of blood flow and pressure in all parts of the body. The model should deal with vascular beds in all tissues, and the computational infrastructure for the model should provide links into CellML models of cell function and tissue function. In this work we review the literature associated with 1D blood flow modelling in the cardiovascular system, discuss model encoding standards, software and a model repository. We then describe the coordinate systems used to define the vascular geometry, derive the equations and discuss the implementation of these coupled equations in the open source computational software OpenCMISS. Finally, some preliminary results are presented and plans outlined for the next steps in the development of the model, the computational software and the graphical user interface for accessing the model. © 2016 The Authors. The Journal of Physiology © 2016 The Physiological Society.

  13. Plasma Circulation in the Magnetosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, T. E.; Fok, Mei-Ching; Delcourt, D. C.; Slinker, S.; Fedder, J. A.; Buenfil, M.

    2006-01-01

    We investigate the global structure and dynamics of plasma circulation produced by prototypical solar wind disturbances of the interplanetary magnetic field and dynamic pressure. We track the global circulation and energization of solar wind, polar wind, and auroral wind plasmas throughout the magnetosphere, until they precipitate or escape into the downstream solar wind. We use the full equations of motion of the plasma ions within fields produced by a global MHD simulation of the dynamic solar wind interaction. We use the dynamic hot plasma density and Poynting energy flux specified at the inner boundary of the MHD simulation as drivers of conjugate ion outflow fluxes using local empirical relations obtained from the FAST and Polar missions. Birkeland currents computed by the MHD code are used to derive a field-parallel potential drop from a Knight-like relation [as modified by Lyons and Evans, 1980]. This potential drop is applied to each ion as an initial bulk energy, added to a thermal heating driven by the locally incident Poynting flux. The solar wind pressure increase case (B(sub Y) = 5; B(sub z) = 0 nT) produces an immediate substorm owing to compression of pre-existing plasmas. The SB(sub z), interval (embedded in NB(sub z)) produces a substorm after about one hour of development. Both disturbances enhance the auroral wind flux and heavy ion pressure of the magnetosphere substantially, with complex dynamic structuring by auroral acceleration vortexes and dynamic reconnection. Comparisons are made with observations during disturbed periods including the Halloween 2003 super-storm and other periods.

  14. Plasma Circulation in the Magnetosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, T. E.; Fok, Mei-Ching; Delcourt, D. C.; Slinker, S.; Fedder, J. A.; Buenfil, M.

    2006-01-01

    We investigate the global structure and dynamics of plasma circulation produced by prototypical solar wind disturbances of the interplanetary magnetic field and dynamic pressure. We track the global circulation and energization of solar wind, polar wind, and auroral wind plasmas throughout the magnetosphere, until they precipitate or escape into the downstream solar wind. We use the full equations of motion of the plasma ions within fields produced by a global MHD simulation of the dynamic solar wind interaction. We use the dynamic hot plasma density and Poynting energy flux specified at the inner boundary of the MHD simulation as drivers of conjugate ion outflow fluxes using local empirical relations obtained from the FAST and Polar missions. Birkeland currents computed by the MHD code are used to derive a field-parallel potential drop from a Knight-like relation [as modified by Lyons and Evans, 1980]. This potential drop is applied to each ion as an initial bulk energy, added to a thermal heating driven by the locally incident Poynting flux. The solar wind pressure increase case (B(sub Y) = 5; B(sub z) = 0 nT) produces an immediate substorm owing to compression of pre-existing plasmas. The SB(sub z), interval (embedded in NB(sub z)) produces a substorm after about one hour of development. Both disturbances enhance the auroral wind flux and heavy ion pressure of the magnetosphere substantially, with complex dynamic structuring by auroral acceleration vortexes and dynamic reconnection. Comparisons are made with observations during disturbed periods including the Halloween 2003 super-storm and other periods.

  15. Nature/culture/seawater.

    PubMed

    Helmreich, Stefan

    2011-01-01

    Seawater has occupied an ambiguous place in anthropological categories of "nature" and "culture." Seawater as nature appears as potentiality of form and uncontainable flux; it moves faster than culture - with culture frequently figured through land-based metaphors - even as culture seeks to channel water's (nature's) flow. Seawater as culture manifests as a medium of pleasure, sustenance, travel, disaster. I argue that, although seawater's qualities in early anthropology were portrayed impressionistically, today technical, scientific descriptions of water's form prevail. For example, processes of globalization - which may also be called "oceanization" - are often described as "currents," "flows," and "circulations." Examining sea-set ethnography, maritime anthropologies, and contemporary social theory, I propose that seawater has operated as a “theory machine” for generating insights about human cultural organization. I develop this argument with ethnography from the Sargasso Sea and in the Sea Islands. I conclude with a critique of appeals to water's form in social theory.

  16. [A new approach for studying the retinal and choroidal circulation].

    PubMed

    Yoneya, Shin

    2004-12-01

    One advantage of advanced computer technology is the high throughput with which the retinal and the choroidal circulation can be evaluated from new aspects. To study the choroidal circulation, we first reevaluated indocyanine green video angiography to improve the visualization of indocyanine green (ICG) images, then applied computer technology to analyze images obtained by an ICG video camera system. We also developed a new instrument to measure oxygen saturation levels in the fundus using spectral retinal imaging technology. I. Choroidal circulation. 1. Reevaluation of ICG video camera system: For this purpose, the bio-chemical nature of ICG was studied. 1) Spectral absorption of ICG: The peak absorption of ICG in distilled water was 780 nm as measured with a spectrophotometer. Its maximum absorption shifted from 780 nm to 805 nm after gradually mixing ICG with human serum protein. Conjugation time of ICG as well as fluorescein sodium with human serum protein was then measured by a stopped flowmeter. It was found that fluorescein sodium conjugated with human serum protein within a few milliseconds, while ICG required more than 600 seconds before equilibrium of the binding was reached. From these observations, we developed a new ICG video system with dual light sources; one, a 780 nm diode laser for the early dye filling phase, and the other, a 805 nm diode laser for the later phase of ICG angiography. 2) Binding properties of ICG in human blood: Blood samples were obtained from three healthy volunteers after intravenous administration of ICG. The resulting plasma samples were fractionated by agarose gel immunoelectrophoresis and polyacrylamide gel DISC electrophoresis. The electrophoretic pattern obtained by each method was observed with an ICG fundus video system. We also studied the affinity of ICG for lipids that are common molecular components of lipoproteins such as high-density lipoprotein (HDL) and low-density lipoprotein (LDL). Four kinds of ICG solutions

  17. The epistemological status of general circulation models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loehle, Craig

    2017-05-01

    Forecasts of both likely anthropogenic effects on climate and consequent effects on nature and society are based on large, complex software tools called general circulation models (GCMs). Forecasts generated by GCMs have been used extensively in policy decisions related to climate change. However, the relation between underlying physical theories and results produced by GCMs is unclear. In the case of GCMs, many discretizations and approximations are made, and simulating Earth system processes is far from simple and currently leads to some results with unknown energy balance implications. Statistical testing of GCM forecasts for degree of agreement with data would facilitate assessment of fitness for use. If model results need to be put on an anomaly basis due to model bias, then both visual and quantitative measures of model fit depend strongly on the reference period used for normalization, making testing problematic. Epistemology is here applied to problems of statistical inference during testing, the relationship between the underlying physics and the models, the epistemic meaning of ensemble statistics, problems of spatial and temporal scale, the existence or not of an unforced null for climate fluctuations, the meaning of existing uncertainty estimates, and other issues. Rigorous reasoning entails carefully quantifying levels of uncertainty.

  18. The venous circulation: a piscine perspective.

    PubMed

    Sandblom, Erik; Axelsson, Michael

    2007-12-01

    Vascular capacitance describes the pressure-volume relationship of the circulatory system. The venous vasculature, which is the main capacitive region in the circulation, is actively controlled by various neurohumoral systems. In terrestrial animals, vascular capacitance control is crucial to prevent orthostatic blood pooling in dependent limbs, while in aquatic animals like fish, the effects of gravity are cancelled out by hydrostatic forces making orthostatic blood pooling an unlikely concern for these animals. Nevertheless, changes in venous capacitance have important implications on cardiovascular homeostasis in fish since it affects venous return and cardiac filling pressure (i.e. central venous blood pressure), which in turn may affect cardiac output. The mean circulatory filling pressure is used to estimate vascular capacitance. In unanaesthetized animals, it is measured as the central venous plateau pressure during a transient stoppage of cardiac output. So far, most studies of venous function in fish have addressed the situation in teleosts (notably the rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss), while any information on elasmobranchs, cyclostomes and air-breathing fishes is more limited. This review describes venous haemodynamic concepts and neurohumoral control systems in fish. Particular emphasis is placed on venous responses to natural cardiovascular challenges such as exercise, environmental hypoxia and temperature changes.

  19. Personal Finance Calculations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Argo, Mark

    1982-01-01

    Contains explanations and examples of mathematical calculations for a secondary level course on personal finance. How to calculate total monetary cost of an item, monthly payments, different types of interest, annual percentage rates, and unit pricing is explained. (RM)

  20. The Hydrothermal Circulation of the Atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kjellsson, J.; Doos, K.; Laliberté, F. B.; Zika, J. D.

    2012-12-01

    The atmospheric circulation maintains the energy balance between the warm/moist regions and the colder/drier regions of the Earth. A well-studied aspect of the atmospheric circulation is the time-averaged zonal-mean meridional overturning circulation. The meridional overturning describes the Hadley, Ferrel and Polar Cells in each hemisphere. However, in isobaric coordinates, the zonal average is unable to capture zonally asymmetric features such as the Walker circulation and transient exchanges of heat and moisture. The Walker Circulation is restricted to equatorial regions, and is commonly studied using a meridional mean over a limited region with ill-defined latitudinal boundaries. The Walker Circulation is thus neither mass-conserving nor uniquely defined. To overtcome these limitations, the Walker circulation is often diagnosed using vertical velocity. As a consequence, it is difficult to distinguish between the zonal-mean circulation (Hadley Circulation) and the zonal asymmetries (Walker Circulation). Global mass and energy transport is here investigated using a moisture-heat perspective. A hydrothermal streamfunction is defined where latent heat and dry static energy act as coordinates. Because the hydrothermal streamfunction resides in purely thermodynamical space, it does not differentiate between zonal, meridional, or vertical transports. The hydrothermal streamfunction shows the global overturning circulation as a unified cycle. It describes a cycle with three branches: i) a convective branch where latent heat is converted into sensible heat along moist adiabats, ii) a cooling branch where dry air loses energy due to radiative damping and iii) a return branch where cold, dry air is heated and moistened following the Clausius-Clapeyron relationship. These three branches form a single cell of more than 400 Sv with at least 100 Sv due to zonal motions such as the Walker Circulation. The cell is also found fairly stationary on seasonal and inter

  1. Autistic Savant Calendar Calculators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patti, Paul J.

    This study identified 10 savants with developmental disabilities and an exceptional ability to calculate calendar dates. These "calendar calculators" were asked to demonstrate their abilities, and their strategies were analyzed. The study found that the ability to calculate dates into the past or future varied widely among these…

  2. Flexible Mental Calculation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Threlfall, John

    2002-01-01

    Suggests that strategy choice is a misleading characterization of efficient mental calculation and that teaching mental calculation methods as a whole is not conducive to flexibility. Proposes an alternative in which calculation is thought of as an interaction between noticing and knowledge. Presents an associated teaching approach to promote…

  3. Calculator-Active Materials.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crow, Tracy, Ed.; Harris, Julia, Ed.

    1997-01-01

    This journal contains brief descriptions of calculator-active materials that were found using Resource Finder, the searchable online catalog of curriculum resources from the Eisenhower National Clearinghouse (ENC). It features both the calculators themselves and the activity books that are used with them. Among the calculators included are those…

  4. Calculators, Computers, and Classrooms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Higgins, Jon L.; Kirschner, Vicky

    Suggestions for using four-function calculators, programmable calculators, and microcomputers are considered in this collection of 36 articles. The first section contains articles considering general implications for mathematics curricula implied by the freedom calculators offer students from routine computation, enabling them to focus on results…

  5. Numerical analysis of seawater circulation in carbonate platforms: I. Geothermal convection

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sanford, W.E.; Whitaker, F.F.; Smart, P.L.; Jones, G.

    1998-01-01

    Differences in fluid density between cold ocean water and warm ground water can drive the circulation of seawater through carbonate platforms. The circulating water can be the major source of dissolved constituents for diagenetic reactions such as dolomitization. This study was undertaken to investigate the conditions under which such circulation can occur and to determine which factors control both the flux and the patterns of fluid circulation and temperature distribution, given the expected ranges of those factors in nature. Results indicate that the magnitude and distribution of permeability within a carbonate platform are the most important parameters. Depending on the values of horizontal and vertical permeability, heat transport within a platform can occur by one of three mechanisms: conduction, forced convection, or free convection. Depth-dependent relations for porosity and permeability in carbonate platforms suggest circulation may decrease rapidly with depth. The fluid properties of density and viscosity are controlled primarily by their dependency on temperature. The bulk thermal conductivity of the rocks within the platform affects the conductive regime to some extent, especially if evaporite minerals are present within the section. Platform geometry has only a second-order effect on circulation. The relative position of sealevel can create surface conditions that range from exposed (with a fresh-water lens present) to shallow water (with hypersaline conditions created by evaporation in constricted flow conditions) to submerged or drowned (with free surface water circulation), but these boundary conditions and associated ocean temperature profiles have only a second-order effect on fluid circulation. Deep, convective circulation can be caused by horizon tal temperature gradients and can occur even at depths below the ocean bottom. Temperature data from deep holes in the Florida and Bahama platforms suggest that geothermal circulation is actively

  6. How Do Calculators Calculate Trigonometric Functions?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Underwood, Jeremy M.; Edwards, Bruce H.

    How does your calculator quickly produce values of trigonometric functions? You might be surprised to learn that it does not use series or polynomial approximations, but rather the so-called CORDIC method. This paper will focus on the geometry of the CORDIC method, as originally developed by Volder in 1959. This algorithm is a wonderful…

  7. Interhemispheric comparison of atmospheric circulation features as evaluated from Nimbus satellite data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reiter, E. R.

    1972-01-01

    General circulation parameters in the Northern Hemisphere are calculated using atmospheric thermal structure obtained from Nimbus 3 SIRS multi-channel radiance information. The thermal structure up to 10 mb is obtained by using a regression technique with thickness between pressure levels as the dependent variable. General circulation parameters calculated on a daily basis include zonal and eddy available potential energy, and zonal and eddy kinetic energy. A second set of calculations is performed using National Meteorological Center grid data. A comparison of the two sets of calculations indicates that, although the energies calculated from the SIRS-derived structure underestimate the actual energies, maxima, minima, and trends are well identified. An example of mid-stratospheric energy changes during a breakdown of the polar-night vortex is also given.

  8. From the discovery of the circulation of the blood to the first steps in hemorheology: part 1.

    PubMed

    Martins e Silva, J

    2009-11-01

    In this article (the first of two on the subject) a brief historical review is presented of the prevailing ideas on the nature of the blood and its circulation from antiquity to the 16th century, when the problem was solved by William Harvey. On the basis of vivisection of various types of animals, Harvey constructed a general and logical model for the whole systemic circulation, which contradicted previous concepts, mainly those that had been put forward by Galen fourteen centuries before. The influence that Galen still exercised on virtually all areas of medicine justified Harvey's hesitations and scruples, forcing him to delay publishing his conclusions for thirteen years. It also explains the controversy with fellow physicians on the subject, which continued until his death. However, through careful observation and painstaking investigation, Harvey demonstrated clearly that the heart was the central organ of the circulatory system, on which depended the propulsion of the blood to the arteries and its subsequent return by different vessels, the veins, to its starting point. The blood coming from the heart was different from that which returned to the organ, the difference (in color and fluidity) being attributed to the presence of constituents which nourished the organism it irrigated. Harvey characterized blood pulsation as the result of the arteries filling with arterial blood during each heart contraction. He demonstrated that the arterial blood left the heart by contraction of the left ventricle, which happened simultaneously with contraction of the right ventricle and, in both, after the contraction of the atria. He confirmed that blood passed through the lung circulation from the right ventricle to the left atrium and from there to the left ventricle. By calculating the volume of blood pumped daily by the heart, Harvey reasoned that the blood could not be consumed by the body and would have to circulate continually through the heart and vascular network

  9. Downhole material injector for lost circulation control

    DOEpatents

    Glowka, David A.

    1994-01-01

    Apparatus and method for simultaneously and separately emplacing two streams of different materials through a drillstring in a borehole to a downhole location for lost circulation control. The two streams are mixed outside the drillstring at the desired downhole location and harden only after mixing for control of a lost circulation zone.

  10. Downhole material injector for lost circulation control

    DOEpatents

    Glowka, D.A.

    1991-01-01

    This invention is comprised of an apparatus and method for simultaneously and separately emplacing two streams of different materials through a drillstring in a borehole to a downhole location for lost circulation control. The two streams are mixed outside the drillstring at the desired downhole location and harden only after mixing for control of a lost circulation zone.

  11. Downhole material injector for lost circulation control

    DOEpatents

    Glowka, D.A.

    1994-09-06

    Apparatus and method are disclosed for simultaneously and separately emplacing two streams of different materials through a drill string in a borehole to a downhole location for lost circulation control. The two streams are mixed outside the drill string at the desired downhole location and harden only after mixing for control of a lost circulation zone. 6 figs.

  12. Automated Circulation Systems in Public Libraries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simpson, George A.

    Data analysis of a questionnaire completed by 38 public libraries in the United States and Canada who possess "turnkey" automated circulation systems is presented. Results show that libraries are enthusiastic about benefits to staff and patrons. For libraries with increasing circulation, the computer allows more time to handle additional work load…

  13. Laptop Circulation at Eastern Washington University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Munson, Doris; Malia, Elizabeth

    2008-01-01

    In 2001, Eastern Washington University's Libraries began a laptop circulation program with seventeen laptops. Today, there are 150 laptops in the circulation pool, as well as seventeen digital cameras, eleven digital handycams, and thirteen digital projectors. This article explains how the program has grown to its present size, the growing pains…

  14. Public Library Automation Report: Circulation [and] Appendix.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gotanda, Masae; And Others

    An online circulation system--ULISYS (the Universal Library System Ltd.) manufactured by Digital Equipment Corporation (DEC)--is being installed in the Hawaii State Library, Kaneohe Regional Library, Kailua Community Library and Waimanalo Community/School Library. These libraries are the first users of a statewide online circulation system…

  15. Laptop Circulation at Eastern Washington University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Munson, Doris; Malia, Elizabeth

    2008-01-01

    In 2001, Eastern Washington University's Libraries began a laptop circulation program with seventeen laptops. Today, there are 150 laptops in the circulation pool, as well as seventeen digital cameras, eleven digital handycams, and thirteen digital projectors. This article explains how the program has grown to its present size, the growing pains…

  16. Hepatic changes in the failing Fontan circulation

    PubMed Central

    Kiesewetter, Christoph H; Sheron, Nick; Vettukattill, Joseph J; Hacking, Nigel; Stedman, Brian; Millward‐Sadler, Harry; Haw, Marcus; Cope, Richard; Salmon, Anthony P; Sivaprakasam, Muthukumaran C; Kendall, Tim; Keeton, Barry R; Iredale, John P; Veldtman, Gruschen R

    2007-01-01

    Background The failing Fontan circulation is associated with hepatic impairment. The nature of this liver injury is poorly defined. Objective To establish the gross and histological liver changes of patients with Fontan circulation relative to clinical, biochemical and haemodynamic findings. Methods Patients were retrospectively assessed for extracardiac Fontan conversion between September 2003 and June 2005, according to an established clinical protocol. Twelve patients, mean age 24.6 (range 15.8–43.4) years were identified. The mean duration since the initial Fontan procedure was 14.1 (range 6.9–26.4) years. Results Zonal enhancement of the liver (4/12) on CT was more common in patients with lower hepatic vein pressures (p = 0.007), and in those with absent cardiac cirrhosis on histological examination (p = 0.033). Gastro‐oesophageal varices (4/12) were more common in patients with higher hepatic vein pressure (21 (6.3) vs 12.2 (2.2) mm Hg, p = 0.013) and associated with more advanced cirrhosis (p = 0.037). The extent of cirrhosis (7/12) was positively correlated with the hepatic vein pressure (r = 0.83, p = 0.003). A significant positive correlation was found between the Fontan duration and the degree of hepatic fibrosis (r = 0.75, p = 0.013), as well as presence of broad scars (r = 0.71, p = 0.021). Protein‐losing enteropathy (5/12) occurred more frequently in patients with longer Fontan duration (11.7 (3.2) vs 17.9 (6.1) years, p = 0.038). Conclusions Liver injury, which can be extensive in this patient group, is related to Fontan duration and hepatic vein pressures. CT scan assists non‐invasive assessment. Cardiac cirrhosis with the risk of developing gastro‐oesophageal varices and regenerative liver nodules, a precursor to hepatocellular carcinoma, is common in this patient group. PMID:17005713

  17. Physiology of the fetal and transitional circulation.

    PubMed

    Finnemore, Anna; Groves, Alan

    2015-08-01

    The fetal circulation is an entirely transient event, not replicated at any point in later life, and functionally distinct from the pediatric and adult circulations. Understanding of the physiology of the fetal circulation is vital for accurate interpretation of hemodynamic assessments in utero, but also for management of circulatory compromise in premature infants, who begin extrauterine life before the fetal circulation has finished its maturation. This review summarizes the key classical components of circulatory physiology, as well as some of the newer concepts of physiology that have been appreciated in recent years. The immature circulation has significantly altered function in all aspects of circulatory physiology. The mechanisms and significance of these differences are also discussed, as is the impact of these alterations on the circulatory transition of infants born prematurely.

  18. A method to predict circulation control noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reger, Robert W.

    Underwater vehicles suffer from reduced maneuverability with conventional lifting append-\\ ages due to the low velocity of operation. Circulation control offers a method to increase maneuverability independent of vehicle speed. However, with circulation control comes additional noise sources, which are not well understood. To better understand these noise sources, a modal-based prediction method is developed, potentially offering a quantitative connection between flow structures and far-field noise. This method involves estimation of the velocity field, surface pressure field, and far-field noise, using only non-time-resolved velocity fields and time-resolved probe measurements. Proper orthogonal decomposition, linear stochastic estimation and Kalman smoothing are employed to estimate time-resolved velocity fields. Poisson's equation is used to calculate time-resolved pressure fields from velocity. Curle's analogy is then used to propagate the surface pressure forces to the far field. This method is developed on a direct numerical simulation of a two-dimensional cylinder at a low Reynolds number (150). Since each of the fields to be estimated are also known from the simulation, a means of obtaining the error from using the methodology is provided. The velocity estimation and the simulated velocity match well when the simulated additive measurement noise is low. The pressure field suffers due to a small domain size; however, the surface pressures estimates fare much better. The far-field estimation contains similar frequency content with reduced magnitudes, attributed to the exclusion of the viscous forces in Curle's analogy. In the absence of added noise, the estimation procedure performs quite nicely for this model problem. The method is tested experimentally on a 650,000 chord-Reynolds-number flow over a 2-D, 20% thick, elliptic circulation control airfoil. Slot jet momentum coefficients of 0 and 0.10 are investigated. Particle image velocimetry, unsteady

  19. The circulation of Levantine intermediate water in the northeastern Ionian sea (late winter/early spring 1986)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Theodorou, Athanasios J.

    1991-05-01

    CTD data, collected in the northeastern Ionian Sea during late winter/early spring 1986, are used to examine the spreading of the Levantine Intermediate Water (LIW) on selected isopycnal surfaces. The distribution of salinity on these surfaces provides the qualitative aspects of the flow field. Charts of the spreading of LIW, based on θ-S analysis, emphasize the diffusive nature of the LIW spreading over a major part of the study area. However, more than half of the overall decrease in its concentration, indicative of vertical mixing, occurs at the Strait of Otranto. Geostrophic calculations, with a reference level selected on the basis of heuristic criteria, are used to derive (preserving continuity) the quantitative flow pattern. The circulation of the "upper" water (above the reference level), in the part of the study area south of 37° 30'N was found to be dominated by a mesoscale though distorted anticyclonic gyre; with the latter a total of 2.0 Sv (1 Sv = 1 × 10 6 m 3/s) of "upper" water, including 1.0 Sv of LIW, was found to be associated, presumably re-circulating in the area of the anticyclonic gyre. North of 37°30'N the flow is northward and mildly cyclonic, transporting 0.5 Sv. A major portion of the latter (= 0.4 Sv), including 0.2 Sv of LIW is directed toward the eastern side of the Otranto Strait.

  20. Lattice thermal conductivity of TixZryHf1 -x -yNiSn half-Heusler alloys calculated from first principles: Key role of nature of phonon modes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eliassen, Simen N. H.; Katre, Ankita; Madsen, Georg K. H.; Persson, Clas; Løvvik, Ole Martin; Berland, Kristian

    2017-01-01

    In spite of their relatively high lattice thermal conductivity κℓ, the X NiSn (X =Ti , Zr, or Hf) half-Heusler compounds are good thermoelectric materials. Previous studies have shown that κℓ can be reduced by sublattice alloying on the X site. To cast light on how the alloy composition affects κℓ, we study this system using the phonon Boltzmann-transport equation within the relaxation time approximation in conjunction with density functional theory. The effect of alloying through mass-disorder scattering is explored using the virtual crystal approximation to screen the entire ternary TixZryHf1 -x -yNiSn phase diagram. The lowest lattice thermal conductivity is found for the TixHf1 -xNiSn compositions; in particular, there is a shallow minimum centered at Ti0.5Hf0.5NiSn with κℓ taking values between 3.2 and 4.1 W/mK when the Ti content varies between 20% and 80%. Interestingly, the overall behavior of mass-disorder scattering in this system can only be understood from a combination of the nature of the phonon modes and the magnitude of the mass variance. Mass-disorder scattering is not effective at scattering acoustic phonons of low energy. By using a simple model of grain boundary scattering, we find that nanostructuring these compounds can scatter such phonons effectively and thus further reduce the lattice thermal conductivity; for instance, Ti0.5Hf0.5NiSn with a grain size of L =100 nm experiences a 42% reduction of κℓ compared to that of the single crystal.