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Sample records for natural disaster exceptional

  1. Natural disasters.

    PubMed

    Cullen, J M

    1980-09-01

    This presentation covers the various types of natural disasters which are faced by investigators throughout the world. Each geophysical substance is discussed, including earth, air and water, and secondary effects including fire. Additionally, four myths associated with disasters are reviewed.

  2. Agriculture: Natural Events and Disasters

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Natural Events and DiasastersInformation on Natural Events and Disasters. Every year natural disasters, such as hurricanes, floods, fires, earthquakes, and tornadoes, challenge agricultural production.

  3. Epidemics after natural disasters.

    PubMed

    Watson, John T; Gayer, Michelle; Connolly, Maire A

    2007-01-01

    The relationship between natural disasters and communicable diseases is frequently misconstrued. The risk for outbreaks is often presumed to be very high in the chaos that follows natural disasters, a fear likely derived from a perceived association between dead bodies and epidemics. However, the risk factors for outbreaks after disasters are associated primarily with population displacement. The availability of safe water and sanitation facilities, the degree of crowding, the underlying health status of the population, and the availability of healthcare services all interact within the context of the local disease ecology to influence the risk for communicable diseases and death in the affected population. We outline the risk factors for outbreaks after a disaster, review the communicable diseases likely to be important, and establish priorities to address communicable diseases in disaster settings.

  4. Epidemics after Natural Disasters

    PubMed Central

    Gayer, Michelle; Connolly, Maire A.

    2007-01-01

    The relationship between natural disasters and communicable diseases is frequently misconstrued. The risk for outbreaks is often presumed to be very high in the chaos that follows natural disasters, a fear likely derived from a perceived association between dead bodies and epidemics. However, the risk factors for outbreaks after disasters are associated primarily with population displacement. The availability of safe water and sanitation facilities, the degree of crowding, the underlying health status of the population, and the availability of healthcare services all interact within the context of the local disease ecology to influence the risk for communicable diseases and death in the affected population. We outline the risk factors for outbreaks after a disaster, review the communicable diseases likely to be important, and establish priorities to address communicable diseases in disaster settings. PMID:17370508

  5. Suicide after natural disasters.

    PubMed

    Krug, E G; Kresnow, M; Peddicord, J P; Dahlberg, L L; Powell, K E; Crosby, A E; Annest, J L

    1998-02-05

    Among the victims of floods, earthquakes, and hurricanes, there is an increased prevalence of post-traumatic stress disorder and depression, which are risk factors for suicidal thinking. We conducted this study to determine whether natural disasters affect suicide rates. From a list of all the events declared by the U.S. government to be federal disasters between 1982 and 1989, we selected the 377 counties that had each been affected by a single natural disaster during that period. We collected data on suicides during the 36 months before and the 48 months after the disaster and aligned the data around the month of the disaster. Pooled rates were calculated according to the type of disaster. Comparisons were made between the suicide rates before and those after disasters in the affected counties and in the entire United States. Suicide rates increased in the four years after floods by 13.8 percent, from 12.1 to 13.8 per 100,000 (P<0.001), in the two years after hurricanes by 31.0 percent, from 12.0 to 15.7 per 100,000 (P<0.001), and in the first year after earthquakes by 62.9 percent, from 19.2 to 31.3 per 100,000 (P<0.001). The four-year increase of 19.7 percent after earthquakes was not statistically significant. Rates computed in a similar manner for the entire United States were stable. The increases in suicide rates were found for both sexes and for all age groups. The suicide rates did not change significantly after tornadoes or severe storms. Our study shows that suicide rates increase after severe earthquakes, floods, and hurricanes and confirms the need for mental health support after severe disasters.

  6. Responses to natural disasters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maggs, William Ward

    Since 1964, natural disasters caused by earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, or extreme weather in the form of floods, droughts, or hurricanes, have been responsible for more than 2,756,000 deaths worldwide in nations other than the United States, the Soviet Union, and the Eastern European Bloc, according to figures tabulated by the Office of Foreign Disaster Assistance (OFDA) of the Agency for International Development (AID). Over 95% of these fatalities occurred in developing or third world countries. Damage resulting from these calamities has been severe but extremely difficult to estimate in monetary terms. In 1986, U.S. government and voluntary agencies spent $303 million on natural disaster assistance around the world, 79% of total world assistance. In 1985 the U.S. total was nearly $900 million, 48% of the $1.84 billion world total.

  7. Disaster response. Natural disaster: Katrina.

    PubMed

    McSwain, Norman E

    2010-07-01

    The aftermath and response to a disaster can be divided into four phases. The importance of each depends on the length of time without resupply and the resources that are required. This in turn depends on the time span of the disaster; the area involved; the number of the population affected; the resupply available; the extent of the devastation; and the size of the evacuation. The above phases are discussed using hurricane Katrina as an example. The phases are as follows: immediate response, evacuation, backfill and resupply, and restoration. The restoration phase is usually the longest and requires the most resources. This article addresses the situation of Katrina, the mistakes that were made, the lessons that were learned, and the solutions that are needed. Appropriate training and practice are required for all participants using realistic scenarios.

  8. Natural disasters and the lung.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Bruce; Alatas, Mohammad Fahmi; Robertson, Andrew; Steer, Henry

    2011-04-01

    As the world population expands, an increasing number of people are living in areas which may be threatened by natural disasters. Most of these major natural disasters occur in the Asian region. Pulmonary complications are common following natural disasters and can result from direct insults to the lung or may be indirect, secondary to overcrowding and the collapse in infrastructure and health-care systems which often occur in the aftermath of a disaster. Delivery of health care in disaster situations is challenging and anticipation of the types of clinical and public health problems faced in disaster situations is crucial when preparing disaster responses. In this article we review the pulmonary effects of natural disasters in the immediate setting and in the post-disaster aftermath and we discuss how this could inform planning for future disasters.

  9. Natural disasters in Australia.

    PubMed

    Leivesley, S

    1984-06-01

    The history of natural hazards in Australia and their physical, economic and social consequences are discussed in this paper. The lack of any national programme for hazard mitigation is identified, alongside an overview of Australia as a country where major disasters are accepted as a part of everyday life.

  10. Natural Disasters and Nontuberculous Mycobacteria

    PubMed Central

    Bernhard, Jon N.; Chan, Edward D.

    2015-01-01

    Infectious diseases acquired by survivors of large-scale natural disasters complicate the recovery process. During events such as tsunamis, hurricanes, earthquakes, and tornados and well into the recovery period, victims often are exposed to water-soil mixtures that have relocated with indigenous microbes. Because nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) are ubiquitous in water and soil, there is potential for increased exposure to these organisms during natural disasters. In this hypothesis-driven commentary, we discuss the rise in NTM lung disease and natural disasters and examine the geographic overlap of NTM infections and disaster frequencies in the United States. Moreover, we show an increased number of positive NTM cultures from Louisiana residents in the years following three of the relatively recent epic hurricanes and posit that such natural disasters may help to drive the increased number of NTM infections. Finally, we advocate for increased environmental studies and surveillance of NTM infections before and after natural disasters. PMID:25644904

  11. When is a natural disaster a development disaster; when is a natural disaster not a disaster?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mutter, J. C.; Archibong, B.; Pi, D.

    2009-12-01

    Extremes of nature like hurricanes, droughts and earthquakes influence human welfare in a variety of ways. While it might seem counterintuitive, evidence from long run macro-economic data suggests that when natural extremes are especially destructive to human societies, and earn the title “natural disaster” they can actually have a beneficial effect on development. The process involved may be akin to the “The gale of creative destruction” first described by the economist Joseph Schumpeter. Applied to disasters the notion is that, in the short term, disasters can stimulate certain industries such as construction with capital flows coming into the disaster region from outside sources such as central government or international aid that can stimulate the economy. Longer term, outdated and inefficient public and private infrastructure destroyed in the disaster can be replaced by up to date, efficient systems that permit the economy to function more effectively, so that post-disaster growth can exceed pre-disaster levels. Disasters are macro-economic shocks, fundamentally similar to the banking shock that lead to the current global recession and, in the same way require external capital stimuli to overcome and that stimulus can result in stronger economies after recovery. These large-scale and long-run trends disguise the fact that disasters have very different development outcomes for different societies. Globally, there is evidence that poorer countries are not systematically stimulated by disaster shocks and may even be driven into poverty traps by certain disasters. Locally, the recovery from Hurricane Katrina in New Orleans has had been very different for different social groups, with both over-recovery and under-recovery occurring simultaneously and in close proximity. We discuss the conditions under which disasters might be a stimulating force and when they might lead to development setbacks.

  12. Natural disasters and gender dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roder, Giulia; Tarolli, Paolo

    2016-04-01

    Worldwide statistics reveal that the increasing number of risks and disaster impacts within the last decades have caused highly severe damages, with high death toll and huge economic damages (World Bank, 2010). As a consequence people's vulnerabilities have increased disproportionally in recent years. Individuals' ability to anticipate, prepare, cope, respond and recover from disasters differs according to some socio-economic attributes present in each community. The research on natural disasters in a gendered perspective is fairly limited compared to other variables. In fact, the need to track social vulnerabilities and investigate gender dynamics into all levels of the disaster life cycle has been recognized only recently, during the Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction (March 2015). For this purpose, we propose a review of the literature regarding the ways men and women conceptualise natural disasters, prepare and react, both physically and psychologically, to catastrophic events. This work tries to give some interpretation to these subjects analysing the social context in which sex discrepancies are developed, in different countries, cultures and in various socio-economic backgrounds. Findings highlighted that women perceived more the risk, and they have developed personal strategies to better react and withstand the impacts of negative occurrences. Being at home, working in the house and caring the children have been always placed them at a higher exposure to disasters. However, these circumstances, they gave them the means to organize the family for evacuations thanks to their deep knowledge of the territory they live and the neighbourhood networks they create. Women seem to be not sole victims, but valuable resources able to take leading roles in building disaster resilience. Some case studies, however, continue to demonstrate a female's higher fear and powerless face hazardous events than their counterparts, showing various mental health disorders

  13. [Psychic consequences of natural disasters].

    PubMed

    Stepień, Agnieszka; Malyszczak, Krzysztof

    2008-01-01

    The consequences of natural disasters were presented according to: development of the diagnosis of PTSD, variability of factors impacting on formation and sustenance (support) of distemper related to a cataclysm. The natural disaster causing emotional sufferings might be also the reason of psychic distempers that led to: 1. real or anticipate fear of death, 2. physical injuries, 3. economic loss, or 4. death of the relatives. Occurrence of PTSD relies on the pre-traumatic factors (like sex, coexistence of psychic disaster and/or risk of any other traumatic disturbances in the past, economical status, education), on the sort, intensity and duration of keeping the disorders initiated by the stressor and on the posttraumatic features such as social and psychological support.

  14. Natural disasters and suicide: evidence from Japan.

    PubMed

    Matsubayashi, Tetsuya; Sawada, Yasuyuki; Ueda, Michiko

    2013-04-01

    Previous research shows no consensus as to whether and how natural disasters affect suicide rates in their aftermath. Using prefecture-level panel data of natural disasters and suicide in Japan between 1982 and 2010, we estimate both contemporaneous and lagged effects of natural disasters on the suicide rates of various demographic groups. We find that when the damage caused by natural disasters is extremely large, as in the case of the Great Hanshin-Awaji Earthquake in 1995, suicide rates tend to increase in the immediate aftermath of the disaster and several years later. However, when the damage by natural disasters is less severe, suicide rates tend to decrease after the disasters, especially one or two years later. Thus, natural disasters affect the suicide rates of affected populations in a complicated way, depending on the severity of damages as well as on how many years have passed since the disaster. We also find that the effects of natural disasters on suicide rates vary considerably across demographic groups, which suggests that some population subgroups are more vulnerable to the impact of natural disasters than others. We then test the possibility that natural disasters enhance people's willingness to help others in society, an effect that may work as a protective factor against disaster victims' suicidal risks. We find that natural disasters increase the level of social ties in affected communities, which may mitigate some of the adverse consequence of natural disasters, resulting in a decline in suicide rates. Our findings also indicate that when natural disasters are highly destructive and disruptive, such protective features of social connectedness are unlikely to be enough to compensate for the severe negative impact of disasters on health outcomes.

  15. Natural Disasters: Earth Science Readings. Reproducibles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lobb, Nancy

    Natural Disasters is a reproducible teacher book that explains what scientists believe to be the causes of a variety of natural disasters and suggests steps that teachers and students can take to be better prepared in the event of a natural disaster. It contains both student and teacher sections. Teacher sections include vocabulary, an answer key,…

  16. Natural Disasters: Earth Science Readings. Reproducibles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lobb, Nancy

    Natural Disasters is a reproducible teacher book that explains what scientists believe to be the causes of a variety of natural disasters and suggests steps that teachers and students can take to be better prepared in the event of a natural disaster. It contains both student and teacher sections. Teacher sections include vocabulary, an answer key,…

  17. The economics of natural disasters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hallegatte, S.

    2007-05-01

    Mitigating natural disasters is probably more important for society than it can be inferred from direct losses. Total economic losses, indeed, can be much larger than direct losses, especially for large disasters, which affect the economy for extended periods of time (e.g., New Orleans after Katrina), and represent an important obstacle to economic development in certain regions (e.g. Central America). A series of recent modelling exercises highlights several findings. First, total economic losses due to an event are increasing nonlinearly as a function of its direct losses, because destructions both increase reconstruction needs and reduce reconstruction capacity. Second, endogenous economic dynamics has to be taken into account in the assessment of disaster consequences. More particularly, an economy in the expansion phase of its business cycle appears to be more vulnerable to extreme events than an economy in recession. This result is supported by the fact that worker availability is found to be one of the main obstacles to a rapid and efficient reconstruction. Third, natural disasters can create poverty traps for poor countries, which have a lower ability to fund and carry out reconstruction. As a consequence, climate change impacts from extreme events may be significant, and will depend on how societies are able to adapt their reconstruction capacity to new levels of risk.

  18. NASA's Applied Sciences: Natural Disasters Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kessler, Jason L.

    2010-01-01

    Fully utilize current and near-term airborne and spaceborne assets and capabilities. NASA spaceborne instruments are for research but can be applied to natural disaster response as appropriate. NASA airborne instruments can be targeted specifically for disaster response. Could impact research programs. Better flow of information improves disaster response. Catalog capability, product, applicable disaster, points of contact. Ownership needs to come from the highest level of NASA - unpredictable and irregular nature of disasters requires contingency funding for disaster response. Build-in transfer of applicable natural disaster research capabilities to operational functionality at other agencies (e.g., USFS, NOAA, FEMA...) at the outset, whenever possible. For the Decadal Survey Missions, opportunities exist to identify needs and requirements early in the mission design process. Need to understand additional needs and commitments for meeting the needs of the disaster community. Opportunity to maximize disaster response and mitigation from the Decadal Survey Missions. Additional needs or capabilities may require agency contributions.

  19. Historical and projected costs of natural disasters

    SciTech Connect

    Engi, D.

    1995-04-01

    Natural disasters cause billions of dollars of damage and thousands Of deaths globally each year. While the magnitude is clear, the exact costs (in damage and fatalities) are difficult to clearly identify. This document reports on the results of a survey of data on the costs associated with significant natural disasters. There is an impressive amount of work and effort going into natural disaster research, mitigation, and relief. However, despite this effort, there are surprisingly few consistent and reliable data available regarding the effects of natural disasters. Even lacking consistent and complete data, it is clear that the damage and fatalities from natural disasters are increasing, both in the United States, and globally. Projections using the available data suggest that, in the United States alone, the costs of natural disasters between 1995 and 2010 will be in the range of $90 billion (94$) and 5000 lives.

  20. Suicidality following a natural disaster.

    PubMed

    Kar, Nilamadhab

    2010-01-01

    It was intended to study the suicidal cognitions and behaviors following a super-cyclone. Cross-sectional evaluation study. Community. Using simple random procedure, 12 months after a super-cyclone, 540 victims were selected. Suicidal cognitions and behaviors through the Suicidality Screening Questionnaire. This included items on whether life was worth living, death wishes, suicidal idea, plan, and attempt, and history of a suicide attempt. Self-Reporting Questionnaire was used to screen for possible psychiatric morbidity. The influence of various sociodemographic factors, degree of exposure, and clinical variables on suicidal cognitions and attempt was studied. A considerable number of victims had suicidal cognitions: death wishes (66.4 percent), suicidal ideas (38.0 percent), and suicidal plans (18.3 percent). Sixty-eight persons (12.6 percent) of the sample had made suicide attempts after the cyclone. The risk of a suicide attempt was high in persons with current psychiatric morbidity, past history of psychiatric illness, postcyclone thoughts of life not worth living, suicidal ideation and plans, and living with inadequate support. There was a reported increase of suicidal cognitions and attempts within 12 months following a natural disaster. Awareness of increased suicidality, attention to associated risk factors, and support regarding these may help in the prevention of suicide following disasters.

  1. [Common pediatric infectious diseases following natural disasters].

    PubMed

    Yao, Kai-Hu

    2013-06-01

    Natural disasters may lead to the outbreaks of infectious diseases because they increase the risk factors for infectious diseases. This paper reviews the risk factors for infectious diseases after natural disasters, especially earthquake, and the infectious diseases following disasters reported in recent years. The infectious diseases after earthquake include diarrhea, cholera, viral hepatitis, upper respiratory tract infection, tuberculosis, measles, leptospirosis, dengue fever, tetanus, and gas gangrene, as well as some rare infections. Children are vulnerable to infectious diseases, so pediatricians should pay more attention to the research on relationship between infectious diseases and natural disasters.

  2. TV special on natural disasters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nature's destructive forces are brought into view in “Living with Disaster,” the next special of the television series The Infinite Voyage, airing June 7 at 8 p.m. on PBS and the week of June 11 on select commercial stations and nationally on cable.Several AGU members including former AGU president Charles Drake (Dartmouth College, Hanover, N.H.) served on the National Academy of Sciences advisory panel for the film. Drake is also on the NAS Film Committee that oversees the entire Infinite Voyage series. The Infinite Voyage is produced by WQED in Pittsburgh, Penna., in association with the National Academy of Sciences and is underwritten on PBS and sponsored on commercial television by Digital Equipment Corporation.

  3. Talking with Children about Natural Disasters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brodkin, Adele M.

    2005-01-01

    The effects of Hurricane Katrina, Hurricane Rita, and other natural disasters will be felt by young children in the affected areas for a long time to come. This article offers tips on how to talk with children about natural disasters in order to clear up any confusion they might have, how to answer their questions with sensitivity, and how to…

  4. Invasive Fungal Infections after Natural Disasters

    PubMed Central

    Benedict, Kaitlin

    2014-01-01

    The link between natural disasters and subsequent fungal infections in disaster-affected persons has been increasingly recognized. Fungal respiratory conditions associated with disasters include coccidioidomycosis, and fungi are among several organisms that can cause near-drowning pneumonia. Wound contamination with organic matter can lead to post-disaster skin and soft tissue fungal infections, notably mucormycosis. The role of climate change in the environmental growth, distribution, and dispersal mechanisms of pathogenic fungi is not fully understood; however, ongoing climate change could lead to increased disaster-associated fungal infections. Fungal infections are an often-overlooked clinical and public health issue, and increased awareness by health care providers, public health professionals, and community members regarding disaster-associated fungal infections is needed. PMID:24565446

  5. Invasive fungal infections after natural disasters.

    PubMed

    Benedict, Kaitlin; Park, Benjamin J

    2014-03-01

    The link between natural disasters and subsequent fungal infections in disaster-affected persons has been increasingly recognized. Fungal respiratory conditions associated with disasters include coccidioidomycosis, and fungi are among several organisms that can cause near-drowning pneumonia. Wound contamination with organic matter can lead to post-disaster skin and soft tissue fungal infections, notably mucormycosis. The role of climate change in the environmental growth, distribution, and dispersal mechanisms of pathogenic fungi is not fully understood; however, ongoing climate change could lead to increased disaster-associated fungal infections. Fungal infections are an often-overlooked clinical and public health issue, and increased awareness by health care providers, public health professionals, and community members regarding disaster-associated fungal infections is needed.

  6. Center for Integration of Natural Disaster Information

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    2001-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey's Center for Integration of Natural Disaster Information (CINDI) is a research and operational facility that explores methods for collecting, integrating, and communicating information about the risks posed by natural hazards and the effects of natural disasters. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) is mandated by the Robert Stafford Act to warn citizens of impending landslides, volcanic eruptions, and earthquakes. The USGS also coordinates with other Federal, State, and local disaster agencies to monitor threats to communities from floods, coastal storms, wildfires, geomagnetic storms, drought, and outbreaks of disease in wildlife populations.

  7. Development Bank Encourages Natural Disaster Planning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zielinski, Sarah

    2006-02-01

    In an effort to make countries in Latin America and the Caribbean less vulnerable to natural disasters, the Inter-American Development Bank (IDB) announced on 21 December 2005 that it has developed a new draft disaster risk management policy to encourage its member countries to plan for these events. The IDB, the major development bank for the region, decided to place a focus on natural disaster risk planning following several devastating disasters in the region in the 1990s, including 1998's Hurricane Mitch, said Caroline Clarke, IDB senior specialist in disaster prevention and risk management. The IDB provides loans, technical assistance, and policy guidance to reduce poverty and promote sustainable development in Latin America and the Caribbean.

  8. Coping with Cancer after a Natural Disaster

    MedlinePlus

    ... Paying for Treatment Coping With Cancer After a Natural Disaster: Frequently Asked Questions for People With Cancer ... meats are thoroughly cooked and all fruits and vegetables are thoroughly washed in safe water. Don’t ...

  9. Remittances as aid following major sudden-onset natural disasters.

    PubMed

    Bragg, Catherine; Gibson, Glenn; King, Haleigh; Lefler, Ashley A; Ntoubandi, Faustin

    2017-04-25

    There is a general assumption, based on macroeconomic studies, that remittances will rise following major sudden-onset natural disasters. This is confirmed by a few assessments involving country-specific research, and usually short-term data. This study, questioning conventional wisdom, reviewed and graphed annual and quarterly remittance flows using International Monetary Fund and World Bank data from 2000-14 for 12 countries that confronted 18 major natural disasters. It found that, regardless of event type, annual remittances rose steadily from 2000-14 except for after the 2008-09 financial crisis. Post disaster, there was a quarterly increase in the majority of cases (confirming previous research) but there was seldom an annual increase in the year of the disaster greater than the average annual increase in 2000-14. It appears that remittance senders rush to provide assistance after a natural disaster, but since their own financial situation has not changed, the immediate increase is compensated by a later decrease. © 2017 The Author(s). Disasters © Overseas Development Institute, 2017.

  10. Natural factors of technological disasters in Russia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrova, Elena

    2010-05-01

    More than 90 percent of disasters occurring in the Russian Federation are technological accidents and catastrophes, which account for nearly 80 percent of all the fatalities and affected people. A total of 1966 technological disasters and 152 natural ones occurred in Russia in 2008. In addition to technical, social, and economic causes of technological disasters, natural factors also play an essential role in triggering or magnifying them. A data base of technological disasters happened in Russia since 1992 has been created. More than 11,000 events are listed in the data base. New information is constantly being added to it. Occurrence time and location, a type of disaster, a number of people killed and affected, economic and ecological losses as well as a probable cause of every disaster are registered; its short description is also included. Using collected data a contribution of various natural hazards and phenomena to occurrence of technological disasters in Russia was assessed. Almost 5 percent of all technological disasters listed in the data base were triggered by natural processes. Natural factors caused the most part of accidents at power supply systems (72 percent), 11 percent of accidents at heat- and 9 percent at water supply systems; more than 10 percent of sudden collapses of buildings and mines as well as water accidents; 4.5 percent of pipeline ruptures, and 2 to 3 percent of air crashes, automobile and railway accidents. The majority of these technological disasters and accidents caused by natural factors were produced by windstorms and hurricanes (37 percent), snowfalls and snowstorms (27 percent), rainfalls (16 percent), hard frost and icy conditions of roads (12 percent), and thunderstorms (nearly 4 percent). Climate changes expected until the end of the century will have important consequences for frequency increasing and change in spatial distribution of technological disasters triggered by hydrometeorological phenomena. Increasing of

  11. The Australian Natural Disaster Resilience Index

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thoms, Martin

    2016-04-01

    The Australian Natural Disaster Resilience Index Martin Thoms, Melissa Parsons, Phil Morley Bushfire and Natural Hazards Cooperative Research Centre, Geography and Planning, University of New England, Armidale NSW 2351, Australia. Natural hazard management policy directions in Australia - and indeed internationally - are increasingly being aligned to ideas of resilience. Resilience to natural hazards is the ability of individuals and communities to cope with disturbance and adversity and to maintain adaptive behaviour. Operationalizing the measurement and assessment of disaster resilience is often undertaken using a composite index, but this exercise is yet to be undertaken in Australia. The Australian Natural Disaster Resilience Index is a top-down, national scale assessment of the resilience of communities to natural hazards. Resilience is assessed based on two sets of capacities: coping and adaptive capacities. Coping capacity relates to the factors influencing the ability of a community to prepare for, absorb and recover from a natural hazard event. Adaptive capacity relates to the arrangements and processes that enable adjustment through learning, adaptation and transformation. Indicators are derived under themes of social character, economic capital, infrastructure and planning, emergency services, community capital, information and engagement and governance/leadership/policy, using existing data sets (e.g. census data) or evaluation of policy and procedure (e.g. disaster management planning). A composite index of disaster resilience is then computed for each spatial division, giving national scale coverage. The results of the Australian Natural Disaster Resilience Index will be reported in a State of Disaster Resilience report, due in 2018. The index is co-designed with emergency service agencies, and will support policy development, planning, community engagement and emergency management.

  12. [Communication networks in great natural disasters].

    PubMed

    Galinski, R

    1990-02-01

    A great natural disaster destroys every energy supplies and the communication network necessary for the organisation of health care (telephone, telex) is entirely or partially not functioning. It becomes impossible to be informed about the hospitals and others sanitary availabilities in the disaster area. Our personal experience, during the El Asnam's and Mexico's earthquakes demonstrates the necessity to maintain a functioning network for sanitary use. The unique possibility is the availability of portable, battery operated radio-transmitters. It is necessary to have these equipment in all hospitals and health centers in the area of a previsible disaster. A good scheduled training is necessary for the medical and paramedical personal of these areas.

  13. Natural disasters: forecasting economic and life losses

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nishenko, Stuart P.; Barton, Christopher C.

    1997-01-01

    Events such as hurricanes, earthquakes, floods, tsunamis, volcanic eruptions, and tornadoes are natural disasters because they negatively impact society, and so they must be measured and understood in human-related terms. At the U.S. Geological Survey, we have developed a new method to examine fatality and dollar-loss data, and to make probabilistic estimates of the frequency and magnitude of future events. This information is vital to large sectors of society including disaster relief agencies and insurance companies.

  14. Reducing Uncertainty With Natural Disasters (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hooke, W. H.

    2013-12-01

    Communication is particularly important when it comes to natural disasters because public safety is at risk and of utmost concern. The science of prediction, in forecasting disaster events, is the way in which scientists inform both the public and decision makers of disaster risk. Scientists need to provide forecasts for discrete events in the immediate future as well as return periods in the long-term; the former concerned with proper response during a disaster event and the latter concerned with proper preparedness actions taken well before a disaster event. Uncertainty is pervasive with near-term weather forecasting due to the nonlinearity of the atmosphere, and long-term prediction due to the stochastic nature of disaster events. Thus, the challenge with disaster prediction is conveying information - inherent with uncertainty - in a manner which does not hinder safe behavior, rather it promotes public response conducive to increased public safety. Risk includes two components: the likelihood of occurrence and the potential consequences. When scientists issue forecasts, they largely focus on the likelihood component often through probabilistic forecasting which inherently involves uncertainty. While probabilistic forecasting stays true to the accuracy of the science, it requires the public to interpret the information through its own lens, often resulting in underestimating the likelihood of occurrence and therefore underestimating the risk of disasters. More so, because conventional communication emphasizes likelihood, the public accordingly weighs the likelihood component far more than the consequence component. Ultimately this often is problematic as the public heavily weighs one component more than the other, that component involving uncertainty which the public tends to underestimate in its risk assessment. The forecasting community continues ongoing efforts to improve predictive capabilities in order to reduce the level of uncertainty. While the science

  15. Natural disasters and insurance and reinsurance

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Berz, G.

    1991-01-01

    Great natural disasters, that is, those exceeding the economic capacity of the affected region and requiring national or international assistance, have increased dramatically in number and scope over the past few decades. As the accompanying graph shows, on average, from the 1960's to the 1980's there has been a five-fold increase in frequency of natural disasters, an increase in total economic losses by a factor of 3.3 and a rise of total insured losses by a factor of 5.8

  16. Natural disaster potential and counterdisaster planning in Australia.

    PubMed

    Pounder, D J

    1985-12-01

    Counterdisaster planning for mass fatalities begins with an analysis of the types of disasters likely in a given area and the vulnerability of the area to those disasters. Mass-fatality disasters can be classified as man-made or natural. A historical list of the major man-made disasters in Australia is provided. Potential natural, disasters in Australia, such as bush fires, floods, cyclones, and earthquakes, are discussed. The Australian Bureau of Meteorology provides warnings in many of these situations. Counterdisaster planning in Australia is primarily a state responsibility. The Natural Disasters Organisation of the Federal Department of Defence operates an Australian Counter-Disaster College.

  17. Natural Disasters: Planning for Psychological First Aid.

    PubMed

    Wynn, Stephanie T

    Natural disasters leave survivors suffering physically, psychologically, and spiritually. An EF4 tornado on April 27, 2011, in Tuscaloosa, Alabama, known as April's Fury, raised the question of how mental health practitioners (MHPs) might respond to address psychological needs, rather than being exclusively assigned to offer physical support immediately following a disaster. This article proposes planning ahead for MHPs to provide psychological first aid (PFA) in the immediate aftermath of a catastrophe. Combating psychological issues early will hopefully help reduce the development of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) or prolonged grief disorder (PGD) in survivors.

  18. Can We Protect Our Communities from Natural Disasters?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robertson, William C.

    2010-01-01

    There are two ways one might protect communities from natural disasters. One is to minimize the damage from disasters, and the other is to prevent the disasters in the first place. However, preventing disasters is another matter, and in trying to do so, we have to be aware of unintended consequences of our efforts. To address the issues associated…

  19. Can We Protect Our Communities from Natural Disasters?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robertson, William C.

    2010-01-01

    There are two ways one might protect communities from natural disasters. One is to minimize the damage from disasters, and the other is to prevent the disasters in the first place. However, preventing disasters is another matter, and in trying to do so, we have to be aware of unintended consequences of our efforts. To address the issues associated…

  20. Natural Disasters: Acts of God or Acts of Man?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wijkman, Anders; Timberlake, Lloyd

    This eight-chapter publication considers the man-made and natural causes of natural disasters. Following an introduction, Chapter 1 outlines the increase in natural disasters in the past decade and discusses the ratio of disasters from one continent to another. Chapter 2 discusses man-made factors such as deforestation and overused soil in causing…

  1. Computer Cache. Natural Disasters: Earth, Wind, and Fire

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brodie, Carolyn S.; Byerly, Greg

    2005-01-01

    Natural disasters come in all shapes and sizes and affect all areas of the earth, and studying natural disasters may make children more aware of their physical environment and their place in it. This column provides a list of websites on different types of natural disasters, including earthquakes, landslides, tsunamis, volcanoes, floods,…

  2. Natural Disasters: Acts of God or Acts of Man?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wijkman, Anders; Timberlake, Lloyd

    This eight-chapter publication considers the man-made and natural causes of natural disasters. Following an introduction, Chapter 1 outlines the increase in natural disasters in the past decade and discusses the ratio of disasters from one continent to another. Chapter 2 discusses man-made factors such as deforestation and overused soil in causing…

  3. 7 CFR 3555.307 - Assistance in natural disasters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Assistance in natural disasters. 3555.307 Section... § 3555.307 Assistance in natural disasters. (a) Policy. Servicers must utilize general procedures available under this subpart for servicing borrowers affected by natural disasters, as supplemented by...

  4. Computer Cache. Natural Disasters: Earth, Wind, and Fire

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brodie, Carolyn S.; Byerly, Greg

    2005-01-01

    Natural disasters come in all shapes and sizes and affect all areas of the earth, and studying natural disasters may make children more aware of their physical environment and their place in it. This column provides a list of websites on different types of natural disasters, including earthquakes, landslides, tsunamis, volcanoes, floods,…

  5. 24 CFR 905.204 - Emergencies and natural disasters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Emergencies and natural disasters... natural disasters. (a) General. PHAs are required by the CF ACC to carry various types of insurance to... repair or replacement costs associated with emergencies and natural disasters. Where the...

  6. Why are natural disasters not 'natural' for victims?

    SciTech Connect

    Kumagai, Yoshitaka; Edwards, John; Carroll, Matthew S. . E-mail: carroll@mail.wsu.edu

    2006-01-15

    Some type of formal or informal social assessment is often carried out in the wake of natural disasters. One often-observed phenomenon in such situations is that disaster victims and their sympathizers tend to focus on those elements of disasters that might have been avoided or mitigated by human intervention and thus assign 'undue' levels of responsibility to human agents. Often the responsibility or blame is directed at the very government agencies charged with helping people cope with and recover from the event. This phenomenon presents particular challenges for those trying to understand the social impacts of such events because of the reflexive nature of such analysis. Often the social analyst or even the government agency manager must sort through such perceptions and behavior and (at least implicitly) make judgments about which assignments of responsibility may have some validity and which are largely the result of the psychology of the disaster itself. This article presents a conceptual framework derived largely from social psychology to help develop a better understand such perceptions and behavior. While no 'magic bullet' formula for evaluating the validity of disaster victims' claims is presented, the conceptual framework is presented as a starting point for understanding this particular aspect of the psychology of natural disasters.

  7. Medical Rehabilitation in Natural Disasters: A Review.

    PubMed

    Khan, Fary; Amatya, Bhasker; Gosney, James; Rathore, Farooq A; Burkle, Frederick M

    2015-09-01

    To present an evidence-based overview of the effectiveness of medical rehabilitation intervention in natural disaster survivors and outcomes that are affected. A literature search was conducted using medical and health science electronic databases (PubMed, MEDLINE, Embase, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, Cochrane Library, PsycINFO) up to September 2014. Two independent reviewers selected studies reporting outcomes for natural disaster survivors after medical rehabilitation that addressed functional restoration and participation. Two reviewers independently extracted data and assessed the methodologic quality of the studies using the Critical Appraisal Skills Program's appraisal tools. A meta-analysis was not possible because of heterogeneity among included trials; therefore, a narrative analysis was performed for best evidence synthesis. Ten studies (2 randomized controlled trials, 8 observational studies) investigated a variety of medical rehabilitation interventions for natural disaster survivors to evaluate best evidence to date. The interventions ranged from comprehensive multidisciplinary rehabilitation to community educational programs. Studies scored low on quality assessment because of methodologic limitations. The findings suggest some evidence for the effectiveness of inpatient rehabilitation in reducing disability and improving participation and quality of life and for community-based rehabilitation for participation. There were no data available for associated costs. The findings highlight the need to incorporate medical rehabilitation into response planning and disaster management for future natural catastrophes. Access to rehabilitation and investment in sustainable infrastructure and education are crucial. More methodologically robust studies are needed to build evidence for rehabilitation programs, cost-effectiveness, and outcome measurement in such settings. Copyright © 2015 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine

  8. UAVSAR for the Management of Natural Disasters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lou, Y.; Hensley, S.; Jones, C. E.

    2014-12-01

    The unique capabilities of imaging radar to penetrate cloud cover and collect data in darkness over large areas at high resolution makes it a key information provider for the management and mitigation of natural and human-induced disasters such as earthquakes, volcanoes, landslides, floods, and wildfires. Researchers have demonstrated the use of UAVSAR's fully polarimetric data to determine flood extent, forest fire extent, lava flow, and landslide. The ability for UAVSAR to provide high accuracy repeated flight tracks and precise imaging geometry for measuring surface deformation to a few centimeter accuracy using InSAR techniques. In fact, UAVSAR's repeat-pass interferometry capability unleashed new potential approaches to manage the risk of natural disasters prior to the occurrence of these events by modeling and monitoring volcano inflation, earthquake fault movements, landslide rate and extent, and sink hole precursory movement. In this talk we will present examples of applications of UAVSAR for natural disaster management. This research was conducted at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, under contract with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration.

  9. Natural disasters and population mobility in Bangladesh

    PubMed Central

    Gray, Clark L.; Mueller, Valerie

    2012-01-01

    The consequences of environmental change for human migration have gained increasing attention in the context of climate change and recent large-scale natural disasters, but as yet relatively few large-scale and quantitative studies have addressed this issue. We investigate the consequences of climate-related natural disasters for long-term population mobility in rural Bangladesh, a region particularly vulnerable to environmental change, using longitudinal survey data from 1,700 households spanning a 15-y period. Multivariate event history models are used to estimate the effects of flooding and crop failures on local population mobility and long-distance migration while controlling for a large set of potential confounders at various scales. The results indicate that flooding has modest effects on mobility that are most visible at moderate intensities and for women and the poor. However, crop failures unrelated to flooding have strong effects on mobility in which households that are not directly affected but live in severely affected areas are the most likely to move. These results point toward an alternate paradigm of disaster-induced mobility that recognizes the significant barriers to migration for vulnerable households as well their substantial local adaptive capacity. PMID:22474361

  10. Natural disasters and population mobility in Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Gray, Clark L; Mueller, Valerie

    2012-04-17

    The consequences of environmental change for human migration have gained increasing attention in the context of climate change and recent large-scale natural disasters, but as yet relatively few large-scale and quantitative studies have addressed this issue. We investigate the consequences of climate-related natural disasters for long-term population mobility in rural Bangladesh, a region particularly vulnerable to environmental change, using longitudinal survey data from 1,700 households spanning a 15-y period. Multivariate event history models are used to estimate the effects of flooding and crop failures on local population mobility and long-distance migration while controlling for a large set of potential confounders at various scales. The results indicate that flooding has modest effects on mobility that are most visible at moderate intensities and for women and the poor. However, crop failures unrelated to flooding have strong effects on mobility in which households that are not directly affected but live in severely affected areas are the most likely to move. These results point toward an alternate paradigm of disaster-induced mobility that recognizes the significant barriers to migration for vulnerable households as well their substantial local adaptive capacity.

  11. The "State of Exception" and Disaster Education: A Multilevel Conceptual Framework with Implications for Social Justice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Preston, John; Chadderton, Charlotte; Kitagawa, Kaori

    2014-01-01

    The term "state of exception" has been used by Italian political theorist Giorgio Agamben to explain the ways in which emergencies, crises and disasters are used by governments to suspend legal processes. In this paper, we innovatively apply Agamben's theory to the way in which countries prepare and educate the population for various…

  12. The "State of Exception" and Disaster Education: A Multilevel Conceptual Framework with Implications for Social Justice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Preston, John; Chadderton, Charlotte; Kitagawa, Kaori

    2014-01-01

    The term "state of exception" has been used by Italian political theorist Giorgio Agamben to explain the ways in which emergencies, crises and disasters are used by governments to suspend legal processes. In this paper, we innovatively apply Agamben's theory to the way in which countries prepare and educate the population for various…

  13. Democracy, GDP, and the Impact of Natural Disasters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van der Vink, G.; Brett, A. P.; Burgess, E.; Cecil-Cockwell, D.; Chicoine, A.; Difiore, P.; Harding, J.; Millian, C.; Olivi, E.; Piaskowy, S.; Sproat, J.; van der Hoop, H.; Walsh, P.; Warren, A.; West, L.; Wright, G.

    2007-05-01

    In 1998 Amartya Sen won the Nobel Prize in economics for the observation that there has never been a famine in a nation with a democratic form of government and a free press. We find that a similar relationship can be demonstrated for all natural disasters. Data from the United Nations Food Programme and the United States Office of Foreign Disaster Assistance is used to display strong correlations between the democracy index, GDP, and the humanitarian impact of natural disasters. We find that nations in which disasters have high humanitarian impact, approximated by lives lost, are also nations which are below the median per capita GDP and the median democracy level. While the response to natural disasters varies from country to country, several additional global trends are observed. Since 1964, the number of recorded natural disasters has increased by a factor of five. During this same time period the number of deaths has decreased significantly. In particular, the humanitarian impact of the 'typical' natural disaster has decreased by a factor of five. Post-disaster foreign aid is the common response from the international community when a natural disaster strikes. Our study also compares the history of foreign aid grants distributed by the US Office of Foreign Disaster Aid (OFDA) with the number of deaths worldwide from natural disasters. We find that the amount of aid given is responsive to the degree of global humanitarian impact.

  14. International decade for natural disaster reduction

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hays, W. W.

    1990-01-01

    Throughout history, humanity has found itself in conflict with naturally occurring events of geologic, hydrologic, and atmospheric origin. this conflict has been demonstrated repeatedly when people build urban centers at the water's edge, in or near active fault systems capable of generating earthquakes, on steep slopes, near active volcanoes, or at the urban-wilderness interface prone to wildfires. Naturally occurring, recurrent events such as floods, windstorms, tsunamis, earthquakes, landslides, volcanic eruptions, and wildfires have tested human-engineered works many times and have often found them unable to withstand the forces generated by the event. In the past 20 years, for example, events like these throughout the world have claimed more than 2.8 million lives and adversely affected 820 million people; single disasters have caused economic losses of billions of dollars. Industrialized countries like the United States and Japan have been able to absorb the socioeconomic losses of past natural disasters, but the economics of many developing countries have been devastated by losses equal to a large percentage of their gross national product. Furthermore, the magnitude of the losses is increasing at a rapid rate as the building wealth of nations is expanded to meet the needs of rapidly increasing population, often without adequate consideration of the potential threat posed by the recurrent natural hazards and without implementing effective loss-reduction measures because of lack of knowledge or lack of technical capability. 

  15. The American print news media 'construction' of five natural disasters.

    PubMed

    Ploughman, P

    1995-12-01

    In 1985, five international 'natural' disasters received prominent print news media coverage in the United States. Content analyses of selected print news media accounts of these five disasters were conducted. The purported evidence of alleged cause-effect relationships describing and explaining these disasters as 'objective' realities was evaluated in the light of the subjective selection of explanatory factors, themes, frameworks, and value assumptions which underlie the media's analysis and 'construction' of these events as 'natural' disasters. Analysis of the American print news media coverage of these disasters indicated an emphasis upon the dramatic, descriptive, climatological or geological qualities of these events rather than upon causal explanations emphasizing the role of human acts or omissions in the development of these disasters. The print news media 'constructed' these events as 'natural' disasters despite clear evidence of their hybrid, natural-human origins.

  16. Managing extreme natural disasters in coastal areas.

    PubMed

    Kesavan, P C; Swaminathan, M S

    2006-08-15

    Extreme natural hazards, particularly the hydro-meteorological disasters, are emerging as a cause of major concern in the coastal regions of India and a few other developing countries. These have become more frequent in the recent past, and are taking a heavy toll of life and livelihoods. Low level of technology development in the rural areas together with social, economic and gender inequities enhance the vulnerability of the largely illiterate, unskilled, and resource-poor fishing, farming and landless labour communities. Their resilience to bounce back to pre-disaster level of normality is highly limited. For the planet Earth at crossroads, the imminent threat, however, is from a vicious spiral among environmental degradation, poverty and climate change-related natural disasters interacting in a mutually reinforcing manner. These, in turn, retard sustainable development, and also wipe out any small gains made thereof. To counter this unacceptable trend, the M.S. Swaminathan Research Foundation has developed a biovillage paradigm and rural knowledge centres for ecotechnological and knowledge empowerment of the coastal communities at risk. Frontier science and technologies blended with traditional knowledge and ecological prudence result in ecotechnologies with pro-nature, pro-poor and pro-women orientation. The rural communities are given training and helped to develop capacity to adopt ecotechnologies for market-driven eco-enterprises. The modern information and communication-based rural knowledge centres largely operated by trained semi-literate young women provide time- and locale-specific information on weather, crop and animal husbandry, market trends and prices for local communities, healthcare, transport, education, etc. to the local communities. The ecotechnologies and time- and locale-specific information content development are need-based and chosen in a 'bottom-up' manner. The use of recombinant DNA technology for genetic shielding of agricultural

  17. Managing extreme natural disasters in coastal areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kesavan, P. C.; Swaminathan, M. S.

    2006-08-01

    Extreme natural hazards, particularly the hydro-meteorological disasters, are emerging as a cause of major concern in the coastal regions of India and a few other developing countries. These have become more frequent in the recent past, and are taking a heavy toll of life and livelihoods. Low level of technology development in the rural areas together with social, economic and gender inequities enhance the vulnerability of the largely illiterate, unskilled, and resource-poor fishing, farming and landless labour communities. Their resilience to bounce back to pre-disaster level of normality is highly limited. For the planet Earth at crossroads, the imminent threat, however, is from a vicious spiral among environmental degradation, poverty and climate change-related natural disasters interacting in a mutually reinforcing manner. These, in turn, retard sustainable development, and also wipe out any small gains made thereof. To counter this unacceptable trend, the M.S. Swaminathan Research Foundation has developed a biovillage paradigm and rural knowledge centres for ecotechnological and knowledge empowerment of the coastal communities at risk. Frontier science and technologies blended with traditional knowledge and ecological prudence result in ecotechnologies with pro-nature, pro-poor and pro-women orientation. The rural communities are given training and helped to develop capacity to adopt ecotechnologies for market-driven eco-enterprises. The modern information and communication-based rural knowledge centres largely operated by trained semi-literate young women provide time- and locale-specific information on weather, crop and animal husbandry, market trends and prices for local communities, healthcare, transport, education, etc. to the local communities. The ecotechnologies and time- and locale-specific information content development are need-based and chosen in a ‘bottom-up’ manner. The use of recombinant DNA technology for genetic shielding of agricultural

  18. Medical rehabilitation after natural disasters: why, when, and how?

    PubMed

    Rathore, Farooq A; Gosney, James E; Reinhardt, Jan D; Haig, Andrew J; Li, Jianan; DeLisa, Joel A

    2012-10-01

    Natural disasters can cause significant numbers of severe, disabling injuries, resulting in a public health emergency and requiring foreign assistance. However, since medical rehabilitation services are often poorly developed in disaster-affected regions and not highly prioritized by responding teams, physical and rehabilitation medicine (PRM) has historically been underemphasized in global disaster planning and response. Recent development of the specialties of "disaster medicine" and "disaster rehabilitation" has raised awareness of the critical importance of rehabilitation intervention during the immediate postdisaster emergency response. The World Health Organization Liaison Sub-Committee on Rehabilitation Disaster Relief of the International Society of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine has authored this report to assess the role of emergency rehabilitation intervention after natural disasters based on current scientific evidence and subject matter expert accounts. Major disabling injury types are identified, and spinal cord injury, limb amputation, and traumatic brain injury are used as case studies to exemplify the challenges to effective management of disabling injuries after disasters. Evidence on the effectiveness of disaster rehabilitation interventions is presented. The authors then summarize the current state of disaster-related research, as well as lessons learned from PRM emergency rehabilitation response in recent disasters. Resulting recommendations for greater integration of PRM services into the immediate emergency disaster response are provided. This report aims to stimulate development of research and practice in the emerging discipline of disaster rehabilitation within organizations that provide medical rehabilitation services during the postdisaster emergency response.

  19. Natural disasters and nontuberculous mycobacteria: a recipe for increased disease?

    PubMed

    Honda, Jennifer R; Bernhard, Jon N; Chan, Edward D

    2015-02-01

    Infectious diseases acquired by survivors of large-scale natural disasters complicate the recovery process. During events such as tsunamis, hurricanes, earthquakes, and tornados and well into the recovery period, victims often are exposed to water-soil mixtures that have relocated with indigenous microbes. Because nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) are ubiquitous in water and soil, there is potential for increased exposure to these organisms during natural disasters. In this hypothesis-driven commentary, we discuss the rise in NTM lung disease and natural disasters and examine the geographic overlap of NTM infections and disaster frequencies in the United States. Moreover, we show an increased number of positive NTM cultures from Louisiana residents in the years following three of the relatively recent epic hurricanes and posit that such natural disasters may help to drive the increased number of NTM infections. Finally, we advocate for increased environmental studies and surveillance of NTM infections before and after natural disasters.

  20. Disaster Risks Reduction for Extreme Natural Hazards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plag, H.; Jules-Plag, S.

    2013-12-01

    Mega disasters associated with extreme natural hazards have the potential to escalate the global sustainability crisis and put us close to the boundaries of the safe operating space for humanity. Floods and droughts are major threats that potentially could reach planetary extent, particularly through secondary economic and social impacts. Earthquakes and tsunamis frequently cause disasters that eventually could exceed the immediate coping capacity of the global economy, particularly since we have built mega cities in hazardous areas that are now ready to be harvested by natural hazards. Unfortunately, the more we learn to cope with the relatively frequent hazards (50 to 100 years events), the less we are worried about the low-probability, high-impact events (a few hundred and more years events). As a consequence, threats from the 500 years flood, drought, volcano eruption are not appropriately accounted for in disaster risk reduction (DRR) discussions. Extreme geohazards have occurred regularly throughout the past, but mostly did not cause major disasters because exposure of human assets to hazards was much lower in the past. The most extreme events that occurred during the last 2,000 years would today cause unparalleled damage on a global scale and could worsen the sustainability crisis. Simulation of these extreme hazards under present conditions can help to assess the disaster risk. Recent extreme earthquakes have illustrated the destruction they can inflict, both directly and indirectly through tsunamis. Large volcano eruptions have the potential to impact climate, anthropogenic infrastructure and resource supplies on global scale. During the last 2,000 years several large volcano eruptions occurred, which under today's conditions are associated with extreme disaster risk. The comparison of earthquakes and volcano eruptions indicates that large volcano eruptions are the low-probability geohazards with potentially the highest impact on our civilization

  1. A New MOOC on Natural Disasters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stix, J.; Gyakum, J. R.; Caissy, K.; Guadagno, A.; Roop, F.; Vungoc, P. A.; Walker, C.

    2014-12-01

    During the summer of 2014 we taught a MOOC course on natural disasters under the auspices of McGillX and edX. The course was principally designed to provide students with an introduction to the science behind naturally hazardous phenomena and natural disasters. An important guiding element of the course was to link the solid earth (volcanoes, earthquakes, landslides, and avalanches) with the oceanic and atmospheric earth (hurricanes, tornadoes, El Nino). These Earth components were also coupled by a section on climate change and global warming near the end of the course. This integrated approach demonstrated to students the highly linked nature of the Earth System. The course comprised a variety of materials with which students could engage. For each topic, the professors provided lecture materials as 5-10 minute video blocks sequenced to form a complete lecture of about 90 minutes. Typically the lectures would progress from scientific principles through case studies to mitigation. For nearly every topic we also provided a practical demonstration (e.g., supercooled water driving ice storms, liquid fragmentation driving volcanic eruptions), in order to illustrate principles in a dynamic fashion. Students also worked independently on a wide variety of exercises, and there were two non-cumulative, multiple-choice exams, as well as a case study which students would themselves research and present to their peers in the course. Finally, the professors provided weekly screenside chats to answer students' questions and to provide a more informal learning environment. This variety of approaches enhanced the course content. Two teaching assistants worked full-time during course delivery, ensuring that students received rapid feedback to their questions and issues. The initial course enrollment was approximately 10,000.

  2. Understanding European education landscape on natural disasters - a textbook research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Komac, B.; Zorn, M.; Ciglič, R.; Steinführer, A.

    2012-04-01

    The importance of natural-disaster education for social preparedness is presented. Increasing damage caused by natural disasters around the globe draws attention to the fact that even developed societies must adapt to natural processes. Natural-disaster education is a component part of any education strategy for a sustainably oriented society. The purpose of this article is to present the role of formal education in natural disasters in Europe. To ensure a uniform overview, the study used secondary-school geography textbooks from the collection at the Georg Eckert Institute for International Textbook Research in Braunschweig, Germany. Altogether, nearly 190 textbooks from 35 European countries were examined. The greatest focus on natural disasters can be found in textbooks published in western Europe (3.8% of pages describing natural disasters), and the smallest in those published in eastern Europe (0.7%). A share of textbook pages exceeding three percent describing natural disasters can also be found in northern Europe (3.6%) and southeast Europe, including Turkey (3.4%). The shares in central and southern Europe exceed two percent (i.e., 2.8% and 2.3%, respectively). The types and specific examples of natural disasters most commonly covered in textbooks as well as the type of natural disasters presented in textbooks according to the number of casualties and the damage caused were analyzed. The results show that the majority of European (secondary-school) education systems are poorly developed in terms of natural-disaster education. If education is perceived as part of natural-disaster management and governance, greater attention should clearly be dedicated to this activity. In addition to formal education, informal education also raises a series of questions connected with the importance of this type of education. Special attention was drawn to the importance of knowledge that locals have about their region because this aspect of education is important in both

  3. Mother nature's disasters and their health effects: a literature review.

    PubMed

    Jones, Joan

    2006-01-01

    Each year global warming and climate changes are affecting Mother Nature, causing extreme weather events to occur (Patz & Khaliq, 2002). The impact of these disasters uproots populations, causes massive infrastructure destruction, and sets the stage for an increase of population mortality and morbidity. Before, during, and after the disaster, nurses provide health care to those in need. Nurses should be aware of the anticipated diseases, traumas, and short- and long-term illnesses that occur following the different types of natural disasters. The purpose of this article is to review existing data and alert nurses to the potential threats they may face following a natural disaster.

  4. Disease aftershocks - The health effects of natural disasters

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Guptill, S.C.

    2001-01-01

    While the initial activity of a natural disaster event may directly injure or kill a number of people, it is possible that a significant number of individuals will be affected by disease outbreaks that occur after the first effects of the disaster have passed. Coupling the epidemiologist's knowledge of disease outbreaks with geographic information systems and remote sensing technology could help natural disaster relief workers to prevent additional victims from disease aftershocks.

  5. Managing the natural disasters from space technology inputs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jayaraman, V.; Chandrasekhar, M. G.; Rao, U. R.

    1997-01-01

    Natural disasters, whether of meteorological origin such as Cyclones, Floods, Tornadoes and Droughts or of having geological nature such as earthquakes and volcanoes, are well known for their devastating impacts on human life, economy and environment. With tropical climate and unstable land forms, coupled with high population density, poverty, illiteracy and lack of infrastructure development, developing countries are more vulnerable to suffer from the damaging potential of such disasters. Though it is almost impossible to completely neutralise the damage due to these disasters, it is, however possible to (i) minimise the potential risks by developing disaster early warning strategies (ii) prepare developmental plans to provide resilience to such disasters, (iii) mobilize resources including communication and telemedicinal services and (iv) to help in rehabilitation and post-disaster reconstruction. Space borne platforms have demonstrated their capability in efficient disaster management. While communication satellites help in disaster warning, relief mobilisation and telemedicinal support, Earth observation satellites provide the basic support in pre-disaster preparedness programmes, in-disaster response and monitoring activities, and post-disaster reconstruction. The paper examines the information requirements for disaster risk management, assess developing country capabilities for building the necessary decision support systems, and evaluate the role of satellite remote sensing. It describes several examples of initiatives from developing countries in their attempt to evolve a suitable strategy for disaster preparedness and operational framework for the disaster management Using remote sensing data in conjunction with other collateral information. It concludes with suggestions and recommendations to establish a worldwide network of necessary space and ground segments towards strengthening the technological capabilities for disaster management and mitigation.

  6. The case for regional post-natural disaster preparation.

    PubMed

    Claringbull, Natalie

    2008-01-01

    The private sector is becoming increasingly responsible to society and the environment. To this end, instead of simply contributing aid after a disaster, firms should establish relationships in advance, investing in regional growth through a post-natural disaster preparation pact. The pact should be a regionally focused partnership agreement - a natural disaster equivalent to the Kyoto Protocol. By coordinating preparation mechanisms through investment and collaboration before disasters hit, companies not only show confidence in the economy, encouraging regional cooperation and fostering economic growth, but also raise awareness of impending threats. Natural disasters affect all areas of life and livelihood; it is therefore beneficial for everyone to work together in advance to improve mitigation strategies and facilitate management processes in disaster recovery.

  7. Environmental exposures due to natural disasters.

    PubMed

    Knap, Anthony H; Rusyn, Ivan

    2016-03-01

    The environmental mobilization of contaminants by "natural disasters" is a subject of much interest, however, little has been done to address these concerns, especially in the developing world. Frequencies and predictability of events, both globally and regionally as well as the intensity, vary widely. It is clear that there are greater probabilities for mobilization of modern contaminants in sediments. Over the past 100 years of industrialization many chemicals are buried in riverine, estuarine and coastal sediments. There are a few studies, which have investigated this potential risk especially to human health. Studies that focus on extreme events need to determine the pre-existing baseline, determine the medium to long term fate and transport of contaminants and investigate aquatic and terrestrial pathways. Comprehensive studies are required to investigate the disease pathways and susceptibility for human health concerns.

  8. Children and Natural Disasters: A Primer for School Psychologists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, Linda; Oehler-Stinnett, Judy

    2006-01-01

    Worldwide children are impacted by natural disasters, including hurricanes, floods, tornadoes, earthquakes, wildfires, landslides and sandstorms, winter and severe storms, heat waves, volcanoes and tsunamis. School psychologists should understand natural disaster effects, such as economic loss, relocation and health concerns and mental health…

  9. Children and Natural Disasters: A Primer for School Psychologists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, Linda; Oehler-Stinnett, Judy

    2006-01-01

    Worldwide children are impacted by natural disasters, including hurricanes, floods, tornadoes, earthquakes, wildfires, landslides and sandstorms, winter and severe storms, heat waves, volcanoes and tsunamis. School psychologists should understand natural disaster effects, such as economic loss, relocation and health concerns and mental health…

  10. Modeling Regional Economic Impacts of Natural Disasters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boissonnade, A.; Hallegate, S.; Muir-Wood, R.; Schlumberger, M.; Onur, T.

    2007-05-01

    Common features of natural disasters are intense regional impacts and the need for assessing their economic impacts on the construction sectors. The years 2004 and 2005 were record-setting time for natural disasters with major disasters or catastrophic (Cat) events all around the world with dramatic consequences in human lives and economic losses around the world, affecting developed and developing countries. Although there is a large body of literature on assessing the impact of cat events, there is little available research on the quantification and modeling of the regional economic impact of such events on the cost and length of reconstruction. Current available econometric models have serious limitations because they need detailed information for modeling the complex interactions between the different stakeholders of the economy at a regional level that is generally not available. Also, very little research was performed for quantifying the demand surge, defined as the sudden increase in the cost of repairs due to amplified payments, following a hurricane or a series of hurricane events or other natural disasters. Demand surge is an important component of the overall economic impact of cat events and there is a need to better quantify it. This paper presents results of a research program that started after the 2004 and 2005 U.S. hurricane seasons. A large data set of economic and observed losses resulting from the hurricanes that affected Florida and the Gulf states in the US was collected at county level. This provided us with the basis for assessing the change in repair costs before and after these historical events, to quantify the demand surge (after removing the underlying baseline trends) at several dozens of locations across the areas affected, and to provide information on how the changes in demand surge vary spatially and temporally in affected areas for which the amount of structure losses were reported. A parallel research effort was undertaken for

  11. Fatal work injuries involving natural disasters, 1992-2006.

    PubMed

    Fayard, Gregory M

    2009-12-01

    Although a goal of disaster preparedness is to protect vulnerable populations from hazards, little research has explored the types of risks that workers face in their encounters with natural disasters. This study examines how workers are fatally injured in severe natural events. A classification structure was created that identified the physical component of the disaster that led to the death and the pursuit of the worker as it relates to the disaster. Data on natural disasters from the Census of Fatal Occupational Injuries for the years 1992 through 2006 were analyzed. A total of 307 natural disaster deaths to workers were identified in 1992-2006. Most fatal occupational injuries were related to wildfires (80 fatalities), hurricanes (72 fatalities), and floods (62 fatalities). Compared with fatal occupational injuries in general, natural disaster fatalities involved more workers who were white and more workers who were working for the government. Most wildfire fatalities stemmed directly from exposure to fire and gases and occurred to those engaged in firefighting, whereas hurricane fatalities tended to occur more independently of disaster-produced hazards and to workers engaged in cleanup and reconstruction. Those deaths related to the 2005 hurricanes occurred a median of 36.5 days after landfall of the associated storm. Nearly half of the flood deaths occurred to passengers in motor vehicles. Other disasters included tornadoes (33 fatalities), landslides (17), avalanches (16), ice storms (14), and blizzards (9). Despite an increasing social emphasis on disaster preparation and response, there has been little increase in expert knowledge about how people actually perish in these large-scale events. Using a 2-way classification structure, this study identifies areas of emphasis in preventing occupational deaths from various natural disasters.

  12. Seismophotos: Images of a Natural Disaster

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamburger, M. W.; Nakagawa, O. J.

    2013-12-01

    The occurrence of a devastating natural disaster brings together evocative--and sometimes jarring--views of Earth's natural processes. As part of an exhibition bringing together artistic and scientific views of the world, we have taken photographs from the 2011 Tohoku earthquake and tsunami and produced a new medium we call 'seismophotos': images that bring together photographic and seismological impressions of dynamic Earth activity. Photographer Osamu James Nakagawa returned to his native Japan in the aftermath of the 2011 Tohoku event and collected striking images of damage incurred by the earthquake and tsunami. As part of this artistic-geoscience collaboration, we modified the photographs using a number of traditional seismological recording techniques: smoke-drum and ink-pen drum recording of current seismic activity and manual tracing of strong-motion recordings from the sites close to the location of the photographic images. The combined images produce a mysterious, evocative, and sometimes powerful impression of the impacts of Earth activity on human agency and the ways in which we strive to understand and respond to them.

  13. Stealth and Natural Disasters: Science, Policy and Human Behavior

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kieffer, S. W.

    2008-12-01

    Geophysicists, earth scientists, and other natural scientists play a key role in studying disasters, and are challenged to convey the science to the public and policy makers (including government and business). I have found it useful to introduce the concept of two general types of disasters to these audiences: natural and stealth. Natural disasters are geological phenomena over which we humans have some, but relatively little, control. Earthquakes, tsunamis, floods and volcanic eruptions are the most familiar examples, but exogenous events such as meteorite impacts, solar flares, and supernovae are also possibly disruptive. Natural disasters typically have an abrupt onset, cause immediate major change, are familiar from the historic record, and get much media and public attention. They cannot be prevented, but preplanning can ameliorate their effects. Natural disasters are increasingly amplified by us (humans), and we are increasingly affected by them due to our expanding presence on the planet. Less familiar disasters are unfolding in the near-term, but they are not happening in the minds of most people. They are approaching us stealthily, and for this reason I propose that we call them stealth disasters. They differ from natural disasters in several important ways: stealth disasters are primarily caused by, or driven by, the interaction of humans with complex cycles of processes on the planet. Examples are: fresh water shortages and contamination, soil degradation and loss, climate changes, ocean degradation. The onset of stealth disasters is incremental rather than abrupt. They may not unfold significantly during the course of one term of political office, but they are unfolding in our lifetime. We as individuals may or may not escape their consequences, but they will affect our children and grandchildren. If humans are familiar with stealth disasters at all, it is from a relatively local experience, e.g., flooding of the Mississippi or the Dust Bowl in the U

  14. Natural Disaster Induced Losses at Household Level: A Study on the Disaster Affected Migrants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishtiaque, A.; Nazem, N. I.; Jerin, T.

    2015-12-01

    Given its geographical location Bangladesh frequently confronts natural disasters. Disaster induced losses often obligate socio-economic dislocation from rural areas to large urban centers. After incurring what type/amount of losses people migrate is still unknown. In this paper we focus on migrants who migrated due to natural disasters. Thus, the objectives of this paper are, first, ascertaining the proportion of disaster migrants in Dhaka city; second, determining types of natural disasters which compel rural out-migration; third, assessing the resource and economic losses stem from these disasters at household level. Using the slum database (N = 4966), we select eight slums randomly with a purpose to include migrants from maximum districts available. In order to identify the proportion of disaster affected migrants a census is conducted in 407 households of those 8 slums and the result demonstrates that 18.43% of the migrants are disaster affected, which was only 5% in 1993. Out of all hydro-meteorological disasters, river bank erosion (RBE), followed by flood, drives most people out of their abode. However, unlike RBE migrants, migrants affected by flood usually return to their origin after certain period. In-depth interviews on the disaster migrants reveal that RBE claims total loss of homestead land & agricultural land while flood causes 20% and 23% loss respectively. Agricultural income decreases 96% because of RBE whereas flood victims encounter 98% decrease. People also incur 79% & 69% loss in livestock owing to RBE and flood severally. These disasters cause more than eighty percent reduction in total monthly income. Albeit RBE appears more vigorous but total economic loss is greater in flood- on average each household experiences a loss of BDT 350,555 due to flood and BDT 300,000 on account of RBE. Receiving no substantial support from community or government the affected people are compelled to migrate.

  15. Plastic Surgery Response in Natural Disasters.

    PubMed

    Chung, Susan; Zimmerman, Amanda; Gaviria, Andres; Dayicioglu, Deniz

    2015-06-01

    Disasters cause untold damage and are often unpredictable; however, with proper preparation, these events can be better managed. The initial response has the greatest impact on the overall success of the relief effort. A well-trained multidisciplinary network of providers is necessary to ensure coordinated care for the victims of these mass casualty disasters. As members of this network of providers, plastic surgeons have the ability to efficiently address injuries sustained in mass casualty disasters and are a valuable member of the relief effort. The skill set of plastic surgeons includes techniques that can address injuries sustained in large-scale emergencies, such as the management of soft-tissue injury, tissue viability, facial fractures, and extremity salvage. An approach to disaster relief, the types of disasters encountered, the management of injuries related to mass casualty disasters, the role of plastic surgeons in the relief effort, and resource management are discussed. In order to improve preparedness in future mass casualty disasters, plastic surgeons should receive training during residency regarding the utilization of plastic surgery knowledge in the disaster setting.

  16. Infectious diseases following natural disasters: prevention and control measures.

    PubMed

    Kouadio, Isidore K; Aljunid, Syed; Kamigaki, Taro; Hammad, Karen; Oshitani, Hitoshi

    2012-01-01

    Natural disasters may lead to infectious disease outbreaks when they result in substantial population displacement and exacerbate synergic risk factors (change in the environment, in human conditions and in the vulnerability to existing pathogens) for disease transmission. We reviewed risk factors and potential infectious diseases resulting from prolonged secondary effects of major natural disasters that occurred from 2000 to 2011. Natural disasters including floods, tsunamis, earthquakes, tropical cyclones (e.g., hurricanes and typhoons) and tornadoes have been secondarily described with the following infectious diseases including diarrheal diseases, acute respiratory infections, malaria, leptospirosis, measles, dengue fever, viral hepatitis, typhoid fever, meningitis, as well as tetanus and cutaneous mucormycosis. Risk assessment is essential in post-disaster situations and the rapid implementation of control measures through re-establishment and improvement of primary healthcare delivery should be given high priority, especially in the absence of pre-disaster surveillance data.

  17. The asymmetric impact of natural disasters on China's bilateral trade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meng, Y.; Shi, P.; Yang, S.; Jeager, C. C.

    2015-03-01

    Globalization and technological revolutions are making the world more interconnected. International trade is one of the major approaches linking the world. Since the 2011 Tohoku earthquake and tsunami in Japan shocked the global supply chain, more attention has been paid to the global impact of large-scale disasters. China is the second largest trader in the world and faces the most frequent natural disasters. Therefore, this study proposes a gravity model for China's bilateral trade tailored to national circumstances, and estimates the impact of natural disasters in China and trading partner countries on Chinese imports and exports. We analyzed Chinese and trading partner statistical data from 1980 to 2012. Study results show that: (1) China's natural disasters have a positive impact on imports, but have no significant impact on exports, (2) trading partner countries' natural disasters reduce Chinese imports and exports, (3) both development level and land area of the partners are important in determining the intensity of natural disaster impacts on China's bilateral trade. The above findings suggest that the impact of natural disasters on trade is asymmetric and significantly affected by other factors, which demand further study.

  18. The asymmetric impact of natural disasters on China's bilateral trade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meng, Y.; Yang, S.; Shi, P.; Jeager, C. C.

    2015-10-01

    Globalization and technological revolutions are making the world more interconnected. International trade is an important approach linking the world. Since the 2011 Tohoku earthquake and tsunami in Japan shocked the global supply chain, more attention has been paid to the global impact of large-scale disasters. China is the second largest trader in the world and faces frequent natural disasters. Therefore, this study proposes a gravity model for China's bilateral trade tailored to national circumstances and estimates the impact of natural disasters in China and trading partner countries on Chinese imports and exports. We analyzed Chinese and trading partner statistical data from 1980 to 2012. Study results show the following: (1) China's natural disasters have a positive impact on exports but have no significant impact on imports; (2) trading partner countries' natural disasters reduce Chinese imports and exports; (3) both development level and land area of the partners are important in determining the intensity of natural disaster impacts on China's bilateral trade. The above findings suggest that the impact of natural disasters on trade is asymmetric and significantly affected by other factors, which demand further study.

  19. Megascale processes: Natural disasters and human behavior

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kieffer, S.W.; Barton, P.; Chesworth, W.; Palmer, A.R.; Reitan, P.; Zen, E.-A.

    2009-01-01

    Megascale geologic processes, such as earthquakes, tsunamis, volcanic eruptions, floods, and meteoritic impacts have occurred intermittently throughout geologic time, and perhaps on several planets. Unlike other catastrophes discussed in this volume, a unique process is unfolding on Earth, one in which humans may be the driving agent of megadisasters. Although local effects on population clusters may have been catastrophic in the past, human societies have never been interconnected globally at the scale that currently exists. We review some megascale processes and their effects in the past, and compare present conditions and possible outcomes. We then propose that human behavior itself is having effects on the planet that are comparable to, or greater than, these natural disasters. Yet, unlike geologic processes, human behavior is potentially under our control. Because the effects of our behavior threaten the stability, or perhaps even existence, of a civilized society, we call for the creation of a body to institute coherent global, credible, scientifi cally based action that is sensitive to political, economic, religious, and cultural values. The goal would be to institute aggressive monitoring, identify and understand trends, predict their consequences, and suggest and evaluate alternative actions to attempt to rescue ourselves and our ecosystems from catastrophe. We provide a template modeled after several existing national and international bodies. ?? 2009 The Geological Society of America.

  20. Natural disasters and suicidal behaviours: a systematic literature review.

    PubMed

    Kõlves, Kairi; Kõlves, Keili E; De Leo, Diego

    2013-03-20

    Various consequences including suicidal behaviours can arise in the aftermath of natural disasters. The aim of the present review was to systematically analyse the existing literature on the potential impact of natural disasters on suicidal behaviours. A systematic search of English-language articles indexed in electronic databases was conducted. The current review covers 42 papers containing empirical analyses of the relationship between natural disasters and suicidal behaviours. In total, 19 papers analysed suicide mortality and 23 non-fatal suicidal behaviours. The effects of earthquakes on suicidal behaviours are the most frequently studied among natural disasters (n=20), followed by hurricanes (n=11). Further, there were four papers about tsunamis, three about floods, three about heat waves and drought, and one investigating the effects of multiple natural disasters. The studies show different directions in suicide mortality following natural disasters. Nevertheless, there seems to be a drop in non-fatal suicidal behaviours in the initial post-disaster period, which has been referred to as the 'honeymoon' phase. A delayed increase in suicidal behaviours has been reported in some studies. However, other factors increasing the risk of suicidal behaviours after natural disasters have been reported, such as previous and current mental health problems. Furthermore, contributing factors, such as economic conditions, should also be considered. The exclusion of non-English articles. In light of the various methodological limitations observed, there is a need for further studies using proper designs. Mental health and suicidal behaviours should continue to be monitored for several years after the disaster. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Spatial Durbin model analysis macroeconomic loss due to natural disasters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kusrini, D. E.; Mukhtasor

    2015-03-01

    Magnitude of the damage and losses caused by natural disasters is huge for Indonesia, therefore this study aimed to analyze the effects of natural disasters for macroeconomic losses that occurred in 115 cities/districts across Java during 2012. Based on the results of previous studies it is suspected that it contains effects of spatial dependencies in this case, so that the completion of this case is performed using a regression approach to the area, namely Analysis of Spatial Durbin Model (SDM). The obtained significant predictor variable is population, and predictor variable with a significant weighting is the number of occurrences of disasters, i.e., disasters in the region which have an impact on other neighboring regions. Moran's I index value using the weighted Queen Contiguity also showed significant results, meaning that the incidence of disasters in the region will decrease the value of GDP in other.

  2. Fiji's worst natural disaster: the 1931 hurricane and flood.

    PubMed

    Yeo, Stephen W; Blong, Russell J

    2010-07-01

    At least 225 people in the Fiji Islands died as a result of the 1931 hurricane and flood, representing the largest loss of life from a natural disaster in Fiji's recent history. This paper explores the causes of disaster and the potential for recurrence. The disaster occurred because a rare event surprised hundreds of people-especially recently settled Indian farmers-occupying highly exposed floodplains in north-west Viti Levu island. The likelihood of a flood disaster of such proportions occurring today has been diminished by changed settlement patterns and building materials; however, a trend towards re-occupancy of floodplains, sometimes in fragile dwellings, is exposing new generations to flood risks. The contribution of this paper to the global hazards literature is set out in three sections: the ethnicity, gender and age of flood fatalities; the naturalness of disasters; and the merit of choice and constraint as explanations for patterns of vulnerability.

  3. Emergency Wound Care After a Natural Disaster

    MedlinePlus

    ... Centers Extreme Heat PSAs Related Links MMWR Bibliography Floods Flood Readiness Personal Hygiene After a Disaster Reentering Your Flooded Home Cleanup of Flood Water After a Flood Worker Safety Educational Materials ...

  4. Natural disasters: Cities build their vulnerability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Bryan

    2017-04-01

    Tornadoes pose a significant threat across vast portions of the US. Now research suggests that growth in the human-built environment will be more influential than climate change in driving future disaster potential.

  5. Disaster dilemma: factors affecting decision to come to work during a natural disaster.

    PubMed

    Davidson, Judy E; Sekayan, Ani; Agan, Donna; Good, Linda; Shaw, David; Smilde, Renee

    2009-01-01

    Natural disasters threaten the ability to staff a hospital. The objective of this study was to identify factors influencing decision to come to work during a fire disaster. The authors' hospital experienced a 17-fold increase in no-shows during a fire. Phenomenography was used to explore staff experiences immediately following wildfires. Factors affecting decision to work during a disaster included vulnerability of family, personal safety, and fire proximity. Modifiable factors were identified as follows: past experience with disasters, perceived importance, relationship with the organization, and caring connection with the organization. Employees experienced tension between obligations to family, community, and organization. Pets were seen as family and as important as biological family. Further research is indicated to determine predictive modeling and generalizability. Hospital leaders may influence disaster response by establishing a caring connection, providing resources for family members/pets, and promoting perceived importance of the employee.

  6. Disaster Impact and Response: Overcoming the Thousand Natural Shocks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bell, Bill D.

    1978-01-01

    This study examines the perceived disruptive influence of a natural disaster on the individual, primary relational, and neighborhood ties of community residents. Results suggest the coping potential of the aged surpasses that of their younger counterparts. (Author)

  7. European education on natural disasters - a textbook study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Komac, B.; Zorn, M.; Ciglič, R.

    2013-05-01

    Present is the role of formal education on natural disasters in Europe. To ensure a uniform overview, the study used secondary-school geography textbooks from the collection of textbooks at the Georg Eckert Institute for International Textbook Research in Braunschweig, Germany. Altogether, more than 160 textbooks from 36 European countries were examined in order to investigate how much their content (pages, text, figures) is related to natural-disasters topics, and to find out which types of hazards are presented more often. In the research it was also analyzed which disaster events are frequently used as an example.

  8. Amputations in natural disasters and mass casualties: staged approach.

    PubMed

    Wolfson, Nikolaj

    2012-10-01

    Amputation is a commonly performed procedure during natural disasters and mass casualties related to industrial accidents and military conflicts where large civilian populations are subjected to severe musculoskeletal trauma. Crush injuries and crush syndrome, an often-overwhelming number of casualties, delayed presentations, regional cultural and other factors, all can mandate a surgical approach to amputation that is different than that typically used under non-disaster conditions. The following article will review the subject of amputation during natural disasters and mass casualties with emphasis on a staged approach to minimise post-surgical complications, especially infection.

  9. Low back pain in a natural disaster.

    PubMed

    Angeletti, Chiara; Guetti, Cristiana; Ursini, Maria L; Taylor, Robert; Papola, Roberta; Petrucci, Emiliano; Ciccozzi, Alessandra; Paladini, Antonella; Marinangeli, Franco; Pergolizzi, Joseph; Varrassi, Giustino

    2014-02-01

    Low back pain is usually self-limited. The transition from acute to chronic LBP is influenced by physical and psychological factors. Identification of all contributing factors, in a mass emergency setting, differentiating primary and secondary life-threatening forms of LBP, is the best approach for success. Aims of the present report were to estimate the prevalence of LBP in population afferent to four advanced medical presidiums (AMPs) during postseismic emergency period and to evaluate frequency of use, types of pain killers administered to patients and short-term efficacy of them. Study was carried out in four AMPs during the first 5 weeks after the earthquake. Site, type of eventual trauma, pain intensity during LBP episode by Verbal Numerical Rating Scale (vNRS) were registered. Diagnosis of primary or secondary LBP was made on the basis of clinical features and therapeutic treatment was also analyzed. The prevalence of acute LBP was 4.9% (95%, IC 3.7 to 6.4), among 958 first accesses to AMP, representing 14.1% (95%, IC 10.8 to 18.3) of cases on the total of 322 patients treated for all pain conditions. Episodes of relapsed LBP in chronic pre-existing LBP represented the 40% (n = 19) of cases, while the first episode was present in 60% of patients (n = 28). Pain treatment was effective with a significant reduction in vNRS in short term evaluation. The emotional stress induced by natural disaster tends to heighten norepinephrine and sympathetic nervous system activity, which may further amplify nociception through peripheral or central mechanisms that result in consistent prevalence of primary NSLBP and become potential risk factor for pain chronicization. © 2013 World Institute of Pain.

  10. Companion Animals, Natural Disasters and the Law: An Australian Perspective

    PubMed Central

    White, Steven

    2012-01-01

    Simple Summary One of the issues raised by recent natural disasters in Australia is the management of companion animal welfare in disaster planning, response and recovery. Official inquiries following these disasters uncovered a number of shortcomings in addressing the management of animal welfare issues. This article suggests that despite some reform following these events, disaster management still fails to take seriously the interests of companion animals. Abstract This article examines the regulation of companion animal welfare during disasters, with some context provided by two recent major disaster events in Australia. Important general lessons for improved disaster management were identified in subsequent inquiries. However, the interests of companion animals continue to be inadequately addressed. This is because key assumptions underpinning disaster planning for companion animals—the primacy of human interests over animal interests and that individuals will properly address companion animal needs during times of disaster—are open to question. In particular these assumptions fail to recognise the inherent value of companion animals, underestimate the strong bond shared by some owners and their animals and, at the same time, overestimate the capacity of some owners to adequately meet the needs of their animals. PMID:26487028

  11. Natural disasters and dialysis care in the Asia-Pacific.

    PubMed

    Gray, Nicholas A; Wolley, Martin; Liew, Adrian; Nakayama, Masaaki

    2015-12-01

    The impact of natural disasters on the provision of dialysis services has received increased attention in the last decade following Hurricane Katrina devastating New Orleans in 2005. The Asia-Pacific is particularly vulnerable to earthquakes, tsunami, typhoons (also known as cyclones and hurricanes) or storms and flooding. These events can seriously interrupt provision of haemodialysis with adverse effects for patients including missed dialysis, increased hospitalization and post-traumatic stress disorder. Furthermore, haemodialysis patients may need to relocate and experience prolonged periods of displacement from family and social supports. In contrast to haemodialysis, most literature suggests peritoneal dialysis in a disaster situation is more easily managed and supported. It has become apparent that dialysis units and patients should be prepared for a disaster event and that appropriate planning will result in reduced confusion and adverse outcomes should a disaster occur. Numerous resources are now available to guide dialysis units, patients and staff in preparation for a possible disaster. This article will examine the disaster experiences of dialysis units in the Asia-Pacific, the impact on patients and staff, methods employed to manage during the disaster and suggested plans for reducing the impact of future disasters.

  12. Learning lessons from natural disasters - sectorial or holistic perspectives?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johansson, M.; Blumenthal, B.; Nyberg, L.

    2009-04-01

    Lessons learning from systematic analyses of past natural disasters is of great importance for future risk reduction and vulnerability management. It is one crucial piece of a puzzle towards disaster resilient societies, together with e.g. models of future emerging climate-related risks, globalization or demographic changes. Systematic analyses of impact and management of past events have commonly been produced in many sectors, but the knowledge is seldom shared outside the own organization or produced for other actors. To increase the availability of reports and documents, the Swedish Rescue Services Agency has created the Swedish Natural Hazards Information System, in accordance with a government commission from 2005. The system gathers accident reports, investigations and in-depth analyses, together with societal additional costs and mappings of consequences from central and local governments, NGO's and private actors. Evaluation of the collection reveals large differences in quality, systematic approach, depth and extent, clearly consistent with the lack of coherent harmonization of investigation and reporting approaches. Type of hazard, degree of impact and time elapsed since present are decisive for the collected volume. LPHC (low probability high consequences) disasters usually comprise most data and analytical activities, since they often are met with surprise and highlight the failure to integrate resilience into normal societal planning. During the last 50 years, several LPHC events in Sweden have functioned as alarm clocks and entailed major changes and improvements in government policies or legislations, safety management systems, risk assessments, response training, stakeholder communication, etc. Such an event occurred in January 2005 when Northern Europe was confronted with one of the most severe storms in modern history. Accidents that caused 24 fatalities occurred (17 in Sweden), several regions in UK and Germany were flooded and extensive areas of

  13. Natural disasters in developing countries: an environmental health perspective.

    PubMed

    Ferrier, B A; Spickett, J T

    2007-01-01

    Inadequate water supply and sanitation services underscore the lives of billions of people in the developing world. This situation is compounded when natural disasters strike because the existing infrastructure is destroyed, and scarce resources are diverted to cope with the crisis and then the reconstruction. In comparison, many industrialised countries have prevention measures in place to reduce the risk of damage, and policies and actions in place to reduce the impact of the next disaster. Environmental health professionals from both government and non-government organisations can play an important role in disaster prevention, mitigation and response in these situations. However, the success of environmental health programmes does depend on the existing social inequities. This is because in many developing countries, the poorest and least powerful people already live in a situation with poor water supply and sanitation, which is compounded by natural disasters.

  14. Natural disasters: a framework for research and teaching.

    PubMed

    Alexander, D

    1991-09-01

    Natural disasters are defined in this paper by relating the impact of extreme geophysical events to patterns of human vulnerability. Hazard perception is shown to be a factor that limits the mitigation of risk. The historical development of disaster studies is traced and five different schools of thought are identified. The current International Decade for Natural Disaster Reduction (IDNDR) is evaluated critically with regard to its potential for unifying the disparate strands of knowledge and its scope as a vehicle for education. A pedagogical framework for disaster studies is presented. Time and space provide valuable unifying factors, while the subject matter can be differentiated according to the continua and dichotomies that it presents. In disaster studies as in other branches of higher education, an ecocentric approach is preferable to a technocentric one, as many of the poorer nations of the world, which are most afflicted by natural catastrophe, will have to rely for mitigation on maintaining their ecological sustainability, instead of depending on sophisticated technology. Valuable insights into the impact of environmental extremes on mankind are gained from the study of disasters as human ecology.

  15. A new look at natural disasters

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cohn, T.A.; Gohn, K.K.

    2000-01-01

    We are paying a high price for the way we live on our beautiful but dangerous planet. Last year the world experienced deadly earthquakes in Turkey, Taiwan, Colombia and Greece; floods and devastating landslides in Venezuela; hurricanes along the Atlantic Coast that forced evacuation of millions; and numerous smaller disasters. As bad as these events were, they were not extraordinary viewed in the context of previous 20th century occurrences.

  16. Risk factors for adolescent alcohol use following a natural disaster.

    PubMed

    Schroeder, Janine M; Polusny, Melissa A

    2004-01-01

    On 29 March 1998, a series of category F-3 and F-4 tornadoes caused wide-spread destruction in four rural southern Minnesota counties in the United States. Extensive research has examined the impact of disaster exposure on adults' psychological functioning, including alcohol use. However, there has been little research on potential risk factors for adolescents' alcohol use following disaster exposure. It was hypothesized that demographic variables such as age and gender, prior drinking involvement, extent of prior trauma history, level of disaster exposure, and current disaster-related, post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptomatology would predict alcohol use among adolescents. Six months following a natural disaster, survey data were collected from 256 adolescents assessing these factors. Risk factors for adolescents' alcohol use were identified using hierarchical, multiple regression and logistic regression analyses. Greater age, prior drinking involvement, and the extent of prior trauma history were significantly associated with higher levels of binge drinking. Prior trauma history and current levels of disaster-related PTSD symptomatology were significant risk factors for adolescents' report of increases in their alcohol consumption since the tornado. In general, the extent of trauma exposure was associated with greater binge drinking among adolescents. Similar to adults, post-traumatic stress symptoms experienced in the aftermath of a disaster can lead to increased alcohol consumption among adolescents.

  17. Women and health consequences of natural disasters: Challenge or opportunity?

    PubMed

    Sohrabizadeh, Sanaz; Tourani PhD, Sogand; Khankeh, Hamid Reza

    2016-01-01

    Disasters do not affect people equally; the impact of disasters on the lives of women is different from other groups of a community. Women's fundamental rights to health and safety are violated after disasters. The authors of this study aimed to explore various factors of women's health with reference to previous natural disasters in Iran. A qualitative approach using in-depth unstructured interviews and field observations was employed to explore women's health factors in the affected regions. A total of 22 participants affected by disasters, as well as key informants, were interviewed applying the purposeful sampling method. Data were collected in 2014 in three provinces, including East Azerbaijan, Bushehr, and Mazandaran. A content analysis using the Graneheim approach was performed for analyzing the transcribed interviews. Two themes and four categories were extracted from the data. The themes that emerged included psycho-physical effects and women's health status. Physical and psycho-emotional effects and reproductive and environmental health effects were the four emergent categories. The findings implied that managing women's health challenges may result in reducing the distressing effects of disaster. These findings support identification and application of the mechanisms by which women's well-being in physical, mental, reproductive, and environmental aspects can be protected after disasters.

  18. Disasters at the interface of nature and society provoke thought

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castaños, Heriberta; Lomnitz, Cinna

    A casual remark, a chance encounter in the corridors of power, decisions made at the administrative level; those are the things disasters are made of. We didn't know this until September 11, 2001.What is a disaster? Natural and social causes, like separate strands, are closely intertwined. In the 5th century, attributing earthquakes to natural causes was a crime: there is a heresy that claims that earthquakes are supposedly caused by the elements of nature rather than by the righteous judgment and wrath of God, quoth Saint Philastrius. It took 14 centuries to replace this paradigm with another: one should not view God as an irrational being, capable of destroying His own temples, in the words of Camilo Henriquez, S.J., after the 1822 Valparaiso earthquake. This was a giant step forward, but it was not enough. We now realize that all disasters are social, as well as natural.

  19. Natural Disasters and Cholera Outbreaks: Current Understanding and Future Outlook.

    PubMed

    Jutla, Antarpreet; Khan, Rakibul; Colwell, Rita

    2017-03-01

    Diarrheal diseases remain a serious global public health threat, especially for those populations lacking access to safe water and sanitation infrastructure. Although association of several diarrheal diseases, e.g., cholera, shigellosis, etc., with climatic processes has been documented, the global human population remains at heightened risk of outbreak of diseases after natural disasters, such as earthquakes, floods, or droughts. In this review, cholera was selected as a signature diarrheal disease and the role of natural disasters in triggering and transmitting cholera was analyzed. Key observations include identification of an inherent feedback loop that includes societal structure, prevailing climatic processes, and spatio-temporal seasonal variability of natural disasters. Data obtained from satellite-based remote sensing are concluded to have application, although limited, in predicting risks of a cholera outbreak(s). We argue that with the advent of new high spectral and spatial resolution data, earth observation systems should be seamlessly integrated in a decision support mechanism to be mobilize resources when a region suffers a natural disaster. A framework is proposed that can be used to assess the impact of natural disasters with response to outbreak of cholera, providing assessment of short- and long-term influence of climatic processes on disease outbreaks.

  20. Geophysical Hazards and Preventive Disaster Management of Extreme Natural Events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ismail-Zadeh, A.; Takeuchi, K.

    2007-12-01

    Geophysical hazard is potentially damaging natural event and/or phenomenon, which may cause the loss of life or injury, property damage, social and economic disruption, or environmental degradation. Extreme natural hazards are a key manifestation of the complex hierarchical nonlinear Earth system. An understanding, accurate modeling and forecasting of the extreme hazards are most important scientific challenges. Several recent extreme natural events (e.g., 2004 Great Indian Ocean Earthquake and Tsunami and the 2005 violent Katrina hurricane) demonstrated strong coupling between solid Earth and ocean, and ocean and atmosphere. These events resulted in great humanitarian tragedies because of a weak preventive disaster management. The less often natural events occur (and the extreme events are rare by definition), the more often the disaster managers postpone the preparedness to the events. The tendency to reduce the funding for preventive disaster management of natural catastrophes is seldom follows the rules of responsible stewardship for future generations neither in developing countries nor in highly developed economies where it must be considered next to malfeasance. Protecting human life and property against earthquake disasters requires an uninterrupted chain of tasks: from (i) understanding of physics of the events, analysis and monitoring, through (ii) interpretation, modeling, hazard assessment, and prediction, to (iii) public awareness, preparedness, and preventive disaster management.

  1. Prevention of Tetanus Outbreak Following Natural Disaster in Indonesia: Lessons Learned from Previous Disasters.

    PubMed

    Pascapurnama, Dyshelly Nurkartika; Murakami, Aya; Chagan-Yasutan, Haorile; Hattori, Toshio; Sasaki, Hiroyuki; Egawa, Shinichi

    2016-03-01

    In Indonesia, the Aceh earthquake and tsunami in 2004 killed 127,000 people and caused half a million injuries, while the Yogyakarta earthquake in 2006 caused 5,700 deaths and 37,000 injuries. Because disaster-affected areas are vulnerable to epidemic-prone diseases and tetanus is one such disease that is preventable, we systematically reviewed the literature related to tetanus outbreaks following previous two natural disasters in Indonesia. Based on our findings, recommendations for proper vaccination and education can be made for future countermeasures. Using specified keywords related to tetanus and disasters, relevant documents were screened from PubMed, the WHO website, and books. Reports offering limited data and those released before 2004 were excluded. In all, 16 publications were reviewed systematically. Results show that 106 cases of tetanus occurred in Aceh, with a case fatality ratio (CFR) of 18.9%; 71 cases occurred in Yogyakarta, with CFR of 36.6%. For both outbreaks, most patients had been wounded during scavenging or evacuation after the disaster occurred. Poor access to health care because of limited transportation or hospital facilities, and low vaccination coverage and lack of awareness of tetanus risk contributed to delayed treatment and case severity. Tetanus outbreaks after disasters are preventable by increasing vaccination coverage, improving wound care treatment, and establishing a regular surveillance system, in addition to good practices of disaster management and supportive care following national guidelines. Furthermore, health education for communities should be provided to raise awareness of tetanus risk reduction.

  2. Perspectives on the international decade for natural disaster reduction

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hays, Walter W.

    1990-01-01

    Disaster preparedness and disaster mitigation are the goals of nations throughout the world during the 1990's. The United States will lead this cooperative effort and marshall its national resources to reduce the disaster potential of earthquakes, floods, windstorms, landslides, volcanic eruptions, tsunamis, and wildfires. These natural hazards cause annual losses of approximately $10 billion in the United States and many times that throughout the world. The type and severity of the hazard varies from State-to-State in the United States. All States are at risk from flooding from sources such as precipitation, snowmelt, thunderstorms, and, along the coast, the storm surges generated in hurricanes. No State is free from the potential impacts of ground shaking induced by earthquakes. The goal of the Decade is to keep such occurrences in the future from being disasters.

  3. Weathering Natural Disasters with a Net of Safety

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berson, Ilene R.; Berson, Michael J.

    2008-01-01

    Faster and more efficient coverage on television and the Internet is increasingly exposing children to traumatic images of natural devastation both at home and abroad. Natural disasters, such as the wildfires in California or the trauma caused by Hurricane Katrina in New Orleans, have become commonplace. Catastrophic events like these serve as…

  4. Weathering Natural Disasters with a Net of Safety

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berson, Ilene R.; Berson, Michael J.

    2008-01-01

    Faster and more efficient coverage on television and the Internet is increasingly exposing children to traumatic images of natural devastation both at home and abroad. Natural disasters, such as the wildfires in California or the trauma caused by Hurricane Katrina in New Orleans, have become commonplace. Catastrophic events like these serve as…

  5. Smart City: Utilization of IT resources to encounter natural disaster

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hartama, D.; Mawengkang, Herman; Zarlis, M.; Sembiring, R. W.

    2017-09-01

    This study proposes a framework for the utilization of IT resources in the face of natural disasters with the concept of Smart City in urban areas, which often face the earthquake, particularly in the city of North Sumatra and Aceh. Smart City is a city that integrates social development, capital, civic participation, and transportation with the use of information technology to support the preservation of natural resources and improved quality of life. Changes in the climate and environment have an impact on the occurrence of natural disasters, which tend to increase in recent decades, thus providing socio-economic impacts for the community. This study suggests a new approach that combines the Geographic Information System (GIS) and Mobile IT-based Android in the form of Geospatial information to encounter disaster. Resources and IT Infrastructure in implementing the Smart Mobility with Mobile service can make urban areas as a Smart City. This study describes the urban growth using the Smart City concept and considers how a GIS and Mobile Systems can increase Disaster Management, which consists of Preparedness, mitigation, response, and recovery for recovery from natural disasters.

  6. The veterinary surgeon in natural disasters: Italian legislation in force.

    PubMed

    Passantino, A; Di Pietro, C; Fenga, C; Passantino, M

    2003-12-01

    Law No. 225/1992 established a National Service of Civil Protection, with the important role of 'safeguarding life, goods, settlements and the environment from damage deriving from natural disasters, catastrophes and calamities' (art. 1). This law arranges civil protection as a co-ordinated system of responsibilities administrated by the state, local and public authorities, the world of science, charitable organisations, the professional orders and other institutions, and the private sector (art. 6). The President of the Republic's Decree No. 66/1981 'Regulation for the application of Law No. 996/1970, containing norms for relief and assistance to populations hit by natural disasters--Civil Protection' mentions veterinary surgeons among the people that are called upon to intervene. In fact, in natural disasters the intervention of the veterinary surgeon is of great importance. The authors examine these laws and other legislation relating to the National Service of Civil Protection.

  7. Environmental hazards and psychopathology: Linking natural disasters with mental health

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perry, Ronald W.

    1983-11-01

    For some years, social scientists have been unable to agree on the extent to which experiencing a natural disaster is related to the presence of psychopathological symptoms Indeed, social scientists appear to be well-polarized, some arguing that disasters cause severe negative psychological reactions in victims, with others claiming that any psychological effects, if they exist at all, are minor and transient This paper reviews the controversy and identifies numerous conceptual and methodological difficulties associated with the competing positions. It is argued that the preoccupation of researchers with documenting positive or negative instances of psychological effects has lead them to ignore the issue of identifying processes through which disasters might impinge upon an individual's emotional stability. As a first step toward sketching out these processes, an extensive review of the literature on human response to natural disasters is undertaken. Eleven variables—level of community preparedness, scope of impact, duration of impact, destruction of kin and friendship networks, property damage, pre-impact psychological stability, social support, grief reactions, availability of institutional help, and successful coping skills—are identified as important in determining the psychological impact of disasters. These variables are operationalized and arranged into an interpretative framework that postulates the nature and magnitude of the interrelationships among them based upon the existing research literature

  8. Exploring the Predictors of Organizational Preparedness for Natural Disasters.

    PubMed

    Sadiq, Abdul-Akeem; Graham, John D

    2016-05-01

    There is an extensive body of research on the determinants of disaster preparedness at the individual and household levels. The same cannot be said for the organizational level. Hence, the purpose of this study is to shed light on the predictors of organizational preparedness for natural disasters. Since leaders of organizations have an incentive to overstate their level of preparedness and because surveys of organizational leaders suffer from selection bias and low response rates, we take the novel approach of interviewing employees about the organizations that employ them. Using an online survey, we collected information from a national sample of 2,008 U.S. employees and estimated the predictors of preparedness at the organizational level. We find, among other results, that organization size (facility level) is a consistent predictor of preparedness at the organizational level. We conclude with policy recommendations and outline an agenda for future research on organizational preparedness for natural disasters.

  9. Worth of data and natural disaster insurance.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Attanasi, E.D.; Karlinger, M.R.

    1979-01-01

    The Federal Government in the past has provided medical and economic aid to victims of earthquakes and floods. However, regulating the use of hazard-prone areas would probably be more efficient. One method of land use regulation is through the national flood and earthquake insurance program. Because insurance firms base their premium rates on available information, the benefits from additional data used to improve parameter estimates of the probability distribution (governing actual disaster events) can be computed by computing changes in the premiums as a function of additional data. An insurance firm is assumed to set rates so as to trade off penalties of overestimationg and underestimation of expected data. A Bayesian preposterior analysis is applied to determine the worth of additional data, as measured by changes in consumers' surplus, by examining the effects of changes in premiums as a function of a longer hydrologic record. -Authors

  10. The effect of prenatal natural disaster exposure on school outcomes.

    PubMed

    Fuller, Sarah C

    2014-08-01

    This study looks at the impact of exposure to natural disasters during pregnancy on the educational outcomes of North Carolina children at the third grade level. A broad literature relates negative birth outcomes to poor educational performance, and a number of recent studies have examined the effect of prenatal exposure to natural disasters on birth outcomes. This study takes the next step by considering how prenatal exposure affects later outcomes. Combining North Carolina administrative data on births and school performance with disaster declarations from the U.S. Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) allows for the identification of children who were exposed to disasters during prenatal development. These children are compared with other children born in the same county who were not exposed to disasters while in utero. Regression results suggest that children exposed to hurricanes prenatally have lower scores on third grade standardized tests in math and reading. Those exposed to flooding or tornadoes also have somewhat lower math scores. Additionally, results suggest that these negative effects are more concentrated among children in disadvantaged subgroups, especially children born to black mothers. However, no evidence exists that these effects are mediated by common measures of birth outcomes, including birth weight and gestational age.

  11. Storms & Blizzards. The Natural Disaster Series. Grades 4-8.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Micallef, Mary

    This document provides a unit of lessons and activities on thunder storms and blizzards that are intended to provide students with a basic understanding of the causes and consequences of these natural disasters. The booklet is designed to be used in correlation with a science unit or as a supplement to an elementary science curriculum. The lessons…

  12. Tornadoes & Hurricanes. The Natural Disaster Series. Grades 4-8.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deery, Ruth

    The topics of tornadoes and hurricanes are important to children but are often missing from elementary textbooks. This document is a part of "The Natural Disaster Series" and is an attempt to supplement elementary science and social studies programs with lessons and student activities. Reasoning skills are emphasized throughout the…

  13. Floods & Droughts. The Natural Disaster Series. Grades 4-8.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Micallef, Mary

    Each year more lives are lost due to floods than due to the next 18 natural disasters put together. The element of human choice makes the study of floods and droughts an opportunity for decision making experiences for students. This document contains information and activities designed to be used in correlation with a science unit or as a…

  14. Earthquakes & Volcanoes. The Natural Disaster Series. Grades 4-8.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deery, Ruth

    The topics of earthquakes and volcanoes are important to children but are often missing from elementary science textbooks. This document is a part of "The Natural Disaster Series" and is an attempt to supplement elementary science programs with lessons and student activities. Reasoning skills are also stressed throughout the document.…

  15. Storms & Blizzards. The Natural Disaster Series. Grades 4-8.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Micallef, Mary

    This document provides a unit of lessons and activities on thunder storms and blizzards that are intended to provide students with a basic understanding of the causes and consequences of these natural disasters. The booklet is designed to be used in correlation with a science unit or as a supplement to an elementary science curriculum. The lessons…

  16. Floods & Droughts. The Natural Disaster Series. Grades 4-8.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Micallef, Mary

    Each year more lives are lost due to floods than due to the next 18 natural disasters put together. The element of human choice makes the study of floods and droughts an opportunity for decision making experiences for students. This document contains information and activities designed to be used in correlation with a science unit or as a…

  17. Protecting Consumers from Contaminated Drinking Water during Natural Disasters

    EPA Science Inventory

    Natural disasters can cause damage and destruction to local water supplies affecting millions of people. Communities should plan for and designate an authorized team to manage and prioritize emergency response in devastated areas. Sections 2.0 and 3.0 describe the Environmental...

  18. Using Physical Activity for Emotional Recovery after a Natural Disaster

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wahl-Alexander, Zachary; Sinelnikov, Oleg A.

    2013-01-01

    After traumatic events, such as a natural disaster, children who are directly or indirectly affected by the event often have a number of intense emotional reactions. It is important for educators to understand common emotional and psychological responses to disastrous events and to try to help. This article describes a physical activity program…

  19. 3.5 square meters: Constructive responses to natural disasters

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Vinitsky, Maya

    2017-01-01

    Natural disasters and their consequences dominate the news almost on a daily basis. Quick-impact preventive and aid measures are essential for the victims to survive. This volume presents a selection of projects which demonstrate impressively how both cutting-edge technology and locally available materials and resources can be used for this purpose.

  20. Tornadoes & Hurricanes. The Natural Disaster Series. Grades 4-8.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deery, Ruth

    The topics of tornadoes and hurricanes are important to children but are often missing from elementary textbooks. This document is a part of "The Natural Disaster Series" and is an attempt to supplement elementary science and social studies programs with lessons and student activities. Reasoning skills are emphasized throughout the…

  1. The Need for Respite Care Following Natural Disasters.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murden, Robert A.; Faro, Joan

    1987-01-01

    Recounts the aftermath of Hurricane Gloria and necessity of frail individuals to be hospitalized for respite care due to loss of home services. Advances a new category of respite care which includes care for losses related to natural disasters. Describes characteristics of individuals requiring such care and specific reasons for their care.…

  2. Protecting Consumers from Contaminated Drinking Water during Natural Disasters

    EPA Science Inventory

    Natural disasters can cause damage and destruction to local water supplies affecting millions of people. Communities should plan for and designate an authorized team to manage and prioritize emergency response in devastated areas. Sections 2.0 and 3.0 describe the Environmental...

  3. Using Physical Activity for Emotional Recovery after a Natural Disaster

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wahl-Alexander, Zachary; Sinelnikov, Oleg A.

    2013-01-01

    After traumatic events, such as a natural disaster, children who are directly or indirectly affected by the event often have a number of intense emotional reactions. It is important for educators to understand common emotional and psychological responses to disastrous events and to try to help. This article describes a physical activity program…

  4. Natural disaster induced cognitive disruption: impacts on action slips.

    PubMed

    Helton, William S; Head, James; Kemp, Simon

    2011-12-01

    Previous research has indicated an increase in stress levels and cognitive intrusions after natural disasters. These previous studies have not, however, assessed the impact disaster induced cognitive disruption has on human performance. In the present report, we investigated the impact of the 7.1 magnitude 2010 Christchurch, New Zealand earthquake on self-reported earthquake-induced cognitive disruption and its relationship to performance on the Sustained Attention to Response Task (SART). Participants who self-reported greater cognitive disruption induced by the earthquake also had higher levels of errors of commission during SART (r=.80, p<.001). This was even the case when controlling for earthquake-induced anxiety, depression, participant sex, and self-reported sleep amount. Post-disaster assessments need to include the impact of the events directly on cognitive self-regulation and conscious thoughts, in addition to more clinical constructs, such as anxiety and depression.

  5. Family functioning in the aftermath of a natural disaster

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Increased understanding of the complex determinants of adverse child mental health outcomes following acute stress such as natural disasters has led to a resurgence of interest in the role of parent psychopathology and parenting. The authors investigated whether family functioning in the post-disaster environment would be impaired relative to a non-exposed sample and potential correlates with family functioning such as disaster-related exposure and child posttraumatic mental health symptoms. Methods Three months after a category 5 tropical cyclone that impacted north Queensland Australia, school-based screening was undertaken to case identify children who may benefit from a mental health intervention. Along with obtaining informed consent, parents completed a measure of family functioning. Results Of 145 families of children aged 8 to 12 years, 28.3% met criteria for dysfunction on the Family Adjustment Device, double the frequency in a community sample. The dysfunction group was significantly more likely to have experienced more internalising (anxiety/depression) symptoms. However, in an adjusted logistic regression model this group were not more likely to have elevated disaster-related exposure nor did children in these families validate more PTSD symptoms. Conclusions The implications of post-disaster discordant family functioning and possible different causal pathways for depressive and PTSD-related symptomatic responses to traumatic events are discussed. PMID:22647086

  6. Family functioning in the aftermath of a natural disaster.

    PubMed

    McDermott, Brett M; Cobham, Vanessa E

    2012-07-10

    Increased understanding of the complex determinants of adverse child mental health outcomes following acute stress such as natural disasters has led to a resurgence of interest in the role of parent psychopathology and parenting. The authors investigated whether family functioning in the post-disaster environment would be impaired relative to a non-exposed sample and potential correlates with family functioning such as disaster-related exposure and child posttraumatic mental health symptoms. Three months after a category 5 tropical cyclone that impacted north Queensland Australia, school-based screening was undertaken to case identify children who may benefit from a mental health intervention. Along with obtaining informed consent, parents completed a measure of family functioning. Of 145 families of children aged 8 to 12 years, 28.3% met criteria for dysfunction on the Family Adjustment Device, double the frequency in a community sample. The dysfunction group was significantly more likely to have experienced more internalising (anxiety/depression) symptoms. However, in an adjusted logistic regression model this group were not more likely to have elevated disaster-related exposure nor did children in these families validate more PTSD symptoms. The implications of post-disaster discordant family functioning and possible different causal pathways for depressive and PTSD-related symptomatic responses to traumatic events are discussed.

  7. Facing and managing natural disasters in the Sporades Islands, Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karanikola, P.; Panagopoulos, T.; Tampakis, S.; Karantoni, M. I.; Tsantopoulos, G.

    2013-11-01

    The region of the Sporades Islands located in central Greece is at the mercy of many natural phenomena, such as earthquakes, due to the marine volcano "Psathoura", and the rift of Anatolia, forest fires, floods, landslides, storms, hail, snowfall and frost. The present work aims at studying the perceptions and attitudes of the residents regarding how they face and manage natural disasters. A positive public response during a hazard crisis depends not only upon the availability and good management of a civil defence plan but also on the knowledge and perception of the possible hazards by the local population. It is important for the stakeholders to know what the citizens expect from each of the separate stakeholders so that the necessary structures can be developed in the phase of preparation and organization. The residents were asked about their opinion about what they think should be done by the stakeholders after a catastrophic natural disaster, particularly the immediate response of stakeholders and their involvement and responsibilities at different, subsequent intervals of time following the disaster. The residents were also asked about the most common disasters that happen in their region and about the preparation activities of the stakeholders.

  8. Facing and managing natural disasters in the Sporades islands, Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karanikola, P.; Panagopoulos, T.; Tampakis, S.; Karantoni, M. I.; Tsantopoulos, G.

    2014-04-01

    The region of the Sporades islands located in central Greece is at the mercy of many natural phenomena, such as earthquakes due to the marine volcano Psathoura and the rift of Anatolia, forest fires, floods, landslides, storms, hail, snowfall and frost. The present work aims at studying the perceptions and attitudes of the residents regarding how they face and manage natural disasters. A positive public response during a hazard crisis depends not only upon the availability and good management of a civil defense plan but also on the knowledge and perception of the possible hazards by the local population. It is important for the stakeholders to know what the citizens expect so that the necessary structures can be developed in the phase of preparation and organization. The residents were asked their opinion about what they think should be done by the stakeholders after a catastrophic natural disaster, particularly about the immediate response of stakeholders and their involvement and responsibilities at different, subsequent intervals of time following the disaster. The residents were also asked about the most common disasters that happen in their region and about the preparation activities of the stakeholders.

  9. Structure and needs of global loss databases about natural disaster

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steuer, Markus

    2010-05-01

    Global loss databases are used for trend analyses and statistics in scientific projects, studies for governmental and nongovernmental organizations and for the insurance and finance industry as well. At the moment three global data sets are established: EM-DAT (CRED), Sigma (Swiss Re) and NatCatSERVICE (Munich Re). Together with the Asian Disaster Reduction Center (ADRC) and United Nations Development Program (UNDP) started a collaborative initiative in 2007 with the aim to agreed on and implemented a common "Disaster Category Classification and Peril Terminology for Operational Databases". This common classification has been established through several technical meetings and working groups and represents a first and important step in the development of a standardized international classification of disasters and terminology of perils. This means concrete to set up a common hierarchy and terminology for all global and regional databases on natural disasters and establish a common and agreed definition of disaster groups, main types and sub-types of events. Also the theme of georeferencing, temporal aspects, methodology and sourcing were other issues that have been identified and will be discussed. The implementation of the new and defined structure for global loss databases is already set up for Munich Re NatCatSERVICE. In the following oral session we will show the structure of the global databases as defined and in addition to give more transparency of the data sets behind published statistics and analyses. The special focus will be on the catastrophe classification from a moderate loss event up to a great natural catastrophe, also to show the quality of sources and give inside information about the assessment of overall and insured losses. Keywords: disaster category classification, peril terminology, overall and insured losses, definition

  10. Impact of a Natural Disaster on Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Fonseca, Vivian A.; Smith, Hayden; Kuhadiya, Nitesh; Leger, Sharice M.; Yau, C. Lillian; Reynolds, Kristi; Shi, Lizheng; McDuffie, Roberta H.; Thethi, Tina; John-Kalarickal, Jennifer

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To examine the impact of Hurricane Katrina on the health of individuals with diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS This was an observational study in 1,795 adults with an A1C measurement 6 months before and 6−16 months after Hurricane Katrina in three health care systems: private (Tulane University Hospital and Clinic [TUHC]), state (Medical Center of Louisiana at New Orleans [MCLNO]), and Veterans Affairs (VA). Glycemic control (A1C), blood pressure, and lipids before the hurricane were compared with the patients' first measurement thereafter. The CORE Diabetes Model was used to project life expectancy and health economic impact. RESULTS Mean predisaster A1C levels differed between MCLNO and VA patients (mean 7.7 vs. 7.3%, P < 0.001) and increased significantly among MCLNO patients to 8.3% (P < 0.001) but not among VA and TUHC patients. Mean systolic blood pressure increased in all three systems (130–137.6 mmHg for TUHC and 130.7–143.7 for VA, P < 0.001; 132–136 for MCLNO, P = 0.008). Mean LDL cholesterol increased in the VA (97.1–104.3 mg/dl) and TUHC patients (103.4–115.5; P < 0.001). Hurricane Katrina increased modeled direct, indirect, and total health care costs and also reduced life expectancy as well as quality-adjusted life expectancy, with the economic impact being quite substantial because of the large population size affected. We estimate a lifetime cost of USD $504 million for the adult population affected, with the largest economic impact seen among MCLNO patients. CONCLUSIONS A major disaster had a significant effect on diabetes management and exacerbated existing disparities. These effects may have a lasting impact on both health and economic implications. PMID:19542210

  11. BICAPA case study of natural hazards that trigger technological disasters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boca, Gabriela; Ozunu, Alexandru; Nicolae Vlad, Serban

    2010-05-01

    Industrial facilities are vulnerable to natural disasters. Natural disasters and technological accidents are not always singular or isolated events. The example in this paper show that they can occur in complex combinations and/or in rapid succession, known as NaTech disasters, thereby triggering multiple impacts. This analysis indicates that NaTech disasters have the potential to trigger hazmat releases and other types of technological accidents. Climate changes play an important role in prevalence and NATECH triggering mechanisms. Projections under the IPCC IS92 a scenario (similar to SRES A1B; IPCC, 1992) and two GCMs indicate that the risk of floods increases in central and eastern Europe. Increase in intense short-duration precipitation is likely to lead to increased risk of flash floods. (Lehner et al., 2006). It is emergent to develop tools for the assessment of risks due to NATECH events in the industrial processes, in a framework starting with the characterization of frequency and severity of natural disasters and continuing with complex analysis of industrial processes, to risk assessment and residual functionality analysis. The Ponds with dangerous technological residues are the most vulnerable targets of natural hazards. Technological accidents such as those in Baia Mare, (from January to March 2000) had an important international echo. Extreme weather phenomena, like those in the winter of 2000 in Baia Mare, and other natural disasters such as floods or earthquakes, can cause a similar disaster at Târnăveni in Transylvania Depression. During 1972 - 1978 three decanting ponds were built on the Chemical Platform Târnăveni, now SC BICAPA SA, for disposal of the hazardous-wastes resulting from the manufacture of sodium dichromate, inorganic salts, sludge from waste water purification and filtration, wet gas production from carbide. The ponds are located on the right bank of the river Târnava at about 35-50m from the flooding defense dam. The total

  12. Natural Disasters and Man-Made Catastrophes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lonergan, David

    2011-01-01

    This article categorizes and discusses the kinds of cataclysmic events that threaten the human race and the natural world. A useful set of definitions is provided, and an annotated bibliography of a representative assortment of reference books and monographs.

  13. Natural Disasters and Man-Made Catastrophes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lonergan, David

    2011-01-01

    This article categorizes and discusses the kinds of cataclysmic events that threaten the human race and the natural world. A useful set of definitions is provided, and an annotated bibliography of a representative assortment of reference books and monographs.

  14. Civil Defense, U. S. A.: A Programmed Orientation to Civil Defense. Unit 3. Natural Disasters.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Defense Civil Preparedness Agency (DOD), Battle Creek, MI.

    The effects of natural disasters and the implications which those effects have for community emergency preparedness are discussed. Major topics include: (1) Similarities and differences in types of responses required by a nuclear and natural disasters, (2) The civil defense function in natural disasters, (3) Vulnerability analysis, (4) Warning…

  15. 7 CFR 1945.19 - Reporting potential natural disasters and initial actions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 13 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Reporting potential natural disasters and initial... Assistance-General § 1945.19 Reporting potential natural disasters and initial actions. (a) Purpose. The purpose of reporting potential natural disasters is to provide a systematic procedure for rapid...

  16. 7 CFR 1945.19 - Reporting potential natural disasters and initial actions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 13 2011-01-01 2009-01-01 true Reporting potential natural disasters and initial... Assistance-General § 1945.19 Reporting potential natural disasters and initial actions. (a) Purpose. The purpose of reporting potential natural disasters is to provide a systematic procedure for rapid...

  17. 7 CFR 1945.19 - Reporting potential natural disasters and initial actions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 13 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Reporting potential natural disasters and initial... Assistance-General § 1945.19 Reporting potential natural disasters and initial actions. (a) Purpose. The purpose of reporting potential natural disasters is to provide a systematic procedure for rapid...

  18. Non-naturally reductive Einstein metrics on exceptional Lie groups

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chrysikos, Ioannis; Sakane, Yusuke

    2017-06-01

    Given an exceptional compact simple Lie group G we describe new left-invariant Einstein metrics which are not naturally reductive. In particular, we consider fibrations of G over flag manifolds with a certain kind of isotropy representation and we construct the Einstein equation with respect to the induced left-invariant metrics. Then we apply a technique based on Gröbner bases and classify the real solutions of the associated algebraic systems. For the Lie group G2 we obtain the first known example of a left-invariant Einstein metric, which is not naturally reductive. Moreover, for the Lie groups E7 and E8, we conclude that there exist non-isometric non-naturally reductive Einstein metrics, which are Ad(K) -invariant by different Lie subgroups K.

  19. 'Schismo-urbanism': cities, natural disaster, and urban sociology.

    PubMed

    Kammerbauer, Mark

    2013-07-01

    This paper examines a city and a natural disaster, specifically New Orleans, Louisiana, after Hurricane Katrina of August 2005. Recovery here is ongoing and the process of return is incomplete, with long-term dislocation to other cities in the United States, such as Houston, Texas. The question arises as to how planning and stratification influence evacuation and return/dislocation and how they result in a particular practice of adaptation. This interrelated process is conceptually integrated and termed 'schismo-urbanism' and is analysed within a multidimensional theoretical framework to evaluate aspects of urban sociology and natural disasters. Empirical research is based on a quantitative and qualitative mixed-method case study. Data were collected during two rounds of field research in New Orleans and Houston in 2007 and 2009. As a comparative socio-spatial study of affected and receptor communities, it makes a novel theoretical and methodological contribution to research on urban disasters in the context of continuing and rapid social change, and is targeted at disaster researchers, planning theorists and practitioners, and urbanists. © 2013 The Author(s). Journal compilation © Overseas Development Institute, 2013.

  20. Impacts of Natural Disasters on Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kousky, Carolyn

    2016-01-01

    We can expect climate change to alter the frequency, magnitude, timing, and location of many natural hazards. For example, heat waves are likely to become more frequent, and heavy downpours and flooding more common and more intense. Hurricanes will likely grow more dangerous, rising sea levels will mean more coastal flooding, and more-frequent and…

  1. Teaching a Course in Natural Disasters: Geoethics and the Layman

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fryer, P.

    2009-12-01

    One graduation requirement of the University of Hawaii at Manoa is that students must take an “Ethics Focus” class at the Junior/Senior level. It is to the advantage of departments to offer such classes to majors. I designed and taught a class entitled “Natural Disasters: Geoethics and the Layman” in the Spring of ‘09. The prerequisite was an introductory Geology class. The objectives were: (1) To define ethics, from philosophical points of view and as a personal framework for making decisions about issues related to natural disasters. The Chair of the Philosophy Department assisted in the initial classes to teach the basic principles of ethical thinking. (2) To define what constitutes a “natural” disaster vs what constitutes a disaster brought about by the imposition of human imperatives on the natural world (e.g., to build seawalls or not in efforts to mitigate against beach erosion). (3) To explore a variety of controversial issues at the intersections of two or more of the following: natural processes, human society, and the environment (e.g., forecasting the potential for violent volcanic eruption and understanding the effects of such forecasts on the safety of proximal human populations vs economic disaster caused by evacuation or loss of revenue affected by "false alarms"). (4) To improve the students’ oral communication skills, both as individuals and as members of cooperating groups. (5) To develop and practice using ethically- and scientifically-valid frameworks for reaching decisions about controversial science-based issues. (6) To learn about local organizations, businesses, government agencies, the media and individuals in society who are involved with reacting to and developing solutions for response to these events and their related ethical issues. Students wrote 1- to 2-page journal essays on the issues discussed in class each week and a term paper on issues related to a “natural disaster” of their choice. The 3-credit class

  2. Global climate changes, natural disasters, and travel health risks.

    PubMed

    Diaz, James H

    2006-01-01

    Whether the result of cyclical atmospheric changes, anthropogenic activities, or combinations of both, authorities now agree that the earth is warming from a variety of climatic effects, including the cascading effects of greenhouse gas emissions to support human activities. To date, most reports of the public health outcomes of global warming have been anecdotal and retrospective in design and have focused on heat stroke deaths following heat waves, drowning deaths in floods and tsunamis, and mosquito-borne infectious disease outbreaks following tropical storms and cyclones. Accurate predictions of the true public health outcomes of global climate change are confounded by several effect modifiers including human acclimatization and adaptation, the contributions of natural climatic changes, and many conflicting atmospheric models of climate change. Nevertheless, temporal relationships between environmental factors and human health outcomes have been identified and may be used as criteria to judge the causality of associations between the human health outcomes of climate changes and climate-driven natural disasters. Travel medicine physicians are obligated to educate their patients about the known public health outcomes of climate changes, about the disease and injury risk factors their patients may face from climate-spawned natural disasters, and about the best preventive measures to reduce infectious diseases and injuries following natural disasters throughout the world.

  3. Accessing VA Healthcare During Large-Scale Natural Disasters.

    PubMed

    Der-Martirosian, Claudia; Pinnock, Laura; Dobalian, Aram

    2017-01-01

    Natural disasters can lead to the closure of medical facilities including the Veterans Affairs (VA), thus impacting access to healthcare for U.S. military veteran VA users. We examined the characteristics of VA patients who reported having difficulty accessing care if their usual source of VA care was closed because of natural disasters. A total of 2,264 veteran VA users living in the U.S. northeast region participated in a 2015 cross-sectional representative survey. The study used VA administrative data in a complex stratified survey design with a multimode approach. A total of 36% of veteran VA users reported having difficulty accessing care elsewhere, negatively impacting the functionally impaired and lower income VA patients.

  4. Towards a natural disaster intervention and recovery framework.

    PubMed

    Lawther, Peter M

    2016-07-01

    Contemporary responses to facilitate long-term recovery from large-scale natural disasters juxtapose between those of humanitarian agencies and governments and those of the affected community. The extent to which these mechanisms articulate is crucial to the recovery propensity of the affected communities. This research examines such action by exploring the relationship between the scale of post-disaster response interventions, the extent of community participation in them, and their impact on community recovery, using a community wealth capital framework. The investigation was applied to a study of the longer-term community recovery of the island of Vilufushi, Republic of Maldives, which was almost completely destroyed by the Indian Ocean tsunami of 26 December 2004. Data were analysed through the employment of a pattern match technique and a holistic recovery network analysis. The research framework, informed by the case-study results, other long-term recovery evaluations, and existing resilience theory, is reconfigured as a testable roadmap for future post-disaster interventions. © 2016 The Author(s). Disasters © Overseas Development Institute, 2016.

  5. Neurological disorders in complex humanitarian emergencies and natural disasters.

    PubMed

    Mateen, Farrah J

    2010-09-01

    Complex humanitarian emergencies include the relatively acute, severe, and overwhelming health consequences of armed conflict, food scarcity, mass displacement, and political strife. Neurological manifestations of complex humanitarian emergencies are important and underappreciated consequences of emergencies in populations worldwide. This review critically assesses the existing knowledge of the range of neurological disorders that accompany complex humanitarian emergencies and natural disasters in both the acute phase of crisis and the "long shadow" that follows.

  6. Business owners' optimism and business performance after a natural disaster.

    PubMed

    Bronson, James W; Faircloth, James B; Valentine, Sean R

    2006-12-01

    Previous work indicates that individuals' optimism is related to superior performance in adverse situations. This study examined correlations after flooding for measures of business recovery but found only weak support (very small common variance) for business owners' optimism scores and sales recovery. Using traditional measures of recovery, in this study was little empirical evidence that optimism would be of value in identifying businesses at risk after a natural disaster.

  7. Environmental exposures due to natural disasters

    PubMed Central

    Knap, Anthony H.; Rusyn, Ivan

    2016-01-01

    The environmental mobilization of contaminants by “natural disasters” is a subject of much interest; however, little has been done to address these concerns, especially in the developing world. Frequencies and predictability of events, both globally and regionally as well as the intensity, vary widely. It is clear that there are greater probabilities for mobilization of modern contaminants in sediments. Over the past 100 years of industrialization many chemicals are buried in riverine, estuarine and coastal sediments. There are a few studies, which have investigated this potential risk especially to human health. Studies that focus on extreme events need to determine the pre-existing baseline, determine the medium to long term fate and transport of contaminants and investigate aquatic and terrestrial pathways. Comprehensive studies are required to investigate the disease pathways and susceptibility for human health concerns. PMID:26982607

  8. Coping with Extreme Hazard Events: Emerging Themes in Natural and Technological Disaster Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pijawka, K. David; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Notes that deaths from natural and technological disasters are increasing in United States. Reviews key findings in areas of vulnerability to natural hazards, disaster behavior and risk perception, societal concern over technological hazard, and social-psychological effects of disasters. Calls for research examining the role of media and measuring…

  9. Natural Disasters and Adaptive Capacity. OECD Development Centre Working Paper No. 237

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dayton-Johnson, Jeff

    2004-01-01

    Natural disasters (droughts, earthquakes, epidemics, floods, wind storms) damage wellbeing, both in their immediate and long-term aftermath, and because the insecurity of exposure to disasters is in itself harmful to risk-averse people. As such, mitigating and coping with the risk of natural disasters is a pressing issue for economic development.…

  10. Natural Disasters and Adaptive Capacity. OECD Development Centre Working Paper No. 237

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dayton-Johnson, Jeff

    2004-01-01

    Natural disasters (droughts, earthquakes, epidemics, floods, wind storms) damage wellbeing, both in their immediate and long-term aftermath, and because the insecurity of exposure to disasters is in itself harmful to risk-averse people. As such, mitigating and coping with the risk of natural disasters is a pressing issue for economic development.…

  11. Emergency Response Planning to Reduce the Impact of Contaminated Drinking Water during Natural Disasters

    EPA Science Inventory

    Natural disasters can be devastating to local water supplies affecting millions of people. Disaster recovery plans and water industry collaboration during emergencies protect consumers from contaminated drinking water supplies and help facilitate the repair of public water system...

  12. Emergency Response Planning to Reduce the Impact of Contaminated Drinking Water during Natural Disasters

    EPA Science Inventory

    Natural disasters can be devastating to local water supplies affecting millions of people. Disaster recovery plans and water industry collaboration during emergencies protect consumers from contaminated drinking water supplies and help facilitate the repair of public water system...

  13. International Space Station Instruments Collect Imagery of Natural Disasters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evans, C. A.; Stefanov, W. L.

    2013-12-01

    A new focus for the International Space Station (ISS) is conducting basic and applied research that directly benefits Earth's citizenry. In the Earth Sciences, one such activity is collecting remotely sensed imagery of disaster areas and making those data immediately available through the USGS Hazards Data Distribution System, especially in response to activations of the International Charter for Space and Major Disasters (known informally as the 'International Disaster Charter', or IDC). The ISS, together with other NASA orbital sensor assets, responds to IDC activations following notification by the USGS. Most of the activations are due to natural hazard events, including large floods, impacts of tropical systems, major fires, and volcanic eruptions and earthquakes. Through the ISS Program Science Office, we coordinate with ISS instrument teams for image acquisition using several imaging systems. As of 1 August 2013, we have successfully contributed imagery data in support of 14 Disaster Charter Activations, including regions in both Haiti and the east coast of the US impacted by Hurricane Sandy; flooding events in Russia, Mozambique, India, Germany and western Africa; and forest fires in Algeria and Ecuador. ISS-based sensors contributing data include the Hyperspectral Imager for the Coastal Ocean (HICO), the ISERV (ISS SERVIR Environmental Research and Visualization System) Pathfinder camera mounted in the US Window Observational Research Facility (WORF), the ISS Agricultural Camera (ISSAC), formerly operating from the WORF, and high resolution handheld camera photography collected by crew members (Crew Earth Observations). When orbital parameters and operations support data collection, ISS-based imagery adds to the resources available to disaster response teams and contributes to the public-domain record of these events for later analyses.

  14. International Space Station Instmments Collect Imagery of Natural Disasters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Evans, C. A.; Stefanov, W. L.

    2013-01-01

    A new focus for utilization of the International Space Station (ISS) is conducting basic and applied research that directly benefits Earth's citizenry. In the Earth Sciences, one such activity is collecting remotely sensed imagery of disaster areas and making those data immediately available through the USGS Hazards Data Distribution System, especially in response to activations of the International Charter for Space and Major Disasters (known informally as the "International Disaster Charter", or IDC). The ISS, together with other NASA orbital sensor assets, responds to IDC activations following notification by the USGS. Most of the activations are due to natural hazard events, including large floods, impacts of tropical systems, major fires, and volcanic eruptions and earthquakes. Through the ISS Program Science Office, we coordinate with ISS instrument teams for image acquisition using several imaging systems. As of 1 August 2013, we have successfully contributed imagery data in support of 14 Disaster Charter Activations, including regions in both Haiti and the east coast of the US impacted by Hurricane Sandy; flooding events in Russia, Mozambique, India, Germany and western Africa; and forest fires in Algeria and Ecuador. ISS-based sensors contributing data include the Hyperspectral Imager for the Coastal Ocean (HICO), the ISERV (ISS SERVIR Environmental Research and Visualization System) Pathfinder camera mounted in the US Window Observational Research Facility (WORF), the ISS Agricultural Camera (ISSAC), formerly operating from the WORF, and high resolution handheld camera photography collected by crew members (Crew Earth Observations). When orbital parameters and operations support data collection, ISS-based imagery adds to the resources available to disaster response teams and contributes to the publicdomain record of these events for later analyses.

  15. Solastalgia: living with the environmental damage caused by natural disasters.

    PubMed

    Warsini, Sri; Mills, Jane; Usher, Kim

    2014-02-01

    Forced separation from one's home may trigger emotional distress. People who remain in their homes may experience emotional distress due to living in a severely damaged environment. These people experience a type of 'homesickness' similar to nostalgia because the land around them no longer resembles the home they knew and loved. What they lack is solace or comfort from their home; they long for the home environment to be the way it was before. "Solastalgia" is a term created to describe feelings which arise in people when an environment changes so much that it negatively affects an individual's quality of life. Such changed environments may include drought-stricken areas and open-cut mines. The aim of this article is to describe how solastalgia, originally conceptualized as the result of man-made environmental change, can be similarly applied to the survivors of natural disasters. Using volcanic eruptions as a case example, the authors argue that people who experience a natural disaster are likely to suffer from solastalgia for a number of reasons, which may include the loss of housing, livestock and farmland, and the ongoing danger of living in a disaster-prone area. These losses and fears challenge people's established sense of place and identity and can lead to feelings of helplessness and depression.

  16. Mortuary operations following mass fatality natural disasters: a review.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Madelyn; Leditschke, Jodie; Bassed, Richard; Cordner, Stephen M; Drummer, Olaf H

    2017-03-01

    This is a critical review to discuss the best practice approaches to mortuary operations in preparation for and the response to natural, mass fatality, disaster events, as identified by a review of published articles. The Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analysis Protocols (PRISMA-P) Statement guided the identification of potential articles to use in this critical review. Subsequent searches were also conducted to identify articles relating to heat wave, and flood mortality. All identified peer-reviewed studies published in English which discussed the preparation and response of mortuaries to mass fatality natural disasters occurring in developed countries were included. Using the PRISMA-P method of identifying articles, 18 articles were selected for inclusion in this review. Although there are numerous articles which describe the mortuary response to mass fatality incidents, few articles analyzed the response, or discussed the roles which supported and enabled the organization to undertake the task of identifying disaster victims. It is thus difficult to determine objectively if the actions and activities outlined in the articles represent best-practice.

  17. A data management system to enable urgent natural disaster computing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leong, Siew Hoon; Kranzlmüller, Dieter; Frank, Anton

    2014-05-01

    Civil protection, in particular natural disaster management, is very important to most nations and civilians in the world. When disasters like flash floods, earthquakes and tsunamis are expected or have taken place, it is of utmost importance to make timely decisions for managing the affected areas and reduce casualties. Computer simulations can generate information and provide predictions to facilitate this decision making process. Getting the data to the required resources is a critical requirement to enable the timely computation of the predictions. An urgent data management system to support natural disaster computing is thus necessary to effectively carry out data activities within a stipulated deadline. Since the trigger of a natural disaster is usually unpredictable, it is not always possible to prepare required resources well in advance. As such, an urgent data management system for natural disaster computing has to be able to work with any type of resources. Additional requirements include the need to manage deadlines and huge volume of data, fault tolerance, reliable, flexibility to changes, ease of usage, etc. The proposed data management platform includes a service manager to provide a uniform and extensible interface for the supported data protocols, a configuration manager to check and retrieve configurations of available resources, a scheduler manager to ensure that the deadlines can be met, a fault tolerance manager to increase the reliability of the platform and a data manager to initiate and perform the data activities. These managers will enable the selection of the most appropriate resource, transfer protocol, etc. such that the hard deadline of an urgent computation can be met for a particular urgent activity, e.g. data staging or computation. We associated 2 types of deadlines [2] with an urgent computing system. Soft-hard deadline: Missing a soft-firm deadline will render the computation less useful resulting in a cost that can have severe

  18. When is exposure to a natural disaster traumatic? Comparison of a trauma questionnaire and disaster exposure inventory.

    PubMed

    Harville, Emily W; Jacobs, Marni; Boynton-Jarrett, Renée

    2015-01-01

    Few studies have compared the sensitivity of trauma questionnaires to disaster inventories for assessing the prevalence of exposure to natural disaster or associated risk for post-disaster psychopathology. The objective of this analysis was to compare reporting of disaster exposure on a trauma questionnaire (Brief Trauma Questionnaire [BTQ]) to an inventory of disaster experience. Between 2011 and 2014, a sample of 841 reproductive-aged southern Louisiana women were interviewed using the BTQ and completed a detailed inventory about exposure to hurricanes and flooding. Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptomology was measured with the Post-Traumatic Stress Checklist, and depression with the Edinburgh Depression Scale. The single question addressing disaster exposure on the BTQ had a sensitivity of between 65% and 70% relative to the more detailed questions. Reporting disaster exposure on the BTQ was more likely for those who reported illness/injury due to a hurricane or flood (74%-77%) or danger (77-79%), compared to those who reported damage (69-71%) or evacuation (64-68%). Reporting disaster exposure on the BTQ was associated with depression (odds ratio [OR] 2.29, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.43-3.68). A single question is unlikely to be useful for assessing the degree of exposure to disaster across a broad population, and varies in utility depending on the mental health outcome of interest: the single trauma question is useful for assessing depression risk.

  19. Meeting report: Workshop on reduction and predictability of natural disasters

    SciTech Connect

    Rundle, J.; Klein, W.; Turcotte, D.

    1997-04-21

    Natural hazards such as earthquakes and severe floods are a continual menace to large segments of the population worldwide. Recently the United Nations has focused attention on this global problem by declaring the 90`s the Decade of Natural Hazard Reduction. In addition to the obvious threat to human life natural hazards can cause severe economic hardship locally and, in an ever more complex and interactive world economy, dislocations that are felt in areas far beyond the region of a specific event. To address these concerns a workshop on Reduction and Predictability of Natural Disasters was held at the Santa Fe Institute on January 5--9, 1994. The Santa Fe Institute was originally founded in 1985 to study the emergent properties of complex nonlinear systems seen in a diversity of fields, from physical science to economics to biology. During the workshop, which brought together 25 geologists, geophysicists, hydrologists, physicists, and mathematicians, a wide variety of natural disasters and hazards were considered. These include earthquakes, landslides, floods, tsunamis, hurricanes, and tornadoes. The general them of the meeting was the application of the techniques of statistical mechanics to problems in the earth sciences.

  20. Natural hazard events and social capital: the social impact of natural disasters.

    PubMed

    Albrecht, Frederike

    2017-08-30

    This study investigates if and to what extent natural disasters affect social capital. Twelve different events in Europe are examined in a quantitative analysis, using data derived from the European Social Survey and the EM-DAT International Disaster Database. The study uses social trust as an indicator of social capital and offers evidence that a change in social trust is a possible occurrence during or after a disaster, but that it is not an inevitable consequence of it. The results reveal that social trust decreases after a disaster with a death toll of at least nine. Changes in social capital, therefore, are found to be more probable as the severity of the event increases. National, rather than regional, disasters lead more frequently to significant shifts in social trust. This evaluation of 12 separate cases pinpoints several disasters that have had an effect on social trust, but it does not identify any general patterns, underlining the significance of contextual dependency. © 2017 The Author(s). Disasters © Overseas Development Institute, 2017.

  1. Women's Mental Health and Intimate Partner Violence Following Natural Disaster: A Scoping Review.

    PubMed

    Bell, Sue Anne; Folkerth, Lisa A

    2016-12-01

    Introduction Survivors of natural disasters in the United States experience significant health ramifications. Women particularly are vulnerable to both post-disaster posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and depression, and research has documented that these psychopathological sequelae often are correlated with increased incidence of intimate partner violence (IPV). Understanding the link between these health concerns is crucial to informing adequate disaster response and relief efforts for victims of natural disaster. Purpose The purpose of this review was to report the results of a scoping review on the specific mental health effects that commonly impact women following natural disasters, and to develop a conceptual framework with which to guide future research.

  2. US government natural disaster assistance: historical analysis and a proposal for the future.

    PubMed

    Barnett, B J

    1999-06-01

    Governments often provide grants or low-interest loans to disaster victims. Yet these programmes have proven to be quite costly. In addition, questions have been raised about associated behavioural incentives. Conceptually, government disaster insurance programmes should be more efficient, consistent and equitable than ex post facto disaster relief in the form of grants and loans. Yet the performance of government disaster insurance programmes has been mixed, at best. This article reviews the history of US federal natural disaster assistance to individuals and concludes with a recommendation for a new government role in the provision of disaster insurance.

  3. Identification of buried victims in natural disaster with GPR method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dewi, Rianty Kusuma; Kurniawan, Adityo; Taqwantara, Reyhan Fariz; Iskandar, Farras M.; Naufal, Taufiq Ziyan; Widodo

    2017-07-01

    Indonesian is one of the most seismically active regions in the world and has very complicated plate convergence because there is meeting point of several tectonic plates. The complexity of tectonic features causes a lot of natural disasters such as landslides, tsunamis, earth quakes, volcanoes eruption, etc. Sometimes, the disasters occurs in high populated area and causing thousands to millions of victim been buried under the rumble. Unfortunately, the evacuation still uses the conventional method such using rescue dogs whereas the sensitivity of smell is decrease when the victims buried under the level of the ground. The purpose of this study is to detect buried bodies using GPR method, so it can enhance the effectiveness and the efficiency in looking for the disaster victims. GPR method is used because it can investigate things under the ground. A detailed GPR research has been done in Cikutra Graveyard, Bandung, with corpse buried two week until two years before the research. The radar profiles from this research showed amplitude contras anomaly between the new corpse and the old ones. We obtained the amplitude contras at 1.2-1.4 meters under the surface. This method proved to be effective but still need more attention on undulated surface and non-soil areas.

  4. Conference emphasizes mitigation of natural disasters through modern instrument systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bolt, Bruce A.

    Modern instrumentation systems that collect, analyze, distribute, and archive data on earthquakes and associated hazards have already been put in place successfully in a number of countries. These systems have improved the accuracy of long-term assessments of the likelihood of future hazards, including earthquakes and tsunamis, and also have improved the speed of emergency response through rapid determination of earthquake location and the extent and level of damage.Reduced costs are making such interactive communications affordable and cost-effective for Latin American countries and many developing countries. The role of instruments was emphasized at the International Conference on Modern Preparation Response Systems for Earthquake, Tsunami, and Volcanic Hazard held earlier this year in Chile. In the opening address, Philippe Boulle, Director of the United Nations Secretariat for the International Decade for Natural Disaster Reduction, stressed that the most effective approach to reducing losses is prevention. “There is an unfounded tendency to consider that the investigation to strengthen the existing infrastructure before disasters will cost much more than the cost of response after disasters. It is exactly just the reverse,” he said.

  5. Dealing with Natural Disasters: Preparedness versus Post-Event Response

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sitar, N.

    2015-12-01

    Management or mitigation of natural disasters is comprised of two distinct elements: disaster preparedness and disaster response. Fundamentally disasters fall into two categories: 1) those whose timing can be predicted and evaluated in advance, such as hurricanes, floods, tsunamis, or even sea level rise; and 2) those that can be anticipated based on analysis, but their exact timing is unknown, such as earthquakes and landslides. Consequently, the type of response and options available for scientific and engineering consultation are fundamentally different. The common aspects of all natural disasters is that there is evidence of past events either historical or geologic, or both. Thus, given past evidence, scientists and engineers have an opportunity to recommend and guide development and implementation of long term or permanent mitigation measures, such as improving the resiliency of the infrastructure and emergency preparedness. However, the appropriate mitigation measures are very much a function of the type of event. Severe atmospheric events, such as hurricanes, typically can be predicted several days in advance and scientists and engineers have a role in guiding preparation of specific additional, temporary, mitigation measures and selective evacuation, as appropriate. In contrast, while earthquake potential of a given region may be well recognized, the actual timing of the event is an unknown and, consequently, the primary defense is in developing sufficiently resilient infrastructure which can be enhanced with early warning systems. Similarly, the type of damage caused by flooding, e.g. hurricane and tsunami, is significantly different from the type of damage caused by an earthquake in that flooding damage is pervasive affecting large contiguous areas wiping out all infrastructure whereas earthquake or landslide damage tends to be clustered with many elements of infrastructure remaining fully or somewhat operable. This distinction is very important when it

  6. Natural Disaster & Crisis Management in School Districts and Community Colleges.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Florida State Dept. of Education, Tallahassee. Office of Educational Facilities.

    This document provides school districts and community colleges in Florida with guidance on disaster preparedness planning and management for all types of disasters. Procedures include those for insurance coverage, emergency shelters, command centers and disaster team organization, emergency communications, security, preparation prior to disaster,…

  7. Natural Disasters and Safety Risks at Nuclear Power Stations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tutnova, T.

    2012-04-01

    In the aftermath of Fukushima natural-technological disaster the global opinion on nuclear energy divided even deeper. While Germany, Italy and the USA are currently reevaluating their previous plans on nuclear growth, many states are committed to expand nuclear energy output. In China and France, where the industry is widely supported by policymakers, there is little talk about abandoning further development of nuclear energy. Moreover, China displays the most remarkable pace of nuclear development in the world: it is responsible for 40% of worldwide reactors under construction, and aims at least to quadruple its nuclear capacity by 2020. In these states the consequences of Fukushima natural-technological accident will probably result in safety checks and advancement of new reactor technologies. Thus, China is buying newer reactor design from the USA which relies on "passive safety systems". It means that emergency power generators, crucial for reactor cooling in case of an accident, won't depend on electricity, so that tsunami won't disable them like it happened in the case of Fukushima. Nuclear energy managed to draw lessons from previous nuclear accidents where technological and human factors played crucial role. But the Fukushima lesson shows that the natural hazards, nevertheless, were undervalued. Though the ongoing technological advancements make it possible to increase the safety of nuclear power plants with consideration of natural risks, it is not just a question of technology improvement. A necessary action that must be taken is the reevaluation of the character and sources of the potential hazards which natural disasters can bring to nuclear industry. One of the examples is a devastating impact of more than one natural disaster happening at the same time. This subject, in fact, was not taken into account before, while it must be a significant point in planning sites for new nuclear power plants. Another important lesson unveiled is that world nuclear

  8. Managing Debris after a Natural Disaster: Evaluation of the ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Report and Appendices In an effort to provide a scientific basis to expand available options to better manage natural disaster debris in the future, EPA evaluated the combustion of both vegetative debris and construction and demolition (C&D) debris in an air curtain burner (ACB). ACBs can be mobilized to where they’re needed as a potential means of reducing the waste volume while minimizing potentially harmful environmental impacts. These tests were conducted in June 2008 by EPA/ORD at the Old Paris Road Landfill in St. Bernard Parish, Louisiana

  9. Risk management of a fund for natural disasters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flores, C.

    2003-04-01

    Mexico is a country which has to deal with several natural disaster risks: earthquakes, droughts, volcanic eruptions, floods, slides, wild fires, extreme temperatures, etc. In order to reduce the country's vulnerability to the impact of these natural disasters and to support rapid recovery when they occur, the government established in 1996 Mexico's Fund for Natural Disasters (FONDEN). Since its creation, its resources have been insufficient to meet all government obligations. The aim of this project is the development of a dynamic strategy to optimise the management of a fund for natural disasters starting from the example of FONDEN. The problem of budgetary planning is being considered for the modelling. We control the level of the fund's cash (R_t)0<= t0 at t=0 and then we try to pull at every moment the process to this objective. Multifractal models in geophysics are physically based stochastic models. A multiplicative cascade model fitted to a data set can be used for generation of synthetic sequences that resemble the original data in terms of its scaling properties. Since recent years, uncertainty concepts based on multifractal fields are being applied to the development of techniques to calculate marginal and conditional probabilities of an extreme rainfall event in a determined zone. As initial point to the development of the model, a multifractal model for extreme rainfall events will be used as part of the input for the stochastic control model. A theme for further research is linking more warning systems to the model. Keywords: risk management, stochastic control, multifractal

  10. [EMOTIONAL DISORDERS IN CHILDREN VICTIMS OF NATURAL DISASTERS].

    PubMed

    Castaño García, Teresa; Vega Díaz, Carmen; Cernuda Martínez, José Antonio

    2016-06-01

    The effects of disasters on physical health tend to be well-known, with short, medium and long term sequelae. On the other hand, not always is have recognized in the same way the effects on mental health, despite having shown that, in situations of disaster or catastrophe there is a psychological signs of suffering increase and increases to a certain extent the psychiatric morbidity and other problem social. It is estimated that between a third and half of the exposed population, it suffers from some psychological manifestation. It has been erroneously thought that children and adolescents, not suffering with the same intensity of especially traumatic situations. In fact it was presumed, given their reactions so different from that of adults, had some protection. Currently, this has denied and minors are considered to be a group of high risk in cases of disasters and emergencies. Investigations carried out, demonstrate that in children and adolescents, the psychological sequels tend to be frequent and affect directly to the physical, mental and social development. Natural disasters are unexpected situations that will produce a serie of emotional reactions of diverse severity in their survivors, especially children, one of the most vulnerable groups due to a less understanding of what happened and difficulty expressing what they feel, having a personality still developing, and so directly affecting their physical, mental and social development. Therefore suffering the emotional scars, they will take longer to resolve and have a lifetime to live with them. These consequences should be treated by a corresponding community nurse and sometimes, depending on the severity and persistence (more than 3 months), a referral will be made to a qualified mental health professional, taking into account a number of recommendation and assesment canons. Parents or tutors with health professionals have an important role in the recovery of their children and their reactions will be

  11. Rainfall Induced Natural Disaster in Central America, a challenge for Regional Risk Management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Estuardo Guinea Barrientos, Héctor; Swain, Ashok

    2013-04-01

    Rainfall induced natural disasters rank first among all natural disasters in Central America. According to the records of the EM-DAT international database, 248 out of 486 disasters registered in Central America were disasters triggered by rainfall invents, in countries like Belize and Honduras, rainfall-induced natural disasters, mainly floods and landslides, account for more than 90% of the total number of casualties as well as the economic damage of all the disasters. Due to the natural conditions of the Central American Isthmus, precipitation events often struck more than one country at the time, for example Hurricane Mitch in 1998 affected the entire Central American region causing more than 18,000 casualties. In this context, the Central America countries have been working on joint programs and policies aiming transboundary cooperation and management of natural disasters, a clear example of this effort is CEPREDENAC which is the intergovernmental body with the mandate of promoting activities, projects and programs towards reduction of the risks to disasters in order to avoid loss of life and economic assets in the Central America, however, transnational management face several challenges that fall mostly in the political, economical and technical areas. In this paper we described and analyzed the rainfall induced natural disasters, their impacts and the inherent management challenges in the Central American context. Key words: Central America, Natural Disasters, Risk Management, International Cooperation

  12. Shimoda 1854: Historical Consequences of a Natural Disaster

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrova, A.

    2012-04-01

    At the end of 1854 - beginning of 1855 Japan was struck by a series of powerful earthquakes known as the Ansei Great Earthquakes. The first one, Ansei-Tōkai Quake, occurred on 23 December, 1854. It had a magnitude of 8.4; the epicenter ranged from the centre of Suruga Bay to the south-east into the ocean. It was followed by the Ansei-Nankai Quake on 24 December. The earthquakes with the following tsunami caused a huge damage in several regions of Japan: more than 20,000 buildings were destroyed, about 30,000 casualties caused. This natural disaster was witnessed by a Russian diplomatic mission led by admiral Yevfimy Putyatin. His flagship, frigate Diana, stayed at Shimoda, and Putyatin was conducting long and difficult negotiations trying to convince Japan of signing a commercial treaty with Russia, when Shimoda was hit by the tsunami. Several members of the mission described their impressions in their memoirs. The city was almost completely destroyed (only 16 houses survived the disaster). Diana was also badly damaged and sank in a storm while sailing to Heda for repairs. It was decided to build a new ship for the Russian mission. Works were carried out in Heda with the help of plans salvaged from the Diana, and required a cooperation of Russian sailors and Japanese carpenters. In about two months a two-masted schooner was built, which was christened Heda in honour of the city that helped with its construction. The Heda was the first western-style ship built in Japan, and thus can be called a "grandfather" of a Japanese oceanic navy. On 26 January, 1855 the Russian-Japanese negotiations were successfully concluded, and the Treaty of Shimoda was signed, marking the start of official relations between Russia and Japan. Thus a terrible natural disaster framed one of the most vivid pages in history of the Japanese-Russian relationship.

  13. Natural disasters and the challenge of extreme events: risk management from an insurance perspective.

    PubMed

    Smolka, Anselm

    2006-08-15

    Loss statistics for natural disasters demonstrate, also after correction for inflation, a dramatic increase of the loss burden since 1950. This increase is driven by a concentration of population and values in urban areas, the development of highly exposed coastal and valley regions, the complexity of modern societies and technologies and probably, also by the beginning consequences of global warming. This process will continue unless remedial action will be taken. Managing the risk from natural disasters starts with identification of the hazards. The next step is the evaluation of the risk, where risk is a function of hazard, exposed values or human lives and the vulnerability of the exposed objects. Probabilistic computer models have been developed for the proper assessment of risks since the late 1980s. The final steps are controlling and financing future losses. Natural disaster insurance plays a key role in this context, but also private parties and governments have to share a part of the risk. A main responsibility of governments is to formulate regulations for building construction and land use. The insurance sector and the state have to act together in order to create incentives for building and business owners to take loss prevention measures. A further challenge for the insurance sector is to transfer a portion of the risk to the capital markets, and to serve better the needs of the poor. Catastrophe bonds and microinsurance are the answer to such challenges. The mechanisms described above have been developed to cope with well-known disasters like earthquakes, windstorms and floods. They can be applied, in principle, also to less well investigated and less frequent extreme disasters: submarine slides, great volcanic eruptions, meteorite impacts and tsunamis which may arise from all these hazards. But there is an urgent need to improve the state of knowledge on these more exotic hazards in order to reduce the high uncertainty in actual risk evaluation to

  14. Natural disasters and the challenge of extreme events: risk management from an insurance perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smolka, Anselm

    2006-08-01

    Loss statistics for natural disasters demonstrate, also after correction for inflation, a dramatic increase of the loss burden since 1950. This increase is driven by a concentration of population and values in urban areas, the development of highly exposed coastal and valley regions, the complexity of modern societies and technologies and probably, also by the beginning consequences of global warming. This process will continue unless remedial action will be taken. Managing the risk from natural disasters starts with identification of the hazards. The next step is the evaluation of the risk, where risk is a function of hazard, exposed values or human lives and the vulnerability of the exposed objects. Probabilistic computer models have been developed for the proper assessment of risks since the late 1980s. The final steps are controlling and financing future losses. Natural disaster insurance plays a key role in this context, but also private parties and governments have to share a part of the risk. A main responsibility of governments is to formulate regulations for building construction and land use. The insurance sector and the state have to act together in order to create incentives for building and business owners to take loss prevention measures. A further challenge for the insurance sector is to transfer a portion of the risk to the capital markets, and to serve better the needs of the poor. Catastrophe bonds and microinsurance are the answer to such challenges. The mechanisms described above have been developed to cope with well-known disasters like earthquakes, windstorms and floods. They can be applied, in principle, also to less well investigated and less frequent extreme disasters: submarine slides, great volcanic eruptions, meteorite impacts and tsunamis which may arise from all these hazards. But there is an urgent need to improve the state of knowledge on these more exotic hazards in order to reduce the high uncertainty in actual risk evaluation to

  15. Modeling insurer-homeowner interactions in managing natural disaster risk.

    PubMed

    Kesete, Yohannes; Peng, Jiazhen; Gao, Yang; Shan, Xiaojun; Davidson, Rachel A; Nozick, Linda K; Kruse, Jamie

    2014-06-01

    The current system for managing natural disaster risk in the United States is problematic for both homeowners and insurers. Homeowners are often uninsured or underinsured against natural disaster losses, and typically do not invest in retrofits that can reduce losses. Insurers often do not want to insure against these losses, which are some of their biggest exposures and can cause an undesirably high chance of insolvency. There is a need to design an improved system that acknowledges the different perspectives of the stakeholders. In this article, we introduce a new modeling framework to help understand and manage the insurer's role in catastrophe risk management. The framework includes a new game-theoretic optimization model of insurer decisions that interacts with a utility-based homeowner decision model and is integrated with a regional catastrophe loss estimation model. Reinsurer and government roles are represented as bounds on the insurer-insured interactions. We demonstrate the model for a full-scale case study for hurricane risk to residential buildings in eastern North Carolina; present the results from the perspectives of all stakeholders-primary insurers, homeowners (insured and uninsured), and reinsurers; and examine the effect of key parameters on the results.

  16. Program plan for the partnership for natural disaster reduction. Rev 0

    SciTech Connect

    1998-02-01

    In a matter of minutes, a natural disaster completely changes people`s lives. For example, 9,750 lives were lost in the 1993 Latur, India earthquake, 106,000 homes were destroyed in the 1995 Hanshin-Awajii (Kobe) Japan earthquake, and over 8000 jobs/businesses were either disrupted or terminated during Hurricane Andrew. Worldwide, economic disaster damages have tripled in the past 30 years - rising from $40 billion in the 1960`s to $120 billion in the 1980`s. Potential losses and recovery costs continue to rise because of rapid population growth, urban expansion, and increased new construction concentrated in high-risk areas. In the U.S., economic losses from 1989 to 1994 resulting from hurricanes and earthquakes exceeded more than $100 billion. With the exception of floods, severe windstorms annually cause more damage than earthquakes because they occur more frequently. On average, 350 lives are lost every year as a result of windstorms. Over the last decade, nearly 90% of the property losses have resulted from windstorms and about 4% from earthquakes. The unexpected vulnerability of many homes, the high number of pay-outs by insurance companies, and the resulting difficulties of getting affordable insurance coverage following Hurricane Andrew in Florida further emphasized the need for the United States to aggressively put more efforts into wind-related pre-disaster mitigation. Everyone shares the burden of recovery in the form of increased taxes for federal assistance and higher insurance premiums. In response to these critical national and international needs, the Partnership for Natural Disaster Reduction is defining a national program which has the mission to develop, validate, and implement technologies that will reduce damage to structures, buildings, and infrastructure elements resulting from windstorms, earthquakes, and aging processes.

  17. Acts of God - The Unnatural History of Natural Disaster in America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steinberg, Ted

    2003-05-01

    With the exception of the 9/11 disaster, the top ten most costly catastrophes in U.S. history have all been natural disasters--five of them hurricanes--and all have occurred since 1989. Why this tremendous plague on our homes? In Acts of God , environmental historian Ted Steinberg explains that much of the death and destruction has been well within the realm of human control. Steinberg exposes the fallacy of seeing such calamities as simply random events. Beginning with the 1886 Charleston and 1906 San Francisco earthquakes, and continuing to the present, Steinberg explores the unnatural history of natural calamity, the decisions of business leaders and government officials that have paved the way for the greater losses of life and property, especially among those least able to withstand such blows--America's poor, elderly, and minorities. Seeing nature or God as the primary culprit, Steinberg argues, has helped to hide the fact that some Americans are better protected from the violence of nature than their counterparts lower down the socioeconomic ladder. Sure to provoke discussion, Acts of God is a call to action that must be heard. "A sobering lesson in humanity's vulnerability to extreme climatic events, especially the impoverished farmer and the urban poor."--The Los Angeles Times Book Review

  18. [Application and prospect of multi-spectral remote sensing in major natural disaster assessment].

    PubMed

    Wang, Fu-tao; Wang, Shi-xin; Zhou, Yi; Wang, Li-tao; Yan, Fu-li

    2011-03-01

    After the occurrence of major natural disasters, it is of great significance that disaster states are assessed timely and accurately for decision-making departments to draw up effective response programs. Multi-spectral remote sensing has a great advantage and potential in disaster assessment, with the characteristics of a wide range of data acquisition, high speed, etc. In several major natural disaster assessments in China, multi-spectral remote sensing technology has played an important role. Firstly, the present paper takes earthquake disasters, floods disasters and drought disasters as examples to summarize the specific applications of major natural disaster assessment based on the multi-spectral remote sensing. Secondly, in these specific applications they suffer from both relative shortage of data sources and limited breadth and depth of application; both of these problems are analyzed. Finally, the future development direction of major natural disaster assessment based on the multi-spectral remote sensing, such as the expansion of multi-spectral remote sensing data acquisition means, the establishment of major natural disasters assessment index system based on remote sensing, and the improvement of the assessment technology system based on multi-spectral remote sensing are also discussed.

  19. Disaster strikes! Long-term care resident outcomes following a natural disaster.

    PubMed

    Cacchione, Pamela Z; Willoughby, Lisa M; Langan, Joanne C; Culp, Kennith

    2011-09-01

    This report describes the outcomes of 17 long-term care residents who were participating in a nursing intervention study. The residents were evacuated for 5 days due to a severe summer storm that caused widespread power outages. These residents were seen the day of the storm and three times per week for 2 weeks following their return to the nursing home. More than half of the participants had significant changes in their NEECHAM Confusion Scale scores (n = 11) and modified Confusion Assessment Method scores (n = 9) scores, suggesting the onset of delirium. Two participants were hospitalized within the 2 weeks of the evacuation. One participant died unexpectedly. This report provides a rare look into the negative effects of a short-term evacuation due to a natural disaster.

  20. Resilience of Vietnamese refugees: resources to cope with natural disasters in their resettled country.

    PubMed

    Xin, Huaibo; Aronson, Robert E; Lovelace, Kay A; Strack, Robert W; Villalba, José A

    2013-08-01

    Study findings suggest that refugees are more vulnerable than the general population to mental disorders from disasters. This pilot study explored the nature of Vietnamese refugees' resilience to a potential natural disaster as a first step toward improving their disaster mental health. Interviews were conducted with 20 ethnic Vietnamese and Montagnard adult refugees using a semistructured interview guide. Factors in resilience at both individual and family levels were examined. Our results indicated that these refugees had positive personalities and strong family cohesion. However, although a majority of the participants had experienced natural disasters, they lacked knowledge and specific strategies to cope with these events. The individual participants and their families lacked sufficient information, financial resources, emergency supplies, or social support for a natural disaster. Enhancing refugees' current strengths in responding to disasters, delivering them tailored emergency training, strengthening relationships between refugee service providers and refugee communities, and advocating for refugees' socioeconomic capacity building should be considered.

  1. Instability, investment, disasters, and demography: natural disasters and fertility in Italy (1820-1962) and Japan (1671-1965).

    PubMed

    Lin, C-Y Cynthia

    2010-03-01

    This article examines whether natural disasters affect fertility-a topic little explored but of policy importance given relevance to policies regarding disaster insurance, foreign aid, and the environment. The identification strategy uses historic regional data to exploit natural variation within each of two countries: one European country-Italy (1820-1962), and one Asian country-Japan (1671-1965). The choice of study settings allows consideration of Jones' (The European miracle, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 1981) theory that preindustrial differences in income and population between Asia and Europe resulted from the fertility response to different environmental risk profiles. According to the results, short-run instability, particularly that arising from the natural environment, appears to be associated with a decrease in fertility-thereby suggesting that environmental shocks and economic volatility are associated with a decrease in investment in the population size of future generations. The results also show that, contrary to Jones' (The European miracle, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 1981) theory, differences in fertility between Italy and Japan cannot be explained away by disaster proneness alone. Research on the effects of natural disasters may enable social scientists and environmentalists alike to better predict the potential effects of the increase in natural disasters that may result from global climate change.

  2. Longitudinal course of disaster-related PTSD among a prospective sample of adult Chilean natural disaster survivors.

    PubMed

    Fernandez, Cristina A; Vicente, Benjamin; Marshall, Brandon Dl; Koenen, Karestan C; Arheart, Kristopher L; Kohn, Robert; Saldivia, Sandra; Buka, Stephen L

    2017-04-01

    With an increasing number of individuals surviving natural disasters, it is crucial to understand who is most at risk for developing post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). The objective of this study was to prospectively examine the role that pre-existing psychopathology plays in developing PTSD after a disaster. This study uses data from a prospective 5-wave longitudinal cohort (years 2003-11) of Chilean adults from 10 health centres ( N  = 1708). At baseline, participants completed the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI), a comprehensive psychiatric diagnostic instrument. In 2010, the sixth most powerful earthquake on record struck Chile. One year later, a modified version of the PTSD module of the CIDI was administered. Marginal structural logistic regressions with inverse probability censoring weights were constructed to identify pre-disaster psychiatric predictors of post-disaster PTSD. The majority of participants were female (75.9%) and had a high-school/college education (66.9%). After controlling for pre-disaster PTSD, pre-existing dysthymia [odds ratio (OR) = 2.21; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.39-3.52], brief psychotic disorder (OR = 2.67; 95% CI = 1.21-5.90), anxiety disorders (not including PTSD; OR = 1.49; 95% CI = 1.27-1.76), panic disorder (OR = 2.46; 95% CI = 1.37-4.42), agoraphobia (OR = 2.23; 95% CI = 1.22-4.10), social phobia (OR = 1.86; 95% CI = 1.06-3.29), specific phobia (OR = 2.07; 95% CI = 1.50-2.86) and hypochondriasis (OR = 2.10; 95% CI = 1.05-4.18) were predictors of post-disaster PTSD. After controlling for pre-disaster anxiety disorders, dysthymia, and non-affective psychotic disorders, individuals with pre-disaster PTSD (vs those without pre-disaster PTSD) had higher odds of developing post-disaster PTSD (OR = 2.53; 95% CI = 1.37-4.65). This is the first Chilean study to demonstrate prospectively that pre-disaster psychiatric disorders

  3. Education, Vulnerability, and Resilience after a Natural Disaster

    PubMed Central

    Frankenberg, Elizabeth; Sikoki, Bondan; Sumantri, Cecep; Suriastini, Wayan; Thomas, Duncan

    2014-01-01

    The extent to which education provides protection in the face of a large-scale natural disaster is investigated. Using longitudinal population-representative survey data collected in two provinces on the island of Sumatra, Indonesia, before and after the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami, we examine changes in a broad array of indicators of well-being of adults. Focusing on adults who were living, before the tsunami, in areas that were subsequently severely damaged by the tsunami, better educated males were more likely to survive the tsunami, but education is not predictive of survival among females. Education is not associated with levels of post-traumatic stress among survivors 1 year after the tsunami, or with the likelihood of being displaced. Where education does appear to play a role is with respect to coping with the disaster over the longer term. The better educated were far less likely than others to live in a camp or other temporary housing, moving, instead, to private homes, staying with family or friends, or renting a new home. The better educated were more able to minimize dips in spending levels following the tsunami, relative to the cuts made by those with little education. Five years after the tsunami, the better educated were in better psycho-social health than those with less education. In sum, education is associated with higher levels of resilience over the longer term. PMID:25170339

  4. The assessment of vulnerability to natural disasters in China by using the DEA method

    SciTech Connect

    Wei Yiming; Fan Ying; Lu Cong; Tsai, H.-T

    2004-05-01

    China has been greatly affected by natural disasters, so that it is of great importance to analyze the impact of natural disasters on national economy. Usually, the frequency of disasters or absolute loss inflicted by disasters is the first priority to be considered, while the capability of regions to overcome disasters is ignored. The concept of vulnerability is used to measure the capability to overcome disasters in different regions with distinctive economies. Traditional methods for vulnerability analysis calculate sub-indices based on disaster frequency, loss, the economic impact and the population of each region, and then add the sub-indices to get a composite index for regional vulnerability. But those methods are sensitive to the weights selected for sub-indices when multi-indexes are added up to get an index of total vulnerability. The analytic results are less convincing because of the subjectivity of different weighting methods. A data envelopment analysis (DEA)-based model for analysis of regional vulnerability to natural disasters is presented here to improve upon the traditional method. This paper systematically describes the DEA method to evaluate the relative severity of disasters in each region. A model for regional vulnerability analysis is developed, based on the annual governmental statistics from 1989 to 2000. The regional vulnerabilities in China's mainland are illustrated as a case study, and a new method for the classification of regional vulnerability to natural disasters in China is proposed.

  5. A meta-analysis of risk factors for depression in adults and children after natural disasters

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background A number of studies have shown a range of negative psychological symptoms (e.g. depression) after exposure to natural disasters. The aim of this study was to determine risk factors for depression in both children and adults who have survived natural disasters. Methods Four electronic databases (PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, and PsychInfo) were used to search for observational studies (case–control, cross-sectional, and cohort studies) about depression following natural disasters. The literature search, study selection, and data extraction were conducted independently by two authors. Thirty-one articles were included in the study, of which twenty included adult participants and eleven included child participants. Summary estimates were obtained using random-effects models. Subgroup analysis, sensitivity analysis, and publication bias tests were performed on the data. Results The prevalence of depression after natural disasters ranged from 5.8% to 54.0% in adults and from 7.5% to 44.8% in children. We found a number of risk factors for depression after exposure to natural disasters. For adults, the significant predictors were being female ;not married;holding religious beliefs; having poor education; prior trauma; experiencing fear, injury, or bereavement during the disaster; or losing employment or property, suffering house damage as a result of the disaster. For children, the significant predictors were prior trauma; being trapped during the disaster; experiencing injury, fear, or bereavement during the disaster; witnessing injury/death during the disaster; or having poor social support. Conclusions The current analysis provides evidence of risk factors for depression in survivors of natural disasters. Further research is necessary to design interventions to improve the mental health of survivors of natural disasters. PMID:24941890

  6. A meta-analysis of risk factors for depression in adults and children after natural disasters.

    PubMed

    Tang, Bihan; Liu, Xu; Liu, Yuan; Xue, Chen; Zhang, Lulu

    2014-06-19

    A number of studies have shown a range of negative psychological symptoms (e.g. depression) after exposure to natural disasters. The aim of this study was to determine risk factors for depression in both children and adults who have survived natural disasters. Four electronic databases (PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, and PsychInfo) were used to search for observational studies (case-control, cross-sectional, and cohort studies) about depression following natural disasters. The literature search, study selection, and data extraction were conducted independently by two authors. Thirty-one articles were included in the study, of which twenty included adult participants and eleven included child participants. Summary estimates were obtained using random-effects models. Subgroup analysis, sensitivity analysis, and publication bias tests were performed on the data. The prevalence of depression after natural disasters ranged from 5.8% to 54.0% in adults and from 7.5% to 44.8% in children. We found a number of risk factors for depression after exposure to natural disasters. For adults, the significant predictors were being female ;not married;holding religious beliefs; having poor education; prior trauma; experiencing fear, injury, or bereavement during the disaster; or losing employment or property, suffering house damage as a result of the disaster. For children, the significant predictors were prior trauma; being trapped during the disaster; experiencing injury, fear, or bereavement during the disaster; witnessing injury/death during the disaster; or having poor social support. The current analysis provides evidence of risk factors for depression in survivors of natural disasters. Further research is necessary to design interventions to improve the mental health of survivors of natural disasters.

  7. Mental health and the psychosocial consequences of natural disasters in Asia.

    PubMed

    Udomratn, Pichet

    2008-10-01

    This article presents an overview of natural disasters in Asia, as well as mental disorders and psychosocial interventions related to disasters. Although most of the top ten worst natural disasters occurred in Asia over the past century, little is known about the mental health and psychosocial aspects. After the tsunami incident in 2004, research reports in international journals related to Asian disasters have been growing. The prevalence rate of post-traumatic stress disorder related to natural disasters is currently between 8.6% and 57.3% depending on assessment methodologies, instruments and timing. Cognitive behaviour therapy has been found to be effective with Asian survivors but needs to be adapted for cultural and local sensitivities. Further research is needed in the areas of epidemiology for mental disorders and suitable psychosocial interventions for disaster survivors in Asia.

  8. The Effectiveness of OSU-PTSD Screening Survey in Natural Disasters.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bulut, Sefa; Palmer, Linda; Oehler-Stinnett, Judy; Bulut, Solmaz

    There is little empirical research existing in the areas of natural disaster's effects on children's mental health. Therefore, the purpose of this study was twofold. First, it examined the effectiveness of the Oklahoma State University Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (OSU-PTSD) Screening Scale after two different types of natural disasters. The…

  9. Storms over the Urban Forest: Planning, Responding, and Regreening-- A community Guide to Natural Disaster Relief

    Treesearch

    Lisa L. Burban; John W. Andresen

    1994-01-01

    Natural disasters which can occur in the United States include floods, hurricanes, tornadoes, and related high-velocity winds, as well as ice storms. Preparing for these natural disasters, which strike urban forests in large cities and small communities, should involve the cooperative effort of a wide array of municipal agencies, private arboricultural companies,...

  10. 33 CFR 117.33 - Closure of draw for natural disasters or civil disorders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... of draw for natural disasters or civil disorders. Drawbridges need not open for the passage of vessels during periods of natural disasters or civil disorders declared by the appropriate authorities... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Closure of draw for...

  11. 33 CFR 117.33 - Closure of draw for natural disasters or civil disorders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... of draw for natural disasters or civil disorders. Drawbridges need not open for the passage of vessels during periods of natural disasters or civil disorders declared by the appropriate authorities... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Closure of draw for...

  12. 33 CFR 117.33 - Closure of draw for natural disasters or civil disorders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... of draw for natural disasters or civil disorders. Drawbridges need not open for the passage of vessels during periods of natural disasters or civil disorders declared by the appropriate authorities... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Closure of draw for...

  13. 33 CFR 117.33 - Closure of draw for natural disasters or civil disorders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... of draw for natural disasters or civil disorders. Drawbridges need not open for the passage of vessels during periods of natural disasters or civil disorders declared by the appropriate authorities... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Closure of draw for...

  14. 33 CFR 117.33 - Closure of draw for natural disasters or civil disorders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... of draw for natural disasters or civil disorders. Drawbridges need not open for the passage of vessels during periods of natural disasters or civil disorders declared by the appropriate authorities... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Closure of draw for...

  15. Racial Segregation, Economic Growth, and Resilience to Natural Disasters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernandez, S.; Li, H.; Ganguly, A.

    2008-05-01

    Resilience to natural disasters is often defined as the ability of a community to recover from disaster disruption. Thus, resilience depends on various socioeconomic factors which influence the short- and long-term impacts of natural disasters as well as the resources that a community can bring to bear on the recovery process. One objective of this research is to tease out the determinants of resilience from a variety of possible indicators and data sources. A second objective is to test hypotheses which in turn are based on prior reports in the literature: Racial segregation has a negative impact, while economic growth has a positive impact, on resilience. We choose the Biloxi-Gulfport-Pascagoula, MS Metropolitan Area, and New Orleans Metropolitan Area, for our case studies. The study areas included nine counties and parishes that are located in the Hurricane Katrina impact area. The nine counties and parishes were Hancock County, Harrison County, and Jackson County in Mississippi, and Jefferson Parish, Orleans Parish, Plaquemines Parish, St. Bernard Parish, St. Charles Parish, and St. Tammany Parish in Louisiana. The three counties make up the Biloxi-Gulfport-Pascagoula, MS Metropolitan Area, and the six parishes are components of New Orleans Metropolitan Area. The determinants of resilience for this study were based on two considerations. First, we followed the political, military or security, economic, social, informational and infrastructural (PMESII) framework, which succinctly describes the resources available to a community. Second, we were pragmatically constrained by data availability. Five variables were selected as plausible determinants of resilience: (i) return of the original population, (ii) employment recovery, (iii) tax collected, (iv) building permit restoration, and (v) school re-opening information. The five variables were found to be highly correlated. We created three resilience indices, one by simple addition, another by addition of the

  16. Shortcomings in dealing with psychological effects of natural disasters in iran.

    PubMed

    Rabiei, Ali; Nakhaee, Nouzar; Pourhosseini, Samira Sadat

    2014-08-01

    Natural disasters result in numerous economic, social, psychological and cultural consequences. Of them, psychological consequences of disasters will affect the lives of people long after the critical conditions finish. Thus, concerning the importance of psychological support in disasters, this study has identified problems and weaknesses in dealing with the psychological effects of the disasters occurred in Iran. This qualitative study was carried out using semi-structured in-depth interviews and focus groups. Sample volume consisted of 26 experts in the field of disaster management. Content analysis was used to analyze data. Nine major problems were identified as weaknesses in handling the psychological effects of the disaster. These weaknesses include: rescuers' unfamiliarity with the basic principles of psychosocial support, shortage of relevant experts and inadequate training, paying no attention to the needs of specific groups, weaknesses in organizational communications, discontinuation of psychological support after disaster, unfamiliarity with native language and culture of the disaster area, little attention paid by media to psychological principles in broadcasting news, people's long-term dependence on governmental aid. Disaster management has various aspects; in Iran, less attention has been paid to psychological support in disasters. Increasing education at all levels, establishing responsible structures and programming seem necessary in dealing with the psychological effects of disasters.

  17. Shortcomings in Dealing with Psychological Effects of Natural Disasters in Iran

    PubMed Central

    RABIEI, Ali; NAKHAEE, Nouzar; POURHOSSEINI, Samira Sadat

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Background Natural disasters result in numerous economic, social, psychological and cultural consequences. Of them, psychological consequences of disasters will affect the lives of people long after the critical conditions finish. Thus, concerning the importance of psychological support in disasters, this study has identified problems and weaknesses in dealing with the psychological effects of the disasters occurred in Iran. Methods This qualitative study was carried out using semi-structured in-depth interviews and focus groups. Sample volume consisted of 26 experts in the field of disaster management. Content analysis was used to analyze data. Results Nine major problems were identified as weaknesses in handling the psychological effects of the disaster. These weaknesses include: rescuers’ unfamiliarity with the basic principles of psychosocial support, shortage of relevant experts and inadequate training, paying no attention to the needs of specific groups, weaknesses in organizational communications, discontinuation of psychological support after disaster, unfamiliarity with native language and culture of the disaster area, little attention paid by media to psychological principles in broadcasting news, people’s long-term dependence on governmental aid. Conclusions Disaster management has various aspects; in Iran, less attention has been paid to psychological support in disasters. Increasing education at all levels, establishing responsible structures and programming seem necessary in dealing with the psychological effects of disasters. PMID:25927043

  18. Changes in reports and incidence of child abuse following natural disasters.

    PubMed

    Curtis, T; Miller, B C; Berry, E H

    2000-09-01

    The aim of this research was to investigate if there is a higher incidence of child abuse following major natural disasters. Child abuse reports and substantiations were analyzed, by county, for 1 year before and after Hurricane Hugo, the Loma Prieta Earthquake. and Hurricane Andrew. Counties were included if damage was widespread, the county was part of a presidential disaster declaration, and if there was a stable data collection system in place. Based on analyses of numbers, rates, and proportions, child abuse reports were disproportionately higher in the quarter and half year following two of the three disaster events (Hurricane Hugo and Loma Prieta Earthquake). Most, but not all, of the evidence presented indicates that child abuse escalates after major disasters. Conceptual and methodological issues need to be resolved to more conclusively answer the question about whether or not child abuse increases in the wake of natural disasters. Replications of this research are needed based on more recent disaster events.

  19. Global Natural Disaster Risk Hotspots: Transition to a Regional Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lerner-Lam, A.; Chen, R.; Dilley, M.

    2005-12-01

    The "Hotspots Project" is a collaborative study of the global distribution and occurrence of multiple natural hazards and the associated exposures of populations and their economic output. In this study we assess the global risks of two disaster-related outcomes: mortality and economic losses. We estimate risk levels by combining hazard exposure with historical vulnerability for two indicators of elements at risk-gridded population and Gross Domestic Product (GDP) per unit area - for six major natural hazards: earthquakes, volcanoes, landslides, floods, drought, and cyclones. By calculating relative risks for each grid cell rather than for countries as a whole, we are able to estimate risk levels at sub-national scales. These can then be used to estimate aggregate relative multiple hazard risk at regional and national scales. Mortality-related risks are assessed on a 2.5' x 2.5' latitude-longitude grid of global population (GPW Version 3). Economic risks are assessed at the same resolution for gridded GDP per unit area, using World Bank estimates of GDP based on purchasing power parity. Global hazard data were compiled from multiple sources. The project collaborated directly with UNDP and UNEP, the International Research Institute for Climate Prediction (IRI) at Columbia, and the Norwegian Geotechnical Institute (NGI) in the creation of data sets for several hazards for which global data sets did not previously exist. Drought, flood and volcano hazards are characterized in terms of event frequency, storms by frequency and severity, earthquakes by frequency and ground acceleration exceedance probability, and landslides by an index derived from probability of occurrence. The global analysis undertaken in this project is clearly limited by issues of scale as well as by the availability and quality of data. For some hazards, there exist only 15- to 25-year global records with relatively crude spatial information. Data on historical disaster losses, and particularly on

  20. Preparation and response in case of natural disasters: Cuban programs and experience.

    PubMed

    Mas Bermejo, Pedro

    2006-01-01

    Inadequate preparation for national disasters is frequently particularly devastating in lower income countries. The Cuba's location has a diversity of potential natural disasters, including hurricanes, non-tropical depressions, tropical storms, tropical cyclones, and severe local storms, all with intense rains and winds, earthquakes and droughts. Cuban preparation, at all levels, is geared to these predominant threats. Planning for natural disasters is integral to the political and economic life of Cuba, nationally and locally. On several occasions, United Nations (UN) officials have pointed to Cuba as a model for developing countries preparing for hurricanes and other natural disasters. A global policy for managing the risks of natural disasters could improve continuity of assistance for development and reduce the necessity of humanitarian aid. Planning in advance of disasters is a feasible way of helping people, by reducing expenses of emergencies, recuperation, and reconstruction. As climate changes accelerate, many researchers fear a period of irreversible and uncontrollable change. While the atmosphere continues to warm, it generates more intense rains, more frequent heat waves, and more ferocious storms. Thus, achieving better protection of developing countries from an increasing onslaught of natural disasters will only grow in importance. Even though Cuba's contribution to know-how has been recognized by United Nations' officials, progress toward more adequate preparation worldwide has been slow. To support other countries beyond conveying the lessons, Cuba now offers specially trained personnel to cooperate immediately with any country suffering a natural disaster.

  1. Natural disaster management in India with focus on floods and cyclones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thattai, Deeptha V.; Sathyanathan, R.; Dinesh, R.; Harshit Kumar, L.

    2017-07-01

    Disasters are of two major kinds, natural and manmade, and affect the community. Natural disasters are caused by natural earth processes like floods, droughts, cyclones, tsunamis, earthquakes and epidemics. Manmade disasters occur due to chemical spills, accidents, terrorism activities etc. India is prone to almost all the major natural disasters. The high population density combined with poor preparedness, planning and management, and rescue and relief measures inevitably lead to huge losses of lives and property every year in the country. This paper analyses the disaster management policy of India and its implementation using two recent case studies - one where a relative degree of success has been achieved (cyclones) and the other where we are still struggling to have even a basic preparedness system in place (floods).

  2. Prevention and Treatment of Traumatic Brain Injury Due to Rapid-Onset Natural Disasters

    PubMed Central

    Regens, James L.; Mould, Nick

    2014-01-01

    The prevention and treatment of traumatic brain injury (TBI) attributable to rapid-onset natural disasters is a major challenge confronting disaster preparedness planners and emergency medical personnel responding to those incidents. The kinetic energy released by rapid-onset natural disasters such as earthquakes, hurricanes or typhoons, and tornadoes can cause mild, moderate, or severe TBIs. As a result, neurotrauma is a major risk factor for mortality and morbidity outcomes within the spatial domain impacted by a rapid-onset natural disaster. This review article elucidates major challenges associated with immediate emergency medical response, long-term care, and prevention of post-event increases in pediatric TBIs because of child abuse when rapid-onset natural disasters occur. PMID:24783188

  3. Prevention and treatment of traumatic brain injury due to rapid-onset natural disasters.

    PubMed

    Regens, James L; Mould, Nick

    2014-01-01

    The prevention and treatment of traumatic brain injury (TBI) attributable to rapid-onset natural disasters is a major challenge confronting disaster preparedness planners and emergency medical personnel responding to those incidents. The kinetic energy released by rapid-onset natural disasters such as earthquakes, hurricanes or typhoons, and tornadoes can cause mild, moderate, or severe TBIs. As a result, neurotrauma is a major risk factor for mortality and morbidity outcomes within the spatial domain impacted by a rapid-onset natural disaster. This review article elucidates major challenges associated with immediate emergency medical response, long-term care, and prevention of post-event increases in pediatric TBIs because of child abuse when rapid-onset natural disasters occur.

  4. Surgical Care Required for Populations Affected by Climate-related Natural Disasters: A Global Estimation.

    PubMed

    Lee, Eugenia E; Stewart, Barclay; Zha, Yuanting A; Groen, Thomas A; Burkle, Frederick M; Kushner, Adam L

    2016-08-10

    Climate extremes will increase the frequency and severity of natural disasters worldwide.  Climate-related natural disasters were anticipated to affect 375 million people in 2015, more than 50% greater than the yearly average in the previous decade. To inform surgical assistance preparedness, we estimated the number of surgical procedures needed.   The numbers of people affected by climate-related disasters from 2004 to 2014 were obtained from the Centre for Research of the Epidemiology of Disasters database. Using 5,000 procedures per 100,000 persons as the minimum, baseline estimates were calculated. A linear regression of the number of surgical procedures performed annually and the estimated number of surgical procedures required for climate-related natural disasters was performed. Approximately 140 million people were affected by climate-related natural disasters annually requiring 7.0 million surgical procedures. The greatest need for surgical care was in the People's Republic of China, India, and the Philippines. Linear regression demonstrated a poor relationship between national surgical capacity and estimated need for surgical care resulting from natural disaster, but countries with the least surgical capacity will have the greatest need for surgical care for persons affected by climate-related natural disasters. As climate extremes increase the frequency and severity of natural disasters, millions will need surgical care beyond baseline needs. Countries with insufficient surgical capacity will have the most need for surgical care for persons affected by climate-related natural disasters. Estimates of surgical are particularly important for countries least equipped to meet surgical care demands given critical human and physical resource deficiencies.

  5. Surgical Care Required for Populations Affected by Climate-related Natural Disasters: A Global Estimation

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Eugenia E.; Stewart, Barclay; Zha, Yuanting A.; Groen, Thomas A.; Burkle, Frederick M.; Kushner, Adam L.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Climate extremes will increase the frequency and severity of natural disasters worldwide.  Climate-related natural disasters were anticipated to affect 375 million people in 2015, more than 50% greater than the yearly average in the previous decade. To inform surgical assistance preparedness, we estimated the number of surgical procedures needed.   Methods: The numbers of people affected by climate-related disasters from 2004 to 2014 were obtained from the Centre for Research of the Epidemiology of Disasters database. Using 5,000 procedures per 100,000 persons as the minimum, baseline estimates were calculated. A linear regression of the number of surgical procedures performed annually and the estimated number of surgical procedures required for climate-related natural disasters was performed. Results: Approximately 140 million people were affected by climate-related natural disasters annually requiring 7.0 million surgical procedures. The greatest need for surgical care was in the People’s Republic of China, India, and the Philippines. Linear regression demonstrated a poor relationship between national surgical capacity and estimated need for surgical care resulting from natural disaster, but countries with the least surgical capacity will have the greatest need for surgical care for persons affected by climate-related natural disasters. Conclusion: As climate extremes increase the frequency and severity of natural disasters, millions will need surgical care beyond baseline needs. Countries with insufficient surgical capacity will have the most need for surgical care for persons affected by climate-related natural disasters. Estimates of surgical are particularly important for countries least equipped to meet surgical care demands given critical human and physical resource deficiencies. PMID:27617165

  6. Major Natural Disasters in China, 1985-2014: Occurrence and Damages.

    PubMed

    Han, Weixiao; Liang, Chen; Jiang, Baofa; Ma, Wei; Zhang, Ying

    2016-11-10

    This study aimed to describe the characteristics of natural disasters and associated losses from 1985 to 2014. The Mann-Kendall method was used to detect any long-term trends and abrupt changes. Hotspot analysis was conducted to detect the spatial clusters of disasters. We found an increasing trend in the occurrence of integrated natural disasters (tau = 0.594, p < 0.001), particularly for floods (tau = 0.507, p < 0.001), landslides (tau = 0.365, p = 0.009) and storms (tau = 0.289, p = 0.032). Besides, there was an abrupt increase of natural disasters in 1998-2000. Hotspots of droughts, floods, landslides and storms were identified in central, southern, southwest and southeast areas of China, respectively. Annual deaths from integrated natural disasters were decreasing (tau = -0.237, p = 0.068) at about 32 persons/year, decreasing at 17 persons/year for floods (tau = -0.154, p = 0.239), and decreasing at approximately 12 persons/year for storms (tau = -0.338, p = 0.009). No significant trend was detected in inflation-adjusted damages while a declining trend was detected in the ratio of year damage against GDP (gross domestic product). In conclusion, there has been an increasing trend in occurrence of natural disasters in China with the absence of an increase in life and economic losses. Despite the progress in the disaster adaption, there will be great challenges in disaster control for China in the future.

  7. Medical response to a natural disaster: the Barrie tornado.

    PubMed Central

    Morris, B A; Armstrong, T M

    1986-01-01

    On May 31, 1985, a tornado devastated an area of Barrie, Ont. Following a prepared disaster plan, the staff of the local hospital managed 155 casualties, including 16 cases of multiple trauma, over 5 hours. The authors summarize the hospital's experience and give recommendations to help the staff of other hospitals improve their disaster plans. PMID:3948094

  8. Promoting Positive Adaptation in Adult Survivors of Natural Disasters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warchal, Judith R.; Graham, Louise B.

    2011-01-01

    This article integrates the guidelines of American Red Cross and the "Psychological First Aid: Field Operations Guide" (Brymer et al., 2006) with adult development theories to demonstrate the promotion of adaptive functioning in adults after a disaster. Case examples and recommendations for counselors working in disaster situations are…

  9. Promoting Positive Adaptation in Adult Survivors of Natural Disasters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warchal, Judith R.; Graham, Louise B.

    2011-01-01

    This article integrates the guidelines of American Red Cross and the "Psychological First Aid: Field Operations Guide" (Brymer et al., 2006) with adult development theories to demonstrate the promotion of adaptive functioning in adults after a disaster. Case examples and recommendations for counselors working in disaster situations are…

  10. Companion Animals, Natural Disasters and the Law: An Australian Perspective.

    PubMed

    White, Steven

    2012-08-27

    This article examines the regulation of companion animal welfare during disasters, with some context provided by two recent major disaster events in Australia. Important general lessons for improved disaster management were identified in subsequent inquiries. However, the interests of companion animals continue to be inadequately addressed. This is because key assumptions underpinning disaster planning for companion animals-the primacy of human interests over animal interests and that individuals will properly address companion animal needs during times of disaster-are open to question. In particular these assumptions fail to recognise the inherent value of companion animals, underestimate the strong bond shared by some owners and their animals and, at the same time, overestimate the capacity of some owners to adequately meet the needs of their animals.

  11. 49 CFR 173.426 - Excepted packages for articles containing natural uranium or thorium.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Excepted packages for articles containing natural....426 Excepted packages for articles containing natural uranium or thorium. A manufactured article in which the sole Class 7 (radioactive) material content is natural uranium, unirradiated depleted uranium...

  12. 49 CFR 173.426 - Excepted packages for articles containing natural uranium or thorium.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Excepted packages for articles containing natural....426 Excepted packages for articles containing natural uranium or thorium. A manufactured article in which the sole Class 7 (radioactive) material content is natural uranium, unirradiated depleted uranium...

  13. The cultural politics of mining and natural disaster in Indonesia: by fire and sword.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Jeff; Lewis, Belinda

    2017-01-01

    Natural disasters are inevitably the outcome of cultural agonisms. The cultural politics of natural disasters are shaped by competing claims and conceptions of 'nature'. Recent disasters in Indonesia are directly linked to these contending conceptions and the ways in which different social groups imagine risk and reward. The Sidoarjo volcanic mudflow of 2006 represents a volatile and violent exemplar of contending cultural and economic claims. Like other disasters in Indonesia and elsewhere in the developing world, this 'natural' disaster is characterised by differing conceptions of 'nature' as cultural tradition, divine force, and natural resource. A new extractive project in East Java is exhibiting similar economic and cultural agonisms, particularly around the notion of development, environment, self-determination, and tradition. This paper examines the 'disputes over meaning' associated with natural disasters in contemporary societies, and the ways in which they are related to human culture, social organisation, and hierarchical systems of violence. © 2017 The Author(s). Disasters © Overseas Development Institute, 2017.

  14. Gauging the societal impacts of natural disasters using a capability approach.

    PubMed

    Gardoni, Paolo; Murphy, Colleen

    2010-07-01

    There is a widely acknowledged need for a single composite index that provides a comprehensive picture of the societal impact of disasters. A composite index combines and logically organizes important information policy-makers need to allocate resources for the recovery from natural disasters; it can also inform hazard mitigation strategies. This paper develops a Disaster Impact Index (DII) to gauge the societal impact of disasters on the basis of the changes in individuals' capabilities. The DII can be interpreted as the disaster impact per capita. Capabilities are dimensions of individual well-being and refer to the genuine opportunities individuals have to achieve valuable states and activities (such as being adequately nourished or being mobile). After discussing the steps required to construct the DII, this article computes and compares the DIIs for two earthquakes of similar magnitude in two societies at different levels of development and of two disasters (earthquake and wind storm) in the same society.

  15. Natural Disasters and Cultural Responses. Studies in Third World Societies. Publication Number Thirty-six.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oliver-Smith, Anthony, Ed.

    This collection of articles focuses on natural disasters from earthquakes to famines in developing nations and on the human response from immediate reactions to long term social, political, and economic adaptations that result in social change and development. The introduction, "Disaster Context and Causation: An Overview of Changing Perspectives…

  16. Rethinking the Nature of Disaster: From Failed Instruments of Learning to a Post-Social Understanding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Stewart

    2008-01-01

    Recent disasters have been of such scale and complexity that both the common assumptions made about learning from them, and the traditional approaches distinguishing natural from technological disasters (and now terrorism) are thus challenged. Beck's risk thesis likewise signals the need for a paradigmatic change. Despite sociological inflections…

  17. In Time of Emergency. A Citizen's Handbook on Nuclear Attack and Natural Disasters.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Office of Civil Defense (DOD), Washington, DC.

    A major emergency affecting a large number of people may occur anytime and any place. Natural disasters such as a flood, tornado, fire, hurricane, blizzard or earthquake, or an enemy nuclear attack on the United States may all constitute a major emergency. In any type of general disaster, lives can be saved if people are prepared for the emergency…

  18. Coping with Natural Disasters in Yogyakarta, Indonesia: A Study of Elementary School Seachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seyle, D. Conor; Widyatmoko, C. Siswa; Silver, Roxane Cohen

    2013-01-01

    The nation of Indonesia is in an area of geological instability, resulting in repeated and severe natural disasters including earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, and tsunamis. Teachers, as adult authority figures and people with whom students spend a majority of their day, can play a major role in the lives of children in a disaster-prone community.…

  19. Natural Disasters and Cultural Responses. Studies in Third World Societies. Publication Number Thirty-six.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oliver-Smith, Anthony, Ed.

    This collection of articles focuses on natural disasters from earthquakes to famines in developing nations and on the human response from immediate reactions to long term social, political, and economic adaptations that result in social change and development. The introduction, "Disaster Context and Causation: An Overview of Changing Perspectives…

  20. Rethinking the Nature of Disaster: From Failed Instruments of Learning to a Post-Social Understanding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Stewart

    2008-01-01

    Recent disasters have been of such scale and complexity that both the common assumptions made about learning from them, and the traditional approaches distinguishing natural from technological disasters (and now terrorism) are thus challenged. Beck's risk thesis likewise signals the need for a paradigmatic change. Despite sociological inflections…

  1. Coping with Natural Disasters in Yogyakarta, Indonesia: A Study of Elementary School Seachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seyle, D. Conor; Widyatmoko, C. Siswa; Silver, Roxane Cohen

    2013-01-01

    The nation of Indonesia is in an area of geological instability, resulting in repeated and severe natural disasters including earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, and tsunamis. Teachers, as adult authority figures and people with whom students spend a majority of their day, can play a major role in the lives of children in a disaster-prone community.…

  2. The role of occupational therapists in the contexts of a natural disaster: a scoping review.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Yunwha; Law, Mary; DeMatteo, Carol; Stratford, Paul; Kim, Hwan

    2016-08-01

    To identify and inform the experience and roles of occupational therapists (OTs) in the contexts of a natural disaster. This scoping review was conducted via five steps: (1) identify the research question, (2) identify relevant academic articles published between 2000 and 2014 in English, (3) select articles based on the inclusion criteria, (4) chart the data and (5) collate, summarise, and report the results of the selected articles. The results were presented using descriptive numerical and thematic analyses. OTs can prepare a plan for evacuation of people with disabilities and their accommodation before a disaster occurs. Immediately after a disaster, they can provide emergency services for injuries and provide education and training in coping skills for psychological distress via a community-based rehabilitation approach. Consistent services for survivors' mental health and for building the OTs' capacity as part of disaster management are focussed on in the recovery phase. The potential roles of OTs across the spectrum of a natural disaster were identified via this scoping review. This review will help OTs to become involved in a disaster management system for vulnerable groups across the three phases of preparedness to, respond to and recovery from a disaster. Implication for Rehabilitation Occupational therapists can be involved in disaster management to prepare for, respond to and recover from a natural disaster. Consistent services for psychological distress are needed for people affected by a disaster to return to normalcy. Community-based rehabilitation (CBR) is an important approach to help a wider group of people respond to a natural disaster in a timely manner.

  3. Predictors of Youths' Posttraumatic Stress Symptoms Following a Natural Disaster: The 2010 Nashville, Tennessee, Flood.

    PubMed

    Martin, Nina C; Felton, Julia W; Cole, David A

    2016-01-01

    Framed by a previously established conceptual model of youths' posttraumatic stress (PTS) responses following a disaster, the current longitudinal study examined the relation of predisaster child characteristics (age, gender, depressive symptoms, ruminative coping), predisaster environmental characteristics (negative life events and supportive and negative friendship interactions), and level of disaster exposure to youths' PTS symptoms in the wake of a natural disaster. Prior to the 2010 Nashville, Tennessee, flood, 239 predominantly Caucasian youth from four elementary and middle schools (ages = 10-15, 56% girls) completed measures of depressive symptoms, rumination, negative life events, and social support in the form of both supportive and negative friendship interactions. Approximately 10 days after returning to school, 125 completed measures of disaster exposure and postflood PTS symptoms. Bivariate correlations revealed that disaster-related PTS symptoms were unrelated to age, gender, or predisaster supportive friendship interactions and significantly positively related to level of disaster exposure and predisaster levels of negative life events, depressive symptoms, rumination, and negative friendship interactions. After controlling for level of disaster exposure and other predisaster child and environmental characteristics, depressive symptoms and negative friendship interactions predicted postdisaster PTS symptoms. The effect of child's flood-related experiences on PTS symptoms was not moderated by any of the preexisting child characteristics or environmental indicators. Faced with limited resources after a natural disaster, school counselors and other health professionals should focus special attention on youths who experienced high levels of disaster-related losses and whose predisaster emotional and interpersonal lives were problematic.

  4. Snoozing through the storm: torpor use during a natural disaster

    PubMed Central

    Nowack, Julia; Rojas, A. Daniella; Körtner, Gerhard; Geiser, Fritz

    2015-01-01

    Although storms provide an extreme environmental challenge to organisms and are predicted to increase in frequency and intensity due to climate change, there are no quantitative observations on the behaviour and physiology of animals during natural disasters. We provide the first data on activity and thermal biology of a free-ranging, arboreal mammal during a storm with heavy rain and category 1 cyclone wind speeds. We studied a population of sugar gliders (Petaurus breviceps), a species vulnerable to bad weather due to their small body size and mode of locomotion, in a subtropical habitat during spring when storms are common. Although torpor is generally rare in this species, sugar gliders remained inactive or reduced foraging times during the storm and further minimized energy demands by entering deep torpor. All animals survived the storm and reverted to normal foraging activity during the following night(s). It thus appears that heterothermic mammals have a crucial adaptive advantage over homeothermic species as they can outlast challenging weather events, such as storms and floods, by reducing metabolism and thus energetic needs. PMID:26073747

  5. Resilient Distribution System by Microgrids Formation After Natural Disasters

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Chen; Wang, Jianhui; Qiu, Feng; Zhao, Dongbo

    2015-06-17

    Microgrids with distributed generation provide a resilient solution in the case of major faults in a distribution system due to natural disasters. This paper proposes a novel distribution system operational approach by forming multiple microgrids energized by distributed generation from the radial distribution system in real-time operations, to restore critical loads from the power outage. Specifically, a mixed-integer linear program (MILP) is formulated to maximize the critical loads to be picked up while satisfying the self-adequacy and operation constraints for the microgrids formation problem, by controlling the ON/OFF status of the remotely controlled switch devices and distributed generation. A distributed multi-agent coordination scheme is designed via local communications for the global information discovery as inputs of the optimization, which is suitable for autonomous communication requirements after the disastrous event. The formed microgrids can be further utilized for power quality control and can be connected to a larger microgrid before the restoration of the main grids is complete. Numerical results based on modified IEEE distribution test systems validate the effectiveness of our proposed scheme.

  6. Caring during crisis: animal welfare during pandemics and natural disasters.

    PubMed

    Millman, Suzanne T

    2008-01-01

    From April 29 to May 1, 2007, the University of Guelph hosted a symposium, Caring During Crisis: Animal Welfare During Pandemics and Natural Disasters, with the objectives (a) of raising awareness about how nonhuman animals and the people who care for them are affected during emergencies and (b) of sharing knowledge about how animal welfare may be addressed during these situations. The symposium attracted 150 participants, representing 71 organizations from across Canada, the United States, the United Kingdom, Australia, Chile, and the Cayman Islands. The audience also brought a range of perspectives to the issues - from individuals representing animal protection and commodity organizations to municipal government officials responsible for community safety and correctional services; many of these individuals had little or no animal experience. To take advantage of this diverse audience and range of interests, the symposium was structured with formal presentations by internationally recognized experts, followed by panel discussions at the end of each session to facilitate contributions by the audience. At the conclusion of the 3 days, it was clear that our emotional, economic, and ecological relationships with animals require thoughtful integration of animal care within formal policy and planning for emergency response.

  7. Snoozing through the storm: torpor use during a natural disaster.

    PubMed

    Nowack, Julia; Rojas, A Daniella; Körtner, Gerhard; Geiser, Fritz

    2015-06-15

    Although storms provide an extreme environmental challenge to organisms and are predicted to increase in frequency and intensity due to climate change, there are no quantitative observations on the behaviour and physiology of animals during natural disasters. We provide the first data on activity and thermal biology of a free-ranging, arboreal mammal during a storm with heavy rain and category 1 cyclone wind speeds. We studied a population of sugar gliders (Petaurus breviceps), a species vulnerable to bad weather due to their small body size and mode of locomotion, in a subtropical habitat during spring when storms are common. Although torpor is generally rare in this species, sugar gliders remained inactive or reduced foraging times during the storm and further minimized energy demands by entering deep torpor. All animals survived the storm and reverted to normal foraging activity during the following night(s). It thus appears that heterothermic mammals have a crucial adaptive advantage over homeothermic species as they can outlast challenging weather events, such as storms and floods, by reducing metabolism and thus energetic needs.

  8. Emotional trauma associated with renal disease and natural disasters.

    PubMed

    McClellan, M J

    2001-10-01

    Emotional trauma frequently follows any disaster such as fire, flood, earthquake, accidents, war, bombings, and life-threatening disease. One such disease is end stage renal disease (ESRD), an irreversible, progressive loss of renal function (Lancaster, 1995). Since this is a "do or die" situation, it requires artificial methods of hemodialysis, peritoneal dialysis, or transplant, which require learned coping skills. Emotional trauma may occur pre or post-disaster and may include flashbacks when events trigger suppressed memories or unresolved emotions. Aftercare of disasters requires dedicated professionals to guide patients toward essential lifelines.

  9. Of floods, sandbags and simulations: Urban resilience to natural disasters and the performance of disaster management organisations under change.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dressler, Gunnar; Mueller, Birgit; Frank, Karin; Kuhlicke, Christian

    2015-04-01

    Natural disasters and in particular floods have become a strong threat to urban communities in the last decades. In just eleven years (2002, 2013) two centenary river floods have hit Eastern Germany, causing damages of 9.1 billion € (2002) and 6.7 billion € (2013, first estimate), making them the most costly flood events in German history. Many cities in the Free State of Saxony that were strongly hit by both floods are additionally challenged by demographic change with an ageing society and outmigration leading to population shrinkage. This also constrains the coping capacity of disaster management services, especially those of volunteer-based disaster management organisations such as fire brigades, leading to an increased vulnerability of the community at risk. On the other hand, new technologies such as social media have led to rapid information spread and self-organisation of tremendous numbers of civil volunteers willing to help. How do responsible organisations deal with the challenges associated with demographic change, as well as with expected increases in flood frequency and intensity, and what strategies could enhance their performance in the future? To explore these questions, we developed an agent-based simulation model. It is based on socio-demographic settings of the community, communication and coordination structures of disaster management as well as transportation infrastructure for resources and emergency forces. The model is developed in exchange with relevant stakeholders including experts of local disaster management organisations and authority representatives. The goal of the model is to a) assess the performance of disaster management organisations and determine performance limits with respect to forecast lead times and respective coping times of disaster management organisations and b) use it as a discussion tool with these organisations and authorities to identify weak points as well as new options and strategies to ensure protection

  10. Natural Disaster Risk and Engagement in the Arctic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eichelberger, J. C.

    2015-12-01

    The Arctic is beset with natural hazards no less than other regions of Earth, but there are some special aspects that require attention. The presence of ice leads to spring river flooding and dynamics of coastal erosion not present in warmer climates. Vast boreal forests are subject to wildfires that are huge pollution events and a positive feedback to climate change through production of CO2, other gases, and black carbon. Darkness and extreme cold that prevail for a significant portion of the year is a challenge to disaster response. Special societal aspects of the Arctic produce vulnerabilities on two scales. One is the development of infrastructure in support of growing extractive industries and Arctic shipping. Reliance on such facilities, which often lack redundancy, and on long supply lines for food and fuel from the south impedes resilience. In 1964, Alaska lost much of its infrastructure to the 9.2 magnitude earthquake and subsequent tsunamis. Today, Alaska has greater dependency on external supplies and less internal redundancy. Planning that affects vulnerability of infrastructure is often done by corporations and regulated by government agencies based outside the Arctic. The work of scientists who understood Alaska, both within and outside government, provided information to energy corporations persuading them to include expensive design measures into the Trans Alaska Pipeline for crossing an active fault and preventing thawing of permafrost. This is a success story that should not be forgotten. At the other end of the size scale are isolated off-grid and off-road remote communities with fragile power, water, and sanitation facilities. A disaster there can pose an immediate threat to health and even life. Long-term evacuation and the cost a reconstruction may mean that the community is never re-established. Where such communities are centers of indigneous culture, the culture is threatened. With the goal of identifying best practices with these

  11. The impact of natural disasters on child health and investments in rural India.

    PubMed

    Datar, Ashlesha; Liu, Jenny; Linnemayr, Sebastian; Stecher, Chad

    2013-01-01

    There is growing concern that climate change will lead to more frequent natural disasters that may adversely affect short- and long-term health outcomes in developing countries. Prior research has primarily focused on the impact of single, large disaster events but very little is known about how small and moderate disasters, which are more typical, affect population health. In this paper, we present one of the first investigations of the impact of small and moderate disasters on childhood morbidity, physical growth, and immunizations by combining household data on over 80,000 children from three waves of the Indian National Family and Health Survey with an international database of natural disasters (EM-DAT). We find that exposure to a natural disaster in the past month increases the likelihood of acute illnesses such as diarrhea, fever, and acute respiratory illness in children under 5 year by 9-18%. Exposure to a disaster in the past year reduces height-for-age and weight-for-age z-scores by 0.12-0.15 units, increases the likelihood of stunting and underweight by 7%, and reduces the likelihood of having full age-appropriate immunization coverage by nearly 18%. We also find that disasters' effects vary significantly by gender, age, and socioeconomic characteristics. Most notably, the adverse effects on growth outcomes are much smaller among boys, infants, and families with more socioeconomic resources.

  12. Natural disasters and communicable diseases in the Americas: contribution of veterinary public health.

    PubMed

    Schneider, Maria Cristina; Tirado, Maria Cristina; Rereddy, Shruthi; Dugas, Raymond; Borda, Maria Isabel; Peralta, Eduardo Alvarez; Aldighieri, Sylvain; Cosivi, Ottorino

    2012-01-01

    The consequences of natural disasters on the people living in the Americas are often amplified by socio-economic conditions. This risk may be increased by climate-related changes. The public health consequences of natural disasters include fatalities as well as an increased risk of communicable diseases. Many of these diseases are zoonotic and foodborne diseases. The aim of this article is to provide an overview of the importance of natural disasters for the Americas and to emphasise the contribution of veterinary public health (VPH) to the management of zoonotic and foodborne disease risks. An analysis was conducted of natural disasters that occurred in the Americas between 2004 and 2008. Five cases studies illustrating the contributions of VPH in situations of disaster are presented. The data shows that natural disasters, particularly storms and floods, can create very important public health problems. Central America and the Caribbean, particularly Haiti, presented a higher risk than the other areas of the Americas. Two priority areas of technical cooperation are recommended for this region, namely: reducing the risk of leptospirosis and other vector-borne disease outbreaks related to floods and hurricanes and improving food safety. The contribution of different disciplines and sectors in disaster preparedness and response is of paramount importance to minimise morbidity and mortality.

  13. Religiosity, Gender, and Natural Disasters: A Qualitative Study of Disaster-Stricken Regions in Iran.

    PubMed

    Sohrabizadeh, Sanaz; Jahangiri, Katayoun; Khani Jazani, Reza

    2017-04-19

    While religiosity is emerging as one of the more important subjects in disaster management, identifying gender differences in using religion as a coping method has attracted very little attention. The aim of this study was to explore the effects of religiosity on disaster-affected women and men in the setting of Iran. A field-based investigation using a qualitative approach was carried out to achieve the study's purpose. Data were collected using in-depth unstructured interviews with 25 participants who had been damaged by recent disasters. Two themes, negative and positive effects of religiosity, and five categories were extracted from the data. Women may be influenced by religion more than men, and thus, they can play key roles in strengthening the positive effects of religiosity.

  14. 49 CFR 173.426 - Excepted packages for articles containing natural uranium or thorium.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... uranium or thorium. 173.426 Section 173.426 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation....426 Excepted packages for articles containing natural uranium or thorium. A manufactured article in... or natural thorium, and its packaging, are excepted from the requirements in this subchapter...

  15. 49 CFR 173.426 - Excepted packages for articles containing natural uranium or thorium.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... uranium or thorium. 173.426 Section 173.426 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation....426 Excepted packages for articles containing natural uranium or thorium. A manufactured article in... or natural thorium, and its packaging, are excepted from the requirements in this subchapter...

  16. 49 CFR 173.426 - Excepted packages for articles containing natural uranium or thorium.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... uranium or thorium. 173.426 Section 173.426 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation....426 Excepted packages for articles containing natural uranium or thorium. A manufactured article in... or natural thorium, and its packaging, are excepted from the requirements in this subchapter...

  17. Responsibilities of the USDA-Food and Nutrition Service in Nutrition Assistance Response to Natural Disasters.

    PubMed

    Abernathy, Toni

    2015-01-01

    USDA makes sure that nutritious USDA Foods are made available to States, Indian Tribal Organizations and Emergency Feeding Organizations to help feed survivors of natural disasters and other emergencies when needed.

  18. Health Facilities Safety in Natural Disasters: Experiences and Challenges from South East Europe

    PubMed Central

    Radovic, Vesela; Vitale, Ksenija; Tchounwou, Paul B.

    2012-01-01

    The United Nations named 2010 as a year of natural disasters, and launched a worldwide campaign to improve the safety of schools and hospitals from natural disasters. In the region of South East Europe, Croatia and Serbia have suffered the greatest impacts of natural disasters on their communities and health facilities. In this paper the disaster management approaches of the two countries are compared, with a special emphasis on the existing technological and legislative systems for safety and protection of health facilities and people. Strategic measures that should be taken in future to provide better safety for health facilities and populations, based on the best practices and positive experiences in other countries are recommended. Due to the expected consequences of global climate change in the region and the increased different environmental risks both countries need to refine their disaster preparedness strategies. Also, in the South East Europe, the effects of a natural disaster are amplified in the health sector due to its critical medical infrastructure. Therefore, the principles of environmental security should be implemented in public health policies in the described region, along with principles of disaster management through regional collaborations. PMID:22754465

  19. Health facilities safety in natural disasters: experiences and challenges from South East Europe.

    PubMed

    Radovic, Vesela; Vitale, Ksenija; Tchounwou, Paul B

    2012-05-01

    The United Nations named 2010 as a year of natural disasters, and launched a worldwide campaign to improve the safety of schools and hospitals from natural disasters. In the region of South East Europe, Croatia and Serbia have suffered the greatest impacts of natural disasters on their communities and health facilities. In this paper the disaster management approaches of the two countries are compared, with a special emphasis on the existing technological and legislative systems for safety and protection of health facilities and people. Strategic measures that should be taken in future to provide better safety for health facilities and populations, based on the best practices and positive experiences in other countries are recommended. Due to the expected consequences of global climate change in the region and the increased different environmental risks both countries need to refine their disaster preparedness strategies. Also, in the South East Europe, the effects of a natural disaster are amplified in the health sector due to its critical medical infrastructure. Therefore, the principles of environmental security should be implemented in public health policies in the described region, along with principles of disaster management through regional collaborations.

  20. Infectious diseases that pose specific challenges after natural disasters: a review.

    PubMed

    Ligon, B Lee

    2006-01-01

    In a time span of less than one year, December 2004 to October 2005, several natural disasters of extreme proportions struck different areas of the world, causing unparalleled destruction and loss of lives and property. In each of these instances, the potential existed for acquisition of infectious diseases caused by bacteria, viruses, mold, and mildew and demonstrated that such disasters represent a public health concern, which is exacerbated by the fact that many factors may work synergistically to increase the risk of morbidity and mortality caused by communicable diseases. This article reviews causes, symptoms, and treatments of various infectious diseases that pose a threat in the event of a natural disaster.

  1. DoD Response to Natural Disasters - Why the National Guard is Off Limits

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-03-15

    to “natural disasters, epidemics, serious health emergencies, terrorists attacks, or other conditions when the authorities of the state are...epidemic, serious health emergency, terrorist attack, or other conditions when the President determines that the authorities of the 17 state are...enforce the laws of the United States when, as a result of a natural disaster, epidemic, or other serious public health emergency, terrorist

  2. Natural Disaster: Long-Range Impact on Human Response to Future Disaster Threats.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanson, Susan; And Others

    1979-01-01

    The study examines the effect of a prior tornado disaster occurring in a community and that community's current response to a tornado threat. The study concludes that it is not past experience with tornadoes that relates to response to warnings, but rather awareness. Experience is but one source of information contributing to their awareness. (RE)

  3. Natural Disaster: Long-Range Impact on Human Response to Future Disaster Threats.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanson, Susan; And Others

    1979-01-01

    The study examines the effect of a prior tornado disaster occurring in a community and that community's current response to a tornado threat. The study concludes that it is not past experience with tornadoes that relates to response to warnings, but rather awareness. Experience is but one source of information contributing to their awareness. (RE)

  4. Novel miniature mobile cardiac catheterization laboratory for critical cardiovascular disease following natural disasters: a feasibility study.

    PubMed

    Han, Ya-ling; Liang, Zhuo; Yao, Tian-ming; Sun, Jing-yang; Liang, Ming; Huo, Yu; Wang, Geng; Wang, Xiao-zeng; Liang, Yan-chun; Meng, Wei-hong

    2012-03-01

    Natural disasters have been frequent in recent years. Effective treatment of patients with cardiovascular disease following natural disasters is an unsolved problem. We aimed to develop a novel miniature mobile cardiac catheterization laboratory (Mini Mobile Cath Lab) to provide emergency interventional services for patients with critical cardiovascular disease following natural disasters. A feasibility study was performed by testing the Mini Mobile Cath Lab on dogs with ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) model in a hypothetical natural-disaster-stricken area. The Mini Mobile Cath Lab was transported to the hypothetical natural-disaster-stricken area by truck. Coronary angiography and primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) were performed on six dogs with STEMI model. The transportation and transformation of the Mini Mobile Cath Lab were monitored and its functioning was evaluated through the results of animal experiments. The Mini Mobile Cath Lab could be transported by truck at an average speed of 80 km/h on mountain roads during daytime in the winter, under conditions of light snow (-15°C to -20°C/-68°F to -59°F). The average time required to prepare the Mini Mobile Cath Lab after transportation, in a wetland area, was 30 minutes. Coronary angiography, and primary PCI were performed successfully. This preliminary feasibility study of the use of the Mini Mobile Cath Lab for emergency interventional treatment of dogs with STEMI indicated that it may perform well in the rescue of critical cardiovascular disease following natural disasters.

  5. Natural hazards research and response; international decade for reducing loss from natural disasters

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hays, W.W.

    1992-01-01

    IDNDR offers an unprecedented opportunity to apply new knowledge and technology to minimize losses in regions at high risks. The program is very challenging because full implementation requires a multidisciplinary effort on a global scale, an undertaking never before attempted. In concert with the other signatory nations, the Untied States is carrying out a balanced and comprehensive program of research and applications as a contribution to the IDNDR. The U.S program is designed to reduce both loss of life and property damage from natural disasters.  

  6. The Impact of Natural Disasters on Child Health and Investments in Rural India

    PubMed Central

    Datar, Ashlesha; Liu, Jenny; Linnemayr, Sebastian; Stecher, Chad

    2012-01-01

    There is growing concern that climate change will lead to more frequent natural disasters that may adversely affect short- and long-term health outcomes in developing countries. Prior research has primarily focused on the impact of single, large disaster events but very little is known about how small and moderate disasters, which are more typical, affect population health. In this paper, we present one of the first investigations of the impact of small and moderate disasters on childhood morbidity, physical growth, and immunizations by combining household data on over 80,000 children from three waves of the Indian National Family and Health Survey with an international database of natural disasters (EM-DAT). We find that exposure to a natural disaster in the past month increases the likelihood of acute illnesses such as diarrhea, fever, and acute respiratory illness in children under 5 year by 9-18%. Exposure to a disaster in the past year reduces height-for-age and weight-for-age z-scores by 0.12-0.15 units, increases the likelihood of stunting and underweight by 7%, and reduces the likelihood of having full age-appropriate immunization coverage by nearly 18%. We also find that disasters’ effects vary significantly by gender, age, and socioeconomic characteristics. Most notably, the adverse effects on growth outcomes are much smaller among boys, infants, and families with more socioeconomic resources. PMID:23159307

  7. Development of the Anxiety Scale for Natural Disaster: Examination of its Reliability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsumoto, Miki; Yatabe, Ryuichi

    The objective of present study was to develop the a nxiety scale for natural disaster, and to examineits reliability. We developed the 14 items for the anxiety scale based on anticipated damage of Nankai earthquake in Ehime prefecture. The subjects consist of 391 people in Yawatahama city, Ehime prefecture. Firstly, we analyzed the latent factors which influenced the anxiety for natural disaster by using the factor analysis method. Secondly, we cal culated Cronbach's coefficient alpha. The result of the factor analysis confirmed the three factors such as "anxiety for lifeline damage", "anxiety for second ary disaster" and "fear for others". Cronbach's coefficient alpha for each factor showed the high interna l consistency reliability. We considered that each factor could prove to be a valuable tool for researc h about the person's anxiety for natural disaster.

  8. The Gender Analysis Tools Applied in Natural Disasters Management: A Systematic Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Sohrabizadeh, Sanaz; Tourani, Sogand; Khankeh, Hamid Reza

    2014-01-01

    Background: Although natural disasters have caused considerable damages around the world, and gender analysis can improve community disaster preparedness or mitigation, there is little research about the gendered analytical tools and methods in communities exposed to natural disasters and hazards. These tools evaluate gender vulnerability and capacity in pre-disaster and post-disaster phases of the disaster management cycle. Objectives: Identifying the analytical gender tools and the strengths and limitations of them as well as determining gender analysis studies which had emphasized on the importance of using gender analysis in disasters. Methods: The literature search was conducted in June 2013 using PubMed, Web of Sciences, ProQuest Research Library, World Health Organization Library, Gender and Disaster Network (GDN) archive. All articles, guidelines, fact sheets and other materials that provided an analytical framework for a gender analysis approach in disasters were included and the non-English documents as well as gender studies of non-disasters area were excluded. Analysis of the included studies was done separately by descriptive and thematic analyses. Results: A total of 207 documents were retrieved, of which only nine references were included. Of these, 45% were in form of checklist, 33% case study report, and the remaining 22% were article. All selected papers were published within the period 1994-2012. Conclusions: A focus on women’s vulnerability in the related research and the lack of valid and reliable gender analysis tools were considerable issues identified by the literature review. Although non-English literatures with English abstract were included in the study, the possible exclusion of non-English ones was found as the limitation of this study. PMID:24678441

  9. The «Natural Hazard WIKISAURUS»: explanation and understanding of natural hazards to build disaster resilience

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rapisardi, Elena; Di Franco, Sabina; Giardino, Marco

    2013-04-01

    In the Internet and Web 2.0 era, the need of information is increased. Moreover, recent major and minor disasters highlighted that information is a crucial element also in emergency management. Informing the population is now the focal point of any civil protection activity and program. Risk perception and social vulnerability become widely discussed issues "when a disaster occurs": a "day-after" approach that should be replaced by a "day-before" one. Is that a cultural problem? Is it a communication issue? As a matter of fact, nowadays academics, experts, institutions are called to be more effective in transferring natural hazards knowledge (technical, operational, historical, social) to the public, for switching from «protection/passivity» (focused on disaster event) to «resilience» (focused on vulnerability). However, this change includes to abandon the "Elites Knowledge" approach and to support "Open Knowledge" and "Open Data" perspectives. Validated scientific information on natural hazards is not yet a common heritage: there are several cases of misleading or inaccurate information published by media. During recent Italian national emergencies [Flash Floods Liguria-Toscana 2011, Earthquake Emilia-Romagna 2012], social media registered people not only asking for news on the disaster event, but also talking trivially about scientific contents on natural hazards. By considering these facts, in the framework of a phD program in Earth Science, a joint team UNITO-NatRisk and CNR-IIA conceived the web project "Natural Hazards Wikisaurus" [NHW], combining two previous experiences: "HyperIspro" - a wiki on civil protection set up by Giuseppe Zamberletti, former Italian minister of Civil Protection - and "Earth Thesaurus", developed by CNR-IIA. The team decided to start from the «words» using both the collaboration of the wiki concept (open and participatory knowledge) and the power of explanation of a thesaurus. Why? Because a word is not enough, as a term has

  10. Psychiatric disorders and functional impairment among disaster victims after exposure to a natural disaster: a population based study.

    PubMed

    Hussain, Ajmal; Weisaeth, Lars; Heir, Trond

    2011-01-01

    We aimed to examine psychiatric morbidity and functional impairment after a natural disaster. Norwegian tourists who survived the 2004 tsunami in Khao Lak (n = 63), a severely affected area in Thailand, were interviewed in person 2.5 years after the disaster. The examination included the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview, the PTSD module of the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis I disorders, the Work and Social Adjustment Scale (WSAS), the Global Assessment of Functioning function score (GAF-F), and questions covering background characteristics and disaster exposure. The most prevalent disorders were specific phobia (30.2%), agoraphobia (17.5%), social anxiety disorder (11.1%), PTSD (11.1%), major depressive disorder (MDD, 11.1%), and dysthymic disorder (DD, 11.1%). In 24 of the 40 respondents with a current psychiatric disorder, symptoms had originated after the tsunami. The post-tsunami 2.5 year incidence of PTSD and MDD was 36.5% and 28.6%, respectively. Multivariable regression analysis showed that the depressive disorders (MDD and DD) and PTSD were associated with self-reported functional impairment (WSAS), and the depressive disorders were associated with clinician assessed functional impairment (GAF-F). Small sample size and high education may limit the generalizability of the results. Depression and anxiety disorders were common among disaster victims 2.5 years after the 2004 tsunami. Psychiatric disorders other than PTSD, especially depressive disorders, are of clinical importance when considering long-term mental health effect of disasters. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. [Natural disasters and health: an analysis of the situation in Brazil].

    PubMed

    Freitas, Carlos Machado de; Silva, Diego Ricardo Xavier; Sena, Aderita Ricarda Martins de; Silva, Eliane Lima; Sales, Luiz Belino Ferreira; Carvalho, Mauren Lopes de; Mazoto, Maíra Lopes; Barcellos, Christovam; Costa, André Monteiro; Oliveira, Mara Lúcia Carneiro; Corvalán, Carlos

    2014-09-01

    Natural disasters are still insufficiently studied and understood within the scope of public health in this country, with impacts in the short and long term. The scope of this article is to analyze the relationship between disasters and their impact on health based on disaster data recorded in the country. The methodology involved the systematization of data and information contained in the Brazilian Atlas of Natural Disasters 1991-2010 and directly from the National Department of Civil Defense (NSCD). Disasters were organized into four categories of events (meteorological; hydrological; climatological; geophysical/geological) and for each of the latter, the data for morbidity, mortality and exposure of those affected were examined, revealing different types of impacts. Three categories of disasters stood out: the hydrological events showed higher percentages of mortality, morbidity and exposure; climatological events had higher percentages of incidents and people affected; the geophysical/geological events had a higher average of exposure and deaths per event. Lastly, a more active participation of the health sector in the post-2015 global political agenda is proposed, particularly events related to sustainable development, climate change and disaster risk reduction.

  12. Strategies for Logistics in Case of a Natural Disaster

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-04-30

    U.S. Navy Humanitarian Assistance and Disaster Relief Operations (MBA Student Report) LT Cullen Greenfield and LT Cameron Ingram, USN Financing ...accreditation in Acquisition, Financial and Supply Chain Management and Joint Professional Military Education. Dussault is certified in production...of the analysis of alternatives for capital purchases under conditions of resource scarcity, supply chain management, risk analysis, humanitarian

  13. Responses of Urban and Rural Ministers to a Natural Disaster.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Echterling, Lennis G.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Finds that 44 urban Virginia and rural West Virginia ministers faced similar challenges following 1985's severe floods, but differed in available resources, varieties of disaster relief roles they took, extent of posttraumatic stress symptoms, and strategies used to meet community needs. Contains 14 references and the interview instrument. (SV)

  14. Strategies for Logistics in Case of a Natural Disaster

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-09-28

    sustained over time, to include the rotation of perishable stocks? How can information regarding the location, quantity, and condition of prepositioned...addition to the prepositioning of relief inventories, a disaster response may require the formulation of policies that require the expansion of...stocks in supply chains with evolving forecasts (Schoenmeyr & Graves, 2008), capacity Infrastructure Preparation Ramp Up Sustainment Ramp Down Asset

  15. Major Natural Disasters in China, 1985–2014: Occurrence and Damages

    PubMed Central

    Han, Weixiao; Liang, Chen; Jiang, Baofa; Ma, Wei; Zhang, Ying

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to describe the characteristics of natural disasters and associated losses from 1985 to 2014. The Mann-Kendall method was used to detect any long-term trends and abrupt changes. Hotspot analysis was conducted to detect the spatial clusters of disasters. We found an increasing trend in the occurrence of integrated natural disasters (tau = 0.594, p < 0.001), particularly for floods (tau = 0.507, p < 0.001), landslides (tau = 0.365, p = 0.009) and storms (tau = 0.289, p = 0.032). Besides, there was an abrupt increase of natural disasters in 1998–2000. Hotspots of droughts, floods, landslides and storms were identified in central, southern, southwest and southeast areas of China, respectively. Annual deaths from integrated natural disasters were decreasing (tau = −0.237, p = 0.068) at about 32 persons/year, decreasing at 17 persons/year for floods (tau = −0.154, p = 0.239), and decreasing at approximately 12 persons/year for storms (tau = −0.338, p = 0.009). No significant trend was detected in inflation-adjusted damages while a declining trend was detected in the ratio of year damage against GDP (gross domestic product). In conclusion, there has been an increasing trend in occurrence of natural disasters in China with the absence of an increase in life and economic losses. Despite the progress in the disaster adaption, there will be great challenges in disaster control for China in the future. PMID:27834899

  16. The return period analysis of natural disasters with statistical modeling of bivariate joint probability distribution.

    PubMed

    Li, Ning; Liu, Xueqin; Xie, Wei; Wu, Jidong; Zhang, Peng

    2013-01-01

    New features of natural disasters have been observed over the last several years. The factors that influence the disasters' formation mechanisms, regularity of occurrence and main characteristics have been revealed to be more complicated and diverse in nature than previously thought. As the uncertainty involved increases, the variables need to be examined further. This article discusses the importance and the shortage of multivariate analysis of natural disasters and presents a method to estimate the joint probability of the return periods and perform a risk analysis. Severe dust storms from 1990 to 2008 in Inner Mongolia were used as a case study to test this new methodology, as they are normal and recurring climatic phenomena on Earth. Based on the 79 investigated events and according to the dust storm definition with bivariate, the joint probability distribution of severe dust storms was established using the observed data of maximum wind speed and duration. The joint return periods of severe dust storms were calculated, and the relevant risk was analyzed according to the joint probability. The copula function is able to simulate severe dust storm disasters accurately. The joint return periods generated are closer to those observed in reality than the univariate return periods and thus have more value in severe dust storm disaster mitigation, strategy making, program design, and improvement of risk management. This research may prove useful in risk-based decision making. The exploration of multivariate analysis methods can also lay the foundation for further applications in natural disaster risk analysis.

  17. Are natural hazards and disaster losses in the U.S. increasing?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cutter, Susan L.; Emrich, Christopher

    More than 35 major Presidential disaster declarations, including those for hurricanes Katrina and Rita, already have been declared across the United States in 2005. This is a harbinger of another costly year for natural disasters.While losses from the 2004 hurricane season are still being tallied, estimates suggest that each Florida hurricane last year was responsible for more than $5 billion in damages (http://www.ncdc.gov/oa/reports/billionz. html). This year (2005) may prove to be the costliest ever. To see whether the years 2004-2005 are unique or are the continuation of an increasing trend in disaster losses over time, spatial and temporal trends in natural hazards losses for the United States (1960-2003) were examined and compared with the geographic patterns of Presidential disaster declarations.

  18. Surviving the Unexpected: A Curriculum Guide for Wilderness Survival and Survival from Natural and Man Made Disasters.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fear, Daniel E., Ed.; Fear, Eugene H., Ed.

    Intended for students in elementary school, secondary school, and adult classes, the curriculum guide presents information about human factors and priorities in three kinds of disasters: wilderness emergencies, natural disasters, and man-made disasters. The guide contains lesson plans in each containing objectives, desired understanding, and…

  19. Surviving the Unexpected: A Curriculum Guide for Wilderness Survival and Survival from Natural and Man Made Disasters.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fear, Daniel E., Ed.; Fear, Eugene H., Ed.

    Intended for students in elementary school, secondary school, and adult classes, the curriculum guide presents information about human factors and priorities in three kinds of disasters: wilderness emergencies, natural disasters, and man-made disasters. The guide contains lesson plans in each containing objectives, desired understanding, and…

  20. School Health: an essential strategy in promoting community resilience and preparedness for natural disasters.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Kenzo; Kodama, Mitsuya; Gregorio, Ernesto R; Tomokawa, Sachi; Asakura, Takashi; Waikagul, Jitra; Kobayashi, Jun

    2015-01-01

    Background The Third UN World Conference on Disaster Risk Reduction recommended the implementation of the Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction 2015-2030, which aims to achieve substantial risk reduction and to avoid various disaster-associated losses, including human lives and livelihoods, based on the lessons from the implementation of the Hyogo framework. However, the recommendations did not lay enough stress on the school and the Safe School Concept, which are the core components of a disaster response. Objective To raise the issue of the importance of schools in disaster response. Results For human capacity building to avoid the damage caused by natural disasters, we should focus on the function of schools in the community and on school health framework. Schools perform a range of functions, which include being a landmark place for evacuation, acting as a participatory education hub among communities (students are usually from the surrounding communities), and being a sustainable source of current disaster-related information. In 2007, the Bangkok Action Agenda (BAA) on school education and disaster risk reduction (DRR) recommended the integration of DRR into education policy development, the enhancement of participatory mechanisms to improve DRR education, and the extension of DRR education from schools to communities. Based on our discussion and the recommendations of the BAA, we suggest that our existing challenges are to construct a repository of disaster-related lessons, develop training materials based on current information drawn from previous disasters, and disseminate the training to schools and communities. Conclusions Schools linked with school health can provide good opportunities for DRR with a focus on development of school health policy and a community-oriented participatory approach.

  1. School Health: an essential strategy in promoting community resilience and preparedness for natural disasters.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Kenzo; Kodama, Mitsuya; Gregorio, Ernesto R; Tomokawa, Sachi; Asakura, Takashi; Waikagul, Jitra; Kobayashi, Jun

    2015-01-01

    The Third UN World Conference on Disaster Risk Reduction recommended the implementation of the Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction 2015-2030, which aims to achieve substantial risk reduction and to avoid various disaster-associated losses, including human lives and livelihoods, based on the lessons from the implementation of the Hyogo framework. However, the recommendations did not lay enough stress on the school and the Safe School Concept, which are the core components of a disaster response. To raise the issue of the importance of schools in disaster response. For human capacity building to avoid the damage caused by natural disasters, we should focus on the function of schools in the community and on school health framework. Schools perform a range of functions, which include being a landmark place for evacuation, acting as a participatory education hub among communities (students are usually from the surrounding communities), and being a sustainable source of current disaster-related information. In 2007, the Bangkok Action Agenda (BAA) on school education and disaster risk reduction (DRR) recommended the integration of DRR into education policy development, the enhancement of participatory mechanisms to improve DRR education, and the extension of DRR education from schools to communities. Based on our discussion and the recommendations of the BAA, we suggest that our existing challenges are to construct a repository of disaster-related lessons, develop training materials based on current information drawn from previous disasters, and disseminate the training to schools and communities. Schools linked with school health can provide good opportunities for DRR with a focus on development of school health policy and a community-oriented participatory approach.

  2. School Health: an essential strategy in promoting community resilience and preparedness for natural disasters

    PubMed Central

    Takahashi, Kenzo; Kodama, Mitsuya; Gregorio, Ernesto R.; Tomokawa, Sachi; Asakura, Takashi; Waikagul, Jitra; Kobayashi, Jun

    2015-01-01

    Background The Third UN World Conference on Disaster Risk Reduction recommended the implementation of the Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction 2015–2030, which aims to achieve substantial risk reduction and to avoid various disaster-associated losses, including human lives and livelihoods, based on the lessons from the implementation of the Hyogo framework. However, the recommendations did not lay enough stress on the school and the Safe School Concept, which are the core components of a disaster response. Objective To raise the issue of the importance of schools in disaster response. Results For human capacity building to avoid the damage caused by natural disasters, we should focus on the function of schools in the community and on school health framework. Schools perform a range of functions, which include being a landmark place for evacuation, acting as a participatory education hub among communities (students are usually from the surrounding communities), and being a sustainable source of current disaster-related information. In 2007, the Bangkok Action Agenda (BAA) on school education and disaster risk reduction (DRR) recommended the integration of DRR into education policy development, the enhancement of participatory mechanisms to improve DRR education, and the extension of DRR education from schools to communities. Based on our discussion and the recommendations of the BAA, we suggest that our existing challenges are to construct a repository of disaster-related lessons, develop training materials based on current information drawn from previous disasters, and disseminate the training to schools and communities. Conclusions Schools linked with school health can provide good opportunities for DRR with a focus on development of school health policy and a community-oriented participatory approach. PMID:26689458

  3. The epidemiology of disasters.

    PubMed Central

    Lechat, M. F.

    1976-01-01

    Over the last few years there has been an increasing awareness that some kind of disaster management should be possible. The emphasis is now moving from post-disaster improvisation to predisaster preparedness. The League of Red Cross Societies has increasingly encouraged predisaster planning in countries at risk. A new United Nations agency - United Nations Disaster Relief Office (UNDRO)- has been set up with headquarters in Geneva. Coordination and exchange of information between agencies engaged in disaster relief are becoming the rule rather than the exception, and a number of groups have started with the specific objective of making professional expertise available to disaster management. A number of private initiatives have been taken, meetings have been organized, research centers set up, and research projects launched. The study of disasters needs to be approached on a multidisciplinary basis, the more so since the health component is only one part of the broad disaster problem and, perhaps not the major one. Social scientists, psychologists, administrators, economists, geographers, have been or are conducting a number of studies on natural disasters. These studies have provided new insights and have proved most useful in preparing for disasters and increasing the effectiveness and acceptance of relief operations. This is a vital and challenging field, wide open for research. It is now time for epidemiologists and community health scientists to enter the fray and provide much needed information on which a rational, effective and flexible policy for the management of disasters can be based. PMID:959212

  4. The epidemiology of disasters.

    PubMed

    Lechat, M F

    1976-06-01

    Over the last few years there has been an increasing awareness that some kind of disaster management should be possible. The emphasis is now moving from post-disaster improvisation to predisaster preparedness. The League of Red Cross Societies has increasingly encouraged predisaster planning in countries at risk. A new United Nations agency - United Nations Disaster Relief Office (UNDRO)- has been set up with headquarters in Geneva. Coordination and exchange of information between agencies engaged in disaster relief are becoming the rule rather than the exception, and a number of groups have started with the specific objective of making professional expertise available to disaster management. A number of private initiatives have been taken, meetings have been organized, research centers set up, and research projects launched. The study of disasters needs to be approached on a multidisciplinary basis, the more so since the health component is only one part of the broad disaster problem and, perhaps not the major one. Social scientists, psychologists, administrators, economists, geographers, have been or are conducting a number of studies on natural disasters. These studies have provided new insights and have proved most useful in preparing for disasters and increasing the effectiveness and acceptance of relief operations. This is a vital and challenging field, wide open for research. It is now time for epidemiologists and community health scientists to enter the fray and provide much needed information on which a rational, effective and flexible policy for the management of disasters can be based.

  5. How should we screen for depression following a natural disaster? An ROC approach to post-disaster screening in adolescents and adults.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Joseph R; Adams, Zachary W; Menon, Suvarna V; Youngstrom, Eric A; Bunnell, Brian E; Acierno, Ron; Ruggiero, Kenneth J; Danielson, Carla Kmett

    2016-09-15

    The present study's aim was to provide the foundation for an efficient, empirically based protocol for depression screening following a natural disaster. Utilizing a Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) analytic approach, the study tested a) what specific disaster-related stressors (i.e., property damage, loss of basic services) and individual-related constructs (i.e., PTSD symptoms, trauma history, social support) conveyed the greatest risk for post-natural disaster depression, b) specific cutoff scores across these measures, and c) whether the significance or cutoff scores for each construct varied between adolescents and adults. Structured phone-based clinical interviews were conducted with 2000 adolescents who lived through a tornado and 1543 adults who survived a hurricane. Findings suggested that in both adolescents and adults, individual-related constructs forecasted greater risk for depressive symptoms following a natural disaster compared to disaster-related stressors. Furthermore, trauma history and PTSD symptoms were particularly strong indicators for adolescent depressive symptoms compared to adult depressive symptoms. Adolescents and adults who reported vulnerable scores for social support, trauma history, and lifetime PTSD symptoms were approximately twice as likely to present as depressed following the natural disaster. Findings from the present study were limited to post-disaster assessments and based on self-reported functioning 6-12 months following the natural disaster. The present study synthesizes the extensive body of research on post-disaster functioning by providing a clear framework for which questions may be most important to ask when screening for depression following a natural disaster. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. How Should We Screen for Depression Following a Natural Disaster? An ROC Approach to Post-Disaster Screening in Adolescents and Adults

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Joseph R.; Adams, Zachary W.; Menon, Suvarna V.; Youngstrom, Eric A.; Bunnell, Brian E.; Acierno, Ron; Ruggiero, Kenneth J.; Danielson, Carla Kmett

    2016-01-01

    Background The present study’s aim was to provide the foundation for an efficient, empirically based protocol for depression screening following a natural disaster. Utilizing a Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) analytic approach, the study tested a) what specific disaster-related stressors (i.e., property damage, loss of basic services) and individual-related constructs (i.e., PTSD symptoms, trauma history, social support) conveyed the greatest risk for post-natural disaster depression, b) specific cutoff scores across these measures, and c) whether the significance or cutoff scores for each construct varied between adolescents and adults. Methods Structured phone-based clinical interviews were conducted with 2,000 adolescents who lived through a tornado and 1,543 adults who survived a hurricane. Results Findings suggested that in both adolescents and adults, individual-related constructs forecasted greater risk for depressive symptoms following a natural disaster compared to disaster-related stressors. Furthermore, trauma history and PTSD symptoms were particularly strong indicators for adolescent depressive symptoms compared to adult depressive symptoms. Adolescents and adults who reported vulnerable scores for social support, trauma history, and lifetime PTSD symptoms were approximately twice as likely to present as depressed following the natural disaster. Limitations Findings from the present study were limited to post-disaster assessments and based on self-reported functioning 6–12 months following the natural disaster. Conclusions The present study synthesizes the extensive body of research on post-disaster functioning by providing a clear framework for which questions may be most important to ask when screening for depression following a natural disaster. PMID:27259082

  7. Perceived parenting change and child posttraumatic stress following a natural disaster.

    PubMed

    Cobham, Vanessa E; McDermott, Brett

    2014-02-01

    Recent research suggests that not only parental psychopathology, but also parenting practices, have a role to play in the development of child posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTSS) following a natural disaster. The current study aimed to investigate the relationship between parents' perceptions of their parenting in the aftermath of a natural disaster, and child PTSS. A cross-sectional design was used to explore the associations among child PTSS, parents' perceptions of altered (more anxious) parenting, and parental disaster-related distress (altered cognitions and behaviors) in 874 elementary school children (ages 8-12 years) and their parents following a severe storm of cyclonic proportions. With parental consent, school-based screening was conducted in impacted communities 3 months after the storm. Children completed a screening questionnaire consisting of the Child Trauma Screening Questionnaire (CTSQ; used for identifying children at risk for posttraumatic stress disorder [PTSD]), as well as a range of questions assessing disaster exposure and threat perception. Parents completed questions relating to their perceptions of changes in their parenting since the storm, as well as two items relating to their own disaster-related distress. Independent of other significant associations with child PTSS (such as age, gender, and disaster exposure), a high level of parent-perceived altered parenting appeared to put children at increased risk for PTSS 3 months after the disaster. However, when the sample was stratified for the presence or absence of altered parent cognitions and behaviors following the storm, altered parenting was found to have a unique relationship with child PTSS only when parents reported altered disaster-related cognitions and behaviors. When parents report disaster-related cognitions and behaviors, their perception of altered parenting practices (becoming more protective, less granting of autonomy, and communicating a sense of current danger) is

  8. Support, opinion of support and psychological health among survivors of a natural disaster.

    PubMed

    Wahlström, Lars; Michélsen, Hans; Schulman, Abbe; Backheden, Magnus

    2013-02-01

    Although formal intervention after disasters is recommended, the evidence base for this is weak. Satisfaction with support after disasters is seldom investigated and the relation to psychological symptoms is unknown. To investigate whether dissatisfaction with social and formalized support are associated with post-disaster psychological symptoms. A total of 1,505 Swedish survivors of the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami responded to a questionnaire 14 months after the disaster, including the General Health Questionnaire-12, the Impact of Events Scale - Revised, the Crisis Support Scale, and questions concerning the reception and appraisal of social and formalized support from health care, psychological services and insurance agencies. Disaster exposure and background factors were controlled for in the analyses. Reception of formalized support, but not social support, was associated with both psychological distress and post-traumatic stress. Dissatisfaction with social but not formalized support, with the exception of support from insurance agencies, was associated with psychological distress. Social support and formalized support should be differentiated in future studies in order to improve preventive intervention efforts after disasters. The reporting of dissatisfaction with social support merits special attention, since this may indicate increased risk for psychological symptoms.

  9. Care of children in a natural disaster: lessons learned from the Great East Japan earthquake and tsunami.

    PubMed

    Yonekura, Takeo; Ueno, Shigeru; Iwanaka, Tadashi

    2013-10-01

    The Great East Japan earthquake was one of the most devastating natural disasters ever to hit Japan. We present features of the disaster and the radioactive accident in Fukushima. About 19,000 are dead or remain missing mainly due to the tsunami, but children accounted for only 6.5% of the deaths. The Japanese Society of Pediatric Surgeons set up the Committee of Aid for Disaster, and collaborated with the Japanese Society of Emergency Pediatrics to share information and provide pediatric medical care in the disaster area. Based on the lessons learned from the experiences, the role of pediatric surgeons and physicians in natural disasters is discussed.

  10. Carbon monoxide poisoning during natural disasters: the Hurricane Rita experience.

    PubMed

    Cukor, Jeffrey; Restuccia, Marc

    2007-10-01

    We report the incidence and mechanisms of carbon monoxide exposure during the first 5 days after Hurricane Rita, as experienced by a Disaster Medical Assistance Team staffing the only open health care facility in the Beaumont, Texas region after the storm. Improper placement of portable generators in indoor locations or proximate to home air conditioning intake systems were completely responsible for the 21 exposures including 5 fatalities, 1 brain dead, 2 transfers for hospitalization, and 13 treated and released. We discuss the clinical presentations and treatment approaches, provide a brief overview of carbon monoxide and offer novel preventive recommendations. Portable generator use after disasters represents a predictable risk to the public. Proper ventilation requirements for generators are not adequately appreciated and engineered safeties should be explored to mitigate illness.

  11. General self-efficacy and posttraumatic stress after a natural disaster: a longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Nygaard, Egil; Hussain, Ajmal; Siqveland, Johan; Heir, Trond

    2016-04-06

    Self-efficacy may be an important factor in individuals' recovery from posttraumatic stress reactions after a natural disaster. However, few longitudinal studies have investigated whether self-efficacy predicts the course of posttraumatic recovery beyond lower initial levels of distress. The purpose of the present study was to investigate whether general self-efficacy is related to recovery from posttraumatic stress reactions from a longitudinal perspective. A total of 617 Norwegians exposed to the 2004 Southeast Asian tsunami completed self-report questionnaires measuring their level of disaster exposure and general self-efficacy at 6 months and posttraumatic stress reactions 6 months and 2 years post-disaster. Predictors of changes in posttraumatic stress reactions were analyzed with multivariate mixed effects models. Self-efficacy at 6 months post-disaster was unrelated to trauma exposure and inversely related to posttraumatic stress reactions at 6 months and 2 years post-disaster. However, self-efficacy was not related to recovery from posttraumatic stress reactions between 6 months and 2 years post-disaster. In conclusion, general self-efficacy is related to lower levels of posttraumatic stress reactions in the first months after a disaster but does not appear to be related to improved recovery rates over the longer term.

  12. "To silence the deafening silence": Survivor's needs and experiences of the impact of disaster radio for their recovery after a natural disaster.

    PubMed

    Hugelius, Karin; Gifford, Mervyn; Ortenwall, Per; Adolfsson, Annsofie

    2016-09-01

    In the aftermath of the Haiyan typhoon, disaster radio was used to spread information and music to the affected population. The study described survivors' experiences of being in the immediate aftermath of a natural disaster and the impact disaster radio made on recovery from the perspective of the individuals affected. Twenty eight survivors were interviewed in focus groups and individual interviews analyzed with phenomenological-hermeneutic method. Being in disaster mode included physical and psychosocial dimensions of being in the immediate aftermath of the disaster. Several needs among the survivors were expressed. Disaster radio contributed to recovery by providing facts and information that helped the survivor to understand and adapt. The music played contributed to emotional endurance and reduced feelings of loneliness. To re-establish social contacts, other interventions are needed. Disaster radio is a positive contribution to the promotion of survivors' recovery after disasters involving a large number of affected people and severely damaged infrastructure. Further studies on the use and impact of disaster radio are needed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Awareness of disaster reduction frameworks and risk perception of natural disaster: a questionnaire survey among Philippine and Indonesian health care personnel and public health students.

    PubMed

    Usuzawa, Motoki; O Telan, Elizabeth; Kawano, Razel; S Dizon, Carmela; Alisjahbana, Bachti; Ashino, Yugo; Egawa, Shinichi; Fukumoto, Manabu; Izumi, Takako; Ono, Yuichi; Hattori, Toshio

    2014-05-01

    As the impacts of natural disasters have grown more severe, the importance of education for disaster medicine gains greater recognition. We launched a project to establish an international educational program for disaster medicine. In the present study, we surveyed medical personnel and medical/public health students in the Philippines (n = 45) and Indonesia (n = 67) for their awareness of the international frameworks related to disaster medicine: the Human Security (securing individual life and health), the Sphere Project (international humanitarian response), and the Hyogo Framework for Action 2005-2015 (international strategy for disaster reduction). In both countries, more than 50% responders were aware of human security, but only 2 to 12% were aware of the latter two. The survey also contained questions about the preferred subjects in prospective educational program, and risk perception on disaster and disaster-related infections. In the Philippines, significant disasters were geophysical (31.0%), hydrological (33.3%), or meteorological (24.8%), whereas in Indonesia, geophysical (63.0%) and hydrological (25.3%) were significant. Moreover, in the Philippines, leptospirosis (27.1%), dengue (18.6%), diarrhea (15.3%), and cholera (10.2%) were recognized common disaster-related infections. In Indonesia, diarrhea (22.0%) and respiratory infection (20.3%) are major disaster-related infections. Water-related infections were the major ones in both countries, but the profiles of risk perception were different (Pearson's chi-square test, p = 1.469e-05). The responders tended to overestimate the risk of low probability and high consequence such as geophysical disaster. These results are helpful for the development of a postgraduate course for disaster medicine in Asia Pacific countries.

  14. Press freedom, oil exports, and risk for natural disasters: a challenge for climato-economic theory?

    PubMed

    Arantes, Joana; Grace, Randolph C; Kemp, Simon

    2013-10-01

    Does the interaction between climactic demands, monetary resources, and freedom suggest a more general relationship between the environmental challenges that human societies face and their resources to meet those challenges? Using data on press freedom (Van de Vliert 2011a), we found no evidence of a similar interaction with natural resources (as measured by oil exports) or risk for natural disasters.

  15. Research on Resilience of Power Systems Under Natural Disasters - A Review

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Jianhui; Chen, Chen; Wang, Yezhou; Baldick, Ross

    2015-05-12

    Natural disasters can cause large blackouts. Research into natural disaster impacts on electric power systems is emerging to understand the causes of the blackouts, explore ways to prepare and harden the grid, and increase the resilience of the power grid under such events. At the same time, new technologies such as smart grid, micro grid, and wide area monitoring applications could increase situational awareness as well as enable faster restoration of the system. This paper aims to consolidate and review the progress of the research field towards methods and tools of forecasting natural disaster related power system disturbances, hardening and pre-storm operations, and restoration models. Challenges and future research opportunities are also presented in the paper.

  16. Medical interventions following natural disasters: missing out on chronic medical needs.

    PubMed

    Chan, E Y Y; Sondorp, E

    2007-01-01

    Although natural disasters may cause massive loss of human life and destruction of resources, they also present affected populations with a rare opportunity to access external resources. Nevertheless, many post-disaster medical relief intervention programmes only focus on the provision of acute medical services and the control of communicable diseases. Currently, no specific study has examined why chronic medical needs seem to be insufficiently addressed in disaster relief interventions. This paper review current knowledge about how natural disasters affect people with chronic medical needs, assess possible factors in disaster preparedness and response that pre-empt addressing chronic medical needs and suggest possible ways to overcome these barriers. Unawareness and insensitivity of relief workers towards chronic medical conditions, the practice of risk rather than need-based assessments, a focus on acute needs, the lack of reliable indicators and baseline information, and the multidimensional characteristics of chronic medical problems all pose serious challenges and probably deter the government and post-disaster relief agencies to deal with diseases of a chronic nature. It is important to increase the awareness and sensitivity of the stakeholders towards chronic medical problems during all phases of planning and intervention. Relevant assessment tools should be developed to rapidly identify chronic medical needs in resource deficit settings. Community partnership and collaboration that promote local ownership and technical transfer of chronic disease management skills will be essential for the sustainability of services beyond the disaster relief period. Potential programmes might include the technical training of local staff, establishment of essential drug and supply lists, and the provision of a range of medical services that may address chronic health needs.

  17. The threat of communicable diseases following natural disasters: a public health response.

    PubMed

    Waring, Stephen C; Brown, Bruce J

    2005-01-01

    Natural disasters, such as the recent Indian Ocean tsunami, can have a rapid onset, broad impact, and produce many factors that work synergistically to increase the risk of morbidity and mortality caused by communicable diseases. The primary goal of emergency health interventions is to prevent epidemics and improve deteriorating health conditions among the population affected. Morbidity and mortality due to infectious diseases can be minimized providing these intervention efforts are implemented in a timely and coordinated fashion. This article presents a review of some of the major issues relevant to preparedness and response for natural disasters.

  18. The response of an assertive community treatment program following a natural disaster.

    PubMed

    Lachance, K R; Santos, A B; Burns, B J

    1994-10-01

    A newly forming model treatment program for seriously mentally ill adults was dramatically affected by a natural disaster in September 1989. Hurricane Hugo rendered the offices of the Assertive Community Treatment Program uninhabitable, its vehicles marginally driveable, and its resources virtually nonexistent. In the three months following the storm, however, not a single psychiatric rehospitalization took place. Although the authors cannot claim that the program model was solely responsible for this outcome, this paper illustrates the service system elements that contributed to the program's effectiveness in the wake of one of the nation's most severe natural disasters.

  19. Change in the health of tsunami-exposed mothers three years after the natural disaster.

    PubMed

    Wickrama, Thulitha; Ketring, Scott A

    2012-05-01

    Women's experiences with secondary stressors resulting from natural disasters, such as increased economic insecurity, expanded caregiving responsibilities and disrupted family life, may contribute to women's mental and physical health problems. The present study investigates change and stability in post-tsunami depressive symptoms and perceived physical health of tsunami-exposed mothers over three and a half years. Using data from 160 tsunami-affected mothers, the present study uses structural equation modelling to investigate (1) change, stability, cross-lagged reciprocal influences of mental and physical health and (2) the meditation effect of negative life events on the relationship between tsunami exposure and post-tsunami depressive symptoms and perceived physical health of tsunami-exposed mothers from 2005 to 2008. Tsunami exposure contributed to depressive symptoms among mothers independently of pre-tsunami family adversities. Average depressive symptoms showed a decline whereas poor physical health showed an increase over this period. The results also revealed an interrelated health process between depression and physical health over time. Continuity of health problems were mediated by secondary stressors that also exerted an additive effect on later health problems. Post-disaster intervention and recovery programmes should focus not only on mothers' exposure to natural disasters, but also their pre- and post-natural disaster adversities. They should reach disaster-exposed mothers directly and have an integrated health approach to disrupt continuities of health problems.

  20. Designing a model of patient tracking system for natural disaster in Iran.

    PubMed

    Tavakoli, Nahid; Yarmohammadian, Mohammad H; Safdari, Reza; Keyvanara, Mahmoud

    2017-01-01

    Disaster patient tracking consists of identifying and registering patients, recording data on their medical conditions, settings priorities for evacuation of scene, locating the patients from scene to health care centers and then till completion of treatment and discharge. The aim of this study was to design a model of patient tracking system for natural disaster in Iran. This applied study was conducted in two steps in 2016. First, data on disaster patient tracking systems used in selected countries were collected from library-printed and electronic references and then compared. Next, a preliminary model of disaster patient tracking system was provided using these systems and validated by Delphi technique and focus group. The data of the first step were analyzed by content analysis and those of the second step by descriptive statistics. Analysis of the comments of key information persons in three Delphi rounds, consisting of national experts, yielded three themes, i.e., content, function, and technology, ten subthemes, and 127 components, with consensus rate of over 75%, to provide a disaster patient tracking system for Iran. In Iran, there is no comprehensive process to manage the data on disaster patients. Offering a patient tracking system can be considered a humanitarian and effective measure to promote the process of identifying, caring for, evacuating, and transferring patients as well as documenting and following up their medical and location conditions from scene till completion of the treatment.

  1. Epidemic activity after natural disasters without high mortality in developing settings

    PubMed Central

    Loayza-Alarico, Manuel J; Lescano, Andres G; Suarez-Ognio, Luis A; Ramirez-Prada, Gladys M; Blazes, David L

    2013-01-01

    Natural disasters with minimal human mortality rarely capture headlines but occur frequently and result in significant morbidity and economic loss. We compared the epidemic activity observed after a flood, an earthquake, and volcanic activity in Peru. Following post-disaster guidelines, healthcare facilities and evacuation centers surveyed 10–12 significant health conditions for ~45 days and compared disease frequency with Poisson regression. The disasters affected 20,709 individuals and 15% were placed in evacuation centers. Seven deaths and 6,056 health conditions were reported (mean: 0.29 per person). Health facilities reported fewer events than evacuation centers (0.06–0.24 vs. 0.65–2.02, P < 0.001) and disease notification increased 1.6 times after the disasters (95% CI: 1.5–1.6). Acute respiratory infections were the most frequent event (41–57%) and psychological distress was second/third (7.6% to 14.3%). Morbidity increased after disasters without substantial casualties, particularly at evacuation centers, with frequent respiratory infections and psychological distress. Post-disaster surveillance is valuable even after low-mortality events. PMID:28228992

  2. Epidemic activity after natural disasters without high mortality in developing settings.

    PubMed

    Loayza-Alarico, Manuel J; Lescano, Andres G; Suarez-Ognio, Luis A; Ramirez-Prada, Gladys M; Blazes, David L

    2013-01-01

    Natural disasters with minimal human mortality rarely capture headlines but occur frequently and result in significant morbidity and economic loss. We compared the epidemic activity observed after a flood, an earthquake, and volcanic activity in Peru. Following post-disaster guidelines, healthcare facilities and evacuation centers surveyed 10-12 significant health conditions for ~45 days and compared disease frequency with Poisson regression. The disasters affected 20,709 individuals and 15% were placed in evacuation centers. Seven deaths and 6,056 health conditions were reported (mean: 0.29 per person). Health facilities reported fewer events than evacuation centers (0.06-0.24 vs. 0.65-2.02, P < 0.001) and disease notification increased 1.6 times after the disasters (95% CI: 1.5-1.6). Acute respiratory infections were the most frequent event (41-57%) and psychological distress was second/third (7.6% to 14.3%). Morbidity increased after disasters without substantial casualties, particularly at evacuation centers, with frequent respiratory infections and psychological distress. Post-disaster surveillance is valuable even after low-mortality events.

  3. Big Data Analytics for Disaster Preparedness and Response of Mobile Communication Infrastructure during Natural Hazards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhong, L.; Takano, K.; Ji, Y.; Yamada, S.

    2015-12-01

    The disruption of telecommunications is one of the most critical disasters during natural hazards. As the rapid expanding of mobile communications, the mobile communication infrastructure plays a very fundamental role in the disaster response and recovery activities. For this reason, its disruption will lead to loss of life and property, due to information delays and errors. Therefore, disaster preparedness and response of mobile communication infrastructure itself is quite important. In many cases of experienced disasters, the disruption of mobile communication networks is usually caused by the network congestion and afterward long-term power outage. In order to reduce this disruption, the knowledge of communication demands during disasters is necessary. And big data analytics will provide a very promising way to predict the communication demands by analyzing the big amount of operational data of mobile users in a large-scale mobile network. Under the US-Japan collaborative project on 'Big Data and Disaster Research (BDD)' supported by the Japan Science and Technology Agency (JST) and National Science Foundation (NSF), we are going to investigate the application of big data techniques in the disaster preparedness and response of mobile communication infrastructure. Specifically, in this research, we have considered to exploit the big amount of operational information of mobile users for predicting the communications needs in different time and locations. By incorporating with other data such as shake distribution of an estimated major earthquake and the power outage map, we are able to provide the prediction information of stranded people who are difficult to confirm safety or ask for help due to network disruption. In addition, this result could further facilitate the network operators to assess the vulnerability of their infrastructure and make suitable decision for the disaster preparedness and response. In this presentation, we are going to introduce the

  4. Ethical dilemmas related to predictions and warnings of impending natural disaster.

    PubMed

    Phua, Kai-Lit; Hue, J W

    2013-01-01

    Scientists and policy makers issuing predictions and warnings of impending natural disaster are faced with two major challenges, that is, failure to warn and issuing a false alarm. The consequences of failure to warn can be serious for society overall, for example, significant economic losses, heavy infrastructure and environmental damage, large number of human casualties, and social disruption. Failure to warn can also have serious for specific individuals, for example, legal proceedings against disaster research scientists, as in the L'Aquila earthquake affair. The consequences of false alarms may be less serious. Nevertheless, false alarms may violate the principle of nonmaleficence (do no harm), affect individual autonomy (eg, mandatory evacuations), and may result in the "cry wolf" effect. Other ethical issues associated with natural disasters include the promotion of global justice through international predisaster technical assistance and postdisaster aid. Social justice within a particular country is promoted through greater postdisaster aid allocation to the less privileged.

  5. The study of natural disasters, 1977-1997: some reflection on a changing field of knowledge.

    PubMed

    Alexander, D

    1997-12-01

    As part of a series of papers to mark the 21st year of publication of Disasters, it is opportune to consider some of the changes that have occurred in the field it has covered so diligently for the last two decades. The paper begins with a brief review of the major natural disasters during this period and assesses their impact. It then considers the problem of how to define two key concepts: natural disaster and vulnerability, which remains an open question. The latter is one of the key determinants of the former. Next comes a review of what has occurred in the disasters field since the journal began publication, including some notes on the rise in vulnerability, the information technology revolution and the dilemmas of hazard mitigation. The following two sections assess, respectively, what hoped-for developments did not occur during the period studied and what assets were lost in the name of progress. For example, on the theoretical front, academic over-specialisation has predominated, while on the practical side there has been insufficient transfer of technology to where it is needed. The paper concludes that analyses of disaster need to become more sophisticated and multi-disciplinary and must take account of several forms of context within which developments take place.

  6. Disaster Mental Health and Positive Psychology-Considering the Context of Natural and Technological Disasters: An Introduction to the Special Issue.

    PubMed

    Schulenberg, Stefan E

    2016-12-01

    This article serves as an introduction to the Journal of Clinical Psychology's special issue on disaster mental health and positive psychology. The special issue comprises two sections. The first section presents a series of data-driven articles and research-informed reviews examining meaning and resilience in the context of natural and technological disasters. The second section presents key topics in the area of disaster mental health, with particular relevance for positive psychology and related frameworks. The special issue is intended to bridge the gap between these two areas of applied science, with the audience being experienced clinicians or clinicians in training. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Preparedness for Protecting the Health of Community-Dwelling Vulnerable Elderly People in Eastern and Western Japan in the Event of Natural Disasters.

    PubMed

    Tsukasaki, Keiko; Kanzaki, Hatsumi; Kyota, Kaoru; Ichimori, Akie; Omote, Shizuko; Okamoto, Rie; Kido, Teruhiko; Sakakibara, Chiaki; Makimoto, Kiyoko; Nomura, Atsuko; Miyamoto, Yukari

    2016-01-01

    We clarified the preparedness necessary to protect the health of community-dwelling vulnerable elderly people following natural disasters. We collected data from 304 community general support centres throughout Japan. We found the following in particular to be challenging: availability of disaster-preparedness manuals; disaster countermeasures and management systems; creation of lists of people requiring assistance following a disaster; evacuation support systems; development of plans for health management following disasters; provision of disaster-preparedness guidance and training; disaster-preparedness systems in the community; disaster information management; the preparedness of older people themselves in requiring support; and support from other community residents.

  8. Using Spacecraft in Climate and Natural Disasters Registration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sokol, Galyna; Kotlov, Vladyslav; Khorischenko, Oleksandr; Davydova, Angelica; Heti, Kristina

    2017-04-01

    Since the beginning of the space age it become possible the global monitoring of the planet Earth's state. Since the second half of the 20th century there are observations of the atmosphere's state and the Earth's climate have been held by a spacecraft. Also become possible large-scale monitoring of climate change. An attempt was made to define the role of infrasound in the interaction between a space weather, climate and biosphere of the Earth using spacecraft sensors recording. Many countries are involving in the detection of earthquakes, predicting volcanic eruptions and floods and also the monitoring of irregular solar activity. Understanding this leads to the conclusion that international cooperation for the protection of humanity is not only a political priority in the international arena, but also a question of the quality of living standards of any state. Commonly known following monitoring systems: Disaster Monitoring Constellation (DMC), FUEGO program (Spain), Sentinel-Asia program (Japan) and International aerospace system for monitoring of global phenomena (MAKCM, Russia). The Disaster Monitoring Constellation for International Imaging (DMCii) consists of a number of remote sensing satellites constructed by Surrey Satellite Technology Ltd (SSTL) and operated for the Algerian, Nigerian, Turkish, British and Chinese governments by DMC International Imaging. The DMC has monitored the effects and aftermath of the Indian Ocean Tsunami (December 2004), Hurricane Katrina (August 2005), and many other floods, fires and disasters. The individual DMC satellites are: 1. First generation satellites (AlSAT-1 - Algeria, BilSAT - Turkey, NigeriaSAT-1 - Nigeria, UK-DMC - United Kingdom); 2. Second generation satellites (Beijing - China, UK-DMC 2 - United Kingdom, Deimos-1 - Spanish commercial, NigeriaSAT-2 and NigeriaSAT-X). The sun-synchronous orbits of these satellites are coordinated so that the satellites follow each other around an orbital plane, ascending north

  9. What Can School Principals Do to Support Students and Their Learning during and after Natural Disasters?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fletcher, Jo; Nicholas, Karen

    2016-01-01

    Natural disasters can happen at any time. The impact they have on students, their families and the teachers relies on strategic and calm leadership by school principals. As schools are situated within communities, principals not only have a role leading within the school, they are also viewed as community leaders. This paper focuses on six New…

  10. A Preliminary Investigation into the Information Sharing Behavior of Social Media Users after a Natural Disaster

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maruyama, Yukiko

    2016-01-01

    The paper provides the results of a preliminary investigation into the information sharing behavior of social media users after a natural disaster. The results indicate that users shared information that they thought victims would find useful. On the other hand, they reported that they usually do not or never share information considered useful to…

  11. Coping with Natural Disasters: Lessons Learnt by a Head of Department

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lord, Beverley

    2011-01-01

    Since the first of the 29 significant earthquakes and thousands of aftershocks that the University of Canterbury (New Zealand) community has endured in the last year, Beverly Lord has learned a few lessons as a departmental head in a university during a time of natural disaster. Herein, she organizes and describes these lessons under five…

  12. Will the 1990’s be a decade of increasingly destructive natural disasters?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Boulle, P. L.

    1990-01-01

    Today, there is a considerable body of knowledge about natural hazards that laso enables us to devise effective means to limit the damage they cause. Yet, the reality of the situation is that disasters are increasing in number worldwide, and their social and economic impacts are becoming more nad more difficult to hear. 

  13. Appreciation for Support for Japan in Responding to the Natural Disaster

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ishikuma, Toshinori; Nishiyama, Hisako

    2011-01-01

    March 11, 2011, began the most difficult natural disaster ever experienced in Japan. Earthquakes, a massive tsunami, and multiple breaches at nuclear power plants have changed the lives of many Japanese people including children, teachers, and parents. Throughout this difficult time, Japanese school psychologists and teachers have been supported…

  14. Persons with Communication Disabilities in Natural Disasters, War, and/or Conflict

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Battle, Dolores E.

    2015-01-01

    The World Health Organization (WHO) estimates that 35 million people around the world have been displaced because of natural disasters such as floods, earthquakes, hurricanes, or tsunamis. In addition, there are a number of persons who have been displaced or who have fled their homeland due to civil conflict or war. The WHO estimates that between…

  15. Appreciation for Support for Japan in Responding to the Natural Disaster

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ishikuma, Toshinori; Nishiyama, Hisako

    2011-01-01

    March 11, 2011, began the most difficult natural disaster ever experienced in Japan. Earthquakes, a massive tsunami, and multiple breaches at nuclear power plants have changed the lives of many Japanese people including children, teachers, and parents. Throughout this difficult time, Japanese school psychologists and teachers have been supported…

  16. Children's Literature Resources on War, Terrorism, and Natural Disasters for Pre-K to Grade 3

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Sherron Killingsworth; Crawford, Patricia A.

    2009-01-01

    This article presents picture books that are considered as a sample of children's literature selections on war, terrorism, and natural disasters for pre-K to 3rd-grade children which were chosen with both young children and their teachers and parents in mind. The authors recommend these books to be used as read-alouds, so that caring adults who…

  17. Reducing the Risk of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder in Children Following Natural Disasters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mohay, Heather; Forbes, Nicole

    2009-01-01

    A significant number of children suffer long-term psychological disturbance following exposure to a natural disaster. Evidence suggests that a dose-response relationship exists, so that children and adolescents who experience the most intense or extensive exposure to the risk factors for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) are likely to develop…

  18. Practitioners' Experiences Creating and Implementing an Emotional Recovery and Physical Activity Program Following a Natural Disaster

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wahl-Alexander, Zachary

    2015-01-01

    On April 27, 2011 a series of tornadoes tore through the southeast United States. Sixty-four percent of the counties in the state of Alabama were directly affected by these storms. After a natural disaster, children who are directly or indirectly affected show numerous intense emotional reactions. Recovery programs can be set up to enable them to…

  19. Ideas about Earthquakes after Experiencing a Natural Disaster in Taiwan: An Analysis of Students' Worldviews.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tsai, Chin-Chung

    2001-01-01

    Explores students' worldviews as revealed by their ideas about the causality of earthquakes after experiencing the natural disaster. Finds that students accept scientific ideas and abandon their original worldviews, accept scientific ideas and retain their original worldviews, or retain their original worldviews and ignore the scientific…

  20. Coping with Natural Disasters: Lessons Learnt by a Head of Department

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lord, Beverley

    2011-01-01

    Since the first of the 29 significant earthquakes and thousands of aftershocks that the University of Canterbury (New Zealand) community has endured in the last year, Beverly Lord has learned a few lessons as a departmental head in a university during a time of natural disaster. Herein, she organizes and describes these lessons under five…

  1. Technology transfer during the ``middle game`` of the international decade for natural disaster reduction

    SciTech Connect

    Rouhban, B.M.; Hays, W.W.

    1995-12-31

    This paper describes the urgency for and the importance of technology transfer during the remainder of the International Decade for Natural Disaster Reduction (IDNDR). Eleven case histories are cited to illustrate the types of activities involving technology transfer that every nation can undertake.

  2. Children's Literature Resources on War, Terrorism, and Natural Disasters for Pre-K to Grade 3

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Sherron Killingsworth; Crawford, Patricia A.

    2009-01-01

    This article presents picture books that are considered as a sample of children's literature selections on war, terrorism, and natural disasters for pre-K to 3rd-grade children which were chosen with both young children and their teachers and parents in mind. The authors recommend these books to be used as read-alouds, so that caring adults who…

  3. Reducing the Risk of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder in Children Following Natural Disasters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mohay, Heather; Forbes, Nicole

    2009-01-01

    A significant number of children suffer long-term psychological disturbance following exposure to a natural disaster. Evidence suggests that a dose-response relationship exists, so that children and adolescents who experience the most intense or extensive exposure to the risk factors for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) are likely to develop…

  4. Practitioners' Experiences Creating and Implementing an Emotional Recovery and Physical Activity Program Following a Natural Disaster

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wahl-Alexander, Zachary

    2015-01-01

    On April 27, 2011 a series of tornadoes tore through the southeast United States. Sixty-four percent of the counties in the state of Alabama were directly affected by these storms. After a natural disaster, children who are directly or indirectly affected show numerous intense emotional reactions. Recovery programs can be set up to enable them to…

  5. Persons with Communication Disabilities in Natural Disasters, War, and/or Conflict

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Battle, Dolores E.

    2015-01-01

    The World Health Organization (WHO) estimates that 35 million people around the world have been displaced because of natural disasters such as floods, earthquakes, hurricanes, or tsunamis. In addition, there are a number of persons who have been displaced or who have fled their homeland due to civil conflict or war. The WHO estimates that between…

  6. How much more exposed are the poor to natural disasters? Global and regional measurement.

    PubMed

    Kim, Namsuk

    2012-04-01

    This paper proposes a simple indicator to measure the exposure to natural disasters for the poor and non-poor population, in order to assess the global and regional trend of natural hazard and poverty. Globally, poor people are two times more exposed to natural disasters than the non-poor in the twenty-first century. The time trend varies across regions, with poor people in East Asia and Pacific being most exposed to natural disasters, followed by those in South Asia and Sub-Saharan Africa. The change of exposure measure over time is decomposed into two factors: a pure exposure change, which could be fuelled by climate change; and a concentration component. The result shows that the total net increase of exposure between the 1970s and the 2000s is driven significantly by the increased concentration of the poor (26 per cent) in disaster-prone areas, whereas the contribution of that factor remains very small for the non-poor (six per cent).

  7. What Can School Principals Do to Support Students and Their Learning during and after Natural Disasters?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fletcher, Jo; Nicholas, Karen

    2016-01-01

    Natural disasters can happen at any time. The impact they have on students, their families and the teachers relies on strategic and calm leadership by school principals. As schools are situated within communities, principals not only have a role leading within the school, they are also viewed as community leaders. This paper focuses on six New…

  8. Natural Disasters Workshop Integrating Hands-On Activities, Internet-Based Data, and GIS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gutierrez, Melida; Coulter, Bob; Goodwin, David R.

    2002-01-01

    Describes a week-long "Mapping Natural Disasters" workshop offered to K-12 teachers to promote inquiry-based teaching approaches. The workshop modeled the integration of hands-on activities, internet-based data, and the use of geographic information systems (GIS) software. (Author/MM)

  9. Emergency response planning to reduce the impact of contaminated drinking water during natural disasters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patterson, Craig L.; Adams, Jeffrey Q.

    2011-12-01

    Natural disasters can be devastating to local water supplies affecting millions of people. Disaster recovery plans and water industry collaboration during emergencies protect consumers from contaminated drinking water supplies and help facilitate the repair of public water systems. Prior to an event, utilities and municipalities can use "What if"? scenarios to develop emergency operation, response, and recovery plans designed to reduce the severity of damage and destruction. Government agencies including the EPA are planning ahead to provide temporary supplies of potable water and small drinking water treatment technologies to communities as an integral part of emergency response activities that will ensure clean and safe drinking water.

  10. Chronic diseases and natural hazards: impact of disasters on diabetic, renal, and cardiac patients.

    PubMed

    Miller, Andrew C; Arquilla, Bonnie

    2008-01-01

    Inadequately controlled chronic diseases may present a threat to life and well-being during the emergency response phase of disasters. Chronic disease exacerbations (CDE) account for one of the largest patient populations during disasters, and patients are at increased risk for adverse outcomes. The objective of this study was to assess the burden of chronic renal failure, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease during disasters due to natural hazards, identify impediments to care, and propose solutions to improve the disaster preparation and management of CDE. A thorough search of the PubMed, Ovid, and Medline databases was performed. Dr. Miller's personal international experiences treating CDE after disasters due to natural hazards, such as the 2005 Kashmir earthquake, are included. Chronic disease exacerbations comprise a sizable disease burden during disasters related to natural hazards. Surveys estimate that 25-40% of those living in the regions affected by hurricanes Katrina and Rita lived with at least one chronic disease. Chronic illness accounted for 33% of visits, peaking 10 days after hurricane landfall. The international nephrology community has responded to dialysis needs by forming a well-organized and effective organization called the Renal Disaster Relief Task Force (RDRTF). The response to the needs of diabetic and cardiac patients has been less vigorous. Patients must be familiar with emergency diet and renal fluid restriction plans, possible modification of dialysis schedules and methods, and rescue treatments such as the administration of kayexalate. Facilities may consider investing in water-independent extracorporeal dialysis techniques as a rescue treatment. In addition to patient databases and medical alert identification, diabetics should maintain an emergency medical kit. Diabetic patients must be taught and practice the carbohydrate counting technique. In addition to improved planning, responding agencies and organizations must bring

  11. [Countermeasures against natural disasters for patients with neurological intractable diseases at home].

    PubMed

    Nishizawa, Masatoyo

    2011-11-01

    It is inevitable for patients at home with neurological intractable diseases to prepare against natural disasters, such as severe earthquakes or power failures, because they need not only daily physical care but also extensive medical supports. Administrative organs have to support those patients in case of disasters, and they have to make up countermeasures in advance for their refuge in safety. For this purpose, we published a guideline in 2008 for administration to make support plans for those patients. To plan countermeasures against calamities according to this guideline is an urgent issue especially for those who need extensive supports at home.

  12. The psychosocial impact of natural disasters among adult survivors: an integrative review.

    PubMed

    Warsini, Sri; West, Caryn; Ed Tt, Grad Dip; Res Meth, Grad Cert; Mills, Jane; Usher, Kim

    2014-06-01

    The aim of this review was to identify the psychosocial impact of natural disasters on adult (over the age of 18 years) survivors. Databases searched included PsycInfo, CINAHL, Proquest, Ovid SP, Scopus, and Science Direct. The search was limited to articles written in English and published between 2002 and 2012. A total of 1,642 abstracts and articles were obtained during the first search; 39 articles were retained. The results indicate that PTSD is the most-studied psychosocial impact after a disaster. Mental health nurses have a significant role to play in supporting survivors and can assist with the development of resilience in community members.

  13. The role of groundwater governance in emergencies during different phases of natural disasters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vrba, Jaroslav

    2016-03-01

    The establishment of water governance in emergency situations supports timely and effective reaction with regard to the risk and impact of natural disasters on drinking-water supplies and populations. Under such governance, emergency activities of governmental authorities, rescue and aid teams, water stakeholders, local communities and individuals are coordinated with the objective to prevent and/or mitigate disaster impact on water supplies, to reduce human suffering due to drinking-water failure during and in the post-disaster period, and to manage drinking-water services in emergency situations in an equitable manner. The availability of low-vulnerability groundwater resources that have been proven safe and protected by geological features, and with long residence time, can make water-related relief and rehabilitation activities during and after an emergency more rapid and effective. Such groundwater resources have to be included in water governance and their exploration must be coordinated with overall management of drinking-water services in emergencies. This paper discusses institutional and technical capacities needed for building effective groundwater governance policy and drinking-water risk and demand management in emergencies. Disaster-risk mitigation plans are described, along with relief measures and post-disaster rehabilitation and reconstruction activities, which support gradual renewal of drinking-water services on the level prior to the disaster. The role of groundwater governance in emergencies differs in individual phases of disaster (preparedness, warning, impact/relief, rehabilitation). Suggested activities and actions associated with these phases are summarized and analysed, and a mode of their implementation is proposed.

  14. Occurrence and overlap of natural disasters, complex emergencies and epidemics during the past decade (1995–2004)

    PubMed Central

    Spiegel, Paul B; Le, Phuoc; Ververs, Mija-Tesse; Salama, Peter

    2007-01-01

    Background The fields of expertise of natural disasters and complex emergencies (CEs) are quite distinct, with different tools for mitigation and response as well as different types of competent organizations and qualified professionals who respond. However, natural disasters and CEs can occur concurrently in the same geographic location, and epidemics can occur during or following either event. The occurrence and overlap of these three types of events have not been well studied. Methods All natural disasters, CEs and epidemics occurring within the past decade (1995–2004) that met the inclusion criteria were included. The largest 30 events in each category were based on the total number of deaths recorded. The main databases used were the Emergency Events Database for natural disasters, the Uppsala Conflict Database Program for CEs and the World Health Organization outbreaks archive for epidemics. Analysis During the past decade, 63% of the largest CEs had ≥1 epidemic compared with 23% of the largest natural disasters. Twenty-seven percent of the largest natural disasters occurred in areas with ≥1 ongoing CE while 87% of the largest CEs had ≥1 natural disaster. Conclusion Epidemics commonly occur during CEs. The data presented in this article do not support the often-repeated assertion that epidemics, especially large-scale epidemics, commonly occur following large-scale natural disasters. This observation has important policy and programmatic implications when preparing and responding to epidemics. There is an important and previously unrecognized overlap between natural disasters and CEs. Training and tools are needed to help bridge the gap between the different type of organizations and professionals who respond to natural disasters and CEs to ensure an integrated and coordinated response. PMID:17411460

  15. Modeling the Time-Varying Nature of Student Exceptionality Classification on Achievement Growth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nese, Joseph F. T.; Stevens, Joseph J.; Schulte, Ann C.; Tindal, Gerald; Elliott, Stephen N.

    2017-01-01

    Our purpose was to examine different approaches to modeling the time-varying nature of exceptionality classification. Using longitudinal data from one state's mathematics achievement test for 28,829 students in Grades 3 to 8, we describe the reclassification rate within special education and between general and special education, and compare four…

  16. The Nature and Nurture of Talent: A Bioecological Perspective on the Ontogeny of Exceptional Abilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Papierno, Paul B.; Ceci, Stephen J.; Makel, Matthew C.; Williams, Wendy M.

    2005-01-01

    Despite extensive research, questions underlying the nature and nurture of talent remain both numerous and diverse. In the current paper, we present an account that addresses 2 of the primary questions inspired by this debate: (a) the very existence of innate talents and (b) how exceptional abilities are developed. The development of exceptional…

  17. Spiritually Sensitive Social Work with Victims of Natural Disasters and Terrorism

    PubMed Central

    Benson, Perry W.; Furman, Leola Dyrud; Canda, Edward R.; Moss, Bernard; Danbolt, Torill

    2016-01-01

    As a primary intervention, raising the topics of faith and religion with individuals traumatised by terrorism and/or natural disasters can be daunting for social workers, because victims often enter the helping relationship with feelings of helplessness, loss of personal control and of doubt about their relationships, environment, and their cultural and belief systems. Just as clients benefit from knowledge and awareness in the aftermath of a traumatic event, insights gleaned from traumatic experiences and from research can be useful for social workers grappling with the challenges associated with designing and deploying appropriate helping strategies with victims of disaster and terrorism. This article draws on extant literature and survey research, to explore how social workers might ethically assess clients' spiritual perspectives and incorporate helping activities that support clients' recovery, in the context of a spiritually sensitive helping relationship with victims of disaster and terrorism. PMID:27559233

  18. Spiritually Sensitive Social Work with Victims of Natural Disasters and Terrorism.

    PubMed

    Benson, Perry W; Furman, Leola Dyrud; Canda, Edward R; Moss, Bernard; Danbolt, Torill

    2016-07-01

    As a primary intervention, raising the topics of faith and religion with individuals traumatised by terrorism and/or natural disasters can be daunting for social workers, because victims often enter the helping relationship with feelings of helplessness, loss of personal control and of doubt about their relationships, environment, and their cultural and belief systems. Just as clients benefit from knowledge and awareness in the aftermath of a traumatic event, insights gleaned from traumatic experiences and from research can be useful for social workers grappling with the challenges associated with designing and deploying appropriate helping strategies with victims of disaster and terrorism. This article draws on extant literature and survey research, to explore how social workers might ethically assess clients' spiritual perspectives and incorporate helping activities that support clients' recovery, in the context of a spiritually sensitive helping relationship with victims of disaster and terrorism.

  19. Meeting the challenges of natural hazards in the wake of the tsunami disaster

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sorooshian, Soroosh

    In the wake of the 26 December 2004 Sumatra earthquake and tsunami, it is natural to ask ourselves what we could have done as scientists to help prevent or minimize the impact of this disaster. It is imperative, however, also to ask ourselves what we should be doing to mitigate the adverse impact of the next calamity.AGU's Committee on Public Affairs, which I chair, is charged with advocating the contents of AGU position statements, one of which is entitled Meeting the Challenges of Natural Hazards. In that statement, AGU calls for three basic activities to reduce our vulnerability to natural disasters: (1) fundamental research on Earth and space, and monitoring of natural hazards; (2) dissemination of the relevant results to the public, especially vulnerable communities; and (3) implementation of multidisciplinary efforts needed to apply effective mitigation strategies worldwide.

  20. Synthetic aperture radar and natural disasters: Hazard mapping using full polarimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Czuchlewski, Kristina Rodriguez

    This thesis focuses on developing algorithms for radar-based natural disaster response. We demonstrate that fully-polarimetric Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) can be used to assess natural disasters involving terrain resurfacing such as landslides, volcanic eruptions and fires. These hazards often temporarily remove a natural vegetation cover and, in doing so, modify the physical properties of the land surface. This land-cover disturbance causes a detectable change in dominant microwave scattering mechanism for the areas affected. SAR has operational advantages over optical sensors for rapid disaster assessment because of its day/night acquisition capability; its ability to "see through" smoke, clouds and dust; and its side-looking viewing geometry, which is an advantage whenever data collection directly above the site would prove dangerous. To assess the usefulness of fully-polarimetric SAR, we apply a uniform approach to map (1) landslides resulting from the 1999 Mw 7.6 Chi-Chi earthquake in Taiwan, (2) volcanic flows from the major 1996 eruption of Manam Volcano in Papua New Guinea, and (3) the extent of damage from the summer 2002 Rodeo-Chediski wildfire in Arizona, USA. We then reexamine the data from Manam Island and Taiwan to determine the effects of a polarization preserving speckle reduction filter. Our results demonstrate the potential utility of fully polarimetric SAR for hazard mapping and disaster response.

  1. [El niño phenomenon and natural disasters: public health interventions for disaster preparedness and response].

    PubMed

    Hijar, Gisely; Bonilla, Catherine; Munayco, Cesar V; Gutierrez, Ericson L; Ramos, Willy

    2016-06-01

    This article reviews public health interventions for preparedness and response to natural disasters within the context of El Niño phenomenon using systematic reviews and a review of revisions with emphasis on vector-borne diseases, water-borne diseases, malnutrition, heat stress, drought, flood-associated diseases, mental health problems, vulnerability of the physical health-system infrastructure, as well as long-term policies aimed at protecting the populations of these cases. Environmental interventions were identified, including vector control, chemoprophylaxis, immunization, and intradomiciliary water treatment. While these finds are based primarily on systematic reviews, it is necessary to evaluate the benefit of these interventions within the population, according to the context of each region.

  2. A Century of Australian Natural Disasters and How to Reduce the Toll from Future Events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McAneney, J.

    2014-12-01

    This study reviews Australian experience of natural disasters over the last century and considers how to reduce this nation's vulnerability to such events in the future. In line with global experience, the cost of Australian weather-related natural disasters has been increasing, while loss of life has decreased, with extreme heat events responsible for more fatalities than all other natural perils combined, baring epidemics. However when disaster costs arising from historical events are normalised to current day exposure, no long-term trend emerges. Moreover the frequency of these losses shows no sign of increasing since 1950. In other words, the rising cost of natural disasters can be firmly sheeted home to the fact that there are now more of us living in vulnerable places with more to lose. In view of the above, emergency management and government risk management and strategic planning should focus on plausible large event scenarios, whatever their cause. If we wish to reduce disaster losses, land-use planning has to become risk-informed and building codes need to consider potential economic impacts, rather than just life safety. Insurers can play a role by pricing risk correctly and sending clear signals to homeowners (and governments) to stimulate risk-reducing behaviours. The tools to achieve fine-grained risk assessments are increasingly available. The success of the regulated use of the building code in tropical cyclone-prone regions in Australia and the performance of modern seismic building codes in New Zealand, shows what can be achieved when there is a demonstrated need and political will.

  3. Probabilistic Forecasting of Life and Economic Losses due to Natural Disasters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barton, C. C.; Tebbens, S. F.

    2014-12-01

    The magnitude of natural hazard events such as hurricanes, tornadoes, earthquakes, and floods are traditionally measured by wind speed, energy release, or discharge. In this study we investigate the scaling of the magnitude of individual events of the 20th and 21stcentury in terms of economic and life losses in the United States and worldwide. Economic losses are subdivided into insured and total losses. Some data sets are inflation or population adjusted. Forecasts associated with these events are of interest to insurance, reinsurance, and emergency management agencies. Plots of cumulative size-frequency distributions of economic and life loss are well-fit by power functions and thus exhibit self-similar scaling. This self-similar scaling property permits use of frequent small events to estimate the rate of occurrence of less frequent larger events. Examining the power scaling behavior of loss data for disasters permits: forecasting the probability of occurrence of a disaster over a wide range of years (1 to 10 to 1,000 years); comparing losses associated with one type of disaster to another; comparing disasters in one region to similar disasters in another region; and, measuring the effectiveness of planning and mitigation strategies. In the United States, life losses due to flood and tornado cumulative-frequency distributions have steeper slopes, indicating that frequent smaller events contribute the majority of losses. In contrast, life losses due to hurricanes and earthquakes have shallower slopes, indicating that the few larger events contribute the majority of losses. Disaster planning and mitigation strategies should incorporate these differences.

  4. The role of anger and ongoing stressors in mental health following a natural disaster.

    PubMed

    Forbes, David; Alkemade, Nathan; Waters, Elizabeth; Gibbs, Lisa; Gallagher, Colin; Pattison, Phillipa; Lusher, Dean; MacDougall, Colin; Harms, Louise; Block, Karen; Snowdon, Elyse; Kellet, Connie; Sinnott, Vikki; Ireton, Greg; Richardson, John; Bryant, Richard A

    2015-08-01

    Research has established the mental health sequelae following disaster, with studies now focused on understanding factors that mediate these outcomes. This study focused on anger, alcohol, subsequent life stressors and traumatic events as mediators in the development of mental health disorders following the 2009 Black Saturday Bushfires, Australia's worst natural disaster in over 100 years. This study examined data from 1017 (M = 404, F = 613) adult residents across 25 communities differentially affected by the fires and participating in the Beyond Bushfires research study. Data included measures of fire exposure, posttraumatic stress disorder, depression, alcohol abuse, anger and subsequent major life stressors and traumatic events. Structural equation modeling assessed the influence of factors mediating the effects of fire exposure on mental health outcomes. Three mediation models were tested. The final model recorded excellent fit and observed a direct relationship between disaster exposure and mental health outcomes (b = .192, p < .001) and mediating relationships via Anger (b = .102, p < .001) and Major Life Stressors (b = .128, p < .001). Each gender was compared with multiple group analyses and while the mediation relationships were still significant for both genders, the direct relationship between exposure and outcome was no longer significant for men (p = .069), but remained significant (b = .234, p < .001) for women. Importantly, anger and major life stressors mediate the relationship between disaster exposure and development of mental health problems. The findings have significant implications for the assessment of anger post disaster, the provision of targeted anger-focused interventions and delivery of government and community assistance and support in addressing ongoing stressors in the post-disaster context to minimize subsequent mental health consequences. © The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists 2015.

  5. Natural Disasters and Educational Building Design. An Introductory Review and Annotated Bibliography for the Asian Region. Educational Building Report 4.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sinnamon, Ian T.

    This study presents an overview of collected literature relevant to school buildings, or building in general, in disaster-prone areas, together with some discussion of the role that school buildings, as a universally present community asset, may play in situations of crisis. The natural disasters referred to in this study include cyclones and…

  6. A Federal Plan for Natural Disaster Warning and Preparedness, Federal Committee for Meteorological Services and Supporting Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (DOC), Rockville, MD.

    This plan to mitigate the impact of potential geophysical natural disasters, including those caused by hurricanes, tornadoes, floods and earthquakes, integrates and coordinates the multiagency functions in warning services and community preparedness related to many of these disasters. The plan is divided into five sections. The first two sections…

  7. Natural Disasters and Educational Building Design. An Introductory Review and Annotated Bibliography for the Asian Region. Educational Building Report 4.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sinnamon, Ian T.

    This study presents an overview of collected literature relevant to school buildings, or building in general, in disaster-prone areas, together with some discussion of the role that school buildings, as a universally present community asset, may play in situations of crisis. The natural disasters referred to in this study include cyclones and…

  8. Impact of Natural Disasters on Livelihood Resilience of Sichuan Rural Residents and Policy Implementation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, Yiping

    2017-04-01

    Livelihood resilience is defined as the capacity of all people across generations to sustain and improve their livelihood opportunities and well-being despite environmental, economic, social and political disturbances. Livelihood resilience has become a popular research and policy concept in the context of climate change. In this paper, we employ the structural dynamics method to describe livelihood resilience of Sichuan rural residents based on four components of livelihood quality, livelihood promotion, livelihood provision, and natural disasters pressure. Results indicate that: (i) The livelihood resilience of rural residents was significantly positively correlated with livelihood quality, livelihood promotion and livelihood provision, but there was a strong negative correlation with the natural disaster pressure. In the past 30 years, both livelihood promotion and livelihood provision declined, and the increase in disasters pressure offset the significant increase in the quality of livelihoods in Sichuan Province. The change curve of the livelihood resilience of rural residents showed the characteristics of first rising and then descending. (ii) The impact of different natural disasters on the resilience of livelihood is different. The contribution rates of earthquake, drought and flood disaster to the resilience of livelihood were -0.9 percent, -0.8 percent, and -0.3percent respectively. Due to the fact that the research area is not divided into earthquake-stricken area, non-earthquake-stricken area, heavy stricken area and light stricken area, to a certain extent, this has weakened the negative effect of earthquake disaster on the livelihood resilience of rural residents. (iii) From central government perspective, the reform of income distribution, tax system, and to change the reality of the income growth of rural residents behind national economic development are shown to be associated with highly significant and positive impact on livelihood resilience of

  9. Patterns and Limitations of Urban Human Mobility Resilience under the Influence of Multiple Types of Natural Disaster

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Qi; Taylor, John E.

    2016-01-01

    Natural disasters pose serious threats to large urban areas, therefore understanding and predicting human movements is critical for evaluating a population’s vulnerability and resilience and developing plans for disaster evacuation, response and relief. However, only limited research has been conducted into the effect of natural disasters on human mobility. This study examines how natural disasters influence human mobility patterns in urban populations using individuals’ movement data collected from Twitter. We selected fifteen destructive cases across five types of natural disaster and analyzed the human movement data before, during, and after each event, comparing the perturbed and steady state movement data. The results suggest that the power-law can describe human mobility in most cases and that human mobility patterns observed in steady states are often correlated with those in perturbed states, highlighting their inherent resilience. However, the quantitative analysis shows that this resilience has its limits and can fail in more powerful natural disasters. The findings from this study will deepen our understanding of the interaction between urban dwellers and civil infrastructure, improve our ability to predict human movement patterns during natural disasters, and facilitate contingency planning by policymakers. PMID:26820404

  10. Patterns and Limitations of Urban Human Mobility Resilience under the Influence of Multiple Types of Natural Disaster.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qi; Taylor, John E

    2016-01-01

    Natural disasters pose serious threats to large urban areas, therefore understanding and predicting human movements is critical for evaluating a population's vulnerability and resilience and developing plans for disaster evacuation, response and relief. However, only limited research has been conducted into the effect of natural disasters on human mobility. This study examines how natural disasters influence human mobility patterns in urban populations using individuals' movement data collected from Twitter. We selected fifteen destructive cases across five types of natural disaster and analyzed the human movement data before, during, and after each event, comparing the perturbed and steady state movement data. The results suggest that the power-law can describe human mobility in most cases and that human mobility patterns observed in steady states are often correlated with those in perturbed states, highlighting their inherent resilience. However, the quantitative analysis shows that this resilience has its limits and can fail in more powerful natural disasters. The findings from this study will deepen our understanding of the interaction between urban dwellers and civil infrastructure, improve our ability to predict human movement patterns during natural disasters, and facilitate contingency planning by policymakers.

  11. Evaluation of a standardized morbidity surveillance form for use during disasters caused by natural hazards.

    PubMed

    Schnall, Amy H; Wolkin, Amy F; Noe, Rebecca; Hausman, Leslie B; Wiersma, Petra; Soetebier, Karl; Cookson, Susan T

    2011-04-01

    Surveillance for health outcomes is critical for rapid responses and timely prevention of disaster-related illnesses and injuries after a disaster-causing event. The Disaster Surveillance Workgroup (DSWG) of the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention developed a standardized, single-page, morbidity surveillance form, called the Natural Disaster Morbidity Surveillance Individual Form (Morbidity Surveillance Form), to describe the distribution of injuries and illnesses, detect outbreaks, and guide timely interventions during a disaster. Traditional data sources can be used during a disaster; however, supplemental active surveillance may be required because traditional systems often are disrupted, and many persons will seek care outside of typical acute care settings. Generally, these alternative settings lack health surveillance and reporting protocols. The need for standardized data collection was demonstrated during Hurricane Katrina, as the multiple surveillance instruments that were developed and deployed led to varied and uncoordinated data collection methods, analyses, and morbidity data reporting. Active, post-event surveillance of affected populations is critical for rapid responses to minimize and prevent morbidity and mortality, allocate resources, and target public health messaging. The CDC and the Georgia Department of Public Health (GDPH) conducted a study to evaluate a Morbidity Surveillance Form to determine its ability to capture clinical presentations. The form was completed for each patient evaluated in an emergency department (ED) during triage from 01 August, 2007 through 07 August, 2007. Data from the form were compared with the ED discharge diagnoses from electronic medical records, and kappa statistics were calculated to assess agreement. Nine hundred forty-nine patients were evaluated, 41% were male and 57% were Caucasian. According to the forms, the most common reasons for seeking treatment were acute illness, other (29%); pain (12

  12. Macroeconomics of Natural Disasters: Strengths and Weaknesses of Meta-Analysis Versus Review of Literature.

    PubMed

    A G van Bergeijk, Peter; Lazzaroni, Sara

    2015-06-01

    We use the case of the macroeconomic impact of natural disasters to analyze strengths and weaknesses of meta-analysis in an emerging research field. Macroeconomists have published on this issue since 2002 (we identified 60 studies to date). The results of the studies are contradictory and therefore the need to synthesize the available research is evident. Meta-analysis is a useful method in this field. An important aim of our article is to show how one can use the identified methodological characteristics to better understand the robustness and importance of new findings. To provide a comparative perspective, we contrast our meta-analysis and its findings with the major influential research synthesis in the field: the IPCC's 2012 special report Managing the Risks of Extreme Events and Disasters to Advance Climate Change Adaptation. We show that the IPCC could have been more confident about the negative economic impact of disasters and more transparent on inclusion and qualification of studies, if it had been complemented by a meta-analysis. Our meta-analysis shows that, controlling for modeling strategies and data set, the impact of disasters is significantly negative. The evidence is strongest for direct costs studies where we see no difference between our larger sample and the studies included in the IPCC report. Direct cost studies and indirect cost studies differ significantly, both in terms of the confidence that can be attached to a negative impact of natural disasters and in terms of the sources of heterogeneity of the findings reported in the primary studies.

  13. Are people willing to buy natural disaster insurance in China? Risk awareness, insurance acceptance, and willingness to pay.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ming; Liao, Chuan; Yang, Saini; Zhao, Weiting; Liu, Min; Shi, Peijun

    2012-10-01

    After the Wenchuan earthquake (magnitude 7.9, May 12, 2008), intensive debates on how China should establish a natural disaster insurance system were initiated among researchers, policymakers, and insurance professionals. Our focus was the social aspects of disaster insurance, explored in China through a nationwide survey. Our questionnaires investigated people's risk awareness, insurance acceptance, their opinions on governmental measures for disaster management, and their willingness to pay for disaster house insurance. We analyzed the results at both regional and individual scales. We found that the integrated hazard index and respondents' experience of insurance (considered objective factors), and their opinions on the importance of insurance and government responsibility (considered subjective factors) showed strong correlation with the regional overall acceptance of disaster insurance. An individual's decision to participate highly depended on his/her experience of both insurance and disaster and his/her opinion on the importance of insurance as a coping mechanism. Respondents from poverty-stricken or less-developed counties were not necessarily more reluctant to accept natural disaster insurance, though they exhibited relatively lower ability to afford insurance. In general, respondents had correct perceptions of natural disasters in their areas; however, people from regions with a greater multihazard threat showed less willingness to accept disaster insurance because they tended to expect the government to undertake to cover losses and considered insurance to be less important. People's willingness to pay for an assumed disaster house insurance was also investigated and analyzed. We consequently discuss the policy implications for developing a disaster insurance system in China.

  14. Georeferencing natural disaster impact footprints : lessons learned from the EM-DAT experience

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wallemacq, Pascaline; Guha Sapir, Debarati

    2014-05-01

    The Emergency Events Database (EM-DAT) contains data about the occurrence and consequences of all the disasters that have taken place since 1900. The main objectives of the database are to serve the purposes of humanitarian action at national and international levels; to aid decision making for disaster preparedness, as well as providing an objective base for vulnerability assessments and priority setting. EM-DAT records data on the human and economic impacts for each event as well as the location of said event. This is recorded as text data, namely the province, department, county, district, or village. The first purpose of geocoding (or georeferencing) the EM-DAT database is to transform the location data from text format into code data. The GAUL (Global Administrative Unit Layers) database (FAO) is used as a basis to identify the geographic footprint of the disaster, ideally to the second administrative level and add a unique code for each affected unit. Our first step has involved georeferencing earthquakes since the location of these is precise. The second purpose is to detail the degree of precision of georeferencing. The application and benefits of georeferencing are manifold. The geographic information of the footprint of past (after 2000) and future natural disasters permits the location of vulnerable areas with a GIS system and to cross data from different sources. It will allow the study of different elements such as the extent of a disaster and its human and economic consequences; the exposure and vulnerability of the population in space and time and the efficiency of mitigation measures. In addition, any association between events and external factors can be identified (e.g.: is the famine located at the same places as drought?) and precision of the information in the disaster report can be evaluated. Besides this, these maps will provide valuable communication support since maps have a high communication power and are easily understandable by the

  15. Preparedness for Natural Disasters Among Older US Adults: A Nationwide Survey

    PubMed Central

    Rubenstein, Linda M.; Wallace, Robert B.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. We sought to determine natural disaster preparedness levels among older US adults and assess factors that may adversely affect health and safety during such incidents. Methods. We sampled adults aged 50 years or older (n = 1304) from the 2010 interview survey of the Health and Retirement Study. The survey gathered data on general demographic characteristics, disability status or functional limitations, and preparedness-related factors and behaviors. We calculated a general disaster preparedness score by using individual indicators to assess overall preparedness. Results. Participant (n = 1304) mean age was 70 years (SD = 9.3). Only 34.3% reported participating in an educational program or reading materials about disaster preparation. Nearly 15% reported using electrically powered medical devices that might be at risk in a power outage. The preparedness score indicated that increasing age, physical disability, and lower educational attainment and income were independently and significantly associated with worse overall preparedness. Conclusions. Despite both greater vulnerability to disasters and continuous growth in the number of older US adults, many of the substantial problems discovered are remediable and require attention in the clinical, public health, and emergency management sectors of society. PMID:26313052

  16. Preparedness for Natural Disasters Among Older US Adults: A Nationwide Survey

    PubMed Central

    Rubenstein, Linda M.; Wallace, Robert B.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. We sought to determine natural disaster preparedness levels among older US adults and assess factors that may adversely affect health and safety during such incidents. Methods. We sampled adults aged 50 years or older (n = 1304) from the 2010 interview survey of the Health and Retirement Study. The survey gathered data on general demographic characteristics, disability status or functional limitations, and preparedness-related factors and behaviors. We calculated a general disaster preparedness score by using individual indicators to assess overall preparedness. Results. Participant (n = 1304) mean age was 70 years (SD = 9.3). Only 34.3% reported participating in an educational program or reading materials about disaster preparation. Nearly 15% reported using electrically powered medical devices that might be at risk in a power outage. The preparedness score indicated that increasing age, physical disability, and lower educational attainment and income were independently and significantly associated with worse overall preparedness. Conclusions. Despite both greater vulnerability to disasters and continuous growth in the number of older US adults, many of the substantial problems discovered are remediable and require attention in the clinical, public health, and emergency management sectors of society. PMID:24432877

  17. Preparedness for natural disasters among older US adults: a nationwide survey.

    PubMed

    Al-Rousan, Tala M; Rubenstein, Linda M; Wallace, Robert B

    2015-10-01

    We sought to determine natural disaster preparedness levels among older US adults and assess factors that may adversely affect health and safety during such incidents. We sampled adults aged 50 years or older (n = 1304) from the 2010 interview survey of the Health and Retirement Study. The survey gathered data on general demographic characteristics, disability status or functional limitations, and preparedness-related factors and behaviors. We calculated a general disaster preparedness score by using individual indicators to assess overall preparedness. Participant (n = 1304) mean age was 70 years (SD = 9.3). Only 34.3% reported participating in an educational program or reading materials about disaster preparation. Nearly 15% reported using electrically powered medical devices that might be at risk in a power outage. The preparedness score indicated that increasing age, physical disability, and lower educational attainment and income were independently and significantly associated with worse overall preparedness. Despite both greater vulnerability to disasters and continuous growth in the number of older US adults, many of the substantial problems discovered are remediable and require attention in the clinical, public health, and emergency management sectors of society.

  18. [Preparedness for natural disasters among older US adults: a nationwide survery].

    PubMed

    Al-rousan, Tala M; Rubenstein, Linda M; Wallace, Robert B

    2014-12-01

    We sought to determine natural disaster preparedness levels among older US adults and assess factors that may adversely affect health and safety during such incidents. We sampled adults aged 50 years or older (n = 1 304) from the 2010 interview survey of the Health and Retirement Study. The survey gathered data on general demographic characteristics, disability status or functional limitations, and preparedness-related factors and behaviors. We calculated a general disaster preparedness score by using individual indicators to assess overall preparedness. Participant (n = 1 304) mean age was 70 years (SD = 9.3). Only 34.3% reported participating in an educational program or reading materials about disaster preparation. Nearly 15% reported using electrically powered medical devices that might be at risk in a power outage. The preparedness score indicated that increasing age, physical disability, and lower educational attainment and income were independently and significantly associated with worse overall preparedness. Despite both greater vulnerability to disasters and continuous growth in the number of older US adults, many of the substantial problems discovered are remediable and require attention in the clinical, public health, and emergency management sectors of society.

  19. Dealing with the continuing challenges of natural disasters.

    PubMed

    2001-11-01

    Tropical Storm Allison--which struck the Texas and Louisiana coasts in June 2000--killed 22 people, flooded more than 27,000 homes, and caused an estimated $2 billion in property damage in the Houston area alone. Among the hardest hit were some 12 hospitals in the Texas Medical Center, south of downtown Houston, the world's largest medical facility, which all experienced flooding and reduction of services to various degrees. (The medical complex of 42 member institutions also includes numerous academic buildings and research laboratories where nearly 35,000 lab animals drowned.) Two of the hospitals were forced to evacuate all patients and close after losing emergency power. Sixteen patients died at medical center facilities during the storm, but a team from the JCAHO reportedly found that the deaths were caused by the critical nature of their illnesses rather than the severe flooding that inundated basements and other areas of the medical center.

  20. Mental health and psychosocial response after the worst natural disaster in the history of the Maldives.

    PubMed

    Ibrahim, Athifa; Hameed, Abdul

    2006-12-01

    The Maldives as a geographically diverse nation had to face tsunami with a number of key issues in hand. These included large geographical spread of islands, varied levels of communication across islands and internal displacement of people. One third of the total population was directly or indirectly affected. All except nine inhabited islands were partially or totally flooded. Although the total loss of life was limited the effect on the population was tremendous. The cost to the economy was 62% of the annual GDP. The government not only assigned high priority to mental health and psychosocial support activities after the tsunami but took charge of training and support measures. The community outreach programme provided psychosocial support to every affected person. This was provided by local Maldivians, who were appropriately trained, thus making it culturally and technically appropriate. Long-term plans for mental health and psychosocial aspects of disaster preparedness have been initiated. The experiences of the tsunami disaster has provided an opportunity to review the existing state of mental health services in the Maldives and to develop a plan to meet the mental health and psychosocial needs of the community. A rapid and appropriate response to a disaster depends on an existing policy structure and system, and an ability to mobilize these plans.

  1. Longitudinal course of physical and psychological symptoms after a natural disaster

    PubMed Central

    Wahlström, Lars; Michélsen, Hans; Schulman, Abbe; Backheden, Hans; Keskinen-Rosenqvist, Riitta

    2013-01-01

    Background After disaster, physical symptoms are common although seldom recognized due to lack of knowledge of the course of symptoms and relation to more studied psychological symptoms. Objective This study aimed to investigate the change in the reporting of different physical symptoms after a disaster, including possible factors for change, and whether psychological symptoms predict physical symptoms reporting at a later point in time. Method A longitudinal study of citizens of Stockholm who survived the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami. A total of 1,101 participants completed questionnaires on somatic symptoms, general distress, posttraumatic stress, exposure, and demographic details 14 months and 3 years after the disaster. Physical symptoms occurring daily or weekly during the last year were investigated in four symptom indices: neurological, cardiorespiratory, gastrointestinal, and musculoskeletal. We used generalized estimating equations (GEE) analysis to determine odds ratios for a change in symptoms, and pathway analysis to predict the influence of psychological symptoms on physical symptoms. Results There was a general decrease of reporting in all physical symptom indices except the musculoskeletal symptom index. The change in the neurological symptom index showed the strongest association with exposure, and for women. General distress and posttraumatic stress at 14 months postdisaster predicted physical symptoms at 3 years. Conclusion Physical symptoms were predicted by psychological symptoms at an earlier time point, but in a considerable proportion of respondents, physical symptoms existed independently from psychological symptoms. Physicians should be observant on the possible connection of particular pseudoneurological symptoms with prior adversities. PMID:24379941

  2. When a natural disaster occurs: lessons learned in meeting students' needs.

    PubMed

    Watson, Pamela G; Loffredo, Vincent J; McKee, John C

    2011-01-01

    Across the nation, weather-related natural disasters-tropical storms, floods, tornadoes, and earthquakes-struck even areas where weather concerns are not paramount on the minds of most people. These natural disasters heightened awareness that all geographic areas are susceptible to aberrant weather conditions. The purpose of this article was to relate the lessons learned by one academic health center in meeting students' emergency preparedness and disaster recovery needs following a major hurricane in fall 2008. To gauge students' storm-related needs, a Hurricane Needs Survey (HNS) was conducted in spring 2009, 7 months after the hurricane. Students responded to 26 structured response items and 3 open-ended questions. Five hundred fifteen surveys were completed, constituting a response rate of 37.2%. Data were analyzed by creating frequencies to profile students' hurricane experiences. Results indicated that all students left the island under mandatory evacuation orders; most stayed with their families, and most experienced moderate material losses. For some students, the evacuation process and life after the storm contributed to ongoing problems, worries, and academic performance issues. Qualitative content analysis was used to derive themes from the students' narrative responses to the HNS open-ended questions about their perceptions of the extent to which the University of Texas Medical Branch met their needs. When students' hurricane response comments were analyzed, three major themes emerged: being prepared, needing to be connected, and returning to normalcy. The major lessons learned are that the emergency preparation of students requires greater specificity and that discussion about poststorm recovery expectations is essential. Following a natural disaster, students experience more distress than may be readily apparent. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Flooding experience at Veracruz: not only a natural disaster

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Welsh-Rodriguez, C. M.; Nava Bringas, M.; Ochoa Martinez, C.; Local; regional impacts of global change

    2013-05-01

    The Veracruz state lies on the middle of the Gulf of Mexico in Mexican Republic; has a surface of 72815 Km2 represent almost the 4% of Mexico. Due to the complex topography, the rainfall, runoff and the extreme weather the 33% of Mexican water goes trough Veracruz, and every year the presence of tropical depressions, tropical storms and hurricanes impacts on the habitants of Veracruz (7.5 millions). For Veracruz the Sierra Madre is the natural border on the West and on the East the Gulf of Mexico. It is located from 17°10' to 23°38' (N) and between 93° to 99° (W). We will try to get the find out the primary information source for the floods on 2005 and 20010 and correlate with the laws on environment and civil protection for Veracruz. In 1999 a tropical depression more than 200 000 persons and more than 20 died, in 2005 Stan hurricane affected more than a million persons but no one died. In 2010 the effects of hurricane Karl were similar but a few days after the tropical depression Mathew affected 150 000 persons more and 15 people died. The patterns of people habitat in Veracruz since middle of XX century follows the oil industry develop at south east Mexico, so the risk increased as the population density increased, that's a critical reason to concluded that is not only cause - effect issue on Veracruz. So if the extreme events increase as consequence of the climate variability and climate change the vulnerability on this region will not be address in prevention policies, and the future scenario on adaptation will be a deep complex problem to solve from all perspectives.Reported impactst; Extreme events. Data from Veracruz Government.

  4. DNA methylation signatures triggered by prenatal maternal stress exposure to a natural disaster: Project Ice Storm.

    PubMed

    Cao-Lei, Lei; Massart, Renaud; Suderman, Matthew J; Machnes, Ziv; Elgbeili, Guillaume; Laplante, David P; Szyf, Moshe; King, Suzanne

    2014-01-01

    Prenatal maternal stress (PNMS) predicts a wide variety of behavioral and physical outcomes in the offspring. Although epigenetic processes may be responsible for PNMS effects, human research is hampered by the lack of experimental methods that parallel controlled animal studies. Disasters, however, provide natural experiments that can provide models of prenatal stress. Five months after the 1998 Quebec ice storm we recruited women who had been pregnant during the disaster and assessed their degrees of objective hardship and subjective distress. Thirteen years later, we investigated DNA methylation profiling in T cells obtained from 36 of the children, and compared selected results with those from saliva samples obtained from the same children at age 8. Prenatal maternal objective hardship was correlated with DNA methylation levels in 1675 CGs affiliated with 957 genes predominantly related to immune function; maternal subjective distress was uncorrelated. DNA methylation changes in SCG5 and LTA, both highly correlated with maternal objective stress, were comparable in T cells, peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) and saliva cells. These data provide first evidence in humans supporting the conclusion that PNMS results in a lasting, broad, and functionally organized DNA methylation signature in several tissues in offspring. By using a natural disaster model, we can infer that the epigenetic effects found in Project Ice Storm are due to objective levels of hardship experienced by the pregnant woman rather than to her level of sustained distress.

  5. A randomised trial of nutrient supplements to minimise psychological stress after a natural disaster.

    PubMed

    Kaplan, Bonnie J; Rucklidge, Julia J; Romijn, Amy R; Dolph, Michael

    2015-08-30

    After devastating flooding in southern Alberta in June 2013, we attempted to replicate a New Zealand randomised trial that showed that micronutrient (minerals, vitamins) consumption after the earthquakes of 2010-11 resulted in improved mental health. Residents of southern Alberta were invited to participate in a study on the potential benefit of nutrient supplements following a natural disaster. Fifty-six adults aged 23-66 were randomised to receive a single nutrient (vitamin D, n=17), a few-nutrients formula (B-Complex, n=21), or a broad-spectrum mineral/vitamin formula (BSMV, n=18). Self-reported changes in depression, anxiety and stress were monitored for six weeks. Although all groups showed substantial decreases on all measures, those consuming the B-Complex and the BSMV formulas showed significantly greater improvement in stress and anxiety compared with those consuming the single nutrient, with large effect sizes (Cohen's d range 0.76-1.08). There were no group differences between those consuming the B-Complex and BSMV. The use of nutrient formulas with multiple minerals and/or vitamins to minimise stress associated with natural disasters is now supported by three studies. Further research should be carried out to evaluate the potential population benefit that might accrue if such formulas were distributed as a post-disaster public health measure. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. DNA Methylation Signatures Triggered by Prenatal Maternal Stress Exposure to a Natural Disaster: Project Ice Storm

    PubMed Central

    Cao-Lei, Lei; Massart, Renaud; Suderman, Matthew J.; Machnes, Ziv; Elgbeili, Guillaume; Laplante, David P.; Szyf, Moshe; King, Suzanne

    2014-01-01

    Background Prenatal maternal stress (PNMS) predicts a wide variety of behavioral and physical outcomes in the offspring. Although epigenetic processes may be responsible for PNMS effects, human research is hampered by the lack of experimental methods that parallel controlled animal studies. Disasters, however, provide natural experiments that can provide models of prenatal stress. Methods Five months after the 1998 Quebec ice storm we recruited women who had been pregnant during the disaster and assessed their degrees of objective hardship and subjective distress. Thirteen years later, we investigated DNA methylation profiling in T cells obtained from 36 of the children, and compared selected results with those from saliva samples obtained from the same children at age 8. Results Prenatal maternal objective hardship was correlated with DNA methylation levels in 1675 CGs affiliated with 957 genes predominantly related to immune function; maternal subjective distress was uncorrelated. DNA methylation changes in SCG5 and LTA, both highly correlated with maternal objective stress, were comparable in T cells, peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) and saliva cells. Conclusions These data provide first evidence in humans supporting the conclusion that PNMS results in a lasting, broad, and functionally organized DNA methylation signature in several tissues in offspring. By using a natural disaster model, we can infer that the epigenetic effects found in Project Ice Storm are due to objective levels of hardship experienced by the pregnant woman rather than to her level of sustained distress. PMID:25238154

  7. The construction and periodicity analysis of natural disaster database of Alxa area based on Chinese local records

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Zheng; Mingzhong, Tian; Hengli, Wang

    2010-05-01

    Chinese hand-written local records were originated from the first century. Generally, these local records include geography, evolution, customs, education, products, people, historical sites, as well as writings of an area. Through such endeavors, the information of the natural materials of China nearly has had no "dark ages" in the evolution of its 5000-year old civilization. A compilation of all meaningful historical data of natural-disasters taken place in Alxa of inner-Mongolia, the second largest desert in China, is used here for the construction of a 500-year high resolution database. The database is divided into subsets according to the types of natural-disasters like sand-dust storm, drought events, cold wave, etc. Through applying trend, correlation, wavelet, and spectral analysis on these data, we can estimate the statistically periodicity of different natural-disasters, detect and quantify similarities and patterns of the periodicities of these records, and finally take these results in aggregate to find a strong and coherent cyclicity through the last 500 years which serves as the driving mechanism of these geological hazards. Based on the periodicity obtained from the above analysis, the paper discusses the probability of forecasting natural-disasters and the suitable measures to reduce disaster losses through history records. Keyword: Chinese local records; Alxa; natural disasters; database; periodicity analysis

  8. Mental health implications for older adults after natural disasters--a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Parker, Georgina; Lie, David; Siskind, Dan J; Martin-Khan, Melinda; Raphael, Beverly; Crompton, David; Kisely, Steve

    2016-01-01

    Natural disasters affect the health and well-being of adults throughout the world. There is some debate in the literature as to whether older persons have increased risk of mental health outcomes after exposure to natural disasters when compared with younger adults. To date, no systematic review has evaluated this. We aimed to synthesize the available evidence on the impact of natural disasters on the mental health and psychological distress experienced by older adults. A meta-analysis was conducted on papers identified through a systematic review. The primary outcomes measured were post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), depression, anxiety disorders, adjustment disorder, and psychological distress. We identified six papers with sufficient data for a random effects meta-analysis. Older adults were 2.11 times more likely to experience PTSD symptoms and 1.73 more likely to develop adjustment disorder when exposed to natural disasters when compared with younger adults. Given the global rise in the number of older adults affected by natural disasters, mental health services need to be prepared to meet their needs following natural disasters, particularly around the early detection and management of PTSD.

  9. How Prepared Are Our Schools? Natural Disasters, School Awareness, and District Plans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burling, Wynona K.; Hyle, Adrienne E.

    1997-01-01

    Identifies, evaluates, and ranks disaster-preparedness planning in school districts nationally. Findings reveal great diversity in disaster planning, from no plans whatsoever to action planning covering before, during, and in the aftermath of a disaster. (GR)

  10. The role of obstetrics and gynecology national societies during natural disasters.

    PubMed

    Lalonde, André; Adrien, Lauré

    2015-07-01

    When a natural disaster occurs, such as an earthquake, floods, or a tsunami, the international response is quick. However, there is no organized strategy in place to address obstetric and gynecological (ob/gyn) emergencies. International organizations and national ob/gyn societies do not have an organized plan and rely on the good will of volunteers. Too often, local specialists are ignored and are not involved in the response. The massive earthquake in Haiti in 2010 exemplifies the lack of coordinated response involving national organizations following the disaster. The Society of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists of Canada (SOGC) engaged rapidly with Haitian colleagues in response to the obstetric and gynecological emergencies. An active strategy is proposed.

  11. Towards emergency management of natural disasters and critical accidents: the Greek experience.

    PubMed

    Nivolianitou, Zoe; Synodinou, Barbara

    2011-10-01

    This paper presents the findings of a prototype study which sought to identify factors that contribute to effective emergency management in Greece and other European states regarding both natural disasters and critical accidents. The parameters for proper action and successful intervention in operational and logistical are identified based on the document analysis and interviews with emergency responders. The interviews are conducted between state-owned and voluntary organizations. They were asked to rate in terms of their importance for effective emergency response efforts. This paper offers useful information of the organization and management of emergency response in Greece, as well as provides interesting responders' opinions data concerning important priorities in the emergency management area. Despite the fact that the data come from the Greek experience, the conclusions may be applied for a broader use in the emergency planning of disasters. The whole study has been undertaken within the European Pre-Emergencies (PreEm) project.

  12. Community Participation and Strengthening in a Reconstruction Context After a Natural Disaster.

    PubMed

    Cueto, Rosa María; Fernández, María Zoila; Moll, Sarah; Rivera, Gonzalo

    2015-01-01

    During the first academic term of 2010, participatory action investigation processes were conducted in three communities affected by the 2007 high magnitude earthquake that occurred in the province of Chincha (Ica, Peru). In the process, members of the communities identified, as core problems, aspects related to the community coexistence, emphasizing the attention of the most vulnerable segments (children and adolescents) in the context of economic constraints and problems aggravated by the earthquake. Results include an analysis of the needs and reactions following the earthquake, the leadership and the power relations visible in the post disaster context and, finally, the community participation throughout the reconstruction process. This article also proposes some topics resulting from the analysis, aiming to contribute to interventions focused on community participation and strengthening of local resources in contexts of great vulnerability to natural disasters.

  13. A spatio-temporel optimization model for the evacuation of the population exposed to natural disasters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alaeddine, H.; Serrhini, K.; Maïzia, M.; Néron, E.

    2015-01-01

    The importance of managing the crisis caused by natural disasters, and especially by flood, requires the development of an effective evacuation systems. An effective evacuation system must take into account certain constraints, including those related to network traffic, accessibility, human resources and material equipment (vehicles, collecting points, etc.). The main objective of this work is to provide assistance to technical services and rescue forces in terms of accessibility by offering itineraries relating to rescue and evacuation of people and property. We consider in this paper the evacuation of an urban area of medium size exposed to the hazard of flood. In case of inundation, most people will be evacuated using their own vehicles. Two evacuation types are addressed in this paper, (1) a preventive evacuation based on a flood forecasting system and (2) an evacuation during the disaster based on flooding scenarios. The two study sites on which the evacuation model developed is applied are the valley of Tours (Fr, 37) which is protected by a set of dikes (preventive evacuation) and the valley of Gien (Fr, 45) which benefits of a low rate of flooding (evacuation before and during the disaster). Our goal is to construct, for each of these two sites, a chronological evacuation plan i.e. computing for each individual the departure date and the path to reach the assembly point (also called shelter) associated according to a priorities list established for this purpose. Evacuation plan must avoid the congestion on the road network. Here we present a Spatio-Temporal Optimization Model (STOM) dedicated to the evacuation of the population exposed to natural disasters and more specifically to flood risk.

  14. Public values for integration in natural disaster management and planning: A case study from Victoria, Australia.

    PubMed

    Rawluk, Andrea; Ford, Rebecca M; Neolaka, Fendi L; Williams, Kathryn J

    2017-01-01

    Values can be useful for identifying what is important to individuals and communities, yet there is currently not a coherent way to conceptualize, identify, and organize the breadth of values that can be affected by a natural disaster. This research proposes a conceptual framework for how to conceptualize, identify, and organize values, and proposes a concrete, tangible value called the valued entity. The framework is applied in two studies of bushfire in Victoria, Australia: 112 submissions from individuals to the 2009 Victorian Bushfires Royal Commission and interviews with 30 members of the public in bushfire risk landscapes. Our findings suggest that: what people value ranges from abstract to concrete; prevalent abstract values include benevolence and universalism; prevalent mid-level valued attributes include natural attributes of landscapes and human life and welfare; prevalent valued entities are people and properties close to the person. Comparison between the two studies suggests people with more recent experience with bushfire refer less to the importance of natural places and natural attributes. The conceptual framework can act as a boundary object to facilitate researchers and policy-makers understanding the breadth of values affected by natural disaster events and management actions and how governance can better consider values at different scales. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  15. Naked bodies, naked genomes: the special (but not exceptional) nature of genomic information.

    PubMed

    Sulmasy, Daniel P

    2015-05-01

    Genetic exceptionalism, the view that genomic information is different from other types of sensitive information and deserves exceptional types of protections, has been roundly criticized. However, the public still expresses special fears about the access others might have to their genomic information. In this article, it is argued that there may be a basis for the public perception that genomic information is special, even if it cannot be said that policies could or should be enacted to protect the privacy and confidentiality of genomic information that would be exceptional relative to the protections one would enact to protect other types of sensitive information. The special nature of genomic information lies in understanding that it is neither personal property nor mere information. A genome is, at one and the same time, a physical aspect of a person and information about that person. Genomic data are embodied information that partially constitutes as well as describes individuals and that connects them in physical ways to their ancestors and their relatives. All forms of privacy need to be protected, but some intimate aspects of our lives command special respect. To see a genome is more analogous to seeing a naked body than to seeing a social security number. This metaphor suggests that clinicians and investigators ought to respect the special concerns of patients regarding genomic information while not claiming that there are any exceptional measures one could take to protect genomic privacy. Suggestions are given for how this view might affect patient interactions, consent discussions, public policy, and public trust in genomic research and clinical genetics.

  16. Traditional and non-traditional approaches to the prediction of natural disasters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sapunov, Valentin; Glazyrina, Tatiana

    2016-04-01

    Since the beginning of the 21st century the number of disasters in the world increased approximately two times. Damage from disasters cost an average of 230 billion dollars per year. Recently, the death toll in the disaster has reached 230,000 - 1 000,000 per year. Along with earthquakes, tsunamis, floods, increased the number of forest and steppe fires. These processes are not fully known global, geophysical and space reasons. Of great importance are perennial not until the end of the study of natural cycles. There is evidence that the state of the planet's surface affect processes in the Earth's core. Understanding the causes and prediction of the tragic events require an integrated effort based on the synthesis of various sciences as well as history which has knowledge about the disasters of the past. Factor that reduces the risk is constant monitoring, including both distant and contact methods. However, its possibility is limited. Firstly, due to the high cost of global, especially space monitoring. Secondly, due to the unpredictability of some processes. In December 2004, the countries of Southeast Asia hit by the tsunami. The death gotten 250 000 people. Animals in this cataclysm appeared to stay safety and advance left the danger zone. Animals are able to predict hazards having no materials predecessors. Participants nuclear tests show - a day before the explosion of the animals escape dangerous zone. This means that animals have the ability to predict the catastrophic events. The most important abiotic factor, the physical nature of which is still not clear is time. One of the scientists, who achieved some success in the study of time, was N.Kozyrev (1908-1983). He devoted his life to the study of the phenomenon of time and attempt to systematize the knowledge of him as a physical substance. Kozyrev in his theoretical calculations and experiments found the new field - the field of time (chrono-information). Through it can instantly and accurately transmit

  17. Welfare effects of natural disasters in developing countries: an examination using multi-dimensional socio-economic indicators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mutter, J. C.; Deraniyagala, S.; Mara, V.; Marinova, S.

    2011-12-01

    The study of the socio-economic impacts of natural disasters is still in its infancy. Social scientists have historically regarded natural disasters as exogenous or essentially random perturbations. More recent scholarship treats disaster shocks as endogenous, with pre-existing social, economic and political conditions determining the form and magnitude of disaster impacts. One apparently robust conclusion is that direct economic losses from natural disasters, similar to human losses, are larger (in relative terms) the poorer a country is, yet cross-country regressions show that disasters may accrue economic benefits due to new investments in productive infrastructure, especially if the investment is funded by externally provided capital (Work Bank assistance, private donations, etc) and do not deplete national savings or acquire a debt burden. Some econometric studies also show that the quality of a country's institutions can mitigate the mortality effects of a disaster. The effects on income inequality are such that the poor suffer greater 'asset shocks' and may never recover from a disaster leading to a widening of existing disparities. Natural disasters affect women more adversely than men in terms of life expectancy at birth. On average they kill more women than men or kill women at a younger age than men, and the more so the stronger the disaster. The extent to which women are more likely to die than men or to die at a younger age from the immediate disaster impact or from post-disaster events depends not only on disaster strength itself but also on the socioeconomic status of women in the affected country. Existing research on the economic effects of disasters focus almost exclusively on the impact on economic growth - the growth rate of GDP. GDP however is only a partial indicator of welfare, especially for countries that are in the lower ranks of development status. Very poor communities are typically involved in subsistence level activities or in the

  18. Natural and social disasters: racial inequality in access to contraceptives after Hurricane Ike.

    PubMed

    Leyser-Whalen, Ophra; Rahman, Mahbubur; Berenson, Abbey B

    2011-12-01

    Few data are available on access to contraception following a natural disaster. The current study extends the literature by examining access to various types of birth control in a large sample of women from diverse backgrounds following Hurricane Ike, which made landfall on September 13, 2008, on the upper Texas Gulf Coast. We examined Hurricane Ike's influence on access to contraceptives through survey results from 975 white, black, and Hispanic women 16-24 years of age receiving care at one of five publicly funded reproductive health clinics in the Texas Gulf Coast region between August 2008 and July 2010. Overall, 13% of women reported difficulties accessing contraception. Black women had more difficulty than their white (p<0.001) and Hispanic (p=0.019) counterparts. Using multivariate analysis, we found that although family planning clinics in the area were open, black women (odds ratio [OR] 2.25, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.37-3.73; p=0.001] and hurricane evacuees (OR 2.17, 95% CI 1.27-3.72; p=0.005) reported greater difficulty in accessing birth control. Last, we found that a lack of access to birth control was related to having a higher frequency of unprotected sex for women of all races (p=0.001). Access to resources is critical in differentiating the level of impact of disasters on various groups of people. We suggest a community-based disaster preparedness and response model that takes women's reproductive needs into account.

  19. Six years after the wave. Trajectories of posttraumatic stress following a natural disaster.

    PubMed

    Johannesson, Kerstin Bergh; Arinell, Hans; Arnberg, Filip K

    2015-12-01

    The characteristics of long-term trajectories of distress after disasters are unclear, since few studies include a comparison group. This study examines trajectories of recovery among survivors in comparison to individuals with indirect exposure. Postal surveys were sent to Swedish tourists, repatriated from the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami (n=2268), at 1, 3, and 6 years after the tsunami to assess posttraumatic stress (PTS) and poor mental health. Items were used to ascertain high and moderate disaster exposure groups and an indirect exposure comparison group. Long-term PTS trajectories were best characterized by a resilient (72.3%), a severe chronic (4.6%), a moderate chronic (11.2%) and a recovering (11.9%) trajectory. Trajectories reported higher levels of PTS than the comparison group. Exposure severity and bereavement were highly influential risk factors. These findings have implications regarding anticipation of long-term psychological adjustment after natural disasters and need for interventions after a single traumatic event with few secondary stressors. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Differential effects of exposure to social violence and natural disaster on children's mental health.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Manasi; Fonagy, Peter

    2013-12-01

    Disaster mental health, particularly postdisaster child mental health, is neglected in India. This study compares the impact of a natural disaster versus a spate of communal riots that occurred in Gujarat, India on January 26, 2001, and February 2002 to June 2002, respectively. Children aged 8-15 years from highly exposed earthquake sites (n = 128) and riot sites (n = 171) were approached for participation. A matching control sample of 351 nontrauma-exposed children was sought to compare with the trauma groups. Trauma and postdisaster adversities were studied using the UCLA disaster trauma tool; Goodman's Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire was used to assess adjustment difficulties. Spearman's correlations were calculated to find associations between trauma items on UCLA's brief trauma scale and Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire items. Results suggest that 7.6% of the earthquake sample and 38.7% from the riots sample manifested clinically significant mental health problems. The earthquake sample had 24.8% of those above clinical cutoff for probable posttraumatic stress disorder and the riots sample had 27.3% children who displayed posttraumatic stress symptoms. Children exposed to violence were psychologically more affected and in the presence of postdisaster adversities, posttraumatic stress symptoms persisted long term. This finding should enable development of differential psychotherapeutic interventions for children exposed to extreme events.

  1. Cultural mechanisms in the exchange of social support among Puerto Ricans after a natural disaster.

    PubMed

    Rivera, Fernando I

    2012-06-01

    In this study, I uncovered the dynamics involved in the exchange (or lack) of social support among a group of Puerto Ricans who experienced a natural disaster. I coded and analyzed 12 semistructured qualitative interviews. My analysis of the interviews revealed that a reported high degree of need was not associated with any type of help seeking from the respondents' social support networks. Relevant issues that arose in explaining the lack of social support exchanges were level of comfort in help seeking and cultural issues. My findings point to the importance of culture in shaping patterns of help-seeking behavior in the aftermath of a disaster. Two of the most salient cultural explanations as to why disaster victims were reluctant to ask for help from family and friends were the issues of confianza (trust) and pena (embarrassment). I discuss the results with reference to how they might help in planning and establishing programs to maximize help seeking among Latinos/as in an emergency situation.

  2. Cultural Mechanisms in the Exchange of Social Support Among Puerto Ricans After a Natural Disaster

    PubMed Central

    Rivera, Fernando I.

    2012-01-01

    In this study, I uncovered the dynamics involved in the exchange (or lack) of social support among a group of Puerto Ricans who experienced a natural disaster. I coded and analyzed 12 semistructured qualitative interviews. My analysis of the interviews revealed that a reported high degree of need was not associated with any type of help seeking from the respondents' social support networks. Relevant issues that arose in explaining the lack of social support exchanges were level of comfort in help seeking and cultural issues. My findings point to the importance of culture in shaping patterns of help-seeking behavior in the aftermath of a disaster. Two of the most salient cultural explanations as to why disaster victims were reluctant to ask for help from family and friends were the issues of confianza (trust) and pena (embarrassment). I discuss the results with reference to how they might help in planning and establishing programs to maximize help seeking among Latinos/as in an emergency situation. PMID:22232298

  3. Remote sensing-based detection and quantification of roadway debris following natural disasters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Axel, Colin; van Aardt, Jan A. N.; Aros-Vera, Felipe; Holguín-Veras, José

    2016-05-01

    Rapid knowledge of road network conditions is vital to formulate an efficient emergency response plan following any major disaster. Fallen buildings, immobile vehicles, and other forms of debris often render roads impassable to responders. The status of roadways is generally determined through time and resource heavy methods, such as field surveys and manual interpretation of remotely sensed imagery. Airborne lidar systems provide an alternative, cost-effective option for performing network assessments. The 3D data can be collected quickly over a wide area and provide valuable insight about the geometry and structure of the scene. This paper presents a method for automatically detecting and characterizing debris in roadways using airborne lidar data. Points falling within the road extent are extracted from the point cloud and clustered into individual objects using region growing. Objects are classified as debris or non-debris using surface properties and contextual cues. Debris piles are reconstructed as surfaces using alpha shapes, from which an estimate of debris volume can be computed. Results using real lidar data collected after a natural disaster are presented. Initial results indicate that accurate debris maps can be automatically generated using the proposed method. These debris maps would be an invaluable asset to disaster management and emergency response teams attempting to reach survivors despite a crippled transportation network.

  4. Spatial econometric model of natural disaster impacts on human migration in vulnerable regions of Mexico.

    PubMed

    Saldaña-Zorrilla, Sergio O; Sandberg, Krister

    2009-10-01

    Mexico's vast human and environmental diversity offers an initial framework for comprehending some of the prevailing great disparities between rich and poor. Its socio-economic constructed vulnerability to climatic events serves to expand this understanding. Based on a spatial econometric model, this paper tests the contribution of natural disasters to stimulating the emigration process in vulnerable regions of Mexico. Besides coping and adaptive capacity, it assesses the effects of economic losses due to disasters as well as the adverse production and trade conditions of the 1990s on emigration rates in 2000 at the municipality level. Weather-related disasters were responsible for approximately 80 per cent of economic losses in Mexico between 1980 and 2005, mostly in the agricultural sector, which continues to dominate many parts of the country. It is dramatic that this sector generates around only four per cent of gross domestic product but provides a livelihood to about one-quarter of the national population. It is no wonder, therefore, that most emigration from this country arises in vulnerable rural areas.

  5. Local spatial and temporal factors influencing population and societal vulnerability to natural disasters.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yang; Li, Ning; Wu, Wenxiang; Wu, Jidong; Shi, Peijun

    2014-04-01

    The identification of societal vulnerable counties and regions and the factors contributing to social vulnerability are crucial for effective disaster risk management. Significant advances have been made in the study of social vulnerability over the past two decades, but we still know little regarding China's societal vulnerability profiles, especially at the county level. This study investigates the county-level spatial and temporal patterns in social vulnerability in China from 1980 to 2010. Based on China's four most recent population censuses of 2,361 counties and their corresponding socioeconomic data, a social vulnerability index for each county was created using factor analysis. Exploratory spatial data analysis, including global and local autocorrelations, was applied to reveal the spatial patterns of county-level social vulnerability. The results demonstrate that the dynamic characteristics of China's county-level social vulnerability are notably distinct, and the dominant contributors to societal vulnerability for all of the years studied were rural character, development (urbanization), and economic status. The spatial clustering patterns of social vulnerability to natural disasters in China exhibited a gathering-scattering-gathering pattern over time. Further investigations indicate that many counties in the eastern coastal area of China are experiencing a detectable increase in social vulnerability, whereas the societal vulnerability of many counties in the western and northern areas of China has significantly decreased over the past three decades. These findings will provide policymakers with a sound scientific basis for disaster prevention and mitigation decisions.

  6. The global role of natural disaster fatalities in decision-making: statistics, trends and analysis from 116 years of disaster data compared to fatality rates from other causes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daniell, James; Wenzel, Friedemann; McLennan, Amy; Daniell, Katherine; Kunz-Plapp, Tina; Khazai, Bijan; Schaefer, Andreas; Kunz, Michael; Girard, Trevor

    2016-04-01

    In this study, analysis is undertaken showing disaster fatalities trends from around the world using the CATDAT Natural Disaster and Socioeconomic Indicator databases from 1900-2015. Earthquakes have caused over 2.3 million fatalities since 1900; however absolute numbers of deaths caused by them have remained rather constant over time. However, floods have caused somewhere between 1.7 and 5.4 million fatalities, mostly in the earlier half of the 20th century (depending on the 1931 China floods). Storm and storm surges (ca. 1.3 million fatalities), on the other hand, have shown an opposite trend with increasing fatalities over the century (or a lack of records in the early 1900s). Earthquakes due to their sporadic nature, do not inspire investment pre-disaster. When looking at the investment in flood control vs. earthquakes, there is a marked difference in the total investment, which has resulted in a much larger reduction in fatalities. However, a key consideration for decision-makers in different countries around the world when choosing to implement disaster sensitive design is the risk of a natural disaster death, compared to other types of deaths in their country. The creation of empirical annualised ratios of earthquake, flood and storm fatalities from the year 1900 onwards vs. other methods of fatalities (cancer, diseases, accidents etc.) for each country using the CATDAT damaging natural disasters database is undertaken. On an annualised level, very few countries show earthquakes and other disaster types to be one of the highest probability methods for death. However, in particular years with large events, annual rates can easily exceed the total death count for a particular country. An example of this is Haiti, with the equivalent earthquake death rate in 2010 exceeding the total all-cause death rate in the country. Globally, fatality rates due to disasters are generally at least 1 order of magnitude lower than other causes such as heart disease. However, in

  7. Preparing an orthopedic practice to survive a natural disaster: a retrospective analysis of rebuilding after Hurricane Katrina.

    PubMed

    Burger, Evalina; Canton, Carol

    2007-04-01

    In the aftermath of the biggest natural disaster to hit the United States, valuable lessons can be learned to prepare us for future disasters. Physicians and other care givers should become involved in every level of disaster management. Most emergency plans are focused on triaging patients; however, little attention is paid to the logistics in evacuating hospitals or maintaining operations without outside communications. The lack of coordination and the breakdown of traditional communication channels were the biggest hurdles to overcome on the road to recovery.

  8. The role of national and international geospatial data sources in the management of natural disasters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kayi, A.; Erdogan, M.; Yilmaz, A.

    2014-11-01

    An earthquake occurred at Van City on 23 October 2011 at 13:41 local time. The magnitude, moment magnitude and depth of earthquake were respectively MI:6.7, Mw:7.0 and 19.07 km. Van city centre and its surrounding villages were affected from this destructive earthquake. Many buildings were ruined and approximately 600 people died. Acquisition and use of geospatial data is very important and crucial for the management of such kind of natural disasters. In this paper, the role of national and international geospatial data in the management of Van earthquake is investigated.. With an international collaboration with Charter, pre and post-earthquake satellite images were acquired in 24 hours following the Earthquake. Also General Command of Mapping (GCM), the national mapping agency of Turkey, produced the high resolution multispectral orthophotos of the region. Charter presented the orthophotos through 26-28 October 2012. Just after the earthquake with a quick reaction, GCM made the flight planning of the 1296 km2 disaster area to acquire aerial photos. The aerial photos were acquired on 24 October 2012 (one day after the earthquake) by UltraCamX large format digital aerial camera. 152 images were taken with 30 cm ground sample distance (GSD) by %30 sidelap and %60 overlap. In the evening of same flight day, orthophotos were produced without ground control points by direct georeferencing and GCM supplied the orthophotos to the disaster management authorities. Also 45 cm GSD archive orthophotos, acquired in 2010, were used as a reference in order to find out the effects of the disaster. The subjects written here do not represent the ideas of Turkish Armed Forces.

  9. Post-traumatic stress disorder associated with natural and human-made disasters in the World Mental Health Surveys

    PubMed Central

    Bromet, E. J.; Atwoli, L.; Kawakami, N.; Navarro-Mateu, F.; Piotrowski, P.; King, A. J.; Aguilar-Gaxiola, S.; Alonso, J.; Bunting, B.; Demyttenaere, K.; Florescu, S.; de Girolamo, G.; Gluzman, S.; Haro, J. M.; de Jonge, P.; Karam, E. G.; Lee, S.; Kovess-Masfety, V.; Medina-Mora, M. E.; Mneimneh, Z.; Pennell, B.-E.; Posada-Villa, J.; Salmerón, D.; Takeshima, T.; Kessler, R. C.

    2017-01-01

    Background Research on post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) following natural and human-made disasters has been undertaken for more than three decades. Although PTSD prevalence estimates vary widely, most are in the 20–40% range in disaster-focused studies but considerably lower (3–5%) in the few general population epidemiological surveys that evaluated disaster-related PTSD as part of a broader clinical assessment. The World Mental Health (WMH) Surveys provide an opportunity to examine disaster-related PTSD in representative general population surveys across a much wider range of sites than in previous studies. Method Although disaster-related PTSD was evaluated in 18 WMH surveys, only six in high-income countries had enough respondents for a risk factor analysis. Predictors considered were socio-demographics, disaster characteristics, and pre-disaster vulnerability factors (childhood family adversities, prior traumatic experiences, and prior mental disorders). Results Disaster-related PTSD prevalence was 0.0–3.8% among adult (ages 18+) WMH respondents and was significantly related to high education, serious injury or death of someone close, forced displacement from home, and pre-existing vulnerabilities (prior childhood family adversities, other traumas, and mental disorders). Of PTSD cases 44.5% were among the 5% of respondents classified by the model as having highest PTSD risk. Conclusion Disaster-related PTSD is uncommon in high-income WMH countries. Risk factors are consistent with prior research: severity of exposure, history of prior stress exposure, and pre-existing mental disorders. The high concentration of PTSD among respondents with high predicted risk in our model supports the focus of screening assessments that identify disaster survivors most in need of preventive interventions. PMID:27573281

  10. Impact of natural disasters on the functional and health status of patients with rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Tomio, Jun; Sato, Hajime; Mizumura, Hiroko

    2011-08-01

    To examine the effects of natural disasters on rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients we conducted a questionnaire survey targeted to 1,477 members of a nationwide RA patient group in Japan who lived in the municipalities affected by natural disasters between 2004 and 2006. Functional statuses measured by the modified Health Assessment Questionnaire and self-rated health statuses before and after the events were retrospectively examined. The associations between the changes in functional and health status and socio-demographics, direct damage, and preparedness status were statistically analyzed. Of the 665 individuals who responded, the data on 192 women RA patients were analyzed. The values at 1 and 6 months post-event were the same, with 14% experiencing deteriorations of functional status, while 22% experienced a worsening of self-rated health status. Those in poorer functional status before the events were more likely to experience deteriorations of functional [odds ratio (OR) 4.4, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.5-13.6] and health (OR 2.8, 95% CI 1.2-6.7) status at both 1 month and 6 months (OR 3.9, 95% CI 1.3-12.0, and OR 2.8, 95% CI 1.2-6.7, respectively) after the events. Based on these results, we conclude that the functional and health status of women RA patients could worsen due to the consequences of a natural disaster, with a disproportionately large impact upon those with a poorer functional status.

  11. Disasters and public health

    PubMed Central

    Lechat, M. F.

    1979-01-01

    Studies on the health effects of disasters have shown that epidemiological indices can be of value in planning preventive and relief measures and in evaluating their effectiveness. Mortality rates naturally vary considerably, but in earthquakes, for example, the number of deaths per 100 houses destroyed can give an indication of the adequacy of building techniques. Age-specific mortality rates can help to identify particularly vulnerable groups and perhaps indicate what form of education would be valuable. Except in earthquakes, the number of casualties after a disaster is usually low in relation to the number of deaths, and study of the distribution and types of lesions would help in planning the amounts and types of relief supplies and personnel required. Disasters also affect the general level of morbidity in a district because of either interruption of normal health care services or of spraying or other disease control measures. Mental health and nutrition following disasters are particular problems that require further investigation. Study of all these features of disasters has been handicapped by a lack of data, particularly concerning the health situation immediately after the impact. The provision of surveillance teams in disaster-prone areas would appear to be a field in which international cooperation could yield immense benefits. PMID:311707

  12. A digital simulation of message traffic for natural disaster warning communications satellite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hein, G. F.; Stevenson, S. M.

    1972-01-01

    Various types of weather communications are required to alert industries and the general public about the impending occurrence of tornados, hurricanes, snowstorms, floods, etc. A natural disaster warning satellite system has been proposed for meeting the communications requirements of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Message traffic for a communications satellite was simulated with a digital computer in order to determine the number of communications channels to meet system requirements. Poisson inputs are used for arrivals and an exponential distribution is used for service.

  13. Exploring DSM-5 criterion A in Acute Stress Disorder symptoms following natural disaster.

    PubMed

    Lavenda, Osnat; Grossman, Ephraim S; Ben-Ezra, Menachem; Hoffman, Yaakov

    2017-10-01

    The present study examines the DSM-5 Acute Stress Disorder (ASD) diagnostic criteria of exposure, in the context of a natural disaster. The study is based on the reports of 1001 Filipinos following the aftermath of super typhoon Haiyan in 2013. Participants reported exposure to injury, psychological distress and ASD symptoms. Findings indicated the association of criterion A with the prevalence of meeting all other ASD diagnostic criteria and high psychological distress. The diagnostic properties of Criterion A are discussed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Orthopaedic triage during natural disasters and mass casualties: do scoring systems matter?

    PubMed

    Wolfson, Nikolaj

    2013-08-01

    Mass casualty events, either natural disasters or man-made, are associated with extremities injuries. The treating surgeon often faces a challenging decision: can the affected extremity be saved or amputated? The following article will present the author's view on the subject of triage and the use of scoring systems in the decision-making process whether to salvage or amputate an affected extremity. The author will analyse the existing scoring systems and emphasise significance of the regional factors: geographical, cultural and level of health care, as factors playing roles in this process.

  15. Major natural disaster afteraction assessment. [Mainly hurricane Hugo and Loma Prieta Earthquake

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-08-01

    In recent years, a wide variety of natural disasters has disrupted energy supplies. Some incidents occurred in the continental US, others in offshore US territory, and still others in foreign countries. Each locale provided a unique backdrop against which energy emergency activities were conducted. Minimizing the consequences of these incidents is considered to be both good business and in national interest. It is often achieved through a combination of emergency preparedness and emergency response activities, usually taken in coordination and as appropriate, by industry, State and local government and Federal agencies. This project was undertaken to capture the experience gained during recent natural disasters, subject it to careful scrutiny, and thereby improve future energy emergency preparedness, response, and recovery activities. It considered the emergency activities actually undertaken, the level and effectiveness of coordination between the various agents engaged in the response, and the appropriateness of established roles and responsibilities of each. The material forming the basis for this assessment was obtained through numerous in-depth interviews with personnel involved at all levels of response activities, afteraction reports by others, and articles in the technical and general press. Energy types considered were electricity, natural gas and petroleum products. Major attention was focused on telecommunications and military interdependencies with the energy supply infrastructure.

  16. Effects of Natural Disaster Trends: A Case Study for Expanding the Pre-Positioning Network of CARE International

    PubMed Central

    Bozkurt, Melda; Duran, Serhan

    2012-01-01

    The increasing number of natural disasters in the last decade necessitates the increase in capacity and agility while delivering humanitarian relief. A common logistics strategy used by humanitarian organizations to respond this need is the establishment of pre-positioning warehouse networks. In the pre-positioning strategy, critical relief inventories are located near the regions at which they will be needed in advance of the onset of the disaster. Therefore, pre-positioning reduces the response time by totally or partially eliminating the procurement phase and increasing the availability of relief items just after the disaster strikes. Once the pre-positioning warehouse locations are decided and warehouses on those locations become operational, they will be in use for a long time. Therefore, the chosen locations should be robust enough to enable extensions, and to cope with changing trends in disaster types, locations and magnitudes. In this study, we analyze the effects of natural disaster trends on the expansion plan of pre-positioning warehouse network implemented by CARE International. We utilize a facility location model to identify the additional warehouse location(s) for relief items to be stored as an extension of the current warehouse network operated by CARE International, considering changing natural disaster trends observed over the past three decades. PMID:23066402

  17. Effects of natural disaster trends: a case study for expanding the pre-positioning network of CARE International.

    PubMed

    Bozkurt, Melda; Duran, Serhan

    2012-08-01

    The increasing number of natural disasters in the last decade necessitates the increase in capacity and agility while delivering humanitarian relief. A common logistics strategy used by humanitarian organizations to respond this need is the establishment of pre-positioning warehouse networks. In the pre-positioning strategy, critical relief inventories are located near the regions at which they will be needed in advance of the onset of the disaster. Therefore, pre-positioning reduces the response time by totally or partially eliminating the procurement phase and increasing the availability of relief items just after the disaster strikes. Once the pre-positioning warehouse locations are decided and warehouses on those locations become operational, they will be in use for a long time. Therefore, the chosen locations should be robust enough to enable extensions, and to cope with changing trends in disaster types, locations and magnitudes. In this study, we analyze the effects of natural disaster trends on the expansion plan of pre-positioning warehouse network implemented by CARE International. We utilize a facility location model to identify the additional warehouse location(s) for relief items to be stored as an extension of the current warehouse network operated by CARE International, considering changing natural disaster trends observed over the past three decades.

  18. The burden of natural and technological disaster-related mortality on gross domestic product (GDP) in the WHO African region.

    PubMed

    Kirigia, Joses M; Sambo, Luis G; Aldis, W; Mwabu, Germano M

    2002-01-01

    The WHO Africa region has the highest disaster mortality rate compared to the other five regions of the organization. Those deaths are hypothesized to have significantly negative effect on per capita gross domestic product (GDP). The objective of this study was to estimate the loss in GDP attributable to natural and technological disaster-related mortality in the WHO African Region. We estimated the impact of disaster-related mortality on GDP using double-log econometric model and cross-sectional data (from the UNDP and the World Bank publications) on 45 out of 46 countries in the WHO African Region. The coefficients for capital (K), educational enrolment (EN), life expectancy (LE) and exports (X) had a positive sign; while imports (M) and disaster mortality (DS) were found to impact negatively on GDP. The abovementioned explanatory variables were found to have statistically significant effect on GDP at 5% level in a t-distribution test. Disaster mortality of a single person was found to reduce GDP by US$0.018. We have demonstrated that disaster mortality has a significant negative effect on GDP. Thus, as policy-makers strive to increase GDP through capital investment, export promotion and increase in educational enrolment, they should always recall that investments in strengthening national capacity to mitigate the effects of national disasters expeditiously and effectively shall yield significant economic returns.

  19. Conflicts and natural disaster management: a comparative study of flood control in the Republic of Korea and the United States.

    PubMed

    Chung, Jibum

    2016-07-01

    The purpose of this research is to analyse the conflicts that arise among major stakeholders during the process of disaster management and to suggest policy recommendations for improving disaster management systems. It describes several important conflict cases that have occurred among major stakeholders, such as governments, private-sector entities, and non-governmental organisations, during natural disaster management. In addition, it probes the similarities and the differences between such conflicts in the Republic of Korea and the United States. The differences between them may originate from a range of factors, such as the disaster itself, cultural features, management practices, and government organisation. However, the conflicts also are very similar in some ways, as the motivations and the behaviour of stakeholders during a disaster are alike in both countries. Based on this comparison, the study presents some common and important implications for successful disaster management practices in Korea and the US, as well as in many other nations around the world. © 2016 The Author(s). Disasters © Overseas Development Institute, 2016.

  20. Assessing Natural Disaster Impacts and Recovery Using Multifrequency, Fully-Polarimetric Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Czuchlewski, K. R.; Kim, Y.; Weissel, J. K.

    2003-04-01

    Many natural disasters involving landslides, volcanic eruptions, fires, or flo o ds entail terrain resurfacing, followed by subsequent recovery. Mo dern satellite and airborne remote sensing technologies, which combine broad spatial coverage and high spatial resolution with time-sequential site revisit capability, can provide important information on the extent and duration of ma jor landscape disturbance. In humid climate settings, these hazards temporarily remove or replace a natural vegetation cover and in doing so, mo dify the physical properties of the land surface. In optical remote sensing, removal of vegetation alters surface albedo in the visible - near infrared (V-NIR) waveband, particularly the high reflectance from vegetation in the NIR. For SAR remote sensing, removal of vegetation cover causes a change in dominant microwave scattering mechanism for the areas affected. SAR has operational advantages over optical sensors for rapid disaster assessment because of its day/night acquisition capability, the ability to "see through" smoke, clouds and dust, and the side-lo oking viewing geometry, which is an advantage whenever data collection directly above the site would prove dangerous. We show how multifrequency, fully-polarimetric airborne SAR data can be "inverted" for parameters that reflect scattering mechanism signatures diagnostic of different surface cover types. We apply a uniform approach to map landslides resulting from the 1999 Mw 7.6 Chi-Chi earthquake in Taiwan and volcanic flows from the ma jor 1996 eruption of Manam volcano in Papua New Guinea. In addition, earlier work has shown that multifrequency SAR polarimetric backscatter is sensitive to total above-ground biomass. This attribute can be exploited to calculate vegetation loss during a disaster and for assessment of regrowth during the recovery phase.

  1. Are natural disasters in early childhood associated with mental health and substance use disorders as an adult?

    PubMed

    Maclean, Johanna Catherine; Popovici, Ioana; French, Michael T

    2016-02-01

    Understanding factors that influence risk for mental health and substance use disorders is critical to improve population health and reduce social costs imposed by these disorders. We examine the impact of experiencing a natural disaster-a serious fire, tornado, flood, earthquake, or hurricane-by age five on adult mental health and substance use disorders. The analysis uses data from the 2004 to 2005 National Epidemiologic Survey of Alcohol and Related Conditions. The analysis sample includes 27,129 individuals ages 21-64 years. We also exploit information on parenting strategies to study how parents respond to natural disasters encountered by their children. We find that experiencing one or more of these natural disasters by age five increases the risk of mental health disorders in adulthood, particularly anxiety disorders, but not substance use disorders. Parents alter some, but not all, of their parenting strategies following a natural disaster experienced by their children. It is important to provide support, for example through counseling services and financial assistance, to families and children exposed to natural disasters to mitigate future mental health and substance use problems attributable to such exposure.

  2. The economic costs of natural disasters globally from 1900-2015: historical and normalised floods, storms, earthquakes, volcanoes, bushfires, drought and other disasters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daniell, James; Wenzel, Friedemann; Schaefer, Andreas

    2016-04-01

    For the first time, a breakdown of natural disaster losses from 1900-2015 based on over 30,000 event economic losses globally is given based on increased analysis within the CATDAT Damaging Natural Disaster databases. Using country-CPI and GDP deflator adjustments, over 7 trillion (2015-adjusted) in losses have occurred; over 40% due to flood/rainfall, 26% due to earthquake, 19% due to storm effects, 12% due to drought, 2% due to wildfire and under 1% due to volcano. Using construction cost indices, higher percentages of flood losses are seen. Depending on how the adjustment of dollars are made to 2015 terms (CPI vs. construction cost indices), between 6.5 and 14.0 trillion USD (2015-adjusted) of natural disaster losses have been seen from 1900-2015 globally. Significant reductions in economic losses have been seen in China and Japan from 1950 onwards. An AAL of around 200 billion in the last 16 years has been seen equating to around 0.25% of Global GDP or around 0.1% of Net Capital Stock per year. Normalised losses have also been calculated to examine the trends in vulnerability through time for economic losses. The normalisation methodology globally using the exposure databases within CATDAT that were undertaken previously in papers for the earthquake and volcano databases, are used for this study. The original event year losses are adjusted directly by capital stock change, very high losses are observed with respect to floods over time (however with improved flood control structures). This shows clear trends in the improvement of building stock towards natural disasters and a decreasing trend in most perils for most countries.

  3. Relationship between salivary cortisol and depression in adolescent survivors of a major natural disaster.

    PubMed

    Yonekura, Takashi; Takeda, Kazunori; Shetty, Vivek; Yamaguchi, Masaki

    2014-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the utility of salivary cortisol levels for screening mental states such as depression in adolescents following a natural disaster. We examined the relationship of salivary cortisol levels in adolescent survivors of the 2011 Tohoku Earthquake with the depression subscale of the 28-item General Health Questionnaire (GHQ). Subjects were 63 adolescent survivors (age = 14.29 years ± 0.51) who were administered the GHQ and provided saliva samples thrice daily (morning, afternoon and evening) over the course of 3 days. Based on the GHQ-depression subscores, subjects were divided into low and high depression groups. About 22 % of the subjects were classified into the high symptom group. When data collected over 3 days were used, a significant difference was observed between the two groups in the salivary cortisol levels at the evening time point as well the ratio of the morning/evening levels (p < 0.05). Analyzed by means of receiver-operating characteristic curves, the morning/evening ratios showed a good power in discriminating between subjects with and without depressive symptoms. Our study suggests that repeated measurement of salivary cortisol levels over 3 days has utility in screening for depressive states in adolescents following a natural disaster.

  4. Rapid access carotid endarterectomy: winning the RACE following a natural disaster.

    PubMed

    Khashram, Manar; Falconer, Rachel; Mahmud, Afif; Khanafer, Adib; Laws, Peter; Beresford, Tim; Roake, Justin

    2016-10-14

    Rapid access carotid endarterectomy (RACE) is the gold standard for stroke prevention in symptomatic patients with 50-99% internal carotid artery stenosis. Diagnosis and referral of eligible patients may be delayed by disruption to local health services. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether service provision was maintained at an appropriate standard (<2 weeks) following a natural disaster. Consecutive symptomatic patients who underwent carotid endarterectomy (CEA) at a tertiary hospital between January 2006 and December 2014 were identified. The timeline from initial presentation to carotid imaging, vascular review and surgery was mapped. The post-earthquake period was defined between 22nd of February 2011 until July 2012. Of the 404 patients that underwent CEA during the above period, 62 patients presented during the post-earthquake period and these patients comprised the primary study group. The median time between presentation and CEA was nine days. In all, 47 patients had CEA within two weeks from the index event. The number of CEA procedures doubled since 2009. Despite many challenges following a major natural disaster, delivery of RACE has been maintained at an acceptable standard. Some delays persist and these remain areas for improvement in future.

  5. Effects of natural disasters on conservation policies: the case of the 2008 Wenchuan earthquake, China.

    PubMed

    Viña, Andrés; Chen, Xiaodong; McConnell, William J; Liu, Wei; Xu, Weihua; Ouyang, Zhiyun; Zhang, Hemin; Liu, Jianguo

    2011-05-01

    Conservation policies are increasing in response to human-induced ecosystem degradation, but little is known about their interplay with natural disasters. Through an analysis of satellite imagery and field data we evaluated the impacts of a devastating earthquake on forest recovery and avoided forest loss estimated to have been obtained by two of the largest conservation programs in the world. Results show that more than 10% of the forests in Wenchuan County, Sichuan province, China were immediately affected by the 2008 earthquake, offsetting some gains in forest cover observed since the enactment of the conservation programs. But without the enactment of these conservation programs, the combined effects of human disturbance and earthquake-induced landslides could have severely reduced the region's forest cover. The continuation--and enhancement--of incentives for participation in conservation programs will be important for reducing the environmental impacts of the combined effects of human disturbance and natural hazards not only in the study area but also in many disaster-prone regions around the world.

  6. Lessons learned from an obstetrics and gynecology field hospital response to natural disasters.

    PubMed

    Pinkert, Moshe; Dar, Shir; Goldberg, Doron; Abargel, Avi; Cohen-Marom, Ophir; Kreiss, Yitshak; Merin, Ofer

    2013-09-01

    Field hospitals were deployed by the Israel Defense Forces as part of the international relief efforts after major seismic events, one in Haiti (2010) and one in Japan (2011). The teams treated a total of 44 pregnant and 24 nonpregnant women and performed 16 deliveries and three cesarean deliveries under extreme conditions. Half of all deliveries were complicated by preeclampsia and 31% were preterm (at 30-32 weeks of gestation). It is imperative that obstetrician-gynecologists be included among humanitarian aid delegations sent to sites of natural disasters. The complicated cases we encountered required highly skilled obstetricians and led to a shortage of specific medications for these women. Cases that would have been considered routine under normal conditions created unanticipated ethical and practical issues in the face of very limited resources. The aim of this commentary is to share the experiences and lessons learned by our field hospital obstetrics and gynecology teams after the major earthquakes in Haiti and Japan. We present what we consider to be the 10 most important lessons learned and propose that they serve as guidelines in preparing for essential needs in other natural disaster settings.

  7. Demographic effects of natural disasters: a case study of Hurricane Andrew.

    PubMed

    Smith, S K; McCarty, C

    1996-05-01

    Many studies have considered the economic, social, and psychological effects of hurricanes, earthquakes, floods, tornadoes, and other natural disasters, but few have considered their demographic effects. In this paper we describe and evaluate a method for measuring the effects of Hurricane Andrew on the housing stock and population distribution in Dade County, Florida. Using information collected through sample surveys and from other data sources, we investigate the extent of housing damages, the number of people forced out of their homes, where they went, how long they stayed, and whether they returned to their prehurricane residences. We conclude that more than half the housing units in Dade County were damaged by Hurricane Andrew; that more than 353,000 people were forced to leave their homes, at least temporarily; and that almost 40,000 people left the county permanently as a direct result of the hurricane. We believe that this study will provide methodological guidance to analysts studying the demographic effects of other large-scale natural disasters.

  8. Natural disasters and the gas pipeline system. Topical report, August 1994-June 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Atallah, S.; Saxena, S.; Martin, S.B.; Willowby, A.B.; Alger, R.

    1996-11-15

    Episodic descriptions are provided of the effect of the Loma Prieta earthquake (1989) on the gas pipeline systems of Pacific Gas & Electric Company and the City of Palo Alto and of the Northridge earthquake (1994) on Southern California Gas` pipeline system. The emergency response plans and activities of South Carolina Electric & Gas Company during hurricane Hugo (1989) and of City Gas Company of Florida and other small gas companies during hurricane Andrew (1992) are also reviewed. Descriptions of the great Flood of 1993 and its effects on the operations of Iowa-Illinois Gas & Electric Company and Laclede Gas Company and of the San Jacinto River Floods on the transmission lines of Valero Gas Co. are also provided. Local and federal regulatory requirements, and the current practices by the gas industry for dealing with natural disasters, such as through preventive measures (e.g., strapping of water heaters, excess flow valves), and the tracking of weather-related events are described. The important role that preplanning and coordination with the local emergency response bodies and other gas utilities plays during a natural disaster is examined.

  9. Summer of sorrow: measuring exposure to and impacts of trauma after Queensland's natural disasters of 2010-2011.

    PubMed

    Clemens, Susan L; Berry, Helen L; McDermott, Brett M; Harper, Catherine M

    2013-10-21

    To assess the population prevalence of property, income and emotional impacts of the 2010-2011 Queensland floods and cyclones. Cross-sectional telephone-based survey using a brief trauma exposure and impact screening instrument, conducted between 11 March and 6 June 2011, of 6104 adults who answered natural disaster and mental health questions. Natural disaster property damage exposure and emotional wellbeing impacts. Two-thirds of respondents (62%) reported being affected by the disasters, with property damage exposure ranging from 37.2% (suburb or local area) to 9.2% (own home, with 2.1% living elsewhere at least temporarily). Income was reduced for 17.0% of respondents and 11.7% of income-producing property owners reported damage to those properties. Trauma impacts ranged from 14.3% of respondents feeling "terrified, helpless or hopeless" to 3.9% thinking they might be "badly injured or die". Up to 5 months after the disasters, 7.1% of respondents were "still distressed" and 8.6% were "worried about how they would manage". Adults of working age and residents of regional and remote areas and of socioeconomically disadvantaged areas were disproportionately likely to report exposure to damage and emotional impacts. Weather-related disasters exact a large toll on the population through property damage and resultant emotional effects. Vulnerable subpopulations are more severely affected. There is a need for realistic, cost-effective and rapid-deployment mass interventions in the event of weather disasters.

  10. The joint return period analysis of natural disasters based on monitoring and statistical modeling of multidimensional hazard factors.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xueqin; Li, Ning; Yuan, Shuai; Xu, Ning; Shi, Wenqin; Chen, Weibin

    2015-12-15

    As a random event, a natural disaster has the complex occurrence mechanism. The comprehensive analysis of multiple hazard factors is important in disaster risk assessment. In order to improve the accuracy of risk analysis and forecasting, the formation mechanism of a disaster should be considered in the analysis and calculation of multi-factors. Based on the consideration of the importance and deficiencies of multivariate analysis of dust storm disasters, 91 severe dust storm disasters in Inner Mongolia from 1990 to 2013 were selected as study cases in the paper. Main hazard factors from 500-hPa atmospheric circulation system, near-surface meteorological system, and underlying surface conditions were selected to simulate and calculate the multidimensional joint return periods. After comparing the simulation results with actual dust storm events in 54years, we found that the two-dimensional Frank Copula function showed the better fitting results at the lower tail of hazard factors and that three-dimensional Frank Copula function displayed the better fitting results at the middle and upper tails of hazard factors. However, for dust storm disasters with the short return period, three-dimensional joint return period simulation shows no obvious advantage. If the return period is longer than 10years, it shows significant advantages in extreme value fitting. Therefore, we suggest the multivariate analysis method may be adopted in forecasting and risk analysis of serious disasters with the longer return period, such as earthquake and tsunami. Furthermore, the exploration of this method laid the foundation for the prediction and warning of other nature disasters.

  11. Multi-resistant infections in repatriated patients after natural disasters: lessons learned from the 2004 tsunami for hospital infection control.

    PubMed

    Uçkay, I; Sax, H; Harbarth, S; Bernard, L; Pittet, D

    2008-01-01

    Infections are a frequent consequence of natural disasters. Repatriated victims may require hospital care due to multiple fractures, pneumonia or wound infections caused by multi-resistant pathogens that require specific infection control measures. To address potential pitfalls of infection control and clinical care in repatriated patients, we sought to provide microbiological insight into the possible origins of multi-drug antibiotic resistance in survivors of natural disasters. A review of the medical literature was performed from 1986 to 2006 with an emphasis on the 2004 tsunami disaster in the Indian Ocean. After natural disasters, polymicrobial infections may occur following heavy inoculation during trauma. Multi-resistant Gram-negative pathogens are more prevalent than Gram-positive bacteria. A high incidence of extended spectrum beta-lactamase-producing bacteria and difficult-to-treat fungal infections in otherwise immunocompetent hosts may challenge routine hospital care. We recommend that survivors of natural disasters should be kept in pre-emptive contact isolation during air transport and hospitalisation until the results of all microbiological cultures become available. A meticulous diagnostic work-up is necessary upon admission and empiric antibiotic treatment should be avoided. Infections may also become manifest after several weeks of hospitalisation. In case of life-threatening infection, antibiotic therapy should cover non-fermenting pathogens.

  12. Human-itarian aid? Two forms of dehumanization and willingness to help after natural disasters.

    PubMed

    Andrighetto, Luca; Baldissarri, Cristina; Lattanzio, Sara; Loughnan, Steve; Volpato, Chiara

    2014-09-01

    The present research explores the distinct effects of animalistic and mechanistic dehumanization on willingness to help natural disaster victims. We examined Japanese and Haitians, two national groups recently struck by earthquakes. We showed that Italian participants differently dehumanized the two outgroups: Japanese were attributed low human nature (dehumanized as automata), whereas Haitians were attributed low human uniqueness (dehumanized as animal-like). Ninety participants were then randomly assigned to the Japanese or Haitian target group condition. Mediation analyses showed that animalistic dehumanization decreased willingness to help Haitians, whereas mechanistic dehumanization decreased willingness to help Japanese, even when controlling for attitudes. Importantly, reduced empathy explained the effects of both forms of dehumanization on intergroup helping.

  13. Natural and Social Disasters: Racial Inequality in Access to Contraceptives After Hurricane Ike

    PubMed Central

    Leyser-Whalen, Ophra; Rahman, Mahbubur

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Few data are available on access to contraception following a natural disaster. The current study extends the literature by examining access to various types of birth control in a large sample of women from diverse backgrounds following Hurricane Ike, which made landfall on September 13, 2008, on the upper Texas Gulf Coast. Methods We examined Hurricane Ike's influence on access to contraceptives through survey results from 975 white, black, and Hispanic women 16–24 years of age receiving care at one of five publicly funded reproductive health clinics in the Texas Gulf Coast region between August 2008 and July 2010. Results Overall, 13% of women reported difficulties accessing contraception. Black women had more difficulty than their white (p<0.001) and Hispanic (p=0.019) counterparts. Using multivariate analysis, we found that although family planning clinics in the area were open, black women (odds ratio [OR] 2.25, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.37–3.73; p=0.001] and hurricane evacuees (OR 2.17, 95% CI 1.27-3.72; p=0.005) reported greater difficulty in accessing birth control. Last, we found that a lack of access to birth control was related to having a higher frequency of unprotected sex for women of all races (p=0.001). Conclusions Access to resources is critical in differentiating the level of impact of disasters on various groups of people. We suggest a community-based disaster preparedness and response model that takes women's reproductive needs into account. PMID:21942865

  14. Burning questions: Exploring the impact of natural disasters on community pharmacies.

    PubMed

    Mak, Pey Wen; Singleton, Judith

    The past decade has seen a rapid change in the climate system with an increased risk of extreme weather events. On and following the 3rd of January 2013, Tasmania experienced three catastrophic bushfires, which led to the evacuation of several communities, the loss of many properties, and a financial cost of approximately AUD$80 million. To explore the impacts of the 2012/2013 Tasmanian bushfires on community pharmacies. Qualitative research methods were undertaken, employing semi-structured telephone interviews with a purposive sample of seven Tasmanian pharmacists. The interviews were recorded and transcribed, and two different methods were used to analyze the text. The first method utilized Leximancer(®) text analytics software to provide a birds-eye view of the conceptual structure of the text. The second method involved manual, open and axial coding, conducted independently by the two researchers for inter-rater reliability, to identify key themes in the discourse. Two main themes were identified - 'people' and 'supply' - from which six key concepts were derived. The six concepts were 'patients,' 'pharmacists,' 'local doctor,' 'pharmacy operations,' 'disaster management planning,' and 'emergency supply regulation.' This study identified challenges faced by community pharmacists during Tasmanian bushfires. Interviewees highlighted the need for both the Tasmanian State Government and the Australian Federal Government to recognize the important primary care role that community pharmacists play during natural disasters, and therefore involve pharmacists in disaster management planning. They called for greater support and guidance for community pharmacists from regulatory and other government bodies during these events. Their comments highlighted the need for a review of Tasmania's three-day emergency supply regulation that allows pharmacists to provide a three-day supply of a patient's medication without a doctor's prescription in an emergency situation

  15. Association of posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms with migraine and headache after a natural disaster.

    PubMed

    Arcaya, Mariana C; Lowe, Sarah R; Asad, Asad L; Subramanian, S V; Waters, Mary C; Rhodes, Jean

    2017-05-01

    Previous research shows that migraine and general headache symptoms increase after traumatic events. Questions remain about whether posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) produces migraine/headache symptoms, or if individuals afflicted by migraine/headache are especially likely to develop PTSD. We test whether PTSD symptoms following a natural disaster are associated with higher odds of reporting frequent headaches/migraines postdisaster. We decompose PTSD into intrusion, avoidance, and hyperarousal symptom clusters to examine which, if any, are uniquely related to headache/migraine postdisaster. We use prospectively collected pre- and postdisaster data to explore whether overall PTSD symptoms and symptom clusters are associated with migraine/headache in a sample of Hurricane Katrina survivors. We account for severity of hurricane exposure and control for baseline migraine and headache problems to reduce the probability that heightened PTSD susceptibility among those who already suffered from the conditions could explain observed associations. PTSD symptoms were associated with higher odds of experiencing frequent headaches or migraines with a standard deviation change in PTSD score corresponding to over twice the odds (95% confidence interval [1.64, 2.68]) of having trouble with frequent headaches or migraines in the post-Katrina period. Each additional point on the intrusion subscale (sample M [SD] = 1.6 [1.1]) was associated with 55% higher odds of reporting frequent headache/migraine (95% confidence interval [1.03, 2.33]), but we found no association with avoidance or hyperarousal symptoms. Clinicians and disaster planners should be aware that disaster survivors might be at heightened risk of migraine/headache episodes, and those experiencing intrusive reminders may be most affected. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  16. ICT-based hydrometeorology science and natural disaster societal impact assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parodi, A.; Clematis, A.; Craig, G. C.; Kranzmueller, D.

    2009-09-01

    In the Lisbon strategy, the 2005 European Council identified knowledge and innovation as the engines of sustainable growth and stated that it is essential to build a fully inclusive information society. In parallel, the World Conference on Disaster Reduction (Hyogo, 2005), defined among its thematic priorities the improvement of international cooperation in hydrometeorology research activities. This was recently confirmed at the joint press conference of the Center for Research on Epidemiology of Disasters (CRED) with the United Nations International Strategy for Disaster Reduction (UNISDR) Secretariat, held on January 2009, where it was noted that flood and storm events are among the natural disasters that most impact human life. Hydrometeorological science has made strong progress over the last decade at the European and worldwide level: new modelling tools, post processing methodologies and observational data are available. Recent European efforts in developing a platform for e-science, like EGEE (Enabling Grids for E-sciencE), SEE-GRID-SCI (South East Europe GRID e-Infrastructure for regional e-Science), and the German C3-Grid, provide an ideal basis for the sharing of complex hydrometeorological data sets and tools. Despite these early initiatives, however, the awareness of the potential of the Grid technology as a catalyst for future hydrometeorological research is still low and both the adoption and the exploitation have astonishingly been slow, not only within individual EC member states, but also on a European scale. With this background in mind, the goal of the Distributed Research Infrastructure for Hydro-Meteorology Study (DRIHMS) project is the promotion of the Grid culture within the European hydrometeorological research community through the diffusion of a Grid platform for e-collaboration in this earth science sector: the idea is to further boost European research excellence and competitiveness in the fields of hydrometeorological research and Grid

  17. Paper 8775 - Integrating Natural Resources and Ecological Science into the Disaster Risk CYCLE: Lessons Learned and Future Directions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brosnan, D. M.

    2014-12-01

    Familiar to disaster risk reduction (DRR) scientists and professionals, the disaster cycle is an adaptive approach that involves planning, response and learning for the next event. It has proven effective in saving lives and helping communities around the world deal with natural and other hazards. But it has rarely been applied to natural resource and ecological science, despite the fact that many communities are dependent on these resources. This presentation will include lessons learned from applying science to tackle ecological consequences in several disasters in the US and globally, including the Colorado Floods, the SE Asia tsunami, the Montserrat volcanic eruption, and US SAFRR tsunami scenario. The presentation discusses the role that science and scientists can play at each phase of the disaster cycle. The consequences of not including disaster cycles in the management of natural systems leaves these resources and the huge investments made to protect highly vulnerable. The presentation discusses how The presentation discusses how science can help government and communities in planning and responding to these events. It concludes with a set of lessons learned and guidlines for moving forward.

  18. Factors affecting the United Nations' response to natural disasters: what determines the allocation of the Central Emergency Response Fund?

    PubMed

    Robinson, Tyler D; Oliveira, Thiago M; Kayden, Stephanie

    2017-01-30

    Natural disasters can overwhelm the domestic response of a country, leaving it dependent on external humanitarian relief. The Central Emergency Response Fund (CERF) of the United Nations centralises humanitarian funding and thus allows for a rapid response. This study combined data to analyse the factors that affected the allocation of CERF funding to countries that suffered a natural disaster between 2007 and 2013. It generated descriptive statistics and information on relative risks, and performed regressions of CERF funding across countries. There were 4,346 disasters in total in 188 countries between 2007 and 2013. CERF provided USD 2.98 billion to 87 countries, comprising 3.3 per cent of their total humanitarian funding. CERF more frequently supplied aid to countries in North Africa and the Middle East, and to those that had suffered geophysical disasters. Appropriately, it funds vulnerable countries experiencing severe natural disasters, yet its funding may be affected by variables beyond severity and vulnerability. Further investigation is warranted, therefore.

  19. Narrative review: tetanus-a health threat after natural disasters in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Afshar, Majid; Raju, Mahesh; Ansell, David; Bleck, Thomas P

    2011-03-01

    Tetanus is an expected complication when disasters strike in developing countries, where tetanus immunization coverage is often low or nonexistent. Collapsing structures and swirling debris inflict numerous crush injuries, fractures, and serious wounds. Clostridium tetani infects wounds contaminated with dirt, feces, or saliva and releases neurotoxins that may cause fatal disease. Clusters of infections have recently occurred after tsunamis and earthquakes in Indonesia, Kashmir, and Haiti. The emergency response to clusters of tetanus infections in developing countries after a natural disaster requires a multidisciplinary approach in the absence of an intensive care unit, readily available resources, and a functioning cold-chain system. It is essential that injured people receive immediate surgical and medical care of contaminated, open wounds with immunization and immunoglobulin therapy. Successful treatment of tetanus depends on prompt diagnosis of clinical tetanus, treatment to ensure neutralization of circulating toxin and elimination of C. tetani infection, control of spasms and convulsions, maintenance of the airway, and management of respiratory failure and autonomic dysfunction.

  20. Children's risk and resilience following a natural disaster: genetic vulnerability, posttraumatic stress, and depression.

    PubMed

    La Greca, Annette M; Lai, Betty S; Joormann, Jutta; Auslander, Beth B; Short, Mary A

    2013-12-01

    We examined children's risk and resilience following a natural disaster, evaluating the role of stress, social support, and two genetic markers: the short allele of the serotonin transporter gene (5-HTTLPR), and the met allele of the Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF).Under high levels of hurricane exposure or hurricane-related stressors, we expected children displaying the markers would report greater symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and depression than children without these markers. Social support was explored as an additional moderating variable. Eight months after Hurricane Ike, 116 children (M age=8.85 years, SD=.89; 54% girls) residing in Galveston, Texas, provided saliva samples and completed measures of hurricane exposure and stress, and symptoms of PTSD and depression; 80 also completed a social support measure. For BDNF, analyses revealed several Gene by Environment interactions; greater stress was related to more symptoms of PTSD and depression, and this effect was stronger for children with the met allele. No findings emerged for 5-HTTLPR. Stressors and social support also were associated with children's PTSD and depressive symptoms. Findings should be tempered by the relatively small sample, especially for analysis that included social support. The met allele (BDNF) may play a role in children's disaster reactions. Further research should consider the complex interplay between genes, stressors, support, and psychological outcomes over time. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Alcohol consumption in the aftermath of a natural disaster: a longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Nordløkken, A; Pape, H; Heir, T

    2016-03-01

    In this study, we examined changes in alcohol consumption in the aftermath of a natural disaster, as well as possible predictors of both increased and decreased drinking. Observational longitudinal study. Repatriated Norwegian adults who resided in areas affected by the 2004 Southeast Asia tsunami completed a questionnaire at 6 and 24 months postdisaster (N = 649). Weekly alcohol consumption and frequency of intoxication did not change significantly from 6 to 24 months postdisaster at the population level: 18.3% (n = 116) increased their alcohol consumption while 21.1% (n = 125) showed a reduction. Increased drinking was not predicted by severity of disaster exposure, post-traumatic stress, or measures of psychological functioning. Reduced alcohol consumption was predicted by younger age and social withdrawal, but not by any of the other study variables. Our findings indicate that the tsunami experience had only minor effects on alcohol consumption, in contrast to some studies suggesting a relationship between trauma exposure and increased alcohol consumption. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  2. Typhoon survivors' subjective wellbeing—A different view of responses to natural disaster

    PubMed Central

    Hamama-Raz, Yaira; Palgi, Yuval; Leshem, Elazar; Ben-Ezra, Menachem; Lavenda, Osnat

    2017-01-01

    Objective Subjective well-being was evaluated three weeks after Super Typhoon Haiyan struck the Philippines. Based on the Conservation of Resources theory, which focuses on the role of resources in understanding adjustment following trauma, data was collected on lost resources. In line with the Conservation of Resources theory, four categories of resources were defined: objects—residential property; condition—gender health state and witness to injury; personal—coping strategies; energy–relationships. Design and settings Eight hundred thirty-four people from the Philippines filled out self-report measures using an online interview system regarding: socio demographics data, subjective well-being, using the Delighted Terrible Faces Scale (DTS), disaster related experiences, coping strategies, personal relationships, obtained through support sources (close family, relatives and friends, community) and assessing problems with those relationships after Haiyan. Results Subjective well-being was predicted by the following classes of resources: objects (home damage) condition (self-rated health and witness to injury), personal (positive reframing and self-blame coping strategies) and energy resources (relations and problems in relations). Conclusions The results imply the important role individual’s resources (i.e. objects, personal characteristics, conditions, and energies) might play in promoting subjective well-being, following natural disaster. PMID:28877264

  3. Principles of scarce medical resource allocation in natural disaster relief: a simulation approach.

    PubMed

    Cao, Hui; Huang, Simin

    2012-01-01

    A variety of triage principles have been proposed. The authors sought to evaluate their effects on how many lives can be saved in a hypothetical disaster. To determine an optimal scarce resource-rationing principle in the emergency response domain, considering the trade-off between lifesaving efficiency and ethical issues. A discrete event simulation model is developed to examine the efficiency of four resource-rationing principles: first come-first served, random, most serious first, and least serious first. Seven combinations of available resources are examined in the simulations to evaluate the performance of the principles under different levels of resource scarcity. The simulation results indicate that the performance of the medical resource allocation principles is related to the level of the resource scarcity. When the level of the scarcity is high, the performances of the four principles differ significantly. The least serious first principle performs best, followed by the random principle; the most serious first principle acts worst. However, when the scarcity is relieved, there are no significant differences among the random, first come-first served, and least serious first principles, yet the most serious first principle still performs worst. Although the least serious first principle exhibits the highest efficiency, it is not ethically flawless. Considering the trade off between the lifesaving efficiency and the ethical issues, random selection is a relatively fair and efficient principle for allocating scarce medical resources in natural disaster responses.

  4. Typhoon survivors' subjective wellbeing-A different view of responses to natural disaster.

    PubMed

    Hamama-Raz, Yaira; Palgi, Yuval; Leshem, Elazar; Ben-Ezra, Menachem; Lavenda, Osnat

    2017-01-01

    Subjective well-being was evaluated three weeks after Super Typhoon Haiyan struck the Philippines. Based on the Conservation of Resources theory, which focuses on the role of resources in understanding adjustment following trauma, data was collected on lost resources. In line with the Conservation of Resources theory, four categories of resources were defined: objects-residential property; condition-gender health state and witness to injury; personal-coping strategies; energy-relationships. Eight hundred thirty-four people from the Philippines filled out self-report measures using an online interview system regarding: socio demographics data, subjective well-being, using the Delighted Terrible Faces Scale (DTS), disaster related experiences, coping strategies, personal relationships, obtained through support sources (close family, relatives and friends, community) and assessing problems with those relationships after Haiyan. Subjective well-being was predicted by the following classes of resources: objects (home damage) condition (self-rated health and witness to injury), personal (positive reframing and self-blame coping strategies) and energy resources (relations and problems in relations). The results imply the important role individual's resources (i.e. objects, personal characteristics, conditions, and energies) might play in promoting subjective well-being, following natural disaster.

  5. Strategies to enhance resilience post-natural disaster: a qualitative study of experiences with Australian floods and fires.

    PubMed

    van Kessel, Gisela; Gibbs, Lisa; MacDougall, Colin

    2015-06-01

    Disasters have a significant impact on mental health that may be mitigated by promoting resilience. This study explores the lay perspective on public health interventions that have the potential to facilitate resilience of adults who experience a natural disaster. Semi-structured interviews were conducted 6 months post-disaster between June 2011 and January 2012 with 19 people who experienced the 2010/11 Victorian floods. Twenty lay witness statements from people who presented to the 2009 Victorian Bushfires Royal Commission were also selected for analysis. Transcripts were analysed using an interpretive and comparative content analysis to develop an understanding of disaster resilience interventions in an ecological framework. The participants identified resilience focused interventions such as information that help individuals manage emotions and make effective decisions and plans, or enable access to resources; face-to-face communication strategies such as public events that restore or create new social connections; rebuilding of community capacity through coordination of volunteers and donations and policies that manage disaster risk. Disaster recovery interventions designed within an ecological model can promote a comprehensive integrated systems approach to support resilience in affected populations. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Faculty of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. Categorizing natural disaster damage assessment using satellite-based geospatial techniques

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Myint, S.W.; Yuan, M.; Cerveny, R.S.; Giri, C.

    2008-01-01

    Remote sensing of a natural disaster's damage offers an exciting backup and/or alternative to traditional means of on-site damage assessment. Although necessary for complete assessment of damage areas, ground-based damage surveys conducted in the aftermath of natural hazard passage can sometimes be potentially complicated due to on-site difficulties (e.g., interaction with various authorities and emergency services) and hazards (e.g., downed power lines, gas lines, etc.), the need for rapid mobilization (particularly for remote locations), and the increasing cost of rapid physical transportation of manpower and equipment. Satellite image analysis, because of its global ubiquity, its ability for repeated independent analysis, and, as we demonstrate here, its ability to verify on-site damage assessment provides an interesting new perspective and investigative aide to researchers. Using one of the strongest tornado events in US history, the 3 May 1999 Oklahoma City Tornado, as a case example, we digitized the tornado damage path and co-registered the damage path using pre- and post-Landsat Thematic Mapper image data to perform a damage assessment. We employed several geospatial approaches, specifically the Getis index, Geary's C, and two lacunarity approaches to categorize damage characteristics according to the original Fujita tornado damage scale (F-scale). Our results indicate strong relationships between spatial indices computed within a local window and tornado F-scale damage categories identified through the ground survey. Consequently, linear regression models, even incorporating just a single band, appear effective in identifying F-scale damage categories using satellite imagery. This study demonstrates that satellite-based geospatial techniques can effectively add spatial perspectives to natural disaster damages, and in particular for this case study, tornado damages.

  7. Categorizing natural disaster damage assessment using satellite-based geospatial techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Myint, S. W.; Yuan, M.; Cerveny, R. S.; Giri, C.

    2008-07-01

    Remote sensing of a natural disaster's damage offers an exciting backup and/or alternative to traditional means of on-site damage assessment. Although necessary for complete assessment of damage areas, ground-based damage surveys conducted in the aftermath of natural hazard passage can sometimes be potentially complicated due to on-site difficulties (e.g., interaction with various authorities and emergency services) and hazards (e.g., downed power lines, gas lines, etc.), the need for rapid mobilization (particularly for remote locations), and the increasing cost of rapid physical transportation of manpower and equipment. Satellite image analysis, because of its global ubiquity, its ability for repeated independent analysis, and, as we demonstrate here, its ability to verify on-site damage assessment provides an interesting new perspective and investigative aide to researchers. Using one of the strongest tornado events in US history, the 3 May 1999 Oklahoma City Tornado, as a case example, we digitized the tornado damage path and co-registered the damage path using pre- and post-Landsat Thematic Mapper image data to perform a damage assessment. We employed several geospatial approaches, specifically the Getis index, Geary's C, and two lacunarity approaches to categorize damage characteristics according to the original Fujita tornado damage scale (F-scale). Our results indicate strong relationships between spatial indices computed within a local window and tornado F-scale damage categories identified through the ground survey. Consequently, linear regression models, even incorporating just a single band, appear effective in identifying F-scale damage categories using satellite imagery. This study demonstrates that satellite-based geospatial techniques can effectively add spatial perspectives to natural disaster damages, and in particular for this case study, tornado damages.

  8. A Writing Intensive Course in "Natural Disasters: Geoethics and the Layman"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fryer, P.

    2011-12-01

    One course with a contemporary ethics focus is a graduation requirement under the University of Hawaii at Manoa's General Education rules. The goal of the University of Hawaii General Education Committee is to encourage faculty to design ethics-focus courses for each field of undergraduate concentration. Undergraduate students are also required to take 5 writing intensive courses. It is permitted to combine the ethics and writing intensive foci in a given course, as long as one third of the course is devoted to each focus. The course I designed uses current disasters as the subject matter, thus course content varies from year to year. The prerequisite for enrollment is one introductory course in geoscience, to ensure students are familiar with basic geologic processes. I bring in geo-professionals, active in the fields we study, to discuss with students the realities of dealing with civil authorities, elected officials, the media, and the public during a natural disaster. This is one of the aspects of the course the students most enjoy. Such a course could be designed for any locality. Learning outcomes by which the students' work is assessed are as follows. The best student: (1) clearly identifies the inherent ethical choices and implications involved in the professional geoscientist's role during contemporary natural hazard situations; (2) gives evidence of understanding the effects of perspective, context, personal views as pertains to natural hazards; (3) specifies the decision-makers and stakeholders involved in hazard situations; (4) integrates clear descriptions of relevant ethical ambiguities/dilemmas into the overall analysis of a given hazard situation; (5) draws upon frameworks, principles of ethics to develop pertinent arguments and/or positions; (6) develops and presents alternate arguments/positions; (7) discusses and/or debates ethical issues with sensitivity to others' perspectives and the context, while also defending own position with logic and

  9. Socio-economic Vulnerability Assessment of Natural Disaster Considering Urban Characteristics in South Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Yoonkyung; Jun, Hwandon; Kim, Sangdan

    2015-04-01

    In this presentation, an indicator-based model is proposed to quantify socio-economic damage under natural disaster in Seoul, Korea. Seoul is the highest population density in Korea. Scales of the model are divided into two classes. First scale is "borough", which is town, or a district with a large town, and has its own council. In the case of Seoul, average size of boroughs is 24.28 square kilometers. Second one is "census output area", which is the finest level of statistical information. Average size of census output area in Seoul is 0.0374 kilometers. The Census output area has high resolution than boroughs. For the purpose of considering various aspects on socio-economic vulnerability under natural disaster, the proposed socio-economic vulnerability assessment model is composed of demographic/social indicator, economic indicator, and prepare/response/recovery indicator. Each of them is consist of 5, 3, and 6 proxy variables, respectively. Using the suggested model, the socio-economic vulnerability for 25 boroughs and 16,230 census output areas of Seoul is assessed. As a result, it is shown that southeastern boroughs in Seoul (Gangnam and Seocho) have lower vulnerability scores than other boroughs. According to this results, these places are much safer than other regions under natural disaster. Additionally, the socio-economic vulnerability was assessed in scale of census output data. Socio-economic vulnerability scores are shown similar results comparing with results of borough scale. However, socio-economic vulnerability scores are calculated in higher resolution. These results are caused by different demographic and social factors in each census output area even census output areas are located same borough. The additional importance of vulnerability assessment in the scale of census output areas will be presented. Acknowledgement This research was supported by a grant(13SCIPS04) from Smart Civil Infrastructure Research Program funded by Ministry of Land

  10. Applying the natural disasters vulnerability evaluation model to the March 2011 north-east Japan earthquake and tsunami.

    PubMed

    Ruiz Estrada, Mario Arturo; Yap, Su Fei; Park, Donghyun

    2014-07-01

    Natural hazards have a potentially large impact on economic growth, but measuring their economic impact is subject to a great deal of uncertainty. The central objective of this paper is to demonstrate a model--the natural disasters vulnerability evaluation (NDVE) model--that can be used to evaluate the impact of natural hazards on gross national product growth. The model is based on five basic indicators-natural hazards growth rates (αi), the national natural hazards vulnerability rate (ΩT), the natural disaster devastation magnitude rate (Π), the economic desgrowth rate (i.e. shrinkage of the economy) (δ), and the NHV surface. In addition, we apply the NDVE model to the north-east Japan earthquake and tsunami of March 2011 to evaluate its impact on the Japanese economy.

  11. 77 FR 41248 - Disaster Designation Process

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-13

    ... substantially affected by a natural disaster in a designated disaster county. Disaster designations have been... would be considered a disaster area. This rule also revises the definition of ``natural disaster'' to be... conditions from the definition of ``natural disaster'' could lead to potential program abuse and fraud. It...

  12. Living in history: how war, terrorism, and natural disaster affect the organization of autobiographical memory.

    PubMed

    Brown, Norman R; Lee, Peter J; Krslak, Mirna; Conrad, Frederick G; G B Hansen, Tia; Havelka, Jelena; Reddon, John R

    2009-04-01

    Memories of war, terrorism, and natural disaster play a critical role in the construction of group identity and the persistence of group conflict. Here, we argue that personal memory and knowledge of the collective past become entwined only when public events have a direct, forceful, and prolonged impact on a population. Support for this position comes from a cross-national study in which participants thought aloud as they dated mundane autobiographical events. We found that Bosnians often mentioned their civil war and that Izmit Turks made frequent reference to the 1999 earthquake in their country. In contrast, public events were rarely mentioned by Serbs, Montenegrins, Ankara Turks, Canadians, Danes, or Israelis. Surprisingly, historical references were absent from (post-September 11) protocols collected in New York City and elsewhere in the United States. Taken together, these findings indicate that it is personal significance, not historical importance, that determines whether public events play a role in organizing autobiographical memory.

  13. Ethical Considerations of Triage Following Natural Disasters: The IDF Experience in Haiti as a Case Study.

    PubMed

    Ram-Tiktin, Efrat

    2017-04-03

    Natural disasters in populated areas may result in massive casualties and extensive destruction of infrastructure. Humanitarian aid delegations may have to cope with the complicated issue of patient prioritization under conditions of severe resource scarcity. A triage model, consisting of five principles, is proposed for the prioritization of patients, and it is argued that rational and reasonable agents would agree upon them. The Israel Defense Force's humanitarian mission to Haiti following the 2010 earthquake serves as a case study for the various considerations taken into account when designing the ethical-clinical policy of field hospitals. The discussion focuses on three applications: the decision to include an intensive care unit, the decision to include obstetrics and neonatal units, and the treatment policy for compound fractures.

  14. Natural disasters and climate change call for the urgent decentralization of urban water systems.

    PubMed

    Vázquez-Rowe, Ian; Kahhat, Ramzy; Lorenzo-Toja, Yago

    2017-12-15

    Lima is gradually upgrading its urban water cycle to comply with improved sanitation standards, with the aim of treating the entire flow of water and wastewater that it creates. However, this paper examines the basic characteristics of the main treatment systems that are currently in operation in the Peruvian capital, highlighting the myopic and inefficient nature of these investments. It digs deep in the debate between centralized and decentralized water management systems in a city that is exposed to numerous hydro-meteorological and geological hazards. Previous errors that have occurred in the developed world throughout the evolution process of the urban water cycle should be taken into consideration prior to any infrastructure development in emerging countries. For the particular case of Lima, special emphasis should be given to the resilience of its urban water system in order to guarantee rapid recovery after disaster events. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. European Natural Disaster Coordination and Information System for Aviation (EUNADICS-AV)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wotawa, Gerhard; Hirtl, Marcus; Arnold, Delia; Katzler-Fuchs, Susanne; Pappalardo, Gelsomina; Mona, Lucia; Sofiev, Mikhail; de Leeuw, Gerrit; Theys, Nicolas; Brenot, Hugues; Plu, Matthieu; Rockitansky, Carl-Herbert; Eschbacher, Kurt; Apituley, Arnoud; Som de Cerff, Wim

    2017-04-01

    Commercial aviation is one of the key infrastructures of our modern world. Even short interruptions can cause economic damages summing up to the Billion-Euro range. As evident from the past, aviation shows vulnerability with regard to natural hazards. Safe flight operations, air traffic management and air traffic control is a shared responsibility of EUROCONTROL, national authorities, airlines and pilots. All stakeholders have one common goal, namely to warrant and maintain the safety of flight crews and passengers. Currently, however, there is a significant gap in the Europe-wide availability of real time hazard measurement and monitoring information for airborne hazards describing "what, where, how much" in 3 dimensions, combined with a near-real-time European data analysis and assimilation system. This gap creates circumstances where various stakeholders in the system may base their decisions on different data and information. The H-2020 project EUNADICS-AV ("European Natural Disaster Coordination and Information System for Aviation"), started in October 2016, intends to close this gap in data and information availability, enabling all stakeholders in the aviation system to obtain fast, coherent and consistent information. The project intends to combine and harmonize data from satellite earth observation, ground based and airborne platforms, and to integrate them into state-of-the art data assimilation and analysis systems. Besides operational data sources, data from the research community are integrated as well. Hazards considered in the project include volcano eruptions, nuclear accidents and events, and forest fires. The availability of consistent and coherent data analysis fields based on all available measurements will greatly enhances our capability to respond to disasters effectively and efficiently, minimizing system downtimes and thus economic damage while maintaining the safety of millions of passengers.

  16. Interruptions of the ancient Shu Civilization: triggered by climate change or natural disaster?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wen, Xingyue; Bai, Song; Zeng, Na; Page Chamberlain, C.; Wang, Chengshan; Huang, Chengmin; Zhang, Qing

    2013-04-01

    Environmental proxies of a stable carbon isotope, total organic carbon, free iron oxide, and particle size distribution in sediments as well as the stable carbon and oxygen isotopes in fossil human and animal teeth were used to reconstruct the history of climate change and natural disasters near the Jinsha Relic Site and to track their effect on the ancient Shu Civilization, which was established in the Chengdu Plain of southwest China during the late Holocene. In general, the late Holocene climate in the Chengdu Plain demonstrated a drying and cooling trend, with evident cooler events ~4100 and ~2700 a BP, which coincided with global climate changes. The ancient Shu Civilization was interrupted twice, and it included three stages—the Baodun (4700-3700 a BP), the Sanxingdui (3700-3150 a BP), and the Shi'erqiao (3150-2600 a BP)—that were slightly related to the abrupt climate changes that resulted from the collapse of the classic Sanxingdui Civilization, which was founded in a regional warm period. The abrupt increase in sand content in the sediment from the Jinsha Site coincided with the palaeoearthquake and palaeodam burst in the Longmen Mountains when the Baodun and Shi'erqiao desisted, indicating that a flood had occurred due to a dam burst and may likely have caused the ancient civilization's destruction. Although the warm and humid climate, flat terrain and rich water resources prompted the prosperity of the ancient towns of Sanxingdui and Jinsha, frequent natural disasters, such as powerful earthquakes, landslide dams, and outburst floods, consistently affected the ancient Shu inhabitants.

  17. Do pediatric and adult disaster victims differ? A descriptive analysis of clinical encounters from four natural disaster DMAT deployments.

    PubMed

    Gnauck, Katherine A; Nufer, Kevin E; LaValley, Jonathon M; Crandall, Cameron S; Craig, Frances W; Wilson-Ramirez, Gina B

    2007-01-01

    The differences between pediatric (< or = 17 years of age) and adult clinical field encounters were analyzed from four deployments of Disaster Medical Assistance Teams (DMATs). A retrospective cohort review of all patients who presented to DMAT field clinics during two hurricanes, one earthquake, and one flood was conducted. Descriptive statistics were used to analyze: (1) age; (2) gender; (3) severity category level; (4) chief complaint; (5) treatments provided; (6) discharge diagnosis; and (7) disposition. Five subsets of pediatric patients were analyzed further. Of the 2,196 patient encounters reviewed, 643 (29.5%) encounters were pediatric patients. Pediatric patients had a greater number of blank severity category levels than adults. Pediatric patients also were: (1) more likely to present with chief complaints of upper respiratory infections or wounds; (2) less likely to present with musculoskeletal pain or abdominal pain; and (3) equally likely to present with rashes. Pediatric patients were more likely to receive antibiotics, pain medication, and antihistamines, but were equally likely to need treatment for wounds. Dispositions to the hospital were less frequent for pediatric patients than for adults. Pediatric patients represent a substantial proportion of disaster victims at DMAT field clinics. They often necessitate special care requirements different from their adult counterparts. Pediatric-specific severity category criteria, treatment guidelines, equipment/medication stocks, and provider training are warranted for future DMAT response preparations.

  18. Assessment of infrastructure functional damages caused by natural-technological disasters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Massabò, Marco; Trasforini, Eva; Traverso, Stefania; Rudari, Roberto; De Angeli, Silvia; Cecinati, Francesca; Cerruti, Valentina

    2013-04-01

    The assessment of infrastructure damages caused by technological disaster poses several challenges, from gathering needed information on the territorial system to the definition of functionality curves for infrastructures elements (such as, buildings, road school) that are exposed to both natural and technological event. Moreover, areas affected by natural or natech (technological disasters triggered by natural events) disasters have often very large extensions and a rapid survey of them to gather all the needed information is a very difficult task, for many reasons, not least the difficult access to the existing databases and resources. We use multispectral optical imagery with other geographical and unconventional data to identify and characterize exposed elements. Our efforts in the virtual survey and during the investigation steps have different aims: to identify the vulnerability of infrastructures, buildings or activities; to execute calculations of exposition to risk; to estimate physical and functional damages. Subsequently, we apply specific algorithms to estimate values of acting forces and physical and functional damages. The updated picture of target areas in terms of risk-prone people, infrastructures and their connections is very important. It is possible to develop algorithms providing values of systemic functionality for each network element. The methodology is here applied to a natech disaster, arising from the combination of a flood event (specifically, the January 2010 flooding of Drin and Buna rivers, with a worsening in the road safety levels in the Shkoder area) with and the subsequent overturning of a truck transporting hazardous material. The accident causes the loss of containment and the total material release. Once the release has taken place, the evolution will depend on the physical state of the substance spilled (liquid, gas or dust). As a specific case we consider the rupture of a trucks transporting liquid fuels such as gasoline

  19. Incorporating Real-time Earthquake Information into Large Enrollment Natural Disaster Course Learning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Furlong, K. P.; Benz, H.; Hayes, G. P.; Villasenor, A.

    2010-12-01

    Although most would agree that the occurrence of natural disaster events such as earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, and floods can provide effective learning opportunities for natural hazards-based courses, implementing compelling materials into the large-enrollment classroom environment can be difficult. These natural hazard events derive much of their learning potential from their real-time nature, and in the modern 24/7 news-cycle where all but the most devastating events are quickly out of the public eye, the shelf life for an event is quite limited. To maximize the learning potential of these events requires that both authoritative information be available and course materials be generated as the event unfolds. Although many events such as hurricanes, flooding, and volcanic eruptions provide some precursory warnings, and thus one can prepare background materials to place the main event into context, earthquakes present a particularly confounding situation of providing no warning, but where context is critical to student learning. Attempting to implement real-time materials into large enrollment classes faces the additional hindrance of limited internet access (for students) in most lecture classrooms. In Earth 101 Natural Disasters: Hollywood vs Reality, taught as a large enrollment (150+ students) general education course at Penn State, we are collaborating with the USGS’s National Earthquake Information Center (NEIC) to develop efficient means to incorporate their real-time products into learning activities in the lecture hall environment. Over time (and numerous events) we have developed a template for presenting USGS-produced real-time information in lecture mode. The event-specific materials can be quickly incorporated and updated, along with key contextual materials, to provide students with up-to-the-minute current information. In addition, we have also developed in-class activities, such as student determination of population exposure to severe ground

  20. Reality of Risk of Natural Disasters in Georgia and a Management Policy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaprindashvili, George; Tsereteli, Emil; Gobejishvili, Ramin; King, Lorenz; Gaprindashvili, Merab

    2013-04-01

    In the last decades of the 20th century, the protection of the population from natural disasters, the preservation of land resources and the safe operation of a complex infrastructure and costly engineering facilities have become the primary socio-economic, demographic, political and environmental problems worldwide. This problem has become more acute in recent years when the natural cataclysms in terms of a population increase, progressive urbanization and use of vulnerable technologies have acquired even larger scales. This holds true especially for mountainous countries as Georgia, too. Natural-catastrophic processes as landslides, mudflows, rockfalls and erosion, and their frequent reoccurrence with harmful impacts to population, agricultural lands and engineering objects form a demanding challenge for the responsible authorities. Thousands of settlements, roads, oil and gas pipelines, high-voltage power transmission lines and other infrastructure may be severely damaged. Respective studies prove that the origin and activation of landslide-gravitational and mudflow processes increase year by year, and this holds true for almost all landscapes and geomorphological zones of Georgia. Catastrophic events may be triggered by (1) intense earthquakes, (2) extreme hydro-meteorological events, probably on the background of global climatic changes (3) large-scale human impacts on the environment. Societies with a low level of preparedness concerning these hazards are especially hit hard. In view of this urgent task, many departmental and research institutions have increased their efforts within the limits of their competence. First of all, it is the activity of the Geological Survey of Georgia (at present included in the National Environmental Agency of the Ministry of Environment Protection of Georgia) which mapped, identified and catalogued the hazardous processes on the territory of the country and identified the spatial limits and occurrences of hazardous processes

  1. Coping with Natural Disasters in Yogyakarta, Indonesia: The Psychological State of Elementary School Children as Assessed by Their Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Widyatmoko, C. Siswa; Tan, Edwin T.; Seyle, D. Conor; Mayawati, E. Haksi; Silver, Roxane Cohen

    2011-01-01

    The nation of Indonesia is in an area of geological instability, resulting in repeated and severe natural disasters. As a result, Indonesian residents are likely to be exposed repeatedly to significant traumatic events. Researchers and clinicians working in such areas face the challenge of assessing large groups of people exposed to trauma and…

  2. The Impact of a Natural Disaster: Under- and Postgraduate Nursing Education Following the Canterbury, New Zealand, Earthquake Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richardson, S. K.; Richardson, A.; Trip, H.; Tabakakis, K.; Josland, H.; Maskill, V.; Dolan, B.; Hickmott, B.; Houston, G.; Cowan, L.; McKay, L.

    2015-01-01

    While natural disasters have been reported internationally in relation to the injury burden, role of rescuers and responders, there is little known about the impact on education in adult professional populations. A 7.1 magnitude earthquake affected the Canterbury region of New Zealand on 4 September 2010 followed by more than 13,000 aftershocks in…

  3. S. Hrg. 112-211 - FACING FLOODS AND FIRES: EMERGENCY PREPAREDNESS FOR NATURAL DISASTERS IN NATIVE COMMUNITIES

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-21

    ... S. Hrg. 112-211 FACING FLOODS AND FIRES: EMERGENCY PREPAREDNESS FOR NATURAL DISASTERS IN NATIVE COMMUNITIES HEARING before the COMMITTEE ON INDIAN AFFAIRS UNITED STATES SENATE ONE HUNDRED TWELFTH CONGRESS FIRST SESSION JULY 21, 2011 Printed for the use of the Committee on Indian Affairs U.S. GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE 72-392 WASHINGTON : 2012...

  4. A Competence-Based Science Learning Framework Illustrated through the Study of Natural Hazards and Disaster Risk Reduction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oyao, Sheila G.; Holbrook, Jack; Rannikmäe, Miia; Pagunsan, Marmon M.

    2015-01-01

    This article proposes a competence-based learning framework for science teaching, applied to the study of "big ideas", in this case to the study of natural hazards and disaster risk reduction (NH&DRR). The framework focuses on new visions of competence, placing emphasis on nurturing connectedness and behavioral actions toward…

  5. Safety Issues in Community-Based Settings for Children Who Are Medically Fragile: Program Planning for Natural Disasters.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valluzzi, Janet L.

    1995-01-01

    An overview of community planning for response to and recovery from natural disasters is provided, with applications for young children who are medically fragile. Key concerns for technology-dependent children are outlined, and guidelines for preparing and managing staff teams are provided. Suggestions for helping children and staff overcome…

  6. Science Knowledge, World Views, and Information Sources in Social and Cultural Contexts: Making Sense after a Natural Disaster.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Okhee

    1999-01-01

    Examined the world views of children after they had experienced a natural disaster, Hurricane Andrew, in Florida in 1992. Responses of 127 fourth and fifth graders indicated differences and similarities in the children's world views by ethnicity, socioeconomic status, and gender. Discusses implications for promoting science literacy for all…

  7. The Impact of a Natural Disaster: Under- and Postgraduate Nursing Education Following the Canterbury, New Zealand, Earthquake Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richardson, S. K.; Richardson, A.; Trip, H.; Tabakakis, K.; Josland, H.; Maskill, V.; Dolan, B.; Hickmott, B.; Houston, G.; Cowan, L.; McKay, L.

    2015-01-01

    While natural disasters have been reported internationally in relation to the injury burden, role of rescuers and responders, there is little known about the impact on education in adult professional populations. A 7.1 magnitude earthquake affected the Canterbury region of New Zealand on 4 September 2010 followed by more than 13,000 aftershocks in…

  8. A Competence-Based Science Learning Framework Illustrated through the Study of Natural Hazards and Disaster Risk Reduction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oyao, Sheila G.; Holbrook, Jack; Rannikmäe, Miia; Pagunsan, Marmon M.

    2015-01-01

    This article proposes a competence-based learning framework for science teaching, applied to the study of "big ideas", in this case to the study of natural hazards and disaster risk reduction (NH&DRR). The framework focuses on new visions of competence, placing emphasis on nurturing connectedness and behavioral actions toward…

  9. Coping with Natural Disasters in Yogyakarta, Indonesia: The Psychological State of Elementary School Children as Assessed by Their Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Widyatmoko, C. Siswa; Tan, Edwin T.; Seyle, D. Conor; Mayawati, E. Haksi; Silver, Roxane Cohen

    2011-01-01

    The nation of Indonesia is in an area of geological instability, resulting in repeated and severe natural disasters. As a result, Indonesian residents are likely to be exposed repeatedly to significant traumatic events. Researchers and clinicians working in such areas face the challenge of assessing large groups of people exposed to trauma and…

  10. Science Knowledge, World Views, and Information Sources in Social and Cultural Contexts: Making Sense after a Natural Disaster.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Okhee

    1999-01-01

    Examined the world views of children after they had experienced a natural disaster, Hurricane Andrew, in Florida in 1992. Responses of 127 fourth and fifth graders indicated differences and similarities in the children's world views by ethnicity, socioeconomic status, and gender. Discusses implications for promoting science literacy for all…

  11. A Brazilian Vulnerability Index Towards Natural Disasters and Climatic Change - Flashfloods and Landslides.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Debortoli, N. S.; Camarinha, P. I., Sr.; Marengo, J. A.; Rodrigues, R.

    2015-12-01

    There are some evidences that hydrological climate extremes events have become more frequent an intense in the last decades due to climatic change. In Brazil, flashfloods and landslides were responsible for 74% of the deaths related to natural disasters in 1991-2010 period. In this sense, climate change could be considered a threat which can further increase these numbers, if actions of adaptation and reducing vulnerability are not taken. To evaluate Brazil's vulnerability hotspots to these disasters, two vulnerability indexes were developed using three sets of variables: (1) climate, with IPCC climate extreme indexes; (2) environmental, including land use, drainage systems, relief map, slope, road density and hydrography variables; (3) socioeconomic, including Gini coefficient, HDI (Human Development Index), housing conditions and poverty-related index. The variables were normalized on a scale between 0 to 1 and related using Map Algebra technique (ArcGIS). As part of the effort to contribute to the elaboration of the Third National Communication to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), and to contribute to the assessment of impacts on strategic country's issues, simulations at higher resolution were carried out using Eta-20km RCM (Regional Climate Model) nested with two global climate models: HadGEM ES and MIROC 5 (INPE Brazilian National Institute for Space Research). For the baseline period of 1961-1990, the vulnerability indexes were adjusted by an iterative process, which was validated by comparing it to the Brazilian National Disasters Data. The same indexes found at baseline were used to estimate the vulnerability until the end of the XXI century, using the 4.5 and 8.5 IPCC/AR5 RCP (Representative Concentration Pathways) scenarios. The results indicate a large increase in Brazil's vulnerability to landslides mainly in coastal zone, southern states, high lands of southeast states, and along the Amazon River due to climatic

  12. Application of Satellite Observations to Manage Natural Disasters in the Lake Victoria Basin

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Habib, Shahid; Policelli, F.; Irwin, D.; Korme, Tesfaye; Adler, Bob; Hong, Yang

    2010-01-01

    Lake Victoria, the second largest fresh water lake in the Eastern part of Africa is a vital natural resource for the economic well being and prosperity of over 30 million people located in riparian regions of Uganda, Kenya and Tanzania. It covers a large area of about 68,870 km2 and produces a GDP of about US $30 billion per year. The region is also very much prone to natural disasters such as severe floods during heavy precipitation periods in the Eastern part of Africa. In addition to floods, the precipitation also produces large infestations of mosquito larvae due to the standing water in many areas. This further causes multiple vector borne diseases such as Malaria, Rift Valley Fever and more. These problems are of serious concern and require active and aggressive surveillance and management to minimize the loss of human and animal lives and property damage. Satellite imagery and observations along with the in situ measurements provide a great tool to analyze and study this area and inform the policy makers to make calculated policy decisions which are more beneficial to the environment. Recently, NASA and USAID have joined forces with the Regional Center for Mapping of Resources for Development (RCMRD) located in Nairobi, Kenya to utilize multiple NASA sensors such as TRMM, SRTM and MODIS to develop flood potential maps for the Lake Victoria Basin. The idea is to generate a flood forecasts and "nowcasts" that can be sent to the disaster management organizations of Uganda, Kenya, and Tanzania. Post flood event satellite imagery is becoming a common tool to assess the areas inundated by flooding. However, this work is unique undertaking by utilizing land imaging and atmospheric satellites to build credible flood potential maps. At same time, we are also studying the potential occurrence and spread of Rift Valley Fever disease based on the short term climate records and precipitation data. These activities require multi-nation coordination and agreements and

  13. Meta-Analytic Review of Psychological Interventions for Children Survivors of Natural and Man-Made Disasters

    PubMed Central

    Pfefferbaum, Betty; Kirlic, Namik; Tett, Robert; Nelson, Summer; Liles, Brandi

    2015-01-01

    Although many post-disaster interventions for children and adolescent survivors of disaster and terrorism have been created, little is known about the effectiveness of such interventions. Therefore, this meta-analysis assessed PTSD outcomes among children and adolescent survivors of natural and man-made disasters receiving psychological interventions. Aggregating results from 24 studies (total N=2630) indicates that children and adolescents receiving psychological intervention fared significantly better than those in control or waitlist groups with respect to PTSD symptoms. Moderator effects were also observed for intervention package, treatment modality (group vs. individual), providers’ level of training, intervention setting, parental involvement, participant age, length of treatment, intervention delivery timing, and methodological rigor. Findings are discussed in detail with suggestions for practice and future research. PMID:25085234

  14. Spatial-Temporal Analysis of Openstreetmap Data after Natural Disasters: a Case Study of Haiti Under Hurricane Matthew

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, J.; Li, L.; Zhou, Q.

    2017-09-01

    Volunteered geographic information (VGI) has been widely adopted as an alternative for authoritative geographic information in disaster management considering its up-to-date data. OpenStreetMap, in particular, is now aiming at crisis mapping for humanitarian purpose. This paper illustrated that natural disaster played an essential role in updating OpenStreetMap data after Haiti was hit by Hurricane Matthew in October, 2016. Spatial-temporal analysis of updated OSM data was conducted in this paper. Correlation of features was also studied to figure out whether updates of data were coincidence or the results of the hurricane. Spatial pattern matched the damaged areas and temporal changes fitted the time when disaster occurred. High level of correlation values of features were recorded when hurricane occurred, suggesting that updates in data were led by the hurricane.

  15. Meta-analytic review of psychological interventions for children survivors of natural and man-made disasters.

    PubMed

    Newman, Elana; Pfefferbaum, Betty; Kirlic, Namik; Tett, Robert; Nelson, Summer; Liles, Brandi

    2014-09-01

    Although many post-disaster interventions for children and adolescent survivors of disaster and terrorism have been created, little is known about the effectiveness of such interventions. Therefore, this meta-analysis assessed PTSD outcomes among children and adolescent survivors of natural and man-made disasters receiving psychological interventions. Aggregating results from 24 studies (total N=2630) indicates that children and adolescents receiving psychological intervention fared significantly better than those in control or waitlist groups with respect to PTSD symptoms. Moderator effects were also observed for intervention package, treatment modality (group vs. individual), providers' level of training, intervention setting, parental involvement, participant age, length of treatment, intervention delivery timing, and methodological rigor. Findings are discussed in detail with suggestions for practice and future research.

  16. Study of Functional Vulnerability Status of Tehran Hospitals in Dealing With Natural Disasters

    PubMed Central

    Ahmadi, Batol; Foroushani, Abbas Rahimi; Tanha, Narjes; Abad, Amjad Mohamadi Bolban; Asadi, Heshmatollah

    2016-01-01

    Introduction At the time of disasters, hospitals are considered as one of the most important facilities which should provide emergency services continuously. The purpose of this study was to determine the functional vulnerability of Tehran hospitals in dealing with natural disasters. Methods This cross-sectional study was conducted in educational hospitals of Tehran University of Medical Science (TUMS), in 2013. Of all 26 hospitals, 12 hospitals were selected through single-stage cluster sampling, including six general (Shariati, Amiralam, Sina, Imam, Hazrat Rasoul, Baharlou) and six specialized (Bahrami, Hazrat-e Aliasghar, Shahid rajaie, Roozbeh, Moheb yas, Children Medical Center) hospitals. Data were collected using World Health Organization (WHO) checklist for functional indicators of safe hospitals, recommended for countries with similar climates. Data were collected through interviews with members of hospital crisis committees and direct observations. Data analysis was carried out using SPSS version 18 using descriptive statistics and Fisher’s exact test. Results Fifty percent of hospitals in the study, in terms of functional vulnerability status, were in satisfactory condition with low level of vulnerability, 41.7% were in the moderate level and 8.3% were in a non-satisfactory condition with high levels of vulnerability. The results of Fisher’s exact test showed that there wasn’t a significant correlation between functional vulnerability and hospitals lifespan (p=0.99) and type of specialty (p=0.99). Conclusion As this study, assesses hospitals’ main weaknesses in terms of procedures, strategies, plans, human resources, monitoring and evaluation, it is essential that each of these areas be reviewed by hospital managers separately, in order to take significant actions to eliminate their weaknesses. PMID:28070252

  17. Study of Functional Vulnerability Status of Tehran Hospitals in Dealing With Natural Disasters.

    PubMed

    Ahmadi, Batol; Foroushani, Abbas Rahimi; Tanha, Narjes; Abad, Amjad Mohamadi Bolban; Asadi, Heshmatollah

    2016-11-01

    At the time of disasters, hospitals are considered as one of the most important facilities which should provide emergency services continuously. The purpose of this study was to determine the functional vulnerability of Tehran hospitals in dealing with natural disasters. This cross-sectional study was conducted in educational hospitals of Tehran University of Medical Science (TUMS), in 2013. Of all 26 hospitals, 12 hospitals were selected through single-stage cluster sampling, including six general (Shariati, Amiralam, Sina, Imam, Hazrat Rasoul, Baharlou) and six specialized (Bahrami, Hazrat-e Aliasghar, Shahid rajaie, Roozbeh, Moheb yas, Children Medical Center) hospitals. Data were collected using World Health Organization (WHO) checklist for functional indicators of safe hospitals, recommended for countries with similar climates. Data were collected through interviews with members of hospital crisis committees and direct observations. Data analysis was carried out using SPSS version 18 using descriptive statistics and Fisher's exact test. Fifty percent of hospitals in the study, in terms of functional vulnerability status, were in satisfactory condition with low level of vulnerability, 41.7% were in the moderate level and 8.3% were in a non-satisfactory condition with high levels of vulnerability. The results of Fisher's exact test showed that there wasn't a significant correlation between functional vulnerability and hospitals lifespan (p=0.99) and type of specialty (p=0.99). As this study, assesses hospitals' main weaknesses in terms of procedures, strategies, plans, human resources, monitoring and evaluation, it is essential that each of these areas be reviewed by hospital managers separately, in order to take significant actions to eliminate their weaknesses.

  18. Experiences of violence and abuse among internally displaced adolescent girls following a natural disaster.

    PubMed

    Sloand, Elizabeth; Killion, Cheryl; Yarandi, Hossein; Sharps, Phyllis; Lewis-O'Connor, Annie; Hassan, Mona; Gary, Faye; Cesar, Nicole Muller; Campbell, Doris

    2017-04-11

    To describe the physical, psychological and sexual violence among internally displaced adolescent girls following the 2010 Haiti earthquake and related risk factors, health concerns and cultural norms. Thousands of adolescents were displaced following the earthquake, leaving them vulnerable to abuse and violence. Displaced survivors are disproportionately vulnerable to violence after natural and man-made disasters. A descriptive-correlational design was used to: (1) describe the extent of violence, health risks and concerns in the displaced adolescent girls; and (2) identify correlations in the strength and magnitude of relationships between selected variables including demographics, risk factors and cultural tolerance of violence. Data were collected from participants using computer-assisted self-interviews between 2011-2013 including demographics, pre- and post-earthquake violence, perpetrators, risk factors and health consequences. Analysis included frequency, logistic regression and multiple regression. A majority reported physical, psychological, or sexual abuse both pre- (59%) and post- (64.1%) earthquake. Pre-earthquake, abused adolescents reported the perpetrator as a boyfriend (50%) or family member (30%). Post-earthquake, 20.5% of physical abuse perpetrators were family members. Pre- and post-earthquake physical and sexual abuse did not change. The risk of being sexually abused post-earthquake increased after controlling for age and education. Displaced adolescent girls reported similar rates of physical and sexual abuse pre- and post-earthquake. These findings show the importance of preventive policies for adolescent girls in disaster situations in countries with low resources. Social and cultural change is critically needed since abuse was at an unacceptably high rate prior to the earthquake. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Infection surveillance after a natural disaster: lessons learnt from the Great East Japan Earthquake of 2011

    PubMed Central

    Oki, Tomoharu; Ishiki, Aiko; Shimanuki, Masaaki; Fuchimukai, Toru; Chosa, Toru; Chida, Shoichi; Nakamura, Yasuhide; Shima, Hiroji; Kanno, Michihiro; Matsuishi, Toyojiro; Ishiki, Mikihito; Urabe, Daisaku

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Problem On 11 March 2011, the Great East Japan Earthquake produced a catastrophic tsunami that devastated the city of Rikuzen-Takata and left it without an effective health infrastructure and at increased risk of outbreaks of disease. Approach On 2 May 2011, a disease-surveillance team was formed of volunteers who were clinicians or members of Rikuzen-Takata’s municipal government. The team’s main goal was to detect the early signs of disease outbreaks. Local setting Seven weeks after the tsunami, 16 support teams were providing primary health care in Rikuzen-Takata but the chain of command between them was poor and 70% of the city’s surviving citizens remained in evacuation centres. The communication tools that were available were generally inadequate. Relevant changes The surveillance team collected data from the city’s clinics by using a simple reporting form that could be completed without adding greatly to the workloads of clinicians. The summary findings were reported daily to clinics. The team also collaborated with public health nurses in rebuilding communication networks. Public health nurses alerted evacuation centres to epidemics of communicable disease. Lessons learnt Modern health-care systems are highly vulnerable to the loss of advanced technological tools. The initiation – or re-establishment – of disease surveillance following a natural disaster can therefore prove challenging even in a developed country. Surveillance should be promptly initiated after a disaster by (i) developing a surveillance system that is tailored to the local setting, (ii) establishing a support team network, and (iii) integrating the resources that remain – or soon become – locally available. PMID:24115802

  20. a Brazilian Vulnerability Index to Natural Disasters of Drought - in the Context of Climate Change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Camarinha, P. I., Sr.; Debortoli, N. S.; Hirota, M.

    2015-12-01

    Droughts are characterized as one of the main types of natural disasters that occur in Brazil. During the 1991-2012, droughts affected more than 14 million Brazilians, so that the concern for the following decades is about the potential impacts triggered by climate change. To analyze the vulnerability of the Brazilian municipalities to drought disasters, we have assessed the effects of climate change to droughts until the end of 21th century. A composite index was created based on three different dimensions: i) Exposure, represented by climate anomalies related to the drought process, such as changes in accumulated rainfall averages, interannual variability of rainfall, and the frequency and magnitude of severe droughts (measured by the Standardized Precipitation-Evapotranspiration Index); ii) Sensitivity, encompassing socioeconomic, demographic, land use and water management data; iii) Adaptive Capacity, consisting of socioeconomic and institutional data from Brazilian municipalities, such as the Human Development Index (HDI), social inequality (Gini index) and illiteracy rate. The climate variables used in this study are results from simulations of the Regional Climate Model Eta (with a downscaling of 20km spatial resolution) nested with two global climate models (HadGEM ES and MIROC 5) and was provided by National Institute for Space Research. The baseline period was 1961-1990 and future periods was 2011-2040; 2041-2070 and 2071-2099. For the simulations of future climate it was used the 4.5 and 8.5 IPCC/AR5 RCP (Representative Concentration Pathways) scenarios. All variables used in this study was handled, exploited and related in a Geographic Information System (GIS). The methodology allowed the identification of vulnerability hotspots, the targeting of adaptation strategies and the development of public policy to minimize the potential impacts of future droughts. The final results (see attached image) indicate that the most vulnerable regions are located in

  1. Social complexity beliefs predict posttraumatic growth in survivors of a natural disaster.

    PubMed

    Nalipay, Ma Jenina N; Bernardo, Allan B I; Mordeno, Imelu G

    2016-09-01

    Most studies on posttraumatic growth (PTG) have focused on personal characteristics, interpersonal resources, and the immediate environment. There has been less attention on dynamic internal processes related to the development of PTG and on how these processes are affected by the broader culture. Calhoun and Tedeschi's (2006) model suggests a role of distal culture in PTG development, but empirical investigations on that point are limited. The present study investigated the role of social complexity-the generalized belief about changing social environments and inconsistency of human behavior-as a predictor of PTG. Social complexity was hypothesized to be associated with problem-solving approaches that are likely to give rise to cognitive processes that promote PTG. A sample of 446 survivors of Typhoon Haiyan, 1 of the strongest typhoons ever recorded at the time, answered self-report measures of social complexity, cognitive processing of trauma, and PTG. Structural equation modeling indicated a good fit between the data and the hypothesized model; belief in social complexity predicted stronger PTG, mediated by cognitive processing. The results provide evidence for how disaster survivors' beliefs about the changing nature of social environments and their corresponding behavior changes are predictors of PTG and suggest a psychological mechanism for how distal culture can influence PTG. Thus, assessing social complexity beliefs during early the phases of a postdisaster psychosocial intervention may provide useful information on who is likely to experience PTG. Trauma workers might consider culture-specific social themes related to social complexity in disaster-affected communities. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  2. Remediation following Man-made or Natural Disasters -Homeland Security Research

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA develops procedures mitigate contamination and to remediate the environment following public health and environmental incidents and disasters. Contamination incidents involving urban areas could require the decontamination of

  3. The International Space Station: A Unique Platform for Remote Sensing of Natural Disasters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stefanov, William L.; Evans, Cynthia A.

    2014-01-01

    different times of the day and night. This is important for two reasons: 1) certain surface processes (i.e., development of coastal fog banks) occur at times other than local solar noon, making it difficult to collect relevant data from traditional satellite platforms, and 2) it provides opportunities for the ISS to collect data for short-duration events, such as natural disasters, that polar-orbiting satellites may miss due to their orbital dynamics - in essence, the ISS can be "in the right place at the right time" to collect data. An immediate application of ISS remote sensing data collection is that the data can be used to provide information for humanitarian aid after a natural disaster. This activity contributes directly to the station's Benefits to Humanity mission. The International Charter, Space and Major Disasters (also known as the International Disaster Charter, or IDC) is an agreement between agencies of several countries to provide - on a best-effort basis - remotely sensed data related to natural disasters to requesting countries in support of disaster response. In the United States, the lead agency for interaction with the IDC is the United States Geological Survey (USGS); when an IDC request, or activation, is received, the USGS notifies the science teams for NASA instruments with targeting information for data collection. In the case of the ISS, Earth scientists in the JSC ARES Directorate, in association with the ISS Program Science Office, coordinate targeting and data collection with the USGS. If data is collected, it is passed back to the USGS for posting on its Hazards Data Distribution System and made available for download. The ISS was added to the USGS's list of NASA remote sensing assets that could respond to IDC activations in May 2012. Initially, the NASA ISS sensor systems available to respond to IDC activations included the ISS Agricultural Camera (ISSAC), an internal multispectral visible-near infrared wavelength system mounted in the WORF

  4. Post-disaster health impact of natural hazards in the Philippines in 2013

    PubMed Central

    Salazar, Miguel Antonio; Pesigan, Arturo; Law, Ronald; Winkler, Volker

    2016-01-01

    Background In 2011, the Health Emergency Management Bureau (HEMB) created the Surveillance for Post Extreme Emergencies and Disasters (SPEED), a real-time syndromic surveillance system that allows the early detection and monitoring of post-disaster disease trends. SPEED can assist health leaders in making informed decisions on health systems affected by disasters. There is a need for further validation of current concepts in post-disaster disease patterns in respect to actual field data. This study aims to evaluate the temporal post-disaster patterns of selected diseases after a flood, an earthquake, and a typhoon in the Philippines in 2013. Methodology We analyzed the 21 syndromes provided by SPEED both separately and grouped into injuries, communicable diseases, and non-communicable diseases (NCDs) by calculating daily post-disaster consultation rates for up to 150 days post-disaster. These were compared over time and juxtaposed according to the type of disaster. Results Communicable diseases were found to be the predominant syndrome group in all three disaster types. The top six syndromes found were: acute respiratory infections, open wounds, bruises and burns, high blood pressure, skin disease, fever, and acute watery diarrhea. Discussion Overall, the results aligned with the country's morbidity profile. Within 2 months, the clear gradation of increasing syndrome rates reflected the severity (flooddisasters. After 2 months, rates dropped, suggesting the beginning of the recovery phase. The most common syndromes can be addressed by measures such as providing for shelter, water, sanitation, hygiene, nutrition, and common health services. Conclusions Most post-disaster syndromes may be addressed by prevention, early diagnosis, and early treatment. Health needs differ in response and recovery phases. PMID:27193265

  5. Post-disaster health impact of natural hazards in the Philippines in 2013.

    PubMed

    Salazar, Miguel Antonio; Pesigan, Arturo; Law, Ronald; Winkler, Volker

    2016-01-01

    Background In 2011, the Health Emergency Management Bureau (HEMB) created the Surveillance for Post Extreme Emergencies and Disasters (SPEED), a real-time syndromic surveillance system that allows the early detection and monitoring of post-disaster disease trends. SPEED can assist health leaders in making informed decisions on health systems affected by disasters. There is a need for further validation of current concepts in post-disaster disease patterns in respect to actual field data. This study aims to evaluate the temporal post-disaster patterns of selected diseases after a flood, an earthquake, and a typhoon in the Philippines in 2013. Methodology We analyzed the 21 syndromes provided by SPEED both separately and grouped into injuries, communicable diseases, and non-communicable diseases (NCDs) by calculating daily post-disaster consultation rates for up to 150 days post-disaster. These were compared over time and juxtaposed according to the type of disaster. Results Communicable diseases were found to be the predominant syndrome group in all three disaster types. The top six syndromes found were: acute respiratory infections, open wounds, bruises and burns, high blood pressure, skin disease, fever, and acute watery diarrhea. Discussion Overall, the results aligned with the country's morbidity profile. Within 2 months, the clear gradation of increasing syndrome rates reflected the severity (flooddisasters. After 2 months, rates dropped, suggesting the beginning of the recovery phase. The most common syndromes can be addressed by measures such as providing for shelter, water, sanitation, hygiene, nutrition, and common health services. Conclusions Most post-disaster syndromes may be addressed by prevention, early diagnosis, and early treatment. Health needs differ in response and recovery phases.

  6. Post-disaster health impact of natural hazards in the Philippines in 2013.

    PubMed

    Salazar, Miguel Antonio; Pesigan, Arturo; Law, Ronald; Winkler, Volker

    2016-01-01

    In 2011, the Health Emergency Management Bureau (HEMB) created the Surveillance for Post Extreme Emergencies and Disasters (SPEED), a real-time syndromic surveillance system that allows the early detection and monitoring of post-disaster disease trends. SPEED can assist health leaders in making informed decisions on health systems affected by disasters. There is a need for further validation of current concepts in post-disaster disease patterns in respect to actual field data. This study aims to evaluate the temporal post-disaster patterns of selected diseases after a flood, an earthquake, and a typhoon in the Philippines in 2013. We analyzed the 21 syndromes provided by SPEED both separately and grouped into injuries, communicable diseases, and non-communicable diseases (NCDs) by calculating daily post-disaster consultation rates for up to 150 days post-disaster. These were compared over time and juxtaposed according to the type of disaster. Communicable diseases were found to be the predominant syndrome group in all three disaster types. The top six syndromes found were: acute respiratory infections, open wounds, bruises and burns, high blood pressure, skin disease, fever, and acute watery diarrhea. Overall, the results aligned with the country's morbidity profile. Within 2 months, the clear gradation of increasing syndrome rates reflected the severity (flooddisasters. After 2 months, rates dropped, suggesting the beginning of the recovery phase. The most common syndromes can be addressed by measures such as providing for shelter, water, sanitation, hygiene, nutrition, and common health services. Most post-disaster syndromes may be addressed by prevention, early diagnosis, and early treatment. Health needs differ in response and recovery phases.

  7. Using natural disasters to study the effects of prenatal maternal stress on child health and development.

    PubMed

    King, Suzanne; Dancause, Kelsey; Turcotte-Tremblay, Anne-Marie; Veru, Franz; Laplante, David P

    2012-12-01

    Research on the developmental origins of health and disease highlights the plasticity of the human fetus to a host of potential teratogens. Experimental research on laboratory animals has demonstrated a variety of physical and behavioral effects among offspring exposed to prenatal maternal stress (PNMS). However, these studies cannot elucidate the relative effects of the objective stress exposure and the subjective distress in a way that would parallel the stress experience in humans. PNMS research with humans is also limited because there are ethical challenges to designing studies that involve the random assignment of pregnant women to varying levels of independent stressors. Natural disasters present opportunities for natural experiments of the effects of pregnant women's exposure to stress on child development. In this review, we present an overview of the human and animal research on PNMS, and highlight the results of Project Ice Storm which has been following the cognitive, behavioral, motor and physical development of children exposed in utero to the January 1998 Quebec Ice Storm. We have found that both objective degree of exposure to the storm and the mothers' subjective distress have strong and persistent effects on child development, and that these effects are often moderated by the timing of the ice storm in pregnancy and by the child's sex.

  8. 7 CFR 760.1001 - Eligible counties, disaster events, and disaster periods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Eligible counties, disaster events, and disaster..., disaster events, and disaster periods. (a) Except as provided in this subpart, FSA will provide assistance... eligible disaster events in eligible disaster counties provided in paragraph (c) of this section. (b)...

  9. 7 CFR 760.1001 - Eligible counties, disaster events, and disaster periods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Eligible counties, disaster events, and disaster..., disaster events, and disaster periods. (a) Except as provided in this subpart, FSA will provide assistance... eligible disaster events in eligible disaster counties provided in paragraph (c) of this section. (b)...

  10. 7 CFR 760.1001 - Eligible counties, disaster events, and disaster periods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Eligible counties, disaster events, and disaster..., disaster events, and disaster periods. (a) Except as provided in this subpart, FSA will provide assistance... eligible disaster events in eligible disaster counties provided in paragraph (c) of this section. (b)...

  11. 7 CFR 760.1001 - Eligible counties, disaster events, and disaster periods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Eligible counties, disaster events, and disaster..., disaster events, and disaster periods. (a) Except as provided in this subpart, FSA will provide assistance... eligible disaster events in eligible disaster counties provided in paragraph (c) of this section. (b)...

  12. 7 CFR 760.1001 - Eligible counties, disaster events, and disaster periods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Eligible counties, disaster events, and disaster..., disaster events, and disaster periods. (a) Except as provided in this subpart, FSA will provide assistance... eligible disaster events in eligible disaster counties provided in paragraph (c) of this section. (b)...

  13. Cultural, ethical, and spiritual implications of natural disasters from the survivors' perspective.

    PubMed

    Varghese, Shainy B

    2010-12-01

    Cultural, ethical, and spiritual implications of disaster depend on various factors. The impact of a disaster on a particular culture depends on the people in that culture and the strength and resilience of the culture. Disasters may slow cultural development; however, typically the customs, beliefs, and value systems remain the same even if the outward expressions of culture change. Critical to survivors is the implication of aid that is culturally sensitive. Ethical questions and dilemmas associated with disasters and their management are profound. Adhering to ethical principles does not solve all of the issues related to disaster management, but awareness of their utility is important. People affected by a disaster may not be capable of responding to human rights violations, so it is the first responders who must be cognizant of their responsibility to protect the victims’ dignity and rights. Ethical treatment of survivors entails a crucial blend of knowledge about ethnic culture, religious beliefs, and human rights. A strong awareness of ethical principles is merely a beginning step to well-informed decision making in disaster situations. The literature also suggests that during a crisis, spirituality helps victims to cope. Important to any catastrophic event is the understanding that every disaster creates unique circumstances that require relief responses tailored to the specific situation.

  14. An emergency medical communications system by low altitude platform at the early stages of a natural disaster in Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Qiantori, Andri; Sutiono, Agung Budi; Hariyanto, Hadi; Suwa, Hirohiko; Ohta, Toshizumi

    2012-02-01

    A natural disaster is a consequence of a natural hazard, such as a tsunami, earthquake or volcanic eruption, affecting humans. In order to support emergency medical communication services in natural disaster areas where the telecommunications facility has been seriously damaged, an ad hoc communication network backbone should be build to support emergency medical services. Combinations of requirements need to be considered before deciding on the best option. In the present study we have proposed a Low Altitude Platform consisting of tethered balloons combined with Wireless Fidelity (WiFi) 802.11 technology. To confirm that the suggested network would satisfy the emergency medical service requirements, a communications experiment, including performance service measurement, was carried out.

  15. Psychosocial interventions for children and adolescents after man-made and natural disasters: a meta-analysis and systematic review.

    PubMed

    Brown, R C; Witt, A; Fegert, J M; Keller, F; Rassenhofer, M; Plener, P L

    2017-04-11

    Children and adolescents are a vulnerable group to develop post-traumatic stress symptoms after natural or man-made disasters. In the light of increasing numbers of refugees under the age of 18 years worldwide, there is a significant need for effective treatments. This meta-analytic review investigates specific psychosocial treatments for children and adolescents after man-made and natural disasters. In a systematic literature search using MEDLINE, EMBASE and PsycINFO, as well as hand-searching existing reviews and contacting professional associations, 36 studies were identified. Random- and mixed-effects models were applied to test for average effect sizes and moderating variables. Overall, treatments showed high effect sizes in pre-post comparisons (Hedges' g = 1.34) and medium effect sizes as compared with control conditions (Hedges' g = 0.43). Treatments investigated by at least two studies were cognitive-behavioural therapy (CBT), eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR), narrative exposure therapy for children (KIDNET) and classroom-based interventions, which showed similar effect sizes. However, studies were very heterogenic with regard to their outcomes. Effects were moderated by type of profession (higher level of training leading to higher effect sizes). A number of effective psychosocial treatments for child and adolescent survivors of disasters exist. CBT, EMDR, KIDNET and classroom-based interventions can be equally recommended. Although disasters require immediate reactions and improvisation, future studies with larger sample sizes and rigorous methodology are needed.

  16. Infant feeding concerns in times of natural disaster: lessons learned from the 2014 flood in Kelantan, Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Sulaiman, Zaharah; Mohamad, Noraini; Ismail, Tengku Alina Tengku; Johari, Nazirah; Hussain, Nik Hazlina Nik

    2016-01-01

    The flood that hit Kelantan in December 2014 was the worst in Malaysian history. Women and their infants accounted for a large proportion of the people at risk who were badly affected, as almost half of the population in Kelantan was in the reproductive age group. This report serves to raise awareness that breastfeeding mothers and infants are a special population with unique needs during a disaster. Four of their concerns were identified during this massive flood: first, the negative impact of flood on infant nutritional status and their health; second, open space and lack of privacy for the mothers to breastfeed their babies comfortably at temporary shelters for flood victims; third, uncontrolled donations of infant formula, teats, and feeding bottles that are often received from many sources to promote formula feeding; and lastly, misconceptions related to breastfeeding production and quality that may be affected by the disaster. The susceptibility of women and their infant in a natural disaster enhances the benefits of promoting the breastfeeding rights of women. Women have the right to be supported which enables them to breastfeed. These can be achieved through monitoring the distribution of formula feeding, providing water, electricity and medical care for breastfeeding mothers and their infants. A multifaceted rescue mission team involving various agencies comprising of local government, including the health and nutrition departments, private or non-governmental organizations and individual volunteers have the potential to improve a satisfactory condition of women and infants affected by floods and other potential natural disasters.

  17. Natural and man-made disasters: the vulnerability of women-headed households and children without families.

    PubMed

    Sapir, D G

    1993-01-01

    Since 1980, over 2 million people have died as an immediate result of natural and man-made disasters and by 1992, the refugee population registered nearly 16 million people. This article reviews the human impact of disasters as a composite of two elements: the catastrophic event itself and the vulnerability of people. It also examines the specific case of women and children in the current world emergency context. It identifies four broad policy areas that affect women and children in disaster situations and discusses them with examples and field evidence. The first policy area addresses humanitarian assistance and armed conflicts, and armed conflict and international humanitarian law, the use of food as instrument of war, mines and civilian disability, and rape and sexual violence are discussed within this context. The second problem discussed is the issue of unaccompanied and abandoned children in terms of its magnitude and implications for relief response. Thirdly, the article examines the differential risks in emergencies for mortality and morbidity, specifically for women and children. Finally, it addresses certain policies and approaches to disaster rehabilitation which effectively mirror and reinforce inherent inequities in the affected society. The article notes that: (i) the largest proportion of disaster victims today arise from civil strife and food crises and that the majority of those killed, wounded and permanently disabled are women and children; and (ii) the ability of any country to respond effectively to disasters depends on the strength of its health and social infrastructure, and its overall developmental status. It concludes by identifying seven areas where concrete measures could be taken to improve the current situation.

  18. Long-Term Mental Health among Low-Income, Minority Women Following Exposure to Multiple Natural Disasters in Early and Late Adolescence Compared to Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobs, Marni B.; Harville, Emily W.

    2015-01-01

    Background: High impact experiences following a natural disaster have been shown to influence later psychopathology. Individual-level factors such as age may also contribute to a disaster's impact on mental health, though it is unclear whether young age confers a protective effect or represents a period of increased risk as compared to adulthood.…

  19. Long-Term Mental Health among Low-Income, Minority Women Following Exposure to Multiple Natural Disasters in Early and Late Adolescence Compared to Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobs, Marni B.; Harville, Emily W.

    2015-01-01

    Background: High impact experiences following a natural disaster have been shown to influence later psychopathology. Individual-level factors such as age may also contribute to a disaster's impact on mental health, though it is unclear whether young age confers a protective effect or represents a period of increased risk as compared to adulthood.…

  20. Natural disaster-induced environmental migration from the Indian subcontinent resulting in malaria outbreak in Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mavrouli, Maria; Mavroulis, Spyridon; Piperaki, Evangelia-Theofano; Hadjichristodoulou, Christos; Tsakris, Athanassios

    2017-04-01

    Extreme hydrometeorological disasters such as floods and hurricanes can severely damage human life, natural and built environment and economic development. Consequently, they can result in environmental migration (EM). In case of infectious disease (ID) outbreaks during the post-disaster period and subsequent EM, environmental refugees from endemic regions serve as ID carriers to their new residence sites altering the spatial ID distribution and incidence. The continuous massive influx of environmental refugees from malaria endemic regions to non-endemic ones can build up a parasite reservoir among naive host populations. Initially, serum specimens were collected in 2012 from asymptomatic individuals, 298 Greeks and 721 immigrants residing in areas of documented local malaria transmission in Laconia (Southern Peloponnese) and in Eastern Attica, Greece. Sera were tested for antibodies against Plasmodium vivax and P. falciparum using the Malaria-Ab ELISA (IBL International GMBH, Hamburg, Germany). Taking into account that Greece has been declared malaria free by the WHO since 1974, we conducted an extensive and systematic literature review related to natural disasters leading among others to increased malaria risk in Indian Subcontinent and respective forced EM in order to detect relative possible causes of reintroduction and localized outbreaks of malaria in Greece. Regarding the country of origin, information was available for 685 (95%) of the 721 immigrants. Of the 678 immigrants from Indian Subcontinent, 627 (92.5%) originated from Pakistan, 24 (3.53%) Afghanistan, 24 (3.53%) India and 3 (0.44%) Bangladesh. Of the 721 immigrants, 582 and 124 resided in Laconia and Eastern Attica respectively. Seventy-one immigrants residing in Laconia and 14 in Eastern Attica were positive for antimalarial antibodies, while none of the 298 Greeks residing in Laconia (N=248) and Attica (N=50) was found positive. Based on already published scientific data, Pakistan has been exposed

  1. Disaster Preparation and Recovery

    MedlinePlus

    ... be a natural disaster, like a hurricane, tornado, flood or earthquake. It might also be man-made, ... the insurance you need, including special types, like flood insurance. No matter what kind of disaster you ...

  2. Can Demographic and Exposure Characteristics Predict Levels of Social Support in Survivors from a Natural Disaster?

    PubMed Central

    Arnberg, Filip K.; Melin, Lennart

    2013-01-01

    Objective Lack of social support is a strong predictor for poor mental health after disasters. Psychosocial post-disaster interventions may benefit from targeting survivors at risk of low support, yet it is unknown whether demographic and disaster exposure characteristics are associated with social support. This study assessed if age, gender, educational status, cohabitation, and disaster exposure severity predicted aspects of informal social support in a cohort of Swedish survivors from the 2004 Southeast Asian tsunami. Methods The participants were 3,536 disaster survivors who responded to a mail survey 14 months after the disaster (49% response rate). Their perceptions of present emotional support, contact with others, tangible support, negative support and overall satisfaction with informal support were assessed with the Crisis Support Scale and analysed in five separate ordinal regressions. Results Demographic factors and exposure severity explained variation in social supports although the effect size and predictive efficiency were modest. Cohabitation and female gender were associated with both more positive and more negative support. Single-household men were at risk for low emotional support and younger women were more likely to perceive negative support. Higher education was associated with more positive support, whereas no clear pattern was found regarding age as a predictor. Disaster exposure severity was associated with more negative support and less overall support satisfaction. Conclusions After a disaster that entailed little disruptions to the community the associations between demographic characteristics and social support concur with findings in the general population. The findings suggest that psychosocial disaster interventions may benefit from targeting specific groups of survivors. PMID:23776531

  3. Can demographic and exposure characteristics predict levels of social support in survivors from a natural disaster?

    PubMed

    Arnberg, Filip K; Melin, Lennart

    2013-01-01

    Lack of social support is a strong predictor for poor mental health after disasters. Psychosocial post-disaster interventions may benefit from targeting survivors at risk of low support, yet it is unknown whether demographic and disaster exposure characteristics are associated with social support. This study assessed if age, gender, educational status, cohabitation, and disaster exposure severity predicted aspects of informal social support in a cohort of Swedish survivors from the 2004 Southeast Asian tsunami. The participants were 3,536 disaster survivors who responded to a mail survey 14 months after the disaster (49% response rate). Their perceptions of present emotional support, contact with others, tangible support, negative support and overall satisfaction with informal support were assessed with the Crisis Support Scale and analysed in five separate ordinal regressions. Demographic factors and exposure severity explained variation in social supports although the effect size and predictive efficiency were modest. Cohabitation and female gender were associated with both more positive and more negative support. Single-household men were at risk for low emotional support and younger women were more likely to perceive negative support. Higher education was associated with more positive support, whereas no clear pattern was found regarding age as a predictor. Disaster exposure severity was associated with more negative support and less overall support satisfaction. After a disaster that entailed little disruptions to the community the associations between demographic characteristics and social support concur with findings in the general population. The findings suggest that psychosocial disaster interventions may benefit from targeting specific groups of survivors.

  4. Prenatal Stress due to a Natural Disaster Predicts Adiposity in Childhood: The Iowa Flood Study

    PubMed Central

    Dancause, Kelsey N.; Laplante, David P.; Hart, Kimberly J.; O'Hara, Michael W.; Brunet, Alain

    2015-01-01

    Prenatal stress can affect lifelong physical growth, including increased obesity risk. However, human studies remain limited. Natural disasters provide models of independent stressors unrelated to confounding maternal characteristics. We assessed degree of objective hardship and subjective distress in women pregnant during severe flooding. At ages 2.5 and 4 years we assessed body mass index (BMI), subscapular plus triceps skinfolds (SS + TR, an index of total adiposity), and SS : TR ratio (an index of central adiposity) in their children (n = 106). Hierarchical regressions controlled first for several potential confounds. Controlling for these, flood exposure during early gestation predicted greater BMI increase from age 2.5 to 4, as well as total adiposity at 2.5. Greater maternal hardship and distress due to the floods, as well as other nonflood life events during pregnancy, independently predicted greater increase in total adiposity between 2.5 and 4 years. These results support the hypothesis that prenatal stress increases adiposity beginning in childhood and suggest that early gestation is a sensitive period. Results further highlight the additive effects of maternal objective and subjective stress, life events, and depression, emphasizing the importance of continued studies on multiple, detailed measures of maternal mental health and experience in pregnancy and child growth. PMID:25874124

  5. Teen dating violence and substance use following a natural disaster: does evacuation status matter?

    PubMed

    Temple, Jeff R; van den Berg, Patricia; Thomas, John F; Northcutt, James; Thomas, Christopher; Freeman, Daniel H

    2011-01-01

    In September 2008, the Texas coast was directly hit by Hurricane Ike. Galveston Island was flooded by 4.25 m of storm surge, affecting most of the island's housing and infrastructure. The purpose of this study is to examine whether youth who did not evacuate (11 percent), and subsequently were exposed to Hurricane Ike, exhibit higher rates of substance use and physical and sexual teen dating violence (TDV; both perpetration and victimization) when compared with adolescents who did evacuate. Public high school in southeast Texas that was in the direct path of Hurricane Ike. An anonymous survey was conducted in March 2009 to 1,048 high school students who returned to the Galveston Island post-storm (41 percent Hispanic, 23 percent African American, and 27 percent White). Teen dating violence and substance use. Mantel-Haenszel odds ratios, adjusting for age and ethnicity, were computed. When compared with boys who evacuated, nonevacuating boys were more likely to perpetrate physical dating violence and sexual assault and to be a victim of sexual assault. Nonevacuating boys and girls were more likely to report recent use of excessive alcohol, marijuana, and cocaine than those who did evacuate. School personnel, medical personnel, and mental health service providers should consider screening for evacuation status in seeking to identify those adolescents who most need services after a natural disaster. In addition to addressing internalized emotions and psychological symptoms associated with experiencing trauma, intervention programs should focus on reducing externalized behavior such as substance use and TDV.

  6. Natural disasters and myocardial infarction: the six years after Hurricane Katrina.

    PubMed

    Peters, Matthew N; Moscona, John C; Katz, Morgan J; Deandrade, Kevin B; Quevedo, Henry C; Tiwari, Sumit; Burchett, Andrew R; Turnage, Thomas A; Singh, Kanwar Y; Fomunung, Edmond N; Srivastav, Sudesh; Delafontaine, Patrice; Irimpen, Anand M

    2014-04-01

    To determine the prolonged effect of Hurricane Katrina on the incidence and timing of acute myocardial infarction (AMI) in the city of New Orleans. Our study population consisted of 1476 patients with AMI before (August 29, 1999, to August 28, 2005) and after (February 14, 2006, to February 13, 2012) Hurricane Katrina at Tulane University Health Sciences Center to determine post-Katrina alterations in the occurrence and timing of AMI. Compared with pre-Katrina values, there was a more than 3-fold increase in the percentage of admissions for AMI during the 6 years after Hurricane Katrina (P<.001). The percentage of admissions for AMI after Hurricane Katrina increased significantly on nights (P<.001) and weekends (P<.001) and decreased significantly on mornings (P<.001), Mondays (P<.001), and weekdays (P<.001). Patients with AMI after Hurricane Katrina also had significantly higher rates of psychiatric comorbidities (P=.01), smoking (P<.001), lack of health insurance (P<.05), and unemployment (P<.001). These results indicate that the effect of natural disasters on the occurrence of AMI may persist for at least a 6-year period and may be related to various factors including population shifts, alterations in the health care system, and the effects of chronic stress and associated behaviors. Copyright © 2014 Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Early Warning Systems of natural disasters in the frame of EUNADICS-AV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brenot, Hugues; Theys, Nicolas; Clarisse, Lieven; Kopp, Anna; Graf, Kaspar; Mona, Lucia; Coltelli, Mauro; Peltonen, Tuomas; Hirtl, Marcus; Virtanen, Timo; Nína Petersen, Guðrún

    2017-04-01

    Aviation is one of the most critical infrastructures of the 21st century. In Europe, safe flight operations, air traffic management and air traffic control are shared responsibilities of EUROCONTROL, national authorities, airlines and pilots. All stakeholders have one common goal, namely to warrant and maintain the safety of flight crews and passengers. Currently, however, there is a significant gap in the availability of real-time hazard measurement and monitoring information for airborne hazards. The main objective of the new Horizon 2020 project EUNADICS-AV (European Natural Airborne Disaster Information and Coordination System for Aviation; http://www.eunadics.eu) is to close this gap in data and information availability, enabling all stakeholders in the aviation system to obtain fast, coherent, and consistent information. Here we report on WP5 of EUNADICS-AV, the objective of which is to develop a prototype multi-hazard monitoring and early warning system. This task includes the development of a service for improved near real-time analyses (delay of a few hours maximum) of observations from satellite and ground-based platforms in order to detect ash and SO2 plumes (at the global scale), as well as desert sand dusts, fire plumes, and radioactive plumes.

  8. Interaction of natural survival instincts and internalized social norms exploring the Titanic and Lusitania disasters

    PubMed Central

    Frey, Bruno S.; Savage, David A.; Torgler, Benno

    2010-01-01

    To understand human behavior, it is important to know under what conditions people deviate from selfish rationality. This study explores the interaction of natural survival instincts and internalized social norms using data on the sinking of the Titanic and the Lusitania. We show that time pressure appears to be crucial when explaining behavior under extreme conditions of life and death. Even though the two vessels and the composition of their passengers were quite similar, the behavior of the individuals on board was dramatically different. On the Lusitania, selfish behavior dominated (which corresponds to the classical homo economicus); on the Titanic, social norms and social status (class) dominated, which contradicts standard economics. This difference could be attributed to the fact that the Lusitania sank in 18 min, creating a situation in which the short-run flight impulse dominated behavior. On the slowly sinking Titanic (2 h, 40 min), there was time for socially determined behavioral patterns to reemerge. Maritime disasters are traditionally not analyzed in a comparative manner with advanced statistical (econometric) techniques using individual data of the passengers and crew. Knowing human behavior under extreme conditions provides insight into how widely human behavior can vary, depending on differing external conditions. PMID:20194743

  9. The influence of global warming on natural disasters and their public health outcomes.

    PubMed

    Diaz, James H

    2007-01-01

    With a documented increase in average global surface temperatures of 0.6 degrees C since 1975, Earth now appears to be warming due to a variety of climatic effects, most notably the cascading effects of greenhouse gas emissions resulting from human activities. There remains, however, no universal agreement on how rapidly, regionally, or asymmetrically the planet will warm or on the true impact of global warming on natural disasters and public health outcomes. Most reports to date of the public health impact of global warming have been anecdotal and retrospective in design and have focused on the increase in heat-stroke deaths following heat waves and on outbreaks of airborne and arthropod-borne diseases following tropical rains and flooding that resulted from fluctuations in ocean temperatures. The effects of global warming on rainfall and drought, tropical cyclone and tsunami activity, and tectonic and volcanic activity will have far-reaching public health effects not only on environmentally associated disease outbreaks but also on global food supplies and population movements. As a result of these and other recognized associations between climate change and public health consequences, many of which have been confounded by deficiencies in public health infrastructure and scientific debates over whether climate changes are spawned by atmospheric cycles or anthropogenic influences, the active responses to progressive climate change must include combinations of economic, environmental, legal, regulatory, and, most importantly, public health measures.

  10. World assumptions, posttraumatic stress and quality of life after a natural disaster: A longitudinal study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Changes in world assumptions are a fundamental concept within theories that explain posttraumatic stress disorder. The objective of the present study was to gain a greater understanding of how changes in world assumptions are related to quality of life and posttraumatic stress symptoms after a natural disaster. Methods A longitudinal study of 574 Norwegian adults who survived the Southeast Asian tsunami in 2004 was undertaken. Multilevel analyses were used to identify which factors at six months post-tsunami predicted quality of life and posttraumatic stress symptoms two years post-tsunami. Results Good quality of life and posttraumatic stress symptoms were negatively related. However, major differences in the predictors of these outcomes were found. Females reported significantly higher quality of life and more posttraumatic stress than men. The association between level of exposure to the tsunami and quality of life seemed to be mediated by posttraumatic stress. Negative perceived changes in the assumption “the world is just” were related to adverse outcome in both quality of life and posttraumatic stress. Positive perceived changes in the assumptions “life is meaningful” and “feeling that I am a valuable human” were associated with higher levels of quality of life but not with posttraumatic stress. Conclusions Quality of life and posttraumatic stress symptoms demonstrate differences in their etiology. World assumptions may be less specifically related to posttraumatic stress than has been postulated in some cognitive theories. PMID:22742447

  11. World assumptions, posttraumatic stress and quality of life after a natural disaster: a longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Nygaard, Egil; Heir, Trond

    2012-06-28

    Changes in world assumptions are a fundamental concept within theories that explain posttraumatic stress disorder. The objective of the present study was to gain a greater understanding of how changes in world assumptions are related to quality of life and posttraumatic stress symptoms after a natural disaster. A longitudinal study of 574 Norwegian adults who survived the Southeast Asian tsunami in 2004 was undertaken. Multilevel analyses were used to identify which factors at six months post-tsunami predicted quality of life and posttraumatic stress symptoms two years post-tsunami. Good quality of life and posttraumatic stress symptoms were negatively related. However, major differences in the predictors of these outcomes were found. Females reported significantly higher quality of life and more posttraumatic stress than men. The association between level of exposure to the tsunami and quality of life seemed to be mediated by posttraumatic stress. Negative perceived changes in the assumption "the world is just" were related to adverse outcome in both quality of life and posttraumatic stress. Positive perceived changes in the assumptions "life is meaningful" and "feeling that I am a valuable human" were associated with higher levels of quality of life but not with posttraumatic stress. Quality of life and posttraumatic stress symptoms demonstrate differences in their etiology. World assumptions may be less specifically related to posttraumatic stress than has been postulated in some cognitive theories.

  12. Children's symptoms of posttraumatic stress and depression after a natural disaster: comorbidity and risk factors.

    PubMed

    Lai, Betty S; La Greca, Annette M; Auslander, Beth A; Short, Mary B

    2013-03-20

    The current study examined rates of comorbidity among children's symptoms of posttraumatic stress (PTS) and depression after a natural disaster, Hurricane Ike. We also compared children with comorbid symptoms to children without comorbid symptoms, examining recovery, severity of symptoms, and risk factors. Children (n=277; 52% girls; 38% Hispanic, 28% White, 19% Black; grades 2-4) were assessed at 8 and 15 months postdisaster. Children completed measures of PTS and depressive symptoms at both time points and measures of exposure and recovery stressors at 8 months postdisaster. At 8 months postdisaster, 13% of children reported elevated PTS-only, 11% depression-only, and 10% comorbid symptoms of PTS and depression. At 15 months postdisaster, 7% of children reported elevated PTS-only, 11% depression-only, and 7% comorbid symptoms of PTS and depression. Children with comorbid symptoms of PTS and depression had poorer recovery, more severe symptoms, and they reported greater exposure and recovery stressors. We lacked information on children's predisaster functioning and diagnostic interview of psychological distress symptoms. Children with comorbid symptoms need to be identified early postdisaster. Levels of stressors should be monitored postdisaster, as highly stressed youth have difficulties recovering and may need help. Interventions should be tailored for children with comorbid symptoms of PTS and depression. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Prenatal maternal stress from a natural disaster predicts dermatoglyphic asymmetry in humans.

    PubMed

    King, Suzanne; Mancini-Marïe, Adham; Brunet, Alain; Walker, Elaine; Meaney, Michael J; Laplante, David P

    2009-01-01

    Dermatoglyphic asymmetry of fingertip ridge counts is more frequent in schizophrenia patients than normal controls, and may reflect disruptions in fetal development during Weeks 14-22 when fingerprints develop. However, there are no data in humans linking specific adverse events at specific times to dermatoglyphic asymmetries. Our objective was to determine whether prenatal exposure to a natural disaster (1998 Quebec ice storm) during Weeks 14-22 would result in increased dermatoglyphic asymmetry in children, and to determine the roles of maternal objective stress exposure, subjective stress reaction, and postdisaster cortisol. Ridge counts for homologous fingers were scored for 77 children (20 target exposed [Weeks 14-22] and 57 nontarget exposed [exposed during other gestation weeks]). Children in the target group had more than 0.50 SD greater asymmetry than the nontarget group. Within the target group, children whose mothers had high subjective ice storm stress had significantly greater asymmetry than those with lower stress mothers, and maternal postdisaster cortisol had a significant negative correlation with the children's dermatoglyphic asymmetry (r = -.56). Prenatal maternal stress during the period of fingerprint development results in greater dermatoglyphic asymmetry in their children, especially in the face of greater maternal distress.

  14. Interaction of natural survival instincts and internalized social norms exploring the Titanic and Lusitania disasters.

    PubMed

    Frey, Bruno S; Savage, David A; Torgler, Benno

    2010-03-16

    To understand human behavior, it is important to know under what conditions people deviate from selfish rationality. This study explores the interaction of natural survival instincts and internalized social norms using data on the sinking of the Titanic and the Lusitania. We show that time pressure appears to be crucial when explaining behavior under extreme conditions of life and death. Even though the two vessels and the composition of their passengers were quite similar, the behavior of the individuals on board was dramatically different. On the Lusitania, selfish behavior dominated (which corresponds to the classical homo economicus); on the Titanic, social norms and social status (class) dominated, which contradicts standard economics. This difference could be attributed to the fact that the Lusitania sank in 18 min, creating a situation in which the short-run flight impulse dominated behavior. On the slowly sinking Titanic (2 h, 40 min), there was time for socially determined behavioral patterns to reemerge. Maritime disasters are traditionally not analyzed in a comparative manner with advanced statistical (econometric) techniques using individual data of the passengers and crew. Knowing human behavior under extreme conditions provides insight into how widely human behavior can vary, depending on differing external conditions.

  15. Trauma or growth after a natural disaster? The mediating role of rumination processes

    PubMed Central

    García, Felipe E.; Cova, Félix; Rincón, Paulina; Vázquez, Carmelo

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to test a cognitive model of posttraumatic symptoms (PTS) and posttraumatic growth (PTG) after exposure to a natural disaster. It was hypothesized that although subjective severity of trauma would be related to the severity of PTS, this relation would be mediated by brooding and cognitive strategies related to the presence of repetitive negative content in thoughts. Furthermore, the relation between severity and PTG would be fully mediated by deliberate rumination (DR), cognitive strategies related to conscious efforts focused on handling the event. To evaluate the cognitive model, adults (N=351) who lost their homes as a result of the earthquake and tsunami that occurred in Chile on February 27, 2010, were selected. Structural equation modeling was used to analyze the data. The resulting model had adequate indices of goodness adjustment and showed that brooding completely mediated the relation between subjective severity and PTS, and DR completely mediated the relation between subjective severity, brooding, and PTG. These results highlight the role of both the content and process of rumination in mediating the association between subjective severity of trauma, PTS, and PTG. The implications of these results for a more comprehensive model of symptom severity that occurs after trauma are discussed. PMID:26234365

  16. Prenatal stress due to a natural disaster predicts adiposity in childhood: the Iowa Flood Study.

    PubMed

    Dancause, Kelsey N; Laplante, David P; Hart, Kimberly J; O'Hara, Michael W; Elgbeili, Guillaume; Brunet, Alain; King, Suzanne

    2015-01-01

    Prenatal stress can affect lifelong physical growth, including increased obesity risk. However, human studies remain limited. Natural disasters provide models of independent stressors unrelated to confounding maternal characteristics. We assessed degree of objective hardship and subjective distress in women pregnant during severe flooding. At ages 2.5 and 4 years we assessed body mass index (BMI), subscapular plus triceps skinfolds (SS + TR, an index of total adiposity), and SS : TR ratio (an index of central adiposity) in their children (n = 106). Hierarchical regressions controlled first for several potential confounds. Controlling for these, flood exposure during early gestation predicted greater BMI increase from age 2.5 to 4, as well as total adiposity at 2.5. Greater maternal hardship and distress due to the floods, as well as other nonflood life events during pregnancy, independently predicted greater increase in total adiposity between 2.5 and 4 years. These results support the hypothesis that prenatal stress increases adiposity beginning in childhood and suggest that early gestation is a sensitive period. Results further highlight the additive effects of maternal objective and subjective stress, life events, and depression, emphasizing the importance of continued studies on multiple, detailed measures of maternal mental health and experience in pregnancy and child growth.

  17. Building Capacity to Use Earth Observations in Decision Making for Climate, Health, Agriculture and Natural Disasters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robertson, A. W.; Ceccato, P.

    2015-12-01

    In order to fill the gaps existing in climate and public health, agriculture, natural disasters knowledge and practices, the International Research Institute for Climate and Society (IRI) has developed a Curriculum for Best Practices in Climate Information. This Curriculum builds on the experience of 10 years courses on 'Climate Information' and captures lessons and experiences from different tailored trainings that have been implemented in many countries in Africa, Asia and Latin America. In this presentation, we will provide examples of training activities we have developed to bring remote sensing products to monitor climatic and environmental information into decision processes that benefited users such as the World Health Organization, Ministries of Health, Ministries of Agriculture, Universities, Research Centers such as CIFOR and FIOCRUZ. The framework developed by IRI to provide capacity building is based on the IDEAS framework: Innovation (research) Around climate impacts, evaluation of interventions, and the value of climate information in reducing risks and maximizing opportunities Demonstration E.g. in-country GFCS projects in Tanzania and Malawi - or El Nino work in Ethiopia Education Academic and professional training efforts Advocacy This might focus on communication of variability and change? We are WHO collaborating center so are engaged through RBM/Global Malaria Programme Service ENACTS and Data library key to this. Country data better quality than NASA as incorporates all relevant station data and NASA products. This presentation will demonstrate how the IDEAS framework has been implemented and lessons learned.

  18. Military medical surge capacity in times of war and natural disaster.

    PubMed

    Eiseman, Ben; Chandler, James G

    2006-01-01

    The military medical services need demand-based strategies to ensure the best possible care of the injured in combat and natural disasters without compromising peacetime health care commitments at home and abroad. A review of steps that have already been taken suggests that they are being used to their fullest extent commensurate with the public will. In fact, the situation has driven preliminary exploration of a special health care personnel draft. We believe the answer lies not in expanding the full-time, active duty US medical and nursing corps, but rather in tapping identifiable reservoirs of trained trauma care physicians, nurses, and allied health care workers in the United States and elsewhere. A rudimentary analysis suggests the most promising novel considerations are: developing special, trauma-trained reserve units within the US civilian trauma care community; seeking temporary attachments of an allied country's military medical officers, or a complete medical battalion; and contracting with US and foreign trauma surgeons, nurses and allied health personnel through a medical private military firm, analogous to those that have provided food, housing, transportation, and special combat units in support of our major military campaigns and peacekeeping operations. These considerations have important pros and cons that deserve in-depth evaluation by the best military and civilian trauma/critical care and organizational minds within a structured organization committed to the needs of military medicine. We believe that a Military Medical Think Tank within the Uniformed Services University's postgraduate division should be that organization.

  19. Perception-based Impact upon Community Resilience in the Aftermath of Natural Disasters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernandez, S.; Li, H.

    2008-05-01

    In the event of natural disasters, recovery from the direct and indirect effects of the disaster phenomena are topics of most community emergency response plans. In addition to the direct and indirect impacts that represent changes in activity that can be tied directly to an event, additional perception-based impacts are possible. Usually these perception-based impacts are larger and more difficult to measure or mitigate than direct impacts. These impacts are based primarily on the affected population's changes in attitudes toward a particular neighborhood or region based on fear of a future event or future losses. These impacts can be motivated by fear of future storms or man-caused events, lingering toxic contamination that may or may not have been removed, and any other behavior by individuals that cannot be explained by actual events or calculated measures of risk or uncertainty. Perception-based impacts are often difficult to estimate directly. In many instaces, case studies of comparable events are used to attempt to develop judgemental estimates of possible future impacts on the area of question. For example, impacts from such events as Love Canal, the Three Mile Island nucear accident, the September 11 attacks, and the Goiana radioactive material spill are used to get a sense of the severity and duration of possible perception-based impacts of a particular event. Perception-based impacts can include additional losses in property value, losses in population (or reduced rates of population due to lower migration rates) that cannot be attributed to actual economic and demographic changes that can be tied to the event directly. Additional perception-based impacts can include long-term worker absenteeism by an asymptomatic public (i.e., the worried well), losses in tourism, losses in cargo at transportation hubs due to fears by shippers and recipients who choose alternative modes of transportation for shipping goods into the affected area. Another proxy for

  20. Observational case series: an algorithm incorporating multidetector computed tomography in the medicolegal investigation of human remains after a natural disaster.

    PubMed

    Berran, Philip J; Mazuchowski, Edward L; Marzouk, Abubakr; Harcke, H Theodore

    2014-07-01

    An algorithm incorporating multidetector computed tomography (MDCT), digital radiographs, and external examination was used to triage cases for noninvasive or complete autopsy after a natural disaster. The algorithm was applied to 27 individuals who died during or soon after the earthquake that struck the Republic of Haiti on January 12, 2010. Of the 27 cases reviewed, 7 (26%) required a complete autopsy to determine cause and manner of death. In the remaining 20 (74%), cause and manner of death were determined with a reasonable degree of medical certainty after review of circumstances, an external examination, and postmortem imaging by MDCT and digital radiography (noninvasive autopsy). MDCT was particularly useful in detecting skeletal fractures caused by blunt force injury which were not evident on digital radiographs. The algorithm incorporating postmortem MDCT can be useful in the triage of human remains for autopsy after a natural disaster. © 2014 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  1. Mental health, life functioning and risk factors among people exposed to frequent natural disasters and chronic poverty in Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Pollack, Amie Alley; Weiss, Bahr; Trung, Lam Tu

    2016-06-01

    People living in low- and middle-income countries (LMIC) are at increased risk for exposure to major natural disasters, which places them at increased risk for mental health problems. Evidence is less clear, however, regarding the effects of less severe but more frequent natural disasters, which are likely to increase due to global climate change. To examine the mental health and life functioning, and their predictors, of people living in central coastal Vietnam, an area characterized by high risk for natural disasters and poverty. 1000 individuals were randomly selected from 5 provinces in central coastal Vietnam. Individuals were assessed cross-sectionally for exposure to major storms and other traumatic events (Post-traumatic Diagnostic Scale; PDS), financial stress (Chronic Financial Stress Scale), depression (PHQ-9), anxiety (GAD-7), PTSD (PDS), somatic syndrome (SCL-90-R), alcohol dependency (ICD-10), self-perceived general physical health (SF 36), and functional impairment (PDS life functioning section); caseness was determined using the various measures' algorithms. 22.7% percent of the sample (n=227) met caseness criteria in one or more mental health domains, and 22.1% (n=221) reported moderate to severe functional impairment. Lifetime exposure to typhoons and other major storms was 99% (n=978), with 77% (n=742) reporting traumatic major storm exposure. Moderate to high levels of financial stress were reported by 30% (n=297). Frequency of exposure to major storms was not associated with increased risk for mental health problems but traumatic exposure to a major storm was. Overall, the strongest predictor of mental health problems was financial stress. Number of traumatic typhoons and other major storms in turn were significant predictors (r(2) = .03) of financial stress. The primary predictor of alcohol dependency was male gender, highlighting the importance of gender roles in development of alcohol abuse in countries like Vietnam. Individuals living in

  2. Using the Data From Accidents and Natural Disasters to Improve Marine Debris Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maximenko, N. A.; Hafner, J.; MacFadyen, A.; Kamachi, M.; Murray, C. C.

    2016-02-01

    In the absence of satisfactory marine debris observing system, drift models provide a unique tool that can be used to identify main pathways and accumulation areas of the natural and anthropogenic debris, including the plastic pollution having increasing impact on the environment and raising concern of the society. Main problems, limiting the utility of model simulations, include the lack of accurate information on distribution, timing, strength and composition of sources of marine debris and the complexity of the hydrodynamics of an object, floating on the surface of a rough sea. To calculate the drift, commonly, models estimate surface currents first and then add the object motion relative to the water. Importantly, ocean surface velocity can't be measured with the existing instruments. For various applications it is derived from subsurface (such as 15-meter drifter trajectories) and satellite (altimetry, scatterometry) data using simple theories (geostrophy, Ekman spiral, etc.). Similarly, even the best ocean general circulation models (OGCM's), utilizing different parameterizations of the mixed layer, significantly disagree on the ocean surface velocities. Understanding debris motion under the direct wind force and in interaction with the breaking wind waves seems to be a task of even greater complexity. In this presentation, we demonstrate how the data of documented natural disasters (such as tsunamis, hurricanes and floods) and other accidents generating marine debris with known times and coordinates of start and/or end points of the trajectories, can be used to calibrate drift models and obtain meaningful quantitative results that can be generalized for other sources of debris and used to plan the future marine debris observing system. On these examples we also demonstrate how the oceanic and atmospheric circulations couple together to determine the pathways and destination areas of different types of the floating marine debris.

  3. Estimating the welfare loss to households from natural disasters in developing countries: a contingent valuation study of flooding in Vietnam

    PubMed Central

    Navrud, Ståle; Tuan, Tran Huu; Tinh, Bui Duc

    2012-01-01

    Background Natural disasters have severe impacts on the health and well-being of affected households. However, we find evidence that official damage cost assessments for floods and other natural disasters in Vietnam, where households have little or no insurance, clearly underestimate the total economic damage costs of these events as they do not include the welfare loss from mortality, morbidity and well-being experienced by the households affected by the floods. This should send a message to the local communities and national authorities that higher investments in flood alleviation, reduction and adaptive measures can be justified since the social benefits of these measures in terms of avoided damage costs are higher than previously thought. Methods We pioneer the use of the contingent valuation (CV) approach of willingness-to-contribute (WTC) labour to a flood prevention program, as a measure of the welfare loss experienced by household due to a flooding event. In a face-to-face household survey of 706 households in the Quang Nam province in Central Vietnam, we applied this approach together with reported direct physical damage in order to shed light of the welfare loss experienced by the households. We asked about households’ WTC labour and multiplied their WTC person-days of labour by an estimate for their opportunity cost of time in order to estimate the welfare loss to households from the 2007 floods. Results The results showed that this contingent valuation (CV) approach of asking about willingness-to-pay in-kind avoided the main problems associated with applying CV in developing countries. Conclusion Thus, the CV approach of WTC labour instead of money is promising in terms of capturing the total welfare loss of natural disasters, and promising in terms of further application in other developing countries and for other types of natural disasters. PMID:22761603

  4. Estimating the welfare loss to households from natural disasters in developing countries: a contingent valuation study of flooding in Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Navrud, Ståle; Tuan, Tran Huu; Tinh, Bui Duc

    2012-01-01

    Natural disasters have severe impacts on the health and well-being of affected households. However, we find evidence that official damage cost assessments for floods and other natural disasters in Vietnam, where households have little or no insurance, clearly underestimate the total economic damage costs of these events as they do not include the welfare loss from mortality, morbidity and well-being experienced by the households affected by the floods. This should send a message to the local communities and national authorities that higher investments in flood alleviation, reduction and adaptive measures can be justified since the social benefits of these measures in terms of avoided damage costs are higher than previously thought. We pioneer the use of the contingent valuation (CV) approach of willingness-to-contribute (WTC) labour to a flood prevention program, as a measure of the welfare loss experienced by household due to a flooding event. In a face-to-face household survey of 706 households in the Quang Nam province in Central Vietnam, we applied this approach together with reported direct physical damage in order to shed light of the welfare loss experienced by the households. We asked about households' WTC labour and multiplied their WTC person-days of labour by an estimate for their opportunity cost of time in order to estimate the welfare loss to households from the 2007 floods. The results showed that this contingent valuation (CV) approach of asking about willingness-to-pay in-kind avoided the main problems associated with applying CV in developing countries. Thus, the CV approach of WTC labour instead of money is promising in terms of capturing the total welfare loss of natural disasters, and promising in terms of further application in other developing countries and for other types of natural disasters.

  5. Interventions to reduce psychosocial disturbance following humanitarian relief efforts involving natural disasters: an integrative review.

    PubMed

    Walsh, Denise Susan

    2009-08-01

    Because of the increased level of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) reported post disaster work, it is imperative that governmental and non-governmental agencies consider predisaster training of volunteers in not only clinical skills, but also communication and team building. When these concepts are combined with ongoing support post disaster, a decrease in the frequency and severity of PTSD has been reported. A review of 12 studies examined responses of relief workers to various disaster situations. Experiences were extracted, categorized, and a data reduction model was developed to illustrate the characteristics of the experiences and subsequent interventions that were reported. Three interventions that positively affected the responses of relief workers to disaster experiences emerged: debriefing, team building and preparation.

  6. Stability and change in stress, resources, and psychological distress following natural disaster: Findings from hurricane Andrew.

    PubMed

    Norris, F H; Perilla, J L; Riad, J K; Kaniasty, K; Lavizzo, E A

    1999-01-01

    Abstract The stress, resource, and symptom levels of 241 residents of southern Dade County, Florida were assessed 6 and 30 months after Hurricane Andrew. Percentages meeting study criteria for depression and PTSD did not change over time. Whereas mean levels of intrusion and arousal decreased, depressive symptoms remained stable, and avoidance/numbing symptoms actually increased. Intrusion and arousal were associated more strongly with pre-disaster factors (gender, ethnicity) and within-disaster factors (injury, property loss) than with post-disaster factors (stress, resources), but the reverse was true for depression and avoidance. Changes over time in symptoms were largely explained by changes over time in stress and resources. The findings indicate that ongoing services are needed to supplement the crisis-oriented assistance typically offered to disaster victims.

  7. Disaster Management through Experiential Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rijumol, K. C.; Thangarajathi, S.; Ananthasayanam, R.

    2010-01-01

    Disasters can strike at any time, at any place. The world is becoming increasingly vulnerable to natural disasters. From earthquakes to floods and famines, mankind is even more threatened by the forces of nature. The Theme of the 2006 to 2007 International Day for Disaster Reduction was "Disaster Risk Reduction begins at schools" and…

  8. Nutrition interventions for children aged less than 5 years following natural disasters: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Dhital, Rolina; Subhani, Huma

    2016-01-01

    Objectives The objective of this paper was to review various nutritional interventions targeted at under-five children in countries that had suffered from natural disasters and to analyse their effect on nutrition-related outcomes. Design Systematic review. Setting Countries that had suffered from natural disasters. Participants Children aged <5 years who were given any nutritional intervention to improve overall nutritional status after a natural disaster. Primary and secondary outcome measures Primary nutrition-related outcomes were stunting, wasting and underweight. The secondary nutrition-related outcome was anaemia. Results Of the 1218 studies that the reviewers agreed on, five matched the inclusion criteria and were included in this narrative synthesis. Four studies were longitudinal and one was cross-sectional in design. Food supplementation was an integral part of nutritional interventions in all the included studies. The most consistent nutritional outcome in all five included studies was reduced prevalence of wasting, followed by reduced prevalence of underweight in four, stunting in three and anaemia in one of the five included studies. The largest reduction in the prevalence of wasting and underweight was reported by the study in Sri Lanka. Overall, the quality of evidence ranged from moderate to weak. Conclusions Integrated nutrition interventions using locally available health resources yielded the best results. However, sound evidence on the most effective interventions is still lacking. Intervention studies with comparison groups are necessary to obtain more robust evidence on the effectiveness of nutrition interventions. PMID:27650759

  9. Developing a Performance Assessment Framework and Indicators for Communicable Disease Management in Natural Disasters.

    PubMed

    Babaie, Javad; Ardalan, Ali; Vatandoost, Hasan; Goya, Mohammad Mehdi; Akbarisari, Ali

    2016-02-01

    Communicable disease management (CDM) is an important component of disaster public health response operations. However, there is a lack of any performance assessment (PA) framework and related indicators for the PA. This study aimed to develop a PA framework and indicators in CDM in disasters. In this study, a series of methods were used. First, a systematic literature review (SLR) was performed in order to extract the existing PA frameworks and indicators. Then, using a qualitative approach, some interviews with purposively selected experts were conducted and used in developing the PA framework and indicators. Finally, the analytical hierarchy process (AHP) was used for weighting of the developed indicators. The input, process, products, and outcomes (IPPO) framework was found to be an appropriate framework for CDM PA. Seven main functions were revealed to CDM during disasters. Forty PA indicators were developed for the four categories. There is a lack of any existing PA framework in CDM in disasters. Thus, in this study, a PA framework (IPPO framework) was developed for the PA of CDM in disasters through a series of methods. It can be an appropriate framework and its indicators could measure the performance of CDM in disasters.

  10. Aggressive behavior and its associations with posttraumatic stress and academic achievement following a natural disaster.

    PubMed

    Scott, Brandon G; Lapré, Genevieve E; Marsee, Monica A; Weems, Carl F

    2014-01-01

    Despite an abundance of evidence linking maltreatment and violence-related trauma exposure to externalizing problems in youth, there is surprisingly little evidence to support a direct link between disaster exposure and youth aggressive behavior. This study tested the theory that there is primarily an indirect association between disaster exposure and aggression via posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms. The current study also examined the association between aggression and academic achievement. A sample of 191 4th- to 8th-grade minority youth who experienced Hurricane Katrina were assessed for aggressive behavior using the Peer Conflict Scale (PCS), disaster exposure, PTSD symptoms, and academic achievement. Structural equation modeling of the set of associations was consistent with the theory suggesting that there is an indirect link between disaster exposure and aggression through PTSD symptoms. Aggression was negatively associated with academic achievement, and modeling indicated that the set of associations was age and gender invariant. Findings advance the theoretical understanding of the linkage between aggression and disaster exposure. Findings also support the utility of the PCS in disaster research and the link between PCS scores and academic achievement.

  11. Satellite-based Monotoring of mitiple natural disasters in Mongolian socio-ecological system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Sinkyu

    2016-04-01

    In this presentation, a conceptual mechanisms how multiple natural hazards (i.e. drought, dust storm, land degradation, and Dzud) in Mongolia are linked with each other and how satellite earth observation (EO) data can be utilized to analyze cause-and results relations and to predict the natural hazards. Massive loss of livestock and wildlife animal during winter seasons (dzud) is an endemic climatic disaster in the Central Asia grasslands but the mechanisms are not well understood yet. Recent national-wide sever Dzud occurred during 2009-2010 winter in Mongolia. Whereas, high stocking rate of livestock may give negative effects on sustainable use of pastureland. Dzud is a natural mechanism reducing grazing pressure when stocking rate is high enough to cause the negative effect. Both Dzud and land degradation were directly linked with drought phenomena, which is associated with dust storm occurrence because those conditions can cause sparse vegetation and increase of sensible heat generating strong vertical wind. At a lower level of administration (i.e., soum), stepwise multiple regression analysis was conducted to find significant factors of inter-annual livestock change. For a period from 2003 to 2010, various datasets were prepared from national census and satellite data (summer and winter temperature and precipitation, and summer dryness and vegetation index, NDVI). As results, linear regression models were successfully produced at 70% of soums studied. Summer and winter variables appeared equally important in controlling livestock dynamics. Single-factor models were predominant. The primary factor of each soum showed certain regional patterns incident well with climate severity and foraging resource availability (e.g. temperature in north, dryness in south, and NDVI in middle). Our results indicate that Mongolian pastoral livelihood is highly vulnerable to extreme variability of endemic regional climate factors and hence, there are still rooms for enhancing

  12. Toward to Disaster Mitigation Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaneda, Yoshiyuki; Shiraki, Wataru; Tokozakura, Eiji

    2016-04-01

    Destructive natural disasters such as earthquakes and tsunamis have occurred frequently in the world. For the reduction and mitigation of damages by destructive natural disasters, early detection of natural disasters and speedy and proper evacuations are indispensable. And hardware and software preparations for reduction and mitigation of natural disasters are quite important and significant. Finally, methods on restorations and revivals are necessary after natural disasters. We would like to propose natural disaster mitigation science for early detections, evacuations and restorations against destructive natural disasters. In natural disaster mitigation science, there are lots of research fields such as natural science, engineering, medical treatment, social science and literature/art etc. Especially, natural science, engineering and medical treatment are fundamental research fields for natural disaster mitigation, but social sciences such as sociology, psychology etc. are very important research fields for restorations after natural disasters. We have to progress the natural disaster mitigation science against destructive natural disaster mitigation. in the near future. We will present the details of natural disaster mitigation science.

  13. The natural disasters and the urban asset modifications: the Melito Irpino case history.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Porfido, Sabina; Spiga, Efisio

    2017-04-01

    The history of Melito Irpino, a small village in southern Italy is particular, though not unique in its genre. The development of its urban asset was, in fact, strongly affected by natural disasters such as hydrogeological and seismic events, which determined its transfer to another location. Due to its landslides and flooding it has been included since the beginning of the twentieth century among the unstable centers to be consolidated. The landslides were caused by peculiar geological characteristics of which the substrate essentially origins from different consistency Flysch elements. From the seismic point of view, Melito Irpino is part of the first category of the new seismic classification of the Campania Region. The most devastating earthquakes that damaged Melito date back to December 1456, which hit central and southern Italy and 5th June , 1688 which had the Sannio as epicentral area, both with l0 = XI MCS and M> 7 [1456: l0= XI MCS, Mw 7.2; 1688: l0 = XI MCS, Mw 7.O.] During the twentieth century, it was involved in two other disastrous earthquakes that caused serious damage to the village in 1930 with an intensity VIII and in 1962 with I = IX MCS and VIII ESI-07 intensity. The earthquake of 21st August 1962 was fatal for the village of Melito. In December of the same year it was left with 2182 inhabitants and 800 houses, most of which were unstable, 300 were to be demolished, 50 unrepairable and 200 were still uninhabitable yet repairable. From a geological point of view the situation turned even more dramatically when the whole valley area stretching from the old Ufita River bridge and the historical center of Melito was affected by a series of large slope instability such as rock falls, complex rotational slip, de facto complicating an extremely compromised situation. This was sufficient to encourage the transfer of the entire village in an other location. After more than half a century and considering the effects of two important earthquakes in 1962

  14. Who was concerned about radiation, food safety, and natural disasters after the great East Japan earthquake and Fukushima catastrophe? A nationwide cross-sectional survey in 2012.

    PubMed

    Sugimoto, Takashi; Shinozaki, Tomohiro; Naruse, Takashi; Miyamoto, Yuki

    2014-01-01

    Disaster-related concerns by sub-populations have not been clarified after the great East Japan earthquake and the Fukushima nuclear power plant incidents. This paper assesses who was concerned about radiation, food safety, and natural disasters among the general population in order to buffer such concerns effectively. The hypothesis that women, parents, and family caregivers were most concerned about radiation, food safety, and natural disaster was tested using a varying-intercept multivariable logistic regression with 5809 responses from a nationwide cross-sectional survey random-sampled in March 2012. Many people were at least occasionally concerned about radiation (53.5%), food safety (47.3%), and about natural disaster (69.5%). Women were more concerned than men about radiation (OR = 1.67; 95% CI = 1.35-2.06), food safety (1.70; 1.38-2.10), and natural disasters (1.74; 1.39-2.19). Parents and family care needs were not significant. Married couples were more concerned about radiation (1.53; 1.33-1.77), food safety (1.38; 1.20-1.59), and natural disasters (1.30; 1.12-1.52). Age, child-cohabitation, college-completion, retirement status, homemaker status, and the house-damage certificate of the last disaster were also associated with at least one concern. Participants from the Kanto region were more concerned about radiation (2.08; 1.58-2.74) and food safety (1.30; 1.07-1.59), which demonstrate similar positive associations to participants from Tohoku where a disaster relief act was invoked (3.36; 2.25-5.01 about radiation, 1.49; 1.08-2.06 about food safety). Sectioning the populations by gender and other demographics will clarify prospective targets for interventions, allow for a better understanding of post-disaster concerns, and help communicate relevant information effectively.

  15. Teen Dating Violence and Substance Use Following a Natural Disaster: Does Evacuation Status Matter?

    PubMed Central

    Temple, Jeff R.; van den Berg, Patricia; Thomas, John F. “Fred”; Northcutt, James; Thomas, Christopher; Freeman, Daniel H.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives In September of 2008 the Texas coast was directly hit by Hurricane Ike. Galveston was flooded by 14 feet of storm surge, affecting most of the Island’s housing and infrastructure. The purpose of the present study is to examine whether youth who did not evacuate (11%), and subsequently were exposed to Hurricane Ike, exhibit higher rates of substance use and physical and sexual teen dating violence (both perpetration and victimization), relative to adolescents who did evacuate. Setting Public high school in southeast Texas that was in the direct path of Hurricane Ike. Participants An anonymous survey was administered in March 2009 to 1,048 high-school students who returned to Galveston post-storm (41% Hispanic, 23% African-American, 27% White). Main Outcome Measures Teen dating violence and substance use. Results Mantel-Haenszel odds ratios, adjusting for age and ethnicity, were computed. Compared to boys who evacuated, non-evacuating boys were more likely to perpetrate physical dating violence and sexual assault, and to be a victim of sexual assault. Non-evacuating boys and girls were more likely than those who did evacuate to report recent use of excessive alcohol, marijuana, and cocaine. Conclusions School personnel, medical personnel, and mental health service providers should consider screening for evacuation status in seeking to identify those adolescents who most need services after a natural disaster. Further, in addition to addressing internalized emotions and psychological symptoms associated with experiencing trauma, intervention programs should focus on reducing externalized behavior such as substance use and teen dating violence. PMID:22010597

  16. A regional human services authority's rapid needs assessment of evacuees following natural disasters.

    PubMed

    Post, David E; Kasofsky, Jan M; Hunte, Christopher N; Diaz, James H

    2008-01-01

    The Atlantic hurricane season of 2005 was not an ordinary season, and Hurricane Katrina was not an ordinary hurricane. Hurricane Katrina damaged more than 93,000 square miles of Gulf of Mexico coastline, displaced more than 1 million residents from New Orleans, and flooded more than 80 percent of New Orleans for weeks, which killed more than 1,300 people, mostly New Orleanians. Inland regional state and local healthcare and human services agencies rushed to assist evacuees, most of whom were uninsured or displaced without employer healthcare coverage. The initial evacuation brought more than 350,000 evacuees seeking shelter to the greater Baton Rouge area, LA, 80 miles north of New Orleans, the closest high ground. This investigation describes the rapid needs assessment developed and conducted by the Capital Area Human Services District of the greater Baton Rouge area, a quasi-governmental human services authority, the regional provider of state-funded mental health, addictive disorders, and developmental disabilities services, on a sample of 6,553 Katrina evacuees in the greater Baton Rouge area. In the event of catastrophic natural and manmade disasters, state and federal decision makers should follow the National Incident Management System and support local designated lead agencies with additional resources as requested. They must rely on designated lead agencies to use their knowledge of the locale, local resources, and relationships with other providers and volunteers to respond rapidly and efficiently to evacuee needs identified through a designated, concise tool that is singularly utilized across the impacted region by all providers to determine the needed response.

  17. A person-centered analysis of posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms following a natural disaster: predictors of latent class membership.

    PubMed

    Rosellini, Anthony J; Coffey, Scott F; Tracy, Melissa; Galea, Sandro

    2014-01-01

    The present study applied latent class analysis to a sample of 810 participants residing in southern Mississippi at the time of Hurricane Katrina to determine if people would report distinct, meaningful PTSD symptom classes following a natural disaster. We found a four-class solution that distinguished persons on the basis of PTSD symptom severity/pervasiveness (Severe, Moderate, Mild, and Negligible Classes). Multinomial logistic regression models demonstrated that membership in the Severe and Moderate Classes was associated with potentially traumatic hurricane-specific experiences (e.g., being physically injured, seeing dead bodies), pre-hurricane traumatic events, co-occurring depression symptom severity and suicidal ideation, certain religious beliefs, and post-hurricane stressors (e.g., social support). Collectively, the findings suggest that more severe/pervasive typologies of natural disaster PTSD may be predicted by the frequency and severity of exposure to stressful/traumatic experiences (before, during, and after the disaster), co-occurring psychopathology, and specific internal beliefs.

  18. A Person-Centered Analysis of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Symptoms Following a Natural Disaster: Predictors of Latent Class Membership

    PubMed Central

    Rosellini, Anthony J.; Coffey, Scott F.; Tracy, Melissa; Galea, Sandro

    2014-01-01

    The present study applied latent class analysis to a sample of 810 participants residing in southern Mississippi at the time of Hurricane Katrina to determine if people would report distinct, meaningful PTSD symptom classes following a natural disaster. We found a four-class solution that distinguished persons on the basis of PTSD symptom severity/pervasiveness (Severe, Moderate, Mild, and Negligible Classes). Multinomial logistic regression models demonstrated that membership in the Severe and Moderate Classes was associated with potentially traumatic hurricane-specific experiences (e.g., being physically injured, seeing dead bodies), pre-hurricane traumatic events, co-occurring depression symptom severity and suicidal ideation, certain religious beliefs, and post-hurricane stressors (e.g., social support). Collectively, the findings suggest that more severe/pervasive typologies of natural disaster PTSD may be predicted by the frequency and severity of exposure to stressful/traumatic experiences (before, during, and after the disaster), co-occurring psychopathology, and specific internal beliefs. PMID:24334161

  19. Two hot to handle: How do we manage the simultaneous impacts of climate change and natural disasters on human health?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phalkey, R. K.; Louis, V. R.

    2016-05-01

    Climate change is one of the major challenges we face today. There is recognition alongside evidence that the health impacts of both climate change and natural disasters are significant and rising. The impacts of both are also complex and span well beyond health to include environmental, social, demographic, cultural, and economic aspects of human lives. Nonetheless integrated impact assessments are rare and so are system level approaches or systematic preparedness and adaptation strategies to brace the two simultaneously particularly in low and middle-income countries. Ironically the impacts of both climate change as well as natural disasters will be disproportionately borne by low emitters. Sufficiently large and long-term data from comprehensive weather, socio-economic, demographic and health observational systems are currently unavailable to guide adaptation strategies with the necessary precision. In the absence of these and given the uncertainties around the health impact projections alongside the geographic disparities even within the countries, the main question is how can countries then prepare to brace the unknown? We certainly cannot wait to obtain answers to all the questions before we plan solutions. Strengthening health systems is therefore a pragmatic "zero regrets" strategy and should be adopted hastily before the parallel impacts from climate change and associated extreme weather events (disasters thereof) become too hot to handle.

  20. Development of an Android App for notification and reporting of natural disaster such as earthquakes and tsunamis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richter, Steffen; Hammitzsch, Martin

    2013-04-01

    Disasters like the Tohoku tsunami in March 2011 and the earthquake in Haiti in January 2010, have shown clearly that the rapid detection of possible negative impact on population and infrastructure is crucial for the rapid organization of effective counter measures integration activities. It has turned out that effective planning of relief and rescue measures requires both information provided by governmental authorities and feedback of the general public. Every citizen experiencing the events directly on site becomes a potential witness and can provide valuable information about the disaster. Citizens can use various information channels to communicate and share their experiences. During the last years, the crowdsourcing approach has gained the attention of users of modern communication and information systems. The term crowdsourcing describes the interactive collaboration of voluntary users on the Internet, working on a common topic. A similar approach is mobile crowdsourcing which evolved in the quickly growing community of smartphone users: Crowdsourcing platforms provide additional application scenarios for modern smartphone. Smartphone users are enabled to compose and share reports immediately at the scene of the disaster. A growing number of modern smartphones also includes sensors for taking pictures and to determine the current geographical position. This additional content can significantly enhance the value of a disaster event report. The project Collaborative, Complex, and Critical Decision-Support in Evolving Crises (TRIDEC), co-funded by the European Commission in its Seventh Framework Programme, is focused on the management of crisis situations. Part of the project is the development of an application for the Android smartphone platform. This application enables access to an continuously updated situation report for current natural disasters like earthquakes and tsunamis based on incoming crowdsourced reports. The App is used to immediately sent