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Sample records for natural co2 gradient

  1. Decline in coccolithophore diversity and impact on coccolith morphogenesis along a natural CO2 gradient.

    PubMed

    Ziveri, Patrizia; Passaro, Marcello; Incarbona, Alessandro; Milazzo, Marco; Rodolfo-Metalpa, Riccardo; Hall-Spencer, Jason M

    2014-06-01

    A natural pH gradient caused by marine CO2 seeps off Vulcano Island (Italy) was used to assess the effects of ocean acidification on coccolithophores, which are abundant planktonic unicellular calcifiers. Such seeps are used as natural laboratories to study the effects of ocean acidification on marine ecosystems, since they cause long-term changes in seawater carbonate chemistry and pH, exposing the organisms to elevated CO2 concentrations and therefore mimicking future scenarios. Previous work at CO2 seeps has focused exclusively on benthic organisms. Here we show progressive depletion of 27 coccolithophore species, in terms of cell concentrations and diversity, along a calcite saturation gradient from Ωcalcite 6.4 to <1. Water collected close to the main CO2 seeps had the highest concentrations of malformed Emiliania huxleyi. These observations add to a growing body of evidence that ocean acidification may benefit some algae but will likely cause marine biodiversity loss, especially by impacting calcifying species, which are affected as carbonate saturation falls.

  2. Changes in microbial communities in coastal sediments along natural CO2 gradients at a volcanic vent in Papua New Guinea.

    PubMed

    Raulf, Felix F; Fabricius, Katharina; Uthicke, Sven; de Beer, Dirk; Abed, Raeid M M; Ramette, Alban

    2015-10-01

    Natural CO2 venting systems can mimic conditions that resemble intermediate to high pCO2 levels as predicted for our future oceans. They represent ideal sites to investigate potential long-term effects of ocean acidification on marine life. To test whether microbes are affected by prolonged exposure to pCO2 levels, we examined the composition and diversity of microbial communities in oxic sandy sediments along a natural CO2 gradient. Increasing pCO2 was accompanied by higher bacterial richness and by a strong increase in rare members in both bacterial and archaeal communities. Microbial communities from sites with CO2 concentrations close to today's conditions had different structures than those of sites with elevated CO2 levels. We also observed increasing sequence abundance of several organic matter degrading types of Flavobacteriaceae and Rhodobacteraceae, which paralleled concurrent shifts in benthic cover and enhanced primary productivity. With increasing pCO2 , sequences related to bacterial nitrifying organisms such as Nitrosococcus and Nitrospirales decreased, and sequences affiliated to the archaeal ammonia-oxidizing Thaumarchaeota Nitrosopumilus maritimus increased. Our study suggests that microbial community structure and diversity, and likely key ecosystem functions, may be altered in coastal sediments by long-term CO2 exposure to levels predicted for the end of the century.

  3. Effects of ocean acidification on embryonic respiration and development of a temperate wrasse living along a natural CO2 gradient

    PubMed Central

    Cattano, Carlo; Giomi, Folco; Milazzo, Marco

    2016-01-01

    Volcanic CO2 seeps provide opportunities to investigate the effects of ocean acidification on organisms in the wild. To understand the influence of increasing CO2 concentrations on the metabolic rate (oxygen consumption) and the development of ocellated wrasse early life stages, we ran two field experiments, collecting embryos from nesting sites with different partial pressures of CO2 [pCO2; ambient (∼400 µatm) and high (800–1000 µatm)] and reciprocally transplanting embryos from ambient- to high-CO2 sites for 30 h. Ocellated wrasse offspring brooded in different CO2 conditions had similar responses, but after transplanting portions of nests to the high-CO2 site, embryos from parents that spawned in ambient conditions had higher metabolic rates. Although metabolic phenotypic plasticity may show a positive response to high CO2, it often comes at a cost, in this case as a smaller size at hatching. This can have adverse effects because smaller larvae often exhibit a lower survival in the wild. However, the adverse effects of increased CO2 on metabolism and development did not occur when embryos from the high-CO2 nesting site were exposed to ambient conditions, suggesting that offspring from the high-CO2 nesting site could be resilient to a wider range of pCO2 values than those belonging to the site with present-day pCO2 levels. Our study identifies a crucial need to increase the number of studies dealing with these processes under global change trajectories and to expand these to naturally high-CO2 environments, in order to assess further the adaptive plasticity mechanism that encompasses non-genetic inheritance (epigenetics) through parental exposure and other downstream consequences, such as survival of larvae. PMID:27293752

  4. Sensitivity to ocean acidification parallels natural pCO2 gradients experienced by Arctic copepods under winter sea ice.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Ceri N; Brown, Kristina A; Edwards, Laura A; Cooper, Glenn; Findlay, Helen S

    2013-12-17

    The Arctic Ocean already experiences areas of low pH and high CO2, and it is expected to be most rapidly affected by future ocean acidification (OA). Copepods comprise the dominant Arctic zooplankton; hence, their responses to OA have important implications for Arctic ecosystems, yet there is little data on their current under-ice winter ecology on which to base future monitoring or make predictions about climate-induced change. Here, we report results from Arctic under-ice investigations of copepod natural distributions associated with late-winter carbonate chemistry environmental data and their response to manipulated pCO2 conditions (OA exposures). Our data reveal that species and life stage sensitivities to manipulated OA conditions were correlated with their vertical migration behavior and with their natural exposures to different pCO2 ranges. Vertically migrating adult Calanus spp. crossed a pCO2 range of >140 μatm daily and showed only minor responses to manipulated high CO2. Oithona similis, which remained in the surface waters and experienced a pCO2 range of <75 μatm, showed significantly reduced adult and nauplii survival in high CO2 experiments. These results support the relatively untested hypothesis that the natural range of pCO2 experienced by an organism determines its sensitivity to future OA and highlight that the globally important copepod species, Oithona spp., may be more sensitive to future high pCO2 conditions compared with the more widely studied larger copepods.

  5. The natural latitudinal distribution of atmospheric CO 2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, John A.; Orr, James C.

    2000-12-01

    Although poorly understood, the north-south distribution of the natural component of atmospheric CO 2 offers information essential to improving our understanding of the exchange of CO 2 between the atmosphere, oceans, and biosphere. The natural or unperturbed component is equivalent to that part of the atmospheric CO 2 distribution which is controlled by non-anthropogenic CO 2 fluxes from the ocean and terrestrial biosphere. Models should be able to reproduce the true north-south gradient in CO 2 due to the natural component before they can reliably estimate present-day CO 2 sources and sinks and predict future atmospheric CO 2. We have estimated the natural latitudinal distribution of atmospheric CO 2, relative to the South Pole, using measurements of atmospheric CO 2 during 1959-1991 and corresponding estimates of anthropogenic CO 2 emissions to the atmosphere. Key features of the natural latitudinal distribution include: (1) CO 2 concentrations in the northern hemisphere that are lower than those in the southern hemisphere; (2) CO 2 concentration differences that are higher in the tropics (associated with outgassing of the oceans) than those currently measured; and (3) CO 2 concentrations over the southern ocean that are relatively uniform. This natural latitudinal distribution and its sensitivity to increasing fossil fuel emissions both indicate that near-surface concentrations of atmospheric CO 2 in the northern hemisphere are naturally lower than those in the southern hemisphere. Models that find the contrary will also mismatch present-day CO 2 in the northern hemisphere and incorrectly ascribe that region as a large sink of anthropogenic CO 2.

  6. How secure is subsurface CO2 storage? Controls on leakage in natural CO2 reservoirs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miocic, Johannes; Gilfillan, Stuart; McDermott, Christopher; Haszeldine, Stuart

    2014-05-01

    Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) is the only industrial scale technology available to directly reduce carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions from fossil fuelled power plants and large industrial point sources to the atmosphere. The technology includes the capture of CO2 at the source and transport to subsurface storage sites, such as depleted hydrocarbon reservoirs or saline aquifers, where it is injected and stored for long periods of time. To have an impact on the greenhouse gas emissions it is crucial that there is no or only a very low amount of leakage of CO2 from the storage sites to shallow aquifers or the surface. CO2 occurs naturally in reservoirs in the subsurface and has often been stored for millions of years without any leakage incidents. However, in some cases CO2 migrates from the reservoir to the surface. Both leaking and non-leaking natural CO2 reservoirs offer insights into the long-term behaviour of CO2 in the subsurface and on the mechanisms that lead to either leakage or retention of CO2. Here we present the results of a study on leakage mechanisms of natural CO2 reservoirs worldwide. We compiled a global dataset of 49 well described natural CO2 reservoirs of which six are leaking CO2 to the surface, 40 retain CO2 in the subsurface and for three reservoirs the evidence is inconclusive. Likelihood of leakage of CO2 from a reservoir to the surface is governed by the state of CO2 (supercritical vs. gaseous) and the pressure in the reservoir and the direct overburden. Reservoirs with gaseous CO2 is more prone to leak CO2 than reservoirs with dense supercritical CO2. If the reservoir pressure is close to or higher than the least principal stress leakage is likely to occur while reservoirs with pressures close to hydrostatic pressure and below 1200 m depth do not leak. Additionally, a positive pressure gradient from the reservoir into the caprock averts leakage of CO2 into the caprock. Leakage of CO2 occurs in all cases along a fault zone, indicating that

  7. A CO2 concentration gradient facility for testing CO2 enrichment and soil effects on grassland ecosystem function

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Continuing increases in atmospheric CO2 concentrations mandate techniques for examining impacts on terrestrial ecosystems. Most experiments examine only two or a few levels of CO2 concentration and a single soil type, but if CO2 can be varied as a gradient from subambient to superambient concentra...

  8. Natural Analog for Geologic Storage of CO2: CO2 accumulation in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, L.; Xu, T.; Liu, N.; Zhou, B.

    2012-12-01

    Natural accumulations of CO2 are potential analogues of CO2 geological storage that can provide useful information on the behaviour of supercritical CO2 in reservoirs. Natural CO2 accumulations are common across Northeast China, and, although they occur in a wide variety of geological settings, their distribution is principally controlled by the Mesozoic-Cenozoic rift basins and associated Quaternary volcanism. High CO2 concentrations (>60 CO2%) in natural gas reservoirs are usually related to volcanism and magmatism, and possesses mantle-genetic origin. CO2 reservoirs consist of sandstone, volcanic rocks and carbonate rocks with the buried depth from 2000-3000 m. Dawsonite is recognized in almost all of the CO2-bearing basin, which has been proved to share the same carbon source with CO2 in the reservoirs in Songliao basin, Hailaer basin and Donghai basin. Petrographic data show that dawsonite is abundant in feldspar- rich sandstone, volcanic rock fragment-rich sandstones and tuff. In some cases, high percentage of dawsonite cement constitutes a diagenetic seal, which occurs in the reservoir-mudstone caprock and prevents upward leakage of CO2. Besides dawsonite, mantle-genetic CO2 flux leads to the formation of calcite, ankerite and siderite. The statistics of porosity and permeability measured from the dawsonite-bearing sandstone and dawsonite-absent sandstone with the almost same burial depth in Songliao basin show that the mantle-genetic CO2 flux result in lower reservoir quality, suggesting that mineral trapping for CO2 is significant. Chemical analyses of formation water in Songliao basin and Hailaer basin indicate that the concentrations of TDS, HCO3-,CO32-, Mg2+,Ca2+ and Na+ + K+ in dawsonite-bearing sandstone are higher than that in dawsonite-absent sandstone. Distribution of CO2 and dawsonite is constrainted by the regional caprocks in the Songliao basin. The charging time of the mantle-genetic CO2 in China dates from 50 to 25 Ma.

  9. CO2 laser cutting of natural granite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riveiro, A.; Mejías, A.; Soto, R.; Quintero, F.; del Val, J.; Boutinguiza, M.; Lusquiños, F.; Pardo, J.; Pou, J.

    2016-01-01

    Commercial black granite boards (trade name: "Zimbabwe black granite") 10 mm thick, were successfully cut by a 3.5 kW CO2 laser source. Cutting quality, in terms of kerf width and roughness of the cut wall, was assessed by means of statistically planned experiments. No chemical modification of the material in the cutting walls was detected by the laser beam action. Costs associated to the process were calculated, and the main factors affecting them were identified. Results reported here demonstrate that cutting granite boards could be a new application of CO2 laser cutting machines provided a supersonic nozzle is used.

  10. Fingerprinting captured CO2 using natural tracers: Determining CO2 fate and proving ownership

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flude, Stephanie; Gilfillan, Stuart; Johnston, Gareth; Stuart, Finlay; Haszeldine, Stuart

    2016-04-01

    In the long term, captured CO2 will most likely be stored in large saline formations and it is highly likely that CO2 from multiple operators will be injected into a single saline formation. Understanding CO2 behavior within the reservoir is vital for making operational decisions and often uses geochemical techniques. Furthermore, in the event of a CO2 leak, being able to identify the owner of the CO2 is of vital importance in terms of liability and remediation. Addition of geochemical tracers to the CO2 stream is an effective way of tagging the CO2 from different power stations, but may become prohibitively expensive at large scale storage sites. Here we present results from a project assessing whether the natural isotopic composition (C, O and noble gas isotopes) of captured CO2 is sufficient to distinguish CO2 captured using different technologies and from different fuel sources, from likely baseline conditions. Results include analytical measurements of CO2 captured from a number of different CO2 capture plants and a comprehensive literature review of the known and hypothetical isotopic compositions of captured CO2 and baseline conditions. Key findings from the literature review suggest that the carbon isotope composition will be most strongly controlled by that of the feedstock, but significant fractionation is possible during the capture process; oxygen isotopes are likely to be controlled by the isotopic composition of any water used in either the industrial process or the capture technology; and noble gases concentrations will likely be controlled by the capture technique employed. Preliminary analytical results are in agreement with these predictions. Comparison with summaries of likely storage reservoir baseline and shallow or surface leakage reservoir baseline data suggests that C-isotopes are likely to be valuable tracers of CO2 in the storage reservoir, while noble gases may be particularly valuable as tracers of potential leakage.

  11. Effective Use of Natural CO2-RICH Systems for Stakeholder Communication: CO2FACTS.ORG

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olson, H. C.; Romanak, K.; Osborne, V.; Hovorka, S. D.; Clift, S.; Castner, A.

    2011-12-01

    The impact of using natural analogues as an avenue for communicating about CO2 injection and storage technology with stakeholders has been addressed by previous researchers, e.g., Romanak et al (2011), Dixon et al (2011). Analogies between natural CO2-rich systems and engineered CO2 storage are not necessarily straightforward, and stakeholder opinion is often based on factors other than technical accuracy of information (e.g., lack of trust, confidence, and fear). In order to enhance this communication pathway, STORE (Sequestration Training, Outreach, Research and Education), the outreach arm of the Gulf Coast Carbon Center at The University of Texas at Austin, has created an online resource (www.co2facts.org) to help stakeholders better understand the injection and storage of CO2 underground. The online resource includes frequently asked questions (FAQs) for a variety of CO2-storage-related issues, including those related to natural analogues, and uses examples of natural systems of CO2 release for communication. The content targets various levels of technical education and understanding. A unique feature of the online resource is its approach to verification of information. Each FAQ and example is "fact-checked" by an actual expert in the field. Part of this verification process is to provide an online link to background, credentials, scientific research and images of actual experts in the field at natural release sites. This approach helps put a face to, and potentially builds a relationship of trust with, the scientist behind the technical information. Videos of experts discussing natural systems and their similarities and differences with CO2 injection and storage sites are also part of the resource. Stakeholders commonly draw incorrect parallels between natural disasters that gain attention in the media (e.g., Lake Nyos) and CO2 injection and storage technology. The video images available at www.co2facts.org are a useful tool for assuaging environmental fears

  12. Natural CO2 Releases Providing Messages For Stakeholders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dixon, T.; Romanak, K.; Camps, A. P.

    2011-12-01

    Stakeholder viewpoints and beliefs about geologic carbon storage are not always accurate, yet they may affect the future of carbon capture and storage (CCS). Gaps in stakeholder understanding and perspectives must be addressed, and natural systems that release CO2 can be valuable tools for communicating difficult scientific concepts because they provide tangible examples of geologic principles at work. Stakeholder perceptions commonly involve a misunderstanding of geologic scale and mechanisms, and can be charged with emotions fueled by media coverage of natural disasters. One example of an event widely cited by stakeholders is the CO2 release at Lake Nyos in Cameroon in August 1986 that killed 1700 people. This event is commonly thought by stakeholders to be an analogue for a release from a CO2 storage site; however, this release occurred under a rare combination of circumstances (a 208-m-deep volcanic crater lake) not analogous to an engineered CO2 storage site. Stakeholders therefore gravitate towards natural systems to form concepts and opinions of how CO2 might behave in a geological environment, but they often choose systems that are not true analogues but that gain attention through the media because they are associated with a disaster. When chosen correctly, natural releases of CO2 may create a level of clarity for stakeholders by providing tangible concrete examples that explain difficult scientific principles and provide familiar reference points to adapt different viewpoints. We present suggestions and examples presented by scientists at an IEAGHG Workshop Natural Releases of CO2: Building Knowledge for CO2 Storage Environmental Impact Assessments', held at Maria Laach, Germany, November 2010 which brought together researchers from the EU, North America, Japan, and Australia. It also included field observations of natural CO2 releases around the Laacher See caldera lake, CO2 springs, and the Wallenborn CO2 geyser. New information from international

  13. Natural CO2 Analogs for Carbon Sequestration

    SciTech Connect

    Scott H. Stevens; B. Scott Tye

    2005-07-31

    The report summarizes research conducted at three naturally occurring geologic CO{sub 2} fields in the US. The fields are natural analogs useful for the design of engineered long-term storage of anthropogenic CO{sub 2} in geologic formations. Geologic, engineering, and operational databases were developed for McElmo Dome in Colorado; St. Johns Dome in Arizona and New Mexico; and Jackson Dome in Mississippi. The three study sites stored a total of 2.4 billion t (46 Tcf) of CO{sub 2} equivalent to 1.5 years of power plant emissions in the US and comparable in size with the largest proposed sequestration projects. The three CO{sub 2} fields offer a scientifically useful range of contrasting geologic settings (carbonate vs. sandstone reservoir; supercritical vs. free gas state; normally pressured vs. overpressured), as well as different stages of commercial development (mostly undeveloped to mature). The current study relied mainly on existing data provided by the CO{sub 2} field operator partners, augmented with new geochemical data. Additional study at these unique natural CO{sub 2} accumulations could further help guide the development of safe and cost-effective design and operation methods for engineered CO{sub 2} storage sites.

  14. The Werkendam natural CO2 accumulation: An analogue for CO2 storage in depleted oil reservoirs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bertier, Pieter; Busch, Andreas; Hangx, Suzanne; Kampman, Niko; Nover, Georg; Stanjek, Helge; Weniger, Philipp

    2015-04-01

    The Werkendam natural CO2 accumulation is hosted in the Röt (Early Triassic) sandstone of the West Netherlands Basin, at a depth of 2.8 km, about 20 km south-east of Rotterdam (NL). This reservoir, in a fault-bound structure, was oil-filled prior to charging with magmatic CO2 in the early Cretaceous. It therefore offers a unique opportunity to study long-term CO2-water-rock interactions in the presence of oil. This contribution will present the results of a detailed mineralogical and geochemical characterisation of core sections from the Werkendam CO2 reservoir and an adjacent, stratigraphically equivalent aquifer. X-ray diffraction combined with X-ray fluorescence spectrometry revealed that the reservoir samples contain substantially more feldspar and more barite and siderite than those from the aquifer, while the latter have higher hematite contents. These differences are attributed to the effects hydrocarbons and related fluids on diagenesis in the closed system of the CO2 reservoir versus the open-system of the aquifer. Petrophysical analyses yielded overall higher and more anisotropic permeability for the reservoir samples, while the porosity is overall not significantly different from that of their aquifer equivalents. The differences are most pronounced in coarse-grained sandstones. These have low anhydrite contents and contain traces of calcite, while all other analyzed samples contain abundant anhydrite, dolomite/ankerite and siderite, but no calcite. Detailed petrography revealed mm-sized zones of excessive primary porosity. These are attributed to CO2-induced dissolution of precompactional, grain-replacive anhydrite cement. Diagenetic dolomite/ankerite crystals are covered by anhedral, epitaxial ankerite, separated from the crystals by bitumen coats. Since these carbonates were oil-wet before CO2-charging, the overgrowths are interpreted to have grown after CO2-charging. Their anhedral habit suggests growth in a 2-phase water-CO2 system. Isotopic

  15. Distribution and nature of CO2 on Enceladus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Combe, J. P.; McCord, T. B.; Matson, D.; Johnson, T. V.; Scipioni, F.; Tosi, F.

    2015-12-01

    We present the first global mapping and analysis of CO2 on the surface of Enceladus, and we report the largest concentrations of free CO2 on the southern polar region using the Visual and Infrared Mapping Spectrometer (VIMS) on Cassini. Free CO2 ice and complexed CO2 were already reported near the South Pole (Brown et al., Science, 2006; Hansen, LPSC, 2010). Our work focuses on determining the amount, location and molecular state of CO2 on Enceladus, which could help identify and model geophysical processes that currently occur in the interior. One hypothesis for bringing heat and chemicals to the surface is a warm subsurface ocean containing dissolved gases, mostly CO2 (Postberg F. et al., Nature, 2009). Therefore, our observations are consistent with erupted and condensed materials onto Enceladus' surface (Matson et al., Icarus, 2012; Matson et al. AGU Fall meeting 2015). Free CO2 ice absorbs at 4.268 µm (Sandford and Allamandola, 1990) and CO2 complexed with other molecules absorbs at 4.247 μm (Chaban et al., Icarus, 2007). The Enceladus case is complicated because both free and complexed CO2 are present, and the absorption band of interest is shallow and close to the instrument detection limit. Many of the few Enceladus VIMS data sets have significant and sometimes unusual noise, which we attempted to avoid or remove. We utilized all VIMS data sets available that were collected over ten years of the Cassini mission as a way to improve the detection statistics and signal to noise. We also used wavelengths near 2.7 μm where CO2 has a narrow absorption as a filter to help identify CO2-rich areas. Finally, we selected observations that have spatial resolution better than 100 km in order to create a map that can be compared with the largest fractures, known as Tiger Stripes, in the southern polar region.

  16. Tracing the CO2 source and migration in natural analogues from different geological contexts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Battani, A.; Jean Luc, F.; Philippe, S.; Nadine, E.; Olivier, V.; Elodie, J.

    2009-12-01

    Naturally occurring CO2 fields allow studying long-term fluid-rock interactions, and the processes of CO2 migration, useful for the prediction of CO2 behavior in industrial storage sites. Two different provinces showing both leaking systems (hydrothermal areas) and well confined systems (stable sedimentary basins) have been studied. The first province concerns the French CO2 province of Massif Central (volcanic events, seismic activity, high geothermal gradient) and the stable Valence basin. The other study was devoted to the Basin and Range province, USA, with hydrothermal, high seismic and volcanic activity, a high geothermal gradient (Soda Springs; Idaho, Sevier basin), and the non-hydrothermal stable area of the Colorado plateau (Green River, San Rafael anticline and Springerville). The aim is to link the CO2 sources and its subsurface migration to the geological context. In hydrothermal areas, the mesured helium isotopic ratio (R/Ra) is high (close to the mantle ratio), while the CO2/3He ratios move dramatically towards crustal values. In this context, isotopic and elemental noble gas data show that the gas migrates very fast from depth. In more confined areas (natural CO2 fields), the CO2 shows a more important proportion of radiogenic gases (4He) (crustal helium isotopic ratios) and the associated CO2/3He ratios are in the MORB range, or “mantle derived”. We try to explain the apparent discrepancy between the CO2/3He and the R/Ra values in both areas. As a primary assumption, the source of CO2 could be localized in the extensional zones of high geothermal gradient with important seismicity. We suggest that the pseudotachylites formed by frictional melting associated with each seismic event supply an instantaneous crustal CO2.amount to the initial magmatic CO2. This justifies the coeval increase of the CO2/3He ratios without any significant modification in the helium isotopic ratios (instantaneous, no time for 4He production). Moreover, the contact

  17. Calibrating Laser Gas Measurements by Use of Natural CO2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Webster, Chris

    2003-01-01

    An improved method of calibration has been devised for instruments that utilize tunable lasers to measure the absorption spectra of atmospheric gases in order to determine the relative abundances of the gases. In this method, CO2 in the atmosphere is used as a natural calibration standard. Unlike in one prior calibration method, it is not necessary to perform calibration measurements in advance of use of the instrument and to risk deterioration of accuracy with time during use. Unlike in another prior calibration method, it is not necessary to include a calibration gas standard (and the attendant additional hardware) in the instrument and to interrupt the acquisition of atmospheric data to perform calibration measurements. In the operation of an instrument of this type, the beam from a tunable diode laser or a tunable quantum-cascade laser is directed along a path through the atmosphere, the laser is made to scan in wavelength over an infrared spectral region that contains one or two absorption spectral lines of a gas of interest, and the transmission (and, thereby, the absorption) of the beam is measured. The concentration of the gas of interest can then be calculated from the observed depth of the absorption line(s), given the temperature, pressure, and path length. CO2 is nearly ideal as a natural calibration gas for the following reasons: CO2 has numerous rotation/vibration infrared spectral lines, many of which are near absorption lines of other gases. The concentration of CO2 relative to the concentrations of the major constituents of the atmosphere is well known and varies slowly and by a small enough amount to be considered constant for calibration in the present context. Hence, absorption-spectral measurements of the concentrations of gases of interest can be normalized to the concentrations of CO2. Because at least one CO2 calibration line is present in every spectral scan of the laser during absorption measurements, the atmospheric CO2 serves

  18. Mixed venous-arterial CO2 tension gradient after cardiopulmonary bypass.

    PubMed

    Takami, Yoshiyuki; Masumoto, Hiroshi

    2005-09-01

    Significant venous hypercarbia has been reported in septic shock and circulatory failure. Cardiopulmonary bypass also impairs systemic and pulmonary blood perfusion. The objective of this study was to determine the clinical significance of the increased venous-arterial CO2 tension gradient resulting from venous hypercarbia after cardiopulmonary bypass. On arrival in the intensive care unit, venous and arterial CO2 tensions were measured in the radial and pulmonary arteries in 140 consecutive patients who had undergone coronary (n = 79), valve (n = 34), aortic (n = 20), and other (n = 7) surgery under cardiopulmonary bypass. The mean venous-arterial CO2 tension gradient was 5.0 +/- 3.3 mm Hg (range, 7.7 to 15.7 mm Hg). By linear regression analysis, the factors that significantly correlated with venous-arterial CO2 tension gradient were bypass duration, aortic crossclamp time, initial arterial lactate level, transpulmonary arteriovenous lactate difference, arterial bicarbonate level, base excess, cardiac index, mixed venous O2 saturation, O2 delivery, O2 consumption, and the peak value of creatine kinase. The venous-arterial CO2 tension gradient may reflect impaired perfusion and anaerobic metabolism induced by cardiopulmonary bypass and could be a simple and useful indicator for patient management after surgery under cardiopulmonary bypass.

  19. CO2 gradient affects on deep subsurface microbial ecology during carbon sequestration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gulliver, D.; Gregory, K.

    2011-12-01

    Geological carbon sequestration is likely to be part of a comprehensive strategy to minimize the release of greenhouse gasses into the atmosphere. Reservoir storage capacities and long-term security of these deposits will be dependent on the trapping mechanisms and mineral transformation in the deep subsurface. Therefore, a critical need exists to understand the evolution of microbial populations that may influence the biogeochemistry in the reservoirs. As the CO2 front moves through the storage aquifer, microbial communities may preside in residual brine left behind in cracks, dead flow zones, and upstream to the front; this brine will have a gradient of dissolved CO2 in which microbial interaction may behave differently, depending on the distance from the CO2 front. The evolution of microbial ecology along this CO2 gradient was investigated using fluid-slurry samples obtained from the prospective carbon sequestration site, the Arbuckle saline aquifer at the Wellington oil field, KS. The native species of these samples were investigated with a series of batch reactors under constant temperature of 40 °C, constant total pressure of 2,000 psi, and varying CO2 partial pressures of 0 psi, 20 psi, 200 psi, and 2,000 psi. After 1 day, 7 days, and 56 days of exposure in the batch reactors, fluid samples were centrifuged and the resulting pellet was biologically analyzed. Clone libraries and quantitative PCR determined that the bacterial diversity and population of the native microbial community was dependant on both the duration of exposure and the CO2 partial pressure. For example, the microbial community of 0 psi CO2 and 20 psi CO2 was predominantly related to the families halomonadaceae and marinilabiaceae while at 2,000 psi CO2 the community was predominantly in the family psychromonadaceae. The population size at 2,000 psi CO2 was also found to decrease by 3 orders of magnitude after only 7 days of CO2 exposure. Although these experiments were relatively short

  20. Adaptation by macrophytes to inorganic carbon down a river with naturally variable concentrations of CO2.

    PubMed

    Maberly, S C; Berthelot, S A; Stott, A W; Gontero, B

    2015-01-01

    The productivity and ecological distribution of freshwater plants can be controlled by the availability of inorganic carbon in water despite the existence of different mechanisms to ameliorate this, such as the ability to use bicarbonate. Here we took advantage of a short, natural gradient of CO2 concentration, against a background of very high and relatively constant concentration of bicarbonate, in a spring-fed river, to study the effect of variable concentration of CO2 on the ability of freshwater plants to use bicarbonate. Plants close to the source, where the concentration of CO2 was up to 24 times air equilibrium, were dominated by Berula erecta. pH-drift results and discrimination against (13)C were consistent with this and the other species being restricted to CO2 and unable to use the high concentration of bicarbonate. There was some indication from stable (13)C data that B. erecta may have had access to atmospheric CO2 at low water levels. In contrast, species downstream, where concentrations of CO2 were only about 5 times air-equilibrium were almost exclusively able to use bicarbonate, based on pH-drift results. Discrimination against (13)C was also consistent with bicarbonate being the main source of inorganic carbon for photosynthesis in these species. There was, therefore, a transect downstream from the source of increasing ability to use bicarbonate that closely matched the decreasing concentration of CO2. This was produced largely by altered species composition, but partly by phenotypic changes in individual species.

  1. [The arterio-alveolar CO2 gradient. Physiopathological and clinical significance].

    PubMed

    Foscale, M; Giacone, A; Cardellino, G; Garbagni, R

    1978-05-09

    The arterio-alveolar CO(2) gradient was examined in 20 patients with various ventilation diseases. It increased or became negative in obstruction. The tendency to increase was attributable to distribution disturbances, particularly the marked increase in the "dead space" effect. The same picture, though to a lesser degree, owing to a smaller dead space increase, was even more frequent in restriction cases. The appearance of a gradient in healthy subjects is referable to uneven air and blood distribution in the alveoli under physiological conditions. The physiopathological significance of negative gradients is discussed in the light of the results and the findings of other workers.

  2. The importance of internal CO2 gradients in tree roots for assessing belowground carbon allocation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bloemen, Jasper; De Bel, Bryan; Wittocx, Jonas; Anné, Thomas; McGuire, Mary Anne; Teskey, Robert O.; Steppe, Kathy

    2015-04-01

    In trees, it is known that allocation of recent assimilates belowground fuels metabolic processes like root respiration. Nonetheless, the fraction of carbon allocated belowground remains poorly quantified as the energetic costs of tree root metabolism remain largely unknown. Current estimates of root respiration are calculated from measurements of CO2 efflux from roots or soil. However, a substantial portion of CO2 released by root respiration might remain within the tree root system rather than diffusing into the soil environment, indicating that root respiration consumes substantially more carbohydrates than previously recognized. We measured internal CO2 concentration ([CO2]) and sap flow in three longitudinal sections of two large roots of American beech (Fagus grandifolia) and yellow poplar (Liriodendron tulipifera) trees (n=4 trees per species), while simultaneously measuring [CO2] in neighboring soil. We hypothesized that [CO2] would be lowest in soil and increase from the root tip to the base of the stem. We observed substantially higher [CO2] in tree roots (on average 8.5 ± 2.0 and 5.2 ± 1.9 Vol% for American beech and yellow poplar, respectively) compared with the soil environment (1.0 ± 0.4 and 1.3 ± 1.3 Vol% around American beech and yellow poplar, respectively), indicating that root tissues exert substantial barriers to outward diffusion of respired CO2. Moreover, we observed an internal [CO2] gradient from root tip to stem base which suggests that progressively more respired CO2 dissolved in flowing xylem sap as it moved from the soil through the root xylem. These results confirm that a fraction of root-respired CO2 concentrates in the xylem sap of the root system and fluxes upward within the tree. This CO2 that is removed from the site of respiration cannot be accounted for with measurements of CO2 efflux from roots or soil, indicating that efflux-based techniques underestimate the energetic costs of tree root metabolism and therefore the amount

  3. Application research of CO2 laser cutting natural stone plates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Lixiu; Song, Jijiang

    2009-08-01

    Now, the processing of natural stone plates is the high performance sawing machine primarily,many researchers deeply studied the processing characters in the sawing process and the strength characters during the processing. In order to realize the profiled-processing and pattern- carving of the natural stone, It lays a solid foundation for the laser cutting and the pattern-carving technology of natural stone plate. The working principle, type and characteristics of laser cutting are briefly described. The paper selects 6 kinds stone plates of natural taken as experimental sample,the experimental sample was China Shanxi Black, Old Spain Golden Yellow, New Spain Golden Yellow, Jazz White, Maple Leaf Red, Cream White respectively. Use high power CO2 laser cutting system,the stone plates cutting experiment of 6 kinds different hardness, the best working speed are obtained,The experimental results indicate that: The laser cutting speed has no correlation with the ingredient content of stone plate.

  4. Does leaf photosynthesis adapt to CO2-enriched environments? An experiment on plants originating from three natural CO2 springs.

    PubMed

    Onoda, Yusuke; Hirose, Tadaki; Hikosaka, Kouki

    2009-01-01

    Atmospheric CO2 elevation may act as a selective agent, which consequently may alter plant traits in the future. We investigated the adaptation to high CO2 using transplant experiments with plants originating from natural CO2 springs and from respective control sites. We tested three hypotheses for adaptation to high-CO2 conditions: a higher photosynthetic nitrogen use efficiency (PNUE); a higher photosynthetic water use efficiency (WUE); and a higher capacity for carbohydrate transport from leaves. Although elevated growth CO2 enhanced both PNUE and WUE, there was no genotypic improvement in PNUE. However, some spring plants had a higher WUE, as a result of a significant reduction in stomatal conductance, and also a lower starch concentration. Higher natural variation (assessed by the coefficient of variation) within populations in WUE and starch concentration, compared with PNUE, might be responsible for the observed population differentiation. These results support the concept that atmospheric CO2 elevation can act as a selective agent on some plant traits in natural plant communities. Reduced stomatal conductance and reduced starch accumulation are highlighted for possible adaptation to high CO2.

  5. Lessons from Natural CO2 Leakage Analogue Site Studies and their Application to Secure CO2 Storage and Monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, W.; McPherson, B. J.; Kim, K.; Chae, G.; Yum, B.

    2011-12-01

    At CO2 injection sites, CO2 leakage from the storage formation could be catastrophic. CO2 is a highly compressible fluid, typically injected at high pressure and temperature conditions. If this compressed CO2 reaches highly permeable conduits such as faults and fractures, CO2 could leak unabated to other formations (e.g. fresh water aquifers) and/or to the surface. Assuming a fast-flow path to the surface, CO2 escaping from the storage formation instantaneously reaches the surface while experiencing adiabatic expansion, which results in Joule-Thomson cooling. The addressed eruptive mechanisms are analogues to natural CO2 eruption mechanisms, which are found in CO2-driven cold-water geysers around the world. A notable example of a CO2-driven cold-water geyser is the Crystal Geyser in central Utah. The fluid mechanics of this regularly erupting geyser was investigated by instrumenting its conduit with pressure, temperature, pH, EC, and dissolved oxygen sensors, measuring every 1 minute during and between eruptions. Results of these measurements suggest that the time-scale of a single-eruption cycle is composed of four successive eruption types with two recharge periods ranging from 30 to 40 hours. Current eruption patterns exhibit a bimodal distribution although previous measurements and anecdotal evidence suggests that this pattern was different prior to recent seismic activity. This cold geyser's eruptions are regular and predictable, and reflect pressure, temperature, EC, pH, and dissolved oxygen changes resulting from Joule-Thomson cooling, endothermic CO2 exsolution, and exothermic CO2 dissolution. Specifically, the perturbation of pressure and temperature data observed at the Crystal Geyser suggested the possibility of using temperature sensing technology within the observation well at the engineered CO2 sequestration site. With the lessons learned from the Crystal Geyser studies, we established the theoretical framework of temperature changes caused by CO2

  6. Natural high pCO2 increases autotrophy in Anemonia viridis (Anthozoa) as revealed from stable isotope (C, N) analysis

    PubMed Central

    Horwitz, Rael; Borell, Esther M.; Yam, Ruth; Shemesh, Aldo; Fine, Maoz

    2015-01-01

    Contemporary cnidarian-algae symbioses are challenged by increasing CO2 concentrations (ocean warming and acidification) affecting organisms' biological performance. We examined the natural variability of carbon and nitrogen isotopes in the symbiotic sea anemone Anemonia viridis to investigate dietary shifts (autotrophy/heterotrophy) along a natural pCO2 gradient at the island of Vulcano, Italy. δ13C values for both algal symbionts (Symbiodinium) and host tissue of A. viridis became significantly lighter with increasing seawater pCO2. Together with a decrease in the difference between δ13C values of both fractions at the higher pCO2 sites, these results indicate there is a greater net autotrophic input to the A. viridis carbon budget under high pCO2 conditions. δ15N values and C/N ratios did not change in Symbiodinium and host tissue along the pCO2 gradient. Additional physiological parameters revealed anemone protein and Symbiodinium chlorophyll a remained unaltered among sites. Symbiodinium density was similar among sites yet their mitotic index increased in anemones under elevated pCO2. Overall, our findings show that A. viridis is characterized by a higher autotrophic/heterotrophic ratio as pCO2 increases. The unique trophic flexibility of this species may give it a competitive advantage and enable its potential acclimation and ecological success in the future under increased ocean acidification. PMID:25739995

  7. The CO2 concentrating mechanism and photosynthetic carbon assimilation in limiting CO2 : how Chlamydomonas works against the gradient.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yingjun; Stessman, Dan J; Spalding, Martin H

    2015-05-01

    The CO2 concentrating mechanism (CCM) represents an effective strategy for carbon acquisition that enables microalgae to survive and proliferate when the CO2 concentration limits photosynthesis. The CCM improves photosynthetic performance by raising the CO2 concentration at the site of ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (Rubisco), simultaneously enhancing carbon fixation and suppressing photorespiration. Active inorganic carbon (Ci) uptake, Rubisco sequestration and interconversion between different Ci species catalyzed by carbonic anhydrases (CAs) are key components in the CCM, and an array of molecular regulatory elements is present to facilitate the sensing of CO2 availability, to regulate the expression of the CCM and to coordinate interplay between photosynthetic carbon metabolism and other metabolic processes in response to limiting CO2 conditions. This review intends to integrate our current understanding of the eukaryotic algal CCM and its interaction with carbon assimilation, based largely on Chlamydomonas as a model, and to illustrate how Chlamydomonas acclimates to limiting CO2 conditions and how its CCM is regulated.

  8. Spectral nature of CO2 adsorption onto meteorites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berlanga, Genesis; Hibbitts, Charles A.; Takir, Driss; Dyar, M. Darby; Sklute, Elizabeth

    2016-12-01

    Previous studies have identified carbon dioxide (CO2) on the surfaces of jovian and Galilean satellites in regions of non-ice material that are too warm for CO2 ice to exist. CO2 ice would quickly sublimate if not retained by a less-volatile material. To ascertain what non-ice species may be responsible for stabilizing this CO2, we performed CO2 gas adsorption experiments on thirteen powdered CM, CI, and CV carbonaceous chondrite meteorites. Reflectance spectra of the ν3 feature associated with adsorbed CO2 near 4.27 μm were recorded. Results show that many meteorites adsorbed some amount of CO2, as evidenced by an absorption feature that was stable over several hours at ultra-high vacuum (UHV) and high vacuum, (1.0 × 10-8 and 1.0 × 10-7Torr, respectively). Ivuna, the only CI chondrite studied, adsorbed significantly more CO2 than the others. We found that CO2 abundance did not vary with 'water' abundance, organics, or carbonates as inferred from the area of the 3-μm band, the 3.2-3.4 μm C-H feature, and the ∼3.8-μm band respectively, but did correlate with hydrous/anhydrous phyllosilicate ratios. Furthermore, we did not observe CO2 ice because the position of the CO2 feature was generally shifted 3-10 nm from that of the 4.27 μm absorption characteristic of ice. The strongest compositional relationship observed was a possible affinity of CO2 for total FeO abundance and complex clay minerals, which make up the bulk of the CI chondrite matrix. This finding implies that the most primitive refractory materials in the Solar System may also act as reservoirs of CO2, and possibly other volatiles, delivering them to parts of the Solar System where their ices would not be stable.

  9. Atmospheric CO2 and soil extracellular enzyme activity: A meta-analysis and CO2 gradient experiment

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rising atmospheric CO2 concentrations may alter carbon and nutrient cycling and microbial processes in terrestrial ecosystems. One of the primary ways that microbes interact with soil organic matter is through the production of extracellular enzymes, which break down large, complex organic molecules...

  10. Reactive fluid transport in CO2 reservoir caprocks: constraints from scientific drilling of a natural CO2 reservoir

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kampman, N.; Bickle, M. J.; Bertier, P.; Busch, A.; Chapman, H.; Evans, J. P.; Graham, C.; Harrington, J.; Maskell, A.

    2013-12-01

    The long-term performance of reservoir caprocks in geological CO2 storage sites remains uncertain due to the poorly constrained nature of field-scale fluid-mineral reaction kinetics and CO2 transport processes in low permeability rocks. Predicting the nature, rates and impacts of CO2 penetration into the caprocks from numerical modelling studies maybe undermined by their reliance on laboratory derived reaction kinetics from short-term experiments, and the complexity of the coupled reactive transport processes at the nano- and micro-scale. We report here on the early results from scientific drilling and laboratory analysis of the caprocks of a stacked sequence of natural CO2 reservoir at Green River, Utah. In summer 2012, diamond drilling to a depth of 325m, adjacent to a CO2 degassing normal fault recovered core from two major CO2 reservoirs in the Entrada and Navajo Sandstones and from the intervening Carmel Formation regional caprock. In-situ pH, CO2 concentrations and fluid element and isotope geochemistry were determined from wireline downhole sampling of pressurized fluids from the reservoirs. The fluid geochemistry provides important constraints on reservoir filling by flow of CO2-charged brines through the fault damage zone, macro-scale fluid flow in the reservoirs and the state of fluid-mineral thermodynamic disequilibrium from which the nature of the fluid-mineral reactions can be interpreted. Mineralogical, geochemical and petrophysical profiles through portions of the caprocks in contact with the CO2-charged reservoirs have been used to constrain the nature and penetration depths of the CO2-promoted fluid-mineral reaction fronts. The major reactions are the dissolution of diagenetic dolomite cements and hematite grain coatings which generate porosity in the caprocks. Analysis of the generated pore structure from a variety of analytical techniques will be discussed. Stable C- and O-isotopic shifts in the composition of the carbonate cements record their

  11. Viability and adaptation potential of indigenous microorganisms from natural gas field fluids in high pressure incubations with supercritical CO2.

    PubMed

    Frerichs, Janin; Rakoczy, Jana; Ostertag-Henning, Christian; Krüger, Martin

    2014-01-21

    Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) is currently under debate as large-scale solution to globally reduce emissions of the greenhouse gas CO2. Depleted gas or oil reservoirs and saline aquifers are considered as suitable reservoirs providing sufficient storage capacity. We investigated the influence of high CO2 concentrations on the indigenous bacterial population in the saline formation fluids of a natural gas field. Bacterial community changes were closely examined at elevated CO2 concentrations under near in situ pressures and temperatures. Conditions in the high pressure reactor systems simulated reservoir fluids i) close to the CO2 injection point, i.e. saturated with CO2, and ii) at the outer boundaries of the CO2 dissolution gradient. During the incubations with CO2, total cell numbers remained relatively stable, but no microbial sulfate reduction activity was detected. After CO2 release and subsequent transfer of the fluids, an actively sulfate-respiring community was re-established. The predominance of spore-forming Clostridiales provided evidence for the resilience of this taxon against the bactericidal effects of supercritical (sc)CO2. To ensure the long-term safety and injectivity, the viability of fermentative and sulfate-reducing bacteria has to be considered in the selection, design, and operation of CCS sites.

  12. Spectral nature of CO2 adsorption onto meteorites

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Berlanga, Genesis; Hibbitts, Charles A; Takir, Driss; Dyar, Draby M; Elizabeth Sklute,

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies have identified carbon dioxide (CO2) on the surfaces of Jovian and Galilean satellites in regions of non-ice material that are too warm for CO2 ice to exist. CO2 ice would quickly sublimate if not retained by a less-volatile material. To ascertain what non-ice species may be responsible for stabilizing this CO2, we performed CO2 gas adsorption experiments on thirteen powdered CM, CI, and CV carbonaceous chondrite meteorites. Reflectance spectra of the ν3 feature associated with adsorbed CO2 near 4.27 μm were recorded. Results show that many meteorites adsorbed some amount of CO2, as evidenced by an absorption feature that was stable over several hours at ultra-high vacuum (UHV) and high vacuum, (1.0×10−8 and 1.0×10−7 Torr, respectively). Ivuna, the only CI chondrite studied, adsorbed significantly more CO2 than the others. We found that CO2 abundance did not vary with ‘water’ abundance, organics, or carbonates as inferred from the area of the 3-μm band, the 3.2-3.4 μm C-H feature, and the ∼3.8-μm band respectively, but did correlate with hydrous/anhydrous phyllosilicate ratios. Furthermore, we did not observe CO2 ice because the position of the CO2 feature was generally shifted 3-10 nm from that of the 4.27 μm absorption characteristic of ice. The strongest compositional relationship observed was a possible affinity of CO2 for total FeO abundance and complex clay minerals, which make up the bulk of the CI chondrite matrix. This finding implies that the most primitive refractory materials in the Solar System may also act as reservoirs of CO2, and possibly other volatiles, delivering them to parts of the Solar System where their ices would not be stable.

  13. Natural CO2 accumulations in the western Williston Basin: A mineralogical analog for CO2 injection at the Weyburn site

    DOE PAGES

    Ryerson, F. J.; Lake, John; Whittaker, Steven; ...

    2013-01-17

    The Devonian carbonates of the Duperow Formation on the western flank of the Williston Basin in southwest Saskatchewan contain natural accumulations of CO2, and may have done so for as long as 50 million years. These carbonate sediments are characterized by a succession of carbonate cycles capped by anhydrite-rich evaporites that are thought to act as seals to fluid migration. The Weyburn CO2 injection site lies 400 km to the east in a series of Mississippian carbonates that were deposited in a similar depositional environment. That long-term isolation of natural CO2 can be accomplished within carbonate strata has motivated themore » investigation of the Duperow rocks as a potential natural analog for storage of anthropogenic CO2 in carbonate lithologies. For the Duperow strata to represent a legitimate analog for Midale injection and storage, the similarity in lithofacies, whole rock compositions, mineral compositions and porosity with the Midale Beds must be established. Here we compare lithofacies, whole rock compositions, mineralogy and mineral compositions from both locales. The major mineral phases at both locales are calcite, dolomite and anhydrite. In addition, accessory pyrite, fluorite, quartz and celestine (strontium sulfate) are also observed. Dawsonite, a potential CO2-trapping mineral, is not observed within the CO2-bearing horizons of the Duperow Formation, however. The distribution of porosity in the Midale Vuggy units is similar to that of the Duperow Formation, but the Marly units of the Midale have significantly higher porosity. The Duperow Formation is topped by the Dinesmore evaporite that is rich in anhydrite, and often contains authigenic K-feldspar. The chemistry of dolomite and calcite from the two localities also overlaps. Silicate minerals are in low abundance (<3%) within the analyzed Duperow samples, with quartz and K-feldspar the only silicates observed petrographically or in X-ray diffraction patterns. The Midale Beds contain

  14. The doubled CO2 climate - Impact of the sea surface temperature gradient

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rind, David

    1987-01-01

    The Goddard Institute for Space Studies (GISS) GCM of Hansen et al. (1983) was run, with 4 deg x 5 deg resolution, with doubled CO2 and two sets of sea surface temperature gradient distributions. One set was derived from the equilibrium doubled CO2 run of the 8 deg x 10 deg GISS GCM, with minimal high latitude amplification. The other set resembled closely the GFDL model results, with greater amplification. Both experiments had the same global mean surface air temperature change. The two experiments were often found to produce substantially different climate characteristics. With reduced high latitude amplification (set one), and thus, more equatorial warming, there was a greater increase in specific humidity and the greenhouse capacity of the atmosphere, resulting in a warmer atmosphere in general. Features such as the low-latitude precipitation, Hadley cell intensity, jet stream magnitude, and atmospheric energy transports all increased in comparison with the control run. In contrast, these features all decreased in the experiment with greater high latitude amplification (set two).

  15. Both experimental study and numerical modelling of the effect of temperature gradient on CO2 injection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corvisier, J.; Lagneau, V.; Jobard, E.; Sterpenich, J.; Pironon, J.

    2010-12-01

    to a more important carbonates dissolution, thus to increases of CO2 fugacity and consequently of the global pressure. Furthermore, the calcium content tends to be greater in this cold-dissolution zone then Ca diffuses towards the hotter zone locally and it implies calcite precipitation. As evidence of this phenomenon, plugs, related to massive calcite precipitation, are observed in these regions and newly crystallized calcite can be seen on SEM images. In order to clearly understand the reasons of the observed behaviour, numerical computations performed with the reaction-transport code HYTEC have to be run. Several scenarios can thus be simulated to check various assumptions. Firstly, different initial repartitions of the CO2 can be tested: in some kind of reservoir in the cold/injection zone or everywhere in the autoclave (due to high initial pressure gradient). Secondly, the competition between the implied processes, their respective kinetics and their temperature dependance can be assessed too: thermodynamics and/or kinetics of chemical reactions and transport kinetics (diffusion). Modeling becomes then of great help to interpret the experimental results and even to better design the evolution of the experimental set-up.

  16. The nature of the CO2- radical anion in water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janik, Ireneusz; Tripathi, G. N. R.

    2016-04-01

    The reductive conversion of CO2 into industrial products (e.g., oxalic acid, formic acid, methanol) can occur via aqueous CO2- as a transient intermediate. While the formation, structure, and reaction pathways of this radical anion have been modelled for decades using various spectroscopic and theoretical approaches, we present here, for the first time, a vibrational spectroscopic investigation in liquid water, using pulse radiolysis time-resolved resonance Raman spectroscopy for its preparation and observation. Excitation of the radical in resonance with its 235 nm absorption displays a transient Raman band at 1298 cm-1, attributed to the symmetric CO stretch, which is at ˜45 cm-1 higher frequency than in inert matrices. Isotopic substitution at C (13CO2-) shifts the frequency downwards by 22 cm-1, which confirms its origin and the assignment. A Raman band of moderate intensity compared to the stronger 1298 cm-1 band also appears at 742 cm-1 and is assignable to the OCO bending mode. A reasonable resonance enhancement of this mode is possible only in a bent CO2-(C2v/Cs) geometry. These resonance Raman features suggest a strong solute-solvent interaction, the water molecules acting as constituents of the radical structure, rather than exerting a minor solvent perturbation. However, there is no evidence of the non-equivalence (Cs) of the two CO bonds. A surprising resonance Raman feature is the lack of overtones of the symmetric CO stretch, which we interpret due to the detachment of the electron from the CO2- moiety towards the solvation shell. Electron detachment occurs at the energies of 0.28 ± 0.03 eV or higher with respect to the zero point energy of the ground electronic state. The issue of acid-base equilibrium of the radical, which has been in contention for decades, as reflected in a wide variation in the reported pKa (-0.2 to 3.9), has been resolved. A value of 3.4 ± 0.2 measured in this work is consistent with the vibrational properties, bond structure

  17. Deep microbial life in the Altmark natural gas reservoir: baseline characterization prior CO2 injection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morozova, Daria; Shaheed, Mina; Vieth, Andrea; Krüger, Martin; Kock, Dagmar; Würdemann, Hilke

    2010-05-01

    Within the framework of the CLEAN project (CO2 Largescale Enhanced gas recovery in the Altmark Natural gas field) technical basics with special emphasis on process monitoring are explored by injecting CO2 into a gas reservoir. Our study focuses on the investigation of the in-situ microbial community of the Rotliegend natural gas reservoir in the Altmark, located south of the city Salzwedel, Germany. In order to characterize the microbial life in the extreme habitat we aim to localize and identify microbes including their metabolism influencing the creation and dissolution of minerals. The ability of microorganisms to speed up dissolution and formation of minerals might result in changes of the local permeability and the long-term safety of CO2 storage. However, geology, structure and chemistry of the reservoir rock and the cap rock as well as interaction with saline formation water and natural gases and the injected CO2 affect the microbial community composition and activity. The reservoir located at the depth of about 3500m, is characterised by high salinity fluid and temperatures up to 127° C. It represents an extreme environment for microbial life and therefore the main focus is on hyperthermophilic, halophilic anaerobic microorganisms. In consequence of the injection of large amounts of CO2 in the course of a commercial EGR (Enhanced Gas Recovery) the environmental conditions (e.g. pH, temperature, pressure and solubility of minerals) for the autochthonous microorganisms will change. Genetic profiling of amplified 16S rRNA genes are applied for detecting structural changes in the community by using PCR- SSCP (PCR-Single-Strand-Conformation Polymorphism) and DGGE (Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis). First results of the baseline survey indicate the presence of microorganisms similar to representatives from other saline, hot, anoxic, deep environments. However, due to the hypersaline and hyperthermophilic reservoir conditions, cell numbers are low, so that

  18. Altered brain ion gradients following compensation for elevated CO2 are linked to behavioural alterations in a coral reef fish

    PubMed Central

    Heuer, R. M.; Welch, M. J.; Rummer, J. L.; Munday, P. L.; Grosell, M.

    2016-01-01

    Neurosensory and behavioural disruptions are some of the most consistently reported responses upon exposure to ocean acidification-relevant CO2 levels, especially in coral reef fishes. The underlying cause of these disruptions is thought to be altered current across the GABAA receptor in neuronal cells due to changes in ion gradients (HCO3− and/or Cl−) that occur in the body following compensation for elevated ambient CO2. Despite these widely-documented behavioural disruptions, the present study is the first to pair a behavioural assay with measurements of relevant intracellular and extracellular acid-base parameters in a coral reef fish exposed to elevated CO2. Spiny damselfish (Acanthochromis polyacanthus) exposed to 1900 μatm CO2 for 4 days exhibited significantly increased intracellular and extracellular HCO3− concentrations and elevated brain pHi compared to control fish, providing evidence of CO2 compensation. As expected, high CO2 exposed damselfish spent significantly more time in a chemical alarm cue (CAC) than control fish, supporting a potential link between behavioural disruption and CO2 compensation. Using HCO3− measurements from the damselfish, the reversal potential for GABAA (EGABA) was calculated, illustrating that biophysical properties of the brain during CO2 compensation could change GABAA receptor function and account for the behavioural disturbances noted during exposure to elevated CO2. PMID:27620837

  19. Altered brain ion gradients following compensation for elevated CO2 are linked to behavioural alterations in a coral reef fish.

    PubMed

    Heuer, R M; Welch, M J; Rummer, J L; Munday, P L; Grosell, M

    2016-09-13

    Neurosensory and behavioural disruptions are some of the most consistently reported responses upon exposure to ocean acidification-relevant CO2 levels, especially in coral reef fishes. The underlying cause of these disruptions is thought to be altered current across the GABAA receptor in neuronal cells due to changes in ion gradients (HCO3(-) and/or Cl(-)) that occur in the body following compensation for elevated ambient CO2. Despite these widely-documented behavioural disruptions, the present study is the first to pair a behavioural assay with measurements of relevant intracellular and extracellular acid-base parameters in a coral reef fish exposed to elevated CO2. Spiny damselfish (Acanthochromis polyacanthus) exposed to 1900 μatm CO2 for 4 days exhibited significantly increased intracellular and extracellular HCO3(-) concentrations and elevated brain pHi compared to control fish, providing evidence of CO2 compensation. As expected, high CO2 exposed damselfish spent significantly more time in a chemical alarm cue (CAC) than control fish, supporting a potential link between behavioural disruption and CO2 compensation. Using HCO3(-) measurements from the damselfish, the reversal potential for GABAA (EGABA) was calculated, illustrating that biophysical properties of the brain during CO2 compensation could change GABAA receptor function and account for the behavioural disturbances noted during exposure to elevated CO2.

  20. Seaweed fails to prevent ocean acidification impact on foraminifera along a shallow-water CO2 gradient

    PubMed Central

    Pettit, Laura R; Smart, Christopher W; Hart, Malcolm B; Milazzo, Marco; Hall-Spencer, Jason M

    2015-01-01

    Ocean acidification causes biodiversity loss, alters ecosystems, and may impact food security, as shells of small organisms dissolve easily in corrosive waters. There is a suggestion that photosynthetic organisms could mitigate ocean acidification on a local scale, through seagrass protection or seaweed cultivation, as net ecosystem organic production raises the saturation state of calcium carbonate making seawater less corrosive. Here, we used a natural gradient in calcium carbonate saturation, caused by shallow-water CO2 seeps in the Mediterranean Sea, to assess whether seaweed that is resistant to acidification (Padina pavonica) could prevent adverse effects of acidification on epiphytic foraminifera. We found a reduction in the number of species of foraminifera as calcium carbonate saturation state fell and that the assemblage shifted from one dominated by calcareous species at reference sites (pH ∼8.19) to one dominated by agglutinated foraminifera at elevated levels of CO2 (pH ∼7.71). It is expected that ocean acidification will result in changes in foraminiferal assemblage composition and agglutinated forms may become more prevalent. Although Padina did not prevent adverse effects of ocean acidification, high biomass stands of seagrass or seaweed farms might be more successful in protecting epiphytic foraminifera. PMID:26140195

  1. Seaweed fails to prevent ocean acidification impact on foraminifera along a shallow-water CO2 gradient.

    PubMed

    Pettit, Laura R; Smart, Christopher W; Hart, Malcolm B; Milazzo, Marco; Hall-Spencer, Jason M

    2015-05-01

    Ocean acidification causes biodiversity loss, alters ecosystems, and may impact food security, as shells of small organisms dissolve easily in corrosive waters. There is a suggestion that photosynthetic organisms could mitigate ocean acidification on a local scale, through seagrass protection or seaweed cultivation, as net ecosystem organic production raises the saturation state of calcium carbonate making seawater less corrosive. Here, we used a natural gradient in calcium carbonate saturation, caused by shallow-water CO2 seeps in the Mediterranean Sea, to assess whether seaweed that is resistant to acidification (Padina pavonica) could prevent adverse effects of acidification on epiphytic foraminifera. We found a reduction in the number of species of foraminifera as calcium carbonate saturation state fell and that the assemblage shifted from one dominated by calcareous species at reference sites (pH ∼8.19) to one dominated by agglutinated foraminifera at elevated levels of CO2 (pH ∼7.71). It is expected that ocean acidification will result in changes in foraminiferal assemblage composition and agglutinated forms may become more prevalent. Although Padina did not prevent adverse effects of ocean acidification, high biomass stands of seagrass or seaweed farms might be more successful in protecting epiphytic foraminifera.

  2. CO2 adsorption and separation from natural gason phosphorene surface: Combining DFT and GCMC calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yayun; Liu, Chao; Hao, Feng; Xiao, Hang; Zhang, Shiwei; Chen, Xi

    2017-03-01

    We have examined the performance of phosphorene-based material, phosphorene slit pores (PSP), in CO2 adsorption and separation from natural gas by using Density Function Theory (DFT) calculation and Grand Canonical Monte Carlo (GCMC) simulations. First, the adsorption of CH4 and CO2molecules on phosphorene sheet were conducted by DFT study. Then, adsorption performances of natural gas components as well as their binary CO2/CH4 gas mixture were investigated at 300 K with the pressure up to 3.0 MPa. The effects of slit pore width, H, and mole ratio of CO2/CH4in the gas phase on the separation of CO2 from mixtures of CO2/CH4 were also investigated. Our DFT calculation results show that the CO2 moleculehas higher adsorption energy than that of CH4, which implies that it can be easily adsorbed to the phosphorene surface than CH4. Detailed GCMC simulations reveal that the phosphorene slit pore has a high performance in separating CO2fromnature gas and achieves the highest gas selectivity at H = 1.0 nm at pressures lower than 0.1 MPa. Moreover, the selectivity of CO2 overCO2/CH4gas mixture increases with increasing the mole ratio of CO2/CH4due to the enhanced adsorbate-adsorbent interactions for the favorable component. Therefore, it is suggested that the phosphorene is a promising candidate for natural gas purification and possessing practical potential applications in gas adsorption.

  3. Host Plant Physiology and Mycorrhizal Functioning Shift across a Glacial through Future [CO2] Gradient1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Mullinix, George W.R.; Ward, Joy K.

    2016-01-01

    Rising atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration ([CO2]) may modulate the functioning of mycorrhizal associations by altering the relative degree of nutrient and carbohydrate limitations in plants. To test this, we grew Taraxacum ceratophorum and Taraxacum officinale (native and exotic dandelions) with and without mycorrhizal fungi across a broad [CO2] gradient (180–1,000 µL L−1). Differential plant growth rates and vegetative plasticity were hypothesized to drive species-specific responses to [CO2] and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi. To evaluate [CO2] effects on mycorrhizal functioning, we calculated response ratios based on the relative biomass of mycorrhizal (MBio) and nonmycorrhizal (NMBio) plants (RBio = [MBio − NMBio]/NMBio). We then assessed linkages between RBio and host physiology, fungal growth, and biomass allocation using structural equation modeling. For T. officinale, RBio increased with rising [CO2], shifting from negative to positive values at 700 µL L−1. [CO2] and mycorrhizal effects on photosynthesis and leaf growth rates drove shifts in RBio in this species. For T. ceratophorum, RBio increased from 180 to 390 µL L−1 and further increases in [CO2] caused RBio to shift from positive to negative values. [CO2] and fungal effects on plant growth and carbon sink strength were correlated with shifts in RBio in this species. Overall, we show that rising [CO2] significantly altered the functioning of mycorrhizal associations. These symbioses became more beneficial with rising [CO2], but nonlinear effects may limit plant responses to mycorrhizal fungi under future [CO2]. The magnitude and mechanisms driving mycorrhizal-CO2 responses reflected species-specific differences in growth rate and vegetative plasticity, indicating that these traits may provide a framework for predicting mycorrhizal responses to global change. PMID:27573369

  4. Solubility trapping in formation water as dominant CO(2) sink in natural gas fields.

    PubMed

    Gilfillan, Stuart M V; Lollar, Barbara Sherwood; Holland, Greg; Blagburn, Dave; Stevens, Scott; Schoell, Martin; Cassidy, Martin; Ding, Zhenju; Zhou, Zheng; Lacrampe-Couloume, Georges; Ballentine, Chris J

    2009-04-02

    Injecting CO(2) into deep geological strata is proposed as a safe and economically favourable means of storing CO(2) captured from industrial point sources. It is difficult, however, to assess the long-term consequences of CO(2) flooding in the subsurface from decadal observations of existing disposal sites. Both the site design and long-term safety modelling critically depend on how and where CO(2) will be stored in the site over its lifetime. Within a geological storage site, the injected CO(2) can dissolve in solution or precipitate as carbonate minerals. Here we identify and quantify the principal mechanism of CO(2) fluid phase removal in nine natural gas fields in North America, China and Europe, using noble gas and carbon isotope tracers. The natural gas fields investigated in our study are dominated by a CO(2) phase and provide a natural analogue for assessing the geological storage of anthropogenic CO(2) over millennial timescales. We find that in seven gas fields with siliciclastic or carbonate-dominated reservoir lithologies, dissolution in formation water at a pH of 5-5.8 is the sole major sink for CO(2). In two fields with siliciclastic reservoir lithologies, some CO(2) loss through precipitation as carbonate minerals cannot be ruled out, but can account for a maximum of 18 per cent of the loss of emplaced CO(2). In view of our findings that geological mineral fixation is a minor CO(2) trapping mechanism in natural gas fields, we suggest that long-term anthropogenic CO(2) storage models in similar geological systems should focus on the potential mobility of CO(2) dissolved in water.

  5. Assessing the health risks of natural CO2 seeps in Italy

    PubMed Central

    Roberts, Jennifer J.; Wood, Rachel A.; Haszeldine, R. Stuart

    2011-01-01

    Industrialized societies which continue to use fossil fuel energy sources are considering adoption of Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) technology to meet carbon emission reduction targets. Deep geological storage of CO2 onshore faces opposition regarding potential health effects of CO2 leakage from storage sites. There is no experience of commercial scale CCS with which to verify predicted risks of engineered storage failure. Studying risk from natural CO2 seeps can guide assessment of potential health risks from leaking onshore CO2 stores. Italy and Sicily are regions of intense natural CO2 degassing from surface seeps. These seeps exhibit a variety of expressions, characteristics (e.g., temperature/flux), and location environments. Here we quantify historical fatalities from CO2 poisoning using a database of 286 natural CO2 seeps in Italy and Sicily. We find that risk of human death is strongly influenced by seep surface expression, local conditions (e.g., topography and wind speed), CO2 flux, and human behavior. Risk of accidental human death from these CO2 seeps is calculated to be 10-8 year-1 to the exposed population. This value is significantly lower than that of many socially accepted risks. Seepage from future storage sites is modeled to be less that Italian natural flux rates. With appropriate hazard management, health risks from unplanned seepage at onshore storage sites can be adequately minimized. PMID:21911398

  6. Assessing the health risks of natural CO2 seeps in Italy

    SciTech Connect

    Roberts, J.J.; Wood, R.A.; Haszeldine, R.S.

    2011-10-04

    Industrialized societies which continue to use fossil fuel energy sources are considering adoption of Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) technology to meet carbon emission reduction targets. Deep geological storage of CO2 onshore faces opposition regarding potential health effects of CO2 leakage from storage sites. There is no experience of commercial scale CCS with which to verify predicted risks of engineered storage failure. Studying risk from natural CO2 seeps can guide assessment of potential health risks from leaking onshore CO2 stores. Italy and Sicily are regions of intense natural CO2 degassing from surface seeps. These seeps exhibit a variety of expressions, characteristics (e.g., temperature/ flux), and location environments. Here we quantify historical fatalities from CO2 poisoning using a database of 286 natural CO2 seeps in Italy and Sicily. We find that risk of human death is strongly influenced by seep surface expression, local conditions (e.g., topography and wind speed), CO2 flux, and human behavior. Risk of accidental human death from these CO2 seeps is calculated to be 10-8 year-1 to the exposed population. This value is significantly lower than that of many socially accepted risks. Seepage from future storage sites is modeled to be less than Italian natural flux rates. With appropriate hazard management, health risks from unplanned seepage at onshore storage sites can be adequately minimized.

  7. Assessing the health risks of natural CO2 seeps in Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roberts, Jennifer J.; Wood, Rachel A.; Haszeldine, R. Stuart

    2011-10-01

    Industrialized societies which continue to use fossil fuel energy sources are considering adoption of Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) technology to meet carbon emission reduction targets. Deep geological storage of CO2 onshore faces opposition regarding potential health effects of CO2 leakage from storage sites. There is no experience of commercial scale CCS with which to verify predicted risks of engineered storage failure. Studying risk from natural CO2 seeps can guide assessment of potential health risks from leaking onshore CO2 stores. Italy and Sicily are regions of intense natural CO2 degassing from surface seeps. These seeps exhibit a variety of expressions, characteristics (e.g., temperature/flux), and location environments. Here we quantify historical fatalities from CO2 poisoning using a database of 286 natural CO2 seeps in Italy and Sicily. We find that risk of human death is strongly influenced by seep surface expression, local conditions (e.g., topography and wind speed), CO2 flux, and human behavior. Risk of accidental human death from these CO2 seeps is calculated to be 10-8 year-1 to the exposed population. This value is significantly lower than that of many socially accepted risks. Seepage from future storage sites is modeled to be less that Italian natural flux rates. With appropriate hazard management, health risks from unplanned seepage at onshore storage sites can be adequately minimized.

  8. Future ocean hypercapnia driven by anthropogenic amplification of the natural CO2 cycle.

    PubMed

    McNeil, Ben I; Sasse, Tristan P

    2016-01-21

    High carbon dioxide (CO2) concentrations in sea-water (ocean hypercapnia) can induce neurological, physiological and behavioural deficiencies in marine animals. Prediction of the onset and evolution of hypercapnia in the ocean requires a good understanding of annual variations in oceanic CO2 concentration, but there is a lack of relevant global observational data. Here we identify global ocean patterns of monthly variability in carbon concentration using observations that allow us to examine the evolution of surface-ocean CO2 levels over the entire annual cycle under increasing atmospheric CO2 concentrations. We predict that the present-day amplitude of the natural oscillations in oceanic CO2 concentration will be amplified by up to tenfold in some regions by 2100, if atmospheric CO2 concentrations continue to rise throughout this century (according to the RCP8.5 scenario of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change). The findings from our data are broadly consistent with projections from Earth system climate models. Our predicted amplification of the annual CO2 cycle displays distinct global patterns that may expose major fisheries in the Southern, Pacific and North Atlantic oceans to hypercapnia many decades earlier than is expected from average atmospheric CO2 concentrations. We suggest that these ocean 'CO2 hotspots' evolve as a combination of the strong seasonal dynamics of CO2 concentration and the long-term effective storage of anthropogenic CO2 in the oceans that lowers the buffer capacity in these regions, causing a nonlinear amplification of CO2 concentration over the annual cycle. The onset of ocean hypercapnia (when the partial pressure of CO2 in sea-water exceeds 1,000 micro-atmospheres) is forecast for atmospheric CO2 concentrations that exceed 650 parts per million, with hypercapnia expected in up to half the surface ocean by 2100, assuming a high-emissions scenario (RCP8.5). Such extensive ocean hypercapnia has detrimental implications for

  9. Future ocean hypercapnia driven by anthropogenic amplification of the natural CO2 cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McNeil, Ben I.; Sasse, Tristan P.

    2016-01-01

    High carbon dioxide (CO2) concentrations in sea-water (ocean hypercapnia) can induce neurological, physiological and behavioural deficiencies in marine animals. Prediction of the onset and evolution of hypercapnia in the ocean requires a good understanding of annual variations in oceanic CO2 concentration, but there is a lack of relevant global observational data. Here we identify global ocean patterns of monthly variability in carbon concentration using observations that allow us to examine the evolution of surface-ocean CO2 levels over the entire annual cycle under increasing atmospheric CO2 concentrations. We predict that the present-day amplitude of the natural oscillations in oceanic CO2 concentration will be amplified by up to tenfold in some regions by 2100, if atmospheric CO2 concentrations continue to rise throughout this century (according to the RCP8.5 scenario of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change). The findings from our data are broadly consistent with projections from Earth system climate models. Our predicted amplification of the annual CO2 cycle displays distinct global patterns that may expose major fisheries in the Southern, Pacific and North Atlantic oceans to hypercapnia many decades earlier than is expected from average atmospheric CO2 concentrations. We suggest that these ocean ‘CO2 hotspots’ evolve as a combination of the strong seasonal dynamics of CO2 concentration and the long-term effective storage of anthropogenic CO2 in the oceans that lowers the buffer capacity in these regions, causing a nonlinear amplification of CO2 concentration over the annual cycle. The onset of ocean hypercapnia (when the partial pressure of CO2 in sea-water exceeds 1,000 micro-atmospheres) is forecast for atmospheric CO2 concentrations that exceed 650 parts per million, with hypercapnia expected in up to half the surface ocean by 2100, assuming a high-emissions scenario (RCP8.5). Such extensive ocean hypercapnia has detrimental implications for

  10. Constraints on the magnitude and rate of CO2 dissolution at Bravo Dome natural gas field

    DOE PAGES

    Sathaye, Kiran J.; Hesse, Marc A.; Cassidy, M.; ...

    2014-10-13

    The injection of carbon dioxide (CO2) captured at large point sources into deep saline aquifers can significantly reduce anthropogenic CO2 emissions from fossil fuels. Dissolution of the injected CO2 into the formation brine is a trapping mechanism that helps to ensure the long-term security of geological CO2 storage. We use thermochronology to estimate the timing of CO2 emplacement at Bravo Dome, a large natural CO2 field at a depth of 700 m in New Mexico. Together with estimates of the total mass loss from the field we present, to our knowledge, the first constraints on the magnitude, mechanisms, and ratesmore » of CO2 dissolution on millennial timescales. Apatite (U-Th)/He thermochronology records heating of the Bravo Dome reservoir due to the emplacement of hot volcanic gases 1.2–1.5 Ma. The CO2 accumulation is therefore significantly older than previous estimates of 10 ka, which demonstrates that safe long-term geological CO2 storage is possible. Here, integrating geophysical and geochemical data, we estimate that 1.3 Gt CO2 are currently stored at Bravo Dome, but that only 22% of the emplaced CO2 has dissolved into the brine over 1.2 My. Roughly 40% of the dissolution occurred during the emplacement. The CO2 dissolved after emplacement exceeds the amount expected from diffusion and provides field evidence for convective dissolution with a rate of 0.1 g/(m2y). Finally, the similarity between Bravo Dome and major US saline aquifers suggests that significant amounts of CO2 are likely to dissolve during injection at US storage sites, but that convective dissolution is unlikely to trap all injected CO2 on the 10-ky timescale typically considered for storage projects.« less

  11. Constraints on the magnitude and rate of CO2 dissolution at Bravo Dome natural gas field

    PubMed Central

    Sathaye, Kiran J.; Hesse, Marc A.; Cassidy, Martin; Stockli, Daniel F.

    2014-01-01

    The injection of carbon dioxide (CO2) captured at large point sources into deep saline aquifers can significantly reduce anthropogenic CO2 emissions from fossil fuels. Dissolution of the injected CO2 into the formation brine is a trapping mechanism that helps to ensure the long-term security of geological CO2 storage. We use thermochronology to estimate the timing of CO2 emplacement at Bravo Dome, a large natural CO2 field at a depth of 700 m in New Mexico. Together with estimates of the total mass loss from the field we present, to our knowledge, the first constraints on the magnitude, mechanisms, and rates of CO2 dissolution on millennial timescales. Apatite (U-Th)/He thermochronology records heating of the Bravo Dome reservoir due to the emplacement of hot volcanic gases 1.2–1.5 Ma. The CO2 accumulation is therefore significantly older than previous estimates of 10 ka, which demonstrates that safe long-term geological CO2 storage is possible. Integrating geophysical and geochemical data, we estimate that 1.3 Gt CO2 are currently stored at Bravo Dome, but that only 22% of the emplaced CO2 has dissolved into the brine over 1.2 My. Roughly 40% of the dissolution occurred during the emplacement. The CO2 dissolved after emplacement exceeds the amount expected from diffusion and provides field evidence for convective dissolution with a rate of 0.1 g/(m2y). The similarity between Bravo Dome and major US saline aquifers suggests that significant amounts of CO2 are likely to dissolve during injection at US storage sites, but that convective dissolution is unlikely to trap all injected CO2 on the 10-ky timescale typically considered for storage projects. PMID:25313084

  12. Constraints on the magnitude and rate of CO2 dissolution at Bravo Dome natural gas field.

    PubMed

    Sathaye, Kiran J; Hesse, Marc A; Cassidy, Martin; Stockli, Daniel F

    2014-10-28

    The injection of carbon dioxide (CO2) captured at large point sources into deep saline aquifers can significantly reduce anthropogenic CO2 emissions from fossil fuels. Dissolution of the injected CO2 into the formation brine is a trapping mechanism that helps to ensure the long-term security of geological CO2 storage. We use thermochronology to estimate the timing of CO2 emplacement at Bravo Dome, a large natural CO2 field at a depth of 700 m in New Mexico. Together with estimates of the total mass loss from the field we present, to our knowledge, the first constraints on the magnitude, mechanisms, and rates of CO2 dissolution on millennial timescales. Apatite (U-Th)/He thermochronology records heating of the Bravo Dome reservoir due to the emplacement of hot volcanic gases 1.2-1.5 Ma. The CO2 accumulation is therefore significantly older than previous estimates of 10 ka, which demonstrates that safe long-term geological CO2 storage is possible. Integrating geophysical and geochemical data, we estimate that 1.3 Gt CO2 are currently stored at Bravo Dome, but that only 22% of the emplaced CO2 has dissolved into the brine over 1.2 My. Roughly 40% of the dissolution occurred during the emplacement. The CO2 dissolved after emplacement exceeds the amount expected from diffusion and provides field evidence for convective dissolution with a rate of 0.1 g/(m(2)y). The similarity between Bravo Dome and major US saline aquifers suggests that significant amounts of CO2 are likely to dissolve during injection at US storage sites, but that convective dissolution is unlikely to trap all injected CO2 on the 10-ky timescale typically considered for storage projects.

  13. Efficient electrochemical refrigeration power plant using natural gas with ∼100% CO2 capture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-musleh, Easa I.; Mallapragada, Dharik S.; Agrawal, Rakesh

    2015-01-01

    We propose an efficient Natural Gas (NG) based Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) power plant equipped with ∼100% CO2 capture. The power plant uses a unique refrigeration based process to capture and liquefy CO2 from the SOFC exhaust. The capture of CO2 is carried out via condensation and purification using two rectifying columns operating at different pressures. The uncondensed gas mixture, comprising of relatively high purity unconverted fuel, is recycled to the SOFC and found to boost the power generation of the SOFC by 22%, when compared to a stand alone SOFC. If Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) is available at the plant gate, then the refrigeration available from its evaporation is used for CO2 Capture and Liquefaction (CO2CL). If NG is utilized, then a Mixed Refrigerant (MR) vapor compression cycle is utilized for CO2CL. Alternatively, the necessary refrigeration can be supplied by evaporating the captured liquid CO2 at a lower pressure, which is then compressed to supercritical pressures for pipeline transportation. From rigorous simulations, the power generation efficiency of the proposed processes is found to be 70-76% based on lower heating value (LHV). The benefit of the proposed processes is evident when the efficiency of 73% for a conventional SOFC-Gas turbine power plant without CO2 capture is compared with an equivalent efficiency of 71.2% for the proposed process with CO2CL.

  14. Dominant plant taxa predict plant productivity responses to CO2 enrichment across precipitation and soil gradients

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The responses of water-limited ecosystems to rising atmospheric CO2 concentration (eCO2) depend on the supply and availability of soil moisture and on change in abundance of dominant plant taxa. Soil moisture supply and availability depends primarily on precipitation amount and soil texture. Respo...

  15. Modeling plant-atmosphere carbon and water fluxes along a CO2 gradient

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    At short time scales (hourly to daily), plant photosynthesis and transpiration respond nonlinearly to atmospheric CO2 concentration and vapor pressure deficit, depending on plant water status and thus soil moisture. Modeling vegetation and soil responses to different values of CO2 at multiple time s...

  16. Effects of atmospheric CO2 concentration, irradiance, and soil nitrogen availability on leaf photosynthetic traits of Polygonum sachalinense around natural CO2 springs in northern Japan.

    PubMed

    Osada, Noriyuki; Onoda, Yusuke; Hikosaka, Kouki

    2010-09-01

    Long-term exposure to elevated CO2 concentration will affect the traits of wild plants in association with other environmental factors. We investigated multiple effects of atmospheric CO2 concentration, irradiance, and soil N availability on the leaf photosynthetic traits of a herbaceous species, Polygonum sachalinense, growing around natural CO2 springs in northern Japan. Atmospheric CO2 concentration and its interaction with irradiance and soil N availability affected several leaf traits. Leaf mass per unit area increased and N per mass decreased with increasing CO2 and irradiance. Leaf N per area increased with increasing soil N availability at higher CO2 concentrations. The photosynthetic rate under growth CO2 conditions increased with increasing irradiance and CO2, and with increasing soil N at higher CO2 concentrations. The maximal velocity of ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate carboxylation (V (cmax)) was affected by the interaction of CO2 and soil N, suggesting that down-regulation of photosynthesis at elevated CO2 was more evident at lower soil N availability. The ratio of the maximum rate of electron transport to V (cmax) (J (max)/V (cmax)) increased with increasing CO2, suggesting that the plants used N efficiently for photosynthesis at high CO2 concentrations by changes in N partitioning. To what extent elevated CO2 influenced plant traits depended on other environmental factors. As wild plants are subject to a wide range of light and nutrient availability, our results highlight the importance of these environmental factors when the effects of elevated CO2 on plants are evaluated.

  17. Critical evaluation of 13C natural abundance techniques to partition soil-surface CO2 efflux

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Snell, H.; Midwood, A. J.; Robinson, D.

    2013-12-01

    Soil is the largest terrestrial store of carbon and the flux of CO2 from soils to the atmosphere is estimated at around 98 Pg (98 billion tonnes) of carbon per year. The CO2 efflux from the soil surface is derived from plant root and rhizosphere respiration (autotrophically fuelled) and microbial degradation of soil organic matter (heterotrophic respiration). Heterotrophic respiration is a key determinant of an ecosystem's long-term C balance, but one that is difficult to measure in the field. One approach involves partitioning the total soil-surface CO2 efflux between heterotrophic and autotrophic components; this can be done using differences in the natural abundance stable isotope ratios (δ13C) of autotrophic and heterotrophic CO2 as the end-members of a simple mixing model. In most natural, temperate ecosystems, current and historical vegetation cover (and therefore also plant-derived soil organic matter) is produced from C3 photosynthesis so the difference in δ13C between the autotrophic and heterotrophic CO2 sources is small. Successful partitioning therefore requires accurate and precise measurements of the δ13CO2 of the autotrophic and heterotrophic end-members (obtained by measuring the δ13CO2 of soil-free roots and root-free soil) and of total soil CO2 efflux. There is currently little consensus on the optimum measurement protocols. Here we systematically tested some of the most commonly used techniques to identify and minimise methodological errors. Using soil-surface chambers to sample total CO2 efflux and a cavity ring-down spectrometer to measure δ13CO2 in a partitioning study on a Scottish moorland, we found that: using soil-penetrating collars leads to a more depleted chamber measurement of total soil δ13CO2 as a result of severing roots and fungal hyphae or equilibrating with δ13CO2 at depth or both; root incubations provide an accurate estimate of in-situ root respired δ13CO2 provided they are sampled within one hour; the δ13CO2 from root

  18. Natural analogues for CO2 storage sites - analysis of a global dataset

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miocic, Johannes; Gilfillan, Stuart; McDermott, Christopher; Haszeldine, R. Stuart

    2013-04-01

    Carbon Capture and Storage is the only industrial scale technology currently available to reduce CO2 emissions from fossil-fuelled power plants and large industrial source to the atmosphere and thus mitigate climate change. CO2 is captured at the source and transported to subsurface storage sites, such as depleted oil and gas fields or saline aquifers. In order to have an effect on emissions and to be considered safe it is crucial that the amount of CO2 leaking from storage sites to shallow aquifers or the surface remains very low (<1% over 1000 years). Some process that influence the safety of a reservoir, such as CO2-rock-brine interactions, can be studied using experiments on both laboratory and field-scale. However, long-term processes such as the development of leakage pathways can only be understood by either predictive modelling or by studying natural CO2 reservoirs as analogues for long term CO2 storage sites. Natural CO2 reservoirs have similar geological trapping mechanisms as anticipated for CO2 storage sites and often have held CO2 for a geological period of time (millions of years) without any indication for leakage. Yet, migration of CO2 from reservoirs to the surface is also common and evidenced by gas seeps such as springs and soil degassing. We have compiled and analysed a dataset comprising of more than 50 natural CO2 reservoirs from different settings all around the globe to provide an overview of the factors that are important for the retention of CO2 in the subsurface and what processes lead to leakage of CO2 from the reservoir. Initial results indicate that if the reservoir is found to be leaking, CO2 migration is along faults and not through caprock layers. This indicates that faults act as fluid pathways and play an important role when characterizing a storage site. Additionally, it appears that overpressure of the overburden and the state of CO2 in the reservoir influence the likelihood of migration and hence the safety of a reservoir.

  19. Effects of Natural Osmolytes on the Protein Structure in Supercritical CO2: Molecular Level Evidence.

    PubMed

    Monhemi, Hassan; Housaindokht, Mohammad Reza; Nakhaei Pour, Ali

    2015-08-20

    Protein instability in supercritical CO2 limits the application of this green solvent in enzyme-catalyzed reactions. CO2 molecules act as a protein denaturant at high pressure under supercritical conditions. Here, for the first time, we show that natural osmolytes could stabilize protein conformation in supercritical CO2. Molecular dynamics simulation is used to monitor the effects of adding different natural osmolytes on the conformation and dynamics of chymotrypsin inhibitor 2 (CI2) in supercritical CO2. Simulations showed that CI2 is denatured at 200 bar in supercritical CO2, which is in agreement with experimental observations. Interestingly, the protein conformation remains native after addition of ∼1 M amino acid- and sugar-based osmolyte models. These molecules stabilize protein through the formation of supramolecular self-assemblies resulting from macromolecule-osmolyte hydrogen bonds. Nevertheless, trimethylamine N-oxide, which is known as a potent osmolyte for protein stabilization in aqueous solutions, amplifies protein denaturation in supercritical CO2. On the basis of our structural analysis, we introduce a new mechanism for the osmolyte effect in supercritical CO2, an "inclusion mechanism". To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study that introduces the application of natural osmolytes in a supercritical fluid and describes mechanistic insights into osmolyte action in nonaqueous media.

  20. Characterization of an urban-rural CO 2 /temperature gradient and associated changes in initial plant productivity during secondary succession

    SciTech Connect

    Ziska, L. H.; Bunce, J. A.; Goins, E. W.

    2004-05-01

    To examine the impact of climate change on vegetative productivity, we exposed fallow agricultural soil to an in situ temperature and CO2 gradient between urban, suburban and rural areas in 2002. Along the gradient, average daytime CO2 concentration increased by 21% and maximum (daytime) and minimum (nighttime) daily temperatures increased by 1.6 and 3.3°C, respectively in an urban relative to a rural location. Consistent location differences in soil temperature were also ascertained. No other consistent differences in meteorological variables (e.g. wind speed, humidity, PAR, tropospheric ozone) as a function of urbanization were documented. The urban-induced environmental changes that were observed were consistent with most short-term (~50 year) global change scenarios regarding CO2 concentration and air temperature. Productivity, determined as final above-ground biomass, and maximum plant height were positively affected by daytime and soil temperatures as well as enhanced [CO2], increasing 60 and 115% for the suburban and urban sites, respectively, relative to the rural site. While long-term data are needed, these initial results suggest that urban environments may act as a reasonable surrogate for investigating future climatic change in vegetative communities.

  1. Dominant plant taxa predict plant productivity responses to CO2 enrichment across precipitation and soil gradients

    PubMed Central

    Fay, Philip A.; Newingham, Beth A.; Polley, H. Wayne; Morgan, Jack A.; LeCain, Daniel R.; Nowak, Robert S.; Smith, Stanley D.

    2015-01-01

    The Earth's atmosphere will continue to be enriched with carbon dioxide (CO2) over the coming century. Carbon dioxide enrichment often reduces leaf transpiration, which in water-limited ecosystems may increase soil water content, change species abundances and increase the productivity of plant communities. The effect of increased soil water on community productivity and community change may be greater in ecosystems with lower precipitation, or on coarser-textured soils, but responses are likely absent in deserts. We tested correlations among yearly increases in soil water content, community change and community plant productivity responses to CO2 enrichment in experiments in a mesic grassland with fine- to coarse-textured soils, a semi-arid grassland and a xeric shrubland. We found no correlation between CO2-caused changes in soil water content and changes in biomass of dominant plant taxa or total community aboveground biomass in either grassland type or on any soil in the mesic grassland (P > 0.60). Instead, increases in dominant taxa biomass explained up to 85 % of the increases in total community biomass under CO2 enrichment. The effect of community change on community productivity was stronger in the semi-arid grassland than in the mesic grassland, where community biomass change on one soil was not correlated with the change in either the soil water content or the dominant taxa. No sustained increases in soil water content or community productivity and no change in dominant plant taxa occurred in the xeric shrubland. Thus, community change was a crucial driver of community productivity responses to CO2 enrichment in the grasslands, but effects of soil water change on productivity were not evident in yearly responses to CO2 enrichment. Future research is necessary to isolate and clarify the mechanisms controlling the temporal and spatial variations in the linkages among soil water, community change and plant productivity responses to CO2 enrichment. PMID

  2. Dominant plant taxa predict plant productivity responses to CO2 enrichment across precipitation and soil gradients

    DOE PAGES

    Fay, Philip A.; Newingham, Beth A.; Polley, H. Wayne; ...

    2015-03-30

    The Earth’s atmosphere will continue to be enriched with carbon dioxide (CO2) over the coming century. Carbon dioxide enrichment often reduces leaf transpiration, which in water-limited ecosystems may increase soil water content, change species abundances and increase the productivity of plant communities. The effect of increased soil water on community productivity and community change may be greater in ecosystems with lower precipitation, or on coarser-textured soils, but responses are likely absent in deserts. We tested correlations among yearly increases in soil water content, community change and community plant productivity responses to CO2 enrichment in experiments in a mesic grassland withmore » fine- to coarse-textured soils, a semi-arid grassland and a xeric shrubland. We found no correlation between CO2-caused changes in soil water content and changes in biomass of dominant plant taxa or total community aboveground biomass in either grassland type or on any soil in the mesic grassland (P > 0.60). Instead, increases in dominant taxa biomass explained up to 85% of the increases in total community biomass under CO2 enrichment. The effect of community change on community productivity was stronger in the semi-arid grassland than in the mesic grassland,where community biomass change on one soil was not correlated with the change in either the soil water content or the dominant taxa. No sustained increases in soil water content or community productivity and no change in dominant plant taxa occurred in the xeric shrubland. Thus, community change was a crucial driver of community productivity responses to CO2 enrichment in the grasslands, but effects of soil water change on productivity were not evident in yearly responses to CO2 enrichment. In conclusion, future research is necessary to isolate and clarify the mechanisms controlling the temporal and spatial variations in the linkages among soil water, community change and plant productivity responses to CO2

  3. Tracing carbon uptake from a natural CO2 spring into tree rings: an isotope approach.

    PubMed

    Saurer, Matthias; Cherubini, Paolo; Bonani, Georges; Siegwolf, Rolf

    2003-10-01

    We analyzed 14C, 13C and 18O isotope variations over a 50-year period in tree rings of Quercus ilex L. trees growing at a natural CO2 spring in a Mediterranean ecosystem. We compared trees from two sites, one with high and one with low exposure to CO2 from the spring. The spring CO2 is free of 14C. Thus, this carbon can be traced in the wood, and the amount originating from the spring calculated. The amount decreased over time, from about 40% in 1950 to 15% at present for the site near the spring, indicating a potential difficulty in the use of natural CO2 springs for elevated CO2 research. The reason for the decrease may be decreasing emission from the spring or changes in stand structure, e.g., growth of the canopy into regions with lower concentrations. We used the 14C-calculated CO2 concentration in the canopy to determine the 13C discrimination of the plants growing under elevated CO2 by calculating the effective canopy air 13C/12C isotopic composition. The trees near the spring showed a 2.5 per thousand larger 13C discrimination than the more distant trees at the beginning of the investigated period, i.e., for the young trees, but this difference gradually disappeared. Higher discrimination under elevated CO2 indicated reduced photosynthetic capacity or increased stomatal conductance. The latter assumption is unlikely as inferred from the 18O data, which were insensitive to CO2 concentration. In conclusion, we found evidence for a downward adjustment of photosynthesis under elevated CO2 in Q. ilex in this dry, nutrient-poor environment.

  4. Comparative Reactivity Study of Natural Silicate Minerals in Wet Supercritical CO2 By In Situ Infrared Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson, C.; Schaef, T.; Miller, Q. R.; Loring, J. S.; Wang, Z.; Johnson, K. T.; McGrail, P.

    2012-12-01

    Long-term storage of CO2 in deep geologic reservoirs is one of the strategies being developed and implemented for reducing anthropogenic emissions of CO2 into the atmosphere. Reservoirs containing basalt or peridotite have the potential to permanently entrap the CO2 as silicate minerals react with the CO2 and formation waters to form stable carbonate minerals. Although the relevant reactions have been well studied in the aqueous phase, comparatively little work has focused on silicate mineral reactivity in the CO2-rich fluid containing dissolved water at conditions relevant to geologic carbon sequestration. In this study, we used in situ infrared spectroscopy to investigate the carbonation of naturally occurring samples of San Carlos olivine (Mg2SiO4), Bramble enstatite (MgSiO3), and a Hawaiian picritic basalt rich in olivine. To enhance reactivity, subsamples were micronized to obtain higher surface area materials, in the range of 14 to 23 m2g-1. Experiments were carried out at 50 °C and 91 bar by circulating a stream of dry or wet supercritical CO2 (scCO2) past a sample overlayer deposited on the window of a high-pressure infrared flow cell. Water concentrations ranged from 0% to 135% relative to saturation, and transmission-mode absorbance spectra were recorded as a function of time for 24 hours. In experiments with excess water, a controlled temperature gradient was used to intentionally condense a film of liquid water on the overlayers' surfaces. No discernible reaction was detected when the samples were exposed to dry scCO2. When water was added to the scCO2, a thin film of liquid-like water formed on the surfaces of each sample, followed by spectral evidence of carbonation. The extents of reaction were dependent on both the thickness of the water films and the materials being tested. The thinnest water film was associated with the Bramble enstatite, which also appeared minimally reactive. The Hawaiian picritic basalt was slightly more reactive but contained

  5. The noble gas geochemistry of natural CO 2 gas reservoirs from the Colorado Plateau and Rocky Mountain provinces, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gilfillan, Stuart M. V.; Ballentine, Chris J.; Holland, Greg; Blagburn, Dave; Lollar, Barbara Sherwood; Stevens, Scott; Schoell, Martin; Cassidy, Martin

    2008-02-01

    Identification of the source of CO 2 in natural reservoirs and development of physical models to account for the migration and interaction of this CO 2 with the groundwater is essential for developing a quantitative understanding of the long term storage potential of CO 2 in the subsurface. We present the results of 57 noble gas determinations in CO 2 rich fields (>82%) from three natural reservoirs to the east of the Colorado Plateau uplift province, USA (Bravo Dome, NM., Sheep Mountain, CO. and McCallum Dome, CO.), and from two reservoirs from within the uplift area (St. John's Dome, AZ., and McElmo Dome, CO.). We demonstrate that all fields have CO 2/ 3He ratios consistent with a dominantly magmatic source. The most recent volcanics in the province date from 8 to 10 ka and are associated with the Bravo Dome field. The oldest magmatic activity dates from 42 to 70 Ma and is associated with the McElmo Dome field, located in the tectonically stable centre of the Colorado Plateau: CO 2 can be stored within the subsurface on a millennia timescale. The manner and extent of contact of the CO 2 phase with the groundwater system is a critical parameter in using these systems as natural analogues for geological storage of anthropogenic CO 2. We show that coherent fractionation of groundwater 20Ne/ 36Ar with crustal radiogenic noble gases ( 4He, 21Ne, 40Ar) is explained by a two stage re-dissolution model: Stage 1: Magmatic CO 2 injection into the groundwater system strips dissolved air-derived noble gases (ASW) and accumulated crustal/radiogenic noble gas by CO 2/water phase partitioning. The CO 2 containing the groundwater stripped gases provides the first reservoir fluid charge. Subsequent charges of CO 2 provide no more ASW or crustal noble gases, and serve only to dilute the original ASW and crustal noble gas rich CO 2. Reservoir scale preservation of concentration gradients in ASW-derived noble gases thus provide CO 2 filling direction. This is seen in the Bravo Dome

  6. Measurements of CO2 Carbon Stable Isotopes at Artificial and Natural Analog Sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Humphries, S. D.; Clegg, S. M.; Rahn, T.; Fessenden, J. E.; Dobeck, L.; Spangler, L.; McLing, T. L.

    2010-12-01

    Carbon storage in geologic formations is one method to prevent carbon dioxide (CO2), produced by fossil fuel combustion, from entering the Earth's atmosphere. The monitoring, verification and accounting (MVA) of geologically sequestered CO2 is critical to the operation of a geologic storage site. Surface MVA techniques need to identify seepage from the sequestration reservoir at or below ambient CO2 concentrations. The CO2 carbon stable isotope ratio of is a sensitive diagnostic signature that can distinguish between anthropogenic and natural sources of CO2. Frequency Modulated spectroscopy (FMS) is an ultra-sensitive version of absorption spectroscopy that is capable of detecting the CO2 carbon stable isotope ratios. The technique involves phase modulation of the laser such that two side bands, spaced wider than the absorption feature of interest (in this case +/-2 GHz) are created. The signal is mixed with the local oscillator yielding a signal proportional to the species concentration. This FMS signature is recorded at multiple wavelengths to obtain the CO2 carbon isotope ratio.Two instruments using the FMS technique have been built and tested at LANL. One instrument draws ambient air into a multi-pass cell for a measurement, point source measurements. The other instrument uses an open-air path, tested up to 160 m (round trip), to measure the CO2 carbon isotopic ratio along the beam path, column average measurements. In this paper, results from multiple field deployments of one or both of the instruments will be presented. The Zero Emissions Research & Technology (ZERT) group at Montana State University established a field test site where controlled amounts of CO2 are released to test the performance of CO2 detection instruments and measurement techniques. The field site allows a controlled flow rate of CO2 to be released into the near surface through a 100 m long horizontal pipe. In July of 2009, a release was conducted, with a uniform flow rate of 0.2 tons per

  7. [Effects of elevated atmospheric CO2 on plant, herbivorous insect, and its natural enemy: a review].

    PubMed

    Xie, Hai-Cui; Wang, Zhen-Ying; He, Kang-Lai

    2013-12-01

    Since the industrial revolution, the huge consumption of fossil fuels and unduly destruction of natural habitats by human activities have led to the ever-increasing concentration of atmospheric CO2. To study the adaptation mechanisms of plant, herbivorous insect, and its natural enemy within agricultural ecosystems to the elevated atmospheric CO2 concentration is of significance in deciphering the damage pattern of agricultural pest occurrence and controlling the pest occurrence and in mitigating the CO2 emission from agricultural ecosystems. This paper reviewed the research progress on the effects of elevated atmospheric CO2 on the host plant, herbivorous insect, and its natural enemy in agro-ecosystem, with the focuses on the improvement of related research methods, the variation patterns of host plant primary and secondary metabolites induced by elevated atmospheric CO2, the effects of the elevated CO2 on the growth and development, population density, and behaviors of herbivorous insect, and the biology and predation and/or parasitism rates of natural enemy. The future research frontiers in this research area were also discussed.

  8. The impact of elevated CO2 concentrations on soil microbial community, soil organic matter storage and nutrient cycling at a natural CO2 vent in NW Bohemia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nowak, Martin; Beulig, Felix; von Fischer, Joe; Muhr, Jan; Kuesel, Kirsten; Trumbore, Susan

    2014-05-01

    Natural CO2 vents or 'mofettes' are diffusive or advective exhalations of geogenic CO2 from soils. These structures occur at several places worldwide and in most cases they are linked to volcanic activity. Characteristic for mofette soils are high CO2 concentrations of up to more than 90% as well as a lack of oxygen, low pH values and reducing conditions. Mofette soils usually are considered to be sites of carbon accumulation, which is not only due to the absence of oxygen, but might also result from lower plant litter quality due to CO2 fertilization of CO2 influenced plants and reduced availability of N and P for the decomposer community. Furthermore, fermentation processes and the formation of reduced elements by anoxic decomposition might fuel chemo-lithoautotrophic or mixotrophic microbial CO2 uptake, a process which might have important ecological functions by closing internal element cycles, formation of trace gasses as well as by re-cycling and storing of carbon. Several studies of microbial community structure revealed a shift towards CO2 utilizing prokaryotes in moffete soils compared to a reference site. Here, we use combined stable and radiocarbon isotope data from mofette soils in NW Bohemia to quantify the contribution of geogenic CO2 to soil organic carbon formation within mofette soils, either resulting from plant litter or from microbial CO2 uptake. This is possible because the geogenic CO2 has a distinct isotopic signature (δ13C = -2 o Δ14C = -1000 ) that is very different from the isotopic signature of atmospheric CO2. First results show that mofette soils have a high Corg content (20 to 40 %) compared to a reference site (2 to 20 %) and soil organic matter is enriched in 13C as well as depleted in 14C. This indicates that geogenic CO2 is re-fixed and stored as SOM. In order to quantify microbial contribution to CO2 fixation and SOM storage, microbial CO2 uptake rates were determined by incubating mofette soils with 13CO2 labelled gas. The

  9. Using the Bongwana natural CO2 release to understand leakage processes and develop monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, David; Johnson, Gareth; Hicks, Nigel; Bond, Clare; Gilfillan, Stuart; Kremer, Yannick; Lister, Bob; Nkwane, Mzikayise; Maupa, Thulani; Munyangane, Portia; Robey, Kate; Saunders, Ian; Shipton, Zoe; Pearce, Jonathan; Haszeldine, Stuart

    2016-04-01

    Natural CO2 leakage along the Bongwana Fault in South Africa is being studied to help understand processes of CO2 leakage and develop monitoring protocols. The Bongwana Fault crops out over approximately 80 km in KwaZulu-Natal province, South Africa. In outcrop the fault is expressed as a broad fracture corridor in Dwyka Tillite, with fractures oriented approximately N-S. Natural emissions of CO2 occur at various points along the fault, manifest as travertine cones and terraces, bubbling in the rivers and as gas fluxes through soil. Exposed rock outcrop shows evidence for Fe-staining around fractures and is locally extensively kaolinitised. The gas has also been released through a shallow water well, and was exploited commercially in the past. Preliminary studies have been carried out to better document the surface emissions using near surface gas monitoring, understand the origin of the gas through major gas composition and stable and noble gas isotopes and improve understanding of the structural controls on gas leakage through mapping. In addition the impact of the leaking CO2 on local water sources (surface and ground) is being investigated, along with the seismic activity of the fault. The investigation will help to build technical capacity in South Africa and to develop monitoring techniques and plans for a future CO2 storage pilot there. Early results suggest that CO2 leakage is confined to a relatively small number of spatially-restricted locations along the weakly seismically active fault. Fracture permeability appears to be the main method by which the CO2 migrates to the surface. The bulk of the CO2 is of deep origin with a minor contribution from near surface biogenic processes as determined by major gas composition. Water chemistry, including pH, DO and TDS is notably different between CO2-rich and CO2-poor sites. Soil gas content and flux effectively delineates the fault trace in active leakage sites. The fault provides an effective testing ground for

  10. Soil type modifies response of soil carbon pools to an atmospheric CO2 gradient

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Literature suggests that as atmospheric CO2 rises, soil carbon will cycle more rapidly as plants input greater amounts of labile carbon into the soil. This labile carbon may stimulate the decomposition of more slowly-cycling soil organic matter through microbial priming. We test these hypotheses i...

  11. Proton acceleration using doped Argon plasma density gradient interacting with relativistic CO2 -laser pulse

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sahai, Aakash; Ettlinger, Oliver; Hicks, George; Ditter, Emma-Jane; Najmudin, Zulfikar

    2016-10-01

    We investigate proton and light-ion acceleration driven by the interaction of relativistic CO2 laser pulses with overdense Argon or other heavy-ion gas targets doped with lighter-ion species. Optically shaping the gas targets allows tuning of the pre-plasma scale-length from a few to several laser wavelengths, allowing the laser to efficiently drive a propagating snowplow through the bunching in the electron density. Preliminary PIC-based modeling shows that the lighter-ion species is accelerated even without any significant motion of the heavier ions which is a signature of the Relativistically Induced Transparency Acceleration mechanism. Some outlines of possible experiments at the TW CO2 laser at the Accelerator Test Facility at Brookhaven National Laboratory are presented.

  12. New York City's Urban Dome: Past and Present CO2 Concentration Patterns from an Urban to Rural Gradient

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsueh, D.; Griffin, K.; McGillis, W. R.

    2010-12-01

    Urban centers may act as an important but often un-quantified point source for carbon dioxide (CO2) release and are a nexus between population growth, air quality and climate change. In addition, elucidating the effects of urbanization on plant physiology and function is critically important to understand how our natural ecosystems will respond to anthropogenic change. Tree ring 14C isotope composition can provide a localized historical record of an area’s fossil fuel-derived CO2 levels making it is possible to reconstruct an area’s anthropogenic CO2 history. Data from meteorological stations set up in and around New York City were utilized for the analysis of current CO2 levels. The focus here will be on the past 150 year record of CO2 concentrations in 10-year segments from an urban to rural transect in the greater New York City greater area. Furthermore, a 60 year record in 5-year increments were obtained from Commodore Barry Park, a highly industrialized, concrete-heavy area downwind from Manhattan, and the other in Forest Park, a densely vegetated park in Queens. Contemporary daily and seasonal variations of CO2 at a high temporal scale were measured as well. Variations in daily temperature ranges (DTR) will also be considered. Over the past century, the tree core data show that Central Park was approximately on average 15 ppm higher than the “clean” record of Mauna Loa and the Siple Ice Core. At a finer temporal scale, the current meteorological data show a similar overall trend, however, differences are much more variable and there are instances where urban CO2 can be as low as rural CO2, depending on the season and meteorological conditions of the region. Differences between an urban (Harlem) to rural (LDEO) site, for example, can vary 30.6 ppm in the winter and 13.7 in the summer, with similar seasonal trends at our other sites. The maximum average nighttime temperature difference between an urban (Harlem) and a rural (BRF) site reached 5.95

  13. Matsushiro Earthquake Swarm (1965-1967) as a Natural Analogue of CO2 Storage and Leakage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamamoto, K.; Koide, H.; Tosha, T.; Todaka, N.; Nakanishi, S.; Aoyagi, R.; Benson, S.; Rutqvist, J.; Lewicki, J.

    2006-12-01

    The Matsushiro basin, Nagano city, Central Japan, is a unique natural analogue site of the CO2 storage and leakage through fault. From May 1966 to February 1967, ten million tons of CO2-bearing water discharged through surface ruptures and springs midst an earthquake swarm. The swarm began in August 1965 and the active period lasted two years followed by three-year relatively silent term. The location of water and CO2 discharge was concentrated in a narrow strip along the main focal fault. Weak seismic activities, CO2 bearing hot spa, and bubbles in rice paddy are observed, so the low intensity activities seem to continue. The fault is a left-lateral strike-slip fault striking NW-SE. Surface upheaval up to 90 cm and lateral motion corresponding to the strike-slip fault were observed. Based on this and additional geophysical evidence, some past studies adopted the idea that the upward water migration in the fault played a major role in the occurrence of the earthquake through the dilatancy mechanism. In this model, the earthquakes are assumed to follow the preceding hydrological and hydraulic phenomena such as water migration to the fractures in rock mass, reducing effective stress, and shear failures with increasing permeability. The authors anticipate that also CO2 played some vital roles in the phenomena observed at Matsushiro, and we could learn the CO2 behaviour in the underground condition. We assume that the fault and CO2 bearing water interacted through chemo-physical (precipitation/dissolution of carbonate and phase change) and mechanical (CO2 pressure induced stress and permeability change in the fault) processes, and affected the flow characters, seismicity, and the initiation and termination of the activities. For the investigation, geochemical surveys were carried out in the area to characterize present day surface CO2 flux. Geochemical and geomechanical modelling are being conducted for the quantitative understanding of the mechanisms. Also, water

  14. A natural analogue for CO2 leakage: The release and fate of CO2 at the Jan Mayen vent fields (AMOR)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baumberger, T.; Lilley, M. D.; Pedersen, R. B.; Thorseth, I. H.

    2013-12-01

    Carbon dioxide capture and storage (CCS) is seen as a new possible technique for reducing the emission of industrial CO2 to the atmosphere. To evaluate the risks of sub-seabed CO2 storage, the European Commission is supporting the international and multi-disciplinary ECO2 project. Among other objectives, this project is dealing with evaluating the likelihood of leakage and the resulting possible impacts on marine ecosystems. In the framework of the ECO2 project, the release and dispersal of CO2 have been studied at several natural seep sites. In this study, we present geochemical data collected at the natural CO2 leakage analogue, Jan Mayen vent fields (JMVF). The basalt-hosted JMVF are located at 71° N on the southern end of the ultra-slow spreading Mohns Ridge, which is part of the Arctic Mid-Ocean Ridge (AMOR) system. The JMVF are composed of several venting sites, spread over a large area. These venting areas include focused high-temperature venting and diffuse low-temperature fluid flow vents as well as areas where free gas bubbles are released. Over the past few years, we have repeatedly visited and extensively sampled these vent fields to study the release and fate of CO2 in this natural seep area. One of our main objectives was to constrain the CO2 content of the widely emitted gas and to study its dispersion and fate in the water column. We have also investigated hydrate formation, which is observed at various locations. The venting fluids are chemically characterized by CO2 concentrations of up to 110 mmol/kg, having an associated isotopic composition representing a mantle carbon source. Thus, the CO2 concentrations measured at the JMVF represent the high-end compared to the concentration range of most other basalt-hosted hydrothermal mid-ocean ridge systems. Even though the concentrations of the emitted CO2 vary over time and with the type of venting (focused flow, diffuse flow or bubbles), the overall release is continuously high. The dispersion of the

  15. Chemical-mechanical coupling observed for depleted oil reservoirs subjected to long-term CO2-exposure - A case study of the Werkendam natural CO2 analogue field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hangx, Suzanne; Bakker, Elisenda; Bertier, Pieter; Nover, Georg; Busch, Andreas

    2015-10-01

    Geological storage of CO2 is one of the most promising technologies to rapidly reduce anthropogenic emissions of carbon dioxide. In order to ensure storage integrity, it is important to understand the effect of long-term CO2/brine/rock interactions on the mechanical behaviour of a storage complex. As most of these reactions are too slow to reproduce on laboratory timescales, we studied a natural CO2 analogue reservoir (the Röt Fringe Sandstone, Werkendam field, the Netherlands; 125-135 Ma of CO2-exposure) and its unreacted counterpart. We focused on CO2-induced mineralogical and porosity-permeability changes, and their effect on mechanical behaviour of both intact rock and simulated fault gouge. Overall, CO2-exposure did not lead to drastic mineralogical changes. The CO2-exposed material shows a stronger dependence of permeability on porosity, which is attributed to differences in diagenesis (closed-system diagenesis and hydrocarbon emplacement) taking place before CO2 charging. The limited extent of reaction was in part the result of bitumen coatings protecting specific mineral phases from reaction. In local, mm-sized zones displaying significant anhydrite cement dissolution, enhanced porosity was observed. For most of the reservoir the long-term mechanical behaviour after CO2-exposure could be described by the behaviour of the unreacted sandstone, while these more 'porous' zones had a lower rock strength. In addition, CO2-exposure did not affect the fault friction behaviour, and slip is expected to result in stable sliding. Simple stress path calculations predict that reservoir failure due to depletion and injection is unlikely, even for the 'porous' zones, nor will fault reactivation occur for realistic injection scenarios.

  16. Effects of drought and warming treatments on CO2 fluxes in shrubland ecosystems across an environmental gradient: a synthesis of the INCREASE project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guidolotti, Gabriele; Steenberg Larsen, Klaus; de Dato, Giovanbattista; Baarsel, Susie; Lellei-Kovács, Eszter; Kopittke, Gillian; Tietema, Albert; Emmet, Bridgett; De Angelis, Paolo; Kappel Schmidt, Inger

    2013-04-01

    Seasonal changes of net ecosystem exchange (NEE) of terrestrial ecosystems are the result of different interactions between CO2 assimilation (GPP) and ecosystem respiration (ER) with environmental drivers. There is still debate about to which extent low soil moisture (drought) and increased temperature (warming) can affect GPP or ER depending on both functional groups and ecosystem climate types. In dynamic systems, such as shrubland ecosystems, these effects can be difficult to predict. We used the INCREASE network infrastructure "space-for-time substitution" (natural gradient and experimental approach) to quantify the effects of drought and warming on GPP, ER, SR and NEE across 6 European shrublands. The sites ranged from Denmark to Southern Italy along a precipitation and temperature gradient. In addition, INCREASE experimentally manipulates the climate in 20 m2 plots simulating the climate change: reflective curtains are drawn across plots at night preventing heat loss (warming treatment) while other plots are periodically covered by curtains during rain events thereby reducing the water input from precipitation (drought treatment). The measurements of soil CO2 efflux (SR), net ecosystem CO2 exchange (NEE) and total ecosystem respiration (ER) were done according to common protocols using chamber method, while the gross ecosystem photosynthesis (GPP) was estimated by difference between NEE and ER. Preliminary results indicate large flux variability across the sites and the seasons. The drought treatment tends to limit the loss of CO2 through the respiratory processes, while the warming treatment seems to stimulate all the processes in most sites, even in the Mediterranean where the temperature has never been considered a limiting factor.

  17. Recovery of methane from gas hydrates intercalated within natural sediments using CO(2) and a CO(2)/N(2) gas mixture.

    PubMed

    Koh, Dong-Yeun; Kang, Hyery; Kim, Dae-Ok; Park, Juwoon; Cha, Minjun; Lee, Huen

    2012-08-01

    The direct recovery of methane from massive methane hydrates (MHs), artificial MH-bearing clays, and natural MH-bearing sediments is demonstrated, using either CO(2) or a CO(2)/N(2) gas mixture (20 mol % of CO(2) and 80 mol % of N(2), reproducing flue gas from a power plant) for methane replacement in complex marine systems. Natural gas hydrates (NGHs) can be converted into CO(2) hydrate by a swapping mechanism. The overall process serves a dual purpose: it is a means of sustainable energy-source exploitation and greenhouse-gas sequestration. In particular, scant attention has been paid to the natural sediment clay portion in deep-sea gas hydrates, which is capable of storing a tremendous amount of NGH. The clay interlayer provides a unique chemical-physical environment for gas hydrates. Herein, for the first time, we pull out methane from intercalated methane hydrates in a clay interlayer using CO(2) and a CO(2)/N(2) gas mixture. The results of this study are expected to provide an essential physicochemical background required for large-scale NGH production under the seabed.

  18. Potential CO2 Sequestration in Oil Field Reservoirs: Baseline Mineralogy and Natural Diagenesis, Kern County, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horton, R. A.; Kaess, A. B.; Nguyen, D. T.; Caffee, S. E.; Olabise, O. E.

    2015-12-01

    Depleted oil fields have been suggested as potential sites for sequestration of CO2 generated from the burning of hydrocarbons. However, to be effective for removing CO2 from the atmosphere, the injected CO2 must remain within the reservoir. The role of atmospheric CO2 in rock weathering is well known and a growing body of experimental work indicates that under reservoir conditions supercritical CO2 also reacts with sedimentary rocks. In order to predict the behavior of injected CO2 in a given reservoir, detailed knowledge of the mineralogy is required. In addition, post-injection monitoring may include analyzing core samples to examine interactions between reservoir rocks and the CO2. Thus, documentation of the natural diagenetic processes within the reservoir is necessary so that changes caused by reactions with CO2 can be recognized. Kern County, California has been a major petroleum producing area for over a century and has three oil fields that have been identified as potential sites for CO2 sequestration. Two of these, Rio Bravo-Greeley and McKittrick, have no previously published mineralogic studies. Samples from these (and nearby Wasco) oil fields were studied using transmitted-light petrography and scanning electron microscopy. At Rio Bravo-Greeley-Wasco, Kreyenhagen (Eocene) and Vedder (Oligocene) sandstones are mainly arkosic arenites with only small amounts of volcanic rock fragments. Detrital feldspars exhibit wide compositional ranges (up to Or75Ab25 & Ab50An50). Diagenesis has greatly altered the rocks. There are significant amounts of relatively pure authigenic K-feldspar and albite. Small amounts of authigenic quartz, calcite, dolomite, ankerite, kaolinite, illite/smectite, chlorite, zeolite, and pyrite are present. Plagioclase has been preferentially dissolved, with andesine more susceptible than oligoclase. Al3+ has been exported from the sandstones. At McKittrick, Temblor sandstones (Oligocene-Miocene) contain up to 33% volcanic rock fragments

  19. High CO2 fluxes from grassland on histic Gleysol along soil carbon and drainage gradients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leiber-Sauheitl, K.; Fuß, R.; Voigt, C.; Freibauer, A.

    2014-02-01

    Drained organic soils are anthropogenic emission hotspots of greenhouse gases (GHGs). Most studies have focused on deep peat soils and on peats with high organic carbon content. In contrast, histic Gleysols are characterized by shallow peat layers, which are left over from peat cutting activities or by peat mixed with mineral soil. It is unknown whether they emit less GHGs than deep Histosols when drained. We present the annual carbon and GHG balance of grasslands for six sites on nutrient-poor histic Gleysols with a shallow (30 cm) histic horizon or mixed with mineral soil in Northern Germany (soil organic carbon concentration (Corg) from 9 to 52%). The net GHG balance, corrected for carbon export by harvest, was around 4 t CO2-C-eq ha-1 yr-1 on soils with peat layer and little drainage (mean annual water table < 20 cm below surface). The net GHG balance reached 7-9 t CO2-C-eq ha-1 yr-1 on soils with sand mixed into the peat layer and water tables between 14 cm and 39 cm below surface. GHG emissions from drained histic Gleysols (i) were as high as those from deep Histosols, (ii) increase linearly from shallow to deeper drainage, (iii) but are not affected by Corg content of the histic horizon. Ecosystem respiration (Reco) was linearly correlated with water table level even if it was below the histic horizon. The Reco/GPP ratio was 1.5 at all sites, so that we ruled out a major influence of the inter-site variability in vegetation composition on annual net ecosystem exchange (NEE). The IPCC definition of organic soils includes shallow histic topsoil, unlike most national and international definitions of Histosols. Our study confirms that this broader definition is appropriate considering anthropogenic GHG emissions from drained organic soils. Countries currently apply soil maps in national GHG inventories which are likely not to include histic Gleysols. The land area with GHG emission hotspots due to drainage is likely to be much higher than anticipated. Deeply

  20. CO2, CH4 and N2O dynamics in Belgian rivers across a gradient of anthropogenic disturbance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borges, Alberto V.; Darchambeau, François; Beulen, Aurore

    2014-05-01

    Two rivers and two streams close to the city of Liège in Belgium (Meuse, Ourthe, Geer and Blanc Gravier) were sampled to describe the dynamics of CO2, CH4 and N2O (for the first time in Belgium for freshwaters). The four systems were chosen to cover a gradient of size (stream to river) and of human influence (mainly forested to mainly agricultural watersheds). The study covers the period from February 2011 to March 2013 with weekly sampling in surface waters. The variables were very contrasted in the four systems, the Geer showing a strong enrichment in nitrogen NH4+ et NO2-) and phosphorous in relation to the other three systems. The O2 concentrations were much lower, and the concentration of CH4, N2O and pCO2 were much higher in the Geer than in other three systems. The concentrations in CH4, N2O and pCO2 were higher in the Ourthe than in the Meuse and than in the Blanc Gravier. Marked seasonal variations were observed in the 4 systems. In general the concentration of CH4, N2O and pCO2 were higher in summer than in winter. This is related on one hand to the increase of temperature in summer that stimulates bacterial activity. Also in summer, the availability of organic matter for bacterial activity is higher after the spring phytoplankton blooms and also from allochthnous inputs from the watersheds. The increase of temperature and bacterial consumption of O2 in the water column leads to a lesser O2 penetration in the sediments that could stimulate benthic anaerobic processes among which methanogenesis and denitrification, leading to an increase of CH4 and N2O in the water column. Also, the production of N2O by denitrification strongly increases at low O2. During low water, the increase of residence time of the water mass and the decrease of current (decrease of degasing) allow an accumulation of CO2, CH4 and N2O in the water column. On the contrary during high water, dilution and increase of current (increase of degasing) lead to a decrease of concentrations

  1. The Himalayas of Nepal, a natural laboratory for the search and measurement of CO2 discharge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Girault, Frédéric; Koirala, Bharat P.; Bhattarai, Mukunda; Rajaure, Sudhir; Richon, Patrick; Perrier, Frédéric

    2010-05-01

    : the presence of a hot spring with high δ13C, of H2S smell, of hot spots in thermal images, of a geological contact, of self-potential anomalies (Byrdina et al., Journal of Geophysical Research, 2009) or of large radon-222 flux. Preliminary results about the failures or successes of the various methods will be given in the Trisuli and Langtang valleys (Central Nepal), in the Kali Gandaki valley (Western Nepal) and in the Thuli Bheri valley (Lower Dolpo, Far Western Nepal). These various sites also offer an opportunity to test the optimal estimation of total CO2 flux, using the least amount of experimental measurements. Preliminary results complemented by simulations will also be given on the total CO2 flux. In parallel, monitoring methods are being studied in the Syabru-Bensi pilot site. First, CO2 flux has been studied as a function of time using repeated measurements. Furthermore, the high radon content of the geological CO2 allows cost-effective monitoring using BARASOL probes. More than two years of data are already available and give hints on the use of radon to follow CO2 discharge as a function of time. These first results show how experimental studies carried out in natural discharge zones provide a rich laboratory to test the methodological approaches useful for CO2 leakage and monitoring.

  2. Mineral Carbonation Potential of CO2 from Natural and Industrial-based Alkalinity Sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilcox, J.; Kirchofer, A.

    2014-12-01

    Mineral carbonation is a Carbon Capture and Storage (CSS) technology where gaseous CO2 is reacted with alkaline materials (such as silicate minerals and alkaline industrial wastes) and converted into stable and environmentally benign carbonate minerals (Metz et al., 2005). Here, we present a holistic, transparent life cycle assessment model of aqueous mineral carbonation built using a hybrid process model and economic input-output life cycle assessment approach. We compared the energy efficiency and the net CO2 storage potential of various mineral carbonation processes based on different feedstock material and process schemes on a consistent basis by determining the energy and material balance of each implementation (Kirchofer et al., 2011). In particular, we evaluated the net CO2 storage potential of aqueous mineral carbonation for serpentine, olivine, cement kiln dust, fly ash, and steel slag across a range of reaction conditions and process parameters. A preliminary systematic investigation of the tradeoffs inherent in mineral carbonation processes was conducted and guidelines for the optimization of the life-cycle energy efficiency are provided. The life-cycle assessment of aqueous mineral carbonation suggests that a variety of alkalinity sources and process configurations are capable of net CO2 reductions. The maximum carbonation efficiency, defined as mass percent of CO2 mitigated per CO2 input, was 83% for CKD at ambient temperature and pressure conditions. In order of decreasing efficiency, the maximum carbonation efficiencies for the other alkalinity sources investigated were: olivine, 66%; SS, 64%; FA, 36%; and serpentine, 13%. For natural alkalinity sources, availability is estimated based on U.S. production rates of a) lime (18 Mt/yr) or b) sand and gravel (760 Mt/yr) (USGS, 2011). The low estimate assumes the maximum sequestration efficiency of the alkalinity source obtained in the current work and the high estimate assumes a sequestration efficiency

  3. Joule-Thomson Cooling Due to CO2 Injection into Natural GasReservoirs

    SciTech Connect

    Oldenburg, Curtis M.

    2006-04-21

    Depleted natural gas reservoirs are a promising target for Carbon Sequestration with Enhanced Gas Recovery (CSEGR). The focus of this study is on evaluating the importance of Joule-Thomson cooling during CO2 injection into depleted natural gas reservoirs. Joule-Thomson cooling is the adiabatic cooling that accompanies the expansion of a real gas. If Joule-Thomson cooling were extreme, injectivity and formation permeability could be altered by the freezing of residual water,formation of hydrates, and fracturing due to thermal stresses. The TOUGH2/EOS7C module for CO2-CH4-H2O mixtures is used as the simulation analysis tool. For verification of EOS7C, the classic Joule-Thomson expansion experiment is modeled for pure CO2 resulting in Joule-Thomson coefficients in agreement with standard references to within 5-7 percent. For demonstration purposes, CO2 injection at constant pressure and with a large pressure drop ({approx}50 bars) is presented in order to show that cooling by more than 20 C can occur by this effect. Two more-realistic constant-rate injection cases show that for typical systems in the Sacramento Valley, California, the Joule-Thomson cooling effect is minimal. This simulation study shows that for constant-rate injections into high-permeability reservoirs, the Joule-Thomson cooling effect is not expected to create significant problems for CSEGR.

  4. Equilibrium CO2 adsorption on zeolite 13X prepared from natural clays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garshasbi, Vahid; Jahangiri, Mansour; Anbia, Mansoor

    2017-01-01

    Zeolite 13X was successfully synthesized by hydrothermal treatment using natural clays extracted from Iranian resources. The preliminary natural materials and the final zeolite 13X samples were characterized by X-ray Diffraction (XRD), Fourier-Transfer Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and N2 adsorption-desorption isotherm. The effects of various factors such as NaOH addition amount and aging time on the crystalline products were studied during the synthesis process. The optimum conditions related to the synthesis of zeolite 13X were set. Accordingly, NaOH concentration was equal to 4 M. It was further crystallized at 65 °C for 72 h after its homogenization by agitation at room temperature for 120 h. In this study, the zeolite 13X prepared from natural kaolin (13X-K) showed a high BET surface area of 591 m2/g with higher micropore volume (0.250 cm3/g) than other materials. Adsorption equilibrium isotherms of CO2 were investigated using a static, volumetric method. In addition, pressures for the pure component data extended up to 20 bar. The adsorption equilibrium data of CO2 was fitted to Langmuir, Freundlich, Lamgmuir-Freundlich, Toth and BET isotherm models. It was found that the Langmuir-Freundlich model was more suitable than other models for CO2 description. The results showed that the synthetic zeolite has higher equilibrium selectivity for CO2. Also, the CO2 uptake by zeolite 13X-K was equal to 6.9 mmol/g.

  5. Long-term responses of the green-algal lichen Parmelia caperata to natural CO2 enrichment.

    PubMed

    Balaguer, L; Manrique, E; de Los Rios, A; Ascaso, C; Palmqvist, K; Fordham, M; Barnes, J D

    1999-05-01

    Acclimation to elevated CO2 was investigated in Parmelia caperata originating from the vicinity of a natural CO2 spring, where the average daytime CO2 concentration was 729 ± 39 μmol mol(-1) dry air. Thalli showed no evidence of a down-regulation in photosynthetic capacity following long-term exposure to CO2 enrichment in the field; carboxylation efficiency, total Ribulose bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (Rubisco) content, apparent quantum yield of CO2 assimilation, and the light-saturated rate of CO2 assimilation (measured under ambient and saturating CO2 concentrations) were similar in thalli from the naturally CO2 enriched site and an adjacent control site where the average long-term CO2 concentration was about 355 μmol mol(-1). Thalli from both CO2 environments exhibited low CO2 compensation points and early saturation of CO2 uptake kinetics in response to increasing external CO2 concentrations, suggesting the presence of an active carbon-concentrating mechanism. Consistent with the lack of significant effects on photosynthetic metabolism, no changes were found in the nitrogen content of thalli following prolonged exposure to elevated CO2. Detailed intrathalline analysis revealed a decreased investment of nitrogen in Rubisco in the pyrenoid of algae located in the elongation zone of thalli originating from elevated CO2, an effect associated with a reduction in the percentage of the cell volume occupied by lipid bodies and starch grains. Although these differences did not affect the photosynthetic capacity of thalli, there was evidence of enhanced limitations to CO2 assimilation in lichens originating from the CO2-enriched site. The light-saturated rate of CO2 assimilation measured at the average growth CO2 concentration was found to be significantly lower in thalli originating from a CO2-enriched atmosphere compared with that of thalli originating and measured at ambient CO2. At lower photosynthetic photon flux densities, the light

  6. Soil microbial respiration (CO2) of natural and anthropogenically-transformed ecosystems in Moscow region, Russia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivashchenko, Kristina; Ananyeva, Nadezhda; Rogovaya, Sofia; Vasenev, Viacheslav

    2016-04-01

    The CO2 concentration in modern atmosphere is increasing and one of the most reasons of it is land use changing. It is related not only with soil plowing, but also with growing urbanization and, thereby, forming the urban ecosystems. Such conversion of soil cover might be affected by efflux CO2 from soil into atmosphere. The soil CO2 efflux mainly supplies by soil microorganisms respiration (contribution around 70-90%) and plant roots respiration. Soil microbial respiration (MR) is determined in the field (in situ) and laboratory (in vitro) conditions. The measurement of soil MR in situ is labour-consuming, and for district, region and country areas it is difficult carried. We suggest to define the MR of the upper highest active 10 cm mineral soil layer (in vitro) followed by the accounting of area for different ecosystems in large region of Russia. Soils were sampled (autumn, 2011) in natural (forest, meadow) and anthropogenically-transformed (arable, urban) ecosystems of Sergiev-Posad, Taldom, Voskresenk, Shatura, Serpukhov and Serbryanye Prudy districts in Moscow region. In soil samples (total 156) the soil MR (24 h, 22°C, 60% WHC) were measured after preincubation procedure (7 d., 22°C, 55% WHC). The soil MR ranged from 0.13 (urban) to 5.41 μg CO2-C g-1 h-1 (meadow), the difference between these values was 42 times. Then, the soil MR values (per unit soil weight) were calculated per unit soil area (1 m2), the layer thickness of which was 0.1 m (soil volume weight was equaled 1 g cm-3). The high MR values were noted for forests soil (832-1410 g CO2-C m-2 yr-1) of studied districts, and the low MR values were for arable and urban soils (by 1.6-3.2 and 1.3-2.7 times less compared to forests, respectively). The MR rate of urban soil in Voskresenk district was comparable to that of corresponding meadows and it was even higher (in average by 2.3 times) in Serpukhov district. The soil MR rate of studied cities was higher by 20%, than in corresponding arable soils

  7. Assessment of CO2 discharge in a spring using time-variant stable carbon isotope data as a natural analogue study of CO2 leakage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Soonyoung; Chae, Gitak; Jo, Minki; Kim, Jeong-Chan; Yun, Seong-Taek

    2015-04-01

    CO2-rich springs have been studied as a natural analogue of CO2 leakage through shallow subsurface environment, as they provide information on the behaviors of CO2 during the leakage from geologic CO2 storage sites. For this study, we monitored the δ13C values as well as temperature, pH, EC, DO, and alkalinity for a CO2-rich spring for 48 hours. The water samples (N=47) were collected every hour in stopper bottles without headspace to avoid the interaction with air and the CO2 degassing. The δ13C values of total dissolved inorganic carbon (TDIC) in the water samples were analyzed using a cavity ring-down spectroscopy (CRDS) system (Picarro). The values of δ13CTDIC, temperature, pH, EC, DO, and alkalinity were in the range of -9.43 ~ -8.91 o 12.3 ~ 13.2oC, 4.86 ~ 5.02, 186 ~ 189 μS/cm, 1.8 ~ 3.4 mg/L, and 0.74 ~ 0.95 meq/L, respectively. The concentrations of TDIC calculated using pH and alkalinity values were between 22.5 and 34.8 mmol/L. The δ13CTDIC data imply that dissolved carbon in the spring was derived from a deep-seated source (i.e., magmatic) that was slightly intermixed with soil CO2. Careful examination of the time-series variation of measured parameters shows the following characteristics: 1) the δ13CTDIC values are negatively correlated with pH (r = -0.59) and positively correlated with TDIC (r = 0.58), and 2) delay times of the change of pH and alkalinity following the change of δ13CTDIC values are 0 and -3 hours, respectively; the pH change occurs simultaneously with the change of δ13CTDIC, while the alkalinity change happens before 3 hours. Our results indicate that the studied CO2-rich spring is influenced by the intermittent supply of deep-seated CO2. [Acknowledgment] This work was financially supported by the fundamental research project of KIGAM and partially by the "Geo-Advanced Innovative Action (GAIA) Project (2014000530003)" from Korea Ministry of Environment (MOE).

  8. Fault-controlled CO2 leakage from natural reservoirs in the Colorado Plateau, East-Central Utah

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jung, Na-Hyun; Han, Weon Shik; Watson, Z. T.; Graham, Jack P.; Kim, Kue-Young

    2014-10-01

    The study investigated a natural analogue for soil CO2 fluxes where CO2 has naturally leaked on the Colorado Plateau, East-Central Utah in order to identify various factors that control CO2 leakage and to understand regional-scale CO2 leakage processes in fault systems. The total 332 and 140 measurements of soil CO2 flux were made at 287 and 129 sites in the Little Grand Wash (LGW) and Salt Wash (SW) fault zones, respectively. Measurement sites for CO2 flux involved not only conspicuous CO2 degassing features (e.g., CO2-driven springs/geysers) but also linear features (e.g., joints/fractures and areas of diffusive leakage around a fault damage zone). CO2 flux anomalies were mostly observed along the fault traces. Specifically, CO2 flux anomalies were focused in the northern footwall of the both LGW and SW faults, supporting the existence of north-plunging anticlinal CO2 trap against south-dipping faults as well as higher probability of the north major fault traces as conduits. Anomalous CO2 fluxes also appeared in active travertines adjacent to CO2-driven cold springs and geysers (e.g., 36,259 g m-2 d-1 at Crystal Geyser), ancient travertines (e.g., 5,917 g m-2 d-1), joint zones in sandstone (e.g., 120 g m-2 d-1), and brine discharge zones (e.g., 5,515 g m-2 d-1). These observations indicate that CO2 has escaped through those pathways and that CO2 leakage from these fault zones does not correspond to point source leakage. The magnitude of CO2 flux is progressively reduced from north (i.e. the LGW fault zone, ∼36,259 g m-2 d-1) to south (i.e. the SW fault zone, ∼1,428 g m-2 d-1) despite new inputs of CO2 and CO2-saturated brine to the northerly SW fault from depth. This discrepancy in CO2 flux is most likely resulting from the differences in fault zone architecture and associated permeability structure. CO2-rich fluids from the LGW fault zone may become depleted with respect to CO2 during lateral transport, resulting in an additional decrease in CO2 fluxes

  9. Elevated CO2 and O3 effects on ectomycorrhizal fungal root tip communities in consideration of a post-agricultural soil nutrient gradient legacy.

    PubMed

    Andrew, Carrie; Lilleskov, Erik A

    2014-11-01

    Despite the critical role of EMF in nutrient and carbon (C) dynamics, combined effects of global atmospheric pollutants on ectomycorrhizal fungi (EMF) are unclear. Here, we present research on EMF root-level community responses to elevated CO2 and O3. We discovered that belowground EMF community richness and similarity were both negatively affected by CO2 and O3, but the effects of CO2 and O3 on EMF communities were contingent on a site soil pH and cation availability gradient. These results contrast with our previous work showing a strong direct effect of CO2 and O3 on sporocarp community dynamics and production. We discuss the possible role of carbon demand and allocation by EMF taxa in the discrepancy of these results. EMF communities were structured by a legacy of spatially defined soil properties, changing atmospheric chemistry and temporal dynamics. It is therefore necessary to understand global change impacts across multiple environmental gradients and spatiotemporal scales.

  10. Long-term effects of CO2 on the mechanical behaviour of faults - a study of samples from a natural CO2 analogue (Entrada Sandstone, Utah, USA)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hangx, S. J. T.; Bakker, E.; Spiers, C. J.

    2012-04-01

    In an attempt to reduce CO2 emissions, CO2 capture and storage in depleted oil and gas reservoirs is seen as one of the most important mitigation strategies. However, in order to achieve safe storage on geological timescales, it is key to maintain integrity of the caprock and any faults penetrating the seal. One of the largest uncertainties lies in the prediction of the effects of fluid-rock interaction on the mechanical integrity and sealing capacity of the reservoir-seal system in the very long term, i.e. on timescales of the order of 103 or 104 years. As chemical interactions in the rock/CO2/brine system are slow, their long-term effects on rock composition, microstructure, mechanical properties and transport properties cannot be properly reproduced in laboratory experiments. One way of addressing this issue is to conduct experiments on reservoir, caprock and fault rock samples taken from natural CO2 reservoir-seal systems, which can serve as natural analogues for CO2 storage fields. The transport and mechanical properties of these rock samples, which have reacted with CO2 over geological timescales, can then be compared with data obtained for laterally equivalent materials that are unaffected by CO2. The observed changes in rock properties can subsequently be used as input for numerical models aimed at assessing the long-term effects of CO2 on reservoir compaction, caprock damage, fault reactivation and fault permeability. We assessed the mechanical behaviour and transport properties of fault rocks. To this end, we performed triaxial direct shear experiments at room temperature under nominally dry conditions, at normal stresses up to 90 MPa and shear velocities of 0.22 -10.9 μm/s. Simulated fault rocks were prepared by crushing material obtained from surface outcrops of the Entrada Sandstone, one of the CO2-bearing formations from an analogue field under the Colorado Plateau, Utah, USA. Three types of starting material were obtained: 1) red-coloured samples

  11. Abundance and diversity of CO2-fixing bacteria in grassland soils close to natural carbon dioxide springs.

    PubMed

    Videmsek, Urska; Hagn, Alexandra; Suhadolc, Marjetka; Radl, Viviane; Knicker, Heike; Schloter, Michael; Vodnik, Dominik

    2009-07-01

    Gaseous conditions at natural CO2 springs (mofettes) affect many processes in these unique ecosystems. While the response of plants to extreme and fluctuating CO2 concentrations ([CO2]) is relatively well documented, little is known on microbial life in mofette soil. Therefore, it was the aim of this study to investigate the abundance and diversity of CO2-fixing bacteria in grassland soils in different distances to a natural carbon dioxide spring. Samples of the same soil type were collected from the Stavesinci mofette, a natural CO2 spring which is known for very pure CO2 emissions, at different distances from the CO2 releasing vents, at locations that clearly differed in soil CO2 efflux (from 12.5 to over 200 micromol CO2 m(-2) s(-1) yearly average). Bulk and rhizospheric soil samples were included into analyses. The microbial response was followed by a molecular analysis of cbbL genes, encoding for the large subunit of RubisCO, a carboxylase which is of crucial importance for C assimilation in chemolitoautotrophic microbes. In all samples analyzed, the "red-like" type of cbbL genes could be detected. In contrast, the "green-like" type of cbbL could not be measured by the applied technique. Surprisingly, a reduction of "red-like" cbbL genes copies was observed in bulk soil and rhizosphere samples from the sites with the highest CO2 concentrations. Furthermore, the diversity pattern of "red-like" cbbL genes changed depending on the CO(2) regime. This indicates that only a part of the autotrophic CO2-fixing microbes could adapt to the very high CO2 concentrations and adverse life conditions that are governed by mofette gaseous regime.

  12. Natural and industrial analogues for leakage of CO2 from storagereservoirs: identification of features, events, and processes and lessonslearned

    SciTech Connect

    Lewicki, Jennifer L.; Birkholzer, Jens; Tsang, Chin-Fu

    2006-02-28

    The injection and storage of anthropogenic CO2 in deepgeologic formations is a potentially feasible strategy to reduce CO2emissions and atmospheric concentrations. While the purpose of geologiccarbon storage is to trap CO2 underground, CO2 could migrate away fromthe storage site into the shallow subsurface and atmosphere if permeablepathways such as well bores or faults are present. Large-magnitudereleases of CO2 have occurred naturally from geologic reservoirs innumerous volcanic, geothermal, and sedimentary basin settings. Carbondioxide and natural gas have also been released from geologic CO2reservoirs and natural gas storage facilities, respectively, due toinfluences such as well defects and injection/withdrawal processes. Thesesystems serve as natural and industrial analogues for the potentialrelease of CO2 from geologic storage reservoirs and provide importantinformation about the key features, events, and processes (FEPs) that areassociated with releases, as well as the health, safety, andenvironmental consequences of releases and mitigation efforts that can beapplied. We describe a range of natural releases of CO2 and industrialreleases of CO2 and natural gas in the context of these characteristics.Based on this analysis, several key conclusions can be drawn, and lessonscan be learned for geologic carbon storage. First, CO2 can bothaccumulate beneath, and be released from, primary and secondaryreservoirs with capping units located at a wide range of depths. Bothprimary and secondary reservoir entrapments for CO2 should therefore bewell characterized at storage sites. Second, many natural releases of CO2have been correlated with a specific event that triggered the release,such as magmatic fluid intrusion or seismic activity. The potential forprocesses that could cause geomechanical damage to sealing cap rocks andtrigger the release of CO2 from a storage reservoir should be evaluated.Third, unsealed fault and fracture zones may act as fast and directconduits

  13. Anthropogenic changes to seawater buffer capacity combined with natural reef metabolism induce extreme future coral reef CO2 conditions.

    PubMed

    Shaw, Emily C; McNeil, Ben I; Tilbrook, Bronte; Matear, Richard; Bates, Michael L

    2013-05-01

    Ocean acidification, via an anthropogenic increase in seawater carbon dioxide (CO2 ), is potentially a major threat to coral reefs and other marine ecosystems. However, our understanding of how natural short-term diurnal CO2 variability in coral reefs influences longer term anthropogenic ocean acidification remains unclear. Here, we combine observed natural carbonate chemistry variability with future carbonate chemistry predictions for a coral reef flat in the Great Barrier Reef based on the RCP8.5 CO2 emissions scenario. Rather than observing a linear increase in reef flat partial pressure of CO2 (pCO2 ) in concert with rising atmospheric concentrations, the inclusion of in situ diurnal variability results in a highly nonlinear threefold amplification of the pCO2 signal by the end of the century. This significant nonlinear amplification of diurnal pCO2 variability occurs as a result of combining natural diurnal biological CO2 metabolism with long-term decreases in seawater buffer capacity, which occurs via increasing anthropogenic CO2 absorption by the ocean. Under the same benthic community composition, the amplification in the variability in pCO2 is likely to lead to exposure to mean maximum daily pCO2 levels of ca. 2100 μatm, with corrosive conditions with respect to aragonite by end-century at our study site. Minimum pCO2 levels will become lower relative to the mean offshore value (ca. threefold increase in the difference between offshore and minimum reef flat pCO2 ) by end-century, leading to a further increase in the pCO2 range that organisms are exposed to. The biological consequences of short-term exposure to these extreme CO2 conditions, coupled with elevated long-term mean CO2 conditions are currently unknown and future laboratory experiments will need to incorporate natural variability to test this. The amplification of pCO2 that we describe here is not unique to our study location, but will occur in all shallow coastal environments where high

  14. NATURAL CO2 FLOW FROM THE LOIHI VENT: IMPACT ON MICROBIAL PRODUCTION AND FATE OF THE CO2

    SciTech Connect

    Richard B. Coffin; Thomas J. Boyd; David L. Knies; Kenneth S. Grabowski; John W. Pohlman; Clark S. Mitchell

    2004-02-27

    The program for International Collaboration on CO{sub 2} Ocean Sequestration was initiated December 1997. Preliminary steps involved surveying a suite of biogeochemical parameters off the coast of Kona on the Big Island of Hawaii. The preliminary survey was conducted twice, in 1999 and 2000, to obtain a thorough data set including measurements of pH, current profiles, CO{sub 2} concentrations, microbial activities, and water and sediment chemistries. These data were collected in order to interpret a planned CO{sub 2} injection experiment. After these preliminary surveys were completed, local environment regulation forced moving the project to the coast north east of Bergen, Norway. The preliminary survey along the Norwegian Coast was conducted during 2002. However, Norwegian government revoked a permit, approved by the Norwegian State Pollution Control Authority, for policy reasons regarding the CO{sub 2} injection experiment. As a result the research team decided to monitor the natural CO{sub 2} flow off the southern coast of the Big Island. From December 3rd-13th 2002 scientists from four countries representing the Technical Committee of the International Carbon Dioxide Sequestration Experiment examined the hydrothermal venting at Loihi Seamount (Hawaiian Islands, USA). Work focused on tracing the venting gases, the impacts of the vent fluids on marine organisms, and CO{sub 2} influence on biogeochemical cycles. The cruise on the R/V Ka'imikai-O-Kanaloa (KOK) included 8 dives by the PISCES V submarine, 6 at Loihi and 2 at a nearby site in the lee of the Big Island. Data for this final report is from the last 2 dives on Loihi.

  15. Seasonal Variations in CO2 Efflux, Vadose Zone Gas Concentrations, and Natural Attenuation Rates at a Crude Oil Spill Site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trost, J.; Sihota, N.; Delin, G. N.; Warren, E.

    2014-12-01

    Accurate estimates of hydrocarbon source zone natural attenuation (SZNA) rates are important for managing contaminated sites but are difficult to measure. Moreover, SZNA rates may vary seasonally in response to climatic conditions. Previous research at a crude oil spill site near Bemidji, Minnesota, USA showed that SZNA rates in the summer can be estimated by subtracting background soil CO2 efflux from the total soil CO2 efflux above the contaminated source. In this study, seasonal variations in surficial CO2 efflux were evaluated with measurements of gas concentrations (including 14CO2), temperature, and volumetric water content in the vadose zone at the site during a 2-year period. Soil CO2 effluxes in the source zone were consistently greater than background CO2 effluxes, and the magnitude and areal extent of the increased efflux varied seasonally. In the source zone, the 14CO2 and the CO2 efflux data showed a larger proportion of soil CO2 was derived from SZNA in fall and winter (October - February) compared to the summer (June - August). Surficial CO2 effluxes and vadose zone CO2 and CH4 concentrations in the source (2 - 7 meters below land surface) were positively correlated with soil temperature, indicating seasonal variability in SZNA rates. However, peak surficial CO2 effluxes did not correspond with periods of highest CO2 or CH4 concentrations at the 2 - 7 meter depth, demonstrating the effects of physical attributes (such as soil depth, frost, and volumetric water content) on gas transport. Overall, results showed that SZNA rates, background soil respiration rates, and gas transport varied seasonally, and that biological and physical factors are important to consider for accurately estimating SZNA rates.

  16. Soil microbial community changes as a result of long-term exposure to a natural CO 2 vent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oppermann, B. I.; Michaelis, W.; Blumenberg, M.; Frerichs, J.; Schulz, H. M.; Schippers, A.; Beaubien, S. E.; Krüger, M.

    2010-05-01

    The capture and geological storage of CO 2 can be used to reduce anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions. To assess the environmental impact of potential CO 2 leakage from deep storage reservoirs on the abundance and functional diversity of microorganisms in near-surface terrestrial environments, a natural CO 2 vent (>90% CO 2 in the soil gas) was studied as an analogue. The microbial communities were investigated using lipid biomarkers combined with compound-specific stable carbon isotope analyses, the determination of microbial activities, and the use of quantitative polymerase chain reactions (Q-PCR). With this complementary set of methods, significant differences between the CO 2-rich vent and a reference site with a normal CO 2 concentration were detected. The δ 13C values of the plant and microbial lipids within the CO 2 vent demonstrate that substantial amounts of geothermal CO 2 were incorporated into the microbial, plant, and soil carbon pools. Moreover, the numbers of Archaea and Bacteria were highest at the reference site and substantially lower at the CO 2 vent. Lipid biomarker analyses, Q-PCR, and the determination of microbial activities showed the presence of CO 2-utilising methanogenic Archaea, Geobacteraceae, and sulphate-reducing Bacteria (SRB) mainly at the CO 2 vent, only minor quantities were found at the reference site. Stable carbon isotopic analyses revealed that the methanogenic Archaea and SRB utilised the vent-derived CO 2 for assimilatory biosynthesis. Our results show a shift in the microbial community towards anaerobic and acidophilic microorganisms as a consequence of the long-term exposure of the soil environment to high CO 2 concentrations.

  17. Natural gas consumption, income, urbanization, and CO2 emissions in China and India.

    PubMed

    Solarin, Sakiru Adebola; Lean, Hooi Hooi

    2016-09-01

    The objective of this study is to examine the impact of natural gas consumption, output, and urbanization on CO2 emission in China and India for the period, 1965-2013. A cointegraton test, which provides for endogenously determined structural breaks, has been applied to examine the long-run relationship and to investigate the presence of environmental Kuznets curve (EKC) in the two countries. The presence of causal relationship between the variables is also investigated. The findings show that there is a long-run relationship in the variables and natural gas, real GDP, and urbanization have long-run positive impact on emission in both countries. There is no evidence for EKC in China and India. The findings further suggest that there is a long-run feedback relationship between the variables. The policy inferences of these findings are discussed.

  18. Heterophylly in the yellow waterlily, Nuphar variegata (Nymphaeaceae): effects of [CO2], natural sediment type, and water depth.

    PubMed

    Titus, J E; Gary Sullivan, P

    2001-08-01

    We transplanted Nuphar variegata with submersed leaves only into natural lake sediments in pH-, [CO(2)]-, depth-, and temperature-controlled greenhouse tanks to test the hypotheses that more fertile sediment, lower free [CO(2)], and shallower depth would all stimulate the development of floating leaves. Sediment higher in porewater [NH(4)(+)] favored floating leaf development. Low CO(2)-grown plants initiated floating leaf development significantly earlier than high CO(2)-grown plants, which produced significantly more submersed leaves and fewer floating leaves. Mean floating leaf biomass was significantly greater than mean submersed leaf biomass but was not influenced by CO(2) enrichment, whereas mean submersed leaf biomass increased 88% at high [CO(2)]. At the shallower depth (35 cm), floating leaves required 50% less biomass investment per leaf than at 70 cm, and a significantly greater proportion of plants had floating leaves (70 vs. 23-43% at 35 vs. 70 cm, respectively) for the last three of the eight leaf censuses. Sediment type, water depth, and especially free [CO(2)] all can influence leaf morphogenesis in Nuphar variegata, and the development of more and larger submersed leaves with CO(2) enrichment favors the exploitation of high [CO(2)] when it is present in the water column.

  19. Leaching of Natural Gravel and Concrete by CO2 - Experimental Design, Leaching Behaviour and Dissolution Rates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuchs, Rita; Leis, Albrecht; Mittermayr, Florian; Harer, Gerhard; Wagner, Hanns; Reichl, Peter; Dietzel, Martin

    2015-04-01

    The durability of building material in aggressive aqueous environments is a key factor for evaluating the product quality and application as well as of high economic interest. Therefore, aspects of durability have been frequently investigated with different approaches such as monitoring, modelling and experimental work. In the present study an experimental approach based on leaching behaviour of natural calcite-containing siliceous gravel used as backfill material in tunnelling and sprayed concrete by CO2 was developed. CO2 was introduced to form carbonic acid, which is known as an important agent to induce chemical attack. The goals of this study were (i) to develop a proper experimental design to survey the leaching of building materials on-line, (ii) to decipher individual reaction mechanisms and kinetics and (iii) to estimate time-resolved chemical resistance of the used material throughout leaching. A combined flow through reactor unit was successfully installed, where both open and closed system conditions can be easily simulated by changing flow directions and rates. The chemical compositions of the experimental solutions were adjusted by CO2 addition at pHstat conditions and monitored in-situ by pH/SpC electrodes and by analysing the chemical composition of samples throughout an experimental run. From the obtained data e.g. dissolution rates with respect to calcite were obtained for the gravel material, which were dependent on the individual calcite content of the leached material. The rates were found to reflect the flow rate conditions, and the kinetic data lay within the range expected from dissolution experiments in the CaCO3-CO2-H2O system. In case of concrete the reactions throughout the leaching experiment were complex. Coupled dissolution and precipitation phenomena (e.g. portlandite dissolution, calcite formation) occurred. The coupled reactions can be followed by the evolution of the solution chemistry. The overall rates of elemental removal from

  20. Mechanochemical dissociation of calcium carbonate: laboratory data and relation to natural emissions of CO 2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinelli, Giovanni; Plescia, Paolo

    2004-05-01

    This paper investigates the possible role of mechanochemical CO 2 production due to stimulation from the action of friction on calcite. This experimentation has two objectives: firstly, to obtain information on the effect of the mechanical disassociation of carbon dioxide from the carbonates and, secondly, to simulate the conditions that may arise during a tectonic action. The action of disassociation has been observed on pure calcium carbonate from analyses ground at different times in a ring-roller mill. The ring-roller mill is a grinding system that mainly works through friction and, to a lesser extent, by non-hydrostatic compression. It has been observed that the grinding action determines an abundant release of carbon dioxide, with a non-linear trend that emulates the trend in the decrease in crystallinity. This indicates a close connection between crystallinity and the dissociation of carbonate. The Authors hypothesize a carbon dioxide release mechanism linked to the factures induced by the friction and the increase in the structural disorder induced in the lattice by the plastic sliding. This mechanism could play an important role in the natural release of CO 2, along with the other carbon dioxide sources that are already known of.

  1. Radiometric Calibration of an Airborne CO2 Pulsed Doppler Lidar Using a Natural Earth Surface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cutten, Dean R.; Rothermel, Jeffry; Jarzembski, Maurice A.; Hardesty, R. Michael; Howell, James N.; Tratt, David M.; Srivastava, Vandana; Arnold, James E. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Radiometric calibration of an airborne CO2 pulsed Doppler lidar has been accomplished using surface retro-reflection signals from the White Sands National Monument, New Mexico, USA. Two circular passes were made at altitudes of 6.26 and 9.26 km. The computed calibration factors for both altitudes are in excellent agreement with the value derived from standard ground-based measurements involving a fixed sandpaper target of known reflectance. This finding corroborates a previous study that successfully calibrated an airborne continuous-wave Doppler lidar using a variety of natural Earth surfaces. The present results indicate that relatively uniform Earth-surface targets can be used for in-flight calibration of pulsed airborne, and, in principal, spaceborne lidars.

  2. A Mesocosm Experiment in an Inland Sea HNLC Region with Naturally High pCO2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murray, J. W.; Canade, E.; Chong, M.; Peterson, A.; Reash, S.; Schaut, T.; Tonge, A.; Wang, A.; Bantam, C.; Foy, M. S.; Lessard, E. J.; Paul, B.; Fay, A.

    2012-12-01

    The University of Washington has constructed a new Ocean Acidification Experimental Lab (OAEL) facility at the Friday Harbor Laboratories (FHL). This facility consists of a small-scale indoor lab experimental facility, a large-scale in-water mesocosm facility and a fully equipped carbonate system analytical laboratory. A mesocosm experiment (nine 5m in water mesocosms with volumes of ~3500 l each) was conducted in April 2012 as part of a FHL Research Apprenticeship course. PCO2 levels in the mesocosms were adjusted initially to be ambient (3 at 650 μatm l-1) and two levels of enhancement (3 at 950 μatm l-1 and 3 at 1250 μatm l-1). The mesocosms were filled with seawater from the FHL dock and a time series over the previous nine months provided a historical context. Surface seawater at the FHL dock had concentrations of NO3 ranging from 15 to 30 μmol l-1 and values of PCO2 (calculated from DIC and Alkalinity) greater than 650 μatm l-1 over this period. The rich biological community of the San Juan Islands appear to sit in an ocean environment equivalent to an acidified ocean of the future 100 years and this is due to natural processes. The source for this high NO3 and CO2 water is upwelling along the Washington coast from the California Undercurrent that flows north from the oxygen minimum zone off Mexico along the west coast of the US. Meanwhile chlorophyll at the FHL dock is low (~1 mg l-1) so the waters around FHL qualify as a high nitrate low chlorophyll (HNLC) ocean region. Open ocean HNLC regions are thought to result from iron limitation, which influences food web structure. At FHL they are due to mixing with deeper water in the straits (mixed layer is deeper than the euphotic zone). Within two days of when the mesocosms a bloom developed. NO3 was reduced to 0 by day 6 and chlorophyll increased to 45 mg l-1. The experiment was continued for 6 days with NO3 = 0, then nutrients were added back to the initial values and a second bloom was followed with time

  3. Amine-bearing mesoporous silica for CO(2) and H(2)S removal from natural gas and biogas.

    PubMed

    Belmabkhout, Youssef; De Weireld, Guy; Sayari, Abdelhamid

    2009-12-01

    Triamine-grafted pore-expanded mesoporous silica (TRI-PE-MCM-41) exhibited high CO(2) and H(2)S adsorption capacity as well as high selectivity toward acid gases versus CH(4). Unlike physical adsorbents such as zeolites and activated carbons, the presence of moisture in the feed enhanced the CO(2) removal capability of TRI-PE-MCM-41 without altering its H(2)S adsorption capacity. Thus, depending on the feed composition, CO(2) and H(2)S may be removed over TRI-PE-MCM-41 simultaneously or sequentially. These findings are suitable for acid gas separation from CH(4)-containing mixtures such as natural gas and biogas.

  4. The nature of the CO2 -concentrating mechanisms in a marine diatom, Thalassiosira pseudonana.

    PubMed

    Clement, Romain; Dimnet, Laura; Maberly, Stephen C; Gontero, Brigitte

    2016-03-01

    Diatoms are widespread in aquatic ecosystems where they may be limited by the supply of inorganic carbon. Their carbon dioxide-concentrating mechanisms (CCMs) involving transporters and carbonic anhydrases (CAs) are well known, but the contribution of a biochemical CCM involving C4 metabolism is contentious. The CCM(s) present in the marine-centric diatom, Thalassiosira pseudonana, were studied in cells exposed to high or low concentrations of CO2 , using a range of approaches. At low CO2 , cells possessed a CCM based on active uptake of CO2 (70% contribution) and bicarbonate, while at high CO2 , cells were restricted to CO2 . CA was highly and rapidly activated on transfer to low CO2 and played a key role because inhibition of external CA produced uptake kinetics similar to cells grown at high CO2 . The activities of phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP) carboxylase (PEPC) and the PEP-regenerating enzyme, pyruvate phosphate dikinase (PPDK), were lower in cells grown at low than at high CO2 . The ratios of PEPC and PPDK to ribulose bisphosphate carboxylase were substantially lower than 1, even at low CO2 . Our data suggest that the kinetic properties of this species results from a biophysical CCM and not from C4 type metabolism.

  5. Predicting the ultimate potential of natural gas SOFC power cycles with CO2 capture - Part B: Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campanari, Stefano; Mastropasqua, Luca; Gazzani, Matteo; Chiesa, Paolo; Romano, Matteo C.

    2016-09-01

    An important advantage of solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC) as future systems for large scale power generation is the possibility of being efficiently integrated with processes for CO2 capture. Focusing on natural gas power generation, Part A of this work assessed the performances of advanced pressurised and atmospheric plant configurations (SOFC + GT and SOFC + ST, with fuel cell integration within a gas turbine or a steam turbine cycle) without CO2 separation. This Part B paper investigates such kind of power cycles when applied to CO2 capture, proposing two ultra-high efficiency plant configurations based on advanced intermediate-temperature SOFCs with internal reforming and low temperature CO2 separation process. The power plants are simulated at the 100 MW scale with a set of realistic assumptions about FC performances, main components and auxiliaries, and show the capability of exceeding 70% LHV efficiency with high CO2 capture (above 80%) and a low specific primary energy consumption for the CO2 avoided (1.1-2.4 MJ kg-1). Detailed results are presented in terms of energy and material balances, and a sensitivity analysis of plant performance is developed vs. FC voltage and fuel utilisation to investigate possible long-term improvements. Options for further improvement of the CO2 capture efficiency are also addressed.

  6. Potential impacts on groundwater resources of deep CO2 storage: natural analogues for assessing potential chemical effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lions, J.; Gale, I.; May, F.; Nygaard, E.; Ruetters, H.; Beaubien, S.; Sohrabi, M.; Hatzignatiou, D. G.; CO2GeoNet Members involved in the present study Team

    2011-12-01

    Carbon dioxide Capture and Storage (CCS) is considered as one of the promising options for reducing atmospheric emissions of CO2 related to human activities. One of the main concerns associated with the geological storage of CO2 is that the CO2 may leak from the intended storage formation, migrate to the near-surface environment and, eventually, escape from the ground. This is a concern because such leakage may affect aquifers overlying the storage site and containing freshwater that may be used for drinking, industry and agriculture. The IEA Greenhouse Gas R&D Programme (IEAGHG) recently commissioned the CO2GeoNet Association to undertake a review of published and unpublished literature on this topic with the aim of summarizing 'state of the art' knowledge and identifying knowledge gaps and research priorities in this field. Work carried out by various CO2GeoNet members was also used in this study. This study identifies possible areas of conflict by combining available datasets to map the global and regional superposition of deep saline formations (DSF) suitable for CO2 storage and overlying fresh groundwater resources. A scenario classification is developed for the various geological settings where conflict could occur. The study proposes two approaches to address the potential impact mechanisms of CO2 storage projects on the hydrodynamics and chemistry of shallow groundwater. The first classifies and synthesizes changes of water quality observed in natural/industrial analogues and in laboratory experiments. The second reviews hydrodynamic and geochemical models, including coupled multiphase flow and reactive transport. Various models are discussed in terms of their advantages and limitations, with conclusions on possible impacts on groundwater resources. Possible mitigation options to stop or control CO2 leakage are assessed. The effect of CO2 pressure in the host DSF and the potential effects on shallow aquifers are also examined. The study provides a review of

  7. Response of bacterioplankton community structure to an artificial gradient of pCO2 in the Arctic Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, R.; Xia, X.; Lau, S. C. K.; Motegi, C.; Weinbauer, M. G.; Jiao, N.

    2012-08-01

    The influences of ocean acidification on bacterial diversity were investigated using DNA fingerprinting and clone library analysis of bacterioplankton samples collected from the largest CO2 manipulation mesocosm study that had been performed thus far. Terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis of the PCR amplicons of the 16S rRNA genes revealed that bacterial diversity, species richness and community structure varied with the time of incubation but not the degree of ocean acidification. The phylogenetic composition of the major bacterial assemblage after a 30-day incubation under various pCO2 concentrations did not show clear effects of pCO2 levels. However, the maximum apparent diversity and species richness which occurred during incubation differed in the high and low pCO2 treatments, in which different bacterial community structure harbored. In addition, total alkalinity was one of the contributing factors for the temporal variations in bacterial community structure observed during incubation. A negative relationship between the relative abundance of Bacteroidetes and pCO2 levels was observed for samples at the end of the experiment. Our study suggested that ocean acidification affected the development of bacterial assemblages and potentially impacts the ecological function of the bacterioplankton in the marine ecosystem.

  8. Gradient domestication of Haematococcus pluvialis mutant with 15% CO2 to promote biomass growth and astaxanthin yield.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Jun; Li, Ke; Yang, Zongbo; Lu, Hongxiang; Zhou, Junhu; Cen, Kefa

    2016-09-01

    In order to increase biomass yield and reduce culture cost of Haematococcus pluvialis with flue gas from coal-fired power plants, a screened mutant by nuclear irradiation was gradually domesticated with 15% CO2 to promote biomass dry weight and astaxanthin yield. The biomass yield of mutant after 10 generations of 15% CO2 domestication increased to 1.3 times as that with air. With the optimization of nitrogen and phosphorus concentration, the biomass dry weight was further increased by 62%. The astaxanthin yield induced with 15% CO2 and high light of 135 μmol photons m(-2) s(-1) increased to 87.4mg/L, which was 6 times higher than that induced with high light in air.

  9. pH controls over anaerobic carbon mineralization to CO2 and CH4 in peatlands across a hydrogeomorphic landscape gradient

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ye, R.; Jin, Q.; Bohannan, B.; Bridgham, S. D.

    2011-12-01

    The efficiency of methane (CH4) production under anaerobic conditions varies greatly in peatlands across an ombrotrophic-minerotrophic gradient, but the underlying mechanisms that explain this variation are poorly known. The objectives of this experiment were to determine to what extent differences in soil pH along this gradient control (i) total CH4 and carbon dioxide (CO2) production rates and (ii) the efficiency of CH4 production versus CO2 production. We adjusted the pH of peat slurries from an ombrotrophic bog, two poor fens, an intermediate fen, and two rich fens from northern Michigan, USA to 4 levels (3.5, 4.5, 5.5, and 6.5), followed by anaerobic incubation for 43 days. Increased pH caused a significant increase in CO2 production in all sites. Regardless of site, time, and pH level, reduction of inorganic electron acceptors contributed <5% of total CO2 production. Higher pH caused acetate pooling by day 7, but this effect was greater in the more ombrotrophic sites and lasted throughout the incubation, whereas acetate was almost entirely consumed as a substrate for acetoclastic methanogenesis by day 43 in the minerotrophic sites. The proportion of acetoclastic vs. hydrogenotrophic methanogenesis increased at low pH, but this effect was only observed in the ombrotrophic sites. Increased pH greatly enhanced the efficiency of CH4 vs. CO2 production by up to 334%. However, CH4 production accounted for < 24% of the total gaseous C productions. Fermentation and/or reduction of humic compounds appeared to be the main pathway for anaerobic C mineralization. Our results indicate that higher pH increased the fermentative production of acetate and CO2, but the corresponding increase in acetoclastic methanogenesis in the ombrotrophic sites was insufficient to consume the acetate, suggesting limitation of acetoclastic methanogenesis by some factor in addition to pH in these sites. pH is an important environmental factor controlling the C mineralization to CO2 and CH4 in

  10. Timing and nature of AMOC recovery across Termination 2 and magnitude of deglacial CO2 change.

    PubMed

    Deaney, Emily L; Barker, Stephen; van de Flierdt, Tina

    2017-02-27

    Large amplitude variations in atmospheric CO2 were associated with glacial terminations of the Late Pleistocene. Here we provide multiple lines of evidence suggesting that the ∼20 p.p.m.v. overshoot in CO2 at the end of Termination 2 (T2) ∼129 ka was associated with an abrupt (≤400 year) deepening of Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC). In contrast to Termination 1 (T1), which was interrupted by the Bølling-Allerød (B-A), AMOC recovery did not occur until the very end of T2, and was characterized by pronounced formation of deep waters in the NW Atlantic. Considering the variable influences of ocean circulation change on atmospheric CO2, we suggest that the net change in CO2 across the last 2 terminations was approximately equal if the transient effects of deglacial oscillations in ocean circulation are taken into account.

  11. Timing and nature of AMOC recovery across Termination 2 and magnitude of deglacial CO2 change

    PubMed Central

    Deaney, Emily L.; Barker, Stephen; van de Flierdt, Tina

    2017-01-01

    Large amplitude variations in atmospheric CO2 were associated with glacial terminations of the Late Pleistocene. Here we provide multiple lines of evidence suggesting that the ∼20 p.p.m.v. overshoot in CO2 at the end of Termination 2 (T2) ∼129 ka was associated with an abrupt (≤400 year) deepening of Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC). In contrast to Termination 1 (T1), which was interrupted by the Bølling-Allerød (B-A), AMOC recovery did not occur until the very end of T2, and was characterized by pronounced formation of deep waters in the NW Atlantic. Considering the variable influences of ocean circulation change on atmospheric CO2, we suggest that the net change in CO2 across the last 2 terminations was approximately equal if the transient effects of deglacial oscillations in ocean circulation are taken into account. PMID:28239149

  12. Timing and nature of AMOC recovery across Termination 2 and magnitude of deglacial CO2 change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deaney, Emily L.; Barker, Stephen; van de Flierdt, Tina

    2017-02-01

    Large amplitude variations in atmospheric CO2 were associated with glacial terminations of the Late Pleistocene. Here we provide multiple lines of evidence suggesting that the ~20 p.p.m.v. overshoot in CO2 at the end of Termination 2 (T2) ~129 ka was associated with an abrupt (<=400 year) deepening of Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC). In contrast to Termination 1 (T1), which was interrupted by the Bølling-Allerød (B-A), AMOC recovery did not occur until the very end of T2, and was characterized by pronounced formation of deep waters in the NW Atlantic. Considering the variable influences of ocean circulation change on atmospheric CO2, we suggest that the net change in CO2 across the last 2 terminations was approximately equal if the transient effects of deglacial oscillations in ocean circulation are taken into account.

  13. Root Responses Along a Subambient to Elevated CO2 Gradient in a C3-C4 Grassland

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Atmospheric CO2 (Ca) concentration has increased significantly during last 20,000 years, and is projected to double this century. Despite the importance of belowground processes in the global carbon cycle, community-level and single species root responses to rising Ca are poorly understood. We measu...

  14. Formation of submicron magnesite during reaction of natural forsterite in H2O-saturated supercritical CO2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qafoku, Odeta; Hu, Jianzhi; Hess, Nancy J.; Hu, Mary Y.; Ilton, Eugene S.; Feng, Ju; Arey, Bruce W.; Felmy, Andrew R.

    2014-06-01

    Natural forsterite was reacted in bulk liquid water saturated with supercritical CO2 (scCO2) and scCO2 saturated with water at 35-80 °C and 90 atm. The solid reaction products were analyzed with nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and confocal Raman spectroscopy. Two carbonate phases, nesquehonite (MgCO3·3H2O) and magnesite (MgCO3), were identified with the proportions of the two phases depending on experimental conditions. In liquid water saturated with scCO2, nesquehonite was the dominant carbonate phase at 35-80 °C with only a limited number of large, micron size magnesite particles forming at the highest temperature, 80 °C. In contrast, in scCO2 saturated with H2O magnesite formation was identified at all three temperatures: 35, 50, and 80 °C. Magnesite was the dominant carbonation reaction product at 50 and 80 °C, but nesquehonite was dominant at 35 °C. The magnesite particles formed under scCO2 saturated with H2O conditions exhibited an extremely uniform submicron grain-size and nearly identical rhombohedral morphologies at all temperatures. The distribution and form of the particles were not consistent with nucleation and growth on the forsterite surface.

  15. Formation of Submicron Magnesite during Reaction of Natural Forsterite in H2O-Saturated Supercritical CO2

    SciTech Connect

    Qafoku, Odeta; Hu, Jian Z.; Hess, Nancy J.; Hu, Mary Y.; Ilton, Eugene S.; Feng, Ju; Arey, Bruce W.; Felmy, Andrew R.

    2014-06-01

    Natural forsterite was reacted in a) liquid water saturated with supercritical CO2 (scCO2) and in b) H2O-saturated scCO2 at 35-80 °C and 90 atm. The solid reaction products were analyzed with nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and confocal Raman spectroscopy. Two carbonate phases, nesquehonite (MgCO3.3H2O) and magnesite (MgCO3), were identified with the proportions of the two phases depending on experimental conditions. In water saturated with scCO2, nesquehonite was the dominant carbonate phase at 35-80 °C with only a limited number of large, micron size magnesite particles forming at the highest temperature, 80 °C. In contrast, in H2O-saturated scCO2 magnesite formation was identified at all three temperatures: 35 °, 50 °, and 80 °C. Magnesite was the dominant carbonation reaction product at 50 ° and 80 °C; but nesquehonite was dominant at 35 °C. The magnesite particles formed under H2O-saturated scCO2 conditions exhibited an extremely uniform submicron grain-size and nearly identical rhombohedral morphologies at all temperatures. The distribution and form of the particles were not consistent with epitaxial nucleation and growth on the forsterite surface.

  16. CO2 adsorption properties of ion-exchanged zeolite Y prepared from natural clays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Djeffal, Nadjiba; Benbouzid, Mohammed; Boukoussa, Bouhadjar; Sekkiou, Housseyn; Bengueddach, Abdelkader

    2017-03-01

    Ordered microporous Y zeolite was successfully synthesized by hydrothermal treatment using metakaolin and Ludox (40% SiO2) as an aluminum and silica source respectively. The metakaolin was obtained by thermal treatment of Algerian kaolin. The obtained Y zeolite was exchanged by different cations such as Cu2+, Ni2+, Ca2+, Na+ and used for the CO2 adsorption at 0 °C. The structural features of the materials were determined by various physico-chemical techniques such as x-ray diffraction, nitrogen sorption at 77 K, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and scanning electronic microscopy. The CO2 adsorption at 0 °C was carried using a volumetric method. The adsorption isotherms of CO2 exhibit nonlinear concave curves and showed a high adsorption capacity for CO2 from the M-Y zeolites. The equilibrium CO2 adsorption capacity increase in the following order of Cu2+  <  Ni2+  <  Ca2+  <  Na+. The experimental isotherm data of the CO2 adsorption was best described by the Langmuir model giving a maximum adsorbed amount q m  =  77.57 cm3 · g‑1 STP for Na-Y zeolite.

  17. Natural volcanic CO2 seeps reveal future trajectories for host–microbial associations in corals and sponges

    PubMed Central

    Morrow, Kathleen M; Bourne, David G; Humphrey, Craig; Botté, Emmanuelle S; Laffy, Patrick; Zaneveld, Jesse; Uthicke, Sven; Fabricius, Katharina E; Webster, Nicole S

    2015-01-01

    Atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) levels are rapidly rising causing an increase in the partial pressure of CO2 (pCO2) in the ocean and a reduction in pH known as ocean acidification (OA). Natural volcanic seeps in Papua New Guinea expel 99% pure CO2 and thereby offer a unique opportunity to explore the effects of OA in situ. The corals Acropora millepora and Porites cylindrica were less abundant and hosted significantly different microbial communities at the CO2 seep than at nearby control sites <500 m away. A primary driver of microbial differences in A. millepora was a 50% reduction of symbiotic Endozoicomonas. This loss of symbiotic taxa from corals at the CO2 seep highlights a potential hurdle for corals to overcome if they are to adapt to and survive OA. In contrast, the two sponges Coelocarteria singaporensis and Cinachyra sp. were ∼40-fold more abundant at the seep and hosted a significantly higher relative abundance of Synechococcus than sponges at control sites. The increase in photosynthetic microbes at the seep potentially provides these species with a nutritional benefit and enhanced scope for growth under future climate scenarios (thus, flexibility in symbiosis may lead to a larger niche breadth). The microbial community in the apparently pCO2-sensitive sponge species S. massa was not significantly different between sites. These data show that responses to elevated pCO2 are species-specific and that the stability and flexibility of microbial partnerships may have an important role in shaping and contributing to the fitness and success of some hosts. PMID:25325380

  18. Natural volcanic CO2 seeps reveal future trajectories for host-microbial associations in corals and sponges.

    PubMed

    Morrow, Kathleen M; Bourne, David G; Humphrey, Craig; Botté, Emmanuelle S; Laffy, Patrick; Zaneveld, Jesse; Uthicke, Sven; Fabricius, Katharina E; Webster, Nicole S

    2015-03-17

    Atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) levels are rapidly rising causing an increase in the partial pressure of CO2 (pCO2) in the ocean and a reduction in pH known as ocean acidification (OA). Natural volcanic seeps in Papua New Guinea expel 99% pure CO2 and thereby offer a unique opportunity to explore the effects of OA in situ. The corals Acropora millepora and Porites cylindrica were less abundant and hosted significantly different microbial communities at the CO2 seep than at nearby control sites <500 m away. A primary driver of microbial differences in A. millepora was a 50% reduction of symbiotic Endozoicomonas. This loss of symbiotic taxa from corals at the CO2 seep highlights a potential hurdle for corals to overcome if they are to adapt to and survive OA. In contrast, the two sponges Coelocarteria singaporensis and Cinachyra sp. were ∼ 40-fold more abundant at the seep and hosted a significantly higher relative abundance of Synechococcus than sponges at control sites. The increase in photosynthetic microbes at the seep potentially provides these species with a nutritional benefit and enhanced scope for growth under future climate scenarios (thus, flexibility in symbiosis may lead to a larger niche breadth). The microbial community in the apparently pCO2-sensitive sponge species S. massa was not significantly different between sites. These data show that responses to elevated pCO2 are species-specific and that the stability and flexibility of microbial partnerships may have an important role in shaping and contributing to the fitness and success of some hosts.

  19. Hydroquinone and Quinone-Grafted Porous Carbons for Highly Selective CO2 Capture from Flue Gases and Natural Gas Upgrading.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jun; Krishna, Rajamani; Yang, Jiangfeng; Deng, Shuguang

    2015-08-04

    Hydroquinone and quinone functional groups were grafted onto a hierarchical porous carbon framework via the Friedel-Crafts reaction to develop more efficient adsorbents for the selective capture and removal of carbon dioxide from flue gases and natural gas. The oxygen-doped porous carbons were characterized with scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, X-ray powder diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and Raman spectroscopy. CO2, CH4, and N2 adsorption isotherms were measured and correlated with the Langmuir model. An ideal adsorbed solution theory (IAST) selectivity for the CO2/N2 separation of 26.5 (298 K, 1 atm) was obtained on the hydroquinone-grafted carbon, which is 58.7% higher than that of the pristine porous carbon, and a CO2/CH4 selectivity value of 4.6 (298 K, 1 atm) was obtained on the quinone-grafted carbon (OAC-2), which represents a 28.4% improvement over the pristine porous carbon. The highest CO2 adsorption capacity on the oxygen-doped carbon adsorbents is 3.46 mmol g(-1) at 298 K and 1 atm. In addition, transient breakthrough simulations for CO2/CH4/N2 mixture separation were conducted to demonstrate the good separation performance of the oxygen-doped carbons in fixed bed adsorbers. Combining excellent adsorption separation properties and low heats of adsorption, the oxygen-doped carbons developed in this work appear to be very promising for flue gas treatment and natural gas upgrading.

  20. Efficiency enhancement for natural gas liquefaction with CO2 capture and sequestration through cycles innovation and process optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alabdulkarem, Abdullah

    Liquefied natural gas (LNG) plants are energy intensive. As a result, the power plants operating these LNG plants emit high amounts of CO2 . To mitigate global warming that is caused by the increase in atmospheric CO2, CO2 capture and sequestration (CCS) using amine absorption is proposed. However, the major challenge of implementing this CCS system is the associated power requirement, increasing power consumption by about 15--25%. Therefore, the main scope of this work is to tackle this challenge by minimizing CCS power consumption as well as that of the entire LNG plant though system integration and rigorous optimization. The power consumption of the LNG plant was reduced through improving the process of liquefaction itself. In this work, a genetic algorithm (GA) was used to optimize a propane pre-cooled mixed-refrigerant (C3-MR) LNG plant modeled using HYSYS software. An optimization platform coupling Matlab with HYSYS was developed. New refrigerant mixtures were found, with savings in power consumption as high as 13%. LNG plants optimization with variable natural gas feed compositions was addressed and the solution was proposed through applying robust optimization techniques, resulting in a robust refrigerant which can liquefy a range of natural gas feeds. The second approach for reducing the power consumption is through process integration and waste heat utilization in the integrated CCS system. Four waste heat sources and six potential uses were uncovered and evaluated using HYSYS software. The developed models were verified against experimental data from the literature with good agreement. Net available power enhancement in one of the proposed CCS configuration is 16% more than the conventional CCS configuration. To reduce the CO2 pressurization power into a well for enhanced oil recovery (EOR) applications, five CO2 pressurization methods were explored. New CO2 liquefaction cycles were developed and modeled using HYSYS software. One of the developed

  1. Gas Hazard from Natural CO2 Emissions in Central and Southern Italy.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cardellini, C.; Chiodini, G.; Costa, A.; Avino, R.; Baldini, A.; Caliro, S.; Frondini, F.; Granieri, D.; Minopoli, C.; Morgantini, N.

    2006-12-01

    Recent studies at regional scale showed that the central and southern Italy are affected by an active and intense process of CO2 Earth degassing. Considering the deeply derived carbon dissolved in the groundwater of large regional aquifers, Chiodini et al. (2004) elaborated a regional map of CO2 Earth degassing, pointing out the presence of two large CO2 degassing structures (62000 km2) a northern one, the tuscan roman degassing structure (TRDS) and a southern one, the campanian degassing structure (CDS). The deeply derived CO2 released by these two structures was estimated in ~ 9.2 Mt/y (Chiodini et al., 2004). This amount, which is globally relevant being ~ 10% of the present-day total CO2 discharge from subaerial volcanoes of the Earth, is of low magnitude with respect to the amount of CO2 that is estimated to be injected in the storage sites. TRDS and CDS are characterized by the presence of many vents of cold CO2 rich gases and areas of anomalous soil diffuse degassing of CO2. The gas manifestations are generally fed by buried carbonate reservoirs, covered by low permeability formations, where the gas produced at depth accumulates before the expulsion at the surface. More than 100 gas emissions are located in the Italian territory and represent a serious hazard for humans and animals. Gas flow rates are very high. For example, the biggest gas emissions daily release into atmosphere hundreds of tons of CO2, amounts similar to those released by diffuse degassing from active volcanoes (CO2 fluxes from 6 t/d to 2800 t/d, mean of 430 t/d, Morner and Etiope, 2002). Under stable atmospheric conditions and/or in presence of topographic depressions, CO2 air concentration can reach high values resulting in lethal effects to humans or animals. The last lethal accident occurred in 2003 in Tuscany, at Mt. Amiata. However, the most dangerous gas emission is Mefite d'Ansanto, located in the Southern Apennine, where three persons were killed during 1990's and historical

  2. Elevated CO2: Impact on diurnal patterns of photosynthesis in natural microbial ecosystems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rothschild, L. J.

    1994-01-01

    Algae, including blue-green algae (cyanobacteria), are the major source of fixed carbon in many aquatic ecosystems. Previous work has shown that photosynthetic carbon fixation is often enhanced in the presence of additional carbon dioxide (CO2). This study was undertaken to determine if this CO2 fertilization effect extended to microbial mats, and, if so, at what times during the day might the addition of CO2 affect carbon fixation. Four microbial mats from diverse environments were selected, including mats from a hypersaline pond (area 5, Exportadora de Sal, Mexico), the marine intertidal (Lyngbya, Laguna Ojo de Liebre, Mexico), an acidic hotspring (Cyanidium, Nymph Creek, Yellowstone National Park), and an acidic stream at ambient temperature (Zygogonium, Yellowstone National Park). Carbon fixation in the absence of additional CO2 essentially followed the rising and falling sunlight levels, except that during the middle of the day there was a short dip in carbon fixation rates. The addition of CO2 profoundly enhanced carbon fixation rates during the daylight hours, including during the midday dip. Therefore, it is unlikely that the midday dip was due to photoinhibition. Surprisingly, enhancement of carbon fixation was often greatest in the early morning or late afternoon, times when carbon fixation would be most likely to be light limited.

  3. Response of bacterioplankton community structure to an artificial gradient of pCO2 in the Arctic Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, R.; Xia, X.; Lau, S. C. K.; Motegi, C.; Weinbauer, M. G.; Jiao, N.

    2013-06-01

    In order to test the influences of ocean acidification on the ocean pelagic ecosystem, so far the largest CO2 manipulation mesocosm study (European Project on Ocean Acidification, EPOCA) was performed in Kings Bay (Kongsfjorden), Spitsbergen. During a 30 day incubation, bacterial diversity was investigated using DNA fingerprinting and clone library analysis of bacterioplankton samples. Terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) analysis of the PCR amplicons of the 16S rRNA genes revealed that general bacterial diversity, taxonomic richness and community structure were influenced by the variation of productivity during the time of incubation, but not the degree of ocean acidification. A BIOENV analysis suggested a complex control of bacterial community structure by various biological and chemical environmental parameters. The maximum apparent diversity of bacterioplankton (i.e., the number of T-RFs) in high and low pCO2 treatments differed significantly. A negative relationship between the relative abundance of Bacteroidetes and pCO2 levels was observed for samples at the end of the experiment by the combination of T-RFLP and clone library analysis. Our study suggests that ocean acidification affects the development of bacterial assemblages and potentially impacts the ecological function of the bacterioplankton in the marine ecosystem.

  4. The response of coastal surface ocean pH to naturally changing atmospheric pCO2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chrystal, A.; Zimdahl, N.; Paytan, A.

    2013-12-01

    Average global surface ocean pH is rapidly decreasing in response to increasing atmospheric pCO2 concentrations. The rate of acidification may be elevated in regions of strong coastal upwelling due to the combined impacts of atmospheric pCO2 and upwelling of deep water with a respired carbon signature. Since coastal upwelling regions support economically important fisheries, it is important that we understand the significance of these changes. Of essence is an understanding of the scale of regional pH change associated with natural atmospheric pCO2 oscillations at multiple time scales. Reconstructions of past pH variations from boron isotopes (δ11B) of planktonic foraminifera or other carbonate secreting organisms will provide valuable insight into the natural variability in pH regime in the ecologically and economically important California margin region, and facilitate predictions of pH response in this and other coastal upwelling systems. In this study, we will analyze δ11B in the tests of surface-dwelling planktic foraminifera (G. bulloides) to reconstruct surface water pH. We will compare surface water pH with ice-core atmospheric pCO2 records from the last several glacial cycles to better understand the natural pH response to changing atmospheric pCO2 in a coastal upwelling system. We will present a comparison between glacial and interglacial samples from site 1012 (East Cortez Basin). We hope to produce a record of high enough time resolution that the rate of pH change associated with atmospheric pCO2 changes can also be assessed, but in some sections of the core low foraminiferal abundances may force a reduction in record resolution.

  5. Advanced Reservoir Characterization and Evaluation of CO2 Gravity Drainage in the Naturally Fractured Spraberry Trend Area, Class III

    SciTech Connect

    Knight, Bill; Schechter, David S.

    2002-07-26

    The goal of this project was to assess the economic feasibility of CO2 flooding the naturally fractured Spraberry Trend Area in west Texas. This objective was accomplished through research in four areas: (1) extensive characterization of the reservoirs, (2) experimental studies of crude oil/brine/rock (COBR) interactions in the reservoirs, (3) reservoir performance analysis, and (4) experimental investigations on CO2 gravity drainage in Spraberry whole cores. This provides results of the final year of the six-year project for each of the four areas.

  6. Advanced Reservoir Characterization and Evaluation of CO2 Gravity Drainage in the Naturally Fractured Spraberry Trend Area

    SciTech Connect

    McDonald, Paul; Schechter, David S.

    1999-11-01

    The overall goal of this project was to assess the economic feasibility of CO2 flooding the naturally fractured Spraberry Trend Area in West Texas. This objective was accomplished by conducting research in four areas: (1) extensive characterization of the reservoirs, (2) experimental studies of crude oil/brine/rock (COBR) interaction in the reservoirs, (3) analytical and numerical simulation of Spraberry reservoirs, and, (4) experimental investigations on CO2 gravity drainage in Spraberry whole cores. Additionally, a ten (10) acre field demonstration pilot project is part of this project. This report discusses the activity, during the third calendar quarter (July through September) of 1998 (fourth quarter of the projects fiscal year).

  7. Laboratory investigations of weathering of soils from Mammoth Mountain, CA, a naturally CO2-impacted field site.

    PubMed

    Sanchez, Helen; Menezes, Gustavo; Ellis, Andre; Espinosa-Villegas, Claudia; Khachikian, Crist

    2014-10-21

    The potential impacts of CO2 leakage from a natural subsurface reservoir on soil and water quality were studied. Field measurements of soil pore CO2 concentrations and visual inspection of plants at Mammoth Mountain, CA, allowed the demarcation of tree-kill and non-tree-kill zones, with CO2 concentrations >100,000 ppm and ∼ 1,000 ppm, respectively. Soils collected from six sites along a transect stretching from the center of the tree-kill zone to an equidistant point into the non-tree-kill zone were analyzed for surface area and organic carbon content. Batch and column leaching tests were conducted to determine the extent of weathering induced by the presence of CO2 in the aqueous solution. Soils deep into the tree-kill area exhibited significantly higher surface areas (10.67 m(2)/g vs 2.53 m(2)/g) and lower organic carbon content (9,550 mg/kg vs 35,550 mg/kg). Batch results indicated that lower pH values (∼ 2) released higher concentrations of Mg, Si, Fe, and As, while, for soils in the tree-kill zone, longer-term batch results indicated higher releases at the higher pH of 5.5. Column experiments were used to compare the effects of pH adjusted using HCl vs CO2. For pore volumes (PV) < 100, CO2 enhanced trace element release. For 100 < PV < 10,000 concentrations of elements in the two systems were equivalent and steady. At PV > 10,000, after a drop in pH in the CO2 system, larger amounts of Fe and As were released, suggesting a CO2-induced dissolution of Fe-silicates/clays and/or reductive dissolution of Fe(3+) that releases Fe-bound arsenic. The specific role of pore water-dissolved CO2 on the release of trace elements is hitherto unknown. However, interactions of pore-water CO2 and the minerals in the Mammoth Mountain soils can cause the release of environmental pollutants.

  8. Insights into the ecological effects of deep ocean CO2 enrichment: The impacts of natural CO2 venting at Loihi seamount on deep sea scavengers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vetter, Eric W.; Smith, Craig R.

    2005-09-01

    Hydrothermal vents on Loihi seamount near Hawaii emit 5000-100,000 t/yr of CO2 at water depths of 1200-1300 m, yielding CO2 concentrations as high as 418 mol/m3. Because CO2 is the dominant toxic component of these vent fluids, Loihi provides an extraordinary setting in which to explore the effects of sustained CO2 enrichment on deep sea organisms and ecological processes. We used the Pisces IV submersible to manipulate baited traps and bait parcels in Loihi's plume to explore the effects of elevated CO2 on the feeding and behavior of typical deep sea scavengers. Necrophagous lysianassid amphipods (Eurythenes cf. obesus) and synaphobranchid eels were unusually abundant in the vicinity of Loihi's vents, suggesting that the CO2-rich plumes rising above Loihi may enhance the flux of carrion to the deep sea floor. Amphipods exposed to diluted vent waters with a mean pH of 6.3 (minimum 5.7) and temperature of 5.0°C became very active within seconds and then became narcotized over timescales of 2-15 min. Following 60 min of plume exposure, all amphipods revived within 30 min of removal from the plume and remained active until warmed to 10°C during submersible ascent into ocean surface waters. Open bait parcels placed in similar CO2 plumes were avoided by amphipods and fish, suggesting that they could detect either the elevated CO2 concentrations or other environmental parameters (e.g., temperature). Our results suggest that at least some scavenging deep sea amphipods may be able to escape relatively concentrated CO2 plumes (i.e., they do not become narcotized for several minutes) and that they may revive following 1 hour exposure to an oscillating CO2 plume (e.g., one meandering in a tidal current). In addition, our results suggest that scavenging amphipods and synaphobranchid eels may be able to detect and avoid intoxicating levels of CO2 resulting from deep ocean injection of CO2 and that specialized components of the deep sea fauna (e.g., some hydrothermal vent

  9. Higher fungal diversity is correlated with lower CO2 emissions from dead wood in a natural forest

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Chunyan; Schaefer, Douglas A.; Liu, Weijie; Popescu, Viorel D.; Yang, Chenxue; Wang, Xiaoyang; Wu, Chunying; Yu, Douglas W.

    2016-01-01

    Wood decomposition releases almost as much CO2 to the atmosphere as does fossil-fuel combustion, so the factors regulating wood decomposition can affect global carbon cycling. We used metabarcoding to estimate the fungal species diversities of naturally colonized decomposing wood in subtropical China and, for the first time, compared them to concurrent measures of CO2 emissions. Wood hosting more diverse fungal communities emitted less CO2, with Shannon diversity explaining 26 to 44% of emissions variation. Community analysis supports a ‘pure diversity’ effect of fungi on decomposition rates and thus suggests that interference competition is an underlying mechanism. Our findings extend the results of published experiments using low-diversity, laboratory-inoculated wood to a high-diversity, natural system. We hypothesize that high levels of saprotrophic fungal biodiversity could be providing globally important ecosystem services by maintaining dead-wood habitats and by slowing the atmospheric contribution of CO2 from the world’s stock of decomposing wood. However, large-scale surveys and controlled experimental tests in natural settings will be needed to test this hypothesis. PMID:27553882

  10. Aboveground net primary productivity and rainfall use efficiency of grassland on three soils after two years of exposure to a subambient to superambient CO2 gradient.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fay, P. A.; Polley, H. W.; Jin, V. L.

    2008-12-01

    Atmospheric CO2 concentrations (CA) have increased by about 100 μL L-1 over the last 250 years to ~ 380 μL L-1, the highest values in the last half-million years, and CA is expected to continue to increase to greater than 500 μL L-1 by 2100. CO2 enrichment has been shown to affect many ecosystem processes, but experiments typically examine only two or a few levels of CA, and are typically constrained to one soil type. However, soil hydrologic properties differ across the landscape. Therefore, variation in the impacts of increasing CA on ecosystem function on different soil types must be understood to model and forecast ecosystem function under future CA and climate scenarios. Here we evaluate the aboveground net primary productivity (ANPP) of grassland plots receiving equal rainfall inputs (from irrigation) and exposed to a continuous gradient (250 to 500 μL L-1) of CA in the Lysimeter CO2 Gradient Experiment in central Texas, USA. Sixty intact soil monoliths (1 m2 x 1.5 m deep) taken from three soil types (Austin silty clay, Bastrop sandy loam, Houston clay) and planted to seven native tallgrass prairie grasses and forbs were exposed to the CA gradient beginning in 2006. Aboveground net primary productivity was assessed by end of season (November) harvest of each species in each monolith. Total ANPP of all species was 35 to 50% greater on Bastrop and Houston soils compared to Austin soils in both years (p < 0.0001), suggesting greater rainfall use efficiency on these soils despite lower water holding capacity of the Bastrop soils. On the Austin soil, grasses produced 2.7 fold more biomass than forbs, compared to only 30% more grass biomass on the Houston soil (p = 0.002), suggesting that grass dominance of community and ecosystem processes differed strongly among the soils. Total ANPP was strongly responsive to the CO2 gradient, with mean ANPP increasing from 260 g m- 2 at 250 μL L-1 CA to 455 g m-2 at 500 μL L-1 (p< 0.0001), suggesting greater overall

  11. Trace element profiles of the sea anemone Anemonia viridis living nearby a natural CO2 vent

    PubMed Central

    Borell, Esther M.; Fine, Maoz; Shaked, Yeala

    2014-01-01

    Ocean acidification (OA) is not an isolated threat, but acts in concert with other impacts on ecosystems and species. Coastal marine invertebrates will have to face the synergistic interactions of OA with other global and local stressors. One local factor, common in coastal environments, is trace element contamination. CO2 vent sites are extensively studied in the context of OA and are often considered analogous to the oceans in the next few decades. The CO2 vent found at Levante Bay (Vulcano, NE Sicily, Italy) also releases high concentrations of trace elements to its surrounding seawater, and is therefore a unique site to examine the effects of long-term exposure of nearby organisms to high pCO2 and trace element enrichment in situ. The sea anemone Anemonia viridis is prevalent next to the Vulcano vent and does not show signs of trace element poisoning/stress. The aim of our study was to compare A. viridis trace element profiles and compartmentalization between high pCO2 and control environments. Rather than examining whole anemone tissue, we analyzed two different body compartments—the pedal disc and the tentacles, and also examined the distribution of trace elements in the tentacles between the animal and the symbiotic algae. We found dramatic changes in trace element tissue concentrations between the high pCO2/high trace element and control sites, with strong accumulation of iron, lead, copper and cobalt, but decreased concentrations of cadmium, zinc and arsenic proximate to the vent. The pedal disc contained substantially more trace elements than the anemone’s tentacles, suggesting the pedal disc may serve as a detoxification/storage site for excess trace elements. Within the tentacles, the various trace elements displayed different partitioning patterns between animal tissue and algal symbionts. At both sites iron was found primarily in the algae, whereas cadmium, zinc and arsenic were primarily found in the animal tissue. Our data suggests that A

  12. Radial growth rate increases in naturally occurring ponderosa pine trees: a late-20th century CO2 fertilization effect?

    PubMed

    Soulé, Peter T; Knapp, Paul A

    2006-01-01

    The primary objective of this study was to determine if gradually increasing levels of atmospheric CO2, as opposed to 'step' increases commonly employed in controlled studies, have a positive impact on radial growth rates of ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) in natural environments, and to determine the spatial extent and variability of this growth enhancement. We developed a series of tree-ring chronologies from minimally disturbed sites across a spectrum of environmental conditions. A series of difference of means tests were used to compare radial growth post-1950, when the impacts of rising atmospheric CO2 are best expressed, with that pre-1950. Spearman's correlation was used to relate site stress to growth-rate changes. Significant increases in radial growth rates occurred post-1950, especially during drought years, with the greatest increases generally found at the most water-limited sites. Site harshness is positively related to enhanced radial growth rates. Atmospheric CO2 fertilization is probably operative, having a positive effect on radial growth rates of ponderosa pine through increasing water-use efficiency. A CO2-driven growth enhancement may affect ponderosa pine growing under both natural and controlled conditions.

  13. Nature and Dynamics of Carbon Accrued in a Forest Soil During Five Years of Atmospheric CO2 Enrichment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jastrow, J. D.; O'Brien, S. L.; Dria, K. J.; Moran, K. K.; Filley, T. R.; Boutton, T. W.

    2004-12-01

    The potential for enhanced soil C storage to partially offset rising atmospheric CO2 concentrations is being evaluated by long-term field CO2 enrichment experiments. Although plant productivity is often stimulated in such experiments, the fate of increased detrital inputs to soil has yet to be definitively resolved, in part because detecting changes in soil C against the relatively large, spatially heterogeneous pool of existing soil organic matter has proven difficult. Even when significant changes in whole soil C are evident, predictions of the potential for long-term sequestration will require detailed studies of C dynamics and stability in functionally meaningful soil organic matter pools. In our studies at the free-air CO2 enrichment (FACE) experiment on a sweetgum (Liquidambar styraciflua L.) forest plantation in Oak Ridge, Tennessee, we are using (1) repeated sampling over time, (2) the isotopic tracer provided by the highly depleted 13C signature of the CO2 source used for fumigation, and (3) physical and chemical fractionation procedures to determine the fate and dynamics of FACE-derived C inputs to soil organic matter. After five years of CO2 enrichment, soil C accumulated at a linear rate in both unprotected and aggregate-protected pools, suggesting that additional C inputs were being processed and cycled in much the same manner as under ambient conditions. However, selective analysis of the biopolymer composition (lignin, suberin, and cutin) and oxidation state of the organic matter in physically and chemically isolated soil fractions will be used to assess the source, nature and potential stability of the C accrued in protected and unprotected pools.

  14. Multi-isotope tracing of CO2 leakage and water-rock interaction in a natural CCS analogue.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kloppmann, Wolfram; Gemeni, Vasiliki; Lions, Julie; Koukouzas, Nikolaos; Humez, Pauline; Vasilatos, Charalampos; Millot, Romain; Pauwels, Hélène

    2015-04-01

    Natural analogues of CO2 accumulation and, potentially, leakage, provide a highly valuable opportunity to study (1) geochemical processes within a CO2-reservoir and the overlying aquifers or aquicludes, i.e. gas-water-rock interactions, (2) geology and tightness of reservoirs over geological timescales, (3) potential or real leakage pathways, (3) impact of leakage on shallow groundwater resources quality, and (4) direct and indirect geochemical indicators of gas leakage (Lions et al., 2014, Humez et al., 2014). The Florina Basin in NW Macedonia, Greece, contains a deep CO2-rich aquifer within a graben structure. The graben filling consists of highly heterogeneous Neogene clastic sediments constituted by components from the adjacent massifs including carbonates, schists, gneiss as well as some ultramafic volcanic rocks. Clay layers are observed that isolate hydraulically the deep, partly artesian aquifer. Organic matter, in form of lignite accumulations, is abundant in the Neogene series. The underlying bedrocks are metamorphic carbonates and silicate rocks. The origin of the CO2 accumulation is controversial (deep, partially mantle-derived D'Allessandro et al., 2008 or resulting from thermal decomposition of carbonates, Hatziyannis and Arvanitis, 2011). Groundwaters have been sampled from springs and borewells over 3 years at different depths. First results on major, minor and trace elements give evidence of water-rock interaction, mainly with carbonates but also with ultramafic components but do not indicate that CO2-seepage is the principal driver of those processes (Gemeni et al., submitted). Here we present isotope data on a selection of groundwaters (δ2H , δ18O, δ13CTDIC, 87Sr/86Sr, δ11B, δ7Li). Stable isotopes of water indicate paleo-recharge for some of the groundwaters, limited exchange with gaseous CO2 and, in one case, possibly thermal exchange processes with silicates. Sr isotope ratios vary between marine ratios and radiogenic values indicating

  15. Numerical analysis of wellbore integrity: results from a field study of a natural CO2 reservoir production well

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crow, W.; Gasda, S. E.; Williams, D. B.; Celia, M. A.; Carey, J. W.

    2008-12-01

    An important aspect of the risk associated with geological CO2 sequestration is the integrity of existing wellbores that penetrate geological layers targeted for CO2 injection. CO2 leakage may occur through multiple pathways along a wellbore, including through micro-fractures and micro-annuli within the "disturbed zone" surrounding the well casing. The effective permeability of this zone is a key parameter of wellbore integrity required for validation of numerical models. This parameter depends on a number of complex factors, including long-term attack by aggressive fluids, poor well completion and actions related to production of fluids through the wellbore. Recent studies have sought to replicate downhole conditions in the laboratory to identify the mechanisms and rates at which cement deterioration occurs. However, field tests are essential to understanding the in situ leakage properties of the millions of wells that exist in the mature sedimentary basins in North America. In this study, we present results from a field study of a 30-year-old production well from a natural CO2 reservoir. The wellbore was potentially exposed to a 96% CO2 fluid from the time of cement placement, and therefore cement degradation may be a significant factor leading to leakage pathways along this wellbore. A series of downhole tests was performed, including bond logs and extraction of sidewall cores. The cores were analyzed in the laboratory for mineralogical and hydrologic properties. A pressure test was conducted over an 11-ft section of well to determine the extent of hydraulic communication along the exterior of the well casing. Through analysis of this pressure test data, we are able estimate the effective permeability of the disturbed zone along the exterior of wellbore over this 11-ft section. We find the estimated range of effective permeability from the field test is consistent with laboratory analysis and bond log data. The cement interfaces with casing and/or formation are

  16. Predicting the ultimate potential of natural gas SOFC power cycles with CO2 capture - Part A: Methodology and reference cases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campanari, Stefano; Mastropasqua, Luca; Gazzani, Matteo; Chiesa, Paolo; Romano, Matteo C.

    2016-08-01

    Driven by the search for the highest theoretical efficiency, in the latest years several studies investigated the integration of high temperature fuel cells in natural gas fired power plants, where fuel cells are integrated with simple or modified Brayton cycles and/or with additional bottoming cycles, and CO2 can be separated via chemical or physical separation, oxy-combustion and cryogenic methods. Focusing on Solid Oxide Fuel Cells (SOFC) and following a comprehensive review and analysis of possible plant configurations, this work investigates their theoretical potential efficiency and proposes two ultra-high efficiency plant configurations based on advanced intermediate-temperature SOFCs integrated with a steam turbine or gas turbine cycle. The SOFC works at atmospheric or pressurized conditions and the resulting power plant exceeds 78% LHV efficiency without CO2 capture (as discussed in part A of the work) and 70% LHV efficiency with substantial CO2 capture (part B). The power plants are simulated at the 100 MW scale with a complete set of realistic assumptions about fuel cell (FC) performance, plant components and auxiliaries, presenting detailed energy and material balances together with a second law analysis.

  17. Discovery of natural gain amplification in the 10 muon m CO2 laser bands on Mars: The first definite natural laser

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mumma, M.; Buhl, D.; Chin, G.; Deming, D.; Espenak, F.; Kostiuk, T.; Zipoy, D.

    1980-01-01

    Fully resolved intensity profiles of various lines in the CO2 bands at 9.4 micrometers and 10.4 micrometers were measured on Mars using an infrared heterodyne spectrometer. Analysis of the line shapes shows that the Mars atmosphere exhibits positive gain on these lines, providing the first definite detection of natural optical gain amplification and enabling identification of these lines as the first definite natural laser ever discovered.

  18. Natural gas and CO2 price variation: impact on the relative cost-efficiency of LNG and pipelines

    PubMed Central

    Ulvestad, Marte; Overland, Indra

    2012-01-01

    This article develops a formal model for comparing the cost structure of the two main transport options for natural gas: liquefied natural gas (LNG) and pipelines. In particular, it evaluates how variations in the prices of natural gas and greenhouse gas emissions affect the relative cost-efficiency of these two options. Natural gas is often promoted as the most environmentally friendly of all fossil fuels, and LNG as a modern and efficient way of transporting it. Some research has been carried out into the local environmental impact of LNG facilities, but almost none into aspects related to climate change. This paper concludes that at current price levels for natural gas and CO2 emissions the distance from field to consumer and the volume of natural gas transported are the main determinants of transport costs. The pricing of natural gas and greenhouse emissions influence the relative cost-efficiency of LNG and pipeline transport, but only to a limited degree at current price levels. Because more energy is required for the LNG process (especially for fuelling the liquefaction process) than for pipelines at distances below 9100 km, LNG is more exposed to variability in the price of natural gas and greenhouse gas emissions up to this distance. If the prices of natural gas and/or greenhouse gas emission rise dramatically in the future, this will affect the choice between pipelines and LNG. Such a price increase will be favourable for pipelines relative to LNG. PMID:24683269

  19. Natural gas and CO2 price variation: impact on the relative cost-efficiency of LNG and pipelines.

    PubMed

    Ulvestad, Marte; Overland, Indra

    2012-06-01

    THIS ARTICLE DEVELOPS A FORMAL MODEL FOR COMPARING THE COST STRUCTURE OF THE TWO MAIN TRANSPORT OPTIONS FOR NATURAL GAS: liquefied natural gas (LNG) and pipelines. In particular, it evaluates how variations in the prices of natural gas and greenhouse gas emissions affect the relative cost-efficiency of these two options. Natural gas is often promoted as the most environmentally friendly of all fossil fuels, and LNG as a modern and efficient way of transporting it. Some research has been carried out into the local environmental impact of LNG facilities, but almost none into aspects related to climate change. This paper concludes that at current price levels for natural gas and CO2 emissions the distance from field to consumer and the volume of natural gas transported are the main determinants of transport costs. The pricing of natural gas and greenhouse emissions influence the relative cost-efficiency of LNG and pipeline transport, but only to a limited degree at current price levels. Because more energy is required for the LNG process (especially for fuelling the liquefaction process) than for pipelines at distances below 9100 km, LNG is more exposed to variability in the price of natural gas and greenhouse gas emissions up to this distance. If the prices of natural gas and/or greenhouse gas emission rise dramatically in the future, this will affect the choice between pipelines and LNG. Such a price increase will be favourable for pipelines relative to LNG.

  20. Radon in underground waters as a natural analogue to study the escape of CO2 in geological repositories.

    PubMed

    Martín Sánchez, A; Ruano Sánchez, A B; de la Torre Pérez, J; Jurado Vargas, M

    2015-11-01

    Activity concentrations of dissolved (222)Rn and (226)Ra were measured in several underground aquifers, which are candidates for repositories or for the study of analogue natural escapes of CO2. The concentration of both radionuclides in water was determined using liquid scintillation counting. The values obtained for the (222)Rn concentrations varied from 0 to 150 Bq l(-1), while the levels of (226)Ra were in general very low. This indicates that (222)Rn is coming from the decay of the undissolved (226)Ra existing in the rocks and deep layers of the aquifers, being later transported by diffusion in water.

  1. Coastal Microbial Mat Diversity along a Natural Salinity Gradient

    PubMed Central

    Bolhuis, Henk; Fillinger, Lucas; Stal, Lucas J.

    2013-01-01

    The North Sea coast of the Dutch barrier island of Schiermonnikoog is covered by microbial mats that initiate a succession of plant communities that eventually results in the development of a densely vegetated salt marsh. The North Sea beach has a natural elevation running from the low water mark to the dunes resulting in gradients of environmental factors perpendicular to the beach. These gradients are due to the input of seawater at the low water mark and of freshwater from upwelling groundwater at the dunes and rainfall. The result is a natural and dynamic salinity gradient depending on the tide, rainfall and wind. We studied the microbial community composition in thirty three samples taken every ten meters along this natural salinity gradient by using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) of rRNA gene fragments. We looked at representatives from each Domain of life (Bacteria, Archaea and Eukarya) and with a particular emphasis on Cyanobacteria. Analysis of the DGGE fingerprints together with pigment composition revealed three distinct microbial mat communities, a marine community dominated by diatoms as primary producers, an intermediate brackish community dominated by Cyanobacteria as primary producers and a freshwater community with Cyanobacteria and freshwater green algae. PMID:23704895

  2. Coastal microbial mat diversity along a natural salinity gradient.

    PubMed

    Bolhuis, Henk; Fillinger, Lucas; Stal, Lucas J

    2013-01-01

    The North Sea coast of the Dutch barrier island of Schiermonnikoog is covered by microbial mats that initiate a succession of plant communities that eventually results in the development of a densely vegetated salt marsh. The North Sea beach has a natural elevation running from the low water mark to the dunes resulting in gradients of environmental factors perpendicular to the beach. These gradients are due to the input of seawater at the low water mark and of freshwater from upwelling groundwater at the dunes and rainfall. The result is a natural and dynamic salinity gradient depending on the tide, rainfall and wind. We studied the microbial community composition in thirty three samples taken every ten meters along this natural salinity gradient by using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) of rRNA gene fragments. We looked at representatives from each Domain of life (Bacteria, Archaea and Eukarya) and with a particular emphasis on Cyanobacteria. Analysis of the DGGE fingerprints together with pigment composition revealed three distinct microbial mat communities, a marine community dominated by diatoms as primary producers, an intermediate brackish community dominated by Cyanobacteria as primary producers and a freshwater community with Cyanobacteria and freshwater green algae.

  3. A combined methodology using electrical resistivity tomography, ordinary kriging and porosimetry for quantifying total C trapped in carbonate formations associated with natural analogues for CO2 leakage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prado-Pérez, A. J.; Aracil, E.; Pérez del Villar, L.

    2014-06-01

    Currently, carbon deep geological storage is one of the most accepted methods for CO2 sequestration, being the long-term behaviour assessment of these artificial systems absolutely essential to guarantee the safety of the CO2 storage. In this sense, hydrogeochemical modelling is being used for evaluating any artificial CO2 deep geological storage as a potential CO2 sinkhole and to assess the leakage processes that are usually associated with these engineered systems. Carbonate precipitation, as travertines or speleothems, is a common feature in the CO2 leakage scenarios and, therefore, is of the utmost importance to quantify the total C content trapped as a stable mineral phase in these carbonate formations. A methodology combining three classical techniques such as: electrical resistivity tomography, geostatistical analysis and mercury porosimetry is described in this work, which was developed for calculating the total amount of C trapped as CaCO3 associated with the CO2 leakages in Alicún de las Torres natural analogue (Granada, Spain). The proposed methodology has allowed estimating the amount of C trapped as calcite, as more than 1.7 Mt. This last parameter, focussed on an artificial CO2 deep geological storage, is essential for hydrogeochemical modellers when evaluating whether CO2 storages constitute or not CO2 sinkholes. This finding is extremely important when assessing the long-term behaviour and safety of any artificial CO2 deep geological storage.

  4. Modeling the Long-Term Isolation Performance of Natural and Engineered Geologic CO2 Storage Sites

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, J W; Nitao, J J; Morris, J P

    2004-07-26

    Long-term cap rock integrity represents the single most important constraint on the long-term isolation performance of natural and engineered geologic CO{sub 2} storage sites. CO{sub 2} influx that forms natural accumulations and CO{sub 2} injection for EOR/sequestration or saline-aquifer disposal both lead to concomitant geochemical alteration and geomechanical deformation of the cap rock, enhancing or degrading its seal integrity depending on the relative effectiveness of these interdependent processes. This evolution of cap-rock permeability can be assessed through reactive transport modeling, an advanced computational method based on mathematical models of the coupled physical and chemical processes catalyzed by the influx event. Using our reactive transport simulator (NUFT), supporting geochemical databases and software (SUPCRT92), and distinct-element geomechanical model (LDEC), we have shown that influx-triggered mineral dissolution/precipitation reactions within typical shale cap rocks continuously reduce microfrac apertures, while pressure and effective-stress evolution first rapidly increase then slowly constrict them. For a given shale composition, the extent of geochemical enhancement is nearly independent of key reservoir properties (permeability and lateral continuity) that distinguish saline aquifer and EOR/sequestration settings and CO{sub 2} influx parameters (rate, focality, and duration) that distinguish engineered disposal sites and natural accumulations, because these characteristics and parameters have negligible impact on mineral reaction rates. In contrast, the extent of geomechanical degradation is highly dependent on these reservoir properties and influx parameters, because they effectively dictate magnitude of the pressure perturbation. Specifically, initial geomechanical degradation has been shown inversely proportional to reservoir permeability and lateral continuity and proportional to influx rate. As a result, while the extent of

  5. Reactive Transport Modeling of Cap Rock Integrity During Natural and Engineered CO2 Storage

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, J W; Nitao, J J; Morris, J P

    2004-05-26

    Long-term cap rock integrity represents the single most important constraint on the long-term isolation performance of natural and engineered CO{sub 2} storage sites. CO{sub 2} influx that forms natural accumulations and CO{sub 2} injection for EOR/sequestration or saline-aquifer disposal both lead to concomitant geochemical alteration and geomechanical deformation of the cap rock, enhancing or degrading its seal integrity depending on the relative effectiveness of these interdependent processes. Using our reactive transport simulator (NUFT), supporting geochemical databases and software (GEMBOCHS, SUPCRT92), and distinct-element geomechanical model (LDEC), we have shown that influx-triggered mineral dissolution/precipitation reactions within typical shale cap rocks continuously reduce microfracture apertures, while pressure and effective-stress evolution first rapidly increase then slowly constrict them. For a given shale composition, the extent of geochemical enhancement is nearly independent of key reservoir properties (permeability and lateral continuity) that distinguish EOR/sequestration and saline-aquifer settings and CO{sub 2} influx parameters (rate, focality, and duration) that distinguish engineered disposal sites and natural accumulations, because these characteristics and parameters have negligible (indirect) impact on mineral dissolution/precipitation rates. In contrast, the extent of geomechanical degradation is highly dependent on these reservoir properties and influx parameters because they effectively dictate magnitude of the pressure perturbation; specifically, initial geomechanical degradation has been shown inversely proportional to reservoir permeability and lateral continuity and proportional to influx rate. Hence, while the extent of geochemical alteration is nearly independent of filling mode, that of geomechanical deformation is significantly more pronounced during engineered injection. This distinction limits the extent to which naturally

  6. Study on Solidification of CO2 by using Cold Energy of Liquefied Natural Gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takeuchi, Yoshiyuki; Fujiwara, Atsushi

    In conventional natural gas combustion power plants, vaporization heat of liquefied natural gas (LNG) has been supplied by sea water and/or air. In the plants, cold vaporization energy has been lost without any effective utilization. An advanced technology has been developed in which carbon dioxide in the flue gas is solidified and separated as dry-ice. Carbon dioxide in the flue gas of a LNG combined cycle is cooled and solidified by the evaporation of LNG. Fundamental studies on fluidized bed heat exchanger were carried out to analyze heat transfer phenomena at low temperature. And the fluidized bed type heat exchanger was confirmed that they had high efficiency by striping off frost solidified on the surface of heat exchanger tube. The heat transfer coefficient at -135°C was calculated about 330-370 (W/m2•K) at the condition where C02 gas was solidified.

  7. INVESTIGATION OF EFFICIENCY IMPROVEMENTS DURING CO2 INJECTION IN HYDRAULICALLY AND NATURALLY FRACTURED RESERVOIRS

    SciTech Connect

    David S. Schechter

    2005-04-27

    This report describes the work performed during the fourth year of the project, ''Investigating of Efficiency Improvements during CO{sub 2} Injection in Hydraulically and Naturally Fractured Reservoirs.'' The objective of this project is to perform unique laboratory experiments with artificially fractured cores (AFCs) and X-ray CT scanner to examine the physical mechanisms of bypassing in hydraulically fractured reservoirs (HFR) and naturally fractured reservoirs (NFR) that eventually result in more efficient CO{sub 2} flooding in heterogeneous or fracture-dominated reservoirs. In Chapter 1, we worked with DOE-RMOTC to investigate fracture properties in the Tensleep Formation at Teapot Dome Naval Reserve as part of their CO{sub 2} sequestration project. In Chapter 2, we continue our investigation to determine the primary oil recovery mechanism in a short vertically fractured core. Finally in Chapter 3, we report our numerical modeling efforts to develop compositional simulator with irregular grid blocks.

  8. Generating Aromatics From CO2 on Mars or Natural Gas on Earth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Muscatello, Anthony C.; Zubrin, Robert; Berggren, Mark

    2006-01-01

    Methane to aromatics on Mars ( METAMARS ) is the name of a process originally intended as a means of converting Martian atmospheric carbon dioxide to aromatic hydrocarbons and oxygen, which would be used as propellants for spacecraft to return to Earth. The process has been demonstrated on Earth on a laboratory scale. A truncated version of the process could be used on Earth to convert natural gas to aromatic hydrocarbon liquids. The greater (relative to natural gas) density of aromatic hydrocarbon liquids makes it more economically feasible to ship them to distant markets. Hence, this process makes it feasible to exploit some reserves of natural gas that, heretofore, have been considered as being "stranded" too far from markets to be of economic value. In the full version of METAMARS, carbon dioxide is frozen out of the atmosphere and fed to a Sabatier reactor along with hydrogen (which, on Mars, would have been brought from Earth). In the Sabatier reactor, these feedstocks are converted to methane and water. The water is condensed and electrolyzed to oxygen (which is liquefied) and hydrogen (which is recycled to the Sabatier reactor). The methane is sent to an aromatization reactor, wherein, over a molybdenum-on-zeolite catalyst at a temperature 700 C, it is partially converted into aromatic hydrocarbons (specifically, benzene, toluene, and naphthalene) along with hydrogen. The aromatics are collected by freezing, while unreacted methane and hydrogen are separated by a membrane. Most of the hydrogen is recycled to the Sabatier reactor, while the methane and a small portion of the hydrogen are recycled to the aromatization reactor. The partial recycle of hydrogen to the aromatization reactor greatly increases the catalyst lifetime and eases its regeneration by preventing the formation of graphitic carbon, which could damage the catalyst. (Moreover, if graphitic carbon were allowed to form, it would be necessary to use oxygen to remove it.) Because the aromatics

  9. Gradients in the carbon isotopic composition of Ordovician shallow water carbonates: A potential pitfall in estimates of ancient CO2 and O2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saltzman, Matthew R.; Edwards, Cole T.

    2017-04-01

    The carbon isotopic composition of the global dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) reservoir is best estimated from open ocean pelagic carbonate sediments (δ13Ccarb). However, this is not practical for most of geologic time because seafloor subduction has removed the pre-Jurassic record and these time periods may have lacked planktonic calcifying organisms, and therefore shallow water carbonate platform or periplatform sediments are utilized. Shallow water deposits are susceptible to a wide range of post-depositional alteration processes and syn-depositional controls on δ13Ccarb that include carbonate mineralogy, water mass restriction, and a host of related variables (e.g., pH, temperature, organic decomposition, evaporation and CO2 solubility) that can produce local gradients in DIC. The degree to which shallow water δ13C curves diverge from open marine deposits may be critical to understanding how well global carbon cycle isotope mass balance models can predict organic carbon burial rates, but documentation of such divergence is often hindered by factors that limit chronostratigraphic correlation in restricted water masses (e.g., endemic faunas). Here we integrate strontium isotope (87Sr/86Sr) stratigraphy and biostratigraphy to compare δ13C curves in a case study along a depth transect in Middle-Late Ordovician carbonate platform settings. The restricted tidal flat and more open marine deposits are offset by a maximum of ∼2‰ during sea level drop and ∼0‰ during highstand flooding of the platform. Global carbon cycle models such as GEOCARBSULF use published δ13Ccarb curves to drive organic carbon burial rates under the assumption that δ13Ccarb reflects a global seawater signal. We show here the potential pitfalls of using a published δ13Ccarb curve that violates this global assumption. For the 460 million year Middle-Late Ordovician time bin in GEOCARBSULF, improper usage of our locally depleted δ13C curve to drive global organic carbon burial would

  10. INVESTIGATION OF EFFICIENCY IMPROVEMENTS DURING CO2 INJECTION IN HYDRAULICALLY AND NATURALLY FRACTURED RESERVOIRS

    SciTech Connect

    David S. Schechter

    2004-10-10

    This report describes the work performed during the third year of the project, ''Investigating of Efficiency Improvements during CO{sub 2} Injection in Hydraulically and Naturally Fractured Reservoirs.'' The objective of this project is to perform unique laboratory experiments with artificial fractured cores (AFCs) and X-ray CT to examine the physical mechanisms of bypassing in HFR and NFR that eventually result in more efficient CO{sub 2} flooding in heterogeneous or fracture-dominated reservoirs. To achieve this objective, in this period we concentrated our effort on modeling fluid flow through rough fractures and investigating the grid orientation effect in rectangular grid blocks particularly at high mobility ratio as our precursor to use a compositional simulator. We are developing a robust simulator using Voronoi grids to accurately represent natural and induced fractures. We are also verifying the accuracy of the simulation using scaled laboratory experiments to provide a benchmark for our simulation technique. No such simulator currently exists so this capability will represent a major breakthrough in simulation of gas injection in fractured systems. The following sections outline the results that appear in this report.

  11. Fault-controlled advective, diffusive, and eruptive CO 2 leakage from natural reservoirs in the Colorado Plateau, East-Central Utah

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jung, Na-Hyun

    This study investigated a natural analogue for CO2 leakage near Green River, Utah, aiming to understand the influence of various factors on CO2 leakage and to reliably predict underground CO2 behavior after injection for geologic CO2 sequestration. Advective, diffusive, and eruptive characteristics of CO2 leakage were assessed via a soil CO2 flux survey and numerical modeling. The field results show anomalous CO2 fluxes (> 10 g m-2 d-1 ) along the faults, particularly adjacent to CO2-driven cold springs and geysers (e.g., 36,259 g m-2 d-1 at Crystal Geyser), ancient travertines (e.g., 5,917 g m-2 d-1), joint zones in sandstone (e.g., 120 g m-2 d-1), and brine discharge zones (e.g., 5,515 g m-2 d-1). Combined with similar isotopic ratios of gas and progressive evolution of brine chemistry at springs and geysers, a gradual decrease of soil CO2 flux from the Little Grand Wash (LGW; ~36,259 g m -2 d-1) to Salt Wash (SW; ~1,428 g m-2 d-1) fault zones reveals the same CO2 origin and potential southward transport of CO2 over 10-20 km. The numerical simulations exhibit lateral transport of free CO2 and CO2-rich brine from the LGW to SW fault zones through the regional aquifers (e.g., Entrada, Navajo, Kayenta, Wingate, White Rim). CO2 travels predominantly as an aqueous phase (XCO2=~0.045) as previously suggested, giving rise to the convective instability that further accelerates CO2 dissolution. While the buoyant free CO2 always tends to ascend, a fraction of dense CO2-rich brine flows laterally into the aquifer and mixes with the formation fluids during upward migration along the fault. The fault always enhances advective CO2 transport regardless of its permeability (k). However, only low-k fault prevents unconditional upright migration of CO2 and induces fault-parallel movement, feeding the northern aquifers with more CO2. Low-k fault also impedes lateral southward fluid flow from the northern aquifers, developing anticlinal CO2 traps at shallow depths (<300 m). The

  12. INVESTIGATION OF EFFICIENCY IMPROVEMENTS DURING CO2 INJECTION IN HYDRAULICALLY AND NATURALLY FRACTURED RESERVOIRS

    SciTech Connect

    David S. Schechter

    2004-04-26

    This report describes the work performed during the second year of the project, ''Investigating of Efficiency Improvements during CO{sub 2} Injection in Hydraulically and Naturally Fractured Reservoirs.'' The objective of this project is to perform unique laboratory experiments with artificial fractured cores (AFCs) and X-ray CT to examine the physical mechanisms of bypassing in HFR and NFR that eventually result in less efficient CO{sub 2} flooding in heterogeneous or fracture-dominated reservoirs. To achieve this objective, in this period we concentrated our effort on investigating the effect of CO{sub 2} injection rates in homogeneous and fractured cores on oil recovery and a strategy to mitigate CO{sub 2} bypassing in a fractured core.

  13. INVESTIGATION OF EFFICIENCY IMPROVEMENTS DURING CO2 INJECTION IN HYDRAULICALLY AND NATURALLY FRACTURED RESERVOIRS

    SciTech Connect

    David S. Schechter

    2003-10-01

    This report describes the work performed during the second year of the project, ''Investigating of Efficiency Improvements during CO{sub 2} Injection in Hydraulically and Naturally Fractured Reservoirs.'' The objective of this project is to perform unique laboratory experiments with artificial fractured cores (AFCs) and X-ray CT to examine the physical mechanisms of bypassing in HFR and NFR that eventually result in less efficient CO{sub 2} flooding in heterogeneous or fracture-dominated reservoirs. To achieve this objective, in this period we concentrated our effort on modeling the fluid flow in fracture surface, examining the fluid transfer mechanisms and describing the fracture aperture distribution under different overburden pressure using X-ray CT scanner.

  14. The impact of CO2 on shallow groundwater chemistry: observations at a natural analog site and implications for carbon sequestration

    SciTech Connect

    Keating, Elizabeth; Fessenden, Julianna; Kanjorski, Nancy; Koning, Dan; Pawar, Rajesh

    2008-01-01

    In a natural analog study of risks associated with carbon sequestration, impacts of CO{sub 2} on shallow groundwater quality have been measured in a sandstone aquifer in New Mexico, USA. Despite relatively high levels of dissolved CO{sub 2}, originating from depth and producing geysering at one well, pH depression and consequent trace element mobility are relatively minor effects due to the buffering capacity of the aquifer. However, local contamination due to influx of saline waters in a subset of wells is significant. Geochemical modeling of major ion concentrations suggests that high alkalinity and carbonate mineral dissolution buffers pH changes due to CO{sub 2} influx. Analysis oftrends in dissolved trace elements, chloride, and CO2 reveal no evidence of in-situ trace element mobilization. There is clear evidence, however, that As, U, and Pb are locally co-transported into the aquifer with CO{sub 2}-rich saline water. This study illustrates the role that local geochemical conditions will play in determining the effectiveness of monitoring strategies for CO{sub 2} leakage. For example, if buffering is significant, pH monitoring may not effectively detect CO2 leakage. This study also highlights potential complications that CO{sub 2}carrier fluids, such as saline waters, pose in monitoring impacts ofgeologic sequestration.

  15. Implications of the recent reductions in natural gas prices for emissions of CO2 from the US power sector.

    PubMed

    Lu, Xi; Salovaara, Jackson; McElroy, Michael B

    2012-03-06

    CO(2) emissions from the US power sector decreased by 8.76% in 2009 relative to 2008 contributing to a decrease over this period of 6.59% in overall US emissions of greenhouse gases. An econometric model, tuned to data reported for regional generation of US electricity, is used to diagnose factors responsible for the 2009 decrease. More than half of the reduction is attributed to a shift from generation of power using coal to gas driven by a recent decrease in gas prices in response to the increase in production from shale. An important result of the model is that, when the cost differential for generation using gas rather than coal falls below 2-3 cents/kWh, less efficient coal fired plants are displaced by more efficient natural gas combined cycle (NGCC) generation alternatives. Costs for generation using NGCC decreased by close to 4 cents/kWh in 2009 relative to 2008 ensuring that generation of electricity using gas was competitive with coal in 2009 in contrast to the situation in 2008 when gas prices were much higher. A modest price on carbon could contribute to additional switching from coal to gas with further savings in CO(2) emissions.

  16. Improving the inter-hemispheric gradient of total column atmospheric CO2 and CH4 in simulations with the ECMWF semi-Lagrangian atmospheric global model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agusti-Panareda, Anna; Diamantakis, Michail; Bayona, Victor; Klappenbach, Friedrich; Butz, Andre

    2017-01-01

    It is a widely established fact that standard semi-Lagrangian advection schemes are highly efficient numerical techniques for simulating the transport of atmospheric tracers. However, as they are not formally mass conserving, it is essential to use some method for restoring mass conservation in long time range forecasts. A common approach is to use global mass fixers. This is the case of the semi-Lagrangian advection scheme in the Integrated Forecasting System (IFS) model used by the Copernicus Atmosphere Monitoring Service (CAMS) at the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF).Mass fixers are algorithms with substantial differences in complexity and sophistication but in general of low computational cost. This paper shows the positive impact mass fixers have on the inter-hemispheric gradient of total atmospheric column-averaged CO2 and CH4, a crucial feature of their spatial distribution. Two algorithms are compared: the simple "proportional" and the more complex Bermejo-Conde schemes. The former is widely used by several Earth system climate models as well the CAMS global forecasts and analysis of atmospheric composition, while the latter has been recently implemented in IFS. Comparisons against total column observations demonstrate that the proportional mass fixer is shown to be suitable for the low-resolution simulations, but for the high-resolution simulations the Bermejo-Conde scheme clearly gives better results. These results have potential repercussions for climate Earth system models using proportional mass fixers as their resolution increases. It also emphasises the importance of benchmarking the tracer mass fixers with the inter-hemispheric gradient of long-lived greenhouse gases using observations.

  17. INVESTIGATION OF EFFICIENCY IMPROVEMENTS DURING CO2 INJECTION IN HYDRAULICALLY AND NATURALLY FRACTURED RESERVOIRS

    SciTech Connect

    David S. Schechter

    2003-04-01

    The objective of this project is to perform unique laboratory experiments with artificial fractured cores (AFCs) and X-ray CT to examine the physical mechanisms of bypassing in HFR and NFR that eventually result in less efficient CO{sub 2} flooding in heterogeneous or fracture-dominated reservoirs. This report provides results of the third semi-annual technical progress report that consists of application of X-Ray Tomography results to validate our numerical modeling of flow in fractures. Spontaneous imbibition plays a very important role in the displacement mechanism of non-wetting fluid in naturally fractured reservoirs. To quantify this spontaneous imbibition process, we developed a 2D two-phase numerical model. This numerical model was developed because an available commercial simulator cannot be used to model small-scale experiments with different boundary conditions. In building the numerical model, we started with the basic equation of fluid flow and developed a numerical approach of solving the non-linear diffusion saturation equation. We compared our numerical model with the analytical solution of this equation to ascertain the limitations of the assumptions used to arrive at that solution. The unique aspect of this paper is that we validated our model with X-ray computerized tomography (CT) experimental data from a different spontaneous imbibition experiment, where two simultaneously varying parameters of weight gain and CT water saturation were used. This requires us to undertake extensive sensitivity studies on key parameters before a successful match could be obtained. We also successfully captured our own X-ray computerized tomography (CT) laboratory experiment on a fractured core.

  18. Antioxidant capacity of polychaetes occurring at a natural CO2 vent system: Results of an in situ reciprocal transplant experiment.

    PubMed

    Ricevuto, E; Benedetti, M; Regoli, F; Spicer, J I; Gambi, M C

    2015-12-01

    Ocean acidification (OA) is occurring at a fast rate, resulting in changes of carbonate chemistry in the oceans and in lowering of the pH. Previous studies have documented significant changes in the antioxidant defenses of marine species in response to OA. Here, selected polychaete species, Platynereis dumerilii, Polyophthalmus pictus and Syllis prolifera, were sampled from a natural CO2 vent system (pH = 7.3) and from a non-venting 'control' site (pH = 8.1), and reciprocally transplanted in these areas for 30 days. Total antioxidant capacity toward different forms of oxyradicals was compared in native and transplanted polychaetes: the aim was to assess whether the environmental conditions at the vent site would act as a prooxidant stressor, and the capability of polychaetes to modulate their antioxidant capacity to counteract a varied oxyradicals formation. None of the investigated species enhanced the antioxidant potential during the experiment. A significant reduction of the capability to neutralize different forms of oxyradicals was observed in P. pictus and, partially, in S. prolifera when transplanted from control to naturally-acidified conditions. On the other hand, populations of P. dumerilii originating from the vent and of S. prolifera from both control and acidified sites, showed higher constitutive antioxidant efficiency toward peroxyl radicals and peroxynitrite, which may allow them to cope with short-term and chronic exposure to higher oxidative pressure without further enhancement of antioxidant defenses. Since low pH - high pCO2 is the greatest environmental difference between the control and the vent sites, we suggest that the pro-oxidant challenge due to such peculiarities may have different biological consequences in different polychaete species. Some appear more susceptible to oxidative effects, while others acquire a long term acclimatization to vent conditions through the enhancement of their basal antioxidant protection.

  19. Hynol: An economic process for methanol production from biomass and natural gas with reduced CO2 emission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steinberg, M.; Dong, Yuanji

    1993-10-01

    The Hynol process is proposed to meet the demand for an economical process for methanol production with reduced CO2 emission. This new process consists of three reaction steps: (1) hydrogasification of biomass, (2) steam reforming of the produced gas with additional natural gas feedstock, and (3) methanol synthesis of the hydrogen and carbon monoxide produced during the previous two steps. The H2-rich gas remaining after methanol synthesis is recycled to gasify the biomass in an energy neutral reactor so that there is no need for an expensive oxygen plant as required by commercial steam gasifiers. Recycling gas allows the methanol synthesis reactor to perform at a relatively lower pressure than conventional while the plant still maintains high methanol yield. Energy recovery designed into the process minimizes heat loss and increases the process thermal efficiency. If the Hynol methanol is used as an alternative and more efficient automotive fuel, an overall 41% reduction in CO2 emission can be achieved compared to the use of conventional gasoline fuel. A preliminary economic estimate shows that the total capital investment for a Hynol plant is 40% lower than that for a conventional biomass gasification plant. The methanol production cost is $0.43/gal for a 1085 million gal/yr Hynol plant which is competitive with current U.S. methanol and equivalent gasoline prices. Process flowsheet and simulation data using biomass and natural gas as cofeedstocks are presented. The Hynol process can convert any condensed carbonaceous material, especially municipal solid waste (MSW), to produce methanol.

  20. Long-term elevated atmospheric CO2 enhances forest productivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loecke, T. D.; Groffman, P. M.; Treseder, K. K.; LaDeau, S.

    2011-12-01

    Global atmospheric CO2 concentrations are increasing at historically unprecedented but ecologically gradual rates. The implications of this perturbation for carbon sequestration and feedback on global climate change are difficult to predict due in part to its gradual and largely uniform nature. We used long-term (>40 years) spatial gradients in atmospheric CO2 concentration, produced by spatially heterogeneous fossil fuel combustion along a rural to urban transect, to test the hypotheses that 1) rural to urban CO2 spatial gradients are useful analogs for gradual climate change and 2) higher atmospheric CO2 concentration promotes tree growth and C sequestration. Fossil fuel derived CO2 imparts a distinctive 14C isotopic signature on atmospheric CO2; as this CO2 is fixed into annual tree rings, a proxy for fossil fuel derived CO2 is preserved. Ten four-year tree ring segments were analyzed for α-cellulose 14C content by AMS from trees within 10 closed canopy forested sites in the Baltimore Maryland metropolitan area. Tree growth parameters were assessed by measuring the annual ring width change of 224 trees across the 10 sites. A hierarchical Bayesian model was constructed to determine the influence of CO2 concentration and other site and environmental factors on tree growth. Our proxy for historical CO2 concentrations indicates a detectable but diminishing spatial CO2 gradient across the rural to urban transect that ranged from a 5.6% gradient during the 1970s to a 1.4% gradient in recent years (2000-2008). This observation is consistent with urban deindustrialization and concurrent expansion of suburban development. As an analog for future atmospheric conditions, this spatial gradient is equivalent to a temporal gradient of ca. 15, 7.2, 9.8, 2.6 years of atmospheric CO2 rise during the past four decades. The CO2 spatial gradient had an overall positive effect on tree size adjusted ring width growth. Modeled air surface temperature differences among sites indicate

  1. INVESTIGATION OF EFFICIENCY IMPROVEMENTS DURING CO2 INJECTION IN HYDRAULICALLY AND NATURALLY FRACTURED RESERVOIRS

    SciTech Connect

    David S. Schechter

    2005-09-28

    even in a short matrix block. This results are contrary with the previous believes that gravity drainage has always been associated with tall matrix blocks. In order to reduce oil bypassed, we injected water that has been viscosified with a polymer into the fracture to divert CO{sub 2} flow into matrix and delay CO{sub 2} breakthrough. Although the breakthrough time reduced considerably, water ''leak off'' into the matrix was very high. A cross-linked gel was used in the fracture to avoid this problem. The gel was found to overcome ''leak off'' problems and effectively divert CO{sub 2} flow into the matrix. As part of our technology transfer activity, we investigated the natural fracture aperture distribution of Tensleep formation cores. We found that the measured apertures distributions follow log normal distribution as expected. The second chapter deals with analysis and modeling the laboratory experiments and fluid flow through fractured networks. We derived a new equation to determine the average fracture aperture and the amount of each flow through fracture and matrix system. The results of this study were used as the observed data and for validating the simulation model. The idea behind this study is to validate the use of a set of smooth parallel plates that is common in modeling fracture system. The results suggest that fracture apertures need to be distributed to accurately model the experimental results. In order to study the imbibition process in details, we developed imbibition simulator. We validated our model with X-ray CT experimental data from different imbibition experiments. We found that the proper simulation model requires matching both weight gain and CT water saturation simultaneously as oppose to common practices in matching imbibition process with weight gain only because of lack information from CT scan. The work was continued by developing dual porosity simulation using empirical transfer function (ETF) derived from imbibition experiments

  2. Effect of H2O, and combined effects of H2O + F, H2O + CO2, and H2O + F + CO2 on the viscosity of a natural basalt from Fuego volcano, Guatemala

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robert, G.; Whittington, A. G.; Knipping, J.; Scherbarth, S.; Stechern, A.; Behrens, H.

    2012-12-01

    We measured the viscosity of 5 series of remelted natural basalt from Fuego volcano, Guatemala. These series include single and multiple volatile species: H2O, F, H2O-F, H2O-CO2, and H2O-CO2-F. The hydrous glasses were synthesized at 3 kbar and 1250°C in Internally Heated Pressure Vessels. The multiple volatile series were synthesized at 5 kbar and 1250°C. CO2 was added as Ag2C2O4, F as AlF3, and H2O as distilled water. The anhydrous, F-bearing series was synthesized at 1 atm by simply remelting the Fuego basalt and adding F as CaF2.The natural, dry, remelted Fuego basalt has an NBO/T of 0.64. The following comparisons are based on parallel-plate viscosity measurements in the range ~108 to 1012 Pa s. The temperature at which the viscosity is 1012 Pa s (T12) is taken to be the viscosimetric glass transition temperature (Tg). The addition of 2 wt.% H2O results in a decrease of T12 of ~150°C for basalt. Fluorine on its own has a measurable, but much smaller effect, than the equivalent amount of water. Indeed, ~2 wt.% F results in a T12 depression of only ~30°C. When H2O and F are both present, their effects are approximately additive. For example, the viscosity of a basalt with 1.44 wt.% H2O is very similar to the viscosity of a basalt with ~1 wt.% H2O and ~1.25 wt.% F, and the viscosities of a basalt with 2.29 wt.% H2O and a basalt with ~1.65 wt.% H2O and ~1.3 wt.% F are also very similar. The effect of CO2 is somewhat ambiguous. The viscosity of a basalt with ~1.7 wt.% H2O, ~1.3 wt.% F and ~0.2 wt.% CO2 is essentially the same as the viscosity of a basalt with 2.29 wt.% H2O, so CO2 seems to have a negligible or even viscosity-increasing effect when F and H2O are also present. However, a basalt with ~0.84 wt.% H2O and ~0.09 wt.% CO2 has about the same viscosity as a basalt with 1.34 wt.% H2O, which could suggest a strong (viscosity-decreasing) effect of very small amounts of CO2. These results suggest that the effects on viscosity of F in basaltic systems are

  3. δ 13C of ecosystem-respired CO2 along a gradient of C3 woody-plant encroachment into C4 grassland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, W.; Scott, R. L.; Resco, V.; Cable, J. M.; Huxman, T. E.; Williams, D. G.

    2006-12-01

    Woody plant encroachment into grassland has the potential to affect net primary production, in part by changing the sensitivities of photosynthesis and respiration to precipitation. Encroachment of mesquite (Prosopis) into floodplain sacaton (Sporobolus) grassland along the San Pedro River in southeastern Arizona has altered the magnitude and seasonal pattern of net ecosystem carbon exchange and ecosystem respiration. We hypothesized that because mesquite accesses ground water in these floodplain environments, its advancement and dominance in former grassland reduces the sensitivities of photosynthesis and autotrophic respiration to inputs of growing season precipitation. The observed elevated rates of ecosystem respiration following rainfall inputs are likely to result from microbial decomposition of labile organic matter derived from the highly productive mesquite trees. We used the Keeling plot method to monitor carbon-13 composition of nocturnal ecosystem-respired CO2 (δ 13CR) during the growing seasons of 2005 and 2006 at three sites spanning a gradient of mesquite invasion: C4 sacaton grassland, mixed mesquite/grass shrubland and C3 mesquite woodland. δ 13CR in the C4 grassland increased from -18.8‰ during the dry premonsoon period to -16.7‰ after the onset of summer rains, whereas δ 13CR in the mixed shrub/grass and woodland ecosystems declined from -20.9‰ to - 24‰ and from -20.8‰ to -24.7‰, respectively, following the onset of summer rains. The δ 13CR of respired CO2 was collected separately from soil, roots, leaves and surface litter to evaluate the contribution of each of these components to ecosystem respiration. Partitioning of ecosystem respiration using these isotope end-members and responses to short-term (days) changes in shallow (0-5cm) soil moisture content suggest that in former grassland now occupied by mesquite woodland, rainfall inputs primarily stimulate microbial decomposition and have little effect on autotrophic respiration

  4. Geological and geophysical properties of cap rock in a natural CO2 occurrence, Mihályi-Répcelak area, Western Hungary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Király, Csilla; Szamosfalvi, Ágnes; Sendula, Eszter; Páles, Mariann; Kovács, István; Kónya, Péter; Falus, György; Szabó, Csaba

    2015-04-01

    The physical and geochemical consistency of the cap rock is primarily important for safe geological storage of CO2.. As a consequence of CO2 injection reactions took place between the minerals of the reservoir, the cap rock and CO2 saturated pore water. These reactions may change the mineral composition and petrophysical properties of the storage reservoir as well as the cap rock that provides the only physical barrier that retains carbon dioxide in the target reservoir formation. Study of the natural CO2 occurrences delivers information to understand which properties of a cap rock provide the sustainable closure and retainment. Knowledge of the long term effect of CO2 on the behavior of the cap rock is an important input in the selection procedure of a potential CO2 injection site. Yet, very few data exist on geochemical properties and reactivity of the cap rocks. During normal commercial operations the reservoir is typically cored, but not the cap rock. This study may enhance our knowledge about possible mineralogical reactions, which can occur in clayey-aleuritic cap rocks. The Mihályi-Répcelak natural CO2 occurrence is believed to be leakage safe. There is no known seepage on the surface. It is suggested that the aleuritic clay rich cap rock occurring at the natural reservoir can stop CO2 migration into other reservoirs or to the surface. The most important characteristics of cap rocks that they have low permeability (<0.1 mD) and porosity (eff.por. = 4%) and high clayeyness (approx. 80%). However, we demonstrate that in addition to these parameters the geochemical properties of cap rock is also important. In order to characterize the natural CO2 occurrence, we applied the following analysis, like XRD, FTIR, SEM. The petrophysical properties are determined from the interpretation of geophysical well-logs and grain size distribution. The most important result of this study that adequate petrophysical properties do not completely define the suitability of a cap

  5. Noble gases preserve history of retentive continental crust in the Bravo Dome natural CO2 field, New Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sathaye, Kiran J.; Smye, Andrew J.; Jordan, Jacob S.; Hesse, Marc A.

    2016-06-01

    Budgets of 4He and 40Ar provide constraints on the chemical evolution of the solid Earth and atmosphere. Although continental crust accounts for the majority of 4He and 40Ar degassed from the Earth, degassing mechanisms are subject to scholarly debate. Here we provide a constraint on crustal degassing by comparing the noble gases accumulated in the Bravo Dome natural CO2 reservoir, New Mexico USA, with the radiogenic production in the underlying crust. A detailed geological model of the reservoir is used to provide absolute abundances and geostatistical uncertainty of 4He, 40Ar, 21Ne, 20Ne, 36Ar, and 84Kr. The present-day production rate of crustal radiogenic 4He and 40Ar, henceforth referred to as 4He* and 40Ar*, is estimated using the basement composition, surface and mantle heat flow, and seismic estimates of crustal density. After subtracting mantle and atmospheric contributions, the reservoir contains less than 0.02% of the radiogenic production in the underlying crust. This shows unequivocally that radiogenic noble gases are effectively retained in cratonic continental crust over millennial timescales. This also requires that approximately 1.5 Gt of mantle derived CO2 migrated through the crust without mobilizing the crustally accumulated gases. This observation suggests transport along a localized fracture network. Therefore, the retention of noble gases in stable crystalline continental crust allows shallow accumulations of radiogenic gases to record tectonic history. At Bravo Dome, the crustal 4He*/40Ar* ratio is one fifth of the expected crustal production ratio, recording the preferential release of 4He during the Ancestral Rocky Mountain orogeny, 300 Ma.

  6. The effect of Mg concentration in silicate glasses on CO2 solubility and solution mechanism: Implication for natural magmatic systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morizet, Yann; Paris, Michael; Sifré, David; Di Carlo, Ida; Gaillard, Fabrice

    2017-02-01

    Following an experimental approach conducted between 0.5 and 1.5 GPa, we investigated the change in CO2 solubility as a function of the XMg (MgO/(MgO + CaO)) for a range of silicate glasses. The synthesised CO2-bearing glasses have XMg up to 0.72, stoichiometric NBO/T (degree of polymerization) up to 2.6 corresponding to highly depolymerized compositions analogues to kimberlites. Several samples were synthesised with 17O enrichment to investigate the CO2 dissolution mechanism via the change in O species environments by NMR spectroscopy. The experimental results show that CO2 solubility increases with NBO/T in agreement with previous works. In addition, increasing XMg strongly decreases CO2 solubility: from 18 to 7 wt.% CO2 as XMg ranges from 0 to 0.6 (1.5 GPa and NBO/T ∼2). 17O NMR results demonstrate that CO2 molecules dissolve as CO32- groups showing a signal at +146 ppm for which the intensity is linearly correlated to the wt.% CO2 determined by Raman. The analysis of the oxygen environments as a function of CO2 content for Mg ONBO (+62 ppm) and Ca ONBO (+103 ppm) show that CO2 dissolves preferentially in the vicinity of Ca2+ atoms. The difference in CO2 solubility is explained by the ability for Mg2+ cations to act as a weak network former and to be present in fourfold coordination or by the stronger affinity of CO2 molecules for Ca2+ rather than for Mg2+. We show that the CO2 solubility is negatively correlated to the Melt Ionic Field Strength which reflects the variation in the affinity of CO2 molecules for one cation or another. Strongly depolymerized mantle melts, such as kimberlites, melilitites, nephelinites and basanites will exhibit lower CO2 solubility than currently assumed due to their high MgO content which must imply degassing at greater depth, potentially in the sub-lithospheric mantle.

  7. Atmospheric N deposition and feedbacks on net ecosystem CO2 exchange at a semi-natural peatland site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hurkuck, Miriam; Brümmer, Christian; Spott, Oliver; Flessa, Heinz; Kutsch, Werner L.

    2013-04-01

    Large areas of Northern Germany have been converted from natural peat bogs to arable land and were subjected to draining and peat cutting in the past. The few protected peatland areas remaining are affected by high nitrogen (N) deposition. This is the case at our study site - a semi-natural raised bog - which although located in a natural park, is surrounded by highly fertilized agricultural land and highly emitting animal husbandry farms. In this study, we use a combined approach of two independent methods to quantify atmospheric N deposition. We further investigate possible feedbacks of seasonal variation in N deposition on net ecosystem CO2 exchange (NEE). Fluxes of ammonia (NH3) and its atmospheric reactants are measured by a KAPS-denuder system. Additionally, total N input from the atmosphere into a soil-plant model ecosystem is investigated by a 15N dilution method called 'Integrated Total Nitrogen Input' (ITNI). With this approach, we allocate atmospheric N after its uptake by the ecosystem into its different fractions and investigate both plant-species effects (Lolium multiflorum, Eriophorum vaginatum) and influences of the plant biomass production induced by different amounts of fertilizer addition. Continuous eddy-covariance measurements are carried out to measure NEE. Maximum NH3 depositions of 0.41 ± 0.04 kg ha-1 week-1 were found in spring 2012. The proportion of fluxes of other N compounds such as HNO3, aerosol NH4 and NO3 was usually around 20 % of total dry N measured by KAPS denuders. In total, dry N deposition was 11.2 ± 0.9 kg N ha-1 yr-1 over the first year of experiments. Complemented with wet N measurements using bulk samplers, total N depositions of about 25.0 kg ha-1 yr-1 were found. The mean atmospheric N uptake determined with the ITNI system was 3.99 ± 0.82 mg N g-1 dry weight from July to October 2011. About two third of total deposited airborne N was allocated in above-ground plant biomass and roots. Upscaling of data based on pot

  8. Comparison of shallow aquifer and soil gas monitoring approaches for detecting CO2 leakage at a natural analogue site in France

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Widory, D.; Gal, F.; Proust, E.; Mayer, B.

    2011-12-01

    Natural analogue sites where geologic CO2 is leaking to the surface provide excellent opportunities to test approaches suitable for monitoring for potential CO2 leakage at carbon capture and storage sites. We tested isotope monitoring approaches for CO2 detection in shallow aquifers and the overlying soil zone at a CO2 analogue site near Sainte-Marguerite in the Massif Central (France). The Sainte-Marguerite area is located in the southern part of the Limagne graben (French Massif Central). The basement, composed of highly fractured granite, outcrops toward the west of the study area, notably around the Saladis spring. An intercalated arkosic permeable interval between fractured granite and Oligocene marls and limestones acts as a stratiform drain for fluid migration while the overlying thick Oligocene interval is impermeable and acts as a seal. The Allier river bed is located near the contact between the basement and the sedimentary rocks. Deep CO2-ladden fluids migrate through the arkose interval toward the Sainte-Marguerite area and sustain a number of local springs. The Sainte-Marguerite area is known for the travertine deposits associated with the CO2-rich natural springs. We collected water samples and effervescent gases at the springs as well as soil gases for chemical and isotopic analyses. The analytical parameters included major anions and cations, δ13C & δ18O of CO2, δD & δ18O of H2O and δ13C of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC). Preliminary results revealed that δ13C values of CO2 in most groundwater and soil samples were similar. Oxygen isotope measurements revealed equilibrium between CO2 and H2O-oxygen in most samples, but except for a limited number of samples, δ18O values of water did not deviate significantly from the local meteoric water line. Our preliminary results suggest that both the groundwater and the soil sampling approaches should be capable of detecting leakage of CO2 provided that the leaking gas has a distinct isotopic

  9. Ancient and modern sites of natural CO2 leakage: Geochemistry and geochronology of Quaternary and modern travertine deposits on the Colorado Plateau, USA, and implications for CO2 sequestration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Priewisch, A.; Crossey, L. J.; Karlstrom, K. E.; McPherson, B. J.; Mozley, P.

    2013-12-01

    Travertine-precipitating springs and travertine deposits of the Colorado Plateau serve as natural analogues for evaluating potential leakage associated with geologic sequestration of carbon dioxide (CO2). Extensive Quaternary and modern travertine deposits occur along the Jemez lineament and Rio Grande rift in New Mexico and Arizona, and in the Paradox Basin in Utah, along the Little Grand Wash Fault and the Salt Wash Graben. These groundwater discharge deposits are interpreted to be sites of persistent and significant CO2 degassing along faults and above magmatic systems. Analysis of the geochemical and isotopic composition of U-series dated travertine deposits and modern travertine-precipitating waters allows evaluation of the flow paths of CO2-charged waters. Initial results from New Mexico and Arizona travertine deposits show characteristic rare earth element (REE) signatures for individual travertine deposits and yet generally overlap in concentrations of other trace elements such as Al, As, B, Ba, K, and Si. We report stable oxygen and carbon isotopes of the travertines in New Mexico, Arizona, and Utah. Different travertine deposits have different carbon-oxygen isotope variation patterns suggesting that these stable isotopes are tracers that have the ability to identify distinctive groundwater sources within and between spring groups based on the travertine record. Stable isotope analyses of travertine deposits in New Mexico and Arizona overlap substantially between deposits and cluster around -10‰ to -6‰ for δ18O and around 3.5‰ to 6.5‰ for δ13C. Travertine deposits in Utah show a distinctly different range of stable isotope values: δ18O values cluster around -14‰ to -10.5‰ and δ13C around 4.5‰ to 6.5‰. U-series dating of travertine deposits shows episodic travertine formation in New Mexico and Arizona over the last 700,000 years, and travertine accumulation over the last 400,000 years in Utah. We use U-series dating and volumetric

  10. Post-injection Multiphase Flow Modeling and Risk Assessments for Subsurface CO2 Storage in Naturally Fractured Reservoirs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, G.

    2015-12-01

    Subsurface storage of carbon dioxide in geological formations is widely regarded as a promising tool for reducing global atmospheric CO2 emissions. Successful geologic storage for sequestrated carbon dioxides must prove to be safe by means of risk assessments including post-injection analysis of injected CO2 plumes. Because fractured reservoirs exhibit a higher degree of heterogeneity, it is imperative to conduct such simulation studies in order to reliably predict the geometric evolution of plumes and risk assessment of post CO2injection. The research has addressed the pressure footprint of CO2 plumes through the development of new techniques which combine discrete fracture network and stochastic continuum modeling of multiphase flow in fractured geologic formations. A subsequent permeability tensor map in 3-D, derived from our preciously developed method, can accurately describe the heterogeneity of fracture reservoirs. A comprehensive workflow integrating the fracture permeability characterization and multiphase flow modeling has been developed to simulate the CO2plume migration and risk assessments. A simulated fractured reservoir model based on high-priority geological carbon sinks in central Alabama has been employed for preliminary study. Discrete fracture networks were generated with an NE-oriented regional fracture set and orthogonal NW-fractures. Fracture permeability characterization revealed high permeability heterogeneity with an order of magnitude of up to three. A multiphase flow model composed of supercritical CO2 and saline water was then applied to predict CO2 plume volume, geometry, pressure footprint, and containment during and post injection. Injection simulation reveals significant permeability anisotropy that favors development of northeast-elongate CO2 plumes, which are aligned with systematic fractures. The diffusive spreading front of the CO2 plume shows strong viscous fingering effects. Post-injection simulation indicates significant

  11. Tunable Diode Laser Absorption Spectroscopy Sensor for Calibration Free Humidity Measurements in Pure Methane and Low CO2 Natural Gas.

    PubMed

    Nwaboh, Javis Anyangwe; Pratzler, Sonja; Werhahn, Olav; Ebert, Volker

    2016-07-08

    We report a new direct tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy (dTDLAS) sensor for absolute measurements of H2O in methane, ethane, propane, and low CO2 natural gas. The sensor is operated with a 2.7 µm DFB laser, equipped with a high pressure single pass gas cell, and used to measure H2O amount of substance fractions in the range of 0.31-25 000 µmol/mol. Operating total gas pressures are up to 5000 hPa. The sensor has been characterized, addressing the traceability of the spectrometric results to the SI and the evaluation of the combined uncertainty, following the guide to the expression of uncertainty in measurement (GUM). The relative reproducibility of H2O amount of substance fraction measurements at 87 µmol/mol is 0.26% (0.23 µmol/mol). The maximum precision of the sensor was determined using a H2O in methane mixture, and found to be 40 nmol/mol for a time resolution of 100 s. This corresponds to a normalized detection limit of 330 nmol mol(-1)·m Hz(-1/2) The relative combined uncertainty of H2O amount fraction measurements delivered by the sensor is 1.2%.

  12. Investigation of Transient, Turbulent Natural Convection in Vertical Tubes for Thermal Energy Storage in Supercritical CO2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baghaei Lakeh, Reza; Lavine, Adrienne S.; Kavehpour, H. Pirouz; Wirz, Richard E.

    2013-11-01

    Heat transfer can be a limiting factor in the operation of thermal energy storage, including sensible heat and latent heat storage systems. Poor heat transfer between the energy storage medium and the container walls impairs the functionality of the thermal storage unit by requiring excessively long times to charge or discharge the system. In this study, the effect of turbulent, unsteady buoyancy-driven flow on heat transfer in vertical storage tubes containing supercritical CO2 as the storage medium is investigated computationally. The heat transfer from a constant-temperature wall to the storage fluid is studied during the charge cycle. The results of this study show that turbulent natural convection dominates the heat transfer mechanism and significantly reduces the required time for charging compared to pure conduction. Changing the L/D ratio of the storage tube has a major impact on the charge time. The charge time shows a decreasing trend with RaL. The non-dimensional model of the problem shows that Nusselt number and non-dimensional mean temperature of the storage fluid in different configurations of the tube is a function Buoyancy-Fourier number defined as of FoL * RaLm* L/D. This study was supported by award No. DE-AR0000140 granted by U.S. Department of Energy under Advanced Research Projects Agency - Energy (ARPA-E) and by award No. 5660021607 granted by Southern California Gas Company.

  13. Biodiversity response to natural gradients of multiple stressors on continental margins.

    PubMed

    Sperling, Erik A; Frieder, Christina A; Levin, Lisa A

    2016-04-27

    Sharp increases in atmospheric CO2 are resulting in ocean warming, acidification and deoxygenation that threaten marine organisms on continental margins and their ecological functions and resulting ecosystem services. The relative influence of these stressors on biodiversity remains unclear, as well as the threshold levels for change and when secondary stressors become important. One strategy to interpret adaptation potential and predict future faunal change is to examine ecological shifts along natural gradients in the modern ocean. Here, we assess the explanatory power of temperature, oxygen and the carbonate system for macrofaunal diversity and evenness along continental upwelling margins using variance partitioning techniques. Oxygen levels have the strongest explanatory capacity for variation in species diversity. Sharp drops in diversity are seen as O2 levels decline through the 0.5-0.15 ml l(-1) (approx. 22-6 µM; approx. 21-5 matm) range, and as temperature increases through the 7-10°C range. pCO2 is the best explanatory variable in the Arabian Sea, but explains little of the variance in diversity in the eastern Pacific Ocean. By contrast, very little variation in evenness is explained by these three global change variables. The identification of sharp thresholds in ecological response are used here to predict areas of the seafloor where diversity is most at risk to future marine global change, noting that the existence of clear regional differences cautions against applying global thresholds.

  14. Macrofaunal Biodiversity Response to Natural Gradients of Multiple Stressors on Continental Margins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sperling, E. A.; Frieder, C.; Levin, L. A.

    2015-12-01

    Sharp increases in atmospheric CO2 are resulting in ocean warming, acidification and deoxygenation. Rates of change are unprecedented, raising questions about whether (and how) communities will adapt and if responses will reflect synergistic interactions among multiple stressors. Changes to benthic biodiversity on continental margins have important implications for carbon cycle processes and other ecosystem services. One strategy to interpret adaptation potential and predict future faunal change is to examine ecological shifts along natural gradients in the modern ocean. Here, we assess the explanatory power of major climate stressors for macrofaunal diversity and evenness along continental margins using variance partitioning techniques. Sharp drops in diversity are seen as O2 levels decline through the 0.5 - 0.15 ml/l (~22 - 6 μM; ~21 - 5 matm) range, and as temperature increases through the 7-10°C range. pCO2 shows a strong effect in the Arabian Sea but very little effect in the Eastern Pacific Ocean. In contrast, very little variation in evenness is explained by these three global change variables. The identification of sharp thresholds in ecological response are used here to predict seafloor areas most at risk to future marine global change, although the existence of clear regional differences cautions against applying global thresholds.

  15. Preliminary evidences of CCM operation and its down regulation in relation to increasing CO2 levels in natural phytoplankton assemblages from the coastal waters of Bay of Bengal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biswas, Haimanti; Rahman Shaik, Aziz Ur; Bandyopadhyay, Debasmita

    2014-05-01

    Bay of Bengal (BoB), a low productive part of the North Indian Ocean, often possesses low CO2 levels in its surface water and diatoms dominate the phytoplankton communities. Virtually no studies are available from this area reporting how this diatom dominated phytoplankton community would respond any increase in dissolved CO2 levels either naturally or anthopogenically. In most of the marine phytoplankton, the inefficiency of the sole carbon fixing enzyme Rubisco necessitates the need of concentrating dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) (mostly as HCO3) inside the cell in excess of the ambient water concentrations in order to maintain high rate of photosynthesis under low CO2 levels through an energy consuming carbon concentration mechanisms (CCMs). The ubiquitous enzyme carbonic anhydrase (CA) plays a vital role in CCMs by converting HCO3- to CO2 and usually utilizes the trace metal zinc (Zn) as a cofactor. However, it is evident in many marine phytoplankton species that with increasing external CO2 levels, CCMs can be down-regulated leading to energetic savings which can be reallocated to growth; although exceptions occur. Hence, in order to predict their responses to the projected changes, it is imperative to understand their carbon metabolism patterns. We have conducted a series of incubation experiments in microcosms with natural phytoplankton communities from the coastal waters of BoB under different CO2 levels. Our results revealed that the rate of net photosynthetic oxygen evolution and biomass build-up increased in response to increasing CO2 levels. The depletion in δ13CPOM values were more in the high CO2 treatments relative to the low CO2 treated cells (control), indicating that dissolved CO2 uptake was higher when CO2 levels were increased. When additional Zn was added to the low CO2 treated cells, net photosynthetic oxygen evolution rate was increased significantly than that of the untreated control. It is likely that upon the supply of Zn under low CO2

  16. Natural Variation in Arabidopsis Cvi-0 Accession Reveals an Important Role of MPK12 in Guard Cell CO2 Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Nuhkat, Maris; Wang, Cun; Wang, Yuh-Shuh; Hõrak, Hanna; Valk, Ervin; Pechter, Priit; Sindarovska, Yana; Tang, Jing; Xiao, Chuanlei; Xu, Yang; Gerst Talas, Ulvi; García-Sosa, Alfonso T.; Kangasjärvi, Saijaliisa; Maran, Uko; Remm, Maido; Roelfsema, M. Rob G.; Hu, Honghong; Kangasjärvi, Jaakko; Loog, Mart; Schroeder, Julian I.; Kollist, Hannes; Brosché, Mikael

    2016-01-01

    Plant gas exchange is regulated by guard cells that form stomatal pores. Stomatal adjustments are crucial for plant survival; they regulate uptake of CO2 for photosynthesis, loss of water, and entrance of air pollutants such as ozone. We mapped ozone hypersensitivity, more open stomata, and stomatal CO2-insensitivity phenotypes of the Arabidopsis thaliana accession Cvi-0 to a single amino acid substitution in MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN (MAP) KINASE 12 (MPK12). In parallel, we showed that stomatal CO2-insensitivity phenotypes of a mutant cis (CO2-insensitive) were caused by a deletion of MPK12. Lack of MPK12 impaired bicarbonate-induced activation of S-type anion channels. We demonstrated that MPK12 interacted with the protein kinase HIGH LEAF TEMPERATURE 1 (HT1)—a central node in guard cell CO2 signaling—and that MPK12 functions as an inhibitor of HT1. These data provide a new function for plant MPKs as protein kinase inhibitors and suggest a mechanism through which guard cell CO2 signaling controls plant water management. PMID:27923039

  17. Natural Variation in Arabidopsis Cvi-0 Accession Reveals an Important Role of MPK12 in Guard Cell CO2 Signaling.

    PubMed

    Jakobson, Liina; Vaahtera, Lauri; Tõldsepp, Kadri; Nuhkat, Maris; Wang, Cun; Wang, Yuh-Shuh; Hõrak, Hanna; Valk, Ervin; Pechter, Priit; Sindarovska, Yana; Tang, Jing; Xiao, Chuanlei; Xu, Yang; Gerst Talas, Ulvi; García-Sosa, Alfonso T; Kangasjärvi, Saijaliisa; Maran, Uko; Remm, Maido; Roelfsema, M Rob G; Hu, Honghong; Kangasjärvi, Jaakko; Loog, Mart; Schroeder, Julian I; Kollist, Hannes; Brosché, Mikael

    2016-12-01

    Plant gas exchange is regulated by guard cells that form stomatal pores. Stomatal adjustments are crucial for plant survival; they regulate uptake of CO2 for photosynthesis, loss of water, and entrance of air pollutants such as ozone. We mapped ozone hypersensitivity, more open stomata, and stomatal CO2-insensitivity phenotypes of the Arabidopsis thaliana accession Cvi-0 to a single amino acid substitution in MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN (MAP) KINASE 12 (MPK12). In parallel, we showed that stomatal CO2-insensitivity phenotypes of a mutant cis (CO2-insensitive) were caused by a deletion of MPK12. Lack of MPK12 impaired bicarbonate-induced activation of S-type anion channels. We demonstrated that MPK12 interacted with the protein kinase HIGH LEAF TEMPERATURE 1 (HT1)-a central node in guard cell CO2 signaling-and that MPK12 functions as an inhibitor of HT1. These data provide a new function for plant MPKs as protein kinase inhibitors and suggest a mechanism through which guard cell CO2 signaling controls plant water management.

  18. Aboveground net primary productivity and rainfall use efficiency of grassland on three soils after two years of exposure to a subambient to superambient CO2 gradient

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Atmospheric CO2 concentrations (CA) have increased by about 100 µL L-1 over the last 250 years to ~ 380 µL L-1, the highest values in the last half-million years, and CA is expected to continue to increase to greater than 500 µL L-1 by 2100. CO2 enrichment has been shown to affect many ecosystem pr...

  19. Comparison of natural aquifer geochemical variability with uncertainty from model-predicted CO2 induced geochemical changes: How detectable is leakage from carbon sequestration sites?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Navarre-Sitchler, A. K.; Moore, J.

    2012-12-01

    Leakage of CO2 from underground formations poses risk to the storage permanence goal of 99% of injected CO2 remaining sequestered from the atmosphere, which is needed to mitigate potential global climate change. Additionally, leaked CO2 that invades overlying shallow aquifers may cause deleterious changes to groundwater quality and pose risks to environmental and human health. For these reasons, technologies for monitoring, measurement and accounting of injected CO2 are necessary for regulation and permitting of CO2 sequestration operations. Changes in groundwater geochemistry induced by CO2 leakage offer a potential diagnostic tool for identifying leakage into shallow aquifers. In order to confidently use geochemical parameters as indicators of leakage, however, natural variability in geochemical concentrations and uncertainty in predicted geochemical changes induced by CO2 leakage must be quantitatively evaluated. For leakage monitoring, spatial variability of geochemical parameters such as alkalinity, pH, and specific conductivity is less relevant than temporal variability of these parameters within a given well. We used geochemical data from the Ohio Environmental Protection Agency, Ambient Ground Water Monitoring Network to characterize geochemical variability within individual wells. We selected wells from limestone, sandstone, and unconsolidated aquifers with ≥15 samples (typically annual) and statistically analyzed variability in alkalinity, pH, and specific conductance using median and interquartile range (IQR) to avoid influence by outliers and non-gaussian distributions. Neither the medians nor the IQRs showed correlation with well depth, sampling month, or number of samples. Our results indicate that variability in alkalinity and pH (4 - 12%) within individual wells is lower than specific conductance (28 - 32%), and thus, alkalinity and pH potentially provide more robust indicators. Uncertainty in predicted alkalinity and pH changes due to uncertainty

  20. In Situ 13C and 23Na Magic Angle Spinning NMR Investigation of Supercritical CO2 Incorporation in Smectite-Natural Organic Matter Composites

    SciTech Connect

    Bowers, Geoffrey M.; Hoyt, David W.; Burton, Sarah D.; Ferguson, Brennan O.; Varga, Tamas; Kirkpatrick, Robert J.

    2014-01-29

    This paper presents an in situ NMR study of clay-natural organic polymer systems (a hectoritehumic acid [HA] composite) under CO2 storage reservoir conditions (90 bars CO2 pressure, 50°C). The 13C and 23Na NMR data show that supercritical CO2 interacts more strongly with the composite than with the base clay and does not react to form other C-containing species over several days at elevated CO2. With and without organic matter, the data suggest that CO2 enters the interlayer space of Na-hectorite equilibrated at 43% relative humidity. The presence of supercritical CO2 also leads to increased 23Na signal intensity, reduced line width at half height, increased basal width, more rapid 23Na T1 relaxation rates, and a shift to more positive resonance frequencies. Larger changes are observed for the hectorite-HA composite than for the base clay. In light of recently reported MD simulations of other polymer-Na-smectite composites, we interpret the observed changes as an increase in the rate of Na+ site hopping in the presence of supercritical CO2, the presence of potential new Na+ sorption sites when the humic acid is present, and perhaps an accompanying increase in the number of Na+ ions actively involved in site hopping. The results suggest that the presence of organic material either in clay interlayers or on external particle surfaces can significantly affect the behavior of supercritical CO2 and the mobility of metal ions in reservoir rocks.

  1. A Global Synthesis Inversion Analysis of Recent Variability in Natural CO2 Fluxes Using Gosat and in Situ Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, J. S.; Kawa, S. R.; Collatz, G. J.

    2014-12-01

    About one-half of the CO2 emissions from fossil fuel combustion and deforestation accumulates in the atmosphere, where it contributes to global warming. The rest is taken up by vegetation and the ocean. The precise contribution of the two, and the location and year-to-year variability of the CO2 sinks are, however, not well understood. We use a batch Bayesian inversion approach to deduce the global spatiotemporal distributions of CO2 fluxes during 2009-2010. For prior constraints, we utilize fluxes from the CASA-GFED model of the terrestrial biosphere and biomass burning driven by satellite observations and interannually varying meteorology. We also use measurement-based ocean flux estimates, and fixed fossil CO2 emissions. Here, we present results from our inversions that incorporate column CO2 measurements from the GOSAT satellite (ACOS retrieval, filtered and bias-corrected) and in situ observations (individual flask and afternoon-average continuous observations) to estimate fluxes in 108 regions over 8-day intervals. Relationships between fluxes and atmospheric concentrations are derived using the PCTM atmospheric transport model run at 2° x 2.5° (latitude/longitude) resolution driven by meteorology from the MERRA reanalysis. We evaluate the posterior CO2 concentrations using independent aircraft and other data sets. The optimized fluxes generally resemble those from other inversion systems using different techniques, for example indicating a net terrestrial biospheric CO2 sink, and a shift in the sink from tropics to northern high latitudes when going from an in-situ-only inversion to a GOSAT inversion. We show that in this inversion framework, GOSAT provides better flux estimates in most regions with its greater spatial coverage, but we also discuss impacts of possible remaining biases in the data.

  2. In Situ Natural Abundance (17)O and (25)Mg NMR Investigation of Aqueous Mg(OH)2 Dissolution in the Presence of Supercritical CO2.

    PubMed

    Hu, Mary Y; Deng, Xuchu; Thanthiriwatte, K Sahan; Jackson, Virgil E; Wan, Chuan; Qafoku, Odeta; Dixon, David A; Felmy, Andrew R; Rosso, Kevin M; Hu, Jian Zhi

    2016-11-15

    We report an in situ high-pressure NMR capability that permits natural abundance (17)O and (25)Mg NMR characterization of dissolved species in aqueous solution and in the presence of supercritical CO2 fluid (scCO2). The dissolution of Mg(OH)2 (brucite) in a multiphase water/scCO2 fluid at 90 atm pressure and 50 °C was studied in situ, with relevance to geological carbon sequestration. (17)O NMR spectra allowed identification and distinction of various fluid species including dissolved CO2 in the H2O-rich phase, scCO2, aqueous H2O, and HCO3(-). The widely separated spectral peaks for various species can all be observed both dynamically and quantitatively at concentrations as low as 20 mM. Measurement of the concentrations of these individual species also allows an in situ estimate of the hydrogen ion concentration, or pCH(+) values, of the reacting solutions. The concentration of Mg(2+) can be observed by natural abundance (25)Mg NMR at a concentration as low as 10 mM. Quantum chemistry calculations of the NMR chemical shifts on cluster models aided in the interpretation of the experimental results. Evidence for the formation of polymeric Mg(2+) clusters at high concentrations in the H2O-rich phase, a possible critical step needed for magnesium carbonate formation, was found.

  3. CO2 leakage impacts on shallow groundwater. Field-scale reactive-transport simulations informed by observations at a natural analog site

    DOE PAGES

    Keating, Elizabeth H.; Hakala, J. Alexandra; Viswanathan, Hari; ...

    2013-03-01

    It is challenging to predict the degree to which shallow groundwater might be affected by leaks from a CO2 sequestration reservoir, particularly over long time scales and large spatial scales. In this study observations at a CO2 enriched shallow aquifer natural analog were used to develop a predictive model which is then used to simulate leakage scenarios. This natural analog provides the opportunity to make direct field observations of groundwater chemistry in the presence of elevated CO2, to collect aquifer samples and expose them to CO2 under controlled conditions in the laboratory, and to test the ability of multiphase reactivemore » transport models to reproduce measured geochemical trends at the field-scale. The field observations suggest that brackish water entrained with the upwelling CO2 are a more significant source of trace metals than in situ mobilization of metals due to exposure to CO2. The study focuses on a single trace metal of concern at this site: U. Experimental results indicate that cation exchange/adsorption and dissolution/precipitation of calcite containing trace amounts of U are important reactions controlling U in groundwater at this site, and that the amount of U associated with calcite is fairly well constrained. Simulations incorporating these results into a 3-D multi-phase reactive transport model are able to reproduce the measured ranges and trends between pH, pCO2, Ca, total C, U and Cl-at the field site. Although the true fluxes at the natural analog site are unknown, the cumulative CO2 flux inferred from these simulations are approximately equivalent to 37.8E-3 MT, approximately corresponding to a .001% leak rate for injection at a large (750 MW) power plant. The leakage scenario simulations suggest that if the leak only persists for a short time the volume of aquifer contaminated by CO2-induced mobilization of U will be relatively small, yet persistent over 100 a.« less

  4. Coupling of Multiphase Flow and Geomechanics in Fractured Porous Media: Application to CO2 Leakages from Natural and Stimulated Fractures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ezzedine, S. M.

    2015-12-01

    Leakage to the atmosphere of a significant fraction of injected CO2 would constitute a failure of a geological CO2 storage project from a greenhouse gas mitigation perspective. We present a numerical model that simulates flow and transport of CO2 into heterogeneous subsurface systems. The model, StoTran, is a flexible numerical environment that uses state-of-the-art finite element and finite volume methods and unstructured adaptive mesh refinement scheme implemented using MPI and OpenMP protocols. Multiphase flow equations and the geomechanical equations are implicitly solved and either fully or sequentially coupled. StoTran can address inverse and forward problems under deterministic or stochastic conditions. For the current study, StoTran has been used to simulate several scenarios spanning from a homogeneous single layered reservoir to heterogeneous multi-layered systems, which including cap-rock with embedded fractures, have been simulated under different operations of CO2 injection and CO2 leakages conditions. Results show the impact of the injection and leakage rates on the time evolution of the spread of the CO2 plume, its interception of the fractured cap-rock and the risk associated with the contamination of the overlaying aquifer. Spatial and temporal moments have been calculated for different, deterministic of stochastic, subsurface physical and chemical properties. Spatial moments enable assessing the extent of the region of investigation under conditions of uncertainty. Furthermore, several leakage scenarios show the intermittence behavior and development of the CO2 plume in the subsurface; its first interception with the fractures located further far from the injection well then, at a second stage, its interception with the fracture within the immediate vicinity of the injection well. We will present a remedy to CO2 leakages from the reservoir in order to enhance a long term containment of the injected CO2. This work performed under the auspices of

  5. A natural experiment on plant acclimation: lifetime stomatal frequency response of an individual tree to annual atmospheric CO2 increase.

    PubMed

    Wagner, F; Below, R; Klerk, P D; Dilcher, D L; Joosten, H; Kürschner, W M; Visscher, H

    1996-10-15

    Carbon dioxide (CO2) has been increasing in atmospheric concentration since the Industrial Revolution. A decreasing number of stomata on leaves of land plants still provides the only morphological evidence that this man-made increase has already affected the biosphere. The current rate of CO2 responsiveness in individual long-lived species cannot be accurately determined from field studies or by controlled-environment experiments. However, the required long-term data sets can be obtained from continuous records of buried leaves from living trees in wetland ecosystems. Fine-resolution analysis of the lifetime leaf record of an individual birch (Betula pendula) indicates a gradual reduction of stomatal frequency as a phenotypic acclimation to CO2 increase. During the past four decades, CO2 increments of 1 part per million by volume resulted in a stomatal density decline of approximately 0.6%. It may be hypothesized that this plastic stomatal frequency response of deciduous tree species has evolved in conjunction with the overall Cenozoic reduction of atmospheric CO2 concentrations.

  6. Combined effects of CO2 enrichment, changes in diurnal light level and water stress on foliar metabolites of potato plants grown in naturally sunlit controlled environment chambers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Potato plants (Solanum tuberosum L. cv Kennebec) were grown in outdoor, naturally sunlit, soil-plant-atmosphere research (SPAR) chambers. Drought treatments were imposed at post-tuber initiation stage to assess water stress effects on leaf metabolites, and interactions with enriched CO2 concentrati...

  7. Natural Air-Sea Flux of CO2 in Simulations of the NASA-GISS Climate Model: Sensitivity to the Physical Ocean Model Formulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Romanou, A.; Gregg, Watson W.; Romanski, J.; Kelley, M.; Bleck, R.; Healy, R.; Nazarenko, L.; Russell, G.; Schmidt, G. A.; Sun, S.; Tausnev, N.

    2013-01-01

    Results from twin control simulations of the preindustrial CO2 gas exchange (natural flux of CO2) between the ocean and the atmosphere are presented here using the NASA-GISS climate model, in which the same atmospheric component (modelE2) is coupled to two different ocean models, the Russell ocean model and HYCOM. Both incarnations of the GISS climate model are also coupled to the same ocean biogeochemistry module (NOBM) which estimates prognostic distributions for biotic and abiotic fields that influence the air-sea flux of CO2. Model intercomparison is carried out at equilibrium conditions and model differences are contrasted with biases from present day climatologies. Although the models agree on the spatial patterns of the air-sea flux of CO2, they disagree on the strength of the North Atlantic and Southern Ocean sinks mainly because of kinematic (winds) and chemistry (pCO2) differences rather than thermodynamic (SST) ones. Biology/chemistry dissimilarities in the models stem from the different parameterizations of advective and diffusive processes, such as overturning, mixing and horizontal tracer advection and to a lesser degree from parameterizations of biogeochemical processes such as gravitational settling and sinking. The global meridional overturning circulation illustrates much of the different behavior of the biological pump in the two models, together with differences in mixed layer depth which are responsible for different SST, DIC and nutrient distributions in the two models and consequently different atmospheric feedbacks (in the wind, net heat and freshwater fluxes into the ocean).

  8. Reduced emissions of CO2, NOx, and SO2 from U.S. power plants owing to switch from coal to natural gas with combined cycle technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Gouw, J. A.; Parrish, D. D.; Frost, G. J.; Trainer, M.

    2014-02-01

    Since 1997, an increasing fraction of electric power has been generated from natural gas in the United States. Here we use data from continuous emission monitoring systems (CEMS), which measure emissions at the stack of most U.S. electric power generation units, to investigate how this switch affected the emissions of CO2, NOx, and SO2. Per unit of energy produced, natural gas power plants equipped with combined cycle technology emit on an average 44% of the CO2 compared with coal power plants. As a result of the increased use of natural gas, CO2 emissions from U.S. fossil-fuel power plants were 23% lower in 2012 than they would have been if coal had continued to provide the same fraction of electric power as in 1997. In addition, natural gas power plants with combined cycle technology emit less NOx and far less SO2 per unit of energy produced than coal power plants. Therefore, the increased use of natural gas has led to emission reductions of NOx (40%) and SO2 (44%), in addition to those obtained from the implementation of emission control systems on coal power plants. These benefits to air quality and climate should be weighed against the increase in emissions of methane, volatile organic compounds, and other trace gases that are associated with the production, processing, storage, and transport of natural gas.

  9. Geochemistry of Springs in a Region Impacted by Natural Leakage of CO2 , Around Mammoth Mountain, Mammoth Lakes, Ca

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raskin, S.; Ellis, A. S.; Khachikian, C.; Luna, J.

    2012-12-01

    Carbon sequestration—the practice of injecting CO2 into geologic reservoirs—is a potentially effective but inadequately understood greenhouse gas mitigation method. Little is known about the impacts of CO2 on surrounding environments should reservoir leakage occur. Magma chambers beneath Mammoth Mountain, Ca, release large volumes of CO2 into the mountain's soil and water, simulating a leaking CO2 reservoir. This study examines the chemistry of springs at Mammoth Mountain in order to provide insights into the impact of elevated CO2 on water chemistry. Evans (2002) confirmed the presence of dissolved CO2 in Mammoth springs at concentrations ranging from 13.8 to 27.8 mmol/L. We hypothesize that waters will be moderately acidified by the CO2+H2O > H2CO3 reaction. Acidified waters may weather the native geology more efficiently than non-acidified waters. We analyzed and collected in-situ data and water samples from Mammoth Mountain springs on four trips during the summers of 2011 and 2012. These high elevations springs feature water temperatures ranging from 3.6 to 15.0 oC, pH values ranging from 5.36-8.26, and conductivities from 9.5-441 (μS/cm). Water emitted at low conductivity, dilute springs is likely sourced from recent snowmelt and has a smaller groundwater component. Low pH value springs are clustered on Mammoth Mountain's southwest flank. Water isotopes and major ions were analyzed to gain further insight into processes influencing these springs. Hydrogen and oxygen isotopes in spring waters conform to the global meteoric water line with δ18O ranging from -14.7 to -16.0‰ and δD ranging from -119.5 to -107.2‰. Isotopic signatures of springs farther east are progressively lighter, suggesting that springs are fed by local precipitation. Major ion analysis shows that spring's water chemistries generally fit along mixing lines between the major rhyolite, andesite, and basalt species that compose Mammoth. Springs on Mammoth's western flank, near the

  10. A Global Synthesis Inversion Analysis of Recent Variability in Natural CO2 Fluxes Using GOSAT and In Situ Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, J. S.; Kawa, S. R.; Collatz, G. J.

    2013-12-01

    Around one-half of the CO2 emissions from fossil fuel combustion and deforestation accumulates in the atmosphere, where it contributes to global warming. The rest is taken up by vegetation and the ocean. The precise contribution of the two, and the location and year-to-year variability of the CO2 sinks are not well understood though. We use a batch Bayesian inversion approach to deduce the global spatiotemporal distributions of CO2 fluxes during 2009-2010. For prior constraints, we utilize fluxes from the CASA-GFED v.3 model of the terrestrial biosphere and biomass burning driven by satellite observations and interannually varying meteorology. We also use measurement-based ocean flux estimates from Takahashi et al. [2009], and fixed fossil CO2 emissions from the CDIAC dataset. Here, we present preliminary results from our inversions that incorporate column CO2 measurements from the GOSAT satellite, ground-based observations (individual flask and afternoon-average continuous observations), and aircraft observations to estimate fluxes in 108 regions over 8-day intervals. Relationships between fluxes and atmospheric concentrations are derived using the PCTM atmospheric transport model run at 2° x 2.5° (latitude/longitude) resolution driven by meteorology from the MERRA reanalysis. We obtain spatiotemporal distributions of fluxes resembling those from other inversions, including NOAA's CarbonTracker. We compare the a posteriori fluxes obtained with and without the addition of GOSAT observations to the in situ network, and discuss possible impacts of biases in the GOSAT data.

  11. Types and distribution of obligate thermophilic bacteria in man-made and natural thermal gradients.

    PubMed

    Ramaley, R F; Bitzinger, K

    1975-07-01

    The types and distribution of obligate thermophilic bacteria were found to be similar in a thermal gradient resulting from man-made thermal pollution and the thermal gradients of two natural hot springs located in Colorado.

  12. Solubility and Speciation of CO2 in Natural Rhyolitic Melts at 1.5-3.0 GPa - Implications for Carbon Flux in Subduction Zones via Sediment Partial Melts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duncan, M. S.; Dasgupta, R.

    2012-12-01

    and may be as high as 1.4-1.7 wt.% CO2 [1, 2]. If 0.3 wt.% CO2 in primary arc basalts derives from 15-30% melting [3, 4] of the mantle wedge, a mantle concentration of 450-900 ppm is required. Assuming that the pre-subduction modification mantle wedge contains 37-246 ppm CO2 [5-9], addition of sediment melt amounting ~2-9% of the mantle and containing 1 wt.% CO2 is sufficient to elevate the mantle budget to the required level. If the sediment partial melts are more hydrous, the flux of the melt to deliver the required CO2 budget would be even lower. Therefore, our CO2 solubility data suggest that hydrous sediment melt could be the agent of CO2 delivery from slab to arc source mantle wedge. [1] Blundy et al. (2010) EPSL, 290, 289-301; [2] Wallace (2005) JVGR, 140, 217-240; [3] Grove et al. (2002) CMP, 142, 375-396; [4] Stolper and Newman (1994) EPSL, 121, 293-325; [5] Cartigny et al. (2008) EPSL, 265, 672-685; [6] Dasgupta and Hirschmann (2010) EPSL, 298, 1-13; [7] Hirschmann and Dasgupta (2009) CG, 262, 4-16; [8] Marty (2012) EPSL, 313, 56-66; [9] Saal et al. (2002) Nature, 419, 451-455.

  13. Coral Calcification Across a Natural Gradient in Ocean Acidification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cohen, A. L.; Brainard, R. E.; Young, C.; Shamberger, K. E.; McCorkle, D. C.; Feely, R. A.; Mcleod, E.; Cantin, N.; Rose, K.; Lohmann, G. P.

    2011-12-01

    Much of our understanding of the impact of ocean acidification on coral calcification comes from laboratory manipulation experiments in which corals are reared under a range of seawater pH and aragonite saturation states (μar) equivalent to those projected for the next hundred years. In general, experiments show a consistently negative impact of acidification on coral calcification, leading to predictions of mass coral reef extinctions by dissolution as natural rates of carbonate erosion exceed the rates at which corals and other reef calcifiers can replace it. The tropical oceans provide a natural laboratory within which to test hypotheses about the longer term impact and adaptive potential of corals to acidification of the reef environment. Here we report results of a study in which 3-D CT scan and imaging techniques were used to quantify annual rates of calcification by conspecifics at 12 reefs sites spanning a natural gradient in ocean acidification. In situ μar calculated from alkalinity and DIC measurements of reef seawater ranged from less than 2.7 on an eastern Pacific Reef to greater than 4.0 in the central Red Sea. No correlation between μar and calcification was observed across this range. Corals living on low μar reefs appear to be calcifying as fast, sometimes faster than conspecifics living on high μar reefs. We used total lipid and tissue thickness to index the energetic status of colonies collected at each of our study sites. Our results support the hypothesis that energetics plays a key role in the coral calcification response to ocean acidification. Indeed, the true impact of acidification on coral reefs will likely be felt as temperatures rise and the ocean becomes more stratified, depleting coral energetic reserves through bleaching and reduced nutrient delivery to oceanic reefs.

  14. Increased Use of Natural Gas for Power Generation in the U.S. and the Resulting Reductions in Emissions of CO2, NOx and SO2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Gouw, J. A.; Parrish, D. D.; Trainer, M.

    2013-12-01

    Over the past decades, natural gas has increasingly replaced coal as a fuel for electrical power generation in the U.S. As a result, there have been significant reductions in the emissions of carbon dioxide (CO2), nitrogen oxides (NOx) and sulfur dioxide (SO2). Power plant emissions are continuously measured at the stack using continuous emissions monitoring systems (CEMS) required by the EPA. Previous studies using airborne measurements have shown these CEMS measurements to be accurate. Here, we use annual emissions since 1995 from all point sources included in the CEMS database to quantify the changes in CO2, NOx and SO2 emissions that have resulted from the changing use of fuels and technologies for power generation. In 1997, 83% of electrical power in the CEMS database was generated from coal-fired power plants. In 2012, the contribution from coal had decreased to 59%, and natural gas contributed 34% of the electrical power. Natural gas-fired power plants, in particular those equipped with combined cycle technology, emit less than 50% of CO2 per kWh produced compared to coal-fired plants. As a result of the increased use of natural gas, total CO2 emissions from U.S. power plants have decreased since 2008. In addition, natural gas-fired power plants emit less NOx and far less SO2 per kWh produced than coal-fired power plants. The increased use of natural gas has therefore led to significant emissions reductions of NOx and SO2 in addition to those obtained from the implementation of emissions control systems on coal-fired power plants. The increased use of natural gas for power generation has led to significant reductions in CO2 emissions as well as improvements in U.S. air quality. We will illustrate these points with examples from airborne measurements made using the NOAA WP-3D aircraft in the Southeastern U.S. in 2013 as part of the NOAA Southeast Nexus (SENEX) study. The emissions reductions from U.S. power plants due to the increased use of natural gas will

  15. An Inversion Analysis of Recent Variability in Natural CO2 Fluxes Using GOSAT and In Situ Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, James S.; Kawa, S. Randolph; Collatz, G. James; Baker, David F.; Ott, Lesley

    2015-01-01

    About one-half of the global CO2 emissions from fossil fuel combustion and deforestation accumulates in the atmosphere, where it contributes to global warming. The rest is taken up by vegetation and the ocean. The precise contribution of the two sinks, and their location and year-to-year variability are, however, not well understood. We use two different approaches, batch Bayesian synthesis inversion and variational data assimilation, to deduce the global spatiotemporal distributions of CO2 fluxes during 2009-2010. One of our objectives is to assess different sources of uncertainties in inferred fluxes, including uncertainties in prior flux estimates and observations, and differences in inversion techniques. For prior constraints, we utilize fluxes and uncertainties from the CASA-GFED model of the terrestrial biosphere and biomass burning driven by satellite observations and interannually varying meteorology. We also use measurement-based ocean flux estimates and two sets of fixed fossil CO2 emissions. Here, our inversions incorporate column CO2 measurements from the GOSAT satellite (ACOS retrieval, filtered and bias-corrected) and in situ observations (individual flask and afternoon-average continuous observations) to estimate fluxes in 108 regions over 8-day intervals for the batch inversion and at 3 x 3.75 weekly for the variational system. Relationships between fluxes and atmospheric concentrations are derived consistently for the two inversion systems using the PCTM atmospheric transport model driven by meteorology from the MERRA reanalysis. We compare the posterior fluxes and uncertainties derived using different data sets and the two inversion approaches, and evaluate the posterior atmospheric concentrations against independent data including aircraft measurements. The optimized fluxes generally resemble those from other studies. For example, the results indicate that the terrestrial biosphere is a net CO2 sink, and a GOSAT-only inversion suggests a shift in

  16. An Inversion Analysis of Recent Variability in Natural CO2 Fluxes Using GOSAT and In Situ Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, J. S.; Kawa, S. R.; Baker, D. F.; Collatz, G. J.; Ott, L. E.

    2015-12-01

    About one-half of the global CO2 emissions from fossil fuel combustion and deforestation accumulates in the atmosphere, where it contributes to global warming. The rest is taken up by vegetation and the ocean. The precise contribution of the two sinks, and their location and year-to-year variability are, however, not well understood. We use two different approaches, batch Bayesian synthesis inversion and variational data assimilation, to deduce the global spatiotemporal distributions of CO2 fluxes during 2009-2010. One of our objectives is to assess different sources of uncertainties in inferred fluxes, including uncertainties in prior flux estimates and observations, and differences in inversion techniques. For prior constraints, we utilize fluxes and uncertainties from the CASA-GFED model of the terrestrial biosphere and biomass burning driven by satellite observations and interannually varying meteorology. We also use measurement-based ocean flux estimates and two sets of fixed fossil CO2 emissions. Here, our inversions incorporate column CO2 measurements from the GOSAT satellite (ACOS retrieval, filtered and bias-corrected) and in situ observations (individual flask and afternoon-average continuous observations) to estimate fluxes in 108 regions over 8-day intervals for the batch inversion and at 3° x 3.75° weekly for the variational system. Relationships between fluxes and atmospheric concentrations are derived consistently for the two inversion systems using the PCTM atmospheric transport model driven by meteorology from the MERRA reanalysis. We compare the posterior fluxes and uncertainties derived using different data sets and the two inversion approaches, and evaluate the posterior atmospheric concentrations against independent data including aircraft measurements. The optimized fluxes generally resemble those from other studies. For example, the results indicate that the terrestrial biosphere is a net CO2 sink, and a GOSAT-only inversion suggests a

  17. Micro-CT imaging of reservoir condition CO2 during multi-phase flow in natural rock

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andrew, M. G.; Bijeljic, B.; Menke, H. P.; Blunt, M. J.

    2014-12-01

    Micron-resolution X-ray microtomography has allowed researchers to examine the processes controlling fluid flow behaviour at the pore scale, offering the promise of a transformation in our understanding of flow and transport in porous media. Until recently wettability has only been directly accessible in extremely simplified systems. A new method is presented for the measurement of the contact angle and capillary pressure of multiple immiscible fluids at the pore scale at reservoir conditions in the scCO2-brine-carbonate system. Contact angle is found by resampling the micro-CT data onto planes orthogonal to the contact lines, allowing for vectors to be traced along the grain surface and the scCO2 - brine interface. A distribution of contact angles ranging from 35o to 55o is observed. This distribution can be understood as the result of contact angle hysteresis and surface heterogeneity on a range of length scales. Ganglion capillary pressure for each ganglion was found by measuring the curvature of the CO2-brine interface, while the pore structure was parameterised using distance maps of the pore-space. The formation of the residual clusters by snap-off was examined by comparing the ganglion capillary pressure to local pore topography. The capillary pressure was found to be inversely proportional to the radius of the largest restriction (throat) surrounding the ganglion, which validates the imbibition mechanisms used in pore-network modelling. The potential mobilization of residual ganglia was assessed using a new formulation of both the capillary and Bond numbers, rigorously based on a balance of pore-scale forces, with the majority of ganglia remobilized at Ncmacro around 1. By the use of synchrotron tomography it is possible to create high quality 4D images of dynamic processes involving the flow of multiple fluid phases. We show how the drainage process take place as a series of discreet Haines jumps. Two different types of Haines jumps were seen, one where CO

  18. Temperature effects on fish production across a natural thermal gradient.

    PubMed

    O'Gorman, Eoin J; Ólafsson, Ólafur P; Demars, Benoît O L; Friberg, Nikolai; Guðbergsson, Guðni; Hannesdóttir, Elísabet R; Jackson, Michelle C; Johansson, Liselotte S; McLaughlin, Órla B; Ólafsson, Jón S; Woodward, Guy; Gíslason, Gísli M

    2016-09-01

    Global warming is widely predicted to reduce the biomass production of top predators, or even result in species loss. Several exceptions to this expectation have been identified, however, and it is vital that we understand the underlying mechanisms if we are to improve our ability to predict future trends. Here, we used a natural warming experiment in Iceland and quantitative theoretical predictions to investigate the success of brown trout as top predators across a stream temperature gradient (4-25 °C). Brown trout are at the northern limit of their geographic distribution in this system, with ambient stream temperatures below their optimum for maximal growth, and above it in the warmest streams. A five-month mark-recapture study revealed that population abundance, biomass, growth rate, and production of trout all increased with stream temperature. We identified two mechanisms that contributed to these responses: (1) trout became more selective in their diet as stream temperature increased, feeding higher in the food web and increasing in trophic position; and (2) trophic transfer through the food web was more efficient in the warmer streams. We found little evidence to support a third potential mechanism: that external subsidies would play a more important role in the diet of trout with increasing stream temperature. Resource availability was also amplified through the trophic levels with warming, as predicted by metabolic theory in nutrient-replete systems. These results highlight circumstances in which top predators can thrive in warmer environments and contribute to our knowledge of warming impacts on natural communities and ecosystem functioning.

  19. The effects of CO2 on phytoplankton community structure in the Amazon River Plume

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, T. L.; Goes, J. I.; Gomes, H. R.; McKee, K. T.

    2013-12-01

    The Amazon River Plume results from an enormous discharge of freshwater and organic matter into the Atlantic Ocean. It is a unique environment with a natural pCO2 gradient in the surface waters of the plume that range from 130-950 μatm. The response of coastal marine phytoplankton to increased anthropogenic CO2 emission is still unknown, hence the Amazon River Plume gradient can serve as a natural laboratory to examine the potential influence of atmospheric CO2 increases and ocean acidification on phytoplankton community composition. A two pronged study was undertaken: the first in which shipboard samples from a 2010 cruise to the Amazon River Plume were analyzed to examine the distribution of 3 major phytoplankton groups (diatoms, diatom-diazotroph associations [DDAs], and the diazotroph Trichodesmium spp.) with respect to the natural pCO2 gradient; the second in which the growth response of Thalassiosira weisflogii, a representative diatom species, was examined under experimentally manipulated CO2 conditions. Cruise data analysis showed that diatoms were found with higher cell counts around 150 μatm; DDAs seemed to dominate waters within the narrow range of 350-400 μatm CO2; and the diazotroph Trichodesmium spp. grew in a wide range of pCO2 conditions, but with higher cell counts at upwards of 500 μatm. Phytoplankton group distributions along the CO2 gradient may be due to differences in their carbon-concentrating mechanism (CCMs) efficiencies. The CO2 manipulation apparatus was assembled such that the cells were grown under three different CO2 environments. Differential growth of T. weisflogii was observed at 150, 400, and 800 ppm CO2 treatment. T. weisflogii grew at all three CO2 concentrations, reflecting diatoms' physiological flexibility and efficient CCMs. Absorption spectra analysis of pigments and Fast Repetition Rate Fluorometer analysis indicate potential changes in photosynthetic machinery with different CO2 treatments. Future CO2 manipulation

  20. Natural heterogeneity and evolving geochemistry of Lower Tuscaloosa Formation brine in response to continuing CO2 injection at Cranfield EOR site, Mississippi, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thordsen, J. J.; Kharaka, Y. K.; Thomas, B.; Abedini, A. A.; Conaway, C. H.; Manning, M. A.; Lu, J.

    2012-12-01

    Geochemical monitoring of Lower Tuscaloosa Formation (LTF) brine continues at the Cranfield CO2-enhanced oil recovery (EOR) and sequestration site to investigate the potential for the geologic storage of large volumes of CO2 in saline aquifers and depleted reservoirs. Cranfield oil field is a domal depleted oil and gas reservoir in the Mississippi Interior Salt Basin, with production in heterogeneous fluvial sandstones of the LTF (depth ~3000 m). CO2 flood began in July 2008. Brine samples were collected from selected production wells in March and December 2009, April 2010, and November 2011. Intensive sampling also was conducted for the first 18 days of a CO2 injection experiment below the oil-water contact (December 2009) at the Detailed Area of Study (DAS) 3-well array. The sampling objectives are to define the geochemical composition of the pre-injection brine, and to understand the geochemical changes resulting from interactions between the injected CO2, brine, and reservoir minerals. Results show that Tuscaloosa brine is Na-Ca-Cl type with total salinity ranging from ~140 to 160 g/L TDS (50 samples). Relatively large variations are observed in major divalent cations (Ca ~7,500-14,000 mg/L, Mg ~800-1,250 mg/L, Sr ~475-750 mg/L). Significant positive correlations are noted amongst Ca, Mg, Sr, Ba, and Br, whereas these solutes all trend negatively with Na and Cl. These results may be interpreted as possible binary mixing between two end-member waters: (1) high Na-Cl (51 and 97 g/L, respectively), low Ca, Mg, Sr, and Br (~7500, 800, 475, 280 mg/L, respectively); and (2) low Na-Cl (40 and 86 g/L), high Ca, Mg, Sr, and Br (~14,000, 1250, 750, 480 mg/L). This apparent binary mixing has no obvious correlation to CO2 injection, which suggests that observed variations are due to natural heterogeneities in LTF brine within the Cranfield dome. The variations may indicate vertical and/or lateral proximity to a halite source (i.e. salt dome), with the high Na-Cl, low Br

  1. Large Amplitude Spatial and Temporal Gradients in Atmospheric Boundary Layer CO2 Mole Fractions Detected With a Tower-Based Network in the U.S. Upper Midwest

    SciTech Connect

    Miles, Natasha; Richardson, S. J.; Davis, Kenneth J.; Lauvaux, Thomas; Andrews, A.; West, Tristram O.; Bandaru, Varaprasad; Crosson, Eric R.

    2012-02-21

    This study presents observations of atmospheric CO{sub 2} mole fraction from a nine-tower, regional network deployed during the North American Carbon Program's Mid-Continent Intensive during 2007-2009. Within this network in a largely agricultural area, mean atmospheric CO{sub 2} gradients were strongly correlated with both ground-based inventory data and estimates from satellite remote sensing. The average seasonal drawdown for corn-dominated sites (35 ppm) is significantly larger than has been observed at other continental boundary layer sites. Observed growing-season median CO{sub 2} gradients are strongly dependent on local flux. The gradients between cross-vegetation site-pairs, for example, average 2.0 ppm/100 km, four times larger than the similar-vegetation site-pair average. Daily-timescale gradients are as large as 5.5 ppm/100 km, but dominated by advection rather than local flux. Flooding in 2008 led to a region-wide 23 week delay in growing-season minima. The observations show that regional-scale CO{sub 2} mole fraction networks yield large, coherent signals governed largely by regional sources and sinks of CO{sub 2}.

  2. Development in a naturally acidified environment: Na+/H+-exchanger 3-based proton secretion leads to CO2 tolerance in cephalopod embryos

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Regulation of pH homeostasis is a central feature of all animals to cope with acid–base disturbances caused by respiratory CO2. Although a large body of knowledge is available for vertebrate and mammalian pH regulatory systems, the mechanisms of pH regulation in marine invertebrates remain largely unexplored. Results We used squid (Sepioteuthis lessoniana), which are known as powerful acid–base regulators to investigate the pH regulatory machinery with a special focus on proton secretion pathways during environmental hypercapnia. We cloned a Rhesus protein (slRhP), V-type H+-ATPase (slVHA) and the Na+/H+ exchanger 3 (slNHE3) from S. lessoniana, which are hypothesized to represent key players in proton secretion pathways among different animal taxa. Specifically designed antibodies for S. lessoniana demonstrated the sub-cellular localization of NKA, VHA (basolateral) and NHE3 (apical) in epidermal ionocytes of early life stages. Gene expression analyses demonstrated that slNHE3, slVHA and slRhP are up regulated in response to environmental hypercapnia (pH 7.31; 0.46 kPa pCO2) in body and yolk tissues compared to control conditions (pH 8.1; 0.045 kPa pCO2). This observation is supported by H+ selective electrode measurements, which detected increased proton gradients in CO2 treated embryos. This compensatory proton secretion is EIPA sensitive and thus confirms the central role of NHE based proton secretion in cephalopods. Conclusion The present work shows that in convergence to teleosts and mammalian pH regulatory systems, cephalopod early life stages have evolved a unique acid–base regulatory machinery located in epidermal ionocytes. Using cephalopod molluscs as an invertebrate model this work provides important insights regarding the unifying evolutionary principles of pH regulation in different animal taxa that enables them to cope with CO2 induced acid–base disturbances. PMID:23988184

  3. A flow injection analyser conductometric coupled system for the field analysis of free dissolved CO2 and total dissolved inorganic carbon in natural waters.

    PubMed

    Martinotti, Valter; Balordi, Marcella; Ciceri, Giovanni

    2012-05-01

    A flow injection analyser coupled with a gas diffusion membrane and a conductometric microdetector was adapted for the field analysis of natural concentrations of free dissolved CO2 and dissolved inorganic carbon in natural waters and used in a number of field campaigns for marine water monitoring. The dissolved gaseous CO2 presents naturally, or that generated by acidification of the sample, is separated by diffusion using a hydrophobic semipermeable gas porous membrane, and the permeating gas is incorporated into a stream of deionised water and measured by means of an electrical conductometric microdetector. In order to make the system suitable and easy to use for in-field measurements aboard oceanographic ships, the single components of the analyser were compacted into a robust and easy to use system. The calibration of the system is carried out by using standard solutions of potassium bicarbonate at two concentration ranges. Calibration and sample measurements are carried out inside a temperature-constant chamber at 25 °C and in an inert atmosphere (N2). The detection and quantification limits of the method, evaluated as 3 and 10 times the standard deviation of a series of measurements of the matrix solution were 2.9 and 9.6 μmol/kg of CO2, respectively. Data quality for dissolved inorganic carbon was checked with replicate measurements of a certified reference material (A. Dickson, Scripps Institution of Oceanography, University of California, San Diego), both accuracy and repeatability were -3.3% and 10%, respectively. Optimization, performance qualification of the system and its application in various natural water samples are reported and discussed. In the future, the calibration step will be operated automatically in order to improve the analytical performance and the applicability will be increased in the course of experimental surveys carried out both in marine and freshwater ecosystems. Considering the present stage of development of the method, it

  4. Natural bog pine ecosystem in southern Germany is a steady and robust sink of CO2 but a minor source of CH4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hommeltenberg, Janina; Schmid, Hans Peter; Droesler, Matthias; Werle, Peter

    2013-04-01

    Natural peatland ecosystems sequester carbon dioxide. They do this slowly but steadily, but also emit methane in small rates. Thus peatlands have both positive and negative greenhouse gas balance impacts on the climate system due to their influence on atmospheric CO2 and CH4 concentration. We present data of net ecosystem CO2 exchange (NEE) of almost three years (July 2010 to March 2013) and of methane fluxes over a period of nine months (July 2012 to March 2013), measured by eddy covariance technique in the bog forest "Schechenfilz". The site (47°48' N; 11°19' E, 590 m a.s.l.) is an ICOS-ecosystems associate site, located in the pre-alpine region of southern Germany, where a natural Pinus mugo rotundata forest grows on an undisturbed, almost 6 m thick peat layer. The slow growing bog pines and their low rates of carbon sequestration, in combination with high water table and thus low availability of oxygen, lead to low carbon dioxide fluxes. Photosynthesis as well as soil respiration are considerably attenuated compared to upland sites. Additionally, the high soil water content is damping the impact of dry and hot periods on CO2 exchange. Thus the CO2 balance is very robust to changing environmental parameters. While the CO2 exchange is clearly related to soil temperature and photosynthetic active radiation, we have not yet identified a parameter that governs variations in methane exchange. Various environmental parameters appear to be related to methane emissions (including soil moisture, soil and air temperature and wind direction), but the scatter with respect to half hourly methane fluxes is too large to be useful for gap modeling. Analysis of daily averages reduces the scatter, but since methane exchange exhibits considerable daily variation, daily averages are not useful to fill data gaps of half hourly fluxes. In consequence, as the daily course is the summary result of all environmental parameters having influence on the methane exchange at the half

  5. Natural variations in snow cover do not affect the annual soil CO2 efflux from a mid-elevation temperate forest.

    PubMed

    Schindlbacher, Andreas; Jandl, Robert; Schindlbacher, Sabine

    2014-02-01

    Climate change might alter annual snowfall patterns and modify the duration and magnitude of snow cover in temperate regions with resultant impacts on soil microclimate and soil CO2 efflux (Fsoil ). We used a 5-year time series of Fsoil measurements from a mid-elevation forest to assess the effects of naturally changing snow cover. Snow cover varied considerably in duration (105-154 days) and depth (mean snow depth 19-59 cm). Periodically shallow snow cover (<10 cm) caused soil freezing or increased variation in soil temperature. This was mostly not reflected in Fsoil which tended to decrease gradually throughout winter. Progressively decreasing C substrate availability (identified by substrate induced respiration) likely over-rid the effects of slowly changing soil temperatures and determined the overall course of Fsoil . Cumulative CO2 efflux from beneath snow cover varied between 0.46 and 0.95 t C ha(-1)  yr(-1) and amounted to between 6 and 12% of the annual efflux. When compared over a fixed interval (the longest period of snow cover during the 5 years), the cumulative CO2 efflux ranged between 0.77 and 1.18 t C ha(-1) or between 11 and 15% of the annual soil CO2 efflux. The relative contribution (15%) was highest during the year with the shortest winter. Variations in snow cover were not reflected in the annual CO2 efflux (7.44-8.41 t C ha(-1) ) which did not differ significantly between years and did not correlate with any snow parameter. Regional climate at our site was characterized by relatively high amounts of precipitation. Therefore, snow did not play a role in terms of water supply during the warm season and primarily affected cold season processes. The role of changing snow cover therefore seems rather marginal when compared to potential climate change effects on Fsoil during the warm season.

  6. Local Adaptation to Soil Hypoxia Determines the Structure of an Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungal Community in Roots from Natural CO2 Springs ▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Maček, Irena; Dumbrell, Alex J.; Nelson, Michaela; Fitter, Alastair H.; Vodnik, Dominik; Helgason, Thorunn

    2011-01-01

    The processes responsible for producing and maintaining the diversity of natural arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungal communities remain largely unknown. We used natural CO2 springs (mofettes), which create hypoxic soil environments, to determine whether a long-term, directional, abiotic selection pressure could change AM fungal community structure and drive the selection of particular AM fungal phylotypes. We explored whether those phylotypes that appear exclusively in hypoxic soils are local specialists or widespread generalists able to tolerate a range of soil conditions. AM fungal community composition was characterized by cloning, restriction fragment length polymorphism typing, and the sequencing of small subunit rRNA genes from roots of four plant species growing at high (hypoxic) and low (control) geological CO2 exposure. We found significant levels of AM fungal community turnover (β diversity) between soil types and the numerical dominance of two AM fungal phylotypes in hypoxic soils. Our results strongly suggest that direct environmental selection acting on AM fungi is a major factor regulating AM fungal communities and their phylogeographic patterns. Consequently, some AM fungi are more strongly associated with local variations in the soil environment than with their host plant's distribution. PMID:21622777

  7. CO2-Neutral Fuels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goede, Adelbert; van de Sanden, Richard

    2016-06-01

    Mimicking the biogeochemical cycle of System Earth, synthetic hydrocarbon fuels are produced from recycled CO2 and H2O powered by renewable energy. Recapturing CO2 after use closes the carbon cycle, rendering the fuel cycle CO2 neutral. Non-equilibrium molecular CO2 vibrations are key to high energy efficiency.

  8. Natural and industrial analogues for release of CO2 from storagereservoirs: Identification of features, events, and processes and lessonslearned

    SciTech Connect

    Lewicki, Jennifer L.; Birkholzer, Jens; Tsang, Chin-Fu

    2006-03-03

    The injection and storage of anthropogenic CO{sub 2} in deep geologic formations is a potentially feasible strategy to reduce CO{sub 2} emissions and atmospheric concentrations. While the purpose of geologic carbon storage is to trap CO{sub 2} underground, CO{sub 2} could migrate away from the storage site into the shallow subsurface and atmosphere if permeable pathways such as well bores or faults are present. Large-magnitude releases of CO{sub 2} have occurred naturally from geologic reservoirs in numerous volcanic, geothermal, and sedimentary basin settings. Carbon dioxide and natural gas have also been released from geologic CO{sub 2} reservoirs and natural gas storage facilities, respectively, due to influences such as well defects and injection/withdrawal processes. These systems serve as natural and industrial analogues for the potential release of CO{sub 2} from geologic storage reservoirs and provide important information about the key features, events, and processes (FEPs) that are associated with releases, as well as the health, safety, and environmental consequences of releases and mitigation efforts that can be applied. We describe a range of natural releases of CO{sub 2} and industrial releases of CO{sub 2} and natural gas in the context of these characteristics. Based on this analysis, several key conclusions can be drawn, and lessons can be learned for geologic carbon storage. First, CO{sub 2} can both accumulate beneath, and be released from, primary and secondary reservoirs with capping units located at a wide range of depths. Both primary and secondary reservoir entrapments for CO{sub 2} should therefore be well characterized at storage sites. Second, many natural releases of CO{sub 2} have been correlated with a specific event that triggered the release, such as magmatic fluid intrusion or seismic activity. The potential for processes that could cause geomechanical damage to sealing cap rocks and trigger the release of CO{sub 2} from a storage

  9. Natural variability of CO2 and O2 fluxes: What can we learn from centuries-long climate models simulations?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Resplandy, L.; Séférian, R.; Bopp, L.

    2015-01-01

    carbon uptake and oxygen content estimates over the past decades suggest that the anthropogenic carbon sink has changed and that the oxygen concentration in the ocean interior has decreased. Although these detected changes appear consistent with those expected from anthropogenic forced climate change, large uncertainties remain in the contribution of natural variability. Using century-long simulations (500-1000 years) of unforced natural variability from six Earth System Models (ESMs), we examine the internally driven natural variability of carbon and oxygen fluxes from interannual to multidecadal time scales. The intensity of natural variability differs between the ESMs, in particular, decadal variability locally accounts for 10-50% of the total variance. Although the variability is higher in all regions with strong climate modes (North Atlantic, North Pacific, etc.), we find that only the Southern Ocean and the tropical Pacific significantly modulate the global fluxes. On (multi)decadal time scales, deep convective events along the Antarctic shelf drive the global fluxes variability by transporting deep carbon-rich/oxygen-depleted waters to the surface and by reducing the sea-ice coverage. On interannual time scales, the global flux is modulated by (1) variations of the upwelling of circumpolar deep waters associated with the southern annular mode in the subpolar Southern Ocean and (2) variations of the equatorial/costal upwelling combined with changes in the solubility-driven fluxes in response to El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) in the tropical Pacific. We discuss the challenges of measuring and detecting long-term trends from a few decade-long records influenced by internal variability.

  10. Nature-Inspired, Highly Durable CO2 Reduction System Consisting of a Binuclear Ruthenium(II) Complex and an Organic Semiconductor Using Visible Light.

    PubMed

    Kuriki, Ryo; Matsunaga, Hironori; Nakashima, Takuya; Wada, Keisuke; Yamakata, Akira; Ishitani, Osamu; Maeda, Kazuhiko

    2016-04-20

    A metal-free organic semiconductor of mesoporous graphitic carbon nitride (C3N4) coupled with a Ru(II) binuclear complex (RuRu') containing photosensitizer and catalytic units selectively reduced CO2 into HCOOH under visible light (λ > 400 nm) in the presence of a suitable electron donor with high durability, even in aqueous solution. Modification of C3N4 with Ag nanoparticles resulted in a RuRu'/Ag/C3N4 photocatalyst that exhibited a very high turnover number (>33000 with respect to the amount of RuRu'), while maintaining high selectivity for HCOOH production (87-99%). This turnover number was 30 times greater than that reported previously using C3N4 modified with a mononuclear Ru(II) complex, and by far the highest among the metal-complex/semiconductor hybrid systems reported to date. The results of photocatalytic reactions, emission decay measurements, and time-resolved infrared spectroscopy indicated that Ag nanoparticles on C3N4 collected electrons having lifetimes of several milliseconds from the conduction band of C3N4, which were transferred to the excited state of RuRu', thereby promoting photocatalytic CO2 reduction driven by two-step photoexcitation of C3N4 and RuRu'. This study also revealed that the RuRu'/Ag/C3N4 hybrid photocatalyst worked efficiently in water containing a proper electron donor, despite the intrinsic hydrophobic nature of C3N4 and low solubility of CO2 in an aqueous environment.

  11. In situ developmental responses of tropical sea urchin larvae to ocean acidification conditions at naturally elevated pCO2 vent sites.

    PubMed

    Lamare, Miles D; Liddy, Michelle; Uthicke, Sven

    2016-11-30

    Laboratory experiments suggest that calcifying developmental stages of marine invertebrates may be the most ocean acidification (OA)-sensitive life-history stage and represent a life-history bottleneck. To better extrapolate laboratory findings to future OA conditions, developmental responses in sea urchin embryos/larvae were compared under ecologically relevant in situ exposures on vent-elevated pCO2 and ambient pCO2 coral reefs in Papua New Guinea. Echinometra embryos/larvae were reared in meshed chambers moored in arrays on either venting reefs or adjacent non-vent reefs. After 24 and 48 h, larval development and morphology were quantified. Compared with controls (mean pH(T) = 7.89-7.92), larvae developing in elevated pCO2 vent conditions (pH(T) = 7.50-7.72) displayed a significant reduction in size and increased abnormality, with a significant correlation of seawater pH with both larval size and larval asymmetry across all experiments. Reciprocal transplants (embryos from vent adults transplanted to control conditions, and vice versa) were also undertaken to identify if adult acclimatization can translate resilience to offspring (i.e. transgenerational processes). Embryos originating from vent adults were, however, no more tolerant to reduced pH. Sea temperature and chlorophyll-a concentrations (i.e. larval nutrition) did not contribute to difference in larval size, but abnormality was correlated with chlorophyll levels. This study is the first to examine the response of marine larvae to OA scenarios in the natural environment where, importantly, we found that stunted and abnormal development observed in situ are consistent with laboratory observations reported in sea urchins, in both the direction and magnitude of the response.

  12. Estimation of continuous anthropogenic CO2 using CO2, CO, δ13C(CO2) and Δ14C(CO2)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vardag, S. N.; Gerbig, C.; Janssens-Maenhout, G.; Levin, I.

    2015-07-01

    We investigate different methods for estimating anthropogenic CO2 using modelled continuous atmospheric concentrations of CO2 alone, as well as CO2 in combination with the surrogate tracers CO, δ13C(CO2) and Δ14C(CO2). These methods are applied at three hypothetical stations representing rural, urban and polluted conditions. We find that independent of the tracer used, an observation-based estimate of continuous anthropogenic CO2 is not feasible at rural measurement sites due to the low signal to noise ratio of anthropogenic CO2 estimates at such settings. At urban and polluted sites, potential future continuous Δ14C(CO2) measurements with a precision of 5 ‰ or better are most promising for anthropogenic CO2 determination (precision ca. 10-20%), but the insensitivity against CO2 contributions from biofuel emissions may reduce its accuracy in the future. Other tracers, such as δ13C(CO2) and CO could provide an accurate and already available alternative if all CO2 sources in the catchment area are well characterized with respect to their isotopic signature and CO to anthropogenic CO2 ratio. We suggest a strategy for calibrating these source characteristics on an annual basis using precise Δ14C(CO2) measurements on grab samples. The precision of anthropogenic CO2 determination using δ13C(CO2) is largely determined by the measurement precision of δ13C(CO2) and CO2. The precision when using the CO-method is mainly limited by the variation of natural CO sources and CO sinks. At present, continuous anthropogenic CO2 could be determined using the tracers δ13C(CO2) and/or CO with a precision of about 30 %, a mean bias of about 10 % and without significant diurnal discrepancies. This allows significant improvement, validation and bias reduction of highly resolved emission inventories using atmospheric observation and regional modelling.

  13. Upgraded biogas from municipal solid waste for natural gas substitution and CO2 reduction--a case study of Austria, Italy, and Spain.

    PubMed

    Starr, Katherine; Villalba, Gara; Gabarrell, Xavier

    2015-04-01

    Biogas is rich in methane and can be further purified through biogas upgrading technologies, presenting a viable alternative to natural gas. Landfills and anaerobic digestors treating municipal solid waste are a large source of such biogas. They therefore offer an attractive opportunity to tap into this potential source of natural gas while at the same time minimizing the global warming impact resulting from methane emissions in waste management schemes (WMS) and fossil fuel consumption reduction. This study looks at the current municipal solid waste flows of Spain, Italy, and Austria over one year (2009), in order to determine how much biogas is generated. Then it examines how much natural gas could be substituted by using four different biogas upgrading technologies. Based on current waste generation rates, exploratory but realistic WMS were created for each country in order to maximize biogas production and potential for natural gas substitution. It was found that the potential substitution of natural gas by biogas resulting from the current WMS seems rather insignificant: 0.2% for Austria, 0.6% for Italy and 0.3% for Spain. However, if the WMS is redesigned to maximize biogas production, these figures can increase to 0.7% for Austria, 1% for Italy and 2% for Spain. Furthermore, the potential CO2 reduction as a consequence of capturing the biogas and replacing fossil fuel can result in up to a 93% reduction of the annual national waste greenhouse gas emissions of Spain and Italy.

  14. Large Releases from CO2 Storage Reservoirs: A Discussion ofNatural Analogs, FEPS, and Modeling Needs

    SciTech Connect

    Birkholzer, J.; Pruess, K.; Lewicki, J.L.; Rutqvist, J.; Tsang,C-F.; Karimjee, A.

    2005-11-01

    While the purpose of geologic storage in deep saline formations is to trap greenhouse gases underground, the potential exists for CO{sub 2} to escape from the target reservoir, migrate upward along permeable pathways, and discharge at the land surface. In this paper, we evaluate the potential for such CO{sub 2} discharges based on the analysis of natural analogs, where large releases of gas have been observed. We are particularly interested in circumstances that could generate sudden, possibly self-enhancing release events. The probability for such events may be low, but the circumstances under which they occur and the potential consequences need to be evaluated in order to design appropriate site-selection and risk-management strategies. Numerical modeling of hypothetical test cases is suggested to determine critical conditions for large CO{sub 2} releases, to evaluate whether such conditions may be possible at designated storage sites, and, if applicable, to evaluate the potential impacts of such events as well as design appropriate mitigation strategies.

  15. Imprints of natural selection along environmental gradients in phenology-related genes of Quercus petraea.

    PubMed

    Alberto, Florian J; Derory, Jérémy; Boury, Christophe; Frigerio, Jean-Marc; Zimmermann, Niklaus E; Kremer, Antoine

    2013-10-01

    We explored single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) variation in candidate genes for bud burst from Quercus petraea populations sampled along gradients of latitude and altitude in Western Europe. SNP diversity was monitored for 106 candidate genes, in 758 individuals from 32 natural populations. We investigated whether SNP variation reflected the clinal pattern of bud burst observed in common garden experiments. We used different methods to detect imprints of natural selection (FST outlier, clinal variation at allelic frequencies, association tests) and compared the results obtained for the two gradients. FST outlier SNPs were found in 15 genes, 5 of which were common to both gradients. The type of selection differed between the two gradients (directional or balancing) for 3 of these 5. Clinal variations were observed for six SNPs, and one cline was conserved across both gradients. Association tests between the phenotypic or breeding values of trees and SNP genotypes identified 14 significant associations, involving 12 genes. The results of outlier detection on the basis of population differentiation or clinal variation were not very consistent with the results of association tests. The discrepancies between these approaches may reflect the different hierarchical levels of selection considered (inter- and intrapopulation selection). Finally, we obtained evidence for convergent selection (similar for gradients) and clinal variation for a few genes, suggesting that comparisons between parallel gradients could be used to screen for major candidate genes responding to natural selection in trees.

  16. Method for tracing simulated CO2 leak in terrestrial environment with a 13CO2 tracer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moni, Christophe; Rasse, Daniel

    2013-04-01

    Facilities for the geological storage of carbon dioxide (CO2) as part of carbon capture and storage (CCS) schemes will be designed to prevent any leakage from the defined 'storage complex'. However, developing regulations and guidance throughout the world (e.g. the EC Directive and the USEPA Vulnerability Evaluation Framework) recognize the importance of assessing the potential for environmental impacts from CO2 storage. RISCS, a European (FP7) project, aims to improve understanding of those impacts that could plausibly occur in the hypothetical case that unexpected leakage occurs. As part of the RISCS project the potential impacts that an unexpected CO2 leaks might have on a cropland ecosystems was investigated. A CO2 exposure field experiment based on CO2 injection at 85 cm depth under an oats culture was designed. To facilitate the characterization of the simulated leaking zone the gas used for injection was produced from natural gas and had a δ13C of -46‰. The aim of the present communication is to depict how the injected gas was traced within the soil-vegetation-atmosphere continuum using 13CO2 continuous cavity ring-down spectrometry (CRDS). Four subsurface experimental injection plots (6m x 3m) were set up. In order to test the effects of different intensity of leakage, the field experiment was designed as to create a longitudinal CO2 gradient for each plot. For this purpose gas supply pipes were inserted at one extremity of each plot at the base of a 45 cm thick layer of sand buried 40 cm below the surface under the clayey plough layer of Norwegian moraine soils. Soil CO2 concentration and isotopic signature were punctually recorded: 1) in the soil at 20 cm depth at 6 positions distributed on the central transect, 2) at the surface following a (50x50 cm) grid sampling pattern, and 3) in the canopy atmosphere at 10, 20, 30 cm along three longitudinal transects (seven sampling point per transect). Soil CO2 fluxes and isotopic signature were finally

  17. Regional-scale advective, diffusive, and eruptive dynamics of CO2 and brine leakage through faults and wellbores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jung, Na-Hyun; Han, Weon Shik; Han, Kyungdoe; Park, Eungyu

    2015-05-01

    Regional-scale advective, diffusive, and eruptive transport dynamics of CO2 and brine within a natural analogue in the northern Paradox Basin, Utah, were explored by integrating numerical simulations with soil CO2 flux measurements. Deeply sourced CO2 migrates through steeply dipping fault zones to the shallow aquifers predominantly as an aqueous phase. Dense CO2-rich brine mixes with regional groundwater, enhancing CO2 dissolution. Linear stability analysis reveals that CO2 could be dissolved completely within only ~500 years. Assigning lower permeability to the fault zones induces fault-parallel movement, feeds up-gradient aquifers with more CO2, and impedes down-gradient fluid flow, developing anticlinal CO2 traps at shallow depths (<300 m). The regional fault permeability that best reproduces field spatial CO2 flux variation is estimated 1 × 10-17 ≤ kh < 1 × 10-16 m2 and 5 × 10-16 ≤ kv < 1 × 10-15 m2. The anticlinal trap serves as an essential fluid source for eruption at Crystal Geyser. Geyser-like discharge sensitively responds to varying well permeability, radius, and CO2 recharge rate. The cyclic behavior of wellbore CO2 leakage decreases with time.

  18. CO2 -Responsive polymers.

    PubMed

    Lin, Shaojian; Theato, Patrick

    2013-07-25

    This Review focuses on the recent progress in the area of CO2 -responsive polymers and provides detailed descriptions of these existing examples. CO2 -responsive polymers can be categorized into three types based on their CO2 -responsive groups: amidine, amine, and carboxyl groups. Compared with traditional temperature, pH, or light stimuli-responsive polymers, CO2 -responsive polymers provide the advantage to use CO2 as a "green" trigger as well as to capture CO2 directly from air. In addition, the current challenges of CO2 -responsive polymers are discussed and the different solution methods are compared. Noteworthy, CO2 -responsive polymers are considered to have a prosperous future in various scientific areas.

  19. Forest succession at elevated CO2

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, James S.; Schlesinger, William H.

    2002-02-01

    We tested hypotheses concerning the response of forest succession to elevated CO2 in the FACTS-1 site at the Duke Forest. We quantified growth and survival of naturally recruited seedlings, tree saplings, vines, and shrubs under ambient and elevated CO2. We planted seeds and seedlings to augment sample sites. We augmented CO2 treatments with estimates of shade tolerance and nutrient limitation while controlling for soil and light effects to place CO2 treatments within the context of natural variability at the site. Results are now being analyzed and used to parameterize forest models of CO2 response.

  20. Selecting CO2 Sources for CO2 Utilization by Environmental-Merit-Order Curves.

    PubMed

    von der Assen, Niklas; Müller, Leonard J; Steingrube, Annette; Voll, Philip; Bardow, André

    2016-02-02

    Capture and utilization of CO2 as alternative carbon feedstock for fuels, chemicals, and materials aims at reducing greenhouse gas emissions and fossil resource use. For capture of CO2, a large variety of CO2 sources exists. Since they emit much more CO2 than the expected demand for CO2 utilization, the environmentally most favorable CO2 sources should be selected. For this purpose, we introduce the environmental-merit-order (EMO) curve to rank CO2 sources according to their environmental impacts over the available CO2 supply. To determine the environmental impacts of CO2 capture, compression and transport, we conducted a comprehensive literature study for the energy demands of CO2 supply, and constructed a database for CO2 sources in Europe. Mapping these CO2 sources reveals that CO2 transport distances are usually small. Thus, neglecting transport in a first step, we find that environmental impacts are minimized by capturing CO2 first from chemical plants and natural gas processing, then from paper mills, power plants, and iron and steel plants. In a second step, we computed regional EMO curves considering transport and country-specific impacts for energy supply. Building upon regional EMO curves, we identify favorable locations for CO2 utilization with lowest environmental impacts of CO2 supply, so-called CO2 oases.

  1. CO2 laser modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Barry

    1992-01-01

    The topics covered include the following: (1) CO2 laser kinetics modeling; (2) gas lifetimes in pulsed CO2 lasers; (3) frequency chirp and laser pulse spectral analysis; (4) LAWS A' Design Study; and (5) discharge circuit components for LAWS. The appendices include LAWS Memos, computer modeling of pulsed CO2 lasers for lidar applications, discharge circuit considerations for pulsed CO2 lidars, and presentation made at the Code RC Review.

  2. Natural leaf senescence: probed by chlorophyll fluorescence, CO2 photosynthetic rate and antioxidant enzyme activities during grain filling in different rice cultivars.

    PubMed

    Panda, Debabrata; Sarkar, Ramani Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Natural leaf senescence was investigated in four rainfed lowland rice cultivars, FR 13A (tolerant to submergence), Sabita and Sarala (adapted to medium depth, 0-50 cm stagnant flooding) and Dengi (conventional farmers' cultivar). Changes in the levels of pigment content, CO2 photosynthetic rate, photosystem II photochemistry and anti-oxidant enzyme activities of flag leaves during grain-filling stage were investigated. Chlorophyll content, photochemical efficiency of photosystem II and CO2 photosynthetic rate decreased significantly with the progress of grain-filling. Likely, the activities of antioxidant enzymes namely, superoxide dismutase, catalase, guaiacol peroxidase and ascorbate peroxidase decreased with progress of grain-filling. A substantial difference was observed among the four cultivars for the sustainability index (SI) of different photosynthetic parameters and antioxidant enzyme activities; SIs of those parameters, in general, were lower in low yielding cultivar FR 13A compared to the other three cultivars. Among the four cultivars Sabita gave maximum grain yield. Yet, SI of Pn was greater in Sarala and Dengi compared to the Sabita. SIs of electron transport (ETo/CS), maximal photochemical efficiency (Fv/Fm), area above Fo and Fm, catalase and ascorbate peroxidase were also greater in Sarala and Dengi. The data showed that among the different Chl a fluorescence parameters, PI could be used with greater accuracy to distinguish slow and fast senescence rice cultivars during grain-filling period. It was concluded that maintaining the vitality of rice plants during grain-filling gave guarantee to synthesize carbohydrate, however greater yield could be realized provided superior yield attributing parameters are present.

  3. Modelling global nitrogen export to ground and surface water from natural ecosystems: impact of N deposition, climate, and CO2 concentration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braakhekke, Maarten; Rebel, Karin; Dekker, Stefan; van Beek, Rens; Bierkens, Marc; Smith, Ben; Wassen, Martin

    2015-04-01

    For large regions in the world strong increases in atmospheric nitrogen (N) deposition are predicted as a result of emissions from fossil fuel combustion and food production. This will cause many previously N limited ecosystems to become N saturated, leading to increased export to ground and surface water and negative impacts on the environment and human health. However, precise N export fluxes are difficult to predict. Due to its strong link to carbon, N in vegetation and soil is also determined by productivity, as affected by rising atmospheric CO2 concentration and temperature, and denitrification. Furthermore, the N concentration of water delivered to streams depends strongly on local hydrological conditions. We aim to study how N delivery to ground and surface water is affected by changes in environmental factors. To this end we are developing a global dynamic modelling system that integrates representations of N cycling in vegetation and soil, and N delivery to ground and surface water. This will be achieved by coupling the dynamic global vegetation model LPJ-GUESS, which includes representations of N cycling, as well as croplands and pasture, to the global water balance model PCR-GLOBWB, which simulates surface runoff, interflow, groundwater recharge, and baseflow. This coupling will allow us to trace N across different systems and estimate the input of N into the riverine system which can be used as input for river biogeochemical models. We will present large scale estimates of N leaching and transport to ground and surface water for natural ecosystems in different biomes, based on a loose coupling of the two models. Furthermore, by means of a factorial model experiment we will explore how these fluxes are influenced by N deposition, temperature, and CO2 concentration.

  4. Egg discrimination along a gradient of natural variation in eggshell coloration

    PubMed Central

    Grim, Tomáš; Igic, Branislav; Samaš, Peter; López, Analía V.; Shawkey, Matthew D.; Hauber, Mark E.

    2017-01-01

    Accurate recognition of salient cues is critical for adaptive responses, but the underlying sensory and cognitive processes are often poorly understood. For example, hosts of avian brood parasites have long been assumed to reject foreign eggs from their nests based on the total degree of dissimilarity in colour to their own eggs, regardless of the foreign eggs' colours. We tested hosts' responses to gradients of natural (blue-green to brown) and artificial (green to purple) egg colours, and demonstrate that hosts base rejection decisions on both the direction and degree of colour dissimilarity along the natural, but not artificial, gradient of egg colours. Hosts rejected brown eggs and accepted blue-green eggs along the natural egg colour gradient, irrespective of the total perceived dissimilarity from their own egg's colour. By contrast, their responses did not vary along the artificial colour gradient. Our results demonstrate that egg recognition is specifically tuned to the natural gradient of avian eggshell colour and suggest a novel decision rule. These results highlight the importance of considering sensory reception and decision rules when studying perception, and illustrate that our understanding of recognition processes benefits from examining natural variation in phenotypes. PMID:28179521

  5. Geographical and environmental drivers of regional differences in the lake pCO2 versus DOC relationship across northern landscapes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lapierre, Jean-François; del Giorgio, Paul A.

    2012-09-01

    Several recent studies have identified dissolved organic carbon (DOC) as playing a key role in determining surface water partial pressure of CO2 (pCO2) in northern lakes and, in particular, in shaping the commonly observed patterns of CO2 supersaturation. The nature of this role is unclear, however, and appears to vary regionally, as evidenced by the contrasting strength and shape of the diverse pCO2 versus DOC (pCO2-DOC) relationships. Here we combine original data on lakepCO2 from six boreal and temperate regions of Québec (Canada) with 13 studies from northern temperate and boreal aquatic landscapes published in the past 15 years to explore the factors that explain the differences in regional pCO2 baselines (pCO2 at low DOC) and in the slopes of the pCO2-DOC relationships. Mean elevation was the best predictor of the regionalpCO2 baselines, suggesting that lake position in the landscape determines the contribution of terrestrially derived CO2 to lake pCO2. In contrast, the slope of the pCO2-DOC relationships was strongly negatively correlated to the mean regional TP:DOC ratio. The relationship between DOC and TP varied at the cross-regional scale, and there was a large increase in the TP:DOC ratio at TP > 20μg L-1, resulting in negative slopes of the pCO2-DOC relationships for regions situated in that part of the TP gradient. These results highlight the interplay that exists between geographical gradients, large-scale biogeochemical patterns in regional lake trophic status, and the associated metabolic balance in determiningpCO2 dynamics in northern lakes.

  6. Fluid-rock interactions in CO2-saturated, granite-hosted geothermal systems: Implications for natural and engineered systems from geochemical experiments and models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lo Ré, Caroline; Kaszuba, John P.; Moore, Joseph N.; McPherson, Brian J.

    2014-09-01

    Hydrothermal experiments were conducted and geochemical models constructed to evaluate the geochemical and mineralogical response of fractured granite and granite + epidote in contact with thermal water, with and without supercritical CO2, at 250 °C and 25-45 MPa. Illite ± smectite ± zeolite(?) precipitate as secondary minerals at the expense of K-feldspar, oligoclase, and epidote. Illite precipitates in experiments reacting granite and granite + epidote with water; metastable smectite forms in the experiments injected with supercritical CO2. Waters are supersaturated with respect to quartz and saturated with respect to chalcedony in CO2-charged experiments, but neither mineral formed. Carbonate formation is predicted for experiments injected with supercritical CO2, but carbonate only formed during cooling and degassing of the granite + epidote + CO2 experiment. Experimental results provide insight into the buffering capacity of granites as well as the drivers of clay formation. Metastable smectite in the experiments is attributed to high water-rock ratios, high silica activities, and high CO2 and magnesium-iron concentrations. Smectite precipitation in supercritical CO2-bearing geothermal systems may affect reservoir permeability. Silicate formation may create or thicken caps within or on the edges of geothermal reservoirs. Carbonate formation, as desired for carbon sequestration projects coinciding with geothermal systems, may require extended periods of time; cooling and degassing of CO2-saturated waters leads to carbonate precipitation, potentially plugging near-surface production pathways.

  7. CO2 transport over complex terrain

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sun, Jielun; Burns, Sean P.; Delany, A.C.; Oncley, S.P.; Turnipseed, A.A.; Stephens, B.B.; Lenschow, D.H.; LeMone, M.A.; Monson, Russell K.; Anderson, D.E.

    2007-01-01

    CO2 transport processes relevant for estimating net ecosystem exchange (NEE) at the Niwot Ridge AmeriFlux site in the front range of the Rocky Mountains, Colorado, USA, were investigated during a pilot experiment. We found that cold, moist, and CO2-rich air was transported downslope at night and upslope in the early morning at this forest site situated on a ???5% east-facing slope. We found that CO2 advection dominated the total CO2 transport in the NEE estimate at night although there are large uncertainties because of partial cancellation of horizontal and vertical advection. The horizontal CO2 advection captured not only the CO2 loss at night, but also the CO2 uptake during daytime. We found that horizontal CO2 advection was significant even during daytime especially when turbulent mixing was not significant, such as in early morning and evening transition periods and within the canopy. Similar processes can occur anywhere regardless of whether flow is generated by orography, synoptic pressure gradients, or surface heterogeneity as long as CO2 concentration is not well mixed by turbulence. The long-term net effect of all the CO2 budget terms on estimates of NEE needs to be investigated. ?? 2007 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Large natural pH, CO2 and O2 fluctuations in a temperate tidal salt marsh on diel, seasonal, and interannual time scales

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Baumann, Hannes; Wallace, Ryan; Tagliaferri, Tristen N.; Gobler, Christopher J.

    2014-01-01

    Coastal marine organisms experience dynamic pH and dissolved oxygen (DO) conditions in their natural habitats, which may impact their susceptibility to long-term anthropogenic changes. Robust characterizations of all temporal scales of natural pH and DO fluctuations in different marine habitats are needed; however, appropriate time series of pH and DO are still scarce. We used multiyear (2008–2012), high-frequency (6 min) monitoring data to quantify diel, seasonal, and interannual scales of pH and DO variability in a productive, temperate tidal salt marsh (Flax Pond, Long Island, US). pHNBS and DO showed strong and similar seasonal patterns, with average (minimum) conditions declining from 8.2 (8.1) and 12.5 (11.4) mg l−1 at the end of winter to 7.6 (7.2) and 6.3 (2.8) mg l−1 in late summer, respectively. Concomitantly, average diel fluctuations increased from 0.22 and 2.2 mg l−1 (February) to 0.74 and 6.5 mg l−1 (August), respectively. Diel patterns were modulated by tides and time of day, eliciting the most extreme minima when low tides aligned with the end of the night. Simultaneous in situ pCO2 measurements showed striking fluctuations between ∼330 and ∼1,200 (early May), ∼2,200 (mid June), and ∼4,000 μatm (end of July) within single tidal cycles. These patterns also indicate that the marsh’s strong net heterotrophy influences its adjacent estuary by ‘outwelling’ acidified and hypoxic water during ebb tides. Our analyses emphasize the coupled and fluctuating nature of pH and DO conditions in productive coastal and estuarine environments, which have yet to be adequately represented by experiments.

  9. The Galapagos archipelago: A natural laboratory to examine sharp hydroclimatic, geologic and anthropogenic gradients

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Percy, Madelyn; Schmitt, Sarah; Riveros-Iregui, Diego; Mirus, Benjamin B.

    2016-01-01

    Poor understanding of the water cycle in tropical ecosystems has the potential to exacerbate water shortages and water crises in the region. We suggest that the Galápagos Islands provide an excellent proxy to regions across the tropics as a result of sharp hydroclimatic, anthropogenic, and pedohydrologic gradients across the archipelago. Hydroclimatic and pedohydrologic gradients are found across different elevations on single islands, as well as across the archipelago, whereas anthropogenic gradients reflect land use and land cover change across islands as population and growth in tourism have affected individual islands differently. This article highlights specific opportunities to further examine our understanding of the interactions between water and critical zone processes in tropical ecosystems, making connections between the Galápagos archipelago and much of the understudied tropics. The Galápagos archipelago offers a natural laboratory through which we can examine current threats to freshwater security as well as the dynamics of coupled natural and human systems.

  10. Fundamental study of CO2-H2O-mineral interactions for carbon sequestration, with emphasis on the nature of the supercritical fluid-mineral interface.

    SciTech Connect

    Bryan, Charles R.; Dewers, Thomas A.; Heath, Jason E.; Wang, Yifeng; Matteo, Edward N.; Meserole, Stephen P.; Tallant, David Robert

    2013-09-01

    In the supercritical CO2-water-mineral systems relevant to subsurface CO2 sequestration, interfacial processes at the supercritical fluid-mineral interface will strongly affect core- and reservoir-scale hydrologic properties. Experimental and theoretical studies have shown that water films will form on mineral surfaces in supercritical CO2, but will be thinner than those that form in vadose zone environments at any given matric potential. The theoretical model presented here allows assessment of water saturation as a function of matric potential, a critical step for evaluating relative permeabilities the CO2 sequestration environment. The experimental water adsorption studies, using Quartz Crystal Microbalance and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy methods, confirm the major conclusions of the adsorption/condensation model. Additional data provided by the FTIR study is that CO2 intercalation into clays, if it occurs, does not involve carbonate or bicarbonate formation, or significant restriction of CO2 mobility. We have shown that the water film that forms in supercritical CO2 is reactive with common rock-forming minerals, including albite, orthoclase, labradorite, and muscovite. The experimental data indicate that reactivity is a function of water film thickness; at an activity of water of 0.9, the greatest extent of reaction in scCO2 occurred in areas (step edges, surface pits) where capillary condensation thickened the water films. This suggests that dissolution/precipitation reactions may occur preferentially in small pores and pore throats, where it may have a disproportionately large effect on rock hydrologic properties. Finally, a theoretical model is presented here that describes the formation and movement of CO2 ganglia in porous media, allowing assessment of the effect of pore size and structural heterogeneity on capillary trapping efficiency. The model results also suggest possible engineering approaches for optimizing trapping capacity and for

  11. Amine scrubbing for CO2 capture.

    PubMed

    Rochelle, Gary T

    2009-09-25

    Amine scrubbing has been used to separate carbon dioxide (CO2) from natural gas and hydrogen since 1930. It is a robust technology and is ready to be tested and used on a larger scale for CO2 capture from coal-fired power plants. The minimum work requirement to separate CO2 from coal-fired flue gas and compress CO2 to 150 bar is 0.11 megawatt-hours per metric ton of CO2. Process and solvent improvements should reduce the energy consumption to 0.2 megawatt-hour per ton of CO2. Other advanced technologies will not provide energy-efficient or timely solutions to CO2 emission from conventional coal-fired power plants.

  12. CO2 laser resurfacing.

    PubMed

    Fitzpatrick, R E

    2001-07-01

    The CO2 Laser offers a variety of unique features in resurfacing facial photodamage and acne scarring. These include hemostasis, efficient removal of the epidermis in a single pass, thermally induced tissue tightening, and safe, predictable tissue interaction. Knowledge of these mechanisms will result in the capability of using the CO2 laser effectively and safely whether the goal is superficial or deep treatment.

  13. CO2 blood test

    MedlinePlus

    Bicarbonate test; HCO3-; Carbon dioxide test; TCO2; Total CO2; CO2 test - serum ... Many medicines can interfere with blood test results. Your health care provider will tell you if you need to stop taking any medicines before you have this test. DO ...

  14. Outsourcing CO2 Emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, S. J.; Caldeira, K. G.

    2009-12-01

    CO2 emissions from the burning of fossil fuels are the primary cause of global warming. Much attention has been focused on the CO2 directly emitted by each country, but relatively little attention has been paid to the amount of emissions associated with consumption of goods and services in each country. This consumption-based emissions inventory differs from the production-based inventory because of imports and exports of goods and services that, either directly or indirectly, involved CO2 emissions. Using the latest available data and reasonable assumptions regarding trans-shipment of embodied carbon through third-party countries, we developed a global consumption-based CO2 emissions inventory and have calculated associated consumption-based energy and carbon intensities. We find that, in 2004, 24% of CO2 emissions are effectively outsourced to other countries, with much of the developed world outsourcing CO2 emissions to emerging markets, principally China. Some wealthy countries, including Switzerland and Sweden, outsource over half of their consumption-based emissions, with many northern Europeans outsourcing more than three tons of emissions per person per year. The United States is both a big importer and exporter of emissions embodied in trade, outsourcing >2.6 tons of CO2 per person and at the same time as >2.0 tons of CO2 per person are outsourced to the United States. These large flows indicate that CO2 emissions embodied in trade must be taken into consideration when considering responsibility for increasing atmospheric greenhouse gas concentrations.

  15. Quantification of Natural Gradient Flow Using Active Fiber Optic DTS in Sealed Boreholes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coleman, T. I.; Parker, B. L.; Munn, J. D.; Chalari, A.; Mondanos, M.

    2014-12-01

    Temperature has been used for many years to characterize flow in fractured rock systems. Fiber-optic distributed temperature sensing (DTS) was adopted by the oil/gas industry over two decades ago for monitoring processes in deep fractured rock environments. Improvements in DTS system resolutions, methodology advancements, and improved data processing techniques have caused recent popularity for shallow fractured rock hydrogeologic applications. A powerful advance in DTS methodology is the use of response data collected during active cable heating. When applied to borehole applications active heating creates a thermal disequilibrium in the aquifer system that enhances the detection of groundwater flow. Active DTS has been applied to open borehole environments; however, characterization methods based on open borehole measurements are limited in that only the effects of unnatural flow (i.e. vertical cross-connection and redistribution of flow creating local, induced flows) can be observed. To characterize natural gradient flow processes borehole effects need to be minimized.The literature shows borehole sealing using flexible impervious fabric liners creates a static water column in the well that eliminates the negative effects of cross-connection. Measurements in this sealed environment have been shown by others to be representative of natural gradient flow conditions, rather than the conditions created by the borehole short circuiting units or fractures with varying hydraulic head. A new method for flow system characterization using active DTS in sealed boreholes has been developed with excellent prospects for quantitation of natural gradient groundwater fluxes and related hydraulic properties. This project demonstrates the utility of using an analytical solution for calculating apparent thermal conductivities and natural gradient groundwater fluxes at depth-discrete intervals observed continuously along a borehole using active DTS. Groundwater flux data can then be

  16. The CO2nnect activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eugenia, Marcu

    2014-05-01

    Climate change is one of the biggest challenges we face today. A first step is the understanding the problem, more exactly what is the challenge and the differences people can make. Pupils need a wide competencies to meet the challenges of sustainable development - including climate change. The CO2nnect activities are designed to support learning which can provide pupils the abilities, skills, attitudes and awareness as well as knowledge and understanding of the issues. The project "Together for a clean and healthy world" is part of "The Global Educational Campaign CO2nnect- CO2 on the way to school" and it was held in our school in the period between February and October 2009. It contained a variety of curricular and extra-curricular activities, adapted to students aged from 11 to 15. These activities aimed to develop in students the necessary skills to understanding man's active role in improving the quality of the environment, putting an end to its degrading process and to reducing the effects of climate changes caused by the human intervention in nature, including transport- a source of CO2 pollution. The activity which I propose can be easily adapted to a wide range of age groups and linked to the curricula of many subjects: - Investigate CO2 emissions from travel to school -Share the findings using an international database -Compare and discuss CO2 emissions -Submit questions to a climate- and transport expert -Partner with other schools -Meet with people in your community to discuss emissions from transport Intended learning outcomes for pupils who participate in the CO2nnect campaign are: Understanding of the interconnected mobility- and climate change issue climate change, its causes and consequences greenhouse-gas emissions from transport and mobility the interlinking of social, environmental, cultural and economic aspects of the local transport system how individual choices and participation can contribute to creating a more sustainable development

  17. Trend analysis of CO2 and CH4 recorded at a semi-natural site in the northern plateau of the Iberian Peninsula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pérez, Isidro A.; Sánchez, M. Luisa; García, M. Ángeles; Pardo, Nuria

    2017-02-01

    CO2 and CH4 were recorded from October 2010 to February 2016 with a Picarro G1301 analyser at the centre of the upper plateau of the Iberian Peninsula. Large CO2 values were observed during the vegetation growing season, and were reinforced by the stable boundary layer during the night. Annual CH4 evolution may be explained by ecosystem activity and by the dispersion linked with the evolution of the boundary layer. Their trends were studied using an equation that considers one polynomial and one harmonic part. The polynomial part revealed an increasing trend from 0.8 to 2.3 ppm year-1 for CO2 and from 0.004 to 0.011 ppm year-1 for CH4. The harmonic part considered four harmonics whose amplitudes were noticeable for the first and second harmonics for CO2 and for the first harmonic for CH4. Long-term evolution was similar with alternative equations. Finally, seasonal study indicated summer minima for both gases, which may be explained by the lack of vegetation in this season. Harmonic analysis showed two maxima for CO2, one in spring linked with vegetation growth, which decreased with time, and another in autumn related with the onset of plant activity after the summer, which increased with time. CH4 presented only one maximum in winter and a short time with steady concentration in spring where the evolution of the boundary layer may play a noticeable role. The harmonic equation, which takes into account all the observations, revealed opposite behaviour between CO2, whose minima decreased, and CH4, whose maxima increased.

  18. Synthetic biology for CO2 fixation.

    PubMed

    Gong, Fuyu; Cai, Zhen; Li, Yin

    2016-11-01

    Recycling of carbon dioxide (CO2) into fuels and chemicals is a potential approach to reduce CO2 emission and fossil-fuel consumption. Autotrophic microbes can utilize energy from light, hydrogen, or sulfur to assimilate atmospheric CO2 into organic compounds at ambient temperature and pressure. This provides a feasible way for biological production of fuels and chemicals from CO2 under normal conditions. Recently great progress has been made in this research area, and dozens of CO2-derived fuels and chemicals have been reported to be synthesized by autotrophic microbes. This is accompanied by investigations into natural CO2-fixation pathways and the rapid development of new technologies in synthetic biology. This review first summarizes the six natural CO2-fixation pathways reported to date, followed by an overview of recent progress in the design and engineering of CO2-fixation pathways as well as energy supply patterns using the concept and tools of synthetic biology. Finally, we will discuss future prospects in biological fixation of CO2.

  19. The heat capacity of a natural monticellite and phase equilibria in the system CaO-MgO-SiO2-CO2

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sharp, Z.D.; Essene, E.J.; Anovitz, Lawrence M.; Metz, G.W.; Westrum, E.F.; Hemingway, B.S.; Valley, J.W.

    1986-01-01

    The heat capacity of a natural monticellite (Ca1.00Mg.09Fe.91Mn.01Si0.99O3.99) measured between 9.6 and 343 K using intermittent-heating, adiabatic calorimetry yields Cp0(298) and S2980 of 123.64 ?? 0.18 and 109.44 ?? 0.16 J ?? mol-1 K-1 respectively. Extrapolation of this entropy value to end-member monticellite results in an S0298 = 108.1 ?? 0.2 J ?? mol-1 K-1. High-temperature heat-capacity data were measured between 340-1000 K with a differential scanning calorimeter. The high-temperature data were combined with the 290-350 K adiabatic values, extrapolated to 1700 K, and integrated to yield the following entropy equation for end-member monticellite (298-1700 K): ST0(J ?? mol-1 K-1) = S2980 + 164.79 In T + 15.337 ?? 10-3 T + 22.791 ?? 105 T-2 - 968.94. Phase equilibria in the CaO-MgO-SiO2 system were calculated from 973 to 1673 K and 0 to 12 kbar with these new data combined with existing data for akermanite (Ak), diopside (Di), forsterite (Fo), merwinite (Me) and wollastonite (Wo). The location of the calculated reactions involving the phases Mo and Fo is affected by their mutual solid solution. A best fit of the thermodynamically generated curves to all experiments is made when the S0298 of Me is 250.2 J ?? mol-1 K-1 less than the measured value of 253.2 J ?? mol-1 K-1. A best fit to the reversals for the solid-solid and decarbonation reactions in the CaO-MgO-SiO2-CO2 system was obtained with the ??G0298 (kJ ?? mole-1) for the phases Ak(-3667), Di(-3025), Fo(-2051), Me(-4317) and Mo(-2133). The two invariant points - Wo and -Fo for the solid-solid reactions are located at 1008 ?? 5 K and 6.3 ?? 0.1 kbar, and 1361 ?? 10 K and 10.2 ?? 0.2 kbar respectively. The location of the thermodynamically generated curves is in excellent agreement with most experimental data on decarbonation equilibria involving these phases. ?? 1986.

  20. A note on the recent natural gradient tracer test at the Borden site

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Naff, R.L.; Yeh, T.-C.J.; Kemblowski, M.W.

    1988-01-01

    The variance in particle position, a measure of dispersion, is reviewed in the context of certain models of flow in random porous media. Asymptotic results for a highly stratified medium and an isotropic medium are particularly highlighted. Results of the natural gradient tracer test at the Borden site are reviewed in light of these models. This review suggests that the moments obtained for the conservative tracers could as well be explained by a model that more explicitly represents the three-dimensional nature of the flow field. -Authors

  1. Quantifying the "chamber effect" in CO2 flux measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vihermaa, Leena; Childs, Amy; Long, Hazel; Waldron, Susan

    2014-05-01

    The significance of aquatic CO2 emissions has received attention in recent years. For example annual aquatic emissions in the Amazon basin have been estimated as 500 Mt of carbon1. Methods for determining the flux rates include eddy covariance flux tower measurements, flux estimates calculated from partial pressure of CO2 (pCO2) in water and the use floating flux chambers connected to an infra-red gas analyser. The flux chamber method is often used because it is portable, cheaper and allows smaller scale measurements. It is also a direct method and hence avoids problems related to the estimation of the gas transfer coefficient that is required when fluxes are calculated from pCO2. However, the use of a floating chamber may influence the flux measurements obtained. The chamber shields the water underneath from effects of wind which could lead to lower flux estimates. Wind increases the flux rate by i) causing waves which increase the surface area for efflux, and ii) removing CO2 build up above the water surface, hence maintaining a higher concentration gradient. Many floating chambers have an underwater extension of the chamber below the float to ensure better seal to water surface and to prevent any ingress of atmospheric air when waves rock the chamber. This extension may cause additional turbulence in flowing water and hence lead to overestimation of flux rates. Some groups have also used a small fan in the chamber headspace to ensure thorough mixing of air in the chamber. This may create turbulence inside the chamber which could increase the flux rate. Here we present results on the effects of different chamber designs on the detected flux rates. 1Richey et al. 2002. Outgassing from Amazonian rivers and wetlands as a large tropical source of atmospheric CO2. Nature 416: 617-620.

  2. Fourier Transform Microwave Spectra of CO{2}-ETHYLENE Sulfide, CO{2}-ETHYLENE Oxide and CO{2}-PROPYLENE Oxide Complexes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orita, Yukari; Kawashima, Yoshiyuki; Hirota, Eizi

    2010-06-01

    We have previously examined the difference in roles of O and S in structure and dynamics of the CO-ethylene oxide (EO) and CO-ethylene sulfide (ES) complexes. We have extended the investigation to CO{2}-EO and CO{2}-ES for comparison. We have also observed the CO{2}-propylene oxide (PO) complex, which is an important intermediate in the reaction of PO with CO{2} leading to polycarbonate. Both a-type and b-type transitions were observed for the CO{2}-EO and CO{2}-ES, but no c-type transitions were observed at all. We also detected the {34}S and {13}C isotopic species in natural abundance and the species containing {18}OCO and C{18}O% {2}, which were synthesized by burning paper in an {18}O{2} and{% 16}O{2} mixture. By analyzing the observed spectra we concluded the CO{2} moiety of CO{2}-EO and CO{2}-ES located in a plane % prependicular to the three-membered ring and bisecting the COC or CSC angle of EO or ES, respectively, as in the case of CO-EO and CO-ES complexes. An % ab initio MO calculation at the level of MP2/6-311G(d, p) yielded an optimized structure in good agreement with the experimental result. We have derived from the observed spectra the distance, the stretching force constant, and the binding energy of the bonds between the constituents of the CO{2}-EO and CO{2}-ES complexes and have found that the distances of the two complexes were shorter by 0.2Å than those in CO-EO and CO-ES, respectively, and that the intermolecular bonds were two times stronger in the CO{2} complexes than in the corresponding CO complexes. We have concluded from the observed spectra that the CO{2} moiety in CO{2}-PO is located on the PO three-membered ring plane opposite to the methyl group. The constituents in CO{2}-PO were more weakly bound than those in CO{2}-EO and CO{2}-ES. S. Sato, Y. Kawashima, Y. Tatamitani, and E. Hirota, 63rd International Symposium on Molecular Spectroscopy, WF05 (2008).

  3. Carbon balance, partitioning and photosynthetic acclimation in fruit-bearing grapevine (Vitis vinifera L. cv. Tempranillo) grown under simulated climate change (elevated CO2, elevated temperature and moderate drought) scenarios in temperature gradient greenhouses.

    PubMed

    Salazar-Parra, Carolina; Aranjuelo, Iker; Pascual, Inmaculada; Erice, Gorka; Sanz-Sáez, Álvaro; Aguirreolea, Jone; Sánchez-Díaz, Manuel; Irigoyen, Juan José; Araus, José Luis; Morales, Fermín

    2015-02-01

    Although plant performance under elevated CO2 has been extensively studied in the past little is known about photosynthetic performance changing simultaneously CO2, water availability and temperature conditions. Moreover, despite of its relevancy in crop responsiveness to elevated CO2 conditions, plant level C balance is a topic that, comparatively, has received little attention. In order to test responsiveness of grapevine photosynthetic apparatus to predicted climate change conditions, grapevine (Vitis vinifera L. cv. Tempranillo) fruit-bearing cuttings were exposed to different CO2 (elevated, 700ppm vs. ambient, ca. 400ppm), temperature (ambient vs. elevated, ambient +4°C) and irrigation levels (partial vs. full irrigation). Carbon balance was followed monitoring net photosynthesis (AN, C gain), respiration (RD) and photorespiration (RL) (C losses). Modification of environment (13)C isotopic composition (δ(13)C) under elevated CO2 (from -10.30 to -24.93‰) enabled the further characterization of C partitioning into roots, cuttings, shoots, petioles, leaves, rachides and berries. Irrespective of irrigation level and temperature, exposure to elevated CO2 induced photosynthetic acclimation of plants. C/N imbalance reflected the inability of plants grown at 700ppm CO2 to develop strong C sinks. Partitioning of labeled C to storage organs (main stem and roots) did not avoid accumulation of labeled photoassimilates in leaves, affecting negatively Rubisco carboxylation activity. The study also revealed that, after 20 days of treatment, no oxidative damage to chlorophylls or carotenoids was observed, suggesting a protective role of CO2 either at current or elevated temperatures against the adverse effect of water stress.

  4. Electrochemical energy generation from natural and synthetic salinity gradients using reverse electrodialysis and capacitive mixing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hatzell, Marta C.

    Salinity gradient energy (SGE) technologies are emerging systems designed to recover energy from engineered and natural mixing processes. Two electricity producing SGE systems are reverse electrodialysis (RED) and capacitive mixing (CapMix). RED captures mixing energy using a series of ion exchange membranes that drive electrochemical reactions at redox electrodes. CapMix utilizes polarizable electrodes to store charge in the surfaces electric double layer (EDL). Energy generation can then occur when the EDL is expanded and compressed in different concentration solutions. The use of themolytic salt solutions (e.g. ammonium bicarbonate--AmB) within a RED system is promising, as AmB can be regenerated using low-grade waste--heat (e.g. 40--60°C). One disadvantage to using AmB is the potential for gas bubbles (CO2, NH3) to form within the stack. Accumulation of bubbles can impede ion migration, and reduce system performance. The management and minimization of gaseous bubbles in RED flow fields is an important operational issue, and has not previously been addressed within RED literature. Flow field design with and without spacers in a RED stack was analyzed to determine how fluid flow and geometry effected the accumulation and removal of bubbles. In addition, the performance changes, in terms of power and resistance were measured in the presence of bubbles. Gaseous bubble accumulation was minimized using short vertically aligned channels, which resulted in a reduction in the amount of the membrane area which was restricted due to bubbles from ~20% to 7%. The stack power density improved by 12% when all gaseous bubbles were removed from the cell. AmB-RED systems can potentially produce hydrogen or electrical energy through altering the cathodic reaction. With a kinetically favorable cathodic reaction (oxygen reduction reaction), the projected electrical energy generated by a single pass AmB--RED system approached 78 Wh per m--3 (low concentrate). However, when RED was

  5. Soil bacterial endemism and potential functional redundancy in natural broadleaf forest along a latitudinal gradient

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yuguang; Cong, Jing; Lu, Hui; Deng, Ye; Liu, Xiao; Zhou, Jizhong; Li, Diqiang

    2016-06-01

    Microorganisms play key roles in ecosystem processes and biogeochemical cycling, however, the relationship between soil microbial taxa diversity and their function in natural ecosystems is largely unknown. To determine how soil bacteria community and function are linked from the local to regional scale, we studied soil bacteria community composition, potential function and environmental conditions in natural and mature broadleaf forests along a latitudinal gradient in China, using the Illumina 16S rRNA sequencing and GeoChip technologies. The results showed strong biogeographic endemism pattern in soil bacteria were existed, and the spatial distance and climatic variables were the key controlling factors for this pattern. Therefore, dispersal limitation and environmental selection may represent two key processes in generating and maintaining the soil bacterial biogeographic pattern. By contrast, the soil bacterial potential function is highly convergent along the latitudinal gradient and there were highly differing bacterial community compositions, and the soil chemistry may include the main factors active in shaping the soil bacterial potential function. Therefore, the soil bacterial potential function may be affected by local gradients in resource availability, and predicting soil bacterial potential function requires knowledge of abiotic and biotic environmental factors.

  6. Soil bacterial endemism and potential functional redundancy in natural broadleaf forest along a latitudinal gradient

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yuguang; Cong, Jing; Lu, Hui; Deng, Ye; Liu, Xiao; Zhou, Jizhong; Li, Diqiang

    2016-01-01

    Microorganisms play key roles in ecosystem processes and biogeochemical cycling, however, the relationship between soil microbial taxa diversity and their function in natural ecosystems is largely unknown. To determine how soil bacteria community and function are linked from the local to regional scale, we studied soil bacteria community composition, potential function and environmental conditions in natural and mature broadleaf forests along a latitudinal gradient in China, using the Illumina 16S rRNA sequencing and GeoChip technologies. The results showed strong biogeographic endemism pattern in soil bacteria were existed, and the spatial distance and climatic variables were the key controlling factors for this pattern. Therefore, dispersal limitation and environmental selection may represent two key processes in generating and maintaining the soil bacterial biogeographic pattern. By contrast, the soil bacterial potential function is highly convergent along the latitudinal gradient and there were highly differing bacterial community compositions, and the soil chemistry may include the main factors active in shaping the soil bacterial potential function. Therefore, the soil bacterial potential function may be affected by local gradients in resource availability, and predicting soil bacterial potential function requires knowledge of abiotic and biotic environmental factors. PMID:27357005

  7. Determination of free Zn2+ concentration in synthetic and natural samples with AGNES (Absence of Gradients and Nernstian Equilibrium Stripping) and DMT (Donnan Membrane Technique).

    PubMed

    Chito, Diana; Weng, Liping; Galceran, Josep; Companys, Encarnació; Puy, Jaume; van Riemsdijk, Willem H; van Leeuwen, Herman P

    2012-04-01

    The determination of free Zn(2+) ion concentration is a key in the study of environmental systems like river water and soils, due to its impact on bioavailability and toxicity. AGNES (Absence of Gradients and Nernstian Equilibrium Stripping) and DMT (Donnan Membrane Technique) are emerging techniques suited for the determination of free heavy metal concentrations, especially in the case of Zn(2+), given that there is no commercial Ion Selective Electrode. In this work, both techniques have been applied to synthetic samples (containing Zn and NTA) and natural samples (Rhine river water and soils), showing good agreement. pH fluctuations in DMT and N(2)/CO(2) purging system used in AGNES did not affect considerably the measurements done in Rhine river water and soil samples. Results of DMT in situ of Rhine river water are comparable to those of AGNES in the lab. The comparison of this work provides a cross-validation for both techniques.

  8. Effects of nutrient supply on intrinsic water-use efficiency of temperate semi-natural grassland under rising atmospheric CO2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koehler, I. H.; MacDonald, A.; Poulton, P.; Auerswald, K.; Schnyder, H.

    2010-12-01

    C3 plants generally increase photosynthesis (A) and decrease stomatal conductance (gs) under elevated CO2 [1]. However, nitrogen limitation has been shown to constrain the response of A [2] and could thus limit the increase in intrinsic water-use efficiency Wi. Stable carbon isotope studies on trees have shown that Wi increased in forests during the last century. Recently we showed that Wi has also increased in nutrient limited grassland ecosystems [3, 4]. We have now examined a 50 year-long record of Wi from community-level carbon isotope discrimination (13Δ) derived from archived hay and herbage samples (Park Grass Continuous Hay Experiment, Rothamsted, England [5]). We tested the hypothesis that plant responses to increasing atmospheric CO2 have resulted in a greater increase in Wi where plants received adequate nutrient inputs, because of the expected stronger increase in A with higher nutrient supply. We examined whether the response to rising CO2 was uniform across fertilizer treatments. Archived samples from five plots on Park Grass with different annual fertilizer applications (1. No N or PK; 2. 48 kg N ha-1, No PK; 3. No N +PK; 4. 48 kg N ha-1 +PK; 5. 96 kg N ha-1 +PK), covering the 1960 - 2009 period, were used. During the study period, atmospheric CO2 concentration increased by 22%. 13Δ was calculated from carbon isotope composition δ13C (= [(Rsample/Rstandard) - 1], with R the 13C/12C ratio in the sample or standard). 13Δ is a proxy of the leaf-level coupling of CO2 and transpiration fluxes, and a measure of Wi, with Wi = A/gs = ca (1 - ci / ca) / 1.6 and ci / ca = (13Δ - a) / (b - a), (a=4.4‰, b=27‰). Linear regression showed significant 13Δ increases: 0.1‰ per 10 ppm CO2 increase on the control (P<0.05), the PK treatment (P<0.001) and the low N, PK treatment (P<0.05). On the low N treatment, the increase was only significant at the 10% level. On the high N, PK treatment 13Δ increased by 0.04‰ per 10 ppm, but this was not significant (P

  9. Natural convection in binary gases driven by combined horizontal thermal and vertical solutal gradients

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weaver, J. A.; Viskanta, Raymond

    1992-01-01

    An investigation of natural convection is presented to examine the influence of a horizontal temperature gradient and a concentration gradient occurring from the bottom to the cold wall in a cavity. As the solutal buoyancy force changes from augmenting to opposing the thermal buoyancy force, the fluid motion switches from unicellular to multicellular flow (fluid motion is up the cold wall and down the hot wall for the bottom counterrotating flow cell). Qualitatively, the agreement between predicted streamlines and smoke flow patterns is generally good. In contrast, agreement between measured and predicted temperature and concentration distributions ranges from fair to poor. Part of the discrepancy can be attributed to experimental error. However, there remains considerable discrepancy between data and predictions due to the idealizations of the mathematical model, which examines only first-order physical effects. An unsteady flow, variable thermophysical properties, conjugate effects, species interdiffusion, and radiation were not accounted for in the model.

  10. CO2-neutral fuels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goede, A. P. H.

    2015-08-01

    The need for storage of renewable energy (RE) generated by photovoltaic, concentrated solar and wind arises from the fact that supply and demand are ill-matched both geographically and temporarily. This already causes problems of overcapacity and grid congestion in countries where the fraction of RE exceeds the 20% level. A system approach is needed, which focusses not only on the energy source, but includes conversion, storage, transport, distribution, use and, last but not least, the recycling of waste. Furthermore, there is a need for more flexibility in the energy system, rather than relying on electrification, integration with other energy systems, for example the gas network, would yield a system less vulnerable to failure and better adapted to requirements. For example, long-term large-scale storage of electrical energy is limited by capacity, yet needed to cover weekly to seasonal demand. This limitation can be overcome by coupling the electricity net to the gas system, considering the fact that the Dutch gas network alone has a storage capacity of 552 TWh, sufficient to cover the entire EU energy demand for over a month. This lecture explores energy storage in chemicals bonds. The focus is on chemicals other than hydrogen, taking advantage of the higher volumetric energy density of hydrocarbons, in this case methane, which has an approximate 3.5 times higher volumetric energy density. More importantly, it allows the ready use of existing gas infrastructure for energy storage, transport and distribution. Intermittent wind electricity generated is converted into synthetic methane, the Power to Gas (P2G) scheme, by splitting feedstock CO2 and H2O into synthesis gas, a mixture of CO and H2. Syngas plays a central role in the synthesis of a range of hydrocarbon products, including methane, diesel and dimethyl ether. The splitting is accomplished by innovative means; plasmolysis and high-temperature solid oxygen electrolysis. A CO2-neutral fuel cycle is

  11. CarbonSat - Quantification of natural and man-made greenhouse gas surface fluxes from satellite observations of atmospheric CO2 and CH4 column amounts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bovensmann, Heinrich; Buchwitz, Michael

    2010-05-01

    Surprisingly and in spite of their exceptional driving role in climate change, our knowledge about the variable sources and sinks of the greenhouse gases CO2 and CH4 is currently inadequate. For example, the ability of the Earth-atmosphere system to buffer increasing anthropogenic emissions into the atmosphere has large uncertainties and emissions from many sources (geologic, anthropogenic, biogenic) are to a large degree uncertain. An adequate knowledge of the sources and sinks of CO2 and CH4 and their response to a changing climate is a pre-requisite for the accurate prediction of the regional variation of the climate of our planet. CarbonSat is a new mission concept to quantify and monitor CO2 and CH4 sources and sinks at the regional to local scale. The data will allow a better understanding of the processes that control the Carbon Cycle dynamics and an independent estimate of local greenhouse gas emissions (fossil fuel, geological CO2 and CH4, etc.). This will be achieved by a unique combination of high spatial resolution passive and active compact remote sensing with inverse modeling techniques. CarbonSat will accurately measure column-averaged mixing ratios of CO2 and CH4, i.e., XCO2 and XCH4, at a spatial resolution of 2 x 2 km2 (500 km continuous swath) with 0.5% goal (1%, threshold) single measurement precision and global coverage within 3-6 days. Beside the quantification of sources and sinks on the regional scale, one key and innovative aim of the CarbonSat mission is to go a step forward towards quantifying local emission hot spots (fossil fuel emissions by power plants, gas/oil production, geological sources etc.). The core sensor will be a compact Imaging NIR/SWIR spectrometer (SCIAMACHY, OCO heritage) whose measurements yield global data sets of XCO2 and XCH4 with at least one order of magnitude higher number of cloud free measurements than GOSAT and OCO and one order of magnitude better spatial coverage than OCO, due to CarbonSat's 500 km swath

  12. CarbonSat -Quantification of natural and man-made greenhouse gas surface fluxes from satellite observations of atmospheric CO2 and CH4 column amounts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bovensmann, Heinrich; Buchwitz, M.; Burrows, J. P.; Notholt, J.; Bovensmann, H.; Reuter, M.; Trautmann, T.; Ehret, G.; Heimann, M.; Monks, P.; B&Ü, H.; Sch; Harding, R.; Quegan, S.; Rayner, P.; Breon, F. M.; Bergam-O Aschi, P.; Dittus, H. J.; Erzinger, J.; Crisp, D.

    Surprisingly and in spite of their exceptional driving role in climate change, our knowledge about the variable sources and sinks of the greenhouse gases CO2 and CH4 is currently inadequate. For example, the ability of the Earth-atmosphere system to buffer increasing anthropogenic emissions into the atmosphere has large uncertainties and emissions from many sources (geo-logic, anthropogenic, biogenic) are to a large degree uncertain. An adequate knowledge of the sources and sinks of CO2 and CH4 and their response to a changing climate is a pre-requisite for the accurate prediction of the regional variation of the climate of our planet. CarbonSat is a new mission concept to quantify and monitor CO2 and CH4 sources and sinks at the regional to local scale. The data will allow a better understanding of the processes that control the Carbon Cycle dynamics and an independent estimate of local greenhouse gas emissions (fossil fuel, geological CO2 and CH4, etc.). This will be achieved by a unique combination of high spatial resolution passive and active compact remote sensing with inverse modeling techniques. CarbonSat will accurately measure column-averaged mixing ratios of CO2 and CH4, i.e., XCO2 and XCH4, at a spatial resolution of 2 x 2 km2 (500 km continuous swath) with 0.5 percent goal (1 percent threshold) single measurement precision and global coverage within 3-6 days. Beside the quantification of sources and sinks on the regional scale, one key and innovative aim of the CarbonSat mission is to go a step forward towards quantifying local emission hot spots (fossil fuel emissions by power plants, gas/oil production, geological sources etc.). The core sensor will be a compact Imaging NIR/SWIR spectrometer (SCIAMACHY, OCO her-itage) whose measurements yield global data sets of XCO2 and XCH4 with at least one order of magnitude higher number of cloud free measurements than GOSAT and OCO and one order of magnitude better spatial coverage than OCO, due to Carbon

  13. Widespread Low-Latitude Diurnal CO2 Frost on Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piqueux, S.; Kleinböhl, A.; Hayne, P. O.; Heavens, N. G.; Kass, D. M.; McCleese, D. J.; Schofield, J. T.; Shirley, J. H.

    2016-09-01

    We map and characterize MCS nighttime surface temperature observations consistent with the occurrence of CO2 frost on Mars. Low-latitude nighttime CO2 frost is widespread, with potential implications for the physical nature of the surface layer.

  14. Natural convection in binary gases due to horizontal thermal and solutal gradients

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weaver, J. A.; Viskanta, R.

    1991-01-01

    The influence of augmenting and opposing thermal and solutal buoyancy forces on natural convection of binary gases due to horizontal temperature and concentration gradients is examined through comparison of smoke flow visualization and measured temperature and concentration distributions with numerical predictions. The observed flow at the cold wall was unsteady for opposing body forces. The same basic flow structure was observed, but the unsteady flow intensifies as the opposing solutal buoyancy force increases as compared to the thermal buoyancy force. Comparison of predicted and measured temperatures and concentrations is fair overall, but the steady-state analytical model fails to predict the unsteady flow and heat and mass transport for opposing body forces.

  15. No-reference image quality assessment based on natural scene statistics and gradient magnitude similarity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jia, Huizhen; Sun, Quansen; Ji, Zexuan; Wang, Tonghan; Chen, Qiang

    2014-11-01

    The goal of no-reference/blind image quality assessment (NR-IQA) is to devise a perceptual model that can accurately predict the quality of a distorted image as human opinions, in which feature extraction is an important issue. However, the features used in the state-of-the-art "general purpose" NR-IQA algorithms are usually natural scene statistics (NSS) based or are perceptually relevant; therefore, the performance of these models is limited. To further improve the performance of NR-IQA, we propose a general purpose NR-IQA algorithm which combines NSS-based features with perceptually relevant features. The new method extracts features in both the spatial and gradient domains. In the spatial domain, we extract the point-wise statistics for single pixel values which are characterized by a generalized Gaussian distribution model to form the underlying features. In the gradient domain, statistical features based on neighboring gradient magnitude similarity are extracted. Then a mapping is learned to predict quality scores using a support vector regression. The experimental results on the benchmark image databases demonstrate that the proposed algorithm correlates highly with human judgments of quality and leads to significant performance improvements over state-of-the-art methods.

  16. Evaluation of longitudinal dispersivity estimates from simulated forced- and natural-gradient tracer tests in heterogeneous aquifers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tiedeman, C.R.; Hsieh, P.A.

    2004-01-01

    We simulate three types of forced-gradient tracer tests (converging radial flow, unequal strength two well, and equal strength two well) and natural-gradient tracer tests in multiple realizations of heterogeneous two-dimensional aquifers with a hydraulic conductivity distribution characterized by a spherical variogram. We determine longitudinal dispersivities (??L) by analysis of forced-gradient test breakthrough curves at the pumped well and by spatial moment analysis of tracer concentrations during the natural-gradient tests. Results show that among the forced-gradient tests, a converging radial-flow test tends to yield the smallest ??L, an equal strength two-well test tends to yield the largest ??L, and an unequal strength two-well test tends to yield an intermediate value. This finding is qualitatively explained by considering the aquifer area sampled by a particular test. A converging radial-flow test samples a small area, and thus the tracer undergoes a low degree of spreading and mixing. An equal strength two-well test samples a much larger area, so the tracer is spread and mixed to a greater degree. Results also suggest that if the distance between the tracer source well and the pumped well is short relative to the lengths over which velocity is correlated, then the ??L estimate can be highly dependent on local heterogeneities in the vicinity of the wells. Finally, results indicate that ??L estimated from forced-gradient tracer tests can significantly underestimate the ??L needed to characterize solute dispersion under natural-gradient flow. Only a two-well tracer test with a large well separation in an aquifer with a low degree of heterogeneity can yield a value of ??L that characterizes natural-gradient tracer spreading. This suggests that a two-well test with a large well separation is the preferred forced-gradient test for characterizing solute dispersion under natural-gradient flow.

  17. Global integral gradient bounds for quasilinear equations below or near the natural exponent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phuc, Nguyen Cong

    2014-10-01

    We obtain sharp integral potential bounds for gradients of solutions to a wide class of quasilinear elliptic equations with measure data. Our estimates are global over bounded domains that satisfy a mild exterior capacitary density condition. They are obtained in Lorentz spaces whose degrees of integrability lie below or near the natural exponent of the operator involved. As a consequence, nonlinear Calderón-Zygmund type estimates below the natural exponent are also obtained for -superharmonic functions in the whole space ℝ n . This answers a question raised in our earlier work (On Calderón-Zygmund theory for p- and -superharmonic functions, to appear in Calc. Var. Partial Differential Equations, DOI 10.1007/s00526-011-0478-8) and thus greatly improves the result there.

  18. In situ measurement of methane oxidation in groundwater by using natural-gradient tracer tests

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, R.L.; Howes, B.L.; Garabedian, S.P.

    1991-01-01

    Methane oxidation was measured in an unconfined sand and gravel aquifer (Cape Cod, Mass.) by using in situ natural-gradient tracer tests at both a pristine, oxygenated site and an anoxic, sewage-contaminated site. The tracer sites were equipped with multilevel sampling devices to create target grids of sampling points; the injectate was prepared with groundwater from the tracer site to maintain the same geochemical conditions. Methane oxidation was calculated from breakthrough curves of methane relative to halide and inert gas (hexafluoroethane) tracers and was confirmed by the appearance of 13C-enriched carbon dioxide in experiments in which 13C-enriched methane was used as the tracer. A V(max) for methane oxidation could be calculated when the methane concentration was sufficiently high to result in zero-order kinetics throughout the entire transport interval. Methane breakthrough curves could be simulated by modifying a one-dimensional advection-dispersion transport model to include a Michaelis-Menten-based consumption term for methane oxidation. The K(m) values for methane oxidation that gave the best match for the breakthrough curve peaks were 6.0 and 9.0 ??M for the uncontaminated and contaminated sites, respectively. Natural-gradient tracer tests are a promising approach for assessing microbial processes and for testing in situ bioremediation potential in groundwater systems.

  19. Similarity in the difference: changes in community functional features along natural and anthropogenic stress gradients.

    PubMed

    Gutiérrez-Cánovas, Cayetano; Sánchez-Fernández, David; Velasco, Josefa; Millan, Andrés; Bonada, Núria

    2015-09-01

    The effect of stressors on biodiversity can vary in relation to the degree to which biological communities have adapted over evolutionary time. We compared the responses of functional features of stream insect communities along chronic stress gradients with contrasting time persistence. Water salinity and land use intensification were used as examples of natural (long-term persistent) and anthropogenic (short-term persistent) stressors, respectively. A new trait-based approach was applied to quantify functional diversity components and functional redundancy within the same multidimensional space, using metrics at the taxon and community levels. We found similar functional responses along natural and anthropogenic stress gradients. In both cases, the mean taxon functional richness and functional similarity between taxa increased with stress, whereas community functional richness and functional redundancy decreased. Despite the differences in evolutionary persistence, both chronic stressors act as strong nonrandom environmental filters, producing convergent functional responses. These results can improve our ability to predict functional effects of novel stressors at ecoloiical and evolutionary scales.

  20. The carbon cycle and atmospheric CO2: Natural variations archean to present; Proceedings of the Chapman Conference on Natural Variations in Carbon Dioxide and the Carbon Cycle, Tarpon Springs, FL, January 9-13, 1984

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sundquist, E. T.; Broecker, W. S.

    The present conference on the history of the relationship between atmospheric CO2 and the carbon cycle treats data obtained concerning the most recent deglaciation, the Pleistocene, the Zenozoic, and the Phanerozoic-Precambrian. Specific attention is given to the geophysical implications of the tropospheric methane cycle, transient response of the marine carbon cycle, factors regulating glacial to interglacial CO2 changes, the high latitude ocean as a control of atmospheric CO2, and the relationships among atmospheric CO2, orbital forcing, and climate. Also discussed are the distribution of major vegetation types during the Tertiary, a 'Strangelove' ocean in the earliest Tertiary, high atmospheric CO2 as a plausible mechanism for warm Cretaceous climates, and potential estimation errors in carbonate rock accumulation over geologic time.

  1. Will atmospheric CO2 concentration continue to increase if anthropogenic CO2 emissions cease?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacDougall, A. H.; Eby, M.; Weaver, A. J.

    2013-12-01

    If anthropogenic CO2 emissions were to suddenly cease, the evolution of the atmospheric CO2 concentration would depend on the magnitude and sign of natural carbon sources and sinks. Experiments using Earth system models indicate that overall carbon sinks would dominate. However, these models have typically neglected the permafrost carbon pool, which has the potential to introduce an additional terrestrial source of carbon to the atmosphere. Here we use the University of Victoria Earth System Climate Model, which has recently been expanded to include permafrost carbon stocks and exchanges with the atmosphere. In a scenario of zeroed CO2 and sulphate aerosol emissions, we assess whether the warming induced by specified constant concentrations of non-CO2 greenhouse gases could slow the CO2 decline following zero emissions, or even reverse this trend and cause CO2 to increase over time. We find that a radiative forcing from non-CO2 gases of approximately 0.6 W m-2 results in a near balance of CO2 emissions from the terrestrial biosphere and uptake of CO2 by the oceans, resulting in near-constant atmospheric CO2 concentrations for at least a century after emissions are eliminated. At higher values of non-CO2 radiative forcing, CO2 concentrations increase over time, regardless of when emissions cease during the 21st century. Given that the present-day radiative forcing from non-CO2 greenhouse gases is about 0.95 W m-2, our results suggest that if we were to eliminate all CO2 and aerosols emissions without also decreasing non-CO2 greenhouse gas emissions, CO2 levels would increase over time, resulting in a small increase in climate warming. The sudden and total cessation of anthropogenic CO2 emissions is an unlikely future scenario. However, such cessation experiments provide a useful method for evaluating the relative strength of the terrestrial and oceanic carbon cycle feedbacks in the presence of forcing from non-CO2 greenhouse gasses.

  2. Membraneless water filtration using CO2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shin, Sangwoo; Shardt, Orest; Warren, Patrick; Stone, Howard

    2016-11-01

    Water purification technologies such as ultrafiltration and reverse osmosis utilize porous membranes to remove suspended particles and solutes. These membranes, however, cause many drawbacks such as a high pumping cost and a need for periodic replacement due to fouling. Here we show an alternative membraneless method for separating suspended particles by exposing the colloidal suspension to CO2. Dissolution of CO2 into the suspension creates solute gradients that drive phoretic motion of particles, or so-called diffusiophoresis. Due to the large diffusion potential built up by the dissociation of carbonic acid, colloidal particles move either away from or towards the gas-liquid interface depending on their surface charge. Our findings suggest a means to separate particles without membranes or filters, thus reducing operating and maintenance costs. Using the directed motion of particles induced by exposure to CO2, we demonstrate a scalable, continuous flow, membraneless particle filtration process that exhibits very low pressure drop and is essentially free from fouling.

  3. Vegetation Productivity in Natural vs. Cultivated Systems along Water Availability Gradients in the Dry Subtropics

    PubMed Central

    Baldi, Germán; Texeira, Marcos; Murray, Francisco; Jobbágy, Esteban G.

    2016-01-01

    The dry subtropics are subject to a rapid expansion of crops and pastures over vast areas of natural woodlands and savannas. In this paper, we explored the effect of this transformation on vegetation productivity (magnitude, and seasonal and long-term variability) along aridity gradients which span from semiarid to subhumid conditions, considering exclusively those areas with summer rains (>66%). Vegetation productivity was characterized with the proxy metric “Enhanced Vegetation Index” (EVI) (2000 to 2012 period), on 6186 natural and cultivated sampling points on five continents, and combined with a global climatology database by means of additive models for quantile regressions. Globally and regionally, cultivation amplified the seasonal and inter-annual variability of EVI without affecting its magnitude. Natural and cultivated systems maintained a similar and continuous increase of EVI with increasing water availability, yet achieved through contrasting ways. In natural systems, the productivity peak and the growing season length displayed concurrent steady increases with water availability, while in cultivated systems the productivity peak increased from semiarid to dry-subhumid conditions, and stabilized thereafter giving place to an increase in the growing season length towards wetter conditions. Our results help to understand and predict the ecological impacts of deforestation on vegetation productivity, a key ecosystem process linked to a broad range of services. PMID:28005955

  4. Observational constraints on the global atmospheric CO2 budget

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tans, Pieter P.; Fung, Inez Y.; Takahashi, Taro

    1990-01-01

    Observed atmospheric concentrations of CO2 and data on the partial pressures of CO2 in surface ocean waters are combined to identify globally significant sources and sinks of CO2. The atmospheric data are compared with boundary layer concentrations calculated with the transport fields generated by a general circulation model (GCM) for specified source-sink distributions. In the model the observed north-south atmospheric concentration gradient can be maintained only if sinks for CO2 are greater in the Northern than in the Southern Hemisphere. The observed differences between the partial pressure of CO2 in the surface waters of the Northern Hemisphere and the atmosphere are too small for the oceans to be the major sink of fossil fuel CO2. Therefore, a large amount of the CO2 is apparently absorbed on the continents by terrestrial ecosystems.

  5. CO2 laser preionisation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spiers, Gary D.

    1991-01-01

    The final report for work done during the reporting period of January 25, 1990 to January 24, 1991 is presented. A literature survey was conducted to identify the required parameters for effective preionization in TEA CO2 lasers and the methods and techniques for characterizing preionizers are reviewed. A numerical model of the LP-140 cavity was used to determine the cause of the transverse mode stability improvement obtained when the cavity was lengthened. The measurement of the voltage and current discharge pulses on the LP-140 were obtained and their subsequent analysis resulted in an explanation for the low efficiency of the laser. An assortment of items relating to the development of high-voltage power supplies is also provided. A program for analyzing the frequency chirp data files obtained with the HP time and frequency analyzer is included. A program to calculate the theoretical LIMP chirp is also included and a comparison between experiment and theory is made. A program for calculating the CO2 linewidth and its dependence on gas composition and pressure is presented. The program also calculates the number of axial modes under the FWHM of the line for a given resonator length. A graphical plot of the results is plotted.

  6. CO2-Leaking Well - Analytical Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wertz, F.; Audigane, P.; Bouc, O.

    2009-04-01

    The long-term integrity of CO2 storage in geological system relies highly on local trapping mechanisms but also on the absence/control of any kind of outlets. Indeed numerous pathways (faults, wells, rock heterogeneities…) exist that can lead stored gas back to the surface. Thus, such leakage risks must be assessed and quantified if possible. In France, BRGM is inquired for evaluating safety criteria and developing a methodology for qualifying potential geological storage sites. This implies in particular to study the leakage scenario, here through a water-filled well as a worth scenario case. In order to determine the kinds of impacts leaking CO2 can have; knowing the velocity and flow rate of uprising CO2 is a necessity. That is why a better knowledge of CO2 in storage conditions and its behaviour with the environment is required. The following study aims at characterising the CO2 flowing into the well and then rising up in a water column over the vertical dimension. An analytical model was built that describes: - In a first step, the CO2 flow between the reservoir and the inside of the well, depending on quality and thickness of different seals, which determines the flow rate through the well. - In a second step, the CO2 uprising through an open and water filled well, however in steady state, which excludes a priori the characterisation of periodic or chaotic behaviours such as geyser formation. The objective is to give numerous orders of magnitude concerning CO2 thermodynamic properties while rising up: specific enthalpy, density, viscosity, velocity, flow, gas volume fraction and expansion, pressure and temperature gradient. Dissolution is partially taken into account, however without kinetic. The strength of this model is to compute analytically - easily and instantaneously - the 1-dimensional rising velocity of CO2 in a water column as a function of the CO2 density, interfacial tension and initial volume fraction. Characteristic speeds - the ones given by

  7. Storage of CO2 at low temperature as liquid or solid gas hydrate - Application to the Biscay deep zone in the French EEZ

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burnol, André; Thinon, Isabelle; Audigane, Pascal; Leynet, Aurélien

    2013-04-01

    Amongst the various CO2 geological storage options currently under consideration, the deep saline aquifers (beyond 800-m depth) were considered to present the most interesting storage capacity due to the density of CO2 in its supercritical state. However, at lower temperature, another form of storage is possible, either in the state of CO2 hydrates or liquid CO2 (1, 2). In Alaska, a first demonstrator showed recently the possibility of exchange of CO2 and CH4 in natural gas hydrates. At higher pressures common in deep-sea sediments, liquid CO2 can be denser than the overlying seawater and therefore be trapped in the marine sediments (2). We explored in this work the storage capacity at the Biscay deep zone in the French Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ). A local bathymetry of the zone (abyssal plain and continental margin) was used to define a potential interesting zone for the CO2 storage, considering different safety criteria. A sensitivity analysis on the geothermal gradient was carried out using two extreme scenarios (Low and High gradient) based on the available Ocean Drilling Program's data. In both cases, the Negative Buoyancy Zone (NBZ) and the CO2 Hydrate Formation Zone (HFZ) were calculated using the GERG-2008 Equation of State for liquid CO2 and the CSMGem code for CO2 hydrate, respectively. Following this sensitivity analysis, a CO2 injection depth is proposed and the French "deep offshore" storage capacity is quantitatively evaluated and compared to the "onshore" storage capacity in deep saline aquifers. References 1. Le Nindre Y., Allier D., Duchkov A., Altunina L. K., Shvartsev S., Zhelezniak M. and Klerkx J. (2011) Storing CO2 underneath the Siberian Permafrost: A win-win solution for long-term trapping of CO2 and heavy oil upgrading. Energy Procedia4, 5414-5421 2. House K. Z., Schrag D. P., Harvey C. F. and Lackner K. S. (2006) Permanent carbon dioxide storage in deep-sea sediments. PNAS

  8. Garlic Mustard (Alliaria petiolata) Glucosinolate Content Varies Across a Natural Light Gradient.

    PubMed

    Smith, Lauren M

    2015-05-01

    Garlic mustard is a well-known invader of deciduous forests of North America, yet the influence of environmental factors on garlic mustard allelochemical production is not well understood. Three experiments were conducted to detect interactions between one garlic mustard allelochemical (glucosinolate) production and light availability. First, to detect patterns of glucosinolate production across a natural light gradient, leaves and roots of mature plants and first-year rosettes were sampled in patches ranging from 100 to 2 % of full sun within an Indiana forest. Second, to determine whether genetic variation drives observed correlations between glucosinolate content and light, seed collected across light gradients within six sites was grown in a common garden and glucosinolate production was measured. Finally, to understand whether local adaptation occurred in garlic mustard's response to light, seed collected from defined light environments across six sites was grown under four light treatments. Results of the field sampling showed that mature plants' root glucosinolate content was elevated in high compared to low light. In the common garden experiment, however, there was no correlation between light availability at seed origin and constitutive glucosinolate content. Additionally, in the common light treatments, there was no evidence for local adaptation to light environment. Overall, the results indicate that plasticity in response to light, not genetic variation among plants growing in different light environments, generates correlations between glucosinolate content and light in the field. Since mature garlic mustard populations in high light may exhibit increased glucosinolate content, it makes them potential targets for management.

  9. Dispersal of hydrothermal plumes in the near field of natural CO2 seeps in the Okinawa Trough using primordial helium-3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buss, A.; Walter, M.; Mertens, C.; Sültenfuss, J.; Nakamura, K.; Rehder, G. J.; Rhein, M.

    2011-12-01

    The Okinawa Trough back-arc basin in the west Pacific Ocean is one of the two known hydrothermal active areas where venting of liquid CO2 bubbles has been observed. During the RV Sonne cruise SO-196 in March 2008 two hydrothermal vent sites in the southern Okinawa Trough were investigated: Hatoma Knoll and Yonaguni Knoll IV. Data were collected to characterise the dispersal of the hydrothermal plume and hence the spreading of CO2 in the water column. The data set consists of CTD casts with additional sensors for redox potential and pH as well as velocity measurements with a lowered acoustic Doppler current profiler (LADCP) and water samples to determine helium isotope concentrations. The dispersal of the hydrothermal plumes at the two vent sites was analysed using primordial helium as a conservative tracer for hydrothermal venting and anomalies in the redox potential and pH as an indicator of plume characteristics. The relation between the measured decrease in pH and δ3He showed a good correlation in the density ranges of the plumes at Hatoma Knoll as well as at Yonaguni Knoll IV. The heat fluxes from both vent sites were estimated through the maximum rise height of the plume and the background stratification. The vent site Hatoma Knoll lies in the middle of the caldera of a submarine volcano. One non-buoyant plume with a maximum rise height of 140 m above the seafloor has been identified. The vent site emitted a total heat flux of about 80 MW. The excess of δ3He in the water column agrees well with the maximum rise height of the plume, thus indicating a plume that had risen almost undisturbed. The vent site Yonaguni Knoll IV is located in a valley between a group of seamounts. Two non-buoyant plumes have been identified, with maximum rise heights of 230 m and 270 m above the seafloor. The total heat flux from the vent site was about 540 MW. An excess of δ3He has been found up to 600 m above the seafloor which could be caused by strong vertical mixing, but also

  10. Natural transition of boundary layers - The effects of turbulence, pressure gradient, and flow history

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abu-Ghannam, B. J.; Shaw, R.

    1980-10-01

    Natural transition of boundary layers is investigated for a flat plate in a low-speed wind tunnel with free-stream turbulence intensities ranging from 0.3 to 5 percent, and with pressure-gradient histories typical of turbomachinery blades without separation. Empirical relationships are proposed for the prediction of the start and end of transition, as well as the development of the boundary layer during transition. These relations are based on the recent measurements made with a hot-wire anemometer, and augmented, mainly for the start of transition, by results of previously reported research. Finally, these experimental relationships are used in conjunction with well established methods to predict the entire unseparated boundary layer. To utilize the prediction, all that is required is a knowledge of the free-stream turbulence level and the free-stream velocity distribution, which itself can be derived from potential flow theory.

  11. Forced and natural gradient tracer tests in a highly heterogeneous porous aquifer: instrumentation and measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ptak, T.; Teutsch, G.

    1994-07-01

    At the Horkheimer Insel experimental field site, several short to intermediate distance forced and natural gradient tracer tests with depth-integrated and multilevel sampling were conducted to characterize the aquifer transport properties. Compared with other test sites, the aquifer at the Horkheimer Insel is highly heterogeneous and highly conductive. Hence, new tracer measurement techniques had to be developed. This paper presents some of the instrumentation developed together with measurements and their initial interpretation. The results demonstrate that for contaminant transport predictions in highly heterogeneous and highly conductive aquifers, investigation techniques with a high resolution in time and space are needed. The aquifer heterogeneity is evident from the spatial variability of peak concentration, transport velocity and longitudinal macrodispersivity values obtained from the tracer tests. Furthermore, the tracer test results indicate that at the observation scale investigated, a complex numerical flow and transport model is needed to describe adequately mass transport within the heterogeneous aquifer.

  12. Natural gas production and anomalous geothermal gradients of the deep Tuscaloosa Formation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Burke, Lauri

    2011-01-01

    For the largest producing natural gas fields in the onshore Gulf of Mexico Basin, the relation between temperature versus depth was investigated. Prolific natural gas reservoirs with the highest temperatures were found in the Upper Cretaceous downdip Tuscaloosa trend in Louisiana. Temperature and production trends from the deepest field, Judge Digby field, in Pointe Coupe Parish, Louisiana, were investigated to characterize the environment of natural gas in the downdip Tuscaloosa trend. The average production depth in the Judge Digby field is approximately 22,000 ft. Temperatures as high as 400 degrees F are typically found at depth in Judge Digby field and are anomalously low when compared to temperature trends extrapolated to similar depths regionally. At 22,000 ft, the minimum and maximum temperatures for all reservoirs in Gulf Coast producing gas fields are 330 and 550 degrees F, respectively; the average temperature is 430 degrees F. The relatively depressed geothermal gradients in the Judge Digby field may be due to high rates of sediment preservation, which may have delayed the thermal equilibration of the sediment package with respect to the surrounding rock. Analyzing burial history and thermal maturation indicates that the deep Tuscaloosa trend in the Judge Digby field is currently in the gas generation window. Using temperature trends as an exploration tool may have important implications for undiscovered hydrocarbons at greater depths in currently producing reservoirs, and for settings that are geologically analogous to the Judge Digby fiel

  13. Changes in coral reef communities across a natural gradient in seawater pH.

    PubMed

    Barkley, Hannah C; Cohen, Anne L; Golbuu, Yimnang; Starczak, Victoria R; DeCarlo, Thomas M; Shamberger, Kathryn E F

    2015-06-01

    Ocean acidification threatens the survival of coral reef ecosystems worldwide. The negative effects of ocean acidification observed in many laboratory experiments have been seen in studies of naturally low-pH reefs, with little evidence to date for adaptation. Recently, we reported initial data suggesting that low-pH coral communities of the Palau Rock Islands appear healthy despite the extreme conditions in which they live. Here, we build on that observation with a comprehensive statistical analysis of benthic communities across Palau's natural acidification gradient. Our analysis revealed a shift in coral community composition but no impact of acidification on coral richness, coralline algae abundance, macroalgae cover, coral calcification, or skeletal density. However, coral bioerosion increased 11-fold as pH decreased from the barrier reefs to the Rock Island bays. Indeed, a comparison of the naturally low-pH coral reef systems studied so far revealed increased bioerosion to be the only consistent feature among them, as responses varied across other indices of ecosystem health. Our results imply that whereas community responses may vary, escalation of coral reef bioerosion and acceleration of a shift from net accreting to net eroding reef structures will likely be a global signature of ocean acidification.

  14. Changes in coral reef communities across a natural gradient in seawater pH

    PubMed Central

    Barkley, Hannah C.; Cohen, Anne L.; Golbuu, Yimnang; Starczak, Victoria R.; DeCarlo, Thomas M.; Shamberger, Kathryn E. F.

    2015-01-01

    Ocean acidification threatens the survival of coral reef ecosystems worldwide. The negative effects of ocean acidification observed in many laboratory experiments have been seen in studies of naturally low-pH reefs, with little evidence to date for adaptation. Recently, we reported initial data suggesting that low-pH coral communities of the Palau Rock Islands appear healthy despite the extreme conditions in which they live. Here, we build on that observation with a comprehensive statistical analysis of benthic communities across Palau’s natural acidification gradient. Our analysis revealed a shift in coral community composition but no impact of acidification on coral richness, coralline algae abundance, macroalgae cover, coral calcification, or skeletal density. However, coral bioerosion increased 11-fold as pH decreased from the barrier reefs to the Rock Island bays. Indeed, a comparison of the naturally low-pH coral reef systems studied so far revealed increased bioerosion to be the only consistent feature among them, as responses varied across other indices of ecosystem health. Our results imply that whereas community responses may vary, escalation of coral reef bioerosion and acceleration of a shift from net accreting to net eroding reef structures will likely be a global signature of ocean acidification. PMID:26601203

  15. Rhizosphere impacts on peat decomposition and nutrient cycling across a natural water table gradient

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gill, A. L.; Finzi, A.

    2014-12-01

    High latitude forest and peatland soils represent a major terrestrial carbon store sensitive to climate change. Warming temperatures and increased growing-season evapotranspiration are projected to reduce water table (WT) height in continental peatlands. WT reduction increases peat aerobicity and facilitates vascular plant and root growth. Root-associated microbial communities are exposed to a different physical and chemical environment than microbial communities in non-root associated "bulk" peat, and therefore have distinct composition and function within the soil system. As the size of the peatland rhizosphere impacts resources available to the microbial communities, transitions from a root-free high water table peatland to a root-dominated low WT peatland may alter seasonal patterns of microbial community dynamics, enzyme production, and carbon storage within the system. We used a natural water table gradient in Caribou Bog near Orono, ME to explore the influence of species composition, root biomass, and rhizosphere size on seasonal patterns in microbial community structure, enzyme production, and carbon mineralization. We quantified root biomass across the water table gradient and measured microbial biomass carbon and nitrogen, C mineralization, N mineralization, and exoenzyme activity in root-associated and bulk peat samples throughout the 2013 growing season. Microbial biomass was consistently higher in rhizosphere-associated soils and peaked in the spring. Microbial biomass CN and enzyme activity was higher in rhizosphere-associated soil, likely due to increased mycorrhizal abundance. Exoenzyme activity peaked in the fall, with a larger relative increase in enzyme activity in rhizosphere peat, while carbon mineralization rates did not demonstrate a strong seasonal pattern. The results suggest that rhizosphere-associated peat sustains higher and more variable rates of enzyme activity throughout the growing season, which results in higher rates of carbon

  16. CO2 Laser Market

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simonsson, Samuel

    1989-03-01

    It gives me a great deal of pleasure to introduce our final speaker of this morning's session for two reasons: First of all, his company has been very much in the news not only in our own community but in the pages of Wall Street Journal and in the world economic press. And, secondly, we would like to welcome him to our shores. He is a temporary resident of the United States, for a few months, forsaking his home in Germany to come here and help with the start up of a new company which we believe, probably, ranks #1 as the world supplier of CO2 lasers now, through the combination of former Spectra Physics Industrial Laser Division and Rofin-Sinar GMBH. Samuel Simonsson is the Chairman of the Board of Rofin-Sinar, Inc., here in the U.S. and managing director of Rofin-Sinar GMBH. It is a pleasure to welcome him.

  17. CO2 hydrate formation and dissociation rates: Application to Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ambuehl, Dan; Elwood Madden, Megan

    2014-05-01

    CO2 clathrate hydrate is a crystalline material composed of water cages around a CO2 molecule. CO2 gas hydrates are naturally occurring on Earth and are a likely phase on Mars as well as other cold planetary bodies. CO2 hydrates have minor effects on terrestrial atmospheric composition, but may be a major reservoir for greenhouse gases on Mars. In this study, CO2 hydrate formation and dissociation rates were measured experimentally on ultrapure and CO2 infused water ice (ice containing previously trapped CO2 gas bubbles). Overall, increasing pressure and temperature increased CO2 consumption rates, indicating enhanced hydrate formation rates. CO2 consumption and release rates both increased significantly in infused ice experiments as did the overall amount of CO2 consumed. CO2 bubbles formed during freezing of the infused ice likely provided more surface area for hydrate nucleation, increasing the rate of formation. Higher dissociation rates in infused ice experiments compared to ultrapure ice may be due to the higher concentration of hydrate originally formed in the bubble-filled samples. These results suggest that CO2 hydrate formation in natural, gas-rich ice occurs significantly faster than previously assumed. In addition, formation rates would be maximized and dissociation rates minimized at Mars equatorial conditions, perhaps leading to long-term storage of atmospheric CO2 in localized clathrate reservoirs.

  18. Ambient CO2, fish behaviour and altered GABAergic neurotransmission: exploring the mechanism of CO2-altered behaviour by taking a hypercapnia dweller down to low CO2 levels.

    PubMed

    Regan, Matthew D; Turko, Andy J; Heras, Joseph; Andersen, Mads Kuhlmann; Lefevre, Sjannie; Wang, Tobias; Bayley, Mark; Brauner, Colin J; Huong, Do Thi Thanh; Phuong, Nguyen Thanh; Nilsson, Göran E

    2016-01-01

    Recent studies suggest that projected rises of aquatic CO2 levels cause acid-base regulatory responses in fishes that lead to altered GABAergic neurotransmission and disrupted behaviour, threatening fitness and population survival. It is thought that changes in Cl(-) and HCO3 (-) gradients across neural membranes interfere with the function of GABA-gated anion channels (GABAA receptors). So far, such alterations have been revealed experimentally by exposing species living in low-CO2 environments, like many oceanic habitats, to high levels of CO2 (hypercapnia). To examine the generality of this phenomenon, we set out to study the opposite situation, hypothesizing that fishes living in typically hypercapnic environments also display behavioural alterations if exposed to low CO2 levels. This would indicate that ion regulation in the fish brain is fine-tuned to the prevailing CO2 conditions. We quantified pH regulatory variables and behavioural responses of Pangasianodon hypophthalmus, a fish native to the hypercapnic Mekong River, acclimated to high-CO2 (3.1 kPa) or low-CO2 (0.04 kPa) water. We found that brain and blood pH was actively regulated and that the low-CO2 fish displayed significantly higher activity levels, which were reduced after treatment with gabazine, a GABAA receptor blocker. This indicates an involvement of the GABAA receptor and altered Cl(-) and HCO3 (-) ion gradients. Indeed, Goldman calculations suggest that low levels of environmental CO2 may cause significant changes in neural ion gradients in P. hypophthalmus. Taken together, the results suggest that brain ion regulation in fishes is fine-tuned to the prevailing ambient CO2 conditions and is prone to disruption if these conditions change.

  19. Why do Scale-Free Networks Emerge in Nature? From Gradient Networks to Transport Efficiency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toroczkai, Zoltan

    2004-03-01

    It has recently been recognized [1,2,3] that a large number of complex networks are scale-free (having a power-law degree distribution). Examples include citation networks [4], the internet [5], the world-wide-web [6], cellular metabolic networks [7], protein interaction networks [8], the sex-web [9] and alliance networks in the U.S. biotechnology industry [10]. The existence of scale-free networks in such diverse systems suggests that there is a simple underlying common reason for their development. Here, we propose that scale-free networks emerge because they ensure efficient transport of some entity. We show that for flows generated by gradients of a scalar "potential'' distributed on a network, non scale-free networks, e.g., random graphs [11], will become maximally congested, while scale-free networks will ensure efficient transport in the large network size limit. [1] R. Albert and A.-L. Barabási, Rev.Mod.Phys. 74, 47 (2002). [2] M.E.J. Newman, SIAM Rev. 45, 167 (2003). [3] S.N. Dorogovtsev and J.F.F. Mendes, Evolution of Networks: From Biological Nets to the Internet and WWW, Oxford Univ. Press, Oxford, 2003. [4] S. Redner, Eur.Phys.J. B, 4, 131 (1998). [5] M. Faloutsos, P. Faloutsos and C. Faloutsos Comp.Comm.Rev. 29, 251 (1999). [6] R. Albert, H. Jeong, and A.L. Barabási, Nature 401, 130 (1999). [7] H. Jeong et.al. Nature 407, 651 (2000). [8] H. Jeong, S. Mason, A.-L. Barabási and Z. N. Oltvai, Nature 411, 41 (2001). [9] F. Liljeros et. al. Nature 411 907 (2000). [10] W. W. Powell, D. R. White, K. W. Koput and J. Owen-Smith Am.J.Soc. in press. [11] B. Bollobás, Random Graphs, Second Edition, Cambridge University Press (2001).

  20. Atmospheric CO2 Removal by Enhancing Weathering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koster van Groos, A. F.; Schuiling, R. D.

    2014-12-01

    The increase of the CO2 content in the atmosphere by the release of anthropogenic CO2 may be addressed by the enhancement of weathering at the surface of the earth. The average emission of mantle-derived CO2 through volcanism is ~0.3 Gt/year (109 ton/year). Considering the ~3.000 Gt of CO2 present in the atmosphere, the residence time of CO2 in the earth's atmosphere is ~10,000 years. Because the vast proportion of carbon in biomass is recycled through the atmosphere, CO2 is continuously removed by a series of weathering reactions of silicate minerals and stored in calcium and magnesium carbonates. The addition of anthropogenic CO2 from fossil fuel and cement production, which currently exceeds 35 Gt/year and dwarfs the natural production 100-fold, cannot be compensated by current rates of weathering, and atmospheric CO2 levels are rising rapidly. To address this increase in CO2 levels, weathering rates would have to be accelerated on a commensurate scale. Olivine ((Mg,Fe)2SiO4) is the most reactive silicate mineral in the weathering process. This mineral is the major constituent in relatively common ultramafic rocks such as dunites (olivine content > 90%). To consume the current total annual anthropogenic release of CO2, using a simplified weathering reaction (Mg2SiO4 + 4CO2 + 4H2O --> 2 Mg2+ + 4HCO3- + H4SiO4) would require ~30 Gt/year or ~8-9 km3/year of dunite. This is a large volume; it is about double the total amount of ore and gravel currently mined (~ 17 Gt/year). To mine and crush these rocks to <100 μm costs ~ 8/ton. The transport and distribution over the earth's surface involves additional costs, that may reach 2-5/ton. Thus, the cost of remediation for the release of anthropogenic CO2 is 300-400 billion/year. This compares to a 2014 global GDP of ~80 trillion. Because weathering reactions require the presence of water and proceed more rapidly at higher temperatures, the preferred environments to enhance weathering are the wet tropics. From a socio

  1. Learning from nature: synthesis and characterization of longitudinal polymer gradient materials inspired by mussel byssus threads.

    PubMed

    Claussen, Kai U; Giesa, Reiner; Scheibel, Thomas; Schmidt, Hans-Werner

    2012-02-13

    Marine mussels use their threads for attachment to any substratum and these biopolymer gradient fibers show an excellent combination of stiff and soft mechanical properties. A straightforward approach for the preparation of macroscopic longitudinal polymer gradient materials on the centimeter scale based on a poly(dimethyl siloxane) system is presented. Compositional gradients are realized by using three syringe pumps feeding different prepolymers capable to undergo thermal cross-linking. Within the gradient samples, the stiffness between the hard and soft part can be varied up to a factor of four. The gradients are analyzed by UV-Vis spectroscopy as well as compressive and tensile modulus testing.

  2. Beyond CO2: Changes in Limiting Resources in California Oak Woodland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hasselquist, N.; Allen, M.

    2007-12-01

    As atmospheric CO2 continues to increase, other resources become even more limiting to plants and the wildland ecosystems they support. Traditionally, California Mediterranean-type ecosystems are limited by water, then N. In these ecosystems, CO2 enrichment causes a minor increase in production associated with enhanced water-use efficiency, but N rapidly becomes the limiting factor to both production and to soil organism dynamics. In urbanizing areas, such as southern California, strong gradients in NOx deposition are also created by vehicular pollution. We have studied the regulation of N uptake by mycorrhizae in Coast Live Oak (Quercus agrifolia) using information with natural abundance from the early 1900s, current plants and fungi, and modeling change. Contrasts were made from a high NOx deposition site, a low deposition site, and a site where NOx deposition is rapidly increasing. We examined natural abundance δ15 N of current and past plant material (leaves, wood), mycorrhizal and saprobic fungal fruiting bodies, and soil. We modeled relative N uptake, fractionation, and transport between soil, fungus and plant. Our data show complex interactions between increasing NOx deposition and increasing atmospheric CO2 on mycorrhizal-plant interactions. There is a significant shift in N sources and reduction upon mycorrhizae with NOx deposition. However, the elevated CO2 appears to also have created a greater N demand on the trees, increasing dependence on mycorrhizae and the ability of the fungi to acquire organic N and NH4. The individual fungal species differ among sites, but complex trends between fungal genera and trees can be seen. Projections of increasing atmospheric CO2 and regional NOx deposition suggest strong but complex gradients in fungal-oak interactions with decreasing dependence on mycorrhizae near urbanizing areas, mediated by the rate of increasing CO2 and inorganic NOx deposition, and paradoxically, increasing dependency on mycorrhizae and organic

  3. Geochemical gradients in soil O-horizon samples from southern Norway: Natural or anthropogenic?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reimann, C.; Englmaier, P.; Flem, B.; Gough, L.; Lamothe, P.; Nordgulen, O.; Smith, D.

    2009-01-01

    Forty soil O- and C-horizon samples were collected along a south-to-north transect extending inland for approximately 200 km from the southern tip of Norway. The elements As, Au, Bi, Cd, Cu, Ga, Ge, Hf, Hg, In, Mg, Mn, Mo, Na, Ni, Pb, Sb, Se, V, W, Zn and Zr all show a distinct decrease in concentration in soil O-horizons with increasing distance from the coast. The elements showing the strongest coastal enrichment, some by more than an order of magnitude compared to inland samples, are Au, Bi, As, Pb, Sb and Sn. Furthermore, the elements Cd (median O-/median C-horizon = 31), C, Sb, Ag, K, S, Ge (10), Hg, Pb, As, Bi, Sr (5), Se, Au, Ba, Na, Zn, P, Cu and Sn (2) are all strongly enriched in the O-horizon when compared to the underlying C-horizon. Lead isotope ratios, however, do not show any gradient with distance from the coast (declining Pb concentration). Along a 50 km topographically steep east-west transect in the centre of the survey area, far from the coast but crossing several vegetation zones, similar element enrichment patterns and concentration gradients can be observed in the O-horizon. Lead isotope ratios in the O-horizon correlate along both transects with pH and the C/N-ratio, both proxies for the quality of the organic material. Natural conditions in southern Norway, related to climate and vegetation, rather than long range atmospheric transport of air pollutants (LRT), cause the observed features. ?? 2008 Elsevier Ltd.

  4. Thermodynamic and energy efficiency analysis of power generation from natural salinity gradients by pressure retarded osmosis.

    PubMed

    Yip, Ngai Yin; Elimelech, Menachem

    2012-05-01

    The Gibbs free energy of mixing dissipated when fresh river water flows into the sea can be harnessed for sustainable power generation. Pressure retarded osmosis (PRO) is one of the methods proposed to generate power from natural salinity gradients. In this study, we carry out a thermodynamic and energy efficiency analysis of PRO work extraction. First, we present a reversible thermodynamic model for PRO and verify that the theoretical maximum extractable work in a reversible PRO process is identical to the Gibbs free energy of mixing. Work extraction in an irreversible constant-pressure PRO process is then examined. We derive an expression for the maximum extractable work in a constant-pressure PRO process and show that it is less than the ideal work (i.e., Gibbs free energy of mixing) due to inefficiencies intrinsic to the process. These inherent inefficiencies are attributed to (i) frictional losses required to overcome hydraulic resistance and drive water permeation and (ii) unutilized energy due to the discontinuation of water permeation when the osmotic pressure difference becomes equal to the applied hydraulic pressure. The highest extractable work in constant-pressure PRO with a seawater draw solution and river water feed solution is 0.75 kWh/m(3) while the free energy of mixing is 0.81 kWh/m(3)-a thermodynamic extraction efficiency of 91.1%. Our analysis further reveals that the operational objective to achieve high power density in a practical PRO process is inconsistent with the goal of maximum energy extraction. This study demonstrates thermodynamic and energetic approaches for PRO and offers insights on actual energy accessible for utilization in PRO power generation through salinity gradients.

  5. Monitoring solid oxide CO2 capture sorbents in action.

    PubMed

    Keturakis, Christopher J; Ni, Fan; Spicer, Michelle; Beaver, Michael G; Caram, Hugo S; Wachs, Israel E

    2014-12-01

    The separation, capture, and storage of CO2 , the major greenhouse gas, from industrial gas streams has received considerable attention in recent years because of concerns about environmental effects of increasing CO2 concentration in the atmosphere. An emerging area of research utilizes reversible CO2 sorbents to increase conversion and rate of forward reactions for equilibrium-controlled reactions (sorption-enhanced reactions). Little fundamental information, however, is known about the nature of the sorbent surface sites, sorbent surface-CO2 complexes, and the CO2 adsorption/desorption mechanisms. The present study directly spectroscopically monitors Na2 O/Al2 O3 sorbent-CO2 surface complexes during adsorption/desorption with simultaneous analysis of desorbed CO2 gas, allowing establishment of molecular level structure-sorption relationships between individual surface carbonate complexes and the CO2 working capacity of sorbents at different temperatures.

  6. Elucidating geochemical response of shallow heterogeneous aquifers to CO2 leakage using high-performance computing: Implications for monitoring of CO2 sequestration

    SciTech Connect

    Navarre-Sitchler, Alexis K.; Maxwell, Reed M.; Siirila, Erica R.; Hammond, Glenn E.; Lichtner, Peter C.

    2013-03-01

    Predicting and quantifying impacts of potential carbon dioxide (CO2) leakage into shallow aquifers that overlie geologic CO2 storage formations is an important part of developing reliable carbon storage techniques. Leakage of CO2 through fractures, faults or faulty wellbores can reduce groundwater pH, inducing geochemical reactions that release solutes into the groundwater and pose a risk of degrading groundwater quality. In order to help quantify this risk, predictions of metal concentrations are needed during geologic storage of CO2. Here, we present regional-scale reactive transport simulations, at relatively fine-scale, of CO2 leakage into shallow aquifers run on the PFLOTRAN platform using high-performance computing. Multiple realizations of heterogeneous permeability distributions were generated using standard geostatistical methods. Increased statistical anisotropy of the permeability field resulted in more lateral and vertical spreading of the plume of impacted water, leading to increased Pb2+ (lead) concentrations and lower pH at a well down gradient of the CO2 leak. Pb2+ concentrations were higher in simulations where calcite was the source of Pb2+ compared to galena. The low solubility of galena effectively buffered the Pb2+ concentrations as galena reached saturation under reducing conditions along the flow path. In all cases, Pb2+ concentrations remained below the maximum contaminant level set by the EPA. Results from this study, compared to natural variability observed in aquifers, suggest that bicarbonate (HCO3) concentrations may be a better geochemical indicator of a CO2 leak under the conditions simulated here.

  7. Numerical simulation of a natural gradient tracer experiment for the natural attenuation study: flow and physical transport.

    PubMed

    Julian, H E; Boggs, J M; Zheng, C; Feehley, C E

    2001-01-01

    Results are presented for numerical simulations of ground water flow and physical transport associated with a natural gradient tracer experiment conducted within a heterogeneous alluvial aquifer of the Natural Attenuation Study (NATS) site near Columbus, Mississippi. A principal goal of NATS is to evaluate biogeochemical models that predict the rate and extent of natural biodegradation under field conditions. This paper describes the initial phase in the model evaluation process, i.e., calibration of flow and physical transport models that simulate conservative bromide tracer plume evolution during NATS. An initial large-scale flow model (LSM) is developed encompassing the experimental site and surrounding region. This model is subsequently scaled down in telescopic fashion to an intermediate-scale ground water flow model (ISM) covering the tracer-monitoring network, followed by a small-scale transport model (SSM) focused on the small region of hydrocarbon plume migration observed during NATS. The LSM uses inferred depositional features of the site in conjunction with hydraulic conductivity (K) data from aquifer tests and borehole flowmeter tests to establish large-scale K and flow field trends in and around the experimental site. The subsequent ISM incorporates specified flux boundary conditions and large-scale K trends obtained from the calibrated LSM, while preserving small-scale K structure based on some 4000 flowmeter data for solute transport modeling. The configuration of the ISM-predicted potentiometric surface approximates that of the observed surface within a root mean squared error of 0.15 m. The SSM is based on the dual-domain mass-transfer approach. Despite the well-recognized difficulties in modeling solute transport in extremely heterogeneous media as found at the NATS site, the dual-domain model adequately reproduced the observed bromide concentration distributions. Differences in observed and predicted bromide concentration distributions are

  8. Forecasting global atmospheric CO2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agustí-Panareda, A.; Massart, S.; Chevallier, F.; Boussetta, S.; Balsamo, G.; Beljaars, A.; Ciais, P.; Deutscher, N. M.; Engelen, R.; Jones, L.; Kivi, R.; Paris, J.-D.; Peuch, V.-H.; Sherlock, V.; Vermeulen, A. T.; Wennberg, P. O.; Wunch, D.

    2014-11-01

    A new global atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) real-time forecast is now available as part of the pre-operational Monitoring of Atmospheric Composition and Climate - Interim Implementation (MACC-II) service using the infrastructure of the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) Integrated Forecasting System (IFS). One of the strengths of the CO2 forecasting system is that the land surface, including vegetation CO2 fluxes, is modelled online within the IFS. Other CO2 fluxes are prescribed from inventories and from off-line statistical and physical models. The CO2 forecast also benefits from the transport modelling from a state-of-the-art numerical weather prediction (NWP) system initialized daily with a wealth of meteorological observations. This paper describes the capability of the forecast in modelling the variability of CO2 on different temporal and spatial scales compared to observations. The modulation of the amplitude of the CO2 diurnal cycle by near-surface winds and boundary layer height is generally well represented in the forecast. The CO2 forecast also has high skill in simulating day-to-day synoptic variability. In the atmospheric boundary layer, this skill is significantly enhanced by modelling the day-to-day variability of the CO2 fluxes from vegetation compared to using equivalent monthly mean fluxes with a diurnal cycle. However, biases in the modelled CO2 fluxes also lead to accumulating errors in the CO2 forecast. These biases vary with season with an underestimation of the amplitude of the seasonal cycle both for the CO2 fluxes compared to total optimized fluxes and the atmospheric CO2 compared to observations. The largest biases in the atmospheric CO2 forecast are found in spring, corresponding to the onset of the growing season in the Northern Hemisphere. In the future, the forecast will be re-initialized regularly with atmospheric CO2 analyses based on the assimilation of CO2 products retrieved from satellite measurements and

  9. Identification of naturally isolated southern Louisiana's algal strains and the effect of higher Co2 content on fatty acid profiles for biodiesel production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Four naturally isolated microalgae were evaluated for their potential use in the production of biodiesel, and were identified using genomic DNA, and 16S or 18S rRNA gene amplification followed by sequencing. High correlation was found with known nucleotide sequence identities at 98 % with Sellaphora...

  10. Determining CO2-brine relative permeability and capillary pressure simultaneously: an insight to capillary entrance and end effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, X.; Kianinejad, A.; DiCarlo, D. A.

    2014-12-01

    CO2-brine relative permeability relations are important parameters in modeling scenarios such as CO2 sequestration in saline aquifers and CO2 enhanced recovery in oil reservoir. Many steady-state experimental studies on CO2-brine relative permeability showed that the CO2-brine relative permeability differs greatly from typical oil-brine relative permeability. Particularly, they reported a very small endpoint CO2 relative permeability of 0.1~0.2 at a relative high residual water saturation of 0.4~0.6. In this study, we hypothesize the measured low endpoint CO2 relative permeability in previous studies was an experimental artifact that is primary due to low CO2 viscosity. We conducted steady-state CO2 drainage experiments by co-injecting equlibrated CO2 and brine into a long (60.8 cm) and low permeability (116-mD) Berea sandstone core at 20 °C and 1500 psi. During every experiment, both the overall pressure drop across the core and the pressure drops of the five independent and continuous sections of the core were monitored. The in-situ saturation was measured with a medical X-ray Computed Tomography (CT) scanner. In the center three sections where saturation was uniform, we determined the relative permeability to both brine and CO2 phases. In the entrance and exit sections, both measured pressure gradients and saturation were non-uniform. To cope with this, we make several self-consistent assumptions that reveal the nature of capillary entrance and effect in steady-state two-phase core flooding experiments. Based on these assumptions we determined the relative permeability to CO2 and CO2-brine capillary pressure simultaneously using measured pressure drops. We found: (1) a much higher endpoint CO2 relative permeability of 0.58 at a water saturation of 48%, (2) the entrance region with non-uniform saturation expanded CO2 relative permeability data to much lower water saturation, (3) the determined CO2-brine capillary pressure curve is self-consistent and matches

  11. Improving soil CO2 efflux estimates from in-situ soil CO2 sensors with gas transport measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanchez-Canete, E. P.; Barron-Gafford, G.; Van Haren, J. L. M.; Scott, R. L.

    2015-12-01

    Correctly estimating soil carbon dioxide (CO2) fluxes emitted to the atmosphere is essential because they are a large component of the ecosystem carbon balance. Continuous estimates of soil CO2 flux, especially when paired with eddy covariance measurements of whole-ecosystem CO­2 exchange, help to disaggregate net ecosystem CO2 exchange. Most researchers estimate soil CO2 fluxes by applying the gradient method; however, this is only appropriate in the absence of advective or convective processes. Given the rarity of such static states, we must move toward measurement techniques that will allow us to quantify the dynamic soil efflux system with gas transport by convective, advective and molecular diffusion processes. Convective processes are mainly relevant in caves, where values of relative humidity, temperature and CO2 molar fraction determine the buoyancy of the external-internal air masses. These convective processes also are important in large fractures when temperature differences between surface and depth can generate convection, transporting CO2 from deep layers to the atmosphere. Advective processes occur both in caves and in soils, and the CO2 exchanges are mainly due to three factors: wind, changes in atmospheric pressure, and changes in the water table. Molecular diffusion processes are being widely applied in the determination of soil-atmosphere gas exchanges by applying the gradient method. However, the use of the gradient method can yield inappropriate flux estimates due to the uncertainties mainly associated with the inappropriate determination of the soil diffusion coefficient. Therefore, in-situ methods to determine diffusion coefficient are necessary to obtain accurate CO2 fluxes. If this is resolved, the gradient method has great potential to become the most used technique to monitor atmosphere-soil CO2 exchanges within the next few years. Here we review the state of the science and describe a series of field measurements for significantly

  12. Estimation of continuous anthropogenic CO2: model-based evaluation of CO2, CO, δ13C(CO2) and Δ14C(CO2) tracer methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vardag, S. N.; Gerbig, C.; Janssens-Maenhout, G.; Levin, I.

    2015-11-01

    We investigate different methods for estimating anthropogenic CO2 using modeled continuous atmospheric concentrations of CO2 alone, as well as CO2 in combination with the surrogate tracers CO, δ13C(CO2) and Δ14C(CO2). These methods are applied at three hypothetical stations representing rural, urban and polluted conditions. We find that, independent of the tracer used, an observation-based estimate of continuous anthropogenic CO2 is not yet feasible at rural measurement sites due to the low signal-to-noise ratio of anthropogenic CO2 estimates at such settings. The tracers δ13C(CO2) and CO provide an accurate possibility to determine anthropogenic CO2 continuously, only if all CO2 sources in the catchment area are well characterized or calibrated with respect to their isotopic signature and CO to anthropogenic CO2 ratio. We test different calibration strategies for the mean isotopic signature and CO to CO2 ratio using precise Δ14C(CO2) measurements on monthly integrated as well as on grab samples. For δ13C(CO2), a calibration with annually averaged 14C(CO2) grab samples is most promising, since integrated sampling introduces large biases into anthropogenic CO2 estimates. For CO, these biases are smaller. The precision of continuous anthropogenic CO2 determination using δ13C(CO2) depends on measurement precision of δ13C(CO2) and CO2, while the CO method is mainly limited by the variation in natural CO sources and sinks. At present, continuous anthropogenic CO2 could be determined using the tracers δ13C(CO2) and/or CO with a precision of about 30 %, a mean bias of about 10 % and without significant diurnal discrepancies. Hypothetical future measurements of continuous Δ14C(CO2) with a precision of 5 ‰ are promising for anthropogenic CO2 determination (precision ca. 10-20 %) but are not yet available. The investigated tracer-based approaches open the door to improving, validating and reducing biases of highly resolved emission inventories using atmospheric

  13. Determining CO2 storage potential during miscible CO2 enhanced oil recovery: Noble gas and stable isotope tracers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Shelton, Jenna L.; McIntosh, Jennifer C.; Hunt, Andrew; Beebe, Thomas L; Parker, Andrew D; Warwick, Peter; Drake, Ronald; McCray, John E.

    2016-01-01

    Rising atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) concentrations are fueling anthropogenic climate change. Geologic sequestration of anthropogenic CO2 in depleted oil reservoirs is one option for reducing CO2 emissions to the atmosphere while enhancing oil recovery. In order to evaluate the feasibility of using enhanced oil recovery (EOR) sites in the United States for permanent CO2 storage, an active multi-stage miscible CO2flooding project in the Permian Basin (North Ward Estes Field, near Wickett, Texas) was investigated. In addition, two major natural CO2 reservoirs in the southeastern Paradox Basin (McElmo Dome and Doe Canyon) were also investigated as they provide CO2 for EOR operations in the Permian Basin. Produced gas and water were collected from three different CO2 flooding phases (with different start dates) within the North Ward Estes Field to evaluate possible CO2 storage mechanisms and amounts of total CO2retention. McElmo Dome and Doe Canyon were sampled for produced gas to determine the noble gas and stable isotope signature of the original injected EOR gas and to confirm the source of this naturally-occurring CO2. As expected, the natural CO2produced from McElmo Dome and Doe Canyon is a mix of mantle and crustal sources. When comparing CO2 injection and production rates for the CO2 floods in the North Ward Estes Field, it appears that CO2 retention in the reservoir decreased over the course of the three injections, retaining 39%, 49% and 61% of the injected CO2 for the 2008, 2010, and 2013 projects, respectively, characteristic of maturing CO2 miscible flood projects. Noble gas isotopic composition of the injected and produced gas for the flood projects suggest no active fractionation, while δ13CCO2 values suggest no active CO2dissolution into formation water, or mineralization. CO2 volumes capable of dissolving in residual formation fluids were also estimated along with the potential to store pure-phase supercritical CO2. Using a combination

  14. Forecasting global atmospheric CO2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agustí-Panareda, A.; Massart, S.; Chevallier, F.; Boussetta, S.; Balsamo, G.; Beljaars, A.; Ciais, P.; Deutscher, N. M.; Engelen, R.; Jones, L.; Kivi, R.; Paris, J.-D.; Peuch, V.-H.; Sherlock, V.; Vermeulen, A. T.; Wennberg, P. O.; Wunch, D.

    2014-05-01

    A new global atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) real-time forecast is now available as part of the pre-operational Monitoring of Atmospheric Composition and Climate - Interim Implementation (MACC-II) service using the infrastructure of the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) Integrated Forecasting System (IFS). One of the strengths of the CO2 forecasting system is that the land surface, including vegetation CO2 fluxes, is modelled online within the IFS. Other CO2 fluxes are prescribed from inventories and from off-line statistical and physical models. The CO2 forecast also benefits from the transport modelling from a state-of-the-art numerical weather prediction (NWP) system initialized daily with a wealth of meteorological observations. This paper describes the capability of the forecast in modelling the variability of CO2 on different temporal and spatial scales compared to observations. The modulation of the amplitude of the CO2 diurnal cycle by near-surface winds and boundary layer height is generally well represented in the forecast. The CO2 forecast also has high skill in simulating day-to-day synoptic variability. In the atmospheric boundary layer, this skill is significantly enhanced by modelling the day-to-day variability of the CO2 fluxes from vegetation compared to using equivalent monthly mean fluxes with a diurnal cycle. However, biases in the modelled CO2 fluxes also lead to accumulating errors in the CO2 forecast. These biases vary with season with an underestimation of the amplitude of the seasonal cycle both for the CO2 fluxes compared to total optimized fluxes and the atmospheric CO2 compared to observations. The largest biases in the atmospheric CO2 forecast are found in spring, corresponding to the onset of the growing season in the Northern Hemisphere. In the future, the forecast will be re-initialized regularly with atmospheric CO2 analyses based on the assimilation of CO2 satellite retrievals, as they become available in

  15. Advanced reservoir characterization and evaluation of CO2 gravity drainage in the naturally fractured Spraberry Trend Area. Annual report, September 1, 1996--August 31, 1997

    SciTech Connect

    McDonald, P.

    1998-06-01

    The objective of the Spraberry CO{sub 2} pilot project is to determine the technical and economic feasibility of continuous CO{sub 2} injection in the naturally fractured reservoirs of the Spraberry Trend. In order to describe, understand, and model CO{sub 2} flooding in the naturally fractured Spraberry reservoirs, characterization of the fracture system is a must. Additional reservoir characterization was based on horizontal coring in the second year of the project. In addition to characterization of natural fractures, horizontal coring has confirmed a previously developed rock model for describing the Spraberry Trend shaly sands. A better method for identifying Spraberry pay zones has been verified. The authors have completed the reservoir characterization, which includes matrix description and detection (from core-log integration) and fracture characterization. This information is found in Section 1. The authors have completed extensive imbibition experiments that strongly indicate that the weakly water-wet behavior of the reservoir rock may be responsible for poor waterflood response observed in many Spraberry fields. The authors have also made significant progress in analytical and numerical simulation of performance in Spraberry reservoirs as seen in Section 3. They have completed several suites of CO{sub 2} gravity drainage in Spraberry and Berea whole cores at reservoir conditions and reported in Section 4. The results of these experiments have been useful in developing a model for free-fall gravity drainage and have validated the premise that CO{sub 2} will recover oil from tight, unconfined Spraberry matrix.

  16. CO2-adapted legumes ameliorate but do not prevent the negative effect of elevated CO2 on nitrogen fixation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Newton, P.; Bowatte, S.; Lieffering, M.; Li, F.

    2015-12-01

    The response of biological nitrogen fixation (BNF) to climate and elevated CO2 (eCO2) is a key uncertainty in modelling C cycle projections. In addition, as BNF provides 50% of the nitrogen (N) input to agricultural production and as ecosystem responses to eCO2 are strongly influenced by N availability then the eCO2 impact on BNF is central to modelling legume-based system responses to climate change. Greater photoassimilate production under eCO2 should lead to enhanced BNF and this response is a feature of ecosystem models thus providing the N inputs necessary to provide continuing stimulation of NPP. FACE experiments provide a 'realistic' environment for eCO2 studies; however, even if run for multiple years, they still may not capture adaptation to eCO2 particularly in ecosystems dominated by perennial species. We tested the effect of eCO2 on BNF and the potential importance of adaption by growing legumes that had been exposed to high or ambient CO2 concentrations at a natural CO2 spring in a long-running (16 year) FACE experiment on grassland. BNF was significantly lower under eCO2 but the reduction was less marked where plants had originated in a high CO2 environment. An ecosystem model run with reduced BNF proved a better fit to the experimental data for the FACE experiment than where BNF was enhanced or unchanged under eCO2.

  17. Transpiration affects soil CO2 production in a dry grassland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balogh, János; Fóti, Szilvia; Pintér, Krisztina; Burri, Susanne; Eugster, Werner; Papp, Marianna; Nagy, Zoltán

    2014-05-01

    Although soil CO2 efflux can be highly variable on the diel time scale, it is often measured during daytime only. However, to get a full understanding of soil CO2 efflux and its impact on carbon cycle processes, looking at diurnal processes is crucial. Therefore, our aim was to investigate how diel variation in soil CO2 efflux from a dry, sandy grassland in Hungary depends on variations in potential drivers, such as gross primary production (GPP) and evapotranspiration (ET). In order to reach this goal, we combined measurements of CO2 and H2O fluxes by eddy covariance, soil chambers and soil CO2 gradient system. Surface CO2 fluxes were partitioned into the three CO2 production components originating from the three soil layers to clarify the timing and the source of the CO2 within the top 50 cm of the soil. CO2 production rates during the growing season were higher during nighttime than during daytime. This diel course was not only driven by soil temperature and soil moisture, but also by ET. This was shown by changes of ET causing a hysteresis loop in the diel response of CO2 production to soil temperature. CO2 production was coupled to soil temperature at night and during midday (12-14 h), when ET remained relatively constant. However, when ET was changing over time, CO2 production was decoupled from soil temperature. In order to disentangle these effects, we carried out time-lag analyses between CO2 production and efflux residuals after having subtracted the main effects of soil temperature and soil water content from measured CO2 fluxes. The results showed a strong negative correlation between ET rates and residuals of soil CO2 production, and a less strong, but still significantly time-lagged positive correlation between GPP and residuals of soil CO2 production. Thus, we could show that there is a rapid negative response of soil CO2 production rates to transpiration (suggesting CO2 transport in the xylem stream) and a delayed positive response to GPP

  18. Movement of Five Nematode Species through Sand Subjected to Natural Temperature Gradient Fluctuations

    PubMed Central

    Robinson, A. F.

    1994-01-01

    Temperature gradient fluctuations that occur naturally as a result of heating and cooling of the soil surface were reproduced within 15-cm-d, 15-cm-long acrylic tubes filled with moist sand. Sunny and rainy periods during the late summer in eastern Texas were simulated. Five ecologically different nematode species were adapted to fluctuating temperatures for 20-36 hours at a simulated depth of 12.5 cm before being injected simultaneously into the centers of tubes at that depth. When heat waves were propagated horizontally to eliminate gravitational effects, the movement of Ditylenchus phyllobius, Steinernema glaseri, and Heterorhabditis bacteriophora relative to the thermal surface was rapid and largely random. However, Rotylenchulus reniformis moved away from and Meloidogyne incognita moved toward the thermal surface. When heat waves were propagated upward or downward, responses to temperature were the same as when propagated horizontally, irrespective of gravity. The initial direction of movement 1.5 hours after introduction to 20-era-long tubes at five depths at five intervals within a 24-hour cycle indicated that M. incognita moved away from and R. reniformis moved toward the temperature to which last exposed. Differences in movement of the five species tested relative to gravity appeared related to body length, with the smallest nematodes moving downward and the largest moving upward. PMID:19279868

  19. Phenanthrene mineralization along a natural salinity gradient in an Urban Estuary, Boston Harbor, Massachusetts

    SciTech Connect

    Shiaris, M.P. )

    1989-01-01

    The effect of varying salinity on phenanthrene and glutamate mineralization was examined in sediments along a natural salinity gradient in an urban tidal river. Mineralization was measured by trapping {sup 14}CO{sub 2} from sediment slurries dosed with trace levels of ({sup 14}C)phenanthrene or ({sup 14}C)glutamate. Sediments from three sites representing three salinity regimes (0, 15, and 30%) were mixed with filtered column water from each site. Ambient phenanthrene concentrations were also determined to calculate phenanthrene mineralization rates. Rates of phenanthrene mineralization related significantly to increasing salinity along the transect as determined by linear regression analysis. Rates ranged from 1 ng/hour/g dry sediment at the freshwater site to >16 ng/hour/g dry sediment at the 30% salinity site. Glutamate mineralization also increased from the fresh-water to the marine site; however, the relationship to salinity was not statistically significant. The results suggest that phenanthrene degraders in low salinity estuarine sediments subject to salt water intrusion are tolerant to a wide range of salinities buy phenanthrene degradation in brackish waters is mainly a function of obligate marine microorganisms.

  20. Percolation and transport in a sandy soil under a natural hydraulic gradient

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Green, C.T.; Stonestrom, D.A.; Bekins, B.A.; Akstin, K.C.; Schulz, M.S.

    2005-01-01

    [1] Unsaturated flow and transport under a natural hydraulic gradient in a Mediterranean climate were investigated with a field tracer experiment combined with laboratory analyses and numerical modeling. Bromide was applied to the surface of a sandy soil during the dry season. During the subsequent rainy season, repeated sediment sampling tracked the movement of bromide through the profile. Analysis of data on moisture content, matric pressure, unsaturated hydraulic conductivity, bulk density, and soil texture and structure provides insights into parameterization and use of the advective-dispersive modeling approach. Capturing the gross features of tracer and moisture movement with model simulations required an order-of-magnitude increase in laboratory-measured hydraulic conductivity. Wetting curve characteristics better represented field results, calling into question the routine estimation of hydraulic characteristics based only on drying conditions. Measured increases in profile moisture exceeded cumulative precipitation in early winter, indicating that gains from dew drip can exceed losses from evapotranspiration during periods of heavy ("Tule") fog. A single-continuum advective-dispersive modeling approach could not reproduce a peak of bromide that was retained near the soil surface for over 3 years. Modeling of this feature required slow exchange of solute at a transfer rate of 0.5-1 ?? 10-4 d-1 with an immobile volume approaching the residual moisture content.

  1. Soil water repellency characteristic curves for soil profiles with natural organic carbon gradients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawamoto, Ken; Müller, Karin; Moldrup, Per; de Jonge, Lis; Clothier, Brent; Hiradate, Syuntaro; Komatsu, Toshiko

    2014-05-01

    Soil water repellency (SWR) is a phenomenon that influences many soil hydrologic processes such as reduction of infiltration, increase in overland flow, and enhanced preferential flow. SWR has been observed in various soil types and textures, and the degree of SWR is greatly controlled by soil moisture content and levels of organic matter and clay. One of the key topics in SWR research is how to describe accurately the seasonal and temporal variation of SWR with the controlling factors such as soil moisture, organic matter, and clay contents for soil profiles with natural organic carbon gradients. In the present study, we summarize measured SWR data for soil profiles under different land uses and vegetation in Japan and New Zealand, and compared these with literature data. We introduce the contact angle-based evaluation of SWR and predictive models for soil water repellency characteristic curves, in which the contact angle is a function of the moisture content. We also discuss a number of novel concepts, including i) the reduction in the contact angle with soil-water contact time to describe the time dependence of SWR, ii) the relationship between the contact angles from the measured scanning curves under controlled wetting and drying cycles, and iii) the initial contact angles measured by the sessile drop method.

  2. Transport of microspheres and indigenous bacteria through a sandy aquifer: Results of natural- and forced-gradient tracer experiments

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Harvey, R.W.; George, L.H.; Smith, R.L.; LeBlanc, D.R.

    1989-01-01

    Transport of indigenous bacteria through sandy aquifer sediments was investigated in forced- and natural-gradient tracer teste. A diverse population of bacteria was collected and concentrated from groundwater at the site, stained with a DNA-specific fluorochrome, and injected back into the aquifer. Included with the injectate were a conservative tracer (Br- or Cl-) and bacteria-sized (0.2-1.3-??m) microspheres having carboxylated, carbonyl, or neutral surfaces. Transport of stained bacteria and all types and size classes of microspheres was evident. In the natural-gradient test, both surface characteristics and size of microspheres affected attenuation. Surface characteristics had the greatest effect upon retardation. Peak break-through of DAPI-stained bacteria (forced-gradient experiment) occurred well in advance of bromide at the more distal sampler. Transport behavior of bacteria was substantially different from that of carboxylated microspheres of comparable size. ?? 1988 American Chemical Society.

  3. Is CO2 ice permanent?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lindner, Bernhard Lee

    1992-01-01

    Carbon dioxide ice has been inferred to exist at the south pole in summertime, but Earth based measurements in 1969 of water vapor in the Martian atmosphere suggest that all CO2 ice sublined from the southern polar cap and exposed underlying water ice. This implies that the observed summertime CO2 ice is of recent origin. It appears possible to construct an energy balance model that maintains seasonal CO2 ice at the south pole year round and still reasonably simulates the polar cap regression and atmospheric pressure data. This implies that the CO2 ice observed in the summertime south polar cap could be seasonal in origin, and that minor changes in climate could cause CO2 ice to completely vanish, as would appear to have happened in 1969. However, further research remains before it is certain whether the CO2 ice observed in the summertime south polar cap is seasonal or is part of a permanent reservoir.

  4. Co2 geological sequestration

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Tianfu

    2004-11-18

    Human activities are increasingly altering the Earth's climate. A particular concern is that atmospheric concentrations of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) may be rising fast because of increased industrialization. CO{sub 2} is a so-called ''greenhouse gas'' that traps infrared radiation and may contribute to global warming. Scientists project that greenhouse gases such as CO{sub 2} will make the arctic warmer, which would melt glaciers and raise sea levels. Evidence suggests that climate change may already have begun to affect ecosystems and wildlife around the world. Some animal species are moving from one habitat to another to adapt to warmer temperatures. Future warming is likely to exceed the ability of many species to migrate or adjust. Human production of CO{sub 2} from fossil fuels (such as at coal-fired power plants) is not likely to slow down soon. It is urgent to find somewhere besides the atmosphere to put these increased levels of CO{sub 2}. Sequestration in the ocean and in soils and forests are possibilities, but another option, sequestration in geological formations, may also be an important solution. Such formations could include depleted oil and gas reservoirs, unmineable coal seams, and deep saline aquifers. In many cases, injection of CO2 into a geological formation can enhance the recovery of hydrocarbons, providing value-added byproducts that can offset the cost of CO{sub 2} capture and sequestration. Before CO{sub 2} gas can be sequestered from power plants and other point sources, it must be captured. CO{sub 2} is also routinely separated and captured as a by-product from industrial processes such as synthetic ammonia production, H{sub 2} production, and limestone calcination. Then CO{sub 2} must be compressed into liquid form and transported to the geological sequestration site. Many power plants and other large emitters of CO{sub 2} are located near geological formations that are amenable to CO{sub 2} sequestration.

  5. Acid Gas Capture Using CO2-Binding Organic Liquids

    SciTech Connect

    Heldebrant, David J.; Koech, Phillip K.; Rainbolt, James E.; Zheng, Feng

    2010-11-10

    Current chemical CO2 scrubbing technology is primarily aqueous alkanolamine based. These systems rapidly bind CO2 (forming water-soluble carbamate and bicarbonate salts) however, the process has serious disadvantages. The concentration of monoethanolamine rarely exceeds 30 wt % due to the corrosive nature of the solution, and this reduces the maximum CO2 volumetric (≤108 g/L) and gravimetric capacity (≤7 wt%) of the CO2 scrubber. The ≤30 wt % loading of ethanolamine also means that a large excess of water must be pumped and heated during CO2 capture and release, and this greatly increases the energy requirements especially considering the high specific heat of water (4 j/g-1K-1). Our approach is to switch to organic systems that chemically bind CO2 as liquid alkylcarbonate salts. Our CO2-binding organic liquids have higher CO2 solubility, lower specific heats, potential for less corrosion and lower binding energies for CO2 than aqueous systems. CO2BOLs also reversibly bind and release mixed sulfur oxides. Furthermore the CO2BOL system can be direct solvent replacements for any solvent based CO2 capture systems because they are commercially available reagents and because they are fluids they would not require extensive process re-engineering.

  6. Experimental investigation of CO2 condensation process using cryogen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Cheonkyu; Yoo, Junghyun; Lee, Jisung; Park, Hana; Jeong, Sangkwon

    2014-01-01

    Carbon dioxide (CO2) is one of the dominant gas molecules that causes greenhouse effect, i.e. global warming. Numerous studies have been carried out to regulate the emission of CO2 to reduce greenhouse gas. The liquid CO2 is a convenient form of transportation compared to high-pressurized gaseous CO2. Therefore, the direct liquefaction mechanism of CO2 at low temperature draws technical attention recently. In particular, cold thermal energy of Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) could be a candidate to condense gaseous CO2, especially in the LNG powered ship. In this paper, the detailed direct condensation process of CO2 using LN2 with intermittent solidification is investigated. Pressurized CO2 at 600 kPa is directly liquefied in a vessel by liquid nitrogen which is supplied into the coiled tube heat exchanger inside the CO2 vessel. The heat exchanger temperature is controlled from 130 K to 205 K to regulate the solidification and sublimation of CO2 by duty control with cryogenic solenoid valve. The characteristics of CO2 condensation process with cryogen are analyzed from the measurement results. The results show that the solidification causes the significant degradation of CO2 condensation heat transfer. Finally, the condensation rate with and without solidification is compared.

  7. Atmospheric measurement of point source fossil fuel CO2 emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turnbull, J. C.; Keller, E. D.; Baisden, W. T.; Brailsford, G.; Bromley, T.; Norris, M.; Zondervan, A.

    2013-11-01

    We use the Kapuni Gas Treatment Plant to examine methodologies for atmospheric monitoring of point source fossil fuel CO2 (CO2ff) emissions. The Kapuni plant, located in rural New Zealand, removes CO2 from locally extracted natural gas and vents that CO2 to the atmosphere, at a rate of ~0.1 Tg carbon per year. The plant is located in a rural dairy farming area, with no other significant CO2ff sources nearby, but large, diurnally varying, biospheric CO2 fluxes from the surrounding highly productive agricultural grassland. We made flask measurements of CO2 and 14CO2 (from which we derive the CO2ff component) and in situ measurements of CO2 downwind of the Kapuni plant, using a Helikite to sample transects across the emission plume from the surface up to 100 m a.g.l. We also determined the surface CO2ff content averaged over several weeks from the 14CO2 content of grass samples collected from the surrounding area. We use the WindTrax plume dispersion model to compare the atmospheric observations with the emissions reported by the Kapuni plant, and to determine how well atmospheric measurements can constrain the emissions. The model has difficulty accurately capturing the fluctuations and short-term variability in the Helikite samples, but does quite well in representing the observed CO2ff in 15 min averaged surface flask samples and in ~1 week integrated CO2ff averages from grass samples. In this pilot study, we found that using grass samples, the modeled and observed CO2ff emissions averaged over one week agreed to within 30%. The results imply that greater verification accuracy may be achieved by including more detailed meteorological observations and refining 14CO2 sampling strategies.

  8. Arsenic speciation and susceptibility to oxidative stress in the fanworm Sabella spallanzanii (Gmelin) (Annelida, Sabellidae) under naturally acidified conditions: An in situ transplant experiment in a Mediterranean CO2 vent system.

    PubMed

    Ricevuto, E; Lanzoni, I; Fattorini, D; Regoli, F; Gambi, M C

    2016-02-15

    The fanworm Sabella spallanzanii (Gmelin, 1791) (Annelida, Sabellidae) is considered tolerant to several types of stressors but is generally absent from the CO2 vents. A peculiar characteristic of this species is the elevated content of arsenic in the gills, particularly dimethylarsinic acid (DMA), stored as an anti-predatory compound. In this study, modulation of trace metal levels, chemical speciation of arsenic and oxidative stress biomarkers were quantified in S. spallanzanii after a 30days transplant experiment into naturally acidified conditions in a Mediterranean vent system. No significant bioaccumulation of metals was observed in the thoracic tissues and branchial crowns after the translocation period, whereas variations occurred in the relative abundance of different arsenic compounds with the appearance of inorganic forms. The antioxidant system of translocated polychaetes exhibited a significant decrease of enzymatic activities of both catalase and glutathione peroxidases, and the impairment of the overall capability to neutralize hydroxyl radicals (OH). This highlighted an oxidative challenge primarily on the detoxification pathway of hydrogen peroxide. Overall low pH-elevated pCO2 may have detrimental effects on arsenic metabolism and oxidative status of S. spallanzanii, supporting the hypothesis of species-specific differences in vulnerability to ocean acidification.

  9. CO2 interaction with geomaterials.

    SciTech Connect

    Guthrie, George D.; Al-Saidi, Wissam A.; Jordan, Kenneth D.; Voora, Vamsee, K.; Romanov, Vyacheslav N.; Lopano, Christina L; Myshakin, Eugene M.; Hur, Tae Bong; Warzinski, Robert P.; Lynn, Ronald J.; Howard, Bret H.; Cygan, Randall Timothy

    2010-09-01

    This work compares the sorption and swelling processes associated with CO2-coal and CO2-clay interactions. We investigated the mechanisms of interaction related to CO2 adsortion in micropores, intercalation into sub-micropores, dissolution in solid matrix, the role of water, and the associated changes in reservoir permeability, for applications in CO2 sequestration and enhanced coal bed methane recovery. The structural changes caused by CO2 have been investigated. A high-pressure micro-dilatometer was equipped to investigate the effect of CO2 pressure on the thermoplastic properties of coal. Using an identical dilatometer, Rashid Khan (1985) performed experiments with CO2 that revealed a dramatic reduction in the softening temperature of coal when exposed to high-pressure CO2. A set of experiments was designed for -20+45-mesh samples of Argonne Premium Pocahontas No.3 coal, which is similar in proximate and ultimate analysis to the Lower Kittanning seam coal that Khan used in his experiments. No dramatic decrease in coal softening temperature has been observed in high-pressure CO2 that would corroborate the prior work of Khan. Thus, conventional polymer (or 'geopolymer') theories may not be directly applicable to CO2 interaction with coals. Clays are similar to coals in that they represent abundant geomaterials with well-developed microporous structure. We evaluated the CO2 sequestration potential of clays relative to coals and investigated the factors that affect the sorption capacity, rates, and permanence of CO2 trapping. For the geomaterials comparison studies, we used source clay samples from The Clay Minerals Society. Preliminary results showed that expandable clays have CO2 sorption capacities comparable to those of coal. We analyzed sorption isotherms, XRD, DRIFTS (infrared reflectance spectra at non-ambient conditions), and TGA-MS (thermal gravimetric analysis) data to compare the effects of various factors on CO2 trapping. In montmorillonite, CO2

  10. Large CO2 effluxes at night and during synoptic weather events significantly contribute to CO2 emissions from a reservoir

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Heping; Zhang, Qianyu; Katul, Gabriel G.; Cole, Jonathan J.; Chapin, F. Stuart, III; MacIntyre, Sally

    2016-06-01

    CO2 emissions from inland waters are commonly determined by indirect methods that are based on the product of a gas transfer coefficient and the concentration gradient at the air water interface (e.g., wind-based gas transfer models). The measurements of concentration gradient are typically collected during the day in fair weather throughout the course of a year. Direct measurements of eddy covariance CO2 fluxes from a large inland water body (Ross Barnett reservoir, Mississippi, USA) show that CO2 effluxes at night are approximately 70% greater than those during the day. At longer time scales, frequent synoptic weather events associated with extratropical cyclones induce CO2 flux pulses, resulting in further increase in annual CO2 effluxes by 16%. Therefore, CO2 emission rates from this reservoir, if these diel and synoptic processes are under-sampled, are likely to be underestimated by approximately 40%. Our results also indicate that the CO2 emission rates from global inland waters reported in the literature, when based on indirect methods, are likely underestimated. Field samplings and indirect modeling frameworks that estimate CO2 emissions should account for both daytime-nighttime efflux difference and enhanced emissions during synoptic weather events. The analysis here can guide carbon emission sampling to improve regional carbon estimates.

  11. Large CO2 effluxes at night and during synoptic weather events significantly contribute to CO2 emissions from a reservoir

    DOE PAGES

    Liu, Heping; Zhang, Qianyu; Katul, Gabriel G.; ...

    2016-05-24

    CO2 emissions from inland waters are commonly determined by indirect methods that are based on the product of a gas transfer coefficient and the concentration gradient at the air water interface (e.g., wind-based gas transfer models). The measurements of concentration gradient are typically collected during the day in fair weather throughout the course of a year. Direct measurements of eddy covariance CO2 fluxes from a large inland water body (Ross Barnett reservoir, Mississippi, USA) show that CO2 effluxes at night are approximately 70% greater than those during the day. At longer time scales, frequent synoptic weather events associated with extratropicalmore » cyclones induce CO2 flux pulses, resulting in further increase in annual CO2 effluxes by 16%. Therefore, CO2 emission rates from this reservoir, if these diel and synoptic processes are under-sampled, are likely to be underestimated by approximately 40%. Our results also indicate that the CO2 emission rates from global inland waters reported in the literature, when based on indirect methods, are likely underestimated. Field samplings and indirect modeling frameworks that estimate CO2 emissions should account for both daytime-nighttime efflux difference and enhanced emissions during synoptic weather events. Furthermore, the analysis here can guide carbon emission sampling to improve regional carbon estimates.« less

  12. Experimental and Numerical Modelling of CO2 Atmospheric Dispersion in Hazardous Gas Emission Sites.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gasparini, A.; sainz Gracia, A. S.; Grandia, F.; Bruno, J.

    2015-12-01

    Under stable atmospheric conditions and/or in presence of topographic depressions, CO2 concentrations can reach high values resulting in lethal effect to living organisms. The distribution of denser than air gases released from the underground is governed by gravity, turbulence and dispersion. Once emitted, the gas distribution is initially driven by buoyancy and a gas cloud accumulates on the ground (gravitational phase); with time the density gradient becomes less important due to dispersion or mixing and gas distribution is mainly governed by wind and atmospheric turbulence (passive dispersion phase). Natural analogues provide evidences of the impact of CO2 leakage. Dangerous CO2 concentration in atmosphere related to underground emission have been occasionally reported although the conditions favouring the persistence of such a concentration are barely studied.In this work, the dynamics of CO2 in the atmosphere after ground emission is assessed to quantify their potential risk. Two approaches have been followed: (1) direct measurement of air concentration in a natural emission site, where formation of a "CO2 lake" is common and (2) numerical atmospheric modelling. Two sites with different morphology were studied: (a) the Cañada Real site, a flat terrain in the Volcanic Field of Campo de Calatrava (Spain); (b) the Solforata di Pomezia site, a rough terrain in the Alban Hills Volcanic Region (Italy). The comparison between field data and model calculations reveal that numerical dispersion models are capable of predicting the formation of CO2 accumulation over the ground as a consequence of underground gas emission. Therefore, atmospheric modelling could be included as a valuable methodology in the risk assessment of leakage in natural degassing systems and in CCS projects. Conclusions from this work provide clues on whether leakage may be a real risk for humans and under which conditions this risk needs to be included in the risk assessment.

  13. Comparison of denitrification activity measurements in groundwater using cores and natural-gradient tracer tests

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, R.L.; Garabedian, S.P.; Brooks, M.H.

    1996-01-01

    The transport of many solutes in groundwater is dependent upon the relative rates of physical flow and microbial metabolism. Quantifying rates of microbial processes under subsurface conditions is difficult and is most commonly approximated using laboratory studies with aquifer materials. In this study, we measured in situ rates of denitrification in a nitrate- contaminated aquifer using small-scale, natural-gradient tracer tests and compared the results with rates obtained from laboratory incubations with aquifer core material. Activity was measured using the acetylene block technique. For the tracer tests, co-injection of acetylene and bromide into the aquifer produced a 30 ??M increase in nitrous oxide after 10 m of transport (23-30 days). An advection-dispersion transport model was modified to include an acetylene-dependent nitrous oxide production term and used to simulate the tracer breakthrough curves. The model required a 4-day lag period and a relatively low sensitivity to acetylene to match the narrow nitrous oxide breakthrough curves. Estimates of in situ denitrification rates were 0.60 and 1.51 nmol of N2O produced cm-3 aquifer day-1 for two successive tests. Aquifer core material collected from the tracer test site and incubated as mixed slurries in flasks and as intact cores yielded rates that were 1.2-26 times higher than the tracer test rate estimates. Results with the coring-dependent techniques were variable and subject to the small- scale heterogeneity within the aquifer, while the tracer tests integrated the heterogeneity along a flow path, giving a rate estimate that is more applicable to transport at the scale of the aquifer.

  14. Reproductive response to nitrogen and phosphorus fertilization along the Hawaiian archipelago's natural soil fertility gradient.

    PubMed

    DiManno, Nicole M; Ostertag, Rebecca

    2016-01-01

    Nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) are the most important nutrients involved in plant reproduction and typically the most limiting in terrestrial ecosystems. The natural soil fertility gradient of the Hawaiian archipelago, in which younger islands are N limited and older islands are P limited, provides a model system to examine questions regarding allocation of nutrients. Using fertilized plots (+N or +P) at the extreme sites of the Hawaiian archipelago, vegetative productivity (e.g., net primary productivity, growth, and litterfall) and foliar nutrient responses have previously been studied for the dominant canopy tree, Metrosideros polymorpha. Here, we investigated whether the reproductive response of M. polymorpha mirrors the previously found vegetative productivity and foliar nutrient responses, by quantifying: (1) inflorescence and seed productivity, and (2) nutrient concentration of reproductive structures. Fertilization with N and P did not significantly affect the productivity of inflorescences or seeds, or seed viability at either site. However, nutrient concentrations increased after fertilization; %P increased in inflorescences in the +P treatment at the P-limited site. Seeds and inflorescences generally contained higher nutrient concentrations than leaves at both sites. Unlike foliar data, reproductive strategies of M. polymorpha differed depending on soil nutrient limitation with emphasis on quality (higher seed viability/greater nutrient concentrations) at the P-limited site. We suggest that in response to P additions M. polymorpha employs a nutrient conservation strategy for its inflorescences and an investment strategy for its seeds. Examining N and P simultaneously challenges a basic assumption that reproductive allocation follows a similar pattern to the often measured aboveground productivity.

  15. Transpiration of Eucalyptus woodlands across a natural gradient of depth-to-groundwater.

    PubMed

    Zolfaghar, Sepideh; Villalobos-Vega, Randol; Zeppel, Melanie; Cleverly, James; Rumman, Rizwana; Hingee, Matthew; Boulain, Nicolas; Li, Zheng; Eamus, Derek; Tognetti, Roberto

    2017-03-23

    Water resources and their management present social, economic and environmental challenges, with demand for human consumptive, industrial and environmental uses increasing globally. However, environmental water requirements, that is, the allocation of water to the maintenance of ecosystem health, are often neglected or poorly quantified. Further, transpiration by trees is commonly a major determinant of the hydrological balance of woodlands but recognition of the role of groundwater in hydrological balances of woodlands remains inadequate, particularly in mesic climates. In this study, we measured rates of tree water-use and sapwood 13C isotopic ratio in a mesic, temperate Eucalypt woodland along a naturally occurring gradient of depth-to-groundwater (DGW), to examine daily, seasonal and annual patterns of transpiration. We found that: (i) the maximum rate of stand transpiration was observed at the second shallowest site (4.3 m) rather than the shallowest (2.4 m); (ii) as DGW increased from 4.3 to 37.5 m, stand transpiration declined; (iii) the smallest rate of stand transpiration was observed at the deepest (37.5 m) site; (iv) intrinsic water-use efficiency was smallest at the two intermediate DGW sites as reflected in the Δ13C of the most recently formed sapwood and largest at the deepest and shallowest DGW sites, reflecting the imposition of flooding at the shallowest site and the inaccessibility of groundwater at the deepest site; and (v) there was no evidence of convergence in rates of water-use for co-occurring species at any site. We conclude that even in mesic environments groundwater can be utilized by trees. We further conclude that these forests are facultatively groundwater-dependent when groundwater depth is <9 m and suggest that during drier-than-average years the contribution of groundwater to stand transpiration is likely to increase significantly at the three shallowest DGW sites.

  16. Archaeal community diversity and abundance changes along a natural salinity gradient in estuarine sediments.

    PubMed

    Webster, Gordon; O'Sullivan, Louise A; Meng, Yiyu; Williams, Angharad S; Sass, Andrea M; Watkins, Andrew J; Parkes, R John; Weightman, Andrew J

    2015-02-01

    Archaea are widespread in marine sediments, but their occurrence and relationship with natural salinity gradients in estuarine sediments is not well understood. This study investigated the abundance and diversity of Archaea in sediments at three sites [Brightlingsea (BR), Alresford (AR) and Hythe (HY)] along the Colne Estuary, using quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) of 16S rRNA genes, DNA hybridization, Archaea 16S rRNA and mcrA gene phylogenetic analyses. Total archaeal 16S rRNA abundance in sediments were higher in the low-salinity brackish sediments from HY (2-8 × 10(7) 16S rRNA gene copies cm(-3)) than the high-salinity marine sites from BR and AR (2 × 10(4)-2 × 10(7) and 4 × 10(6)-2 × 10(7) 16S rRNA gene copies cm(-3), respectively), although as a proportion of the total prokaryotes Archaea were higher at BR than at AR or HY. Phylogenetic analysis showed that members of the 'Bathyarchaeota' (MCG), Thaumarchaeota and methanogenic Euryarchaeota were the dominant groups of Archaea. The composition of Thaumarchaeota varied with salinity, as only 'marine' group I.1a was present in marine sediments (BR). Methanogen 16S rRNA genes from low-salinity sediments at HY were dominated by acetotrophic Methanosaeta and putatively hydrogentrophic Methanomicrobiales, whereas the marine site (BR) was dominated by mcrA genes belonging to methylotrophic Methanococcoides, versatile Methanosarcina and methanotrophic ANME-2a. Overall, the results indicate that salinity and associated factors play a role in controlling diversity and distribution of Archaea in estuarine sediments.

  17. Leaves: Elevated CO2 levels

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Burning fossil fuels and land use changes such as deforestation and urbanization have led to a dramatic rise in the concentration of carbon dioxide (CO2) in the atmosphere since the onset of the Industrial Revolution. The highly dilute CO2 from the atmosphere enters plant leaves where it is concentr...

  18. Monitoring of near surface CO2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faber, E.; Möller, I.; Teschner, M.; Poggenburg, J.; Spickenbom, K.; Schulz, H. J.

    2009-04-01

    Monitoring of near surface CO2 ECKHARD FABER1, INGO MÖLLER1, MANFRED TESCHNER1, JÜRGEN POGGENBURG1, KAI SPICKENBOM1, HANS-MARTIN SCHULZ1,2 1Bundesanstalt für Geowissenschaften und Rohstoffe (BGR), Stilleweg 2, D-30655 Hannover, e.faber@bgr.de 2present adress: GeoForschungsZentrum Potsdam (GFZ), Telegrafenberg, D-14473 Potsdam Underground gas storage and sequestration of carbon dioxide is one of the methods to reduce the input of antropogenic CO2 into the atmosphere and its greenhouse effect. Storage of CO2 is planned in depleted reservoirs, in aquifers and in salt caverns. Storage sites must have very small leakage rates to safely store the CO2 for centuries. Thus, a careful investigation and site selection is crucial. However, any leakage of CO2 to the surface is potentially dangerous for humans and environment. Therefore, instruments and systems for the detection of any CO2 escaping the storage sites and reaching the atmosphere have to be developed. Systems to monitor gases in deep wells, groundwater and surface sediments for leaking CO2 are developed, tested and are contnuously improved. Our group is mainly analysing CO2 in shallow (down to 3 m) soil samples using automatically operating monitoring systems. The systems are equipped with sensors to measure CO2 (and other gases) concentrations and other environmental parameters (atmospheric pressure, ambient and soil temperatures, etc.). Data are measured in short intervals (minute to subminute), are stored locally and are transferred by telemetrical systems into the BGR laboratory (Weinlich et al., 2006). In addition to soil gases monitoring systems technical equipment is available for continuous underwater gas flow measurements. Several of those monitoring systems are installed in different areas like Czech Republic, Austria, Italy and Germany. To detect any leaking gas from a sequestration site after CO2 injection, the naturally existing CO2 concentration (before injection) must be known. Thus, the natural

  19. CO2 Sequestration short course

    SciTech Connect

    DePaolo, Donald J.; Cole, David R; Navrotsky, Alexandra; Bourg, Ian C

    2014-12-08

    Given the public’s interest and concern over the impact of atmospheric greenhouse gases (GHGs) on global warming and related climate change patterns, the course is a timely discussion of the underlying geochemical and mineralogical processes associated with gas-water-mineral-interactions encountered during geological sequestration of CO2. The geochemical and mineralogical processes encountered in the subsurface during storage of CO2 will play an important role in facilitating the isolation of anthropogenic CO2 in the subsurface for thousands of years, thus moderating rapid increases in concentrations of atmospheric CO2 and mitigating global warming. Successful implementation of a variety of geological sequestration scenarios will be dependent on our ability to accurately predict, monitor and verify the behavior of CO2 in the subsurface. The course was proposed to and accepted by the Mineralogical Society of America (MSA) and The Geochemical Society (GS).

  20. CO2 Flux Estimation Errors Associated with Moist Atmospheric Processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parazoo, N. C.; Denning, A. S.; Kawa, S. R.; Pawson, S.; Lokupitiya, R.

    2012-01-01

    Vertical transport by moist sub-grid scale processes such as deep convection is a well-known source of uncertainty in CO2 source/sink inversion. However, a dynamical link between vertical transport, satellite based retrievals of column mole fractions of CO2, and source/sink inversion has not yet been established. By using the same offline transport model with meteorological fields from slightly different data assimilation systems, we examine sensitivity of frontal CO2 transport and retrieved fluxes to different parameterizations of sub-grid vertical transport. We find that frontal transport feeds off background vertical CO2 gradients, which are modulated by sub-grid vertical transport. The implication for source/sink estimation is two-fold. First, CO2 variations contained in moist poleward moving air masses are systematically different from variations in dry equatorward moving air. Moist poleward transport is hidden from orbital sensors on satellites, causing a sampling bias, which leads directly to small but systematic flux retrieval errors in northern mid-latitudes. Second, differences in the representation of moist sub-grid vertical transport in GEOS-4 and GEOS-5 meteorological fields cause differences in vertical gradients of CO2, which leads to systematic differences in moist poleward and dry equatorward CO2 transport and therefore the fraction of CO2 variations hidden in moist air from satellites. As a result, sampling biases are amplified and regional scale flux errors enhanced, most notably in Europe (0.43+/-0.35 PgC /yr). These results, cast from the perspective of moist frontal transport processes, support previous arguments that the vertical gradient of CO2 is a major source of uncertainty in source/sink inversion.

  1. CO2 flux estimation errors associated with moist atmospheric processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parazoo, N. C.; Denning, A. S.; Kawa, S. R.; Pawson, S.; Lokupitiya, R.

    2012-07-01

    Vertical transport by moist sub-grid scale processes such as deep convection is a well-known source of uncertainty in CO2 source/sink inversion. However, a dynamical link between vertical transport, satellite based retrievals of column mole fractions of CO2, and source/sink inversion has not yet been established. By using the same offline transport model with meteorological fields from slightly different data assimilation systems, we examine sensitivity of frontal CO2 transport and retrieved fluxes to different parameterizations of sub-grid vertical transport. We find that frontal transport feeds off background vertical CO2 gradients, which are modulated by sub-grid vertical transport. The implication for source/sink estimation is two-fold. First, CO2 variations contained in moist poleward moving air masses are systematically different from variations in dry equatorward moving air. Moist poleward transport is hidden from orbital sensors on satellites, causing a sampling bias, which leads directly to small but systematic flux retrieval errors in northern mid-latitudes. Second, differences in the representation of moist sub-grid vertical transport in GEOS-4 and GEOS-5 meteorological fields cause differences in vertical gradients of CO2, which leads to systematic differences in moist poleward and dry equatorward CO2 transport and therefore the fraction of CO2 variations hidden in moist air from satellites. As a result, sampling biases are amplified and regional scale flux errors enhanced, most notably in Europe (0.43 ± 0.35 PgC yr-1). These results, cast from the perspective of moist frontal transport processes, support previous arguments that the vertical gradient of CO2 is a major source of uncertainty in source/sink inversion.

  2. CO2 flux estimation errors associated with moist atmospheric processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parazoo, N. C.; Denning, A. S.; Kawa, S. R.; Pawson, S.; Lokupitiya, R.

    2012-04-01

    Vertical transport by moist sub-grid scale processes such as deep convection is a well-known source of uncertainty in CO2 source/sink inversion. However, a dynamical link between moist transport, satellite CO2 retrievals, and source/sink inversion has not yet been established. Here we examine the effect of moist processes on (1) synoptic CO2 transport by Version-4 and Version-5 NASA Goddard Earth Observing System Data Assimilation System (NASA-DAS) meteorological analyses, and (2) source/sink inversion. We find that synoptic transport processes, such as fronts and dry/moist conveyors, feed off background vertical CO2 gradients, which are modulated by sub-grid vertical transport. The implication for source/sink estimation is two-fold. First, CO2 variations contained in moist poleward moving air masses are systematically different from variations in dry equatorward moving air. Moist poleward transport is hidden from orbital sensors on satellites, causing a sampling bias, which leads directly to continental scale source/sink estimation errors of up to 0.25 PgC yr-1 in northern mid-latitudes. Second, moist processes are represented differently in GEOS-4 and GEOS-5, leading to differences in vertical CO2 gradients, moist poleward and dry equatorward CO2 transport, and therefore the fraction of CO2 variations hidden in moist air from satellites. As a result, sampling biases are amplified, causing source/sink estimation errors of up to 0.55 PgC yr-1 in northern mid-latitudes. These results, cast from the perspective of moist frontal transport processes, support previous arguments that the vertical gradient of CO2 is a major source of uncertainty in source/sink inversion.

  3. Structural diversity of copper-CO2 complexes: infrared spectra and structures of [Cu(CO2)n]- clusters.

    PubMed

    Knurr, Benjamin J; Weber, J Mathias

    2014-11-06

    We  present infrared spectra of  [Cu(CO2)n](-) (n = 2-9) clusters in the wavenumber range 1600-2400 cm(-1). The CO stretching modes in this region encode the structural nature of the cluster core and are interpreted with the aid of density functional theory. We find a variety of core species in [Cu(CO2)n](-) clusters, but the dominant core structure is a [Cu(CO2)2](-) core where the two CO2 ligands are bound to the Cu atom in a bidentate fashion. We compare the results of [Cu(CO2)n](-) clusters to those of other [M(CO2)n](-) clusters (M = Au, Ag, Co, Ni) to establish trends of how the metal-CO2 interaction depends on the metal partner.

  4. Spectroscopic properties of five-coordinated Co2+ in phosphates.

    PubMed

    Hunault, M; Robert, J-L; Newville, M; Galoisy, L; Calas, G

    2014-01-03

    Co3(PO4)2, SrCo2(PO4)2, Co2P2O7, BaCoP2O7 and SrCoP2O7 present different geometries of five-coordinated Co(2+) (([5])Co(2+)) sites, coexisting with ([6])Co(2+) in Co3(PO4)2 and Co2P2O7, and ([4])Co(2+) in SrCo2(PO4)2. ([5])Co K-edge XANES spectra show that the intensity of the pre-edge and main-edge is intermediate between those of ([6])- and ([4])Co. Diffuse reflectance spectra show the contributions of Co(2+) in (D3h) symmetry for SrCo2(PO4)2, and (C4v) symmetry for BaCoP2O7 and SrCoP2O7. In Co3(PO4)2 and Co2P2O7 the multiple transitions observed arise from energy level splitting and may be labeled in (C2v) symmetry. Spectroscopic data confirm that (D3h) and (C4v) symmetries may be distinguished upon the intensity of the optical absorption bands and crystal field splitting values. We discuss the influence of the geometrical distortion and of the nature of the next nearest neighbors.

  5. Depth-Dependent Organization and Dynamics of Archaeal and Eukaryotic Membranes: Development of Membrane Anisotropy Gradient with Natural Evolution.

    PubMed

    Chakraborty, Hirak; Haldar, Sourav; Chong, Parkson Lee-Gau; Kombrabail, Mamata; Krishnamoorthy, G; Chattopadhyay, Amitabha

    2015-10-27

    The lipid composition of archaea is unique and has been correlated with increased stability under extreme environmental conditions. In this article, we have focused on the evolution of membrane organization and dynamics with natural evolution. Dynamic anisotropy along the membrane normal (i.e., gradients of mobility, polarity, and heterogeneity) is a hallmark of fluid phase diester or diether phospholipid membranes. We monitored gradients of mobility, polarity, and heterogeneity along the membrane normal in membranes made of a representative archaeal lipid using a series of membrane depth-dependent fluorescent probes, and compared them to membranes prepared from a typical diether lipid from higher organisms (eukaryotes). Our results show that the representative dynamic anisotropy gradient along the membrane normal is absent in membranes made from archaeal lipids. We hypothesize that the dynamic gradient observed in membranes of diester and diether phospholipids is a consequence of natural evolution of membrane lipids in response to the requirement of carrying out complex cellular functions by membrane proteins.

  6. Short-term natural δ13C and δ18O variations in pools and fluxes in a beech forest: the transfer of isotopic signal from recent photosynthates to soil respired CO2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gavrichkova, O.; Proietti, S.; Moscatello, S.; Portarena, S.; Battistelli, A.; Matteucci, G.; Brugnoli, E.

    2011-10-01

    The fate of photosynthetic products within the plant-soil continuum determines how long the reduced carbon resides within the ecosystem and when it returns back to the atmosphere in the form of respiratory CO2. We have tested the possibility of measuring natural variation in δ13C and δ18O to disentangle the potential times needed to transfer carbohydrates produced by photosynthesis down to trunk, roots and, in general, to belowground up to its further release in the form of soil respiration into the atmosphere in a beech (Fagus sylvatica) forest. We have measured the variation in stable carbon and oxygen isotope compositions in plant material and in soil respired CO2 every three hours for three consecutive days. Possible steps and different signs of post-photosynthetic fractionation during carbon translocation were also identified. A 12 h-periodicity was observed for variation in δ13C in soluble sugars in the top crown leaves and it can be explained by starch day/night dynamics in synthesis and breakdown and by stomatal limitations under elevated vapour pressure deficits. Photosynthetic products were transported down the trunk and mixed with older carbon pools, therefore causing the dampening of the δ13C signal variation. The strongest periodicity of 24 h was found in δ13C in soil respiration indicating changes in root contribution to the total CO2 efflux. Other non-biological causes like diffusion fractionation and advection induced by gas withdrawn from the measurement chamber complicate data interpretation on this step of C transfer path. Nevertheless, it was possible to identify the speed of carbohydrates' translocation from the point of assimilation to the trunk breast height because leaf-imprinted enrichment of δ18O in soluble sugars was less modified along the downward transport and was well related to environmental parameters potentially linked to stomatal conductance. The speed of carbohydrates translocation from the site of assimilation to the trunk

  7. Natural bank filtration: What non-engineered, natural-gradient systems can tell us about removal of microorganisms.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harvey, R. W.; Metge, D. W.; Aiken, G.; LeBlanc, D. R.; McCobb, T.

    2012-12-01

    Although engineered bank-filtration has proven to be a cost-effective means of removing pathogens from source water, little is known about the efficacy of non-engineered bank filtration occurring under natural-gradient conditions. Our study focused on removal of microorganisms by bottom sediments within the "pond shadow" of a kettle pond in Cape Cod, Massachusetts. Ashumet Pond (pH 7.2, 118-123 μS cm-1 specific conductance, 2.2-2.5 mg/L dissolved organic carbon, DOC) was formed by a deep (up to 20 m) depression into the local aquifer made by melting block(s) of ice left behind during the last glacial retreat, ~12000 ybp. Although there are no inputs or outputs of surface water to the pond, groundwater continuously flows into the north end of the pond and eventually recharges the aquifer on the south end, which serves as source-water for nearby wells. We performed injection-and-recovery studies in the south end of the pond involving the addition of a conservative tracer (bromide) and a suite of colloids, including Synechococcus sp. IU625 (2.6 ± 0.2 μm), unidentified cyanospores (1.6 ± 0.1 μm diameter), and carboxylate-modified polystyrene microspheres (1.7, 2.9, and 4.6-μm diameter size classes). The colloids and bromide were added to the water column within a bag-and-barrel (Lee type) seepage meter and tracked as they moved across the surficial layer and through the underlying aquifer sediments past push-point samplers placed at ~30 cm intervals along a 1.2 m, diagonally (~45 °) downward flow path. The top 25 cm of near-surface bottom sediments removed ~44% of the pond DOC and was more effective (by more than 9 orders of magnitude) at removing colloids than was the underlying sediment. This resulted in a hyperexponential deposition profile along the travel path, in contrast to what is predicted from colloid filtration theory, and underscored the importance of the biologically active layer at the pond bottom. However, once below the top layer, cyanospores

  8. Atmospheric measurement of point source fossil CO2 emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turnbull, J. C.; Keller, E. D.; Baisden, T.; Brailsford, G.; Bromley, T.; Norris, M.; Zondervan, A.

    2014-05-01

    We use the Kapuni Gas Treatment Plant to examine methodologies for atmospheric monitoring of point source fossil fuel CO2 (CO2ff) emissions. The Kapuni plant, located in rural New Zealand, removes CO2 from locally extracted natural gas and vents that CO2 to the atmosphere, at a rate of ~0.1 Tg carbon per year. The plant is located in a rural dairy farming area, with no other significant CO2ff sources nearby, but large, diurnally varying, biospheric CO2 fluxes from the surrounding highly productive agricultural grassland. We made flask measurements of CO2 and 14CO2 (from which we derive the CO2ff component) and in situ measurements of CO2 downwind of the Kapuni plant, using a Helikite to sample transects across the emission plume from the surface up to 100 m above ground level. We also determined the surface CO2ff content averaged over several weeks from the 14C content of grass samples collected from the surrounding area. We use the WindTrax plume dispersion model to compare the atmospheric observations with the emissions reported by the Kapuni plant, and to determine how well atmospheric measurements can constrain the emissions. The model has difficulty accurately capturing the fluctuations and short-term variability in the Helikite samples, but does quite well in representing the observed CO2ff in 15 min averaged surface flask samples and in ~ one week integrated CO2ff averages from grass samples. In this pilot study, we found that using grass samples, the modeled and observed CO2ff emissions averaged over one week agreed to within 30%. The results imply that greater verification accuracy may be achieved by including more detailed meteorological observations and refining 14C sampling strategies.

  9. Coupled Model for CO2 Leaks from Geological Storage: Geomechanics, Fluid Flow and Phase Transitions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gor, G.; Prevost, J.

    2013-12-01

    Deep saline aquifers are considered as a promising option for long-term storage of carbon dioxide. However, risk of CO2 leakage from the aquifers through faults, natural or induced fractures or abandoned wells cannot be disregarded. Therefore, modeling of various leakage scenarios is crucial when selecting a site for CO2 sequestration and choosing proper operational conditions. Carbon dioxide is injected into wells at supercritical conditions (t > 31.04 C, P > 73.82 bar), and these conditions are maintained in the deep aquifers (at 1-2 km depth) due to hydrostatic pressure and geothermal gradient. However, if CO2 and brine start to migrate from the aquifer upward, both pressure and temperature will decrease, and at the depth of 500-750 m, the conditions for CO2 will become subcritical. At subcritical conditions, CO2 starts boiling and the character of the flow changes dramatically due to appearance of the third (vapor) phase and latent heat effects. When modeling CO2 leaks, one needs to couple the multiphase flow in porous media with geomechanics. These capabilities are provided by Dynaflow, a finite element analysis program [1]; Dynaflow has already showed to be efficient for modeling caprock failure causing CO2 leaks [2, 3]. Currently we have extended the capabilities of Dynaflow with the phase transition module, based on two-phase and three-phase isenthalpic flash calculations [4]. We have also developed and implemented an efficient method for solving heat and mass transport with the phase transition using our flash module. Therefore, we have developed a robust tool for modeling CO2 leaks. In the talk we will give a brief overview of our method and illustrate it with the results of simulations for characteristic test cases. References: [1] J.H. Prevost, DYNAFLOW: A Nonlinear Transient Finite Element Analysis Program. Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ. http://www.princeton.edu/~dynaflow/ (last update 2013

  10. CO2 permeability of fractured cap rocks - experiments and numerical simulations (CO2Seals)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    (Draeger), Ines Rick; Clauser, Christoph

    2010-05-01

    for this purpose including generic structural geological faults and comprising Mesozoic and Cenozoic formations of the Northern German Basin. The mass of CO2 retained by a multi-barrier system including reservoirs and cap rocks is estimated by taking into account hydraulic property values of known fault systems and predicted or measured leakage rates, also from natural analogues. As a result, we provide conclusions with respect to the stability and tightness of cap rocks exposed to CO2 for long periods. Furthermore, potential CO2 leakage scenarios on different size- and time-scales are generated in addition to the characterization of the CO2 sealing efficiency of low-permeable cap rocks. The CO2Seals project is funded by the R&D program GEOTECHNOLOGIEN of the German Federal Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF). It is a joint research project of RWTH Aachen University and the Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT). The project is co-funded and accompanied scientifically by the industry partner Shell International Exploration and Production, Netherlands.

  11. Co2 On Titan's Surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCord, Thomas B.; Combe, J.; Hayne, P.; Hansen, G. B.

    2007-10-01

    Evidence is reported for the presence of CO2 on the surface of Titan from the Cassini VIMS (an imaging visual and IR spectrometer) data (McCord et al., 2006, 2007). CO2 can be expected on Titan from basic planetary evolution models. It was also suggested as a plausible spectral component for bright material near the Huygens landing site (Rodriguez et al., 2006), based on structure in the 1.59-µm region. Hartung et al. (2006) searched for CO2 in one hemisphere, but they were able only to set an upper limit on the possible spatial coverage by pure CO2. Barnes et al., (2006) suggested CO2 as a possible candidate material for a 5-µm-bright region, named Tsegihi, based on the high 5-µm reflectance. However, these results are not inconsistent with our report. The evidence we report is three-fold: 1) A weak absorption near 4.9 µm in the 5-µm methane window for the Tui Regio region; 2) The spectral contrast between the 2.7- and 2.8-µm methane subwindows for the regions exhibiting the 4.9-µm absorption, with stronger absorption correlating with stronger contrast; and 3) the overall shape of the CO2 spectrum (for several grain-sizes) is consistent with the spectrum of one of the fundamental surface spectral components, as deduced by spectral mixture analysis modeling. The Tui Regio feature exhibits the strongest evidence in all three categories. Studies of this feature's morphology and albedo markings have suggested to some that it may be an active cryovolcanic feature (Barnes et al., 2006). If so, CO2 could be erupting and depositing as a frost. This likely happened elsewhere and at other times. Thus, CO2 could be a major constituent of the surface, but over time it may be mixed with other constituents, such as spectrally neutral organics raining from the atmosphere, thereby reducing the strength of its spectral signature.

  12. Vertical Mixing of CO2 and CH4 with Gravity Effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pruess, K.; Oldenburg, C. M.; Moridis, G. J.; Webb, S. W.

    2001-12-01

    Numerical simulations of mixing of carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) in a gravitationally stable configuration have been carried out using the multicomponent flow and transport simulator TOUGH2. The configuration is relevant to carbon sequestration in depleted natural gas reservoirs, where injected CO2 will migrate quickly to low levels of the reservoir by buoyancy flow due to its large density. Once a gravitationally stable configuration is attained, mixing will continue on a longer time scale by molecular diffusion. However, diffusive mixing of real gas components CO2 and CH4 can give rise to pressure gradients that can induce pressurization and flow that may affect the mixing process. Understanding this coupled response of diffusion and flow to concentration gradients is important for the prediction of mixing times in stratified gas reservoirs used for carbon sequestration. We have implemented the Dusty Gas Model (DGM) as an alternative to the standard Advective Diffusive Model (ADM) in our multiphase flow simulator TOUGH2. A new equation of state module (EOS7C) that handles water, brine, CO2, gas tracer, and CH4 was developed in which gas properties for mixtures in the system water, CO2, and CH4 are calculated using the Peng-Robinson real gas mixture model. Comparisons of vertical mixing results for low permeability and high permeability systems using the DGM and ADM will be presented. Support for this work was provided by the Assistant Secretary for Fossil Energy, Office of Coal and Power Systems through the National Energy Technology Laboratory under U. S. Department of Energy Contract No. DE-AC03-76SF00098.

  13. Vesicularity and CO2 in mid-ocean ridge basalt

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moore, J.G.

    1979-01-01

    Vesicles and included CO2are enriched in deep-sea basalts that are also enriched in light rare earth and incompatible elements. This enrichment probably results from a unique deep mantle origin of such melts but may have been modified by CO2 bubbles rising in shallow magma chambers. ?? 1979 Nature Publishing Group.

  14. Sequestration of Dissolved CO2 in the Oriskany Formation

    SciTech Connect

    Dilmore, R.M.; Allen, D.E.; McCarthy-Jones, J.R.; Hedges, S.W.; Soong, Yee

    2008-04-15

    Experiments were conducted to determine the solubility of CO2 in a natural brine solution of the Oriskany formation under elevated temperature and pressure conditions. These data were collected at temperatures of 22 and 75 °C and pressures between 100 and 450 bar. Experimentally determined data were compared with CO2 solubility predictions using a model developed by Duan and Sun (Chem. Geol. 2003, 193, 257-271). Model results compare well with Oriskany brine CO2 solubility data collected experimentally, suggesting that the Duan and Sun model is a reliable tool for estimating solution CO2 capacity in high salinity aquifers in the temperature and pressure range evaluated. The capacity for the Oriskany formation to sequester dissolved CO2 was calculated using results of the solubility models, estimation of the density of CO2 saturated brine, and available geographic information system (GIS) information on the formation depth and thickness. Results indicate that the Oriskany formation can hold approximately 0.36 gigatonnes of dissolved CO2 if the full basin is considered. When only the region where supercritical CO2 can exist (temperatures greater than 31° C and pressures greater than 74 bar) is considered, the capacity of the Oriskany formation to sequester dissolved CO2 is 0.31 gigatonnes. The capacity estimate considering the potential to sequester free-phase supercritical CO2 if brine were displaced from formation pore space is 8.8 gigatonnes in the Oriskany formation.

  15. Sequestration of dissolved CO2 in the Oriskany formation.

    PubMed

    Dilmore, Robert M; Allen, Douglas E; Jones, J Richard McCarthy; Hedges, Sheila W; Soong, Yee

    2008-04-15

    Experiments were conducted to determine the solubility of CO2 in a natural brine solution of the Oriskany formation under elevated temperature and pressure conditions. These data were collected at temperatures of 22 and 75 degrees C and pressures between 100 and 450 bar. Experimentally determined data were compared with CO2 solubility predictions using a model developed by Duan and Sun (Chem. Geol. 2003, 193, 257-271). Model results compare well with Oriskany brine CO2 solubility data collected experimentally, suggesting that the Duan and Sun model is a reliable tool for estimating solution CO2 capacity in high salinity aquifers in the temperature and pressure range evaluated. The capacity for the Oriskany formation to sequester dissolved CO2 was calculated using results of the solubility models, estimation of the density of CO2 saturated brine, and available geographic information system (GIS) information on the formation depth and thickness. Results indicate that the Oriskany formation can hold approximately 0.36 gigatonnes of dissolved CO2 if the full basin is considered. When only the region where supercritical CO2 can exist (temperatures greaterthan 31 degrees C and pressures greaterthan 74 bar) is considered, the capacity of the Oriskany formation to sequester dissolved CO2 is 0.31 gigatonnes. The capacity estimate considering the potential to sequester free-phase supercritical CO2 if brine were displaced from formation pore space is 8.8 gigatonnes in the Oriskany formation.

  16. Anthropogenic point and area source CO2 plume measurements: Implications for spaceborne CO2 sensor design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andrews, A. E.; Ryerson, T. B.; Peischl, J.; Parrish, D. D.; Trainer, M.; Tans, P. P.

    2011-12-01

    Anthropogenic point and area source CO2 plume measurements: Implications for spaceborne CO2 sensor design A. Andrews, T. Ryerson, J. Peischl, D. Parrish, M. Trainer, P. Tans An extensive dataset of CO2 concentrations including enhancements in point and area source plumes is available from in situ measurements collected using the NOAA P-3 and NCAR Electra research aircraft during seven major field projects from 1999 through 2010. Research flights sampled emission plumes from coal-, oil-, and natural gas-fired electric utility power plants, industrial facilities, and urban areas. Plume sampling often included horizontal transects at several altitudes and multiple distances downwind. CO2 data from crosswind transects upwind and downwind, coupled with ancillary measurements of co-emitted nitric oxide, nitrogen dioxide and sulfur dioxide, along with plume location, and wind speed and direction permit unambiguous attribution and quantification of atmospheric plumes from individual sources. Certain point sources were revisited on multiple flights over the course of 1-2 month long field projects and on successive field projects spanning several years. Sampling occurred primarily in the summertime, daytime continental boundary layer, with some plume studies performed after dark and in the spring, fall, and winter seasons. The data provide rigorously calibrated, measurement-based constraints on the expected range of atmospheric CO2 plume enhancements that can be used to assess satellite sensor concepts. Crosswind near-field (~5 km) transects in the summer daytime mixed-layer downwind of the strongest point sources were characterized by peak plume CO2 mixing ratio enhancements >100 ppm above background for the 100-m spatial averages reported from the moving aircraft. On many flights, the aircraft tracked such emissions plumes beyond 150 km downwind, or up to 10 hours of transport time, until plume enhancements were indistinguishable from background variability in CO2

  17. A validation study on CO2 chemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koelman, Peter; Heijkers, Stijn; Tadayon Musavi, Samaneh; Graef, Wouter; Bogaerts, Annemie; Dijk, Van, Jan; Elementary Processes in Gas Discharges Team; Plasmant Team

    2016-09-01

    The demand for renewable energy has increased the popularity of various energy sources, such as solar and wind energy. These sources are intermittent by nature, which typically does not match the demand of energy. Therefore, storage of energy is needed. Current tools for this are, however, costly, slow, and inefficient. Storing energy by the formation of valuable fuels from CO2 is potentially an improvement. By plasma assisted CO2 dissociation CO is produced. In subsequent steps the CO is transformed in valuable fuels. An extensive CO2 microwave plasma chemistry is studied, with special attention to the vibrational modes, which provide a pathway for the dissociation. To that end we developed a global model, which is only time resolved and needs less computational time than spatially resolved models. We present the results from a verification study of the CO2 chemistry. This is done by verification of input data, and by comparison of results obtained by two independent models: ZDPlaskin and PLASIMO's Global Model. We also present results from a sensitivity study of the input data.

  18. Analysis of Geologic Parameters on the Performance of CO2-Plume Geothermal (CPG) Systems in a Multi-Layered Reservoirs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garapati, N.; Randolph, J.; Saar, M. O.

    2013-12-01

    CO2-Plume Geothermal (CPG) involves injection of CO2 as a working fluid to extract heat from naturally high permeable sedimentary basins. The injected CO2 forms a large subsurface CO2 plume that absorbs heat from the geothermal reservoir and eventually buoyantly rises to the surface. The heat density of sedimentary basins is typically relatively low.However, this drawback is likely counteracted by the large accessible volume of natural reservoirs compared to artificial, hydrofractured, and thus small-scale, reservoirs. Furthermore, supercritical CO2has a large mobility (inverse kinematic viscosity) and expansibility compared to water resulting in the formation of a strong thermosiphon which eliminates the need for parasitic pumping power requirements and significantly increasing electricity production efficiency. Simultaneously, the life span of the geothermal power plant can be increased by operating the CPG system such that it depletes the geothermal reservoir heat slowly. Because the produced CO2 is reinjected into the ground with the main CO2 sequestration stream coming from a CO2 emitter, all of the CO2 is ultimately geologically sequestered resulting in a CO2 sequestering geothermal power plant with a negative carbon footprint. Conventional geothermal process requires pumping of huge amount of water for the propagation of the fractures in the reservoir, but CPG process eliminates this requirement and conserves water resources. Here, we present results for performance of a CPG system as a function of various geologic properties of multilayered systemsincludingpermeability anisotropy, rock thermal conductivity, geothermal gradient, reservoir depth and initial native brine salinity as well as spacing between the injection and production wells. The model consists of a 50 m thick, radially symmetric grid with a semi-analytic heat exchange and no fluid flow at the top and bottom boundaries and no fluid and heat flow at the lateral boundaries. We design Plackett

  19. Applications of mineral carbonation to geological sequestration of CO2

    SciTech Connect

    O'Connor, William K.; Rush, G.E.

    2005-01-01

    Geological sequestration of CO2 is a promising near-term sequestration methodology. However, migration of the CO2 beyond the natural reservoir seals could become problematic, thus the identification of means to enhance the natural seals could prove beneficial. Injection of a mineral reactant slurry could provide a means to enhance the natural reservoir seals by supplying the necessary cations for precipitation of mineral carbonates. The subject study evaluates the merit of several mineral slurry injection strategies by conduct of a series of laboratory-scale CO2 flood tests on whole core samples of the Mt. Simon sandstone from the Illinois Basin.

  20. Simulation of CO 2 concentrations at Tsukuba tall tower using WRF-CO 2 tracer transport model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ballav, Srabanti; Patra, Prabir K.; Sawa, Yousuke; Matsueda, Hidekazu; Adachi, Ahoro; Onogi, Shigeru; Takigawa, Masayuki; de, Utpal K.

    2016-02-01

    Simulation of carbon dioxide (CO2) at hourly/weekly intervals and fine vertical resolution at the continental or coastal sites is challenging because of coarse horizontal resolution of global transport models. Here the regional Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model coupled with atmospheric chemistry is adopted for simulating atmospheric CO2 (hereinafter WRF-CO2) in nonreactive chemical tracer mode. Model results at horizontal resolution of 27 × 27 km and 31 vertical levels are compared with hourly CO2 measurements from Tsukuba, Japan (36.05°N, 140.13 oE) at tower heights of 25 and 200 m for the entire year 2002. Using the wind rose analysis, we find that the fossil fuel emission signal from the megacity Tokyo dominates the diurnal, synoptic and seasonal variations observed at Tsukuba. Contribution of terrestrial biosphere fluxes is of secondary importance for CO2 concentration variability. The phase of synoptic scale variability in CO2 at both heights are remarkably well simulated the observed data (correlation coefficient >0.70) for the entire year. The simulations of monthly mean diurnal cycles are in better agreement with the measurements at lower height compared to that at the upper height. The modelled vertical CO2 gradients are generally greater than the observed vertical gradient. Sensitivity studies show that the simulation of observed vertical gradient can be improved by increasing the number of vertical levels from 31 in the model WRF to 37 (4 below 200 m) and using the Mellor-Yamada-Janjic planetary boundary scheme. These results have large implications for improving transport model simulation of CO2 over the continental sites.

  1. Enhancing the Ocean's Role in CO2 Mitigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rau, G. H.

    2012-12-01

    The possibility of safely increasing the ocean's significant, natural consumption and storage of excess CO2 deserves consideration since land-based efforts are thus far failing to stabilize atmospheric CO2 and associated climate and ocean chemistry impacts. Of the approximately 34 GT/yr of CO2 currently emitted to the atmosphere by human activity, the ocean consumes the equivalent of about 8 GT/yr of these emissions. These fluxes are, however, dwarfed by the annual gross amount of CO2 naturally taken up and released by the ocean, in excess of 300 GT CO2/yr. Additionally, the carbon content in the ocean is about 50 times that of the atmosphere, with the majority in a form (HCO2-) that can, through equilibrium reactions, interact with atmospheric CO2. Marine chemical, biological and physical processes that naturally affect ocean CO2 gain and loss thus intimately influence the natural carbon content of the atmosphere. Indeed, ocean chemistry in conjunction with carbonate and silicate mineral weathering is the primary mechanism that naturally moderates and consumes excess atmospheric CO2 on geologic timescales. The ocean is therefore a logical place to explore means of enhancing atmospheric and anthropogenic carbon uptake and/or sequestration in efforts to stabilize or possibly reduce atmospheric CO2 concentrations. Modification of such global processes (often only relatively slightly) forms the basis for many of the ocean-based CO2 mitigation approaches thus far proposed. These include: 1) the storage in or under the ocean of molecular CO2, or organic or inorganic derivatives that have been captured or formed on land; 2) the removal of ocean/atmosphere CO2 via biological uptake enhanced by artificially increased upwelling or nutrient addition; 3) the chemical, geochemical, or electrochemical alkalization of the ocean to increase ocean CO2 uptake with chemical transformation to bicarbonates or carbonates, and subsequent ocean storage; and 4) increased production and

  2. Sequestering CO2 in the Ocean: Options and Consequences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rau, G. H.; Caldeira, K.

    2002-12-01

    The likelihood of negative climate and environmental impacts associated with increasing atmospheric CO2 has prompted serious consideration of various CO2 mitigation strategies. Among these are methods of capturing and storing of CO2 in the ocean. Two approaches that have received the most attention in this regard have been i) ocean fertilization to enhanced biological uptake and fixation of CO2, and ii) the chemical/mechanical capture and injection of CO2 into the deep ocean. Both methods seek to enhance or speed up natural mechanisms of CO2 uptake and storage by the ocean, namely i) the biological CO2 "pump" or ii) the passive diffusion of CO2 into the surface ocean and subsequent mixing into the deep sea. However, as will be reviewed, concerns about the capacity and effectiveness of either strategy in long-term CO2 sequestration have been raised. Both methods are not without potentially significant environmental impacts, and the costs of CO2 capture and injection (option ii) are currently prohibitive. An alternate method of ocean CO2 sequestration would be to react and hydrate CO2 rich waste gases (e.g., power plant flue gas) with seawater and to subsequently neutralize the resulting carbonic acid with limestone to produce calcium and bicarbonate ions in solution. This approach would simply speed up the CO2 uptake and sequestration that naturally (but very slowly) occurs via global carbonate weathering. This would avoid much of the increased acidity associated with direct CO2 injection while obviating the need for costly CO2 separation and capture. The addition of the resulting bicarbonate- and carbonate-rich solution to the ocean would help to counter the decrease in pH and carbonate ion concentration, and hence loss of biological calcification that is presently occurring as anthropogenic CO2 invades the ocean from the atmosphere. However, as with any approach to CO2 mitigation, the costs, impacts, risks, and benefits of this method need to be better understood

  3. Extensive CO2 Leakage From Extinct and Modern CO2 Reservoirs in New Mexico and Arizona: Evaluating the Role of Seal Bypass and Large-Volume Travertine Deposition With Implications For CO2 Sequestration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Priewisch, A.; Crossey, L. J.; Karlstrom, K. E.; Mozley, P.

    2014-12-01

    Quaternary large-volume travertine deposits in New Mexico and Arizona occur along the Rio Grande rift and on the southeastern Colorado Plateau. Travertines are natural analogues for CO2 leakage along fault systems because they form due to the degassing of CO2 from carbonic groundwater that migrates up fault systems. Travertine volumes can be used to infer integrated CO2 leakage along faults, which includes: (1) CO2 that becomes fixed in CaCO3/travertine (tons of carbon converted into tons of carbonate), (2) the amount of CO2 that degassed into the atmosphere (twice the amount of (1), based on reaction stoichiometry), (3) dissolved CO2 that is carried away with the water discharging from a spring (based on modern spring discharge and dissolved carbon content), and (4) CO2 that escapes through the soil (based on modern soil flux measurements). The total CO2 leakage (1 and 2) calculated in this study is estimated as ~6 Gt (gigatons) whereas the integrated CO2 leakage (1-4) is estimated as ~128 Gt over ~450,000 years of travertine accumulation. U-series dating of the travertines shows that the deposits formed episodically which implies that CO2 leakage occurred episodically. Better understanding of integrated CO2 leakage along fault systems is needed to better constrain global estimates of natural CO2 fluxes, and to help in risk assessment of CO2 sequestration sites designed to effectively store anthropogenic CO2 in the subsurface.

  4. ACCURACY OF CO2 SENSORS

    SciTech Connect

    Fisk, William J.; Faulkner, David; Sullivan, Douglas P.

    2008-10-01

    Are the carbon dioxide (CO2) sensors in your demand controlled ventilation systems sufficiently accurate? The data from these sensors are used to automatically modulate minimum rates of outdoor air ventilation. The goal is to keep ventilation rates at or above design requirements while adjusting the ventilation rate with changes in occupancy in order to save energy. Studies of energy savings from demand controlled ventilation and of the relationship of indoor CO2 concentrations with health and work performance provide a strong rationale for use of indoor CO2 data to control minimum ventilation rates1-7. However, this strategy will only be effective if, in practice, the CO2 sensors have a reasonable accuracy. The objective of this study was; therefore, to determine if CO2 sensor performance, in practice, is generally acceptable or problematic. This article provides a summary of study methods and findings ? additional details are available in a paper in the proceedings of the ASHRAE IAQ?2007 Conference8.

  5. Mineralogical and geochemical consequences of the long-term presence of CO2 in natural reservoirs: An example from the Springerville-St. Johns Field, Arizona, and New Mexico, U.S.A

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moore, J.; Adams, M.; Allis, R.; Lutz, S.; Rauzi, S.

    2005-01-01

    The Springerville-St. Johns CO2 field in eastern Arizona and western New Mexico is one of more than a dozen gas fields developed within the Colorado Plateau and Southern Rocky Mountain region. Extensive travertine (CaCO3) deposits record a long history of CO2 migration and leakage to the atmosphere. The oldest travertine deposits may have formed during the initial filling of the CO2 reservoir when groundwaters exsolved CO2 upon reaching the surface. The youngest travertine deposits are associated with springs on the floor of the Little Colorado River valley, but travertine deposition appears to be insignificant today. Older deposits occur up to 325 m above the valley floor. Geologic relationships suggest travertine deposition began in the late Pleistocene after volcanic activity ended at ???0.3 Ma. Most of the CaCO3 could have been derived from dissolution of the underlying limestones and dolomites. Interactions between the reservoir fluids and rocks were observed in core samples from one of the intervals that produced dry gas. These reactions resulted in the dissolution of carbonate cements and detrital feldspars and the formation of dawsonite and kaolinite. Geochemical simulations suggest that the dawsonite could have been deposited when the CO2 fugacity reached 20 bars and that the kaolinite formed as the CO2 fugacity decreased. Corrosion of drill pipe by acidic waters and a pronounced HCO3 anomaly above the CO2 reservoir provide evidence of a continuing flux of CO2 from depth. CO2 storage occurs primarily as dissolved carbonate species and as gas accumulations. Only a small percentage of the CO2 was sequestered in secondary minerals. ?? 2005 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Glacier melting and stoichiometric implications for lake community structure: zooplankton species distributions across a natural light gradient.

    PubMed

    Laspoumaderes, Cecilia; Modenutti, Beatriz; Souza, María Sol; Bastidas Navarro, Marcela; Cuassolo, Florencia; Balseiro, Esteban

    2013-01-01

    Glaciers around the globe are melting rapidly, threatening the receiving environments of the world's fresh water reservoirs with significant changes. The meltwater, carried by rivers, contains large amounts of suspended sediment particles, producing longitudinal gradients in the receiving lakes. These gradients may result in changes in the light : nutrient ratio that affect grazer performance by altering elemental food quality. Thus, glacial melting may induce a shift in the phytoplankton carbon : nutrient ratio and hence influence the dominance of herbivorous zooplankton through stoichiometric mechanisms. To test this hypothesis, we combined field and experimental data, taking advantage of a natural light intensity gradient caused by glacial clay input in a deep oligotrophic Patagonian lake. Across this gradient, we evaluated the abundances of two consumer taxa with different phosphorus requirements, the copepod Boeckella gracilipes and the cladoceran Daphnia commutata, using a six-station transect along the lake. We found significant differences in light : nutrient ratio and stoichiometric food quality of the seston, together with a switch from dominance of P-rich Daphnia in low carbon : nutrient stations to dominance of low-P copepods in high carbon : nutrient stations. The laboratory experiments confirmed that the difference in the carbon : nutrient ratio across the gradient is sufficient to impair Daphnia growth. The overall patterns are consistent with our prediction that shifts in the environmental light : nutrient ratio as a result of glacial melting would contribute to shifts in the dominance of stoichiometrically contrasting taxa in consumer guilds.

  7. Update on CO2 emissions

    SciTech Connect

    Friedingstein, P.; Houghton, R.A.; Marland, Gregg; Hackler, J.; Boden, Thomas A; Conway, T.J.; Canadell, J.G.; Raupach, Mike; Ciais, Philippe; Le Quere, Corrine

    2010-12-01

    Emissions of CO2 are the main contributor to anthropogenic climate change. Here we present updated information on their present and near-future estimates. We calculate that global CO2 emissions from fossil fuel burning decreased by 1.3% in 2009 owing to the global financial and economic crisis that started in 2008; this is half the decrease anticipated a year ago1. If economic growth proceeds as expected2, emissions are projected to increase by more than 3% in 2010, approaching the high emissions growth rates that were observed from 2000 to 20081, 3, 4. We estimate that recent CO2 emissions from deforestation and other land-use changes (LUCs) have declined compared with the 1990s, primarily because of reduced rates of deforestation in the tropics5 and a smaller contribution owing to forest regrowth elsewhere.

  8. Tracking CO2 Geosequestration Using Downhole Gravity Gradiometry, Otway Basin, Victoria, Australia.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matthews, S.; O'Neill, C.

    2015-12-01

    Carbon dioxide sequestration is a vital technique for the mitigation of greenhouse gas emissions and anthropogenic global warming. The viability of CO2 geosequestration, and the ability to prevent any leakage or migration depends on the capacity to monitor, and model, the CO2 reservoir. Downhole gravity gradiometry offers an additional capability to CO2 monitoring, and here we demonstrate the downhole gradient effect of CO2 injection at the Otway Basin, Victoria, by the CO2CRC corporation. Data from reservoir modelling has been simulated to calculate gravity gradients to gain an understanding of the behaviour of CO2 once injected into geological storage. Monte Carlo simulations were utilised to determine the uncertainties inherent in the deep subsurface. Presently; models have been created to demonstrate the response caused by the injection of CO2, and we present a statistical analysis to constrain the uncertainties posed by the results.

  9. Diffusion of CO2 During Hydrate Formation and Dissolution

    SciTech Connect

    Franklin M. Orr, Jr.

    2002-08-20

    Experiments were performed to measure the rate of diffusion of CO2 through hydrate films. Hydrate films were created in a capillary tube, and the growth of the hydrate film was measured. Difficulties were encountered in creating hydrate repeatedly, and some non-uniform growth of the films was observed. Sufficient observations were obtained to demonstrate that hydrate growth occurs preferentially on the hydrate/water side of the interface, rather than at the hydrate/CO2 interface. Diffusion coefficients were estimated from observations of the rate of growth of the hydrate film along with estimates of the solubility of CO2 in water and of the concentration gradient across the hydrate layer. The experimental observations indicate that hydrate formation occurs much more rapidly at the hydrate water interface than at the hydrate/CO2 interface. Any growth of hydrate at the CO2/hydrate interface was too slow to be observed at the time scale of the experiments. That observation is consistent with the idea that CO2 can move more easily through the hydrate, presumably by hopping between hydrate cages, than water can move through the hydrate, presumably by lattice hopping. Estimated diffusion coefficients were in the range 1-3E-06 cm2/sec. Those values are about an order of magnitude lower than the diffusion coefficient for CO2 in liquid water, but four orders of magnitude larger than the value for diffusion of CO2 in a solid. The rate of diffusion through the hydrate controls both the creation of new hydrate at the hydrate/water interface and the rate at which CO2 dissolves in the liquid water and diffuses away from the hydrate layer. Formation of a hydrate layer reduces the rate at which CO2 dissolves in liquid water.

  10. Enhanced macroboring and depressed calcification drive net dissolution at high-CO2 coral reefs

    PubMed Central

    Manzello, Derek P.; Kolodziej, Graham; Noonan, Sam H. C.; Valentino, Lauren; Fabricius, Katharina E.

    2016-01-01

    Ocean acidification (OA) impacts the physiology of diverse marine taxa; among them corals that create complex reef framework structures. Biological processes operating on coral reef frameworks remain largely unknown from naturally high-carbon-dioxide (CO2) ecosystems. For the first time, we independently quantified the response of multiple functional groups instrumental in the construction and erosion of these frameworks (accretion, macroboring, microboring, and grazing) along natural OA gradients. We deployed blocks of dead coral skeleton for roughly 2 years at two reefs in Papua New Guinea, each experiencing volcanically enriched CO2, and employed high-resolution micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) to create three-dimensional models of changing skeletal structure. OA conditions were correlated with decreased calcification and increased macroboring, primarily by annelids, representing a group of bioeroders not previously known to respond to OA. Incubation of these blocks, using the alkalinity anomaly methodology, revealed a switch from net calcification to net dissolution at a pH of roughly 7.8, within Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change's (IPCC) predictions for global ocean waters by the end of the century. Together these data represent the first comprehensive experimental study of bioerosion and calcification from a naturally high-CO2 reef ecosystem, where the processes of accelerated erosion and depressed calcification have combined to alter the permanence of this essential framework habitat. PMID:27852802

  11. Temporal variability and spatial dynamics of CO2 and CH4 concentrations and fluxes in the Zambezi River system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teodoru, Cristian; Borges, Alberto; Bouillon, Steven; Nyoni, Frank; Nyambe, Imasiku

    2014-05-01

    Spanning over 2900 km in length and with a catchment of approximately 1.4 million km2, the Zambezi River is the fourth largest river in Africa and the largest flowing into the Indian Ocean from the African continent. Yet, there is surprisingly little or no information on carbon (C) cycling in this large river system. As part of a broader study on the riverine biogeochemistry in the Zambezi River basin, we present here mainstream dissolved CO2 and CH4 data collected during 2012 and 2013 over two climatic seasons (dry and wet) to constrain the interannual variability, seasonality and spatial heterogeneity of partial pressure of CO2 (pCO2) and CH4 concentrations and fluxes along the aquatic continuum, in relation to physico-chemical parameters (temperature, conductivity, oxygen, and pH) and various carbon pools (dissolved and particulate, organic and inorganic carbon, total alkalinity, primary production, respiration and net aquatic metabolism). Both pCO2 and CH4 variability was high, ranging from minimal values of 150 ppm and 7 nM, respectively, mainly in the two large reservoirs (the Kariba and the Cabora Bassa characterized by high pH and oxygen and low DOC), up to maximum values of 12,500 ppm and 12,130 nM, CO2 and CH4, respectively, mostly below floodplains/wetlands (low pH and oxygen levels, high DOC and POC concentrations). The interannual variability was relatively large for both CO2 and CH4 (mean pCO2: 2350 ppm in 2013 vs. 3180 ppm in 2013; mean CH4: 600 nM in 2012 vs. 1000 nM in 2013) and significantly higher (up to two fold) during wet season compared to dry season closely linked to distinct seasonal hydrological characteristics. Overall, no clear pattern was observed along the longitudinal gradient as river CO2 and CH4 concentrations are largely influenced by the presence of floodplains/wetlands, anthropogenic reservoirs or natural barriers (waterfalls/ rapids). Following closely the concentration patterns, river CO2 and CH4 mean fluxes of 3440 mg C-CO2 m

  12. Performance of CO2 enrich CNG in direct injection engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Firmansyah, W. B.; Ayandotun, E. Z.; Zainal, A.; Aziz, A. R. A.; Heika, M. R.

    2015-12-01

    This paper investigates the potential of utilizing the undeveloped natural gas fields in Malaysia with high carbon dioxide (CO2) content ranging from 28% to 87%. For this experiment, various CO2 proportions by volume were added to pure natural gas as a way of simulating raw natural gas compositions in these fields. The experimental tests were carried out using a 4-stroke single cylinder spark ignition (SI) direct injection (DI) compressed natural gas (CNG) engine. The tests were carried out at 180° and 300° before top dead centre (BTDC) injection timing at 3000 rpm, to establish the effects on the engine performance. The results show that CO2 is suppressing the combustion of CNG while on the other hand CNG combustion is causing CO2 dissociation shown by decreasing CO2 emission with the increase in CO2 content. Results for 180° BTDC injection timing shows higher performance compared to 300° BTDC because of two possible reasons, higher volumetric efficiency and higher stratification level. The results also showed the possibility of increasing the CO2 content by injection strategy.

  13. Methanogenic Conversion of CO2 Into CH4

    SciTech Connect

    Stevens, S.H., Ferry, J.G., Schoell, M.

    2012-05-06

    This SBIR project evaluated the potential to remediate geologic CO2 sequestration sites into useful methane gas fields by application of methanogenic bacteria. Such methanogens are present in a wide variety of natural environments, converting CO2 into CH4 under natural conditions. We conclude that the process is generally feasible to apply within many of the proposed CO2 storage reservoir settings. However, extensive further basic R&D still is needed to define the precise species, environments, nutrient growth accelerants, and economics of the methanogenic process. Consequently, the study team does not recommend Phase III commercial application of the technology at this early phase.

  14. Air-ice CO2 fluxes and pCO2 dynamics in the Arctic coastal area (Amundsen Gulf, Canada)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geilfus, Nicolas-Xavier; Tison, Jean Louis; Carnat, Gauthier; Else, Brent; Borges, Alberto V.; Thomas, Helmuth; Shadwick, Elizabeth; Delille, Bruno

    2010-05-01

    driven by the air-ice pCO2 gradient. Hence, while the temperature is a leading factor in controlling magnitude of air-ice CO2 fluxes, pCO2 of the ice controls both magnitude and direction of fluxes. However, pCO2 in Arctic is significantly higher than in Antarctica. This difference could be due to a higher level of organic matter in Arctic. The degradation of this organic matter fuel CO2 efflux from the ice to the atmosphere in early spring. We observed evidence of CaCO3 precipitation, but only at the top of the ice. Implications in term of air-ice CO2 transfer of such CaCO3 precipitation will be discussed. In addition, salt-rich snow appears to strongly affect air-ice CO2 fluxes in the arctic. Borges, A. V., et al. (2006), Carbon dioxide in European coastal waters, Estuar. Coast. Shelf Sci., 70(3), 375-387.

  15. Reducing cement's CO2 footprint

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    van Oss, Hendrik G.

    2011-01-01

    The manufacturing process for Portland cement causes high levels of greenhouse gas emissions. However, environmental impacts can be reduced by using more energy-efficient kilns and replacing fossil energy with alternative fuels. Although carbon capture and new cements with less CO2 emission are still in the experimental phase, all these innovations can help develop a cleaner cement industry.

  16. Response of bacterioplankton activity in an Arctic fjord system to elevated pCO2: results from a mesocosm perturbation study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piontek, J.; Borchard, C.; Sperling, M.; Schulz, K. G.; Riebesell, U.; Engel, A.

    2013-01-01

    The effect of elevated seawater carbon dioxide (CO2) on the activity of a natural bacterioplankton community in an Arctic fjord system was investigated by a mesocosm perturbation study in the frame of the European Project on Ocean Acidification (EPOCA). A pCO2 range of 175-1085 μatm was set up in nine mesocosms deployed in the Kongsfjorden (Svalbard). The activity of natural extracellular enzyme assemblages increased in response to acidification. Rates of β-glucosidase and leucine-aminopeptidase increased along the gradient of mesocosm pCO2. A decrease in seawater pH of 0.5 units almost doubled rates of both enzymes. Heterotrophic bacterial activity was closely coupled to phytoplankton productivity in this experiment. The bacterioplankton community responded to rising chlorophyll a concentrations after a lag phase of only a few days with increasing protein production and extracellular enzyme activity. Time-integrated primary production and bacterial protein production were positively correlated, strongly suggesting that higher amounts of phytoplankton-derived organic matter were assimilated by heterotrophic bacteria at increased primary production. Primary production increased under high pCO2 in this study, and it can be suggested that the efficient heterotrophic carbon utilisation had the potential to counteract the enhanced autotrophic CO2 fixation. However, our results also show that beneficial pCO2-related effects on bacterial activity can be mitigated by the top-down control of bacterial abundances in natural microbial communities.

  17. Comparison of Surface and Column Variations of CO2 Over Urban Areas for Future Active Remote CO2 Sensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Choi, Yonghoon; Yang, Melissa; Kooi, Susan; Browell, Edward

    2015-01-01

    High resolution in-situ CO2 measurements were recorded onboard the NASA P-3B during the DISCOVER-AQ (Deriving Information on Surface Conditions from Column and Vertically Resolved Observations Relevant to Air Quality) Field Campaign, to investigate the ability of space-based observations to accurately assess near surface conditions related to air quality. This campaign includes, Washington DC/Baltimore, MD (July 2011), San Joaquin Valley, CA (January - February 2013), Houston, TX (September 2013), and Denver, CO (July-August 2014). Each of these campaigns consisted of missed approaches and approximately two hundred vertical soundings of CO2 within the lower troposphere (surface to about 5 km). In this study, surface (0 - 1 km) and column-averaged (0 - 3.5 km) CO2 mixing ratio values from the vertical soundings in the four geographically different urban areas are used to investigate the temporal and spatial variability of CO2 within the different urban atmospheric emission environments. Tracers such as CO, CH2O, NOx, and NMHCs are used to identify the source of CO2 variations in the urban sites. Additionally, we apply nominal CO2 column weighting functions for potential future active remote CO2 sensors operating in the 1.57-microns and 2.05-microns measurement regions to convert the in situ CO2 vertical mixing ratio profiles to variations in CO2 column optical depths, which is what the active remote sensors actually measure. Using statistics calculated from the optical depths at each urban site measured during the DISCOVER-AQ field campaign and for each nominal weighting function, we investigate the natural variability of CO2 columns in the lower troposphere; relate the CO2 column variability to the urban surface emissions; and show the measurement requirements for the future ASCENDS (Active Sensing of CO2 Emissions over Nights, Days, and Seasons) in the continental U.S. urban areas.

  18. Uncertainty in gridded CO2 emissions estimates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hogue, Susannah; Marland, Eric; Andres, Robert J.; Marland, Gregg; Woodard, Dawn

    2016-05-01

    We are interested in the spatial distribution of fossil-fuel-related emissions of CO2 for both geochemical and geopolitical reasons, but it is important to understand the uncertainty that exists in spatially explicit emissions estimates. Working from one of the widely used gridded data sets of CO2 emissions, we examine the elements of uncertainty, focusing on gridded data for the United States at the scale of 1° latitude by 1° longitude. Uncertainty is introduced in the magnitude of total United States emissions, the magnitude and location of large point sources, the magnitude and distribution of non-point sources, and from the use of proxy data to characterize emissions. For the United States, we develop estimates of the contribution of each component of uncertainty. At 1° resolution, in most grid cells, the largest contribution to uncertainty comes from how well the distribution of the proxy (in this case population density) represents the distribution of emissions. In other grid cells, the magnitude and location of large point sources make the major contribution to uncertainty. Uncertainty in population density can be important where a large gradient in population density occurs near a grid cell boundary. Uncertainty is strongly scale-dependent with uncertainty increasing as grid size decreases. Uncertainty for our data set with 1° grid cells for the United States is typically on the order of ±150%, but this is perhaps not excessive in a data set where emissions per grid cell vary over 8 orders of magnitude.

  19. Ecological impacts of atmospheric CO2 enrichment on terrestrial ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Körner, Christian

    2003-09-15

    Global change has many facets, of which land use and the change of atmospheric chemistry are unquestioned primary agents, which induce a suite of secondary effects, including climatic changes. The largest single contribution to the compositional change of the atmosphere, CO(2) enrichment, has (besides its influence on climate) immediate and direct effects on plants. Quantitatively, CO(2) is the plant 'food' number one, and the rate of photosynthetic CO(2) uptake by leaves is not yet CO(2)-saturated. This abrupt change of the biosphere's diet does and will affect all aspects of life, including our food. However, the plant and ecosystem responses are more subtle than had been assumed from the results of responses of isolated, well-fertilized and well-watered plants in greenhouses during the early days of CO(2)-enrichment research. In this article, I discuss potential responses of complex natural grassland and diverse forests, and address three key themes: CO(2) and nutrients; CO(2) and water; CO(2) and plant-animal interactions. Examples from a suite of climatic regions emphasize that the most important ecosystem level responses to elevated CO(2) will be introduced by differential responses of species. Atmospheric CO(2) enrichment is a biodiversity issue. Classical physiological baseline responses of leaves to elevated CO(2) can be overrun by biodiversity effects to such an extent that some of the traditional predictions may even become reversed. For instance, biodiversity effects may cause humid tropical forests (those which avoid destruction) to become more dynamic and store less, rather than more, carbon as CO(2) enrichment continues. The abundance of certain life forms and species and their lifespans exert major controls over the half-life of carbon stored in forest biomass, and there is evidence that elevated CO(2) can affect these controls and most likely does so already. Also, long-term hydrological consequences of atmospheric CO(2) enrichment will be driven

  20. CO 2 laser cutting of slate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boutinguiza, M.; Pou, J.; Lusquiños, F.; Quintero, F.; Soto, R.; Pérez-Amor, M.; Watkins, K.; Steen, W. M.

    2002-01-01

    Slate is a natural stone which has the characteristic that shows a well-developed defoliation plane, allowing to easily split it in plates parallel to that plane which are particularly used as tiles for roof building. At present, the manufacturing of slate is mostly manual, being noisy, powdery and unsafe for the worker. Thus, there is a need to introduce new processing methods in order to improve both the working conditions and the quality of the products made of slate. Following the previous work focused on the drilling and cutting of slate tiles using a Nd : YAG laser, we present in this paper the results of the work carried out to explore the possibilities to cut slate plates by using a CO 2 laser. A 1.5 kW CO 2 laser was used to perform different experiments in which, the influence of some processing parameters (average power, assist gas pressure) on the geometry and quality of the cut was studied. The results obtained show that the CO 2 laser is a feasible tool for a successful cutting of slate.

  1. Air exchange rates from atmospheric CO2 daily cycle.

    PubMed

    Carrilho, João Dias; Mateus, Mário; Batterman, Stuart; da Silva, Manuel Gameiro

    2015-04-01

    We propose a new approach for measuring ventilation air exchange rates (AERs). The method belongs to the class of tracer gas techniques, but is formulated in the light of systems theory and signal processing. Unlike conventional CO2 based methods that assume the outdoor ambient CO2 concentration is constant, the proposed method recognizes that photosynthesis and respiration cycle of plants and processes associated with fuel combustion produce daily, quasi-periodic, variations in the ambient CO2 concentrations. These daily variations, which are within the detection range of existing monitoring equipment, are utilized for estimating ventilation rates without the need of a source of CO2 in the building. Using a naturally-ventilated residential apartment, AERs obtained using the new method compared favorably (within 10%) to those obtained using the conventional CO2 decay fitting technique. The new method has the advantages that no tracer gas injection is needed, and high time resolution results are obtained.

  2. Air exchange rates from atmospheric CO2 daily cycle

    PubMed Central

    Carrilho, João Dias; Mateus, Mário; Batterman, Stuart; da Silva, Manuel Gameiro

    2015-01-01

    We propose a new approach for measuring ventilation air exchange rates (AERs). The method belongs to the class of tracer gas techniques, but is formulated in the light of systems theory and signal processing. Unlike conventional CO2 based methods that assume the outdoor ambient CO2 concentration is constant, the proposed method recognizes that photosynthesis and respiration cycle of plants and processes associated with fuel combustion produce daily, quasi-periodic, variations in the ambient CO2 concentrations. These daily variations, which are within the detection range of existing monitoring equipment, are utilized for estimating ventilation rates without the need of a source of CO2 in the building. Using a naturally-ventilated residential apartment, AERs obtained using the new method compared favorably (within 10%) to those obtained using the conventional CO2 decay fitting technique. The new method has the advantages that no tracer gas injection is needed, and high time resolution results are obtained. PMID:26236090

  3. The role of CO2 variability and exposure time for biological impacts of ocean acidification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaw, Emily C.; Munday, Philip L.; McNeil, Ben I.

    2013-09-01

    impacts of ocean acidification have mostly been studied using future levels of CO2 without consideration of natural variability or how this modulates both duration and magnitude of CO2 exposure. Here we combine results from laboratory studies on coral reef fish with diurnal in situ CO2 data from a shallow coral reef, to demonstrate how natural variability alters exposure times for marine organisms under increasingly high-CO2 conditions. Large in situ CO2 variability already results in exposure of coral reef fish to short-term CO2 levels higher than laboratory-derived critical CO2 levels (~600 µatm). However, we suggest that the in situ exposure time is presently insufficient to induce negative effects observed in laboratory studies. Our results suggest that both exposure time and the magnitude of CO2 levels will be important in determining the response of organisms to future ocean acidification, where both will increase markedly with future increases in CO2.

  4. Generation of CO2-rich melts during basalt magma ascent and degassing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pichavant, Michel; Di Carlo, Ida; Rotolo, Silvio G.; Scaillet, Bruno; Burgisser, Alain; Le Gall, Nolwenn; Martel, Caroline

    2013-08-01

    To test mechanisms of basaltic magma degassing, continuous decompressions of volatile-bearing (2.7-3.8 wt% H2O, 600-1,300 ppm CO2) Stromboli melts were performed from 250-200 to 50-25 MPa at 1,180-1,140 °C. Ascent rates were varied from 0.25 to ~1.5 m/s. Glasses after decompression show a wide range of textures, from totally bubble-free to bubble-rich, the latter with bubble number densities from 104 to 106 cm-3, similar to Stromboli pumices. Vesicularities range from 0 to ~20 vol%. Final melt H2O concentrations are homogeneous and always close to solubilities. In contrast, the rate of vesiculation controls the final melt CO2 concentration. High vesicularity charges have glass CO2 concentrations that follow theoretical equilibrium degassing paths, whereas glasses from low vesicularity charges show marked deviations from equilibrium, with CO2 concentrations up to one order of magnitude higher than solubilities. FTIR profiles and maps reveal glass CO2 concentration gradients near the gas-melt interface. Our results stress the importance of bubble nucleation and growth, and of volatile diffusivities, for basaltic melt degassing. Two characteristic distances, the gas interface distance (distance either between bubbles or to gas-melt interfaces) and the volatile diffusion distance, control the degassing process. Melts containing numerous and large bubbles have gas interface distances shorter than volatile diffusion distances, and degassing proceeds by equilibrium partitioning of CO2 and H2O between melt and gas bubbles. For melts where either bubble nucleation is inhibited or bubble growth is limited, gas interface distances are longer than volatile diffusion distances. Degassing proceeds by diffusive volatile transfer at the gas-melt interface and is kinetically limited by the diffusivities of volatiles in the melt. Our experiments show that CO2-oversaturated melts can be generated as a result of magma decompression. They provide a new explanation for the occurrence

  5. CO2 Acquisition Membrane (CAM)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mason, Larry W.; Way, J. Douglas; Vlasse, Marcus

    2003-01-01

    The objective of CAM is to develop, test, and analyze thin film membrane materials for separation and purification of carbon dioxide (CO2) from mixtures of gases, such as those found in the Martian atmosphere. The membranes are targeted toward In Situ Resource Utilization (ISRU) applications that will operate in extraterrestrial environments and support future unmanned and human space missions. A primary application is the Sabatier Electrolysis process that uses Mars atmosphere CO2 as raw material for producing water, oxygen, and methane for rocket fuel and habitat support. Other applications include use as an inlet filter to collect and concentrate Mars atmospheric argon and nitrogen gases for habitat pressurization, and to remove CO2 from breathing gases in Closed Environment Life Support Systems (CELSS). CAM membrane materials include crystalline faujasite (FAU) zeolite and rubbery polymers such as silicone rubber (PDMS) that have been shown in the literature and via molecular simulation to favor adsorption and permeation of CO2 over nitrogen and argon. Pure gas permeation tests using commercial PDMS membranes have shown that both CO2 permeance and the separation factor relative to other gases increase as the temperature decreases, and low (Delta)P(Sub CO2) favors higher separation factors. The ideal CO2/N2 separation factor increases from 7.5 to 17.5 as temperature decreases from 22 C to -30 C. For gas mixtures containing CO2, N2, and Ar, plasticization decreased the separation factors from 4.5 to 6 over the same temperature range. We currently synthesize and test our own Na(+) FAU zeolite membranes using standard formulations and secondary growth methods on porous alumina. Preliminary tests with a Na(+) FAU membrane at 22 C show a He/SF6 ideal separation factor of 62, exceeding the Knudsen diffusion selectivity by an order of magnitude. This shows that the membrane is relatively free from large defects and associated non-selective (viscous flow) transport

  6. Microbial Reverse-Electrodialysis Electrolysis and Chemical-Production Cell for H2 Production and CO2 Sequestration

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Natural mineral carbonation can be accelerated using acid and alkali solutions to enhance atmospheric CO2 sequestration, but the production of these solutions needs to be carbon-neutral. A microbial reverse-electrodialysis electrolysis and chemical-production cell (MRECC) was developed to produce these solutions and H2 gas using only renewable energy sources (organic matter and salinity gradient). Using acetate (0.82 g/L) as a fuel for microorganisms to generate electricity in the anode chamber (liquid volume of 28 mL), 0.45 mmol of acid and 1.09 mmol of alkali were produced at production efficiencies of 35% and 86%, respectively, along with 10 mL of H2 gas. Serpentine dissolution was enhanced 17–87-fold using the acid solution, with approximately 9 mL of CO2 absorbed and 4 mg of CO2 fixed as magnesium or calcium carbonates. The operational costs, based on mineral digging and grinding, and water pumping, were estimated to be only $25/metric ton of CO2 fixed as insoluble carbonates. Considering the additional economic benefits of H2 generation and possible wastewater treatment, this method may be a cost-effective and environmentally friendly method for CO2 sequestration. PMID:24741666

  7. Effect of heterogeneousatmospheric CO2 on simulated global carbon budget

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zhang, Zhen; Jiang, Hong; Liu, Jinxun; Ju, Weimin; Zhang, Xiuying

    2013-01-01

    The effects of rising atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) on terrestrial carbon (C) sequestration have been a key focus in global change studies. As anthropological CO2 emissions substantially increase, the spatial variability of atmospheric CO2 should be considered to reduce the potential bias on C source and sink estimations. In this study, the global spatial–temporal patterns of near surface CO2 concentrations for the period 2003-2009 were established using the SCIAMACHY satellite observations and the GLOBALVIEW-CO2 field observations. With this CO2 data and the Integrated Biosphere Simulator (IBIS), our estimation of the global mean annual NPP and NEP was 0.5% and 7% respectively which differs from the traditional C sequestration assessments. The Amazon, Southeast Asia, and Tropical Africa showed higher C sequestration than the traditional assessment, and the rest of the areas around the world showed slightly lower C sequestration than the traditional assessment. We find that the variability of NEP is less intense under heterogeneous CO2 pattern on a global scale. Further studies of the cause of CO2 variation and the interactions between natural and anthropogenic processes of C sequestration are needed.

  8. The Field-Laboratory for CO2 Storage 'CO2SINK

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Würdemann, Hilke; Möller, Fabian; Kühn, Michael; Borm, Günter; Schilling, Frank R.

    2010-05-01

    The first European onshore geological CO2 storage project in a saline aquifer CO2SINK is designed as a field size experiment to better understand in situ storage processes and to test various monitoring techniques. This EU project is run by 18 partners from universities, research institutes and industry out of 9 European countries (www.co2sink.org). The CO2 is injected into Upper Triassic sandstones (Stuttgart Formation) of a double-anticline at a depth of 650 m. The Stuttgart Formation represents a flu vial environment comprised of sandstone channels and silty to muddy deposits. The anticline forms a classical multibarrier system: The first caprock is a playa type mudstone of the Weser and Arnstadt formations directly overlying the Stuttgart formation. Laboratory tests revealed permeabilities in a µDarcy-range. The second main caprock is a tertiary clay, the so-called Rupelton. To determine the maximum injection pressure modified leak-off tests (without fracturing the caprock) were performed resulting in values around 120 bar. Due to safety standards the pressure threshold is set to 82 bar until more experience on the reservoir behaviour is available. The sealing property of the secondary cap rock is well known from decades of natural gas storage operations at the testing site and was the basis for the permission to operate the CO2 storage by the mining authority. Undisturbed, initial reservoir conditions are 35 °C and 62 bar. The initial reservoir fluid is highly saline with about 235 g/l total dissolved solids primarily composed of sodium chloride with notable amounts of calcium chloride. The initial pH value is 6.6. Hydraulic tests as well as laboratory tests revealed a permeability between 50 and 100 mDarcy for the sand channels of the storage formation. Within twenty months of storage operation, about 30,000 t of CO2 have been injected. Spreading of the CO2 plume is monitored by a broad range of geophysical techniques. The injection well and the two

  9. Redox speciation and biogeochemical gradients: Assessing spatial niches and monitoring dynamics in natural systems with voltammetric microelectrodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Druschel, G. K.; Lorenson, G. W.; Eastmann, D. A.; Macalady, J. L.

    2005-12-01

    Biogeochemical gradients may be described by the spatial distribution of redox species distributed in water, where overlap of electron donors and acceptors out of equilibrium defines available sources of potential energy and essentially determines possible microbial metabolisms. Observed changes in redox speciation along a gradient associated with microbial biofilms may additionally provide some environmental basis for assessing physiology of sampled microorganisms. Voltammetric microelectrodes have been used in a variety of environments to describe the links between ecology and geochemistry (Luther et al., 2001). Recent work in Yellowstone National Park hydrothermal waters, the Frassassi caves in central Italy (a sulfidic cave system), and Green Lake in New York (a meromictic lake) have expanded our abilities to use microelectrodes for assessing As(III) concentrations and uncovering more details of sulfur speciation in a wide range of natural waters. We are using these data to design redox-specific culture media, make inferences about microbial physiology, constrain biogeochemical gradients over very fine scales, and observe dynamics in biogeochemical systems. Describing microbial communities and the geochemical environments that surround them at appropriate scales is of importance to begin assessing the links between microbial activity and geochemical cycling. Diversity in an environment may be better assessed if we first know how many different geochemical environments there are in that environment and if the microbial ecology in those environments is essentially independent from environments neighboring it. Because microelectrodes measure multiple redox species simultaneously and do so in matter of seconds, they are also useful in monitoring the dynamics of a biogeochemical system, which will be of use in studying the response of communities to perturbation. We will present results showing the characterization of lateral and vertical gradients over different

  10. Inverse modeling of CO2 sources and sinks using satellite observations of CO2 from TES and surface flask measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Nassar, Ray; Jones, DBA; Kulawik, SS; Worden, JR; Bowman, K; Andres, Robert Joseph; Suntharalingam, P; Chen, j.; Brenninkmeijer, CAM; Schuck, TJ; Conway, T.J.; Worthy, DE

    2011-01-01

    We infer CO2 surface fluxes using satellite observations of mid-tropospheric CO2 from the Tropospheric Emission Spectrometer (TES) and measurements of CO2 from surface flasks in a time-independent inversion analysis based on the GEOS-Chem model. Using TES CO2 observations over oceans, spanning 40 S 40 N, we find that the horizontal and vertical coverage of the TES and flask data are complementary. This complementarity is demonstrated by combining the datasets in a joint inversion, which provides better constraints than from either dataset alone, when a posteriori CO2 distributions are evaluated against independent ship and aircraft CO2 data. In particular, the joint inversion offers improved constraints in the tropics where surface measurements are sparse, such as the tropical forests of South America. Aggregating the annual surface-to-atmosphere fluxes from the joint inversion for the year 2006 yields 1.13 0.21 PgC for the global ocean, 2.77 0.20 PgC for the global land biosphere and 3.90 0.29 PgC for the total global natural flux (defined as the sum of all biospheric, oceanic, and biomass burning contributions but excluding CO2 emissions from fossil fuel combustion). These global ocean and global land fluxes are shown to be near the median of the broad range of values from other inversion results for 2006. To achieve these results, a bias in TES CO2 in the Southern Hemisphere was assessed and corrected using aircraft flask data, and we demonstrate that our results have low sensitivity to variations in the bias correction approach. Overall, this analysis suggests that future carbon data assimilation systems can benefit by integrating in situ and satellite observations of CO2 and that the vertical information provided by satellite observations of mid-tropospheric CO2 combined with measurements of surface CO2, provides an important additional constraint for flux inversions.

  11. Natural pH Gradients in Hydrothermal Alkali Vents Were Unlikely to Have Played a Role in the Origin of Life.

    PubMed

    Jackson, J Baz

    2016-08-01

    The hypothesis that a natural pH gradient across inorganic membranes lying between the ocean and fluid issuing from hydrothermal alkali vents provided energy to drive chemical reactions during the origin of life has an attractive parallel with chemiosmotic ATP synthesis in present-day organisms. However, arguments raised in this review suggest that such natural pH gradients are unlikely to have played a part in life's origin. There is as yet no evidence for thin inorganic membranes holding sharp pH gradients in modern hydrothermal alkali vents at Lost City near the Mid-Atlantic Ridge. Proposed models of non-protein forms of the H(+)-pyrophosphate synthase that could have functioned as a molecular machine utilizing the energy of a natural pH gradient are unsatisfactory. Some hypothetical designs of non-protein motors utilizing a natural pH gradient to drive redox reactions are plausible but complex, and such motors are deemed unlikely to have assembled by chance in prebiotic times. Small molecular motors comprising a few hundred atoms would have been unable to function in the relatively thick (>1 μm) inorganic membranes that have hitherto been used as descriptive models for the natural pH gradient hypothesis. Alternative hypotheses for the evolution of chemiosmotic systems following the emergence of error-prone gene replication and translation are more likely to be correct.

  12. Cutover peatlands: A persistent source of atmospheric CO2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waddington, J. M.; Warner, K. D.; Kennedy, G. W.

    2002-01-01

    Peatlands represent an important component of the global carbon cycle, storing 23 g C m-2 yr-1. Peatland mining eliminates the carbon sink function of the peatland. In this paper we measure the total ecosystem respiration in a natural, 2 and 3 year (young) and 7 and 8 year (old) postcutover peatland near Sainte-Marguerite-Marie, Québec, during the summers of 1998 and 1999. Although the natural site was a source of CO2 during the dry 1998 study season (138 g C m-2), CO2 emissions were between 260 and 290% higher in the cutover sites (363 and 399 g C m-2 for young and old, respectively). Cutover site CO2 emissions were only 88 and 112 g CO2-C m-2 at the young and old sites during the wet 1999 study season. Total ecosystem respiration was more dependent on the water table position than on changes in the thermal regime or the labile carbon of the peat in a dry summer, but the opposite was the case in a wet summer. CO2 emissions increased with postharvest time regardless of a decrease in labile carbon, demonstrating that cutover peatlands are a large persistent source of atmospheric CO2. Direct measurement of the net ecosystem CO2 exchange in cutover peatlands, as opposed to determining the loss of carbon from bulk density determinations, provides a better understanding of how peat drainage and harvesting operations affect the carbon balance in peatlands.

  13. Assessing denitrification in groundwater using natural gradient tracer tests with 15N: In situ measurement of a sequential multistep reaction

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, R.L.; Böhlke, J.K.; Garabedian, S.P.; Revesz, K.M.; Yoshinari, T.

    2004-01-01

    Denitrification was measured within a nitrate-contaminated aquifer on Cape Cod, Massachusetts, using natural gradient tracer tests with 15N nitrate. The aquifer contained zones of relatively high concentrations of nitrite (up to 77 ??M) and nitrous oxide (up to 143 ??M) and has been the site of previous studies examining ground water denitrification using the acetylene block technique. Small-scale (15-24 m travel distance) tracer tests were conducted by injecting 15N nitrate and bromide as tracers into a depth interval that contained nitrate, nitrite, nitrous oxide, and excess nitrogen gas. The timing of the bromide breakthrough curves at down-gradient wells matched peaks in 15N abundance above background for nitrate, nitrite, nitrous oxide, and nitrogen gas after more than 40 days of travel. Results were simulated with a one-dimensional transport model using linked reaction kinetics for the individual steps of the denitrification reaction pathway. It was necessary to include within the model spatial variations in background concentrations of all nitrogen oxide species. The model indicated that nitrite production (0.036-0.047 ??mol N (L aquifer)-1 d -1) was faster than the subsequent denitrification steps (0.013-0.016 ??mol N (L aquifer)-1 d-1 for nitrous oxide and 0.013-0.020 ??mol N (L aquifer)-1 d-1 for nitrogen gas) and that the total rate of reaction was slower than indicated by both acetylene block tracer tests and laboratory incubations. The rate of nitrate removal by denitrification was much slower than the rate of transport, indicating that nitrate would migrate several kilometers down-gradient before being completely consumed.

  14. Surface Condensation of CO2 onto Kaolinite

    SciTech Connect

    Schaef, Herbert T.; Glezakou, Vassiliki Alexandra; Owen, Antionette T.; Ramprasad, Sudhir; Martin, Paul F.; McGrail, B. Peter

    2014-02-11

    The fundamental adsorption behavior of gaseous and supercritical carbon dioxide (CO2) onto poorly crystalline kaolinite (KGa-2) at conditions relevant to geologic sequestration has been investigated using a quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) and density functional theory (DFT) methods. The QCM data indicated linear adsorption of CO2 (0-0.3 mmol CO2/g KGa-2) onto the kaolinite surface up through the gaseous state (0.186 g/cm3). However in the supercritical region, CO2 adsorption increases dramatically, reaching a peak (0.9-1.0 mmol CO2/g KGa-2) near 0.43 g/cm3, before declining rapidly to surface adsorption values equivalent or below gaseous CO2. This adsorption profile was not observed with He or N2. Comparative density functional studies of CO2 interactions with kaolinite surface models rule out CO2 intercalation and confirm that surface adsorption is favored up to approximately 0.35 g/cm3 of CO2, showing distorted T-shaped CO2-CO2 clustering, typical of supercritical CO2 aggregation over the surface as the density increases. Beyond this point, the adsorption energy gain for any additional CO2 becomes less than the CO2 interaction energy (~0.2 eV) in the supercritical medium resulting in overall desorption of CO2 from the kaolinite surface.

  15. Monitoring Atmospheric CO2 From Space: Challenge & Approach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, Bing; Harrison, F. Wallace; Nehrir, Amin; Browell, Edward; Dobler, Jeremy; Campbell, Joel; Meadows, Byron; Obland, Michael; Kooi, Susan; Fan, Tai-Fang; Ismail, Syed

    2015-01-01

    Atmospheric CO2 is the key radiative forcing for the Earth's climate and may contribute a major part of the Earth's warming during the past 150 years. Advanced knowledge on the CO2 distributions and changes can lead considerable model improvements in predictions of the Earth's future climate. Large uncertainties in the predictions have been found for decades owing to limited CO2 observations. To obtain precise measurements of atmospheric CO2, certain challenges have to be overcome. For an example, global annual means of the CO2 are rather stable, but, have a very small increasing trend that is significant for multi-decadal long-term climate. At short time scales (a second to a few hours), regional and subcontinental gradients in the CO2 concentration are very small and only in an order of a few parts per million (ppm) compared to the mean atmospheric CO2 concentration of about 400 ppm, which requires atmospheric CO2 space monitoring systems with extremely high accuracy and precision (about 0.5 ppm or 0.125%) in spatiotemporal scales around 75 km and 10-s. It also requires a decadal-scale system stability. Furthermore, rapid changes in high latitude environments such as melting ice, snow and frozen soil, persistent thin cirrus clouds in Amazon and other tropical areas, and harsh weather conditions over Southern Ocean all increase difficulties in satellite atmospheric CO2 observations. Space lidar approaches using Integrated Path Differential Absorption (IPDA) technique are considered to be capable of obtaining precise CO2 measurements and, thus, have been proposed by various studies including the 2007 Decadal Survey (DS) of the U.S. National Research Council. This study considers to use the Intensity-Modulated Continuous-Wave (IM-CW) lidar to monitor global atmospheric CO2 distribution and variability from space. Development and demonstration of space lidar for atmospheric CO2 measurements have been made through joint adventure of NASA Langley Research Center and

  16. Modeling Atmospheric CO2 Processes to Constrain the Missing Sink

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kawa, S. R.; Denning, A. S.; Erickson, D. J.; Collatz, J. C.; Pawson, S.

    2005-01-01

    We report on a NASA supported modeling effort to reduce uncertainty in carbon cycle processes that create the so-called missing sink of atmospheric CO2. Our overall objective is to improve characterization of CO2 source/sink processes globally with improved formulations for atmospheric transport, terrestrial uptake and release, biomass and fossil fuel burning, and observational data analysis. The motivation for this study follows from the perspective that progress in determining CO2 sources and sinks beyond the current state of the art will rely on utilization of more extensive and intensive CO2 and related observations including those from satellite remote sensing. The major components of this effort are: 1) Continued development of the chemistry and transport model using analyzed meteorological fields from the Goddard Global Modeling and Assimilation Office, with comparison to real time data in both forward and inverse modes; 2) An advanced biosphere model, constrained by remote sensing data, coupled to the global transport model to produce distributions of CO2 fluxes and concentrations that are consistent with actual meteorological variability; 3) Improved remote sensing estimates for biomass burning emission fluxes to better characterize interannual variability in the atmospheric CO2 budget and to better constrain the land use change source; 4) Evaluating the impact of temporally resolved fossil fuel emission distributions on atmospheric CO2 gradients and variability. 5) Testing the impact of existing and planned remote sensing data sources (e.g., AIRS, MODIS, OCO) on inference of CO2 sources and sinks, and use the model to help establish measurement requirements for future remote sensing instruments. The results will help to prepare for the use of OCO and other satellite data in a multi-disciplinary carbon data assimilation system for analysis and prediction of carbon cycle changes and carbodclimate interactions.

  17. Stream macroinvertebrate communities across a gradient of natural gas development in the Fayetteville Shale.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Erica; Austin, Bradley J; Inlander, Ethan; Gallipeau, Cory; Evans-White, Michelle A; Entrekin, Sally

    2015-10-15

    Oil and gas extraction in shale plays expanded rapidly in the U.S. and is projected to expand globally in the coming decades. Arkansas has doubled the number of gas wells in the state since 2005 mostly by extracting gas from the Fayetteville Shale with activity concentrated in mixed pasture-deciduous forests. Concentrated well pads in close proximity to streams could have adverse effects on stream water quality and biota if sedimentation associated with developing infrastructure or contamination from fracturing fluid and waste occurs. Cumulative effects of gas activity and local habitat conditions on macroinvertebrate communities were investigated across a gradient of gas well activity (0.2-3.6 wells per km(2)) in ten stream catchments in spring 2010 and 2011. In 2010, macroinvertebrate density was positively related to well pad inverse flowpath distance from streams (r=0.84, p<0.001). Relatively tolerant mayflies Baetis and Caenis (r=0.64, p=0.04), filtering hydropsychid caddisflies (r=0.73, p=0.01), and chironomid midge densities (r=0.79, p=0.008) also increased in streams where more well pads were closer to stream channels. Macroinvertebrate trophic structure reflected environmental conditions with greater sediment and primary production in streams with more gas activity close to streams. However, stream water turbidity (r=0.69, p=0.02) and chlorophyll a (r=0.89, p<0.001) were the only in-stream variables correlated with gas well activities. In 2011, a year with record spring flooding, a different pattern emerged where mayfly density (p=0.74, p=0.01) and mayfly, stonefly, and caddisfly richness (r=0.78, p=0.008) increased in streams with greater well density and less silt cover. Hydrology and well pad placement in a catchment may interact to result in different relationships between biota and catchment activity between the two sample years. Our data show evidence of different macroinvertebrate communities expressed in catchments with different levels of gas

  18. Resistivity and induced polarization monitoring of salt transport under natural hydraulic gradients

    SciTech Connect

    Slater, L.D.; Sandberg, S.K.

    2000-04-01

    The authors demonstrate the use of resistivity/induced polarization (IP) monitoring of salt transport under natural hydraulic loads. Electrical monitoring of saline tracer transport during forced injection has been demonstrated previously. Detection of tracer transport under natural hydraulic loading is difficult because neither the hydraulic load nor the tracer resistivity can be controlled. In one study, the authors identify the electrical response to salt transport in a dynamic beach environment. Resistivity/IP imagine resolved the structure of the saltwater-freshwater interface and evidence for tide-induced groundwater transport. Resistivity increases in the near surface and at depth, upbeach of the high-tide mark, accompanied by tidal transgression. They attribute this to desaturation and decreasing salinity in the near surface and to decreasing salinity at depth, despite tidal transgression. Monitoring of groundwater levels indicates a phase lag between the tide level and groundwater level, supporting the electrical data. IP was insensitive to groundwater salinity variation. In a second study, the authors identify the electrical response to recharge-induced salt transport from a road-sale storage facility. Conductivity and IP models for monitoring lines, located on the basis of an EM31 survey, resolved the subsurface salt distribution, IP modeling resolved the sediment-bedrock interface. Modeling of monthly conductivity differences revealed conductivity increases and decreases at the locations of salt contamination, which correlate with the recharge pattern. They attribute near-surface conductivity increases after heavy rainfall to increasing saturation and ion dissolution. Corresponding conductivity decreases at depth are attributed to flushing of the bedrock with freshwater. Essentially, the opposite response was observed during a quiet monitoring period following heavy recharge. Near-surface IP changes are consistent with this interpretation. Salt

  19. Fungal community responses to past and future atmospheric CO2 differ by soil type

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soils sequester and release substantial atmospheric carbon, but the biological responses of soils to rising CO2 are not well understood. We studied fungal communities in a grassland ecosystem exposed to a preindustrial-to-future CO2 gradient (250-500 ppm) on two soil types, a black clay and a sandy...

  20. Numerical natural rubber curing simulation, obtaining a controlled gradient of the state of cure in a thick-section part

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El Labban, A.; Mousseau, P.; Bailleul, J. L.; Deterre, R.

    2007-04-01

    Although numerical simulation has proved to be a useful tool to predict the rubber vulcanization process, few applications in the process control have been reported. Because the end-use rubber properties depend on the state of cure distribution in the parts thickness, the prediction of the optimal distribution remains a challenge for the rubber industry. The analysis of the vulcanization process requires the determination of the thermal behavior of the material and the cure kinetics. A nonisothermal vulcanization model with nonisothermal induction time is used in this numerical study. Numerical results are obtained for natural rubber (NR) thick-section part curing. A controlled gradient of the state of cure in the part thickness is obtained by a curing process that consists not only in mold heating phase, but also a forced convection mold cooling phase in order to stop the vulcanization process and to control the vulcanization distribution. The mold design that allows this control is described. In the heating phase, the state of cure is mainly controlled by the chemical kinetics (the induction time), but in the cooling phase, it is the heat diffusion that controls the state of cure distribution. A comparison among different cooling conditions is shown and a good state of cure gradient control is obtained.

  1. Dehydrated Prussian Blues for CO2 Storage and Separation Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Motkuri, Radha K.; Thallapally, Praveen K.; McGrail, B. Peter; Ghorishi, Behrooz S.

    2010-08-13

    Adsorption isotherms of pure gases present in flue and natural gas including CO2, N2, CH4 and water were studied using prussian blues of chemical formula M3[Co(CN)6]2 (M = Cu, Ni, Mn). These materials adsorbed 8-12 wt % of CO2 at room temperature and 1 bar of pressure with heats of adsorption ranging from 6 to 16 kcal/mol.

  2. Outsourcing CO2 within China

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Kuishuang; Davis, Steven J.; Sun, Laixiang; Li, Xin; Guan, Dabo; Liu, Weidong; Liu, Zhu; Hubacek, Klaus

    2013-01-01

    Recent studies have shown that the high standard of living enjoyed by people in the richest countries often comes at the expense of CO2 emissions produced with technologies of low efficiency in less affluent, developing countries. Less apparent is that this relationship between developed and developing can exist within a single country’s borders, with rich regions consuming and exporting high-value goods and services that depend upon production of low-cost and emission-intensive goods and services from poorer regions in the same country. As the world’s largest emitter of CO2, China is a prominent and important example, struggling to balance rapid economic growth and environmental sustainability across provinces that are in very different stages of development. In this study, we track CO2 emissions embodied in products traded among Chinese provinces and internationally. We find that 57% of China’s emissions are related to goods that are consumed outside of the province where they are produced. For instance, up to 80% of the emissions related to goods consumed in the highly developed coastal provinces are imported from less developed provinces in central and western China where many low–value-added but high–carbon-intensive goods are produced. Without policy attention to this sort of interprovincial carbon leakage, the less developed provinces will struggle to meet their emissions intensity targets, whereas the more developed provinces might achieve their own targets by further outsourcing. Consumption-based accounting of emissions can thus inform effective and equitable climate policy within China. PMID:23754377

  3. CO2 Utilization and Storage in Shale Gas Reservoirs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schaef, T.; Glezakou, V.; Owen, T.; Miller, Q.; Loring, J.; Davidson, C.; McGrail, P.

    2013-12-01

    Surging natural gas production from fractured shale reservoirs and the emerging concept of utilizing anthropogenic CO2 for secondary recovery and permanent storage is driving the need for understanding fundamental mechanisms controlling gas adsorption and desorption processes, mineral volume changes, and impacts to transmissivity properties. Early estimates indicate that between 10 and 30 gigatons of CO2 storage capacity may exist in the 24 shale gas plays included in current USGS assessments. However, the adsorption of gases (CO2, CH4, and SO2) is not well understood and appears unique for individual clay minerals. Using specialized experimental techniques developed at PNNL, pure clay minerals were examined at relevant pressures and temperatures during exposure to CH4, CO2, and mixtures of CO2-SO2. Adsorbed concentrations of methane displayed a linear behavior as a function of pressure as determined by a precision quartz crystal microbalance. Acid gases produced differently shaped adsorption isotherms, depending on temperature and pressure. In the instance of kaolinite, gaseous CO2 adsorbed linearly, but in the presence of supercritical CO2, surface condensation increased significantly to a peak value before desorbing with further increases in pressure. Similarly shaped CO2 adsorption isotherms derived from natural shale samples and coal samples have been reported in the literature. Adsorption steps, determined by density functional theory calculations, showed they were energetically favorable until the first CO2 layer formed, corresponding to a density of ~0.35 g/cm3. Interlayer cation content (Ca, Mg, or Na) of montmorillonites influenced adsorbed gas concentrations. Measurements by in situ x-ray diffraction demonstrate limited CO2 diffusion into the Na-montmorillonite interlayer spacing, with structural changes related to increased hydration. Volume changes were observed when Ca or Mg saturated montmorillonites in the 1W hydration state were exposed to

  4. Effect of Urbanization on River CO2 Emissons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, F.; Masiello, C. A.

    2007-12-01

    CO2 supersaturation in rivers has been reported for a number of different systems: tropical (e.g. Amazon1), subtropical (e.g. Xijiang River in China2) and temperate (e.g. Hudson3), indicating rivers' role as a source of atmospheric CO2 in regional net carbon budgets. In situ respiration of organic carbon is responsible for the high CO2 concentrations in rivers1. Because this organic carbon primarily originates on land1, land use practices may alter sources and character of this organic carbon significantly, potentially impacting river CO2 emissions. Urbanization is an important, expanding global land use. We are researching the effect of urbanization on river CO2 emissions. In this study, partial pressure of dissolved CO2 (pCO2) and radiocarbon (14C) contents of riverine dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) are directly measured in time series in Buffalo Bayou and Brays Bayou, two of the main rivers draining Houston, Texas, a developed humid subtropical city. The watersheds of both bayous are entirely unbanized. We will report seasonal trends of pCO2 and 14C of riverine DIC to estimate sources and turnover times of dissolved CO2. For comparison, we are also measuring pCO2 and DIC 14C in Spring Creek, Texas, a nearby river which has a mixed forest/agriculture watershed, as a non-urbanized counterpart to Buffalo and Brays Bayous. References: 1. E. Mayorga et al., Nature 436, 538 (2005). 2. G. Yao et al., Sci. Tot. Environ. 376, 255 (2007). 3. P.A. Raymond, N.F. Caraco, and J.J. Cole, Estuaries 20, 381 (1997).

  5. Natural resilience in Arctic charr Salvelinus alpinus: life history, spatial and dietary alterations along gradients of interspecific interactions.

    PubMed

    Hammar, J

    2014-07-01

    The Arctic charr Salvelinus alpinus species complex has been shown to be exceptionally vulnerable to rapid abiotic and biotic changes. Salvelinus alpinus, however, inhabit environmental extremes ranging from lakes and rivers in the High Arctic to deep multi-fish species lakes far outside the polar region. Long-term responses to post-glacial environmental variations and successively increased interspecific interactions reveal an essential degree of natural ecological resilience and phenotypic flexibility. Case studies in Scandinavia and Newfoundland illustrate the alternate trophic roles of S. alpinus, and its flexible niche use and life-history changes in order to regain or maintain body size in gradients of lakes with increasing fish species diversity. While allopatric in northern low-productive upland lakes, landlocked populations are commonly structured by cannibalism. In sympatry with other fish species, S. alpinus mostly serve as prey, with their decreasing growth and body size reflecting the successive diet shift from littoral macro-benthos to zooplankton and profundal microbenthos as interspecific competition for food and habitat intensifies. Interactions with natural and introduced superior zooplankton feeders and ultimate predators finally become detrimental. Consequently, the niche of S. alpinus is increasingly compressed in lakes along latitudinal and altitudinal gradients, although certain natural key conditions offer S. alpinus temporary asylum in the inescapable process towards local and regional extinction. The water temperature drop during winter allows S. alpinus to temporarily resume the richer littoral dietary and spatial niche use in low diversity lakes. In southern lowland and coastal lakes with more complex fish communities, access to key prey species such as profundal macro-crustaceans and smelt Osmerus spp. allow S. alpinus to regain its original niche space and characteristics as a large piscivore. In conclusion, S. alpinus along its

  6. Biodegradation of poly(butylene succinate) powder in a controlled compost at 58°C evaluated by naturally-occurring carbon 14 amounts in evolved CO(2) based on the ISO 14855-2 method.

    PubMed

    Kunioka, Masao; Ninomiya, Fumi; Funabashi, Masahiro

    2009-11-20

    The biodegradabilities of poly(butylene succinate) (PBS) powders in a controlled compost at 58 degrees C have been studied using a Microbial Oxidative Degradation Analyzer (MODA) based on the ISO 14855-2 method, entitled "Determination of the ultimate aerobic biodegradability of plastic materials under controlled composting conditions-Method by analysis of evolved carbon dioxide-Part 2: Gravimetric measurement of carbon dioxide evolved in a laboratory-scale test". The evolved CO(2) was trapped by an additional aqueous Ba(OH)(2) solution. The trapped BaCO(3) was transformed into graphite via a serial vaporization and reduction reaction using a gas-tight tube and vacuum manifold system. This graphite was analyzed by accelerated mass spectrometry (AMS) to determine the percent modern carbon [pMC (sample)] based on the (14)C radiocarbon concentration. By using the theory that pMC (sample) was the sum of the pMC (compost) (109.87%) and pMC (PBS) (0%) as the respective ratio in the determined period, the CO(2) (respiration) was calculated from only one reaction vessel. It was found that the biodegradabilities determined by the CO(2) amount from PBS in the sample vessel were about 30% lower than those based on the ISO method. These differences between the ISO and AMS methods are caused by the fact that part of the carbons from PBS are changed into metabolites by the microorganisms in the compost, and not changed into CO(2).

  7. Colony size-frequency distribution of pocilloporid juvenile corals along a natural environmental gradient in the Red Sea.

    PubMed

    Lozano-Cortés, Diego F; Berumen, Michael L

    2016-04-30

    Coral colony size-frequency distributions can be used to assess population responses to local environmental conditions and disturbances. In this study, we surveyed juvenile pocilloporids, herbivorous fish densities, and algal cover in the central and southern Saudi Arabian Red Sea. We sampled nine reefs with different disturbance histories along a north-south natural gradient of physicochemical conditions (higher salinity and wider temperature fluctuations in the north, and higher turbidity and productivity in the south). Since coral populations with negatively skewed size-frequency distributions have been associated with unfavorable environmental conditions, we expected to find more negative distributions in the southern Red Sea, where corals are potentially experiencing suboptimal conditions. Although juvenile coral and parrotfish densities differed significantly between the two regions, mean colony size and size-frequency distributions did not. Results suggest that pocilloporid colony size-frequency distribution may not be an accurate indicator of differences in biological or oceanographic conditions in the Red Sea.

  8. Molecular simulations of CO2 and mixed CH4-CO2 hydrates intercalated on smectites.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martos-Villa, Rubén; Sainz-Díaz, C. Ignacio; Mata Campo, M. Pilar

    2013-04-01

    Natural gas hydrates (NGH) are crystalline compounds consisting of methane molecules encaged in cavities of a hydrogen-bonded network of water molecules. Gas hydrates have a general formula X?nH2O, where X is the guest molecule within a water cage, and n is the hydration number per guest molecule. The crystal structure sI consists of 46 water molecules per unit cell, forming two dodecahedron (small 512) and six tetradecahedron (large 51262) cages and is formed when small guest molecules such as methane or carbon dioxide are trapped. Considerable amounts of methane hydrates can be found in permafrost regions and sediments of the ocean floor in outer continental margin regions where medium pressures, low temperatures and high methane gas concentration in water can be reached. Gas hydrates are important because hydrate decomposition would cause the methane release into atmosphere causing great impact on Earth's climate. On the other hand, these NGH are seen as a potential major energy resource. The recent increase in anthropogenic CO2 gas released to the atmosphere and its contribution to global warming, makes necessary to investigate new ways of CO2 storage. The possibility of replacing natural gas by CO2 from NGH has been investigated. There are thermodynamic evidences that support the replacement in hydrate at appropriate conditions. The comparison of their hydrate phase equilibrium conditions suggests the occurrence of a transition zone between both hydrate equilibrium curves where CO2 hydrates can exist while CH4 hydrates dissociate into methane gas and water. Any further investigation of the mixed CH4-CO2 gas hydrate properties could lead to major breakthroughs in the fields of unconventional resource production and carbon sequestration. Clay minerals are major constituents of ocean sediments, the study of interactions between these minerals with hydrates on the seafloor can be useful to determine variations on hydrate stability field, and to know the properties

  9. High-Resolution Isotopic Monitoring of Cave Air CO2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Töchterle, Paul; Dublyansky, Yuri; Mandic, Magda; Stöbener, Nils; Jost, Hj; Spötl, Christoph

    2016-04-01

    This study aims at characterising the ventilation patterns in Spannagel Cave, a high-alpine cave system in the Zillertal Alps, Austria. A Thermo Scientific Delta Ray Isotope Ratio Infrared Spectrometer was installed in a chamber ca. 100 m behind the cave entrance to monitor pCO2 and δ13C and δ18O of CO2 at high temporal resolution (up to 1 s). The air temperature was independently monitored inside and outside the cave. This study aims at characterising the ventilation patterns in Spannagel Cave, a high-alpine cave system in the Zillertal Alps, Austria. A Thermo Scientific Delta Ray Isotope Ratio Infrared Spectrometer was installed in a chamber ca. 100 m behind the cave entrance to monitor pCO2 and δ13C and δ18O of CO2 at high temporal resolution (up to 1s). The air temperature was independently monitored inside and outside the cave. The data show two distinct patterns in terms of CO2 concentration and its isotopic composition, which are closely coupled with the temperature difference between the cave interior and the outside atmosphere. This gradient controls the direction of air flow in the cave on a seasonal to synoptic timescale (chimney-type ventilation). The summer circulation is characterised by CO2 closely resembling atmospheric values (pCO2 = 399 ± 12 ppm, δ13C = -8.5 ± 0.7 permil, δ18O = 8.1 ± 2.5 permil). The winter circulation mode features generally higher CO2 concentrations and lower isotopic compositions (pCO2 = 409 ± 14 ppm, δ13C = -10.1 ± 0.7 permil, δ18O = 2.3 ± 1.5 permil). The high temporal resolution of stable isotope data allows tracking cave air ventilation changes, including transient and short-lived ones. Moreover, the data make it possible to address concomitant geochemical processes, such as the input of atmospheric CO2 and the degassing of CO2 from seepage water. These processes would not be possible to quantify without the new generation of laser-based isotope ratio instruments represented by the Delta Ray.

  10. Molecular basis for the high CO2 adsorption capacity of chabazite zeolites.

    PubMed

    Pham, Trong D; Hudson, Matthew R; Brown, Craig M; Lobo, Raul F

    2014-11-01

    CO2 adsorption in Li-, Na-, K-CHA (Si/Al=6,=12), and silica chabazite zeolites was investigated by powder diffraction. Two CO2 adsorption sites were found in all chabazites with CO2 locating in the 8-membered ring (8MR) pore opening being the dominant site. Electric quadrupole-electric field gradient and dispersion interactions drive CO2 adsorption at the middle of the 8 MRs, while CO2 polarization due to interaction with cation sites controls the secondary CO2 site. In Si-CHA, adsorption is dominated by dispersion interactions with CO2 observed on the pore walls and in 8 MRs. CO2 adsorption complexes on dual cation sites were observed on K-CHA, important for K-CHA-6 samples due to a higher probability of two K(+) cations bridging CO2. Trends in isosteric heats of CO2 adsorption based on cation type and concentration can be correlated with adsorption sites and CO2 quantity. A decrease in the hardness of metal cations results in a decrease in the direct interaction of these cations with CO2.

  11. Laser photoacoustic detection of CO2 in old disc tree-rings.

    PubMed

    Ageev, Boris; Ponomarev, Yurii; Sapozhnikova, Valeria

    2010-01-01

    A homemade CO2-laser photoacoustic spectrometer has been used for monitoring CO2 in gas samples extracted under vacuum from the wood of old spruce disc tree-rings for a ∼60 year series. The experimental results show that (1) the CO2 concentration exhibits annual trends correlated with an increase in atmospheric CO2 in a number of cases; (2) at the time when the annual CO2 trend changes from positive to negative, the annual tree-ring stable carbon isotope ratios (δ13C) of CO2 change as well; (3) the disc tree-ring widths are observed to decrease in most cases where the annual CO2 increased; (4) simultaneously with the annual CO2 variation, annual H2O distribution was detected in gas samples of the wood tree-rings of one spruce disc. The observed patterns of the annual CO2 distribution in the disc tree-rings are assumed to be the evidence of the impact of the atmospheric CO2 increase. In other words, a change in the concentration gradient between the stem and the atmospheric CO2 may lead to a gradual CO2 accumulation in the stem because of a decrease in the diffusion rate and to a change in the tree parameters.

  12. Uncertainty in gridded CO2 emissions estimates

    DOE PAGES

    Hogue, Susannah; Marland, Eric; Andres, Robert J.; ...

    2016-05-19

    We are interested in the spatial distribution of fossil-fuel-related emissions of CO2 for both geochemical and geopolitical reasons, but it is important to understand the uncertainty that exists in spatially explicit emissions estimates. Working from one of the widely used gridded data sets of CO2 emissions, we examine the elements of uncertainty, focusing on gridded data for the United States at the scale of 1° latitude by 1° longitude. Uncertainty is introduced in the magnitude of total United States emissions, the magnitude and location of large point sources, the magnitude and distribution of non-point sources, and from the use ofmore » proxy data to characterize emissions. For the United States, we develop estimates of the contribution of each component of uncertainty. At 1° resolution, in most grid cells, the largest contribution to uncertainty comes from how well the distribution of the proxy (in this case population density) represents the distribution of emissions. In other grid cells, the magnitude and location of large point sources make the major contribution to uncertainty. Uncertainty in population density can be important where a large gradient in population density occurs near a grid cell boundary. Uncertainty is strongly scale-dependent with uncertainty increasing as grid size decreases. In conclusion, uncertainty for our data set with 1° grid cells for the United States is typically on the order of ±150%, but this is perhaps not excessive in a data set where emissions per grid cell vary over 8 orders of magnitude.« less

  13. [Dynamic observation, simulation and application of soil CO2 concentration: a review].

    PubMed

    Sheng, Hao; Luo, Sha; Zhou, Ping; Li, Teng-Yi; Wang, Juan; Li, Jie

    2012-10-01

    Soil CO2 concentration is the consequences of biological activities in above- and below-ground, and its fluctuation may significantly affect the future atmospheric CO2 concentration and the projected climate change. This paper reviewed the methodologies for measuring the soil CO2 concentration in situ as well as their advantages and disadvantages, analyzed the variation patterns and controlling factors of soil CO2 concentration across the temporal (diurnal, several days, seasonal and inter-annual) and spatial (soil profile, site and landscape) scales, introduced the primary empirical and mechanical models for estimating and predicting soil CO2 concentration, and summarized the applications and constraints of soil CO2 concentration gradient in determining soil respiration. Four research priorities were proposed, i. e., to develop new techniques for collecting and determining the soil CO2 in severe soil conditions (e. g., flooding, lithoso and others), to approach the responses of soil CO2 concentration to weather change and related regulation mechanisms, to strengthen the researches on the spatial heterogeneity of soil CO2 concentration, and to expand the applications of soil CO2 concentration gradient in the measurement of tropical-subtropical soil respiration.

  14. CO2 exsolution - challenges and opportunities in subsurface flow management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zuo, Lin; Benson, Sally

    2014-05-01

    In geological carbon sequestration, a large amount of injected CO2 will dissolve in brine over time. Exsolution occurs when pore pressures decline and CO2 solubility in brine decreases, resulting in the formation of a separate CO2 phase. This scenario occurs in storage reservoirs by upward migration of carbonated brine, through faults, leaking boreholes or even seals, driven by a reverse pressure gradient from CO2 injection or ground water extraction. In this way, dissolved CO2 could migrate out of storage reservoirs and form a gas phase at shallower depths. This paper summarizes the results of a 4-year study regarding the implications of exsolution on storage security, including core-flood experiments, micromodel studies, and numerical simulation. Micromodel studies have shown that, different from an injected CO2 phase, where the gas remains interconnected, exsolved CO2 nucleates in various locations of a porous medium, forms disconnected bubbles and propagates by a repeated process of bubble expansion and snap-off [Zuo et al., 2013]. A good correlation between bubble size distribution and pore size distribution is observed, indicating that geometry of the pore space plays an important role in controlling the mobility of brine and exsolved CO2. Core-scale experiments demonstrate that as the exsolved gas saturation increases, the water relative permeability drops significantly and is disproportionately reduced compared to drainage relative permeability [Zuo et al., 2012]. The CO2 relative permeability remains very low, 10-5~10-3, even when the exsolved CO2 saturation increases to over 40%. Furthermore, during imbibition with CO2 saturated brines, CO2 remains trapped even under relatively high capillary numbers (uv/σ~10-6) [Zuo et al., submitted]. The water relative permeability at the imbibition endpoint is 1/3~1/2 of that with carbonated water displacing injected CO2. Based on the experimental evidence, CO2 exsolution does not appear to create significant risks

  15. Comparison of carbohydrate sources in yeast-fermentation CO2 generators for mosquito surveillance

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Mosquito surveillance in remote areas with limited access to canisters of CO2 or dry ice will benefit from an effective alternative CO2 source, such as the natural production of CO2 from yeast fermentation of several carbohydrate sources. In this study, we document the differences in mosquito and n...

  16. CARNOL PROCESS FOR CO2 MITIGATION FROM POWER PLANTS AND THE TRANSFORMATION SECTOR

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report describes an alternative mitigation process that would convert waste carbon dioxide (CO2) to carbon an methanol using natural gas as process feedstock. The process yields 1 mole of methanol from each mole of CO2 recovered, resulting in a net zero CO2 emission when the ...

  17. Tropical epiphytes in a CO 2-rich atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monteiro, José Alberto Fernandez; Zotz, Gerhard; Körner, Christian

    2009-01-01

    We tested the effect on epiphyte growth of a doubling of pre-industrial CO 2 concentration (280 vs. 560 ppm) combined with two light (three fold) and two nutrition (ten fold) treatments under close to natural humid conditions in daylight growth cabinets over 6 months. Across co-treatments and six species, elevated CO 2 increased relative growth rates by only 6% ( p = 0.03). Although the three C3 species, on average, grew 60% faster than the three CAM species, the two groups did not significantly differ in their CO 2 response. The two Orchidaceae, Bulbophyllum (CAM) and Oncidium (C3) showed no CO 2 response, and three out of four Bromeliaceae showed a positive one: Aechmea (CAM, +32% p = 0.08), Catopsis (C3, +11% p = 0.01) and Vriesea (C3, +4% p = 0.02). In contrast, the representative of the species-rich genus Tillandsia (CAM), which grew very well under experimental conditions, showed no stimulation. On average, high light increased growth by 21% and high nutrients by 10%. Interactions between CO 2, light and nutrient treatments (low vs. high) were inconsistent across species. CO 2 responsive taxa such as Catopsis, could accelerate tropical forest dynamics and increase branch breakage, but overall, the responses to doubling CO 2 of these epiphytes was relatively small and the responses were taxa specific.

  18. Reduced plant nutrition under elevated CO2 depresses the immunocompetence of cotton bollworm against its endoparasite

    PubMed Central

    Yin, Jin; Sun, Yucheng; Ge, Feng

    2014-01-01

    Estimating the immunocompetence of herbivore insects under elevated CO2 is an important step in understanding the effects of elevated CO2 on crop-herbivore-natural enemy interactions. Current study determined the effect of elevated CO2 on the immune response of Helicoverpa armigera against its parasitoid Microplitis mediator. H. armigera were reared in growth chambers with ambient or elevated CO2, and fed wheat grown in the concentration of CO2 corresponding to their treatment levels. Our results showed that elevated CO2 decreases the nutritional quality of wheat, and reduces the total hemocyte counts and impairs the capacity of hemocyte spreading of hemolymph of cotton bollworm larvae, fed wheat grown in the elevated CO2, against its parasitoid; however, this effect was insufficient to change the development and parasitism traits of M. mediator. Our results suggested that lower plant nutritional quality under elevated CO2 could decrease the immune response of herbivorous insects against their parasitoid natural enemies. PMID:24687002

  19. Reduced plant nutrition under elevated CO2 depresses the immunocompetence of cotton bollworm against its endoparasite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yin, Jin; Sun, Yucheng; Ge, Feng

    2014-04-01

    Estimating the immunocompetence of herbivore insects under elevated CO2 is an important step in understanding the effects of elevated CO2 on crop-herbivore-natural enemy interactions. Current study determined the effect of elevated CO2 on the immune response of Helicoverpa armigera against its parasitoid Microplitis mediator. H. armigera were reared in growth chambers with ambient or elevated CO2, and fed wheat grown in the concentration of CO2 corresponding to their treatment levels. Our results showed that elevated CO2 decreases the nutritional quality of wheat, and reduces the total hemocyte counts and impairs the capacity of hemocyte spreading of hemolymph of cotton bollworm larvae, fed wheat grown in the elevated CO2, against its parasitoid; however, this effect was insufficient to change the development and parasitism traits of M. mediator. Our results suggested that lower plant nutritional quality under elevated CO2 could decrease the immune response of herbivorous insects against their parasitoid natural enemies.

  20. The Wettability of Shale by CO2 and Its Impact on Geologic CO2 Sequestration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guiltinan, E. J.; Cardenas, M. B.; Espinoza, D. N.; Yoon, H.; Dewers, T. A.

    2015-12-01

    The geologic sequestration of CO2 is widely considered as a potential solution for decreasing anthropogenic atmospheric CO2 emissions. Wettability of fluids within reservoir materials is a critical factor in determining the efficiency of structural and residual trapping, two major mechanisms of geologic sequestration. Individual reservoir minerals are often targeted for wettability studies. Current practice applies these results, recorded under laboratory conditions, to in-situ reservoir rock; however the wide variety of measured contact angles reported in the literature calls this practice into question. To address these issues and to study the wettability of shale caprock, resedimentation techniques are employed. These techniques allow for the creation of synthetic shales with controlled, homogeneous mineralogies. In addition, the systematic variation of the mineralogy allows for the characterization of shale wettability as a function of mineralogical composition. A novel design has been developed and used to conduct wettability experiments at reservoir conditions using high resolution X-ray computer tomography. Using this technique the wettability of resedimented shales and natural shales are compared at different reservoir conditions. Next, Lattice Boltzmann modelling methods are used to simulate capillary entry pressure into a shale capillary. Adhesion parameters along the wall are tuned to the results of the synthetic shales and heterogeneity is incorporated to estimate the capillary entry pressure into a natural shale. Understanding the mineralogical components of shale wetting allows for the prediction of capillary entry pressure based on shale mineralogy which can be used to help select secure CO2 storage sites.