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Sample records for natural fiber composite

  1. Review of natural fiber composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rohan, T.; Tushar, B.; T, Mahesha G.

    2018-02-01

    Development of new alternative materials to the existing traditional metals, alloys and synthetic materials is the new buzz in recent research activities at the academic and industrial level taking place all over the world. Earning carbon credits by minimizing the atmospheric pollution is getting an increase in attention by industries. One small step to conserve the atmosphere around us is to use natural resources in making fully bio degradable or partially bio degradable composite materials. Such prepared alternative materials can find applications in interior housing, automotive, marine, domestic, and other applications. Composites made by using appropriate natural fibers as reinforcements is a possibility that ensures such a reality as they can be well received in multiple disciplines of engineering. Results published from various research activities illustrates that natural fiber composites can successfully be adapted for non-structural, moderate load bearing indoor applications. Further, the few deficiencies in the natural fibers can be overcome by subjecting them to morphological changes by various physical or chemical treatment methods. The overall objective of this paper is to provide a comprehensive overview of the property profiles of Natural Fiber Composites.

  2. Natural fibers

    Treesearch

    Craig M. Clemons; Daniel F. Caulfield

    2005-01-01

    The term “natural fibers” covers a broad range of vegetable, animal, and mineral fibers. However, in the composites industry, it usually refers to wood fiber and agrobased bast, leaf, seed, and stem fibers. These fibers often contribute greatly to the structural performance of the plant and, when used in plastic composites, can provide significant reinforcement. Below...

  3. Natural fibers

    Treesearch

    Craig M. Clemons

    2010-01-01

    The term “natural fibers” covers a broad range of vegetable, animal, and mineral fibers. However, in the composites industry, it usually refers to wood fiber and plant-based bast, leaf, seed, and stem fibers. These fibers often contribute greatly to the structural performance of the plant and, when used in plastic composites, can provide significant reinforcement....

  4. Accelerated weathering of natural fiber-filled polyethylene composites

    Treesearch

    Thomas Lundin; Steven M. Cramer; Robert H. Falk; Colin Felton

    2004-01-01

    The resistance of natural fiber-filled high-density polyethylene composite specimens to ultraviolet- (UV) and moisture-induced degradation was evaluated by measuring changes to flexural properties. High-density polyethylene (HDPE) served as the polymer matrix for four formulations: two formulations without fiber filler and two formulations one containing wood flour and...

  5. Natural Kenaf Fiber Reinforced Composites as Engineered Structural Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dittenber, David B.

    The objective of this work was to provide a comprehensive evaluation of natural fiber reinforced polymer (NFRP)'s ability to act as a structural material. As a chemical treatment, aligned kenaf fibers were treated with sodium hydroxide (alkalization) in different concentrations and durations and then manufactured into kenaf fiber / vinyl ester composite plates. Single fiber tensile properties and composite flexural properties, both in dry and saturated environments, were assessed. Based on ASTM standard testing, a comparison of flexural, tensile, compressive, and shear mechanical properties was also made between an untreated kenaf fiber reinforced composite, a chemically treated kenaf fiber reinforced composite, a glass fiber reinforced composite, and oriented strand board (OSB). The mechanical properties were evaluated for dry samples, samples immersed in water for 50 hours, and samples immersed in water until saturation (~2700 hours). Since NFRPs are more vulnerable to environmental effects than synthetic fiber composites, a series of weathering and environmental tests were conducted on the kenaf fiber composites. The environmental conditions studied include real-time outdoor weathering, elevated temperatures, immersion in different pH solutions, and UV exposure. In all of these tests, degradation was found to be more pronounced in the NFRPs than in the glass FRPs; however, in nearly every case the degradation was less than 50% of the flexural strength or stiffness. Using a method of overlapping and meshing discontinuous fiber ends, large mats of fiber bundles were manufactured into composite facesheets for structural insulated panels (SIPs). The polyisocyanurate foam cores proved to be poorly matched to the strength and stiffness of the NFRP facesheets, leading to premature core shear or delamination failures in both flexure and compressive testing. The NFRPs were found to match well with the theoretical stiffness prediction methods of classical lamination

  6. Numerical investigation of porous materials composites reinforced with natural fibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chikhi, M.; Metidji, N.; Mokhtari, F.; Merzouk, N. k.

    2018-05-01

    The present article tends to predict the effective thermal properties of porous biocomposites materials. The composites matrix consists on porous materials namely gypsum and the reinforcement is a natural fiber as date palm fibers. The numerical study is done using Comsol software resolving the heat transfer equation. The results are fitted with theoretical model and experimental results. The results of this study indicate that the porosity has an effect on the Effective thermal conductivity biocompoites.

  7. Highly filled formaldehyde-free natural fiber polypropylene composites

    Treesearch

    Anand R. Sanadi; Daniel F. Caulfield

    2000-01-01

    Considerable interest has been generated in the use of lignocellulosic fibers and wastes (both agricultural and wood based) as fillers and reinforcements in thermoplastics. In general, present technologies limit fiber loading in thermoplastics to about 50% by weight of fiber. To produce high fiber content composites for commercial use while maintaining adequate...

  8. Coating applications to natural fiber composites to improve their physical, surface and water absorption characters

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Natural (organic) fibers are used in reinforced composites and natural fiber composites (NFCs). These fibers have advantages over synthetic composites such as high mechanical properties, lower densities and biodegradablity. However, one major disadvantage of NFCs is their hydrophilicity. In this stu...

  9. Study of Natural Fiber Breakage during Composite Processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quijano-Solis, Carlos Jafet

    Biofiber-thermoplastic composites have gained considerable importance in the last century. To provide mechanical reinforcement to the polymer, fibers must be larger than a critical aspect ratio (length-to-width ratio). However, biofibers undergo breakage in length or width during processing, affecting their final aspect ratio in the composites. In this study, influence on biofiber breakage by factors related to processing conditions, fiber morphology and the flow type was investigated through: a) experiments using an internal mixer, a twin-screw extruder (TSE) or a capillary rheometer; and b) a Monte Carlo computer simulation. Composites of thermomechanical fibers of aspen or wheat straw mixed with polypropylene were studied. Internal mixer experiments analyzed wheat straw and two batches of aspen fibers, named AL and AS. AL fibers had longer average length. Processing variables included the temperature, rotors speed and fiber concentration. TSE experiments studied AL and AS fiber composites under various screws speeds, temperatures and feeding rates of the polymer and fibers. Capillary rheometers experiments determined AL fiber breakage in shear and elongational flows for composites processed at different concentrations, temperatures, and strain rates. Finally, the internal mixer experimental results where compared to Monte Carlo simulation predictions. The simulation focused on fiber length breakage due to fiber-polymer interactions. Internal mixer results showed that final fiber average length depended almost solely on processing conditions while final fiber average width depended on both processing conditions and initial fiber morphology. In the TSE, processing conditions as well as initial fiber length influenced final average length. TSE results showed that the fiber concentration regime seems to influence the effect of processing variables on fiber breakage. Capillary rheometer experiments demonstrated that biofiber breakage happens in both elongational and

  10. LOW-COST COMPOSITES IN VEHICLE MANUFACTURE - Natural-fiber-reinforced polymer composites in automotive applications.

    SciTech Connect

    Holbery, Jim; Houston, Dan

    In the last decade, natural fiber composites have experienced rapid growth in the European automotive market, and this trend appears to be global in scale, provided the cost and performance is justified against competing technologies. However, mass reduction, recyclability, and performance requirements can be met today by competing systems such as injection-molded unreinforced thermoplastics; natural fiber composites will continue to expand their role in automotive applications only if such technical challenges as moisture stability, fiber-polymer interface compatibility, and consistent, repeatable fiber sources are available to supply automotive manufacturers. Efforts underway by Tier I and II automotive suppliers to explore hybridmore » glass-natural fiber systems, as well as applications that exploit such capabilities as natural fiber sound dampening characteristics, could very well have far-reaching effects. In addition, the current development underway of bio-based resins such as Polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) biodegradable polyesters and bio-based polyols could provide fully bio-based composite options to future automotive designers. In short, the development of the natural fiber composite market would make a positive impact on farmers and small business owners on a global scale, reduce US reliance on foreign oil, improve environmental quality through the development of a sustainable resource supply chain, and achieve a better CO2 balance over the vehicle?s lifetime with near-zero net greenhouse gas emissions.« less

  11. Energy Absorption Capacity in Natural Fiber Reinforcement Composites Structures

    PubMed Central

    López-Alba, Elías; Díaz, Francisco

    2018-01-01

    The study of natural fiber reinforcement composite structures has focused the attention of the automobile industry due to the new regulation in relation to the recyclability and the reusability of the materials preserving and/or improving the mechanical characteristics. The influence of different parameters on the material behavior of natural fiber reinforced plastic structures has been investigated, showing the potential for transport application in energy absorbing structures. Two different woven fabrics (twill and hopsack) made of flax fibers as well as a non-woven mat made of a mixture of hemp and kenaf fibers were employed as reinforcing materials. These reinforcing textiles were impregnated with both HD-PE (high-density polyethylen) and PLA (polylactic acid) matrix, using a continuous compression molding press. The impregnated semi-finished laminates (so-called organic sheets) were thermoformed in a second step to half-tubes that were assembled through vibration-welding process to cylindric crash absorbers. The specimens were loaded by compression to determine the specific energy absorption capacity. Quasi-static test results were compared to dynamic test data obtained on a catapult arrangement. The differences on the specific energies absorption (SEA) as a function of different parameters, such as the wall thickness, the weave material type, the reinforced textiles, and the matrix used, depending on the velocity rate application were quantified. In the case of quasi-static analysis it is observed a 20% increment in the SEA value when wove Hopsack fabric reinforcement is employed. No velocity rate influence from the material was observed on the SEA evaluation at higher speeds used to perform the experiments. The influence of the weave configuration (Hopsack) seems to be more stable against buckling effects at low loading rates with 10% higher SEA values. An increase of SEA level of up to 72% for PLA matrix was observed when compared with HD-PE matrix. PMID

  12. Energy Absorption Capacity in Natural Fiber Reinforcement Composites Structures.

    PubMed

    López-Alba, Elías; Schmeer, Sebastian; Díaz, Francisco

    2018-03-13

    The study of natural fiber reinforcement composite structures has focused the attention of the automobile industry due to the new regulation in relation to the recyclability and the reusability of the materials preserving and/or improving the mechanical characteristics. The influence of different parameters on the material behavior of natural fiber reinforced plastic structures has been investigated, showing the potential for transport application in energy absorbing structures. Two different woven fabrics (twill and hopsack) made of flax fibers as well as a non-woven mat made of a mixture of hemp and kenaf fibers were employed as reinforcing materials. These reinforcing textiles were impregnated with both HD-PE (high-density polyethylen) and PLA (polylactic acid) matrix, using a continuous compression molding press. The impregnated semi-finished laminates (so-called organic sheets) were thermoformed in a second step to half-tubes that were assembled through vibration-welding process to cylindric crash absorbers. The specimens were loaded by compression to determine the specific energy absorption capacity. Quasi-static test results were compared to dynamic test data obtained on a catapult arrangement. The differences on the specific energies absorption (SEA) as a function of different parameters, such as the wall thickness, the weave material type, the reinforced textiles, and the matrix used, depending on the velocity rate application were quantified. In the case of quasi-static analysis it is observed a 20% increment in the SEA value when wove Hopsack fabric reinforcement is employed. No velocity rate influence from the material was observed on the SEA evaluation at higher speeds used to perform the experiments. The influence of the weave configuration (Hopsack) seems to be more stable against buckling effects at low loading rates with 10% higher SEA values. An increase of SEA level of up to 72% for PLA matrix was observed when compared with HD-PE matrix.

  13. Evaluating the effect of some mechanical properties for chemically treated various natural fibers reinforced polyester composite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salih, Wafaa Mahdi; Abdulkader, Niveen Jamal; Salih, Sana Mahdi

    2018-05-01

    This research were studied the effect of some mechanical properties for composite materials reinforced fiber and prepared from material (polyester with various natural fibers) then studied the effect of chemical treatment on the same fiber immerse in 10% NaOH solution for half an hour and then compared, the results of the same test of composite materials without and with chemical treatment and the results proved that there is a clear effect when treat the fiber compared to non-chemical treatment of the fibers also noted that hemp fibers loaded the stress higher than other fibers for both cases to distinguish them that the hemp fiber has continuous fibers either the other fibers are characterized by the type of cross linking or chopped types in tensile test, and the results of the same test of composite materials without and with chemical treatment and the results proved that the hardness of the fiber composite while the treated fiber composite samples better than the untreated fiber, and from the figures the palm leaf has the highest value than lufa fiber, hemp fiber and the smallest value is in sisal fiber because of the nature of formation fibers materials.

  14. Natural Fiber Composite Retting, Preform Manufacture and Molding (Project 18988/Agreement 16313)

    SciTech Connect

    Simmons, Kevin L.; Howe, Daniel T.; Laddha, Sachin

    2009-12-31

    Plant-based natural fibers can be used in place of glass in fiber reinforced automotive composites to reduce weight, cost and provide environmental benefits. Current automotive applications use natural fibers in injection molded thermoplastics for interior, non-structural applications. Compression molded natural fiber reinforced thermosets have the opportunity to extend natural fiber composite applications to structural and semi-structural parts and exterior parts realizing further vehicle weight savings. The development of low cost molding and fiber processing techniques for large volumes of natural fibers has helped in understanding the barriers of non-aqueous retting. The retting process has a significant effect on the fibermore » quality and its processing ability that is related to the natural fiber composite mechanical properties. PNNL has developed a compression molded fiber reinforced composite system of which is the basis for future preforming activities and fiber treatment. We are using this process to develop preforming techniques and to validate fiber treatment methods relative to OEM provided application specifications. It is anticipated for next fiscal year that demonstration of larger quantities of SMC materials and molding of larger, more complex components with a more complete testing regimen in coordination with Tier suppliers under OEM guidance.« less

  15. Processing and characterization of natural cellulose fibers/thermoset polymer composites.

    PubMed

    Thakur, Vijay Kumar; Thakur, Manju Kumari

    2014-08-30

    Recently natural cellulose fibers from different biorenewable resources have attracted the considerable attraction of research community all around the globe owing to their unique intrinsic properties such as biodegradability, easy availability, environmental friendliness, flexibility, easy processing and impressive physico-mechanical properties. Natural cellulose fibers based materials are finding their applications in a number of fields ranging from automotive to biomedical. Natural cellulose fibers have been frequently used as the reinforcement component in polymers to add the specific properties in the final product. A variety of cellulose fibers based polymer composite materials have been developed using various synthetic strategies. Seeing the immense advantages of cellulose fibers, in this article we discuss the processing of biorenewable natural cellulose fibers; chemical functionalization of cellulose fibers; synthesis of polymer resins; different strategies to prepare cellulose based green polymer composites, and diverse applications of natural cellulose fibers/polymer composite materials. The article provides an in depth analysis and comprehensive knowledge to the beginners in the field of natural cellulose fibers/polymer composites. The prime aim of this review article is to demonstrate the recent development and emerging applications of natural cellulose fibers and their polymer materials. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Mechanical Property Evaluation of Palm/Glass Sandwiched Fiber Reinforced Polymer Composite in Comparison with few natural composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raja Dhas, J. Edwin; Pradeep, P.

    2017-10-01

    Natural fibers available plenty can be used as reinforcements in development of eco friendly polymer composites. The less utilized palm leaf stalk fibers sandwiched with artificial glass fibers was researched in this work to have a better reinforcement in preparing a green composite. The commercially available polyester resin blend with coconut shell filler in nano form was used as matrix to sandwich these composites. Naturally available Fibers of palm leaf stalk, coconut leaf stalk, raffia and oil palm were extracted and treated with potassium permanganate solution which enhances the properties. For experimentation four different plates were fabricated using these fibers adopting hand lay-up method. These sandwiched composite plates are further machined to obtain ASTM standards Specimens which are mechanically tested as per standards. Experimental results reveal that the alkali treated palm leaf stalk fiber based polymer composite shows appreciable results than the others. Hence the developed composite can be recommended for fabrication of automobile parts.

  17. Development and Characterization of Polymer Eco-Composites Based on Natural Rubber Reinforced with Natural Fibers.

    PubMed

    Stelescu, Maria-Daniela; Manaila, Elena; Craciun, Gabriela; Chirila, Corina

    2017-07-11

    Natural rubber composites filled with short natural fibers (flax and sawdust) were prepared by blending procedure and the elastomer cross-linking was carried out using benzoyl peroxide. The microbial degradation of composites was carried out by incubating with Aspergillus niger recognized for the ability to grow and degrade a broad range of substrates. The extent of biodegradation was evaluated by weight loss and cross-linking degree study of composites after 2 months incubation in pure shake culture conditions. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) have proved to be precious and valuable instruments for morphological as well as structural characterization of the composites before and after incubation with Aspergillus niger .

  18. Development and Characterization of Polymer Eco-Composites Based on Natural Rubber Reinforced with Natural Fibers

    PubMed Central

    Stelescu, Maria-Daniela; Manaila, Elena; Craciun, Gabriela; Chirila, Corina

    2017-01-01

    Natural rubber composites filled with short natural fibers (flax and sawdust) were prepared by blending procedure and the elastomer cross-linking was carried out using benzoyl peroxide. The microbial degradation of composites was carried out by incubating with Aspergillus niger recognized for the ability to grow and degrade a broad range of substrates. The extent of biodegradation was evaluated by weight loss and cross-linking degree study of composites after 2 months incubation in pure shake culture conditions. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) have proved to be precious and valuable instruments for morphological as well as structural characterization of the composites before and after incubation with Aspergillus niger. PMID:28773145

  19. The weathering effect in natural environment on hybrid kenaf/glass fiber unsaturated polyester composite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rozyanty, A. R.; Mohammed, M. M.; Musa, L.; Shahnaz, S. B. S.; Zuliahani, A.

    2017-04-01

    Kenaf and glass fiber hybrid composite was prepared by using hand lay-up process. The effect of weather on mechanical properties of kenaf/glass fiber hybrid composites was studied. The hybrid composite samples were exposed to natural weather. Tensile test was performed for samples at different weathering exposure time. Tensile strength of kenaf/glass fiber hybrid composite was 70.9 MPa and tensile modulus was at 30 GPa before expose to environment weather. Unfortunately, mechanical properties of hybrid composite decreased as exposure time increase due to the moisture absorption which further promotes weakness in interfacial bonding.

  20. Effects of weathering on color loss of natural fiber thermoplastic composites

    Treesearch

    R.H. Falk; C. Felton; T. Lundin

    2001-01-01

    The technology currently exists to manufacture natural fiber thermoplastic composites from recycled materials. Development of commodity-building products from these composites would open up huge markets for waste-based materials in the US. To date, the construction industry has only accepted wood thermoplastic composite lumber (and only for limited applications). In...

  1. Effects of weathering on color loss of natural fiber : thermoplastic composites

    Treesearch

    Robert H. Falk; Colin Felton; Thomas Lundin

    2000-01-01

    The technology currently exists to manufacture natural fiber-thermoplastic composites from recycled materials. Development of commodity building products from these composites would open huge markets for waste-based materials in the United States. To date, the construction industry has only accepted wood-thermoplastic composite lumber and only for limited applications...

  2. Influence of natural fibers on the phase transitions in high-density polyethylene composites using dynamic mechanical analysis

    Treesearch

    Mehdi Tajvidi; Robert H. Falk; John C. Hermanson; Colin Felton

    2003-01-01

    Dynamic mechanical analysis was employed to evaluate the performance of various natural fibers in high-density polyethylene composites. Kenaf, newsprint, rice hulls, and wood flour were sources of fiber. Composites were made at 25 percent and 50 percent by weight fiber contents. Maleic anhydride modified polyethylene was also added at 1:25 ratio to the fiber....

  3. Continuous microcellular foaming of polylactic acid/natural fiber composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diaz-Acosta, Carlos A.

    Poly(lactic acid) (PLA), a biodegradable thermoplastic derived from renewable resources, stands out as a substitute to petroleum-based plastics. In spite of its excellent properties, commercial applications are limited because PLA is more expensive and more brittle than traditional petroleum-based resins. PLA can be blended with cellulosic fibers to reduce material cost. However, the lowered cost comes at the expense of flexibility and impact strength, which can be enhanced through the production of microcellular structures in the composite. Microcellular foaming uses inert gases (e.g., carbon dioxide) as physical blowing agents to make cellular structures with bubble sizes of less than 10 microm and cell-population densities (number of bubbles per unit volume) greater than 109 cells/cm³. These unique characteristics result in a significant increase in toughness and elongation at break (ductility) compared with unfoamed parts because the presence of small bubbles can blunt the crack-tips increasing the energy needed to propagate the crack. Microcellular foams have been produced through a two step batch process. First, large amounts of gas are dissolved in the solid plastic under high pressure (sorption process) to form a single-phase solution. Second, a thermodynamic instability (sudden drop in solubility) triggers cell nucleation and growth as the gas diffuses out of the plastic. Batch production of microcellular PLA has addressed some of the drawbacks of PLA. Unfortunately, the batch foaming process is not likely to be implemented in the industrial production of foams because it is not cost-effective. This study investigated the continuous microcellular foaming process of PLA and PLA/wood-fiber composites. The effects of the processing temperature and material compositions on the melt viscosity, pressure drop rate, and cell-population density were examined in order to understand the nucleation mechanisms in neat and filled PLA foams. The results indicated that

  4. Hybrid boron nitride-natural fiber composites for enhanced thermal conductivity.

    PubMed

    Xia, Changlei; Garcia, Andres C; Shi, Sheldon Q; Qiu, Ying; Warner, Nathaniel; Wu, Yingji; Cai, Liping; Rizvi, Hussain R; D'Souza, Nandika A; Nie, Xu

    2016-10-05

    Thermal conductivity was dramatically increased after adding natural fiber into hexagonal boron nitride (hBN)/epoxy composites. Although natural fiber does not show high-thermal conductivity itself, this study found that the synergy of natural fiber with hBN could significantly improve thermal conductivity, compared with that solely using hBN. A design of mixtures approach using constant fibers with increasing volume fractions of hBN was examined and compared. The thermal conductivity of the composite containing 43.6% hBN, 26.3% kenaf fiber and 30.1% epoxy reached 6.418 W m -1 K -1 , which was 72.3% higher than that (3.600 W m -1 K -1 ) of the 69.0% hBN and 31.0% epoxy composite. Using the scanning electron microscope (SEM) and micro computed tomography (micro-CT), it was observed that the hBN powders were well distributed and ordered on the fiber surfaces enhancing the ceramic filler's interconnection, which may be the reason for the increase in thermal conductivity. Additionally, the results from mechanical and dynamic mechanical tests showed that performances dramatically improved after adding kenaf fibers into the hBN/epoxy composite, potentially benefiting the composite's use as an engineered material.

  5. Reactive processing of textile-natural fiber reinforced anionic polyamide-6 composites

    SciTech Connect

    Kan, Ze; Chen, Peng; Liu, Zhengying

    Nowadays natural fiber, used in reinforced composites, is widely concerned. However, no natural fiber reinforced reactive thermoplastic polymer grades had been prepared so far. Through our studies, it was demonstrated that there was a severe retardation and discoloration occurred in the reactive processing between anionic polyamide-6 (APA-6) and natural fiber, which result in incomplete polymerization when put together. In order to solve the problem, two methods were adopted in this paper, which are fiber pretreatment and usage of a new-style initiator called caprolactam magnesium bromide. The former is to remove sizing agent and impurities on the surface of fiber, andmore » the latter is to weaken the side reactions between APA-6 and natural fiber by the nature of its lower reactivity and weaker alkaline. In cooperation with both methods, the severe retardation and discoloration had been improved significantly, so that the polymerization of APA-6 in natural fiber was occurred smoothly. Following textile-natural fiber reinforced APA-6 composites with an average thickness of 2.5 mm and a fiber volume content of 50% was prepared by vacuum assisted resin transfer molding (VARTM). The soxhlet extraction, dilute solution viscometry and differential scanning calorimeter (DSC) measurements respectively suggested the degree of conversion, viscosity-average molar mass and crystallization of composites was up to 94%, 11.3×104 and 50%. Remarkable improvement of mechanical properties were achieved through dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA), tensile and three-point bending test. Favorable interfacial adhesion and wettability were revealed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) observation. Therefore, all of the above good performance make this new-style and environmentally friendly composites have broad application prospects.« less

  6. Reactive processing of textile-natural fiber reinforced anionic polyamide-6 composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kan, Ze; Chen, Peng; Liu, Zhengying; Feng, Jianmin; Yang, Mingbo

    2015-05-01

    Nowadays natural fiber, used in reinforced composites, is widely concerned. However, no natural fiber reinforced reactive thermoplastic polymer grades had been prepared so far. Through our studies, it was demonstrated that there was a severe retardation and discoloration occurred in the reactive processing between anionic polyamide-6 (APA-6) and natural fiber, which result in incomplete polymerization when put together. In order to solve the problem, two methods were adopted in this paper, which are fiber pretreatment and usage of a new-style initiator called caprolactam magnesium bromide. The former is to remove sizing agent and impurities on the surface of fiber, and the latter is to weaken the side reactions between APA-6 and natural fiber by the nature of its lower reactivity and weaker alkaline. In cooperation with both methods, the severe retardation and discoloration had been improved significantly, so that the polymerization of APA-6 in natural fiber was occurred smoothly. Following textile-natural fiber reinforced APA-6 composites with an average thickness of 2.5 mm and a fiber volume content of 50% was prepared by vacuum assisted resin transfer molding (VARTM). The soxhlet extraction, dilute solution viscometry and differential scanning calorimeter (DSC) measurements respectively suggested the degree of conversion, viscosity-average molar mass and crystallization of composites was up to 94%, 11.3×104 and 50%. Remarkable improvement of mechanical properties were achieved through dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA), tensile and three-point bending test. Favorable interfacial adhesion and wettability were revealed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) observation. Therefore, all of the above good performance make this new-style and environmentally friendly composites have broad application prospects.

  7. Hybrid boron nitride-natural fiber composites for enhanced thermal conductivity

    PubMed Central

    Xia, Changlei; Garcia, Andres C.; Shi, Sheldon Q.; Qiu, Ying; Warner, Nathaniel; Wu, Yingji; Cai, Liping; Rizvi, Hussain R.; D’Souza, Nandika A.; Nie, Xu

    2016-01-01

    Thermal conductivity was dramatically increased after adding natural fiber into hexagonal boron nitride (hBN)/epoxy composites. Although natural fiber does not show high-thermal conductivity itself, this study found that the synergy of natural fiber with hBN could significantly improve thermal conductivity, compared with that solely using hBN. A design of mixtures approach using constant fibers with increasing volume fractions of hBN was examined and compared. The thermal conductivity of the composite containing 43.6% hBN, 26.3% kenaf fiber and 30.1% epoxy reached 6.418 W m−1 K−1, which was 72.3% higher than that (3.600 W m−1 K−1) of the 69.0% hBN and 31.0% epoxy composite. Using the scanning electron microscope (SEM) and micro computed tomography (micro-CT), it was observed that the hBN powders were well distributed and ordered on the fiber surfaces enhancing the ceramic filler’s interconnection, which may be the reason for the increase in thermal conductivity. Additionally, the results from mechanical and dynamic mechanical tests showed that performances dramatically improved after adding kenaf fibers into the hBN/epoxy composite, potentially benefiting the composite’s use as an engineered material. PMID:27703226

  8. Hybrid boron nitride-natural fiber composites for enhanced thermal conductivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xia, Changlei; Garcia, Andres C.; Shi, Sheldon Q.; Qiu, Ying; Warner, Nathaniel; Wu, Yingji; Cai, Liping; Rizvi, Hussain R.; D'Souza, Nandika A.; Nie, Xu

    2016-10-01

    Thermal conductivity was dramatically increased after adding natural fiber into hexagonal boron nitride (hBN)/epoxy composites. Although natural fiber does not show high-thermal conductivity itself, this study found that the synergy of natural fiber with hBN could significantly improve thermal conductivity, compared with that solely using hBN. A design of mixtures approach using constant fibers with increasing volume fractions of hBN was examined and compared. The thermal conductivity of the composite containing 43.6% hBN, 26.3% kenaf fiber and 30.1% epoxy reached 6.418 W m-1 K-1, which was 72.3% higher than that (3.600 W m-1 K-1) of the 69.0% hBN and 31.0% epoxy composite. Using the scanning electron microscope (SEM) and micro computed tomography (micro-CT), it was observed that the hBN powders were well distributed and ordered on the fiber surfaces enhancing the ceramic filler’s interconnection, which may be the reason for the increase in thermal conductivity. Additionally, the results from mechanical and dynamic mechanical tests showed that performances dramatically improved after adding kenaf fibers into the hBN/epoxy composite, potentially benefiting the composite’s use as an engineered material.

  9. Natural Mallow Fiber-Reinforced Epoxy Composite for Ballistic Armor Against Class III-A Ammunition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nascimento, Lucio Fabio Cassiano; Holanda, Luane Isquerdo Ferreira; Louro, Luis Henrique Leme; Monteiro, Sergio Neves; Gomes, Alaelson Vieira; Lima, Édio Pereira

    2017-10-01

    Epoxy matrix composites reinforced with up to 30 vol pct of continuous and aligned natural mallow fibers were for the first time ballistic tested as personal armor against class III-A 9 mm FMJ ammunition. The ballistic efficiency of these composites was assessed by measuring the dissipated energy and residual velocity after the bullet perforation. The results were compared to those in similar tests of aramid fabric (Kevlar™) commonly used in vests for personal protections. Visual inspection and scanning electron microscopy analysis of impact-fractured samples revealed failure mechanisms associated with fiber pullout and rupture as well as epoxy cracking. As compared to Kevlar™, the mallow fiber composite displayed practically the same ballistic efficiency. However, there is a reduction in both weight and cost, which makes the mallow fiber composites a promising material for personal ballistic protection.

  10. Effect of Fungal Deterioration on Physical and Mechanical Properties of Hemp and Flax Natural Fiber Composites

    PubMed Central

    Crawford, Bryn; Pakpour, Sepideh; Kazemian, Negin; Klironomos, John; Stoeffler, Karen; Rho, Denis; Denault, Johanne; Milani, Abbas S.

    2017-01-01

    The development and application of bio-sourced composites have been gaining wide attention, yet their deterioration due to the growth of ubiquitous microorganisms during storage/manufacturing/in-service phases is still not fully understood for optimum material selection and design purposes. In this study, samples of non-woven flax fibers, hemp fibers, and mats made of co-mingled randomly-oriented flax or hemp fiber (50%) and polypropylene fiber (50%) were subjected to 28 days of exposure to (i) no water-no fungi, (ii) water only and (iii) water along with the Chaetomium globosum fungus. Biocomposite samples were measured for weight loss over time, to observe the rate of fungal growth and the respiration of cellulose components in the fibers. Tensile testing was conducted to measure mechanical properties of the composite samples under different configurations. Scanning electron microscopy was employed to visualize fungal hyphal growth on the natural fibers, as well as to observe the fracture planes and failure modes of the biocomposite samples. Results showed that fungal growth significantly affects the dry mass as well as the tensile elastic modulus of the tested natural fiber mats and composites, and the effect depends on both the type and the length scale of fibers, as well as the exposure condition and time. PMID:29088118

  11. Impact analysis of natural fiber and synthetic fiber reinforced polymer composite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sangamesh, Ravishankar, K. S.; Kulkarni, S. M.

    2018-05-01

    Impact analysis of the composite structure is essential for many fields like automotive, aerospace and naval structure which practically difficult to characterize. In the present study impact analysis of carbon-epoxy (CE) and jute-epoxy (JE) laminates were studied for three different thicknesses. The 3D finite element model was adopted to study the impact forces experienced, energy absorption and fracture behavior of the laminated composites. These laminated composites modeled as a 3D deformable solid element and an impactor at a constant velocity were modeled as a discrete rigid element. The energy absorption and fracture behaviors for various material combinations and thickness were studied. The fracture behavior of these composite showed progressive damage with matrix failure at the initial stage followed by complete fiber breakage.

  12. Experimental evaluation and simulation of volumetric shrinkage and warpage on polymeric composite reinforced with short natural fibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santos, Jonnathan D.; Fajardo, Jorge I.; Cuji, Alvaro R.; García, Jaime A.; Garzón, Luis E.; López, Luis M.

    2015-09-01

    A polymeric natural fiber-reinforced composite is developed by extrusion and injection molding process. The shrinkage and warpage of high-density polyethylene reinforced with short natural fibers of Guadua angustifolia Kunth are analyzed by experimental measurements and computer simulations. Autodesk Moldflow® and Solid Works® are employed to simulate both volumetric shrinkage and warpage of injected parts at different configurations: 0 wt.%, 20 wt.%, 30 wt.% and 40 wt.% reinforcing on shrinkage and warpage behavior of polymer composite. Become evident the restrictive effect of reinforcing on the volumetric shrinkage and warpage of injected parts. The results indicate that volumetric shrinkage of natural composite is reduced up to 58% with fiber increasing, whereas the warpage shows a reduction form 79% to 86% with major fiber content. These results suggest that it is a highly beneficial use of natural fibers to improve the assembly properties of polymeric natural fiber-reinforced composites.

  13. Chemical Treatment of Waste Abaca for Natural Fiber-Reinforced Geopolymer Composite

    PubMed Central

    Malenab, Roy Alvin J.; Ngo, Janne Pauline S.; Promentilla, Michael Angelo B.

    2017-01-01

    The use of natural fibers in reinforced composites to produce eco-friendly materials is gaining more attention due to their attractive features such as low cost, low density and good mechanical properties, among others. This work thus investigates the potential of waste abaca (Manila hemp) fiber as reinforcing agent in an inorganic aluminosilicate material known as geopolymer. In this study, the waste fibers were subjected to different chemical treatments to modify the surface characteristics and to improve the adhesion with the fly ash-based geopolymer matrix. Definitive screening design of experiment was used to investigate the effect of successive chemical treatment of the fiber on its tensile strength considering the following factors: (1) NaOH pretreatment; (2) soaking time in aluminum salt solution; and (3) final pH of the slurry. The results show that the abaca fiber without alkali pretreatment, soaked for 12 h in Al2(SO4)3 solution and adjusted to pH 6 exhibited the highest tensile strength among the treated fibers. Test results confirmed that the chemical treatment removes the lignin, pectin and hemicellulose, as well as makes the surface rougher with the deposition of aluminum compounds. This improves the interfacial bonding between geopolymer matrix and the abaca fiber, while the geopolymer protects the treated fiber from thermal degradation. PMID:28772936

  14. Hybrid Aluminum and Natural Fiber Composite Structure for Crash Safety Improvement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Helaili, S.; Chafra, M.; Chevalier, Y.

    There is a growing interest on pedestrian's protection in automotive safety standards. Pedestrians head impact is one of the most important tests. In this paper, a hybrid composite structure made from natural fiber and aluminum, which improve the head protection when impact is taken place, is presented. The structure is made from a honeycomb composite made from unidirectional and woven composites and a thin aluminum layer. A head impact model is developed. The number of hexagonal layers is fixed and the thickness of the aluminum layer of the honeycomb structure is varied. The specific absorption energy is then calculated.

  15. Ultrasonic Determination of the Elastic Constants of Epoxy-natural Fiber Composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valencia, C. A. Meza; Pazos-Ospina, J. F.; Franco, E. E.; Ealo, Joao L.; Collazos-Burbano, D. A.; Garcia, G. F. Casanova

    This paper shows the applications ultrasonic through-transmission technique to determine the elastic constants of two polymer-natural fiber composite materials with potential industrial application and economic and environmental advantages. The transversely isotropic coconut-epoxy and fique-epoxy samples were analyzed using an experimental setup which allows the sample to be rotated with respect to transducers faces and measures the time-of-flight at different angles of incidence. Then, the elastic properties of the material were obtained by fitting the experimental data to the Christoffel equation. Results show a good agreement between the measured elastic constants and the values predicted by an analytical model. The velocities as a function of the incidence angle are reported and the effect of the natural fiber on the stiffness of the composite is discussed.

  16. Effect of Manufacturing Method to Tensile Properties of Hybrid Composite Reinforced by Natural (Agel Leaf Fiber) and Glass Fibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nugroho, A.; Abdurohman, K.; Kusmono; Hestiawan, H.; Jamasri

    2018-04-01

    This paper described the effect of different type of manufacturing method to tensile properties of hybrid composite woven agel leaf fiber and glass fiber as an alternative of LSU structure material. The research was done by using 3 ply of woven agel leaf fiber (ALF) and 3 ply of glass fiber (wr200) while the matrix was using unsaturated polyester. Composite manufacturing method used hand lay-up and vacuum bagging. Tensile test conducted with Tensilon universal testing machine, specimen shape and size according to standard size ASTM D 638. Based on tensile test result showed that the tensile strength of agel leaf fiber composite with unsaturated polyester matrix is 54.5 MPa by hand lay-up and 84.6 MPa with vacuum bagging method. From result of tensile test, hybrid fiber agel composite and glass fiber with unsaturated polyester matrix have potential as LSU structure.

  17. An experimental study of mechanical behavior of natural fiber reinforced polymer matrix composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ratna, Sanatan; Misra, Sheelam

    2018-05-01

    Fibre-reinforced polymer composites have played a dominant role for a long time in a variety of applications for their high specific strength and modulus. The fibre which serves as a reinforcement in reinforced plastics may be synthetic or natural. Past studies show that only synthetic fibres such as glass, carbon etc., have been used in fibre reinforced plastics. Although glass and other synthetic fibre-reinforced plastics possess high specific strength, their fields of application are very limited because of their inherent higher cost of production. In this connection, an investigation has been carried out to make use of horse hair, an animal fibre abundantly available in India. Animal fibres are not only strong and lightweight but also relatively very cheaper than mineral fibre. The present work describes the development and characterization of a new set of animal fiber based polymer composites consisting of horse hair as reinforcement and epoxy resin. The newly developed composites are characterized with respect to their mechanical characteristics. Experiments are carried out to study the effect of fibre length on mechanical behavior of these epoxy based polymer composites. Composite made form horse hair can be used as a potential reinforcing material for many structural and non-structural applications. This work can be further extended to study other aspects of such composites like effect of fiber content, loading pattern, fibre treatment on mechanical behavior of horse hair based polymer horse hair.

  18. Preparation of conductive paper composites based on natural cellulosic fibers for packaging applications.

    PubMed

    Youssef, Ahmed M; El-Samahy, Magda Ali; Abdel Rehim, Mona H

    2012-08-01

    Conducting paper based on natural cellulosic fibers and conductive polymers was prepared using unbleached bagasse and/or rice straw fibers (as cellulosic raw materials) and polyaniline (PANi) as conducting polymer. These composites were synthesized by in situ emulsion polymerization using ammonium persulfate (APS) as oxidant in the presence of dodecylbenzene sulfonic acid (DBSA) as emulsifier. The prepared composites were characterized using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA), differential scanning calorimeter (DSC), and their morphology was investigated using scanning electron microscope (SEM). Electrical conductivity measurements showed that the conductivity of the paper sheets increases by increasing the ratio of PANi in the composite. Mechanical properties of the paper sheets were also investigated, the results revealed that the values of breaking length, burst factor, and tear factor are decreased with increasing ratio of added PANi, and this effect is more pronounced in bagasse-based composites. The new conductive composites can have potential use as anti-static packaging material or anti-bacterial paper for packaging applications. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Accelerated weathering of natural fiber-thermoplastic composites : effects of ultraviolet exposure on bending strength and stiffness

    Treesearch

    Thomas Lundin; Robert H. Falk; Colin Felton

    2002-01-01

    Mechanical properties of bending stiffness and yield stress were used to evaluate the effects of ultraviolet exposure on natural fiber-thermoplastic composites. Four different specimen formulations were evaluated. Injection molded high density polyethylene (HDPE) served as the polymer base for all formulations. Two lignocellulosic fillers, wood flour and kenaf fiber,...

  20. Effect of natural fibers and bio-resins on mechanical properties in hybrid and non-hybrid composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fragassa, Cristiano

    2016-05-01

    The aim of the present experimental investigation was to perform a comparative analysis concerning the influence on mechanical properties of natural fibers and/or bio-resins in reinforced thermoset composites. Flax and basalt fibers were selected as natural reinforcements, as single constituents or in hybrid combination. Glass synthetic fibers were used for comparison. Eco-friendly matrixes, both epoxy or vinylester, were considered and compared with composites based on traditional resins. Samples were fabricated by hand lay-up and resin infusion techniques. Cures were accelerated and controlled by applying heat and pressure in autoclave. Tensile, flexural and impact tests were carried out according to ASTM standards.

  1. A novel use of bio-based natural fibers, polymers, and rubbers for composite materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Modi, Sunny Jitendra

    The composites, materials, and packaging industries are searching for alternative materials to attain environmental sustainability. Bio-plastics are highly desired and current microbially-derived bio-plastics, such as PHA (poly-(hydroxy alkanoate)), PHB (poly-(hydroxybutyrate)), and PHBV (poly-(beta-hydroxy butyrate-co-valerate)) could be engineered to have similar properties to conventional thermoplastics. Poly-(hydroxybutyrate) (PHB) is a bio-degradable aliphatic polyester that is produced by a wide range of microorganisms. Basic PHB has relatively high glass transition and melting temperatures. To improve flexibility for potential packaging applications, PHB is synthesized with various co-polymers such as Poly-(3-hydroxyvalerate) (HV) to decrease the glass and melting temperatures and, since there is improved melt stability at lower processing temperatures, broaden the processing window. However, previous work has shown that this polymer is too brittle, temperature-sensitive, and hydrophilic to meet packaging material physical requirements. Therefore, the proposed work focuses on addressing the needs for bio-derived and bio-degradable materials by creating a range of composite materials using natural fibers as reinforcement agents in bio-polymers and bio- plastic-rubber matrices. The new materials should possess properties lacking in PHBV and broaden the processing capabilities, elasticity, and improve the mechanical properties. The first approach was to create novel composites using poly-(beta-hydroxy butyrate-co-valerate) (PHBV) combined with fibers from invasive plants such as common reed (Phragmites australis), reed canary grass (Phalaris arundinacea), and water celery ( Vallisneria americana). The composites were manufactured using traditional processing techniques of extrusion compounding followed by injection molding of ASTM type I parts. The effects of each bio-fiber at 2, 5, and 10% loading on the mechanical, morphological, rheological, and thermal

  2. Transcrystalline interphases in natural fiber-PP composites: effect of coupling agent

    Treesearch

    A.R. Sanadi; D.F. Caulfield

    2000-01-01

    The interest in lignocellulosic fiber composites has been growing in recent years because of their high specific properties. In this work, a new technique was used to prepare specimen to observe the transcrystalline zones in kenaf fiber-polypropylene composites. A maleated polypropylene (MAPP) coupling agent was used to improve the stress-transfer efficiency in the...

  3. Shaped fiber composites

    DOEpatents

    Kinnan, Mark K.; Roach, Dennis P.

    2017-12-05

    A composite article is disclosed that has non-circular fibers embedded in a polymer matrix. The composite article has improved damage tolerance, toughness, bending, and impact resistance compared to composites having traditional round fibers.

  4. Relationships among muscle fiber type composition, fiber diameter and MRF gene expression in different skeletal muscles of naturally grazing Wuzhumuqin sheep during postnatal development.

    PubMed

    Siqin, Qimuge; Nishiumi, Tadayuki; Yamada, Takahisa; Wang, Shuiqing; Liu, Wenjun; Wu, Rihan; Borjigin, Gerelt

    2017-12-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the relationships among muscle fiber-type composition, fiber diameter, and myogenic regulatory factor (MRF) gene expression in different skeletal muscles during development in naturally grazing Wuzhumuqin sheep. Three major muscles (i.e. the Longissimus dorsi (LD), Biceps femoris (BF) and Triceps brachii (TB)) were obtained from 20 Wuzhumuqin sheep and 20 castrated rams at each of the following ages: 1, 3, 6, 9, 12 and 18 months. Muscle fiber-type composition and fiber diameter were measured using histochemistry and morphological analysis, and MRF gene expression levels were determined using real-time PCR. In the LD muscle, changes in the proportion of each of different types of fiber (I, IIA and IIB) were relatively small. In the BF muscle, a higher proportion of type I and a 6.19-fold lower proportion of type IIA fibers were observed (P < 0.05). In addition, the compositions of type I and IIA fibers continuously changed in the TB muscle (P < 0.05). Moreover, muscle diameter gradually increased throughout development (P < 0.05). Almost no significant difference was found in MRF gene expression patterns, which appeared to be relatively stable. These results suggest that changes in fiber-type composition and increases in fiber size may be mutually interacting processes during muscle development. © 2017 The Authors Animal Science Journal published by John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd on behalf of Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  5. Effect of gamma radiation on the mechanical properties of natural silk fiber and synthetic E-glass fiber reinforced polypropylene composites: A comparative study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shubhra, Quazi T. H.; Alam, A. K. M. M.

    2011-11-01

    Silk is a strong natural proteinous fiber and E-glass is a very strong synthetic fiber. Compression molding method was used to fabricate B. mori silk fiber reinforced polypropylene (PP) matrix composites. The tensile strength (TS), tensile modulus (TM), bending strength (BS), bending modulus (BM) and impact strength (IS) of prepared composites were 55.1 MPa, 780 MPa, 56.3 MPa, 3450 MPa and 17 kJ/m 2, respectively. Synthetic E-glass fiber reinforced PP based composites were fabricated in the same way and TS, TM, BS, BM, IS of E-glass fiber reinforced polypropylene composites were found to be 128.7 MPa, 4350 MPa, 141.6 MPa, 6300 MPa and 19 kJ/m 2, respectively. Gamma radiation is high energy ionizing radiation and was applied to increase the mechanical properties of the composites. Application of gamma ray increases the mechanical properties of silk/PP composites to a greater extent than that of E-glass/PP composites.

  6. Hybrid matrix fiber composites

    DOEpatents

    Deteresa, Steven J.; Lyon, Richard E.; Groves, Scott E.

    2003-07-15

    Hybrid matrix fiber composites having enhanced compressive performance as well as enhanced stiffness, toughness and durability suitable for compression-critical applications. The methods for producing the fiber composites using matrix hybridization. The hybrid matrix fiber composites include two chemically or physically bonded matrix materials, whereas the first matrix materials are used to impregnate multi-filament fibers formed into ribbons and the second matrix material is placed around and between the fiber ribbons that are impregnated with the first matrix material and both matrix materials are cured and solidified.

  7. Experimental data on the properties of natural fiber particle reinforced polymer composite material.

    PubMed

    Chandramohan, D; Presin Kumar, A John

    2017-08-01

    This paper presents an experimental study on the development of polymer bio-composites. The powdered coconut shell, walnut shells and Rice husk are used as reinforcements with bio epoxy resin to form hybrid composite specimens. The fiber compositions in each specimen are 1:1 while the resin and hardener composition 10:1 respectively. The fabricated composites were tested as per ASTM standards to evaluate mechanical properties such as tensile strength, flexural strength, shear strength and impact strength are evaluated in both with moisture and without moisture. The result of test shows that hybrid composite has far better properties than single fibre glass reinforced composite under mechanical loads. However it is found that the incorporation of walnut shell and coconut shell fibre can improve the properties.

  8. Continuous Fiber Ceramic Composites

    SciTech Connect

    Fareed, Ali; Craig, Phillip A.

    2002-09-01

    Fiber-reinforced ceramic composites demonstrate the high-temperature stability of ceramics--with an increased fracture toughness resulting from the fiber reinforcement of the composite. The material optimization performed under the continuous fiber ceramic composites (CFCC) included a series of systematic optimizations. The overall goals were to define the processing window, to increase the robustinous of the process, to increase process yield while reducing costs, and to define the complexity of parts that could be fabricated.

  9. Acoustic properties of polymer foam composites blended with different percentage loadings of natural fiber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azahari, M. Shafiq M.; Rus, Anika Zafiah M.; Kormin, Shaharuddin; Taufiq Zaliran, M.

    2017-09-01

    This study investigates the acoustic properties of polymer foam composites (FC) filled with natural fiber. The FC were produced based on crosslinking of polyol, with flexible isocyanates and wood filler. The percentages of wood filler loading are 10, 15, and 20 wt% ratio of polyol. The FC also has a thickness of 10, 20 and 30 mm. The acoustic properties of the FC were determined by using Impedance Tube test, Optical Microscope (OM) and Mettler Toledo Density Kit test. The results revealed that FC20 with 30 mm in thickness gives the highest sound absorption coefficient (α) with 0.970 and 0.999, at low and high frequency respectively. FC20 also shows smallest pores structures size with 134.86 μm and biggest density with 868.5 kg/m3 which helps in absorbing sound. In this study, FC with different percentage loading of wood filler and different foam thickness shows the ability to contribute the absorption coefficient of polymeric foam at different frequency levels. Lastly, this type of FC is suitable for any type of sound absorption applications material.

  10. Smart Natural Fiber Reinforced Plastic (NFRP) Composites Based On Recycled Polypropylene in The Presence Kaolin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suharty, N. S.; Ismail, H.; Diharjo, K.; Handayani, D. S.; Lestari, W. A.

    2017-07-01

    Composites contain double filler material which act as reinforcement and flame retardants of recycled polypropylene (rPP)/kaolin(Kao)/palm oil empty bunch fiber (PEBF) have been succesfully prepared. The composites were synthesized through reactively solution method, using coupling agent PP-g-AA and compatibilizer DVB. The effect of double filler [Kao/PEBF] were investigated flexural strength (FS), inflammability, and morphology. Mechanical testing result in accordance to ASTM D790, the FS of rPP/DVB/PP-g-AA/Kao+ZB/PEBF composite was 48% higher than that of rPP matrix. Moreover, flexural modulus (FM) was significantly improved by 56% as compared to that of rPP matrix. The scanning electron images (SEM) shown good dispersion of [Ka/PEBF] and good filler-matrix interaction. The inflammability testing result which is tested using ASTM D635, showed that the flame resistance of rPP/DVB/PP-g-AA/Kao+ZB/PEBF composite was improve by increasing of time to ignition (TTI) about 857% and burning rate (BR) decreasing to 66% compared to the raw material rPP matrix. In the same time, the addition of 20% (w/w) PEBF as a second filler to form rPP/DVB/PP-g-AA/Kao+ZB/PEBF composites (F5) is able to increase: the FS by 17.5%, the FM by 19%, the TTI by 7.6% and the BR by 3.7% compared to the composite without PEBF (F2).

  11. Probabilistic Fiber Composite Micromechanics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stock, Thomas A.

    1996-01-01

    Probabilistic composite micromechanics methods are developed that simulate expected uncertainties in unidirectional fiber composite properties. These methods are in the form of computational procedures using Monte Carlo simulation. The variables in which uncertainties are accounted for include constituent and void volume ratios, constituent elastic properties and strengths, and fiber misalignment. A graphite/epoxy unidirectional composite (ply) is studied to demonstrate fiber composite material property variations induced by random changes expected at the material micro level. Regression results are presented to show the relative correlation between predictor and response variables in the study. These computational procedures make possible a formal description of anticipated random processes at the intra-ply level, and the related effects of these on composite properties.

  12. Stability of Glass Fiber-Plastic Composites

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1974-11-01

    miniiiii’ 5 0712 01016774 9 x TECHNICA. . LIBRARY Jt U*Al>/l 1 Technical Report RL-75-6 STABILITY OF GLASS FIBER -PLASTIC COMPOSITES Wartan A...Subtitle) STABILITY OF GLASS FIBER -PLASTIC COMPOSITES 5. TYPE OF REPORT & PERIOD COVERED Technical Report 6. PERFORMING ORG. REPORT NUMBER 7...Exploratory research was conducted to determine the stages and nature of degradation of glass fiber -plastic composite systems under various environmental

  13. Natural cellulose fibers from soybean straw.

    PubMed

    Reddy, Narendra; Yang, Yiqi

    2009-07-01

    This paper reports the development of natural cellulose technical fibers from soybean straw with properties similar to the natural cellulose fibers in current use. About 220 million tons of soybean straw available in the world every year could complement the byproducts of other major food crops as inexpensive, abundant and annually renewable sources for natural cellulose fibers. Using the agricultural byproducts as sources for fibers could help to address the concerns on the future price and availability of both the natural and synthetic fibers in current use and also help to add value to the food crops. A simple alkaline extraction was used to obtain technical fibers from soybean straw and the composition, structure and properties of the fibers was studied. Technical fibers obtained from soybean straw have high cellulose content (85%) but low% crystallinity (47%). The technical fibers have breaking tenacity (2.7 g/den) and breaking elongation (3.9%) higher than those of fibers obtained from wheat straw and sorghum stalk and leaves but lower than that of cotton. Overall, the structure and properties of the technical fibers obtained from soybean straw indicates that the fibers could be suitable for use in textile, composite and other industrial applications.

  14. Carbon Fiber Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    HyComp(R), Inc. development a line of high temperature carbon fiber composite products to solve wear problems in the harsh environment of steel and aluminum mills. WearComp(R), self-lubricating composite wear liners and bushings, combines carbon graphite fibers with a polyimide binder. The binder, in conjunction with the fibers, provides the slippery surface, one that demands no lubrication, yet wears at a very slow rate. WearComp(R) typically lasts six to ten times longer than aluminum bronze. Unlike bronze, WearComp polishes the same surface and imparts a self-lube film for years of service. It is designed for continuous operation at temperatures of 550 degrees Fahrenheit and can operate under high compressive loads.

  15. Application of Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) in the analysis of the fuel efficiency in the automobile industry with the utilization of Natural Fiber Polymer Composites (NFPC)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jayamani, E.; Perera, D. S.; Soon, K. H.; Bakri, M. K. B.

    2017-04-01

    A systematic method of material analysis aiming for fuel efficiency improvement with the utilization of natural fiber reinforced polymer matrix composites in the automobile industry is proposed. A multi-factor based decision criteria with Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) was used and executed through MATLAB to achieve improved fuel efficiency through the weight reduction of vehicular components by effective comparison between two engine hood designs. The reduction was simulated by utilizing natural fiber polymer composites with thermoplastic polypropylene (PP) as the matrix polymer and benchmarked against a synthetic based composite component. Results showed that PP with 35% of flax fiber loading achieved a 0.4% improvement in fuel efficiency, and it was the highest among the 27 candidate fibers.

  16. Effect of natural fiber types and sodium silicate coated on natural fiber mat/PLA composites: Tensile properties and rate of fire propagation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thongpin, C.; Srimuk, J.; hipkam, N.; Wachirapong, P.

    2015-07-01

    In this study, 3 types of natural fibres, i.e. jute, sisal and abaca, were plain weaved to fibre mat. Before weaving, the fibres were treated with 5% NaOH to remove hemi cellulose and lignin. The weaving was performed by hand using square wooden block fit with nails for weaving using one and two types of natural fibres as weft and warp fibre to produce natural fibre mat. The fibre mat was also impregnated in sodium silicate solution extracted from rich husk ash. The pH of the solution was adjusted to pH 7 using H2SO4 before impregnation. After predetermined time, sodium silicate was gelled and deposited on the mat. The fabric mat and sodium silicate coated mat were then impregnated with PLA solution to produce prepreg. Dried pepreg was laminated with PLA sheet using compressing moulding machine to obtain natural fibre mat/PLA composite. The composite containing abaca aligned in longitudinal direction with respect to tension force enhanced Young's modulus more than 300%. Fibre mat composites with abaca aligned in longitudinal direction also showed tensile strength enhancement nearly 400% higher than neat PLA. After coating with sodium silicate, the tensile modulus of the composites was found slightly increased. The silicate coating was disadvantage on tensile strength of the composite due to the effect of sodium hydroxide solution that was used as solvent for silicate extraction from rice husk ash. However, sodium silicate could retard rate of fire propagation about 50%compare to neat PLA and about 10% reduction compared to fibre mat composites without sodium silicate coated fibre mat.

  17. Utilization of agricultural and forest industry waste and residues in natural fiber-polymer composites: A review.

    PubMed

    Väisänen, Taneli; Haapala, Antti; Lappalainen, Reijo; Tomppo, Laura

    2016-08-01

    Natural fiber-polymer composites (NFPCs) are becoming increasingly utilized in a wide variety of applications because they represent an ecological and inexpensive alternative to conventional petroleum-derived materials. On the other hand, considerable amounts of organic waste and residues from the industrial and agricultural processes are still underutilized as low-value energy sources. Organic materials are commonly disposed of or subjected to the traditional waste management methods, such as landfilling, composting or anaerobic digestion. The use of organic waste and residue materials in NFPCs represents an ecologically friendly and a substantially higher value alternative. This is a comprehensive review examining how organic waste and residues could be utilized in the future as reinforcements or additives for NFPCs from the perspective of the recently reported work in this field. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. An applied investigation of corn-based distillers dried grains with solubles in the production of natural fiber-plastic composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castillo, Hugo Eudosio

    The main objective of this research was to examine uses for distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS), a coproduct of ethanol production plant, in the fiber-reinforced plastic composites industry. Initially the effort intended to take advantage of the DDGS components, using chemical reactions, to produce coupling agents to improve the physical properties of the composite. Four different chemicals plus water were used to convert proteins into soluble amino acids. The results were not as expected, and appeared to show an early pyrolysis of DDGS components. This may be due to regeneration of proteins when pH of solutions is neutralized. Procedures were then investigated to utilize DDGS for different markets. Considering that oils and proteins of DDGS can thermally decompose, it seemed important to separate the major components and work with DDGS fiber alone. A procedure to extract oil from DDGS using ethanol and then to hydrolyze proteins with ethanol diluted with water, acid and sodium sulfite, was developed. The resulting DDGS fiber or residual material, with a low content of oil and proteins, was used as filler in a propylene matrix with a lubricant and coupling agent to make natural fiber plastic composites (NFPC). Composites containing wood flour (WPC) were prepared simultaneously with those of DDGS fiber to compare tensile properties and fracture surfaces of the specimens by scanning electron microscope (SEM). This study demonstrates that DDGS fiber can replace wood fiber as a filler in NFPC.

  19. Time Effects on Morphology and Bonding Ability in Mercerized Natural Fibers for Composite Reinforcement

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-01-01

    such as lignin , are not favored for interaction with most hydrophilic resins. Lignin , being mostly hydrophobic, shows poor adhe- sion between the...cellulose, hemicelluloses, and lignin , are shown in Figures 1, 2, 3, and 4, respectively. Chemical treatment has been a well-known method em- ployed...to clean the surfaces of fibers and remove unwanted components, such as waxes, pectin, hemicellulose, and lignin . The removal of these materials has

  20. ANALYSIS AND EVALUATION OF MYCELIUM REINFORCED NATURAL FIBER BIO-COMPOSITES

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    There is a need for biodegradable alternatives to the inert plastics and expanded foams that are common in both the manufacturing process and device componentry. The material in this study is a bio-composite patented by Ecovative Design LLC. The manufacturer's bio-composite utilizes fungal mycelium ...

  1. Composite material hollow antiresonant fibers.

    PubMed

    Belardi, Walter; De Lucia, Francesco; Poletti, Francesco; Sazio, Pier J

    2017-07-01

    We study novel designs of hollow-core antiresonant fibers comprising multiple materials in their core-boundary membrane. We show that these types of fibers still satisfy an antiresonance condition and compare their properties to those of an ideal single-material fiber with an equivalent thickness and refractive index. As a practical consequence of this concept, we discuss the first realization and characterization of a composite silicon/glass-based hollow antiresonant fiber.

  2. Effect of liquid epoxidized natural rubber (LENR) on mechanical properties and morphology of natural rubber/high density polyethylene/mengkuang fiber (NR/HDPE/MK) bio-composite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piah, Mohd Razi Mat; Baharum, Azizah

    2016-11-01

    The use of mengkuang fiber (MK) fibers in NR/HDPE (40/60) blend was studied via surface modification of fiber. The MK fiber was pre-washed with 5%wt/v sodium hydroxide solution prior to treatment with liquid epoxidized natural rubber (LENR). The concentration of LENR were varied from 5%-20%wt in toluene. The effects of LENR concentrations were studied in terms of mechanical properties and morphology formed. Melt-blending was performed using an internal mixer (Haake Rheomix 600). The processing parameters identified were 135°C temperature, 45 rpm rotor speed, 12 minutes processing time and at 20%wt MK fiber loading. The optimum LENR treatment concentration was obtained at 5%wt with tensile strength, tensile modulus, and impact strength of 10.3 MPa, 414.2 MPa and 14.4 kJ/m2 respectively. The tensile modulus of LENR-treated MK fiber filled NR/HDPE bio-composite has shown enhancement up to 16.7% higher than untreated MK fiber. The tensile and impact strength were decreased with increasing LENR concentration due to the broken of MK fibers to smaller particles and adhered to each other. FESEM micrographs confirmed the formation of fiber-fiber agglomeration in NR/HDPE blends. The optical microscope analysis shows MK fibers is shorter than original fiber lengths after NaOH-LENR surface modification. The internal bonding forces of MK fiber seems to be weaker than external force exerted on it, therefore, the MK fiber has broken to smaller particles and reduced the mechanical properties of NR/HDPE/MK(20%) bio-composite.

  3. Researches on the development of new composite materials complete / partially biodegradable using natural textile fibers of new vegetable origin and those recovered from textile waste

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Todor, M. P.; Bulei, C.; Heput, T.; Kiss, I.

    2018-01-01

    The objective of the research is to develop new fully / partially biodegradable composite materials by using new natural fibers and those recovered from various wastes. Thus, the research aims to obtain some composites with matrix of various types of polymeric materials and the reinforcement phase of textile materials (of different natures, morphologies and composites) so that the resulting products to be (bio)degradable. The textile inserts used as raffle are ecological, non-toxic and biodegradable and they contain (divided or in combination) bast fibers (flax, hemp, jute) and other vegetable fibers (cotton, wool) as plain yarn or fabric, which can replace fibers of glass commonly used in polymeric composites. The main activities described in this article are carried out during the first phase of the research (phase I - initiation of research) and they are oriented towards the choice of types of textile inserts from which the composites will be obtained (the materials needed for the raffle), the choice of the types of polymers (the necessary materials for matrices) and choosing the variants of composites with different types and proportions of the constituent content (proposals and working variants) and choosing the right method for obtaining samples of composite materials (realization technology). The purpose of the research is to obtain composite materials with high structural, thermo-mechanical and / or tribological performances, according to ecological norms and international requirements in order to replace the existing classical materials, setting up current, innovative and high performance solutions, for applications in top areas such as automotive industry and not only.

  4. Scalable Fabrication of Natural-Fiber Reinforced Composites with Electromagnetic Interference Shielding Properties by Incorporating Powdered Activated Carbon

    PubMed Central

    Xia, Changlei; Zhang, Shifeng; Ren, Han; Shi, Sheldon Q.; Zhang, Hualiang; Cai, Liping; Li, Jianzhang

    2015-01-01

    Kenaf fiber—polyester composites incorporated with powdered activated carbon (PAC) were prepared using the vacuum-assisted resin transfer molding (VARTM) process. The product demonstrates the electromagnetic interference (EMI) shielding function. The kenaf fibers were retted in a pressured reactor to remove the lignin and extractives in the fiber. The PAC was loaded into the freshly retted fibers in water. The PAC loading effectiveness was determined using the Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) specific surface area analysis. A higher BET value was obtained with a higher PAC loading. The transmission energies of the composites were measured by exposing the samples to the irradiation of electromagnetic waves with a variable frequency from 8 GHz to 12 GHz. As the PAC content increased from 0% to 10.0%, 20.5% and 28.9%, the EMI shielding effectiveness increased from 41.4% to 76.0%, 87.9% and 93.0%, respectively. Additionally, the EMI absorption increased from 21.2% to 31.7%, 44.7% and 64.0%, respectively. The ratio of EMI absorption/shielding of the composite at 28.9% of PAC loading was increased significantly by 37.1% as compared with the control sample. It was indicated that the incorporation of PAC into the composites was very effective for absorbing electromagnetic waves, which resulted in a decrease in secondary electromagnetic pollution. PMID:28787808

  5. Nano polypeptide particles reinforced polymer composite fibers.

    PubMed

    Li, Jiashen; Li, Yi; Zhang, Jing; Li, Gang; Liu, Xuan; Li, Zhi; Liu, Xuqing; Han, Yanxia; Zhao, Zheng

    2015-02-25

    Because of the intensified competition of land resources for growing food and natural textile fibers, there is an urgent need to reuse and recycle the consumed/wasted natural fibers as regenerated green materials. Although polypeptide was extracted from wool by alkaline hydrolysis, the size of the polypeptide fragments could be reduced to nanoscale. The wool polypeptide particles were fragile and could be crushed down to nano size again and dispersed evenly among polymer matrix under melt extrusion condition. The nano polypeptide particles could reinforce antiultraviolet capability, moisture regain, and mechanical properties of the polymer-polypeptide composite fibers.

  6. Durability of pulp fiber-cement composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohr, Benjamin J.

    Wood pulp fibers are a unique reinforcing material as they are non-hazardous, renewable, and readily available at relatively low cost compared to other commercially available fibers. Today, pulp fiber-cement composites can be found in products such as extruded non-pressure pipes and non-structural building materials, mainly thin-sheet products. Although natural fibers have been used historically to reinforce various building materials, little scientific effort has been devoted to the examination of natural fibers to reinforce engineering materials until recently. The need for this type of fundamental research has been emphasized by widespread awareness of moisture-related failures of some engineered materials; these failures have led to the filing of national- and state-level class action lawsuits against several manufacturers. Thus, if pulp fiber-cement composites are to be used for exterior structural applications, the effects of cyclical wet/dry (rain/heat) exposure on performance must be known. Pulp fiber-cement composites have been tested in flexure to examine the progression of strength and toughness degradation. Based on scanning electron microscopy (SEM), environmental scanning electron microscopy (ESEM), energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), a three-part model describing the mechanisms of progressive degradation has been proposed: (1) initial fiber-cement/fiber interlayer debonding, (2) reprecipitation of crystalline and amorphous ettringite within the void space at the former fiber-cement interface, and (3) fiber embrittlement due to reprecipitation of calcium hydroxide filling the spaces within the fiber cell wall structure. Finally, as a means to mitigate kraft pulp fiber-cement composite degradation, the effects of partial portland cement replacement with various supplementary cementitious materials (SCMs) has been investigated for their effect on mitigating kraft pulp fiber-cement composite mechanical property degradation (i.e., strength and toughness

  7. Fiber composite flywheel rim

    DOEpatents

    Davis, D.E.; Ingham, K.T.

    1987-04-28

    A flywheel comprising a hub having at least one radially projecting disc, an annular rim secured to said disc and providing a surface circumferential to said hub, a first plurality of resin-impregnated fibers wound about said rim congruent to said surface, and a shell enclosing said first plurality of fibers and formed by a second plurality of resin-impregnated fibers wound about said rim tangentially to said surface. 2 figs.

  8. Impact resistance of fiber composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chamis, C. C.; Sinclair, J. H.

    1982-01-01

    Stress-strain curves are obtained for a variety of glass fiber and carbon fiber reinforced plastics in dynamic tension, over the stress-strain range of 0.00087-2070/sec. The test method is of the one-bar block-to-bar type, using a rotating disk or a pendulum as the loading apparatus and yielding accurate stress-strain curves up to the breaking strain. In the case of glass fiber reinforced plastic, the tensile strength, strain to peak impact stress, total strain and total absorbed energy all increase significantly as the strain rate increases. By contrast, carbon fiber reinforced plastics show lower rates of increase with strain rate. It is recommended that hybrid composites incorporating the high strength and rigidity of carbon fiber reinforced plastic with the high impact absorption of glass fiber reinforced plastics be developed for use in structures subjected to impact loading.

  9. Structural basis for unique hierarchical cylindrites induced by ultrahigh shear gradient in single natural fiber reinforced poly(lactic acid) green composites.

    PubMed

    Xu, Huan; Xie, Lan; Jiang, Xin; Hakkarainen, Minna; Chen, Jing-Bin; Zhong, Gan-Ji; Li, Zhong-Ming

    2014-05-12

    importance to shed light on tailoring crystalline morphology for natural fibers reinforced green composite materials. Of immense practical significance, too, is the crystalline evolution that has been tracked in the simple model penetrated with an ultrahigh shear gradient, which researchers have so far been unable to replicate during the practical melt processing, such as extrusion and injection molding.

  10. Fiber reinforced PMR polyimide composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cavano, P. J.; Winters, W. E.

    1978-01-01

    Commercially obtained PMR-15 polyimide prepregs with S-glass and graphite fiber reinforcements were evaluated along with in-house prepared glass and graphite cloth PMR 2 materials. A novel autoclave approach was conceived and used to demonstrate that both the PMR systems respond to 1.4 MPa (200 psi) autoclave pressures to produce void free composites equivalent to die molded laminates. Isothermal gravimetric analysis and subsequent mechanical property tests indicated that the PMR 2 system was significantly superior in thermo-oxidative stability, and that S-glass reinforcements may contribute to the accelerated degradation of composites at 316 C (600 F) when compared to graphite fiber reinforced composites. Fully reversed bending fatigue experiments were conducted with a type of fixture unused for organic matrix composites. These studies indicated that the graphite fiber composites were clearly superior in fatigue resistance to the glass fiber reinforced material and that PMR matrix composite systems yield performance of the same order as composite materials employing other families of matrices.

  11. Thermoplastic/Nanotube Composite Fibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haggenmueller, Reto; Fischer, John; Winey, Karen

    2000-03-01

    A combination of solvent casting and melt mixing methods are used to compound selected thermoplastics with single-wall carbon nanotubes. Subsequently, melt extrusion is used to form thermoplastic-nanotube composite fibers. The structural characteristics are investigated by electron microscopy and x-ray scattering methods. In addition the electrical, thermal and mechanical properties were measured. Correlations are sought between the viscoelastic properties of the compounded materials, the nanotube loading and elongation ratio after spinning, and the properties of the resultant fibers.

  12. Electrospun Fibers for Composites Applications

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-02-01

    so designated by other authorized documents. Citation of manufacturer’s or trade names does not constitute an official endorsement or approval of...and tensile testing . While the nanofibers did not dramatically stiffen the resulting composites, they provided insight as to the impact of the...of suitable fiber mats for this study limited the scope and accessibility of test specimens, the results from the examination of fiber-matrix

  13. Fabrication of Composite Material Using Gettou Fiber by Injection Molding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Setsuda, Roy; Fukumoto, Isao; Kanda, Yasuyuki

    This study investigated the mechanical properties of composite using gettou (shell ginger) fiber as reinforcement fabricated from injection molding. Gettou fiber is a natural fiber made from gettou, a subtropical plant that is largely abundant in Okinawa, Japan. We used the stem part of gettou plant and made the gettou fiber by crushing the stem. The composite using gettou fiber contributed to low shrinkage ratio, high bending strength and high flexural modulus. The mechanical strength of composite using long gettou fiber showed higher value than composite using short gettou fiber. Next, because gettou is particularly known for its anti-mold characteristic, we investigated the characteristic in gettou plastic composite. The composite was tested against two molds: aspergillius niger and penicillium funiculosum. The 60% gettou fiber plastic composite was found to satisfy the JISZ2801 criterion. Finally, in order to predict the flexural modulus of composite using gettou fiber by Halpin-Tsai equation, the tensile elastic modulus of single gettou fiber was measured. The tendency of the experimental results of composite using gettou fiber was in good agreement with Halpin-Tsai equation.

  14. High fiber-low matrix composites: kenaf fiber/polypropylene.

    Treesearch

    Anand R. Sanadi; J.F. Hunt; D.F. Caulfield; G. Kovacsvolgyi; B. Destree

    2002-01-01

    Considerable interest has been generated in the use of lignocellulosic fibers and wastes (both agricultural and wood based) as fillers and reinforcements in thermoplastics. In general, present technologies limit fiber loading in thermoplastics to about 60 percent by weight of fiber. To produce high fiber content composites for commercial use while maintaining adequate...

  15. Cylindrical Piezoelectric Fiber Composite Actuators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allison, Sidney G.; Shams, Qamar A.; Fox, Robert L.

    2008-01-01

    The use of piezoelectric devices has become widespread since Pierre and Jacques Curie discovered the piezoelectric effect in 1880. Examples of current applications of piezoelectric devices include ultrasonic transducers, micro-positioning devices, buzzers, strain sensors, and clocks. The invention of such lightweight, relatively inexpensive piezoceramic-fiber-composite actuators as macro fiber composite (MFC) actuators has made it possible to obtain strains and displacements greater than those that could be generated by prior actuators based on monolithic piezoceramic sheet materials. MFC actuators are flat, flexible actuators designed for bonding to structures to apply or detect strains. Bonding multiple layers of MFC actuators together could increase force capability, but not strain or displacement capability. Cylindrical piezoelectric fiber composite (CPFC) actuators have been invented as alternatives to MFC actuators for applications in which greater forces and/or strains or displacements may be required. In essence, a CPFC actuator is an MFC or other piezoceramic fiber composite actuator fabricated in a cylindrical instead of its conventional flat shape. Cylindrical is used here in the general sense, encompassing shapes that can have circular, elliptical, rectangular or other cross-sectional shapes in the planes perpendicular to their longitudinal axes.

  16. Use of Natural-Fiber Bio-Composites in Construction versus Traditional Solutions: Operational and Embodied Energy Assessment

    PubMed Central

    Galan-Marin, Carmen; Rivera-Gomez, Carlos; Garcia-Martinez, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    During the last decades natural polymers have become more and more frequent to replace traditional inorganic stabilizers in building materials. The purpose of this research is to establish a comparison between the most conventional building material solutions for load-bearing walls and a type of biomaterial. This comparison will focus on load-bearing walls as used in a widespread type of twentieth century dwelling construction in Europe and still used in developing countries nowadays. To carry out this analysis, the structural and thermal insulation characteristics of different construction solutions are balanced. The tool used for this evaluation is the life cycle assessment throughout the whole lifespan of these buildings. This research aims to examine the environmental performance of each material assessed: fired clay brick masonry walls (BW), concrete block masonry walls (CW), and stabilized soil block masonry walls (SW) stabilized with natural fibers and alginates. These conventional and new materials are evaluated from the point of view of both operational and embodied energy. PMID:28773586

  17. Use of Natural-Fiber Bio-Composites in Construction versus Traditional Solutions: Operational and Embodied Energy Assessment.

    PubMed

    Galan-Marin, Carmen; Rivera-Gomez, Carlos; Garcia-Martinez, Antonio

    2016-06-13

    During the last decades natural polymers have become more and more frequent to replace traditional inorganic stabilizers in building materials. The purpose of this research is to establish a comparison between the most conventional building material solutions for load-bearing walls and a type of biomaterial. This comparison will focus on load-bearing walls as used in a widespread type of twentieth century dwelling construction in Europe and still used in developing countries nowadays. To carry out this analysis, the structural and thermal insulation characteristics of different construction solutions are balanced. The tool used for this evaluation is the life cycle assessment throughout the whole lifespan of these buildings. This research aims to examine the environmental performance of each material assessed: fired clay brick masonry walls (BW), concrete block masonry walls (CW), and stabilized soil block masonry walls (SW) stabilized with natural fibers and alginates. These conventional and new materials are evaluated from the point of view of both operational and embodied energy.

  18. Study of the Production of a Metallic Coating on Natural Fiber Composite Through the Cold Spray Technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Astarita, Antonello; Boccarusso, Luca; Durante, Massimo; Viscusi, Antonio; Sansone, Raffaele; Carrino, Luigi

    2018-02-01

    The deposition of a metallic coating on hemp-PLA (polylactic acid) laminate through the cold spray technique was studied in this paper. A number of different combinations of the deposition parameters were tested to investigate the feasibility of the process. The feasibility of the process was proved when processing conditions are properly set. The bonding mechanism between the substrate and the first layer of particles was studied through scanning electron microscope observations, and it was found that the polymeric matrix experiences a huge plastic deformation to accommodate the impinging particles; conversely a different mechanism was observed when metallic powders impact against a previously deposited metallic layer. The difference between the bonding mechanism and the growth of the coating was also highlighted. Depending on the spraying parameters, four different processing conditions were highlighted and discussed, and as a result the processing window was defined. The mechanical properties of the composite panel before and after the deposition were also investigated. The experiments showed that when properly carried out, the deposition process does not affect the strength of the panel; moreover, no improvements were observed because the contribution of the coating is negligible with respect to one of the reinforcement fibers.

  19. Resin/graphite fiber composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cavano, P. J.; Jones, R. J.; Vaughan, R. W.

    1972-01-01

    High temperature resin matrices suitable for use in advanced graphite fiber composites for jet engine applications were evaluated. A series of planned, sequential screening experiments with resin systems in composite form were performed to reduce the number of candidates to a single A-type polyimide resin that repetitively produced void-free, high strength and modulus composites acceptable for use in the 550 F range for 1000 hours. An optimized processing procedure was established for this system. Extensive mechanical property studies characterized this single system, at room temperature, 500 F, 550 F and 600 F, for various exposure times.

  20. Biodegradable/Compostable Composites From Ligno-Cellulosic Fibers

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The increased importance of renewable resources for raw materials and recyclabi1ity/biodegradability of the product at the end of the useful life are demanding a shift from petroleum-based synthetics to agro-based natural fibers in automotive interiors. Natural fiber composites can contribute greatl...

  1. Interfacial contributions in lignocellulosic fiber-reinforced polyurethane composites

    Treesearch

    Timothy G. Rials; Michael P. Wolcott; John M. Nassar

    2001-01-01

    Whereas lignocellulosic fibers have received considerable attention as a rein- forcing agent in thermoplastic composites, their applicability to reactive polymer systems remains of considerable interest. The hydroxyl-rich nature of natural lignocellulosic fibers suggests that they are particularly useful in thermosetting systems such as polyurethanes. To further this...

  2. Resin/graphite fiber composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cavano, P. J.

    1974-01-01

    Techniques were developed that provided thermo-oxidatively stable A-type polyimide/graphite fiber composites using the approach of in situ polymerization of monomeric reactants directly on reinforcing fibers, rather than employing separately prepared prepolymer varnish. This was accomplished by simply mixing methylene dianiline and two ester-acids and applying this solution to the fibers for subsequent molding. Five different formulated molecular weight resins were examined, and an optimized die molding procedure established for the 1500 formulated molecular weight system. Extensive ultrasonic inspection of composites was successfully utilized as a technique for monitoring laminate quality. Composite mechanical property studies were conducted with this polyimide resin at room temperature and after various time exposures in a thermo-oxidative environment at 561 K (550 F), 589 K (600 F) and 617 K (650 F). It was determined that such composites have a long term life in the temperature range of 561 K to 589 K. The final phase involved the fabrication and evaluation of a series of demonstration airfoil specimens.

  3. Multi-Fiber Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Novak, R. C.

    1976-01-01

    Resin matrix composites having improved resistance to foreign object damage in gas turbine engine fan blade applications were developed. Materials evaluated include epoxy matrix graphite/glass and boron/glass hybrids, thermoplastic matrix boron/glass hybrids, and superhybrids consisting of graphite/epoxy, boron/aluminum, and titanium alloy sheets. Static, pendulum impact, and ballistic impact test results are reported for all materials. Superhybrid blade like specimens are shown to be capable of withstanding relatively severe ballistic impacts from gelatin spheres without fracture. The effects of ply configuration and projectile angle of incidence on impact behavior are described. Predictions of surface strains during ballistic impact are presented and shown to be in reasonable agreement with experimental measurements.

  4. Melt rheological properties of natural fiber-reinforced polypropylene

    Treesearch

    Jarrod J. Schemenauer; Tim A. Osswald; Anand R. Sanadi; Daniel F. Caulfield

    2000-01-01

    The melt viscosities and mechanical properties of 3 different natural fiber-polypropylene composites were investigated. Coir (coconut), jute, and kenaf fibers were compounded with polypropylene at 30% by weight content. A capillary rheometer was used to evaluate melt viscosity. The power-law model parameters are reported over a shear rate range between 100 to 1000 s–1...

  5. Rupture luminescence from natural fibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, W.; Haneman, D.

    1999-12-01

    Fibers of cotton and wool, and samples of paper, have been ruptured in tension in vacuum and in air, and give detectable luminescence in the visible range. All have a common emission peak at around 2.0 eV, which is ascribed to the deexcitation of states excited by the rupture of organic chain molecule bonds. Rubber bands give stronger emission in air, but no emission in vacuum, suggesting the material breaks only at weak interchain bonds. Mohair, cat, and horse hair also give emission in air. The phenomena reveal effects that would occur widely in nature.

  6. Structural characterization and mechanical properties of polypropylene reinforced natural fibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karim, M. A. A.; Zaman, I.; Rozlan, S. A. M.; Berhanuddin, N. I. C.; Manshoor, B.; Mustapha, M. S.; Khalid, A.; Chan, S. W.

    2017-10-01

    Recently the development of natural fiber composite instead of synthetics fiber has lead to eco-friendly product manufacturing to meet various applications in the field of automotive, construction and manufacturing. The use of natural fibers offer an alternative to the reinforcing fibers because of their good mechanical properties, low density, renewability, and biodegradability. In this present research, the effects of maleic anhydride polypropylene (MAPP) on the mechanical properties and material characterization behaviour of kenaf fiber and coir fiber reinforced polypropylene were investigated. Different fractions of composites with 10wt%, 20wt% and 30wt% fiber content were prepared by using brabender mixer at 190°C. The 3wt% MAPP was added during the mixing. The composites were subsequently molded with injection molding to prepare the test specimens. The mechanical properties of the samples were investigated according to ISO 527 to determine the tensile strength and modulus. These results were also confirmed by the SEM machine observations of fracture surface of composites and FTIR analysis of the chemical structure. As the results, the presence of MAPP helps increasing the mechanical properties of both fibers and 30wt% kenaf fiber with 3wt% MAPP gives the best result compare to others.

  7. Tensile Properties and Deflection Temperature of Polypropylene/Sumberejo Kenaf Fiber Composites with Fiber Content Variation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ollivia, S. L.; Juwono, A. L.; Roseno, Seto

    2017-05-01

    The use of synthetic fibers as reinforcement in composites has disadvantage which are unsustainable and an adverse impact on the environment. An alternative reinforcement for composites is natural fiber. Polypropylene and Sumberejo kenaf fibers were used respectively as the matrix and reinforcement. The aim of this research was to obtain the optimum tensile properties and deflection temperature with the variation of kenaf fiber fractions. Polypropylene/kenaf fiber composites were fabricated by hot press method. The kenaf fiber was soaked in NaOH solution before being used as the reinforcement and polypropylene was extruded before being used as the matrix. The weight fractions were varied to produce composites and pristine polypropylene samples were also prepared for comparison. The optimum tensile strength, modulus and deflection temperature were found in the composites with the 40 wt% kenaf fiber fraction with an increase up to 80% and 170% compared to the pristine polypropylene with the values of (60.3 ± 4,3) MPa and (159.1 ± 1,8) °C respectively. The Scanning Electron Microscope observation results in the fracture surface of the composites with the 40 wt% fiber fraction showed a relatively good bonding interface between fibers and the matrix and the failure modes were fiber breakage and matrix failures.

  8. Resin/graphite fiber composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cavano, P. J.

    1974-01-01

    Processing techniques were developed for the fabrication of both polyphenylquinoxaline and polyimide composites by the in situ polymerization of monomeric reactants directly on the graphite reinforcing fibers, rather than using previously prepared prepolymer varnishes. Void-free polyphenylquinoxaline composites were fabricated and evaluated for room and elevated flexure and shear properties. The technology of the polyimide system was advanced to the point where the material is ready for commercial exploitation. A reproducible processing cycle free of operator judgment factors was developed for fabrication of void-free composites exhibiting excellent mechanical properties and a long time isothermal life in the range of 288 C to 316 C. The effects of monomer reactant stoichiometry and process modification on resin flow were investigated. Demonstration of the utility and quality of this polyimide system was provided through the successful fabrication and evaluation of four complex high tip speed fan blades.

  9. Mechanical characterization of scalable cellulose nano-fiber based composites made using liquid composite molding process

    Treesearch

    Bamdad Barari; Thomas K. Ellingham; Issam I. Ghamhia; Krishna M. Pillai; Rani El-Hajjar; Lih-Sheng Turng; Ronald Sabo

    2016-01-01

    Plant derived cellulose nano-fibers (CNF) are a material with remarkable mechanical properties compared to other natural fibers. However, efforts to produce nano-composites on a large scale using CNF have yet to be investigated. In this study, scalable CNF nano-composites were made from isotropically porous CNF preforms using a freeze drying process. An improvised...

  10. Composite Solid Electrolyte Containing Li+- Conducting Fibers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Appleby, A. John; Wang, Chunsheng; Zhang, Xiangwu

    2006-01-01

    Improved composite solid polymer electrolytes (CSPEs) are being developed for use in lithium-ion power cells. The matrix components of these composites, like those of some prior CSPEs, are high-molecular-weight dielectric polymers [generally based on polyethylene oxide (PEO)]. The filler components of these composites are continuous, highly-Li(+)-conductive, inorganic fibers. PEO-based polymers alone would be suitable for use as solid electrolytes, were it not for the fact that their room-temperature Li(+)-ion conductivities lie in the range between 10(exp -6) and 10(exp -8) S/cm, too low for practical applications. In a prior approach to formulating a CSPE, one utilizes nonconductive nanoscale inorganic filler particles to increase the interfacial stability of the conductive phase. The filler particles also trap some electrolyte impurities. The achievable increase in conductivity is limited by the nonconductive nature of the filler particles.

  11. Microbial Degradation of Fiber Reinforced Polymer Composites

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-07-16

    epoxy and nyioo coatiags on steel wets breached by mixed cultures Of marfine kACtetiL Pondrys9 repeated tha p-s5 evaphite fibers wenm attacke by a mixed...composite, were not degraded by Ulftcd irft.Oxidizinl𔃽 hydri )gefrproducing, calcarcoiusdepoltitng, or SRB. Bacteria did colonize ruina4 ffibers uid...7-... ,. nar-cklli. W.O., and Mansftld. 1., Impact.if W.Co.uling ’Bowne E. kBct ormlcal Behaiou of 304 Stainless Steel In Natural Secwa. Mw 6lo140

  12. Composite strengthening. [of nonferrous, fiber reinforced alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stoloff, N. S.

    1976-01-01

    The mechanical behavior of unidirectionally reinforced metals is examined, with particular attention to fabrication techniques for artificial composites and eutectic alloys and to principles of fiber reinforcement. The properties of artificial composites are discussed in terms of strength of fiber composites, strength of ribbon-reinforced composites, crack initiation, crack propagation, and creep behavior. The properties of eutectic composites are examined relative to tensile strength, compressive strength, fracture, high-temperature strength, and fatigue. In the case of artificial composites, parallelism of fibers, good bonding between fibers and matrix, and freedom of fibers from damage are all necessary to ensure superior performance. For many eutectic systems there are stringent boundary conditions relative to melt purity and superheat, atmosphere control, temperature gradient, and growth rate in order to provide near-perfect alignment of the reinforcements with a minimum of growth defects.

  13. The optimal fiber volume fraction and fiber-matrix property compatibility in fiber reinforced composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pan, Ning

    1992-01-01

    Although the question of minimum or critical fiber volume fraction beyond which a composite can then be strengthened due to addition of fibers has been dealt with by several investigators for both continuous and short fiber composites, a study of maximum or optimal fiber volume fraction at which the composite reaches its highest strength has not been reported yet. The present analysis has investigated this issue for short fiber case based on the well-known shear lag (the elastic stress transfer) theory as the first step. Using the relationships obtained, the minimum spacing between fibers is determined upon which the maximum fiber volume fraction can be calculated, depending on the fiber packing forms within the composites. The effects on the value of this maximum fiber volume fraction due to such factors as fiber and matrix properties, fiber aspect ratio and fiber packing forms are discussed. Furthermore, combined with the previous analysis on the minimum fiber volume fraction, this maximum fiber volume fraction can be used to examine the property compatibility of fiber and matrix in forming a composite. This is deemed to be useful for composite design. Finally some examples are provided to illustrate the results.

  14. Mechanical Properties in a Bamboo Fiber/PBS Biodegradable Composite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ogihara, Shinji; Okada, Akihisa; Kobayashi, Satoshi

    In recent years, biodegradable plastics which have low effect on environment have been developed. However, many of them have lower mechanical properties than conventional engineering plastics. Reinforcing them with a natural fiber is one of reinforcing methods without a loss of their biodegradability. In the present study, we use a bamboo fiber as the reinforcement and polybutylenesuccinate (PBS) as the matrix. We fabricate long fiber unidirectional composites and cross-ply laminate with different fiber weight fractions (10, 20, 30, 40 and 50wt%). We conduct tensile tests to evaluate the mechanical properties of these composites. In addition, we measure bamboo fiber strength distribution. We discuss the experimentally-obtained properties based on the mechanical properties of the constituent materials. Young's modulus and tensile strength in unidirectional composite and cross-ply laminate increase with increasing fiber weight fraction. However, the strain at fracture showed decreasing tendency. Young's modulus in fiber and fiber transverse directions are predictable by the rules of mixture. Tensile strength in fiber direction is lower than Curtin's prediction of strength which considers distribution of fiber strength. Young's modulus in cross-ply laminate is predictable by the laminate theory. However, analytical prediction of Poisson's ratio in cross-ply laminate by the laminate theory is lower than the experimental results.

  15. Hybrid Fiber Layup and Fiber-Reinforced Polymeric Composites Produced Therefrom

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barnell, Thomas J. (Inventor); Garrigan, Sean P. (Inventor); Rauscher, Michael D. (Inventor); Dietsch, Benjamin A. (Inventor); Cupp, Gary N. (Inventor)

    2018-01-01

    Embodiments of a hybrid fiber layup used to form a fiber-reinforced polymeric composite, and a fiber-reinforced polymeric composite produced therefrom are disclosed. The hybrid fiber layup comprises one or more dry fiber strips and one or more prepreg fiber strips arranged side by side within each layer, wherein the prepreg fiber strips comprise fiber material impregnated with polymer resin and the dry fiber strips comprise fiber material without impregnated polymer resin.

  16. FIBER ORIENTATION IN INJECTION MOLDED LONG CARBON FIBER THERMOPLASTIC COMPOSITES

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Jin; Nguyen, Ba Nghiep; Mathur, Raj N.

    2015-03-23

    A set of edge-gated and center-gated plaques were injection molded with long carbon fiber-reinforced thermoplastic composites, and the fiber orientation was measured at different locations of the plaques. Autodesk Simulation Moldflow Insight (ASMI) software was used to simulate the injection molding of these plaques and to predict the fiber orientation, using the anisotropic rotary diffusion and the reduced strain closure models. The phenomenological parameters of the orientation models were carefully identified by fitting to the measured orientation data. The fiber orientation predictions show very good agreement with the experimental data.

  17. Production of Banana Fiber Yarns for Technical Textile Reinforced Composites

    PubMed Central

    Ortega, Zaida; Morón, Moisés; Monzón, Mario D.; Badalló, Pere; Paz, Rubén

    2016-01-01

    Natural fibers have been used as an alternative to synthetic ones for their greener character; banana fibers have the advantage of coming from an agricultural residue. Fibers have been extracted by mechanical means from banana tree pseudostems, as a strategy to valorize banana crops residues. To increase the mechanical properties of the composite, technical textiles can be used as reinforcement, instead of short fibers. To do so, fibers must be spun and woven. The aim of this paper is to show the viability of using banana fibers to obtain a yarn suitable to be woven, after an enzymatic treatment, which is more environmentally friendly. Extracted long fibers are cut to 50 mm length and then immersed into an enzymatic bath for their refining. Conditions of enzymatic treatment have been optimized to produce a textile grade of banana fibers, which have then been characterized. The optimum treating conditions were found with the use of Biopectinase K (100% related to fiber weight) at 45 °C, pH 4.5 for 6 h, with bath renewal after three hours. The first spinning trials show that these fibers are suitable to be used for the production of yarns. The next step is the weaving process to obtain a technical fabric for composites production. PMID:28773490

  18. Influence of non-smooth surface on tribological properties of glass fiber-epoxy resin composite sliding against stainless steel under natural seawater lubrication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Shaofeng; Gao, Dianrong; Liang, Yingna; Chen, Bo

    2015-11-01

    With the development of bionics, the bionic non-smooth surfaces are introduced to the field of tribology. Although non-smooth surface has been studied widely, the studies of non-smooth surface under the natural seawater lubrication are still very fewer, especially experimental research. The influences of smooth and non-smooth surface on the frictional properties of the glass fiber-epoxy resin composite (GF/EPR) coupled with stainless steel 316L are investigated under natural seawater lubrication in this paper. The tested non-smooth surfaces include the surfaces with semi-spherical pits, the conical pits, the cone-cylinder combined pits, the cylindrical pits and through holes. The friction and wear tests are performed using a ring-on-disc test rig under 60 N load and 1000 r/min rotational speed. The tests results show that GF/EPR with bionic non-smooth surface has quite lower friction coefficient and better wear resistance than GF/EPR with smooth surface without pits. The average friction coefficient of GF/EPR with semi-spherical pits is 0.088, which shows the largest reduction is approximately 63.18% of GF/EPR with smooth surface. In addition, the wear debris on the worn surfaces of GF/EPR are observed by a confocal scanning laser microscope. It is shown that the primary wear mechanism is the abrasive wear. The research results provide some design parameters for non-smooth surface, and the experiment results can serve as a beneficial supplement to non-smooth surface study.

  19. Reinforcing and Toughening Effects of Bamboo Pulp Fiber on Poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate) Fiber Composites.

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate) (PHBV)/bamboo pulp fiber composites were melt-compounded and injection-molded. Tensile, impact and dynamic mechanical properties of the composites were studied. In contrast to many other short natural fiber reinforced biocomposites which demonstrate decre...

  20. Second generation PMR polyimide/fiber composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cavano, P. J.

    1979-01-01

    A second generation polymerization monomeric reactants (PMR) polyimdes matrix system (PMR 2) was characterized in both neat resin and composite form with two different graphite fiber reinforcements. Three different formulated molecular weight levels of laboratory prepared PMR 2 were examined, in addition to a purchased experimental fully formulated PMR 2 precurser solution. Isothermal aging of graphite fibers, neat resin samples and composite specimens in air at 316 C were investigated. Humidity exposures at 65 C and 97 percent relative humidity were conducted for both neat resin and composites for eight day periods. Anaerobic char of neat resin and fire testing of composites were conducted with PMR 15, PMR 2, and an epoxy system. Composites were fire tested on a burner rig developed for this program. Results indicate that neat PMR 2 resins exhibit excellent isothermal resistance and that PMR 2 composite properties appear to be influenced by the thermo-oxidative stability of the reinforcing fiber.

  1. Characterization of new natural cellulosic fiber from Lygeum spartum L.

    PubMed

    Belouadah, Z; Ati, A; Rokbi, M

    2015-12-10

    Integration of new natural fibers in polymer composites field can contribute to increase the production of natural reinforcements and expand their use into new applications. In the present work, new cellulosic fibers were extracted from Lygeum spartum L. plant using an eco-friendly method. The morphological, physico-chemical, thermal and mechanical properties of L. spartum L. fibers were reported for the first time in this paper. The stem anatomy and fiber SEM micrographs showed a strong presence of fiber cells. ATR-FTIR and X-ray analysis proved that these fibers are rich in cellulose content with crystallinity index of 46.19%. The thermogravimetric analysis indicates that the L. spartum fibers are thermally stable until 220 °C with apparent activation energy of 68.77 kJ/mol. Young's modulus, tensile strength and strain at failure were determined from the single fiber tensile test as 13.2 GPa, 280 MPa, and 3.7% respectively. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Process for preparing composite articles from composite fiber blends

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McMahon, Paul E. (Inventor); Chung, Tai-Shung (Inventor); Ying, Lincoln (Inventor)

    1989-01-01

    A composite article is prepared by forming a continuous tow of continuous carbon fibers, forming a continuous tow of thermoplastic polymer fibers, uniformly and continuously spreading the thermoplastic polymer fibers to a selected width, uniformly and continuously spreading the carbon fiber tow to a width that is essentially the same as the selected width for the thermoplastic polymer fiber tow, intermixing the tows intimately, uniformly and continuously, in a relatively tension-free state, continuously withdrawing the intermixed tow and applying the tow to a mold and heating the tow.

  3. Design considerations for fiber composite structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chamis, C. C.

    1972-01-01

    An overview of the design methodology for designing structural components from fiber composites is presented. In particular, the need for new conceptual structural designs for the future is discussed and the evolution of conceptual design is illustrated. Sources of design data, analysis and design procedures, and the basic components of structural fiber composites are cited and described. Examples of tradeoff studies and optimum designs are discussed and a simple structure is described in some detail.

  4. Effect of natural fibers on mechanical properties of green cement mortar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    AL-Zubaidi, Aseel B.

    2018-05-01

    Natural fibers of banana, reed, palm and coconut were used to reinforce cement composite. Optical microscopy showed that the prepared fibers are different in size and morphology. Nearly equiaxed, ribbon-like and nearly cylindrical morphologies were observed. Each of the utilized natural fibers was incorporated in the cement matrix at 0, 0.25, 0.5, 0.75 and 1.0 wt% and cured for 28 days. The scanning electron micrographs for the 1.0 wt% -reinforced composite showed differences in porosity, grain size and shape. Each of the utilized fibers has different effect on the microstructure of the cement composite that depends on the fiber size and morphology. Water absorption, thermal conductivity, bending strength, hardness and compression strengths were measured for the reinforced cement composite. It is found that the final physical and mechanical properties of the set cement composite depend on the fiber content and fiber type through the differences in their sizes and morphologies.

  5. Fungal degradation of fiber-reinforced composite materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gu, J. D.; Lu, C.; Mitchell, R.; Thorp, K.; Crasto, A.

    1997-01-01

    As described in a previous report, a fungal consortium isolated from degraded polymeric materials was capable of growth on presterilized coupons of five composites, resulting in deep penetration into the interior of all materials within five weeks. Data describing the utilization of composite constituents as nutrients for the microflora are described in this article. Increased microbial growth was observed when composite extract was incubated with the fungal inoculum at ambient temperatures. Scanning electron microscopic observation of carbon fibers incubated with a naturally developed population of microorganisms showed the formation of bacterial biofilms on the fiber surfaces, suggesting possible utilization of the fiber chemical sizing as carbon and energy sources. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy was used to monitor the phenomena occurring at the fiber-matrix interfaces. Significant differences were observed between inoculated and sterile panels of the composite materials. A progressive decline in impedance was detected in the inoculated panels. Several reaction steps may be involved in the degradation process. Initial ingress of water into the resin matrix appeared to be followed by degradation of fiber surfaces, and separation of fibers from the resin matrix. This investigation suggested that composite materials are susceptible to microbial attack by providing nutrients for growth.

  6. Durability of Cement Composites Reinforced with Sisal Fiber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Jianqiang

    This dissertation focuses mainly on investigating the aging mechanisms and degradation kinetics of sisal fiber, as well as the approaches to mitigate its degradation in the matrix of cement composites. In contrast to previous works reported in the literature, a novel approach is proposed in this study to directly determine the fiber's degradation rate by separately studying the composition changes, mechanical and physical properties of the embedded sisal fibers. Cement hydration is presented to be a crucial factor in understanding fiber degradation behavior. The degradation mechanisms of natural fiber consist of mineralization of cell walls, alkali hydrolysis of lignin and hemicellulose, as well as the cellulose decomposition which includes stripping of cellulose microfibrils and alkaline hydrolysis of amorphous regions in cellulose chains. Two mineralization mechanisms, CH-mineralization and self-mineralization, are proposed. The degradation kinetics of sisal fiber in the cement matrix are also analyzed and a model to predict the degradation rate of cellulose for natural fiber embedded in cement is outlined. The results indicate that the time needed to completely degrade the cellulose in the matrix with cement replacement by 30wt.% metakaolin is 13 times longer than that in pure cement. A novel and scientific method is presented to determine accelerated aging conditions, and to evaluating sisal fiber's degradation rate and durability of natural fiber-reinforced cement composites. Among the static aggressive environments, the most effective approach for accelerating the degradation of natural fiber in cement composites is to soak the samples or change the humidity at 70 °C and higher temperature. However, the dynamic wetting and drying cycling treatment has a more accelerating effect on the alkali hydrolysis of fiber's amorphous components evidenced by the highest crystallinity indices, minimum content of holocellulose, and lowest tensile strength. Based on the

  7. Experimental Investigation and Analysis of Mercerized and Citric Acid Surface Treated Bamboo Fiber Reinforced Composite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De, Jyotiraman; Baxi, R. N., Dr.

    2017-08-01

    Mercerization or NaOH fiber surface treatment is one of the most popular surface treatment processes to make the natural fibers such as bamboo fibers compatible for use as reinforcing material in composites. But NaOH being a chemical is hazardous and polluting to the nature. This paper explores the possibility of use of naturally derived citric acid for bamboo fiber surface treatment and its comparison with NaOH treated Bamboo Fiber Composites. Untreated, 2.5 wt% NaOH treated and 5 wt% citric acid treated Bamboo Fiber Composites with 5 wt% fiber content were developed by Hand Lay process. Bamboo mats made of bamboo slivers were used as reinforcing material. Mechanical and physical characterization was done to compare the effects of NaOH and citric acid bamboo fiber surface treatment on mechanical and physical properties of Bamboo Fiber Composite. The experiment data reveals that the tensile and flexural strength was found to be highest for citric acid and NaOH treated Bamboo Fiber Composite respectively. Water absorption tendency was found more than the NaOH treated Bamboo Fiber Composites. SEM micrographs used to analyze the morphology of fracture surface of tensile test specimens confirm improvement in fiber-matrix interface bonding due to surface treatment of bamboo fibers.

  8. The effect of fiber treatment on abrasive wear properties of palm fiber reinforced epoxy composite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Razak, Muhammad Firdaus Abdul; Bakar, Mimi Azlina Abu; Kasolang, Salmiah; Ahmad, Mohamad Ali

    2017-12-01

    Oil palm industries generate at least 30 million tons of lignocellulosic biomass annually in the form of oil palm trunks (OPT), empty fruit bunches (EFB), oil palm fronds (OPF) and palm pressed fibres (PPF). The palm fiber is one of the natural fibers used as reinforcement in composite materials in order to decrease environmental issues and promotes utilization of renewable resources. This paper presents a study on the effect of alkaline treatment on wear properties of palm fiber reinforced epoxy resin composite. Abrasive wear testing was deployed to investigate the wear profile of the composite surfaces. Testing was carried out which focused on the effect of alkaline treatment to the palm fiber under different amounts of fiber loading i.e. 1 wt%, 3 wt%, 5 wt% and 7 wt%. The palm fibers were soaked into 6 % of alkaline solution or natrium hydroxide (NaOH) for 12 hours. The fiber was treated in order to remove amorphous materials such as hemicelluloses, lignins and pectins of the fiber. The wear test samples were fabricated using hand lay-up technique and cured at room temperature for 24 hours. Surface roughness of the composite material was also measured using the surface measuring instrument. Dry sliding wear test was performed at room temperature at a constant velocity of 1.4 m/s with a constant load of 10 N by using the Abrasion Test Machine. Result shows that 5 wt% and 7 wt% treated palm fiber loadings have better specific wear rate compared to lower fiber loadings. The finding of this study contributes towards material development and utilization in promoting `waste into wealth' which is in line with national aspiration.

  9. Effect of cyclical thermal to mechanical properties of Hybrid Laminate Composites (HLC) with skin recycle polypropylene/natural fiber/halloysite and core PP/KF composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sri Suharty, Neng; Ismail, Hanafi; Suci Handayani, Desi; Diharjo, Kuncoro; Rachman Wibowo, Fajar; Arnita Wuri, Margaretha

    2016-02-01

    This research has successfully synthesized six hybrid laminate composites (HLC). These HLC consist of two layers skin composites and one layer of core PP/KF composites. There are sticked with epoxy adhesive by using cold press method. In this research 6 types of skin are used, namely the rPP (recycled polypropylene, HC1); rPP/DVB/PP-g-AA/KF (HC2); rPP/DVB/PP-g-AA/Hall (HC3); rPP/DVB/PP-g-AA/Hall+ZB (HC4); rPP/DVB/PP-g-AA/KF/Hall (HC5) and rPP/DVB/PP-g-AA/KF/Hall+ZB (HC6) composites. The mechanical properties assessment tensile strength (TS) of various HLC before and after cyclical thermal (CT) was done by ASTM D638. While testing the flame retardant: such as time to ignition (TTI) and burning rate (BR) was done by ASTM D635. Heat stability of HLC can be recognized by conducting the CT treatment. It is to determine the effect of fluctuating heat loads on mechanical properties of HLC materials. The TS result of five HLCs (HC2, HC3, HC4, HC5 and HC6) before CT treatment were higher than HC1 (blank HLC). Those five HLC are also able to increase the TTI and reduce the BR compared to HC1. The CT treatment conditions performed at 45 oC as much as 125 times. After CT treatment, the TS values only slightly decline compared to before CT treatment.

  10. "Green" composites from renewable resources: preparation of epoxidized soybean oil and flax fiber composites.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zengshe; Erhan, Sevim Z; Akin, Danny E; Barton, Franklin E

    2006-03-22

    In recent years there has been considerable interest in using natural plant fibers as reinforcements for plastics. The motivation includes cost, performance enhancement, weight reduction, and environment concerns. High performance flax fiber could potentially substitute for glass or carbon fibers as reinforcements for plastics. This study reports the "green" composites obtained from a mixture of epoxidized soybean oil and epoxy resin, 1,1,1-tris(p-hydroxyphenyl)ethane triglycidyl ether (THPE-GE), reinforced with flax fiber. The compression molding method is used for making the composites. Curing agents triethylenetetramine and diethylenetriamine provide better physical properties of the composites than Jeffamine agents D-230 and EDR-148. Both the flexural modulus and the tensile modulus of the composites increase as the amount of THPE-GE increases. The flexural modulus increased at a fiber content of <10 wt %, but there is a decrease beyond 10 wt %. The tensile modulus increases with fiber content until a maximum at 13.5 wt %, and then it decreases. The flax fiber length affected the mechanical properties of the composites: the longer the fiber length, the better are the mechanical properties observed.

  11. [Fiber-reinforced composite in fixed prosthodontics].

    PubMed

    Pilo, R; Abu Rass, Z; Shmidt, A

    2010-07-01

    Fiber reinforced composite (FRC) is composed of resin matrix and fibers filler. Common types of fibers: polyethylene, carbon and glass. Fibers can be continuous and aligned, discontinuous and aligned, discontinuous and randomly oriented. The architecture of the fibers is unidirectional, woven or braided. The two main types are: dry fibers or impregnated. Inclusion of fibers to resin composite increased its average flexural strength in 100-200 MPa. FRC can be utilized by the dentist in direct approach (splinting, temporary winged bridge) or indirect approach (laboratory made fixed partial denture). Laboratory fixed partial denture (FPD) is made from FRC substructure and Hybrid/Microfill particulate composite veneer. Main indications: interim temporary FPD or FPD in cases of questionable abutment teeth, in aesthetic cases where All Ceram FPD is not feasible. Retention is attained by adhesive cementation to minimally prepared teeth or to conventionally prepared teeth; other options are inlay-onlay bridges or hybrid bridges. Contraindications are: poor hygiene, inability to control humidity, parafunction habits, and more than two pontics. Survival rate of FRC FPD over 5 years is 75%, lower compared to porcelain fused to metal FPD which is 95%. Main reasons for failure are: fracture of framework and delamination of the veneer. Part of the failures is repairable.

  12. Silkworm cocoons inspire models for random fiber and particulate composites

    SciTech Connect

    Chen Fujia; Porter, David; Vollrath, Fritz

    The bioengineering design principles evolved in silkworm cocoons make them ideal natural prototypes and models for structural composites. Cocoons depend for their stiffness and strength on the connectivity of bonding between their constituent materials of silk fibers and sericin binder. Strain-activated mechanisms for loss of bonding connectivity in cocoons can be translated directly into a surprisingly simple yet universal set of physically realistic as well as predictive quantitative structure-property relations for a wide range of technologically important fiber and particulate composite materials.

  13. Silkworm cocoons inspire models for random fiber and particulate composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Fujia; Porter, David; Vollrath, Fritz

    2010-10-01

    The bioengineering design principles evolved in silkworm cocoons make them ideal natural prototypes and models for structural composites. Cocoons depend for their stiffness and strength on the connectivity of bonding between their constituent materials of silk fibers and sericin binder. Strain-activated mechanisms for loss of bonding connectivity in cocoons can be translated directly into a surprisingly simple yet universal set of physically realistic as well as predictive quantitative structure-property relations for a wide range of technologically important fiber and particulate composite materials.

  14. Kenaf-glass fiber reinforced unsaturated polyester hybrid composites: Tensile properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhafer, S. F.; Rozyanty, A. R.; Shahnaz, S. B. S.; Musa, L.; Zuliahani, A.

    2016-07-01

    The use of natural fibers in composite is rising in recent years due their lightweight, non-abrasive, combustible, non-toxic, low cost and biodegradable properties. However, in comparison with synthetic fibers, the mechanical properties of natural fibers are lower. Therefore, the inclusion of synthetic fibers could improve the mechanical performance of natural fiber based composites. In this study, kenaf bast fiber and glass fiber at different weight percentage loading were used as reinforcement to produce hybrid composites. Unsaturated polyester (UP) resin was used as matrix and hand lay-up process was performed to apply the UP resin on the hybrid kenaf bast/glass fiber composite. Effect of different fiber loading on tensile strength, tensile modulus and elongation at break of the hybrid composite was studied. It has been found that the highest value of tensile strength and modulus was achieved at 10 wt.% kenaf/10 wt.% glass fiber loading. It was concluded that addition of glass fiber has improved the tensile properties of kenaf bast fiber based UP composites.

  15. Active Structural Fibers for Multifunctional Composite Materials

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-05-06

    capacitors. Lastly, a cathodic electrolytic deposition process has been investigated for the coating of carbon fibers with a PZT shell. The...results have demonstrated the ability to use the process to coat fibers with a thin shell of PZT . The results thus far have demonstrated the feasibility...Journal of Composite Materials, In Review. 2. Zhou, Z., Lin, Y. and Sodano, H.A., Synthesis and Characterization of Textured BaTiO3 Thin Films

  16. Modeling creep behavior of fiber composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, J. L.; Sun, C. T.

    1988-01-01

    A micromechanical model for the creep behavior of fiber composites is developed based on a typical cell consisting of a fiber and the surrounding matrix. The fiber is assumed to be linearly elastic and the matrix nonlinearly viscous. The creep strain rate in the matrix is assumed to be a function of stress. The nominal stress-strain relations are derived in the form of differential equations which are solved numerically for off-axis specimens under uniaxial loading. A potential function and the associated effective stress and effective creep strain rates are introduced to simplify the orthotropic relations.

  17. Fiber Reinforced Composite Materials Used for Tankage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cunningham, Christy

    2005-01-01

    The Nonmetallic Materials and Processes Group is presently working on several projects to optimize cost while providing effect materials for the space program. One factor that must be considered is that these materials must meet certain weight requirements. Composites contribute greatly to this effort. Through the use of composites the cost of launching payloads into orbit will be reduced to one-tenth of the current cost. This research project involved composites used for aluminum pressure vessels. These tanks are used to store cryogenic liquids during flight. The tanks need some type of reinforcement. Steel was considered, but added too much weight. As a result, fiber was chosen. Presently, only carbon fibers with epoxy resin are wrapped around the vessels as a primary source of reinforcement. Carbon fibers are lightweight, yet high strength. The carbon fibers are wet wound onto the pressure vessels. This was done using the ENTEC Filament Winding Machine. It was thought that an additional layer of fiber would aid in reinforcement as well as containment and impact reduction. Kevlar was selected because it is light weight, but five times stronger that steel. This is the same fiber that is used to make bullet-proof vests trampolines, and tennis rackets.

  18. Carbon fiber content measurement in composite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Qiushi

    Carbon fiber reinforced polymers (CFRPs) have been widely used in various structural applications in industries such as aerospace and automotive because of their high specific stiffness and specific strength. Their mechanical properties are strongly influenced by the carbon fiber content in the composites. Measurement of the carbon fiber content in CFRPs is essential for product quality control and process optimization. In this work, a novel carbonization-in-nitrogen method (CIN) is developed to characterize the fiber content in carbon fiber reinforced thermoset and thermoplastic composites. In this method, a carbon fiber composite sample is carbonized in a nitrogen environment at elevated temperatures, alongside a neat resin sample. The carbon fibers are protected from oxidization while the resin (the neat resin and the resin matrix in the composite sample) is carbonized under the nitrogen environment. The residue of the carbonized neat resin sample is used to calibrate the resin carbonization rate and calculate the amount of the resin matrix in the composite sample. The new method has been validated on several thermoset and thermoplastic resin systems and found to yield an accurate measurement of fiber content in carbon fiber polymer composites. In order to further understand the thermal degradation behavior of the high temperature thermoplastic polymer during the carbonization process, the mechanism and the kinetic model of thermal degradation behavior of carbon fiber reinforced poly (phenylene sulfide) (CPPS) are studied using thermogravimetry analysis (TGA). The CPPS is subjected to TGA in an air and nitrogen atmosphere at heating rates from 5 to 40°C min--1. The TGA curves obtained in air are different from those in nitrogen. This demonstrates that weight loss occurs in a single stage in nitrogen but in two stages in air. To elucidate this difference, thermal decomposition kinetics is analyzed by applying the Kissinger, Flynn-Wall-Ozawa, Coat-Redfern and

  19. Self-healing fiber-reinforced composite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Minwook; Yoon, Sam; Yarin, Alexander

    In the present work two parts of the healing agent (commercially available epoxy resin and hardener) are encapsulated in separate polymeric nanofibers. The fibers are generated by a single-step dual coaxial solution blowing. The core-shell fibers with the diameters in the 200-2600 nm range are encased in the PDMS (polydimethyl siloxane) matrix to form a self-healing composite material. Under fatigue conditions, the core-shell fibers inside the composite material are ruptured and the healing agents released into the surrounding matrix. Various fatigue conditions including repeated bending and stretching are used to damage the composites and the degree of self-healing is quantified after that. Also, an incision resembling a crack is pre-notched and crack propagation is studied. It is found that the presence of the self-healing agents in the fibers significantly retards crack propagation due to curing by the epoxy at the ruptured site. The stiffness of the composites is also measured for the samples containing self-healing fibers inside them before and after the fatigue tests. A novel theory of crack propagation is proposed, which explains the observed jump-like growth of sub-critical cracks. This work was supported by the International Collaboration Program funded by the Agency for Defense Development.

  20. Influence of Hybridizing Flax and Hemp-Agave Fibers with Glass Fiber as Reinforcement in a Polyurethane Composite

    PubMed Central

    Pandey, Pankaj; Bajwa, Dilpreet; Ulven, Chad; Bajwa, Sreekala

    2016-01-01

    In this study, six combinations of flax, hemp, and glass fiber were investigated for a hybrid reinforcement system in a polyurethane (PU) composite. The natural fibers were combined with glass fibers in a PU composite in order to achieve a better mechanical reinforcement in the composite material. The effect of fiber hybridization in PU composites was evaluated through physical and mechanical properties such as water absorption (WA), specific gravity (SG), coefficient of linear thermal expansion (CLTE), flexural and compression properties, and hardness. The mechanical properties of hybridized samples showed mixed trends compared to the unhybridized samples, but hybridization with glass fiber reduced water absorption by 37% and 43% for flax and hemp-agave PU composites respectively. PMID:28773512

  1. Progressive fracture of fiber composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Irvin, T. B.; Ginty, C. A.

    1983-01-01

    Refined models and procedures are described for determining progressive composite fracture in graphite/epoxy angleplied laminates. Lewis Research Center capabilities are utilized including the Real Time Ultrasonic C Scan (RUSCAN) experimental facility and the Composite Durability Structural Analysis (CODSTRAN) computer code. The CODSTRAN computer code is used to predict the fracture progression based on composite mechanics, finite element stress analysis, and fracture criteria modules. The RUSCAN facility, CODSTRAN computer code, and scanning electron microscope are used to determine durability and identify failure mechanisms in graphite/epoxy composites.

  2. Investigations of the mechanical properties of bi-layer and trilayer fiber reinforced composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jayakrishna, K.; Balasubramani, K.; Sultan, M. T. H.; Karthikeyan, S.

    2016-10-01

    Natural fibers are renewable raw materials with an environmental-friendly properties and they are recyclable. The mechanical properties of bi-layer and tri-layer thermoset polymer composites have been analyzed. The bi-layer composite consists of basalt and jute mats, while the tri-layer composite consists of basalt fiber, jute fiber and glass fiber mats. In both cases, the epoxy resin was used as the matrix and PTFE as a filler in the composites. The developed trilayer natural fiber composite can be used in various industrial applications such as automobile parts, construction and manufacturing. Furthermore, it also can be adopted in aircraft interior decoration and designed body parts. Flexural, impact, tensile, compression, shear and hardness tests, together with density measurement, were conducted to study the mechanical properties of both bi-layer and tri-layer composites. From the comparison, the tri-layer composite was found to perform in a better way in all tests.

  3. Effects of Fiber Coating Composition on Mechanical Behavior of Silicon Carbide Fiber-Reinforced Celsian Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bansal, Narottam P.; Elderidge, Jeffrey I.

    1998-01-01

    Celsian matrix composites reinforced with Hi-Nicalon fibers, precoated with a dual layer of BN/SiC by chemical vapor deposition in two separate batches, were fabricated. Mechanical properties of the composites were measured in three-point flexure. Despite supposedly identical processing, the composite panels fabricated with fibers coated in two batches exhibited substantially different mechanical behavior. The first matrix cracking stresses (sigma(sub mc)) of the composites reinforced with fibers coated in batch 1 and batch 2 were 436 and 122 MPa, respectively. This large difference in sigma(sub mc) was attributed to differences in fiber sliding stresses(tau(sub friction)), 121.2+/-48.7 and 10.4+/-3.1 MPa, respectively, for the two composites as determined by the fiber push-in method. Such a large difference in values of tau(sub friction) for the two composites was found to be due to the difference in the compositions of the interface coatings. Scanning Auger microprobe analysis revealed the presence of carbon layers between the fiber and BN, and also between the BN and SiC coatings in the composite showing lower tau(sub friction). This resulted in lower sigma(sub mc) in agreement with the ACK theory. The ultimate strengths of the two composites, 904 and 759 MPa, depended mainly on the fiber volume fraction and were not significantly effected by tau(sub friction) values, as expected. The poor reproducibility of the fiber coating composition between the two batches was judged to be the primary source of the large differences in performance of the two composites.

  4. Characterization of aerosols and fibers emitted from composite materials combustion.

    PubMed

    Chivas-Joly, C; Gaie-Levrel, F; Motzkus, C; Ducourtieux, S; Delvallée, A; De Lagos, F; Nevé, S Le; Gutierrez, J; Lopez-Cuesta, J-M

    2016-01-15

    This work investigates the aerosols emitted during combustion of aircraft and naval structural composite materials (epoxy resin/carbon fibers and vinyl ester/glass fibers and carbon nanotubes). Combustion tests were performed at lab-scale using a modified cone calorimeter. The aerosols emitted have been characterized using various metrological devices devoted to the analysis of aerosols. The influence of the nature of polymer matrices, the incorporation of fibers and carbon nanotubes as well as glass reinforcements on the number concentration and the size distribution of airborne particles produced, was studied in the 5 nm-10 μm range. Incorporation of carbon fibers into epoxy resin significantly reduced the total particle number concentration. In addition, the interlaced orientation of carbon fibers limited the particles production compared to the composites with unidirectional one. The carbon nanotubes loading in vinyl ester resin composites influenced the total particles production during the flaming combustion with changes during kinetics emission. Predominant populations of airborne particles generated during combustion of all tested composites were characterized by a PN50 following by PN(100-500). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Evaluation of tensile strength of hybrid fiber (jute/gongura) reinforced hybrid polymer matrix composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Venkatachalam, G.; Gautham Shankar, A.; Vijay, Kumar V.; Chandan, Byral R.; Prabaharan, G. P.; Raghav, Dasarath

    2015-07-01

    The polymer matrix composites attract many industrial applications due to its light weight, less cost and easy for manufacturing. In this paper, an attempt is made to prepare and study of the tensile strength of hybrid (two natural) fibers reinforced hybrid (Natural + Synthetic) polymer matrix composites. The samples were prepared with hybrid reinforcement consists of two different fibers such as jute and Gongura and hybrid polymer consists of polyester and cashew nut shell resins. The hybrid composites tensile strength is evaluated to study the influence of various fiber parameters on mechanical strength. The parameters considered here are the duration of fiber treatment, the concentration of alkali in fiber treatment and nature of fiber content in the composites.

  6. Leaves Waste Composite with Glass Fiber Reinforcement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khoiri, N.; Jannah, W. N.; Huda, C.; Maulana, RM; Marwoto, P.; Masturi

    2018-03-01

    A research has been made to fabricate leave waste composites and Polyvinyl Acetate (PvAc) polymers reinforced with glass fibers. The method used was a simple mixing of leaves powders, PvAc, and glass fibers varied from 0 g to 1 g. Mass of 16 g leaves powder and mass of PvAc 4 g. The mixing result is suppressed by 5 metric-tons for 15 minutes. The composite is dried at room temperature for 1 day then in the oven at 100°C for 1 hour. The compressive strength is measured bu a hydraulic press. The result show that the compressive strength increased to the highest point of 0.8 g and will decrease significantly when the addition of glass fiber mass of 1 g. The highest compressive strength reaches 52.6 MPa when the glass fiber mass is 0.8 g. The result of this research showed that leaves composites with Polyvinyl Acetate polymer reinforced with fiber glass can be used as alternative material of wood substitute.

  7. Dynamic mechanical analysis of fiber reinforced composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reed, K. E.

    1979-01-01

    Dynamic mechanical and thermal properties were determined for unidirectional epoxy/glass composites at various fiber orientation angles. Resonant frequency and relative logarithmic decrement were measured as functions of temperature. In low angle and longitudinal specimens a transition was observed above the resin glass transition temperature which was manifested mechanically as an additional damping peak and thermally as a change in the coefficient of thermal expansion. The new transition was attributed to a heterogeneous resin matrix induced by the fiber. The temperature span of the glass-rubber relaxation was found to broaden with decreasing orientation angle, reflecting the growth of fiber contribution and exhibiting behavior similar to that of Young's modulus. The change in resonant frequency through the glass transition was greatest for samples of intermediate fiber angle, demonstrating behavior similar to that of the longitudinal shear modulus.

  8. Carbon Fiber Composite Materials for Automotive Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Norris, Jr., Robert E.; Mainka, Hendrik

    Volkswagen (VW) is internationally recognized for quantity and quality of world-wide vehicle production and the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is internationally recognized in materials research and development. With automotive production ramping up in the recently constructed VW Group of America facility in Chattanooga, Tennessee, ORNL and VW initiated discussions in 2012 concerning opportunities for collaboration around ORNL’s carbon fiber and composites programs. ORNL is conducting an internationally recognized program to develop and implement lower cost carbon fibers and composites for automotive and other “energy missions” for the US Department of Energy. Significant effort is ongoing in selecting, developing, andmore » evaluating alternative precursors, developing and demonstrating advanced conversion techniques, and developing and tailoring surface treatment, sizings, and formatting fiber for specific composite matrices and end-use applications. ORNL already had North America’s most comprehensive suite of tools for carbon fiber research and development and established a semiproduction demonstration line referred to as the Carbon Fiber Technology Facility (CFTF) to facilitate implementation of low cost carbon fiber (LCCF) approaches in early 2013. ORNL and VW agreed to collaborate in a formal Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (NFE-12-03992) specifically focused on evaluating applicability of low cost carbon fiber products for potential vehicle components. The goal of the work outlined in this report was to develop and qualify uses for carbon fiber-reinforced structures in connection with civilian ground transportation. Significant progress was achieved in evaluating and understanding lignin-based precursor materials; however, availability of carbon fiber converted from lignin precursor combined with logistical issues associated with the Visa limitations for the VW participant resulted in significantly shortening of the

  9. Continuous fiber-reinforced titanium aluminide composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mackay, R. A.; Brindley, P. K.; Froes, F. H.

    1991-01-01

    An account is given of the fabrication techniques, microstructural characteristics, and mechanical behavior of a lightweight, high service temperature SiC-reinforced alpha-2 Ti-14Al-21Nb intermetallic-matrix composite. Fabrication techniques under investigation to improve the low-temperature ductility and environmental resistance of this material system, while reducing manufacturing costs to competitive levels, encompass powder-cloth processing, foil-fiber-foil processing, and thermal-spray processing. Attention is given to composite microstructure problems associated with fiber distribution and fiber-matrix interfaces, as well as with mismatches of thermal-expansion coefficient; major improvements are noted to be required in tensile properties, thermal cycling effects, mechanical damage, creep, and environmental effects.

  10. Tensile failure criteria for fiber composite materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosen, B. W.; Zweben, C. H.

    1972-01-01

    The analysis provides insight into the failure mechanics of these materials and defines criteria which serve as tools for preliminary design material selection and for material reliability assessment. The model incorporates both dispersed and propagation type failures and includes the influence of material heterogeneity. The important effects of localized matrix damage and post-failure matrix shear stress transfer are included in the treatment. The model is used to evaluate the influence of key parameters on the failure of several commonly used fiber-matrix systems. Analyses of three possible failure modes were developed. These modes are the fiber break propagation mode, the cumulative group fracture mode, and the weakest link mode. Application of the new model to composite material systems has indicated several results which require attention in the development of reliable structural composites. Prominent among these are the size effect and the influence of fiber strength variability.

  11. Damping characteristics of damaged fiber composite components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eberle, K.

    1986-01-01

    Defects in fiber composite components produce changes with respect to the vibrational characteristics of the material. These changes can be recognized in the form of a frequency shift or an alteration of the damping process. The present investigation is concerned with questions regarding the possibility of a utilization of the changes in suitable defect-detecting inspection procedures. A description is given of a method for measuring the damping characteristics of a specimen. This method provides a spectrum of the damping coefficients of the sample as a basis for a comprehensive evaluation of the damping behavior. The correlation between defects and change in the damping characteristics is demonstrated with the aid of results obtained in measurements involving specimens of carbon-fiber composites and a component consisting of glass-fiber-reinforced plastics.

  12. Effective Mechanical Properties of Fuzzy Fiber Composites

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-03-16

    fibers’’. Numerical examples of compositesmade of epoxy resin , carbonfibers and carbon nanotubes are presented and the impact of the carbon nanotubes...allows us to compute effective properties of composites with multiple types of ??fuzzy fibers??. Numerical examples of composites made of epoxy resin ...length (Fig. 1 in [42]). The CNTs have inter- nal radius 0.51 nm and external radius 0.85 nm. The ‘‘fuzzy fibers’’ are embedded in EPIKOTE 862 resin . The

  13. Flexural analysis of palm fiber reinforced hybrid polymer matrix composite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Venkatachalam, G.; Gautham Shankar, A.; Raghav, Dasarath; Santhosh Kiran, R.; Mahesh, Bhargav; Kumar, Krishna

    2015-07-01

    Uncertainty in availability of fossil fuels in the future and global warming increased the need for more environment friendly materials. In this work, an attempt is made to fabricate a hybrid polymer matrix composite. The blend is a mixture of General Purpose Resin and Cashew Nut Shell Liquid, a natural resin extracted from cashew plant. Palm fiber, which has high strength, is used as reinforcement material. The fiber is treated with alkali (NaOH) solution to increase its strength and adhesiveness. Parametric study of flexure strength is carried out by varying alkali concentration, duration of alkali treatment and fiber volume. Taguchi L9 Orthogonal array is followed in the design of experiments procedure for simplification. With the help of ANOVA technique, regression equations are obtained which gives the level of influence of each parameter on the flexure strength of the composite.

  14. Method of forming composite fiber blends

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McMahon, Paul E. (Inventor); Chung, Tai-Shung (Inventor); Ying, Lincoln (Inventor)

    1989-01-01

    The instant invention involves a process used in preparing fibrous tows which may be formed into polymeric plastic composites. The process involves the steps of (a) forming a tow of strong filamentary materials; (b) forming a thermoplastic polymeric fiber; (c) intermixing the two tows; and (d) withdrawing the intermixed tow for further use.

  15. Fiber reinforced thermoplastic resin matrix composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Robert J. (Inventor); Chang, Glenn E. C. (Inventor)

    1989-01-01

    Polyimide polymer composites having a combination of enhanced thermal and mechanical properties even when subjected to service temperatures as high as 700.degree. F. are described. They comprise (a) from 10 to 50 parts by weight of a thermoplastic polyimide resin prepared from 2,2-bis[4-(4-aminophenoxy)phenyl]hexafluoropropane and (b) from 90 to 50 parts by weight of continuous reinforcing fibers, the total of (a) and (b) being 100 parts by weight. Composites based on polyimide resin formed from 2,2-bis[4-(4-aminophenoxy)phenyl]hexafluoropropane and pyromellitic dianhydride and continuous carbon fibers retained at least about 50% of their room temperature shear strength after exposure to 700.degree. F. for a period of 16 hours in flowing air. Preferably, the thermoplastic polyimide resin is formed in situ in the composite material by thermal imidization of a corresponding amide-acid polymer prepared from 2,2-bis[4-(4-aminophenoxy)phenyl]hexafluoropropane. It is also preferred to initially size the continuous reinforcing fibers with up to about one percent by weight of an amide-acid polymer prepared from 2,2-bis[4-(4-aminophenoxy)phenyl]hexafluoropropane. In this way imidization at a suitable elevated temperature results in the in-situ formation of a substantially homogeneous thermoplastic matrix of the polyimide resin tightly and intimately bonded to the continuous fibers. The resultant composites tend to have optimum thermo-mechanical properties.

  16. Equations to assess the impact resistance of fiber composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chamis, C. C.; Hanson, M. P.; Serafini, T. T.

    1972-01-01

    Numerical analysis of impact resistance of composite materials containing fibers is discussed. Mathematical model of longitudinal impact resistance is presented. Potential impact resistance of various fiber composites as obtained by numerical analysis is presented as plotted curve.

  17. Carbonized asphaltene-based carbon-carbon fiber composites

    DOEpatents

    Bohnert, George; Lula, James; Bowen, III, Daniel E.

    2016-12-27

    A method of making a carbon binder-reinforced carbon fiber composite is provided using carbonized asphaltenes as the carbon binder. Combinations of carbon fiber and asphaltenes are also provided, along with the resulting composites and articles of manufacture.

  18. Fiber reinforced cementitious matrix (FRCM) composites for reinforced concrete strengthening.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2013-07-01

    Fiber-reinforced composite systems are widely used for strengthening, repairing, and rehabilitation of reinforced concrete structural : members. A promising newly-developed type of composite, comprised of fibers and an inorganic cement-based matrix, ...

  19. Manufacturing of Nanocomposite Carbon Fibers and Composite Cylinders

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tan, Seng; Zhou, Jian-guo

    2013-01-01

    Pitch-based nanocomposite carbon fibers were prepared with various percentages of carbon nanofibers (CNFs), and the fibers were used for manufacturing composite structures. Experimental results show that these nanocomposite carbon fibers exhibit improved structural and electrical conductivity properties as compared to unreinforced carbon fibers. Composite panels fabricated from these nanocomposite carbon fibers and an epoxy system also show the same properties transformed from the fibers. Single-fiber testing per ASTM C1557 standard indicates that the nanocomposite carbon fiber has a tensile modulus of 110% higher, and a tensile strength 17.7% times higher, than the conventional carbon fiber manufactured from pitch. Also, the electrical resistance of the carbon fiber carbonized at 900 C was reduced from 4.8 to 2.2 ohm/cm. The manufacturing of the nanocomposite carbon fiber was based on an extrusion, non-solvent process. The precursor fibers were then carbonized and graphitized. The resultant fibers are continuous.

  20. Thermal conductivity of hybrid short fiber composites

    SciTech Connect

    Dunn, M.L.; Taya, M.; Hatta, H.

    1993-01-01

    A combined analytical/experimental study has been undertaken to investigate the effective thermal conductivity of hybrid composite materials. The analysis utilizes the equivalent inclusion approach for steady state heat conduction (Hatta and Taya, 1986) through which the interaction between the various reinforcing phases at finite concentrations is approximated by the Mori-Tanaka (1973) mean field approach. The multiple reinforcing phases of the composite are modeled as ellipsoidal in shape and thus can simulate a wide range of microstructural geometries ranging from thin platelet to continuous fiber reinforcement. The case when one phase of the composite is penny-shaped microcracks is studied in detail.more » Multiphase composites consisting of a Kerimid matrix and Al2O3 short fibers and Si3N4 whiskers were fabricated and, after a careful study of their microstructure, their thermal conductivities were measured. Analytical predictions are shown to be in good agreement with experimental results obtained for the Al2O3/Si3N4/Kerimid short fiber composites. 26 refs.« less

  1. Fiber Optic Thermal Detection of Composite Delaminations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, Meng-Chou; Winfree, William P.

    2011-01-01

    A recently developed technique is presented for thermographic detection of delaminations in composites by performing temperature measurements with fiber optic Bragg gratings. A single optical fiber with multiple Bragg gratings employed as surface temperature sensors was bonded to the surface of a composite with subsurface defects. The investigated structure was a 10-ply composite specimen with prefabricated delaminations of various sizes and depths. Both during and following the application of a thermal heat flux to the surface, the individual Bragg grating sensors measured the temporal and spatial temperature variations. The data obtained from grating sensors were analyzed with thermal modeling techniques of conventional thermography to reveal particular characteristics of the interested areas. Results were compared and found to be consistent with the calculations using numerical simulation techniques. Also discussed are methods including various heating sources and patterns, and their limitations for performing in-situ structural health monitoring.

  2. Fiber Optic Thermal Health Monitoring of Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, Meng-Chou; Winfree, William P.; Moore, Jason P.

    2010-01-01

    A recently developed technique is presented for thermographic detection of flaws in composite materials by performing temperature measurements with fiber optic Bragg gratings. Individual optical fibers with multiple Bragg gratings employed as surface temperature sensors were bonded to the surfaces of composites with subsurface defects. The investigated structures included a 10-ply composite specimen with subsurface delaminations of various sizes and depths. Both during and following the application of a thermal heat flux to the surface, the individual Bragg grating sensors measured the temporal and spatial temperature variations. The data obtained from grating sensors were analyzed with thermal modeling techniques of conventional thermography to reveal particular characteristics of the interested areas. Results were compared with the calculations using numerical simulation techniques. Methods and limitations for performing in-situ structural health monitoring are discussed.

  3. Fiber Composite Sandwich Thermostructural Behavior: Computational Simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chamis, C. C.; Aiello, R. A.; Murthy, P. L. N.

    1986-01-01

    Several computational levels of progressive sophistication/simplification are described to computationally simulate composite sandwich hygral, thermal, and structural behavior. The computational levels of sophistication include: (1) three-dimensional detailed finite element modeling of the honeycomb, the adhesive and the composite faces; (2) three-dimensional finite element modeling of the honeycomb assumed to be an equivalent continuous, homogeneous medium, the adhesive and the composite faces; (3) laminate theory simulation where the honeycomb (metal or composite) is assumed to consist of plies with equivalent properties; and (4) derivations of approximate, simplified equations for thermal and mechanical properties by simulating the honeycomb as an equivalent homogeneous medium. The approximate equations are combined with composite hygrothermomechanical and laminate theories to provide a simple and effective computational procedure for simulating the thermomechanical/thermostructural behavior of fiber composite sandwich structures.

  4. Effects of moisture on aspen-fiber/polypropylene composites

    Treesearch

    Roger M. Rowell; Sandra E. Lange; Rodney E. Jacobson

    2004-01-01

    Moisture sorption in fiber-thermoplastic composites leads to dimensional instability and biological attack. To determine the pick up of moisture this type of composite, aspen fiber/polypropylene composites were made using several different levels of aspen fiber (30 to 60% by weight) with and without the addition of a compatibilizer (maleic anhydride grafted...

  5. Telescoping cylindrical piezoelectric fiber composite actuator assemblies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allison, Sidney G. (Inventor); Shams, Qamar A. (Inventor); Fox, Robert L. (Inventor); Fox, legal representative, Christopher L. (Inventor); Fox Chattin, legal representative, Melanie L. (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    A telescoping actuator assembly includes a plurality of cylindrical actuators in a concentric arrangement. Each cylindrical actuator is at least one piezoelectric fiber composite actuator having a plurality of piezoelectric fibers extending parallel to one another and to the concentric arrangement's longitudinal axis. Each cylindrical actuator is coupled to concentrically-adjacent ones of the cylindrical actuators such that the plurality of cylindrical actuators can experience telescopic movement. An electrical energy source coupled to the cylindrical actuators applies actuation energy thereto to generate the telescopic movement.

  6. Carbon fiber reinforcements for sheet molding composites

    SciTech Connect

    Ozcan, Soydan; Paulauskas, Felix L.

    A method of processing a carbon fiber tow includes the steps of providing a carbon fiber tow made of a plurality of carbon filaments, depositing a sizing composition at spaced-apart sizing sites along a length of the tow, leaving unsized interstitial regions of the tow, and cross-cutting the tow into a plurality of segments. Each segment includes at least a portion of one of the sizing sites and at least a portion of at least one of the unsized regions of the tow, the unsized region including and end portion of the segment.

  7. An applied investigation of kenaf-based fiber/polymer composites as potential lightweight materials for automotive components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du, Yicheng

    Natural fibers have the potential to replace glass fibers in fiber-reinforced composite applications. However, the natural fibers' intrinsic properties cause these issues: (1) the mechanical property variation; (2) moisture uptake by natural fibers and their composites; (3) lack of sound, cost-effective, environment-friendly fiber-matrix compounding processes; (4) incompatibility between natural fibers and polymer matrices; and (5) low heat-resistance of natural fibers and their composites. This dissertation systematically studied the use of kenaf bast fiber bundles, obtained via a mechanical retting method, as a light-weight reinforcement material for fiber-reinforced thermoset polymer composites for automotive applications. Kenaf bast fiber bundle tensile properties were tested, and the effects of locations in the kenaf plant, loading rates, retting methods, and high temperature treatments and their durations on kenaf bast fiber bundle tensile properties were evaluated. A process has been developed for fabricating high fiber loading kenaf bast fiber bundle-reinforced unsaturated polyester composites. The generated composites possessed high elastic moduli and their tensile strengths were close to specification requirements for glass fiber-reinforced sheet molding compounds. Effects of fiber loadings and lengths on resultant composite's tensile properties were evaluated. Fiber loadings were very important for composite tensile modulus. Both fiber loadings and fiber lengths were important for composite tensile strengths. The distributions of composite tensile, flexural and impact strengths were analyzed. The 2-parameter Weibull model was found to be the most appropriate for describing the composite strength distributions and provided the most conservative design values. Kenaf-reinforced unsaturated polyester composites were also proved to be more cost-effective than glass fiber-reinforced SMCs at high fiber loadings. Kenaf bast fiber bundle-reinforced composite

  8. Liquid crystal polyester-carbon fiber composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chung, T. S.

    1984-01-01

    Liquid crystal polymers (LCP) have been developed as a thermoplastic matrix for high performance composites. A successful melt impregnation method has been developed which results in the production of continuous carbon fiber (CF) reinforced LCP prepreg tape. Subsequent layup and molding of prepreg into laminates has yielded composites of good quality. Tensile and flexural properties of LCP/CF composites are comparable to those of epoxy/CF composites. The LCP/CF composites have better impact resistance than the latter, although epoxy/CF composites possess superior compression and shear strength. The LCP/CF composites have good property retention until 200 F (67 % of room temperature value). Above 200 F, mechanical properties decrease significantly. Experimental results indicate that the poor compression and shear strength may be due to the poor interfacial adhesion between the matrix and carbon fiber as adequate toughness of the LCP matrix. Low mechanical property retention at high temperatures may be attributable to the low beta-transition temperature (around 80 C) of the LCP matrix material.

  9. Quartz and E-glass fiber self-sensing composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zolfaghar, K.; Khan, N. A.; Brooks, David; Hayes, Simon A.; Liu, Tonguy; Roca, J.; Lander, J.; Fernando, Gerard F.

    1998-04-01

    This paper reports on developments in the field of self- sensing fiber reinforced composites. The reinforcing fibers have been surface treated to enable them to act as light guides for short distances. The reinforcing fiber light guides were embedded in carbon fiber reinforced epoxy prepregs and processed into composites. The resultant composite was termed the self-sensing composite as any damage to these fibers or its interface would result in the attenuation of the transmitted light. The self-sensing fibers were capable of detecting a 2 J impact.

  10. Interlayer toughening of fiber composite flywheel rotors

    DOEpatents

    Groves, Scott E.; Deteresa, Steven J.

    1998-01-01

    An interlayer toughening mechanism to mitigate the growth of damage in fiber composite flywheel rotors for long application. The interlayer toughening mechanism may comprise one or more tough layers composed of high-elongation fibers, high-strength fibers arranged in a woven pattern at a range from 0.degree. to 90.degree. to the rotor axis and bound by a ductile matrix material which adheres to and is compatible with the materials used for the bulk of the rotor. The number and spacing of the tough interlayers is a function of the design requirements and expected lifetime of the rotor. The mechanism has particular application in uninterruptable power supplies, electrical power grid reservoirs, and compulsators for electric guns, as well as electromechanical batteries for vehicles.

  11. Interlayer toughening of fiber composite flywheel rotors

    DOEpatents

    Groves, S.E.; Deteresa, S.J.

    1998-07-14

    An interlayer toughening mechanism is described to mitigate the growth of damage in fiber composite flywheel rotors for long application. The interlayer toughening mechanism may comprise one or more tough layers composed of high-elongation fibers, high-strength fibers arranged in a woven pattern at a range from 0{degree} to 90{degree} to the rotor axis and bound by a ductile matrix material which adheres to and is compatible with the materials used for the bulk of the rotor. The number and spacing of the tough interlayers is a function of the design requirements and expected lifetime of the rotor. The mechanism has particular application in uninterruptable power supplies, electrical power grid reservoirs, and compulsators for electric guns, as well as electromechanical batteries for vehicles. 2 figs.

  12. Poisson's ratio of fiber-reinforced composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christiansson, Henrik; Helsing, Johan

    1996-05-01

    Poisson's ratio flow diagrams, that is, the Poisson's ratio versus the fiber fraction, are obtained numerically for hexagonal arrays of elastic circular fibers in an elastic matrix. High numerical accuracy is achieved through the use of an interface integral equation method. Questions concerning fixed point theorems and the validity of existing asymptotic relations are investigated and partially resolved. Our findings for the transverse effective Poisson's ratio, together with earlier results for random systems by other authors, make it possible to formulate a general statement for Poisson's ratio flow diagrams: For composites with circular fibers and where the phase Poisson's ratios are equal to 1/3, the system with the lowest stiffness ratio has the highest Poisson's ratio. For other choices of the elastic moduli for the phases, no simple statement can be made.

  13. Fiber-optically sensorized composite wing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Costa, Joannes M.; Black, Richard J.; Moslehi, Behzad; Oblea, Levy; Patel, Rona; Sotoudeh, Vahid; Abouzeida, Essam; Quinones, Vladimir; Gowayed, Yasser; Soobramaney, Paul; Flowers, George

    2014-04-01

    Electromagnetic interference (EMI) immune and light-weight, fiber-optic sensor based Structural Health Monitoring (SHM) will find increasing application in aerospace structures ranging from aircraft wings to jet engine vanes. Intelligent Fiber Optic Systems Corporation (IFOS) has been developing multi-functional fiber Bragg grating (FBG) sensor systems including parallel processing FBG interrogators combined with advanced signal processing for SHM, structural state sensing and load monitoring applications. This paper reports work with Auburn University on embedding and testing FBG sensor arrays in a quarter scale model of a T38 composite wing. The wing was designed and manufactured using fabric reinforced polymer matrix composites. FBG sensors were embedded under the top layer of the composite. Their positions were chosen based on strain maps determined by finite element analysis. Static and dynamic testing confirmed expected response from the FBGs. The demonstrated technology has the potential to be further developed into an autonomous onboard system to perform load monitoring, SHM and Non-Destructive Evaluation (NDE) of composite aerospace structures (wings and rotorcraft blades). This platform technology could also be applied to flight testing of morphing and aero-elastic control surfaces.

  14. Simulations of carbon fiber composite delamination tests

    SciTech Connect

    Kay, G

    2007-10-25

    Simulations of mode I interlaminar fracture toughness tests of a carbon-reinforced composite material (BMS 8-212) were conducted with LSDYNA. The fracture toughness tests were performed by U.C. Berkeley. The simulations were performed to investigate the validity and practicality of employing decohesive elements to represent interlaminar bond failures that are prevalent in carbon-fiber composite structure penetration events. The simulations employed a decohesive element formulation that was verified on a simple two element model before being employed to perform the full model simulations. Care was required during the simulations to ensure that the explicit time integration of LSDYNA duplicate the near steady-statemore » testing conditions. In general, this study validated the use of employing decohesive elements to represent the interlaminar bond failures seen in carbon-fiber composite structures, but the practicality of employing the elements to represent the bond failures seen in carbon-fiber composite structures during penetration events was not established.« less

  15. Studies on mechanical properties of graphene based hybrid composites reinforced with kenaf/glass fiber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, S. C. Ramesh; Shivanand, H. K.; Vidayasagar, H. N.; Nagabhushan, V.

    2018-04-01

    The polymer composites are developed with natural fibers and fillers as a alternate material for some of the engineering applications in the field of automobiles and domestic purposes are being investigated. The natural fiber composites such as banana, sisal, jute, coir, kenaf and hemp polymer composites appear more effective due to their lightweight, higher specific strength, biodegradable and cost is low. The main objective is to prepare the Kenaf/Glass fiber hybrid composite filled with graphene as nano filler and to investigate the mechanical properties of hybrid composites. The different types of hybrid composites laminates are fabricated without filler, 0.5, 1 & 1.5Wt % of graphene by using kenaf and glass fiber as reinforcing material with epoxy resin. The specimen were prepared as per the ASTM standards and results shows that the mixing of graphene in epoxy resin improves the mechanical properties of hybrid composites.

  16. Composite structural materials. [fiber reinforced composites for aircraft structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ansell, G. S.; Loewy, R. G.; Wiberly, S. E.

    1981-01-01

    Physical properties of fiber reinforced composites; structural concepts and analysis; manufacturing; reliability; and life prediction are subjects of research conducted to determine the long term integrity of composite aircraft structures under conditions pertinent to service use. Progress is reported in (1) characterizing homogeneity in composite materials; (2) developing methods for analyzing composite materials; (3) studying fatigue in composite materials; (4) determining the temperature and moisture effects on the mechanical properties of laminates; (5) numerically analyzing moisture effects; (6) numerically analyzing the micromechanics of composite fracture; (7) constructing the 727 elevator attachment rib; (8) developing the L-1011 engine drag strut (CAPCOMP 2 program); (9) analyzing mechanical joints in composites; (10) developing computer software; and (11) processing science and technology, with emphasis on the sailplane project.

  17. Performance of innovative PU-foam and natural fiber-based composites for the biofiltration of a mixture of volatile organic compounds by a fungal biofilm.

    PubMed

    Gutiérrez-Acosta, O B; Arriaga, S; Escobar-Barrios, V A; Casas-Flores, S; Almendarez-Camarillo, A

    2012-01-30

    The performance of perlite and two innovative carriers that consist of polyurethane (PU) chemically modified with starch; and polypropylene reinforced with agave fibers was evaluated in the biofiltration of a mixture of VOCs composed of hexane, toluene and methyl-ethyl-ketone. At a total organic loading rate of 145 gCm(-3)h(-1) the elimination capacities (ECs) obtained were 145, 24 and 96 gCm(-3)h(-1) for the biofilters packed with the PU, the reinforced polypropylene, and perlite, respectively. Specific maximum biodegradation rates of the mixture, in the biofilters, were 416 mgCg(protein)(-1)  h(-1) for the PU and 63 mgCg(protein)(-1) h(-1) for perlite, which confirms the highest performance of the PU-composite. 18S rDNA analysis from the PU-biofilter revealed the presence of Fusarium solani in its sexual and asexual states, respectively. The modified PU carrier significantly reduced the start-up period of the biofilter and enhanced the EC of the VOCs. Thus, this study gives new alternatives in the field of packing materials synthesis, promoting the addition of easily biodegradable sources to enhance the performance of biofilters. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Composite fiber structures for catalysts and electrodes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marrion, Christopher J.; Cahela, Donald R.; Ahn, Soonho; Tatarchuk, Bruce J.

    1993-01-01

    We have recently envisioned a process wherein fibers of various metals in the 0.5 to 15 micron diameter range are slurried in concert with cellulose fibers and various other materials in the form of particulates and/or fibers. The resulting slurry is cast via a wet-lay process into a sheet and dried to produce a free-standing sheet of 'composite paper.' When the 'preform' sheet is sintered in hydrogen, the bulk of the cellulose is removed with the secondary fibers and/or particulates being entrapped by the sinter-locked network provided by the metal fibers. The resulting material is unique, in that it allows the intimate contacting and combination of heretofore mutually exclusive materials and properties. Moreover, due to the ease of paper manufacture and processing, the resulting materials are relatively inexpensive and can be fabricated into a wide range of three-dimensional structures. Also, because cellulose is both a binder and a pore-former, structures combining high levels of active surface area and high void volume (i.e., low pressure drop) can be prepared as freestanding flow through monoliths.

  19. Resistance welding graphite-fiber composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lamoureux, R. T.

    1980-01-01

    High-strength joints are welded in seconds in carbon-reinfored thermoplastic beams. Resistance-welding electrode applies heat and pressure to joint and is spring-loaded to follow softening material to maintain contact; it also holds parts together for cooling and hardening. Both transverse and longitudinal configurations can be welded. Adhesive bonding and encapsulation are more time consuming methods and introduce additional material into joint, while ultrasonic heating can damage graphite fibers in composite.

  20. Design procedures for fiber composite box beams

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chamis, Cristos C.; Murthy, Pappu L. N.

    1989-01-01

    Step-by-step procedures are described which can be used for the preliminary design of fiber composite box beams subjected to combined loadings. These procedures include a collection of approximate closed-form equations so that all the required calculations can be performed using pocket calculators. Included is an illustrative example of a tapered cantilever box beam subjected to combined loads. The box beam is designed to satisfy strength, displacement, buckling, and frequency requirements.

  1. Design Procedures for Fiber Composite Box Beams

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chamis, Christos C.; Murthy, Pappu L. N.

    1988-01-01

    Step-by-step procedures are described which can be used for the preliminary design of fiber composite box beams subjected to combined loadings. These procedures include a collection of approximate closed-form equations so that all the required calculations can be performed using pocket calculators. Included is an illustrated example of a tapered cantilever box beam subjected to combined loads. The box beam is designed to satisfy strength, displacement, buckling, and frequency requirements.

  2. Pendulum impact resistance of tungsten fiber/metal matrix composites.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Winsa, E. A.; Petrasek, D. W.

    1972-01-01

    The impact properties of copper, copper-10 nickel, and a superalloy matrix reinforced with tungsten fibers were studied. In most cases the following increased composite impact strength: increased fiber or matrix toughness, decreased fiber-matrix reaction, increased test temperature, hot working and heat treatment. Notch sensitivity was reduced by increasing fiber or matrix toughness. The effect of fiber content depended on the relative toughness of the fibers and matrix. Above 530 K a 60 volume per cent superalloy matrix composite had a greater impact strength than a turbine blade superalloy, whereas below 530 K a hot worked 56 volume per cent composite had a greater impact strength than the superalloy.

  3. Moisture sorption properties of composite boards from esterified aspen fiber

    Treesearch

    C. Clemons; R. A. Young; R. M. Rowell

    1992-01-01

    One barrier to producing wood-plastic composites with wood fiber is the poor thermoplasticity of wood fiber. The objective of our study was to determine the plasticization of chemically modified wood fiber through tests on unmodified and esterified fiberboards. Attrition-milled aspen fiber was esterified with neat acetic, maleic, or succinic anhydride. Fourier...

  4. Improved fiber retention by the use of fillers in graphite fiber/resin matrix composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gluyas, R. E.; Bowles, K. J.

    1980-01-01

    A variety of matrix fillers were tested for their ability to prevent loss of fiber from graphite fiber/PMR polyimide and graphite fiber/epoxy composites in a fire. The fillers tested included powders of boron, boron carbide lime glass, lead glass, and aluminum. Boron was the most effective and prevented any loss of graphite fiber during burning. Mechanical properties of composites containing boron filler were measured and compared to those of composites containing no filler.

  5. Continuous unidirectional fiber reinforced composites: Fabrication and testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weber, M. D.; Spiegel, F. X.; West, Harvey A.

    1994-01-01

    The study of the anisotropic mechanical properties of an inexpensively fabricated composite with continuous unidirectional fibers and a clear matrix was investigated. A method has been developed to fabricate these composites with aluminum fibers and a polymer matrix. These composites clearly demonstrate the properties of unidirectional composites and cost less than five dollars each to fabricate.

  6. Au nanoparticles-ZnO composite nanotubes using natural silk fibroin fiber as template for electrochemical non-enzymatic sensing of hydrogen peroxide.

    PubMed

    Chen, Liangliang; Xu, Xiaolong; Cui, Feng; Qiu, Qianying; Chen, Xiaojun; Xu, Jinzhong

    2018-05-23

    A novel electrochemical sensor based on the composite of gold nanoparticles/zinc oxide nanotube (AuNPs/ZnO-NTs) was constructed and its application as hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ) non-enzymatic sensor was investigated. ZnO-NTs were prepared by a biomineralization strategy in which silk fibroin fiber (SFF) was used as template, and thus the ZnO-NTs inherited the advantages of SFF such as mechanical stability, flexible biomimetic morphology and biocompatibility. The AuNPs/ZnO-NTs was further prepared by the electrostatic absorption of AuNPs onto the surface of ZnO-NTs, and found to be capable to catalyze the reduction of H 2 O 2 . The working potential was 0.05 V, which was far higher than those in literatures, indicating the strong anti-interference ability in the real application. The catalytic current was linearly proportional in the concentration range of 1 μM-3.0 mM with a sensitivity of 1336.7 μA mM -1  cm -2 . The detection limit was estimated to be 0.1 μM (S/N = 3). Such a high sensitivity was attributed to the electrocatalytic property of ZnO and high electron transfer ability of AuNPs/ZnO-NTs structure. Moreover, the final detection results of H 2 O 2 in real samples showed the acceptable accuracy compared with the traditional potassium permanganate titration, exhibiting the prospect to be used as an applicable sensor in actual detections. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Glass Fiber Resin Composites and Components at Arctic Temperatures

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-06-01

    NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL MONTEREY, CALIFORNIA THESIS Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited GLASS FIBER RESIN...3. REPORT TYPE AND DATES COVERED Master’s Thesis 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE GLASS FIBER RESIN COMPOSITES AND COMPONENTS AT ARCTIC TEMPERATURES 5...public release; distribution is unlimited 12b. DISTRIBUTION CODE 13. ABSTRACT (maximum 200 words) Glass fiber reinforced composites (GFRC

  8. Passive Impact Damage Detection of Fiber Glass Composite Panels

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-12-19

    PASSIVE IMPACT DAMAGE DETECTION OF FIBER GLASS COMPOSITE PANELS. By BRUNO ZAMORANO-SENDEROS A dissertation...COVERED 04-11-2012 to 10-12-2013 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE PASSIVE IMPACT DAMAGE DETECTION OF FIBER GLASS COMPOSITE PANELS 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b...process. .................................... 31 Figure 3-8 Sensor attached to the fiber glass fabric

  9. Effect of kenaf fiber age on PLLA composite properties

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The age of the kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.) fiber dictates its pore architecture. The impact of increasing age of plant fiber on the corresponding composite can impact material selection for enhanced composite performance. Bast fibers stems of kenaf, a warm season tropical herbaceous annual plant ...

  10. Genome Regions Associated with Functional Performance of Soybean Stem Fibers in Polypropylene Thermoplastic Composites

    PubMed Central

    Reinprecht, Yarmilla; Arif, Muhammad; Simon, Leonardo C.; Pauls, K. Peter

    2015-01-01

    Plant fibers can be used to produce composite materials for automobile parts, thus reducing plastic used in their manufacture, overall vehicle weight and fuel consumption when they replace mineral fillers and glass fibers. Soybean stem residues are, potentially, significant sources of inexpensive, renewable and biodegradable natural fibers, but are not curretly used for biocomposite production due to the functional properties of their fibers in composites being unknown. The current study was initiated to investigate the effects of plant genotype on the performance characteristics of soybean stem fibers when incorporated into a polypropylene (PP) matrix using a selective phenotyping approach. Fibers from 50 lines of a recombinant inbred line population (169 RILs) grown in different environments were incorporated into PP at 20% (wt/wt) by extrusion. Test samples were injection molded and characterized for their mechanical properties. The performance of stem fibers in the composites was significantly affected by genotype and environment. Fibers from different genotypes had significantly different chemical compositions, thus composites prepared with these fibers displayed different physical properties. This study demonstrates that thermoplastic composites with soybean stem-derived fibers have mechanical properties that are equivalent or better than wheat straw fiber composites currently being used for manufacturing interior automotive parts. The addition of soybean stem residues improved flexural, tensile and impact properties of the composites. Furthermore, by linkage and in silico mapping we identified genomic regions to which quantitative trait loci (QTL) for compositional and functional properties of soybean stem fibers in thermoplastic composites, as well as genes for cell wall synthesis, were co-localized. These results may lead to the development of high value uses for soybean stem residue. PMID:26167917

  11. Nondestructive Evaluation of Advanced Fiber Reinforced Polymer Matrix Composites: A Technology Assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yolken, H. Thomas; Matzkanin, George A.

    2009-01-01

    Because of their increasing utilization in structural applications, the nondestructive evaluation (NDE) of advanced fiber reinforced polymer composites continues to receive considerable research and development attention. Due to the heterogeneous nature of composites, the form of defects is often very different from a metal and fracture mechanisms are more complex. The purpose of this report is to provide an overview and technology assessment of the current state-of-the-art with respect to NDE of advanced fiber reinforced polymer composites.

  12. [Fiber reinforced composite posts: literature review].

    PubMed

    Frydman, G; Levatovsky, S; Pilo, R

    2013-07-01

    FRC (Fiber-reinforced composite) posts have been used since the beginning of the 90s with the introduction of carbon fiber posts. Fiber posts are widely used to restore endodontically treated teeth that have insufficient coronal tooth structure. Many in vitro and in vivo studies have shown the advantage of using FRC over prefabricated and cast metal post especially indicated in narrow root canals which are prone to vertically root fracture. The most frequent failure of FRC is debonding of a post at the resin cement/dentin interface. Bonding to dentin may be achieved by using etch-and-rinse and self-etch adhesives. The bond strength formed by self-adhesive cements is noticeably lower in comparison to the bond strength formed with resin cements applied in combination with etch-and-rinse adhesives. In an attempt to maximize resin bonding to fiber posts, several surface treatments have been suggested. Sandblasting with alumina particles results in an increased surface roughness and surface area without affecting the integrity of the post as long as it is applied by 50 microm alumina particles at 2.5 bars for maximally 5 seconds at a distance of 30 mm. The efficiency of post salinization is controversial and its contribution to the retention is of minor importance. Hydrofluoric acid has recently been proposed for etching glass fiber posts but this technique produced substantial damage to the glass fibers and affected the integrity of the post. Delayed cementation of fiber post (at least 24h post endodontic treatment) resulted in higher retentive strengths in comparison to immediate cementation and the best results were obtained when the luting agent was brought into the post space with lentulo spirals or specific syringes. The resin cement film thickness also influences the pullout strengths of fiber-reinforced posts .The highest bond strength values were obtained when the cement layer oversized the post spaces but not larger than 0.3 mm. The use of core build

  13. ALL NATURAL COMPOSITE SANDWICH BEAMS FOR STRUCTURAL APPLICATIONS. (R829576)

    EPA Science Inventory

    As part of developing an all natural composite roof for housing application,
    structural panels and unit beams were manufactured out of soybean oil based resin
    and natural fibers (flax, cellulose, pulp, recycled paper, chicken feathers)
    using vacuum assisted resin tran...

  14. CARBON FIBER COMPOSITES IN HIGH VOLUME

    SciTech Connect

    Warren, Charles David; Das, Sujit; Jeon, Dr. Saeil

    2014-01-01

    Vehicle lightweighting represents one of several design approaches that automotive and heavy truck manufacturers are currently evaluating to improve fuel economy, lower emissions, and improve freight efficiency (tons-miles per gallon of fuel). With changes in fuel efficiency and environmental regulations in the area of transportation, the next decade will likely see considerable vehicle lightweighting throughout the ground transportation industry. Greater use of carbon fiber composites and light metals is a key component of that strategy. This paper examines the competition between candidate materials for lightweighting of heavy vehicles and passenger cars. A 53-component, 25 % mass reduction, body-in-white cost analysismore » is presented for each material class, highlighting the potential cost penalty for each kilogram of mass reduction and then comparing the various material options. Lastly, as the cost of carbon fiber is a major component of the elevated cost of carbon fiber composites, a brief look at the factors that influence that cost is presented.« less

  15. Process of Making Boron-Fiber Reinforced Composite Tape

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Belvin, Harry L. (Inventor); Cano, Roberto J. (Inventor); Johnston, Norman J. (Inventor); Marchello, Joseph M. (Inventor)

    2002-01-01

    The invention is an apparatus and method for producing a hybrid boron reinforced polymer matrix composition from powder pre-impregnated fiber tow bundles and a linear array of boron fibers. The boron fibers are applied onto the powder pre-impregnated fiber tow bundles and then are processed within a processing component having an impregnation bar assembly. After passing through variable-dimension forming nip-rollers, the powder pre-impregnated fiber tow bundles with the boron fibers become a hybrid boron reinforced polymer matrix composite tape. A driving mechanism pulls the powder pre-impregnated fiber tow bundles with boron fibers through the processing line of the apparatus and a take-up spool collects the formed hybrid boron-fiber reinforced polymer matrix composite tape.

  16. Multifunctional Flexible Composites Based on Continuous Carbon Nanotube Fiber

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-07-28

    fibers [1] The mechanical and electrical behavior of carbon nanotube fibers spun continuously from an aerogel is discussed. These fibers exhibit moderate...loading, demonstrates their potential for sensing applications in advanced composite materials. Insight into the failure behavior of the aerogel -spun...nanotube fibers is reported-the aerogel -spun fibers are observed to undergo mild to severe kinking due to tensile failure. This kinking is attributed to

  17. Effects of wood fiber characteristics on mechanical properties of wood/polypropylene composites

    Treesearch

    Nicole M. Stark; Robert E. Rowlands

    2003-01-01

    Commercial wood flour, the most common wood-derived filler for thermoplastics, is produced in a mixture of particle sizes and generally has a lower aspect ratio than wood and other natural fibers. To understand how wood flour and fiber characteristics influence the mechanical properties of polypropylene composites, we first investigated the effect of different sizes of...

  18. Metal matrix coated fiber composites and the methods of manufacturing such composites

    DOEpatents

    Weeks, Jr., Joseph K.; Gensse, Chantal

    1993-01-01

    A fiber coating which allows ceramic or metal fibers to be wetted by molten metals is disclosed. The coating inhibits degradation of the physical properties caused by chemical reaction between the fiber and the coating itself or between the fiber and the metal matrix. The fiber coating preferably includes at least a wetting layer, and in some applications, a wetting layer and a barrier layer between the fiber and the wetting layer. The wetting layer promotes fiber wetting by the metal matrix. The barrier layer inhibits fiber degradation. The fiber coating permits the fibers to be infiltrated with the metal matrix resulting in composites having unique properties not obtainable in pure materials.

  19. Method of producing a hybrid matrix fiber composite

    DOEpatents

    Deteresa, Steven J [Livermore, CA; Lyon, Richard E [Absecon, NJ; Groves, Scott E [Brentwood, CA

    2006-03-28

    Hybrid matrix fiber composites having enhanced compressive performance as well as enhanced stiffness, toughness and durability suitable for compression-critical applications. The methods for producing the fiber composites using matrix hybridization. The hybrid matrix fiber composites comprised of two chemically or physically bonded matrix materials, whereas the first matrix materials are used to impregnate multi-filament fibers formed into ribbons and the second matrix material is placed around and between the fiber ribbons that are impregnated with the first matrix material and both matrix materials are cured and solidified.

  20. Differences in interfacial bond strengths of graphite fiber-epoxy resin composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Needles, H. L.

    1985-01-01

    The effect of epoxy-size and degree of cure on the interfacial bonding of an epoxy-amine-graphite fiber composite system is examined. The role of the fiber-resin interface in determining the overall mechanical properties of composites is poorly understood. A good interfacial adhesive bond is required to achieve maximum stress transfer to the fibers in composites, but at the same time some form of energy absorbing interfacial interaction is needed to achieve high fracture toughening. The incompatibility of these two processes makes it important to understand the nature and basic factors involved at the fiber-resin interface as stress is applied. The mechanical properties including interlaminar shear values for graphite fiber-resin composites are low compared to glass and boron-resin composites. These differences have been attributed to poor fiber-matrix adhesion. Graphite fibers are commonly subjected to post-treatments including application of organic sizing in order to improve their compatibility with the resin matrix and to protect the fiber tow from damage during processing and lay-up. In such processes, sized graphite fiber tow is impregnated with epoxy resin and then layed-up i nto the appropriate configuration. Following an extended ambient temperature cure, the graphite-resin composite structure is cured at elevated temperature using a programmed temperature sequence to cure and then cool the product.

  1. Effect of fiber fibrillation on impact and flexural strength of coir fiber reinforced epoxy hybrid composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mawardi, I.; Jufriadi; Hanif

    2018-03-01

    This study aims to develop fiber-reinforced epoxy resin composites. This study presents the effect of fiber fibrillation on the impact and flextural strength of the epoxy hybrid composite reinforced by coir fiber. Coir is soaked in 5% NaOH solution for 5 hours. Then fiber is rocessed using a blender of 2000 rpm density fibrillation. The length of time the fibrillation varied for 10, 20 and 30 minutes. Volume fraction of 30% fiber and matrix 70% composited. The composite uses a matrix of epoxy by hand lay up method. The implemented tests are impact and flexural tests. The test results show fiber fibrillation treatment can improve the composite mechanical properties. The highest impact and flexural strength, 24.45 kJ/m2 and 87.91 MPa were produced with fiber fibrillation for 10 minutes.

  2. Characterization of Thermal Behavior of Epoxy Composites Reinforced with Curaua Fibers by Differential Scanning Calorimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barcelos, Mariana A.; Ribeiro, Carolina Gomes D.; Ferreira, Jordana; Vieira, Janaina da S.; Margem, Frederico M.; Monteiro, Sergio N.

    Epoxy composites reinforced with natural lignocellulosic fibers have, in recent times, been gaining attention in engineering areas as lighter and cheaper alternatives for traditional composites such as the "fiberglass". The curaua fiber is the one strongest today being considered as reinforcement of composites for automobile interior parts. In fact, several studies are currently being dedicated to curaua fiber composites since physical and mechanical properties are required for practical uses. In this work, the thermal behavior of epoxy composites reinforced with up to 30 % in volume of curaua fibers was investigated by differential scanning calorimetry, DSC. The results showed endothermic and exothermic events associated with water release and possible molecular chain amorphous transformation. Comparison with similar composites permitted to propose mechanism that explains this DSC thermal behavior.

  3. Composite impact strength improvement through a fiber/matrix interphase

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cavano, P. J.; Winters, W. E.

    1975-01-01

    Research was conducted to improve the impact strength and toughness of fiber/resin composites by means of a fiber coating interphase. Graphite fiber/epoxy resin composites were fabricated with four different fiber coating systems introduced in a matrix-fiber interphase. Two graphite fibers, a high strength and a high modulus type, were studied with the following coating systems: chemical vapor deposited boron, electroless nickel, a polyamide-imide resin and a thermoplastic polysulfone resin. Evaluation methods included the following tests: Izod, flexure, shear fracture toughness, longitudinal and transverse tensile, and transverse and longitudinal compression. No desirable changes could be effected with the high strength fiber, but significant improvements in impact performance were observed with the polyamide-imide resin coated high modulus fiber with no loss in composite modulus.

  4. Nano-Fiber Reinforced Enhancements in Composite Polymer Matrices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chamis, Christos C.

    2009-01-01

    Nano-fibers are used to reinforce polymer matrices to enhance the matrix dependent properties that are subsequently used in conventional structural composites. A quasi isotropic configuration is used in arranging like nano-fibers through the thickness to ascertain equiaxial enhanced matrix behavior. The nano-fiber volume ratios are used to obtain the enhanced matrix strength properties for 0.01,0.03, and 0.05 nano-fiber volume rates. These enhanced nano-fiber matrices are used with conventional fiber volume ratios of 0.3 and 0.5 to obtain the composite properties. Results show that nano-fiber enhanced matrices of higher than 0.3 nano-fiber volume ratio are degrading the composite properties.

  5. Engineering Design Handbook Short Fiber Plastic Base Composites

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1975-07-31

    ENGINEERING DESIGN HANDBOOK N ’~rttl SHORT FIBER PLASTIC BASE COMPOSITES l ,.. HEADQUARTERS, US ARrm MAlERIEL COIVMAND JULY 1975 DEPARTMENT OF...HANDBOOK SHORT FIBER PLASTIC BASE COMPOSITES TABLE OF CONTENTS 31 July 1975 Paragraph Page 1-1 1-2 1-2.1 1-2.2 1-3 1-3.1 1-3.2 1-3.3 1...General ............................... . Molding Short Fiber Compounds ........... . Classification of Polymer Based Composites

  6. Carbon Fiber Foam Composites and Methods for Making the Same

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Atwater, Mark Andrew (Inventor); Leseman, Zayd Chad (Inventor); Phillips, Jonathan (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    Exemplary embodiments provide methods and apparatus of forming fibrous carbon foams (FCFs). In one embodiment, FCFs can be formed by flowing a fuel rich gas mixture over a catalytic material and components to be encapsulated in a mold to form composite carbon fibers, each composite carbon fiber having a carbon phase grown to encapsulate the component in situ. The composite carbon fibers can be intertwined with one another to form FCFs having a geometry according to the mold.

  7. Fabricating fiber-reinforced composite posts.

    PubMed

    Manhart, Jürgen

    2011-03-01

    Endodontic posts do not increase the strength of the remaining tooth structure in endodontically treated teeth. On the contrary, depending on the post design employed (tapered versus parallel-sided), the root can be weakened relative to the amount of tooth removed during preparation. In many cases, if there has been a high degree of damage to the clinical crown, conservative preparation for an anatomic tapered (biomimetic) post with the incorporation of a ferrule on solid tooth structure is necessary to protect the reaming root structure as well as for the long-term retention of the composite resin core and the definitive restoration. Adhesively luted endodontic posts reinforced with glass or quartz fiber lead to better homogeneous tension distribution when loaded than rigid metal or zirconium oxide ceramic posts. Fiber-reinforced posts also possess advantageous optical properties over metal or metal oxide post systems. The clinician should realize that there are admittedly substantial differences in the mechanical loading capacity of the different fiber-reinforced endodontic posts and should be aware of such differences in order to research and select a suitable post system for use.

  8. Composites with improved fiber-resin interfacial adhesion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cizmecioglu, Muzaffer (Inventor)

    1989-01-01

    The adhesion of fiber reinforcement such as high modulus graphite to a matrix resin such as polycarbonate is greatly enhanced by applying a very thin layer, suitably from 50 Angstroms to below 1000 Angstroms, to the surface of the fiber such as by immersing the fiber in a dilute solution of the matrix resin in a volatile solvent followed by draining to remove excess solution and air drying to remove the solvent. The thin layer wets the fiber surface. The very dilute solution of matrix resin is able to impregnate multifilament fibers and the solution evenly flows onto the surface of the fibers. A thin uniform layer is formed on the surface of the fiber after removal of the solvent. The matrix resin coated fiber is completely wetted by the matrix resin during formation of the composite. Increased adhesion of the resin to the fibers is observed at fracture. At least 65 percent of the surface of the graphite fiber is covered with polycarbonate resin at fracture whereas uncoated fibers have very little matrix resin adhering to their surfaces at fracture and epoxy sized graphite fibers exhibit only slightly higher coverage with matrix resin at fracture. Flexural modulus of the composite containing matrix resin coated fibers is increased by 50 percent and flexural strength by 37 percent as compared to composites made with unsized fibers.

  9. Fiber Reinforced Composite Cores and Panels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Day, Stephen W. (Inventor); Campbell, G. Scott (Inventor); Tilton, Danny E. (Inventor); Stoll, Frederick (Inventor); Sheppard, Michael (Inventor); Banerjee, Robin (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    A fiber reinforced core panel is formed from strips of plastics foam helically wound with layers of rovings to form webs which may extend in a wave pattern or may intersect transverse webs. Hollow tubes may replace foam strips. Axial rovings cooperate with overlying helically wound rovings to form a beam or a column. Wound roving patterns may vary along strips for structural efficiency. Wound strips may alternate with spaced strips, and spacers between the strips enhance web buckling strength. Continuously wound rovings between spaced strips permit folding to form panels with reinforced edges. Continuously wound strips are helically wrapped to form annular structures, and composite panels may combine both thermoset and thermoplastic resins. Continuously wound strips or strip sections may be continuously fed either longitudinally or laterally into molding apparatus which may receive skin materials to form reinforced composite panels.

  10. Transverse thermal expansion of carbon fiber/epoxy matrix composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Helmer, J. F.; Diefendorf, R. J.

    1983-01-01

    Thermal expansion coefficients and moduli of elasticity have been determined experimentally for a series of epoxy-matrix composites reinforced with carbon and Kevlar fibers. It is found that in the transverse direction the difference between the properties of the fiber and the matrix is not as pronounced as in the longitudinal direction, where the composite properties are fiber-dominated. Therefore, the pattern of fiber packing tends to affect transverse composite properties. The transverse properties of the composites tested are examined from the standpoint of the concept of homogeneity defined as the variation of packing (or lack thereof) throughout a sample.

  11. Biological natural retting for determining the hierarchical structuration of banana fibers.

    PubMed

    Gañán, Piedad; Zuluaga, Robin; Velez, Juan Manuel; Mondragon, Iñaki

    2004-10-20

    Extraction processes of natural fibers can be performed by different procedures that include mechanical, chemical and biological methods. Each method presents different advantages or drawbacks according to the amount of fiber produced or the quality and properties of fiber bundles obtained. In this study, biological natural retting was satisfactorily used for obtaining banana fibers from plant bunches. However, the most important contribution of this work refers to the description of the hierarchical microstructural ordering present in banana fiber bundles in both bundle surface and inner region. The chemical composition of banana fiber bundles has been evaluated by FTIR spectroscopy. Through exposure time, the fiber bundle configuration presents small variations in composition. The main changes are related to hemicellulose and pectins as they conform the outer walls of the bundle. Hierarchical helicoidal ordering in the bundle surface as well as orientation on the longitudinal axis of the bundle were observed by optical microscopy (OM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) for 3-4 microm surface fibers and 10-15 microm inner elementary fibers, respectively. With increasing exposure time, fiber bundle walls lose integrity, as reflected in their mechanical behavior.

  12. Studies on fabrication of glass fiber reinforced composites using polymer blends

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patel, R. H.; Kachhia, P. H.; Patel, S. N.; Rathod, S. T.; Valand, J. K.

    2018-05-01

    Glass fiber reinforced PVC/NBR composites have been fabricated via hot compression moulding process. PVC is brittle in nature and thus lower thermal stability. Therefore, to improve the toughness of PVC, NBR was incorporated in certain proportions. As both are polar and thus they are compatible. To improve the strength property further, these blends were used to fabricate glass fiber reinforced composites. SEM micrograph shows good wettability of the blend with glass fibers resulting in proper bonding which increase the strength of the composites.

  13. Direct Piezoelectricity of Soft Composite Electrospun Fibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Varga, Michael; Morvan, Jason; Diorio, Nick; Buyuktanir, Ebru; Harden, John; West, John; Jakli, Antal

    2013-03-01

    Recently soft fiber mats electrospun from solutions of Barium Titanate (BT) ferroelectric ceramics particles and poly lactic acid (PLA) were found to have large (d33 1nm/V) converse piezoelectric signals offering a myriad of applications ranging from active implants to smart textiles. Here we report direct piezoelectric measurements (electric signals due to mechanical stress) of the BT/PLA composite fiber mats at various BT concentrations. A testing apparatus was designed and constructed solely for these measurements involving AC stresses provided by a speaker in 10Hz-10kHz frequency range. The piezoelectric constant d33 ~1nC/N was found to be in agreement with the prior converse piezoelectric measurements. The largest signals were obtained with 6% BT/PLA composites, probably because the BT particles at higher concentrations could not be dispersed homogeneously. Importantly the direct piezoelectric signal is large enough to power a small LCD by simply pressing a 0.2mm thick 2 cm2 area mat by a finger. We expect to use these mats in active Braille cells and in liquid crystal writing tablets.

  14. Hybrid Polyvinyl Alcohol and Cellulose Fiber Pulp Instead of Asbestos Fibers in Cement-Based Composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shokrieh, M. M.; Mahmoudi, A.; Shadkam, H. R.

    2015-05-01

    The Taguchi method was used to determine the optimum content of a four-parameters cellulose fiber pulp, polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) fibers, a silica fume, and bentonite for cement-based composite sheets. Then cement composite sheets from the hybrid of PVA and the cellulose fiber pulp were manufactured, and their moduli of rapture were determined experimentally. The result obtained showed that cement composites with a hybrid of PVA and cellulose fiber pulp had a higher flexural strength than cellulose-fiber- reinforced cement ones, but this strength was rather similar to that of asbestos-fiber-reinforced cement composites. Also, using the results of flexural tests and an analytical method, the tensile and compressive moduli of the hybrid of PVA and cement sheet were calculated. The hybrid of PVA and cellulose fiber pulp is proposed as an appropriate alternative for substituting asbestos in the Hatschek process.

  15. Numerical approach of the injection molding process of fiber-reinforced composite with considering fiber orientation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen Thi, T. B.; Yokoyama, A.; Ota, K.; Kodama, K.; Yamashita, K.; Isogai, Y.; Furuichi, K.; Nonomura, C.

    2014-05-01

    One of the most important challenges in the injection molding process of the short-glass fiber/thermoplastic composite parts is being able to predict the fiber orientation, since it controls the mechanical and the physical properties of the final parts. Folgar and Tucker included into the Jeffery equation a diffusive type of term, which introduces a phenomenological coefficient for modeling the randomizing effect of the mechanical interactions between the fibers, to predict the fiber orientation in concentrated suspensions. Their experiments indicated that this coefficient depends on the fiber volume fraction and aspect ratio. However, a definition of the fiber interaction coefficient, which is very necessary in the fiber orientation simulations, hasn't still been proven yet. Consequently, this study proposed a developed fiber interaction model that has been introduced a fiber dynamics simulation in order to obtain a global fiber interaction coefficient. This supposed that the coefficient is a sum function of the fiber concentration, aspect ratio, and angular velocity. The proposed model was incorporated into a computer aided engineering simulation package C-Mold. Short-glass fiber/polyamide-6 composites were produced in the injection molding with the fiber weight concentration of 30 wt.%, 50 wt.%, and 70 wt.%. The physical properties of these composites were examined, and their fiber orientation distributions were measured by micro-computed-tomography equipment μ-CT. The simulation results showed a good agreement with experiment results.

  16. Numerical approach of the injection molding process of fiber-reinforced composite with considering fiber orientation

    SciTech Connect

    Nguyen Thi, T. B., E-mail: thanhbinh.skku@gmail.com, E-mail: yokoyama@kit.ac.jp; Yokoyama, A., E-mail: thanhbinh.skku@gmail.com, E-mail: yokoyama@kit.ac.jp; Ota, K., E-mail: kei-ota@toyobo.jp, E-mail: katsuhiro-kodama@toyobo.jp, E-mail: katsuhisa-yamashita@toyobo.jp, E-mail: yumiko-isogai@toyobo.jp, E-mail: kenji-furuichi@toyobo.jp, E-mail: chisato-nonomura@toyobo.jp

    2014-05-15

    One of the most important challenges in the injection molding process of the short-glass fiber/thermoplastic composite parts is being able to predict the fiber orientation, since it controls the mechanical and the physical properties of the final parts. Folgar and Tucker included into the Jeffery equation a diffusive type of term, which introduces a phenomenological coefficient for modeling the randomizing effect of the mechanical interactions between the fibers, to predict the fiber orientation in concentrated suspensions. Their experiments indicated that this coefficient depends on the fiber volume fraction and aspect ratio. However, a definition of the fiber interaction coefficient, whichmore » is very necessary in the fiber orientation simulations, hasn't still been proven yet. Consequently, this study proposed a developed fiber interaction model that has been introduced a fiber dynamics simulation in order to obtain a global fiber interaction coefficient. This supposed that the coefficient is a sum function of the fiber concentration, aspect ratio, and angular velocity. The proposed model was incorporated into a computer aided engineering simulation package C-Mold. Short-glass fiber/polyamide-6 composites were produced in the injection molding with the fiber weight concentration of 30 wt.%, 50 wt.%, and 70 wt.%. The physical properties of these composites were examined, and their fiber orientation distributions were measured by micro-computed-tomography equipment μ-CT. The simulation results showed a good agreement with experiment results.« less

  17. Monitoring Fiber Stress During Curing of Single Fiber Glass- and Graphite-Epoxy Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Madhukar, Madhu S.; Kosuri, Ranga P.; Bowles, Kenneth J.

    1994-01-01

    The difference in thermal expansion characteristics of epoxy matrices and graphite fibers can produce significant residual stresses in the fibers during curing of composite materials. Tests on single fiber glass-epoxy and graphite-epoxy composite specimens were conducted in which the glass and graphite fibers were preloaded in tension, and the epoxy matrix was cast around the fibers. The fiber tension was monitored while the matrix was placed around the fiber and subjected to the temperature-time curing cycle. Two mechanisms responsible for producing stress in embedded fibers were identified as matrix thermal expansion and contraction and matrix cure shrinkage. A simple analysis based on the change in fiber tension during the curing cycle was conducted to estimate the produced stresses. Experimental results on single fiber glass- and graphite-epoxy composites show that the fiber was subjected to significant tensile stresses when the temperature was raised from the first to the second dwell period. When initial fiber pretension is about 60 percent of the fiber failure load, these curing-induced stresses can cause tensile fracture of the embedded fiber.

  18. The effects of corn zein protein coupling agent on mechanical properties of flax fiber reinforced composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whitacre, Ryan John

    In the field of renewable materials, natural fiber composites demonstrate the capacity to be a viable structural material. When normalized by density, flax fiber mechanical properties are competitive with E-glass fibers. However, the hydrophilic nature of flax fibers reduces the interfacial bond strength with polymer thermosets, limiting composite mechanical properties. Corn zein protein was selected as a natural bio-based coupling agent because of its combination of hydrophobic and hydrophilic properties. Zein was deposited on the surface of flax, which was then processed into unidirectional composite. The mechanical properties of zein treated samples where measured and compared against commonly utilized synthetic treatments sodium hydroxide and silane which incorporate harsh chemicals. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, chemical analysis, and scanning electron microscopy were also used to determine analyze zein treatments. Results demonstrate the environmentally friendly zein treatment successfully increased tensile strength 8%, flexural strength 17%, and shear strength 30% compared to untreated samples.

  19. Glass fiber addition strengthens low-density ablative compositions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chandler, H. H.

    1974-01-01

    Approximately 15% of E-glass fibers was added to compositions under test and greatly improved char stability. Use of these fibers also reduced thermal strains which, in turn, minimized char shrinkage and associated cracks, subsurface voids, and disbonds. Increased strength allows honeycomb core reinforcement to be replaced by equivalent amount of glass fibers.

  20. Tungsten fiber reinforced copper matrix composites: A review

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcdanels, David L.

    1989-01-01

    Tungsten fiber reinforced copper matrix (W/Cu) composites have served as an ideal model system with which to analyze the properties of metal matrix composites. A series of research programs were conducted to investigate the stress-strain behavior of W/Cu composites; the effect of fiber content on the strength, modulus, and conductivity of W/Cu composites; and the effect of alloying elements on the behavior of tungsten wire and of W/Cu composites. Later programs investigated the stress-rupture, creep, and impact behavior of these composites at elevated temperatures. Analysis of the results of these programs as allows prediction of the effects of fiber properties, matrix properties, and fiber content on the properties of W/Cu composites. These analyses form the basis for the rule-of-mixtures prediction of composite properties which was universally adopted as the criteria for measuring composite efficiency. In addition, the analyses allows extrapolation of potential properties of other metal matrix composites and are used to select candidate fibers and matrices for development of tungsten fiber reinforced superalloy composite materials for high temperature aircraft and rocket engine turbine applications. The W/Cu composite efforts are summarized, some of the results obtained are described, and an update is provided on more recent work using W/Cu composites as high strength, high thermal conductivity composite materials for high heat flux, elevated temperature applications.

  1. Mechanical properties and surface chemistry of kenaf fiber for composite reinforcement – an insight into the retting process

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Harnessing natural fibers to produce polymer composites requires processing of fibers from harvest to the dried state, which can then be dispersed in the polymer resin. Bast fibers are found in the bark layer of fibrous plants such as kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus), jute (Corchorus olitorius), and flax...

  2. Interfacial reactions in titanium/SCS fiber composites during fabrication

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Warrier, S. G.; Lin, R. Y.

    1993-01-01

    The objectrive of the study was to determine the effect of titanium concentration and different pyrocarbon fiber coatings on the morphology and the extent of fiber-matrix reactions in Ti/SiC composites fabricated by rapid infrared forming (RIF). It is found that the extent of fiber-matrix reactions in Ti/SiC composites fabricated by the RIF technique is noticeably affected by both an increase in Ti content and by the processing temperature. Uncoated SiC fibers extensively react with the titanium alloy matrix at 1200 C, whereas no reaction occurs when coated SiC fibers are used.

  3. Revealing Slip Bands In A Metal-Matrix/Fiber Composite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lerch, Bradley A.

    1995-01-01

    Experimental procedure includes heat treatments and metallographic techniques developed to facilitate studies of deformation of metal-matrix/fiber composite under stress. Reveals slip bands, indicative of plastic flow occurring in matrix during mechanical tests of specimens of composite.

  4. Process for preparing tows from composite fiber blends

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McMahon, Paul (Inventor); Chung, Tai-Shung (Inventor); Ying, Lincoln (Inventor)

    1989-01-01

    A continuous, substantially uniform tow useful in forming composite molded articles is prepared by forming a continuous tow of continuous carbon fibers, forming a continuous tow of thermoplastic polymer fibers to a selected width, uniformly and continuously spreading the carbon fiber two to a width that is essentially the same as the selected width for the thermoplastic polymer fiber tow, intermixing the tows intimately, uniformly and continuously, in a relatively tension-free state, and continuosuly withdrawing the intermixed tow.

  5. Fiber release from impacted graphite reinforced epoxy composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Babinsky, T. C.

    1980-01-01

    Carbon fibers released from composites by aircraft fires and crashes can cause electrical shorts and consequent equipment damage. This report investigates less vigorous release mechanisms than that previously simulated by explosive burn/blast tests. When AS/3501-6 composites are impacted by various head and weight configurations of a pendulum impactor, less than 0.2 percent by weight of the original sample is released as single fibers. Other fiber release mechanisms studied were air blasts, constant airflow, torsion, flexural, and vibration of composite samples. The full significance of the low single fiber release rates found here is to be evaluated by NASA in their aircraft vulnerability studies.

  6. Research on Damage Models for Continuous Fiber Composites

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-07-01

    r ~.F (~ Mechanics and Materials Center TEXAS A&M UNIVERSITY College Station, Texas RESEARCH ON DAMAGE MODELS FOR CONTINUOUS FIBER COMPOSITES Final...Washington, DC 20332 11. TITLE (Include Security Clas=fication) Research on Damage Models for Continuous Fiber Composites - Final Technical Report 1...GROUP SUB-GROU ::=, COMPOsites ) continuum mechanics , ~ idamage, internal state variables V experimental mechanics, laminated composites o 19. ABSTRACT

  7. Influence of fiber treatment on dimensional stabilities of rattan waste composite boards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zuraida, A.; Insyirah, Y.; Maisarah, T.; Zahurin, H.

    2018-01-01

    The main drawback of using natural fibers in composite boards is its hydrophilic properties which absorb a high volume of moisture. This results in low dimensional stability of the produced composite boards. Hence, the purpose of this study is to investigate the effects of fibers’ treatment processes of the rattan waste fibers on the dimensional stabilities of composite boards. The collected fibers underwent two types of retting processes, namely a water treatment and alkaline treatment retting processes; where the fibers were soaked in water and a 1% sodium hydroxide (NaOH) solution, respectively. The fibers were dried and mixed with poly(lactic) acid (PLA) pellets with ratio of 30% fibers: 70% matrix; before being fabricated into composite boards via a hot-pressing process and were labelled as RF/PLA, WRF/PLA, CRF/PLA for untreated rattan, rattan treated by water retting, rattan treated by chemical retting, respectively. The produced composite boards were cut and soaked in water for 24 hours for dimensional stability in terms of water absorption and thickness swelling tests. The results showed that WRF/PLA has the lowest water absorption (3.2%), and the CRF/PLA had the highest water absorption (23.2%). The thickness swelling showed a similar trend as water absorption. The presence of void contents and fibers damaged the insides of the boards, which contributed to low dimensional stabilities of the composite boards. It can be concluded that water retting facilitated in improving dimensional stability of the produced composite board.

  8. Effects of moisture on aspen-fiber/polypropylene composites

    Treesearch

    Roger M. Rowell

    2002-01-01

    Aspen fiber/polypropylene composites were made using several different levels of aspen fiber (0 to 60% by weight) with and without the addition of a compatibilizer (maleic anhydride grafted polypropylene, MAPP). These composites were tested under various relative humidity conditions and in water soaking, boiling water, cyclic liquid water and oven drying tests. In all...

  9. Coir fiber reinforced polypropylene composite panel for automotive interior applications

    Treesearch

    Nadir Ayrilmis; Songklod Jarusombuti; Vallayuth Fueangvivat; Piyawade Bauchongkol; Robert H. White

    2011-01-01

    In this study, physical, mechanical, and flammability properties of coconut fiber reinforced polypropylene (PP) composite panels were evaluated. Four levels of the coir fiber content (40, 50, 60, and 70 % based on the composition by weight) were mixed with the PP powder and a coupling agent, 3 wt % maleic anhydride grafted PP (MAPP) powder. The water resistance and the...

  10. Properties study of cotton stalk fiber/gypsum composite

    SciTech Connect

    Li Guozhong; Yu Yanzhen; Zhao Zhongjian

    This manuscript addresses treating cotton stalk fiber surface with styrene acrylic emulsion, which improves the interfacial combined state of cotton stalk fiber/gypsum composite effectively and improves its mechanical properties notably. Mixes less slag, ordinary Portland cement, etc., to modify gypsum base. The electron microscope was utilized to analyze and research on the effect on composite properties of the abovementioned mixtures.

  11. The effects of temperature on fiber composite bridge decks.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2009-01-01

    In this study the fiber composite bridge decks were subjected to thermal gradients to obtain the temperature difference between the top and bottom surface of the decks and to determine the thermal properties of the deck. The fiber composite bridge de...

  12. Eddy-Current Inspection Of Graphite-Fiber Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Workman, G. L.; Bryson, C. C.

    1993-01-01

    NASA technical memorandum describes initial research on, and proposed development of, automated system for nondestructive eddy-current inspection of parts made of graphite-fiber/epoxy-matrix composite materials. Sensors in system E-shaped or U-shaped eddy-current probes like those described in "Eddy-Current Probes For Inspecting Graphite-Fiber Composites" (MFS-26129).

  13. Hybrid composites that retain graphite fibers on burning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    House, E. E.

    1980-01-01

    A laboratory scale program was conducted to determine fiber release tendencies of graphite reinforced/resinous matrix composites currently used or projected for use in civil aircraft. In the event of an aircraft crash and burn situation, there is concern that graphite fibers will be released from the composites once the resin matrix is thermally decomposed. Hybridizing concepts aimed at preventing fiber release on burning were postulated and their effectiveness evaluated under fire, impact, and air flow during an aircraft crash.

  14. Ultrasonic NDE and mechanical testing of fiber placement composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Zhanjie; Fei, Dong; Hsu, David K.; Dayal, Vinay; Hale, Richard D.

    2002-05-01

    A fiber placed composite, especially with fiber steering, has considerably more complex internal structure than a laminate laid up from unidirectional prepreg tapes. In this work, we performed ultrasonic imaging of ply interfaces of fiber placed composite laminates, with an eye toward developing a tool for evaluating their quality. Mechanical short-beam shear tests were also conducted on both nonsteered and steered specimens to examine their failure behavior and its relationship to the structural defects indicated by ultrasonic imaging.

  15. Burning characteristics and fiber retention of graphite/resin matrix composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowles, K. J.

    1980-01-01

    Graphite fiber reinforced resin matrix composites were subjected to controlled burning conditions to determine their burning characteristics and fiber retention properties. Two types of burning equipment were used. Small samples were burned with a natural gas fired torch to study the effects of fiber orientation and structural flaws such as holes and slits that were machined into the laminates. Larger laminate samples were burned in a Heat Release Rate Calorimeter. Unidirectional epoxy/graphite and polyimide/graphite composites and boron powder filled samples of each of the two composite systems were burn tested and exposed to a thermal radiation. The effects of fiber orientation, flaws, and boron filler additives to the resins were evaluated. A high char forming polyimide resin was no more effective in retaining graphite fibers than a low char forming epoxy resin when burning in air.

  16. Mixture of natural fiber with gypsum to improve the fire resistance rating of a fire door: The effect of kapok fiber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azieyanti, N. A.; Hakim, Alif; Hasini, Hasril

    2017-10-01

    A composite mixture of gypsum and natural fibers has been considered in this study to enhance the fire resistance rating of a fire door. Previously the materials used to make a fire door are gypsum and fiber wool where it acts as a protective coating. Normally this fire door must be compact and able to close on its own. Natural fibers have the ability to replace glass fiber cotton because of its features that are available in fiber glass wool. When using fiberglass, it can cause health problem once it is swallowed and inhaled, and may remain in the lungs indefinitely. It also can contribute to lungs cancer. Kapok fiber has been used in this experiment as natural fibers. The objective of the experiment is to analyze the fire resistant rating of the composite mixture of gypsum with kapok fiber. The scopes of the experiment consist of a preparation of composite mixture samples of gypsum with kapok fiber with different composition and thickness, and the fabrication of a fire resistant testing furnace. A testing of samples which were conducted in accordance with the standard MS 1073: PART 2:1996.

  17. Carbon fiber composites for cryogenic filament-wound vessels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Larsen, J. V.; Simon, R. A.

    1972-01-01

    Advanced unidirectional and bidirectional carbon fiber/epoxy resin composites were evaluated for physical and mechanical properties over a cryogenic to room temperature range for potential application to cryogenic vessels. The results showed that Courtaulds HTS carbon fiber was the superior fiber in terms of cryogenic strength properties in epoxy composites. Of the resin systems tested in ring composites, CTBN/ERLB 4617 exhibited the highest composite strengths at cryogenic temperatures, but very low interlaminar shear strengths at room temperature. Tests of unidirectional and bidirectional composite bars showed that the Epon 828/Empol 1040 resin was better at all test temperatures. Neither fatigue cycling nor thermal shock had a significant effect on composite strengths or moduli. Thermal expansion measurements gave negative values in the fiber direction and positive values in the transverse direction of the composites.

  18. Quantitative radiographic analysis of fiber reinforced polymer composites.

    PubMed

    Baidya, K P; Ramakrishna, S; Rahman, M; Ritchie, A

    2001-01-01

    X-ray radiographic examination of the bone fracture healing process is a widely used method in the treatment and management of patients. Medical devices made of metallic alloys reportedly produce considerable artifacts that make the interpretation of radiographs difficult. Fiber reinforced polymer composite materials have been proposed to replace metallic alloys in certain medical devices because of their radiolucency, light weight, and tailorable mechanical properties. The primary objective of this paper is to provide a comparable radiographic analysis of different fiber reinforced polymer composites that are considered suitable for biomedical applications. Composite materials investigated consist of glass, aramid (Kevlar-29), and carbon reinforcement fibers, and epoxy and polyether-ether-ketone (PEEK) matrices. The total mass attenuation coefficient of each material was measured using clinical X-rays (50 kev). The carbon fiber reinforced composites were found to be more radiolucent than the glass and kevlar fiber reinforced composites.

  19. Mallow Fiber-Reinforced Epoxy Composites in Multilayered Armor for Personal Ballistic Protection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nascimento, Lucio Fábio Cassiano; Louro, Luis Henrique Leme; Monteiro, Sergio Neves; Lima, Édio Pereira; da Luz, Fernanda Santos

    2017-10-01

    Lighter and less expensive polymer composites reinforced with natural fibers have been investigated as possible components of a multilayered armor system (MAS) for personal protection against high-velocity ammunition. Their ballistic performance was consistently found comparable with that of conventional Kevlar® synthetic aramid fiber. Among the numerous existing natural fibers with the potential for reinforcing polymer composites to replace Kevlar® in MAS, mallow fiber has not been fully investigated. Thus, the objective of this work is to evaluate the ballistic performance of epoxy composites reinforced with 30 vol.% of aligned mallow fibers as a second MAS layer backing a front ceramic plate. The results using high-velocity 7.62 ammunition show a similar indentation to a Kevlar® layer with the same thickness. An impedance matching calculation supports the similar ballistic performance of mallow fiber composite and Kevlar®. Reduced MAS costs associated with the mallow fiber composite are practical advantages over Kevlar®.

  20. Fabrication and evaluation of low fiber content alumina fiber/aluminum composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hack, J. E.; Strempek, G. C.

    1980-01-01

    The mechanical fabrication of low volume percent fiber, polycrystalline alumina fiber reinforced aluminum composites was accomplished. Wire preform material was prepared by liquid-metal infiltration of alumina fiber bundles. The wires were subsequently encapsulated with aluminum foil and fabricated into bulk composite material by hot-drawing. Extensive mechanical, thermal and chemical testing was conducted on preform and bulk material to develop a process and material data base. In addition, a preliminary investigation of mechanical forming of bulk alumina fiber reinforced aluminum composite material was conducted.

  1. Study of Tensile Properties and Deflection Temperature of Polypropylene/Subang Pineapple Leaf Fiber Composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hafizhah, R.; Juwono, A. L.; Roseno, S.

    2017-05-01

    The development of eco-friendly composites has been increasing in the past four decades because the requirement of eco-friendly materials has been increasing. Indonesia has a lot of natural fiber resources and, pineapple leaf fiber is one of those fibers. This study aimed to determine the influence of weight fraction of pineapple leaf fibers, that were grown at Subang, to the tensile properties and the deflection temperature of polypropylene/Subang pineapple leaf fiber composites. Pineapple leaf fibers were pretreated by alkalization, while polypropylene pellets, as the matrix, were extruded into sheets. Hot press method was used to fabricate the composites. The results of the tensile test and Heat Deflection Temperature (HDT) test showed that the composites that contained of 30 wt.% pineapple leaf fiber was the best composite. The values of tensile strength, modulus of elasticity and deflection temperature were (64.04 ± 3.91) MPa; (3.98 ± 0.55) GPa and (156.05 ± 1.77) °C respectively, in which increased 187.36%, 198.60%, 264.72% respectively from the pristine polypropylene. The results of the observation on the fracture surfaces showed that the failure modes were fiber breakage and matrix failure.

  2. Damping properties of fiber reinforced composite suitable for stayed cable

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jianzhi; Sun, Baochen; Du, Yanliang

    2011-11-01

    Carbon fiber reinforced plastics (CFRP) cables were initially most investigated to replace steel cables. To further explore the advantages of FRP cables, the potential ability of vibration control is studied in this paper emphasizing the designable characteristic of hybrid FRP cables. Fiber reinforced vinyl ester composites and fiber reinforced epoxy composites were prepared by the pultrusion method. Due to the extensive application of fiber reinforced composites, the temperature spectrum and frequency spectrum of loss factor for the composite were tested using dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA) equipment. The damping properties and damping mechanism of the composite were investigated and discussed at different temperatures and frequencies. The result indicates that the loss factor of the composites is increasing with the increase of the frequency from 0.1Hz to 2 Hz and decreasing with the decrease of the temperature from -20°C to 60°C. The loss factor of the carbon fiber composite is higher than that of the glass fiber for the same matrix. The loss factor of the vinyl ester composite is higher than that of the epoxy composite for the same fiber.

  3. Damping properties of fiber reinforced composite suitable for stayed cable

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jianzhi; Sun, Baochen; Du, Yanliang

    2012-04-01

    Carbon fiber reinforced plastics (CFRP) cables were initially most investigated to replace steel cables. To further explore the advantages of FRP cables, the potential ability of vibration control is studied in this paper emphasizing the designable characteristic of hybrid FRP cables. Fiber reinforced vinyl ester composites and fiber reinforced epoxy composites were prepared by the pultrusion method. Due to the extensive application of fiber reinforced composites, the temperature spectrum and frequency spectrum of loss factor for the composite were tested using dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA) equipment. The damping properties and damping mechanism of the composite were investigated and discussed at different temperatures and frequencies. The result indicates that the loss factor of the composites is increasing with the increase of the frequency from 0.1Hz to 2 Hz and decreasing with the decrease of the temperature from -20°C to 60°C. The loss factor of the carbon fiber composite is higher than that of the glass fiber for the same matrix. The loss factor of the vinyl ester composite is higher than that of the epoxy composite for the same fiber.

  4. A New Approach to Improve the Water Absorption Behavior of Flax Fibers Reinforced Soy-based Composites

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Flax fibers are often used in reinforced composites which have exhibited numerous advantages such as high mechanical properties, low density and biodegradability. On the other hand, the hydrophilic nature of flax fiber is a major problem. In this study, we prepared the soybean oil based composites...

  5. Instrumented impact testing of kenaf fiber reinforced polypropylene composites: effects of temperature and composition

    Treesearch

    Craig Merrill Clemons; Anand R. Sanadi

    2007-01-01

    An instrumented Izod test was used to investigate the effects of fiber content, coupling agent, and temperature on the impact performance of kenaf fiber reinforced polypropylene (PP). Composites containing 0-60% (by weight) kenaf fiber and 0 or 2% maleated polypropylene (MAPP) and PP/wood flour composites were tested at room temperature and between -50 °C and +...

  6. Surface characterization of LDEF carbon fiber/polymer matrix composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grammer, Holly L.; Wightman, James P.; Young, Philip R.; Slemp, Wayne S.

    1995-01-01

    XPS (x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy) and SEM (scanning electron microscopy) analysis of both carbon fiber/epoxy matrix and carbon fiber/polysulfone matrix composites revealed significant changes in the surface composition as a result of exposure to low-earth orbit. The carbon 1s curve fit XPS analysis in conjunction with the SEM photomicrographs revealed significant erosion of the polymer matrix resins by atomic oxygen to expose the carbon fibers of the composite samples. This erosion effect on the composites was seen after 10 months in orbit and was even more obvious after 69 months.

  7. Carbon fiber reinforced thermoplastic composites for future automotive applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Friedrich, K.

    2016-05-01

    After a brief introduction to polymer composite properties and markets, the state of the art activities in the field of manufacturing of advanced composites for automotive applications are elucidated. These include (a) long fiber reinforced thermoplastics (LFT) for secondary automotive components, and (b) continuous carbon fiber reinforced thermosetting composites for car body applications. It is followed by future possibilities of carbon fiber reinforced thermoplastic composites for e.g. (i) crash elements, (ii) racing car seats, and (iii) production and recycling of automotive fenders.

  8. Highly birefringent polymer microstructured optical fibers embedded in composite materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lesiak, P.; SzelÄ g, M.; Kuczkowski, M.; Domański, A. W.; Woliński, T. R.

    2013-05-01

    Composite structures are made from two or more constituent materials with significantly different physical or chemical properties and they remain separate and distinct in a macroscopic level within the finished structure. This feature allows for introducing highly birefringent polymer microstructured optical fibers into the composite material. These new fibers can consist of only two polymer materials (PMMA and PC) with similar value of the Young modulus as the composite material so any stresses induced in the composite material can be easily measured by the proposed embedded fiber optic sensors.

  9. Activated carbon fiber composite material and method of making

    DOEpatents

    Burchell, Timothy D.; Weaver, Charles E.; Chilcoat, Bill R.; Derbyshire, Frank; Jagtoyen, Marit

    2000-01-01

    An activated carbon fiber composite for separation and purification, or catalytic processing of fluids is described. The activated composite comprises carbon fibers rigidly bonded to form an open, permeable, rigid monolith capable of being formed to near-net-shape. Separation and purification of gases are effected by means of a controlled pore structure that is developed in the carbon fibers contained in the composite. The open, permeable structure allows the free flow of gases through the monolith accompanied by high rates of adsorption. By modification of the pore structure and bulk density the composite can be rendered suitable for applications such as gas storage, catalysis, and liquid phase processing.

  10. Activated carbon fiber composite material and method of making

    DOEpatents

    Burchell, Timothy D.; Weaver, Charles E.; Chilcoat, Bill R.; Derbyshire, Frank; Jagtoyen, Marit

    2001-01-01

    An activated carbon fiber composite for separation and purification, or catalytic processing of fluids is described. The activated composite comprises carbon fibers rigidly bonded to form an open, permeable, rigid monolith capable of being formed to near-net-shape. Separation and purification of gases are effected by means of a controlled pore structure that is developed in the carbon fibers contained in the composite. The open, permeable structure allows the free flow of gases through the monolith accompanied by high rates of adsorption. By modification of the pore structure and bulk density the composite can be rendered suitable for applications such as gas storage, catalysis, and liquid phase processing.

  11. Resin impregnation process for producing a resin-fiber composite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Palmer, Raymond J. (Inventor); Moore, William E. (Inventor)

    1994-01-01

    Process for vacuum impregnation of a dry fiber reinforcement with a curable resin to produce a resin-fiber composite, by drawing a vacuum to permit flow of curable liquid resin into and through a fiber reinforcement to impregnate same and curing the resin-impregnated fiber reinforcement at a sufficient temperature and pressure to effect final curing. Both vacuum and positive pressure, e.g. autoclave pressure, are applied to the dry fiber reinforcement prior to application of heat and prior to any resin flow to compact the dry fiber reinforcement, and produce a resin-fiber composite of reduced weight, thickness and resin content, and improved mechanical properties. Preferably both a vacuum and positive pressure, e.g. autoclave pressure, are also applied during final curing.

  12. Natural cellulose fibers from switchgrass with tensile properties similar to cotton and linen.

    PubMed

    Reddy, Narendra; Yang, Yiqi

    2007-08-01

    We report the production and characteristics of natural cellulose fibers obtained from the leaves and stems of switchgrass. In this paper, the composition, structure and properties of fibers obtained from the leaves and stem of switchgrass have been studied in comparison to the common natural cellulose fibers, such as cotton, linen and kenaf. The leaves and stems of switchgrass have tensile properties intriguingly similar to that of linen and cotton, respectively. Fibers were obtained from the leaves and stems of switchgrass using a simple alkaline extraction and the structure and properties of the fibers were studied. Fibers obtained from switchgrass leaves have crystallinity of 51%, breaking tenacity of 5.5 g per denier (715 MPa) and breaking elongation of 2.2% whereas the corresponding values for fibers obtained from switchgrass stems are 46%, 2.7 g per denier and 6.8%, respectively. Switchgrass is a relatively easy to grow and high yield biomass crop that can be source to partially substitute the natural and synthetic fibers currently in use. We hope that this research will stimulate interests in using switchgrass as a novel fiber crop in addition to being promoted as a potential source for biofuels. (c) 2007 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Estimating rock and slag wool fiber dissolution rate from composition.

    PubMed

    Eastes, W; Potter, R M; Hadley, J G

    2000-12-01

    A method was tested for calculating the dissolution rate constant in the lung for a wide variety of synthetic vitreous silicate fibers from the oxide composition in weight percent. It is based upon expressing the logarithm of the dissolution rate as a linear function of the composition and using a different set of coefficients for different types of fibers. The method was applied to 29 fiber compositions including rock and slag fibers as well as refractory ceramic and special-purpose, thin E-glass fibers and borosilicate glass fibers for which in vivo measurements have been carried out. These fibers had dissolution rates that ranged over a factor of about 400, and the calculated dissolution rates agreed with the in vivo values typically within a factor of 4. The method presented here is similar to one developed previously for borosilicate glass fibers that was accurate to a factor of 1.25. The present coefficients work over a much broader range of composition than the borosilicate ones but with less accuracy. The dissolution rate constant of a fiber may be used to estimate whether disease would occur in animal inhalation or intraperitoneal injection studies of that fiber.

  14. Portable Ultrasonic Guided Wave Inspection with MACRO Fiber Composite Actuators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haig, A.; Mudge, P.; Catton, P.; Balachandran, W.

    2010-02-01

    The development of portable ultrasonic guided wave transducer arrays that utilize Macro Fiber Composite actuators (MFCs) is described. Portable inspection equipment can make use of ultrasonic guided waves to rapidly screen large areas of many types of engineering structures for defects. The defect finding performance combined with the difficulty of application determines how much the engineering industry makes use of this non-destructive, non-disruptive technology. The developments with MFCs have the potential to make considerable improvements in both these aspects. MFCs are highly efficient because they use interdigital electrodes to facilitate the extensional, d33 displacement mode. Their fiber composite design allows them to be thin, lightweight, flexible and durable. The flexibility affords them conformance with curved surfaces, which can facilitate good mechanical coupling. The suitability of a given transducer for Long Range Ultrasonic Testing is governed by the nature and amplitude of the displacement that it excites/senses in the contact area of the target structure. This nature is explored for MFCs through directional sensitivity analysis and empirical testing. Housing methods that facilitate non-permanent coupling techniques are discussed. Finally, arrangements of arrays of MFCs for the guided wave inspection of plates and pipes are considered and some broad design criteria are given.

  15. Fiber shape effects on metal matrix composite behavior

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, H. C.; Lee, H.-J.; Chamis, C. C.

    1992-01-01

    The effects of different fiber shapes on the behavior of a SiC/Ti-15 metal matrix composite is computationally simulated. A three-dimensional finite element model consisting of a group of nine unidirectional fibers is used in the analysis. The model is employed to represent five different fiber shapes: a circle, an ellipse, a kidney, and two different cross shapes. The distribution of microstresses and the composite material properties, such as moduli, coefficients of thermal expansion, and Poisson's ratios, are obtained from the finite element analysis for the various fiber shapes. Comparisons of these results are used to determine the sensitivity of the composite behavior to the different fiber shapes and assess their potential benefits. No clear benefits result from different fiber shapes though there are some increases/decreases in isolated properties.

  16. Flexural properties untreated and treated kenaf fiber reinforced polypropylene composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Husin, Muhammad Muslimin; Mustapa, Mohammad Sukri; Wahab, Md Saidin; Arifin, Ahmad Mubarak Tajul; Masirin, Mohd Idrus Mohd; Jais, Farhana Hazwanee

    2017-05-01

    Today natural fiber polymer composites are being extensively used as alternatives in producing furniture to fulfill society demand instead of saving cost and environmentally friendly. The objective of this search is to investigate the untreated fine and rough kenaf fiber (KF) as well as treated KF reinforced with polypropylene (PP) on the flexural strength. Flexural strengths of pure PP, 10%, and 20% of untreated fine and rough KF by weight to PP have been recorded. In addition, flexural strengths of treated KF soaked with 5% and 10% of Sodium Hydroxide (NaOH) have also been recorded. KF reinforced PP (PP/KF) untreated and treated composites were melt blended and then injection molded to observe their flexural strengths by measuring their threshold. Three point bending test was apply to determine the flexural stress of the composites. The result show treated fine KF produce better flexural performance at 20% PP/KF. Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) is used to observe the morphological surface PP/KF. Overall 5% NaOH with 20% PP/KF (Fine KF) show good interfacial bonding PP/KF and best result with flexural stress value 30.25MPa.

  17. Preparation and properties of biodegradable films from Sterculia urens short fiber/cellulose green composites.

    PubMed

    Jayaramudu, J; Reddy, G Siva Mohan; Varaprasad, K; Sadiku, E R; Sinha Ray, S; Varada Rajulu, A

    2013-04-02

    The development of commercially viable "green products", based on natural resources for the matrices and reinforcements, in a wide range of applications, is on the rise. The present paper focuses on Sterculia urens short fiber reinforced pure cellulose matrix composite films. The morphologies of the untreated and 5% NaOH (alkali) treated S. urens fibers were observed by SEM. The effect of 5% NaOH treated S. urens fiber (5, 10, 15 and 20% loading) on the mechanical properties and thermal stability of the composites films is discussed. This paper presents the developments made in the area of biodegradable S. urens short fiber/cellulose (SUSF/cellulose) composite films, buried in the soil and later investigated by the (POM), before and after biodegradation has taken place. SUSF/cellulose composite films have great potential in food packaging and for medical applications. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. GROWING ALTERNATIVE SUSTAINABLE BUILDINGS: BIO-COMPOSITE PRODUCTS FROM NATURAL FIBER, BIODEGRADABLE AND RECYCLABLE POLYMER MATERIALS FOR LOAD-BEARING CONSTRUCTION COMPONENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The project is an integrative educational and research project that will revolutionize design and construction methods towards more sustainable buildings. The project will develop and test new product design concepts using bio-composite materials in load-bearing and fa&cced...

  19. Fabrication, mechanical characterization of pineapple leaf fiber (PALF) reinforced vinylester hybrid composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yogesh, M.; Rao, A. N. Hari

    2018-04-01

    Natural fibre based composites are under intensive study due to their eco friendly nature and peculiar properties. The advantage of natural fibres is their continuous supply, easy and safe handling, and biodegradable nature. Although natural fibres exhibit admirable physical and mechanical properties, it varies with the plant source, species, geography, and so forth. Pineapple leave fibre (PALF) is one of the abundantly available waste materials in India and has not been studied yet. The work has been carried out to fabrication and study the mechanical characterization of Pineapple Leaf fiber reinforced Vinylester composites filled with different particulate fillers. These results are compared with those of a similar set of glass fiber reinforced Vinylester composites filled with same particulate fillers. It is evident that the density values for Pineapple leaf fiber (PALF) - Vinylester composites increase with the particulate filler content and void fractions in these composites also increase. The test results show that with the presence of particulate fillers, micro hardness of the PALF-Vinylester composites has improved. Among all the composites under this investigation, the maximum hardness value is recorded for PALF-Vinylester composite filled with 20 wt% alumina. In this investigation the maximum value of ILSS has been recorded for the PALF-Vinylester composite with 20 wt% of Flyash.

  20. Structurally integrated fiber optic damage assessment system for composite materials.

    PubMed

    Measures, R M; Glossop, N D; Lymer, J; Leblanc, M; West, J; Dubois, S; Tsaw, W; Tennyson, R C

    1989-07-01

    Progress toward the development of a fiber optic damage assessment system for composite materials is reported. This system, based on the fracture of embedded optical fibers, has been characterized with respect to the orientation and location of the optical fibers in the composite. Together with a special treatment, these parameters have been tailored to yield a system capable of detecting the threshold of damage for various impacted Kevlar/epoxy panels. The technique has been extended to measure the growth of a damage region which could arise from either impact, manufacturing flaws, or static overloading. The mechanism of optical fiber fracture has also been investigated. In addition, the influence of embedded optical fibers on the tensile and compressive strength of the composite material has been studied. Image enhanced backlighting has been shown to be a powerful and convenient method of assessing internal damage to translucent composite materials.

  1. Development of natural fiber reinforced polylactide-based biocomposites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arias Herrera, Andrea Marcela

    Polylactide or PLA is a biodegradable polymer that can be produced from renewable resources. This aliphatic polyester exhibits good mechanical properties similar to those of polyethylene terephthalate (PET). Since 2003, bio-based high molecular weight PLA is produced on an industrial scale and commercialized under amorphous and semicrystalline grades for various applications. Enhancement of PLA crystallization kinetics is crucial for the competitiveness of this biopolymer as a commodity material able to replace petroleum-based plastics. On the other hand, the combination of natural fibers with polymer matrices made from renewable resources, to produce fully biobased and biodegradable polymer composite materials, has been a strong trend in research activities during the last decade. Nevertheless, the differences related to the chemical structure, clearly observed in the marked hydrophilic/hydrophobic character of the fibers and the thermoplastic matrix, respectively, represent a major drawback for promoting strong fiber/matrix interactions. The aim of the present study was to investigate the intrinsic fiber/matrix interactions of PLAbased natural fiber composites prepared by melt-compounding. Short flax fibers presenting a nominal length of ˜1 mm were selected as reinforcement and biocomposites containing low to moderate fiber loading were processed by melt-mixing. Fiber bundle breakage during processing led to important reductions in length and diameter. The mean aspect ratio was decreased by about 50%. Quiescent crystallization kinetics of PLA and biocomposite systems was examined under isothermal and non-isothermal conditions. The nucleating nature of the flax fibers was demonstrated and PLA crystallization was effectively accelerated as the natural reinforcement content increased. Such improvement was controlled by the temperature at which crystallization took place, the liquid-to-solid transition being thermodynamically promoted by the degree of supercooling

  2. Interlaminar fracture in carbon fiber/thermoplastic composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hinkley, J. A.; Bascom, W. D.; Allred, R. E.

    1990-01-01

    The surfaces of commercial carbon fibers are generally chemically cleaned or oxidized and then coated with an oligomeric sizing to optimize their adhesion to epoxy matrix resins. Evidence from fractography, from embedded fiber testing and from fracture energies suggests that these standard treatments are relatively ineffective for thermoplastic matrices. This evidence is reviewed and model thermoplastic composites (polyphenylene oxide/high strain carbon fibers) are used to demonstrate how differences in adhesion can lead to a twofold change in interlaminar fracture toughness. The potential for improved adhesion via plasma modification of fiber surfaces is discussed. Finally, a surprising case of fiber-catalyzed resin degradation is described.

  3. Recent progress in Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy study of compositional, structural, and physical attributes of developmental cotton fibers

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Cotton fibers are natural plant products and their end-use qualities depend on their stages of development. In general, the quantity of natural fiber cellulose I (ß 1'4 linked glucose residues) increases rapidly, thus it leads to compositional, structural, and physical attribute variations among the...

  4. Three-dimensional printing of continuous-fiber composites by in-nozzle impregnation

    PubMed Central

    Matsuzaki, Ryosuke; Ueda, Masahito; Namiki, Masaki; Jeong, Tae-Kun; Asahara, Hirosuke; Horiguchi, Keisuke; Nakamura, Taishi; Todoroki, Akira; Hirano, Yoshiyasu

    2016-01-01

    We have developed a method for the three-dimensional (3D) printing of continuous fiber-reinforced thermoplastics based on fused-deposition modeling. The technique enables direct 3D fabrication without the use of molds and may become the standard next-generation composite fabrication methodology. A thermoplastic filament and continuous fibers were separately supplied to the 3D printer and the fibers were impregnated with the filament within the heated nozzle of the printer immediately before printing. Polylactic acid was used as the matrix while carbon fibers, or twisted yarns of natural jute fibers, were used as the reinforcements. The thermoplastics reinforced with unidirectional jute fibers were examples of plant-sourced composites; those reinforced with unidirectional carbon fiber showed mechanical properties superior to those of both the jute-reinforced and unreinforced thermoplastics. Continuous fiber reinforcement improved the tensile strength of the printed composites relative to the values shown by conventional 3D-printed polymer-based composites. PMID:26965201

  5. Monitoring Damage Propagation in Glass Fiber Composites Using Carbon Nanofibers.

    PubMed

    Al-Sabagh, Ahmed; Taha, Eman; Kandil, Usama; Nasr, Gamal-Abdelnaser; Reda Taha, Mahmoud

    2016-09-10

    In this work, we report the potential use of novel carbon nanofibers (CNFs), dispersed during fabrication of glass fiber composites to monitor damage propagation under static loading. The use of CNFs enables a transformation of the typically non-conductive glass fiber composites into new fiber composites with appreciable electrical conductivity. The percolation limit of CNFs/epoxy nanocomposites was first quantified. The electromechanical responses of glass fiber composites fabricated using CNFs/epoxy nanocomposite were examined under static tension loads. The experimental observations showed a nonlinear change of electrical conductivity of glass fiber composites incorporating CNFs versus the stress level under static load. Microstructural investigations proved the ability of CNFs to alter the polymer matrix and to produce a new polymer nanocomposite with a connected nanofiber network with improved electrical properties and different mechanical properties compared with the neat epoxy. It is concluded that incorporating CNFs during fabrication of glass fiber composites can provide an innovative means of self-sensing that will allow damage propagation to be monitored in glass fiber composites.

  6. Sunflower cake as a natural composite: composition and plastic properties.

    PubMed

    Geneau-Sbartaï, Céline; Leyris, Juliette; Silvestre, Françoise; Rigal, Luc

    2008-12-10

    Nowadays, the end-of-life of plastic products and the decrease of fossil energy are great environmental problems. Moreover, with the increase of food and nonfood transformations of renewable resources, the quantities of agro-industrial byproducts and wastes increase hugely. These facts allow the development of plastic substitutes made from agro-resources. Many researches show the feasibility of molding biopolymers extracted from plants like a common polymeric matrix. Other natural macromolecules are used like fillers into polyolefins, for example. However, limited works present results about the transformation of a natural blend of biopolymers into a plastic material. The aim of this study is the determination of the composition of sunflower cake (SFC) and also the characterization of its components. These were identified by chemical and biochemical analysis often used in agricultural or food chemistry. Most of the extraction and purification processes modify the macrostructure of several biopolymers (e.g., denaturation of proteins, cleavage or creation of weak bonds, etc.). So, the composition of different parts of the sunflower seed (husk, kernel, and also protein isolate) was determined, and the plasticlike properties of their components were studied with thermogravimetric analysis, differential scanning calorimetry, and a dynamic mechanical thermal analysis apparatus. Finally, this indirect way of characterization showed that SFC can be considered a natural composite. In SFC, several components like lignocellulosic fibers [40%/dry matter (DM)], which essentially come from the husk of sunflower seed, can act as fillers. However, other biopolymers like globulins ( approximately 30% of the 30% of sunflower seed proteins/DM of SFC) can be shaped as a thermoplastic-like material because this kind of protein has a temperature of glass transition and a temperature of denaturation that seems to be similar to a melting temperature. These proteins have also viscoelastic

  7. Natural cellulose fiber as substrate for supercapacitor.

    PubMed

    Gui, Zhe; Zhu, Hongli; Gillette, Eleanor; Han, Xiaogang; Rubloff, Gary W; Hu, Liangbing; Lee, Sang Bok

    2013-07-23

    Cellulose fibers with porous structure and electrolyte absorption properties are considered to be a good potential substrate for the deposition of energy material for energy storage devices. Unlike traditional substrates, such as gold or stainless steel, paper prepared from cellulose fibers in this study not only functions as a substrate with large surface area but also acts as an interior electrolyte reservoir, where electrolyte can be absorbed much in the cellulose fibers and is ready to diffuse into an energy storage material. We demonstrated the value of this internal electrolyte reservoir by comparing a series of hierarchical hybrid supercapacitor electrodes based on homemade cellulose paper or polyester textile integrated with carbon nanotubes (CNTs) by simple solution dip and electrodeposited with MnO2. Atomic layer deposition of Al2O3 onto the fiber surface was used to limit electrolyte absorption into the fibers for comparison. Configurations designed with different numbers of ion diffusion pathways were compared to show that cellulose fibers in paper can act as a good interior electrolyte reservoir and provide an effective pathway for ion transport facilitation. Further optimization using an additional CNT coating resulted in an electrode of paper/CNTs/MnO2/CNTs, which has dual ion diffusion and electron transfer pathways and demonstrated superior supercapacitive performance. This paper highlights the merits of the mesoporous cellulose fibers as substrates for supercapacitor electrodes, in which the water-swelling effect of the cellulose fibers can absorb electrolyte, and the mesoporous internal structure of the fibers can provide channels for ions to diffuse to the electrochemical energy storage materials.

  8. Properties of cellulose/Thespesia lampas short fibers bio-composite films.

    PubMed

    Ashok, B; Reddy, K Obi; Madhukar, K; Cai, J; Zhang, L; Rajulu, A Varada

    2015-01-01

    Cellulose was dissolved in pre cooled environment friendly solvent (aq.7% sodium hydroxide+12% urea) and regenerated with 5%H2SO4 as coagulation bath. Using cellulose as matrix and alkali treated short natural fibers extracted from the newly identified Thespesia lampas plant as fillers the green composite films were prepared. The films were found to be non toxic. The effect of fiber loading on the tensile properties and thermal stability was studied. The fractographs indicated better interfacial bonding between the fibers and cellulose. The crystallinity of the composite films was found to be lower than the matrix and decreased with increasing fiber content. In spite of better interfacial bonding, the tensile properties of the composites were found to be lower than those of the matrix and decreased with increasing fiber content and this behavior was attributed to the random orientation of the fibers in the composites. The thermal stability of the composite films was higher than the matrix and increased with fiber content. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. A comparison of fiber effects on polymer matrix composite oxidation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowles, Kenneth J.

    1991-01-01

    A number of thermo-oxidative stability studies addressing the effects of fiber reinforcement on composite thermal stability and influence of geometry on the results of aging studies were performed at NASA-Lewis. The information presented herein, a compilation of some results from these studies, shows the influence of the reinforcement fibers on the oxidative degradation of various PMR-15 composites. Reinforcement of graphite and ceramics were studied and three composite oxidation mechanisms were observed. One was a dominant attack of the reinforcement fiber, the second was the aggressive oxidation of the matrix material, and the third was interfacial degradation.

  10. Measurements of print-through in graphite fiber epoxy composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jaworske, Donald A.; Jeunnette, Timothy T.; Anzic, Judith M.

    1989-01-01

    High-reflectance accurate-contour mirrors are needed for solar dynamic space power systems. Graphite fiber epoxy composites are attractive candidates for such applications owing to their high modulus, near-zero coefficient of thermal expansion, and low mass. However, mirrors prepared from graphite fiber epoxy composite substrates often exhibit print-through, a distortion of the surface, which causes a loss in solar specular reflectance. Efforts to develop mirror substrates without print-through distortion require a means of quantifying print-through. Methods have been developed to quantify the degree of print-through in graphite fiber epoxy composite specimens using surface profilometry.

  11. A Model for Fiber Length Attrition in Injection-Molded Long-Fiber Composites

    SciTech Connect

    TuckerIII, Charles L.; Phelps, Jay H; El-Rahman, Ahmed Abd

    2013-01-01

    Long-fiber thermoplastic (LFT) composites consist of an engineering thermoplastic matrix with glass or carbon reinforcing fibers that are initially 10 to 13 mm long. When an LFT is injection molded, flow during mold filling orients the fibers and degrades the fiber length. Fiber orientation models for injection molding are well developed, and special orientation models for LFTs have been developed. Here we present a detailed quantitative model for fiber length attrition in a flowing fiber suspension. The model tracks a discrete fiber length distribution (FLD) at each spatial node. Key equations are a conservation equation for total fiber length, andmore » a breakage rate equation. The breakage rate is based on buckling of fibers due to hydrodynamic forces, when the fibers are in unfavorable orientations. The FLD model is combined with a mold filling simulation to predict spatial and temporal variations in fiber length distribution in a mold cavity during filling. The predictions compare well to experiments on a glassfiber/ PP LFT molding. Fiber length distributions predicted by the model are easily incorporated into micromechanics models to predict the stress-strain behavior of molded LFT materials. Author to whom correspondence should be addressed; electronic mail: ctucker@illinois.edu 1« less

  12. Tensile Mechanical Property of Oil Palm Empty Fruit Bunch Fiber Reinforced Epoxy Composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghazilan, A. L. Ahmad; Mokhtar, H.; Shaik Dawood, M. S. I.; Aminanda, Y.; Ali, J. S. Mohamed

    2017-03-01

    Natural, short, untreated and randomly oriented oil palm empty fruit bunch fiber reinforced epoxy composites were manufactured using vacuum bagging technique with 20% fiber volume composition. The performance of the composite was evaluated as an alternative to synthetic or conventional reinforced composites. Tensile properties such as tensile strength, modulus of elasticity and Poisson’s ratio were compared to the tensile properties of pure epoxy obtained via tensile tests as per ASTM D 638 specifications using Universal Testing Machine INSTRON 5582. The tensile properties of oil palm empty fruit bunch fiber reinforced epoxy composites were lower compared to plain epoxy structure with the decrement in performances of 38% for modulus of elasticity and 61% for tensile strength.

  13. Fracture behavior of glass fiber reinforced polymer composite

    SciTech Connect

    Avci, A.; Arikan, H.; Akdemir, A

    2004-03-01

    Chopped strand glass fiber reinforced particle-filled polymer composite beams with varying notch-to-depth ratios and different volume fractions of glass fibers were investigated in Mode I fracture using three-point bending tests. Effects of polyester resin content and glass fiber content on fracture behavior was also studied. Polyester resin contents were used 13.00%%, 14.75%, 16.50%, 18.00% and 19.50%, and glass fiber contents were 1% and 1.5% of the total weight of the polymer composite system. Flexural strength of the polymer composite increases with increase in polyester and fiber content. The critical stress intensity factor was determined by using several methods such asmore » initial notch depth method, compliance method and J-integral method. The values of K{sub IC} obtained from these methods were compared.« less

  14. Self-sensing E-glass-fiber-reinforced composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brooks, David; Hayes, Simon A.; Khan, N. A.; Zolfaghar, K.; Fernando, Gerard F.

    1997-06-01

    Conventional E-glass fibers were surface treated to enable them to act as light guides for short distances. The reinforcing fiber light guides were embedded in glass fiber reinforced epoxy prepregs and processed into composites. The resultant composite was termed the self-sensing composite as any damage to these fibers or its interface would result in the attenuation of the transmitted light. Epoxy, silicone, fluoropolymer and sol-gel derived cladding materials were evaluated as potential cladding materials. RFLGs with a silicone coating was found to give the best light transmission. The self-sensing fibers were capable of detecting a 0.5 J direct impact. The feasibility of using the RFLGs for impact damage location was also demonstrated successfully as bleeding-light could be seen in the vicinity of the impact.

  15. Composite embedded fiber optic data links in Standard Electronic Modules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ehlers, S. L.; Jones, K. J.; Morgan, R. E.; Hixson, Jay

    1990-12-01

    The goal of this project is to fabricate a chassis/circuit card demonstration entirely 'wired' with embedded and interconnected optical fibers. Graphite/epoxy Standard Electronic Module E (SEM-E) configured panels have been successfully fabricated. Fiber-embedded SEM-E configured panels have been subjected to simultaneous signal transmission and vibration testing. Packaging constraints will require tapping composite-embedded optical fibers at right angles to the direction of optical transmission.

  16. Carbide coated fibers in graphite-aluminum composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Imprescia, R. J.; Levinson, L. S.; Reiswig, R. D.; Wallace, T. C.; Williams, J. M.

    1975-01-01

    Thin, uniform coats of titanium carbide, deposited on graphite fibers by chemical vapor deposition with thicknesses up to approximately 0.1 microns were shown to improve fiber strength significantly. For greater thicknesses, strength was degraded. The coats promote wetting of the fibers and infiltration of the fiber yarns with aluminum alloys, and act as protective barriers to inhibit reaction between the fibers and the alloys. Chemical vapor deposition was used to produce silicon carbide coats on graphite fibers. In general, the coats were nonuniform and were characterized by numerous surface irregularities. Despite these irregularities, infiltration of these fibers with aluminum alloys was good. Small graphite-aluminum composite samples were produced by vacuum hot-pressing of aluminum-infiltrated graphite yarn at temperatures above the metal liquidus.

  17. An evaluation of upgraded boron fibers in epoxy-matrix composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rhodes, T. C.; Fleck, J. N.; Meiners, K. E.

    1973-01-01

    An initial evaluation of upgraded boron fibers in an epoxy matrix is performed. Data generated on the program show that fiber strength does increase as a consequence of the upgrading treatment. However, the interlaninar shear strength of upgraded fiber composites is lower than that for an untreated fiber composite. In the limited tests performed, the increased fiber strength failed to translate into the composite.

  18. Fuselage structure using advanced technology fiber reinforced composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robinson, R. K.; Tomlinson, H. M. (Inventor)

    1982-01-01

    A fuselage structure is described in which the skin is comprised of layers of a matrix fiber reinforced composite, with the stringers reinforced with the same composite material. The high strength to weight ratio of the composite, particularly at elevated temperatures, and its high modulus of elasticity, makes it desirable for use in airplane structures.

  19. Development of Ceramic Fibers for Reinforcement in Composite Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gates, L. E.; Lent, W. E.; Teague, W. T.

    1961-01-01

    Refinements of the vertical arc fiberizing apparatus resulted in its ability to fiberize very different refractory glasses having wide ranges of properties. Although the apparatus, was originally designed as a laboratory research tool for the evaluation of many compositions daily, up to one quarter pound of fibers of a single composition could be produced in an 8-hour day. Fibers up to six and a half feet long were produced with the apparatus. Studies were conducted of two methods of fiberizing refractory glasses requiring rapid freezing from the melt. The first method consisted of fiberizing droplets of molten glass passing through an annular nozzle. The second method consisted of reconstructing the annular nozzle in. the shape of a horseshoe to achieve a shorter delay in blasting a molten droplet from the tip of a rod. Both methods were judged feasible for producing fibers of glasses requiring rapid freezing. The first method would be more amenable to volume fiber production. Studies of induction heating for fiber formation did not lead to its designation as a very efficient heating method. Problems. remain to be solved, in the design of a suitable susceptor for a higher heating rate, in protecting the susceptor from oxidation with an inert gas, in contamination of the melt from a refractory crucible, and in the protective radiation shielding of the induction concentrator coil. It is not considered practical to continue studies of this heating method. In the course of this program 151 refractory glass compositions were evaluated for fiber, forming characteristics. Of the various types of materials studied, the following showed promise in producing acceptable refractory fibers: sIlica- spinel (magnesium aluminate), silica- spinel-zirconia, silica-zirconia, silica-zinc spinel, aluminum phosphate glasses, and fluoride glasses. Compositions which did not produce acceptable fibers were high zirconia materials, barium spinels, and calcium aluminates. Improvements in

  20. Thermal Cyclic Resistance Polyester Resin Composites Reinforce Fiber Nut Shell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fahmi, Hendriwan

    2017-12-01

    The purpose of study is to determine the effect of fiber length and thermal cyclic of the bending strength of polyester resin composite reinforced by fibers nut shell. The materials used in this study is a nut shell fibers with fiber length of 1 cm, 2 cm and 3 cm and polyester resin with composition 70-30%wt. Fiber nut shell treated soaking in NaOH 30% for 30 minutes, then rinse with clean water so that the fiber free of alkali and then dried. Furthermore, the composite is heated in an oven to a temperature of 100°C for 1 hour and then cooled in the open with a variety of thermal cyclic 30, 40, and 50 times. Bending properties of composites known through the testing process using a three-point bending test equipment universal testing machine. The test results show that the bending strength bending highest in fiber length of 3 cm with 30 treatment cycles of thermal to the value of 53.325 MPa, while the lowest occurred in bending strength fiber length of 1 cm with no cycles of thermal treatment to the value of 30.675 MPa.

  1. Energy Absorption in Chopped Carbon Fiber Compression Molded Composites

    SciTech Connect

    Starbuck, J.M.

    2001-07-20

    In passenger vehicles the ability to absorb energy due to impact and be survivable for the occupant is called the ''crashworthiness'' of the structure. To identify and quantify the energy absorbing mechanisms in candidate automotive composite materials, test methodologies were developed for conducting progressive crush tests on composite plate specimens. The test method development and experimental set-up focused on isolating the damage modes associated with the frond formation that occurs in dynamic testing of composite tubes. Quasi-static progressive crush tests were performed on composite plates manufactured from chopped carbon fiber with an epoxy resin system using compression molding techniques. Themore » carbon fiber was Toray T700 and the epoxy resin was YLA RS-35. The effect of various material and test parameters on energy absorption was evaluated by varying the following parameters during testing: fiber volume fraction, fiber length, fiber tow size, specimen width, profile radius, and profile constraint condition. It was demonstrated during testing that the use of a roller constraint directed the crushing process and the load deflection curves were similar to progressive crushing of tubes. Of all the parameters evaluated, the fiber length appeared to be the most critical material parameter, with shorter fibers having a higher specific energy absorption than longer fibers. The combination of material parameters that yielded the highest energy absorbing material was identified.« less

  2. Continuous, linearly intermixed fiber tows and composite molded article thereform

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McMahon, Paul E. (Inventor); Chung, Tai-Shung (Inventor); Ying, Lincoln (Inventor)

    2000-01-01

    The instant invention involves a process used in preparing fibrous tows which may be formed into polymeric plastic composites. The process involves the steps of (a) forming a carbon fiber tow; (b) forming a thermoplastic polymeric fiber tow; (c) intermixing the two tows; and (d) withdrawing the intermixed tow for further use.

  3. Holographic imaging of natural-fiber-containing materials

    DOEpatents

    Bunch, Kyle J [Richland, WA; Tucker, Brian J [Pasco, WA; Severtsen, Ronald H [Richland, WA; Hall, Thomas E [Kennewick, WA; McMakin, Douglas L [Richland, WA; Lechelt, Wayne M [West Richland, WA; Griffin, Jeffrey W [Kennewick, WA; Sheen, David M [Richland, WA

    2010-12-21

    The present invention includes methods and apparatuses for imaging material properties in natural-fiber-containing materials. In particular, the images can provide quantified measures of localized moisture content. Embodiments of the invention utilize an array of antennas and at least one transceiver to collect amplitude and phase data from radiation interacting with the natural-fiber-containing materials. The antennas and the transceivers are configured to transmit and receive electromagnetic radiation at one or more frequencies, which are between 50 MHz and 1 THz. A conveyance system passes the natural-fiber-containing materials through a field of view of the array of antennas. A computing device is configured to apply a synthetic imaging algorithm to construct a three-dimensional image of the natural-fiber-containing materials that provides a quantified measure of localized moisture content. The image and the quantified measure are both based on the amplitude data, the phase data, or both.

  4. Evaluation of mechanical properties of hybrid fiber (hemp, jute, kevlar) reinforced composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suresha, K. V.; Shivanand, H. K.; Amith, A.; Vidyasagar, H. N.

    2018-04-01

    In today's world composites play wide role in all the engineering fields. The reinforcement of composites decides the properties of the material. Natural fiber composites compared to synthetic fiber possesses poor mechanical properties. The solution for this problem is to use combination of natural fiber and synthetic fiber. Hybridization helps to improve the overall mechanical properties of the material. In this study, hybrid reinforced composites of Hemp fabric/Kevlar fabric/Epoxy and Jute fabric/ Kevlar fabric/Epoxy composites are fabricated using Simple hand layup technique followed by Vacuum bagging process. Appropriate test methods as per standards and guidelines are followed to analyze mechanical behavior of the composites. The mechanical characteristics like tensile, compression and flexural properties of the hybrid reinforced composites are tested as per the ASTM standards by series of tensile test; compression test and three point bending tests were conducted on the hybrid composites. A quantitative relationship between the Hemp fabric/Kevlar fabric/Epoxy and Jute/ Kevlar fabric/Epoxy has been established with constant thickness.

  5. Surface Modification of Carbon Fiber Polymer Composites after Laser Structuring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sabau, Adrian S.; Chen, Jian; Jones, Jonaaron F.; Hackett, Alexandra; Jellison, Gerald D.; Daniel, Claus; Warren, David; Rehkopf, Jackie D.

    The increasing use of Carbon Fiber-reinforced Polymer matrix Composites (CFPC) as a lightweight material in automotive and aerospace industries requires the control of surface morphology. In this study, the composites surface was prepared by ablating the resin on the top fiber layer of the composite using an Nd:YAG laser. The CFPC specimens with T700S carbon fiber and Prepreg — T83 resin (epoxy) were supplied by Plasan Carbon Composites, Inc. as 4 ply thick, 0/90° plaques. The effect of laser fluence, scanning speed, and wavelength was investigated on the removal rate of the resin without an excessive damage of the fibers. In addition, resin ablation due to the power variation created by a laser interference technique is presented. Optical property measurements, optical micrographs, 3D imaging, and high-resolution optical profiler images were used to study the effect of the laser processing on surface morphology.

  6. Eddy-Current Probes For Inspecting Graphite-Fiber Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Workman, Gary L.; Wang, Morgan

    1992-01-01

    Eddy-current probes with E-shaped and U-shaped magnetic cores developed to detect flaws in graphite-fiber/epoxy and other composites. Magnetic fields more concentrated, yielding better coupling with specimens.

  7. Metal matrix coated fiber composites and the methods of manufacturing such composites

    DOEpatents

    Weeks, J.K. Jr.; Gensse, C.

    1993-09-14

    A fiber coating which allows ceramic or metal fibers to be wetted by molten metals is disclosed. The coating inhibits degradation of the physical properties caused by chemical reaction between the fiber and the coating itself or between the fiber and the metal matrix. The fiber coating preferably includes at least a wetting layer, and in some applications, a wetting layer and a barrier layer between the fiber and the wetting layer. The wetting layer promotes fiber wetting by the metal matrix. The barrier layer inhibits fiber degradation. The fiber coating permits the fibers to be infiltrated with the metal matrix resulting in composites having unique properties not obtainable in pure materials. 8 figures.

  8. Optimization of Adaptive Intraply Hybrid Fiber Composites with Reliability Considerations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shiao, Michael C.; Chamis, Christos C.

    1994-01-01

    The reliability with bounded distribution parameters (mean, standard deviation) was maximized and the reliability-based cost was minimized for adaptive intra-ply hybrid fiber composites by using a probabilistic method. The probabilistic method accounts for all naturally occurring uncertainties including those in constituent material properties, fabrication variables, structure geometry, and control-related parameters. Probabilistic sensitivity factors were computed and used in the optimization procedures. For actuated change in the angle of attack of an airfoil-like composite shell structure with an adaptive torque plate, the reliability was maximized to 0.9999 probability, with constraints on the mean and standard deviation of the actuation material volume ratio (percentage of actuation composite material in a ply) and the actuation strain coefficient. The reliability-based cost was minimized for an airfoil-like composite shell structure with an adaptive skin and a mean actuation material volume ratio as the design parameter. At a O.9-mean actuation material volume ratio, the minimum cost was obtained.

  9. Free Vibration of Fiber Composite Thin Shells in a Hot Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gotsis, Pascal K.; Guptill, James D.

    1995-01-01

    Results are presented of parametric studies to assess the effects of various parameters on the free vibration behavior (natural frequencies) of (plus or minus theta)2, angle-ply fiber composite thin shells in a hot environment. These results were obtained by using a three-dimensional finite element structural analysis computer code. The fiber composite shell is assumed to be cylindrical and made from T-300 graphite fibers embedded in an intermediate-modulus high-strength matrix (IMHS). The residual stresses induced into the laminated structure during curing are taken into account. The following parameters are investigated: the length and the thickness of the shell, the fiber orientations, the fiber volume fraction, the temperature profile through the thickness of the laminate and the different ply thicknesses. Results obtained indicate that: the fiber orientations and the length of the laminated shell had significant effect on the natural frequencies. The fiber volume fraction, the laminate thickness and the temperature profile through the shell thickness had a weak effect on the natural frequencies. Finally, the laminates with different ply thicknesses had insignificant influence on the behavior of the vibrated laminated shell.

  10. Parametric Study Of A Ceramic-Fiber/Metal-Matrix Composite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murthy, P. L. N.; Hopkins, D. A.; Chamis, C. C.

    1992-01-01

    Report describes computer-model parametric study of effects of degradation of constituent materials upon mechanical properties of ceramic-fiber/metal-matrix composite material. Contributes to understanding of weakening effects of large changes in temperature and mechanical stresses in fabrication and use. Concerned mainly with influences of in situ fiber and matrix properties upon behavior of composite. Particular attention given to influence of in situ matrix strength and influence of interphase degradation.

  11. Dynamic Loading and Characterization of Fiber-Reinforced Composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sierakowski, Robert L.; Chaturvedi, Shive K.

    1997-02-01

    Emphasizing polymer based fiber-reinforced composites, this book is designed to provide readers with a significant understanding of the complexities involved in characterizing dynamic events and the corresponding response of advanced fiber composite materials and structures. These elements include dynamic loading devices, material properties characterization, analytical and experimental techniques to assess the damage and failure modes associated with various dynamic loading events. Concluding remarks are presented throughout the text which summarize key points and raise issues related to important research needed.

  12. Ceramic fiber reinforced glass-ceramic matrix composite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bansal, Narottam P. (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    A slurry of BSAS glass powders is cast into tapes which are cut to predetermined sizes. Mats of continuous chemical vapor deposition (CVD)-SiC fibers are alternately stacked with these matrix tapes. This tape-mat stack is warm-pressed to produce a 'green' composite which is heated to burn out organic constituents. The remaining interim material is then hot-pressed to form a BSAS glass-ceramic fiber-reinforced composite.

  13. A comparison of tensile properties of polyester composites reinforced with pineapple leaf fiber and pineapple peduncle fiber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Juraidi, J. M.; Shuhairul, N.; Syed Azuan, S. A.; Intan Saffinaz Anuar, Noor

    2013-12-01

    Pineapple fiber which is rich in cellulose, relatively inexpensive, and abundantly available has the potential for polymer reinforcement. This research presents a study of the tensile properties of pineapple leaf fiber and pineapple peduncle fiber reinforced polyester composites. Composites were fabricated using leaf fiber and peduncle fiber with varying fiber length and fiber loading. Both fibers were mixed with polyester composites the various fiber volume fractions of 4, 8 and 12% and with three different fiber lengths of 10, 20 and 30 mm. The composites panels were fabricated using hand lay-out technique. The tensile test was carried out in accordance to ASTM D638. The result showed that pineapple peduncle fiber with 4% fiber volume fraction and fiber length of 30 mm give highest tensile properties. From the overall results, pineapple peduncle fiber shown the higher tensile properties compared to pineapple leaf fiber. It is found that by increasing the fiber volume fraction the tensile properties has significantly decreased but by increasing the fiber length, the tensile properties will be increased proportionally. Minitab software is used to perform the two-way ANOVA analysis to measure the significant. From the analysis done, there is a significant effect of fiber volume fraction and fiber length on the tensile properties.

  14. Low cost carbon fiber technology development for carbon fiber composite applications : phase 1.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2008-01-01

    The main goals of this research program at UTSI were: 1) to produce low cost carbon fibers and 2) to develop specific carbonbased : material technologies to meet current and future high performance fiber-reinforced composite needs of FTA and other : ...

  15. Low cost carbon fiber technology development for carbon fiber composite applications.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2012-04-01

    The objective of this project was to further develop low cost carbon fiber for a variety of potential applications. Manufacturing feasi-bility of low cost carbon fibers/composites has been demonstrated. A number of technologies that are currently usi...

  16. Nitrile crosslinked polyphenyl-quinoxaline/graphite fiber composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alston, W. B.

    1976-01-01

    Studies were performed to reduce the 600 F thermoplasticity of polyphenylquinoxaline (PPQ) matrix resins by introducing crosslinking by the reaction of terminal nitrile groups. Seven solvents and solvent mixtures were studied as the crosslinking catalysts and used to fabricate crosslinked PPQ/HMS graphite fiber composites. The room temperature and 600 F composite mechanical properties after short time and prolonged 600 F air exposure and the 600 F composite weight loss were determined and compared to those properties of high molecular weight, linear PPQ/HMS graphite fiber composites.

  17. Ultra-high modulus organic fiber hybrid composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Champion, A. R.

    1981-01-01

    An experimental organic fiber, designated Fiber D, was characterized, and its performance as a reinforcement for composites was investigated. The fiber has a modulus of 172 GPa, tensile strength of 3.14 GPa, and density of 1.46 gm/cu cm. Unidirectional Fiber D/epoxy laminates containing 60 percent fiber by volume were evaluated in flexure, shear, and compression, at room temperature and 121 C in both the as fabricated condition and after humidity aging for 14 days at 95 percent RH and 82 C. A modulus of 94.1 GPa, flexure strength of 700 MPa, shear strength of 54 MPa, and compressive strength of 232 MPa were observed at room temperature. The as-fabricated composites at elevated temperature and humidity aged material at room temperature had properties 1 to 20 percent below these values. Combined humidity aging plus evaluated temperature testing resulted in even lower mechanical properties. Hybrid composite laminates of Fiber D with Fiber FP alumina or Thornel 300 graphite fiber were also evaluated and significant increases in modulus, flexure, and compressive strengths were observed.

  18. Experimental study on mix proportion of fiber reinforced cementitious composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jia, Yi; Zhao, Renda; Liao, Ping; Li, Fuhai; Yuan, Yuan; Zhou, Shuang

    2017-10-01

    To study the mechanical property of fiber reinforced cementations composites influenced by the fiber length, quartz sand diameter, matrix of water cement ratio, volume fraction of fiber and magnesium acrylate solution. Several 40×40×160 mm standard test specimens, "8" specimens and long "8" specimens and 21 groups of fiber concrete specimens were fabricated. The flexural, compressive and uniaxial tensile strength were tested by using the bending resistance, compression resistance and electronic universal testing machine. The results show that flexural and compressive strength of fiber reinforced cementations composites increases along with the increase of quartz sand diameter, with the growth of the PVA fiber length increases; When the water-binder ratio is 0.25 and powder-binder ratio is 0.3, the PVA fiber content is 1.5% of the mass of cementations materials, there is a phenomenon of strain hardening; The addition of magnesium acrylate solution reduces the tensile strength of PVA fiber reinforced cementations composites, the tensile strength of the specimens in the curing age of 7d is decreased by about 21% and the specimens in curing age of 28d is decreased by more than 50%.

  19. Composition of Muscle Fiber Types in Rat Rotator Cuff Muscles.

    PubMed

    Rui, Yongjun; Pan, Feng; Mi, Jingyi

    2016-10-01

    The rat is a suitable model to study human rotator cuff pathology owing to the similarities in morphological anatomy structure. However, few studies have reported the composition muscle fiber types of rotator cuff muscles in the rat. In this study, the myosin heavy chain (MyHC) isoforms were stained by immunofluorescence to show the muscle fiber types composition and distribution in rotator cuff muscles of the rat. It was found that rotator cuff muscles in the rat were of mixed fiber type composition. The majority of rotator cuff fibers labeled positively for MyHCII. Moreover, the rat rotator cuff muscles contained hybrid fibers. So, compared with human rotator cuff muscles composed partly of slow-twitch fibers, the majority of fast-twitch fibers in rat rotator cuff muscles should be considered when the rat model study focus on the pathological process of rotator cuff muscles after injury. Gaining greater insight into muscle fiber types in rotator cuff muscles of the rat may contribute to elucidate the mechanism of pathological change in rotator cuff muscles-related diseases. Anat Rec, 299:1397-1401, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Burning characteristics and fiber retention of graphite/resin matrix composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowles, K. J.

    1980-01-01

    Graphite fiber reinforced resin matrix composites were subjected to controlled burning conditions to determine their burning characteristics and fiber retention properties. Small samples were burned with a natural gas fired torch to study the effects of fiber orientation and structural flaws such as holes and slits that were machined into the laminates. Larger laminate samples were burned in a modified heat release rate calorimeter. Unidirectional epoxy/graphite and polyimide/graphite composites and boron powder filled samples of each of the two composite systems were burn tested. The composites were exposed to a thermal radiation of 5.3 Btu/sq ft-sec in air. Samples of each of the unfilled composite were decomposed anaerobically in the calorimeter. Weight loss data were recorded for burning and decomposition times up to thirty-five minutes. The effects of fiber orientation, flaws, and boron filler additives to the resins were evaluated. A high char forming polyimide resin was no more effective in retaining graphite fibers than a low char forming epoxy resin when burned in air. Boron powder additions to both the polyimide and the epoxy resins stabilized the chars and effectively controlled the fiber release.

  1. The prospects for composites based on boron fibers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Naslain, R.

    1978-01-01

    The fabrication of boron filaments and the production of composite materials consisting of boron filaments and organic or metallic matrices are discussed. Problem involving the use of tungsten substrates in the filament fabrication process, the protection of boron fibers with diffusion barrier cladings, and the application of alloy additives in the matrix to lessen the effects of diffusion are considered. Data on the kinetics of the boron fiber/matrix interaction at high temperatures, and the influence of the fiber/matrix interaction on the mechanical properties of the composite are presented.

  2. Experimental study of optical fibers influence on composite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Rong-Mei; Liang, Da-Kai

    2010-03-01

    Bending strength and elasticity modulus of composite, with and without embedded optical fibers, were experimentally studied. Two kinds of laminates, which were denoted as group 1 and group 2, were fabricated from an orthogonal woven glass/epoxy prepreg. Since the normal stress value becomes the biggest at the surface of a beam, the optical fibers were embedded at the outmost layer and were all along the loading direction. Four types of materials, using each kind of laminated prepreg respectively, were manufactured. The embedded optical fibers for the 4 material types were 0, 10, 30 and 50 respectively. Three-point bending tests were carried out on the produced specimens to study the influence of embedded optical fiber on host composite. The experimental results indicated that the materials in group 2 were more sensitive to the embedded optical fibers.

  3. Dynamic stability of unidirectional fiber-reinforced viscoelastic composite plates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chandiramani, N. K.; Librescu, L.

    1989-01-01

    This paper deals with a dynamic stability analysis of unidirectional fiber-reinforced composite viscoelastic plates subjected to compressive edge loads. The integrodifferential equations governing the stability problem are obtained by using, in conjunction with a Boltzmann hereditary constitutive law for a three-dimensional viscoelastic medium, a higher-order shear deformation theory of orthotropic plates. Such a theory incorporates transverse shear deformation, transverse normal stress, and rotatory inertia effects. The solution of the stability problem as considered within this paper concerns the determination of the critical in-plane edge loads yielding the asymptotic instability. Numerical applications, based on material properties derived within the framework of Aboudi's micromechanical model, are presented and pertinent conclusions concerning the nature of the loss of stability and the influence of various parameters are outlined.

  4. Effects of Fiber Reinforcement on Clay Aerogel Composites

    PubMed Central

    Finlay, Katherine A.; Gawryla, Matthew D.; Schiraldi, David A.

    2015-01-01

    Novel, low density structures which combine biologically-based fibers with clay aerogels are produced in an environmentally benign manner using water as solvent, and no additional processing chemicals. Three different reinforcing fibers, silk, soy silk, and hemp, are evaluated in combination with poly(vinyl alcohol) matrix polymer combined with montmorillonite clay. The mechanical properties of the aerogels are demonstrated to increase with reinforcing fiber length, in each case limited by a critical fiber length, beyond which mechanical properties decline due to maldistribution of filler, and disruption of the aerogel structure. Rather than the classical model for reinforced composite properties, the chemical compatibility of reinforcing fibers with the polymer/clay matrix dominated mechanical performance, along with the tendencies of the fibers to kink under compression. PMID:28793515

  5. Mechanical properties of woven glass fiber-reinforced composites.

    PubMed

    Kanie, Takahito; Arikawa, Hiroyuki; Fujii, Koichi; Ban, Seiji

    2006-06-01

    The aim of this investigation was to measure the flexural and compressive strengths and the corresponding moduli of cylindrical composite specimens reinforced with woven glass fiber. Test specimens were made by light-curing urethane dimethacrylate oligomer with woven glass fiber of 0.18-mm standard thickness. Tests were conducted using four reinforcement methods and two specimen diameters. Flexural strength and modulus of woven glass fiber-reinforced specimens were significantly greater than those without woven glass fiber (p < 0.01). Likewise, compressive strength of reinforced specimens was significantly greater than those without woven glass fiber (p < 0.01), except for specimens reinforced with woven glass fiber oriented at a tilt direction in the texture (p > 0.05). In terms of comparison between the two specimen diameters, no statistically significant differences in flexural strength and compressive strength (p > 0.05) were observed.

  6. Carbon Fiber Reinforced Ceramic Composites for Propulsion Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Freedman, Marc (Technical Monitor); Shivakumar, Kunigal N.

    2003-01-01

    Fiber reinforced ceramic composites are materials of choice for gas turbine engines because of their high thermal efficiency, thrust/weight ratio, and operating temperatures. However, the successful introduction of ceramic composites to hot structures is limited because of excessive cost of manufacturing, reproducibility, nonuniformity, and reliability. Intense research is going on around the world to address some of these issues. The proposed effort is to develop a comprehensive status report of the technology on processing, testing, failure mechanics, and environmental durability of carbon fiber reinforced ceramic composites through extensive literature study, vendor and end-user survey, visits to facilities doing this type of work, and interviews. Then develop a cooperative research plan between NASA GRC and NCA&T (Center for Composite Materials Research) for processing, testing, environmental protection, and evaluation of fiber reinforced ceramic composites.

  7. Designing for fiber composite structural durability in hygrothermomechanical environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chamis, C. C.

    1985-01-01

    A methodology is described which can be used to design/analyze fiber composite structures subjected to complex hygrothermomechanical environments. This methodology includes composite mechanics and advanced structural analysis methods (finite element). Select examples are described to illustrate the application of the available methodology. The examples include: (1) composite progressive fracture; (2) composite design for high cycle fatigue combined with hot-wet conditions; and (3) general laminate design.

  8. Effect of fiber orientation on the failure behavior of a glass-fiber reinforced thermoplastic composite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Jiaai; Kalyanasundaram, Shankar

    2017-05-01

    In this study, hour-glass specimens made of a glass-fiber reinforced polypropylene composite with different fiber orientations were stamp formed in an open die. Strains on the surfaces of these specimens were recorded by a 3D photogrammetric measurement system. Specimens were cut into the designed shapes with two different fiber orientations [0°/90° and 45°/45°]. Based on the forming limit diagrams drawn for these material systems, it is found that change in fiber orientation induces change in deformation mode and different forming limit in strains.

  9. Improving the interlaminar shear strength of carbon fiber-epoxy composites through carbon fiber bromination

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jaworske, Donald A.; Maciag, Carolyn

    1987-01-01

    The use of bromine to improve the interlaminar shear strength of PAN-based carbon fibers was investigated. Composite test specimens fabicated from brominated T-300 fibers and a MY720 matrix exhibited on average a 30% improvement in ILSS over their pristine counterparts. Mass, electrical resistivity, density, contact angle, and scanning Auger microscopy results suggested a mechanism in which the bromine was covalently bonded to the surface of the fiber, and this resulted in an increased van der Waal's adhesion between fiber and matrix.

  10. FIBER-TEX 1991: The Fifth Conference on Advanced Engineering Fibers and Textile Structures for Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buckley, John D. (Editor)

    1992-01-01

    This document is a compilation of papers presented at a joint NASA/North Carolina State University/DoD/Clemson University/Drexel University conference on Fibers, Textile Technology, and Composites Structures held at the College of Textiles Building on Centennial Campus of North Carolina State University, Raleigh, North Carolina on October 15-17, 1991. Conference papers presented information on advanced engineering fibers, textile processes and structures, structural fabric production, mechanics and characteristics of woven composites, pultruded composites, and the latest requirements for the use of textiles in the production of composite materials and structures.

  11. FIBER-TEX 1992: The Sixth Conference on Advanced Engineering Fibers and Textile Structures for Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buckley, John D. (Editor)

    1993-01-01

    The FIBER-TEX 1992 proceedings contain the papers presented at the conference held on 27-29 Oct. 1992 at Drexel University. The conference was held to create a forum to encourage an interrelationship of the various disciplines involved in the fabrication of materials, the types of equipment, and the processes used in the production of advanced composite structures. Topics discussed were advanced engineering fibers, textile processes and structures, structural fabric production, mechanics and characteristics of woven composites, and the latest requirements for the use of textiles in the production of composite materials and structures as related to global activities focused on textile structural composites.

  12. Elastic properties of uniaxial-fiber reinforced composites - General features

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Datta, Subhendu; Ledbetter, Hassel; Lei, Ming

    The salient features of the elastic properties of uniaxial-fiber-reinforced composites are examined by considering the complete set of elastic constants of composites comprising isotropic uniaxial fibers in an isotropic matrix. Such materials exhibit transverse-isotropic symmetry and five independent elastic constants in Voigt notation: C(11), C(33), C(44), C(66), and C(13). These C(ij) constants are calculated over the entire fiber-volume-fraction range 0.0-1.0, using a scattered-plane-wave ensemple-average model. Some practical elastic constants such as the principal Young moduli and the principal Poisson ratios are considered, and the behavior of these constants is discussed. Also presented are the results for the four principal sound velocities used to study uniaxial-fiber-reinforced composites: v(11), v(33), v(12), and v(13).

  13. Fabrication of Fiber-Reinforced Celsian Matrix Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bansal, Narottam P.; Setlock, John A.

    2000-01-01

    A method has been developed for the fabrication of small diameter, multifilament tow fiber reinforced ceramic matrix composites. Its application has been successfully demonstrated for the Hi-Nicalon/celsian system. Strong and tough celsian matrix composites, reinforced with BN/SiC-coated Hi-Nicalon fibers, have been fabricated by infiltrating the fiber tows with the matrix slurry, winding the tows on a drum, cutting and stacking of the prepreg tapes in the desired orientation, and hot pressing. The monoclinic celsian phase in the matrix was produced in situ, during hot pressing, from the 0.75BaO-0.25SrO-Al2O3-2SiO2 mixed precursor synthesized by solid state reaction from metal oxides. Hot pressing resulted in almost fully dense fiber-reinforced composites. The unidirectional composites having approx. 42 vol% of fibers exhibited graceful failure with extensive fiber pullout in three-point bend tests at room temperature. Values of yield stress and strain were 435 +/- 35 MPa and 0.27 +/- 0.01 percent, respectively, and ultimate strengths of 900 +/- 60 MPa were observed. The Young's modulus of the composites was measured to be 165 +/- 5 GPa.

  14. Bridge toughening in fiber-reinforced composites: A three-dimensional discrete fiber model

    SciTech Connect

    Hu, K.X.; Huang, Y.; Chandra, A.

    1995-07-01

    The fracture behavior of unidirectionally fiber-reinforced composites is the principal focus of this paper. The model proposed here is three-dimensional and accounts for the effects of local fiber-crack interactions on spatial variations of crack tip behavior. The model also consistently accounts for the effect of composite anisotropy by embedding a penny-shaped crack in an orthotropic composite medium. Three factors are identified that influence the reductions of stress intensity factors (SIFS) due to fiber bridging: a dimensionless configuration constant, a fiber distribution pattern, and a fiber volume fraction. The model reveals that the fiber distribution pattern does not alter the spatialmore » mean of the SIFS, although it does affect the oscillational amplitude. The dimensionless configuration constant determines the extent of the bridging effect and provides guidance regarding possible avenues for enhancing bridge toughening. The design curve of SIFs (retarded by fiber bridging) vs the fiber volume fraction shows that the isotropic and orthotropic solutions differ just slightly from each other. However, the energy release rate obtained by an isotropic analysis (widely claimed to be the equivalent of SIFs in bridging models) could, significantly underestimate the bridging effect.« less

  15. Effects of fiber, matrix, and interphase on carbon fiber composite compression strength

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nairn, John A.; Harper, Sheila I.; Bascom, Willard D.

    1994-01-01

    The major goal of this project was to obtain basic information on compression failure properties of carbon fiber composites. To do this, we investigated fiber effects, matrix effects, and fiber/matrix interface effects. Using each of nine fiber types, we prepared embedded single-fiber specimens, single-ply specimens, and full laminates. From the single-fiber specimens, in addition to the standard fragmentation test analysis, we were able to use the low crack density data to provide information about the distribution of fiber flaws. The single-ply specimens provided evidence of a correlation between the size of kink band zones and the quality of the interface. Results of the laminate compression experiments mostly agreed with the results from single-ply experiments, although the ultimate compression strengths of laminates were higher. Generally, these experiments showed a strong effect of interfacial properties. Matrix effects were examined using laminates subjected to precracking under mixed-mode loading conditions. A large effect of precracking conditions on the mode 1 toughness of the laminates was found. In order to control the properties of the fiber/matrix interface, we prepared composites of carbon fiber and polycarbonate and subjected these to annealing. The changes in interfacial properties directly correlated with changes in compression strength.

  16. Development of eddy current probe for fiber orientation assessment in carbon fiber composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wincheski, Russell A.; Zhao, Selina

    2018-04-01

    Measurement of the fiber orientation in a carbon fiber composite material is crucial in understanding the load carrying capability of the structure. As manufacturing conditions including resin flow and molding pressures can alter fiber orientation, verification of the as-designed fiber layup is necessary to ensure optimal performance of the structure. In this work, the development of an eddy current probe and data processing technique for analysis of fiber orientation in carbon fiber composites is presented. A proposed directional eddy current probe is modeled and its response to an anisotropic multi-layer conductor simulated. The modeling results are then used to finalize specifications of the eddy current probe. Experimental testing of the fabricated probe is presented for several samples including a truncated pyramid part with complex fiber orientation draped to the geometry for resin transfer molding. The inductively coupled single sided measurement enables fiber orientation characterization through the thickness of the part. The fast and cost-effective technique can be applied as a spot check or as a surface map of the fiber orientations across the structure. This paper will detail the results of the probe design, computer simulations, and experimental results.

  17. Stability of Glass Fiber-Plastic Composites

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1974-11-01

    investigated. 1. S-Glass The formation of S-g1ass 1s proprietary and differs between the two main sources ( Owens - Corning and Ferro Corporation) from...which samples were obtained for this research program. However, according to published work by Humphrey (8) of Owens - Corning , the approximate...of the glass fibers. S-glass fibers furnished by both Owens - Corning and Ferro Cor- poration were utilized and the results analyzed using scanning

  18. Study of erosion characterization of carbon fiber reinforced composite material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Debnath, Uttam Kumar; Chowdhury, Mohammad Asaduzzaman; Kowser, Md. Arefin; Mia, Md. Shahin

    2017-06-01

    Carbon fiber composite materials are widely used at different engineering and industrial applications there are good physical, mechanical, chemical properties and light weight. Erosion behavior of materials depends on various factors such as impact angle, particle velocity, particle size, particle shape, particle type, particle flux, temperature of the tested materials. Among these factors impact angle and particle velocity have been recognized as two parameters that noticeably influence the erosion rates of all tested materials. Irregular shaped sand (SiO2) particles of various sizes (200-300 µm, 400-500 µm, and 500-600 µm) were selected erosive element. Tested conditions such as impingement angles between 15 degree to 90 degree, impact velocities between 30-50 m/sec, and stand-off distances 15-25 mm at surrounding room temperature were maintained. The highest level of erosion of the tested composite is obtained at 60° impact angle, which signifies the semi-ductile behavior of this material. Erosion showed increasing trend with impact velocity and decreasing nature in relation to stand-off distance. Surface damage was analyzed using SEM to examine the nature of the erosive wear mechanism.

  19. Fiber pushout and interfacial shear in metal-matrix composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koss, Donald A.; Hellmann, John R.; Kallas, M. N.

    1993-01-01

    Recent thin-slice pushout tests have suggested that MMC matrix-fiber interface failure processes depend not only on such intrinsic factors as bond strength and toughness, and matrix plasticity, but such extrinsic factors as specimen configuration, thermally-induced residual stresses, and the mechanics associated with a given test. After detailing the contrasts in fiber-pullout and fiber-pushout mechanics, attention is given to selected aspects of thin-slice fiber pushout behavior illustrative of the physical nature of interfacial shear response and its dependence on both intrinsic and extrinsic factors.

  20. Uncertainty quantification of fiber orientation distribution measurements for long-fiber-reinforced thermoplastic composites

    SciTech Connect

    Sharma, Bhisham N.; Naragani, Diwakar; Nguyen, Ba Nghiep

    Here, we present a detailed methodology for experimental measurement of fiber orientation distribution in injection-molded discontinuous fiber composites using the method of ellipses on two-dimensional cross sections. Best practices to avoid biases occurring during surface preparation and optical imaging of carbon-fiber-reinforced thermoplastics are discussed. We developed a marker-based watershed transform routine for efficient image segmentation and the separation of touching fiber ellipses. The sensitivity of the averaged orientation tensor to the image sample size is studied for the case of long-fiber thermoplastics. A Mori–Tanaka implementation of the Eshelby model is then employed to quantify the sensitivity of elastic stiffness predictionsmore » to biases in the fiber orientation distribution measurements.« less

  1. Uncertainty quantification of fiber orientation distribution measurements for long-fiber-reinforced thermoplastic composites

    DOE PAGES

    Sharma, Bhisham N.; Naragani, Diwakar; Nguyen, Ba Nghiep; ...

    2017-09-28

    Here, we present a detailed methodology for experimental measurement of fiber orientation distribution in injection-molded discontinuous fiber composites using the method of ellipses on two-dimensional cross sections. Best practices to avoid biases occurring during surface preparation and optical imaging of carbon-fiber-reinforced thermoplastics are discussed. We developed a marker-based watershed transform routine for efficient image segmentation and the separation of touching fiber ellipses. The sensitivity of the averaged orientation tensor to the image sample size is studied for the case of long-fiber thermoplastics. A Mori–Tanaka implementation of the Eshelby model is then employed to quantify the sensitivity of elastic stiffness predictionsmore » to biases in the fiber orientation distribution measurements.« less

  2. Improvement of Characteristics of Clayey Soil Mixed with Randomly Distributed Natural Fibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maity, J.; Chattopadhyay, B. C.; Mukherjee, S. P.

    2017-11-01

    In subgrade construction for flexible road pavement, properties of clayey soils available locally can be improved by providing randomly distributed fibers in the soil. The fibers added in subgrade constructions are expected to provide better compact interlocking system between the fiber and the soil grain, greater resistance to deformation and quicker dissipation of pore water pressure, thus helping consolidation and strengthening. Many natural fibers like jute, coir, sabai grass etc. which are economical and eco-friendly, are grown in abundance in India. If suitable they can be used as additive material in the subgrade soil to result in increase in strength and decrease in deformability. Such application will also reduce the cost of construction of roads, by providing lesser thickness of pavement layer. In this paper, the efficacy of using natural jute, coir or sabai grass fibers with locally available clayey soil has been studied. A series of Standard Proctor test, Soaked and Unsoaked California Bearing Ratio (CBR) test, and Unconfined Compressive Strength test were done on locally available clayey soil mixed with different types of natural fiber for various length and proportion to study the improvement of strength properties of fiber-soil composites placed at optimum moisture content. From the test results, it was observed that there was a substantial increase in CBR value for the clayey soil when mixed with increasing percentage of all three types of randomly distributed natural fibers up to 2% of the dry weight of soil. The CBR attains maximum value when the length for all types of fibers mixed with the clay taken in this study, attains a value of 10 mm.

  3. Numerically design the injection process parameters of parts fabricated with ramie fiber reinforced green composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, L. P.; He, L. P.; Chen, D. C.; Lu, G.; Li, W. J.; Yuan, J. M.

    2017-01-01

    The warpage deformation plays an important role on the performance of automobile interior components fabricated with natural fiber reinforced composites. The present work investigated the influence of process parameters on the warpage behavior of A pillar trim made of ramie fiber (RF) reinforced polypropylene (PP) composites (RF/PP) via numerical simulation with orthogonal experiment method and range analysis. The results indicated that fiber addition and packing pressure were the most important factors affecting warpage. The A pillar trim can achieved the minimum warpage value as of 2.124 mm under the optimum parameters. The optimal process parameters are: 70% percent of the default value of injection pressure for the packing pressure, 20 wt% for the fiber addition, 185 °C for the melt °C for the mold temperature, 7 s for the filling time and 17 s for the packing time.

  4. A study on effect of ATH on Euphorbia coagulum modified polyester banana fiber composite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumari, Sanju; Rai, Bhuvneshwar; Kumar, Gulshan

    2018-02-01

    Fiber reinforced polymer composites are used for building and structural applications due to their high strength. In conventional composites both the binder and the reinforcing fibers are synthetic or either one of the material is natural. In the present study coagulum of Euphorbia royleana has been used for replacing polyester resinas binder in polyester banana composite. Euphorbia coagulum (driedlatex) is rich in resinous mass (60-80%), which are terpenes and polyisoprene (10-20%). Effect of varying percentage of coagulum content on various physico-mechanical properties of polyester-banana composites has been studied. Since banana fiber is sensitive to water due to presence of polar group, banana composite undergoes delamination and deterioration under humid condition. Alkali treated banana fiber along with coagulum content has improved overall mechanical properties and reduction in water absorption. The best physico-mechanical properties have been achieved on replacing 40% of polyester resin by coagulum. An increase of 50% in bending strength, 30% bending modulus and 45% impact strength as well as 68% decrease in water absorption was observed. Incorporation of 20% ATH as flame retardant in coagulum modified banana polyester composite enhanced limiting oxygen index from 20.6 to 26.8% and smoke density reduced up to 40%. This study presents the possibility of utilization of renewable materials for environmental friendly composite development as well as to find out alternative feedstock for petroleum products. Developed Euphorbia latex modified banana polyester composites can have potential utility in hardboard, partition panel, plywood and automotive etc.

  5. Fiber-Reinforced Reactive Nano-Epoxy Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhong, Wei-Hong

    2011-01-01

    An ultra-high-molecular-weight polyethylene/ matrix interface based on the fabrication of a reactive nano-epoxy matrix with lower surface energy has been improved. Enhanced mechanical properties versus pure epoxy on a three-point bend test include: strength (25 percent), modulus (20 percent), and toughness (30 percent). Increased thermal properties include higher Tg (glass transition temperature) and stable CTE (coefficient of thermal expansion). Improved processability for manufacturing composites includes faster wetting rates on macro-fiber surfaces, lower viscosity, better resin infusion rates, and improved rheological properties. Improved interfacial adhesion properties with Spectra fibers by pullout tests include initial debonding force of 35 percent, a maximum pullout force of 25 percent, and energy to debond at 65 percent. Improved mechanical properties of Spectra fiber composites (tensile) aging resistance properties include hygrothermal effects. With this innovation, high-performance composites have been created, including carbon fibers/nano-epoxy, glass fibers/nano-epoxy, aramid fibers/ nano-epoxy, and ultra-high-molecularweight polyethylene fiber (UHMWPE).

  6. Self-healing in single and multiple fiber(s) reinforced polymer composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woldesenbet, E.

    2010-06-01

    You Polymer composites have been attractive medium to introduce the autonomic healing concept into modern day engineering materials. To date, there has been significant research in self-healing polymeric materials including several studies specifically in fiber reinforced polymers. Even though several methods have been suggested in autonomic healing materials, the concept of repair by bleeding of enclosed functional agents has garnered wide attention by the scientific community. A self-healing fiber reinforced polymer composite has been developed. Tensile tests are carried out on specimens that are fabricated by using the following components: hollow and solid glass fibers, healing agent, catalysts, multi-walled carbon nanotubes, and a polymer resin matrix. The test results have demonstrated that single fiber polymer composites and multiple fiber reinforced polymer matrix composites with healing agents and catalysts have provided 90.7% and 76.55% restoration of the original tensile strength, respectively. Incorporation of functionalized multi-walled carbon nanotubes in the healing medium of the single fiber polymer composite has provided additional efficiency. Healing is found to be localized, allowing multiple healing in the presence of several cracks.

  7. Continuous Fiber Ceramic Composite (CFCC) Program: Gaseous Nitridation

    SciTech Connect

    R. Suplinskas G. DiBona; W. Grant

    2001-10-29

    Textron has developed a mature process for the fabrication of continuous fiber ceramic composite (CFCC) tubes for application in the aluminum processing and casting industry. The major milestones in this project are System Composition; Matrix Formulation; Preform Fabrication; Nitridation; Material Characterization; Component Evaluation

  8. An Assessment of Self-Healing Fiber Reinforced Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Joseph G., Jr.

    2012-01-01

    Several reviews and books have been written concerning self-healing polymers over the last few years. These have focused primarily on the types of self-healing materials being studied, with minor emphasis given to composite properties. The purpose of this review is to assess the self-healing ability of these materials when utilized in fiber reinforced composites

  9. Carbon Fiber Reinforced Ceramic Composites for Propulsion Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shivakumar, Kunigal; Argade, Shyam

    2003-01-01

    This report presents a critical review of the processing techniques for fabricating continuous fiber-reinforced CMCs for possible applications at elevated temperatures. Some of the issues affecting durability of the composite materials such as fiber coatings and cracking of the matrix because of shrinkage in PIP-process are also examined. An assessment of the potential inexpensive processes is also provided. Finally three potential routes of manufacturing C/SiC composites using a technology that NC A&T developed for carbon/carbon composites are outlined. Challenges that will be encountered are also listed.

  10. Wave propagation modeling in composites reinforced by randomly oriented fibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kudela, Pawel; Radzienski, Maciej; Ostachowicz, Wieslaw

    2018-02-01

    A new method for prediction of elastic constants in randomly oriented fiber composites is proposed. It is based on mechanics of composites, the rule of mixtures and total mass balance tailored to the spectral element mesh composed of 3D brick elements. Selected elastic properties predicted by the proposed method are compared with values obtained by another theoretical method. The proposed method is applied for simulation of Lamb waves in glass-epoxy composite plate reinforced by randomly oriented fibers. Full wavefield measurements conducted by the scanning laser Doppler vibrometer are in good agreement with simulations performed by using the time domain spectral element method.

  11. Friction and wear behavior of graphite fiber reinforced polymide composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fusaro, R. L.; Sliney, H. E.

    1977-01-01

    The friction and wear rate characteristics of 50/50 (weight percent) graphite fiber polyimide composites were studied by sliding metallic hemispherically tipped riders against disks made from the composites. Two different polyimides and two different graphite fibers were evaluated. Also studied were such variables as the effect of moisture in an air atmosphere; the effect of temperature; and the effect of different sliding speeds. In general, wear to the the metallic riders was negligible, and composite wear increased at a constant rate as a function of number of sliding cycles.

  12. SiC Fiber-Reinforced Celsian Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bansal, Narottam P.

    2003-01-01

    Celsian is a promising matrix material for fiber-reinforced composites for high temperature structural applications. Processing and fabrication of small diameter multifilament silicon carbide tow reinforced celsian matrix composites are described. Mechanical and microstructural properties of these composites at ambient and elevated temperatures are presented. Effects of high-temperature exposures in air on the mechanical behavior of these composites are also given. The composites show mechanical integrity up to 1100 C but degrade at higher temperatures in oxidizing atmospheres. A model has been proposed for the degradation of these composites in oxidizing atmospheres at high temperatures.

  13. Time dependent micromechanics in continuous graphite fiber/epoxy composites with fiber breaks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Chao Hui

    Time dependent micromechanics in graphite fiber/epoxy composites around fiber breaks was investigated with micro Raman spectroscopy (MRS) and two shear-lag based composite models, a multi-fiber model (VBI) and a single fiber model (SFM), which aim at predicting the strain/stress evolutions in the composite from the matrix creep behavior and fiber strength statistics. This work is motivated by the need to understand the micromechanics and predict the creep-rupture of the composites. Creep of the unfilled epoxy was characterized under different stress levels and at temperatures up to 80°C, with two power law functions, which provided the modeling parameters used as input for the composite models. Both the VBI and the SFM models showed good agreement with the experimental data obtained with MRS, when inelasticity (interfacial debonding and/or matrix yielding) was not significant. The maximum shear stress near a fiber break relaxed at t-alpha/2 (or as (1+ talpha)-1/2) and the load recovery length increased at talpha/2(or (1+ talpha)1/2) following the model predictions. When the inelastic zone became non-negligible, the viscoelastic VBI model lost its competence, while the SFM with inelasticity showed good agreement with the MRS measurements. Instead of using the real fiber spacing, an effective fiber spacing was used in model predictions, taking into account of the radial decay of the interfacial shear stress from the fiber surface. The comparisons between MRS data and the SFM showed that inelastic zone would initiate when the shear strain at the fiber end exceeds a critical value gammac which was determined to be 5% for this composite system at room temperature and possibly a smaller value at elevated temperatures. The stress concentrations in neighboring intact fibers played important roles in the subsequent fiber failure and damage growth. The VBI model predicts a constant stress concentration factor, 1.33, for the 1st nearest intact fiber, which is in good

  14. Nondestructive testing of externally reinforced structures for seismic retrofitting using flax fiber reinforced polymer (FFRP) composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ibarra-Castanedo, C.; Sfarra, S.; Paoletti, D.; Bendada, A.; Maldague, X.

    2013-05-01

    Natural fibers constitute an interesting alternative to synthetic fibers, e.g. glass and carbon, for the production of composites due to their environmental and economic advantages. The strength of natural fiber composites is on average lower compared to their synthetic counterparts. Nevertheless, natural fibers such as flax, among other bast fibers (jute, kenaf, ramie and hemp), are serious candidates for seismic retrofitting applications given that their mechanical properties are more suitable for dynamic loads. Strengthening of structures is performed by impregnating flax fiber reinforced polymers (FFRP) fabrics with epoxy resin and applying them to the component of interest, increasing in this way the load and deformation capacities of the building, while preserving its stiffness and dynamic properties. The reinforced areas are however prompt to debonding if the fabrics are not mounted properly. Nondestructive testing is therefore required to verify that the fabric is uniformly installed and that there are no air gaps or foreign materials that could instigate debonding. In this work, the use of active infrared thermography was investigated for the assessment of (1) a laboratory specimen reinforced with FFRP and containing several artificial defects; and (2) an actual FFRP retrofitted masonry wall in the Faculty of Engineering of the University of L'Aquila (Italy) that was seriously affected by the 2009 earthquake. Thermographic data was processed by advanced signal processing techniques, and post-processed by computing the watershed lines to locate suspected areas. Results coming from the academic specimen were compared to digital speckle photography and holographic interferometry images.

  15. Effect of low velocity impact damage on the natural frequency of composite plates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chok, E. Y. L.; Majid, D. L. A. A.; Harmin, M. Y.

    2017-12-01

    Biodegradable natural fibers have been suggested to replace the hazardous synthetic fibers in many aerospace applications. However, this notion has been limited due to their low mechanical properties, which leads to the idea of hybridizing the two materials. Many aircraft components such as radome, aft body and wing are highly susceptible to low velocity impact damage while in-service. The damages degrade the structural integrity of the components and change their dynamic characteristics. In worst case scenario, the changes can lead to resonance, which is an excessive vibration. This research is conducted to study the dynamic characteristic changes of low velocity impact damaged hybrid composites that is designed for aircraft radome applications. Three materials, which are glass fiber, kenaf fiber and kenaf/glass fiber hybrid composites, have been impacted with 3J, 6J and 9J of energy. Cantilevered and also vertically clamped boundary conditions are used and the natural frequencies are extracted for each of the specimens. The obtained results show that natural frequency decreases with increasing impact level. Cantilevered condition is found to induce lower modes due to the gravitational pull. To eliminate mass and geometrical effects, normalized modes are computed. Among the three materials considered, glass fiber composites have displayed the highest normalized frequency that reflects on its higher stiffness compared to the other two materials. As the damage level is increased, glass fiber composites have shown the highest frequency reduction to a maximum of 35% while kenaf composites have the least frequency reduction in the range of 1 - 18%. Thus, kenaf fiber is taken to be helpful in stalling the damage progression and reducing the effect of damage. This has been proven when the percentage frequency decrement shown by kenaf/glass fiber composite lies between glass fiber and kenaf fiber composites.

  16. Puncture-Healing Thermoplastic Resin Carbon-Fiber-Reinforced Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grimsley, Brian W. (Inventor); Gordon, Keith L. (Inventor); Cano, Roberto J. (Inventor); Czabaj, Michael W. (Inventor); Siochi, Emilie J. (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    A composite comprising a combination of a self-healing polymer matrix and a carbon fiber reinforcement is described. In one embodiment, the matrix is a polybutadiene graft copolymer matrix, such as polybutadiene graft copolymer comprising poly(butadiene)-graft-poly(methyl acrylate-co-acrylonitrile). A method of fabricating the composite is also described, comprising the steps of manufacturing a pre-impregnated unidirectional carbon fiber preform by wetting a plurality of carbon fibers with a solution, the solution comprising a self-healing polymer and a solvent, and curing the preform. A method of repairing a structure made from the composite of the invention is described. A novel prepreg material used to manufacture the composite of the invention is described.

  17. Puncture-Healing Thermoplastic Resin Carbon-Fiber Reinforced Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gordon, Keith L. (Inventor); Siochi, Emilie J. (Inventor); Grimsley, Brian W. (Inventor); Cano, Roberto J. (Inventor); Czabaj, Michael W. (Inventor)

    2017-01-01

    A composite comprising a combination of a self-healing polymer matrix and a carbon fiber reinforcement is described. In one embodiment, the matrix is a polybutadiene graft copolymer matrix, such as polybutadiene graft copolymer comprising poly(butadiene)-graft-poly(methyl acrylate-co-acrylonitrile). A method of fabricating the composite is also described, comprising the steps of manufacturing a pre-impregnated unidirectional carbon fiber preform by wetting a plurality of carbon fibers with a solution, the solution comprising a self-healing polymer and a solvent, and curing the preform. A method of repairing a structure made from the composite of the invention is described. A novel prepreg material used to manufacture the composite of the invention is described.

  18. Age hardening of 6061/alumina-silica fiber composite

    SciTech Connect

    Khangaonkar, P.R.; Shamsul, J.B.; Azmi, R.

    1994-12-31

    Continuous alumina-silica fiber (Altex of Sumitomo) which yields high performance composites with some aluminium alloys was tried for squeeze cast 6061 based composites with volume fractions of 0.5 and 0.32, and the matrix microhardness and resistivity changes during age hardening were studied. The matrix in the composites hardened much more than the unreinforced alloy. Microhardness increases of up to 70 VPN above the solution treated condition at various aging temperatures were observed. The resistivity variation indicated an appreciable state of internal stress which continued to persist even when hardness fell by overaging. Energy dispersive X-ray analysis indicated that the regionsmore » close to the fibers had a higher silicon content than the matrix, and amorphous silica in the fiber may have a role in the formation of an enriched layer which may help the bonding and strength in the composite.« less

  19. Long discontinuous fiber composite structure: Forming and structural mechanics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pipes, R. B.; Santare, M. H.; Otoole, B. J.; Beaussart, A. J.; Deheer, D. C.; Okine, R. K.

    1991-01-01

    Cost effective composite structure has motivated the investigation of several new approaches to develop composite structure from innovative material forms. Among the promising new approaches is the conversion of planar sheet to components of complex curvature through sheet forming or stretch forming. In both cases, the potential for material stretch in the fiber direction appears to offer a clear advantage in formability over continuous fiber systems. In the present study, the authors have established a framework which allows the simulation of the anisotropic mechanisms of deformation of long discontinuous fiber laminates wherein the matrix phase is a viscous fluid. The initial study focuses upon the establishment of micromechanics models for prediction of the effective anisotropic viscosities of the oriented fiber assembly in a viscous matrix. Next, the developed constitutive relation is employed through an analogy with incompressible elasticity to exercise the finite element technique for determination of local fiber orientation and laminate thickness after forming. Results are presented for the stretch bending of a curved beam from an arbitrary composite laminate and the bulging of a clamped sheet. Structural analyses are conducted to determine the effect of microstructure on the performance of curved beams manufactured from long discontinuous fiber composites. For the purposes of this study, several curved beams with ideal and non-ideal microstructures are compared for response under pure bending. Material parameters are determined from a separate microstructural analysis.

  20. Effect of fiber orientation on tensile and impact properties of Zalacca Midrib fiber-HDPE composites by compression molding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lasikun, Ariawan, Dody; Surojo, Eko; Triyono, Joko

    2018-02-01

    The research aims to investigate the fiber orientation effect on the tensile and impact properties of zalacca midrib fiber /HDPE composites. The composites were produced by compression molding with pressing temperature at 150°C, pressing pressure at 50 bar, and holding time of 25 minutes. The fiber orientations applied in composites were 0°, 15°, 30°, 45°, 60°, 75°, and 90°, at 10% fiber volume fraction. The samples were evaluated by using: Tensile test and Izod impact test according to ASTM D638 and ASTM D5941, respectively. The result of experiments indicate that the orientation of zalacca midrib fiber influences the characteristics of HDPE composite-zalacca midrib fiber. The composite mechanical strength decline with the increase of orientation fibers from 0° to 90°. The composite failure mode of composites are observed by Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM).

  1. Effect of configuration and some processing variables on the properties of wood fiber-polyethylene composites

    Treesearch

    Chin-Yin Hwang; Chung-Yun Hse; Elvin T. Choong

    1999-01-01

    Chemical compositions and fiber measurement of virgin and recycled fibers from three sources were determined. Results revealed that virgin southern pine fiber had highest alcohol-benzene extractive and lignin contents and lowest holo- and alpha-cellulose content among the three fiber types. Fiber length distribution of virgin fiber was less sensitive to disintegration...

  2. The effects of embedded piezoelectric fiber composite sensors on the structural integrity of glass-fiber-epoxy composite laminate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Konka, Hari P.; Wahab, M. A.; Lian, K.

    2012-01-01

    Piezoelectric fiber composite sensors (PFCSs) made from micro-sized lead zirconate titanate (PZT) fibers have many advantages over the traditional bulk PZT sensors for embedded sensor applications. PFCSs as embedded sensors will be an ideal choice to continuously monitor the stress/strain levels and health conditions of composite structures. PFCSs are highly flexible, easily embeddable, have high compatibility with composite structures, and also provides manufacturing flexibility. This research is focused on examining the effects of embedding PFCS sensors (macro-fiber composite (MFC) and piezoelectric fiber composite (PFC)) on the structural integrity of glass-fiber-epoxy composite laminates. The strengths of composite materials with embedded PFCSs and conventional PZT sensors were compared, and the advantages of PFCS sensors over PZTs were demonstrated. Initially a numerical simulation study is performed to understand the local stress/strain field near the embedded sensor region inside a composite specimen. High stress concentration regions were observed near the embedded sensor corner edge. Using PFCS leads to a reduction of 56% in longitudinal stress concentration and 38% in transverse stress concentration, when compared to using the conventional PZTs as embedded sensors. In-plane tensile, in-plane tension-tension fatigue, and short beam strength tests are performed to evaluate the strengths/behavior of the composite specimens containing embedded PFCS. From the tensile test it is observed that embedding PFCS and PZT sensors in the composite structures leads to a reduction in ultimate strength by 3 and 6% respectively. From the fatigue test results it is concluded that both embedded PFCS and PZT sensors do not have a significant effect on the fatigue behavior of the composite specimens. From the short beam strength test it is found that embedding PFCS and PZT sensors leads to a reduction in shear strength by 7 and 15% respectively. Overall the pure PZT sensors

  3. Factors Controlling Stress Rupture of Fiber-Reinforced Ceramic Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DiCarlo, J. A.; Yun, H. M.

    1999-01-01

    The successful application of fiber-reinforced ceramic matrix composites (CMC) depends strongly on maximizing material rupture life over a wide range of temperatures and applied stresses. The objective of this paper is to examine the various intrinsic and extrinsic factors that control the high-temperature stress rupture of CMC for stresses below and above those required for cracking of the 0 C plies (Regions I and II, respectively). Using creep-rupture results for a variety of ceramic fibers and rupture data for CMC reinforced by these fibers, it is shown that in those cases where the matrix carries little structural load, CMC rupture conditions can be predicted very well from the fiber behavior measured under the appropriate test environment. As such, one can then examine the intrinsic characteristics of the fibers in order to develop design guidelines for selecting fibers and fiber microstructures in order to maximize CMC rupture life. For those cases where the fiber interfacial coatings are unstable in the test environment, CMC lives are generally worse than those predicted by fiber behavior alone. For those cases where the matrix can support structural load, CMC life can even be greater provided matrix creep behavior is properly controlled. Thus the achievement of long CMC rupture life requires understanding and optimizing the behavior of all constituents in the proper manner.

  4. Multiscale modeling of PVDF matrix carbon fiber composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greminger, Michael; Haghiashtiani, Ghazaleh

    2017-06-01

    Self-sensing carbon fiber reinforced composites have the potential to enable structural health monitoring that is inherent to the composite material rather than requiring external or embedded sensors. It has been demonstrated that a self-sensing carbon fiber reinforced polymer composite can be created by using the piezoelectric polymer polyvinylidene difluoride (PVDF) as the matrix material and using a Kevlar layer to separate two carbon fiber layers. In this configuration, the electrically conductive carbon fiber layers act as electrodes and the Kevlar layer acts as a dielectric to prevent the electrical shorting of the carbon fiber layers. This composite material has been characterized experimentally for its effective d 33 and d 31 piezoelectric coefficients. However, for design purposes, it is desirable to obtain a predictive model of the effective piezoelectric coefficients for the final smart composite material. Also, the inverse problem can be solved to determine the degree of polarization obtained in the PVDF material during polarization by comparing the effective d 33 and d 31 values obtained in experiment to those predicted by the finite element model. In this study, a multiscale micromechanics and coupled piezoelectric-mechanical finite element modeling approach is introduced to predict the mechanical and piezoelectric performance of a plain weave carbon fiber reinforced PVDF composite. The modeling results show good agreement with the experimental results for the mechanical and electrical properties of the composite. In addition, the degree of polarization of the PVDF component of the composite is predicted using this multiscale modeling approach and shows that there is opportunity to drastically improve the smart composite’s performance by improving the polarization procedure.

  5. Variable percolation threshold of composites with fiber fillers under compression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Chuan; Wang, Hongtao; Yang, Wei

    2010-07-01

    The piezoresistant effect in conducting fiber-filled composites has been studied by a continuum percolation model. Simulation was performed by a Monte Carlo method that took into account both the deformation-induced fiber bending and rotation. The percolation threshold was found to rise with the compression strain, which explains the observed positive piezoresistive coefficients in such composites. The simulations unveiled the effect of the microstructure evolution during deformation. The fibers are found to align perpendicularly to the compression direction. As the fiber is bended, the effective length in making a conductive network is shortened. Both effects contribute to a larger percolation threshold and imply a positive piezoresistive coefficient according the universal power law.

  6. Potential release of fibers from burning carbon composites. [aircraft fires

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bell, V. L.

    1980-01-01

    A comprehensive experimental carbon fiber source program was conducted to determine the potential for the release of conductive carbon fibers from burning composites. Laboratory testing determined the relative importance of several parameters influencing the amounts of single fibers released, while large-scale aviation jet fuel pool fires provided realistic confirmation of the laboratory data. The dimensions and size distributions of fire-released carbon fibers were determined, not only for those of concern in an electrical sense, but also for those of potential interest from a health and environmental standpoint. Fire plume and chemistry studies were performed with large pool fires to provide an experimental input into an analytical modelling of simulated aircraft crash fires. A study of a high voltage spark system resulted in a promising device for the detection, counting, and sizing of electrically conductive fibers, for both active and passive modes of operation.

  7. Ultrasonic Nondestructive Evaluation of Damage in Continuous Fiber Composites

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-01-01

    Security Classification) Ultrasonic Nondestructive Evalustion of Damage in Continuous Fiber Composites 12. PERSONAL AUTHOR(S) Vikram K. Kinra 13a...Attenuatiorn Composites , Damage / " UltrasonicNondestructive Evaluation. \\ ’k 19. ABSTRACT (Continue on reverse if necessary and identify by block n,,ber) A...n SIrIE -~ 2 4IiCUi’.ZIEfEi Ultrasonic nondestructive evaluation of fibre-reinforced composite materials - a review VIKRAM K KINRA and VINAY DAYAL

  8. Computational simulation of progressive fracture in fiber composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chamis, C. C.

    1986-01-01

    Computational methods for simulating and predicting progressive fracture in fiber composite structures are presented. These methods are integrated into a computer code of modular form. The modules include composite mechanics, finite element analysis, and fracture criteria. The code is used to computationally simulate progressive fracture in composite laminates with and without defects. The simulation tracks the fracture progression in terms of modes initiating fracture, damage growth, and imminent global (catastrophic) laminate fracture.

  9. Constitutive modeling of fiber-reinforced cement composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boulfiza, Mohamed

    The role of fibers in the enhancement of the inherently low tensile stress and strain capacities of fiber reinforced cementitious composites (FRC) has been addressed through both the phenomenological, using concepts of continuum damage mechanics, and micro-mechanical approaches leading to the development of a closing pressure that could be used in a cohesive crack analysis. The observed enhancements in the matrix behavior is assumed to be related to the ability of the material to transfer stress across cracks. In the micromechanics approach, this is modeled by the introduction of a nonlinear closing pressure at the crack lips. Due to the different nature of cracking in the pre-peak and post peak regimes, two different micro-mechanical models of the cohesive pressure have been proposed, one for the strain hardening stage and another for the strain softening regime. This cohesive pressure is subsequently incorporated into a finite element code so that a nonlinear fracture analysis can be carried out. On top of the fact that a direct fracture analysis has been performed to predict the response of some FRC structural elements, a numerical procedure for the homogenization of FRC materials has been proposed. In this latter approach, a link is established between the cracking taking place at the meso-scale and its mechanical characteristics as represented by the Young's modulus. A parametric study has been carried out to investigate the effect of crack patterning and fiber volume fractions on the overall Young's modulus and the thermodynamic force associated with the tensorial damage variable. After showing the usefulness and power of phenomenological continuum damage mechanics (PCDM) in the prediction of ERC materials' response to a stimuli (loading), a combined PCDM-NLFMsp1 approach is proposed to model (predict, forecast) the complete response of the composite up to failure. Based on experimental observations, this approach assumes that damage mechanics which predicts

  10. Chicken feather fiber as an additive in MDF composites

    Treesearch

    Jerrold E. Winandy; James H. Muehl; Jessie A. Glaeser; Walter Schmidt

    2007-01-01

    Medium density fiberboard (MDF) panels were made with aspen fiber and 0-95% chicken feather fiber (CFF) in 2.5%, 5%, or 25% increments, using 5% phenol formaldehyde resin as the adhesive. Panels were tested for mechanical and physical properties as well as decay. The addition of CFF decreased strength and stiffness of MDF-CFF composites compared with that of all-wood...

  11. Creep of experimental short fiber-reinforced composite resin.

    PubMed

    Garoushi, Sufyan; Kaleem, Muhammad; Shinya, Akikazu; Vallittu, Pekka K; Satterthwaite, Julian D; Watts, David C; Lassila, Lippo V J

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the reinforcing effect of short E-glass fiber fillers oriented in different directions on composite resin under static and dynamic loading. Experimental short fiber-reinforced composite resin (FC) was prepared by mixing 22.5 wt% of short E-glass fibers, 22.5 wt% of resin, and 55 wt% of silane-treated silica fillers. Three groups of specimens (n=5) were tested: FC with isotropic fiber orientation, FC with anisotropic fiber orientation, and particulate-filled composite resin (PFC) as a control. Time-dependent creep and recovery were recorded. ANOVA revealed that after secondary curing in a vacuum oven and after storage in dry condition for 30 days, FC with isotropic fiber orientation (1.73%) exhibited significantly lower static creep value (p<0.05) than PFC (2.54%). For the different curing methods and storage conditions evaluated in this study, FC achieved acceptable static and dynamic creep values when compared to PFC.

  12. Method of Manufacturing Carbon Fiber Reinforced Carbon Composite Valves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rivers, H. Kevin (Inventor); Ransone, Philip O. (Inventor); Northam, G. Burton (Inventor)

    1998-01-01

    A method for forming a carbon composite valve for internal combustion engines is discussed. The process includes the steps of braiding carbon fiber into a rope thereby forming a cylindrically shaped valve stem portion and continuing to braid said fiber while introducing into the braiding carbon fiber rope a carbon matrix plug having an outer surface in a net shape of a valve head thereby forming a valve head portion. The said carbon matrix plug acting as a mandrel over which said carbon fiber rope is braided, said carbon fiber rope and carbon matrix plug forming a valve head portion suitable for mating with a valve seat; cutting said braided carbon valve stem portion at one end to form a valve tip and cutting said braided carbon fiber after said valve head portion to form a valve face and thus provide a composite valve preform; and densifying said preform by embedding the braided carbon in a matrix of carbon to convert said valve stem portion to a valve stem and said valve head portion to a valve head thereby providing said composite valve.

  13. In vitro study of transverse strength of fiber reinforced composites.

    PubMed

    Mosharraf, R; Hashemi, Z; Torkan, S

    2011-01-01

    Reinforcement with fiber is an effective method for considerable improvement in flexural properties of indirect composite resin restorations. The aim of this in-vitro study was to compare the transverse strength of composite resin bars reinforced with pre-impregnated and non-impregnated fibers. Thirty six bar type composite resin specimens (3×2×25 mm) were constructed in three groups. The first group was the control group (C) without any fiber reinforcement. The specimens in the second group (P) were reinforced with pre-impregnated fibers and the third group (N) with non-impregnated fibers. These specimens were tested by the three-point bending method to measure primary transverse strength. Data were statistically analyzed with one way ANOVA and Tukey's tests. There was a significant difference among the mean primary transverse strength in the three groups (P<0.001). The post-hoc (Tukey) test showed that there was a significant difference between the pre-impregnated and control groups in their primary transverse strength (P<0.001). Regarding deflection, there was also a significant difference among the three groups (P=0.001). There were significant differences among the mean deflection of the control group and two other groups (P(C&N)<.001 and P(C&P)=.004), but there was no significant difference between the non-and pre-impregnated groups (P(N&P)=.813). Within the limitations of this study, it was concluded that reinforcement with fiber considerably increased the transverse strength of composite resin specimens, but impregnation of the fiber used implemented no significant difference in the transverse strength of composite resin samples.

  14. Tungsten fiber reinforced superalloy composite high temperature component design considerations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Winsa, E. A.

    1982-01-01

    Tungsten fiber reinforced superalloy composites (TFRS) are intended for use in high temperature turbine components. Current turbine component design methodology is based on applying the experience, sometimes semiempirical, gained from over 30 years of superalloy component design. Current composite component design capability is generally limited to the methodology for low temperature resin matrix composites. Often the tendency is to treat TFRS as just another superalloy or low temperature composite. However, TFRS behavior is significantly different than that of superalloys, and the high environment adds consideration not common in low temperature composite component design. The methodology used for preliminary design of TFRS components are described. Considerations unique to TFRS are emphasized.

  15. Uncertainty quantification of fiber orientation distribution measurements for long-fiber-reinforced thermoplastic composites

    SciTech Connect

    Sharma, Bhisham N.; Naragani, Diwakar; Nguyen, Ba Nghiep

    We present a detailed methodology for experimental measurement of fiber orientation distribution (FOD) in injection-molded discontinuous fiber composites using the method of ellipses on 2D cross sections. Best practices to avoid biases occurring during surface preparation and optical imaging of carbon-fiber-reinforced thermoplastics are discussed. A marker-based watershed transform routine for efficient image segmentation and the separation of touching fiber ellipses is developed. The sensitivity of the averaged orientation tensor to the image sample size is studied for the case of long-fiber thermoplastics. A Mori-Tanaka implementation of the Eshelby model is then employed to quantify the sensitivity of elastic stiffness predictionsmore » to biases in the FOD measurements.« less

  16. Lamb Wave Assessment of Fiber Volume Fraction in Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seale, Michael D.; Smith, Barry T.; Prosser, W. H.; Zalameda, Joseph N.

    1998-01-01

    Among the various techniques available, ultrasonic Lamb waves offer a convenient method of examining composite materials. Since the Lamb wave velocity depends on the elastic properties of a material, an effective tool exists to evaluate composites by measuring the velocity of these waves. Lamb waves can propagate over long distances and are sensitive to the desired in-plane elastic properties of the material. This paper discusses a study in which Lamb waves were used to examine fiber volume fraction variations of approximately 0.40-0.70 in composites. The Lamb wave measurements were compared to fiber volume fractions obtained from acid digestion tests. Additionally, a model to predict the fiber volume fraction from Lamb wave velocity values was evaluated.

  17. Engineered Polymer Composites Through Electrospun Nanofiber Coating of Fiber Tows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kohlman, Lee W.

    2013-01-01

    Toughening and other property enhancements of composite materials are typically implemented by-modifying the bulk properties of the constituents, either the fiber or matrix materials. This often leads to difficulties in processing and higher material costs. Many composites consist of tows or yarns (thousands of individual fibers) that are either filament wound or processed into a fabric by weaving or braiding. The matrix material can be added to the tow or fabric before final processing, resulting in a prepreg material, or infused into the fiber material during final processing by a variety of methods. By using a direct electrospun deposition method to apply thermoplastic nanofiber to the surface of the tows, the tow-tow interface in the resulting composite can be modified while using otherwise conventional materials and handling processes. Other materials of interest could also be incorporated into the electrospun precursor.

  18. Composite Reinforcement by Magnetic Control of Fiber Density and Orientation.

    PubMed

    Goldberg, Omri; Greenfeld, Israel; Wagner, H Daniel

    2018-05-08

    The flexural rigidity of cylindrical specimens, composed of epoxy reinforced by short, magnetized glass fibers, was enhanced using weak magnetic fields (<100 mT). By spatially controlling the magnitude and direction of the field, and thereby the torques and forces acting locally on the fibers, the orientation and concentration of the fillers in the matrix could be tuned prior to curing. Unidirectional alignment of the fibers, achieved using an air-core solenoid, improved the contribution of the fibers to the flexure modulus by a factor of 3. When a ring-shaped permanent magnet was utilized, the glass fibers were migrated preferentially near the rod boundary, and as a result, the contribution of the fibers to the flexure modulus doubled. The fiber length, density, and orientation distributions were extracted by μCT image analysis, allowing comparison of the experimental flexure modulus to a modified rule of mixtures prediction. The ability to magnetically control the fiber distribution in reinforced composites demonstrated in this study may be applied in the fabrication of complex micro- and macroscale structures with spatially variable anisotropy, allowing features such as crack diversion, strengthening of highly loaded regions, as well as economic management of materials and weight.

  19. Probabilistic analysis of the behavior of polymer matrix composite materials reinforced by different types of fibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harb, N.; Bezzazi, B.; Mehraz, S.; Hamitouche, K.; Dilmi, H.

    2017-11-01

    The requests of lightening of the structures and gains in performance lead to search for new materials and the associated processes for aeronautical and space applications. Long-fiber composites have been used for many years for these applications; they make it possible to reduce the mass of the structures because of their excellent compromise of mass/rigidity / resistance. The materials in general contain defects which are essentially due to their nature and their mode of elaboration. To this purpuse, we carried out a probabilistic analysis of the mechanical behavior in three-point bending of composite materials with a thermosetting matrix in order to highlight the influence of the number of folds of the fibers and the nature of the fibers on the dispersion of the defects in the stratified structures fiberglass, carbon fiber laminates and hybrid (carbon / glass) laminates. From the results obtained, the dispersion of the defects is lower in the laminates of greater number of plies of the fibers and the hybrid laminates; the more the number of folds increases the more the mechanical characteristics increase; the hybrid laminates exhibit better mechanical properties compared to laminates of the same type of fiber. Finally, a morphological analysis of fracture structures and facies was investigated by scanning electron microscope (SEM) observations.

  20. Electromagnetic interference shielding effectiveness of polypropylene/conducting fiber composites

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Pyoung-Chan, E-mail: pclee@katech.re.kr; Kim, Bo-Ram; Jeoung, Sun Kyoung

    Electromagnetic released from the automotive electronic parts is harmful to human body. Electromagnetic interference (EMT) shielding refers to the reflection and/or adsorption of electromagnetic radiation by a material, which thereby acts as a shield against the penetration of the radiation through the shield. Polypropylene (PP)/conductive micro fiber composites containing various fiber contents and fiber length were injection-molded. The effect of fiber content and length on electrical properties of the composites was studied by electrical resistivity and EMT shielding measurements. The through-plane electrical conductivity and dielectric permittivity were obtained by measuring dielectric properties. The EMT shielding effectiveness (SE) was investigated bymore » using S-parameter in the range of 100 ~ 1500 MHz. Reflection, absorption and multiple-reflection are the EMT attenuation mechanisms. From the measurement of S-Parameters, the absorption coefficient, reflection coefficient, and the shielding efficiency of the materials were calculated. The EMT SE of PP/conducing fiber composites is 40 dB over a wide frequency range up to 1.5 GHz, which is higher than that of PP/talc composite used automotive parts, viz. 0 dB.« less

  1. Electromagnetic interference shielding effectiveness of polypropylene/conducting fiber composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Pyoung-Chan; Kim, Bo-Ram; Jeoung, Sun Kyoung; Kim, Yeung Keun

    2016-03-01

    Electromagnetic released from the automotive electronic parts is harmful to human body. Electromagnetic interference (EMT) shielding refers to the reflection and/or adsorption of electromagnetic radiation by a material, which thereby acts as a shield against the penetration of the radiation through the shield. Polypropylene (PP)/conductive micro fiber composites containing various fiber contents and fiber length were injection-molded. The effect of fiber content and length on electrical properties of the composites was studied by electrical resistivity and EMT shielding measurements. The through-plane electrical conductivity and dielectric permittivity were obtained by measuring dielectric properties. The EMT shielding effectiveness (SE) was investigated by using S-parameter in the range of 100 ~ 1500 MHz. Reflection, absorption and multiple-reflection are the EMT attenuation mechanisms. From the measurement of S-Parameters, the absorption coefficient, reflection coefficient, and the shielding efficiency of the materials were calculated. The EMT SE of PP/conducing fiber composites is 40 dB over a wide frequency range up to 1.5 GHz, which is higher than that of PP/talc composite used automotive parts, viz. 0 dB.

  2. Mechanical properties evaluation of single and hybrid composites polyester reinforced bamboo, PALF and coir fiber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rihayat, T.; Suryani, S.; Fauzi, T.; Agusnar, H.; Wirjosentono, B.; Syafruddin; Helmi; Zulkifli; Alam, P. N.; Sami, M.

    2018-03-01

    This study aims to determine the composition fiber natural of bamboo, pineapple leaf and coir in single and hybrid composite to see the best characteristics of tensile strength and flexural test by using a Universal Testing Machine (UTM) and observe the effect on the microstructure of the composite through optical and scanning electron microscopy. Bamboo, Palf and coir have synthesis from natural fiber was used as reinforcement in polyester composite using hand lay up or a hot-compression moulding while filler:matrix was used (45%:55wt.%, 70%:30wt.% and 15%:85wt.%). From the variation of the volume fraction between filler and matrix show that mechanical properties of composites increased with increasing amount of filler in the matrix. This is evidenced by the high mechanical properties A:B:C/Ps in compositions 45%: 55wt.% 136 Mpa while flexural strength 93 N and good structure surface morphology. This research has produced a hybrid composite materials that have high mechanical properties and bending compared with conventional synthetic fibers and other materials.

  3. Evaluation of silicon carbide fiber/titanium composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jech, R. W.; Signorelli, R. A.

    1979-01-01

    Izod impact, tensile, and modulus of elasticity were determined for silicon carbide fiber/titanium composites to evaluate their potential usefulness as substitutes for titanium alloys or stainless steel in stiffness critical applications for aircraft turbine engines. Variations in processing conditions and matrix ductility were examined to produce composites having good impact strength in both the as-fabricated condition and after air exposure at elevated temperature. The impact strengths of composites containing 36 volume percent silicon carbide (SiC) fiber in an unalloyed (A-40) titanium matrix were found to be equal to unreinforced titanium-6 aluminum-4 vanadium alloy; the tensile strengths of the composites were marginally better than the unreinforced unalloyed (A-70) matrix at elevated temperature, though not at room temperature. At room temperature the modulus of elasticity of the composites was 48 percent higher than titanium or its alloys and 40 percent higher than that of stainless steel.

  4. Fracture modes in off-axis fiber composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sinclair, J. H.; Chamis, C. C.

    1978-01-01

    Criteria were developed for identifying, characterizing, and quantifying fracture modes in high-modulus graphite-fiber/resin unidirectional composites subjected to off-axis tensile loading. Procedures are described which use sensitivity analyses and off-axis data to determine the uniaxial strength of fiber composites. It was found that off-axis composites fail by three fracture modes which produce unique fracture surface characteristics. The stress that dominates each fracture mode and the load angle range of its dominance can be identified. Linear composite mechanics is adequate to describe quantitatively the mechanical behavior of off-axis composites. The uniaxial strengths predicted from off-axis data are comparable to these measured in uniaxial tests.

  5. Naturalness from a composite top?

    DOE PAGES

    Pierce, Aaron; Zhao, Yue

    2017-01-12

    Here, we consider a theory with composite top quarks but an elementary Higgs boson. The hierarchy problem can be solved by supplementing TeV scale top compositeness with either supersymmetry or Higgs compositeness appearing at the multi-TeV scale. Furthermore, the Higgs boson couples to uncolored partons within the top quark. We also study how this approach can give rise to a novel screening effect that suppresses production of the colored top partners at the LHC. Strong constraints arise from Z tomore » $$\\bar{b}$$b, as well potentially from avor physics. Independent of flavor considerations, current constraints imply a compositeness scale &TeV; this implies that the model is likely tuned at the percent level. Four top quark production at the LHC is a smoking-gun probe of this scenario. New CP violation in D meson mixing is also possible.« less

  6. Ultrasonic nondestructive evaluation of impact-damaged graphite fiber composite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, J. H., Jr.; Lampert, N. R.

    1980-01-01

    Unidirectional Hercules AS/3501-6 graphite fiber epoxy composites were subjected to repeated controlled low-velocity drop weight impacts in the laminate direction. The degradation was ultrasonically monitored using through-thickness attenuation and a modified stress wave factor (SWF). There appears to be strong correlations between the number of drop-weight impacts, the residual tensile strength, the through-thickness attenuation, and the SWF. The results are very encouraging with respect to the NDE potential of both of these ultrasonic parameters to provide strength characterizations in virgin as well as impact-damaged fiber composite structures.

  7. Engineered Polymer Composites Through Electrospun Nanofiber Coating of Fiber Tows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kohlman, Lee W.; Bakis, Charles; Williams, Tiffany S.; Johnston, James C.; Kuczmarski, Maria A.; Roberts, Gary D.

    2014-01-01

    Composite materials offer significant weight savings in many aerospace applications. The toughness of the interface of fibers crossing at different angles often determines failure of composite components. A method for toughening the interface in fabric and filament wound components using directly electrospun thermoplastic nanofiber on carbon fiber tow is presented. The method was first demonstrated with limited trials, and then was scaled up to a continuous lab scale process. Filament wound tubes were fabricated and tested using unmodified baseline towpreg material and nanofiber coated towpreg.

  8. High-Performance Synthetic Fibers for Composites

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-04-01

    under evaluation today include polyether ether ketone , polyamide, 23 polyamideimide, polyimide, polysulfone, and polyphenylene sulfide. Epoxy resins...shrinkage under intense neutron radiation . This attribute, together with other properties of high-temperature strength, toughness, and low nuclear...and (2) liquid or solid resins cross-linked with other esters in chopped-fiber and mineral-filled molding compounds. Polyether ether ketone (PEEK) A

  9. Fiber glass-bioactive glass composite for bone replacing and bone anchoring implants.

    PubMed

    Vallittu, Pekka K; Närhi, Timo O; Hupa, Leena

    2015-04-01

    Although metal implants have successfully been used for decades, devices made out of metals do not meet all clinical requirements, for example, metal objects may interfere with some new medical imaging systems, while their stiffness also differs from natural bone and may cause stress-shielding and over-loading of bone. Peer-review articles and other scientific literature were reviewed for providing up-dated information how fiber-reinforced composites and bioactive glass can be utilized in implantology. There has been a lot of development in the field of composite material research, which has focused to a large extent on biodegradable composites. However, it has become evident that biostable composites may also have several clinical benefits. Fiber reinforced composites containing bioactive glasses are relatively new types of biomaterials in the field of implantology. Biostable glass fibers are responsible for the load-bearing capacity of the implant, while the dissolution of the bioactive glass particles supports bone bonding and provides antimicrobial properties for the implant. These kinds of combination materials have been used clinically in cranioplasty implants and they have been investigated also as oral and orthopedic implants. The present knowledge suggests that by combining glass fiber-reinforced composite with particles of bioactive glass can be used in cranial implants and that the combination of materials may have potential use also as other types of bone replacing and repairing implants. Copyright © 2015 Academy of Dental Materials. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Effects of Fiber/Matrix Interface and its Composition on Mechanical Properties of Hi Nicalon/Celsian Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bansal, Narottam P.; Eldridge, Jeffrey I.

    1998-01-01

    Fiber-reinforced ceramic matrix composites (CMC) are prospective candidate materials for high temperature structural applications in aerospace, energy conservation, power generation, nuclear, petrochemical, and other industries. At NASA Lewis, we are investigating celsian matrix composites reinforced with various types of silicon carbide fibers. The objective of the present study was to investigate the effects of fiber/matrix interface and its composition on the mechanical properties of silicon carbide (Hi-Nicalon) fiber-reinforced celsian matrix composites.

  11. Monitoring the Wobbe Index of Natural Gas Using Fiber-Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Sandfort, Vincenz; Trabold, Barbara M; Abdolvand, Amir; Bolwien, Carsten; Russell, Philip St. J; Wöllenstein, Jürgen; Palzer, Stefan

    2017-11-24

    The fast and reliable analysis of the natural gas composition requires the simultaneous quantification of numerous gaseous components. To this end, fiber-enhanced Raman spectroscopy is a powerful tool to detect most components in a single measurement using a single laser source. However, practical issues such as detection limit, gas exchange time and background Raman signals from the fiber material still pose obstacles to utilizing the scheme in real-world settings. This paper compares the performance of two types of hollow-core photonic crystal fiber (PCF), namely photonic bandgap PCF and kagomé-style PCF, and assesses their potential for online determination of the Wobbe index. In contrast to bandgap PCF, kagomé-PCF allows for reliable detection of Raman-scattered photons even below 1200 cm -1 , which in turn enables fast and comprehensive assessment of the natural gas quality of arbitrary mixtures.

  12. Monitoring the Wobbe Index of Natural Gas Using Fiber-Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Sandfort, Vincenz; Trabold, Barbara M.; Abdolvand, Amir; Bolwien, Carsten; Russell, Philip St. J.; Wöllenstein, Jürgen

    2017-01-01

    The fast and reliable analysis of the natural gas composition requires the simultaneous quantification of numerous gaseous components. To this end, fiber-enhanced Raman spectroscopy is a powerful tool to detect most components in a single measurement using a single laser source. However, practical issues such as detection limit, gas exchange time and background Raman signals from the fiber material still pose obstacles to utilizing the scheme in real-world settings. This paper compares the performance of two types of hollow-core photonic crystal fiber (PCF), namely photonic bandgap PCF and kagomé-style PCF, and assesses their potential for online determination of the Wobbe index. In contrast to bandgap PCF, kagomé-PCF allows for reliable detection of Raman-scattered photons even below 1200 cm−1, which in turn enables fast and comprehensive assessment of the natural gas quality of arbitrary mixtures. PMID:29186768

  13. Impetus of composite mechanics on test methods for fiber composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chamis, C. C.

    1978-01-01

    The impetus of composite mechanics on composite test methods and/or on interpreting test results is described by using examples from composite micromechanics, composite macromechanics and laminate theory. The specific examples included contributions such as criteria for selecting resin matrices for improved composite strength, the 10 deg off-axis tensile test, criteria for configuring hybrids and superhybrids for improved impact resistance and the reduced bending rigidities concept for buckling and vibration analyses.

  14. Carbide coated fibers in graphite-aluminum composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Imprescia, R. J.; Levinson, L. S.; Reiswig, R. D.; Wallace, T. C.; Williams, J. M.

    1975-01-01

    The NASA-supported program at the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory (LASL) to develop carbon fiber-aluminum matrix composites is described. Chemical vapor deposition (CVD) was used to uniformly deposit thin, smooth, continuous coats of TiC on the fibers of graphite tows. Wet chemical coating of fibers, followed by high-temperature treatment, was also used, but showed little promise as an alternative coating method. Strength measurements on CVD coated fiber tows showed that thin carbide coats can add to fiber strength. The ability of aluminum alloys to wet TiC was successfully demonstrated using TiC-coated graphite surfaces. Pressure-infiltration of TiC- and ZrC-coated fiber tows with aluminum alloys was only partially successful. Experiments were performed to evaluate the effectiveness of carbide coats on carbon as barriers to prevent reaction between alluminum alloys and carbon. Initial results indicate that composites of aluminum and carbide-coated graphite are stable for long periods of time at temperatures near the alloy solidus.

  15. Critical fiber length technique for composite manufacturing processes

    SciTech Connect

    Sivley, G.N.; Vandiver, T.L.; Dougherty, N.S.

    1996-12-31

    An improved injection technique for composite structures has been cooperatively developed by the U.S. Army Missile Command (MICOM) and Rockwell International (RI). This process simultaneously injects chopped fiberglass fibers and an epoxy resin matrix into a mold. Four injection techniques: (1){open_quotes}Little Willie{close_quotes} RTM system, (2) Pressure Vat system, (3) Pressure Vat system with vacuum assistance, and (4) Injection gun system, were investigated for use with a 304.8 mm x 304.8 mm x 5.08 mm (12 in x 12 in x 0.2 in) flat plaque mold. The driving factors in the process optimization included: fiber length, fiber weight, matrix viscosity, injectionmore » pressure, flow rate, and tool design. At fiber weights higher than 30 percent, the injection gun appears to have advantages over the other systems investigated. Results of an experimental investigation are reviewed in this paper. The investigation of injection techniques is the initial part of the research involved in a developing process, {open_quotes}Critical Fiber Length Technique{close_quotes}. This process will use the data collected in injection experiment along with mechanical properties derived from coupon test data to be incorporated into a composite material design code. The {open_quotes}Critical Fiber Length Technique{close_quotes} is part of a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) established in 1994 between MICOM and RI.« less

  16. Effect of fiber diameter on flexural properties of fiber-reinforced composites.

    PubMed

    Rezvani, Mohammad Bagher; Atai, Mohammad; Hamze, Faeze

    2013-01-01

    Flexural strength (FS) is one of the most important properties of restorative dental materials which could be improved in fiber-reinforced composites (FRCs) by several methods including the incorporation of stronger reinforcing fibers. This study evaluates the influence of the glass fiber diameter on the FS and elastic modulus of FRCs at the same weight percentage. A mixture of 2,2-bis-[4-(methacryloxypropoxy)-phenyl]-propaneand triethyleneglycol dimethacrylate (60/40 by weight) was prepared as the matrix phase in which 0.5 wt. % camphorquinone and 0.5 wt. % N-N'-dimethylaminoethyl methacrylate were dissolved as photoinitiator system. Glass fibers with three different diameters (14, 19, and 26 μm) were impregnated with the matrix resin using a soft brush. The FRCs were inserted into a 2 × 2 × 25 mm3 mold and cured using a light curing unit with an intensity of ca. 600 mW/cm2 . The FS of the FRCs was measured in a three-point bending method. The elastic modulus was determined from the slope of the initial linear part of stress-strain curve. The fracture surface of the composites was observed using scanning electron microscopy to study the fiber-matrix interface. The results were analyzed and compared using one-way ANOVA and Tukey's post-hoc test. Although the FS increased as the diameter of fibers increased up to 19 μm (P < 0.05), no significant difference was observed between the composites containing fibers with diameters of 19 and 26 μm. The diameter of the fibers influences the mechanical properties of the FRCs.

  17. Thermal Characterization of Carbon Fiber-Reinforced Carbon Composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Macias, J. D.; Bante-Guerra, J.; Cervantes-Alvarez, F.; Rodrìguez-Gattorno, G.; Arés-Muzio, O.; Romero-Paredes, H.; Arancibia-Bulnes, C. A.; Ramos-Sánchez, V.; Villafán-Vidales, H. I.; Ordonez-Miranda, J.; Li Voti, R.; Alvarado-Gil, J. J.

    2018-04-01

    Carbon fiber-reinforced carbon (C/C) composites consist in a carbon matrix holding carbon or graphite fibers together, whose physical properties are determined not only by those of their individual components, but also by the layer buildup and the material preparation and processing. The complex structure of C/C composites along with the fiber orientation provide an effective means for tailoring their mechanical, electrical, and thermal properties. In this work, we use the Laser Flash Technique to measure the thermal diffusivity and thermal conductivity of C/C composites made up of laminates of weaved bundles of carbon fibers, forming a regular and repeated orthogonal pattern, embedded in a graphite matrix. Our experimental data show that: i) the cross-plane thermal conductivity remains practically constant around (5.3 ± 0.4) W·m-1 K-1, within the temperature range from 370 K to 1700 K. ii) The thermal diffusivity and thermal conductivity along the cross-plane direction to the fibers axis is about five times smaller than the corresponding ones in the laminates plane. iii) The measured cross-plane thermal conductivity is well described by a theoretical model that considers both the conductive and radiative thermal contributions of the effective thermal conductivity.

  18. Modeling of short fiber reinforced injection moulded composite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kulkarni, A.; Aswini, N.; Dandekar, C. R.; Makhe, S.

    2012-09-01

    A micromechanics based finite element model (FEM) is developed to facilitate the design of a new production quality fiber reinforced plastic injection molded part. The composite part under study is composed of a polyetheretherketone (PEEK) matrix reinforced with 30% by volume fraction of short carbon fibers. The constitutive material models are obtained by using micromechanics based homogenization theories. The analysis is carried out by successfully coupling two commercial codes, Moldflow and ANSYS. Moldflow software is used to predict the fiber orientation by considering the flow kinetics and molding parameters. Material models are inputted into the commercial software ANSYS as per the predicted fiber orientation and the structural analysis is carried out. Thus in the present approach a coupling between two commercial codes namely Moldflow and ANSYS has been established to enable the analysis of the short fiber reinforced injection moulded composite parts. The load-deflection curve is obtained based on three constitutive material model namely an isotropy, transversely isotropy and orthotropy. Average values of the predicted quantities are compared to experimental results, obtaining a good correlation. In this manner, the coupled Moldflow-ANSYS model successfully predicts the load deflection curve of a composite injection molded part.

  19. Carbide coated fibers in graphite-aluminum composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Imprescia, R. J.; Levinson, L. S.; Reiswig, R. D.; Wallace, T. C.; Williams, J. M.

    1975-01-01

    The study of protective-coupling layers of refractory metal carbides on the graphite fibers prior to their incorporation into composites is presented. Such layers should be directly wettable by liquid aluminum and should act as diffusion barriers to prevent the formation of aluminum carbide. Chemical vapor deposition was used to uniformly deposit thin, smooth, continuous coats of ZrC on the carbon fibers of tows derived from both rayon and polyacrylonitrile. A wet chemical coating of the fibers, followed by high-temperature treatment, was used, and showed promise as an alternative coating method. Experiments were performed to demonstrate the ability of aluminum alloys to wet carbide surfaces. Titanium carbide, zirconium carbide and carbide-coated graphite surfaces were successfully wetted. Results indicate that initial attempts to wet surfaces of ZrC-coated carbon fibers appear successful.

  20. Optimization of Composite Structures with Curved Fiber Trajectories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lemaire, Etienne; Zein, Samih; Bruyneel, Michael

    2014-06-01

    This paper studies the problem of optimizing composites shells manufactured using Automated Tape Layup (ATL) or Automated Fiber Placement (AFP) processes. The optimization procedure relies on a new approach to generate equidistant fiber trajectories based on Fast Marching Method. Starting with a (possibly curved) reference fiber direction defined on a (possibly curved) meshed surface, the new method allows determining fibers orientation resulting from a uniform thickness layup. The design variables are the parameters defining the position and the shape of the reference curve which results in very few design variables. Thanks to this efficient parameterization, maximum stiffness optimization numerical applications are proposed. The shape of the design space is discussed, regarding local and global optimal solutions.

  1. Problems encountered with conventional fiber-reinforced composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Landel, R. F.

    1981-01-01

    Preparational, computational, and operational problems associated with fiber-reinforced composites (FRC) are reviewed. Initial preparation of FRCs is shown to involve consideration of the type of prepreg, the setting time, cure conditions and cycles, and cure temperatures. The effects of the choice of bonding agents, the fiber transfer length, and individual fiber responses to bonding agents are noted to have an impact on fiber strength, moisture uptake, and fatigue resistance. The deformation prior to failure and the failure region are modeled through models of mini-, micro- and macro mechanics formulations employing a stiffness matrix, failure criterion, or fracture mechanics. The detection, evaluation, and repair of defects comprises the operational domain, and it is stressed that no good repair techniques exist for FRCs.

  2. Natural fiber production, harvesting, and preliminary processing: options and opportunities

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The utilization of natural fibers and plant oils in bio-products introduces numerous logistical challenges not typically encountered with non-agricultural resources. Once it has been determined that a plant material is suitable for commercial development, the production, harvesting, and processing s...

  3. Impact Strength and Flexural Properties Enhancement of Methacrylate Silane Treated Oil Palm Mesocarp Fiber Reinforced Biodegradable Hybrid Composites

    PubMed Central

    Ibrahim, Nor Azowa; Ariffin, Hidayah; Yunus, Wan Md. Zin Wan

    2014-01-01

    Natural fiber as reinforcement filler in polymer composites is an attractive approach due to being fully biodegradable and cheap. However, incompatibility between hydrophilic natural fiber and hydrophobic polymer matrix restricts the application. The current studies focus on the effects of incorporation of silane treated OPMF into polylactic acid (PLA)/polycaprolactone (PCL)/nanoclay/OPMF hybrid composites. The composites were prepared by melt blending technique and characterize the composites with Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). FTIR spectra indicated that peak shifting occurs when silane treated OPMF was incorporated into hybrid composites. Based on mechanical properties results, incorporation of silane treated OPMF enhances the mechanical properties of unmodified OPMF hybrid composites with the enhancement of flexural and impact strength being 17.60% and 48.43%, respectively, at 10% fiber loading. TGA thermogram shows that incorporation of silane treated OPMF did not show increment in thermal properties of hybrid composites. SEM micrographs revealed that silane treated OPMF hybrid composites show good fiber/matrix adhesion as fiber is still embedded in the matrix and no cavity is present on the surface. Water absorption test shows that addition of less hydrophilic silane treated OPMF successfully reduces the water uptake of hybrid composites. PMID:25254230

  4. Impact strength and flexural properties enhancement of methacrylate silane treated oil palm mesocarp fiber reinforced biodegradable hybrid composites.

    PubMed

    Eng, Chern Chiet; Ibrahim, Nor Azowa; Zainuddin, Norhazlin; Ariffin, Hidayah; Yunus, Wan Md Zin Wan

    2014-01-01

    Natural fiber as reinforcement filler in polymer composites is an attractive approach due to being fully biodegradable and cheap. However, incompatibility between hydrophilic natural fiber and hydrophobic polymer matrix restricts the application. The current studies focus on the effects of incorporation of silane treated OPMF into polylactic acid (PLA)/polycaprolactone (PCL)/nanoclay/OPMF hybrid composites. The composites were prepared by melt blending technique and characterize the composites with Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). FTIR spectra indicated that peak shifting occurs when silane treated OPMF was incorporated into hybrid composites. Based on mechanical properties results, incorporation of silane treated OPMF enhances the mechanical properties of unmodified OPMF hybrid composites with the enhancement of flexural and impact strength being 17.60% and 48.43%, respectively, at 10% fiber loading. TGA thermogram shows that incorporation of silane treated OPMF did not show increment in thermal properties of hybrid composites. SEM micrographs revealed that silane treated OPMF hybrid composites show good fiber/matrix adhesion as fiber is still embedded in the matrix and no cavity is present on the surface. Water absorption test shows that addition of less hydrophilic silane treated OPMF successfully reduces the water uptake of hybrid composites.

  5. Clues for biomimetics from natural composite materials

    PubMed Central

    Lapidot, Shaul; Meirovitch, Sigal; Sharon, Sigal; Heyman, Arnon; Kaplan, David L; Shoseyov, Oded

    2013-01-01

    Bio-inspired material systems are derived from different living organisms such as plants, arthropods, mammals and marine organisms. These biomaterial systems from nature are always present in the form of composites, with molecular-scale interactions optimized to direct functional features. With interest in replacing synthetic materials with natural materials due to biocompatibility, sustainability and green chemistry issues, it is important to understand the molecular structure and chemistry of the raw component materials to also learn from their natural engineering, interfaces and interactions leading to durable and highly functional material architectures. This review will focus on applications of biomaterials in single material forms, as well as biomimetic composites inspired by natural organizational features. Examples of different natural composite systems will be described, followed by implementation of the principles underlying their composite organization into artificial bio-inspired systems for materials with new functional features for future medicine. PMID:22994958

  6. Clues for biomimetics from natural composite materials.

    PubMed

    Lapidot, Shaul; Meirovitch, Sigal; Sharon, Sigal; Heyman, Arnon; Kaplan, David L; Shoseyov, Oded

    2012-09-01

    Bio-inspired material systems are derived from different living organisms such as plants, arthropods, mammals and marine organisms. These biomaterial systems from nature are always present in the form of composites, with molecular-scale interactions optimized to direct functional features. With interest in replacing synthetic materials with natural materials due to biocompatibility, sustainability and green chemistry issues, it is important to understand the molecular structure and chemistry of the raw component materials to also learn from their natural engineering, interfaces and interactions leading to durable and highly functional material architectures. This review will focus on applications of biomaterials in single material forms, as well as biomimetic composites inspired by natural organizational features. Examples of different natural composite systems will be described, followed by implementation of the principles underlying their composite organization into artificial bio-inspired systems for materials with new functional features for future medicine.

  7. Three-dimensional printing fiber reinforced hydrogel composites.

    PubMed

    Bakarich, Shannon E; Gorkin, Robert; in het Panhuis, Marc; Spinks, Geoffrey M

    2014-09-24

    An additive manufacturing process that combines digital modeling and 3D printing was used to prepare fiber reinforced hydrogels in a single-step process. The composite materials were fabricated by selectively pattering a combination of alginate/acrylamide gel precursor solution and an epoxy based UV-curable adhesive (Emax 904 Gel-SC) with an extrusion printer. UV irradiation was used to cure the two inks into a single composite material. Spatial control of fiber distribution within the digital models allowed for the fabrication of a series of materials with a spectrum of swelling behavior and mechanical properties with physical characteristics ranging from soft and wet to hard and dry. A comparison with the "rule of mixtures" was used to show that the swollen composite materials adhere to standard composite theory. A prototype meniscus cartilage was prepared to illustrate the potential application in bioengineering.

  8. Graphite fiber textile preform/copper matrix composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gilatovs, G. J.; Lee, Bruce; Bass, Lowell

    1995-01-01

    Graphite fiber reinforced/copper matrix composites have sufficiently high thermal conduction to make them candidate materials for critical heat transmitting and rejection components. The term textile composites arises because the preform is braided from fiber tows, conferring three-dimensional reinforcement and near net shape. The principal issues investigated in the past two years have centered on developing methods to characterize the preform and fabricated composite and on braidability. It is necessary to have an analytic structural description for both processing and final property modeling. The structure of the true 3-D braids used is complex and has required considerable effort to model. A structural mapping has been developed as a foundation for analytic models for thermal conduction and mechanical properties. The conductivity has contributions both from the copper and the reinforcement. The latter is accomplished by graphitization of the fibers, the higher the amount of graphitization the greater the conduction. This is accompanied by an increase in the fiber modulus, which is desirable from a stiffness point of view but decreases the braidability; the highest conductivity fibers are simply too brittle to be braided. Considerable effort has been expended on determining the optimal braidability--conductivity region. While a number of preforms have been fabricated, one other complication intervenes; graphite and copper are immiscible, resulting in a poor mechanical bond and difficulties in infiltration by molten copper. The approach taken is to utilize a proprietary fiber coating process developed by TRA, of Salt Lake City, Utah, which forms an itermediary bond. A number of preforms have been fabricated from a variety of fiber types and two sets of these have been infiltrated with OFHC copper, one with the TRA coating and one without. Mechanical tests have been performed using a small-scale specimen method and show the coated specimens to have superior

  9. Progressive Fracture of Fiber Composite Builtup Structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gotsis, Pascal K.; Chamis, Christos C.; Minnetyan, Levon

    1996-01-01

    The damage progression and fracture of builtup composite structures was evaluated by using computational simulation to examine the behavior and response of a stiffened composite (0 +/- 45/90)(sub s6) laminate panel subjected to a bending load. The damage initiation, growth, accumulation, progression, and propagation to structural collapse were simulated. An integrated computer code (CODSTRAN) was augmented for the simulation of the progressive damage and fracture of builtup composite structures under mechanical loading. Results showed that damage initiation and progression have a significant effect on the structural response. Also investigated was the influence of different types of bending load on the damage initiation, propagation, and final fracture of the builtup composite panel.

  10. Properties of Organic Matrix Short Fiber Composites

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-02-01

    reinforced SMC composites ( Owens Corning Fiberglas System) ............... ........................ ... 37 4 Schematic of process used to manufacture XMC...71 Vi F, viii. TLST OF TABLES TABLEPAE 1 Material formulations and densitius of SMC materials (PPG-PPG Industries, OFC- Owens Corning Fiberglas) (refs...Composite Materials, 14 (April 1980) , 142-154. 16 ,. Table 1. Material formulations and densities of SMC materials. (PPG-PPG Industries, OFC- Owens

  11. Fracture Micromechanics of Intermetallic and Ceramic Matrix Continuous Fiber Composites

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-05-01

    mechanical properties of titanium matrix composites, but much less information has been published. Only data in the published literature is referenced in...1984, pp. 1931-1940. 18. C.J. Yang, S.M. Jeng and J.-M. Yang " Interfacial properties measurements for SiC fiber-reinforced titanium alloy composites...Analyses of these parameters allowed a determination of interfacial shear strength. Fracture mechanics was used to correlate the micromechanical

  12. Process Optimization of Bismaleimide (BMI) Resin Infused Carbon Fiber Composite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ehrlich, Joshua W.; Tate, LaNetra C.; Cox, Sarah B.; Taylor, Brian J.; Wright, M. Clara; Faughnan, Patrick D.; Batterson, Lawrence M.; Caraccio, Anne J.; Sampson, Jeffery W.

    2013-01-01

    Engineers today are presented with the opportunity to design and build the next generation of space vehicles out of the lightest, strongest, and most durable materials available. Composites offer excellent structural characteristics and outstanding reliability in many forms that will be utilized in future aerospace applications including the Commercial Crew and Cargo Program and the Orion space capsule. NASA's Composites for Exploration (CoEx) project researches the various methods of manufacturing composite materials of different fiber characteristics while using proven infusion methods of different resin compositions. Development and testing on these different material combinations will provide engineers the opportunity to produce optimal material compounds for multidisciplinary applications. Through the CoEx project, engineers pursue the opportunity to research and develop repair patch procedures for damaged spacecraft. Working in conjunction with Raptor Resins Inc., NASA engineers are utilizing high flow liquid infusion molding practices to manufacture high-temperature composite parts comprised of intermediate modulus 7 (IM7) carbon fiber material. IM7 is a continuous, high-tensile strength composite with outstanding structural qualities such as high shear strength, tensile strength and modulus as well as excellent corrosion, creep, and fatigue resistance. IM7 carbon fiber, combined with existing thermoset and thermoplastic resin systems, can provide improvements in material strength reinforcement and deformation-resistant properties for high-temperature applications. Void analysis of the different layups of the IM7 material discovered the largest total void composition within the [ +45 , 90 , 90 , -45 ] composite panel. Tensile and compressional testing proved the highest mechanical strength was found in the [0 4] layup. This paper further investigates the infusion procedure of a low-cost/high-performance BMI resin into an IM7 carbon fiber material and the

  13. Properties of foam and composite materials made o starch and cellulose fiber

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Composite materials were made of starch and cellulose fibers. Pre-gelatinized starch was effective in dispersing pulp fiber in a starch matrix to form a viscous starch/fiber dough. The starch/fiber dough was a useful feedstock for various composite foam and plastic materials. Viscous blends of star...

  14. Properties of discontinuous S2-glass fiber-particulate-reinforced resin composites with two different fiber length distributions.

    PubMed

    Huang, Qiting; Garoushi, Sufyan; Lin, Zhengmei; He, Jingwei; Qin, Wei; Liu, Fang; Vallittu, Pekka Kalevi; Lassila, Lippo Veli Juhana

    2017-10-01

    To investigate the reinforcing efficiency and light curing properties of discontinuous S2-glass fiber-particulate reinforced resin composite and to examine length distribution of discontinuous S2-glass fibers after a mixing process into resin composite. Experimental S2-glass fiber-particulate reinforced resin composites were prepared by mixing 10wt% of discontinuous S2-glass fibers, which had been manually cut into two different lengths (1.5 and 3.0mm), with various weight ratios of dimethacrylate based resin matrix and silaned BaAlSiO 2 filler particulates. The resin composite made with 25wt% of UDMA/SR833s resin system and 75wt% of silaned BaAlSiO 2 filler particulates was used as control composite which had similar composition as the commonly used resin composites. Flexural strength (FS), flexural modulus (FM) and work of fracture (WOF) were measured. Fractured specimens were observed by scanning electron microscopy. Double bond conversion (DC) and fiber length distribution were also studied. Reinforcement of resin composites with discontinuous S2-glass fibers can significantly increase the FS, FM and WOF of resin composites over the control. The fibers from the mixed resin composites showed great variation in final fiber length. The mean aspect ratio of experimental composites containing 62.5wt% of particulate fillers and 10wt% of 1.5 or 3.0mm cutting S2-glass fibers was 70 and 132, respectively. No difference was found in DC between resin composites containing S2-glass fibers with two different cutting lengths. Discontinuous S2-glass fibers can effectively reinforce the particulate-filled resin composite and thus may be potential to manufacture resin composites for high-stress bearing application. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  15. Method of forming composite fiber blends and molding same

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McMahon, Paul E. (Inventor); Chung, Tai-Shung (Inventor)

    1989-01-01

    The instant invention involves a process used in preparing fibrous tows which may be formed into polymeric plastic composites. The process involves the steps of (a) forming a tow of strong filamentary materials; (b) forming a thermoplastic polymeric fiber; (c) intermixing the two tows; and (d) withdrawing the intermixed tow for further use.

  16. New Polylactic Acid Composites Reinforced with Artichoke Fibers

    PubMed Central

    Botta, Luigi; Fiore, Vincenzo; Scalici, Tommaso; Valenza, Antonino; Scaffaro, Roberto

    2015-01-01

    In this work, artichoke fibers were used for the first time to prepare poly(lactic acid) (PLA)-based biocomposites. In particular, two PLA/artichoke composites with the same fiber loading (10% w/w) were prepared by the film-stacking method: the first one (UNID) reinforced with unidirectional long artichoke fibers, the second one (RANDOM) reinforced by randomly-oriented long artichoke fibers. Both composites were mechanically characterized in tensile mode by quasi-static and dynamic mechanical tests. The morphology of the fracture surfaces was analyzed through scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Moreover, a theoretical model, i.e., Hill’s method, was used to fit the experimental Young’s modulus of the biocomposites. The quasi-static tensile tests revealed that the modulus of UNID composites is significantly higher than that of the neat PLA (i.e., ~40%). Moreover, the tensile strength is slightly higher than that of the neat matrix. The other way around, the stiffness of RANDOM composites is not significantly improved, and the tensile strength decreases in comparison to the neat PLA.

  17. Fillers for improved graphite fiber retention by polymer matrix composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    House, E. E.; Sheppard, C. H.

    1981-01-01

    The results of a program designed to determine the extent to which elemental boron and boron containing fillers added to the matrix resin of graphite/epoxy composites prevent the release of graphite fibers when the composites are exposed to fire and impact conditions are described. The fillers evaluated were boron, boron carbide and aluminum boride. The conditions evaluated were laboratory simulations of those that could exist in the event of an aircraft crash and burn situation. The baseline (i.e., unfilled) laminates evaluated were prepared from commercially available graphite/epoxy. The baseline and filled laminates' mechanical properties, before and after isothermal and humidity aging, also were compared. It was found that a small amount of graphite fiber was released from the baseline graphite/epoxy laminates during the burn and impact conditions used in this program. However, the extent to which the fibers were released is not considered a severe enough problem to preclude the use of graphite reinforced composites in civil aircraft structure. It also was found that the addition of boron and boron containing fillers to the resin matrix eliminated this fiber release. Mechanical properties of laminates containing the boron and boron containing fillers were lower than those of the baseline laminates. These property degradations for two systems: boron (5 micron) at 2.5 percent filler loading, and boron (5 micron) at 5.0 percent filler loading do not appear severe enough to preclude their use in structural composite applications.

  18. Fire Tests of Automotive Grade Carbon Fiber Composites

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1980-06-01

    This report presents the results of a fire test study on selected composite materials containing carbon fibers that are planned for use, or that have a high potential for use, in automobiles and other vehicles. The study objectives were to determine ...

  19. Study of the mechanical properties of Ziziphus nummularia (ber) fibers for formation of fiber reinforced composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joshi, Akshay; Mangal, R.; Bhojak, N.

    2018-05-01

    Ziziphus is the one of the most abundant plant of arid region of Rajasthan and rest part of desert land in world. There are a lots of research work going on and has been done on medical applications of this plant and it is playing very important role in economy of desert areas. In this paper our discussion will bring the attention its physical properties so that we can find the possibility of its applications in the various field of fiber reinforced composites which either can be used in such as interior & exterior part of automotive so it can reduce their overall weight, cost and improve its fuel efficiency without compromising in strength or can be used in flywheel technology for energy saving in automobiles or in building materials and so on. In this paper our approach is to extract the fiber from this plant, analyze the mechanical properties of the fiber and then discuss the various possibility of its application in appropriate field of composites. To find the possibility in FRC for Ziziphus fiber our next step is to compare it with other fibers whose composites have already been formed and studied.

  20. A constitutive law for continuous fiber reinforced brittle matrix composites with fiber fragmentation and stress recovery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neumeister, Jonas M.

    1993-08-01

    THE TENSILE BEHAVIOR of a brittle matrix composite is studied for post matrix crack saturation conditions. Scatter of fiber strength following the Weibull distribution as well as the influence of the major microstructural variables is considered. The stress in a fiber is assumed to recover linearly around a failure due to a fiber-matrix interface behavior mainly ruled by friction. The constitutive behavior for such a composite is analysed. Results are given for a simplified and a refined approximate description and compared with an analysis resulting from the exact analytical theory of fiber fragmentation. It is shown that the stress-strain relation for the refined model excellently follows the exact solution and gives the location of the maximum to within 1% in both stress and strain; for most materials the agreement is even better. Also it is shown that all relations can be normalized to depend on only two variables; a stress reference and the Weibull exponent. For systems with low scatter in fiber strength the simplified model is sufficient to determine the stress maximum but not the postcritical behavior. In addition, the simplified model gives explicit analytical expressions for the maximum stress and corresponding strain. None of the models contain any volume dependence or statistical scatter, but the maximum stress given by the stress-strain relation constitutes an upper bound for the ultimate tensile strength of the composite.

  1. Mechanics of Unidirectional Fiber-Reinforced Composites: Buckling Modes and Failure Under Compression Along Fibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paimushin, V. N.; Kholmogorov, S. A.; Gazizullin, R. K.

    2018-01-01

    One-dimensional linearized problems on the possible buckling modes of an internal or peripheral layer of unidirectional multilayer composites with rectilinear fibers under compression in the fiber direction are considered. The investigations are carried out using the known Kirchhoff-Love and Timoshenko models for the layers. The binder, modeled as an elastic foundation, is described by the equations of elasticity theory, which are simplified in accordance to the model of a transversely soft layer and are integrated along the transverse coordinate considering the kinematic coupling relations for a layer and foundation layers. Exact analytical solutions of the problems formulated are found, which are used to calculate a composite made of an HSE 180 REM prepreg based on a unidirectional carbon fiber tape. The possible buckling modes of its internal and peripheral layers are identified. Calculation results are compared with experimental data obtained earlier. It is concluded that, for the composite studied, the flexural buckling of layers in the uniform axial compression of specimens along fibers is impossible — the failure mechanism is delamination with buckling of a fiber bundle according to the pure shear mode. It is realized (due to the low average transverse shear modulus) at the value of the ultimate compression stress equal to the average shear modulus. It is shown that such a shear buckling mode can be identified only on the basis of equations constructed using the Timoshenko shear model to describe the deformation process of layers.

  2. Preliminary Design and Experimental Investigation of a Novel Pneumatic Conveying Method to Disperse Natural Fibers in Thermoset Polymers

    PubMed Central

    Fahimian, Mahi; Kortschot, Mark; Sain, Mohini

    2016-01-01

    Natural fibers can be attractive reinforcing materials in thermosetting polymers due to their low density and high specific mechanical properties. Although the research effort in this area has grown substantially over the last 20 years, manufacturing technologies to make use of short natural fibers in high volume fraction composites; are still limited. Natural fibers, after retting and preprocessing, are discontinuous and easily form entangled bundles. Dispersion and mixing these short fibers with resin to manufacture high quality, high volume fraction composites presents a significant challenge. In this paper, a novel pneumatic design for dispersion of natural fibers in their original discontinuous form is described. In this design, compressed air is used to create vacuum to feed and convey fibres while breaking down fibre clumps and dispersing them in an aerosolized resin stream. Model composite materials, made using proof-of-concept prototype equipment, were imaged with both optical and X-ray tomography to evaluate fibre and resin dispersion. The images indicated that the system was capable of providing an intimate mixture of resin and detangled fibres for two different resin viscosities. The new pneumatic process could serve as the basis of a system to produce well-dispersed high-volume fraction composites containing discontinuous natural fibres drawn directly from a loosely packed source. PMID:28773670

  3. Tunable fiber Bragg grating ring lasers using macro fiber composite actuators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geddis, Demetris L.; Allison, Sidney G.; Shams, Qamar A.

    2006-10-01

    The research reported herein includes the fabrication of a tunable optical fiber Bragg grating (FBG) fiber ring laser (FRL)1 from commercially available components as a high-speed alternative tunable laser source for NASA Langley's optical frequency domain reflectometer (OFDR) interrogator, which reads low reflectivity FBG sensors. A Macro-Fiber Composite (MFC) actuator invented at NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC) was selected to tune the laser. MFC actuators use a piezoelectric sheet cut into uniaxially aligned rectangular piezo-fibers surrounded by a polymer matrix and incorporate interdigitated electrodes to deliver electric fields along the length of the piezo-fibers. This configuration enables MFC actuators to produce displacements larger than the original uncut piezoelectric sheet. The FBG filter was sandwiched between two MFC actuators, and when strained, produced approximately 3.62 nm of wavelength shift in the FRL when biasing the MFC actuators from -500 V to 2000 V. This tunability range is comparable to that of other tunable lasers and is adequate for interrogating FBG sensors using OFDR technology. Three different FRL configurations were studied. Configuration A examined the importance of erbium-doped fiber length and output coupling. Configuration B demonstrated the importance of the FBG filter. Configuration C added an output coupler to increase the output power and to isolate the filter. Only configuration C was tuned because it offered the best optical power output of the three configurations. Use of Plastic Optical Fiber (POF) FBG's holds promise for enhanced tunability in future research.

  4. Tunable Fiber Bragg Grating Ring Lasers using Macro Fiber Composite Actuators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Geddis, Demetris L.; Allison, Sidney G.; Shams, Qamar A.

    2006-01-01

    The research reported herein includes the fabrication of a tunable optical fiber Bragg grating (FBG) fiber ring laser (FRL)1 from commercially available components as a high-speed alternative tunable laser source for NASA Langley s optical frequency domain reflectometer (OFDR) interrogator, which reads low reflectivity FBG sensors. A Macro-Fiber Composite (MFC) actuator invented at NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC) was selected to tune the laser. MFC actuators use a piezoelectric sheet cut into uniaxially aligned rectangular piezo-fibers surrounded by a polymer matrix and incorporate interdigitated electrodes to deliver electric fields along the length of the piezo-fibers. This configuration enables MFC actuators to produce displacements larger than the original uncut piezoelectric sheet. The FBG filter was sandwiched between two MFC actuators, and when strained, produced approximately 3.62 nm of wavelength shift in the FRL when biasing the MFC actuators from 500 V to 2000 V. This tunability range is comparable to that of other tunable lasers and is adequate for interrogating FBG sensors using OFDR technology. Three different FRL configurations were studied. Configuration A examined the importance of erbium-doped fiber length and output coupling. Configuration B demonstrated the importance of the FBG filter. Configuration C added an output coupler to increase the output power and to isolate the filter. Only configuration C was tuned because it offered the best optical power output of the three configurations. Use of Plastic Optical Fiber (POF) FBG s holds promise for enhanced tunability in future research.

  5. "Brick-and-Mortar" Nanostructured Interphase for Glass-Fiber-Reinforced Polymer Composites.

    PubMed

    De Luca, Francois; Sernicola, Giorgio; Shaffer, Milo S P; Bismarck, Alexander

    2018-02-28

    The fiber-matrix interface plays a critical role in determining composite mechanical properties. While a strong interface tends to provide high strength, a weak interface enables extensive debonding, leading to a high degree of energy absorption. Balancing these conflicting requirements by engineering composite interfaces to improve strength and toughness simultaneously still remains a great challenge. Here, a nanostructured fiber coating was realized to manifest the critical characteristics of natural nacre, at a reduced length scale, consistent with the surface curvature of fibers. The new interphase contains a high proportion (∼90 wt %) of well-aligned inorganic platelets embedded in a polymer; the window of suitable platelet dimensions is very narrow, with an optimized platelet width and thickness of about 130 and 13 nm, respectively. An anisotropic, nanostructured coating was uniformly and conformally deposited onto a large number of 9 μm diameter glass fibers, simultaneously, using self-limiting layer-by-layer assembly (LbL); this parallel approach demonstrates a promising strategy to exploit LbL methods at scale. The resulting nanocomposite interphase, primarily loaded in shear, provides new mechanisms for stress dissipation and plastic deformation. The energy released by fiber breakage in tension appear to spread and dissipate within the nanostructured interphase, accompanied by stable fiber slippage, while the interfacial strength was improved up to 30%.

  6. Numerical prediction of fiber orientation in injection-molded short-fiber/thermoplastic composite parts with experimental validation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thi, Thanh Binh Nguyen; Morioka, Mizuki; Yokoyama, Atsushi; Hamanaka, Senji; Yamashita, Katsuhisa; Nonomura, Chisato

    2015-05-01

    Numerical prediction of the fiber orientation in the short-glass fiber (GF) reinforced polyamide 6 (PA6) composites with the fiber weight concentration of 30%, 50%, and 70% manufactured by the injection molding process is presented. And the fiber orientation was also directly observed and measured through X-ray computed tomography. During the injection molding process of the short-fiber/thermoplastic composite, the fiber orientation is produced by the flow states and the fiber-fiber interaction. Folgar and Tucker equation is the well known for modeling the fiber orientation in a concentrated suspension. They included into Jeffrey's equation a diffusive type of term by introducing a phenomenological coefficient to account for the fiber-fiber interaction. Our developed model for the fiber-fiber interaction was proposed by modifying the rotary diffusion term of the Folgar-Tucker equation. This model was presented in a conference paper of the 29th International Conference of the Polymer Processing Society published by AIP conference proceeding. For modeling fiber interaction, the fiber dynamic simulation was introduced in order to obtain a global fiber interaction coefficient, which is sum function of the fiber concentration, aspect ratio, and angular velocity. The fiber orientation is predicted by using the proposed fiber interaction model incorporated into a computer aided engineering simulation package C-Mold. An experimental program has been carried out in which the fiber orientation distribution has been measured in 100 x 100 x 2 mm injection-molded plate and 100 x 80 x 2 mm injection-molded weld by analyzed with a high resolution 3D X-ray computed tomography system XVA-160α, and calculated by X-ray computed tomography imaging. The numerical prediction shows a good agreement with experimental validation. And the complex fiber orientation in the injection-molded weld was investigated.

  7. Numerical prediction of fiber orientation in injection-molded short-fiber/thermoplastic composite parts with experimental validation

    SciTech Connect

    Thi, Thanh Binh Nguyen; Morioka, Mizuki; Yokoyama, Atsushi

    Numerical prediction of the fiber orientation in the short-glass fiber (GF) reinforced polyamide 6 (PA6) composites with the fiber weight concentration of 30%, 50%, and 70% manufactured by the injection molding process is presented. And the fiber orientation was also directly observed and measured through X-ray computed tomography. During the injection molding process of the short-fiber/thermoplastic composite, the fiber orientation is produced by the flow states and the fiber-fiber interaction. Folgar and Tucker equation is the well known for modeling the fiber orientation in a concentrated suspension. They included into Jeffrey’s equation a diffusive type of term by introducing amore » phenomenological coefficient to account for the fiber-fiber interaction. Our developed model for the fiber-fiber interaction was proposed by modifying the rotary diffusion term of the Folgar-Tucker equation. This model was presented in a conference paper of the 29{sup th} International Conference of the Polymer Processing Society published by AIP conference proceeding. For modeling fiber interaction, the fiber dynamic simulation was introduced in order to obtain a global fiber interaction coefficient, which is sum function of the fiber concentration, aspect ratio, and angular velocity. The fiber orientation is predicted by using the proposed fiber interaction model incorporated into a computer aided engineering simulation package C-Mold. An experimental program has been carried out in which the fiber orientation distribution has been measured in 100 x 100 x 2 mm injection-molded plate and 100 x 80 x 2 mm injection-molded weld by analyzed with a high resolution 3D X-ray computed tomography system XVA-160α, and calculated by X-ray computed tomography imaging. The numerical prediction shows a good agreement with experimental validation. And the complex fiber orientation in the injection-molded weld was investigated.« less

  8. Sustainable composites from natural resources

    Treesearch

    R.M. Rowell

    2002-01-01

    In order to insure a continuous supply of natural agricultural resources, management of the agricultural producing land should be under a proactive system of land management whose goal is both sustainable agriculture and the promotion of healthy ecosystems. Ecosystem management is not a euphemism for preservation, which might imply benign neglect. Sustainable...

  9. Basalt fiber reinforced polymer composites: Processing and properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Qiang

    A high efficiency rig was designed and built for in-plane permeability measurement of fabric materials. A new data derivation procedure to acquire the flow fluid pattern in the experiment was developed. The measurement results of the in-plane permeability for basalt twill 31 fabric material showed that a high correlation exists between the two principal permeability values for this fabric at 35% fiber volume fraction. This may be the most important scientific contribution made in this thesis. The results from radial measurements corresponded quite well with those from Unidirectional (UD) measurements, which is a well-established technique. No significant differences in mechanical properties were found between basalt fabric reinforced polymer composites and glass composites reinforced by a fabric of similar weave pattern. Aging results indicate that the interfacial region in basalt composites may be more vulnerable to environmental damage than that in glass composites. However, the basalt/epoxy interface may have been more durable than the glass/epoxy interface in tension-tension fatigue because the basalt composites have significantly longer fatigue life. In this thesis, chapter I reviews the literature on fiber reinforced polymer composites, with concentration on permeability measurement, mechanical properties and durability. Chapter II discusses the design of the new rig for in-plane permeability measurement, the new derivation procedure for monitoring of the fluid flow pattern, and the permeability measurement results. Chapter III compares the mechanical properties and durability between basalt fiber and glass fiber reinforced polymer composites. Lastly, chapter IV gives some suggestions and recommendations for future work.

  10. Mechanical characterization of glass fiber (woven roving/chopped strand mat E-glass fiber) reinforced polyester composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhaskar, V. Vijaya; Srinivas, Kolla

    2017-07-01

    Polymer reinforced composites have been replacing most of the engineering material and their applications become more and more day by day. Polymer composites have been analyzing from past thirty five years for their betterment for adapting more applications. This paper aims at the mechanical properties of polyester reinforced with glass fiber composites. The glass fiber is reinforced with polyester in two forms viz Woven Rovings (WRG) and Chopped Strand Mat (CSMG) E-glass fibers. The composites are fabricated by hand lay-up technique and the composites are cut as per ASTM Standard sizes for corresponding tests like flexural, compression and impact tests, so that flexural strength, compression strength, impact strength and inter laminar shear stress(ILSS) of polymer matrix composites are analyzed. From the tests and further calculations, the polyester composites reinforced with Chopped Strand Mat glass fiber have shown better performance against flexural load, compression load and impact load than that of Woven Roving glass fiber.

  11. Method of making a continuous ceramic fiber composite hot gas filter

    DOEpatents

    Hill, Charles A.; Wagner, Richard A.; Komoroski, Ronald G.; Gunter, Greg A.; Barringer, Eric A.; Goettler, Richard W.

    1999-01-01

    A ceramic fiber composite structure particularly suitable for use as a hot gas cleanup ceramic fiber composite filter and method of making same from ceramic composite material has a structure which provides for increased strength and toughness in high temperature environments. The ceramic fiber composite structure or filter is made by a process in which a continuous ceramic fiber is intimately surrounded by discontinuous chopped ceramic fibers during manufacture to produce a ceramic fiber composite preform which is then bonded using various ceramic binders. The ceramic fiber composite preform is then fired to create a bond phase at the fiber contact points. Parameters such as fiber tension, spacing, and the relative proportions of the continuous ceramic fiber and chopped ceramic fibers can be varied as the continuous ceramic fiber and chopped ceramic fiber are simultaneously formed on the porous vacuum mandrel to obtain a desired distribution of the continuous ceramic fiber and the chopped ceramic fiber in the ceramic fiber composite structure or filter.

  12. Effects of Fiber Finish on Mechanical, Low and High Speed Impact of Glass Fiber Reinforced Composites

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-05-12

    For 70 Min Cool Down And De-mold 10Unclassified For Producing Polyester Or Vinyl Ester Composite Specimens Resin Resin Inlet Vacuum Bag Trap Pump Steel...Reinforcement Finish Matrix Fiber Content (%) Hexcel 1581-F12 Heat Burnt (No Finish) PP 71.0 Polyester 70.0 Vinyl ester 66.2 Hexcel 1581-GR Greige ( Starch

  13. Anomaly detection of microstructural defects in continuous fiber reinforced composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bricker, Stephen; Simmons, J. P.; Przybyla, Craig; Hardie, Russell

    2015-03-01

    Ceramic matrix composites (CMC) with continuous fiber reinforcements have the potential to enable the next generation of high speed hypersonic vehicles and/or significant improvements in gas turbine engine performance due to their exhibited toughness when subjected to high mechanical loads at extreme temperatures (2200F+). Reinforced fiber composites (RFC) provide increased fracture toughness, crack growth resistance, and strength, though little is known about how stochastic variation and imperfections in the material effect material properties. In this work, tools are developed for quantifying anomalies within the microstructure at several scales. The detection and characterization of anomalous microstructure is a critical step in linking production techniques to properties, as well as in accurate material simulation and property prediction for the integrated computation materials engineering (ICME) of RFC based components. It is desired to find statistical outliers for any number of material characteristics such as fibers, fiber coatings, and pores. Here, fiber orientation, or `velocity', and `velocity' gradient are developed and examined for anomalous behavior. Categorizing anomalous behavior in the CMC is approached by multivariate Gaussian mixture modeling. A Gaussian mixture is employed to estimate the probability density function (PDF) of the features in question, and anomalies are classified by their likelihood of belonging to the statistical normal behavior for that feature.

  14. Thermal properties of poly(3-hydroxybutyrate)/vegetable fiber composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vitorino, Maria B. C.; Reul, Lízzia T. A.; Carvalho, Laura H.; Canedo, Eduardo L.

    2015-05-01

    The present work studies the thermal properties of composites of poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) (PHB) - a fully biodegradable semi-crystalline thermo-plastic obtained from renewable resources through low-impact biotechno-logical process, biocompatible and non-toxic - and vegetable fiber from the fruit (coconut) of babassu palm tree. PHB is a highly crystalline resin and this characteristic leads to suboptimal properties in some cases. Consequently, thermal properties, in particular those associated with the crystallization of the matrix, are important to judge the suitability of the compounds for specific applications. PHB/babassu composites with 0-50% load were prepared in an internal mixer. Two different types of babassu fibers with two different particle size ranges were compounded with PHB and test specimens molded by compression. Melting and crystallization behavior were studied by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) at heating/cooling rates between 2 and 30°C/min. Several parameters, including melting point, crystallization temperature, crystallinity, and rate of crystallization, were estimated as functions of load and heating/cooling rates. Results indicate that fibers do not affect the melting process, but facilitate crystallization from the melt. Crystallization temperatures are 30 to 40°C higher for the compounds compared with the neat resin. However, the amount of fiber added has little effect on crystallinity and the degree of crystallinity is hardly affected by the load. Fiber type and initial particle size do not have a significant effect on thermal properties.

  15. An analytical solution for the elastoplastic response of a continuous fiber composite under uniaxial loading

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Jong-Won; Allen, David H.

    1990-01-01

    A continuous fiber composite is modelled by a two-element composite cylinder in order to predict the elastoplastic response of the composite under a monotonically increasing tensile loading parallel to fibers. The fibers and matrix are assumed to be elastic-perfectly plastic materials obeying Hill's and Tresca's yield criteria, respectively. Here, the composite behavior when the fibers yield prior to the matrix is investigated.

  16. Properties of PMR Polyimide composites made with improved high strength graphite fibers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vannucci, R. D.

    1980-01-01

    High strength, intermediate modulus graphite fibers were obtained from various commercial suppliers, and were used to fabricate PMR-15 and PMR-2 polyimide composites. The effects of the improved high strength graphite fibers on composite properties after exposure in air at 600 F were investigated. Two of the improved fibers were found to have an adverse effect on the long term performance of PMR composites. The influence of various factors such as fiber physical properties, surface morphology and chemical composition were also examined.

  17. Multifunctional Hybrid Carbon Nanotube/Carbon Fiber Polymer Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kang, Jin Ho; Cano, Roberto J.; Ratcliffe, James G.; Luong, Hoa; Grimsley, Brian W.; Siochi, Emilie J.

    2016-01-01

    For aircraft primary structures, carbon fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP) composites possess many advantages over conventional aluminum alloys due to their light weight, higher strengthand stiffness-to-weight ratio, and low life-cycle maintenance costs. However, the relatively low electrical and thermal conductivities of CFRP composites fail to provide structural safety in certain operational conditions such as lightning strikes. Despite several attempts to solve these issues with the addition of carbon nanotubes (CNT) into polymer matrices, and/or by interleaving CNT sheets between conventional carbon fiber (CF) composite layers, there are still interfacial problems that exist between CNTs (or CF) and the resin. In this study, hybrid CNT/CF polymer composites were fabricated by interleaving layers of CNT sheets with Hexcel® IM7/8852 prepreg. Resin concentrations from 1 wt% to 50 wt% were used to infuse the CNT sheets prior to composite fabrication. The interlaminar properties of the resulting hybrid composites were characterized by mode I and II fracture toughness testing (double cantilever beam and end-notched flexure test). Fractographical analysis was performed to study the effect of resin concentration. In addition, multi-directional physical properties like thermal conductivity of the orthotropic hybrid polymer composite were evaluated. Interleaving CNT sheets significantly improved the in-plane (axial and perpendicular direction of CF alignment) thermal conductivity of the hybrid composite laminates by 50 - 400%.

  18. Radiation Transport Properties of Polyethylene-Fiber Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaul, Raj K.; Barghouty, A. F.; Dahche, H. M.

    2003-01-01

    Composite materials that can both serve as effective shielding materials against cosmic-ray and energetic solar particles in deep space as well as structural materials for habitat and spacecraft remain a critical and mission enabling piece in mission planning and exploration. Polyethylene is known to have excellent shielding properties due to its low density coupled with high hydrogen content. Polyethylene fiber reinforced composites promise to combine this shielding effectiveness with the required mechanical properties of structural materials. Samples of Polyethylene-fiber reinforced epoxy matrix composite 1-5 cm thick were prepared at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center and tested against 500 MeV/nucleon Fe beam at the HIMAC facility of NIRS in Chiba, Japan. This paper presents measured and calculated results for the radiation transport properties of these samples.

  19. Interlaminar fracture of random short-fiber SMC composite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, S. S.; Suemasu, H.; Zahlan, N. M.

    1984-01-01

    In the experimental phase of the present study of the interlaminar fracture behavior of a randomly oriented short fiber sheet molding compound (SMC) composite, the double cantilever beam fracture test is used to evaluate the mode I interlaminar fracture toughness of different composite thicknesses. In the analytical phase of this work, a geometrically nonlinear analysis is introduced in order to account for large deflections and nonlinear load deflection curves in the evaluation of interlaminar fracture toughness. For the SMC-R50 material studied, interlaminar toughness is an order of magnitude higher than that of unreinforced neat resin, due to unusual damage mechanisms ahead of the crack tip, together with significant fiber bridging across crack surfaces. Composite thickness effects on interlaminar fracture are noted to be appreciable, and a detailed discussion is given on the influence of SMC microstructure.

  20. Vegetable Fibers for Composite Materials In Constructive Sector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giglio, Francesca; Savoja, Giulia

    2017-08-01

    The aim of the research is to study and to test bio-mixture for laminas to use in construction field components. Composite materials are becoming more common in different sectors, but their embodied energy is an environmental problem. For this, in recent years, the researchers investigate new mixtures for composites, in particular with vegetable fibers and bio-based epoxy resin. The research carried out different laboratory tests for material and mechanical characterization, starting from the analysis of vegetable fibers, and arriving to test different kind of laminas with sundry fabrics and bio-based epoxy resin. In the most general organization of the theme, the research has the overall objective to contribute to reduce composites environmental impacts, with the promotion of local production chains about innovative materials from renewable and sustainable sources.

  1. Metal-bonded, carbon fiber-reinforced composites

    DOEpatents

    Sastri, Suri A.; Pemsler, J. Paul; Cooke, Richard A.; Litchfield, John K.; Smith, Mark B.

    1996-01-01

    Metal bonded carbon fiber-reinforced composites are disclosed in which the metal and the composite are strongly bound by (1) providing a matrix-depleted zone in the composite of sufficient depth to provide a binding site for the metal to be bonded and then (2) infiltrating the metal into the matrix-free zone to fill a substantial portion of the zone and also provide a surface layer of metal, thereby forming a strong bond between the composite and the metal. The invention also includes the metal-bound composite itself, as well as the provision of a coating over the metal for high-temperature performance or for joining to other such composites or to other substrates.

  2. Metal-bonded, carbon fiber-reinforced composites

    DOEpatents

    Sastri, S.A.; Pemsler, J.P.; Cooke, R.A.; Litchfield, J.K.; Smith, M.B.

    1996-03-05

    Metal bonded carbon fiber-reinforced composites are disclosed in which the metal and the composite are strongly bound by (1) providing a matrix-depleted zone in the composite of sufficient depth to provide a binding site for the metal to be bonded and then (2) infiltrating the metal into the matrix-free zone to fill a substantial portion of the zone and also provide a surface layer of metal, thereby forming a strong bond between the composite and the metal. The invention also includes the metal-bound composite itself, as well as the provision of a coating over the metal for high-temperature performance or for joining to other such composites or to other substrates. 2 figs.

  3. Microstructure of the smart composite structures with embedded fiber optic sensing nerves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Jingyuan; Luo, Fei; Li, Changchun; Ma, Naibin

    1997-11-01

    The composite structures with embedded optical fiber sensors construct a smart composite structure system, which may have the characteristics of the in-service self-measurement, self- recognition and self-judgement action. In the present work, we studied the microstructures of carbon/epoxy composite laminates with embedded sensing optical fibers, and the integration of optical fiber with composites was also discussed. The preliminary experiment results show that because of the difference between the sensing optical fibers and the reinforcing fibers in their size, the microstructure of the composites with embedded optical fibers will produce partial local changes in the area of embedded optical fiber, these changes may affect the mechanical properties of composite structures. When the optical fibers are embedded parallel to the reinforcing fibers, due to the composite prepregs are formed under a press action during its curing process, the reinforcing fibers can be arranged equably around the optical fibers. But when the optical fibers are embedded perpendicularly to the reinforcement fibers, the resin rich pocket will appear in the composite laminates surrounding the embedded optical fiber. The gas holes will be easily produced in these zones which may produce a premature failure of the composite structure. The photoelastic experiments are also given in the paper.

  4. Auger analysis of a fiber/matrix interface in a ceramic matrix composite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Honecy, Frank S.; Pepper, Stephen V.

    1988-01-01

    Auger electron spectroscopy (AES) depth profiling was used to characterize the fiber/matrix interface of an SiC fiber, reaction bonded Si3N4 matrix composite. Depth profiles of the as received double coated fiber revealed concentration oscillations which disappeared after annealing the fiber in the environment used to fabricate the composite. After the composite was fractured, the Auger depth profiles showed that failure occurred in neither the Beta-SiC fiber body nor in the Si3N4 matrix but, concurrently, at the fiber coating/matrix interface and within the fiber coating itself.

  5. Method of Fabricating Chopped-Fiber Composite Piston

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rivers, H. Kevin (Inventor); Ransone, Philip O. (Inventor); Northam, G. Burton (Inventor)

    1999-01-01

    A three-dimensional piston molding is fabricated from a mixture of chopped, carbon tow filaments of variable length, which are prepregged with carbonaceous organic resins and/or pitches and molded by conventional molding processes into a near net shape, to form a carbon-fiber reinforced organic-matrix composite part. Continuous reinforcement in the form of carbon-carbon composite tapes or pieces of fabric can be also laid in the mold before or during the charging of the mold with the chopped-fiber mixture, to enhance the strength in the crown and wrist-pin areas. The molded chopped-fiber reinforced organic-matrix composite parts are then pyrolized in an inert atmosphere, to convert the organic matrix materials to carbon. These pyrolized parts are then densified by reimpregnation with resins or pitches, which are subsequently carbonized. Densification is also accomplished by direct infiltration with carbon by vapor deposition processes. Once the desired density has been achieved, the piston molds are machined to final piston dimensions, and piston ring grooves are added. To prevent oxidation and/or to seal the piston surface or near surface, the chopped-fiber piston is coated with ceramic and/or metallic sealants: and/or coated with a catalyst.

  6. Development of lightweight THUNDER with fiber composite layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoon, Kwang J.; Shin, Sukjoon; Kim, Jusik; Park, Hoon C.; Kwak, Moon K.

    2000-06-01

    This paper is concerned with design, manufacturing and performance test of lightweight THUNDER using a top fiber composite layer with near-zero CTE, a PZT ceramic wafer and a bottom glass/epoxy layer with high CTE. The main point of this design is to replace the heavy metal layers of THUNDER by the lightweight fiber reinforced plastic layers without losing capabilities to generate high force and displacement. It is possible to save weight up to about 30 percent if we replace the metallic backing materials by the light fiber composite layer. We can also have design flexibility by selecting the fiber direction and the size of prepreg layers. In addition to the lightweight advantage and design flexibility, the proposed device can be manufactured without adhesive layers when we use epoxy resin prepreg system. Glass/epoxy prepregs, a ceramic wafer with electrode surfaces, and a graphite/epoxy prepreg were simply stacked and cured at an elevated temperature by following autoclave bagging process. It was found that the manufactured composite laminate device had a sufficient curvature after detaching form a flat mold. From experimental actuation tests, it was observed that the developed actuator could generate larger actuation displacement than THUNDER.

  7. Mechanical Reinforcement of Epoxy Composites with Carbon Fibers and HDPE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, R.; Chang, Q.; Huang, X.; Li, J.

    2018-01-01

    Silanized carbon fibers (CFs) and a high-density polyethylene with amino terminal groups (HDPE) were introduced into epoxy resins to fabricate high-performance composites. A. mechanical characterization of the composites was performed to investigate the effect of CFs in cured epoxy/HDPE systems. The composites revealed a noticeable improvement in the tensile strength, elongation at break, flexural strength, and impact strength in comparison with those of neat epoxy and cured epoxy/HDPE systems. SEM micrographs showed that the toughening effect could be explained by yield deformations, phase separation, and microcracking.

  8. Boron/aluminum graphite/resin advanced fiber composite hybrids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chamis, C. C.; Lark, R. F.; Sullivan, T. L.

    1975-01-01

    Fabrication feasibility and potential of an adhesively bonded metal and resin matrix fiber-composite hybrid are determined as an advanced material for aerospace and other structural applications. The results show that using this hybrid concept makes possible a composite design which, when compared with nonhybrid composites, has greater transverse strength, transverse stiffness, and impact resistance with only a small penalty on density and longitudinal properties. The results also show that laminate theory is suitable for predicting the structural response of such hybrids. The sequence of fracture modes indicates that these types of hybrids can be readily designed to meet fail-safe requirements.

  9. Graphite fiber textile preform/copper matrix composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Filatovs, G. J.

    1993-01-01

    This project has the objective of exploring the use of graphite fiber textile preform/copper matrix composites in spacecraft heat transmitting and radiating components. The preforms are to be fabricated by braiding of tows and when infiltrated with copper will result in a 3-D reinforced, near net shape composite with improved specific properties such as lower density and higher stiffness. It is anticipated that the use of textile technology will result in a more robust preform and consequently better final composite; it is hard to anticipate what performance tradeoffs will result, and these will be explored through testing and characterization.

  10. Surface modification of cellulose fibers: towards wood composites by biomimetics.

    PubMed

    Gradwell, Sheila E; Renneckar, Scott; Esker, Alan R; Heinze, Thomas; Gatenholm, Paul; Vaca-Garcia, Carlos; Glasser, Wolfgang

    2004-01-01

    A biomimetic approach was taken for studying the adsorption of a model copolymer (pullulan abietate, DS 0.027), representing the lignin-carbohydrate complex, to a model surface for cellulose fibers (Langmuir-Blodgett thin films of regenerated cellulose). Adsorption results were assayed using surface plasmon resonance spectroscopy (SPR) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). Rapid, spontaneous, and desorption-resistant surface modification resulted. This effort is viewed as a critical first step towards the permanent surface modification of cellulose fibers with a layer of molecules amenable to either enzymatic crosslinking for improved wood composites or thermoplastic consolidation.

  11. An Investigation of Interfacial Fatigue in Fiber Reinforced Composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yanhua, Chen; Zhifei, Shi

    2005-09-01

    Based on the shear-lag model and the modified degradation formula for coefficient of friction, the interfacial fatigue and debonding for fiber reinforced composites under cyclic loading are studied. The loading condition is chosen as the kind that is the most frequently used in fiber-pull-out experiments. The stress components in the debonded and bonded regions are obtained according to the maximum and minimum applied loading. By the aid of theory of fracture mechanics and Paris formula, the governing equation is solved numerically and the interfacial debonding is simulated. The relationships between the parameters (such as the debond rate, debond length, debond force) and the number of cycles are obtained.

  12. Elastic properties of rigid fiber-reinforced composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, J.; Thorpe, M. F.; Davis, L. C.

    1995-05-01

    We study the elastic properties of rigid fiber-reinforced composites with perfect bonding between fibers and matrix, and also with sliding boundary conditions. In the dilute region, there exists an exact analytical solution. Around the rigidity threshold we find the elastic moduli and Poisson's ratio by decomposing the deformation into a compression mode and a rotation mode. For perfect bonding, both modes are important, whereas only the compression mode is operative for sliding boundary conditions. We employ the digital-image-based method and a finite element analysis to perform computer simulations which confirm our analytical predictions.

  13. Nonlinear laminate analysis for metal matrix fiber composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chamis, C. C.; Sinclair, J. H.

    1981-01-01

    A nonlinear laminate analysis is described for predicting the mechanical behavior (stress-strain relationships) of angleplied laminates in which the matrix is strained nonlinearly by both the residual stress and the mechanical load and in which additional nonlinearities are induced due to progressive fiber fractures and ply relative rotations. The nonlinear laminate analysis (NLA) is based on linear composite mechanics and a piece wise linear laminate analysis to handle the nonlinear responses. Results obtained by using this nonlinear analysis on boron fiber/aluminum matrix angleplied laminates agree well with experimental data. The results shown illustrate the in situ ply stress-strain behavior and synergistic strength enhancement.

  14. Fiber-reinforced composite fixed dental prostheses: two clinical reports.

    PubMed

    Zarow, Maciej; Paisley, Carl Stuart; Krupinski, Jerzy; Brunton, Paul Anthony

    2010-06-01

    Various options are available in clinical practice for the replacement of a single missing tooth, ranging from conventional fixed and removable dental prostheses to a single implant-supported crown. There are situations in which a semipermanent fixed dental prosthesis may be desirable, particularly for patients who have completed orthodontic treatment but are too young to embark on implant therapy. Following advances in fiber-reinforcement technology, fiber-reinforced composite resin (FRC) now represents a lower-cost alternative to traditional metal-ceramic for the construction of resin-bonded prostheses. Two case reports illustrate the use of FRC prostheses as fixed semipermanent_restorations.

  15. Fabrication Routes for Continuous Fiber-Reinforced Ceramic Composites (CFCC)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DiCarlo, James A.; Bansal, Narottam P.

    1998-01-01

    The primary approaches used for fabrication of continuous fiber-reinforced ceramic composite (CFCC) components have been reviewed. The CFCC fabrication issues related to fiber, interface, and matrix have been analyzed. The capabilities, advantages and limitations of the five matrix-infiltration routes have been compared and discussed. Today, the best fabrication route for the CFCC end-user is not clear and compromises need to be made depending on the details of the CFCC application. However, with time, this problem should be reduced as research continues to develop advanced CFCC constituents and fabrication routes.

  16. Fabrication Routes for Continuous Fiber-Reinforced Ceramic Composites (CFCC)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DiCarlo, James A.; Bansal, Narottam P.

    1998-01-01

    The primary approaches used for fabrication of continuous fiber-reinforced ceramic composite (CFCC) components have been reviewed. The CFCC fabrication issues related to fiber, interface, and matrix have been analyzed. The capabilities. advantages and limitations of the five matrix-infiltration routes have been compared and discussed. Today. the best fabrication route for the CFCC end-user is not clear and compromises need to be made depending on the details of the CFCC application. However, with time, this problem should be reduced as research continues to develop advanced CFCC constituents and fabrication routes.

  17. Mechanical and thermal properties of short-coirfiber-reinforced natural rubber/polyethylene composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Zh. H.; Kong, Zh. N.

    2014-07-01

    Natural rubber (NR) and polyethylene (PE) composites were compounded with chemically treated coir fibers by using a heated two-roll mill. Two chemical treatments of the fibers — by silane and sodium hydroxide — were carried out to improve the interfacial adhesion between them and the polyethylene matrix. The mechanical properties of the composites obtained were evaluated and compared with those made from a neat polymer and untreated fibers. The mechanical properties of the composites, such as the tensile strength, Young's modulus, and the elongation at break, were examined, and their shrinkage and flame retardant characteristics were measured. From these experiments, the effect of plasma treatment on the mechanical-physical behavior of coconut-fiberreinforced NR/PE composites was identified. In addition, their thermal characteristics were evaluated, and the results showed a slight decrease in them with increasing content of coir fibers.

  18. A New Fiber Preform with Nanocarbon Binder for Manufacturing Carbon Fiber Reinforced Composite by Liquid Molding Process.

    PubMed

    Seong, Dong Gi; Ha, Jong Rok; Lee, Jea Uk; Lee, Wonoh; Kim, Byung Sun

    2015-11-01

    Carbon fiber reinforced composite has been a good candidate of lightweight structural component in the automotive industry. As fast production speed is essential to apply the composite materials for the mass production area such as automotive components, the high speed liquid composite molding processes have been developed. Fast resin injection through the fiber preform by high pressure is required to improve the production speed, but it often results in undesirable deformations of the fiber preform which causes defectives in size and properties of the final composite products. In order to prevent the undesirable deformation and improve the stability of preform shape, polymer type binder materials are used. More stable fiber preform can be obtained by increasing the amount of binder material, but it disturbs the resin impregnation through the fiber preform. In this study, carbon nanomaterials such as graphene oxide were embedded on the surface of carbon fiber by electrophoretic deposition method in order to improve the shape stability of fiber preform and interfacial bonding between polymer and the reinforcing fiber. Effects of the modified reinforcing fiber were investigated in two respects. One is to increase the binding energy between fiber tows, and the other is to increase the interfacial bonding between polymer matrix and fiber surface. The effects were analyzed by measuring the binding force of fiber preform and interlaminar shear strength of the composite. This study also investigated the high speed liquid molding process of the composite materials composed of polymer matrix and the carbon fiber preforms embedded by carbon nanomaterials. Process parameter such as permeability of fiber preform was measured to investigate the effect of nanoscale surface modification on the macroscale processing condition for composite manufacturing.

  19. Fiber composite fan blade impact improvement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Graff, J.; Stoltze, L.; Varholak, E. M.

    1976-01-01

    The improved foreign object damage resistance of a metal matrix advanced composite fan blade was demonstrated. The fabrication, whirl impact test and subsequent evaluation of nine advanced composite fan blades of the "QCSEE" type design were performed. The blades were designed to operate at a tip speed of 282 m/sec. The blade design was the spar/shell type, consisting of a titanium spar and boron/aluminum composite airfoils. The blade retention was designed to rock on impact with large birds, thereby reducing the blade bending stresses. The program demonstrated the ability of the blades to sustain impacts with up to 681 g slices of birds at 0.38 rad with little damage (only 1.4 percent max weight loss) and 788 g slices of birds at 0.56 rad with only 3.2 percent max weight loss. Unbonding did not exceed 1.1 percent of the post-test blade area during any of the tests. All blades in the post-test condition were judged capable of operation in accordance with the FAA guidelines for medium and large bird impacts.

  20. Gingival microleakage of class V composite restorations with fiber inserts.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Walaa; El-Badrawy, Wafa; Kulkarni, Gajanan; Prakki, Anuradha; El-Mowafy, Omar

    2013-07-01

    This study investigated the effect of different fiber inserts (glass and polyethylene), bonding agents, and resin composites on the gingival margin microleakage of class V composite restorations. Sixty premolars were sterilized and mounted in acrylic resin bases. Class V cavities were prepared buccally and lingually, 1 mm below the cementoenamel junction, comprising 12 groups (n = 10). In the experimental groups fiber inserts were cut and placed at the gingival seat, while the control groups had no inserts. Combinations of two composite materials, Filtek-Z250 and Filtek-LS (3M-ESPE), and four bonding agents, Clearfil SE bond (Kuraray) (C), Scotch Bond Multipurpose (3M-ESPE) (SB), Prime and Bond NT (Dentsply) (PB), and Filtek-LS (3M-ESPE) (LS) were used. Restorations were incrementally inserted and polymerized for 40s. Specimens were then stored in distilled water for 7 days and thermocycled for 500 cycles. Teeth surfaces were sealed with nail polish except for 1 mm around restoration margins and immersed in 2% red procion dye. Teeth were then sectioned buccolingually and dye penetration was assessed with five-point scale. Data were statistically-analyzed by Kruskal-Wallis, ANOVA and Tukey's tests (α = 5%). Mean microleakage scores varied from 0.40 (Groups C, C with polyethylene, LS, LS with polyethylene) to 1.50 (SB). Different bonding agents led to differences in microleakage scores where C and LS showed significantly lower microleakage than PB. SB had highest mean microleakage score, however, incorporation of fibers resulted in significant reduction in microleakage. Class V resin composite restorations bonded with a total-etch adhesive had a significant reduction in mean microleakage scores when glass or polyethylene fibers were placed at the gingival cavo-surface margin. In contrast, for two self-etch adhesive systems, the incorporation of fibers had no significant effect on mean microleakage scores.

  1. Physico-mechanical and wear properties of novel sustainable sour-weed fiber reinforced polyester composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patel, Vinay Kumar; Chauhan, Shivani; Katiyar, Jitendra Kumar

    2018-04-01

    In this study, a novel natural fiber i.e. Sour-weed botanically known as ‘Rumex acetosella’ has been first time introduced as natural reinforcements to polyester matrix. The natural fiber based polyester composites were fabricated by hand lay-up technique using different sizes and different weight percentages. In Sour-weed/Polyester composites, physical (density, water absorption and hardness), mechanical properties (tensile and impact properties) and wear properties (sand abrasion and sliding wear) were investigated for different sizes of sour weed of 0.6 mm, 5 mm, 10 mm, 15 mm and 20 mm at 3, 6 and 9 weight percent loading, respectively in polyester matrix. Furthermore, on average value of results, the multi-criteria optimization technique i.e. TOPSIS was employed to decide the ranking of the composites. From the optimized results, it was observed that Sour-weed composite reinforced with fiber’s size of 15 mm at 6 wt% loading demonstrated the best ranked composite exhibiting best overall properties as average tensile strength of 34.33 MPa, average impact strength of 10 Joule, average hardness of 12 Hv, average specific sand abrasion wear rate of 0.0607 mm3 N‑1m‑1, average specific sliding wear rate of 0.002 90 mm3 N‑1m‑1, average percentage of water absorption of 3.446% and average density of 1.013 among all fabricated composites.

  2. Preparation of a bonelike apatite-polymer fiber composite using a simple biomimetic process.

    PubMed

    Yokoyama, Yoshiro; Oyane, Ayako; Ito, Atsuo

    2008-08-01

    A bonelike apatite-polymer fiber composite may be useful as an implant material to replace bone, the enthesis of a tendon, and the joint part of a ligament. We treated an ethylene-vinyl alcohol copolymer (EVOH) plate and knitted EVOH fibers with an oxygen plasma to produce oxygen-containing functional groups on their surfaces. The plasma-treated samples were alternately dipped in alcoholic calcium and phosphate ion solutions three times to deposit apatite precursors onto their surfaces. The surface-modified samples formed a dense and uniform bonelike surface apatite layer after immersion for 24 h in a simulated body fluid with ion concentrations approximately equal to those of human blood plasma. The adhesive strength between the apatite layer and the sample's surface increased with increasing power density of the oxygen plasma. The apatite-EVOH fiber composite obtained by our process has similarities to natural bone in that apatite crystals are deposited on organic polymer fibers. The resulting composite would possess osteoconductivity due to the apatite phase. With proper polymer selection and optimized synthesis techniques, a composite could be made that would have bonelike mechanical properties. Hence, the present surface modification and coating process would be a promising route to obtain new implant materials with bonelike mechanical properties and osteoconductivity. (c) 2007 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Physical and thermal behavior of cement composites reinforced with recycled waste paper fibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hospodarova, Viola; Stevulova, Nadezda; Vaclavik, Vojtech; Dvorsky, Tomas

    2017-07-01

    In this study, three types of recycled waste paper fibers were used to manufacture cement composites reinforced with recycled cellulosic fibers. Waste cellulosic fibers in quantity of 0.2, 0.3, and 0.5 wt.% were added to cement mixtures. Physical properties such as density, water capillarity, water absorbability and thermal conductivity of fiber cement composites were studied after 28 days of hardening. However, durability of composites was tested after their water storage up to 90 days. Final results of tested properties of fiber cement composites were compared with cement reference sample without cellulosic fibers.

  4. Stretch-tuning optical fiber Bragg gratings using macro-fiber composite (MFC) piezoelectric actuators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allison, Sidney G.; Shams, Qamar A.; Geddis, Demetris L.

    2005-11-01

    The demand for high safety and reliability standards for aerospace vehicles has resulted in time-consuming periodic on-ground inspections. These inspections usually call for the disassembling and reassembling of the vehicle, which can lead to damage or degradation of structures or auxiliary systems. In order to increase aerospace vehicle safety and reliability while reducing the cost of inspection, an on-board real-time structural health monitoring sensing system is required. There are a number of systems that can be used to monitor the structures of aerospace vehicles. Fiber optic sensors have been at the forefront of the health monitoring sensing system research. Most of the research has been focused on the development of Bragg grating-based fiber optic sensors. Along with the development of fiber Bragg grating sensors has been the development of a grating measurement technique based on the principle of optical frequency domain reflectometry (OFDR), which enables the interrogation of hundreds of low reflectivity Bragg gratings. One drawback of these measurement systems is the 1 - 3 Hz measurement speed, which is limited by commercially available tunable lasers. The development of high-speed fiber stretching mechanisms to provide high rate tunable Erbium-doped optical fiber lasers can alleviate this drawback. One successful approach used a thin-layer composite unimorph ferroelectric driver and sensor (THUNDER) piezoelectric actuator, and obtained 5.3-nm wavelength shift. To eliminate the mechanical complexity of the THUNDER actuator, the research reported herein uses the NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC) Macro-Fiber Composite (MFC) actuator to tune Bragg grating based optical fibers.

  5. Mycelium reinforced agricultural fiber bio-composites: Summary of research

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Industry and the public sector have a growing interest in utilizing natural fibers, such as agricultural substrates, in the manufacture of components and products currently manufactured from fossil fuels. A patented process, developed by Ecovative Design, LLC (Ecovative), for growing fungal species ...

  6. Corrosion and tribological properties of basalt fiber reinforced composite materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ha, Jin Cheol; Kim, Yun-Hae; Lee, Myeong-Hoon; Moon, Kyung-Man; Park, Se-Ho

    2015-03-01

    This experiment has examined the corrosion and tribological properties of basalt fiber reinforced composite materials. There were slight changes of weight after the occurring of corrosion based on time and H2SO4 concentration, but in general, the weight increased. It is assumed that this happens due to the basalt fiber precipitate. Prior to the corrosion, friction-wear behavior showed irregular patterns compared to metallic materials, and when it was compared with the behavior after the corrosion, the coefficient of friction was 2 to 3 times greater. The coefficient of friction of all test specimen ranged from 0.1 to 0.2. Such a result has proven that the basalt fiber, similar to the resin rubber, shows regular patterns regardless of time and H2SO4 concentration because of the space made between resins and reinforced materials.

  7. Thermal Fatigue Limitations of Continuous Fiber Metal Matrix Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Halford, Gary R.; Arya, Vinod K.

    1997-01-01

    The potential structural benefits of unidirectional, continuous-fiber, metal matrix composites (MMC's) are legendary. When compared to their monolithic matrices, MMC's possess superior properties such as higher stiffness and tensile strength, and lower coefficient of thermal expansion in the direction of the reinforcing fibers. As an added bonus, the MMC density will be lower if the fibers are less dense than the matrix matErial they replace. The potential has been demonstrated unequivocally both analytically and experimentally, especially at ambient temperatures. Successes prompted heavily-funded National efforts within the United States (USAF and NASA) and elsewhere to extend the promise of MMC's into the temperature regime wherein creep, stress relaxation, oxidation, and thermal fatigue damage mechanisms lurk. This is the very regime for which alternative high-temperature materials are becoming mandatory, since further enhancement of state- of-the-art monolithic alloys is rapidly approaching a point of diminishing returns.

  8. Graphite Fiber Textile Preform/Copper Matrix Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Filatovs, G. J.; Lee, Bruce; Bass, Lowell

    1996-01-01

    Graphite fiber reinforced/copper matrix composites are candidate materials for critical heat transmitting and rejection components because of their high thermal conduction. The use of textile (braid) preforms allows near-net shapes which confers additional advantages, both for enhanced thermal conduction and increased robustness of the preform against infiltration and handling damage. Issues addressed in the past year center on the determination of the braid structure following infiltration, and the braidability vs. the conductivity of the fibers. Highly conductive fibers eventuate from increased graphitization, which increases the elastic modulus, but lowers the braidability; a balance between these factors must be achieved. Good quality braided preform bars have been fabricated and infiltrated, and their thermal expansion characterized; their analytic modeling is underway. The braided preform of an integral finned tube has been fabricated and is being prepared for infiltration.

  9. Compressive Failure of Fiber Composites under Multi-Axial Loading

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Basu, Shiladitya; Waas, Anthony M.; Ambur, Damodar R.

    2006-01-01

    This paper examines the compressive strength of a fiber reinforced lamina under multi-axial stress states. An equilibrium analysis is carried out in which a kinked band of rotated fibers, described by two angles, is sandwiched between two regions in which the fibers are nominally straight. Proportional multi-axial stress states are examined. The analysis includes the possibility of bifurcation from the current equilibrium state. The compressive strength of the lamina is contingent upon either attaining a load maximum in the equilibrium response or satisfaction of a bifurcation condition, whichever occurs first. The results show that for uniaxial loading a non-zero kink band angle beta produces the minimum limit load. For multi-axial loading, different proportional loading paths show regimes of bifurcation dominated and limit load dominated behavior. The present results are able to capture the beneficial effect of transverse compression in raising the composite compressive strength as observed in experiments.

  10. Lamination residual stresses in fiber composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Daniel, I. M.; Liber, T.

    1975-01-01

    An experimental investigation was conducted to determine the magnitude of lamination residual stresses in angle-ply composites and to evaluate their effects on composite structural integrity. The materials investigated were boron/epoxy, boron/polyimide, graphite/low modulus epoxy, graphite/high modulus epoxy, graphite/polyimide and s-glass/epoxy. These materials were fully characterized. Static properties of laminates were also determined. Experimental techniques using embedded strain gages were developed and used to measure residual strains during curing. The extent of relaxation of lamination residual stresses was investigated. It was concluded that the degree of such relaxation is low. The behavior of angle-ply laminates subjected to thermal cycling, tensile load cycling, and combined thermal cycling with tensile load was investigated. In most cases these cycling programs did not have any measurable influence on residual strength and stiffness of the laminates. In the tensile load cycling tests, the graphite/polyimide shows the highest endurance with 10 million cycle runouts at loads up to 90 percent of the static strength.

  11. Thermo-hydroforming of a fiber-reinforced thermoplastic composites considering fiber orientations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahn, Hyunchul; Kuuttila, Nicholas Eric; Pourboghrat, Farhang

    2018-05-01

    The Thermoplastic woven composites were formed using a composite thermal hydroforming process, utilizing heated and pressurized fluid, similar to sheet metal forming. This study focuses on the modification of 300-ton pressure formation and predicts its behavior. Spectra Shield SR-3136 is used in this study and material properties are measured by experiments. The behavior of fiber-reinforced thermoplastic polymer composites (FRTP) was modeled using the Preferred Fiber Orientation (PFO) model and validated by comparing numerical analysis with experimental results. The thermo-hydroforming process has shown good results in the ability to form deep drawn parts with reduced wrinkles. Numerical analysis was performed using the PFO model and implemented as commercial finite element software ABAQUS / Explicit. The user subroutine (VUMAT) was used for the material properties of the thermoplastic composite layer. This model is suitable for working with multiple layers of composite laminates. Model parameters have been updated to work with cohesive zone model to calculate the interfacial properties between each composite layer. The results of the numerical modeling showed a good correlation with the molding experiment on the forming shape. Numerical results were also compared with experimental results on punch force-displacement curves for deformed geometry and forming processes of the composite layer. Overall, the shape of the deformed FRTP, including the distribution of wrinkles, was accurately predicted as shown in this study.

  12. Fabrication of borassus fruit lignocellulose fiber/PP composites and comparison with jute, sisal and coir fibers.

    PubMed

    Sudhakara, P; Jagadeesh, Dani; Wang, YiQi; Prasad, C Venkata; Devi, A P Kamala; Balakrishnan, G; Kim, B S; Song, J I

    2013-10-15

    Novel composites based on borassus fruit fine fiber (BFF) and polypropylene (PP) were fabricated with variable fiber composition (5, 10, 15 and 20 wt%) by injection molding. Maleated PP (MAPP) was also used as compatibilizer at 5 wt% for effective fiber-matrix adhesion. FTIR analysis confirms the evidence of a chemical bonding between the fiber and polymeric matrix through esterification in presence of MAPP. The tensile and flexural properties were found to increase with 15 and 10 wt% fiber loadings respectively, and decreased thereafter. Coir, jute and sisal fiber composites were also fabricated with 15 wt% fiber loading under the same conditions as used for BFF/PP composites. It was found that the mechanical properties of BFF (15 wt%)/PP composites were equivalent to jute/PP, sisal/PP and superior to coir/PP composites. Jute/PP and sisal/PP composites showed higher water absorption than BFF/PP and coir/PP composites. These results have demonstrated that the BFF/PP composites can also be an alternative material for composites applications. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Molecular Mechanisms Regulating Muscle Fiber Composition Under Microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosenthal, Nadia A.

    1999-01-01

    upstream targets for the effects of weightlessness. In the past year we have determined that the expression of E Proteins is restricted to specific fiber types by post-transcriptional mechanisms. By far, the most prevalent mechanism of cellular control for achieving post-transcriptional regulation of gene expression is selective proteolysis -through the ubiquitin -proteasome pathway. Steady-state levels of HEB message are similar in all fast and slow skeletal muscle fiber types, yet the protein is restricted to Type IIX fibers. HEB appears to be a nodal point for regulating fiber-specific transcription, as expression of the transcription factor is regulated at the post-transcriptional level. It is not clear at present whether the regulation is at the level of protein synthesis or degradation. We are now poised to evaluate the biological role of ubiquitination in fiber specific-gene expression by controlling the post-transcriptional expression of E Proteins. The use of metabolic labelling and pharmacological inhibitors of the ubiquitin pathway will be used to identify the mode of regulation of the Type IIX expression pattern. The potential role of specific kinases in effecting the restriction of HEB expression will be examined by using both inhibitors and activators. The results of these studies will provide the necessary information to evaluate the biological role of E proteins in controlling fiber type transitions, and in potentially attenuating the atrophic effects of microgravity conditions. We have also recently shown that ectopic expression of the HEB protein transactivates the Type IIX-specific skeletal a-actin reporter. The 218 bp skeletal a-actin promoter drives transgene expression solely in mature Type IIX fibers. A mouse also carrying the transgene MLCI/HEB (which ectopically expresses the E Protein HEB in Type IIB fibers) forces expression of the skeletal a-actin reporter gene in Type IIB fibers. We can now dissect the composition of this fiber-specific cis

  14. Effect of alkaline treatment on mechanical properties of kenaf fiber reinforced polyester composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reddy, Bijjam Ramgopal; Dhoria, Sneha H.

    2018-04-01

    This paper focuses on the study of the effect of chemical treatment on mechanical properties such as tensile, flexural and impact properties of kenaf fiber reinforced polyester composites. Adhesion between the fiber and polymer is one of factors affecting the mechanical properties of composites. In order to increase the adhesion, the fibers are chemically treated with 5% of sodium hydroxide (NaOH) solution. The composite specimens are prepared in both untreated and treated forms of kenaf fibers with five levels of fiber volume fractions. The specimens are prepared according to ASTM standards. Mechanical tests such as tensile, flexural and impact are conducted to determine ultimate tensile strength, bending strength and impact strength of composites. The effect of change in volume fraction on the mechanical properties of the composites is studied for both untreated (raw) and chemically treated kenaf fibers. It has been found that the composites made of chemically treated fibers have good mechanical properties compared to untreated fibers.

  15. The Effects of Fiber Orientation and Volume Fraction of Fiber on Mechanical Properties of Additively Manufactured Composite Material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuchipudi, Suresh Chandra

    Additive manufacturing (AM) also known as 3D printing has tremendous advancements in recent days with a vast number of applications in industrial, automotive, architecture, consumer projects, fashion, toys, food, art, etc. Composite materials are widely used in structures with weight as a critical factor especially in aerospace industry. Recently, additive manufacturing technology, a rapidly growing innovative technology, has gained lot of importance in making composite materials. The properties of composite materials depend upon the properties of constituent's matrix and fiber. There is lot of research on effect of fiber orientation on mechanical properties of composite materials made using conventional manufacturing methods. It will be interesting and relevant to study the relationship between the fiber orientation and fiber volume with mechanical properties of additively manufactured composite materials. This thesis work presents experimental investigation of mechanical behavior like tensile strength and fatigue life with variation in fiber orientation and fiber volume fraction of 3D printed composite materials. The aim is to study the best combination of volume fraction of fiber and fiber orientation that has better fatigue strength for additive manufactured composite materials. Using this study, we can decide the type of orientation and volume percent for desired properties. This study also finds the range of fatigue limits of 3d printed composite materials.

  16. Volume imaging NDE and serial sectioning of carbon fiber composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hakim, Issa; Schumacher, David; Sundar, Veeraraghavan; Donaldson, Steven; Creuz, Aline; Schneider, Rainer; Keller, Juergen; Browning, Charles; May, Daniel; Ras, Mohamad Abo; Meyendorf, Norbert

    2018-04-01

    A composite material is a combination of two or more materials with very different mechanical, thermal and electrical properties. The various forms of composite materials, due to their high material properties, are widely used as structural materials in the aviation, space, marine, automobile, and sports industries. However, some defects like voids, delamination, or inhomogeneous fiber distribution that form during the fabricating processes of composites can seriously affect the mechanical properties of the composite material. In this study, several imaging NDE techniques such as: thermography, high frequency eddy current, ultrasonic, x-ray radiography, x-ray laminography, and high resolution x-ray CT were conducted to characterize the microstructure of carbon fiber composites. Then, a 3D analysis was implemented by the destructive technique of serial sectioning for the same sample tested by the NDE methods. To better analyze the results of this work and extract a clear volume image for all features and defects contained in the composite material, an intensive comparison was conducted among hundreds of 3D-NDE and multi serial sections' scan images showing the microstructure variation.

  17. Discontinuous Fiber-reinforced Composites above Critical Length

    PubMed Central

    Petersen, R.C.

    2014-01-01

    Micromechanical physics of critical fiber length, describing a minimum filament distance for resin impregnation and stress transfer, has not yet been applied in dental science. As a test of the hypothesis that 9-micron-diameter, 3-mm-long quartz fibers would increase mechanical strength over particulate-filled composites, photocure-resin-pre-impregnated discontinuous reinforcement was incorporated at 35 wt% into 3M Corporation Z100, Kerr Corporation HerculiteXRV, and an experimental photocure paste with increased radiopaque particulate. Fully articulated four-point bend testing per ASTM C 1161-94 for advanced ceramics and Izod impact testing according to a modified unnotched ASTM D 256-00 specification were then performed. All photocure-fiber-reinforced composites demonstrated significant improvements over particulate-filled compounds (p < 0.001) for flexural strength, modulus, work of fracture, strain at maximum load, and Izod toughness, with one exception for the moduli of Z100 and the experimental reinforced paste. The results indicate that inclusion of pre-impregnated fibers above the critical aspect ratio yields major advancements regarding the mechanical properties tested. PMID:15790745

  18. Development and testing of fiber-reinforced composite space maintainers.

    PubMed

    Kulkarni, Gajanan; Lau, Domenic; Hafezi, Sara

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a clinically acceptable, cheaper, and more expedient alternative to standard stainless steel band and loop space maintainers. Loops of fiber-reinforced composites were constructed using polyethylene fiber (Ribbond) and glass fiber (Sticktech). The loops were bonded on extracted third molars and tested for flexural strength before and after thermocycling and following repair of the appliances after initial stress failure. Bacterial colonization on the appliances was also compared. Conventional stainless steel band and loop space maintainers cemented with Ketac were controls. Ribbond samples demonstrated higher flexural strength than Sticktech and the control (P<.05). No differences were noted among the other samples and the control. The repaired Ribbond samples were statistically comparable in flexural strength to the initial samples. Thermocycling resulted in decreased flexural strength of both Ribbond and Sticktech (P<.05). Thermocycled Ribbond samples were comparable to the control, but a lower flexural strength was noted for Sticktech samples (P<.05). While all space maintainers allowed some bacterial adhesion, Sticktech showed higher Streptococcus mutans counts than Ribbond (P=.06). Ribbond space-maintainers are comparable to the stainless steel in terms of physical strength and biofilm formation. The fiber-reinforced composite space maintainers may be a clinically acceptable and expedient alternative to the conventional band-loop appliance.

  19. In-Depth Analysis of the Structure and Properties of Two Varieties of Natural Luffa Sponge Fibers

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yuxia; Su, Na; Zhang, Kaiting; Zhu, Shiliu; Zhao, Lei; Fang, Fei; Ren, Linyan; Guo, Yong

    2017-01-01

    The advancement in science and technology has led to luffa sponge (LS) being widely used as a natural material in industrial application because of its polyporous structure and light texture. To enhance the utility of LS fibers as the reinforcement of lightweight composite materials, the current study investigates their water absorption, mechanical properties, anatomical characteristics and thermal performance. Hence, moisture regain and tensile properties of LS fiber bundles were measured in accordance with American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) standards while their structural characteristics were investigated via microscopic observation. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to observe the surface morphology and fractured surface of fiber bundles. The test results show that the special structure where the phloem tissues degenerate to cavities had a significant influence on the mechanical properties of LS fiber bundles. Additionally, the transverse sectional area occupied by fibers in a fiber bundle (SF), wall thickness, ratio of wall to lumen of fiber cell, and crystallinity of cellulose had substantial impact on the mechanical properties of LS fiber bundles. Furthermore, the density of fiber bundles of LS ranged within 385.46–468.70 kg/m3, significantly less than that of jute (1360.40 kg/m3) and Arenga engleri (950.20 kg/m3). However, LS fiber bundles demonstrated superior specific modulus than Arenga engleri. PMID:28772838

  20. Simulation and Failure Analysis of Car Bumper Made of Pineapple Leaf Fiber Reinforced Composite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arbintarso, E. S.; Muslim, M.; Rusianto, T.

    2018-02-01

    The bumper car made of the Pineapple Leaf Fiber Reinforced Composite (PLFRC) is possible to be produced with the advantage of easy to get, and cheap. Pineapple leaf fiber has chosen as a natural fiber, which the maximum of the strength of 368 MPa. The objective of this study was to determine the maximum capability of front car bumpers using Pineapple Leaf Fiber Reinforced Composite materials through the process of simulating stress analysis with Solidworks 2014 software. The aim also to know the distribution of loads that occur on the front car bumper and predict the critical point position on the design of the bumper. The result will use to develop the alternative lightweight, cheap and environmentally friendly materials in general and the development of the use of pineapple fiber for automotive purposes in particular. Simulations and failure analysis have been conducted and showed an increased impact speed in line with increased displacement, strain, and stress that occur on the surface of the bumper. The bumper can withstand collisions at a speed of less than 70 kph.

  1. Isothermal and hygrothermal agings of hybrid glass fiber/carbon fiber composite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barjasteh, Ehsan

    New applications of fiber-reinforced polymer composites (FRPCs) are arising in non-traditional sectors of industry, such as civil infrastructure, automotive, and power distribution. For example, composites are being used in place of steel to support high-voltage overhead conductors. In this application, conductive strands of aluminum are wrapped around a solid composite rod comprised of unidirectional carbon and glass fibers in an epoxy matrix, which is commercially called ACCC conductor. Composite-core conductors such as these are expected to eventually replace conventional steel-reinforced conductors because of the reduced sag at high temperatures, lower weight, higher ampacity, and reduced line losses. Despite the considerable advantages in mechanical performance, long-term durability of composite conductors is a major concern, as overhead conductors are expected to retain properties (with minimal maintenance) over a service life that spans multiple decades. These concerns stem from the uncertain effects of long-term environmental exposure, which includes temperature, moisture, radiation, and aggressive chemicals, all of which can be exacerbated by cyclic loads. In general, the mechanical and physical properties of polymer composites are adversely affected by such environmental factors. Consequently, the ability to forecast changes in material properties as a function of environmental exposure, particularly bulk mechanical properties, which are affected by the integrity of fiber-matrix interfaces, is required to design for extended service lives. Polymer composites are susceptible to oxidative degradation at high temperatures approaching but not quite reaching the glass transition temperature ( Tg). Although the fibers are stable at such temperatures, the matrix and especially the fiber-matrix interface can undergo degradation that affects the physical and mechanical properties of the structure over time. Therefore, as a first step, the thermal aging of an

  2. Intermittent sizing on carbon fiber for composite application

    SciTech Connect

    Norris, Jr, Robert E.; Paulauskas, Felix L.; Ozcan, Soydan

    Intermittent sizing is a technique designed to improve the bonding of carbon fiber to a resin when manufacturing composite parts. The purpose of this technique is to improve Sheet Molding Composites (SMC) made of non-continuous carbon fibers while using regular material. At the end of the project, tests showed that improved mechanical properties have been achieved using this technique compared to conventional process. Mechanical properties have been improved by 110% for the peak tensile stress and by 60% for the modulus at the laboratory scale. In this project, Continental Structural Plastics and ORNL have worked to demonstrate the scalability andmore » viability of commercialization of this technique.« less

  3. Preliminary evaluation of fiber composite reinforcement of truck frame rails

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Faddoul, J. R.

    1977-01-01

    The use of graphite fiber/resin matrix composite to effectively reinforce a standard steel truck frame rail is studied. A preliminary design was made and it was determined that the reinforcement weight could be reduced by a factor of 10 when compared to a steel reinforcement. A section of a 1/3 scale reinforced rail was fabricated to demonstrate low cost manufacturing techniques. The scale rail section was then tested and increased stiffness was confirmed. No evidence of composite fatigue was found after 500,000 cycles to a fiber stress of 34,000 psi. The test specimen failed in bending in a static test at a load 50 percent greater than that predicted for a non-reinforced rail.

  4. A magnetostrictive composite-fiber Bragg Grating sensor.

    PubMed

    Quintero, Sully M M; Braga, Arthur M B; Weber, Hans I; Bruno, Antonio C; Araújo, Jefferson F D F

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a light and compact optical fiber Bragg Grating sensor for DC and AC magnetic field measurements. The fiber is coated by a thick layer of a magnetostrictive composite consisting of particles of Terfenol-D dispersed in a polymeric matrix. Among the different compositions for the coating that were tested, the best magnetostrictive response was obtained using an epoxy resin as binder and a 30% volume fraction of Terfenol-D particles with sizes ranging from 212 to 300 μm. The effect of a compressive preload in the sensor was also investigated. The achieved resolution was 0.4 mT without a preload or 0.3 mT with a compressive pre-stress of 8.6 MPa. The sensor was tested at magnetic fields of up to 750 mT under static conditions. Dynamic measurements were conducted with a magnetic unbalanced four-pole rotor.

  5. A Magnetostrictive Composite-Fiber Bragg Grating Sensor

    PubMed Central

    Quintero, Sully M. M.; Braga, Arthur M. B.; Weber, Hans I.; Bruno, Antonio C.; Araújo, Jefferson F. D. F.

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a light and compact optical fiber Bragg Grating sensor for DC and AC magnetic field measurements. The fiber is coated by a thick layer of a magnetostrictive composite consisting of particles of Terfenol-D dispersed in a polymeric matrix. Among the different compositions for the coating that were tested, the best magnetostrictive response was obtained using an epoxy resin as binder and a 30% volume fraction of Terfenol-D particles with sizes ranging from 212 to 300 μm. The effect of a compressive preload in the sensor was also investigated. The achieved resolution was 0.4 mT without a preload or 0.3 mT with a compressive pre-stress of 8.6 MPa. The sensor was tested at magnetic fields of up to 750 mT under static conditions. Dynamic measurements were conducted with a magnetic unbalanced four-pole rotor. PMID:22163644

  6. Nondestructive evaluation of composite materials by pulsed time domain methods in imbedded optical fibers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Claus, R. O.; Bennett, K. D.; Jackson, B. S.

    1986-01-01

    The application of fiber-optical time domain reflectometry (OTDR) to nondestructive quantitative measurements of distributed internal strain in graphite-epoxy composites, using optical fiber waveguides imbedded between plies, is discussed. The basic OTDR measurement system is described, together with the methods used to imbed optical fibers within composites. Measurement results, system limitations, and the effect of the imbedded fiber on the integrity of the host composite material are considered.

  7. Microstructured Optical Fiber Sensors Embedded in a Laminate Composite for Smart Material Applications

    PubMed Central

    Sonnenfeld, Camille; Sulejmani, Sanne; Geernaert, Thomas; Eve, Sophie; Lammens, Nicolas; Luyckx, Geert; Voet, Eli; Degrieck, Joris; Urbanczyk, Waclaw; Mergo, Pawel; Becker, Martin; Bartelt, Hartmut; Berghmans, Francis; Thienpont, Hugo

    2011-01-01

    Fiber Bragg gratings written in highly birefringent microstructured optical fiber with a dedicated design are embedded in a composite fiber-reinforced polymer. The Bragg peak wavelength shifts are measured under controlled axial and transversal strain and during thermal cycling of the composite sample. We obtain a sensitivity to transversal strain that exceeds values reported earlier in literature by one order of magnitude. Our results evidence the relevance of using microstructured optical fibers for structural integrity monitoring of composite material structures. PMID:22163755

  8. Combination of natural fiber Boehmeria nivea (ramie) with matrix epoxide for bullet proof vest body armor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anggoro, Didi Dwi; Kristiana, Nunung

    2015-12-01

    Ballistic protection equipment, such as a bulletproof vest, is a soldier's most important means of preserving life and survivability in extreme combat conditions. The bulletproof vests are designed to protect the user's chest from injury without disturbing the ability to perform his duties. Aromatic polyamide or aramid fibers known under the trade name Kevlar, Trawon and so is synthetic fiber materials commonly used in the manufacture of bulletproof vests. This synthetic fibers have high tensile strength and ductility. Kevlar is expensive and imported material. In this study, will introduce local natural raw materials, ramie fiber (Boehmeria nivea) which is cheaper and environmentally friendly. It has enough tenacity and tensile strength as a bulletproof vest. This experiment uses two panels, there are Panel A as front surface of Panel B. Panel A is a combination of ramie and epoxide matrix, while panel B is only ramie. From several variations of experimental combinations between Panel A and Panel B, optimal combination obtained with 16 layers of panel A and 31-34 layers of panel B which is able to protect againts cal. 7.65 mm × 17 mm (.32 ACP) bullet fired through pistol .32 Pindad from a distance of 20 meters. Panel with a size of 20 cm × 20 cm has a total thickness between 12,922 to13,745 mm and a total weight between 506,26 to 520,926gram. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) observations indicated that the porosity and surface area of the ramie fiber is smooth, fiber surfaces showed topography with micropores. SEM also showed well-arranged structure of fibers bonding. Energy Dispersive X-ray (EDX) analysis indicated 100 % carbon contents in ramie fiber. Test result indicates that panel from composite ramie-epoxide can reach the level 1of International Standard of NIJ - 010104. Compared to panel from polyester fiber, the panel from composite ramie-epoxide (0,50-0,52 kg) is lighter weight than panel polyester fiber (1,642 kg).

  9. Natural cork agglomerate employed as an environmentally friendly solution for quiet sandwich composites.

    PubMed

    Sargianis, James; Kim, Hyung-ick; Suhr, Jonghwan

    2012-01-01

    Carbon fiber-synthetic foam core sandwich composites are widely used for many structural applications due to their superior mechanical performance and low weight. Unfortunately these structures typically have very poor acoustic performance. There is increasingly growing demand in mitigating this noise issue in sandwich composite structures. This study shows that marrying carbon fiber composites with natural cork in a sandwich structure provides a synergistic effect yielding a noise-free sandwich composite structure without the sacrifice of mechanical performance or weight. Moreover the cork-core sandwich composites boast a 250% improvement in damping performance, providing increased durability and lifetime operation. Additionally as the world seeks environmentally friendly materials, the harvesting of cork is a natural, renewable process which reduces subsequent carbon footprints. Such a transition from synthetic foam cores to natural cork cores could provide unprecedented improvements in acoustic and vibrational performance in applications such as aircraft cabins or wind turbine blades.

  10. Effect of fiber architecture on flexural characteristics and fracture of fiber-reinforced dental composites.

    PubMed

    Karbhari, Vistasp M; Strassler, Howard

    2007-08-01

    The aim of this study was to compare and elucidate the differences in damage mechanisms and response of fiber-reinforced dental resin composites based on three different brands under flexural loading. The types of reinforcement consisted of a unidirectional E-glass prepreg (Splint-It from Jeneric/Petron Inc.), an ultrahigh molecular weight polyethylene fiber based biaxial braid (Connect, Kerr) and an ultrahigh molecular weight polyethylene fiber based leno-weave (Ribbond). Three different commercially available fiber reinforcing systems were used to fabricate rectangular bars, with the fiber reinforcement close to the tensile face, which were tested in flexure with an emphasis on studying damage mechanisms and response. Eight specimens (n=8) of each type were tested. Overall energy capacity as well as flexural strength and modulus were determined and results compared in light of the different abilities of the architectures used. Under flexural loading unreinforced and unidirectional prepreg reinforced dental composites failed in a brittle fashion, whereas the braid and leno-weave reinforced materials underwent significant deformation without rupture. The braid reinforced specimens showed the highest peak load. The addition of the unidirectional to the matrix resulted in an average strain of 0.06mm/mm which is 50% greater than the capacity of the unreinforced matrix, whereas the addition of the braid and leno-weave resulted in increases of 119 and 126%, respectively, emphasizing the higher capacity of both the UHM polyethylene fibers and the architectures to hold together without rupture under flexural loading. The addition of the fiber reinforcement substantially increases the level of strain energy in the specimens with the maximum being attained in the braid reinforced specimens with a 433% increase in energy absorption capability above the unreinforced case. The minimum scatter and highest consistency in response is seen in the leno-weave reinforced specimens

  11. Acoustic emission spectral analysis of fiber composite failure mechanisms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Egan, D. M.; Williams, J. H., Jr.

    1978-01-01

    The acoustic emission of graphite fiber polyimide composite failure mechanisms was investigated with emphasis on frequency spectrum analysis. Although visual examination of spectral densities could not distinguish among fracture sources, a paired-sample t statistical analysis of mean normalized spectral densities did provide quantitative discrimination among acoustic emissions from 10 deg, 90 deg, and plus or minus 45 deg, plus or minus 45 deg sub s specimens. Comparable discrimination was not obtained for 0 deg specimens.

  12. Predicting Fatigue Lives Of Metal-Matrix/Fiber Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bartolotta, Paul A.

    1994-01-01

    Method of prediction of fatigue lives of intermetallic-matrix/fiber composite parts at high temperatures styled after method of universal slopes. It suffices to perform relatively small numbers of fatigue tests. Data from fatigue tests correlated with tensile-test data by fitting universal-slopes equation to both sets of data. Thereafter, universal-slopes equation used to predict fatigue lives from tensile properties.

  13. Antiplane shear wave propagation in fiber-reinforced composites.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jin-Yeon

    2003-05-01

    A self-consistent method for analyzing antiplane shear wave propagation in two-dimensional inhomogeneous media is presented. For applications in the high-frequency range, the self-consistent condition for the effective medium is solved being supplemented with the theory of quasidynamic effective density. Comparisons with other theoretical calculations and experimental data for fiber-reinforced composites demonstrate the merits of using the present method.

  14. Carbon fiber composite molecular sieve electrically regenerable air filter media

    DOEpatents

    Wilson, K.A.; Burchell, T.D.; Judkins, R.R.

    1998-10-27

    An electrically regenerable gas filter system includes a carbon fiber composite molecular sieve (CFCMS) filter medium. After a separate medium-efficiency pre-filter removes particulate from the supply air stream, the CFCMS filter sorbs gaseous air pollutants before the air is recirculated to the space. When saturated, the CFCMS media is regenerated utilizing a low-voltage current that is caused to pass through the filter medium. 3 figs.

  15. Carbon fiber composite molecular sieve electrically regenerable air filter media

    DOEpatents

    Wilson, Kirk A.; Burchell, Timothy D.; Judkins, Roddie R.

    1998-01-01

    An electrically regenerable gas filter system includes a carbon fiber composite molecular sieve (CFCMS) filter medium. After a separate medium-efficiency pre-filter removes particulate from the supply airstream, the CFCMS filter sorbs gaseous air pollutants before the air is recirculated to the space. When saturated, the CFCMS media is regenerated utilizing a low-voltage current that is caused to pass through the filter medium.

  16. Fabrication of two one-fifth scale fiber composite flywheels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1980-04-01

    Two fiber composite flywheel rotors were fabricated. These flywheels are scaled down versions of two automotive flywheels built for Sandia Laboratories. The flywheels store a maximum of 0.97 kWh of kinetic energy. Energy density is 87 Wh/kg at the maximum operating speed of 56,000 rpm. The nominal flywheel dimensions are 35 cm diameter by 13 cm axial height. The weight of the flywheel rotor assembly is 11.16 kg.

  17. Non-linear behavior of fiber composite laminates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hashin, Z.; Bagchi, D.; Rosen, B. W.

    1974-01-01

    The non-linear behavior of fiber composite laminates which results from lamina non-linear characteristics was examined. The analysis uses a Ramberg-Osgood representation of the lamina transverse and shear stress strain curves in conjunction with deformation theory to describe the resultant laminate non-linear behavior. A laminate having an arbitrary number of oriented layers and subjected to a general state of membrane stress was treated. Parametric results and comparison with experimental data and prior theoretical results are presented.

  18. Elastic/viscoplastic behavior of fiber-reinforced thermoplastic composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, C.; Sun, C. T.; Gates, T. S.

    1990-01-01

    An elastic/viscoplastic constitutive model was used to characterize the nonlinear and rate dependent behavior of a continuous fiber-reinforced thermoplastic composite. This model was incorporated into a finite element program for the analysis of laminated plates and shells. Details on the finite element formulation with the proposed constitutive model were presented. The numerical results were compared with experimental data for uniaxial tension and three-point bending tests of (+ or - 45 deg)3s APC-2 laminates.

  19. Intermediate Temperature Stress Rupture of Woven SiC Fiber, BN Interphase, SiC Matrix Composites in Air

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morscher, Gregory N.; Levine, Stanley (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Tensile stress-rupture experiments were performed on woven Hi-Nicalon reinforced SiC matrix composites with BN interphases in air. Modal acoustic emission (AE) was used to monitor the damage accumulation in the composites during the tests and microstructural analysis was performed to determine the amount of matrix cracking that occurred for each sample. Fiber fractograph), was also performed for individual fiber failures at the specimen fracture surface to determine the strengths at which fibers failed. The rupture strengths were significantly worse than what would have been expected front the inherent degradation of the fibers themselves when subjected to similar rupture conditions. At higher applied stresses the rate of rupture "?as larger than at lower applied stresses. It was observed that the change in rupture rate corresponded to the onset of through-thickness cracking in the composites themselves. The primary cause of the sen,ere degradation was the ease with which fibers would bond to one another at their closest separation distances, less than 100 nanometers, when exposed to the environment. The near fiber-to-fiber contact in the woven tows enabled premature fiber failure over large areas of matrix cracks due to the stress-concentrations created b), fibers bonded to one another after one or a few fibers fail. i.e. the loss of global load sharing. An@, improvement in fiber-to-fiber separation of this composite system should result in improved stress- rupture properties. A model was den,eloped in order to predict the rupture life-time for these composites based on the probabilistic nature of indin,idual fiber failure at temperature. the matrix cracking state during the rupture test, and the rate of oxidation into a matrix crack. Also incorporated into the model were estimates of the stress-concentration that would occur between the outer rim of fibers in a load-bearing bundle and the unbridged region of a matrix crack after Xia et al. For the lower stresses

  20. 3D Representative Volume Element Reconstruction of Fiber Composites via Orientation Tensor and Substructure Features

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Yi; Chen, Wei; Xu, Hongyi

    To provide a seamless integration of manufacturing processing simulation and fiber microstructure modeling, two new stochastic 3D microstructure reconstruction methods are proposed for two types of random fiber composites: random short fiber composites, and Sheet Molding Compounds (SMC) chopped fiber composites. A Random Sequential Adsorption (RSA) algorithm is first developed to embed statistical orientation information into 3D RVE reconstruction of random short fiber composites. For the SMC composites, an optimized Voronoi diagram based approach is developed for capturing the substructure features of SMC chopped fiber composites. The proposed methods are distinguished from other reconstruction works by providing a way ofmore » integrating statistical information (fiber orientation tensor) obtained from material processing simulation, as well as capturing the multiscale substructures of the SMC composites.« less

  1. Effect of lightning strike on bromine intercalated graphite fiber/epoxy composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gaier, James R.; Slabe, Melissa E.; Brink, Norman O.

    1991-01-01

    Laminar composites were fabricated from pristine and bromine intercalated pitch based graphite fibers. It was found that laminar composites could be fabricated using either pristine or intercalated graphite fibers using standard fabrication techniques. The intercalated graphite fiber composites had electrical properties which were markedly improved over both the corresponding pitch based and polyacrylonitrile (PAN) based composites. Despite composites resistivities more than an order of magnitude lower for pitch based fiber composites, the lightning strike resistance was poorer than that of the Pan based fiber composites. This leads to the conclusion that the mechanical properties of the pitch fibers are more important than electrical or thermal properties in determining the lightning strike resistance. Based on indicated lightning strike tolerance for high elongation to failure materials, the use of vapor grown, rather than pitch based graphite fibers appears promising.

  2. Carbide coated fibers in graphites-aluminum composites. [(fabrication of metal matrix composites)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Imprescia, R. J.; Levinson, L. S.; Reiswig, R. D.; Wallace, T. C.; Williams, J. M.

    1976-01-01

    Research activities are described for a NASA-supported program at the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory to develop graphite fiber-aluminum matrix composites. A chemical vapor deposition apparatus was constructed for continuously coating graphite fibers with TiC. As much as 150 meters of continuously coated fibers were produced. Deposition temperatures were varied from 1365 K to about 1750 K, and deposition time from 6 to 150 seconds. The 6 sec deposition time corresponded to a fiber feed rate of 2.54 m/min through the coater. Thin, uniform, adherent TiC coats, with thicknesses up to approximately 0.1 micrometer were produced on the individual fibers of Thornel 50 graphite yarns without affecting fiber strength. Although coat properties were fairly uniform throughout a given batch, more work is needed to improve the batch-to-batch reproducibility. Samples of TiC-coated Thornel 50 fibers were infiltrated with an aluminum alloy and hot-pressed in vacuum to produce small composite bars for flexure testing. Strengths as high as 90% of the rule-of-mixtures strength were achieved. Results of the examination of the fracture surfaces indicate that the bonding between the aluminum and the TiC-coated fibers is better than that achieved in a similar, commercially infiltrated material made with fibers having no observable surface coats. Several samples of Al-infiltrated, TiC-coated Thornel 50 graphite yarns, together with samples of the commercially infiltrated, uncoated fibers, were heated for 100 hours at temperatures near the alloy solidus. The TiC-coated samples appear to undergo less reaction than do the uncoated samples. Photomicrographs are shown.

  3. Fracture of fiber-reinforced composites analyzed via acoustic emission.

    PubMed

    Ereifej, Nadia S; Oweis, Yara G; Altarawneh, Sandra K

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the fracture resistance of composite resins using a three-point bending test and acoustic emission (AE) analysis. Three groups of specimens (n=15) were prepared: non-reinforced BelleGlass HP composite (NRC), unidirectional (UFRC) and multidirectional (MFRC) fiber-reinforced groups which respectively incorporated unidirectional Stick and multidirectional StickNet fibers. Specimens were loaded to failure in a universal testing machine while an AE system was used to detect audible signals. Initial fracture strengths and AE amplitudes were significantly lower than those at final fracture in all groups (p<0.05). Initial fracture strength of UFRC (170.0 MPa) was significantly higher than MFRC (124.6 MPa) and NRC (87.9 MPa). Final fracture strength of UFRC (198.1 MPa) was also significantly higher than MFRC (151.0 MPa) and NRC (109.2 MPa). Initial and final fracture strengths were significantly correlated (r=0.971). It was concluded that fiber reinforcement improved the fracture resistance of composite resin materials and the monitoring of acoustic signals revealed significant information regarding the fracture process.

  4. Embedded Bragg grating fiber optic sensor for composite flexbeams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bullock, Daniel; Dunphy, James; Hufstetler, Gerard

    1993-03-01

    An embedded fiber-optic (F-O) sensor has been developed for translaminar monitoring of the structural integrity of composites, with a view to application in composite helicopter flexbeams for bearingless main rotor hubs. This through-thickness strain sensor is much more sensitive than conventional in-plane embedded F-O sensors to ply delamination, on the basis of a novel insertion technique and innovative Bragg grating sensor. Experimental trials have demonstrated the detection by this means of potential failures in advance of the edge-delamination or crack-propagation effect.

  5. Fundamental analysis of the failure of polymer-based fiber reinforced composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kanninen, M. F.; Rybicki, E. F.; Griffith, W. I.; Broek, D.

    1975-01-01

    A mathematical model predicting the strength of unidirectional fiber reinforced composites containing known flaws and with linear elastic-brittle material behavior was developed. The approach was to imbed a local heterogeneous region surrounding the crack tip into an anisotropic elastic continuum. This (1) permits an explicit analysis of the micromechanical processes involved in the fracture, and (2) remains simple enough to be useful in practical computations. Computations for arbitrary flaw size and orientation under arbitrary applied loads were performed. The mechanical properties were those of graphite epoxy. With the rupture properties arbitrarily varied to test the capabilities of the model to reflect real fracture modes, it was shown that fiber breakage, matrix crazing, crack bridging, matrix-fiber debonding, and axial splitting can all occur during a period of (gradually) increasing load prior to catastrophic failure. The calculations also reveal the sequential nature of the stable crack growth process proceding fracture.

  6. Enhancement of mechanical and electrical properties of continuous-fiber-reinforced epoxy composites with stacked graphene

    PubMed Central

    Shepelev, Olga; Kenig, Samuel

    2017-01-01

    Impregnation of expandable graphite (EG) after thermal treatment with an epoxy resin containing surface-active agents (SAAs) enhanced the intercalation of epoxy monomer between EG layers and led to further exfoliation of the graphite, resulting in stacks of few graphene layers, so-called “stacked” graphene (SG). This process enabled electrical conductivity of cured epoxy/SG composites at lower percolation thresholds, and improved thermo-mechanical properties were measured with either Kevlar, carbon or glass-fiber-reinforced composites. Several compositions with SAA-modified SG led to higher dynamic moduli especially at high temperatures, reflecting the better wetting ability of the modified nanoparticles. The hydrophilic/hydrophobic nature of the SAA dictates the surface energy balance. More hydrophilic SAAs promoted localization of the SG at the Kevlar/epoxy interface, and morphology seems to be driven by thermodynamics, rather than the kinetic effect of viscosity. This effect was less obvious with carbon or glass fibers, due to the lower surface energy of the carbon fibers or some incompatibility with the glass-fiber sizing. Proper choice of the surfactant and fine-tuning of the crosslink density at the interphase may provide further enhancements in thermo-mechanical behavior. PMID:29046838

  7. Enhancement of mechanical and electrical properties of continuous-fiber-reinforced epoxy composites with stacked graphene.

    PubMed

    Naveh, Naum; Shepelev, Olga; Kenig, Samuel

    2017-01-01

    Impregnation of expandable graphite (EG) after thermal treatment with an epoxy resin containing surface-active agents (SAAs) enhanced the intercalation of epoxy monomer between EG layers and led to further exfoliation of the graphite, resulting in stacks of few graphene layers, so-called "stacked" graphene (SG). This process enabled electrical conductivity of cured epoxy/SG composites at lower percolation thresholds, and improved thermo-mechanical properties were measured with either Kevlar, carbon or glass-fiber-reinforced composites. Several compositions with SAA-modified SG led to higher dynamic moduli especially at high temperatures, reflecting the better wetting ability of the modified nanoparticles. The hydrophilic/hydrophobic nature of the SAA dictates the surface energy balance. More hydrophilic SAAs promoted localization of the SG at the Kevlar/epoxy interface, and morphology seems to be driven by thermodynamics, rather than the kinetic effect of viscosity. This effect was less obvious with carbon or glass fibers, due to the lower surface energy of the carbon fibers or some incompatibility with the glass-fiber sizing. Proper choice of the surfactant and fine-tuning of the crosslink density at the interphase may provide further enhancements in thermo-mechanical behavior.

  8. Fundamental analysis of the failure of polymer-based fiber reinforced composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kanninen, M. F.; Rybicki, E. F.; Griffith, W. I.; Broek, D.

    1976-01-01

    A mathematical model is described which will permit predictions of the strength of fiber reinforced composites containing known flaws to be made from the basic properties of their constituents. The approach was to embed a local heterogeneous region (LHR) surrounding the crack tip into an anisotropic elastic continuum. The model should (1) permit an explicit analysis of the micromechanical processes involved in the fracture process, and (2) remain simple enough to be useful in practical computations. Computations for arbitrary flaw size and orientation under arbitrary applied load combinations were performed from unidirectional composites with linear elastic-brittle constituent behavior. The mechanical properties were nominally those of graphite epoxy. With the rupture properties arbitrarily varied to test the capability of the model to reflect real fracture modes in fiber composites, it was shown that fiber breakage, matrix crazing, crack bridging, matrix-fiber debonding, and axial splitting can all occur during a period of (gradually) increasing load prior to catastrophic fracture. The computations reveal qualitatively the sequential nature of the stable crack process that precedes fracture.

  9. Thermo-oxidative stability studies of PMR-15 polymer matrix composites reinforced with various fibers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowles, Kenneth J.

    1990-01-01

    An experimental study was conducted to measure the thermo-oxidative stability of PMR-15 polymer matrix composites reinforced with various fibers and to observe differences in the way they degrade in air. The fibers that were studied included graphite and the thermally stable Nicalon and Nextel ceramic fibers. Weight loss rates for the different composites were assessed as a function of mechanical properties, specimen geometry, fiber sizing, and interfacial bond strength. Differences were observed in rates of weight loss, matrix cracking, geometry dependency, and fiber-sizing effects. It was shown that Celion 6000 fiber-reinforced composites do not exhibit a straight-line Arrhenius relationship at temperatures above 316 C.

  10. Interphase for ceramic matrix composites reinforced by non-oxide ceramic fibers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DiCarlo, James A. (Inventor); Bhatt, Ramakrishna (Inventor); Morscher, Gregory N. (Inventor); Yun, Hee-Mann (Inventor)

    2008-01-01

    A ceramic matrix composite material is disclosed having non-oxide ceramic fibers, which are formed in a complex fiber architecture by conventional textile processes; a thin mechanically weak interphase material, which is coated on the fibers; and a non-oxide or oxide ceramic matrix, which is formed within the interstices of the interphase-coated fiber architecture. During composite fabrication or post treatment, the interphase is allowed to debond from the matrix while still adhering to the fibers, thereby providing enhanced oxidative durability and damage tolerance to the fibers and the composite material.

  11. Flexural properties of polyethylene, glass and carbon fiber-reinforced resin composites for prosthetic frameworks.

    PubMed

    Maruo, Yukinori; Nishigawa, Goro; Irie, Masao; Yoshihara, Kumiko; Minagi, Shogo

    2015-01-01

    High flexural properties are needed for fixed partial denture or implant prosthesis to resist susceptibility to failures caused by occlusal overload. The aim of this investigation was to clarify the effects of four different kinds of fibers on the flexural properties of fiber-reinforced composites. Polyethylene fiber, glass fiber and two types of carbon fibers were used for reinforcement. Seven groups of specimens, 2 × 2 × 25 mm, were prepared (n = 10 per group). Four groups of resin composite specimens were reinforced with polyethylene, glass or one type of carbon fiber. The remaining three groups served as controls, with each group comprising one brand of resin composite without any fiber. After 24-h water storage in 37°C distilled water, the flexural properties of each specimen were examined with static three-point flexural test at a crosshead speed of 0.5 mm/min. Compared to the control without any fiber, glass and carbon fibers significantly increased the flexural strength (p < 0.05). On the contrary, the polyethylene fiber decreased the flexural strength (p < 0.05). Among the fibers, carbon fiber exhibited higher flexural strength than glass fiber (p < 0.05). Similar trends were observed for flexural modulus and fracture energy. However, there was no significant difference in fracture energy between carbon and glass fibers (p > 0.05). Fibers could, therefore, improve the flexural properties of resin composite and carbon fibers in longitudinal form yielded the better effects for reinforcement.

  12. Enhanced mechanical and thermal properties of regenerated cellulose/graphene composite fibers.

    PubMed

    Tian, Mingwei; Qu, Lijun; Zhang, Xiansheng; Zhang, Kun; Zhu, Shifeng; Guo, Xiaoqing; Han, Guangting; Tang, Xiaoning; Sun, Yaning

    2014-10-13

    In this study, a wet spinning method was applied to fabricate regenerated cellulose fibers filled with low graphene loading which was systematically characterized by SEM, TEM, FTIR and XRD techniques. Subsequently, the mechanical and thermal properties of the resulting fibers were investigated. With only 0.2 wt% loading of graphene, a ∼ 50% improvement of tensile strength and 25% enhancement of Young's modulus were obtained and the modified Halpin-Tsai model was built to predict the mechanical properties of composite fibers. Thermal analysis of the composite fibers showed remarkably enhanced thermal stability and dynamic heat transfer performance of graphene-filled cellulose composite fiber, also, the presence of graphene oxide can significantly enhance the thermal conductivity of the composite fiber. This work provided a facile way to improve mechanical and thermal properties of regenerated cellulose fibers. The resultant composite fibers have potential application in thermal insulation and reinforced fibrous materials. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Bio-composites fabricated by sandwiching sisal fibers with polypropylene (PP)

    SciTech Connect

    Sosiati, H., E-mail: hsosiati@gmail.com; Nahyudin, A., E-mail: ahmadnahyudin@yahoo.co.id; Fauzi, I., E-mail: ikhsannurfauzi@gmail.com

    Sisal fibers reinforced polypropylene (PP) composites were successfully fabricated using sandwiching sisal fibers with PP sheets. The ratio of fiber and polymer matrix was 50:50 (wt. %). Untreated short and long sisal fibers, and alkali treated short sisal fibers in 6% NaOH at 100°C for 1 and 3 h were used as reinforcement or fillers. A small amount (3 wt. %) of maleic anhydride grafted polypropylene (MAPP) was added as a coupling agent. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy were used to characterize the surface morphology and chemical composition of the fibers, respectively. Flexural test of sisal/PPmore » composites was done according to ASTM D 790-02. The results showed that flexural strength of untreated long fiber reinforced composite is much higher than that of the untreated and alkali treated short fibers reinforced composites with and without the addition of MAPP. Alkalization related to fiber surface modification, fiber length/fiber orientation and a composite fabrication technique are important factors in contributing to the fiber distribution within the matrix, the bonding between the fiber and the matrix and the enhancement of flexural strength of the bio-composite.« less

  14. Numerical simulation of fiber interaction in short-fiber injection-molded composite using different cavity geometries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thi, Thanh Binh Nguyen; Yokoyama, Atsushi; Hamanaka, Senji; Yamashita, Katsuhisa; Nonomura, Chisato

    2016-03-01

    The theoretical fiber-interaction model for calculating the fiber orientation in the injection molded short fiber/thermoplastic composite parts was proposed. The proposed model included the fiber dynamics simulation in order to obtain an equation of the global interaction coefficient and accurate estimate of the fiber interacts at all orientation states. The steps to derive the equation for this coefficient in short fiber suspension as a function of the fiber aspect ratio, volume fraction and general shear rate are delineated. Simultaneously, the high-resolution 3D X-ray computed tomography system XVA-160α was used to observe fiber distribution of short-glass-fiber-reinforced polyamide specimens using different cavity geometries. The fiber orientation tensor components are then calculated. Experimental orientation measurements of short-glass-fiber-reinforced polyamide is used to check the ability of present theory for predicting orientation. The experiments and predictions show a quantitative agreement and confirm the basic understanding of fiber orientation in injection-molded composites.

  15. Numerical simulation of fiber interaction in short-fiber injection-molded composite using different cavity geometries

    SciTech Connect

    Thi, Thanh Binh Nguyen, E-mail: nttbinh@kit.ac.jp; Yokoyama, Atsushi, E-mail: yokoyama@kit.ac.jp; Hamanaka, Senji

    The theoretical fiber-interaction model for calculating the fiber orientation in the injection molded short fiber/thermoplastic composite parts was proposed. The proposed model included the fiber dynamics simulation in order to obtain an equation of the global interaction coefficient and accurate estimate of the fiber interacts at all orientation states. The steps to derive the equation for this coefficient in short fiber suspension as a function of the fiber aspect ratio, volume fraction and general shear rate are delineated. Simultaneously, the high-resolution 3D X-ray computed tomography system XVA-160α was used to observe fiber distribution of short-glass-fiber-reinforced polyamide specimens using different cavitymore » geometries. The fiber orientation tensor components are then calculated. Experimental orientation measurements of short-glass-fiber-reinforced polyamide is used to check the ability of present theory for predicting orientation. The experiments and predictions show a quantitative agreement and confirm the basic understanding of fiber orientation in injection-molded composites.« less

  16. The Nature of Accelerating Modes in PBG Fibers

    SciTech Connect

    Noble, TRobert J.; /SLAC

    Transverse magnetic (TM) modes with phase velocities at or just below the speed of light, c, are intended to accelerate relativistic particles in hollow-core, photonic band gap (PBG) fibers. These are so-called 'surface defect modes', being lattice modes perturbed by the defect to have their frequencies shifted into the band gap, and they can have any phase velocity. PBG fibers also support so-called 'core defect modes' which are characterized as having phase velocities always greater than c and never cross the light line. In this paper we explore the nature of these two classes of accelerating modes and compare theirmore » properties.« less

  17. Carbon fiber based composites stress analysis. Experimental and computer comparative studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sobek, M.; Baier, A.; Buchacz, A.; Grabowski, Ł.; Majzner, M.

    2015-11-01

    Composite materials used nowadays for the production of composites are the result of advanced research. This allows assuming that they are among the most elaborate tech products of our century. That fact is evidenced by the widespread use of them in the most demanding industries like aerospace and space industry. But the heterogeneous materials and their advantages have been known to mankind in ancient times and they have been used by nature for millions of years. Among the fibers used in the industry most commonly used are nylon, polyester, polypropylene, boron, metal, glass, carbon and aramid. Thanks to their physical properties last three fiber types deserve special attention. High strength to weight ratio allow the use of many industrial solutions. Composites based on carbon and glass fibers are widely used in the automotive. Aramid fibers ideal for the fashion industry where the fabric made from the fibers used to produce the protective clothing. In the paper presented issues of stress analysis of composite materials have been presented. The components of composite materials and principles of composition have been discussed. Particular attention was paid to the epoxy resins and the fabrics made from carbon fibers. The article also includes basic information about strain measurements performed on with a resistance strain gauge method. For the purpose of the laboratory tests a series of carbon - epoxy composite samples were made. For this purpose plain carbon textile was used with a weight of 200 g/mm2 and epoxy resin LG730. During laboratory strain tests described in the paper Tenmex's delta type strain gauge rosettes were used. They were arranged in specific locations on the surface of the samples. Data acquisition preceded using HBM measurement equipment, which included measuring amplifier and measuring head. Data acquisition was performed using the Easy Catman. In order to verify the results of laboratory tests numerical studies were carried out in a

  18. Continuous fiber ceramic matrix composites for heat engine components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tripp, David E.

    1988-01-01

    High strength at elevated temperatures, low density, resistance to wear, and abundance of nonstrategic raw materials make structural ceramics attractive for advanced heat engine applications. Unfortunately, ceramics have a low fracture toughness and fail catastrophically because of overload, impact, and contact stresses. Ceramic matrix composites provide the means to achieve improved fracture toughness while retaining desirable characteristics, such as high strength and low density. Materials scientists and engineers are trying to develop the ideal fibers and matrices to achieve the optimum ceramic matrix composite properties. A need exists for the development of failure models for the design of ceramic matrix composite heat engine components. Phenomenological failure models are currently the most frequently used in industry, but they are deterministic and do not adequately describe ceramic matrix composite behavior. Semi-empirical models were proposed, which relate the failure of notched composite laminates to the stress a characteristic distance away from the notch. Shear lag models describe composite failure modes at the micromechanics level. The enhanced matrix cracking stress occurs at the same applied stress level predicted by the two models of steady state cracking. Finally, statistical models take into consideration the distribution in composite failure strength. The intent is to develop these models into computer algorithms for the failure analysis of ceramic matrix composites under monotonically increasing loads. The algorithms will be included in a postprocessor to general purpose finite element programs.

  19. Starch/polycaprolactone-containing composites reinforced with pre-treated sisal fibers

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Composites based on thermoplastic cornstarch (TPS) and polycaprolactone (PCL) were reinforced with 5, 10 and 20% (wt%) of pretreated sisal fiber. The impact of the addition of sisal fiber on the mechanical, thermal and morphological properties of composites was investigated. Addition of 5-10% fibers...

  20. 21 CFR 878.3500 - Polytetrafluoroethylene with carbon fibers composite implant material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Polytetrafluoroethylene with carbon fibers... Prosthetic Devices § 878.3500 Polytetrafluoroethylene with carbon fibers composite implant material. (a) Identification. A polytetrafluoroethylene with carbon fibers composite implant material is a porous device...

  1. Silicon-doped boron nitride coated fibers in silicon melt infiltrated composites

    DOEpatents

    Corman, Gregory Scot; Luthra, Krishan Lal

    2002-01-01

    A fiber-reinforced silicon-silicon carbide matrix composite having improved oxidation resistance at high temperatures in dry or water-containing environments is produced. The invention also provides a method for protecting the reinforcing fibers in the silicon-silicon carbide matrix composites by coating the fibers with a silicon-doped boron nitride coating.

  2. Silicon-doped boron nitride coated fibers in silicon melt infiltrated composites

    DOEpatents

    Corman, Gregory Scot; Luthra, Krishan Lal

    1999-01-01

    A fiber-reinforced silicon--silicon carbide matrix composite having improved oxidation resistance at high temperatures in dry or water-containing environments is produced. The invention also provides a method for protecting the reinforcing fibers in the silicon--silicon carbide matrix composites by coating the fibers with a silicon-doped boron nitride coating.

  3. Influence of the composite material thermal expansion on embedded highly birefringent polymer microstructured optical fibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    SzelÄ g, M.; Lesiak, P.; Kuczkowski, M.; Domański, A. W.; Woliński, T. R.

    2013-05-01

    Results of our research on embedded highly birefringent polymer microstructured fibers are presented. A composite material sample with fibers embedded between two layers of a multi-layer composite structure is fabricated and characterized. Temperature sensitivities of the polymer fibers are measured in a free space and compared with the fibers embedded in the composite material. It appeared that highly birefringent polymer microstructured fibers exhibit a strong increase in temperature sensitivity when embedded in the composite material, which is due to the stress-induced changes in birefringence created by thermally-induced strain.

  4. Properties of indirect composites reinforced with monomer-impregnated glass fiber.

    PubMed

    Tanoue, Naomi; Sawase, Takashi; Matsumura, Hideo; McCabe, John F

    2012-07-01

    Sufficient flexural strength is required for long-term clinical use of fixed partial dentures made with fiber-reinforced composite. The flexural strengths of indirect composite materials reinforced with a monomer-preimpregnated glass fiber material were determined to evaluate the compatibility of the composites to glass fiber material. Four types (microhybrid, nanohybrid, microfilled, and minifilled) of indirect composites and a unidirectional long glass fiber material were selected for investigation. The composites were placed on a fiber plate and polymerized in accordance with the respective manufacturer's instructions. Rectangular bar fiber-composite specimens were machined and the flexural strength was calculated. The flexural strength of each indirect composite was also measured. The microfilled composite with the lowest filler content (70 wt%) exhibited the highest increase ratio using the fiber, although its strength without fiber reinforcement was the lowest (62.1 MPa). The fiber-microhybrid specimen demonstrated the highest mean strength (355.9 MPa), although the filler content of the microhybrid composite was comparatively low (73 wt%). The type of composite material should be considered for the selection of an optimal fiber-composite combination.

  5. Process modifications for improved carbon fiber composites: Alleviation of the electrical hazards problem

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ramohalli, K.

    1980-01-01

    Attempts to alleviate carbon-fiber-composite electrical hazards during airplane crash fires through fiber gasification are described. Thermogravimetric and differential scanning calorimetric experiments found several catalysts that caused fibers to combust when composites were exposed to test fires. Composites were tested in the 'Burn-Bang' apparatus and in high voltage electrical detection grid apparatus. In a standard three minute burn test modified composites released no fibers, while state-of-the-art composites released several hundred fiber fragments. Expected service life with and without catalytic modification was studied and electron microscopy and X-ray microanalysis furnished physical appearance and chemical composition data. An acrylic acid polymer fiber coating was developed that wet the carbon fiber surface uniformly with the catalyst, providing a marked contrast with the uneven coats obtained by solution-dipping.

  6. The study about the use of the natural fibres in composite materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hristian, L.; Ostafe, M. M.; Manea, L. R.; Leon, A. L.

    2016-08-01

    The current technological development, the crises of raw materials and energy, the increased aggression towards the environment have led to the development of the new materials and unconventional technologies. The composite materials have both many important advantages compared to the traditional materials and provide many functional advantages: low weight, mechanical resistance, low maintenance costs. The main advantage of the composites lies in their ability to combine the physical properties of components to achieve new structural functionalities, so the modulation of the properties and finally, to obtain a wide variety of materials which may be used in all areas of activities. Some biodegradable fibers, flax, hemp, may provide the specific mechanical properties compared to those of the glass fiber, due to their high strength and low density of their volume. To make the right choice, even if the natural fibers have very low power consumption compared with the synthetic fibers, such as glass or carbon, it should be considered a careful assessment of the environmental impact. The present study shows that the validity of the replacement of the synthetic fibers with natural fibers, depends on the reinforcement type and the complexity of the problems due to the processing of natural fibers.

  7. A State-of-the-Art Review on Soil Reinforcement Technology Using Natural Plant Fiber Materials: Past Findings, Present Trends and Future Directions

    PubMed Central

    Gowthaman, Sivakumar; Nakashima, Kazunori; Kawasaki, Satoru

    2018-01-01

    Incorporating sustainable materials into geotechnical applications increases day by day due to the consideration of impacts on healthy geo-environment and future generations. The environmental issues associated with conventional synthetic materials such as cement, plastic-composites, steel and ashes necessitate alternative approaches in geotechnical engineering. Recently, natural fiber materials in place of synthetic material have gained momentum as an emulating soil-reinforcement technique in sustainable geotechnics. However, the natural fibers are innately different from such synthetic material whereas behavior of fiber-reinforced soil is influenced not only by physical-mechanical properties but also by biochemical properties. In the present review, the applicability of natural plant fibers as oriented distributed fiber-reinforced soil (ODFS) and randomly distributed fiber-reinforced soil (RDFS) are extensively discussed and emphasized the inspiration of RDFS based on the emerging trend. Review also attempts to explore the importance of biochemical composition of natural-fibers on the performance in subsoil reinforced conditions. The treatment methods which enhances the behavior and lifetime of fibers, are also presented. While outlining the current potential of fiber reinforcement technology, some key research gaps have been highlighted at their importance. Finally, the review briefly documents the future direction of the fiber reinforcement technology by associating bio-mediated technological line. PMID:29617285

  8. A State-of-the-Art Review on Soil Reinforcement Technology Using Natural Plant Fiber Materials: Past Findings, Present Trends and Future Directions.

    PubMed

    Gowthaman, Sivakumar; Nakashima, Kazunori; Kawasaki, Satoru

    2018-04-04

    Incorporating sustainable materials into geotechnical applications increases day by day due to the consideration of impacts on healthy geo-environment and future generations. The environmental issues associated with conventional synthetic materials such as cement, plastic-composites, steel and ashes necessitate alternative approaches in geotechnical engineering. Recently, natural fiber materials in place of synthetic material have gained momentum as an emulating soil-reinforcement technique in sustainable geotechnics. However, the natural fibers are innately different from such synthetic material whereas behavior of fiber-reinforced soil is influenced not only by physical-mechanical properties but also by biochemical properties. In the present review, the applicability of natural plant fibers as oriented distributed fiber-reinforced soil (ODFS) and randomly distributed fiber-reinforced soil (RDFS) are extensively discussed and emphasized the inspiration of RDFS based on the emerging trend. Review also attempts to explore the importance of biochemical composition of natural-fibers on the performance in subsoil reinforced conditions. The treatment methods which enhances the behavior and lifetime of fibers, are also presented. While outlining the current potential of fiber reinforcement technology, some key research gaps have been highlighted at their importance. Finally, the review briefly documents the future direction of the fiber reinforcement technology by associating bio-mediated technological line.

  9. Graphite Fiber Textile Preform/Cooper Matrix Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Filatovs, George J.

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to produce a finned tube constructed of a highly conductive braided graphite fiber preform infiltrated with a copper matrix. In addition, the tube was to be fabricated with an integral geometry. The preform was integral in the sense that the tube and the fin could be braided to yield one continuous part. This composite component is a candidate for situations with high heat transmitting and radiation requirements. A proof-of-concept finned tube was braided and infiltrated with a copper matrix proving that a viable process was developed to fabricate the desired component. Braiding of high conductivity carbon fibers required much trial-and-error and development of special procedures. There are many tradeoffs between braidability and fiber conductivity. To understand the properties and structure of the braided finned tube, an geometric model of the braid structure was derived. This derivation set the basis for the research because knowing the tow orientations helped decipher the thermal as well as the mechanical and conduction tendencies. Infiltration of the fibers into a copper matrix was a complex procedure, and was performed by TRA, of Salt Lake City, Utah, using a proprietary process. Several batches were fabricated with a final, high quality batch serving as a confirming proof-of-concept.

  10. PMR polyimide/graphite fiber composite fan blades

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cavano, P. J.; Winters, W. E.

    1976-01-01

    Ultrahigh speed fan blades, designed in accordance with the requirements of an ultrahigh tip speed blade axial flow compressor, were fabricated from a high strength graphite fiber tow and a PMR polyimide resin. The PMR matrix was prepared by combining three monomeric reactants in methyl alcohol, and the solution was applied directly to the reinforcing fiber for subsequent in situ polymerization. Some of the molded blades were completely finished by secondary bonding of root pressure pads and an electroformed nickel leading edge sheath prior to final machining. The results of the spin testing of nine PMR fan blades are given. Prior to blade fabrication, heat resin tensile properties of the PMR resin were examined at four formulated molecular weight levels. Additionally, three formulated molecular weight levels were investigated in composite form with both a high modulus and a high strength fiber, both as-molded and postcured, in room temperature and 232 C transverse tensile, flexure and short beam shear. Mixed fiber orientation panels simulating potential blade constructions were also evaluated. Flexure tests, short beam shear tests, and tensile tests were conducted on these angle-plied laminates.

  11. Effects of Fiber/Matrix Interface and its Composition on Mechanical Properties of Hi-Nicalon/Celsian Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bansal, Narottam P.; Eldridge, Jeffrey I.

    1999-01-01

    To evaluate the effects of fiber coatings on composite mechanical properties. unidirectional celsian matrix composites reinforced with uncoated Hi-Nicalon fibers and those precoated with a dual BN/SiC layer in two separate batches (batch 1 and batch 2) were tested in three-point flexure. The uncoated-fiber reinforced composites showed catastrophic failure with strength of 210+/-35 MPa and a flat fracture surface. In contrast, composites reinforced with coated fibers exhibited graceful failure with extensive fiber pullout and showed significantly higher ultimate strengths, 904 and 759 MPa for the batch 1 and 2 coatings. respectively. Fiber push-in tests and microscopic examination indicated no chemical reaction at the uncoated or coated fiber-matrix interfaces that might be responsible for fiber strength degradation. Instead, the low strength of composite with uncoated fibers was due to degradation of the fiber strength from mechanical damage during composite processing. Despite identical processing, the first matrix cracking stresses (Sigma(sub mc)) of the composites reinforced with fibers coated in batch 1 and batch 2 were quite different, 436 and 122 MPa, respectively. The large difference in Sigma(sub mc) of the coated-fiber composites was attributed to differences in fiber sliding stresses (Tau(sub friction)), 121.2+/-48.7 and 10.4+/-3.1 MPa, respectively. for the two composites as determined by the fiber push-in method. Such a large difference in Tau(sub friction). for the two composites was found to be due to the difference in the compositions of the interface coatings. Scanning Auger microprobe analysis revealed the presence of carbon layers between the fiber and BN. and also between the BN and SiC coatings in the composite showing lower Tau(sub friction). This resulted in lower Sigma(sub mc) in agreement with the ACK theory. The ultimate strengths of the two composites depended mainly on the fiber volume fraction and were not significantly effected by Tau

  12. Rapid Prototyping of Continuous Fiber Reinforced Ceramic Matrix Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vaidyanathan, R.; Green, C.; Phillips, T.; Cipriani, R.; Yarlagadda, S.; Gillespie, J.; Effinger, M.; Cooper, K. C.; Gordon, Gail (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    For ceramics to be used as structural components in high temperature applications, their fracture toughness is improved by embedding continuous ceramic fibers. Ceramic matrix composite (CMC) materials allow increasing the overall operating temperature, raising the temperature safety margins, avoiding the need for cooling, and improving the damping capacity, while reducing the weight at the same time. They also need to be reliable and available in large quantities as well. In this paper, an innovative rapid prototyping technique to fabricate continuous fiber reinforced ceramic matrix composites is described. The process is simple, robust and will be widely applicable to a number of high temperature material systems. This technique was originally developed at the University of Delaware Center for Composite Materials (UD-CCM) for rapid fabrication of polymer matrix composites by a technique called automated tow placement or ATP. The results of mechanical properties and microstructural characterization are presented, together with examples of complex shapes and parts. It is believed that the process will be able to create complex shaped parts at an order of magnitude lower cost than current CVI and PIP processes.

  13. The Effect of Various Weave Designs on Mechanical Behavior of Lamina Intraply Composite Made from Kenaf Fiber Yarn

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuhazri, M. Y.; Amirhafizan, M. H.; Abdullah, A.; Sihombing, H.; Saarah, A. B.; Fadzol, O. M.

    2016-11-01

    The development of lamina intraply composite is a novel approach that can be adopted to address the challenges of balance mechanical properties of polymer composite. This research will focuses on the effects of weave designs on the mechanical behavior of a single ply or also known as lamina intraply composite. The six (6) specimens of lamina intraply composites were made by kenaf fiber as a reinforcement and unsaturated polyester resin as a matrix in various weave designs which were plain, twill, satin, basket, mock leno and leno weave. The vacuum infusion technique was adopted due to advantages over hand lay-up. It was found that the plain, twill and satin weave exhibited better mechanical properties on tensile strength. The fiber content of the specimen was 40% and the result of the resin content of the specimen was 60% due to the higher permeability of natural fiber.

  14. Effect of fiber reinforcements on thermo-oxidative stability and mechanical properties of polymer matrix composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowles, Kenneth J.

    1991-01-01

    A number of studies have investigated the thermo-oxidative behavior of polymer matrix composites. Two significant observations have been made from these research efforts: (1) fiber reinforcement has a significant effect on composite thermal stability; and (2) geometric effects must be considered when evaluating thermal aging data. A compilation of some results from these studies is presented, and this information shows the influence of the reinforcement fibers on the oxidative degradation of various polymer matrix composites. The polyimide PMR-15 was the matrix material that was used in these studies. The control composite material was reinforced with Celion 6000 graphite fiber. T-40R graphite fibers, along with some very stable ceramic fibers were selected as reinforcing fibers because of their high thermal stability. The ceramic fibers were Nicalon (silicon carbide) and Nextel 312 (alumina-silica-boron oxide). The mechanical properties of the two graphite fiber composites were significantly different, probably owing to variations in interfacial bonding between the fibers and the polyimide matrix. The Celion 6000/PMR-15 bond is very tight but the T-40/PMR-15 bond is less tight. Three oxidation mechanisms were observed: (1) the preferential oxidation of the Celion 6000 fiber ends at cut surfaces, leaving a surface of matrix material with holes where the fiber ends were originally situated; (2) preferential oxidation of the composite matrix; and (3) interfacial degradation by oxidation. The latter two mechanisms were also observed on fiber end cut surfaces. The fiber and interface attacks appeared to initiate interfiber cracking along these surfaces.

  15. Mullite fiber reinforced reaction bonded Si3N4 composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saleh, T.; Sayir, A.; Lightfoot, A.; Haggerty, J.

    1996-01-01

    Fracture toughnesses of brittle ceramic materials have been improved by introducing reinforcements and carefully tailored interface layers. Silicon carbide and Si3N4 have been emphasized as matrices of structural composites intended for high temperature service because they combine excellent mechanical, chemical, thermal and physical properties. Both matrices have been successfully toughened with SiC fibers, whiskers and particles for ceramic matrix composite (CMC) parts made by sintering, hot pressing or reaction forming processes. These SiC reinforced CMCs have exhibited significantly improved toughnesses at low and intermediate temperature levels, as well as retention of properties at high temperatures for selected exposures; however, they are vulnerable to attack from elevated temperature dry and wet oxidizing atmospheres after the matrix has cracked. Property degradation results from oxidation of interface layers and/or reinforcements. The problem is particularly acute for small diameter (-20 tim) polymer derived SiC fibers used for weavable toes. This research explored opportunities for reinforcing Si3N4 matrices with fibers having improved environmental stability; the findings should also be applicable to SiC matrix CMCs.

  16. Frequency and deflection analysis of cenosphere/glass fiber interply hybrid composite cantilever beam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bharath, J.; Joladarashi, Sharnappa; Biradar, Srikumar; Kumar, P. Naveen

    2018-04-01

    Interply hybrid laminates contain plies made of two or more different composite systems. Hybrid composites have unique features that can be used to meet specified design requirements in a more cost-effective way than nonhybrid composites. They offer many advantages over conventional composites including balanced strength and stiffness, enhanced bending and membrane mechanical properties, balanced thermal distortion stability, improved fatigue/impact resistance, improved fracture toughness and crack arresting properties, reduced weight and cost. In this paper an interply hybrid laminate composite containing Cenosphere reinforced polymer composite core and glass fiber reinforced polymer composite skin is analysied and effect of volume fraction of filler on frequency and load v/s deflection of hybrid composite are studied. Cenosphere reinforced polymer composite has increased specific strength, specific stiffness, specific density, savings in cost and weight. Glass fiber reinforced polymer composite has higher torsional rigidity when compared to metals. These laminate composites are fabricated to meet several structural applications and hence there is a need to study their vibration and deflection properties. Experimental investigation starts with fabrication of interply hybrid composite with cores of cenosphere reinforced epoxy composite volume fractions of CE 15, CE 25, CE15_UC as per ASTM E756-05C, and glasss fiber reinforced epoxy skin, cast product of required dimension by selecting glass fibre of proper thickness which is currently 0.25mm E-glass bidirectional woven glass fabric having density 2500kg/m3, in standard from cast parts of size 230mmX230mmX5mm in an Aluminum mould. Modal analysis of cantilever beam is performed to study the variation of natural frequency with strain gauge and the commercially available Lab-VIEW software and deflection in each of the cases by optical Laser Displacement Measurement Sensor to perform Load versus Deflection Analysis

  17. Mechanical energy dissipation in natural ceramic composites.

    PubMed

    Mayer, George

    2017-12-01

    Ceramics and glasses, in their monolithic forms, typically exhibit low fracture toughness values, but rigid natural marine ceramic and glass composites have shown remarkable resistance to mechanical failure. This has been observed in load-extension behavior by recognizing that the total area under the curve, notably the part beyond the yield point, often conveys substantial capacity to carry mechanical load. The mechanisms underlying the latter observations are proposed as defining factors for toughness that provide resistance to failure, or capability to dissipate energy, rather than fracture toughness. Such behavior is exhibited in the spicules of glass sponges and in mollusk shells. There are a number of similarities in the manner in which energy dissipation takes place in both sponges and mollusks. It was observed that crack diversion, a new form of crack bridging, creation of new surface area, and other important energy-dissipating mechanisms occur and aid in "toughening". Crack tolerance, key to energy dissipation in these natural composite materials, is assisted by promoting energy distribution over large volumes of loaded specimens by minor components of organic constituents that also serve important roles as adhesives. Viscoelastic deformation was a notable characteristic of the organic component. Some of these energy-dissipating modes and characteristics were found to be quite different from the toughening mechanisms that are utilized for more conventional structural composites. Complementary to those mechanisms found in rigid natural ceramic/organic composites, layered architectures and very thin organic layers played major roles in energy dissipation in these structures. It has been demonstrated in rigid natural marine composites that not only architecture, but also the mechanical behavior of the individual constituents, the nature of the interfaces, and interfacial bonding play important roles in energy dissipation. Additionally, the controlling

  18. Lightning Strike Induced Damage Mechanisms of Carbon Fiber Composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawakami, Hirohide

    Composite materials have a wide application in aerospace, automotive, and other transportation industries, because of the superior structural and weight performances. Since carbon fiber reinforced polymer composites possess a much lower electrical conductivity as compared to traditional metallic materials utilized for aircraft structures, serious concern about damage resistance/tolerance against lightning has been rising. Main task of this study is to clarify the lightning damage mechanism of carbon fiber reinforced epoxy polymer composites to help further development of lightning strike protection. The research on lightning damage to carbon fiber reinforced polymer composites is quite challenging, and there has been little study available until now. In order to tackle this issue, building block approach was employed. The research was started with the development of supporting technologies such as a current impulse generator to simulate a lightning strike in a laboratory. Then, fundamental electrical properties and fracture behavior of CFRPs exposed to high and low level current impulse were investigated using simple coupon specimens, followed by extensive parametric investigations in terms of different prepreg materials frequently used in aerospace industry, various stacking sequences, different lightning intensity, and lightning current waveforms. It revealed that the thermal resistance capability of polymer matrix was one of the most influential parameters on lightning damage resistance of CFRPs. Based on the experimental findings, the semi-empirical analysis model for predicting the extent of lightning damage was established. The model was fitted through experimental data to determine empirical parameters and, then, showed a good capability to provide reliable predictions for other test conditions and materials. Finally, structural element level lightning tests were performed to explore more practical situations. Specifically, filled-hole CFRP plates and patch

  19. Interfacial enhancement of carbon fiber/nylon 12 composites by grafting nylon 6 to the surface of carbon fiber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hui, Chen; Qingyu, Cai; Jing, Wu; Xiaohong, Xia; Hongbo, Liu; Zhanjun, Luo

    2018-05-01

    Nylon 6 (PA6) grafted onto carbon fiber (CF) after chemical oxidation treatment was in an attempt to reinforce the mechanical properties of carbon fiber composites. Scanning electronic microscopy (SEM), Fourier transform infrared analysis (FT-IR), X-ray photoelectron spectroscope (XPS) and thermogravimetric analysis (TG) were selected to characterize carbon fibers with different surface treated. Experimental results showed that PA6 was grafted uniformly on the fiber surface through the anionic polymerization. A large number of functional groups were introduced to the fiber surface and the surface roughness was increased. After grafting PA6 on the oxidized carbon fibers, it played an important role on improving the interfacial adhesion between the fibers and the matrix by improving PA12 wettability, increasing chemical bonding and mechanical interlocking. Compared with the desized CF composites, the tensile strength of PA6-CF/PA12 composites was increased by 30.8% from 53.9 MPa to 70.2 MPa. All results indicated that grafting PA6 onto carbon fiber surface was an effective method to enhance the mechanical strength of carbon fiber/nylon 12 composites.

  20. Exploratory investigation of high-performance fiber-reinforced cementitious composites for crack control.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2008-01-01

    This study evaluated high-performance fiber-reinforced cementitious composites (HPFRCC), which are mortar mixtures with synthetic and steel fibers. The feasibility of using HPFRCC technology for transportation applications by the Virginia Department ...