Science.gov

Sample records for natural gas project

  1. Dauphin Island natural gas project

    SciTech Connect

    Layfield, R.P. ); Elser, K.L.; Ostler, R.H. )

    1994-01-01

    Arco Oil and Gas Co. installed the Dauphin Island production facility in a fragile Alabama marine environment supporting important fisheries and tourist facilities. The authors used proactive communication with governmental agencies, area industry, and the public; innovative construction technologies; and unique platform design to minimize the environmental and aesthetic impacts and to develop an economically successful gas field. The innovative equipment used in the offshore pipeline installation is a model approach for solving certain turbidity problems. The project has received numerous environmental awards.

  2. Venezuela natural gas for vehicles project

    SciTech Connect

    Marsicobetre, D.; Molero, T.

    1998-12-31

    The Natural Gas for Vehicles (NGV) Project in Venezuela describes the development and growth of the NGV project in the country. Venezuela is a prolific oil producer with advanced exploration, production, refining and solid marketing infrastructure. Gas production is 5.2 Bscfd. The Venezuelan Government and the oil state owned company Petroleos de Venezuela (PDVSA), pursued the opportunity of using natural gas for vehicles based on the huge amounts of gas reserves present and produced every day associated with the oil production. A nationwide gas pipeline network crosses the country from south to west reaching the most important cities and serving domestic and industrial purposes but there are no facilities to process or export liquefied natural gas. NGV has been introduced gradually in Venezuela over the last eight years by PDVSA. One hundred forty-five NGV stations have been installed and another 25 are under construction. Work done comprises displacement or relocation of existing gasoline equipment, civil work, installation and commissioning of equipment. The acceptance and usage of the NGV system is reflected in the more than 17,000 vehicles that have been converted to date using the equivalent of 2,000 bbl oil/day.

  3. The Canoe Ridge Natural Gas Storage Project

    SciTech Connect

    Reidel, Steve P.; Spane, Frank A.; Johnson, Vernon G.

    2003-06-18

    In 1999 the Pacific Gas and Electric Gas Transmission Northwest (GTN) drilled a borehole to investigate the feasibility of developing a natural gas-storage facility in a structural dome formed in Columbia River basalts in the Columbia Basin of south-central Washington State. The proposed aquifer storage facility will be an unconventional one where natural gas will be initially injected (and later retrieved) in one or multiple previous horizons (interflow zones) that are confined between deep (>700 meters) basalt flows of the Columbia River Basalt Group. This report summarizes the results of joint investigations on that feasibility study by GTN and the US Department of Energy.

  4. World Energy Projection System Plus Model Documentation: Natural Gas Model

    EIA Publications

    2011-01-01

    This report documents the objectives, analytical approach and development of the World Energy Projection System Plus (WEPS ) Natural Gas Model. It also catalogues and describes critical assumptions, computational methodology, parameter estimation techniques, and model source code.

  5. World Energy Projection System Plus Model Documentation: Natural Gas Module

    EIA Publications

    2011-01-01

    This report documents the objectives, analytical approach and development of the World Energy Projection System Plus (WEPS ) Natural Gas Model. It also catalogues and describes critical assumptions, computational methodology, parameter estimation techniques, and model source code.

  6. Brazil-Bolivia natural gas project challenges and solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Costa, A.S.C.

    1993-12-31

    PETROBRAS, the Brazilian/International Integrated Oil and Gas Company, is leading US$ 4 billion natural gas project. The goal of this paper is to identify Project challenges and propose solutions. It starts with fundamentals. Natural gas` share in Brazilian primary energy demand is only 2%. Economic aspects and environmental concerns, however, are changing this picture. For the Bolivian economy to be linked to a relatively huge market, in the long-term, is certainly a suitable decision. Besides, this Project will promote regional integration, within and outside Marcosur economies. Reserves, market data and economics give support to a feasible Project Financial structure is the main challenge. INTERGAS, a new subsidiary of PETROBRAS is opened for 49% stock to private sector participation. As an integrated Project, many opportunities will be generated during construction and operation. E&P, pipeline and downstream investments could bring different investors to different sectors.

  7. EIA responds to Nature article on shale gas projections

    EIA Publications

    2014-01-01

    EIA has responded to a December 4, 2014 Nature article on projections of shale gas production made by EIA and by the Bureau of Economic Geology of the University of Texas at Austin (BEG/UT) with a letter to the editors of Nature. BEG/UT has also responded to the article in their own letter to the editor.

  8. 75 FR 8329 - Regulations Governing the Conduct of Open Seasons for Alaska Natural Gas Transportation Projects...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-24

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Regulations Governing the Conduct of Open Seasons for Alaska Natural Gas Transportation Projects; Notice of Rescheduled Alaska Natural Gas Transportation Projects Open Season Pre-Filing... for an Alaska Natural Gas Transportation Project. The Workshop is being held at the Commission's...

  9. Final report for the Advanced Natural Gas Vehicle Project

    SciTech Connect

    John Wozniak

    1999-02-16

    The project objective was to develop the technologies necessary to prototype a dedicated compressed natural gas (CNG) powered, mid-size automobile with operational capabilities comparable to gasoline automobiles. A system approach was used to design and develop the engine, gas storage system and vehicle packaging. The 2.4-liter DOHC engine was optimized for natural gas operation with high-compression pistons, hardened exhaust valves, a methane-specific catalytic converter and multi-point gaseous injection. The chassis was repackaging to increase space for fuel storage with a custom-designed, cast-aluminum, semi-trailing arm rear suspension system, a revised flat trunk sheet-metal floorpan and by equipping the car with run-flat tires. An Integrated Storage system (ISS) was developed using all-composite, small-diameter cylinders encapsulated within a high-strength fiberglass shell with impact-absorbing foam. The prototypes achieved the target goals of a city/highway driving range of 300 miles, ample trunk capacity, gasoline vehicle performance and ultra low exhaust emissions.

  10. Natural Gas Vehicle Cylinder Safety, Training and Inspection Project

    SciTech Connect

    Hank Seiff

    2008-12-31

    Under the auspices of the National Energy Technology Laboratory and the US Department of Energy, the Clean Vehicle Education Foundation conducted a three-year program to increase the understanding of the safe and proper use and maintenance of vehicular compressed natural gas (CNG) fuel systems. High-pressure fuel systems require periodic inspection and maintenance to insure safe and proper operation. The project addressed the needs of CNG fuel containers (cylinders) and associated high-pressure fuel system components related to existing law, codes and standards (C&S), available training and inspection programs, and assured coordination among vehicle users, public safety officials, fueling station operators and training providers. The program included a public and industry awareness campaign, establishment and administration of a cylinder inspector certification training scholarship program, evaluation of current safety training and testing practices, monitoring and investigation of CNG vehicle incidents, evaluation of a cylinder recertification program and the migration of CNG vehicle safety knowledge to the nascent hydrogen vehicle community.

  11. 75 FR 6370 - Regulations Governing the Conduct of Open Seasons for Alaska Natural Gas Transportation Projects...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-09

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Regulations Governing the Conduct of Open Seasons for Alaska Natural Gas Transportation Projects; Notice of Alaska Natural Gas Transportation Projects Open Season Pre-Filing Workshop... hold a workshop on the procedures and process for holding and commenting on an open season for...

  12. 75 FR 2126 - Regulations Governing the Conduct of Open Seasons for Alaska Natural Gas Transportation Projects...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-14

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Regulations Governing the Conduct of Open Seasons for Alaska Natural Gas Transportation Projects; Notice of Alaska Natural Gas Transportation Projects Open Season Pre-Filing Workshop January 5, 2010. On January 12,...

  13. 75 FR 8245 - Natural Gas Pipelines; Project Cost and Annual Limits

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-24

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission 18 CFR Part 157 Natural Gas Pipelines; Project Cost and Annual Limits...) computes and publishes the project cost and annual limits for natural gas pipelines blanket construction... limits applicable from January 1, 2010 through December 31, 2010. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT...

  14. 77 FR 8724 - Natural Gas Pipelines; Project Cost and Annual Limits

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-15

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission 18 CFR Part 157 Natural Gas Pipelines; Project Cost and Annual Limits... (OEP) computes and publishes the project cost and annual limits for natural gas pipelines blanket... establishes cost limits applicable from January 1, 2012 through December 31, 2012. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION...

  15. 78 FR 8389 - Natural Gas Pipelines; Project Cost and Annual Limits

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-06

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission 18 CFR Part 157 Natural Gas Pipelines; Project Cost and Annual Limits AGENCY... publishes the project cost and annual limits for natural gas pipelines blanket construction certificates for each calendar year. DATES: This final rule is effective February 6, 2013 and establishes cost limits...

  16. 76 FR 8293 - Natural Gas Pipelines; Project Cost and Annual Limits

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-14

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission 18 CFR Part 157 Natural Gas Pipelines; Project Cost and Annual Limits...) computes and publishes the project cost and annual limits for natural gas pipelines blanket construction.... Applicability date: This final rule establishes cost limits applicable from January 1, 2011 through December 31...

  17. Geohazard assessment lifecycle for a natural gas pipeline project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lekkakis, D.; Boone, M. D.; Strassburger, E.; Li, Z.; Duffy, W. P.

    2015-09-01

    This paper is a walkthrough of the geohazard risk assessment performed for the Front End Engineering Design (FEED) of a planned large-diameter natural gas pipeline, extending from Eastern Europe to Western Asia for a total length of approximately 1,850 km. The geohazards discussed herein include liquefaction-induced pipe buoyancy, cyclic softening, lateral spreading, slope instability, groundwater rise-induced pipe buoyancy, and karst. The geohazard risk assessment lifecycle was comprised of 4 stages: initially a desktop study was carried out to describe the geologic setting along the alignment and to conduct a preliminary assessment of the geohazards. The development of a comprehensive Digital Terrain Model topography and aerial photography data were fundamental in this process. Subsequently, field geohazard mapping was conducted with the deployment of 8 teams of geoprofessionals, to investigate the proposed major reroutes and delve into areas of poor or questionable data. During the third stage, a geotechnical subsurface site investigation was then executed based on the results of the above study and mapping efforts in order to obtain sufficient data tailored for risk quantification. Lastly, all gathered and processed information was overlain into a Geographical Information database towards a final determination of the critical reaches of the pipeline alignment. Input from Subject Matter Experts (SME) in the fields of landslides, karst and fluvial geomorphology was incorporated during the second and fourth stages of the assessment. Their experience in that particular geographical region was key to making appropriate decisions based on engineering judgment. As the design evolved through the above stages, the pipeline corridor was narrowed from a 2-km wide corridor, to a 500-m corridor and finally to a fixed alignment. Where the geohazard risk was high, rerouting of the pipeline was generally selected as a mitigation measure. In some cases of high uncertainty in

  18. Bolivia-Brazil natural gas project: Challenges and solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Bassani, A.

    1993-12-31

    The development of the natural gas reserves in Bolivia and Brazil is discussed. The development of these reserves is being conducted by the Private Corporation for Gas Development. The Corporation was created to promote participation of the private sector in an area that was exclusively managed by federal or state governments. In order to promote participation by the private sector and at the same time to motivate foreign investors, the corporation is conducting a program of activities and studies that includes a legal and institutional analysis, a feasibility study in accordance with the viewpoints of the private sector, and also the structure of a business development plan, according to the perspective of private investors.

  19. [Cost-benefit analysis to substituting natural gas for coal project in large Chinese cities].

    PubMed

    Mao, Xianqiang; Peng, Yingdeng; Guo, Xiurui

    2002-09-01

    Since China's large cities were faced with serious coal-smoke pollution with PM10 and SO2 as the main pollutants, natural gas is becoming one of the most attractive clean replacers of coal. To clarify the wide disputation and doubt on the rationality of burning natural gas instead of coal, cost-benefit analysis (CBA) of urban natural gas substitution projects in Beijing and Chongqing was done respectively, in which, the health benefit was carefully estimated with epidemical dose-response function as the main external benefit. The final result shows that in large cities with intensively concentrated population and economic activities, natural gas consumption as municipal civil energy has obvious priority in terms of large environmental benefit from reducing non-point and low-altitude air pollutant concentration. This paper finally recommends that market oriented system reform in natural gas production and retailing system should be considered.

  20. Natural gas projects in the developing world: An empirical evaluation of merits, obstacles, and risks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mor, Amit

    Significant amounts of natural gas have been discovered in developing countries throughout the years during the course of oil exploration. The vast majority of these resources have not been utilized. Some developing countries may benefit from a carefully planned utilization of their indigenous resources, which can either be exported or used domestically to substitute imported or exportable fuels or feedstock. Governments, potential private sector investors, and financiers have been searching for strategies to promote natural gas schemes, some of which have been in the pipeline for more than two decades. The purpose of this thesis is to identify the crucial factors determining the success or failure of launching natural gas projects in the developing world. The methodology used to evaluate these questions included: (1) establishing a representative sample of natural gas projects in developing countries that were either implemented or failed to materialize during the 1980-1995 period, (2) utilizing a Probit limited dependent variable econometric model in which the explained variable is project success or failure, and (3) choosing representing indicators to reflect the assumed factors affecting project success. The study identified two conditions for project success: (1) the economic viability of the project and (2) securing financing for the investment. The factors that explain the ability or inability of the sponsors to secure financing were: (1) the volume of investment that represented the large capital costs of gas transportation, distribution, and storage, (2) the level of foreign exchange constraint in the host country, and (3) the level of development of the country. The conditions for private sector participation in natural gas projects in developing countries were identified in the study by a Probit model in which the explained variable was private sector participation. The results showed that a critical condition for private sector participation is the

  1. 75 FR 42432 - Northern Natural Gas Company, Southern Natural Gas Company, Florida Gas Transmission Company, LLC...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-21

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Northern Natural Gas Company, Southern Natural Gas Company, Florida Gas... Project (Project) which would include the abandonment of facilities by Northern Natural Gas Company, Southern Natural Gas Company, Florida Gas Transmission Company, LLC, Transcontinental Gas Pipe Line Company...

  2. An assessment of people's satisfaction with the public hearing on the Yadana Natural Gas Pipeline project.

    PubMed

    Ogunlana, S; Yotsinsak, T; Yisa, S

    2001-11-01

    Many public and large-scale construction projects in Thailand have been faced with environmental and social conflict problems. The major cause is that project sponsors do not address concerns of the public in a proper manner during EIA study. The Yadana Natural Gas Pipeline (YNGP) project is an example of a project which suffered the effects of public demonstration. A public hearing, one technique of public participation, is a good mechanism to solve conflict problems in a non-violent way which the Thai Government usually adopts to settle conflict in construction projects. In the case of the YNGP, even after the conflict was 'resolved' hostility towards the project was not eliminated, as the opponents were not satisfied with the decision. Therefore, this article examines the hearing on the YNGP project. The study found that it was too late to make any significant changes to the project after the hearing was held, most respondents were not satisfied with the project. In other words, this hearing did not improve their perception of environmental soundness of the project. The study showed that the project's impact on the environment was not properly addressed. The project sponsors did not provide sufficient publicity for the meeting and the stage at which the hearing was conducted. Suggestions are made for improving participation in future hearings.

  3. Thermoacoustic natural gas liquefier

    SciTech Connect

    Swift, G.; Gardner, D.; Hayden, M.; Radebaugh, R.; Wollan, J.

    1996-07-01

    This is the final report of a two-year, Laboratory-Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). This project sought to develop a natural-gas-powered natural-gas liquefier that has absolutely no moving parts and requires no electrical power. It should have high efficiency, remarkable reliability, and low cost. The thermoacoustic natural-gas liquefier (TANGL) is based on our recent invention of the first no-moving-parts cryogenic refrigerator. In short, our invention uses acoustic phenomena to produce refrigeration from heat, with no moving parts. The required apparatus comprises nothing more than heat exchangers and pipes, made of common materials, without exacting tolerances. Its initial experimental success in a small size lead us to propose a more ambitious application: large-energy liquefaction of natural gas, using combustion of natural gas as the energy source. TANGL was designed to be maintenance-free, inexpensive, portable, and environmentally benign.

  4. Natural gas monthly

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1983-04-01

    This document highlights activities, events, and analysis results of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with natural gas industry operations. Data highlights: (1) Marketed production of natural gas during February 1983 was estimated at 1387 billion cubic feet (Bcf), 178 Bcf (11.4 percent) below the February 1982 level; (2) Consumption of natural gas during February 1983 was an estimated 1709 Bcf, a decrease of 258 Bcf (13.1 percent) compared to February 1982 consumption; (3) Consumption declined in all market sectors in January 1983 compared to January 1982; (4) The volume of working gas in underground storage reservoirs at the end of February 1983 was 31.7 percent above the February 28, 1982 level; (5) The average wellhead price of natural gas in December 1982 was $2.56 per thousand cubic feet (Mcf). In December 1981 the average was $2.16 per Mcf; (6) In February 1983, the US city average residential price for 100 therms of natural gas was $59.99; and (7) The average wellhead (first sale) price for natural gas purchases projected for March 1983 by selected interstate pipeline companies was $2.79 per Mcf. The feature article in this issue is entitled Recent Trends in Natural Gas Well Costs. Information is presented under the headings: industry overview, explanatory notes, data sources, and selected recurring natural gas and related reports. 5 figures, 24 tables. (DMC)

  5. Natural gas monthly

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1983-08-01

    The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. The NGM replaces three EIA reports previously published annually: Underground Natural Gas Storage in the United States; US Imports and Exports of Natural Gas; Main Line Sales of Natural Gas to Industrial Users. Some of the highlights are: marketed production of natural gas during June 1983 was estimated at 1307 billion cubic feet (Bcf), 178 Bcf (12.0 percent) below the June 1982 level; consumption of natural gas during June 1983 was an estimated 1060 Bcf, a decrease of 55 Bcf (4.9 percent) compared to June 1982 consumption; natural gas consumption in May 1983, compared to the previous May, was up 14.0 percent in the residential sector, up 7.9 percent in the commercial sector, and up 14.2 percent in the industrial sector; the volume of working gas in underground storage reservoirs at the end of June 1983 was 3.1 percent above the June 30, 1982 level; the average wellhead price of natural gas in April 1983 was $2.63 per thousand cubic feet (Mcf) compared to $2.35 per Mcf for April 1982; in June 1983, the US city average residential price for 100 therms of natural gas was $64.70 ($6.63 per Mcf), the comparable price in June 1982 was $54.80 ($5.62 per Mcf); the average wellhead (first sale) price for natural gas purchases projected for July 1983 by selected interstate pipeline companies was $2.72 per Mcf, in July 1982 the average price was $2.45 per Mcf.

  6. The German collaborative project SUGAR Utilization of a natural treasure - Developing innovative techniques for the exploration and production of natural gas from hydrate-bearing sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haeckel, M.; Bialas, J.; Wallmann, K. J.

    2009-12-01

    Gas hydrates occur in nature at all active and passive continental margins as well as in permafrost regions, and vast amounts of natural gas are bound in those deposits. Geologists estimate that twice as much carbon is bound in gas hydrates than in any other fossil fuel reservoir, such as gas, oil and coal. Hence, natural gas hydrates represent a huge potential energy resource that, in addition, could be utilized in a CO2-neutral and therefore environmentally friendly manner. However, the utilization of this natural treasure is not as easy as the conventional production of oil or natural gas and calls for new and innovative techniques. In the framework of the large-scale collaborative research project SUGAR (Submarine Deposits of Gas Hydrates - Exploration, Production and Transportation), we aim to produce gas from methane hydrates and to sequester carbon dioxide from power plants and other industrial sources as CO2 hydrates in the same host sediments. Thus, the SUGAR project addresses two of the most pressing and challenging topics of our time: development of alternative energy strategies and greenhouse gas mitigation techniques. The SUGAR project is funded by two federal German ministries and the German industry for an initial period of three years. In the framework of this project new technologies starting from gas hydrate exploration techniques over drilling technologies and innovative gas production methods to CO2 storage in gas hydrates and gas transportation technologies will be developed and tested. Beside the performance of experiments, numerical simulation studies will generate data regarding the methane production and CO2 sequestration in the natural environment. Reservoir modelling with respect to gas hydrate formation and development of migration pathways complete the project. This contribution will give detailed information about the planned project parts and first results with focus on the production methods.

  7. Risks in the transport and storage of liquefied natural gas. Sub-project 5-2: Investigation into building damage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gouwens, C.; Dragosavic, M.

    The large reserves and increasing use of natural gas as a source of energy have resulted in its storage and transport becoming an urgent problem. Since a liquid of the same mass occupies only a fraction of the volume of a gas, it is economical to store natural gas as a liquid. Liquefied natural gas is stored in insulated tanks and also carried by ship at a temperature of -160 C to 170 C. If a serious accident allows the LNG to escape, a gas cloud forms. The results of a possible explosion from such a gas cloud are studied. The development of a leak, escape and evaporation, size and propagation of the gas cloud, the explosive pressures to be expected and the results on the environment are investigated. Damage to buildings is examined making use of the preliminary conclusions of the other sub-projects and especially the explosive pressures.

  8. Natural Gas Emergencies

    MedlinePlus

    Natural Gas Emergencies Extinguish cigarettes and do not light matches. You can help prevent natural gas emergencies by calling the utility locator service ... Health through the Cities Readiness Initiative (CRI) English – Natural Gas Emergencies - Last reviewed 2014

  9. Greenhouse Emission Reductions and Natural Gas Vehicles: A Resource Guide on Technology Options and Project Development

    SciTech Connect

    Orestes Anastasia; NAncy Checklick; Vivianne Couts; Julie Doherty; Jette Findsen; Laura Gehlin; Josh Radoff

    2002-09-01

    Accurate and verifiable emission reductions are a function of the degree of transparency and stringency of the protocols employed in documenting project- or program-associated emissions reductions. The purpose of this guide is to provide a background for law and policy makers, urban planners, and project developers working with the many Greenhouse Gas (GHG) emission reduction programs throughout the world to quantify and/or evaluate the GHG impacts of Natural Gas Vehicle (NGVs). In order to evaluate the GHG benefits and/or penalties of NGV projects, it is necessary to first gain a fundamental understanding of the technology employed and the operating characteristics of these vehicles, especially with regard to the manner in which they compare to similar conventional gasoline or diesel vehicles. Therefore, the first two sections of this paper explain the basic technology and functionality of NGVs, but focus on evaluating the models that are currently on the market with their similar conventional counterparts, including characteristics such as cost, performance, efficiency, environmental attributes, and range. Since the increased use of NGVs, along with Alternative Fuel Vehicle (AFVs) in general, represents a public good with many social benefits at the local, national, and global levels, NGVs often receive significant attention in the form of legislative and programmatic support. Some states mandate the use of NGVs, while others provide financial incentives to promote their procurement and use. Furthermore, Federal legislation in the form of tax incentives or procurement requirements can have a significant impact on the NGV market. In order to implement effective legislation or programs, it is vital to have an understanding of the different programs and activities that already exist so that a new project focusing on GHG emission reduction can successfully interact with and build on the experience and lessons learned of those that preceded it. Finally, most programs

  10. The ROSELEND-Gas Project: Research On Solicitation Effects in a Large-scale Experiment under Natural Dynamics with Gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pili, E.; Richon, P.; Moreira, M.; Agrinier, P.; Sabroux, J.; Adler, P. M.; Queisser, M.

    2008-12-01

    project in the Roselend URL focuses on gases. It aims at understanding the origin and dynamics of natural gas sources, as well as the transfer mechanisms of gases from the tunnel toward the atmosphere through the unsaturated fractured rocks. This research program is of interest for the understanding natural emissions of greenhouse gases, the design of surface monitoring technologies for baseline determination and leakage detection in the framework of CO2 sequestration, as well as for improving tools for detection of concealed nuclear tests in the framework of the CTBT. At the Roselend site, CO2 is naturally produced in soils by plant and microbiological activity and in rocks by carbonate dissolution promoted by protons gained from pyrite oxidation upon water infiltration. Radon is emitted from rocks and transported through fractures. Naturally occurring CO2 and radon will be used as tracers in addition with an artificial mixture of noble gases. Tracers will be injected from an isolated section of the tunnel. High-frequency sampling will be followed by classical laboratory gas analyses (elemental and isotopic), and will be completed with high-resolution field monitoring, including the determination of the carbon isotope ratio in CO2 by diode-laser spectrometry.

  11. NATURAL GAS HYDRATES STORAGE PROJECT PHASE II. CONCEPTUAL DESIGN AND ECONOMIC STUDY

    SciTech Connect

    R.E. Rogers

    1999-09-27

    DOE Contract DE-AC26-97FT33203 studied feasibility of utilizing the natural-gas storage property of gas hydrates, so abundantly demonstrated in nature, as an economical industrial process to allow expanded use of the clean-burning fuel in power plants. The laboratory work achieved breakthroughs: (1) Gas hydrates were found to form orders of magnitude faster in an unstirred system with surfactant-water micellar solutions. (2) Hydrate particles were found to self-pack by adsorption on cold metal surfaces from the micellar solutions. (3) Interstitial micellar-water of the packed particles were found to continue forming hydrates. (4) Aluminum surfaces were found to most actively collect the hydrate particles. These laboratory developments were the bases of a conceptual design for a large-scale process where simplification enhances economy. In the design, hydrates form, store, and decompose in the same tank in which gas is pressurized to 550 psi above unstirred micellar solution, chilled by a brine circulating through a bank of aluminum tubing in the tank employing gas-fired refrigeration. Hydrates form on aluminum plates suspended in the chilled micellar solution. A low-grade heat source, such as 110 F water of a power plant, circulates through the tubing bank to release stored gas. The design allows a formation/storage/decomposition cycle in a 24-hour period of 2,254,000 scf of natural gas; the capability of multiple cycles is an advantage of the process. The development costs and the user costs of storing natural gas in a scaled hydrate process were estimated to be competitive with conventional storage means if multiple cycles of hydrate storage were used. If more than 54 cycles/year were used, hydrate development costs per Mscf would be better than development costs of depleted reservoir storage; above 125 cycles/year, hydrate user costs would be lower than user costs of depleted reservoir storage.

  12. Natural Gas Monthly

    EIA Publications

    2017-01-01

    Highlights activities, events, and analyses associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer related activities and underground storage data are also reported.

  13. Natural gas annual 1996

    SciTech Connect

    1997-09-01

    This document provides information on the supply and disposition of natural gas to a wide audience. The 1996 data are presented in a sequence that follows natural gas from it`s production to it`s end use.

  14. Natural gas annual 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1996-11-01

    The Natural Gas Annual provides information on the supply and disposition of natural gas to a wide audience including industry, consumers, Federal and State agencies, and educational institutions. The 1995 data are presented in a sequence that follows natural gas (including supplemental supplies) from its production to its end use. This is followed by tables summarizing natural gas supply and disposition from 1991 to 1995 for each Census Division and each State. Annual historical data are shown at the national level.

  15. Natural gas annual 1994

    SciTech Connect

    1995-11-17

    The Natural Gas Annual provides information on the supply and disposition of natural gas to a wide audience including industry, consumers, Federal and State agencies, and educational institutions. The 1994 data are presented in a sequence that follows natural gas (including supplemental supplies) from its production to its end use. This is followed by tables summarizing natural gas supply and disposition from 1990 to 1994 for each Census Division and each State. Annual historical data are shown at the national level.

  16. Natural Gas Basics

    SciTech Connect

    2016-06-01

    Natural gas powers about 150,000 vehicles in the United States and roughly 22 million vehicles worldwide. Natural gas vehicles (NGVs) are a good choice for high-mileage fleets -- such as buses, taxis, and refuse vehicles -- that are centrally fueled or operate within a limited area or along a route with natural gas fueling stations. This brochure highlights the advantages of natural gas as an alternative fuel, including its domestic availability, established distribution network, relatively low cost, and emissions benefits.

  17. Natural Gas Basics

    SciTech Connect

    2016-06-08

    Natural gas powers about 150,000 vehicles in the United States and roughly 22 million vehicles worldwide. Natural gas vehicles (NGVs) are a good choice for high-mileage fleets -- such as buses, taxis, and refuse vehicles -- that are centrally fueled or operate within a limited area or along a route with natural gas fueling stations. This brochure highlights the advantages of natural gas as an alternative fuel, including its domestic availability, established distribution network, relatively low cost, and emissions benefits.

  18. Thermoacoustic natural gas liquefier

    SciTech Connect

    Swift, G.W.

    1997-05-01

    Cryenco and Los Alamos are collaborating to develop a natural-gas-powered natural-gas liquefier that will have no moving parts and require no electrical power. It will have useful efficiency, remarkable reliability, and low cost. The liquefaction of natural gas, which occurs at only 115 Kelvin at atmospheric pressure, has previously required rather sophisticated refrigeration machinery. The 1990 invention of the thermoacoustically driven orifice pulse-tube refrigerator (TA-DOPTR) provides cryogenic refrigeration with no moving parts for the first time. In short, this invention uses acoustic phenomena to produce refrigeration from heat. The required apparatus consists of nothing more than helium-filled heat exchangers and pipes, made of common materials, without exacting tolerances. In the Cryenco-Los Alamos collaboration, the authors are developing a version of this invention suitable for use in the natural-gas industry. The project is known as acoustic liquefier for short. The present program plans call for a two-phase development. Phase 1, with capacity of 500 gallon per day (i.e., approximately 40,000 scfd, requiring a refrigeration power of about 7 kW), is large enough to illuminate all the issues of large-scale acoustic liquefaction without undue cost, and to demonstrate the liquefaction of 60--70% of input gas, while burning 30--40%. Phase 2 will target versions of approximately 10{sup 6} scfd = 10,000 gallon per day capacity. In parallel with both, they continue fundamental research on the technology, directed toward increased efficiency, to build scientific foundations and a patent portfolio for future acoustic liquefiers.

  19. Review of the independent risk assessment of the proposed Cabrillo liquified natural gas deepwater port project.

    SciTech Connect

    Gritzo, Louis Alan; Hightower, Marion Michael; Covan, John Morgan; Luketa-Hanlin, Anay Josephine

    2006-01-01

    In March 2005, the United States Coast Guard requested that Sandia National Laboratories provide a technical review and evaluation of the appropriateness and completeness of models, assumptions, analyses, and risk management options presented in the Cabrillo Port LNG Deepwater Port Independent Risk Assessment-Revision 1 (Cabrillo Port IRA). The goal of Sandia's technical evaluation of the Cabrillo Port IRA was to assist the Coast Guard in ensuring that the hazards to the public and property from a potential LNG spill during transfer, storage, and regasification operations were appropriately evaluated and estimated. Sandia was asked to review and evaluate the Cabrillo Port IRA results relative to the risk and safety analysis framework developed in the recent Sandia report, ''Guidance on Risk Analysis and Safety Implications of a Large Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) Spill over Water''. That report provides a framework for assessing hazards and identifying approaches to minimize the consequences to people and property from an LNG spill over water. This report summarizes the results of the Sandia review of the Cabrillo Port IRA and supporting analyses. Based on our initial review, additional threat and hazard analyses, consequence modeling, and process safety considerations were suggested. The additional analyses recommended were conducted by the Cabrillo Port IRA authors in cooperation with Sandia and a technical review panel composed of representatives from the Coast Guard and the California State Lands Commission. The results from the additional analyses improved the understanding and confidence in the potential hazards and consequences to people and property from the proposed Cabrillo Port LNG Deepwater Port Project. The results of the Sandia review, the additional analyses and evaluations conducted, and the resolutions of suggested changes for inclusion in a final Cabrillo Port IRA are summarized in this report.

  20. Natural gas on an uptrend

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-01-01

    Supporting evidence for a Phillips Petroleum spokesman's argument that the natural gas market is cyclical also indicates that both gas production and international gas trade are increasing, with liquefied natural gas progressing the most rapidly. Most of the increase is consumed domestically, however, and international trade represents only about one sixth of the total growth. Over 75% of the internationally traded gas moves by pipeline, but there is disagreement over the future of a world market in gas. The recent settlement between Algeria and Spain and Britain's veto of a plan to import gas from Norway are significant. The author reviews gas developments in the Middle and Far East and in North and South America, and projects a slow recovery. 2 tables.

  1. Natural gas annual 1997

    SciTech Connect

    1998-10-01

    The Natural Gas Annual provides information on the supply and disposition of natural gas to a wide audience including industry, consumers, Federal and State agencies, and educational institutions. The 1997 data are presented in a sequence that follows natural gas (including supplemental supplies) from its production to its end use. This is followed by tables summarizing natural gas supply and disposition from 1993 to 1997 for each Census Division and each State. Annual historical data are shown at the national level. 27 figs., 109 tabs.

  2. Projecting Monthly Natural Gas Sales for Space Heating Using a Monthly Updated Model and Degree-days from Monthly Outlooks.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lehman, Richard L.; Warren, Henry E.

    1994-01-01

    The problem of projecting monthly residential natural gas sales and evaluating interannual changes in demand is investigated using a linear regression model adjusted monthly. with lagged monthly heating degree-days as the independent variable. The relationship between sales and degree-day data for customers of Columbia Gas Company (serving the Columbus, Ohio, area) is studied for a 20-yr period ending in June 1990. Analysis of the phases of the monthly billed sales and the degree-day data indicated that monthly sales reports lagged degree-days and gas consumption by 15 days on average. Running 12-month regressions of Columbia Gas sales on 15-day-lagged degree-days show that lagged degree-days explain, on average, 97% of the variability in the monthly sales reports for the study years. Annualized trends in the regression coefficients indicate changes in consumption due to conservation and changes in price. Since 1974 75 the trends indicate declines of 50% in non-weather- sensitive sales per customer, and 35% in monthly sales per degree-day per customer, with most of the changes occurring prior to 1985. The mode is adapted by using a regression equation based on historical data through the prior 12 months with degree-days as the independent variable. Estimates for sales in the coming period are based on official National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) monthly temperature outlooks (outlooks) for the Columbus region. For comparison purposes, four lagged monthly degree-day sets are used in a model: 1) a set of degree-day normals, 2) a set of 100% projected degree-day values obtained by use of NOAA outlooks, 3) a set in which the first half of the degree-days in each monthly period are observations and the second half are projected, and 4) a set that is 100% observed (the perfect case). The skill of the degree-day sets for projecting monthly sales is evaluated by a statistical analysis of the projection errors (differences between projected and reported

  3. Natural gas applications in waste management

    SciTech Connect

    Tarman, P.B.

    1991-01-01

    The Institute of Gas Technology (IGT) is engaged in several projects related to the use of natural gas for waste management. These projects can be classified into four categories: cyclonic incineration of gaseous, liquid, and solid wastes; fluidized-bed reclamation of solid wastes; two-stage incineration of liquid and solid wastes; natural gas injection for emissions control. 5 refs., 8 figs.

  4. Natural gas monthly

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-12-01

    This report presents data on the supply and disposition of natural gas in the USA during August 1982, as well as data on production, storage, imports, exports, and consumption. Selected data are also presented on the activities of the major interstate pipeline companies. Marketed production of natural gas decreased 18.2% during August 1982, compared to August 1981, from 1706 billion cubic feet (Bcf) to 1471 Bcf. Consumption during the same period declined as well, from 1314 Bcf to 1153 Bcf. Commencing with this issue of the Natural Gas Monthly (NGM), estimates of marketed production are provided for two more recent months, September and October. Volumes of natural gas in storage continue to run slightly ahead of year-ago levels. The volume of natural gas purchased from producers and imported by major interstate natural gas pipeline companies continues to decline. In August 1981, 864 Bcf were purchased from producers, compared to 793 Bcf in August 1982. Imports during the same period declined from 62 Bcf to 46 Bcf. Applications for determination of a maximum lawful price under the Natural Gas Policy Act (NGPA) showed a significant increase between September and October 1982. The increase occurred principally for Section 103 classification wells (new onshore production wells), and for Section 107 classification wells (high-cost natural gas).

  5. Natural gas supply through 1985

    SciTech Connect

    Thrasher, R.

    1982-02-01

    This report presents forecasts of natural gas production through the year 1985. A number of scenarios, including continuation of the Natural Gas Policy Act of 1978 (NGPA), are examined. The forecasting methodology is also discussed. Under a continuation of the NGPA, marketed production of dry natural gas is projected to decline from 19.5 trillion cubic feet (Tcf) in 1980 to 18.1 Tcf in 1984. The production increase in 1979 following passage of the NGPA is attributed to increased access to, and utilization of, excess productive capacity in the intrastate market (the gas bubble). This occurrence is a one-time increase and not the start of a trend. The production forecast for natural gas has been adversely affected by the recent increases in oil prices. At an oil price of $15.00/Bbl, the 1984 production forecast would be 18.8 Tcf. The lower gas production forecast under current oil prices is due to increased competition for drilling rigs and other resources used for exploration for both oil and gas. If deregulation of natural gas prices occurs in 1982, production could be much higher, depending on the price obtained. At a constant price of $4.00/Mcf, annual production is forecast to hold fairly constant, at least through 1985, at about 19.1 Tcf. An important uncertainty in forecasting gas production concerns the finding rate, the ratio of gas reserve additions to exploratory drilling. for the years 1977 to 1979, the American Gas Association (AGA) reports 30 Tcf of nonassociated natural gas discoveries (new fields, new reservoirs, and extensions of old reservoirs), while the Energy Information Administration (EIA) reports 43 Tcf, which is about 40% more. Until this uncertainty regarding the effectiveness of current exploratory efforts is resolved, a wide range of gas supply forecasts must be considered reasonable.

  6. The modeling of a laboratory natural gas-fired furnace with a higher-order projection method for unsteady combustion

    SciTech Connect

    Pember, R.B.; Colella, P.; Howell, L.H.; Almgren, A.S.

    1996-02-01

    A higher-order, embedded boundary projection method for axisymmetric, unsteady, low-Mach number combustion is used to model a natural gas flame from a 300 kW IFRF burner in the Burner Engineering Research Laboratory (BERL) at Sandia National Laboratory under hot wall conditions. The numerical predictions presented are the late simulated-time results of a computation of unsteady flow in the furnace. The predictions are compared both with measurements completed in the BERL as part of the GRI SCALING 400 Project and with results from a steady-state axisymmetric reacting flow code in order to evaluate the combustion model and the numerical method. The results compare favorably with the experimental data.

  7. Safer Liquid Natural Gas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    After the disaster of Staten Island in 1973 where 40 people were killed repairing a liquid natural gas storage tank, the New York Fire Commissioner requested NASA's help in drawing up a comprehensive plan to cover the design, construction, and operation of liquid natural gas facilities. Two programs are underway. The first transfers comprehensive risk management techniques and procedures which take the form of an instruction document that includes determining liquid-gas risks through engineering analysis and tests, controlling these risks by setting up redundant fail safe techniques, and establishing criteria calling for decisions that eliminate or accept certain risks. The second program prepares a liquid gas safety manual (the first of its kind).

  8. Costs and Financial Risks of Certain Liquefied Natural Gas Import Projects to U.S. Taxpayers and Gas Consumers.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-10-19

    project and write down its investment in LNG facilities to a realizable value . Southern, Consolidated, and Columbia, however, are continuing to...abandon its LNG project, it wrote down its assets to what it considered their net realizable value . El Paso’s 1980 financial statements show that, before

  9. Future natural gas supplies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Despite recent optimism about the outlook for the future supply of domestic conventional natural gas, the Congressional Office of Technology Assessment (OTA) finds insufficient evidence to clearly justify either an optimistic or a pessimistic view. In a technical memorandum entitled “U.S. Natural Gas Availability: Conventional Gas Supply Through the Year 2000,” released recently by Rep. Philip R. Sharp (D-Ind,), chairman of the Subcommittee on Fossil and Synthetic Fuels of the Committee on Energy and Commerce, OTA concluded that substantial technical uncertainties prevented a reliable estimation of the likely natural gas production rates for later in this century. Even ignoring the potential for significant changes in gas prices and technology, OTA estimated that conventional gas production by the lower 48 states in the year 2000 could range from 9 to 19 trillion cubic feet (TCF) (0.25 to 0.53 trillion cubic meters), compared to 1982 production of 17.5 TCF. Similarly, production in the year 1990 could range from 13 to 20 TCF.

  10. DoD’s Compressed Natural Gas Filling Station in Afghanistan: An Ill-conceived $43 Million Project

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-10-01

    Special Inspector General for Afghanistan Reconstruction,2530 Crystal Drive,Arlington,VA,22202 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBER 9. SPONSORING...draft Speeial lnspector General for Afghanistan Reconstruction (SIGAR) report , "DOD’s Compressed Natural Gas Filling Station in Afghanistan: An...SIGAR Special Inspector General for Afghanistan Reconstruction DOD’S COMPRESSED NATURAL GAS FILLING STATION IN AFGHANISTAN: AN ILL

  11. Targeted technology applications for infield reserve growth: A synopsis of the Secondary Natural Gas Recovery project, Gulf Coast Basin. Topical report, September 1988--April 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Levey, R.A.; Finley, R.J.; Hardage, B.A.

    1994-06-01

    The Secondary Natural Gas Recovery (SGR): Targeted Technology Applications for Infield Reserve Growth is a joint venture research project sponsored by the Gas Research Institute (GRI), the US Department of Energy (DOE), the State of Texas through the Bureau of Economic Geology at The University of Texas at Austin, with the cofunding and cooperation of the natural gas industry. The SGR project is a field-based program using an integrated multidisciplinary approach that integrates geology, geophysics, engineering, and petrophysics. A major objective of this research project is to develop, test, and verify those technologies and methodologies that have near- to mid-term potential for maximizing recovery of gas from conventional reservoirs in known fields. Natural gas reservoirs in the Gulf Coast Basin are targeted as data-rich, field-based models for evaluating infield development. The SGR research program focuses on sandstone-dominated reservoirs in fluvial-deltaic plays within the onshore Gulf Coast Basin of Texas. The primary project research objectives are: To establish how depositional and diagenetic heterogeneities cause, even in reservoirs of conventional permeability, reservoir compartmentalization and hence incomplete recovery of natural gas. To document examples of reserve growth occurrence and potential from fluvial and deltaic sandstones of the Texas Gulf Coast Basin as a natural laboratory for developing concepts and testing applications. To demonstrate how the integration of geology, reservoir engineering, geophysics, and well log analysis/petrophysics leads to strategic recompletion and well placement opportunities for reserve growth in mature fields.

  12. Screening Assessment of Potential Human-Health Risk from Future Natural-Gas Drilling Near Project Rulison in Western Colorado

    SciTech Connect

    Daniels Jeffrey I.,Chapman Jenny B.

    2012-01-01

    The Project Rulison underground nuclear test was conducted in 1969 at a depth of 8,400 ft in the Williams Fork Formation of the Piceance Basin, west-central Colorado (Figure 1). The U.S. Department of Energy Office of Legacy Management (LM) is the steward of the site. Their management is guided by data collected from past site investigations and current monitoring, and by the results of calculations of expected behavior of contaminants remaining in the deep subsurface. The purpose of this screening risk assessment is to evaluate possible health risks from current and future exposure to Rulison contaminants so the information can be factored into LM's stewardship decisions. For example, these risk assessment results can inform decisions regarding institutional controls at the site and appropriate monitoring of nearby natural-gas extraction activities. Specifically, the screening risk analysis can provide guidance for setting appropriate action levels for contaminant monitoring to ensure protection of human health.

  13. Natural Gas Pipeline and System Expansions

    EIA Publications

    1997-01-01

    This special report examines recent expansions to the North American natural gas pipeline network and the nature and type of proposed pipeline projects announced or approved for construction during the next several years in the United States. It includes those projects in Canada and Mexico that tie in with U.S. markets or projects.

  14. Natural Gas Annual

    EIA Publications

    2016-01-01

    Provides information on the supply and disposition of natural gas in the United States. Production, transmission, storage, deliveries, and price data are published by state for the current year. Summary data are presented for each state for the previous 5 years.

  15. US crude oil, natural gas, and natural gas liquids reserves

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-10-05

    This report presents estimates of proved reserves of crude oil, natural gas, and natural gas liquids as of December 31, 1989, and production volumes for the year 1989 for the total United States and for selected states and state sub-divisions. Estimates are presented for the following four categories of natural gas: total gas (wet after lease separation), its two major components (nonassociated and associated-dissolved gas), and total dry gas (wet gas adjusted for the removal of liquids at natural gas processing plants). In addition, two components of natural gas liquids, lease condensate and natural gas plant liquids, have their reserves and production reported separately. Also included is information on indicated additional crude oil reserves and crude oil, natural gas, and lease condensate reserves in nonproducing reservoirs. 28 refs., 9 figs., 15 tabs.

  16. Natural gas marketing and transportation

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-01-01

    This book covers: Overview of the natural gas industry; Federal regulation of marketing and transportation; State regulation of transportation; Fundamentals of gas marketing contracts; Gas marketing options and strategies; End user agreements; Transportation on interstate pipelines; Administration of natural gas contracts; Structuring transactions with the nonconventional source fuels credit; Take-or-pay wars- a cautionary analysis for the future; Antitrust pitfalls in the natural gas industry; Producer imbalances; Natural gas futures for the complete novice; State non-utility regulation of production, transportation and marketing; Natural gas processing agreements and Disproportionate sales, gas balancing, and accounting to royalty owners.

  17. Nitrogen removal from natural gas

    SciTech Connect

    1997-04-01

    According to a 1991 Energy Information Administration estimate, U.S. reserves of natural gas are about 165 trillion cubic feet (TCF). To meet the long-term demand for natural gas, new gas fields from these reserves will have to be developed. Gas Research Institute studies reveal that 14% (or about 19 TCF) of known reserves in the United States are subquality due to high nitrogen content. Nitrogen-contaminated natural gas has a low Btu value and must be upgraded by removing the nitrogen. In response to the problem, the Department of Energy is seeking innovative, efficient nitrogen-removal methods. Membrane processes have been considered for natural gas denitrogenation. The challenge, not yet overcome, is to develop membranes with the required nitrogen/methane separation characteristics. Our calculations show that a methane-permeable membrane with a methane/nitrogen selectivity of 4 to 6 would make denitrogenation by a membrane process viable. The objective of Phase I of this project was to show that membranes with this target selectivity can be developed, and that the economics of the process based on these membranes would be competitive. Gas permeation measurements with membranes prepared from two rubbery polymers and a superglassy polymer showed that two of these materials had the target selectivity of 4 to 6 when operated at temperatures below - 20{degrees}C. An economic analysis showed that a process based on these membranes is competitive with other technologies for small streams containing less than 10% nitrogen. Hybrid designs combining membranes with other technologies are suitable for high-flow, higher-nitrogen-content streams.

  18. Natural gas monthly, April 1999

    SciTech Connect

    1999-05-06

    The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information. There are two feature articles in this issue: Natural gas 1998: Issues and trends, Executive summary; and Special report: Natural gas 1998: A preliminary summary. 6 figs., 28 tabs.

  19. Determination and maintenance of DE minimis risk for migration of residual tritium (3H) from the 1969 Project Rulison nuclear test to nearby hydraulically fractured natural gas wells.

    PubMed

    Daniels, Jeffrey I; Chapman, Jenny B

    2013-05-01

    The Project Rulison underground nuclear test was a proof-of-concept experiment that was conducted under the Plowshare Program in 1969 in the Williams Fork Formation of the Piceance Basin in west-central Colorado. Today, commercial production of natural gas is possible from low permeability, natural gas bearing formations like that of the Williams Fork Formation using modern hydraulic fracturing techniques. With natural gas exploration and production active in the Project Rulison area, this human health risk assessment was performed in order to add a human health perspective for site stewardship. Tritium (H) is the radionuclide of concern with respect to potential induced migration from the test cavity leading to subsequent exposure during gas-flaring activities. This analysis assumes gas flaring would occur for up to 30 d and produce atmospheric H activity concentrations either as low as 2.2 × 10 Bq m (6 × 10 pCi m) from the minimum detectable activity concentration in produced water or as high as 20.7 Bq m (560 pCi m), which equals the highest atmospheric measurement reported during gas-flaring operations conducted at the time of Project Rulison. The lifetime morbidity (fatal and nonfatal) cancer risks calculated for adults (residents and workers) and children (residents) from inhalation and dermal exposures to such activity concentrations are all below 1 × 10 and considered de minimis. The implications for monitoring production water for conforming health-protective, risk-based action levels also are examined.

  20. Natural gas monthly, July 1997

    SciTech Connect

    1997-07-01

    The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information. The feature article this month is entitled ``Intricate puzzle of oil and gas reserves growth.`` A special report is included on revisions to monthly natural gas data. 6 figs., 24 tabs.

  1. Natural gas monthly, September 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-09-27

    The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) is prepared in the Data Operations Branch of the Reserves and Natural Gas Division, Office of Oil and Gas, Energy Information Administration (EIA), US Department of Energy (DOE). The NGM highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information.

  2. Natural gas monthly, August 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-08-25

    The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) is prepared in the Data Operations Branch of the Reserves and Natural Gas Division, Office of Oil and Gas, Energy Information Administration (EIA), US Department of Energy (DOE). The NGM highhghts activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information.

  3. Natural Gas Exports from Iran

    EIA Publications

    2012-01-01

    This assessment of the natural gas sector in Iran, with a focus on Iran’s natural gas exports, was prepared pursuant to section 505 (a) of the Iran Threat Reduction and Syria Human Rights Act of 2012 (Public Law No: 112-158). As requested, it includes: (1) an assessment of exports of natural gas from Iran; (2) an identification of the countries that purchase the most natural gas from Iran; (3) an assessment of alternative supplies of natural gas available to those countries; (4) an assessment of the impact a reduction in exports of natural gas from Iran would have on global natural gas supplies and the price of natural gas, especially in countries identified under number (2); and (5) such other information as the Administrator considers appropriate.

  4. Natural gas monthly, June 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-06-22

    The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information.

  5. Natural gas monthly, June 1999

    SciTech Connect

    1999-06-01

    The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information. 6 figs., 25 tabs.

  6. Natural gas monthly, November 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-11-29

    The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground state data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information.

  7. Natural gas monthly: December 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-12-01

    The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. Articles are included which are designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information.

  8. Natural gas monthly, April 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1995-04-27

    The Natural Gas Monthly highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information. 6 figs., 31 tabs.

  9. Natural gas monthly, September 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1995-09-27

    The (NGM) Natural Gas Monthly highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information.

  10. Natural gas monthly, July 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-07-27

    The Natural Gas Monthly NGM highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information.

  11. Natural gas monthly, July 1998

    SciTech Connect

    1998-07-01

    The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information. 6 figs., 25 tabs.

  12. Natural gas monthly, May 1999

    SciTech Connect

    1999-05-01

    The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information. 6 figs., 27 tabs.

  13. Natural gas monthly, August 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-08-24

    The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information.

  14. Natural gas monthly: September 1996

    SciTech Connect

    1996-09-01

    The Natural Gas Monthly highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information. 6 figs., 24 tabs.

  15. Natural gas monthly, July 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-07-20

    The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information.

  16. Natural gas monthly, February 1999

    SciTech Connect

    1999-02-01

    The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. 6 figs., 28 tabs.

  17. Natural gas monthly, November 1998

    SciTech Connect

    1998-11-01

    The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. 6 figs., 27 tabs.

  18. Natural gas monthly, January 1999

    SciTech Connect

    1999-02-01

    The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. 6 figs., 28 tabs.

  19. Natural gas monthly, December 1998

    SciTech Connect

    1998-12-01

    The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. 6 figs., 28 tabs.

  20. Thermoacoustic natural gas liquefier

    SciTech Connect

    Swift, G.W.

    1995-06-01

    In collaboration with Cryenco Inc. and NIST-Boulder, we intend to develop a natural gas-powered natural-gas liquefier which has absolutely no moving parts and requires no electrical power. It will have high efficiency, remarkable reliability, and low cost. Progress on the liquefier to be constructed at Cryenco continues satisfactorily. The thermoacoustic driver is still ahead of the pulse tube refrigerator, because of NIST`s schedule. We completed the thermoacoustics design in the fall of 1994, with Los Alamos providing physics input and checks of all aspects, and Cryenco providing engineering to ASME code, drafting, etc. Completion of this design represents a significant amount of work, especially in view of the many unexpected problems encountered. Meanwhile, Cryenco and NIST have almost completed the design of the pulse tube refrigerator. At Los Alamos, we have assembled a half-size scale model of the thermoacoustic portion of the 500 gal/day TANGL. This scale model will enable easy experimentation in harmonic suppression techniques, new stack geometries, new heat-exchanger geometries, resonator coiling, and other areas. As of March 1995, the scale model is complete and we are performing routine debugging tests and modifications.

  1. Natural gas monthly, April 1997

    SciTech Connect

    1997-04-01

    The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are present3ed each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information. The feature article is entitled ``Natural gas pipeline and system expansions.`` 6 figs., 27 tabs.

  2. Natural gas monthly, June 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1995-06-21

    The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information. This month feature is on the value of underground storage in today`s natural gas industry.

  3. Natural gas monthly, May 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-05-25

    The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information. The featured articles for this month are: Opportunities with fuel cells, and revisions to monthly natural gas data.

  4. Natural gas monthly, August 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1995-08-24

    The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information. This month`s feature article is on US Natural Gas Imports and Exports 1994.

  5. Natural gas monthly, June 1996

    SciTech Connect

    1996-06-24

    The natural gas monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information. The feature article for this month is Natural Gas Industry Restructuring and EIA Data Collection.

  6. Natural gas monthly, October 1997

    SciTech Connect

    1997-10-01

    The Natural Gas Monthly highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information. The feature article in this issue is a special report, ``Comparison of Natural Gas Storage Estimates from the EIA and AGA.`` 6 figs., 26 tabs.

  7. Natural gas monthly, June 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-06-01

    The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information. The feature article this month is the executive summary from Natural Gas 1994: Issues and Trends. 6 figs., 31 tabs.

  8. Natural gas monthly, May 1997

    SciTech Connect

    1997-05-01

    The Natural Gas Monthly highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information. The feature article this month is ``Restructuring energy industries: Lessons from natural gas.`` 6 figs., 26 tabs.

  9. Natural gas monthly, November 1996

    SciTech Connect

    1996-11-01

    The report highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the Natural Gas Monthly features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information. The feature article this month is ``US natural gas imports and exports-1995``. 6 figs., 24 tabs.

  10. Natural gas monthly, December 1997

    SciTech Connect

    1997-12-01

    The Natural Gas Monthly highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information. The article this month is entitled ``Recent Trends in Natural Gas Spot Prices.`` 6 figs., 27 tabs.

  11. Natural Gas Monthly, October 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-11-10

    The (NGM) Natural Gas Monthly highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information. This month`s feature articles are: US Production of Natural Gas from Tight Reservoirs: and Expanding Rule of Underground Storage.

  12. Natural gas demand surges among European customers

    SciTech Connect

    Knott, D.

    1993-12-27

    Europe's view of natural gas as a clean fuel is driving demand faster than European producers can supply the fuel. By 2010 European gas demand is expected to rise by 50%, so imports will need to rise in step. There are plenty of gas reserves within and in reach of the European market to meet increasing needs. But current low gas prices in Europe are a barrier to development of gas projects, which are large, long term investments. Meanwhile, the structure of Europe and its gas markets is changing. There is a trend to privatization and uncertainty over the future role of state gas monopolies. The paper discusses European production, natural gas as a primary energy source, gas sources, price requirements, megaprojects, the Middle East promise, new infrastructure, power generation, privatization, and third party access.

  13. Natural gas monthly, April 1998

    SciTech Connect

    1998-04-01

    This issue of the Natural Gas Monthly presents the most recent estimates of natural gas data from the Energy Information Administration (EIA). Estimates extend through April 1998 for many data series. The report highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, feature articles are presented designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information. This issue contains the special report, ``Natural Gas 1997: A Preliminary Summary.`` This report provides information on natural gas supply and disposition for the year 1997, based on monthly data through December from EIA surveys. 6 figs., 28 tabs.

  14. Natural gas monthly, April 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-04-26

    The National Gas Monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information.

  15. Expansion of the U.S. Natural Gas Pipeline Network

    EIA Publications

    2009-01-01

    Additions in 2008 and Projects through 2011. This report examines new natural gas pipeline capacity added to the U.S. natural gas pipeline system during 2008. In addition, it discusses and analyzes proposed natural gas pipeline projects that may be developed between 2009 and 2011, and the market factors supporting these initiatives.

  16. GAS/LIQUID MEMBRANES FOR NATURAL GAS UPGRADING

    SciTech Connect

    Howard S. Meyer

    2002-06-01

    A new project was initiated this quarter to develop gas/liquid membranes for natural gas upgrading. Efforts have concentrated on legal agreements, including alternative field sites. Gas Technology Institute (GTI) is conducting this research program whose objective is to develop gas/liquid membranes for natural gas upgrading to assist DOE in achieving their goal of developing novel methods of upgrading low quality natural gas to meet pipeline specifications. Kvaerner Process Systems (KPS) and W. L. Gore & Associates (GORE) gas/liquid membrane contactors are based on expanded polytetrafluoroethylene (ePTFE) membranes acting as the contacting barrier between the contaminated gas stream and the absorbing liquid. These resilient membranes provide much greater surface area for transfer than other tower internals, with packing densities five to ten times greater, resulting in equipment 50-70% smaller and lower weight for the same treating service. The scope of the research program is to (1) build and install a laboratory- and a field-scale gas/liquid membrane absorber; (2) operate the units with a low quality natural gas feed stream for sufficient time to verify the simulation model of the contactors and to project membrane life in this severe service; and (3) conducted an economic evaluation, based on the data, to quantify the impact of the technology. Chevron, one of the major producers of natural gas, has offered to host the test at a gas treating plant. KPS will use their position as a recognized leader in the construction of commercial amine plants for building the unit along with GORE providing the membranes. GTI will provide operator and data collection support during lab- and field-testing to assure proper analytical procedures are used. Kvaerner and GTI will perform the final economic evaluation. GTI will provide project management and be responsible for reporting and interactions with DOE on this project.

  17. Liquefied Natural Gas Transfer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    Chicago Bridge & Iron Company's tanks and associated piping are parts of system for transferring liquefied natural gas from ship to shore and storing it. LNG is a "cryogenic" fluid meaning that it must be contained and transferred at very low temperatures, about 260 degrees below Fahrenheit. Before the LNG can be pumped from the ship to the storage tanks, the two foot diameter transfer pipes must be cooled in order to avoid difficulties associated with sharp differences of temperature between the supercold fluid and relatively warm pipes. Cooldown is accomplished by sending small steady flow of the cryogenic substance through the pipeline; the rate of flow must be precisely controlled or the transfer line will be subjected to undesirable thermal stress.

  18. Natural gas conversion process

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-01-01

    The experimental apparatus was dismantled and transferred to a laboratory space provided by Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL) which is already equipped with a high-ventilation fume hood. This will enable us to make tests at higher gas flow rates in a safe environment. Three papers presented at the ACS meeting in San Francisco (Symposium on Natural Gas Upgrading II) April 5--10, 1992 show that the goal of direct catalytic conversion of Methane into heavier Hydrocarbons in a reducing atmosphere is actively pursued in three other different laboratories. There are similarities in their general concept with our own approach, but the temperature range of the experiments reported in these recent papers is much lower and this leads to uneconomic conversion rates. This illustrates the advantages of Methane activation by a Hydrogen plasma to reach commercial conversion rates. A preliminary process flow diagram was established for the Integrated Process, which was outlined in the previous Quarterly Report. The flow diagram also includes all the required auxiliary facilities for product separation and recycle of the unconverted feed as well as for the preparation and compression of the Syngas by-product.

  19. Unnatural monopoly: natural gas industry

    SciTech Connect

    Copulos, M.

    1984-07-01

    There appears to be no change in position despite the annual congressional debate over natural gas issues. A fresh look is needed, particularly at the idea that interstate gas pipelines are a natural monopoly that require a government franchise. The Natural Gas Act of 1938 giving the Federal Power Commission jurisdiction over gas pipelines was intended to correct abuses, but resulted in encouraging the pipelines to assume a monopolistic behavior. This was not a serous problem until natural gas prices began rising and shortages appeared due to uneven distribution. The Natural Gas Policy Act reinforced the monopolistic behavior by extending federal controls to the intrastate market. Contract carriage is a remedy that would allow firms and utilities to contract for gas on their own. They would pay pipelines for transport costs only. Competition would increase because there would be new buyers and sellers, and pipelines would have an incentive to seek lower wellhead prices for their contract gas.

  20. Energy resource potential of natural gas hydrates

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Collett, T.S.

    2002-01-01

    The discovery of large gas hydrate accumulations in terrestrial permafrost regions of the Arctic and beneath the sea along the outer continental margins of the world's oceans has heightened interest in gas hydrates as a possible energy resource. However, significant to potentially insurmountable technical issues must be resolved before gas hydrates can be considered a viable option for affordable supplies of natural gas. The combined information from Arctic gas hydrate studies shows that, in permafrost regions, gas hydrates may exist at subsurface depths ranging from about 130 to 2000 m. The presence of gas hydrates in offshore continental margins has been inferred mainly from anomalous seismic reflectors, known as bottom-simulating reflectors, that have been mapped at depths below the sea floor ranging from about 100 to 1100 m. Current estimates of the amount of gas in the world's marine and permafrost gas hydrate accumulations are in rough accord at about 20,000 trillion m3. Disagreements over fundamental issues such as the volume of gas stored within delineated gas hydrate accumulations and the concentration of gas hydrates within hydrate-bearing strata have demonstrated that we know little about gas hydrates. Recently, however, several countries, including Japan, India, and the United States, have launched ambitious national projects to further examine the resource potential of gas hydrates. These projects may help answer key questions dealing with the properties of gas hydrate reservoirs, the design of production systems, and, most important, the costs and economics of gas hydrate production.

  1. 75 FR 13524 - Northern Natural Gas Company, Southern Natural Gas Company, Florida Gas Transmission Company, LLC...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-22

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Northern Natural Gas Company, Southern Natural Gas Company, Florida Gas... of Application March 16, 2010. Take notice that on March 5, 2010, Northern Natural Gas Company... other owners, Southern Natural Gas Company, Florida Gas Transmission Company, LLC, Transcontinental...

  2. Natural gas monthly, February 1996

    SciTech Connect

    1996-03-01

    The NGM highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information.

  3. Natural gas monthly, October 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1995-10-23

    The Natural Gas Monthly highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. A glossary of the terms used in this report is provided to assist readers in understanding the data presented in this publication. 6 figs., 30 tabs.

  4. Natural gas monthly, May 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1995-05-24

    The NGM highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information.

  5. Natural gas monthly, February 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-02-25

    The NGM highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. The NGM also features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information.

  6. NITROGEN REMOVAL FROM NATURAL GAS

    SciTech Connect

    K.A. Lokhandwala; M.B. Ringer; T.T. Su; Z. He; I. Pinnau; J.G. Wijmans; A. Morisato; K. Amo; A. DaCosta; R.W. Baker; R. Olsen; H. Hassani; T. Rathkamp

    1999-12-31

    The objective of this project was to develop a membrane process for the denitrogenation of natural gas. Large proven reserves in the Lower-48 states cannot be produced because of the presence of nitrogen. To exploit these reserves, cost-effective, simple technology able to reduce the nitrogen content of the gas to 4-5% is required. Technology applicable to treatment of small gas streams (below 10 MMscfd) is particularly needed. In this project membranes that selectively permeate methane and reject nitrogen in the gas were developed. Preliminary calculations show that a membrane with a methane/nitrogen selectivity of 3 to 5 is required to make the process economically viable. A number of polymer materials likely to have the required selectivities were evaluated as composite membranes. Polyacetylenes such as poly(1-trimethylsilyl-1-propyne) [PTMSP] and poly(4-methyl-2-pentyne) [PMP] had high selectivities and fluxes, but membranes prepared from these polymers were not stable, showing decreasing flux and selectivity during tests lasting only a few hours. Parel, a poly(propylene oxide allyl glycidyl ether) had a selectivity of 3 at ambient temperatures and 4 or more at temperatures of {minus}20 C. However, Parel is no longer commercially available, and we were unable to find an equivalent material in the time available. Therefore, most of our experimental work focused on silicone rubber membranes, which have a selectivity of 2.5 at ambient temperatures, increasing to 3-4 at low temperatures. Silicone rubber composite membranes were evaluated in bench-scale module tests and with commercial-scale, 4-inch-diameter modules in a small pilot plant. Over six days of continuous operation at a feed gas temperature of {minus}5 to {minus}10 C, the membrane maintained a methane/nitrogen selectivity of about 3.3. Based on the pilot plant performance data, an analysis of the economic potential of the process was prepared. We conclude that a stand-alone membrane process is the lowest

  7. Natural gas conversion process

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-01-01

    The main objective is to design and operate a laboratory apparatus for the catalytic reforming of natural gas in order to provide data for a large-scale process. To accelerate the assembly and calibration of this equipment, a request has been made to the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory for assistance, under the DOE's Industrial Visitor Exchange Program. Pr. Heinz Heinemann (Catalysis), Dr. John Apps (Geochemistry) and Dr. Robert Fulton (Mechanical Engineering) have expressed interest in supporting our request. Pr. Heinemann's recent results on the conversion of Petroleum Coke residues into CO2 and H2 mixtures using highly basic metal oxides catalysts, similar to ours, are very encouraging regarding the possibility of converting the Coke residue on our catalyst into Syngas in the Regenerator/riser, as proposed. To minimize Coke formation in the vapor phase, by the Plasmapyrolytic Methane Conversion reactions, the experimental data of H. Drost et al. (Ref. 12) have been reviewed. Work is underway to design equipment for the safe and non-polluting disposal of the two gaseous product streams of the flow loop. 2 refs.

  8. Natural gas monthly, January 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-02-01

    The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information. The featured article for this month is on US coalbed methane production.

  9. Natural gas market under the Natural Gas Policy Act

    SciTech Connect

    Carlson, M.; Ody, N.; O'Neill, R.; Rodekohr, M.; Shambaugh, P.; Thrasher, R.; Trapmann, W.

    1981-06-01

    This first of a series of analyses presents data on the exploration, development, production, and pricing of US natural gas since the passage of the Natural Gas Policy Act in 1978. Designed to give pricing incentives for new-well activity, the NGPA has apparently eliminated many of the pricing differences that existed between interstate and intrastate markets. Estimates of the annual production volumes in trillion CF/yr of gas for the categories defined by the NGPA include new gas 4.5, new onshore wells 4.1, high-cost unconventional gas 0.7, and stripper wells 0.4. Preliminary statistics on the end-use pricing of natural gas suggest that significant changes in the average wellhead prices have not caused correspondingly large increases in the price of delivered gas.

  10. Natural gas leak mapper

    DOEpatents

    Reichardt, Thomas A.; Luong, Amy Khai; Kulp, Thomas J.; Devdas, Sanjay

    2008-05-20

    A system is described that is suitable for use in determining the location of leaks of gases having a background concentration. The system is a point-wise backscatter absorption gas measurement system that measures absorption and distance to each point of an image. The absorption measurement provides an indication of the total amount of a gas of interest, and the distance provides an estimate of the background concentration of gas. The distance is measured from the time-of-flight of laser pulse that is generated along with the absorption measurement light. The measurements are formated into an image of the presence of gas in excess of the background. Alternatively, an image of the scene is superimosed on the image of the gas to aid in locating leaks. By further modeling excess gas as a plume having a known concentration profile, the present system provides an estimate of the maximum concentration of the gas of interest.

  11. Natural gas monthly, October 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-11-05

    The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) is prepared in the Data Operations Branch of the Reserves and Natural Gas Division, Office of Oil and Gas, Energy Information Administration (EIA), US Department of Energy (DOE). The NGM highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. The data in this publication are collected on surveys conducted by the EIA to fulfill its responsibilities for gathering and reporting energy data. Some of the data are collected under the authority of the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC), an independent commission within the DOE, which has jurisdiction primarily in the regulation of electric utilities and the interstate natural gas industry. Geographic coverage is the 50 States and the District of Columbia. 16 figs., 33 tabs.

  12. Natural gas pipeline technology overview.

    SciTech Connect

    Folga, S. M.; Decision and Information Sciences

    2007-11-01

    The United States relies on natural gas for one-quarter of its energy needs. In 2001 alone, the nation consumed 21.5 trillion cubic feet of natural gas. A large portion of natural gas pipeline capacity within the United States is directed from major production areas in Texas and Louisiana, Wyoming, and other states to markets in the western, eastern, and midwestern regions of the country. In the past 10 years, increasing levels of gas from Canada have also been brought into these markets (EIA 2007). The United States has several major natural gas production basins and an extensive natural gas pipeline network, with almost 95% of U.S. natural gas imports coming from Canada. At present, the gas pipeline infrastructure is more developed between Canada and the United States than between Mexico and the United States. Gas flows from Canada to the United States through several major pipelines feeding U.S. markets in the Midwest, Northeast, Pacific Northwest, and California. Some key examples are the Alliance Pipeline, the Northern Border Pipeline, the Maritimes & Northeast Pipeline, the TransCanada Pipeline System, and Westcoast Energy pipelines. Major connections join Texas and northeastern Mexico, with additional connections to Arizona and between California and Baja California, Mexico (INGAA 2007). Of the natural gas consumed in the United States, 85% is produced domestically. Figure 1.1-1 shows the complex North American natural gas network. The pipeline transmission system--the 'interstate highway' for natural gas--consists of 180,000 miles of high-strength steel pipe varying in diameter, normally between 30 and 36 inches in diameter. The primary function of the transmission pipeline company is to move huge amounts of natural gas thousands of miles from producing regions to local natural gas utility delivery points. These delivery points, called 'city gate stations', are usually owned by distribution companies, although some are owned by transmission companies

  13. Natural gas vehicles : Status, barriers, and opportunities.

    SciTech Connect

    Rood Werpy, M.; Santini, D.; Burnham, A.; Mintz, M.; Energy Systems

    2010-11-29

    In the United States, recent shale gas discoveries have generated renewed interest in using natural gas as a vehicular fuel, primarily in fleet applications, while outside the United States, natural gas vehicle use has expanded significantly in the past decade. In this report for the U.S. Department of Energy's Clean Cities Program - a public-private partnership that advances the energy, economic, and environmental security of the U.S. by supporting local decisions that reduce petroleum use in the transportation sector - we have examined the state of natural gas vehicle technology, current market status, energy and environmental benefits, implications regarding advancements in European natural gas vehicle technologies, research and development efforts, and current market barriers and opportunities for greater market penetration. The authors contend that commercial intracity trucks are a prime area for advancement of this fuel. Therefore, we examined an aggressive future market penetration of natural gas heavy-duty vehicles that could be seen as a long-term goal. Under this scenario using Energy Information Administration projections and GREET life-cycle modeling of U.S. on-road heavy-duty use, natural gas vehicles would reduce petroleum consumption by approximately 1.2 million barrels of oil per day, while another 400,000 barrels of oil per day reduction could be achieved with significant use of natural gas off-road vehicles. This scenario would reduce daily oil consumption in the United States by about 8%.

  14. Natural gas monthly, February 1998

    SciTech Connect

    1998-02-01

    This issue of the Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) presents the most recent estimates of natural gas data from the Energy Information Administration. Estimates extend through February 1998 for many data series, and through November 1997 for most natural gas prices. Highlights of the natural gas data contained in this issue are: Preliminary estimates for January and February 1998 show that dry natural gas production, net imports, and consumption are all within 1 percent of their levels in 1997. Warmer-than-normal weather in recent months has resulted in lower consumption of natural gas by the residential sector and lower net withdrawals of gas from under round storage facilities compared with a year ago. This has resulted in an estimate of the amount of working gas in storage at the end of February 1998 that is 18 percent higher than in February 1997. The national average natural gas wellhead price is estimated to be $3.05 per thousand cubic feet in November 1997, 7 percent higher than in October. The cumulative average wellhead price for January through November 1997 is estimated to be $2.42 per thousand cubic feet, 17 percent above that of the same period in 1996. This price increase is far less than 36-percent rise that occurred between 1995 and 1996. 6 figs., 26 tabs.

  15. GAS/LIQUID MEMBRANES FOR NATURAL GAS UPGRADING

    SciTech Connect

    Howard S. Meyer

    2003-04-01

    Gas Technology Institute (GTI) is conducting this research program whose objective is to develop gas/liquid membranes for natural gas upgrading to assist DOE in achieving their goal of developing novel methods of upgrading low quality natural gas to meet pipeline specifications. Kvaerner Process Systems (KPS) and W. L. Gore & Associates (GORE) gas/liquid membrane contactors are based on expanded polytetrafluoroethylene (ePTFE) membranes acting as the contacting barrier between the contaminated gas stream and the absorbing liquid. These resilient membranes provide much greater surface area for transfer than other tower internals, with packing densities five to ten times greater, resulting in equipment 50-70% smaller and lower weight for the same treating service. The scope of the research program is to (1) build and install a laboratory- and a field-scale gas/liquid membrane absorber; (2) operate the units with a low quality natural gas feed stream for sufficient time to verify the simulation model of the contactors and to project membrane life in this severe service; and (3) conducted an economic evaluation, based on the data, to quantify the impact of the technology. Chevron, one of the major producers of natural gas, has offered to host the test at a gas treating plant. KPS will use their position as a recognized leader in the construction of commercial amine plants for building the unit along with GORE providing the membranes. GTI will provide operator and data collection support during lab- and field-testing to assure proper analytical procedures are used. KPS and GTI will perform the final economic evaluation. GTI will provide project management and be responsible for reporting and interactions with DOE on this project. Efforts this quarter have concentrated on field site selection. ChevronTexaco has nominated their Headlee Gas Plant in Odessa, TX for a commercial-scale dehydration test. Potting and module materials testing were initiated. Preliminary design

  16. Natural Gas Energy Educational Kit.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Gas Association, Arlington, VA. Educational Services.

    Prepared by energy experts and educators to introduce middle school and high school students to natural gas and its role in our society, this kit is designed to be incorporated into existing science and social studies curricula. The materials and activities focus on the origin, discovery, production, delivery, and use of natural gas. The role of…

  17. Natural gas monthly, July 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-10-03

    This report highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. A glossary is included. 7 figs., 33 tabs.

  18. Natural Gas Industry and Markets

    EIA Publications

    2006-01-01

    This special report provides an overview of the supply and disposition of natural gas in 2004 and is intended as a supplement to the Energy Information Administration's (EIA) Natural Gas Annual 2004 (NGA). Unless otherwise stated, all data and figures in this report are based on summary statistics published in the NGA 2004.

  19. Natural Gas Energy Educational Kit.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Gas Association, Arlington, VA. Educational Services.

    Prepared by energy experts and educators to introduce middle school and high school students to natural gas and its role in our society, this kit is designed to be incorporated into existing science and social studies curricula. The materials and activities focus on the origin, discovery, production, delivery, and use of natural gas. The role of…

  20. Natural gas monthly, August 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-11-05

    This report highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector oganizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. 33 tabs.

  1. Natural gas monthly, December 1996

    SciTech Connect

    1996-12-01

    This document highlights activities, events, and analysis of interest to the public and private sector associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also included.

  2. IGNITION IMPROVEMENT OF LEAN NATURAL GAS MIXTURES

    SciTech Connect

    Jason M. Keith

    2005-02-01

    This report describes work performed during a thirty month project which involves the production of dimethyl ether (DME) on-site for use as an ignition-improving additive in a compression-ignition natural gas engine. A single cylinder spark ignition engine was converted to compression ignition operation. The engine was then fully instrumented with a cylinder pressure transducer, crank shaft position sensor, airflow meter, natural gas mass flow sensor, and an exhaust temperature sensor. Finally, the engine was interfaced with a control system for pilot injection of DME. The engine testing is currently in progress. In addition, a one-pass process to form DME from natural gas was simulated with chemical processing software. Natural gas is reformed to synthesis gas (a mixture of hydrogen and carbon monoxide), converted into methanol, and finally to DME in three steps. Of additional benefit to the internal combustion engine, the offgas from the pilot process can be mixed with the main natural gas charge and is expected to improve engine performance. Furthermore, a one-pass pilot facility was constructed to produce 3.7 liters/hour (0.98 gallons/hour) DME from methanol in order to characterize the effluent DME solution and determine suitability for engine use. Successful production of DME led to an economic estimate of completing a full natural gas-to-DME pilot process. Additional experimental work in constructing a synthesis gas to methanol reactor is in progress. The overall recommendation from this work is that natural gas to DME is not a suitable pathway to improved natural gas engine performance. The major reasons are difficulties in handling DME for pilot injection and the large capital costs associated with DME production from natural gas.

  3. GAS/LIQUID MEMBRANES FOR NATURAL GAS UPGRADING

    SciTech Connect

    Howard S. Meyer

    2003-01-01

    Gas Technology Institute (GTI) is conducting this research program whose objective is to develop gas/liquid membranes for natural gas upgrading to assist DOE in achieving their goal of developing novel methods of upgrading low quality natural gas to meet pipeline specifications. Kvaerner Process Systems (KPS) and W. L. Gore & Associates (GORE) gas/liquid membrane contactors are based on expanded polytetrafluoroethylene (ePTFE) membranes acting as the contacting barrier between the contaminated gas stream and the absorbing liquid. These resilient membranes provide much greater surface area for transfer than other tower internals, with packing densities five to ten times greater, resulting in equipment 50-70% smaller and lower weight for the same treating service. The scope of the research program is to (1) build and install a laboratory- and a field-scale gas/liquid membrane absorber; (2) operate the units with a low quality natural gas feed stream for sufficient time to verify the simulation model of the contactors and to project membrane life in this severe service; and (3) conducted an economic evaluation, based on the data, to quantify the impact of the technology. Chevron, one of the major producers of natural gas, has offered to host the test at a gas treating plant. KPS will use their position as a recognized leader in the construction of commercial amine plants for building the unit along with GORE providing the membranes. GTI will provide operator and data collection support during lab- and field-testing to assure proper analytical procedures are used. Kvaerner and GTI will perform the final economic evaluation. GTI will provide project management and be responsible for reporting and interactions with DOE on this project. Efforts this quarter have concentrated on legal agreements, including alternative field sites. Preliminary design of the bench-scale equipment continues.

  4. GAS/LIQUID MEMBRANES FOR NATURAL GAS UPGRADING

    SciTech Connect

    Howard S. Meyer

    2002-10-01

    Gas Technology Institute (GTI) is conducting this research program whose objective is to develop gas/liquid membranes for natural gas upgrading to assist DOE in achieving their goal of developing novel methods of upgrading low quality natural gas to meet pipeline specifications. Kvaerner Process Systems (KPS) and W. L. Gore & Associates (GORE) gas/liquid membrane contactors are based on expanded polytetrafluoroethylene (ePTFE) membranes acting as the contacting barrier between the contaminated gas stream and the absorbing liquid. These resilient membranes provide much greater surface area for transfer than other tower internals, with packing densities five to ten times greater, resulting in equipment 50-70% smaller and lower weight for the same treating service. The scope of the research program is to (1) build and install a laboratory- and a field-scale gas/liquid membrane absorber; (2) operate the units with a low quality natural gas feed stream for sufficient time to verify the simulation model of the contactors and to project membrane life in this severe service; and (3) conducted an economic evaluation, based on the data, to quantify the impact of the technology. Chevron, one of the major producers of natural gas, has offered to host the test at a gas treating plant. KPS will use their position as a recognized leader in the construction of commercial amine plants for building the unit along with GORE providing the membranes. GTI will provide operator and data collection support during lab- and field-testing to assure proper analytical procedures are used. KPS and GTI will perform the final economic evaluation. GTI will provide project management and be responsible for reporting and interactions with DOE on this project. Efforts this quarter have concentrated on legal agreements, including alternative field sites. Preliminary design of the bench-scale equipment continues.

  5. GAS/LIQUID MEMBRANES FOR NATURAL GAS UPGRADING

    SciTech Connect

    Howard S. Meyer

    2002-06-30

    Efforts this quarter have concentrated on legal agreements, including alternative field sites. Preliminary design of the bench-scale equipment continues. Gas Technology Institute (GTI) is conducting this research program whose objective is to develop gas/liquid membranes for natural gas upgrading to assist DOE in achieving their goal of developing novel methods of upgrading low quality natural gas to meet pipeline specifications. Kvaerner Process Systems (KPS) and W. L. Gore & Associates (GORE) gas/liquid membrane contactors are based on expanded polytetrafluoroethylene (ePTFE) membranes acting as the contacting barrier between the contaminated gas stream and the absorbing liquid. These resilient membranes provide much greater surface area for transfer than other tower internals, with packing densities five to ten times greater, resulting in equipment 50--70% smaller and lower weight for the same treating service. The scope of the research program is to (1) build and install a laboratory- and a field-scale gas/liquid membrane absorber; (2) operate the units with a low quality natural gas feed stream for sufficient time to verify the simulation model of the contactors and to project membrane life in this severe service; and (3) conducted an economic evaluation, based on the data, to quantify the impact of the technology. Chevron, one of the major producers of natural gas, has offered to host the test at a gas treating plant. KPS will use their position as a recognized leader in the construction of commercial amine plants for building the unit along with GORE providing the membranes. GTI will provide operator and data collection support during lab- and field-testing to assure proper analytical procedures are used. Kvaerner and GTI will perform the final economic evaluation. GTI will provide project management and be responsible for reporting and interactions with DOE on this project.

  6. GAS/LIQUID MEMBRANES FOR NATURAL GAS UPGRADING

    SciTech Connect

    Howard S. Meyer

    2002-06-01

    Efforts this quarter have concentrated on legal agreements, including alternative field sites. Preliminary design of the bench-scale equipment has been initiated. Gas Technology Institute (GTI) is conducting this research program whose objective is to develop gas/liquid membranes for natural gas upgrading to assist DOE in achieving their goal of developing novel methods of upgrading low quality natural gas to meet pipeline specifications. Kvaerner Process Systems (KPS) and W. L. Gore & Associates (GORE) gas/liquid membrane contactors are based on expanded polytetrafluoroethylene (ePTFE) membranes acting as the contacting barrier between the contaminated gas stream and the absorbing liquid. These resilient membranes provide much greater surface area for transfer than other tower internals, with packing densities five to ten times greater, resulting in equipment 50--70% smaller and lower weight for the same treating service. The scope of the research program is to (1) build and install a laboratory- and a field-scale gas/liquid membrane absorber; (2) operate the units with a low quality natural gas feed stream for sufficient time to verify the simulation model of the contactors and to project membrane life in this severe service; and (3) conducted an economic evaluation, based on the data, to quantify the impact of the technology. Chevron, one of the major producers of natural gas, has offered to host the test at a gas treating plant. KPS will use their position as a recognized leader in the construction of commercial amine plants for building the unit along with GORE providing the membranes. GTI will provide operator and data collection support during lab- and field-testing to assure proper analytical procedures are used. Kvaerner and GTI will perform the final economic evaluation. GTI will provide project management and be responsible for reporting and interactions with DOE on this project.

  7. Natural Gas Hydrates Update 1998-2000

    EIA Publications

    2001-01-01

    Significant events have transpired on the natural gas hydrate research and development front since "Future Supply Potential of Natural Gas Hydrates" appeared in Natural Gas 1998 Issues and Trends and in the Potential Gas Committee's 1998 biennial report.

  8. Natural gas monthly, August 1996

    SciTech Connect

    1996-08-01

    This analysis presents the most recent data on natural gas prices, supply, and consumption from the Energy Information Administration (EIA). The presentation of the latest monthly data is followed by an update on natural gas markets. The markets section examines the behavior of daily spot and futures prices based on information from trade press, as well as regional, weekly data on natural gas storage from the American Gas Association (AGA). This {open_quotes}Highlights{close_quotes} closes with a special section comparing and contrasting EIA and AGA storage data on a monthly and regional basis. The regions used are those defined by the AGA for their weekly data collection effort: the Producing Region, the Consuming Region East, and the Consuming Region West. While data on working gas levels have tracked fairly closely between the two data sources, differences have developed recently. The largest difference is in estimates of working gas levels in the East consuming region during the heating season.

  9. Implications of Disruption to Natural Gas Deliverability

    SciTech Connect

    Science Applications International

    2008-09-30

    This project was sponsored by Department of Energy/Office of Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability and managed by the National Energy Technology Laboratory. The primary purpose of the project was to analyze the capability of the natural gas production, transmission and supply systems to continue to provide service in the event of a major disruption in capacity of one or more natural gas transmission pipelines. The project was specifically designed to detail the ability of natural gas market to absorb facility losses and efficiently reallocate gas supplies during a significant pipeline capacity disruption in terms that allowed federal and state agencies and interests to develop effective policies and action plans to prioritize natural gas deliveries from a regional and national perspective. The analyses for each regional study were based on four primary considerations: (1) operating conditions (pipeline capacity, storage capacity, local production, power dispatch decision making and end user options); (2) weather; (3) magnitude and location of the disruption; and, (4) normal versus emergency situation. The detailed information contained in the region reports as generated from this project are Unclassified Controlled Information; and as such are subject to disclosure in accordance with the Freedom of Information Act. Therefore, this report defines the regions that were analyzed and the basic methodologies and assumptions used to completing the analysis.

  10. Compressed natural gas measurement issues

    SciTech Connect

    Blazek, C.F.; Kinast, J.A.; Freeman, P.M.

    1993-12-31

    The Natural Gas Vehicle Coalition`s Measurement and Metering Task Group (MMTG) was established on July 1st, 1992 to develop suggested revisions to National Institute of Standards & Technology (NIST) Handbook 44-1992 (Specifications, Tolerances, and Other Technical Requirements for Weighing and Measuring Devices) and NIST Handbook 130-1991 (Uniform Laws & Regulations). Specifically, the suggested revisions will address the sale and measurement of compressed natural gas when sold as a motor vehicle fuel. This paper briefly discusses the activities of the MMTG and its interaction with NIST. The paper also discusses the Institute of Gas Technology`s (IGT) support of the MMTG in the area of natural gas composition, their impact on metering technology applicable to high pressure fueling stations as well as conversion factors for the establishment of ``gallon gasoline equivalent`` of natural gas. The final portion of this paper discusses IGT`s meter research activities and its meter test facility.

  11. North American Natural Gas Markets

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-12-01

    This report sunnnarizes the research by an Energy Modeling Forum working group on the evolution of the North American natural gas markets between now and 2010. The group's findings are based partly on the results of a set of economic models of the natural gas industry that were run for four scenarios representing significantly different conditions: two oil price scenarios (upper and lower), a smaller total US resource base (low US resource case), and increased potential gas demand for electric generation (high US demand case). Several issues, such as the direction of regulatory policy and the size of the gas resource base, were analyzed separately without the use of models.

  12. Gas Hydrate Storage of Natural Gas

    SciTech Connect

    Rudy Rogers; John Etheridge

    2006-03-31

    Environmental and economic benefits could accrue from a safe, above-ground, natural-gas storage process allowing electric power plants to utilize natural gas for peak load demands; numerous other applications of a gas storage process exist. A laboratory study conducted in 1999 to determine the feasibility of a gas-hydrates storage process looked promising. The subsequent scale-up of the process was designed to preserve important features of the laboratory apparatus: (1) symmetry of hydrate accumulation, (2) favorable surface area to volume ratio, (3) heat exchanger surfaces serving as hydrate adsorption surfaces, (4) refrigeration system to remove heat liberated from bulk hydrate formation, (5) rapid hydrate formation in a non-stirred system, (6) hydrate self-packing, and (7) heat-exchanger/adsorption plates serving dual purposes to add or extract energy for hydrate formation or decomposition. The hydrate formation/storage/decomposition Proof-of-Concept (POC) pressure vessel and supporting equipment were designed, constructed, and tested. This final report details the design of the scaled POC gas-hydrate storage process, some comments on its fabrication and installation, checkout of the equipment, procedures for conducting the experimental tests, and the test results. The design, construction, and installation of the equipment were on budget target, as was the tests that were subsequently conducted. The budget proposed was met. The primary goal of storing 5000-scf of natural gas in the gas hydrates was exceeded in the final test, as 5289-scf of gas storage was achieved in 54.33 hours. After this 54.33-hour period, as pressure in the formation vessel declined, additional gas went into the hydrates until equilibrium pressure/temperature was reached, so that ultimately more than the 5289-scf storage was achieved. The time required to store the 5000-scf (48.1 hours of operating time) was longer than designed. The lower gas hydrate formation rate is attributed to a

  13. Natural Gas Monthly August 1998

    SciTech Connect

    1998-08-01

    The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information. Explanatory notes supplement the information found in tables of the report. A description of the data collection surveys that support the NGM is provided. A glossary of the terms used in this report is also provided to assist readers in understanding the data presented in this publication.

  14. Natural gas recovery, storage, and utilization SBIR program

    SciTech Connect

    Shoemaker, H.D.

    1993-12-31

    A Fossil Energy natural-gas topic has been a part of the DOE Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) program since 1988. To date, 50 Phase SBIR natural-gas applications have been funded. Of these 50, 24 were successful in obtaining Phase II SBIR funding. The current Phase II natural-gas research projects awarded under the SBIR program and managed by METC are presented by award year. The presented information on these 2-year projects includes project title, awardee, and a project summary. The 1992 Phase II projects are: landfill gas recovery for vehicular natural gas and food grade carbon dioxide; brine disposal process for coalbed gas production; spontaneous natural as oxidative dimerization across mixed conducting ceramic membranes; low-cost offshore drilling system for natural gas hydrates; motorless directional drill for oil and gas wells; and development of a multiple fracture creation process for stimulation of horizontally drilled wells.The 1993 Phase II projects include: process for sweetening sour gas by direct thermolysis of hydrogen sulfide; remote leak survey capability for natural gas transport storage and distribution systems; reinterpretation of existing wellbore log data using neural-based patter recognition processes; and advanced liquid membrane system for natural gas purification.

  15. Natural gas monthly, July 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1995-07-21

    The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information. The data in this publication are collected on surveys conducted by the EIA to fulfill its responsibilities for gathering and reporting energy data. Some of the data are collected under the authority of the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC), an independent commission within the DOE, which has jurisdiction primarily in the regulation of electric utilities and the interstate natural gas industry. Geographic coverage is the 50 States and the District of Columbia. Explanatory Notes supplement the information found in tables of the report. A description of the data collection surveys that support the NGM is provided in the Data Sources section. A glossary of the terms used in this report is also provided to assist readers in understanding the data presented in this publication. All natural gas volumes are reported at a pressure base of 14.73 pounds per square inch absolute (psia) and at 60 degrees Fahrenheit. Cubic feet are converted to cubic meters by applying a factor of 0.02831685.

  16. Natural gas monthly, November 1997

    SciTech Connect

    1997-11-01

    This issue of the Natural Gas Monthly presents the most recent estimates of natural gas data from the Energy Information Administration. Estimates extend through November for many data series, and through August for most natural gas prices. Highlights of the most recent data estimates are: (1) Preliminary estimates of dry natural gas production and total consumption available through November 1997 indicate that both series are on track to end the year at levels close to those of 1996. Cumulative dry production is one-half percent higher than in 1996 and consumption is one-half percent lower. (2) Natural gas production is estimated to be 52.6 billion cubic feet per day in November 1997, the highest rate since March 1997. (3) After falling 8 percent in July 1997, the national average wellhead price rose 10 percent in August 1997, reaching an estimated $2.21 per thousand cubic feet. (4) Milder weather in November 1997 compared to November 1996 has resulted in significantly lower levels of residential consumption of natural gas and net storage withdrawls than a year ago. The November 1997 estimates of residential consumption and net withdrawls are 9 and 20 percent lower, respectively, than in November 1996.

  17. Natural gas conversion process

    SciTech Connect

    Gondouin, M.

    1991-01-01

    Work continued on Task No. 3. Particular attention was given to the back pressure control at the two gaseous effluent outlets and to the incineration of these effluents prior to their disposal. Temperature of the riser/regenerator and steam requirements were predicted from the gasification kinetics of coke and of coal char experimentally determined at atmospheric pressure, but at somewhat lower temperatures by H. Heinemann. The results of interactions of CH4 molecules with a Hydrogen Plasma in the adsorbed layer at the surface of refractory oxides were compared with those in the gas phase in order to select the optimum temperature range in the Cyclone reactor.

  18. GAS/LIQUID MEMBRANES FOR NATURAL GAS UPGRADING

    SciTech Connect

    Howard S. Meyer

    2003-10-01

    Gas Technology Institute (GTI) is conducting this research program whose objective is to develop gas/liquid membranes for natural gas upgrading to assist DOE in achieving their goal of developing novel methods of upgrading low quality natural gas to meet pipeline specifications. Kvaerner Process Systems (KPS) and W. L. Gore & Associates (GORE) gas/liquid membrane contactors are based on expanded polytetrafluoroethylene (ePTFE) membranes acting as the contacting barrier between the contaminated gas stream and the absorbing liquid. These resilient membranes provide much greater surface area for transfer than other tower internals, with packing densities five to ten times greater, resulting in equipment 50-70% smaller and lower weight for the same treating service. The scope of the research program is to (1) build and install a laboratory- and a field-scale gas/liquid membrane absorber; (2) operate the units with a low quality natural gas feed stream for sufficient time to verify the simulation model of the contactors and to project membrane life in this severe service; and (3) conducted an economic evaluation, based on the data, to quantify the impact of the technology. Chevron, one of the major producers of natural gas, has offered to host the test at a gas treating plant. KPS will use their position as a recognized leader in the construction of commercial amine plants for building the unit along with GORE providing the membranes. GTI will provide operator and data collection support during lab- and field-testing to assure proper analytical procedures are used. Kvaerner and GTI will perform the final economic evaluation. GTI will provide project management and be responsible for reporting and interactions with DOE on this project. Efforts this quarter have concentrated on field site selection. ChevronTexaco has nominated their Headlee Gas Plant in Odessa, TX for a commercial-scale dehydration test. Design and cost estimation for this new site are underway. A Haz

  19. Incremental natural gas resources through infield reserve growth/secondary natural gas recovery

    SciTech Connect

    Finley, R.J.; Levey, R.A.; Hardage, B.A.

    1993-12-31

    The primary objective of the Infield Reserve Growth/Secondary Natural Gas Recovery (SGR) project is to develop, test, and verify technologies and methodologies with near- to midterm potential for maximizing the recovery of natural gasfrom conventional reservoirs in known fields. Additional technical and technology transfer objectives of the SGR project include: To establish how depositional and diagenetic heterogeneities in reservoirs of conventional permeability cause reservoir compartmentalization and, hence, incomplete recovery of natural gas. To document examples of reserve growth occurrence and potential from fluvial and deltaic sandstones of the Texas gulf coast basin as a natural laboratory for developing concepts and testing applications to find secondary gas. To demonstrate how the integration of geology, reservoir engineering, geophysics, and well log analysis/petrophysics leads to strategic recompletion and well placement opportunities for reserve growth in mature fields. To transfer project results to a wide array of natural gas producers, not just as field case studies, but as conceptual models of how heterogeneities determine natural gas flow units and how to recognize the geologic and engineering clues that operators can use in a cost-effective manner to identify incremental, or secondary, gas.

  20. Natural gas product and strategic analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Layne, A.W.; Duda, J.R.; Zammerilli, A.M.

    1993-12-31

    Product and strategic analysis at the Department of Energy (DOE)/Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC) crosscuts all sectors of the natural gas industry. This includes the supply, transportation, and end-use sectors of the natural-gas market. Projects in the Natural Gas Resource and Extraction supply program have been integrated into a new product focus. Product development facilitates commercialization and technology transfer through DOE/industry cost-shared research, development, and demonstration (RD&D). Four products under the Resource and Extraction program include Resource and Reserves; Low Permeability Formations; Drilling, Completion, and Stimulation: and Natural Gas Upgrading. Engineering process analyses have been performed for the Slant Hole Completion Test project. These analyses focused on evaluation of horizontal-well recovery potential and applications of slant-hole technology. Figures 2 and 3 depict slant-well in situ stress conditions and hydraulic fracture configurations. Figure 4 presents Paludal Formation coal-gas production curves used to optimize the hydraulic fracture design for the slant well. Economic analyses have utilized data generated from vertical test wells to evaluate the profitability of horizontal technology for low-permeability formations in Yuma County, Colorado, and Maverick County, Texas.

  1. Natural Gas Supply SBIR Program

    SciTech Connect

    Shoemaker, H.D.; Gwilliam, W.J.

    1995-07-01

    The Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) program was created in 1982 by Public Law 97-219 and reauthorized in 1992 until the year 2000 by Public Law 102-564. The purposes of the new law are to (1) expand and improve the SBIR program, 2) emphasize the program`s goal of increasing private sector commercialization of technology developed through Federal R&D, (3) increase small business participation in Federal R&D, and (4) improve the Federal Government`s dissemination of information concerning the SBIR program. DOE`s SBIR pro-ram has two features that are unique. In the 1995 DOE SBIR solicitation, the DOE Fossil Energy topics were: environmental technology for natural gas, oil, and coal; advanced recovery of oil; natural gas supply; natural gas utilization; advanced coal-based power systems; and advanced fossil fuels research. The subtopics for this solicitation`s Natural Gas Supply topic are (1) drilling, completion, and stimulation; (2) low-permeability Formations; (3) delivery and storage; and (4) natural gas upgrading.

  2. GAS/LIQUID MEMBRANES FOR NATURAL GAS UPGRADING

    SciTech Connect

    Howard S. Meyer

    2003-07-01

    Gas Technology Institute (GTI) is conducting this research program whose objective is to develop gas/liquid membranes for natural gas upgrading to assist DOE in achieving their goal of developing novel methods of upgrading low quality natural gas to meet pipeline specifications. Kvaerner Process Systems (KPS) and W. L. Gore & Associates (GORE) gas/liquid membrane contactors are based on expanded polytetrafluoroethylene (ePTFE) membranes acting as the contacting barrier between the contaminated gas stream and the absorbing liquid. These resilient membranes provide much greater surface area for transfer than other tower internals, with packing densities five to ten times greater, resulting in equipment 50-70% smaller and lower weight for the same treating service. The scope of the research program is to (1) build and install a laboratory- and a field-scale gas/liquid membrane absorber; (2) operate the units with a low quality natural gas feed stream for sufficient time to verify the simulation model of the contactors and to project membrane life in this severe service; and (3) conducted an economic evaluation, based on the data, to quantify the impact of the technology. Chevron, one of the major producers of natural gas, has offered to host the test at a gas treating plant. KPS will use their position as a recognized leader in the construction of commercial amine plants for building the unit along with GORE providing the membranes. GTI will provide operator and data collection support during lab- and field-testing to assure proper analytical procedures are used. Kvaerner and GTI will perform the final economic evaluation. GTI will provide project management and be responsible for reporting and interactions with DOE on this project. Efforts this quarter have concentrated on field site selection. ChevronTexaco has nominated their Headlee Gas Plant in Odessa, TX for a commercial-scale dehydration test. Design and cost estimation for this new site are underway. Potting

  3. Landfill gas project. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1983-01-01

    The methane gas recovered from the landfill is used for space heating and water heating for the Florence-Lauderdale Humane Shelter 600 feet from the well head. The project to date and future development are described briefly. (MHR)

  4. GAS INJECTION/WELL STIMULATION PROJECT

    SciTech Connect

    John K. Godwin

    2005-12-01

    Driver Production proposes to conduct a gas repressurization/well stimulation project on a six well, 80-acre portion of the Dutcher Sand of the East Edna Field, Okmulgee County, Oklahoma. The site has been location of previous successful flue gas injection demonstration but due to changing economic and sales conditions, finds new opportunities to use associated natural gas that is currently being vented to the atmosphere to repressurize the reservoir to produce additional oil. The established infrastructure and known geological conditions should allow quick startup and much lower operating costs than flue gas. Lessons learned from the previous project, the lessons learned form cyclical oil prices and from other operators in the area will be applied. Technology transfer of the lessons learned from both projects could be applied by other small independent operators.

  5. NATURAL GAS RESOURCES IN DEEP SEDIMENTARY BASINS

    SciTech Connect

    Thaddeus S. Dyman; Troy Cook; Robert A. Crovelli; Allison A. Henry; Timothy C. Hester; Ronald C. Johnson; Michael D. Lewan; Vito F. Nuccio; James W. Schmoker; Dennis B. Riggin; Christopher J. Schenk

    2002-02-05

    From a geological perspective, deep natural gas resources are generally defined as resources occurring in reservoirs at or below 15,000 feet, whereas ultra-deep gas occurs below 25,000 feet. From an operational point of view, ''deep'' is often thought of in a relative sense based on the geologic and engineering knowledge of gas (and oil) resources in a particular area. Deep gas can be found in either conventionally-trapped or unconventional basin-center accumulations that are essentially large single fields having spatial dimensions often exceeding those of conventional fields. Exploration for deep conventional and unconventional basin-center natural gas resources deserves special attention because these resources are widespread and occur in diverse geologic environments. In 1995, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated that 939 TCF of technically recoverable natural gas remained to be discovered or was part of reserve appreciation from known fields in the onshore areas and State waters of the United. Of this USGS resource, nearly 114 trillion cubic feet (Tcf) of technically-recoverable gas remains to be discovered from deep sedimentary basins. Worldwide estimates of deep gas are also high. The U.S. Geological Survey World Petroleum Assessment 2000 Project recently estimated a world mean undiscovered conventional gas resource outside the U.S. of 844 Tcf below 4.5 km (about 15,000 feet). Less is known about the origins of deep gas than about the origins of gas at shallower depths because fewer wells have been drilled into the deeper portions of many basins. Some of the many factors contributing to the origin of deep gas include the thermal stability of methane, the role of water and non-hydrocarbon gases in natural gas generation, porosity loss with increasing thermal maturity, the kinetics of deep gas generation, thermal cracking of oil to gas, and source rock potential based on thermal maturity and kerogen type. Recent experimental simulations using laboratory

  6. Raman Gas Analyzer (RGA): Natural Gas Measurements.

    PubMed

    Petrov, Dmitry V; Matrosov, Ivan I

    2016-06-08

    In the present work, an improved model of the Raman gas analyzer (RGA) of natural gas (NG) developed by us is described together with its operating principle. The sensitivity has been improved and the number of measurable gases has been expanded. Results of its approbation on a real NG sample are presented for different measurement times. A comparison of the data obtained with the results of chromatographic analysis demonstrates their good agreement. The time stability of the results obtained using this model is analyzed. It is experimentally established that the given RGA can reliably determine the content of all molecular NG components whose content exceeds 0.005% for 100 s; moreover, in this case the limiting sensitivity for some NG components is equal to 0.002%.

  7. Natural gas cavern storage regulation

    SciTech Connect

    Heneman, H.

    1995-09-01

    Investigation of an incident at an LPG storage facility in Texas by U.S. Department of Transportation resulted in recommendation that state regulation of natural gas cavern storage might be improved. Interstate Oil & Gas Compact Commission has established a subcommittee to analyze the benefits and risks associated with natural gas cavern storage, and to draft a regulation model which will suggest engineering and performance specifications. The resulting analysis and regulatory language will be reviewed by I.O.G.C.C., and if approved, distributed to member states (including New York) for consideration. Should the states desire assistance in modifying the language to reflect local variables, such as policy and geology, I.O.G.C.C. may offer assistance. The proposed presentation will review the I.O.G.C.C. product (if published at that date), and discuss implications of its application in New York.

  8. EIA's Natural Gas Production Data

    EIA Publications

    2009-01-01

    This special report examines the stages of natural gas processing from the wellhead to the pipeline network through which the raw product becomes ready for transportation and eventual consumption, and how this sequence is reflected in the data published by the Energy Information Administration (EIA).

  9. Staff Handbook on Natural Gas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gorges, H. A., Ed.; Raine, L. P., Ed.

    The Department of Commerce created a Natural Gas Action Group early in the fall of 1975 to assist industrial firms and the communities they serve to cope with the effects of potentially severe and crippling curtailment situations. This action group was trained to assess a specific local situation, review the potential for remedial action and…

  10. Natural gas monthly, January 1997

    SciTech Connect

    1997-01-01

    This publication, the Natural Gas Monthly, presents the most recent data on natural gas supply, consumption, and prices from the Energy Information Administration (EIA). Of special interest in this issue are two articles summarizing reports recently published by EIA. The articles are {open_quotes}Natural Gas Productive Capacity{close_quotes} and {open_quotes}Outlook for Natural Gas Through 2015,{close_quotes} both of which precede the {open_quotes}Highlights{close_quotes} section. With this issue, January 1997, changes have been made to the format of the Highlights section and to several of the tabular and graphical presentations throughout the publication. The changes to the Highlights affect the discussion of developments in the industry and the presentation of weekly storage data. An overview of the developments in the industry is now presented in a brief summary followed by specific discussions of supply, end-use consumption, and prices. Spot and futures prices are discussed as appropriate in the Price section, together with wellhead and consumer prices.

  11. North American Natural Gas Vision

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-01-01

    Pemex Comercio Internacional (Pemex International), responsible for international trade. 30 North American Natural Gas Vision In 1995, the...distribution of secondary petrochemical products; and Pemex Internacional , which is in charge of international trade. Comisión Reguladora de Energía

  12. Natural Gas Multi-Year Program Plan

    SciTech Connect

    1997-12-01

    This document comprises the Department of Energy (DOE) Natural Gas Multi-Year Program Plan, and is a follow-up to the `Natural Gas Strategic Plan and Program Crosscut Plans,` dated July 1995. DOE`s natural gas programs are aimed at simultaneously meeting our national energy needs, reducing oil imports, protecting our environment, and improving our economy. The Natural Gas Multi-Year Program Plan represents a Department-wide effort on expanded development and use of natural gas and defines Federal government and US industry roles in partnering to accomplish defined strategic goals. The four overarching goals of the Natural Gas Program are to: (1) foster development of advanced natural gas technologies, (2) encourage adoption of advanced natural gas technologies in new and existing markets, (3) support removal of policy impediments to natural gas use in new and existing markets, and (4) foster technologies and policies to maximize environmental benefits of natural gas use.

  13. RESULTS FROM THE (1) DATA COLLECTION WORKSHOP, (2) MODELING WORKSHOP AND (3) DRILLING AND CORING METHODS WORKSHOP AS PART OF THE JOINT INDUSTRY PARTICIPATION (JIP) PROJECT TO CHARACTERIZE NATURAL GAS HYDRATES IN THE DEEPWATER GULF OF MEXICO

    SciTech Connect

    Stephen A. Holditch; Emrys Jones

    2002-09-01

    In 2000, Chevron began a project to learn how to characterize the natural gas hydrate deposits in the deepwater portions of the Gulf of Mexico. A Joint Industry Participation (JIP) group was formed in 2001, and a project partially funded by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) began in October 2001. The primary objective of this project is to develop technology and data to assist in the characterization of naturally occurring gas hydrates in the deepwater Gulf of Mexico. These naturally occurring gas hydrates can cause problems relating to drilling and production of oil and gas, as well as building and operating pipelines. Other objectives of this project are to better understand how natural gas hydrates can affect seafloor stability, to gather data that can be used to study climate change, and to determine how the results of this project can be used to assess if and how gas hydrates act as a trapping mechanism for shallow oil or gas reservoirs. As part of the project, three workshops were held. The first was a data collection workshop, held in Houston during March 14-15, 2002. The purpose of this workshop was to find out what data exist on gas hydrates and to begin making that data available to the JIP. The second and third workshop, on Geoscience and Reservoir Modeling, and Drilling and Coring Methods, respectively, were held simultaneously in Houston during May 9-10, 2002. The Modeling Workshop was conducted to find out what data the various engineers, scientists and geoscientists want the JIP to collect in both the field and the laboratory. The Drilling and Coring workshop was to begin making plans on how we can collect the data required by the project's principal investigators.

  14. Natural gas legislation: a consumer's perspective

    SciTech Connect

    Lemon, J.R.

    1983-08-01

    This report evaluates three major legislative proposals: accelerated decontrol of both old and new wellhead prices as proposed by the Reagan administration (S.615, H.R. 1760); imposition of new natural gas price controls at lower levels as proposed by Congressman Gephardt (H.R. 2154); and conversion of interstate gas pipelines to common carriage as proposed by Senators Dixon and Percy and by Congressman Corcoran (S. 1119, H.R. 2565). The reference or base case scenario used in the evaluation is a continuation of the Natural Gas Policy Act of 1978 (NGPA) with no legislative modifications. First, projections of wellhead and burner-tip natural gas prices are presented for the period 1983-1990, and then consumer benefits under the different scenarios are estimated. All projections presented assume that legislation takes effect as of January 1, 1983 and that normal weather patterns are experienced. All prices identified in the report are given in 1982 dollars unless otherwise indicated. 5 figs., 1 tab.

  15. Natural gas production verification tests

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-02-01

    This Environmental Assessment (EA) has been prepared by the Department of Energy (DOE) in compliance with the requirements of the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969. The Department of Energy (DOE) proposes to fund, through a contract with Petroleum Consulting Services, Inc. of Canton, Ohio, the testing of the effectiveness of a non-water based hydraulic fracturing treatment to increase gas recovery from low-pressure, tight, fractured Devonian Shale formations. Although Devonian Shales are found in the Appalachian, Michigan, and Illinois Basins, testing will be done only in the dominant, historical five state area of established production. The objective of this proposed project is to assess the benefits of liquid carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2})/sand stimulations in the Devonian Shale. In addition, this project would evaluate the potential nondamaging (to the formation) properties of this unique fracturing treatment relative to the clogging or chocking of pores and fractures that act as gas flow paths to the wellbore in the target gas-producing zones of the formation. This liquid CO{sub 2}/sand fracturing process is water-free and is expected to facilitate gas well cleanup, reduce the time required for post-stimulation cleanup, and result in improved production levels in a much shorter time than is currently experienced.

  16. Demonstration of a Low-NOx Heavy-Duty Natural Gas Engine

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2004-02-01

    Results of a Next Generation Natural Gas Vehicle engine research project: A Caterpillar C-12 natural gas engine with Clean Air Power Dual-Fuel technology and exhaust gas recirculation demonstrated low NOx and PM emissions.

  17. Hydrogen-Enhanced Natural Gas Vehicle Program

    SciTech Connect

    Hyde, Dan; Collier, Kirk

    2009-01-22

    The project objective is to demonstrate the viability of HCNG fuel (30 to 50% hydrogen by volume and the remainder natural gas) to reduce emissions from light-duty on-road vehicles with no loss in performance or efficiency. The City of Las Vegas has an interest in alternative fuels and already has an existing hydrogen refueling station. Collier Technologies Inc (CT) supplied the latest design retrofit kits capable of converting nine compressed natural gas (CNG) fueled, light-duty vehicles powered by the Ford 5.4L Triton engine. CT installed the kits on the first two vehicles in Las Vegas, trained personnel at the City of Las Vegas (the City) to perform the additional seven retrofits, and developed materials for allowing other entities to perform these retrofits as well. These vehicles were used in normal service by the City while driver impressions, reliability, fuel efficiency and emissions were documented for a minimum of one year after conversion. This project has shown the efficacy of operating vehicles originally designed to operate on compressed natural gas with HCNG fuel incorporating large quantities of exhaust gas recirculation (EGR). There were no safety issues experienced with these vehicles. The only maintenance issue in the project was some rough idling due to problems with the EGR valve and piping parts. Once the rough idling was corrected no further maintenance issues with these vehicles were experienced. Fuel economy data showed no significant changes after conversion even with the added power provided by the superchargers that were part of the conversions. Driver feedback for the conversions was very favorable. The additional power provided by the HCNG vehicles was greatly appreciated, especially in traffic. The drivability of the HCNG vehicles was considered to be superior by the drivers. Most of the converted vehicles showed zero oxides of nitrogen throughout the life of the project using the State of Nevada emissions station.

  18. DIGESTER GAS - FUEL CELL - PROJECT

    SciTech Connect

    Dr.-Eng. Dirk Adolph; Dipl.-Eng. Thomas Saure

    2002-03-01

    GEW has been operating the first fuel cell in Europe producing heat and electricity from digester gas in an environmentally friendly way. The first 9,000 hours in operation were successfully concluded in August 2001. The fuel cell powered by digester gas was one of the 25 registered ''Worldwide projects'' which NRW presented at the EXPO 2000. In addition to this, it is a key project of the NRW State Initiative on Future Energies. All of the activities planned for the first year of operation were successfully completed: installing and putting the plant into operation, the transition to permanent operation as well as extended monitoring till May 2001.

  19. Mexican demand for US natural gas

    SciTech Connect

    Kanter, M.A.; Kier, P.H.

    1993-09-01

    This study describes the Mexican natural gas industry as it exists today and the factors that have shaped the evolution of the industry in the past or that are expected to influence its progress; it also projects production and use of natural gas and estimates the market for exports of natural gas from the United States to Mexico. The study looks ahead to two periods, a near term (1993--1995) and an intermediate term (1996--2000). The bases for estimates under two scenarios are described. Under the conservative scenario, exports of natural gas from the United States would decrease from the 1992 level of 250 million cubic feet per day (MMCF/d), would return to that level by 1995, and would reach about 980 MMCF/D by 2000. Under the more optimistic scenario, exports would decrease in 1993 and would recover and rise to about 360 MMCF/D in 1995 and to 1,920 MMCF/D in 2000.

  20. Gas supplies of interstate natural gas pipeline companies, 1983

    SciTech Connect

    Pridgen, V.

    1984-11-01

    This report provides information on the total reserves, production, and deliverability capabilities of the 86 interstate pipeline companies required to file the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) Form 15, Interstate Pipeline's Annual Report of Gas Supply. Total dedicated domestic gas reserves, owned by or under contract to the interstate pipeline companies, decreased in 1983 by 4.2 trillion cubic feet (Tcf), or 4.3%, from 98.7 Tcf at the beginning of the year to 94.5 Tcf at the end of the year. A 5-year tabulation shows that dedicated domestic gas reserves increased slightly from 94.0 Tcf at the beginning of 1979 to 94.5 Tcf at the end of 1983, an increase of 0.5 Tcf, or 0.5%. Total gas purchased and produced from the dedicated domestic gas reserves in 1983 was 9.5 Tcf, down 13.1% from the 10.9 Tcf reported in the preceding year. The 1983 ratio of total dedicated domestic reserves to production was 10.0, significantly above the 9.0 ratio reported for 1982. Net revisions to dedicated domestic gas reserves during 1983 are calculated at -0.5 Tcf, as compared to 1.4 Tcf in 1982. Total interstate reserve additions during 1983 are reported to be 5.8 Tcf, compared to additions of 9.9 Tcf in 1982. Total natural gas imported by interstate pipeline companies from two foreign sources, Canada and Mexico, was 0.8 Tcf, 7.4% of the total gas produced and purchased in 1983. Imports of LNG from Algeria totaled only 0.09 Tcf. Total deliveries are projected to decline from 12.9 Tcf in 1984 to 7.1 Tcf by 1988. This decline is driven by the projected decline in domestic reserve deliverability. Deliveries from foreign and other sources are expected to remain relatively constant over the 5-year period. 8 figures, 18 tables.

  1. Methods of natural gas liquefaction and natural gas liquefaction plants utilizing multiple and varying gas streams

    SciTech Connect

    Wilding, Bruce M; Turner, Terry D

    2014-12-02

    A method of natural gas liquefaction may include cooling a gaseous NG process stream to form a liquid NG process stream. The method may further include directing the first tail gas stream out of a plant at a first pressure and directing a second tail gas stream out of the plant at a second pressure. An additional method of natural gas liquefaction may include separating CO.sub.2 from a liquid NG process stream and processing the CO.sub.2 to provide a CO.sub.2 product stream. Another method of natural gas liquefaction may include combining a marginal gaseous NG process stream with a secondary substantially pure NG stream to provide an improved gaseous NG process stream. Additionally, a NG liquefaction plant may include a first tail gas outlet, and at least a second tail gas outlet, the at least a second tail gas outlet separate from the first tail gas outlet.

  2. Apparatus for dispensing compressed natural gas and liquified natural gas to natural gas powered vehicles

    DOEpatents

    Bingham, Dennis A.; Clark, Michael L.; Wilding, Bruce M.; Palmer, Gary L.

    2007-05-29

    A fueling facility and method for dispensing liquid natural gas (LNG), compressed natural gas (CNG) or both on-demand. The fueling facility may include a source of LNG, such as cryogenic storage vessel. A low volume high pressure pump is coupled to the source of LNG to produce a stream of pressurized LNG. The stream of pressurized LNG may be selectively directed through an LNG flow path or to a CNG flow path which includes a vaporizer configured to produce CNG from the pressurized LNG. A portion of the CNG may be drawn from the CNG flow path and introduced into the CNG flow path to control the temperature of LNG flowing therethrough. Similarly, a portion of the LNG may be drawn from the LNG flow path and introduced into the CNG flow path to control the temperature of CNG flowing therethrough.

  3. The Gas to Liquids Industry and Natural Gas Markets

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-11-08

    LNG will earn the natural gas consumption price, and natural gas used for GTL will earn the diesel , or more generally, middle distillate product... diesel fuel and home heating fuel. The GTL industry might become an important competitor to the liquefied natural gas industry (LNG) in the effort to...9 1 GTL uses natural gas as a raw material to produce liquid petroleum products, specifically middle distillates, which include diesel fuel

  4. Consortium for Petroleum & Natural Gas Stripper Wells

    SciTech Connect

    Joel L. Morrison; Sharon L. Elder

    2007-03-31

    The Pennsylvania State University, under contract to the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL), established a national industry-driven Stripper Well Consortium (SWC) that is focused on improving the production performance of domestic petroleum and/or natural gas stripper wells. The SWC represents a partnership between U.S. petroleum and natural gas producers, trade associations, state funding agencies, academia, and the NETL. This document serves as the twelfth quarterly technical progress report for the SWC. Key activities for this reporting period included: (1) Drafting and releasing the 2007 Request for Proposals; (2) Securing a meeting facility, scheduling and drafting plans for the 2007 Spring Proposal Meeting; (3) Conducting elections and announcing representatives for the four 2007-2008 Executive Council seats; (4) 2005 Final Project Reports; (5) Personal Digital Assistant Workshops scheduled; and (6) Communications and outreach.

  5. Gas supplies of interstate/natural gas pipeline companies 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-12-18

    This publication provides information on the interstate pipeline companies' supply of natural gas during calendar year 1989, for use by the FERC for regulatory purposes. It also provides information to other Government agencies, the natural gas industry, as well as policy makers, analysts, and consumers interested in current levels of interstate supplies of natural gas and trends over recent years. 5 figs., 18 tabs.

  6. Natural gas 1995: Issues and trends

    SciTech Connect

    1995-11-01

    Natural Gas 1995: Issues and Trends addresses current issues affecting the natural gas industry and markets. Highlights of recent trends include: Natural gas wellhead prices generally declined throughout 1994 and for 1995 averages 22% below the year-earlier level; Seasonal patterns of natural gas production and wellhead prices have been significantly reduced during the past three year; Natural gas production rose 15% from 1985 through 1994, reaching 18.8 trillion cubic feet; Increasing amounts of natural gas have been imported; Since 1985, lower costs of producing and transporting natural gas have benefitted consumers; Consumers may see additional benefits as States examine regulatory changes aimed at increasing efficiency; and, The electric industry is being restructured in a fashion similar to the recent restructuring of the natural gas industry.

  7. Development of a thermoacoustic natural gas liquefier.

    SciTech Connect

    Wollan, J. J.; Swift, G. W.; Backhaus, S. N.; Gardner, D. L.

    2002-01-01

    Praxair, in conjunction with the Los Alamos National Laboratory, is developing a new technology, thermoacoustic heat engines and refrigerators, for liquefaction of natural gas. This is the only technology capable of producing refrigeration power at cryogenic temperatures with no moving parts. A prototype, with a projected natural gas liquefaction capacity of 500 gallons/day, has been built and tested. The power source is a natural gas burner. Systems will be developed with liquefaction capacities up to 10,000 to 20,000 gallons per day. The technology, the development project, accomplishments and applications are discussed. In February 2001 Praxair, Inc. purchased the acoustic heat engine and refrigeration development program from Chart Industries. Chart (formerly Cryenco, which Chart purchased in 1997) and Los Alamos had been working on the technology development program since 1994. The purchase included assets and intellectual property rights for thermoacoustically driven orifice pulse tube refrigerators (TADOPTR), a new and revolutionary Thermoacoustic Stirling Heat Engine (TASHE) technology, aspects of Orifice Pulse Tube Refrigeration (OPTR) and linear motor compressors as OPTR drivers. Praxair, in cooperation with Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), the licensor of the TADOPTR and TASHE patents, is continuing the development of TASHE-OPTR natural gas powered, natural gas liquefiers. The liquefaction of natural gas, which occurs at -161 C (-259 F) at atmospheric pressure, has previously required rather sophisticated refrigeration machinery. The 1990 TADOPTR invention by Drs. Greg Swift (LANL) and Ray Radebaugh (NIST) demonstrated the first technology to produce cryogenic refrigeration with no moving parts. Thermoacoustic engines and refrigerators use acoustic phenomena to produce refrigeration from heat. The basic driver and refrigerator consist of nothing more than helium-filled heat exchangers and pipes, made of common materials, without exacting tolerances

  8. U.S. crude oil, natural gas, and natural gas liquids reserves 1997 annual report

    SciTech Connect

    Wood, John H.; Grape, Steven G.; Green, Rhonda S.

    1998-12-01

    This report presents estimates of proved reserves of crude oil, natural gas, and natural gas liquids as of December 31, 1997, as well as production volumes for the US and selected States and State subdivisions for the year 1997. Estimates are presented for the following four categories of natural gas: total gas (wet after lease separation), nonassociated gas and associated-dissolved gas (which are the two major types of wet natural gas), and total dry gas (wet gas adjusted for the removal of liquids at natural gas processing plants). In addition, reserve estimates for two types of natural gas liquids, lease condensate and natural gas plant liquids, are presented. Also included is information on indicated additional crude oil reserves and crude oil, natural gas, and lease condensate reserves in nonproducing reservoirs. A discussion of notable oil and gas exploration and development activities during 1997 is provided. 21 figs., 16 tabs.

  9. Selective leak-detector for natural gas

    SciTech Connect

    Bonne, U.

    1985-03-26

    An improved detector for combustible gases and which is able to discriminate between natural gas (methane and ethane) and other sources of methane (e.g. swamp gas, petrochemical and automotive) or other combustible gases by measuring the characteristic methane/ethane ratio of natural gas, based on infrared absorption of methane and ethane, in combination with another non-specific combustible gas detector.

  10. Compressed natural gas (CNG) measurement

    SciTech Connect

    Husain, Z.D.; Goodson, F.D.

    1995-12-01

    The increased level of environmental awareness has raised concerns about pollution. One area of high attention is the internal combustion engine. The internal combustion engine in and of itself is not a major pollution threat. However, the vast number of motor vehicles in use release large quantities of pollutants. Recent technological advances in ignition and engine controls coupled with unleaded fuels and catalytic converters have reduced vehicular emissions significantly. Alternate fuels have the potential to produce even greater reductions in emissions. The Natural Gas Vehicle (NGV) has been a significant alternative to accomplish the goal of cleaner combustion. Of the many alternative fuels under investigation, compressed natural gas (CNG) has demonstrated the lowest levels of emission. The only vehicle certified by the State of California as an Ultra Low Emission Vehicle (ULEV) was powered by CNG. The California emissions tests of the ULEV-CNG vehicle revealed the following concentrations: Non-Methane Hydrocarbons 0.005 grams/mile Carbon Monoxide 0.300 grams/mile Nitrogen Oxides 0.040 grams/mile. Unfortunately, CNG vehicles will not gain significant popularity until compressed natural gas is readily available in convenient locations in urban areas and in proximity to the Interstate highway system. Approximately 150,000 gasoline filling stations exist in the United States while number of CNG stations is about 1000 and many of those CNG stations are limited to fleet service only. Discussion in this paper concentrates on CNG flow measurement for fuel dispensers. Since the regulatory changes and market demands affect the flow metering and dispenser station design those aspects are discussed. The CNG industry faces a number of challenges.

  11. Carbon sequestration in natural gas reservoirs: Enhanced gas recovery and natural gas storage

    SciTech Connect

    Oldenburg, Curtis M.

    2003-04-08

    Natural gas reservoirs are obvious targets for carbon sequestration by direct carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) injection by virtue of their proven record of gas production and integrity against gas escape. Carbon sequestration in depleted natural gas reservoirs can be coupled with enhanced gas production by injecting CO{sub 2} into the reservoir as it is being produced, a process called Carbon Sequestration with Enhanced Gas Recovery (CSEGR). In this process, supercritical CO{sub 2} is injected deep in the reservoir while methane (CH{sub 4}) is produced at wells some distance away. The active injection of CO{sub 2} causes repressurization and CH{sub 4} displacement to allow the control and enhancement of gas recovery relative to water-drive or depletion-drive reservoir operations. Carbon dioxide undergoes a large change in density as CO{sub 2} gas passes through the critical pressure at temperatures near the critical temperature. This feature makes CO{sub 2} a potentially effective cushion gas for gas storage reservoirs. Thus at the end of the CSEGR process when the reservoir is filled with CO{sub 2}, additional benefit of the reservoir may be obtained through its operation as a natural gas storage reservoir. In this paper, we present discussion and simulation results from TOUGH2/EOS7C of gas mixture property prediction, gas injection, repressurization, migration, and mixing processes that occur in gas reservoirs under active CO{sub 2} injection.

  12. 78 FR 14784 - Northern Natural Gas Company; Notice of Intent To Prepare an Environmental Assessment for the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-07

    ... Assessment for the Proposed Garner Lng Offloading Facilities and Utilization Project and Request for Comments... liquefied natural gas (LNG) Offloading Facilities and Utilization Project (Project) involving construction and operation of LNG offloading facilities by Northern Natural Gas Company (Northern) in...

  13. 40 CFR 1065.715 - Natural gas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 34 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Natural gas. 1065.715 Section 1065.715... PROCEDURES Engine Fluids, Test Fuels, Analytical Gases and Other Calibration Standards § 1065.715 Natural gas. (a) Except as specified in paragraph (b) of this section, natural gas for testing must meet the...

  14. 40 CFR 1065.715 - Natural gas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Natural gas. 1065.715 Section 1065.715... PROCEDURES Engine Fluids, Test Fuels, Analytical Gases and Other Calibration Standards § 1065.715 Natural gas. (a) Except as specified in paragraph (b) of this section, natural gas for testing must meet the...

  15. 40 CFR 1065.715 - Natural gas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 33 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Natural gas. 1065.715 Section 1065.715... PROCEDURES Engine Fluids, Test Fuels, Analytical Gases and Other Calibration Standards § 1065.715 Natural gas. (a) Except as specified in paragraph (b) of this section, natural gas for testing must meet the...

  16. Natural Gas Market Centers: A 2008 Update

    EIA Publications

    2009-01-01

    This special report looks at the current status of market centers in today's natural gas marketplace, examining their role and their importance to natural gas shippers, pipelines, and others involved in the transportation of natural gas over the North American pipeline network.

  17. 40 CFR 1065.715 - Natural gas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 34 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Natural gas. 1065.715 Section 1065.715... PROCEDURES Engine Fluids, Test Fuels, Analytical Gases and Other Calibration Standards § 1065.715 Natural gas. (a) Except as specified in paragraph (b) of this section, natural gas for testing must meet...

  18. 40 CFR 1065.715 - Natural gas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 33 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Natural gas. 1065.715 Section 1065.715... PROCEDURES Engine Fluids, Test Fuels, Analytical Gases and Other Calibration Standards § 1065.715 Natural gas. (a) Except as specified in paragraph (b) of this section, natural gas for testing must meet...

  19. DEVELOPMENT OF A THERMOACOUSTIC NATURAL GAS LIQUEFIER-UPDATE

    SciTech Connect

    J. WOLLAN; G. SWIFT

    2001-05-01

    Thermoacoustic heat engines and refrigerators are being developed for liquefaction of natural gas. This is the only technology capable of producing refrigeration power at cryogenic temperatures with no moving parts. A prototype, with a projected natural gas liquefaction capacity of 500 gallons/day, has been built and tested. The power source is a natural gas burner. Systems are developed with liquefaction capacities up to 10,000 to 20,000 gallons per day. The technology, the development project, accomplishments and applications are discussed.

  20. Natural gas: Formation of hydrates -- Transportation

    SciTech Connect

    Bhaskara Rao, B.K.

    1998-07-01

    The significant growth of Natural gas based industries in India and elsewhere obviously forced the industry to hunt for new fields and sources. This has naturally led to the phenomenal growth of gas networks. The transportation of gas over thousands of kilometers through caprious ambient conditions requires a great effort. Many difficulties such as condensation of light liquids (NGLS), choking of lines due to formation of hydrates, improper distribution of gas into branches are experienced during pipe line transportation of Natural gas. The thermodynamic conditions suitable for formation of solid hydrates have been derived depending upon the constituents of natural gas. Further effects of branching in pipe line transportation have been discussed.

  1. Groundwater well inventory and assessment in the area of the proposed Normally Pressured Lance natural gas development project, Green River Basin, Wyoming, 2012

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sweat, Michael J.

    2013-01-01

    During May through September 2012, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Bureau of Land Management, inventoried and assessed existing water wells in southwestern Wyoming for inclusion in a possible groundwater-monitor network. Records were located for 3,282 wells in the upper Green River Basin, which includes the U.S. Geological Survey study area and the proposed Normally Pressured Lance natural gas development project area. Records for 2,713 upper Green River Basin wells were determined to be unique (not duplicated) and to have a Wyoming State Engineers Office permit. Further, 376 of these wells were within the U.S. Geological Survey Normally Pressured Lance study area. Of the 376 wells in the U.S. Geological Survey Normally Pressured Lance study area, 141 well records had sufficient documentation, such as well depth, open interval, geologic log, and depth to water, to meet many, but not always all, established monitor well criteria. Efforts were made to locate each of the 141 wells and to document their current condition. Field crews were able to locate 121 of the wells, and the remaining 20 wells either were not located as described, or had been abandoned and the site reclaimed. Of the 121 wells located, 92 were found to meet established monitor well criteria. Results of the field efforts during May through September 2012, and specific physical characteristics of the 92 wells, are presented in this report.

  2. GHGRP Natural Gas and Natural Gas Liquids Suppliers Sector Industrial Profile

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA's Greenhouse Gas Reporting Program periodically produces detailed profiles of the various industries that report under the program. The profiles available for download below contain detailed analyses for the Natural Gas and Natural Gas Suppliers indust

  3. U.S. Natural Gas Markets: Mid-Term Prospects for Natural Gas Supply

    EIA Publications

    2001-01-01

    This service report describes the recent behavior of natural gas markets with respect to natural gas prices, their potential future behavior, the potential future supply contribution of liquefied natural gas and increased access to federally restricted resources, and the need for improved natural gas data.

  4. 78 FR 38309 - Northern Natural Gas Company; Southern Natural Gas Company, L.L.C.; Florida Gas Transmission...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-26

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Northern Natural Gas Company; Southern Natural Gas Company, L.L.C.; Florida... Natural Gas Company (Northern), 1111 South 103rd Street, Omaha, Nebraska 68124; on behalf of itself, Southern Natural Gas Company, L.L.C., and Florida Gas Transmission Company, LLC, (collectively, Applicants...

  5. Natural gas productive capacity for the lower 48 states 1985 through 1997

    SciTech Connect

    1996-12-01

    This publication presents information on wellhead productive capacity and a projection of gas production requirements. A history of natural gas production and productive capacity at the wellhead, along with a projection of the same, is illustrated.

  6. US crude oil, natural gas, and natural gas liquids reserves, 1992 annual report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-10-18

    This report presents estimates of proved reserves of crude oil, natural gas, and natural gas liquids as of December 31, 1992, as well as production volumes for the United States, and selected States and State subdivisions for the year 1992. Estimates are presented for the following four categories of natural gas: total gas (wet after lease separation), its two major components (nonassociated and associated-dissolved gas), and total dry gas (wet gas adjusted for the removal of liquids at natural gas processing plants). In addition, two components of natural gas liquids, lease condensate and natural gas plant liquids, have their reserves and production data presented. Also included is information on indicated additional crude oil reserves and crude oil, natural gas, and lease condensate reserves in nonproducing reservoirs. A discussion of notable oil and gas exploration and development activities during 1992 is provided.

  7. Life-cycle analysis of shale gas and natural gas.

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, C.E.; Han, J.; Burnham, A.; Dunn, J.B.; Wang, M.

    2012-01-27

    The technologies and practices that have enabled the recent boom in shale gas production have also brought attention to the environmental impacts of its use. Using the current state of knowledge of the recovery, processing, and distribution of shale gas and conventional natural gas, we have estimated up-to-date, life-cycle greenhouse gas emissions. In addition, we have developed distribution functions for key parameters in each pathway to examine uncertainty and identify data gaps - such as methane emissions from shale gas well completions and conventional natural gas liquid unloadings - that need to be addressed further. Our base case results show that shale gas life-cycle emissions are 6% lower than those of conventional natural gas. However, the range in values for shale and conventional gas overlap, so there is a statistical uncertainty regarding whether shale gas emissions are indeed lower than conventional gas emissions. This life-cycle analysis provides insight into the critical stages in the natural gas industry where emissions occur and where opportunities exist to reduce the greenhouse gas footprint of natural gas.

  8. Analysis of Restricted Natural Gas Supply Cases

    EIA Publications

    2004-01-01

    The four cases examined in this study have progressively greater impacts on overall natural gas consumption, prices, and supply. Compared to the Annual Energy Outlook 2004 reference case, the no Alaska pipeline case has the least impact; the low liquefied natural gas case has more impact; the low unconventional gas recovery case has even more impact; and the combined case has the most impact.

  9. Controversial natural gas and oil issues tackled

    SciTech Connect

    Rodgers, L.M.

    1991-04-15

    This article reports on recent activities regarding controversial natural gas and oil issues including the strategic oil reserve, expanded access to drilling in the outer continental shelf and authorization of oil and gas leasing in the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge, reestablishing regulation of the natural gas industry and budgeting for research and development.

  10. Oilfield Flare Gas Electricity Systems (OFFGASES Project)

    SciTech Connect

    Rachel Henderson; Robert Fickes

    2007-12-31

    strength of natural gas. The cost of producing oil is to a large extent the cost of electric power used to extract and deliver the oil. Researchers have identified stranded and flared gas in California that could generate 400 megawatts of power, and believe that there is at least an additional 2,000 megawatts that have not been identified. Since California accounts for about 14.5% of the total domestic oil production, it is reasonable to assume that about 16,500 megawatts could be generated throughout the United States. This power could restore the cost-effectiveness of thousands of oil wells, increasing oil production by millions of barrels a year, while reducing emissions and greenhouse gas emissions by burning the gas in clean distributed generators rather than flaring or venting the stranded gases. Most turbines and engines are designed for standardized, high-quality gas. However, emerging technologies such as microturbines have increased the options for a broader range of fuels. By demonstrating practical means to consume the four gas streams, the project showed that any gases whose properties are between the extreme conditions also could be utilized. The economics of doing so depends on factors such as the value of additional oil recovered, the price of electricity produced, and the alternate costs to dispose of stranded gas.

  11. Next Generation * Natural Gas (NG)2 Information Requirements--Executive Summary

    EIA Publications

    2000-01-01

    The Energy Information Administration (EIA) has initiated the Next Generation * Natural Gas (NG)2 project to design and implement a new and comprehensive information program for natural gas to meet customer requirements in the post-2000 time frame.

  12. Consortium for Petroleum & Natural Gas Stripper Wells

    SciTech Connect

    Joel L. Morrison; Sharon L. Elder

    2006-12-31

    The Pennsylvania State University, under contract to the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL), established a national industry-driven Stripper Well Consortium (SWC) that is focused on improving the production performance of domestic petroleum and/or natural gas stripper wells. The SWC represents a partnership between U.S. petroleum and natural gas producers, trade associations, state funding agencies, academia, and the NETL. This document serves as the eleventh quarterly technical progress report for the SWC. Key activities for this reporting period included: (1) Organizing and hosting the Fall SWC Technology Transfer Workshop for the northeastern U.S., in Pittsburgh, PA, on November 9, 2006, and organizing and identifying projects to exhibit during the SWC/Gas Storage Technology Consortium (GSTC) joint reception on November 8, 2006; (2) Distributing a paper copy of the Texas Tech 2004 Final Report and a revised, complete compact disc of all 2004 final reports; (3) Invoicing current and potential members for FY2007; (4) Soliciting nominations for the 2007-2008 Executive Council seats; and (5) Communications and outreach.

  13. Natural gas hydrates; vast resource, uncertain future

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Collett, T.S.

    2001-01-01

    Gas hydrates are naturally occurring icelike solids in which water molecules trap gas molecules in a cagelike structure known as a clathrate. Although many gases form hydrates in nature, methane hydrate is by far the most common; methane is the most abundant natural gas. The volume of carbon contained in methane hydrates worldwide is estimated to be twice the amount contained in all fossil fuels on Earth, including coal.

  14. Conceptos Basicos Sobre el Gas Natural

    SciTech Connect

    2016-08-01

    El gas natural abastece cerca de 150.000 vehiculos en los Estados Unidos y aproximadamente 22 millones de vehiculos en todo el mundo. Los vehiculos de gas natural (NGV, por sus siglas en ingles) son una buena opcion para las flotas de vehiculos de alto kilometraje, tales como autobuses, taxis, vehiculos de recoleccion de basura, los cuales son alimentados centralmente u operan dentro de un area limitada o a lo largo de una ruta con estaciones de servicio de gas natural. Las ventajas del gas natural como combustible alternativo incluyen su disponibilidad interna, la red de distribucion establecida, un costo relativamente bajo, y los beneficios de las emisiones.

  15. Natural gas 1998: Issues and trends

    SciTech Connect

    1999-06-01

    Natural Gas 1998: Issues and Trends provides a summary of the latest data and information relating to the US natural gas industry, including prices, production, transmission, consumption, and the financial and environmental aspects of the industry. The report consists of seven chapters and five appendices. Chapter 1 presents a summary of various data trends and key issues in today`s natural gas industry and examines some of the emerging trends. Chapters 2 through 7 focus on specific areas or segments of the industry, highlighting some of the issues associated with the impact of natural gas operations on the environment. 57 figs., 18 tabs.

  16. US crude oil, natural gas, and natural gas liquids reserves 1996 annual report

    SciTech Connect

    1997-12-01

    The EIA annual reserves report series is the only source of comprehensive domestic proved reserves estimates. This publication is used by the Congress, Federal and State agencies, industry, and other interested parties to obtain accurate estimates of the Nation`s proved reserves of crude oil, natural gas, and natural gas liquids. These data are essential to the development, implementation, and evaluation of energy policy and legislation. This report presents estimates of proved reserves of crude oil, natural gas, and natural gas liquids as of December 31, 1996, as well as production volumes for the US and selected States and State subdivisions for the year 1996. Estimates are presented for the following four categories of natural gas: total gas (wet after lease separation), nonassociated gas and associated-dissolved gas (which are the two major types of wet natural gas), and total dry gas (wet gas adjusted for the removal of liquids at natural gas processing plants). In addition, reserve estimates for two types of natural gas liquids, lease condensate and natural gas plant liquids, are presented. Also included is information on indicated additional crude oil reserves and crude oil, natural gas, and lease condensate reserves in nonproducing reservoirs. A discussion of notable oil and gas exploration and development activities during 1996 is provided. 21 figs., 16 tabs.

  17. U.S. crude oil, natural gas, and natural gas liquids reserves 1995 annual report

    SciTech Connect

    1996-11-01

    The EIA annual reserves report series is the only source of comprehensive domestic proved reserves estimates. This publication is used by the Congress, Federal and State agencies, industry, and other interested parties to obtain accurate estimates of the Nation`s proved reserves of crude oil, natural gas, and natural gas liquids. These data are essential to the development, implementation, and evaluation of energy policy and legislation. This report presents estimates of proved reserves of crude oil, natural gas, and natural gas liquids as of December 31, 1995, as well as production volumes for the US and selected States and State subdivisions for the year 1995. Estimates are presented for the following four categories of natural gas: total gas (wet after lease separation), nonassociated gas and associated-dissolved gas (which are the two major types of wet natural gas), and total dry gas (wet gas adjusted for the removal of liquids at natural gas processing plants). In addition, reserve estimates for two types of natural gas liquids, lease condensate and natural gas plant liquids, are presented. Also included is information on indicated additional crude oil reserves and crude oil, natural gas, and lease condensate reserves in nonproducing reservoirs. A discussion of notable oil and gas exploration and development activities during 1995 is provided. 21 figs., 16 tabs.

  18. Underground natural gas storage reservoir management

    SciTech Connect

    Ortiz, I.; Anthony, R.

    1995-06-01

    The objective of this study is to research technologies and methodologies that will reduce the costs associated with the operation and maintenance of underground natural gas storage. This effort will include a survey of public information to determine the amount of natural gas lost from underground storage fields, determine the causes of this lost gas, and develop strategies and remedial designs to reduce or stop the gas loss from selected fields. Phase I includes a detailed survey of US natural gas storage reservoirs to determine the actual amount of natural gas annually lost from underground storage fields. These reservoirs will be ranked, the resultant will include the amount of gas and revenue annually lost. The results will be analyzed in conjunction with the type (geologic) of storage reservoirs to determine the significance and impact of the gas loss. A report of the work accomplished will be prepared. The report will include: (1) a summary list by geologic type of US gas storage reservoirs and their annual underground gas storage losses in ft{sup 3}; (2) a rank by geologic classifications as to the amount of gas lost and the resultant lost revenue; and (3) show the level of significance and impact of the losses by geologic type. Concurrently, the amount of storage activity has increased in conjunction with the net increase of natural gas imports as shown on Figure No. 3. Storage is playing an ever increasing importance in supplying the domestic energy requirements.

  19. Natural gas annual 1993 supplement: Company profiles

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1995-02-01

    The Natural Gas Annual provides information on the supply and disposition of natural gas to a wide audience including industry, consumers, Federal and State agencies, and educational institutions. This report, the Natural Gas Annual 1993 Supplement: Company Profiles, presents a detailed profile of 45 selected companies in the natural gas industry. The purpose of this report is to show the movement of natural gas through the various States served by the companies profiled. The companies in this report are interstate pipeline companies or local distribution companies (LDC`s). Interstate pipeline companies acquire gas supplies from company owned production, purchases from producers, and receipts for transportation for account of others. Pipeline systems, service area maps, company supply and disposition data are presented.

  20. Batching an ultrasonic pig in a natural gas liquids pipeline

    SciTech Connect

    Wilder, J.R. Jr.

    1997-05-01

    This paper was developed as a result of Pipetronix batching an ultrasonic pig in an active Natural Gas Liquids pipeline for the first time in the US. This project was unique in that the gas cryogenic gas plant, producing the Natural Gas Liquids, was still running without the aid storage. Pipetronix determined the Natural Gas Liquid stream was too rich in Ethane for their ultrasonic pig to operate. Therefore, another medium must be found to batch the ultrasonic pig. The medium was Natural Gasoline. This paper will allow other companies to use the information learned through this experience. Two of the lessons learned are: (1) pumping of the batching medium and (2) ramping the flow rate. There were lessons learned during the retrieval of the ultrasonic pig concerning the handling and disposal of the batching medium.

  1. SEAPORT LIQUID NATURAL GAS STUDY

    SciTech Connect

    COOK,Z.

    1999-02-01

    The Seaport Liquid Natural Gas Study has attempted to evaluate the potential for using LNG in a variety of heavy-duty vehicle and equipment applications at the Ports of Los Angeles and Oakland. Specifically, this analysis has focused on the handling and transport of containerized cargo to, from and within these two facilities. In terms of containerized cargo throughput, Los Angeles and Oakland are the second and sixth busiest ports in the US, respectively, and together handle nearly 4.5 million TEUs per year. At present, the landside handling and transportation of containerized cargo is heavily dependent on diesel-powered, heavy-duty vehicles and equipment, the utilization of which contributes significantly to the overall emissions impact of port-related activities. Emissions from diesel units have been the subject of increasing scrutiny and regulatory action, particularly in California. In the past two years alone, particulate matter from diesel exhaust has been listed as a toxic air contaminant by CAM, and major lawsuits have been filed against several of California's largest supermarket chains, alleging violation of Proposition 65 statutes in connection with diesel emissions from their distribution facilities. CARE3 has also indicated that it may take further regulatory action relating to the TAC listing. In spite of these developments and the very large diesel emissions associated with port operations, there has been little AFV penetration in these applications. Nearly all port operators interviewed by CALSTART expressed an awareness of the issues surrounding diesel use; however, none appeared to be taking proactive steps to address them. Furthermore, while a less controversial issue than emissions, the dominance of diesel fuel use in heavy-duty vehicles contributes to a continued reliance on imported fuels. The increasing concern regarding diesel use, and the concurrent lack of alternative fuel use and vigorous emissions reduction activity at the Ports provide

  2. Catalytic decomposition of petroleum into natural gas

    SciTech Connect

    Mango, F.D.; Hightower, J.

    1997-12-01

    Petroleum is believed to be unstable in the earth, decomposing to lighter hydrocarbons at temperatures > 150{degrees}C. Oil and gas deposits support this view: gas/oil ratios and methane concentrations tend to increase with depth above 150{degrees}C. Although oil cracking is suggested and receives wide support, laboratory pyrolysis does not give products resembling natural gas. Moreover, it is doubtful that the light hydrocarbons in wet gas (C{sub 2}-C{sub 4}) could decompose over geologic time to dry gas (>95% methane) without catalytic assistance. We now report the catalytic decomposition of crude oil to a gas indistinguishable from natural gas. Like natural gas in deep basins, it becomes progressively enriched in methane: initially 90% (wet gas) to a final composition of 100% methane (dry gas). To our knowledge, the reaction is unprecedented and unexpectedly robust (conversion of oil to gas is 100% in days, 175{degrees}C) with significant implications regarding the stability of petroleum in sedimentary basins. The existence or nonexistence of oil in the deep subsurface may not depend on the thermal stability of hydrocarbons as currently thought. The critical factor could be the presence of transition metal catalysts which destabilize hydrocarbons and promote their decomposition to natural gas.

  3. Advanced Natural Gas Reciprocating Engines(s)

    SciTech Connect

    Zurlo, James

    2012-04-05

    The ARES program was initiated in 2001 to improve the overall brake thermal efficiency of stationary, natural gas, reciprocating engines. The ARES program is a joint award that is shared by Dresser, Inc., Caterpillar and Cummins. The ARES program was divided into three phases; ARES I (achieve 44% BTE), ARES II (achieve 47% BTE) and ARES III (achieve 50% BTE). Dresser, Inc. completed ARES I in March 2005 which resulted in the commercialization of the APG1000 product line. ARES II activities were completed in September 2010 and the technology developed is currently being integrated into products. ARES III activities began in October 2010. The ARES program goal is to improve the efficiency of natural gas reciprocating engines. The ARES project is structured in three phases with higher efficiency goals in each phase. The ARES objectives are as follows: 1. Achieve 44% (ARES I), 47% (ARES II), and 50% brake thermal efficiency (BTE) as a final ARES III objective 2. Achieve 0.1 g/bhp-hr NOx emissions (with after-treatment) 3. Reduce the cost of the produced electricity by 10% 4. Improve or maintain reliability, durability and maintenance costs

  4. Gasoline from natural gas by sulfur processing

    SciTech Connect

    Erekson, E.J.; Miao, F.Q.

    1995-12-31

    The overall objective of this research project is to develop a catalytic process to convert natural gas to liquid transportation fuels. The process, called the HSM (Hydrogen Sulfide-Methane) Process, consists of two steps that each utilize a catalyst and sulfur-containing intermediates: (1) converting natural gas to CS{sub 2} and (2) converting CS{sub 2} to gasoline range liquids. Catalysts have been found that convert methane to carbon disulfide in yields up to 98%. This exceeds the target of 40% yields for the first step. The best rate for CS{sub 2} formation was 132 g CS{sub 2}/kg-cat-h. The best rate for hydrogen production is 220 L H{sub 2} /kg-cat-h. A preliminary economic study shows that in a refinery application hydrogen made by the HSM technology would cost $0.25-R1.00/1000 SCF. Experimental data will be generated to facilitate evaluation of the overall commercial viability of the process.

  5. 76 FR 4417 - Liberty Natural Gas LLC, Liberty Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) Deepwater Port License Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-25

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Maritime Administration Liberty Natural Gas LLC, Liberty Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) Deepwater Port License... should be addressed to: Department of Transportation, Docket Management Facility, West Building, Ground...

  6. Natural gas 1994: Issues and trends

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-07-01

    This report provides an overview of the natural gas industry in 1993 and early 1994 (Chapter 1), focusing on the overall ability to deliver gas under the new regulatory mandates of Order 636. In addition, the report highlights a range of issues affecting the industry, including: restructuring under Order 636 (Chapter 2); adjustments in natural gas contracting (Chapter 3); increased use of underground storage (Chapter 4); effects of the new market on the financial performance of the industry (Chapter 5); continued impacts of major regulatory and legislative changes on the natural gas market (Appendix A).

  7. How EIA Estimates Natural Gas Production

    EIA Publications

    2004-01-01

    The Energy Information Administration (EIA) publishes estimates monthly and annually of the production of natural gas in the United States. The estimates are based on data EIA collects from gas producing states and data collected by the U. S. Minerals Management Service (MMS) in the Department of Interior. The states and MMS collect this information from producers of natural gas for various reasons, most often for revenue purposes. Because the information is not sufficiently complete or timely for inclusion in EIA's Natural Gas Monthly (NGM), EIA has developed estimation methodologies to generate monthly production estimates that are described in this document.

  8. Natural gas monthly, September 1990. [Contains Glossary

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-11-30

    This report highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. 7 figs., 33 tabs.

  9. Natural gas annual 1994: Volume 2

    SciTech Connect

    1995-11-01

    The Natural Gas Annual provides information on the supply and disposition of natural gas to a wide audience including industry, consumers, Federal and State agencies, and educational institutions. This report, Volume 2, presents historical data fro the Nation from 1930 to 1994, and by State from 1967 to 1994.

  10. Natural gas monthly, October 1990. [Contains glossary

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-12-28

    This report highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. 7 figs., 34 tabs.

  11. Arctic Oil and Natural Gas Potential

    EIA Publications

    2009-01-01

    This paper examines the discovered and undiscovered Arctic oil and natural gas resource base with respect to their location and concentration. The paper also discusses the cost and impediments to developing Arctic oil and natural gas resources, including those issues associated with environmental habitats and political boundaries.

  12. Majors' Shift to Natural Gas, The

    EIA Publications

    2001-01-01

    The Majors' Shift to Natural Gas investigates the factors that have guided the United States' major energy producers' growth in U.S. natural gas production relative to oil production. The analysis draws heavily on financial and operating data from the Energy Information Administration's Financial Reporting System (FRS)

  13. Natural gas monthly, September 1991. [Contains glossary

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-10-18

    The Natural Gas Monthly highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production distribution consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information. The data in this publication are collected on surveys conducted by the EIA to fulfill its responsibilities for gathering and reporting energy data. Some of the data are collected under the authority of the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC), an independent commission within the DOE, which has jurisdiction primarily in the regulation of electric utilities and the interstate natural gas industry. Geographic coverage is the 50 States and the District of Columbia.

  14. Development of natural gas vehicles in China

    SciTech Connect

    Zongmin, Cheng

    1996-12-31

    Past decade and current status of development of natural gas vehicles (NGVs) in China is described. By the end of 1995, 35 CNG refueling stations and 9 LPG refueling stations had been constructed in 12 regions, and 33,100 vehicles had been converted to run on CNG or LPG. China`s automobile industry, a mainstay of the national economy, is slated for accelerated development over next few years. NGVs will help to solve the problems of environment protection, GHGs mitigation, and shortage of oil supply. The Chinese government has started to promote the development of NGVs. Projects, investment demand, GHG mitigation potential, and development barriers are discussed. China needs to import advanced foreign technologies of CNGs. China`s companies expect to cooperate with foreign partners for import of CNG vehicle refueling compressors, conversions, and light cylinders, etc.

  15. Modeling natural gas reservoirs: A simple model

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Collier, Richard S.; Monash, E.A.

    1981-01-01

    A mathematical model is developed and tested for the production of natural gas with water encroachment and gas entrapment. The model is built on the material and volumetric balance relations, the Schilthuis water drive model, and a gas entrapment mechanism which assumes that the rate of gas entrapment is proportional to the volumetric rate of water influx. This model represents an alternative to the large grid models because of its low computer, maintenance, and manpower costs.

  16. IMPROVED NATURAL GAS STORAGE WELL REMEDIATION

    SciTech Connect

    James C. Furness; Donald O. Johnson; Michael L. Wilkey; Lynn Furness; Keith Vanderlee; P. David Paulsen

    2001-12-01

    This report summarizes the research conducted during Budget Period One on the project ''Improved Natural Gas Storage Well Remediation''. The project team consisted of Furness-Newburge, Inc., the technology developer; TechSavants, Inc., the technology validator; and Nicor Technologies, Inc., the technology user. The overall objectives for the project were: (1) To develop, fabricate and test prototype laboratory devices using sonication and underwater plasma to remove scale from natural gas storage well piping and perforations; (2) To modify the laboratory devices into units capable of being used downhole; (3) To test the capability of the downhole units to remove scale in an observation well at a natural gas storage field; (4) To modify (if necessary) and field harden the units and then test the units in two pressurized injection/withdrawal gas storage wells; and (5) To prepare the project's final report. This report covers activities addressing objectives 1-3. Prototype laboratory units were developed, fabricated, and tested. Laboratory testing of the sonication technology indicated that low-frequency sonication was more effective than high-frequency (ultrasonication) at removing scale and rust from pipe sections and tubing. Use of a finned horn instead of a smooth horn improves energy dispersal and increases the efficiency of removal. The chemical data confirmed that rust and scale were removed from the pipe. The sonication technology showed significant potential and technical maturity to warrant a field test. The underwater plasma technology showed a potential for more effective scale and rust removal than the sonication technology. Chemical data from these tests also confirmed the removal of rust and scale from pipe sections and tubing. Focusing of the underwater plasma's energy field through the design and fabrication of a parabolic shield will increase the technology's efficiency. Power delivered to the underwater plasma unit by a sparkplug repeatedly was

  17. Liquefied Natural Gas for Trucks and Buses

    SciTech Connect

    James Wegrzyn; Michael Gurevich

    2000-06-19

    Liquefied natural gas (LNG) is being developed as a heavy vehicle fuel. The reason for developing LNG is to reduce our dependency on imported oil by eliminating technical and costs barriers associated with its usage. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has a program, currently in its third year, to develop and advance cost-effective technologies for operating and refueling natural gas-fueled heavy vehicles (Class 7-8 trucks). The objectives of the DOE Natural Gas Vehicle Systems Program are to achieve market penetration by reducing vehicle conversion and fuel costs, to increase consumer acceptance by improving the reliability and efficiency, and to improve air quality by reducing tailpipe emissions. One way to reduce fuel costs is to develop new supplies of cheap natural gas. Significant progress is being made towards developing more energy-efficient, low-cost, small-scale natural gas liquefiers for exploiting alternative sources of natural gas such as from landfill and remote gas sites. In particular, the DOE program provides funds for research and development in the areas of; natural gas clean up, LNG production, advanced vehicle onboard storage tanks, improved fuel delivery systems and LNG market strategies. In general, the program seeks to integrate the individual components being developed into complete systems, and then demonstrate the technology to establish technical and economic feasibility. The paper also reviews the importance of cryogenics in designing LNG fuel delivery systems.

  18. Thermodynamic DFT analysis of natural gas.

    PubMed

    Neto, Abel F G; Huda, Muhammad N; Marques, Francisco C; Borges, Rosivaldo S; Neto, Antonio M J C

    2017-08-01

    Density functional theory was performed for thermodynamic predictions on natural gas, whose B3LYP/6-311++G(d,p), B3LYP/6-31+G(d), CBS-QB3, G3, and G4 methods were applied. Additionally, we carried out thermodynamic predictions using G3/G4 averaged. The calculations were performed for each major component of seven kinds of natural gas and to their respective air + natural gas mixtures at a thermal equilibrium between room temperature and the initial temperature of a combustion chamber during the injection stage. The following thermodynamic properties were obtained: internal energy, enthalpy, Gibbs free energy and entropy, which enabled us to investigate the thermal resistance of fuels. Also, we estimated an important parameter, namely, the specific heat ratio of each natural gas; this allowed us to compare the results with the empirical functions of these parameters, where the B3LYP/6-311++G(d,p) and G3/G4 methods showed better agreements. In addition, relevant information on the thermal and mechanic resistance of natural gases were investigated, as well as the standard thermodynamic properties for the combustion of natural gas. Thus, we show that density functional theory can be useful for predicting the thermodynamic properties of natural gas, enabling the production of more efficient compositions for the investigated fuels. Graphical abstract Investigation of the thermodynamic properties of natural gas through the canonical ensemble model and the density functional theory.

  19. Well log characterization of natural gas hydrates

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Collett, Timothy S.; Lee, Myung W.

    2011-01-01

    In the last 25 years we have seen significant advancements in the use of downhole well logging tools to acquire detailed information on the occurrence of gas hydrate in nature: From an early start of using wireline electrical resistivity and acoustic logs to identify gas hydrate occurrences in wells drilled in Arctic permafrost environments to today where wireline and advanced logging-while-drilling tools are routinely used to examine the petrophysical nature of gas hydrate reservoirs and the distribution and concentration of gas hydrates within various complex reservoir systems. The most established and well known use of downhole log data in gas hydrate research is the use of electrical resistivity and acoustic velocity data (both compressional- and shear-wave data) to make estimates of gas hydrate content (i.e., reservoir saturations) in various sediment types and geologic settings. New downhole logging tools designed to make directionally oriented acoustic and propagation resistivity log measurements have provided the data needed to analyze the acoustic and electrical anisotropic properties of both highly inter-bedded and fracture dominated gas hydrate reservoirs. Advancements in nuclear-magnetic-resonance (NMR) logging and wireline formation testing have also allowed for the characterization of gas hydrate at the pore scale. Integrated NMR and formation testing studies from northern Canada and Alaska have yielded valuable insight into how gas hydrates are physically distributed in sediments and the occurrence and nature of pore fluids (i.e., free-water along with clay and capillary bound water) in gas-hydrate-bearing reservoirs. Information on the distribution of gas hydrate at the pore scale has provided invaluable insight on the mechanisms controlling the formation and occurrence of gas hydrate in nature along with data on gas hydrate reservoir properties (i.e., permeabilities) needed to accurately predict gas production rates for various gas hydrate

  20. Liquefied natural gas (LNG) market and Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alam, Firoz; Alam, Quamrul; Reza, Suman; Khurshid-ul-Alam, S. M.; Saleque, Khondkar; Ahsan, Saifuddin

    2017-06-01

    As low carbon-emitting fossil fuel, the natural gas is mainly used for power generation and industrial applications. It is also used for heating and cooling in commercial and residential buildings as well as in transport industry. Although the natural gas reaches the end-user mainly through pipelines (if gas is available locally), the liquefied form is the most viable alternative to transport natural gas from far away location to the end user. The economic progress in Asia and other parts of the world creates huge demand for energy (oil, gas and coal). As low carbon-emitting fuel, the demand for gas especially in liquefied form is progressively rising. Having 7th largest shale gas reserve (437 trillion cubic feet recoverable), Australia has become one of the world's major natural gas producers and exporters and is expected to continue a dominating role in the world gas market in foreseeable future. This paper reviews Australia's current gas reserve, industries, markets and LNG production capabilities.

  1. 77 FR 28870 - Floridian Natural Gas Storage Company, LLC; Notice of Intent To Prepare an Environmental...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-16

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Floridian Natural Gas Storage Company, LLC; Notice of Intent To Prepare an Environmental Assessment for the Floridian Natural Gas Amendment Project and Request for Comments on... environmental assessment (EA) that will discuss the environmental impacts of the Floridan Natural Gas...

  2. Natural gas contracts in efficient portfolios

    SciTech Connect

    Sutherland, R.J.

    1994-12-01

    This report addresses the {open_quotes}contracts portfolio{close_quotes} issue of natural gas contracts in support of the Domestic Natural Gas and Oil Initiative (DGOI) published by the U.S. Department of Energy in 1994. The analysis is a result of a collaborative effort with the Public Service Commission of the State of Maryland to consider {open_quotes}reforms that enhance the industry`s competitiveness{close_quotes}. The initial focus of our collaborative effort was on gas purchasing and contract portfolios; however, it became apparent that efficient contracting to purchase and use gas requires a broader consideration of regulatory reform. Efficient portfolios are obtained when the holder of the portfolio is affected by and is responsible for the performance of the portfolio. Natural gas distribution companies may prefer a diversity of contracts, but the efficient use of gas requires that the local distribution company be held accountable for its own purchases. Ultimate customers are affected by their own portfolios, which they manage efficiently by making their own choices. The objectives of the DGOI, particularly the efficient use of gas, can be achieved when customers have access to suppliers of gas and energy services under an improved regulatory framework. The evolution of the natural gas market during the last 15 years is described to account for the changing preferences toward gas contracts. Long-term contracts for natural gas were prevalent before the early 1980s, primarily because gas producers had few options other than to sell to a single pipeline company, and this pipeline company, in turn, was the only seller to a gas distribution company.

  3. Well log evaluation of natural gas hydrates

    SciTech Connect

    Collett, T.S.

    1992-10-01

    Gas hydrates are crystalline substances composed of water and gas, in which a solid-water-lattice accommodates gas molecules in a cage-like structure. Gas hydrates are globally widespread in permafrost regions and beneath the sea in sediment of outer continental margins. While methane, propane, and other gases can be included in the clathrate structure, methane hydrates appear to be the most common in nature. The amount of methane sequestered in gas hydrates is probably enormous, but estimates are speculative and range over three orders of magnitude from about 100,000 to 270,000,000 trillion cubic feet. The amount of gas in the hydrate reservoirs of the world greedy exceeds the volume of known conventional gas reserves. Gas hydrates also represent a significant drilling and production hazard. A fundamental question linking gas hydrate resource and hazard issues is: What is the volume of gas hydrates and included gas within a given gas hydrate occurrence Most published gas hydrate resource estimates have, of necessity, been made by broad extrapolation of only general knowledge of local geologic conditions. Gas volumes that may be attributed to gas hydrates are dependent on a number of reservoir parameters, including the areal extent ofthe gas-hydrate occurrence, reservoir thickness, hydrate number, reservoir porosity, and the degree of gas-hydrate saturation. Two of the most difficult reservoir parameters to determine are porosity and degreeof gas hydrate saturation. Well logs often serve as a source of porosity and hydrocarbon saturation data; however, well-log calculations within gas-hydrate-bearing intervals are subject to error. The primary reason for this difficulty is the lack of quantitative laboratory and field studies. The primary purpose of this paper is to review the response of well logs to the presence of gas hydrates.

  4. Well log evaluation of natural gas hydrates

    SciTech Connect

    Collett, T.S.

    1992-10-01

    Gas hydrates are crystalline substances composed of water and gas, in which a solid-water-lattice accommodates gas molecules in a cage-like structure. Gas hydrates are globally widespread in permafrost regions and beneath the sea in sediment of outer continental margins. While methane, propane, and other gases can be included in the clathrate structure, methane hydrates appear to be the most common in nature. The amount of methane sequestered in gas hydrates is probably enormous, but estimates are speculative and range over three orders of magnitude from about 100,000 to 270,000,000 trillion cubic feet. The amount of gas in the hydrate reservoirs of the world greedy exceeds the volume of known conventional gas reserves. Gas hydrates also represent a significant drilling and production hazard. A fundamental question linking gas hydrate resource and hazard issues is: What is the volume of gas hydrates and included gas within a given gas hydrate occurrence? Most published gas hydrate resource estimates have, of necessity, been made by broad extrapolation of only general knowledge of local geologic conditions. Gas volumes that may be attributed to gas hydrates are dependent on a number of reservoir parameters, including the areal extent ofthe gas-hydrate occurrence, reservoir thickness, hydrate number, reservoir porosity, and the degree of gas-hydrate saturation. Two of the most difficult reservoir parameters to determine are porosity and degreeof gas hydrate saturation. Well logs often serve as a source of porosity and hydrocarbon saturation data; however, well-log calculations within gas-hydrate-bearing intervals are subject to error. The primary reason for this difficulty is the lack of quantitative laboratory and field studies. The primary purpose of this paper is to review the response of well logs to the presence of gas hydrates.

  5. Assessment of future natural gas vehicle concepts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Groten, B.; Arrigotti, S.

    1992-10-01

    The development of Natural Gas Vehicles is progressing rapidly under the stimulus of recent vehicle emission regulations. The development is following what can be viewed as a three step progression. In the first step, contemporary gasoline or diesel fueled automobiles are retrofitted with equipment enabling the vehicle to operate on either natural gas or standard liquid fuels. The second step is the development of vehicles which utilize traditional internal combustion engines that have been modified to operate exclusively on natural gas. These dedicated natural gas vehicles operate more efficiently and have lower emissions than the dual fueled vehicles. The third step is the redesigning, from the ground up, of a vehicle aimed at exploiting the advantages of natural gas as an automotive fuel while minimizing its disadvantages. The current report is aimed at identifying the R&D needs in various fuel storage and engine combinations which have potential for providing increased efficiency, reduced emissions, and reductions in vehicle weight and size. Fuel suppliers, automobile and engine manufacturers, many segments of the natural gas and other industries, and regulatory authorities will influence or be affected by the development of such a third generation vehicle, and it is recommended that GRI act to bring these groups together in the near future to begin, developing the focus on a 'designed-for-natural-gas' vehicle.

  6. North American Natural Gas Markets. Volume 1

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-12-01

    This report sunnnarizes the research by an Energy Modeling Forum working group on the evolution of the North American natural gas markets between now and 2010. The group`s findings are based partly on the results of a set of economic models of the natural gas industry that were run for four scenarios representing significantly different conditions: two oil price scenarios (upper and lower), a smaller total US resource base (low US resource case), and increased potential gas demand for electric generation (high US demand case). Several issues, such as the direction of regulatory policy and the size of the gas resource base, were analyzed separately without the use of models.

  7. Coordinated scheduling of electricity and natural gas infrastructures with a transient model for natural gas flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Cong; Shahidehpour, Mohammad; Wang, Jianhui

    2011-06-01

    This paper focuses on transient characteristics of natural gas flow in the coordinated scheduling of security-constrained electricity and natural gas infrastructures. The paper takes into account the slow transient process in the natural gas transmission systems. Considering their transient characteristics, natural gas transmission systems are modeled as a set of partial differential equations (PDEs) and algebraic equations. An implicit finite difference method is applied to approximate PDEs by difference equations. The coordinated scheduling of electricity and natural gas systems is described as a bi-level programming formulation from the independent system operator's viewpoint. The objective of the upper-level problem is to minimize the operating cost of electric power systems while the natural gas scheduling optimization problem is nested within the lower-level problem. Numerical examples are presented to verify the effectiveness of the proposed solution and to compare the solutions for steady-state and transient models of natural gas transmission systems.

  8. Coordinated scheduling of electricity and natural gas infrastructures with a transient model for natural gas flow.

    PubMed

    Liu, Cong; Shahidehpour, Mohammad; Wang, Jianhui

    2011-06-01

    This paper focuses on transient characteristics of natural gas flow in the coordinated scheduling of security-constrained electricity and natural gas infrastructures. The paper takes into account the slow transient process in the natural gas transmission systems. Considering their transient characteristics, natural gas transmission systems are modeled as a set of partial differential equations (PDEs) and algebraic equations. An implicit finite difference method is applied to approximate PDEs by difference equations. The coordinated scheduling of electricity and natural gas systems is described as a bi-level programming formulation from the independent system operator's viewpoint. The objective of the upper-level problem is to minimize the operating cost of electric power systems while the natural gas scheduling optimization problem is nested within the lower-level problem. Numerical examples are presented to verify the effectiveness of the proposed solution and to compare the solutions for steady-state and transient models of natural gas transmission systems.

  9. Natural gas annual 1992: Volume 1

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-11-22

    This document provides information on the supply and disposition of natural gas to a wide audience including industry, consumers, Federal and State agencies, and education institutions. The 1992 data are presented in a sequence that follows natural gas (including supplemental supplies) from its production top its end use. Tables summarizing natural gas supply and disposition from 1988 to 1992 are given for each Census Division and each State. Annual historical data are shown at the national level. Volume 2 of this report presents State-level historical data.

  10. Natural Gas Engine Development Gaps (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Zigler, B.T.

    2014-03-01

    A review of current natural gas vehicle offerings is presented for both light-duty and medium- and heavy-duty applications. Recent gaps in the marketplace are discussed, along with how they have been or may be addressed. The stakeholder input process for guiding research and development needs via the Natural Gas Vehicle Technology Forum (NGVTF) to the U.S. Department of Energy and the California Energy Commission is reviewed. Current high-level natural gas engine development gap areas are highlighted, including efficiency, emissions, and the certification process.

  11. The Shale Gas in Europe project (GASH)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schulz, Hans-Martin; Horsfield, Brian; Gash-Team

    2010-05-01

    At the present time no shale gas play has been brought to the production level in Europe. While the opportunities appear abundant, there are still many challenges to be overcome in Europe such as land access and environmental issues. Costs per well are still higher than in the US, and mining regulations are tighter. As yet it remains unclear whether European shales can support commercial shale gas production. First, it will be essential to test the sub-surface and the potential deliverability of wells, supported by basic research. GASH is the first major scientific initiative in Europe that is focussed on shale gas; it is ambitious in that it is broad ranging in scientific scope and that it unites leading European research groups and geological surveys with industry. US know-how is also integrated into the programme to avoid reinventing the wheel, or, still worse, the flat tyre. GASH is currently funded by eight companies, and comprises two main elements: compilation of a European Black Shale Database (EBSD) and focussed research projects that are based on geochemical, geophysical and geomechanical investigations. The EBSD is being built by a team of more than 20 geological surveys, extending from Sweden in the north, through western Europe and the Baltic states down to southern Europe, and over to Romania, Hungary and the Czech Republic in the east. The research projects apply numerical modelling, process simulations and laboratory analyses to selected regional study areas or "natural laboratories" from both Europe and the USA - the goal: to predict gas-in-place and fracability based on process understanding. The European black shales selected as natural shale gas laboratories are the Cambrian Alum Shale from Sweden and Denmark, the Lower Jurassic Posidonia Shale from Central Germany, and Carboniferous black shales from the UK in the west via the Netherlands to Germany in the east. Fresh core material for detailed investigations will be recovered during the mid

  12. Combustion gas properties. 2: Natural gas fuel and dry air

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wear, J. D.; Jones, R. E.; Trout, A. M.; Mcbride, B. J.

    1985-01-01

    A series of computations has been made to produce the equilibrium temperature and gas composition for natural gas fuel and dry air. The computed tables and figures provide combustion gas property data for pressures from 0.5 to 50 atmospheres and equivalence ratios from 0 to 2.0. Only samples tables and figures are provided in this report. The complete set of tables and figures is provided on four microfiche films supplied with this report.

  13. Tapping methane hydrates for unconventional natural gas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ruppel, Carolyn

    2007-01-01

    Methane hydrate is an icelike form of concentrated methane and water found in the sediments of permafrost regions and marine continental margins at depths far shallower than conventional oil and gas. Despite their relative accessibility and widespread occurrence, methane hydrates have never been tapped to meet increasing global energy demands. With rising natural gas prices, production from these unconventional gas deposits is becoming economically viable, particularly in permafrost areas already being exploited for conventional oil and gas. This article provides an overview of gas hydrate occurrence, resource assessment, exploration, production technologies, renewability, and future challenges.

  14. Conditioning natural gas for measurement and transportation

    SciTech Connect

    Barnhard, E.E.

    1984-04-01

    This paper discusses methods of conditioning natural gas for measurement and transportation. Gas mixtures measured at the well head or into a gathering system may not yet be conditioned to pipeline standards at the point of measurement, because title to the gas passes from the seller to the buyer at that point. Therefore, it is sometimes necessary to measure the gas flow without complete conditioning and to do it accurately. Careful study of the conditioning steps that the gas has completed, or that must be performed prior to measurement, will affect selection of the measurement equipment and the success of its operation.

  15. Natural gas-assisted steam electrolyzer

    DOEpatents

    Pham, Ai-Quoc; Wallman, P. Henrik; Glass, Robert S.

    2000-01-01

    An efficient method of producing hydrogen by high temperature steam electrolysis that will lower the electricity consumption to an estimated 65 percent lower than has been achievable with previous steam electrolyzer systems. This is accomplished with a natural gas-assisted steam electrolyzer, which significantly reduces the electricity consumption. Since this natural gas-assisted steam electrolyzer replaces one unit of electrical energy by one unit of energy content in natural gas at one-quarter the cost, the hydrogen production cost will be significantly reduced. Also, it is possible to vary the ratio between the electricity and the natural gas supplied to the system in response to fluctuations in relative prices for these two energy sources. In one approach an appropriate catalyst on the anode side of the electrolyzer will promote the partial oxidation of natural gas to CO and hydrogen, called Syn-Gas, and the CO can also be shifted to CO.sub.2 to give additional hydrogen. In another approach the natural gas is used in the anode side of the electrolyzer to burn out the oxygen resulting from electrolysis, thus reducing or eliminating the potential difference across the electrolyzer membrane.

  16. Analysis of Adsorbed Natural Gas Tank Technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knight, Ernest; Schultz, Conrad; Rash, Tyler; Dohnke, Elmar; Stalla, David; Gillespie, Andrew; Sweany, Mark; Seydel, Florian; Pfeifer, Peter

    With gasoline being an ever decreasing finite resource and with the desire to reduce humanity's carbon footprint, there has been an increasing focus on innovation of alternative fuel sources. Natural gas burns cleaner, is more abundant, and conforms to modern engines. However, storing compressed natural gas (CNG) requires large, heavy gas cylinders, which limits space and fuel efficiency. Adsorbed natural gas (ANG) technology allows for much greater fuel storage capacity and the ability to store the gas at a much lower pressure. Thus, ANG tanks are much more flexible in terms of their size, shape, and weight. Our ANG tank employs monolithic nanoporous activated carbon as its adsorbent material. Several different configurations of this Flat Panel Tank Assembly (FPTA) along with a Fuel Extraction System (FES) were examined to compare with the mass flow rate demands of an engine.

  17. FSU's natural gas liquids business needs investment

    SciTech Connect

    Plotnikov, V.S.; Berman, M.; Angerinos, G.F. )

    1995-03-13

    Production of natural gas liquids has fallen seriously behind its potential in the former Soviet Union (FSU). Restoration of the gas liquids business thus represents a rich investment opportunity. Capital, however, must come from international sources, which remain uncertain about the FSU's legal, commercial, and political systems. If these hurdles can be overcome, FSU output of liquid petroleum gas alone might double between 1990 and 2010. In the FSU, LPG is produced from associated and nonassociated natural gas, condensate, and refinery streams. It also comes from what is known in the FSU as ShFLU--a mixture of propane, butane, pentane, and hexane produced at gas processing plants in Western Siberia and fractionated elsewhere. The paper reviews FSU production of gas liquids focusing on West Siberia, gives a production outlook, and describes LPG use and business development.

  18. Fuel savings with conventional hot water space heating systems by incorporating a natural gas powered heat pump. Preliminary project: Development of heat pump technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vanheyden, L.; Evertz, E.

    1980-12-01

    Compression type air/water heat pumps were developed for domestic heating systems rated at 20 to 150 kW. The heat pump is driven either by a reciprocating piston or rotary piston engine modified to operate on natural gas. Particular features of natural gas engines as prime movers, such as waste heat recovery and variable speed, are stressed. Two systems suitable for heat pump operation were selected from among five different mass produced car engines and were modified to incorporate reciprocating piston compressor pairs. The refrigerants used are R 12 and R 22. Test rig data transferred to field conditions show that the fuel consumption of conventional boilers can be reduced by 50% and more by the installation of engine driven heat pumps. Pilot heat pumps based on a 1,600 cc reciprocating piston engine were built for heating four two-family houses. Pilot pump operation confirms test rig findings. The service life of rotary piston and reciprocating piston engines was investigated. The tests reveal characteristic curves for reciprocating piston engines and include exhaust composition measurements.

  19. Examination of the relationship between project management critical success factors and project success of oil and gas drilling projects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alagba, Tonye J.

    Oil and gas drilling projects are the primary means by which oil companies recover large volumes of commercially available hydrocarbons from deep reservoirs. These types of projects are complex in nature, involving management of multiple stakeholder interfaces, multidisciplinary personnel, complex contractor relationships, and turbulent environmental and market conditions, necessitating the application of proven project management best practices and critical success factors (CSFs) to achieve success. Although there is some practitioner oriented literature on project management CSFs for drilling projects, none of these is based on empirical evidence, from research. In addition, the literature has reported alarming rates of oil and gas drilling project failure, which is attributable not to technical factors, but to failure of project management. The aim of this quantitative correlational study therefore, was to discover an empirically verified list of project management CSFs, which consistent application leads to successful implementation of oil and gas drilling projects. The study collected survey data online, from a random sample of 127 oil and gas drilling personnel who were members of LinkedIn's online community "Drilling Supervisors, Managers, and Engineers". The results of the study indicated that 10 project management factors are individually related to project success of oil and gas drilling projects. These 10 CSFs are namely; Project mission, Top management support, Project schedule/plan, Client consultation, Personnel, Technical tasks, Client acceptance, Monitoring and feedback, Communication, and Troubleshooting. In addition, the study found that the relationships between the 10 CSFs and drilling project success is unaffected by participant and project demographics---role of project personnel, and project location. The significance of these findings are both practical, and theoretical. Practically, application of an empirically verified CSFs list to oil

  20. The carbon isotopic composition of catalytic gas: A comparative analysis with natural gas

    SciTech Connect

    Mango, F.D.; Elrod, L.W.

    1999-04-01

    Tee idea that natural gas is the thermal product of organic decomposition has persisted for over half a century. Crude oil is thought to be an important source of gas, cracking to wet gas above 150 C, and dry gas above 200 C. But there is little evidence to support this view. For example, crude oil is proving to be more stable than previously thought and projected to remain intact over geologic time at typical reservoir temperature. Moreover, when oil does crack, the products do not resemble natural gas. Oil to gas could be catalytic, however, promoted by the transition metals in carbonaceous sediments. This would explain the low temperatures at which natural gas forms, and the high amounts of methane. This idea gained support recently when the natural progression of oil to dry gas was duplicated in the laboratory catalytically. The authors report here the isotopic composition of catalytic gas generated from crude oil and pure hydrocarbons between 150 and 200 C. {delta}{sup 13}C for C{sub 1} through C{sub 5} was linear with 1/n (n = carbon number) in accordance with theory and typically seen in natural gases. Over extended reaction, isobutane and isopentane remained lighter than their respective normal isomers and the isotopic differentials were constant as all isomers became heavier over time. Catalytic methane, initially {minus}51.87{per_thousand} (oil = {minus}22.5{per_thousand}), progressed to a final composition of {minus}26.94{per_thousand}, similar to the maturity trend seen in natural gases: {minus}50{per_thousand} to {minus}20{per_thousand}. Catalytic gas is thus identical to natural gas in molecular and isotopic composition adding further support to the view that catalysis by transition metals may be a significant source of natural gas.

  1. The carbon isotopic composition of catalytic gas: A comparative analysis with natural gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mango, Frank D.; Elrod, L. W.

    1999-04-01

    The idea that natural gas is the thermal product of organic decomposition has persisted for over half a century. Crude oil is thought to be an important source of gas, cracking to wet gas above 150°C, and dry gas above 200°C. But there is little evidence to support this view. For example, crude oil is proving to be more stable than previously thought and projected to remain intact over geologic time at typical reservoir temperatures. Moreover, when oil does crack, the products do not resemble natural gas. Oil to gas could be catalytic, however, promoted by the transition metals in carbonaceous sediments. This would explain the low temperatures at which natural gas forms, and the high amounts of methane. This idea gained support recently when the natural progression of oil to dry gas was duplicated in the laboratory catalytically. We report here the isotopic composition of catalytic gas generated from crude oil and pure hydrocarbons between 150 and 200°C. δ 13C for C 1 through C 5 was linear with 1/ n ( n = carbon number) in accordance with theory and typically seen in natural gases. Over extended reaction, isobutane and isopentane remained lighter than their respective normal isomers and the isotopic differentials were constant as all isomers became heavier over time. Catalytic methane, initially -51.87‰ (oil = -22.5‰), progressed to a final composition of -26.94‰, similar to the maturity trend seen in natural gases: -50‰ to -20‰. Catalytic gas is thus identical to natural gas in molecular and isotopic composition adding further support to the view that catalysis by transition metals may be a significant source of natural gas.

  2. Natural gas at thermodynamic equilibrium. Implications for the origin of natural gas.

    PubMed

    Mango, Frank D; Jarvie, Daniel; Herriman, Eleanor

    2009-06-16

    It is broadly accepted that so-called 'thermal' gas is the product of thermal cracking, 'primary' thermal gas from kerogen cracking, and 'secondary' thermal gas from oil cracking. Since thermal cracking of hydrocarbons does not generate products at equilibrium and thermal stress should not bring them to equilibrium over geologic time, we would not expect methane, ethane, and propane to be at equilibrium in subsurface deposits. Here we report compelling evidence of natural gas at thermodynamic equilibrium. Molecular compositions are constrained to equilibrium, [Formula in text] and isotopic compositions are also under equilibrium constraints: [Formula in text].The functions [(CH4)*(C3H8)] and [(C2H6)2] exhibit a strong nonlinear correlation (R2 = 0.84) in which the quotient Q progresses to K as wet gas progresses to dry gas. There are striking similarities between natural gas and catalytic gas generated from marine shales. A Devonian/Mississippian New Albany shale generates gas with Q converging on K over time as wet gas progresses to dry gas at 200 degrees C. The position that thermal cracking is the primary source of natural gas is no longer tenable. It is challenged by its inability to explain the composition of natural gas, natural gases at thermodynamic equilibrium, and by the existence of a catalytic path to gas that better explains gas compositions.

  3. Natural gas at thermodynamic equilibrium Implications for the origin of natural gas

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    It is broadly accepted that so-called 'thermal' gas is the product of thermal cracking, 'primary' thermal gas from kerogen cracking, and 'secondary' thermal gas from oil cracking. Since thermal cracking of hydrocarbons does not generate products at equilibrium and thermal stress should not bring them to equilibrium over geologic time, we would not expect methane, ethane, and propane to be at equilibrium in subsurface deposits. Here we report compelling evidence of natural gas at thermodynamic equilibrium. Molecular compositions are constrained to equilibrium, and isotopic compositions are also under equilibrium constraints: The functions [(CH4)*(C3H8)] and [(C2H6)2] exhibit a strong nonlinear correlation (R2 = 0.84) in which the quotient Q progresses to K as wet gas progresses to dry gas. There are striking similarities between natural gas and catalytic gas generated from marine shales. A Devonian/Mississippian New Albany shale generates gas with Q converging on K over time as wet gas progresses to dry gas at 200°C. The position that thermal cracking is the primary source of natural gas is no longer tenable. It is challenged by its inability to explain the composition of natural gas, natural gases at thermodynamic equilibrium, and by the existence of a catalytic path to gas that better explains gas compositions. PMID:19531233

  4. Naturally fractured tight gas reservoir detection optimization

    SciTech Connect

    1998-11-30

    The work plan for October 1, 1997 to September 30, 1998 consisted of investigation of a number of topical areas. These topical areas were reported in four quarterly status reports, which were submitted to DOE earlier. These topical areas are reviewed in this volume. The topical areas covered during the year were: (1) Development of preliminary tests of a production method for determining areas of natural fracturing. Advanced Resources has demonstrated that such a relationship exists in the southern Piceance basin tight gas play. Natural fracture clusters are genetically related to stress concentrations (also called stress perturbations) associated with local deformation such a faulting. The mechanical explanation of this phenomenon is that deformation generally initiates at regions where the local stress field is elevated beyond the regional. (2) Regional structural and geologic analysis of the Greater Green River Basin (GGRB). Application of techniques developed and demonstrated during earlier phases of the project for sweet-spot delineation were demonstrated in a relatively new and underexplored play: tight gas from continuous-typeUpper Cretaceous reservoirs of the Greater Green River Basin (GGRB). The effort included data acquisition/processing, base map generation, geophysical and remote sensing analysis and the integration of these data and analyses. (3) Examination of the Table Rock field area in the northern Washakie Basin of the Greater Green River Basin. This effort was performed in support of Union Pacific Resources- and DOE-planned horizontal drilling efforts. The effort comprised acquisition of necessary seismic data and depth-conversion, mapping of major fault geometry, and analysis of displacement vectors, and the development of the natural fracture prediction. (4) Greater Green River Basin Partitioning. Building on fundamental fracture characterization work and prior work performed under this contract, namely structural analysis using satellite and

  5. Natural gas flow through critical nozzles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, R. C.

    1969-01-01

    Empirical method for calculating both the mass flow rate and upstream volume flow rate through critical flow nozzles is determined. Method requires knowledge of the composition of natural gas, and of the upstream pressure and temperature.

  6. Natural gas 1996 - issues and trends

    SciTech Connect

    1996-12-01

    This publication presents a summary of the latest data and information relating to the U.S. natural gas industry, including prices, production, transmission, consumption, and financial aspects of the industry.

  7. Natural gas annual 1992: Supplement: Company profiles

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-01-01

    The data for the Natural Gas Annual 1991 Supplement : Company Profiles are taken from Form EIA-176, (open quotes) Annual Report of Natural and Supplemental Gas Supply and Disposition (close quotes). Other sources include industry literature and corporate annual reports to shareholders. The companies appearing in this report are major interstate natural gas pipeline companies, large distribution companies, or combination companies with both pipeline and distribution operations. The report contains profiles of 45 corporate families. The profiles describe briefly each company, where it operates, and any important issues that the company faces. The purpose of this report is to show the movement of natural gas through the various States served by the 45 large companies profiled.

  8. A historical analysis of natural gas demand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dalbec, Nathan Richard

    This thesis analyzes demand in the US energy market for natural gas, oil, and coal over the period of 1918-2013 and examines their price relationship over the period of 2007-2013. Diagnostic tests for time series were used; Augmented Dickey-Fuller, Kwiatkowski-Phillips-Schmidt-Shin, Johansen cointegration, Granger Causality and weak exogeneity tests. Directed acyclic graphs were used as a complimentary test for endogeneity. Due to the varied results in determining endogeneity, a seemingly unrelated regression model was used which assumes all right hand side variables in the three demand equations were exogenous. A number of factors were significant in determining demand for natural gas including its own price, lagged demand, a number of structural break dummies, and trend, while oil indicate some substitutability with natural gas. An error correction model was used to examine the price relationships. Natural gas price was found not to have a significant cointegrating vector.

  9. Convert natural gas into clean transportation fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Agee, M.A.

    1997-03-01

    A new process economically converts natural gas into synthetic transportation fuels that are free of sulfur, metals, aromatics and are clear in appearance. The process, developed by Syntroleum Corp., is energy self-sufficient and can be implemented in sizes small enough to fit a large number of the world`s gas fields. The process is described.

  10. Restructuring Energy Industries: Lessons from Natural Gas

    EIA Publications

    1997-01-01

    For the past 20 years, the natural gas industry has been undergoing a restructuring similar to the transition now confronting the electric power industry. This article presents a summary of some of these gas industry experiences to provide a basis for some insights into energy industry restructuring.

  11. Natural Gas in the Rocky Mountains: Developing Infrastructure

    EIA Publications

    2007-01-01

    This Supplement to the Energy Information Administration's Short-Term Energy Outlook analyzes current natural gas production, pipeline and storage infrastructure in the Rocky Mountains, as well as prospective pipeline projects in these states. The influence of these factors on regional prices and price volatility is examined.

  12. Natural Gas in the Rocky Mountains: Developing Infrastructure

    EIA Publications

    2007-01-01

    This Supplement to the Energy Information Administration's Short-Term Energy Outlook analyzes current natural gas production, pipeline and storage infrastructure in the Rocky Mountains, as well as prospective pipeline projects in these states. The influence of these factors on regional prices and price volatility is examined.

  13. ARPA-E: Creating Practical, Affordable Natural Gas Storage Solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Boysen, Dane; Loukus, Josh; Hansen, Rita

    2014-02-24

    Allowing people to refuel natural gas vehicles at home could revolutionize the way we power our cars and trucks. Currently, our nation faces two challenges in enabling natural gas for transportation. The first is improving the way gas tanks are built for natural gas vehicles; they need to be conformable, allowing them to fit tightly into the vehicle. The second challenge is improving the way those tanks are refueled while maintaining cost-effectiveness, safety, and reliability. This video highlights two ARPA-E project teams with innovative solutions to these challenges. REL is addressing the first challenge by developing a low-cost, conformable natural gas tank with an interconnected core structure. Oregon State University and OnBoard Dynamics are addressing the second challenge by developing a self-refueling natural gas vehicle that integrates a compressor into its engine-using one of the engine's cylinders to compress gas eliminates the need for an expensive at-home refueling system. These two distinct technologies from ARPA-E's MOVE program illustrate how the Agency takes a multi-pronged approach to problem solving and innovation.

  14. ARPA-E: Creating Practical, Affordable Natural Gas Storage Solutions

    ScienceCinema

    Boysen, Dane; Loukus, Josh; Hansen, Rita

    2016-07-12

    Allowing people to refuel natural gas vehicles at home could revolutionize the way we power our cars and trucks. Currently, our nation faces two challenges in enabling natural gas for transportation. The first is improving the way gas tanks are built for natural gas vehicles; they need to be conformable, allowing them to fit tightly into the vehicle. The second challenge is improving the way those tanks are refueled while maintaining cost-effectiveness, safety, and reliability. This video highlights two ARPA-E project teams with innovative solutions to these challenges. REL is addressing the first challenge by developing a low-cost, conformable natural gas tank with an interconnected core structure. Oregon State University and OnBoard Dynamics are addressing the second challenge by developing a self-refueling natural gas vehicle that integrates a compressor into its engine-using one of the engine's cylinders to compress gas eliminates the need for an expensive at-home refueling system. These two distinct technologies from ARPA-E's MOVE program illustrate how the Agency takes a multi-pronged approach to problem solving and innovation.

  15. Change, uncertainty mark U. S. natural-gas market

    SciTech Connect

    Pasternack, B.A.

    1988-06-06

    The author says few U.S. industries have experienced the roller coaster of boom or bust as much as the natural gas business in the last 15 years. Most natural gas forecasts are converging on a fairly predictable market. The consumption of natural gas in the U.S. is projected to grow modestly from today's level of about 16.9 tcf. These forecasts recognize that natural gas has an inherent advantage in some markets and that new technology will enhance the prospects for gas use in the commercial sector. However, Booz, Allen has developed an alternative view showing another realistic possibility. Its premise is that the natural gas industry will be unable to reach equilibrium under conventional expectations of supply, demand, and price. The author says, regardless of the price level and the transition to this new environment, the gas business has changed permanently. The new industry will correct many of the inefficiencies that existed previously. This article describes several of the anticipated changes.

  16. Little study sees large growth in Asian natural gas market

    SciTech Connect

    O'Driscoll, M.

    1993-06-03

    Power capacity additions in Asia will at least triple by 2010, and Arthur D. Little Inc. predicts natural gas can pick up a good 15 percent of that market. The study predicts Asia potentially will need 720 gigawatts of new power generation by 2010, of which 15 percent may be gas-based. This represents a market three times the size of the US market in the same period, and would require more than $1 trillion in investment to finance the power generation projects alone. Six forces are driving new market opportunities for natural gas in Asia, and have set the stage for major investments in Asian gas-based power generation. They are: New technologies; growing environmental pressures; privatization; alternative energy pricing; gas availability; and continued economic growth. Japan, South Korea and Taiwan already have large, well-established markets for both gas and power that provide minimal opportunities for foreign investment. But the rest of Asia - specifically, India, Pakistan, the Philippines, Vietnam, Indonesia, Malaysia, the People's Republic of China, Thailand, Bangladesh and Myanmar - is still relatively undeveloped, the study said, and gas is emerging as an energy import substitute or export earner. The study found those countries will turn increased environmental awareness and concern into legislation as their economic prosperity grows, leading to a higher future value for natural gas relative to other fuels. Stricter emissions standards will favor gas over diesel, fuel oil and coal.

  17. Interfuel substitution and natural gas trade in North America

    SciTech Connect

    Beltramo, M.A.

    1986-01-01

    Institutional changes in North American natural gas markets have created much uncertainty about the prospects for gas trade between Canada, Mexico, and the US. This dissertation describes the formulations of the Gas Trade Model (GTM) and the submodel of US gas demand. Together, they provide a modeling framework within which international gas trade after the deregulation of the US natural gas market can be examined. GTM is a market equilibrium model that allows for interdependence between gas prices and the quantities traded at a single point in time. Regionally disaggregated trade flows are projected between Canada, Mexico, and the US. The model is intended to provide a background for realistic bargaining over international prices and risk sharing in an era when the US market is deregulated, but Canada and Mexico maintain export controls. As a complement to GTM, a submodel of US natural gas demand is developed. It consists of four demand sectors: residential, commercial, industrial, and electric utility. The submodel allows for dynamic adjustment in all four sectors. In addition, it recognizes that interfuel substitution possibilities in the industrial and electric utility sectors are increasing along with the presence of equipment that can burn either gas or fuel oil.

  18. Will Abundant Natural Gas Solve Climate Change?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McJeon, H. C.; Edmonds, J.; Bauer, N.; Leon, C.; Fisher, B.; Flannery, B.; Hilaire, J.; Krey, V.; Marangoni, G.; Mi, R.; Riahi, K.; Rogner, H.; Tavoni, M.

    2015-12-01

    The rapid deployment of hydraulic fracturing and horizontal drilling technologies enabled the production of previously uneconomic shale gas resources in North America. Global deployment of these advanced gas production technologies could bring large influx of economically competitive unconventional gas resources to the energy system. It has been hoped that abundant natural gas substituting for coal could reduce carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions, which in turn could reduce climate forcing. Other researchers countered that the non-CO2 greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions associated with shale gas production make its lifecycle emissions higher than those of coal. In this study, we employ five state-of-the-art integrated assessment models (IAMs) of energy-economy-climate systems to assess the full impact of abundant gas on climate change. The models show large additional natural gas consumption up to +170% by 2050. The impact on CO2 emissions, however, is found to be much smaller (from -2% to +11%), and a majority of the models reported a small increase in climate forcing (from -0.3% to +7%) associated with the increased use of abundant gas. Our results show that while globally abundant gas may substantially change the future energy market equilibrium, it will not significantly mitigate climate change on its own in the absence of climate policies.

  19. Natural Gas Value-Chain and Network Assessments

    SciTech Connect

    Kobos, Peter H.; Outkin, Alexander V.; Beyeler, Walter E.; Walker, LaTonya Nicole; Malczynski, Leonard A.; Myerly, Melissa M.; Vargas, Vanessa N.; Tenney, Craig M.; Borns, David J.

    2015-09-01

    The current expansion of natural gas (NG) development in the United States requires an understanding of how this change will affect the natural gas industry, downstream consumers, and economic growth in order to promote effective planning and policy development. The impact of this expansion may propagate through the NG system and US economy via changes in manufacturing, electric power generation, transportation, commerce, and increased exports of liquefied natural gas. We conceptualize this problem as supply shock propagation that pushes the NG system and the economy away from its current state of infrastructure development and level of natural gas use. To illustrate this, the project developed two core modeling approaches. The first is an Agent-Based Modeling (ABM) approach which addresses shock propagation throughout the existing natural gas distribution system. The second approach uses a System Dynamics-based model to illustrate the feedback mechanisms related to finding new supplies of natural gas - notably shale gas - and how those mechanisms affect exploration investments in the natural gas market with respect to proven reserves. The ABM illustrates several stylized scenarios of large liquefied natural gas (LNG) exports from the U.S. The ABM preliminary results demonstrate that such scenario is likely to have substantial effects on NG prices and on pipeline capacity utilization. Our preliminary results indicate that the price of natural gas in the U.S. may rise by about 50% when the LNG exports represent 15% of the system-wide demand. The main findings of the System Dynamics model indicate that proven reserves for coalbed methane, conventional gas and now shale gas can be adequately modeled based on a combination of geologic, economic and technology-based variables. A base case scenario matches historical proven reserves data for these three types of natural gas. An environmental scenario, based on implementing a $50/tonne CO 2 tax results in less proven

  20. Centrifuge for separating helium from natural gas

    SciTech Connect

    Theyse, F.H.; Kelling, F.E.T.

    1980-01-08

    Ultra Centrifuge Nederland N.V.'s improved centrifuge for separating helium from natural gas comprises a hollow cylindrical rotor, designated as a separating drum, within a stationary housing. Natural gas liquids that condense under pressure in the separating drum pass through openings in the drum into the space between the drum and housing. In this space, a series of openings, or throttling restrictors, allows the liquids to expand and return to gas. The gaseous component that does not liquefy in the drum remains separate for drawing off.

  1. Alternative transport fuels from natural gas

    SciTech Connect

    Moreno, R. Jr.; Bailey, D.G.F.

    1989-01-01

    This paper examines the economics of using natural gas as an alternative fuel in transport vehicles including passenger cars, taxis, buses, and trucks. It compares the cost of using conventional fuels (gasoline and diesel) in these vehicles with that of retrofitting the vehicles and using natural gas-based fuels. These fuels include compressed natural gas (CNG), liquefied petroleum gas (LPG), methanol, and synthetic gasoline and diesel. The analysis includes various scenarios to establish break-even these competing fuels under different assumptions. The study concludes that slow-fill (also known as trickle-fill) CNG is the most economic of the natural gas based fuels. The vehicles most suited for the economic use of these fuels are captive vehicle fleets with relatively high mileage and a restricted range of operation, such as buses and taxis. However, to make the transition economically viable, oil prices would have to increase significantly from their present level and remain there long enough to make the investment in the transition worth while. At present levels of crude oil prices (about US $18 per barrel), little opportunity exists for the economic substitution of natural gas based fuels for gasoline and diesel. These conclusions are based on the economic factors considered. Environmental factors, which are both difficult to measure and of increasing importance, could, however, mitigate these results.

  2. Flammable gas project topical report

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, G.D.

    1997-01-29

    The flammable gas safety issue was recognized in 1990 with the declaration of an unreviewed safety question (USQ) by the U. S. Department of Energy as a result of the behavior of the Hanford Site high-level waste tank 241-SY-101. This tank exhibited episodic releases of flammable gas that on a couple of occasions exceeded the lower flammability limit of hydrogen in air. Over the past six years there has been a considerable amount of knowledge gained about the chemical and physical processes that govern the behavior of tank 241-SY-1 01 and other tanks associated with the flammable gas safety issue. This report was prepared to provide an overview of that knowledge and to provide a description of the key information still needed to resolve the issue. Items covered by this report include summaries of the understanding of gas generation, retention and release mechanisms, the composition and flammability behavior of the gas mixture, the amounts of stored gas, and estimated gas release fractions for spontaneous releases. `Me report also discusses methods being developed for evaluating the 177 tanks at the Hanford Site and the problems associated with these methods. Means for measuring the gases emitted from the waste are described along with laboratory experiments designed to gain more information regarding rates of generation, species of gases emitted and modes of gas storage and release. Finally, the process for closing the USQ is outlined as are the information requirements to understand and resolve the flammable gas issue.

  3. The Oil and Natural Gas Knowledge Management Database from NETL

    DOE Data Explorer

    The Knowledge Management Database (KMD) Portal provides four options for searching the documents and data that NETL-managed oil and gas research has produced over the years for DOE’s Office of Fossil Energy. Information includes R&D carried out under both historical and ongoing DOE oil and gas research and development (R&D). The Document Repository, the CD/DVD Library, the Project Summaries from 1990 to the present, and the Oil and Natural Gas Program Reference Shelf provide a wide range of flexibility and coverage.

  4. Geologic studies of deep natural gas resources

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dyman, T. S.; Kuuskraa, V.A.

    2001-01-01

    In 1995, the USGS estimated a mean resource of 114 trillion cubic feet of undiscovered technically recoverable natural gas in plays deeper than 15,000 feet/4,572 meters in onshore regions of the United States. This volume summarizes major conclusions of ongoing work. Chapters A and B address the areal extent of drilling and distribution of deep basins in the U.S. Chapter C summarizes distribution of deep sedimentary basins and potential for deep gas in the former Soviet Union. Chapters D and E are geochemical papers addressing source-rock issues and deep gas generation. Chapter F develops a probabilistic method for subdividing gas resources into depth slices, and chapter G analyzes the relative uncertainty of estimates of deep gas in plays in the Gulf Coast Region. Chapter H evaluates the mechanism of hydrogenation of deep, high-rank spent kerogen by water, with subsequent generation of methane-rich HC gas.

  5. West European economic security and international natural gas trade: optimal portfolios of gas imports

    SciTech Connect

    Greer, B.I.

    1985-01-01

    In 1981 the dependence of Western Europe on the Soviet Union for natural gas imports became a major issue in the debate over the European involvement in the Urengoi natural gas project. This analysis addresses the question spawned by this debate: how should West Europe diversify its natural gas imports to achieve the greatest security for its economy. The analysis presents a summary of the policy and institutional background of this Western European gas market, explains the nature of European gas markets, and establishes the relationship, between contract structure and economic vulnerability. By characterizing Western Europe's gas import problem as a portfolio decision, the analysis develops a simple static model that articulates the relationship between the cost of gas imports and commensurate risk. Using the portfolio framework, the analysis develops a dynamic model to characterize the intertemporal tradeoffs that are characteristic of a depletable resource in the optimal portfolio selection. An optimal control formulation provides insights that generalize the static portfolio model. Both the static and dynamic formulations provide the basis of computational models that produce empirical estimates of optimal natural gas import portfolios for Western Europe.

  6. 77 FR 69781 - Enhanced Natural Gas Market Transparency

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-21

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission 18 CFR Part 152 Enhanced Natural Gas Market... regulations under the natural gas market transparency provisions of section 23 of the Natural Gas Act (NGA... month (i.e., next month gas) would provide useful information for improving natural gas market...

  7. 77 FR 64964 - Cheniere Marketing, LLC; Application for Long-Term Authorization To Export Liquefied Natural Gas...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-24

    ... Cheniere Marketing, LLC; Application for Long-Term Authorization To Export Liquefied Natural Gas Produced... Liquefied Natural Gas by Vessel from the Proposed Corpus Christi Liquefaction Project to Free Trade... Project site, natural gas will be liquefied into LNG and stored in three 160,000 cubic meters full...

  8. Asian natural gas pipeline proposed for easing energy, feedstock strains

    SciTech Connect

    Haggin, J. )

    1994-06-06

    Nearly every country on the program at the recent Asian Natural Gas 5 Conference in Singapore reported on attempts to maximize the use of natural gas as a fuel and a feedstock. But no one made a more startling presentation than Masaru Hirata, chairman of the National Pipeline Research Society of Japan. His proposal: construct an international trunk pipeline network linking natural gas fields in Central Asia, Southeast Asia, Siberia, and North America with the main markets of Asia, primarily Japan and China. Total length -- 25,500 miles. He cites International Energy Agency data projecting a 70% increase in energy demand in the Pacific region between 1989 and 2000. Natural gas will be expected to satisfy anticipated energy needs into the next century. An important element in Hirata's thinking is the promotion of international cooperation among the beneficiaries of the network. In the Asia-Pacific region, natural gas is more plentiful than oil. Liquefied natural gas (LNG) plants have been built in Brunei, Indonesia, Malaysia, and Australia. All of them sell LNG to Japan (the world's largest importer of LNG), South Korea, and Taiwan. Additional vast reserves are known to exist in Siberia, near Sakhalin Island, and in the western regions of China. Hirata's network is aimed at bringing the gas from these distant deposits to consumers in the coastal regions of Asia. There are six major parts to the proposed network: Turkmenistan-West China-Japan; Yakutsk-China-Korea-Japan; Alaska-Sakhalin Island-Japan; ASEAN-South China; Within ASEAN; and Australia-ASEAN. The estimated cost of the project is about $66 billion in current dollars.

  9. Upgrading natural gas by means of highly performing polyimide membranes

    SciTech Connect

    Stern, S.A.

    1993-12-31

    The objective of the present research project is to assess the potential usefulness of membrane separation processes for the removal of acid gases (CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2}S) and H{sub 2}O vapor from low-quality natural gas. The following tasks were performed during the last two years of the project: (1) A laboratory-scale apparatus for measuring the permeability and selectivity of polymer membranes to gas mixtures was built and tested. (2) The permeability and selectivity of seven new polyamide membranes to binary CH{sub 4}/CO{sub 2} and ternary CH{sub 4}/CO{sub 2}/H{sub 2}S mixtures were measured at 95{degrees}F (35{degrees}C) and at ``upstream`` pressures in the range from 58.8 psia to 200 psia (4 atm to 13.6 atm). (3) Gas separation measurements were made using binary CH{sub 4}/CO{sub 2} and ternary CH{sub 4}/CO{sub 2}/H{sub 2}S feed gas mixtures. (4) Process design studies and economic evaluations of membrane processes for upgrading low-quality natural gas were made using the experimentally obtained permeability and selectivity values for the three most promising polyamide membranes. For the sake of comparison, similar studies were made also for cellulose acetate membranes, which are at present being widely used on an industrial scale for the separation of CO{sub 2} from natural gas.

  10. Natural gas: Hearing before the committee on energy and natural resources, United States Senate

    SciTech Connect

    1999-07-01

    This hearing will be on whether the US has the natural gas supply and the infrastructure necessary to meet the projected demand. Energy information says that there will be a need for 30 trillion cubic feet per year of natural gas by the year 2010 if the US is able to meet the proposed Clinton-Gore global warming targets. The question for today's hearing is can this level of gas demand be met. That is about a 50% increase. Will the gas be there both on-shore and off-shore? Will producers be given access to Federal lands? Those of us out West have had a little experience in that regard, and the Secretary of the Interior has not exactly opened up the wide-open spaces. Will there be interstate pipeline which is needed to move the gas from the producing fields to the cities? According to industry, why the FERC has not been particularly interested in allowing new gas lines to be built. Will there be local distribution facilities which will be necessary to get the gas from the pipeline to the consumers? The Committee heard from the following: representatives from the Interstate Natural Gas Association of America, Energy Information Agency, Independent Petroleum Association of America, Latin American Petroleum Intelligence Service, Natural Gas Supply Association, and Canadian Association of Petroleum Producers, and senators from the states of New Mexico, Montana, and Alaska.

  11. Life-cycle greenhouse gas emissions of shale gas, natural gas, coal, and petroleum.

    PubMed

    Burnham, Andrew; Han, Jeongwoo; Clark, Corrie E; Wang, Michael; Dunn, Jennifer B; Palou-Rivera, Ignasi

    2012-01-17

    The technologies and practices that have enabled the recent boom in shale gas production have also brought attention to the environmental impacts of its use. It has been debated whether the fugitive methane emissions during natural gas production and transmission outweigh the lower carbon dioxide emissions during combustion when compared to coal and petroleum. Using the current state of knowledge of methane emissions from shale gas, conventional natural gas, coal, and petroleum, we estimated up-to-date life-cycle greenhouse gas emissions. In addition, we developed distribution functions for key parameters in each pathway to examine uncertainty and identify data gaps such as methane emissions from shale gas well completions and conventional natural gas liquid unloadings that need to be further addressed. Our base case results show that shale gas life-cycle emissions are 6% lower than conventional natural gas, 23% lower than gasoline, and 33% lower than coal. However, the range in values for shale and conventional gas overlap, so there is a statistical uncertainty whether shale gas emissions are indeed lower than conventional gas. Moreover, this life-cycle analysis, among other work in this area, provides insight on critical stages that the natural gas industry and government agencies can work together on to reduce the greenhouse gas footprint of natural gas.

  12. Natural gas production and consumption 1979

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-01-01

    Total marketed production of natural gas in the United States during 1979 was 20,471 billion cubic feet, an increase of approximately 497 billion cubic feet, or 2.5 percent over 1978. Texas and Louisiana, the two leading producing states, accounted for 70.5 percent of total 1979 marketed production. In 1979, deliveries of natural gas to residential, commercial, industrial, electric utilities, and other consumers totaled 18,141 billion cubic feet. Total consumption, which includes lease, plant, and pipeline fuel in addition to deliveries to consumers, was 20,241 billion cubic feet in 1979 compared to 19,627 billion cubic feet in 1978, an increase of 3.1 percent. Movements of natural gas into and out of each state are presented. Louisiana accounted for the largest quantity of net deliveries, 5,107 billion cubic feet, followed by Texas and Oklahoma with net deliveries of 2,772 billion cubic feet and 914 billion cubic feet, respectively. Imports of natural gas by pipeline from Canada and as liquefied natural gas (LNG) from Algeria totaled 1,253 billion cubic feet in 1979. Total imports increased 288 billion cubic feet, or 29.8 percent, from 1978 levels. Exports of LNG to Japan and pipeline shipments to Canada and Mexico increased 6.0 percent from 52.5 billion cubic feet in 1978 to 55.7 billion cubic feet in 1979. LNG shipments to Japan accounted for 92.1 percent of total exports in 1979.

  13. Research and Development Concerning Coalbed Natural Gas

    SciTech Connect

    William Ruckelshaus

    2008-09-30

    The Powder River Basin in northeastern Wyoming is one of the most active areas of coalbed natural gas (CBNG) development in the western United States. This resource provides clean energy but raises environmental concerns. Primary among these is the disposal of water that is co-produced with the gas during depressurization of the coal seam. Beginning with a few producing wells in Wyoming's Powder River Basin (PRB) in 1987, CBNG well numbers in this area increased to over 13,600 in 2004, with projected growth to 20,900 producing wells in the PRB by 2010. CBNG development is continuing apace since 2004, and CBNG is now being produced or evaluated in four other Wyoming coal basins in addition to the PRB, with roughly 3500-4000 new CBNG wells permitted statewide each year since 2004. This is clearly a very valuable source of clean fuel for the nation, and for Wyoming the economic benefits are substantial. For instance, in 2003 alone the total value of Wyoming CBNG production was about $1.5 billion, with tax and royalty income of about $90 million to counties, $140 million to the state, and $27 million to the federal government. In Wyoming, cumulative CBNG water production from 1987 through December 2004 was just over 380,000 acre-feet (2.9 billion barrels), while producing almost 1.5 trillion cubic feet (tcf) of CBNG gas statewide. Annual Wyoming CBNG water production in 2003 was 74,457 acre-feet (577 million barrels). Total production of CBNG water across all Wyoming coal fields could total roughly 7 million acre-feet (55.5 billion barrels), if all of the recoverable CBNG in the projected reserves of 31.7 tcf were produced over the coming decades. Pumping water from coals to produce CBNG has been designated a beneficial water use by the Wyoming State Engineer's Office (SEO), though recently the SEO has limited this beneficial use designation by requiring a certain gas/water production ratio. In the eastern part of the PRB where CBNG water is generally of good quality

  14. Natural gas hydrate occurrence and issues

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kvenvolden, K.A.

    1994-01-01

    Naturally occurring gas hydrate is found in sediment of two regions: (1) continental, including continental shelves, at high latitudes where surface temperatures are very cold, and (2) submarine outer continental margins where pressures are very high and bottom-water temperatures are near 0??C. Continental gas hydrate is found in association with onshore and offshore permafrost. Submarine gas hydrate is found in sediment of continental slopes and rises. The amount of methane present in gas hydrate is thought to be very large, but the estimates that have been made are more speculative than real. Nevertheless, at the present time there has been a convergence of ideas regarding the amount of methane in gas hydrate deposits worldwide at about 2 x 1016 m3 or 7 x 1017 ft3 = 7 x 105 Tcf [Tcf = trillion (1012) ft3]. The potentially large amount of methane in gas hydrate and the shallow depth of gas hydrate deposits are two of the principal factors driving research concerning this substance. Such a large amount of methane, if it could be commercially produced, provides a potential energy resource for the future. Because gas hydrate is metastable, changes of surface pressure and temperature affect its stability. Destabilized gas hydrate beneath the sea floor leads to geologic hazards such as submarine mass movements. Examples of submarine slope failures attributed to gas hydrate are found worldwide. The metastability of gas hydrate may also have an effect on climate. The release of methane, a 'greenhouse' gas, from destabilized gas hydrate may contribute to global warming and be a factor in global climate change.

  15. UPGRADING NATURAL GAS VIA MEMBRANE SEPARATION PROCESSES

    SciTech Connect

    S.A.Stern; P.A. Rice; J. Hao

    2000-03-01

    The objective of the present study is to assess the potential usefulness of membrane separation processes for removing CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2}S from low-quality natural gas containing substantial amounts of both these ''acid'' gases, e.g., up to 40 mole-% CO{sub 2} and 10 mole-% H{sub 2}S. The membrane processes must be capable of upgrading the crude natural gas to pipeline specifications ({le} 2 mole-% CO{sub 2}, {le} 4 ppm H{sub 2}S). Moreover, these processes must also be economically competitive with the conventional separation techniques, such as gas absorption, utilized for this purpose by the gas industry.

  16. 77 FR 59607 - El Paso Natural Gas Company; Notice of Public Scoping Meetings for the Planned SASABE Lateral...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-28

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission El Paso Natural Gas Company; Notice of Public Scoping Meetings for the... or Commission) Office of Energy Project's staff will hold public scoping meetings for El Paso Natural Gas Company's (El Paso) Sasabe Lateral Project (Project). The Project is a planned 60- mile-long...

  17. Consortium for Petroleum & Natural Gas Stripper Wells

    SciTech Connect

    Morrison, Joel

    2011-12-01

    The United States has more oil and gas wells than any other country. As of December 31, 2004, there were more than half a million producing oil wells in the United States. That is more than three times the combined total for the next three leaders: China, Canada, and Russia. The Stripper Well Consortium (SWC) is a partnership that includes domestic oil and gas producers, service and supply companies, trade associations, academia, the Department of Energy’s Strategic Center for Natural Gas and Oil (SCNGO) at the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL), and the New York State Energy Research and Development Authority (NYSERDA). The Consortium was established in 2000. This report serves as a final technical report for the SWC activities conducted over the May 1, 2004 to December 1, 2011 timeframe. During this timeframe, the SWC worked with 173 members in 29 states and three international countries, to focus on the development of new technologies to benefit the U.S. stripper well industry. SWC worked with NETL to develop a nationwide request-for-proposal (RFP) process to solicit proposals from the U.S. stripper well industry to develop and/or deploy new technologies that would assist small producers in improving the production performance of their stripper well operations. SWC conducted eight rounds of funding. A total of 132 proposals were received. The proposals were compiled and distributed to an industry-driven SWC executive council and program sponsors for review. Applicants were required to make a formal technical presentation to the SWC membership, executive council, and program sponsors. After reviewing the proposals and listening to the presentations, the executive council made their funding recommendations to program sponsors. A total of 64 projects were selected for funding, of which 59 were fully completed. Penn State then worked with grant awardees to issue a subcontract for their approved work. SWC organized and hosted a total of 14 meetings

  18. 75 FR 70350 - Liberty Natural Gas LLC, Liberty Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) Deepwater Port License Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-17

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Maritime Administration Liberty Natural Gas LLC, Liberty Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) Deepwater Port License... Transportation, Docket Management Facility, West Building, Ground Floor, Room W12-140, 1200 New Jersey Avenue, SE...

  19. Fuel composition effects on natural gas vehicle emissions

    SciTech Connect

    Blazek, C.F.; Grimes, J.; Freeman, P.; Bailey, B.K.; Colucci, C.

    1994-09-01

    Under a contract from DOE`s National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and support from Brooklyn Union Gas Company (BUG), Northern Illinois Gas Co., the Institute of Gas Technology (IGT) evaluated four state-of-the-art, electronic, closed-loop natural gas vehicle (NGV) conversion systems. The systems included an Impco electronic closed-loop system, Mogas electronic closed-loop system, Stewart and Stevenson`s GFI system, and an Automotive Natural Gas Inc. (ANGI) Level 1 electronic closed-loop conversion system. Conversion system evaluation included emission testing per 40 CFR Part 86, and driveability. All testing was performed with a 1993 Chevy Lumina equipped with a 3.1 liter MPFI V6 engine. Each system was emission tested using three different certified compositions of natural gas, representing the 10th, mean and 90th percentile gas compositions distributed in the United States. Emission testing on indolene was performed prior to conversion kit testing to establish a base emission value. Indolene testing was also performed at the end of the project when the vehicle was converted to its OEM configuration to ensure that the vehicle`s emissions were not altered during testing. The results of these tests will be presented.

  20. Natural Gas Prices Forecast Comparison--AEO vs. Natural Gas Markets

    SciTech Connect

    Wong-Parodi, Gabrielle; Lekov, Alex; Dale, Larry

    2005-02-09

    This paper evaluates the accuracy of two methods to forecast natural gas prices: using the Energy Information Administration's ''Annual Energy Outlook'' forecasted price (AEO) and the ''Henry Hub'' compared to U.S. Wellhead futures price. A statistical analysis is performed to determine the relative accuracy of the two measures in the recent past. A statistical analysis suggests that the Henry Hub futures price provides a more accurate average forecast of natural gas prices than the AEO. For example, the Henry Hub futures price underestimated the natural gas price by 35 cents per thousand cubic feet (11.5 percent) between 1996 and 2003 and the AEO underestimated by 71 cents per thousand cubic feet (23.4 percent). Upon closer inspection, a liner regression analysis reveals that two distinct time periods exist, the period between 1996 to 1999 and the period between 2000 to 2003. For the time period between 1996 to 1999, AEO showed a weak negative correlation (R-square = 0.19) between forecast price by actual U.S. Wellhead natural gas price versus the Henry Hub with a weak positive correlation (R-square = 0.20) between forecasted price and U.S. Wellhead natural gas price. During the time period between 2000 to 2003, AEO shows a moderate positive correlation (R-square = 0.37) between forecasted natural gas price and U.S. Wellhead natural gas price versus the Henry Hub that show a moderate positive correlation (R-square = 0.36) between forecast price and U.S. Wellhead natural gas price. These results suggest that agencies forecasting natural gas prices should consider incorporating the Henry Hub natural gas futures price into their forecasting models along with the AEO forecast. Our analysis is very preliminary and is based on a very small data set. Naturally the results of the analysis may change, as more data is made available.

  1. Building alliances for natural gas development

    SciTech Connect

    Kangles, N.

    1993-12-31

    NOVA Corporation of Alberta is a widely held company operating internationally from headquarters in Calgary, Alberta, Canada. NOVA adds value to energy through producing, marketing and transporting natural gas and upgrading natural gas and other hydrocarbons into chemicals and plastics. In 1992, NOVA generated $3 billion in revenue and $164 million in net income. Assets at the end of 1992 totalled $6.2 billion. Shares trade on the Toronto, Montreal, Alberta, New york and London stock exchanges, and on Swiss stock exchanges in Geneva, Zurich and Basle. Worldwide, NOVA employs over 6000 people.

  2. Adsorbed natural gas storage with activated carbon

    SciTech Connect

    Sun, Jian; Brady, T.A.; Rood, M.J.

    1996-12-31

    Despite technical advances to reduce air pollution emissions, motor vehicles still account for 30 to 70% emissions of all urban air pollutants. The Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 require 100 cities in the United States to reduce the amount of their smog within 5 to 15 years. Hence, auto emissions, the major cause of smog, must be reduced 30 to 60% by 1998. Natural gas con be combusted with less pollutant emissions. Adsorbed natural gas (ANG) uses adsorbents and operates with a low storage pressure which results in lower capital costs and maintenance. This paper describes the production of an activated carbon adsorbent produced from an Illinois coal for ANG.

  3. Atmospheric emissions and air quality impacts from natural gas production and use.

    PubMed

    Allen, David T

    2014-01-01

    The US Energy Information Administration projects that hydraulic fracturing of shale formations will become a dominant source of domestic natural gas supply over the next several decades, transforming the energy landscape in the United States. However, the environmental impacts associated with fracking for shale gas have made it controversial. This review examines emissions and impacts of air pollutants associated with shale gas production and use. Emissions and impacts of greenhouse gases, photochemically active air pollutants, and toxic air pollutants are described. In addition to the direct atmospheric impacts of expanded natural gas production, indirect effects are also described. Widespread availability of shale gas can drive down natural gas prices, which, in turn, can impact the use patterns for natural gas. Natural gas production and use in electricity generation are used as a case study for examining these indirect consequences of expanded natural gas availability.

  4. High pressure gas metering project

    SciTech Connect

    Tripp, L.R.

    1980-07-07

    The initial research and development of a system that uses high pressure helium gas to pressurize vessels over a wide range of pressurization rates, vessel volumes, and maximum test pressures are described. A method of controlling the mass flow rate in a test vessel was developed by using the pressure difference across a capillary tube. The mass flow rate is related to the pressurization rate through a real gas equation of state. The resulting mass flow equation is then used in a control algorithm. Plots of two typical pressurization tests run on a manually operated system are included.

  5. Natural gas pipeline leaks across Washington, DC.

    PubMed

    Jackson, Robert B; Down, Adrian; Phillips, Nathan G; Ackley, Robert C; Cook, Charles W; Plata, Desiree L; Zhao, Kaiguang

    2014-01-01

    Pipeline safety in the United States has increased in recent decades, but incidents involving natural gas pipelines still cause an average of 17 fatalities and $133 M in property damage annually. Natural gas leaks are also the largest anthropogenic source of the greenhouse gas methane (CH4) in the U.S. To reduce pipeline leakage and increase consumer safety, we deployed a Picarro G2301 Cavity Ring-Down Spectrometer in a car, mapping 5893 natural gas leaks (2.5 to 88.6 ppm CH4) across 1500 road miles of Washington, DC. The δ(13)C-isotopic signatures of the methane (-38.2‰ ± 3.9‰ s.d.) and ethane (-36.5 ± 1.1 s.d.) and the CH4:C2H6 ratios (25.5 ± 8.9 s.d.) closely matched the pipeline gas (-39.0‰ and -36.2‰ for methane and ethane; 19.0 for CH4/C2H6). Emissions from four street leaks ranged from 9200 to 38,200 L CH4 day(-1) each, comparable to natural gas used by 1.7 to 7.0 homes, respectively. At 19 tested locations, 12 potentially explosive (Grade 1) methane concentrations of 50,000 to 500,000 ppm were detected in manholes. Financial incentives and targeted programs among companies, public utility commissions, and scientists to reduce leaks and replace old cast-iron pipes will improve consumer safety and air quality, save money, and lower greenhouse gas emissions.

  6. Preliminary report on the commercial viability of gas production from natural gas hydrates

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Walsh, M.R.; Hancock, S.H.; Wilson, S.J.; Patil, S.L.; Moridis, G.J.; Boswell, R.; Collett, T.S.; Koh, C.A.; Sloan, E.D.

    2009-01-01

    Economic studies on simulated gas hydrate reservoirs have been compiled to estimate the price of natural gas that may lead to economically viable production from the most promising gas hydrate accumulations. As a first estimate, $CDN2005 12/Mscf is the lowest gas price that would allow economically viable production from gas hydrates in the absence of associated free gas, while an underlying gas deposit will reduce the viability price estimate to $CDN2005 7.50/Mscf. Results from a recent analysis of the simulated production of natural gas from marine hydrate deposits are also considered in this report; on an IROR basis, it is $US2008 3.50-4.00/Mscf more expensive to produce marine hydrates than conventional marine gas assuming the existence of sufficiently large marine hydrate accumulations. While these prices represent the best available estimates, the economic evaluation of a specific project is highly dependent on the producibility of the target zone, the amount of gas in place, the associated geologic and depositional environment, existing pipeline infrastructure, and local tariffs and taxes. ?? 2009 Elsevier B.V.

  7. Natural gas litigation survey: The future promises greater stability

    SciTech Connect

    Pain, L.

    1992-12-31

    The 1980`s witnessed a drastic restructuring of the interstate natural gas pipeline industry and considerable high-stakes natural gas contract litigation brought about by wide changes in field gas market values. This article reviews economic and regulatory developments in the natural gas industry and the resulting gas litigation trends: take-or-pay litigation; open access transportation; contract price.

  8. Project SUN (Students Understanding Nature)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Curley, T.; Yanow, G.

    1995-01-01

    Project SUN is part of NASA's 'Mission to Planet Earth' education outreach effort. It is based on development of low cost, scientifi- cally accurate instrumentation and computer interfacing, coupled with Apple II computers as dedicated data loggers. The project is com- prised of: instruments, interfacing, software, curriculum, a detailed operating manual, and a system of training at the school sites.

  9. Naturally fractured tight gas reservoir detection optimization

    SciTech Connect

    1999-06-01

    Building upon the partitioning of the Greater Green River Basin (GGRB) that was conducted last quarter, the goal of the work this quarter has been to conclude evaluation of the Stratos well and the prototypical Green River Deep partition, and perform the fill resource evaluation of the Upper Cretaceous tight gas play, with the goal of defining target areas of enhanced natural fracturing. The work plan for the quarter of November 1-December 31, 1998 comprised four tasks: (1) Evaluation of the Green River Deep partition and the Stratos well and examination of potential opportunity for expanding the use of E and P technology to low permeability, naturally fractured gas reservoirs, (2) Gas field studies, and (3) Resource analysis of the balance of the partitions.

  10. Teaching about Natural Gas and the Environment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shewell, John

    1994-01-01

    This article contains a foldout entitled Natural Gas and the Environment for use in helping students become more aware of the relationships that exist between humans and the environment. Suggestions for classroom integration of this subject into your curriculum are also provided. (ZWH)

  11. Natural gas annual 1992. Volume 2

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-11-22

    This document provides information on the supply and disposition of natural gas to a wide audience including industry, consumers, Federal and State agencies, and educational institutions. This report, Volume 2, presents historical data for the Nation from 1930 to 1992, and by State from 1967 to 1992. The Supplement of this report presents profiles of selected companies.

  12. Efficient liquefaction cycles for natural gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Musleh, Easa Ismail

    Natural Gas is liquefied for storage and transportation purposes. Large quantity of Natural Gas is liquefied on a daily basis. Therefore, there is a need for efficient refrigeration cycles to liquefy natural gas. Refrigeration cycles are energy intensive processes. In such systems, the compressors are the main power consumers. A given refrigeration task can be achieved by many configurations and use of refrigerant mediums. In principle, all possible configurations utilize vapor compression and/or expander cycles. However, identifying an energy efficient configuration along with the proper choice of refrigerants is not a straightforward technique. In the refrigeration literature, many methods have been proposed to identify efficient refrigeration configurations for a given task. However, these methods rely on detailed simulations and mathematical programming and do not provide much physical insights to design a good refrigeration process. As a result, our motivation is to develop physical insights through systematic evaluation of refrigerants and cycle configurations. We have identified key features of different refrigeration systems for Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) applications. This was achieved through detailed simulations and thermodynamic analysis. Such features are essential to understand the limits of different configurations. Moreover, they can lead to process developments and improvements.

  13. Teaching about Natural Gas and the Environment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shewell, John

    1994-01-01

    This article contains a foldout entitled Natural Gas and the Environment for use in helping students become more aware of the relationships that exist between humans and the environment. Suggestions for classroom integration of this subject into your curriculum are also provided. (ZWH)

  14. New Methodology for Natural Gas Production Estimates

    EIA Publications

    2010-01-01

    A new methodology is implemented with the monthly natural gas production estimates from the EIA-914 survey this month. The estimates, to be released April 29, 2010, include revisions for all of 2009. The fundamental changes in the new process include the timeliness of the historical data used for estimation and the frequency of sample updates, both of which are improved.

  15. Sustainable operation - natural-gas contribution

    SciTech Connect

    Ellington, R.T.; Meo, M. )

    1993-01-01

    In view of the rapid pace of population growth in industrializing nations and the globalization of many commercial markets, cumulative environmental damages have heightened the responsibility of industrialized nations to use science and technology to help other nations achieve desirable levels of economic prosperity and environmental quality. For all nations, the challenge of sustainable development will be to use natural resources in an economic and equitable manner that results in minimum environmental impact over time. For these reasons, the expanded use of natural gas will continue to be prominent in the debate about policy alternatives for advancing sustainable development. As the cleanest burning fossil fuel, natural gas and its attendant supply and distribution infrastructure are characterized as important for many reasons including: Reducing greenhouse gas emissions, generating minimal solid and liquid wastes during production, transportation, and consumption; serving as a transition fuel to a future with greater reliance on renewable energy sources; and for providing an industrial base for developing more environmentally conscious technologies. Other arguments for its expanded use have emphasized the opportunity to induce technical innovations and behavioral changes that are more compatible with sustainable development. The criteria by which society can design sustainable development strategies and determine whether environmental quality goals have been met will be key to the effective implementation of clean-fuel programs and expansion of natural-gas uses. This issue is timely, particularly with regard to how clean fuels can be nested within conceptual policy and planning frameworks that address sustainable industrial development more broadly. 35 refs.

  16. Wisconsin natural gas makes successful LNG turnaround

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, G.H.

    1981-11-01

    Wisconsin Natural Gas Co. successfully purged a 250-MMcf capacity LNG tank out of service, entered the tank, made necessary inspections, and performed planned modifications. The experience gained during this operation made it evident that an LNG tank need not be inspected at regular intervals for there was no deterioration or corrosion associated with the service.

  17. Bibliography on Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) safety

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ordin, P. M.

    1976-01-01

    Approximately 600 citations concerning safety of liquefied natural gas and liquid methane are presented. Each entry includes the title, author, abstract, source, description of figures, key references, and major descriptors for retrieving the document. An author index is provided as well as an index of descriptors.

  18. Case Study: Natural Gas Regional Transport Trucks

    SciTech Connect

    Laughlin, M.; Burnham, A.

    2016-08-01

    Learn about Ryder System, Inc.'s experience in deploying nearly 200 CNG and LNG heavy-duty trucks and construction and operation of L/CNG stations using ARRA funds. Using natural gas in its fleet, Ryder mitigated the effects of volatile fuel pricing and reduced lifecycle GHGs by 20% and petroleum by 99%.

  19. 7 CFR 2900.4 - Natural gas requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Natural gas requirements. 2900.4 Section 2900.4..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ESSENTIAL AGRICULTURAL USES AND VOLUMETRIC REQUIREMENTS-NATURAL GAS POLICY ACT § 2900.4 Natural gas requirements. For purposes of Section 401(c), NGPA, the natural gas requirements for...

  20. 7 CFR 2900.4 - Natural gas requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Natural gas requirements. 2900.4 Section 2900.4..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ESSENTIAL AGRICULTURAL USES AND VOLUMETRIC REQUIREMENTS-NATURAL GAS POLICY ACT § 2900.4 Natural gas requirements. For purposes of Section 401(c), NGPA, the natural gas requirements for...

  1. 7 CFR 2900.4 - Natural gas requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Natural gas requirements. 2900.4 Section 2900.4..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ESSENTIAL AGRICULTURAL USES AND VOLUMETRIC REQUIREMENTS-NATURAL GAS POLICY ACT § 2900.4 Natural gas requirements. For purposes of Section 401(c), NGPA, the natural gas requirements for...

  2. 7 CFR 2900.4 - Natural gas requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Natural gas requirements. 2900.4 Section 2900.4..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ESSENTIAL AGRICULTURAL USES AND VOLUMETRIC REQUIREMENTS-NATURAL GAS POLICY ACT § 2900.4 Natural gas requirements. For purposes of Section 401(c), NGPA, the natural gas requirements for...

  3. 7 CFR 2900.4 - Natural gas requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Natural gas requirements. 2900.4 Section 2900.4..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ESSENTIAL AGRICULTURAL USES AND VOLUMETRIC REQUIREMENTS-NATURAL GAS POLICY ACT § 2900.4 Natural gas requirements. For purposes of Section 401(c), NGPA, the natural gas requirements for...

  4. Natural gas strategic plan and program crosscut plans

    SciTech Connect

    1995-06-01

    The natural gas strategic plan recognizes the challenges and opportunities facing increased U.S. natural gas use. Focus areas of research include natural gas supply, delivery, and storage, power generation, industrial, residential and commercial, natural gas vehicles, and the environment. Historical aspects, mission, situation analysis, technology trends, strategic issues, performance indicators, technology program overviews, and forecasting in the above areas are described.

  5. Advanced Natural Gas Reciprocating Engine(s)

    SciTech Connect

    Kwok, Doris; Boucher, Cheryl

    2009-09-30

    has consisted of both modeling and single cylinder engine experiments to quantify DIGN performance. The air handling systems of natural gas engines dissipate a percentage of available energy as a result of both flow losses and turbomachinery inefficiencies. An analytical study was initiated to increase compressor efficiency by employing a 2-stage inter-cooled compressor. Caterpillar also studied a turbo-compound system that employs a power turbine to recover energy from the exhaust gases for improved engine efficiency. Several other component and system investigations were undertaken during the final phase of the program to reach the ultimate ARES goals. An intake valve actuation system was developed and tested to improve engine efficiency, durability and load acceptance. Analytical modeling and materials testing were performed to evaluate the performance of steel pistons and compacted graphite iron cylinder head. Effort was made to improve the detonation sensing system by studying and comparing the performance of different pressure sensors. To reduce unburned hydrocarbon emissions, different camshafts were designed and built to investigate the effect of exhaust valve opening timing and value overlap. 1-D & 3-D coupled simulation was used to study intake and exhaust manifold dynamics with the goal of reducing load in-balance between cylinders. Selective catalytic reduction with on-board reductant generation to reduce NOx emissions was also engine tested. An effective mean to successfully deploy ARES technologies into the energy markets is to deploy demonstration projects in the field. In 2010, NETL and Caterpillar agreed to include a new “opportunity fuel” deliverable and two field demonstrations in the ARES program. An Organic Rankine Cycle system was designed with production intent incorporating lessons learned from the Phase II demonstration. Unfortunately, business conditions caused Caterpillar to cancel this demonstration in 2011. Nonetheless, Caterpillar

  6. Advanced Natural Gas Reciprocating Engine(s)

    SciTech Connect

    Pike, Edward

    2014-03-31

    The objective of the Cummins ARES program, in partnership with the US Department of Energy (DOE), is to develop advanced natural gas engine technologies that increase engine system efficiency at lower emissions levels while attaining lower cost of ownership. The goals of the project are to demonstrate engine system achieving 50% Brake Thermal Efficiency (BTE) in three phases, 44%, 47% and 50% (starting baseline efficiency at 36% BTE) and 0.1 g/bhp-hr NOx system out emissions (starting baseline NOx emissions at 2 – 4 g/bhp-hr NOx). Primary path towards above goals include high Brake Mean Effective Pressure (BMEP), improved closed cycle efficiency, increased air handling efficiency and optimized engine subsystems. Cummins has successfully demonstrated each of the phases of this program. All targets have been achieved through application of a combined set of advanced base engine technologies and Waste Heat Recovery from Charge Air and Exhaust streams, optimized and validated on the demonstration engine and other large engines. The following architectures were selected for each Phase: Phase 1: Lean Burn Spark Ignited (SI) Key Technologies: High Efficiency Turbocharging, Higher Efficiency Combustion System. In production on the 60/91L engines. Over 500MW of ARES Phase 1 technology has been sold. Phase 2: Lean Burn Technology with Exhaust Waste Heat Recovery (WHR) System Key Technologies: Advanced Ignition System, Combustion Improvement, Integrated Waste Heat Recovery System. Base engine technologies intended for production within 2 to 3 years Phase 3: Lean Burn Technology with Exhaust and Charge Air Waste Heat Recovery System Key Technologies: Lower Friction, New Cylinder Head Designs, Improved Integrated Waste Heat Recovery System. Intended for production within 5 to 6 years Cummins is committed to the launch of next generation of large advanced NG engines based on ARES technology to be commercialized worldwide.

  7. Conversion of a Waste Gas to Liquid Natural Gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gongaware, D. F.; Barclay, M. A.; Barclay, J. A.; Skrzypkowski, M. P.

    2004-06-01

    The choice of liquefied natural gas (LNG) as a heavy-duty vehicular fuel is growing rapidly due to improved LNG economics, diesel price uncertainties caused by the dependence on imported crude oil, liabilities associated with environmental and health concerns, and governmental programs related to concerns over greenhouse gas emissions. However, vehicle owners who wish to use LNG are impeded by a lack of refueling infrastructure and reliable supply of inexpensive fuel. These barriers are being overcome by the development of innovative purifier/liquefier systems that economically convert a wide array of distributed, low cost methane gas sources into high quality LNG. This paper describes the engineering design, manufacture, installation, and initial operations of two such systems. One unit was a pilot-scale system using an innovative cryogenic freezing process to remove bulk concentrations of carbon dioxide from the landfill gas (LFG). The second unit converts stranded well gas containing ˜ 18% nitrogen gas into LNG. The paper closes with a summary of lessons learned from these two installations and directions for future improvements.

  8. HYBRID SULFUR RECOVERY PROCESS FOR NATURAL GAS UPGRADING

    SciTech Connect

    Girish Srinivas; Steven C. Gebhard; David W. DeBerry

    2001-05-01

    This first quarter report of 2001 describes progress on a project funded by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to test a hybrid sulfur recovery process for natural gas upgrading. The process concept represents a low cost option for direct treatment of natural gas streams to remove H{sub 2}S in quantities equivalent to 0.2-25 metric tons (LT) of sulfur per day. This process is projected to have lower capital and operating costs than the competing technologies, amine/aqueous iron liquid redox and amine/Claus/tail gas treating, and have a smaller plant footprint, making it well suited to both on-shore and offshore applications. CrystaSulf{trademark} (service mark of Gas Research Institute) is a new nonaqueous sulfur recovery process that removes hydrogen sulfide (H{sub 2}S) from gas streams and converts it into elemental sulfur. CrystaSulf features high sulfur recovery similar to aqueous-iron liquid redox sulfur recovery processes, but differs from the aqueous processes in that CrystaSulf controls the location where elemental sulfur particles are formed. In the hybrid process, approximately 1/3 of the total H{sub 2}S in the natural gas is first oxidized to SO{sub 2} at low temperatures over a heterogeneous catalyst. Low temperature oxidation is done so that the H{sub 2}S can be oxidized in the presence of methane and other hydrocarbons without oxidation of the hydrocarbons. The project involves the development of a catalyst using laboratory/bench-scale catalyst testing, and then demonstration of the catalyst at CrystaTech's pilot plant in west Texas. During this reporting periods new catalyst formulations were tested. The experiments showed that the newest catalyst has slightly better performance, but catalyst TDA No.2 is still superior overall for use with the hybrid CrystaSulf process due to lower costs. Plans for catalyst pelletization and continued testing are described.

  9. Residential Feedback Devices and Programs. Opportunities for Natural Gas

    SciTech Connect

    Kerr, R.; Tondro, M.

    2012-12-01

    Behavior-based approaches have been a growing interest in the energy efficiency field over recent years and the use of residential energy feedback has garnered particular interest. By providing an increased level of detail, feedback can greatly increase a consumer’s understanding of how energy is used in their home. This project reviewed the existing body of research on electricity feedback to identify parallel lessons for gas, discussed the benefits and challenges of different types of feedback, and identifying three feedback options that show strong potential for natural gas savings.

  10. Residential Feedback Devices and Programs: Opportunities for Natural Gas

    SciTech Connect

    Kerr, R.; Tondro, M.

    2012-12-01

    Behavior-based approaches have been a growing interest in the energy efficiency field over recent years and the use of residential energy feedback has garnered particular interest. By providing an increased level of detail, feedback can greatly increase a consumer's understanding of how energy is used in their home. This project reviewed the existing body of research on electricity feedback to identify parallel lessons for gas, discussed the benefits and challenges of different types of feedback, and identifying three feedback options that show strong potential for natural gas savings.

  11. NOVEL COMPOSITE MEMBRANES AND PROCESS FOR NATURAL GAS UPGRADING

    SciTech Connect

    Ben Bikson; Sal Giglia; Jibin Hao

    2003-03-01

    In the second phase of this project, the newly developed membrane module for natural gas dehydration was tested and evaluated in a pilot plant located at a commercial natural gas treatment site. This phase was undertaken jointly with UOP LLC, our commercialization partner. The field test demonstrated that a commercial-size membrane module for natural gas dehydration was successfully manufactured. The membrane module operated reliably over 1000 psi differential pressure across the membrane in the field test. The effects of feed gas pressure, permeate gas pressure, feed flow rate, purge ratio (flow rate ratio of permeate outlet to feed), and feed gas dew point on the membrane module performance were determined and found to meet the design expectations. Although water vapor permeance was lower than expected, substantial natural gas dehydration was demonstrated with low purge ratio. For example, dew point was suppressed by as much as 30 F with only about 2 {approx} 3% purge ratio. However the bore side pressure drops were significantly higher than the projected value from the fluid dynamic calculation. It is likely that not all the fibers were open in either the sweep or the permeate tube sheet end. This could help to explain the relatively low water vapor permeances that were measured in the field. An economic evaluation of the membrane process and the traditional Triethylene Glycol (TEG) process to dehydrate natural gas was performed and the economics of the two processes were compared. Two sets of membrane module performance properties were used in the economic analysis of the membrane process. One was from the results of this field test and the other from the results of the previous small-scale test with a medium pressure membrane variant conducted at 750 psig. The membrane process was competitive with the TEG process for the natural gas feed flow rate below 10 MMSCFD for the membrane with previously measured water vapor permeance. The membrane process was

  12. Liverpool Bay project. LM6000 gas turbines go offshore

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-09-01

    Liverpool Bay - comprising the North coast of Wales and the North West coast of England - has become one of the few sites for oil and natural gas extraction in the Irish Sea. Hamilton Oil Company Ltd, together with three UK partners, is now engaged in setting up the Liverpool Bay project. Power supply for the whole offshore project will be on the 8500 t Douglas production platform deck, using two LM6000 gas turbine generating sets. During normal operation, one unit providing 42 MW nominal power will be kept in service with the second in standby. Should the power demand exceed the capacity of one set, additional power can be supplied by the one-megawatt diesel generators installed on the accommodation platform, or by putting the second LM6000 unit into service. The main power loads will be four compressor sets, also installed on the Douglas production platform deck, including two for gas injection and two for gas compression. 5 figs.

  13. Method and apparatus for dispensing compressed natural gas and liquified natural gas to natural gas powered vehicles

    DOEpatents

    Bingham, Dennis A.; Clark, Michael L.; Wilding, Bruce M.; Palmer, Gary L.

    2005-05-31

    A fueling facility and method for dispensing liquid natural gas (LNG), compressed natural gas (CNG) or both on-demand. The fueling facility may include a source of LNG, such as cryogenic storage vessel. A low volume high pressure pump is coupled to the source of LNG to produce a stream of pressurized LNG. The stream of pressurized LNG may be selectively directed through an LNG flow path or to a CNG flow path which includes a vaporizer configured to produce CNG from the pressurized LNG. A portion of the CNG may be drawn from the CNG flow path and introduced into the CNG flow path to control the temperature of LNG flowing therethrough. Similarly, a portion of the LNG may be drawn from the LNG flow path and introduced into the CNG flow path to control the temperature of CNG flowing therethrough.

  14. Autothermal Reforming of Natural Gas to Synthesis Gas

    SciTech Connect

    Steven F. Rice; David P. Mann

    2007-04-13

    This Project Final Report serves to document the project structure and technical results achieved during the 3-year project titled Advanced Autothermal Reformer for US Dept of Energy Office of Industrial Technology. The project was initiated in December 2001 and was completed March 2005. It was a joint effort between Sandia National Laboratories (Livermore, CA), Kellogg Brown & Root LLC (KBR) (Houston, TX) and Süd-Chemie (Louisville, KY). The purpose of the project was to develop an experimental capability that could be used to examine the propensity for soot production in an Autothermal Reformer (ATR) during the production of hydrogen-carbon monoxide synthesis gas intended for Gas-to-Liquids (GTL) applications including ammonia, methanol, and higher hydrocarbons. The project consisted of an initial phase that was focused on developing a laboratory-scale ATR capable of reproducing conditions very similar to a plant scale unit. Due to budget constraints this effort was stopped at the advanced design stages, yielding a careful and detailed design for such a system including ATR vessel design, design of ancillary feed and let down units as well as a PI&D for laboratory installation. The experimental effort was then focused on a series of measurements to evaluate rich, high-pressure burner behavior at pressures as high as 500 psi. The soot formation measurements were based on laser attenuation at a view port downstream of the burner. The results of these experiments and accompanying calculations show that soot formation is primarily dependent on oxidation stoichiometry. However, steam to carbon ratio was found to impact soot production as well as burner stability. The data also showed that raising the operating pressure while holding mass flow rates constant results in considerable soot formation at desirable feed ratios. Elementary reaction modeling designed to illuminate the role of CO2 in the burner feed showed that the conditions in the burner allow for the direct

  15. Natural gas production verification tests. Environmental assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-02-01

    This Environmental Assessment (EA) has been prepared by the Department of Energy (DOE) in compliance with the requirements of the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969. The Department of Energy (DOE) proposes to fund, through a contract with Petroleum Consulting Services, Inc. of Canton, Ohio, the testing of the effectiveness of a non-water based hydraulic fracturing treatment to increase gas recovery from low-pressure, tight, fractured Devonian Shale formations. Although Devonian Shales are found in the Appalachian, Michigan, and Illinois Basins, testing will be done only in the dominant, historical five state area of established production. The objective of this proposed project is to assess the benefits of liquid carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2})/sand stimulations in the Devonian Shale. In addition, this project would evaluate the potential nondamaging (to the formation) properties of this unique fracturing treatment relative to the clogging or chocking of pores and fractures that act as gas flow paths to the wellbore in the target gas-producing zones of the formation. This liquid CO{sub 2}/sand fracturing process is water-free and is expected to facilitate gas well cleanup, reduce the time required for post-stimulation cleanup, and result in improved production levels in a much shorter time than is currently experienced.

  16. Gas extrusion in natural products total synthesis.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Xuefeng; Shi, Lei; Liu, Hui; Khan, Akbar H; Chen, Jason S

    2012-11-14

    The thermodynamic driving force from the release of a gaseous molecule drives a broad range of synthetic transformations. This review focuses on gas expulsion in key reactions within natural products total syntheses, selected from the past two decades. The highlighted examples survey transformations that generate sulfur dioxide, carbon dioxide, carbonyl sulfide, or nitrogen through polar, radical, pericyclic, photochemical, or organometallic mechanisms. Of particular interest are applications wherein the gas extrusion enables formation of a synthetically challenging motif, such as an unusually hindered or strained bond.

  17. Natural gas fueling of diesel engines

    SciTech Connect

    1996-11-01

    The focus of work performed by University of British Columbia researchers was on high-pressure (late cycle) injection of NG ignited by a pilot diesel-liquid injection(diesel/gas combustion). This was compared to the case of 100% liquid diesel (baseline diesel) fueling at the same load and speed. In typical direct-injected and conventionally fueled diesel engines, fuel is injected a few degrees before the end of the compression stroke into 750--900 K air in which it vaporizes, mixed with air, and auto ignites less than 2 ms after injection begins. The objectives of the researchers` work were to investigate the ignition delay and combustion duration of diesel/gas combustion by observing diesel and diesel/gas ignition sites and flame structure; determining ignition delay and combustion duration with pilot-diesel and natural gas injections; determining whether the pilot liquid flame is substantially influenced by the gas injection; and considering whether pilot-diesel/gas combustion is dominated by premixed or diffusion combustion.

  18. Naturally fractured tight gas reservoir detection optimization

    SciTech Connect

    1999-04-30

    In March, work continued on characterizing probabilities for determining natural fracturing associated with the GGRB for the Upper Cretaceous tight gas plays. Structural complexity, based on potential field data and remote sensing data was completed. A resource estimate for the Frontier and Mesa Verde play was also completed. Further, work was also conducted to determine threshold economics for the play based on limited current production in the plays in the Wamsutter Ridge area. These analyses culminated in a presentation at FETC on 24 March 1999 where quantified natural fracture domains, mapped on a partition basis, which establish ''sweet spot'' probability for natural fracturing, were reviewed. That presentation is reproduced here as Appendix 1. The work plan for the quarter of January 1, 1999--March 31, 1999 comprised five tasks: (1) Evaluation of the GGRB partitions for structural complexity that can be associated with natural fractures, (2) Continued resource analysis of the balance of the partitions to determine areas with higher relative gas richness, (3) Gas field studies, (4) Threshold resource economics to determine which partitions would be the most prospective, and (5) Examination of the area around the Table Rock 4H well.

  19. A review of water and greenhouse gas impacts of unconventional natural gas development in the United States

    SciTech Connect

    Arent, Doug; Logan, Jeff; Macknick, Jordan; Boyd, William; Medlock , Kenneth; O'Sullivan, Francis; Edmonds, James A.; Clarke, Leon E.; Huntington, Hill; Heath, Garvin; Statwick, Patricia M.; Bazilian, Morgan

    2015-01-01

    This paper reviews recent developments in the production and use of unconventional natural gas in the United States with a focus on water and greenhouse gas emission implications. If unconventional natural gas in the U.S. is produced responsibly, transported and distributed with little leakage, and incorporated into integrated energy systems that are designed for future resiliency, it could play a significant role in realizing a more sustainable energy future; however, the increased use of natural gas as a substitute for more carbon intensive fuels will alone not substantially alter world carbon dioxide concentration projections.

  20. Insects. Hawaii Nature Study Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawaii Univ., Honolulu. Curriculum Research and Development Group.

    This teaching guide is one of a series developed by the Curriculum Research and Development Group at the University of Hawaii. The program is laboratory and field oriented for elementary students. The focus of study for the project is the plant and animal life and the physical components of the Hawaiian environment, and their ecological…

  1. Insects. Hawaii Nature Study Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawaii Univ., Honolulu. Curriculum Research and Development Group.

    This teaching guide is one of a series developed by the Curriculum Research and Development Group at the University of Hawaii. The program is laboratory and field oriented for elementary students. The focus of study for the project is the plant and animal life and the physical components of the Hawaiian environment, and their ecological…

  2. TECHNOLOGIES TO ENHANCE OPERATION OF THE EXISTING NATURAL GAS COMPRESSION INFRASTRUCTURE

    SciTech Connect

    Anthony J. Smalley; Ralph E. Harris; Gary D. Bourn

    2004-03-01

    This report documents work performed in Phase I of the project entitled: ''Technologies to Enhance Operation of the Existing Natural Gas Compression Infrastructure''. The project objective is to develop and substantiate methods for operating integral engine/compressors in gas pipeline service, which reduce fuel consumption, increase capacity, and enhance mechanical integrity. The report describes a number of potential enhancements to the existing natural gas compression infrastructure that have been identified and qualitatively demonstrated in tests on three different integral engine/compressors in natural gas transmission service.

  3. TECHNOLOGIES TO ENHANCE OPERATION OF THE EXISTING NATURAL GAS COMPRESSION INFRASTRUCTURE

    SciTech Connect

    Anthony J. Smalley; Ralph E. Harris; Gary D. Bourn

    2004-08-01

    This report documents work performed in Phase I of the project entitled: ''Technologies to Enhance Operation of the Existing Natural Gas Compression Infracture''. The project objective is to develop and substantiate methods for operating integral engine/compressors in gas pipeline service, which reduce fuel consumption, increase capacity, and enhance mechanical integrity. The report describes a number of potential enhancements to the existing natural gas compression infrastructure that have been identified and tested on four different integral engine/compressors in natural gas transmission service.

  4. Natural Gas Imports and Exports. Third Quarter Report 1999

    SciTech Connect

    1999-10-01

    The second quarter 1997 Quarterly Report of Natural Gas Imports and Exports featured a Quarterly Focus report on cross-border natural gas trade between the United States and Mexico. This Quarterly Focus article is a follow-up to the 1997 report. This report revisits and updates the status of some of the pipeline projects discussed in 1997, and examines a number of other planned cross-border pipeline facilities which were proposed subsequent to our 1997 report. A few of the existing and proposed pipelines are bidirectional and thus have the capability of serving either Mexico, or the United States, depending on market conditions and gas supply availability. These new projects, if completed, would greatly enhance the pipeline infrastructure on the U.S.-Mexico border and would increase gas pipeline throughput capacity for cross-border trade by more than 1 billion cubic feet (Bcf) per day. The Quarterly Focus is comprised of five sections. Section I includes the introduction as well as a brief historic overview of U.S./Mexican natural gas trade; a discussion of Mexico's energy regulatory structure; and a review of trade agreements and a 1992 legislative change which allows for her cross-border gas trade in North America. Section II looks at initiatives that have been taken by the Mexican Government since 1995to open its energy markets to greater competition and privatization. Section III reviews Mexican gas demand forecasts and looks at future opportunities for U.S. gas producers to supplement Mexico's indigenous supplies in order to meet the anticipated rapid growth in demand. Section IV examines the U.S.-Mexico natural gas trade in recent years. It also looks specifically at monthly import and export volumes and prices and identifies short-term trends in this trade. Finally, Section V reviews the existing and planned cross-border gas pipeline infrastructure. The section also specifically describes six planned pipelines intended to expand this pipeline network and

  5. Natural gas supply - a producer`s perspective

    SciTech Connect

    Papa, M.G.

    1994-12-31

    The supply of natural gas from the producers standpoint is discussed. The following factors in the marketing demand for natural gas are considered to be important: gas demand is growing, U.S. gas resource base is large, chronic gas bubble has shrunk, and North American supply is more resilient than expected.

  6. Naturally fractured tight gas reservoir detection optimization

    SciTech Connect

    1998-11-30

    The goal of the work this quarter has been to partition and high-grade the Greater Green River basin for exploration efforts in the Upper Cretaceous tight gas play and to initiate resource assessment of the basin. The work plan for the quarter of July 1-September 30, 1998 comprised three tasks: (1) Refining the exploration process for deep, naturally fractured gas reservoirs; (2) Partitioning of the basin based on structure and areas of overpressure; (3) Examination of the Kinney and Canyon Creek fields with respect to the Cretaceous tight gas play and initiation of the resource assessment of the Vermilion sub-basin partition (which contains these two fields); and (4) Initiation analysis of the Deep Green River Partition with respect to the Stratos well and assessment of the resource in the partition.

  7. LIQUID NATURAL GAS (LNG): AN ALTERNATIVE FUEL FROM LANDFILL GAS (LFG) AND WASTEWATER DIGESTER GAS

    SciTech Connect

    VANDOR,D.

    1999-03-01

    This Research and Development Subcontract sought to find economic, technical and policy links between methane recovery at landfill and wastewater treatment sites in New York and Maryland, and ways to use that methane as an alternative fuel--compressed natural gas (CNG) or liquid natural gas (LNG) -- in centrally fueled Alternative Fueled Vehicles (AFVs).

  8. 18 CFR 157.210 - Mainline natural gas facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Mainline natural gas... COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REGULATIONS UNDER NATURAL GAS ACT APPLICATIONS FOR CERTIFICATES OF PUBLIC... GAS ACT Interstate Pipeline Blanket Certificates and Authorization Under Section 7 of the Natural Gas...

  9. 18 CFR 157.210 - Mainline natural gas facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Mainline natural gas... COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REGULATIONS UNDER NATURAL GAS ACT APPLICATIONS FOR CERTIFICATES OF PUBLIC... GAS ACT Interstate Pipeline Blanket Certificates and Authorization Under Section 7 of the Natural Gas...

  10. 18 CFR 157.210 - Mainline natural gas facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Mainline natural gas... COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REGULATIONS UNDER NATURAL GAS ACT APPLICATIONS FOR CERTIFICATES OF PUBLIC... GAS ACT Interstate Pipeline Blanket Certificates and Authorization Under Section 7 of the Natural Gas...

  11. High rate of methane leakage from natural gas production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balcerak, Ernie

    2013-10-01

    Natural gas production is growing as the United States seeks domestic sources of relatively clean energy. Natural gas combustion produces less carbon dioxide emissions than coal or oil for the amount of energy produced. However, one source of concern is that some natural gas leaks to the atmosphere from the extraction point, releasing methane, a potent greenhouse gas.

  12. HYBRID SULFUR RECOVERY PROCESS FOR NATURAL GAS UPGRADING

    SciTech Connect

    Dennis Dalrymple

    2003-10-01

    This third quarter report of 2003 describes progress on a project funded by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to test a hybrid sulfur recovery process for natural gas upgrading. The process concept represents a low-cost option for direct treatment of natural gas streams to remove H{sub 2}S in quantities equivalent to 0.2-25 metric tons (LT) of sulfur per day. This process is projected to have lower capital and operating costs than the competing technologies, amine/aqueous iron liquid redox and amine/Claus/tail gas treating, and have a smaller plant footprint, making it well suited to both on-shore and off-shore applications. CrystaSulf{reg_sign} (service mark of CrystaTech, Inc.) is a new nonaqueous sulfur recovery process that removes hydrogen sulfide (H{sub 2}S) from gas streams and converts it into elemental sulfur. CrystaSulf features high sulfur recovery similar to aqueous-iron liquid redox sulfur recovery processes, but differs from the aqueous processes in that CrystaSulf controls the location where elemental sulfur particles are formed. In the hybrid process, approximately 1/3 of the total H{sub 2}S in the natural gas is first oxidized to SO{sub 2} at low temperatures over a heterogeneous catalyst. Low temperature oxidation is done so that the H{sub 2}S can be oxidized in the presence of methane and other hydrocarbons without oxidation of the hydrocarbons. The project involves the development of a catalyst using laboratory/bench-scale catalyst testing, and then demonstration of the catalyst at CrystaTech's pilot plant site in west Texas.

  13. HYBRID SULFUR RECOVERY PROCESS FOR NATURAL GAS UPGRADING

    SciTech Connect

    Dennis Dalrymple

    2004-04-01

    This first quarter report of 2004 describes progress on a project funded by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to test a hybrid sulfur recovery process for natural gas upgrading. The process concept represents a low-cost option for direct treatment of natural gas streams to remove H{sub 2}S in quantities equivalent to 0.2-25 metric tons (LT) of sulfur per day. This process is projected to have lower capital and operating costs than the competing technologies, amine/aqueous iron liquid redox and amine/Claus/tail gas treating, and have a smaller plant footprint, making it well suited to both on-shore and off-shore applications. CrystaSulf{reg_sign} (service mark of CrystaTech, Inc.) is a new nonaqueous sulfur recovery process that removes hydrogen sulfide (H{sub 2}S) from gas streams and converts it into elemental sulfur. CrystaSulf features high sulfur recovery similar to aqueous-iron liquid redox sulfur recovery processes, but differs from the aqueous processes in that CrystaSulf controls the location where elemental sulfur particles are formed. In the hybrid process, approximately 1/3 of the total H{sub 2}S in the natural gas is first oxidized to SO{sub 2} at low temperatures over a heterogeneous catalyst. Low temperature oxidation is done so that the H{sub 2}S can be oxidized in the presence of methane while avoiding methane oxidation and fouling due to coking from other hydrocarbon contaminants. The project involves the development of a catalyst using laboratory/bench-scale catalyst testing, and then demonstration of the catalyst at CrystaTech's pilot plant site in west Texas.

  14. Natural gas comes to Lambeau Field

    SciTech Connect

    Kiefer, M.; Johansson, K.

    1997-10-01

    When the snow begins to fly, Lambeau Field, the Packers` stadium, becomes known as The Frozen Tundra, even though truly knowledgeable fans are aware the field is electrically heated. Make that was electrically heated. This year, natural gas has come to Lambeau Field. The Green Bay Packers organization knew the whole field needed to be rebuilt with improved drainage and a better heating system. They chose a natural gas-fired hot-water system as the best way to heat the field. They saw this system as more energy- and cost-efficient than electric heating cables. And they liked the flexibility and control it would offer to better extend the field`s growing season. The paper discusses the new system.

  15. California Natural Gas Pipelines: A Brief Guide

    SciTech Connect

    Neuscamman, Stephanie; Price, Don; Pezzola, Genny; Glascoe, Lee

    2013-01-22

    The purpose of this document is to familiarize the reader with the general configuration and operation of the natural gas pipelines in California and to discuss potential LLNL contributions that would support the Partnership for the 21st Century collaboration. First, pipeline infrastructure will be reviewed. Then, recent pipeline events will be examined. Selected current pipeline industry research will be summarized. Finally, industry acronyms are listed for reference.

  16. Natural Gas Pipeline Network: Changing and Growing

    EIA Publications

    1996-01-01

    This chapter focuses upon the capabilities of the national natural gas pipeline network, examining how it has expanded during this decade and how it may expand further over the coming years. It also looks at some of the costs of this expansion, including the environmental costs which may be extensive. Changes in the network as a result of recent regional market shifts are also discussed.

  17. Development of natural gas rotary engines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mack, J. R.

    1991-08-01

    Development of natural gas-fueled rotary engines was pursued on the parallel paths of converted Mazda automotive engines and of establishing technology and demonstration of a test model of a larger John Deer Technologies Incorporated (JDTI) rotary engine with power capability of 250 HP per power section for future production of multi-rotor engines with power ratings 250, 500, and 1000 HP and upward. Mazda engines were converted to natural gas and were characterized by a laboratory which was followed by nearly 12,000 hours of testing in three different field installations. To develop technology for the larger JDTI engine, laboratory and engine materials testing was accomplished. Extensive combustion analysis computer codes were modified, verified, and utilized to predict engine performance, to guide parameters for actual engine design, and to identify further improvements. A single rotor test engine of 5.8 liter displacement was designed for natural gas operation based on the JDTI 580 engine series. This engine was built and tested. It ran well and essentially achieved predicted performance. Lean combustion and low NOW emission were demonstrated.

  18. Competition law and British natural gas regulation

    SciTech Connect

    Black, A.J.

    1992-01-01

    British Gas (BG) is a seriously successful monopolist which, since its 1986 privatisation, is acing increased regulation by the Office of Gas Supply (OFGAS). OFGAS is the first public body specifically created to regulate a European gas industry. It employs a rate-capping formula instead of the more labour intensive rate-of-retum method favoured in North America. Despite initial criticisms, OFGAS has surprised industry observers with efficacious results. This article succinctly discusses the process of natural gas industry privatisation in the United Kingdom (U.K.) and the development of a British type of [open quotes]open access.[close quotes] Contemporary British gas regulation is a distinct paradigm involving the privatisation of a vertically integrated pipeline system coupled with an altemative regulatory method. These regulatory results include lower prices for core customers and the promotion of third party direct sales within the U.K. Since Britain leads the European Community (E.C.) in common carriage provisions, the regulatory r6gime here provides a benchmark for the other Member States.

  19. Compressed natural gas fueled vehicles: The Houston experience

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-12-31

    The report describes the experience of the City of Houston in defining the compressed natural gas fueled vehicle research scope and issues. It details the ways in which the project met initial expectations, and how the project scope, focus, and duration were adjusted in response to unanticipated results. It provides examples of real world successes and failures in efforts to commercialize basic research in adapting a proven technology (natural gas) to a noncommercially proven application (vehicles). Phase one of the demonstration study investigates, develops, documents, and disseminates information regarding the economic, operational, and environmental implications of utilizing compressed natural gas (CNG) in various truck fueling applications. The four (4) truck classes investigated are light duty gasoline trucks, medium duty gasoline trucks, medium duty diesel trucks and heavy duty diesel trucks. The project researches aftermarket CNG conversions for the first three vehicle classes and original equipment manufactured (OEM) CNG vehicles for light duty gasoline and heavy duty diesel classes. In phase two of the demonstration project, critical issues are identified and assessed with respect to implementing use of CNG fueled vehicles in a large vehicle fleet. These issues include defining changes in local, state, and industry CNG fueled vehicle related codes and standards; addressing vehicle fuel storage limitations; using standardized vehicle emission testing procedures and results; and resolving CNG refueling infrastructure implementation issues and related cost factors. The report identifies which CNG vehicle fueling options were tried and failed and which were tried and succeeded, with and without modifications. The conclusions include a caution regarding overly optimistic assessments of CNG vehicle technology at the initiation of the project.

  20. Screening of three proposed DOE geopressured-geothermal aquifer natural gas project areas for potential conflicting commercial production: Freshwater Bayou, Lake Theriot, and Kaplan, Louisiana

    SciTech Connect

    Knutson, C.F.; Rogers, L.A.

    1982-02-01

    Three proposed DOE geopressured geothermal prospects defined by the Louisiana State University resource assessment group were screened for possible conflict with existing gas production. The analysis used the public records available at the Louisiana Department of Conservation offices in Baton Rouge and structural and statigraphic interpretations made by the L.S.U. resource assessment group. (MHR)

  1. Growing demand for gas spawns pipeline projects

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-09-09

    This paper reports that burgeoning demand for gas is fueling pipeline construction in Eastern and Western hemispheres. In the East, the North Sea is the focal point for activity. And in the West, the U.S. gas market is the power behind construction. As predictions of U.S. gas demand increase, Canadian pipeliners adjust expansion plans to be ready to capture greater shares of markets. Canada's TransCanada Pipelines Ltd. is racing to step up its share of the U.S. market. TransCanada's Western Gas Marketing Ltd. sold 242.3 bcf of gas in the 3 months ended last June 30, a 9.8% increase from last year. TransCanada reported lower volumes sold into Canadian markets, while exports into the U.S. continued to rise. Gas Research Institute (GRI) projects Canadian gas exports to the U.S. by 2000 will reach 2 tcf/year and LNG exports 800 bcf/year. U.S. gas supplies could increase to 23.9 tcf/year by 2010, mostly from Lower 48 production. GRI says supplies from Canada will make up the balance. In the past 2 years, TransCanada has spent about $1 billion expanding its interprovincial main line system.

  2. Accounting for fuel price risk: Using forward natural gas prices instead of gas price forecasts to compare renewable to natural gas-fired generation

    SciTech Connect

    Bolinger, Mark; Wiser, Ryan; Golove, William

    2003-08-13

    Against the backdrop of increasingly volatile natural gas prices, renewable energy resources, which by their nature are immune to natural gas fuel price risk, provide a real economic benefit. Unlike many contracts for natural gas-fired generation, renewable generation is typically sold under fixed-price contracts. Assuming that electricity consumers value long-term price stability, a utility or other retail electricity supplier that is looking to expand its resource portfolio (or a policymaker interested in evaluating different resource options) should therefore compare the cost of fixed-price renewable generation to the hedged or guaranteed cost of new natural gas-fired generation, rather than to projected costs based on uncertain gas price forecasts. To do otherwise would be to compare apples to oranges: by their nature, renewable resources carry no natural gas fuel price risk, and if the market values that attribute, then the most appropriate comparison is to the hedged cost of natural gas-fired generation. Nonetheless, utilities and others often compare the costs of renewable to gas-fired generation using as their fuel price input long-term gas price forecasts that are inherently uncertain, rather than long-term natural gas forward prices that can actually be locked in. This practice raises the critical question of how these two price streams compare. If they are similar, then one might conclude that forecast-based modeling and planning exercises are in fact approximating an apples-to-apples comparison, and no further consideration is necessary. If, however, natural gas forward prices systematically differ from price forecasts, then the use of such forecasts in planning and modeling exercises will yield results that are biased in favor of either renewable (if forwards < forecasts) or natural gas-fired generation (if forwards > forecasts). In this report we compare the cost of hedging natural gas price risk through traditional gas-based hedging instruments (e

  3. Low-quality natural gas sulfur removal/recovery

    SciTech Connect

    K. Amo; R.W. Baker; V.D. Helm; T. Hofmann; K.A. Lokhandwala; I. Pinnau; M.B. Ringer; T.T. Su; L. Toy; J.G. Wijmans

    1998-01-29

    A significant fraction of U.S. natural gas reserves are subquality due to the presence of acid gases and nitrogen; 13% of existing reserves (19 trillion cubic feed) may be contaminated with hydrogen sulfide. For natural gas to be useful as fuel and feedstock, this hydrogen sulfide has to be removed to the pipeline specification of 4 ppm. The technology used to achieve these specifications has been amine, or similar chemical or physical solvent, absorption. Although mature and widely used in the gas industry, absorption processes are capital and energy-intensive and require constant supervision for proper operation. This makes these processes unsuitable for treating gas at low throughput, in remote locations, or with a high concentration of acid gases. The U.S. Department of Energy, recognizes that exploitation of smaller, more sub-quality resources will be necessary to meet demand as the large gas fields in the U.S. are depleted. In response to this need, Membrane Technology and Research, Inc. (MTR) has developed membranes and a membrane process for removing hydrogen sulfide from natural gas. During this project, high-performance polymeric thin-film composite membranes were brought from the research stage to field testing. The membranes have hydrogen sulfide/methane selectivities in the range 35 to 60, depending on the feed conditions, and have been scaled up to commercial-scale production. A large number of spiral-wound modules were manufactured, tested and optimized during this project, which culminated in a field test at a Shell facility in East Texas. The short field test showed that membrane module performance on an actual natural gas stream was close to that observed in the laboratory tests with cleaner streams. An extensive technical and economic analysis was performed to determine the best applications for the membrane process. Two areas were identified: the low-flow-rate, high-hydrogen-sulfide-content region and the high-flow-rate, high

  4. Natural gas productive capacity for the lower 48 states 1984 through 1996, February 1996

    SciTech Connect

    1996-02-09

    This is the fourth wellhead productive capacity report. The three previous ones were published in 1991, 1993, and 1994. This report should be of particular interest to those in Congress, Federal and State agencies, industry, and the academic community, who are concerned with the future availability of natural gas. The EIA Dallas Field Office has prepared five earlier reports regarding natural gas productive capacity. These reports, Gas Deliverability and Flow Capacity of Surveillance Fields, reported deliverability and capacity data for selected gas fields in major gas producing areas. The data in the reports were based on gas-well back-pressure tests and estimates of gas-in-place for each field or reservoir. These reports use proven well testing theory, most of which has been employed by industry since 1936 when the Bureau of Mines first published Monograph 7. Demand for natural gas in the United States is met by a combination of natural gas production, underground gas storage, imported gas, and supplemental gaseous fuels. Natural gas production requirements in the lower 48 States have been increasing during the last few years while drilling has remained at low levels. This has raised some concern about the adequacy of future gas supplies, especially in periods of peak heating or cooling demand. The purpose of this report is to address these concerns by presenting a 3-year projection of the total productive capacity of natural gas at the wellhead for the lower 48 States. Alaska is excluded because Alaskan gas does not enter the lower-48 States pipeline system. The Energy Information Administration (EIA) generates this 3-year projection based on historical gas-well drilling and production data from State, Federal, and private sources. In addition to conventional gas-well gas, coalbed gas and oil-well gas are also included.

  5. Natural-gas supply-and-demand problems

    SciTech Connect

    Hatamian, H.

    1998-01-01

    World natural-gas consumption quadrupled in the 30 years from 1966 to 1996, and natural gas now provides 22% of the total world energy demand. The security of natural-gas supply is paramount and rests with the suppliers and the consumers. This paper gives an overview of world natural-gas supply and demand and examines the main supply problems. The most important nonpredictable variables in natural-gas supply are worldwide gas price and political stability, particularly in regions with high reserves. Other important considerations are the cost of development/processing and the transport of natural gas to market, which can be difficult to maintain if pipelines pass through areas of political instability. Another problem is that many countries lack the infrastructure and capital for effective development of their natural-gas industry. Unlike oil, the cost of transportation of natural gas is very high, and, surprisingly, only approximately 16% of the total world production currently is traded internationally.

  6. Economic and Environmental Assessment of Natural Gas ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The CO2 intensity of electricity produced by state-of-the-art natural gas combined-cycle turbines (NGCC) isapproximately one-third that of the U.S. fleet of existing coal plants. Compared to new nuclear plants and coal plantswith integrated carbon capture, NGCC has a lower investment cost, shorter construction time, and new plants canmore easily be sited. NGCC can also be fitted with carbon capture equipment either during construction or as aretrofit. As a result, NGCC is seen as a potential bridge to a low-CO2 future, which would increasingly rely ontechnologies such as wind, solar, advanced nuclear, and carbon capture as those technologies mature [Cole et al.(2016), Nichols and Victor (2015), and C2ES (2013)]. A logical approach may be to displace coal with new NGCCin the near-term, building NGCC near geological storage sites. Later the NGCC could be retrofit with CO2 capture(NGCC-CCS) when the regulatory or economic drivers are in place [IEA (2007)]. There are, however, technicalchallenges to widespread deployment of NGCC-CCS. First, fugitive methane emissions associated with natural gasproduction, transmission, and distribution processes could offset some of the climate benefits of using natural gas[McJeon et al. (2014)]. Second, applying carbon capture retrofit technologies to NGCC results in cost and energypenalties [Teir et al. (2010)], both of which affect its competitiveness. Third, the lower carbon content of natural gasmay yield difficulties in captur

  7. Stakeholder Workshop Presentations: EPA Greenhouse Gas Data on Petroleum and Natural Gas Systems

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    View the summary and presentations from the November 2015 stakeholder workshop on greenhouse gas data on petroleum and natural gas systems from the Greenhouse Gas Reporting Program and U.S. Greenhouse Gas Inventory of Emissions and Sinks.

  8. Ozone impacts of natural gas development in the Haynesville Shale.

    PubMed

    Kemball-Cook, Susan; Bar-Ilan, Amnon; Grant, John; Parker, Lynsey; Jung, Jaegun; Santamaria, Wilson; Mathews, Jim; Yarwood, Greg

    2010-12-15

    The Haynesville Shale is a subsurface rock formation located beneath the Northeast Texas/Northwest Louisiana border near Shreveport. This formation is estimated to contain very large recoverable reserves of natural gas, and during the two years since the drilling of the first highly productive wells in 2008, has been the focus of intensive leasing and exploration activity. The development of natural gas resources within the Haynesville Shale is likely to be economically important but may also generate significant emissions of ozone precursors. Using well production data from state regulatory agencies and a review of the available literature, projections of future year Haynesville Shale natural gas production were derived for 2009-2020 for three scenarios corresponding to limited, moderate, and aggressive development. These production estimates were then used to develop an emission inventory for each of the three scenarios. Photochemical modeling of the year 2012 showed increases in 2012 8-h ozone design values of up to 5 ppb within Northeast Texas and Northwest Louisiana resulting from development in the Haynesville Shale. Ozone increases due to Haynesville Shale emissions can affect regions outside Northeast Texas and Northwest Louisiana due to ozone transport. This study evaluates only near-term ozone impacts, but the emission inventory projections indicate that Haynesville emissions may be expected to increase through 2020.

  9. Gas exchange measurements in natural systems

    SciTech Connect

    Broecker, W.S.; Peng, T.H.

    1983-01-01

    Direct knowledge of the rates of gas exchange in lakes and the ocean is based almost entirely on measurements of the isotopes /sup 14/C, /sup 222/Rn and /sup 3/He. The distribution of natural radiocarbon has yielded the average rate of CO/sub 2/ exchange for the ocean and for several closed basin lakes. That of bomb produced radiocarbon has been used in the same systems. The /sup 222/Rn to /sup 226/Ra ratio in open ocean surface water has been used to give local short term gas exchange rates. The radon method generally cannot be used in lakes, rivers, estuaries or shelf areas because of the input of radon from sediments. A few attempts have been made to use the excess /sup 3/He produced by decay of bomb produced tritium in lakes to give gas transfer rates. The uncertainty in the molecular diffusivity of helium and in the diffusivity dependence of the rate of gas transfer holds back the application of this method. A few attempts have been made to enrich the surface waters of small lakes with /sup 226/Ra and /sup 3/H in order to allow the use of the /sup 222/Rn and /sup 3/He methods. While these studies give broadly concordant results, many questions remain unanswered. The wind velocity dependence of gas exchange rate has yet to be established in field studies. The dependence of gas exchange rate on molecular diffusivity also remains in limbo. Finally, the degree of enhancement of CO/sub 2/ exchange through chemical reactions has been only partially explored. 49 references, 2 figures, 2 tables.

  10. Flex fuel polygeneration: Integrating renewable natural gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kieffer, Matthew

    Flex Fuel Polygeneration (FFPG) is the use of multiple primary energy sources for the production of multiple energy carriers to achieve increased market opportunities. FFPG allows for adjustments in energy supply to meet market fluctuations and increase resiliency to contingencies such as weather disruptions, technological changes, and variations in supply of energy resources. In this study a FFPG plant is examined that uses a combination of the primary energy sources natural gas and renewable natural gas (RNG) derived from MSW and livestock manure and converts them into energy carriers of electricity and fuels through anaerobic digestion (AD), Fischer-Tropsch synthesis (FTS), and gas turbine cycles. Previous techno-economic analyses of conventional energy production plants are combined to obtain equipment and operating costs, and then the 20-year NPVs of the FFPG plant designs are evaluated by static and stochastic simulations. The effects of changing operating parameters are investigated, as well as the number of anaerobic digestion plants on the 20-year NPV of the FTS and FFPG systems.

  11. Naturally fractured tight gas - gas reservoir detection optimization. Quarterly report, June 1, 1996--September 30, 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Maxwell, J.M.; Ortoleva, P.; Payne, D.; Sibo, W.

    1996-11-15

    This document contains the status report for the Naturally Fractured Tight Gas-Gas Reservoir Detection Optimization project for the contract period 9/30/93 to 3/31/97. Data from seismic surveys are analyzed for structural imaging of reflector units. The data were stacked using the new, improved statics and normal moveout velocities. The 3-D basin modeling effort is continuing with code development. The main activities of this quarter were analysis of fluid pressure data, improved sedimentary history, lithologic unit geometry reconstruction algorithm and computer module, and further improvement, verification, and debugging of the basin stress and multi-phase reaction transport module.

  12. Thermodynamic design of natural gas liquefaction cycles for offshore application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Ho-Myung; Lim, Hye Su; Choe, Kun Hyung

    2014-09-01

    A thermodynamic study is carried out for natural gas liquefaction cycles applicable to offshore floating plants, as partial efforts of an ongoing governmental project in Korea. For offshore liquefaction, the most suitable cycle may be different from the on-land LNG processes under operation, because compactness and simple operation are important as well as thermodynamic efficiency. As a turbine-based cycle, closed Claude cycle is proposed to use NG (natural gas) itself as refrigerant. The optimal condition for NG Claude cycle is determined with a process simulator (Aspen HYSYS), and the results are compared with fully-developed C3-MR (propane pre-cooled mixed refrigerant) JT cycles and various N2 (nitrogen) Brayton cycles in terms of efficiency and compactness. The newly proposed NG Claude cycle could be a good candidate for offshore LNG processes.

  13. Competition in the Natural Gas Pipeline Industry: An economic analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Gallick, E.C.

    1993-12-31

    The essence of this book is that transportation monopoly power in the natural gas pipeline industry of the United States may be questionable. The author implicity built on the notion of contestable markets, that market power arises more from barriers to entry and exit that economies of scale. To reach these conclusions, the author constructed analyses of the short, medium, and long term potential entry condition for metropolitan statistical areas (MSAs). The author`s analysis show that 123 of 208 relevant MSA were noncompetitive at the present time. In the medium term, the picture changes dramatically as new pipeline projects become feasible and expiring gas contracts begin to entice competitors. Finally, in the long run nearly all potential pipeline entrants, and thus natural gas suppliers, have an impact on markets and the only constraint is the number of bidders. The natural gas industry in the U.S. has been through momentous change, but all indications are that, on the whole, all consumers are likely to benefit from the policy reform and industry restructuring. The goal of deregulation is to encourage competition wherever possible and to efficiently and effectively regulate wherever competition does not exist or may not be feasible.

  14. LED-based NDIR natural gas analyzer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fanchenko, Sergey; Baranov, Alexander; Savkin, Alexey; Sleptsov, Vladimir

    2016-03-01

    A new generation of the light-emitting diodes (LEDs) and photodiodes (PDs) was used recently to develop an open path non-dispersive infrared (NDIR) methane analyzer. The first open path detector prototype was constructed using LEDs for measurement and reference channels, accordingly, and first measurements for methane gas have been performed using optical paths of the order of several meters [3]. The natural gas consists of several first alkanes, mainly methane, and it is important to have a possibility of measuring all of them. In the present work we report the results of NDIR measurements for propane-butane mixture and new measurements of methane using LEDs for measurement and reference channels at 2300 and 1700 nm wavelengths, accordingly. The necessity of the double beam scheme is demonstrated and obtained results for methane and propane-butane mixture are compared.

  15. Role of natural gas in meeting an electric sector emissions ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    With advances in natural gas extraction technologies, there is an increase in availability of domestic natural gas, and natural gas is gaining a larger share of use as a fuel in electricity production. At the power plant, natural gas is a cleaner burning fuel than coal, but uncertainties exist in the amount of methane leakage occurring upstream in the extraction and production of natural gas. At high leakage levels, these methane emissions could outweigh the benefits of switching from coal to natural gas. This analysis uses the MARKAL linear optimization model to compare the carbon emissions profiles and system-wide global warming potential of the U.S. energy system over a series of model runs in which the power sector is asked to meet a specific CO2 reduction target and the availability of natural gas changes. Scenarios are run with a range of upstream methane emission leakage rates from natural gas production. While the total CO2 emissions are reduced in most scenarios, total greenhouse gas emissions show an increase or no change when both natural gas availability and methane emissions from natural gas production are high. Article presents summary of results from an analyses of natural gas resource availability and power sector emissions reduction strategies under different estimates of methane leakage rates during natural gas extraction and production. This was study was undertaken as part of the Energy Modeling Forum Study #31:

  16. Environmental data energy technology characterizations: natural gas

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-04-01

    Environmental Data Energy Technology Characterizations are publications which are intended to provide policy analysts and technical analysts with basic environmental data associated with key energy technologies. This publication provides backup documentation on natural gas. The transformation of the energy in gas into a more useful form is described in this document in terms of major activity areas in the gas cycle; that is, in terms of activities which produce either an energy product or a fuel leading to the production of an energy product in a different form. The activities discussed in this document are exploration, extraction, purification, power-plants, storage and transportation of natural gas. These activities represent both well-documented and non-documented activity areas. The former activities are characterized in terms of actual operating data with allowance for future modification where appropriate. Emissions are assumed to conform to environmental standards. The other activity areas examined are those like exploration and extraction, where reliance on engineering studies provided the data. The organization of the chapters in this volume is designed to support the tabular presentation in the summary. Each chapter begins with a brief description of the activity under consideration. The standard characteristics, size, availability, mode of functioning, and place in the fuel cycle are presented. Next, major legislative and/or technological factors influencing the commercial operation of the activity are offered. Discussions of resources consumed, residuals produced, and economics follow. To aid in comparing and linking the different activity areas, data for each area are normalized to 10/sup 12/ Btu of energy output from the activity.

  17. Controlling Air Pollution from the Oil and Natural Gas Industry

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA regulations for the oil and natural gas industry help combat climate change and reduce air pollution that harms public health. EPA’s regulations apply to oil production, and the production, process, transmission and storage of natural gas.

  18. Global Liquefied Natural Gas Market: Status and Outlook, The

    EIA Publications

    2003-01-01

    The Global Liquefied Natural Gas Market: Status & Outlook was undertaken to characterize the global liquefied natural gas (LNG) market and to examine recent trends and future prospects in the LNG market.

  19. The Valles natural analogue project

    SciTech Connect

    Stockman, H.; Krumhansl, J.; Ho, C.; McConnell, V.

    1994-12-01

    The contact between an obsidian flow and a steep-walled tuff canyon was examined as an analogue for a highlevel waste repository. The analogue site is located in the Valles Caldera in New Mexico, where a massive obsidian flow filled a paleocanyon in the Battleship Rock tuff. The obsidian flow provided a heat source, analogous to waste panels or an igneous intrusion in a repository, and caused evaporation and migration of water. The tuff and obsidian samples were analyzed for major and trace elements and mineralogy by INAA, XRF, X-ray diffraction; and scanning electron microscopy and electron microprobe. Samples were also analyzed for D/H and {sup 39}Ar/{sup 4O} isotopic composition. Overall,the effects of the heating event seem to have been slight and limited to the tuff nearest the contact. There is some evidence of devitrification and migration of volatiles in the tuff within 10 meters of the contact, but variations in major and trace element chemistry are small and difficult to distinguish from the natural (pre-heating) variability of the rocks.

  20. 18 CFR 2.78 - Utilization and conservation of natural resources-natural gas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... conservation of natural resources-natural gas. 2.78 Section 2.78 Conservation of Power and Water Resources... INTERPRETATIONS Statements of General Policy and Interpretations Under the Natural Gas Act § 2.78 Utilization and conservation of natural resources—natural gas. (a)(1) The national interests in the development and utilization...

  1. 18 CFR 2.78 - Utilization and conservation of natural resources-natural gas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... conservation of natural resources-natural gas. 2.78 Section 2.78 Conservation of Power and Water Resources... INTERPRETATIONS Statements of General Policy and Interpretations Under the Natural Gas Act § 2.78 Utilization and conservation of natural resources—natural gas. (a)(1) The national interests in the development and utilization...

  2. 18 CFR 2.78 - Utilization and conservation of natural resources-natural gas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... conservation of natural resources-natural gas. 2.78 Section 2.78 Conservation of Power and Water Resources... INTERPRETATIONS Statements of General Policy and Interpretations Under the Natural Gas Act § 2.78 Utilization and conservation of natural resources—natural gas. (a)(1) The national interests in the development and utilization...

  3. 18 CFR 2.78 - Utilization and conservation of natural resources-natural gas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... conservation of natural resources-natural gas. 2.78 Section 2.78 Conservation of Power and Water Resources... INTERPRETATIONS Statements of General Policy and Interpretations Under the Natural Gas Act § 2.78 Utilization and conservation of natural resources—natural gas. (a)(1) The national interests in the development and utilization...

  4. 18 CFR 2.78 - Utilization and conservation of natural resources-natural gas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... conservation of natural resources-natural gas. 2.78 Section 2.78 Conservation of Power and Water Resources... INTERPRETATIONS Statements of General Policy and Interpretations Under the Natural Gas Act § 2.78 Utilization and conservation of natural resources—natural gas. (a)(1) The national interests in the development and utilization...

  5. Natural gas storage - end user interaction. Task 2. Topical report

    SciTech Connect

    1996-01-01

    New opportunities have been created for underground gas storage as a result of recent regulatory developments in the energy industry. The Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) Order 636 directly changed the economics of gas storage nationwide. This paper discusses the storage of natural gas, storage facilities, and factors affecting the current, and future situation for natural gas storage.

  6. Environmental effects of submarine seeping natural gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dando, P. R.; Hovland, M.

    1992-10-01

    It is suspected that most shallow reservoirs of natural gas vent to the surface to some degree. This seeping may be through diffusion of dissolved gas or by a flow of gas bubbles which entrain interstitial water during the rise through the sediments to the surface. Methane bubbles dissolved other gases, notably hydrogen sulphide and carbon dioxide, during their ascent. Under suitable temperature-pressure conditions gas hydrates may be formed close to or at the seabed Black suphide-rich sediments and mats of sulphur oxidizing bacteria are frequently observed close to the sediments surface at seep sites, including a sharp oxic/anoxic boundary. Animal species associated with these gas seeps include both species which obtain nutrition from symbiotic methane-oxidizing bacteria and species with symbolic sulphur-oxidizing bacteria. It is suspected that at some microseepage an enhanced biomass of meiofauna and macrofauna is supported by a food chain based on free-living and symbiotic sulphur-oxidizing and methane-oxidizing bacteria. The most common seep-related features of sea floor topography are local depressions including pockmark craters. Winnowing of the sediment during their creation leads to an accumulation of larger detritis in the depressions. Where the deprssions overlies salt diapirs they may be filled with hypersaline solutions. In some areas dome-shaped features are associated with seepage and these may be colonized by coral reefs. Other reefs, "hard-grounds", columnar and disc-shaped protrusions, all formed of carbonate-cemented sediments, are common on the sea floor in seep areas. Much of the carbonate appears to be derived from carbon dioxide formed as a result of methane oxidation. The resulting hard-bottoms on the sea floor are often colonized by species not found on the neighboring soft-bottoms. As a result seep areas may be characterized by the presence of a rich epifauna.

  7. Advanced Gas Turbine Powertrain System Development Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Helms, H. E.

    1980-01-01

    A progress report on the Advanced Gas Turbine Powertrain System Development Project being performed under contract from NASA Lewis is presented. The goals and objectives of the project are described noting that funds from the DOE, Office of Transportation Programs are used to sponsor the project. Among the demonstration objectives are attaining a fuel economy of 42.5 miles per gallon in a 1985 Pontiac Phoenix, multifuel capability, and emission levels within the federal standards. Design objectives examined include competitive reliability and life as well as competitive initial and life cycle costs. Finally, it is stressed that high risk and key elements in this advanced powertrain project are the development of ceramic turbine engine components and the aerodynamic development of small size turbine components.

  8. Risk management of liquefied natural gas installations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fedor, O. H.; Parsons, W. N.; Coutinho, J. De C.

    1976-01-01

    In connection with the construction of four major liquefied natural gas (LNG) facilities in New York City, the New York City Fire Commissioner has asked NASA for assistance. It was decided that the Kennedy Space Center should develop a risk management system (RMS) for the use of the New York Fire Department (NYFD). The RMS provides for a published set of safety regulations by the NYFD. A description of the RMS is presented as an example of an application of aerospace technology to a civilian sector, namely LNG facilities.

  9. Fuel tank for liquefied natural gas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DeLay, Thomas K. (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    A storage tank is provided for storing liquefied natural gas on, for example, a motor vehicle such as a bus or truck. The storage tank includes a metal liner vessel encapsulated by a resin-fiber composite layer. A foam insulating layer, including an outer protective layer of epoxy or of a truck liner material, covers the composite layer. A non-conducting protective coating may be painted on the vessel between the composite layer and the vessel so as to inhibit galvanic corrosion.

  10. Lightweight Tanks for Storing Liquefied Natural Gas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DeLay, Tom

    2008-01-01

    Single-walled, jacketed aluminum tanks have been conceived for storing liquefied natural gas (LNG) in LNG-fueled motor vehicles. Heretofore, doublewall steel tanks with vacuum between the inner and outer walls have been used for storing LNG. In comparison with the vacuum- insulated steel tanks, the jacketed aluminum tanks weigh less and can be manufactured at lower cost. Costs of using the jacketed aluminum tanks are further reduced in that there is no need for the vacuum pumps heretofore needed to maintain vacuum in the vacuum-insulated tanks.

  11. Natural gas and oil technology partnership support

    SciTech Connect

    Schmidt, T.W.

    1996-06-01

    The Natural Gas and Oil Technology Partnership expedites development and transfer of advanced technologies through technical interactions and collaborations between the national laboratories and the petroleum industry - majors, independents, service companies, and universities. The Partnership combines the expertise, equipment, facilities, and technologies of the Department of Energy`s national laboratories with those of the US petroleum industry. The laboratories utilize unique capabilities developed through energy and defense R&D including electronics, instrumentation, materials, computer hardware and software, engineering, systems analysis, physics, and expert systems. Industry contributes specialized knowledge and resources and prioritizes Partnership activities.

  12. Risk management of liquefied natural gas installations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fedor, O. H.; Parsons, W. N.; Coutinho, J. De C.

    1976-01-01

    In connection with the construction of four major liquefied natural gas (LNG) facilities in New York City, the New York City Fire Commissioner has asked NASA for assistance. It was decided that the Kennedy Space Center should develop a risk management system (RMS) for the use of the New York Fire Department (NYFD). The RMS provides for a published set of safety regulations by the NYFD. A description of the RMS is presented as an example of an application of aerospace technology to a civilian sector, namely LNG facilities.

  13. Synfuels from natural gas: The ethermix process

    SciTech Connect

    Antonelli, G.B.; Micheli, E.; Miracca, I.

    1996-12-31

    Ethermix is a technology under development for the transformation of the dry fraction of natural gas into ethers, mainly MTBE. The process is performed in a series of steps that include the reforming of methane to a mixture of hydrogen and carbon monoxide, the combined synthesis of methanol and branched higher alcohols, mainly isobutanol, the dehydration of higher alcohols to the corresponding olefins, and the etherification of said olefins with methanol to form a mixture of ethers. The state-of-art on the subject is reported, including evaluation of the blending properties of the product and a preliminary economical analysis. 4 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  14. Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) dispenser verification device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiong, Maotao; Yang, Jie-bin; Zhao, Pu-jun; Yu, Bo; Deng, Wan-quan

    2013-01-01

    The composition of working principle and calibration status of LNG (Liquefied Natural Gas) dispenser in China are introduced. According to the defect of weighing method in the calibration of LNG dispenser, LNG dispenser verification device has been researched. The verification device bases on the master meter method to verify LNG dispenser in the field. The experimental results of the device indicate it has steady performance, high accuracy level and flexible construction, and it reaches the international advanced level. Then LNG dispenser verification device will promote the development of LNG dispenser industry in China and to improve the technical level of LNG dispenser manufacture.

  15. The 1991 natural gas vehicle challenge: Developing dedicated natural gas vehicle technology

    SciTech Connect

    Larsen, R.; Rimkus, W. ); Davies, J. ); Zammit, M. ); Patterson, P. )

    1992-01-01

    An engineering research and design competition to develop and demonstrate dedicated natural gas-powered light-duty trucks, the Natural Gas Vehicle (NGV) Challenge, was held June 6--11, 1191, in Oklahoma. Sponsored by the US Department of Energy (DOE), Energy, Mines, and Resources -- Canada (EMR), the Society of Automative Engineers (SAE), and General Motors Corporation (GM), the competition consisted of rigorous vehicle testing of exhaust emissions, fuel economy, performance parameters, and vehicle design. Using Sierra 2500 pickup trucks donated by GM, 24 teams of college and university engineers from the US and Canada participated in the event. A gasoline-powered control testing as a reference vehicle. This paper discusses the results of the event, summarizes the technologies employed, and makes observations on the state of natural gas vehicle technology.

  16. The 1991 natural gas vehicle challenge: Developing dedicated natural gas vehicle technology

    SciTech Connect

    Larsen, R.; Rimkus, W.; Davies, J.; Zammit, M.; Patterson, P.

    1992-02-01

    An engineering research and design competition to develop and demonstrate dedicated natural gas-powered light-duty trucks, the Natural Gas Vehicle (NGV) Challenge, was held June 6--11, 1191, in Oklahoma. Sponsored by the US Department of Energy (DOE), Energy, Mines, and Resources -- Canada (EMR), the Society of Automative Engineers (SAE), and General Motors Corporation (GM), the competition consisted of rigorous vehicle testing of exhaust emissions, fuel economy, performance parameters, and vehicle design. Using Sierra 2500 pickup trucks donated by GM, 24 teams of college and university engineers from the US and Canada participated in the event. A gasoline-powered control testing as a reference vehicle. This paper discusses the results of the event, summarizes the technologies employed, and makes observations on the state of natural gas vehicle technology.

  17. 49 CFR 393.68 - Compressed natural gas fuel containers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Compressed natural gas fuel containers. 393.68... AND ACCESSORIES NECESSARY FOR SAFE OPERATION Fuel Systems § 393.68 Compressed natural gas fuel containers. (a) Applicability. The rules in this section apply to compressed natural gas (CNG) fuel...

  18. 10 CFR 221.11 - Natural gas and ethane.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Natural gas and ethane. 221.11 Section 221.11 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY OIL PRIORITY SUPPLY OF CRUDE OIL AND PETROLEUM PRODUCTS TO THE DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE UNDER THE DEFENSE PRODUCTION ACT Exclusions § 221.11 Natural gas and ethane. The supply of natural gas...

  19. 26 CFR 48.4041-21 - Compressed natural gas (CNG).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 16 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Compressed natural gas (CNG). 48.4041-21... natural gas (CNG). (a) Delivery of CNG into the fuel supply tank of a motor vehicle or motorboat—(1) Imposition of tax. Tax is imposed on the delivery of compressed natural gas (CNG) into the fuel supply tank...

  20. 26 CFR 48.4041-21 - Compressed natural gas (CNG).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 16 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Compressed natural gas (CNG). 48.4041-21... natural gas (CNG). (a) Delivery of CNG into the fuel supply tank of a motor vehicle or motorboat—(1) Imposition of tax. Tax is imposed on the delivery of compressed natural gas (CNG) into the fuel supply tank...

  1. 10 CFR 221.11 - Natural gas and ethane.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Natural gas and ethane. 221.11 Section 221.11 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY OIL PRIORITY SUPPLY OF CRUDE OIL AND PETROLEUM PRODUCTS TO THE DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE UNDER THE DEFENSE PRODUCTION ACT Exclusions § 221.11 Natural gas and ethane. The supply of natural gas...

  2. 49 CFR 393.68 - Compressed natural gas fuel containers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Compressed natural gas fuel containers. 393.68... AND ACCESSORIES NECESSARY FOR SAFE OPERATION Fuel Systems § 393.68 Compressed natural gas fuel containers. (a) Applicability. The rules in this section apply to compressed natural gas (CNG) fuel...

  3. 49 CFR 393.68 - Compressed natural gas fuel containers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Compressed natural gas fuel containers. 393.68... AND ACCESSORIES NECESSARY FOR SAFE OPERATION Fuel Systems § 393.68 Compressed natural gas fuel containers. (a) Applicability. The rules in this section apply to compressed natural gas (CNG) fuel...

  4. 10 CFR 221.11 - Natural gas and ethane.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Natural gas and ethane. 221.11 Section 221.11 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY OIL PRIORITY SUPPLY OF CRUDE OIL AND PETROLEUM PRODUCTS TO THE DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE UNDER THE DEFENSE PRODUCTION ACT Exclusions § 221.11 Natural gas and ethane. The supply of natural gas...

  5. 75 FR 35779 - Northern Natural Gas Company; Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-23

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Northern Natural Gas Company; Notice of Application June 16, 2010. Take notice that on June 2, 2010, Northern Natural Gas Company (Northern), 1111 South 103rd Street, Omaha... Natural Gas Act, for a certificate of public convenience and necessity authorizing the increase in...

  6. 78 FR 51716 - Northern Natural Gas Company; Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-21

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Northern Natural Gas Company; Notice of Application Take notice that on August 1, 2013, Northern Natural Gas Company (Northern), 1111 South 103rd Street, Omaha, Nebraska 68124, filed an application pursuant to section 7(c) of the Natural Gas Act and part 157 of the Commission's...

  7. 77 FR 35958 - Northern Natural Gas Company; Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-15

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Northern Natural Gas Company; Notice of Application Take notice that on May 30, 2012, Northern Natural Gas Company (Northern), 1111 South 103rd Street, Omaha, Nebraska 68124... regulations and section 7(b) of the Natural Gas Act, to abandon by sale to DKM Enterprises, LLC (DKM) certain...

  8. 49 CFR 393.68 - Compressed natural gas fuel containers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Compressed natural gas fuel containers. 393.68... AND ACCESSORIES NECESSARY FOR SAFE OPERATION Fuel Systems § 393.68 Compressed natural gas fuel containers. (a) Applicability. The rules in this section apply to compressed natural gas (CNG) fuel...

  9. 76 FR 18213 - Corning Natural Gas Corporation; Notice of Filing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-01

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Corning Natural Gas Corporation; Notice of Filing Take notice that on March 23, 2011, Corning Natural Gas Corporation submitted a revised baseline filing of their Statement of Operating Conditions for services provided under section 311 of the Natural Gas Policy Act of 1978 (NGPA...

  10. 75 FR 66046 - Capacity Transfers on Intrastate Natural Gas Pipelines

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-27

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission 18 CFR Part 284 Capacity Transfers on Intrastate Natural Gas Pipelines... capacity on intrastate natural gas pipelines providing interstate transportation and storage services under section 311 of the Natural Gas Policy Act of 1978 and Hinshaw pipelines providing such services pursuant...

  11. 10 CFR 221.11 - Natural gas and ethane.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Natural gas and ethane. 221.11 Section 221.11 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY OIL PRIORITY SUPPLY OF CRUDE OIL AND PETROLEUM PRODUCTS TO THE DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE UNDER THE DEFENSE PRODUCTION ACT Exclusions § 221.11 Natural gas and ethane. The supply of natural gas...

  12. 75 FR 2130 - Southern Natural Gas Company; Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-14

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Southern Natural Gas Company; Notice of Application January 6, 2010. Take notice that on December 29, 2009, Southern Natural Gas Company (Southern), 569 Brookwood Village, Suite... section 7(b) of the Natural Gas Act (NGA) and Part 157 of the Commission's regulations, for an order...

  13. 10 CFR 221.11 - Natural gas and ethane.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Natural gas and ethane. 221.11 Section 221.11 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY OIL PRIORITY SUPPLY OF CRUDE OIL AND PETROLEUM PRODUCTS TO THE DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE UNDER THE DEFENSE PRODUCTION ACT Exclusions § 221.11 Natural gas and ethane. The supply of natural gas...

  14. 26 CFR 48.4041-21 - Compressed natural gas (CNG).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 16 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Compressed natural gas (CNG). 48.4041-21... natural gas (CNG). (a) Delivery of CNG into the fuel supply tank of a motor vehicle or motorboat—(1) Imposition of tax. Tax is imposed on the delivery of compressed natural gas (CNG) into the fuel supply tank...

  15. 75 FR 48321 - Corning Natural Gas Corporation; Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-10

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Corning Natural Gas Corporation; Notice of Application August 4, 2010. Take notice that on July 26, 2010, Corning Natural Gas Corporation (Corning), 330 W. William Street, Corning... Natural Gas Act (NGA) requesting the determination of a service area with which Corning may, without...

  16. 76 FR 12721 - Northern Natural Gas Company; Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-08

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Northern Natural Gas Company; Notice of Application Take notice that on February 18, 2011, Northern Natural Gas Company (Northern), 1111 South 103 Street, Omaha, Nebraska 68124-1000, filed in Docket No. CP11-98-000, an application pursuant to section 7(b) of the Natural Gas Act...

  17. 49 CFR 393.68 - Compressed natural gas fuel containers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Compressed natural gas fuel containers. 393.68... AND ACCESSORIES NECESSARY FOR SAFE OPERATION Fuel Systems § 393.68 Compressed natural gas fuel containers. (a) Applicability. The rules in this section apply to compressed natural gas (CNG) fuel...

  18. 75 FR 67352 - Liberty Natural Gas, LLC; Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-02

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Liberty Natural Gas, LLC; Notice of Application October 26, 2010. On October 14, 2010, Liberty Natural Gas, LLC (Liberty) filed with the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (Commission) an application under section 7 of the Natural Gas Act and section 157 of the Commission's...

  19. 78 FR 8501 - Northern Natural Gas Company; Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-06

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Northern Natural Gas Company; Notice of Application Take notice that on January 18, 2013, Northern Natural Gas Company (Northern), 1111 South 103rd Street, Omaha, Nebraska 68124, filed in Docket No. CP13-53-000, an application pursuant to section 7(c) of the Natural Gas Act (NGA...

  20. 26 CFR 48.4041-21 - Compressed natural gas (CNG).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 16 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Compressed natural gas (CNG). 48.4041-21 Section... natural gas (CNG). (a) Delivery of CNG into the fuel supply tank of a motor vehicle or motorboat—(1) Imposition of tax. Tax is imposed on the delivery of compressed natural gas (CNG) into the fuel supply tank...

  1. Natural Gas Market Centers and Hubs: A 2003 Update

    EIA Publications

    2003-01-01

    This special report looks at the current status of market centers/hubs in today's natural gas marketplace, examining their role and their importance to natural gas shippers, marketers, pipelines, and others involved in the transportation of natural gas over the North American pipeline network.

  2. Natural and artificial nobel gas hydrologic tracers

    SciTech Connect

    Hudson, G.B.

    1994-06-01

    Noble gas isotopes provide opportunities for ground water tracing. Both naturally occurring tracers and artificially injected tracers can be used. The equilibration of water with the earth`s atmosphere records the temperature and atmospheric pressure during ground water recharge. This temperature/pressure record can be used to distinguish cold recharge from warmer recharge with a resolution of 1-2 C temperature and 500m in altitude. The radioactive decay of U and Th produce large concentrations of 4He in old ground water and this 4He signature can be useful in tracing the small addition of old water (>10,000 yr.) to young water (<100 yr.). The decay of 3H present either form nuclear testing or cosmic ray interactions leads to detectable amounts of 3He in young ground water (<50 yr.). By measuring both 3H and 3He, the mean age of the 3H in the water can be calculated. In addition to these natural tracers, isotopically enriched noble gas isotopes are readily available at low cost and can be used an non-hazardous water tracers. This inert, persistent, and harmless tracing technique can used in many situations at a cost of about one dollar per million gallons of water traced.

  3. Competitive position of natural gas: Industrial baking

    SciTech Connect

    Minsker, B.S.; Salama, S.Y.

    1988-01-01

    Industrial baking is one of the largest natural gas consumers in the food industry. In 1985, bread, rolls, cookies, and crackers accounted for over 82 percent of all baked goods production. Bread accounting for 46 percent of all production. The baking industry consumed approximately 16 trillion Btu in 1985. About 93 percent was natural gas, while distillate fuel oil accounted for seven percent, and electricity accounted for much less than one percent. The three main types of baking ovens are the single lap, tunnel, and Lanham ovens. In the single lap oven, trays carry the product back and forth through the baking chamber once. The single lap oven is the most common type of oven and is popular due to its long horizontal runs, extensive steam zone, and simple construction. The tunnel oven is slightly more efficient and more expensive that the single lap oven. IN the tunnel oven, the hearth is a motorized conveyor which passes in a straight line through a series of heating zones, with loading and unloading occurring at opposite ends of the oven. The advantages of the tunnel oven include flexibility with respect to pan size and simple, accurate top and bottom heat control. The tunnel oven is used exclusively in the cookie and cracker baking, with the product being deposited directly on the oven band. The most recently developed type of oven is the Lanham oven. The Lanham oven is the most efficient type of oven, with a per pound energy consumption approaching the practical minimum for baking bread. Between one--half and two--thirds of all new industrial baking ovens are Lanham ovens. In the Lanham oven, the product enters the oven near the top of the chamber, spirals down through a series of heating zones, and exits near the bottom of the oven. The oven is gas--fired directly by ribbon burners. 31 refs.

  4. Natural gas production problems : solutions, methodologies, and modeling.

    SciTech Connect

    Rautman, Christopher Arthur; Herrin, James M.; Cooper, Scott Patrick; Basinski, Paul M.; Olsson, William Arthur; Arnold, Bill Walter; Broadhead, Ronald F.; Knight, Connie D.; Keefe, Russell G.; McKinney, Curt; Holm, Gus; Holland, John F.; Larson, Rich; Engler, Thomas W.; Lorenz, John Clay

    2004-10-01

    Natural gas is a clean fuel that will be the most important domestic energy resource for the first half the 21st centtuy. Ensuring a stable supply is essential for our national energy security. The research we have undertaken will maximize the extractable volume of gas while minimizing the environmental impact of surface disturbances associated with drilling and production. This report describes a methodology for comprehensive evaluation and modeling of the total gas system within a basin focusing on problematic horizontal fluid flow variability. This has been accomplished through extensive use of geophysical, core (rock sample) and outcrop data to interpret and predict directional flow and production trends. Side benefits include reduced environmental impact of drilling due to reduced number of required wells for resource extraction. These results have been accomplished through a cooperative and integrated systems approach involving industry, government, academia and a multi-organizational team within Sandia National Laboratories. Industry has provided essential in-kind support to this project in the forms of extensive core data, production data, maps, seismic data, production analyses, engineering studies, plus equipment and staff for obtaining geophysical data. This approach provides innovative ideas and technologies to bring new resources to market and to reduce the overall environmental impact of drilling. More importantly, the products of this research are not be location specific but can be extended to other areas of gas production throughout the Rocky Mountain area. Thus this project is designed to solve problems associated with natural gas production at developing sites, or at old sites under redevelopment.

  5. HYBRID SULFUR RECOVERY PROCESS FOR NATURAL GAS UPGRADING

    SciTech Connect

    Girish Srinivas; Steven C. Gebhard; David W. DeBerry

    2001-08-01

    This first quarter report of 2001 describes progress on a project funded by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to test a hybrid sulfur recovery process for natural gas upgrading. The process concept represents a low cost option for direct treatment of natural gas streams to remove H{sub 2}S in quantities equivalent to 0.2-25 metric tons (LT) of sulfur per day. This process is projected to have lower capital and operating costs than the competing technologies, amine/aqueous iron liquid redox and amine/Claus/tail gas treating, and have a smaller plant footprint, making it well suited to both on-shore and offshore applications. CrystaSulf (service mark of Gas Research Institute) is a new nonaqueous sulfur recovery process that removes hydrogen sulfide (H{sub 2}S) from gas streams and converts it into elemental sulfur. CrystaSulf features high sulfur recovery similar to aqueous-iron liquid redox sulfur recovery processes, but differs from the aqueous processes in that CrystaSulf controls the location where elemental sulfur particles are formed. In the hybrid process, approximately 1/3 of the total H{sub 2}S in the natural gas is first oxidized to SO{sub 2} at low temperatures over a heterogeneous catalyst. Low temperature oxidation is done so that the H{sub 2}S can be oxidized in the presence of methane and other hydrocarbons without oxidation of the hydrocarbons. The project involves the development of a catalyst using laboratory/bench-scale catalyst testing, and then demonstration of the catalyst at CrystaTech's pilot plant in west Texas. During this reporting period tests were done to determine the effect of hydrocarbons such as n-hexane on catalyst performance with and without H{sub 2}S present. The experiments showed that hexane oxidation is suppressed when H{sub 2}S is present. Hexane represents the most reactive of the C1 to C6 series of alkanes. Since hexane exhibits low reactivity under H{sub 2}S oxidation conditions, and more importantly, does not change the

  6. HYBRID SULFUR RECOVERY PROCESS FOR NATURAL GAS UPGRADING

    SciTech Connect

    Girish Srinivas; Steven C. Gebhard; David W. DeBerry

    2002-07-01

    This second quarter report of 2002 describes progress on a project funded by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to test a hybrid sulfur recovery process for natural gas upgrading. The process concept represents a low cost option for direct treatment of natural gas streams to remove H{sub 2}S in quantities equivalent to 0.2-25 metric tons (LT) of sulfur per day. This process is projected to have lower capital and operating costs than the competing technologies, amine/aqueous iron liquid redox and amine/Claus/tail gas treating, and have a smaller plant footprint, making it well suited to both on-shore and offshore applications. CrystaSulf (service mark of CrystaTech, Inc.) is a new nonaqueous sulfur recovery process that removes hydrogen sulfide (H{sub 2}S) from gas streams and converts it into elemental sulfur. CrystaSulf features high sulfur recovery similar to aqueous-iron liquid redox sulfur recovery processes, but differs from the aqueous processes in that CrystaSulf controls the location where elemental sulfur particles are formed. In the hybrid process, approximately 1/3 of the total H{sub 2}S in the natural gas is first oxidized to SO{sub 2} at low temperatures over a heterogeneous catalyst. Low temperature oxidation is done so that the H{sub 2}S can be oxidized in the presence of methane and other hydrocarbons without oxidation of the hydrocarbons. The project involves the development of a catalyst using laboratory/bench-scale catalyst testing, and then demonstration of the catalyst at CrystaTech's pilot plant in west Texas. Previous reports described development of a catalyst with the required selectivity and efficiency for producing sulfur dioxide from H{sub 2}S. In the laboratory, the catalyst was shown to be robust and stable in the presence of several intentionally added contaminants, including condensate from the pilot plant site. This report describes testing using the laboratory apparatus but operated at the pilot plant using the actual pilot plant

  7. Comparison of AEO 2010 Natural Gas Price Forecast to NYMEX Futures Prices

    SciTech Connect

    Bolinger, Mark A.; Wiser, Ryan H.

    2010-01-04

    On December 14, 2009, the reference-case projections from Annual Energy Outlook 2010 were posted on the Energy Information Administration's (EIA) web site. We at LBNL have, in the past, compared the EIA's reference-case long-term natural gas price forecasts from the AEO series to contemporaneous natural gas prices that can be locked in through the forward market, with the goal of better understanding fuel price risk and the role that renewables can play in itigating such risk. As such, we were curious to see how the latest AEO reference-case gas price forecast compares to the NYMEX natural gas futures strip. This brief memo presents our findings.

  8. Natural gas and electric power in nontechnical language

    SciTech Connect

    Chambers, A.

    1999-01-01

    There is a growing interdependence between the natural gas and electric power industries. This convergence is forming a whole new energy business. This new book by bestselling author Ann Chambers provides a basic introduction to both natural gas and electric power and explains their reliance on each other. The contents include: Natural gas: a history for the electric power industry; Exploration, drilling and production; Transportation and trading; Chemistry and Btu conversion; Electricity: a history for the natural gas industry; Deregulation and convergence; Power generation; Advantages of generating electric power with natural gas; Merchant power, distributed generation, cogeneration; and Glossary.

  9. Mathematical simulation of the process of condensing natural gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tastandieva, G. M.

    2015-01-01

    Presents a two-dimensional unsteady model of heat transfer in terms of condensation of natural gas at low temperatures. Performed calculations of the process heat and mass transfer of liquefied natural gas (LNG) storage tanks of cylindrical shape. The influence of model parameters on the nature of heat transfer. Defined temperature regimes eliminate evaporation by cooling liquefied natural gas. The obtained dependence of the mass flow rate of vapor condensation gas temperature. Identified the possibility of regulating the process of "cooling down" liquefied natural gas in terms of its partial evaporation with low cost energy.

  10. Mojave-Kern River-El Dorado natural gas pipeline projects, Final Environmental Impact Report/Statement. Volume 1. Mojave, El Dorado, El Paso, and Transwestern. Volume 2. Kern River. Volume 3. Comparisons and recommendations. Volume 4. Maps. Volume 5. Letters and comments. Report for April 1985-December 1987

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-12-01

    The Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) and the California State Lands Commission (SLC) have jointly prepared a final environmental impact statement (EIS) for projects proposed by Mojave Pipeline Company and Kern River Gas Transmission Company. These primary projects are competing to transport natural gas from sources outside California to the Bakersfield, California area for use in enhanced-oil-recovery projects. In each case, producers of crude oil in the San Joaquin Valley would use the natural gas as boiler fuel to create steam, which would then be injected into the oil fields to produce crude oil not recoverable by primary recovery methods. Some of the steam would be used to generate electricity. The FEIS was prepared under the direction of the FERC and SLC staffs to satisfy the requirements of the National Environmental Policy Act and the California Environmental Quality Act.

  11. Naturally fractured tight gas reservoir detection optimization. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1997-11-19

    This DOE-funded research into seismic detection of natural fractures is one of six projects within the DOE`s Detection and Analysis of Naturally Fractured Gas Reservoirs Program, a multidisciplinary research initiative to develop technology for prediction, detection, and mapping of naturally fractured gas reservoirs. The demonstration of successful seismic techniques to locate subsurface zones of high fracture density and to guide drilling orientation for enhanced fracture permeability will enable better returns on investments in the development of the vast gas reserves held in tight formations beneath the Rocky Mountains. The seismic techniques used in this project were designed to capture the azimuthal anisotropy within the seismic response. This seismic anisotropy is the result of the symmetry in the rock fabric created by aligned fractures and/or unequal horizontal stresses. These results may be compared and related to other lines of evidence to provide cross-validation. The authors undertook investigations along the following lines: Characterization of the seismic anisotropy in three-dimensional, P-wave seismic data; Characterization of the seismic anisotropy in a nine-component (P- and S-sources, three-component receivers) vertical seismic profile; Characterization of the seismic anisotropy in three-dimensional, P-to-S converted wave seismic data (P-wave source, three-component receivers); and Description of geological and reservoir-engineering data that corroborate the anisotropy: natural fractures observed at the target level and at the surface, estimation of the maximum horizontal stress in situ, and examination of the flow characteristics of the reservoir.

  12. 77 FR 17471 - PetroLogistics Natural Gas Storage Company, LLC; Notice of Availability of the Environmental...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-26

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission PetroLogistics Natural Gas Storage Company, LLC; Notice of Availability of... Choctaw Hub Expansion Project (Project) proposed by PetroLogistics Natural Gas Storage, LLC (PetroLogistics) in the above-referenced docket. PetroLogistics requests authorization to build and operate high...

  13. Natural gas consumption prediction in Slovenian industry - a case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kovačič, Miha; Šarler, Božidar; Župerl, Uroš

    2016-09-01

    In accordance with the regulations of the Energy Agency of the Republic of Slovenia, each natural gas supplier regulates and determines the charges for the differences between the ordered (predicted) and the actually supplied quantities of natural gas. Yearly charges for these differences represent up to 2% of supplied natural gas costs. All the natural gas users, especially industry, have huge problems finding the proper method for efficient natural gas consumption prediction and, consequently, the decreasing of mentioned costs. In this study, prediction of the natural gas consumption in Štore Steel Ltd. (steel plant) is presented. On the basis of production data, several models for natural gas consumption have been developed using linear regression, genetic programming and artificial neural network methods. The genetic programming approach outperformed linear regression and artificial neural networks.

  14. Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) Import Terminals: Siting, Safety and Regulation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-05-27

    Regulation Summary Liquefied natural gas (LNG) is a hazardous fuel frequently shipped in large tankers to U.S. ports from overseas. While LNG has... gas (LNG) has long played a role in U.S. energy markets, but concerns about rising natural gas prices, current price volatility, and the possibility of...changes in U.S. energy policy legislation to reduce the nation’s demand for natural gas . Scope and Limitations This report focuses on industry and

  15. Historical and projected costs of natural disasters

    SciTech Connect

    Engi, D.

    1995-04-01

    Natural disasters cause billions of dollars of damage and thousands Of deaths globally each year. While the magnitude is clear, the exact costs (in damage and fatalities) are difficult to clearly identify. This document reports on the results of a survey of data on the costs associated with significant natural disasters. There is an impressive amount of work and effort going into natural disaster research, mitigation, and relief. However, despite this effort, there are surprisingly few consistent and reliable data available regarding the effects of natural disasters. Even lacking consistent and complete data, it is clear that the damage and fatalities from natural disasters are increasing, both in the United States, and globally. Projections using the available data suggest that, in the United States alone, the costs of natural disasters between 1995 and 2010 will be in the range of $90 billion (94$) and 5000 lives.

  16. Characterization and utilization of natural gas in Alaska: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Sharma, G.D.

    1989-03-01

    The natural gas in the Alaskan arctic represents a truly significant resource; a resource which should be exploited in the most appropriate manner. Currently, the proven reserves of natural gas in Alaska are estimated to be 19.7% (36.7 TSCF) of the total US reserves (186.7 TSCF). In addition, the undiscovered recoverable natural gas resources of Alaska are about 89 TSCF compared to 610 TSCF in the lower 48 states. Furthermore, the Alaskan unconventional gas resources are more than 500 TCF. The purpose is to review the potential of natural gas resources in Alaska and to address various important issues related to utilization of natural gas. This report provides a brief summary of various gas fields and their geologic settings. The different options for utilization of natural gas to lower 48 states via gas pipeline, conversion to liquefied natural gas and transport, conversion to fuel grade methanol and/or gasoline, natural gas for enhanced oil recovery, gas based petrochemical complex, gas utilization in the form of utilities are critically reviewed with respect to merits and demerits addressing engineering, economic, environmental, supply/demand, market and political aspects. 22 refs., 2 figs., 5 tabs.

  17. An acid-gas removal system for upgrading subquality natural gas

    SciTech Connect

    Palla, N.; Lee, A.L.; Leppin, D.; Shoemaker, H.D.; Hooper, H.M.; Emmrich, G.; Moore, T.F.

    1996-09-01

    The objective of this project is to develop systems to reduce the cost of treating subquality natural gas. Based on over 1,000 laboratory experiments on vapor-liquid equilibria and mass transfer and simulation studies, the use of N-Formyl Morpholine as a solvent together with structured packings has the following advantages: high capacity for H{sub 2}S and CO{sub 2} removal; little or no refrigeration required; less loss of hydrocarbons (CH{sub 4}, C{sub 2}-C{sub 6}); and dehydration potential. To verify these findings and to obtain additional data base for scale-up, a field test unit capable of processing 1MMSCF/d of natural gas has been installed at the Shell Western E and P Inc. (SWEPI) Fandango processing plant site. The results of the testing at the Fandango site will be presented when available.

  18. Natural gas conversion process. Sixth quarterly report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-12-01

    The experimental apparatus was dismantled and transferred to a laboratory space provided by Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL) which is already equipped with a high-ventilation fume hood. This will enable us to make tests at higher gas flow rates in a safe environment. Three papers presented at the ACS meeting in San Francisco (Symposium on Natural Gas Upgrading II) April 5--10, 1992 show that the goal of direct catalytic conversion of Methane into heavier Hydrocarbons in a reducing atmosphere is actively pursued in three other different laboratories. There are similarities in their general concept with our own approach, but the temperature range of the experiments reported in these recent papers is much lower and this leads to uneconomic conversion rates. This illustrates the advantages of Methane activation by a Hydrogen plasma to reach commercial conversion rates. A preliminary process flow diagram was established for the Integrated Process, which was outlined in the previous Quarterly Report. The flow diagram also includes all the required auxiliary facilities for product separation and recycle of the unconverted feed as well as for the preparation and compression of the Syngas by-product.

  19. Production of Substitute Natural Gas from Coal

    SciTech Connect

    Andrew Lucero

    2009-01-31

    The goal of this research program was to develop and demonstrate a novel gasification technology to produce substitute natural gas (SNG) from coal. The technology relies on a continuous sequential processing method that differs substantially from the historic methanation or hydro-gasification processing technologies. The thermo-chemistry relies on all the same reactions, but the processing sequences are different. The proposed concept is appropriate for western sub-bituminous coals, which tend to be composed of about half fixed carbon and about half volatile matter (dry ash-free basis). In the most general terms the process requires four steps (1) separating the fixed carbon from the volatile matter (pyrolysis); (2) converting the volatile fraction into syngas (reforming); (3) reacting the syngas with heated carbon to make methane-rich fuel gas (methanation and hydro-gasification); and (4) generating process heat by combusting residual char (combustion). A key feature of this technology is that no oxygen plant is needed for char combustion.

  20. HYBRID SULFUR RECOVERY PROCESS FOR NATURAL GAS UPGRADING

    SciTech Connect

    Girish Srinivas; Steven C. Gebhard; David W. DeBerry

    2002-04-01

    This first quarter report of 2002 describes progress on a project funded by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to test a hybrid sulfur recovery process for natural gas upgrading. The process concept represents a low cost option for direct treatment of natural gas streams to remove H{sub 2}S in quantities equivalent to 0.2-25 metric tons (LT) of sulfur per day. This process is projected to have lower capital and operating costs than the competing technologies, amine/aqueous iron liquid redox and amine/Claus/tail gas treating, and have a smaller plant footprint, making it well suited to both on-shore and offshore applications. CrystaSulf{sup SM} (service mark of CrystaTech, Inc.) is a new nonaqueous sulfur recovery process that removes hydrogen sulfide (H{sub 2}S) from gas streams and converts it into elemental sulfur. CrystaSulf features high sulfur recovery similar to aqueous-iron liquid redox sulfur recovery processes, but differs from the aqueous processes in that CrystaSulf controls the location where elemental sulfur particles are formed. In the hybrid process, approximately 1/3 of the total H{sub 2}S in the natural gas is first oxidized to SO{sub 2} at low temperatures over a heterogeneous catalyst. Low temperature oxidation is done so that the H{sub 2}S can be oxidized in the presence of methane and other hydrocarbons without oxidation of the hydrocarbons. The project involves the development of a catalyst using laboratory/bench-scale catalyst testing, and then demonstration of the catalyst at CrystaTech's pilot plant in west Texas. In a previous reporting period tests were done to determine the effect of hydrocarbons such as n-hexane on catalyst performance with and without H{sub 2}S present. The experiments showed that hexane oxidation is suppressed when H{sub 2}S is present. Hexane represents the most reactive of the C1 to C6 series of alkanes. Since hexane exhibits low reactivity under H{sub 2}S oxidation conditions, and more importantly, does not change

  1. Relevance of Underground Natural Gas Storage to Geologic Carbon Dioxide Sequestration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lippmann, M. J.

    2001-05-01

    Many of the experiences from storing natural gas in depleted oil and gas reservoirs, and groundwater aquifers are relevant to geologic carbon dioxide sequestration in spite of the different physical and chemical properties of the two gases. The first successful natural gas storage project in depleted reservoirs was in Canada in 1915, and in the US in 1916. Until about 1950, essentially all subsurface natural gas storage was in partially or fully depleted gas reservoirs. Presently there more than 450 underground storage sites in the US and Canada. According to 1998 figures, the gas is stored in 372 depleted reservoirs, 51 aquifers and 40 salt caverns. About 138 million metric tons (Mt) of natural gas were stored in subsurface formations in the US at the end of November 2000 (49 Mt as working or active gas and 89 Mt as base gas). The status of underground natural gas storage projects, as well as risk assessment, risk management, and risk mitigation issues pertinent to geologic carbon dioxide sequestration are reviewed.

  2. Literature Review and Synthesis for the Natural Gas Infrastructure

    SciTech Connect

    Folga, Stephen; Talaber, Leah; McLamore, Michael; Kraucunas, Ian; McPherson, Timothy; Parrott, Lori; Manzanares, Trevor

    2015-06-01

    The efficient and effective movement of natural gas from producing regions to consuming regions requires an extensive and elaborate transportation system. In many instances, natural gas produced from a particular well has to travel a great distance to reach its point of use. The transportation system for natural gas consists of a complex network of pipelines designed to quickly and efficiently transport the gas from its origin to areas of high demand. The transportation of natural gas is closely linked to its storage: If the natural gas being transported is not immediately required, it can be put into storage facilities until it is needed. A description of the natural gas transmission, storage, and distribution (TS&D) sector is provided as follows.

  3. Market hub technology in the domestic natural gas distribution system. [Natural gas market center or hub

    SciTech Connect

    Glicken, J.

    1992-09-01

    This document describes a panel discussion held on March 18, 1992 as part of a conference entitled Market Hub Technology'' . The purpose of the conference was to stimulate dialogue among various segments of the natural gas industry on the technology limits of an economic policy issue that has the potential to significantly alter the structure and functioning of the natural gas industry. Attendees included key US gas industry representatives, Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) commissioners, and others. The conference explored the concept of market centers, or hubs, and related technologies. It covered the technology currently available for the establishment of an integrated system of physical market hubs, and explored technology requirements for the further development of useful and efficient hubs. The discussion identified two primary barriers to the acceptance and implementation of a market center distribution system for natural gas. The first barrier is the potential change in the configuration of the market such a system would introduce and the resistance various industry segments would mount to such change. The second is the lack of industry standardization in the physical and business infrastructures.

  4. Exploring for natural gas using reflectance spectra of surface soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Da-Qi; Ni, Guo-Qiang; Jiang, Li-Li; Shen, Yuan-Ting; Li, Ting; Ge, Shu-Le; Shu, Xian-Biao

    Reflectance spectra in the visible and near-infrared wavelengths provide a rapid and inexpensive means for determining the mineralogy of samples and obtaining information on chemical composition. Hydrocarbon microseepage theory establishes a cause-and-effect relation between oil and gas reservoirs and some special surface anomalies, which mainly include surface hydrocarbon microseepage and related alterations. Therefore, we can explore for oil, gas by determining reflectance spectra of surface anomalies. This idea has been applied to the R&D project of exploring for natural gas in Qinghai province of China using NASA EO-1 satellite with the Hyperion sensor (June 2005 to June 2006). In this project, in order to improve the accuracy of exploration targets of natural gas mapped in the field studied, an integrated practical system of exploration of oil and gas was built by the analysis of not only hyperspectral remote sensing data but also data provided from field work. In this paper, our efforts were focused on the analysis of the 799 reflectance spectra provided from the field work. In order to properly define the typical form of hydrocarbon microseepage with spectroscopy and fulfill the data analysis, it was necessary to build a spectral model. In this spectral model the most important features of hydrocarbon microseepage in the surface of our study area, i.e., diagnostic spectral macroscopic features and diagnostic spectral absorption features, were proposed and extracted, respectively. The distribution of coexisting anomalies, which results from both alteration minerals and hydrocarbons, is estimated by the diagnostic macroscopic features mainly using Spectral Angle Mapper (SAM) classifier. On the other hand, the diagnostic absorption features of two main absorption bands presented abundant local information, based on deep analysis of which, we are able to map the anomalies of alteration minerals and hydrocarbons, respectively. Additionally, a general framework of

  5. Changes in U.S. Natural Gas Transportation Infrastructure in 2004

    EIA Publications

    2005-01-01

    This report looks at the level of growth that occurred within the U.S. natural gas transportation network during 2004. In addition, it includes discussion and an analysis of recent gas pipeline development activities and an examination of additional projects proposed for completion over the next several years.

  6. Greater focus needed on methane leakage from natural gas infrastructure

    PubMed Central

    Alvarez, Ramón A.; Pacala, Stephen W.; Winebrake, James J.; Chameides, William L.; Hamburg, Steven P.

    2012-01-01

    Natural gas is seen by many as the future of American energy: a fuel that can provide energy independence and reduce greenhouse gas emissions in the process. However, there has also been confusion about the climate implications of increased use of natural gas for electric power and transportation. We propose and illustrate the use of technology warming potentials as a robust and transparent way to compare the cumulative radiative forcing created by alternative technologies fueled by natural gas and oil or coal by using the best available estimates of greenhouse gas emissions from each fuel cycle (i.e., production, transportation and use). We find that a shift to compressed natural gas vehicles from gasoline or diesel vehicles leads to greater radiative forcing of the climate for 80 or 280 yr, respectively, before beginning to produce benefits. Compressed natural gas vehicles could produce climate benefits on all time frames if the well-to-wheels CH4 leakage were capped at a level 45–70% below current estimates. By contrast, using natural gas instead of coal for electric power plants can reduce radiative forcing immediately, and reducing CH4 losses from the production and transportation of natural gas would produce even greater benefits. There is a need for the natural gas industry and science community to help obtain better emissions data and for increased efforts to reduce methane leakage in order to minimize the climate footprint of natural gas. PMID:22493226

  7. Greater focus needed on methane leakage from natural gas infrastructure.

    PubMed

    Alvarez, Ramón A; Pacala, Stephen W; Winebrake, James J; Chameides, William L; Hamburg, Steven P

    2012-04-24

    Natural gas is seen by many as the future of American energy: a fuel that can provide energy independence and reduce greenhouse gas emissions in the process. However, there has also been confusion about the climate implications of increased use of natural gas for electric power and transportation. We propose and illustrate the use of technology warming potentials as a robust and transparent way to compare the cumulative radiative forcing created by alternative technologies fueled by natural gas and oil or coal by using the best available estimates of greenhouse gas emissions from each fuel cycle (i.e., production, transportation and use). We find that a shift to compressed natural gas vehicles from gasoline or diesel vehicles leads to greater radiative forcing of the climate for 80 or 280 yr, respectively, before beginning to produce benefits. Compressed natural gas vehicles could produce climate benefits on all time frames if the well-to-wheels CH(4) leakage were capped at a level 45-70% below current estimates. By contrast, using natural gas instead of coal for electric power plants can reduce radiative forcing immediately, and reducing CH(4) losses from the production and transportation of natural gas would produce even greater benefits. There is a need for the natural gas industry and science community to help obtain better emissions data and for increased efforts to reduce methane leakage in order to minimize the climate footprint of natural gas.

  8. Greenhouse gas impacts of natural gas: Influence of deployment choice, methane leak rate, and methane GWP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cohan, D. S.

    2015-12-01

    Growing supplies of natural gas have heightened interest in the net impacts of natural gas on climate. Although its production and consumption result in greenhouse gas emissions, natural gas most often substitutes for other fossil fuels whose emission rates may be higher. Because natural gas can be used throughout the sectors of the energy economy, its net impacts on greenhouse gas emissions will depend not only on the leak rates of production and distribution, but also on the use for which natural gas is substituted. Here, we present our estimates of the net greenhouse gas emissions impacts of substituting natural gas for other fossil fuels for five purposes: light-duty vehicles, transit buses, residential heating, electricity generation, and export for electricity generation overseas. Emissions are evaluated on a fuel cycle basis, from production and transport of each fuel through end use combustion, based on recent conditions in the United States. We show that displacement of existing coal-fired electricity and heating oil furnaces yield the largest reductions in emissions. The impact of compressed natural gas replacing petroleum-based vehicles is highly uncertain, with the sign of impact depending on multiple assumptions. Export of liquefied natural gas for electricity yields a moderate amount of emissions reductions. We further show how uncertainties in upstream emission rates for natural gas and in the global warming potential of methane influence the net greenhouse gas impacts. Our presentation will make the case that how natural gas is deployed is crucial to determining how it will impact climate.

  9. Africa's natural gas: potentialities and letdowns

    SciTech Connect

    Baladian, K.

    1983-11-01

    Although Africa has experienced 10 times less hydrocarbon exploration than Western Europe, its proved gas reserves already amount to 220-223 trillion CF or 7% of world reserves, while Europe holds 6% or 167 TCF. Yet Africa marketed only 1.3 TCF in 1982 against Europe's 6.5 TCF. Because of the lack of domestic demand for gas, Africa flares up to 21% of its gas output. Algeria is the continent's primary gas consumer, with Egypt, Libya, and Nigeria trying to expand local gas markets. The vast majority of marketed African gas goes to Europe, either as gas sent through the Trans-Med pipeline or as LNG via tanker.

  10. AGT (Advanced Gas Turbine) technology project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    An overall summary documentation is provided for the Advanced Gas Turbine Technology Project conducted by the Allison Gas Turbine Division of General Motors. This advanced, high risk work was initiated in October 1979 under charter from the U.S. Congress to promote an engine for transportation that would provide an alternate to reciprocating spark ignition (SI) engines for the U.S. automotive industry and simultaneously establish the feasibility of advanced ceramic materials for hot section components to be used in an automotive gas turbine. As this program evolved, dictates of available funding, Government charter, and technical developments caused program emphases to focus on the development and demonstration of the ceramic turbine hot section and away from the development of engine and powertrain technologies and subsequent vehicular demonstrations. Program technical performance concluded in June 1987. The AGT 100 program successfully achieved project objectives with significant technology advances. Specific AGT 100 program achievements are: (1) Ceramic component feasibility for use in gas turbine engines has been demonstrated; (2) A new, 100 hp engine was designed, fabricated, and tested for 572 hour at operating temperatures to 2200 F, uncooled; (3) Statistical design methodology has been applied and correlated to experimental data acquired from over 5500 hour of rig and engine testing; (4) Ceramic component processing capability has progressed from a rudimentary level able to fabricate simple parts to a sophisticated level able to provide complex geometries such as rotors and scrolls; (5) Required improvements for monolithic and composite ceramic gas turbine components to meet automotive reliability, performance, and cost goals have been identified; (6) The combustor design demonstrated lower emissions than 1986 Federal Standards on methanol, JP-5, and diesel fuel. Thus, the potential for meeting emission standards and multifuel capability has been initiated

  11. Secondary natural gas recovery -- infield reserve growth joint venture: Applications in midcontinent sandstones

    SciTech Connect

    Finley, R.J.; Hardage, B.A.

    1995-06-01

    The primary objective of the Infield Reserve Growth/Secondary Natural Gas Recovery (SGR) project is to develop, test, and verify technologies and methodologies with near- to midterm potential for maximizing the recovery of natural gas from conventional reservoirs in known fields. Additional technical and technology transfer objectives of the SGR project include: To establish how depositional and diagenetic heterogeneities in reservoirs of conventional permeability cause reservoir compartmentalization and, hence, incomplete recovery of natural gas. To document examples of reserve growth occurrence and potential from deltaic and valley-fill sandstones of the Midcontinent as a natural laboratory for developing concepts and testing applications to find secondary gas; to demonstrate how the integration of geology, reservoir engineering, geophysics, and well log analysis/petrophysics leads to strategic recompletion and well placement opportunities for reserve growth in mature fields; and to transfer project results to a wide array of natural gas producers, not just as field case studies, but as conceptual models of how heterogeneities determine natural gas flow units and how to recognize the geologic and engineering clues that operators can use in a cost-effective manner to identify incremental, or secondary, gas.

  12. Transition metal catalysis in the generation of natural gas

    SciTech Connect

    Mango, F.D.

    1995-12-31

    The view that natural gas is thermolytic, coming from decomposing organic debris, has remained almost unchallenged for nearly half a century. Disturbing contradictions exist, however: Oil is found at great depth, at temperatures where only gas should exist and oil and gas deposits show no evidence of the thermolytic debris indicative of oil decomposing to gas. Moreover, laboratory attempts to duplicate the composition of natural gas, which is typically between 60 and 95+ wt% methane in C{sub 1}-C{sub 4}, have produced insufficient amounts of methane (10 to 60%). It has been suggested that natural gas may be generated catalytically, promoted by the transition metals in carbonaceous sedimentary rocks. This talk will discuss experimental results that support this hypothesis. Various transition metals, as pure compounds and in source rocks, will be shown to generate a catalytic gas that is identical to natural gas. Kinetic results suggest robust catalytic activity under moderate catagenetic conditions.

  13. GHGRP Petroleum and Natural Gas Systems Sector Industrial Profile

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA's Greenhouse Gas Reporting Program periodically produces detailed profiles of the various industries that report under the program. These profiles contain detailed analyses for Petroleum and Natural Gas Systems.

  14. 18 CFR 157.210 - Mainline natural gas facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Mainline natural gas... COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REGULATIONS UNDER NATURAL GAS ACT APPLICATIONS FOR CERTIFICATES OF PUBLIC CONVENIENCE AND NECESSITY AND FOR ORDERS PERMITTING AND APPROVING ABANDONMENT UNDER SECTION 7 OF THE NATURAL...

  15. 18 CFR 157.210 - Mainline natural gas facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Mainline natural gas... COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REGULATIONS UNDER NATURAL GAS ACT APPLICATIONS FOR CERTIFICATES OF PUBLIC CONVENIENCE AND NECESSITY AND FOR ORDERS PERMITTING AND APPROVING ABANDONMENT UNDER SECTION 7 OF THE NATURAL...

  16. TECHNOLOGIES TO ENHANCE OPERATION OF THE EXISTING NATURAL GAS COMPRESSION INFRASTRUCTURE

    SciTech Connect

    Anthony J. Smalley; Ralph E. Harris; Gary D. Bourn

    2003-10-01

    This report documents work performed in the fourth quarter of the project entitled: ''Technologies to Enhance Operation of the Existing Natural Gas Compression Infrastructure''. The project objective is to develop and substantiate methods for operating integral engine/compressors in gas pipeline service, which reduce fuel consumption, increase capacity, and enhance mechanical integrity. The report describes the following work: second field test; test data analysis for the first field test; operational optimization plans.

  17. TECHNOLOGIES TO ENHANCE OPERATION OF THE EXISTNG NATURAL GAS COMPRESSION INFRASTRUCTURE

    SciTech Connect

    Anthony J. Smalle; Ralph E. Harris; Gary D. Bourn

    2003-07-01

    This report documents work performed in the third quarter of the project entitled: ''Technologies to Enhance Operation of the Existing Natural Gas Compression Infrastructure''. The project objective is to develop and substantiate methods for operating integral engine/compressors in gas pipeline service, which reduce fuel consumption, increase capacity, and enhance mechanical integrity. The report describes the following work: first field test; test data analysis.

  18. TECHNOLOGIES TO ENHANCE OPERATION OF THE EXISTING NATURAL GAS COMPRESSION INFRASTRUCTURE

    SciTech Connect

    Anthony J. Smalley; Ralph E. Harris; Gary D. Bourn

    2004-01-01

    This report documents work performed in the fifth quarter of the project entitled: ''Technologies to Enhance Operation of the Existing Natural Gas Compression Infrastructure''. The project objective is to develop and substantiate methods for operating integral engine/compressors in gas pipeline service, which reduce fuel consumption, increase capacity, and enhance mechanical integrity. The report describes the following work: completion of analysis of data from first visit to second site; preparation for follow-up testing.

  19. Transition metal catalysis in the generation of petroleum and natural gas. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Mango, F.D.

    1997-01-21

    This project originated on the premise that natural gas could be formed catalytically in the earth rather than thermally as commonly believed. The intention was to test this hypothetical view and to explore generally the role of sedimentary metals in the generation of light hydrocarbons (C1 - C9). We showed the metalliferous source rocks are indeed catalytic in the generation of natural gas. Various metal compounds in the pure state show the same levels of catalytic activity as sedimentary rocks and the products are identical. Nickel is particularly active among the early transition metals and is projected to remain catalytically robust at all stages of catagenesis. Nickel oxide promotes the formation of n-alkanes in addition to natural gas (NG), demonstrating the full scope of the hypothetical catalytic process: The composition of catalytic gas duplicates the entire range of natural gas, from so-called wet gas to dry gas (60 to 95+ wt % methane), while gas generated thermally is consistently depleted in methane (10 to 60 wt % methane). These results support the view that metal catalysis is a major pathway through which natural gas is formed in the earth.

  20. Advanced Gas Turbine (AGT) technology development project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1987-01-01

    This report is the final in a series of Technical Summary Reports for the Advanced Gas Turbine (AGT) Technology Development Project, authorizrd under NASA Contract DEN3-167 and sponsored by the DOE. The project was administered by NASA-Lewis Research Center of Cleveland, Ohio. Plans and progress are summarized for the period October 1979 through June 1987. This program aims to provide the US automotive industry the high risk, long range technology necessary to produce gas turbine engines for automobiles that will reduce fuel consumption and reduce environmental impact. The intent is that this technology will reach the marketplace by the 1990s. The Garrett/Ford automotive AGT was designated AGT101. The AGT101 is a 74.5 kW (100 shp) engine, capable of speeds to 100,000 rpm, and operates at turbine inlet temperatures to 1370 C (2500 F) with a specific fuel consumption level of 0.18 kg/kW-hr (0.3 lbs/hp-hr) over most of the operating range. This final report summarizes the powertrain design, power section development and component/ceramic technology development.

  1. [Project, natural lighting and comfort indoor].

    PubMed

    Buffoli, M; Capolongo, S; Cattaneo, M; Signorelli, C

    2007-01-01

    The present research aims at analyzing the relationship between the project, the natural lighting, and the residential indoor environments. The reasons that lead to this research are to be found in the complex relationship between natural lighting, sunlight, and health in indoor environments and in the oncoming research of project and technological solutions in order to guarantee an adequate level of indoor health while preserving the environment. After describing the physical and hygienic characteristics of the natural lighting, the various laws (in particular the Italian ones) were taken into account according to the definition of the minimal performance and project requirements concerning the natural lighting of the indoor residential environments. The minimal requirements for the Coefficient of Daily Lighting--CDL (illumination levels on horizontal surface inside the room/illumination levels on the same horizontal surface situated outside, closed to the windows) were satisfied on average during the project phase with a lighting ratio (area of the windows hole/floor area) more than 12.5% (1/8) for every habitable rooms. An analysis based on CDL was then performed, since it is able to estimate the level of lighting of different indoor environments for dimensional and geometric aspects, for specific characteristics of each window opening and for the context situation of the building. During the analysis, the CDL of some rooms (42) was taken and analyzed according to the specific features of the indoor environment in order to evaluate the appropriateness of the current laws on the subject, which are too often recognized as only prescriptive. In conclusion, the current laws, considering the complex reciprocity between natural lighting and indoor environments, are not very adequate in orienting the architect towards more innovative quality and performance oriented choices. According to these deficiencies, it was proposed to integrate those laws with more adequate

  2. Nigeria`s Escravos gas project starts up

    SciTech Connect

    Nwokoma, M.

    1998-04-20

    Nigeria`s Escravos gas project, Delta state, officially began late last year. The project -- 6,650 b/d of LPG and 1,740 b/d of condensate from 165 MMscfd of gas -- is the first attempt to rid Nigeria of incessant flares that have lit the Delta skies. Operator Chevron Nigeria Ltd. believes that the Escravos project will enable the joint venture to utilize a significant portion of the gas reserves, thus reducing gas flaring. The paper describes the background of the project, the gas fields, transport pipeline, process design, construction, and start-up.

  3. Hot-Gas Filter Ash Characterization Project

    SciTech Connect

    Dockter, B.A.; Hurley, J.P.; Watne, T.A.; Katrinak, K.A.; O`Keefe, C.A.

    1996-12-31

    Large-scale hot-gas testing over the past several years has revealed numerous cases of cake buildup on filter elements that have been difficult, if not impossible to remove. At times, the cake can bridge between candle filters, leading to high filter failure rates. Physical factors, including particle-size distribution, particle shape, the aerodynamics of deposition, and system temperature contribute to difficulty in removing the cake. It is speculated that chemical as well as physical effects are playing a role in leading the ash to bond to the filter or to itself. The Energy and Environmental research Center (EERC) at the University of North Dakota is working with Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) and a consortium of companies in partnership with the US Department of Energy (DOE) to perform the research necessary to determine the factors that cause hot-gas cleanup filters to be blinded by ash or to develop deposits that can bridge the filters and cause them to fail. The objectives of this overall project are threefold: first, to determine the mechanisms by which difficult-to-clean ash is formed; second, to develop a method to determine the rate of blinding/bridging based on fuel and sorbent properties and operating conditions; finally, to provide suggestions fro ways to prevent filter blinding by the troublesome ash. The projects consists of four tasks: field sampling and archive sample analyses, laboratory-scale testing, bench-scale testing, and model and database development testing. This paper present preliminary data from Task 2 on determining the tensile strengths of coal ash particles at elevated temperatures and simulated combustor gas conditions.

  4. Using Natural Gas for Vehicles: Comparing Three Technologies

    SciTech Connect

    None, None

    2015-12-01

    Natural gas could be used as a transportation fuel, especially with the recent expansion of U.S. resource and production. This could mean burning natural gas in an internal combustion engine like most of the vehicles on the road today. Or, with the advanced vehicles now becoming available, other pathways are possible to use natural gas for personal vehicles. This brochure summarizes a comparison of efficiency and environmental metrics for three possible options.

  5. Using Natural Gas for Vehicles: Comparing Three Technologies

    SciTech Connect

    2015-12-01

    Natural gas could be used as a transportation fuel, especially with the recent expansion of U.S. resource and production. This could mean burning natural gas in an internal combustion engine like most of the vehicles on the road today. Or, with the advanced vehicles now becoming available, other pathways are possible to use natural gas for personal vehicles. This fact sheet summarizes a comparison of efficiency and environmental metrics for three possible options.

  6. Natural Gas Industry Restructuring and EIA Data Collection

    EIA Publications

    1996-01-01

    The Energy Information Administration's (EIA) Reserves and Natural Gas Division has undertaken an in-depth reevaluation of its programs in an effort to improve the focus and quality of the natural gas data that it gathers and reports. This article is to inform natural gas data users of proposed changes and of the opportunity to provide comments and input on the direction that EIA is taking to improve its data.

  7. NATURAL BARRIERS TARGETED THRUST FY 2004 PROJECTS

    SciTech Connect

    NA

    2005-07-27

    This booklet contains project descriptions of work performed by the Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM), Office of Science and Technology and International's (OST&I) Natural Barriers Targeted Thrust during Fiscal Year (FY) 2004. The Natural Barriers Targeted Thrust is part of OST&I's Science and Technology Program which supports the OCRWM mission to manage and dispose of high-level radioactive waste and spent nuclear fuel in a manner that protects health, safety, and the environment; enhances national and energy security; and merits public confidence. In general, the projects described will continue beyond FY 2004 assuming that the technical work remains relevant to the proposed Yucca Mountain Repository and sufficient funding is made available to the Science and Technology Program.

  8. Meeting Asia's future gas import demand with stranded natural gas from central Asia, Russia, Southeast Asia, and Australia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Attanasi, E.D.; Freeman, P.A.

    2013-01-01

    This analysis shows the important contribution that stranded gas from central Asia, Russia, Southeast Asia, and Australia can make in meeting the projected demand for gas imports of China, India, Japan, and South Korea from 2020 to 2040. The estimated delivered costs of pipeline gas from stranded fields in Russia and central Asia at Shanghai, China, are generally less than delivered costs of liquefied natural gas (LNG). Australia and Malaysia are initially the lowest-cost LNG suppliers. In the concluding section, it is argued that Asian LNG demand is price sensitive, and that current Asian LNG pricing procedures are unlikely to be sustainable for gas import demand to attain maximum potential growth. Resource volumes in stranded fields evaluated can nearly meet projected import demands.

  9. Computer program for natural gas flow through nozzles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, R. C.

    1972-01-01

    Subroutines, FORTRAN 4 type, were developed for calculating isentropic natural gas mass flow rate through nozzle. Thermodynamic functions covering compressibility, entropy, enthalpy, and specific heat are included.

  10. Building a Business Case for Compressed Natural Gas in Fleet Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Mitchell, G.

    2015-03-19

    Natural gas is a clean-burning, abundant, and domestically produced source of energy. Compressed natural gas (CNG) has recently garnered interest as a transportation fuel because of these attributes and because of its cost savings and price stability compared to conventional petroleum fuels. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) developed the Vehicle Infrastructure and Cash-Flow Evaluation (VICE) model to help businesses and fleets evaluate the financial soundness of CNG vehicle and CNG fueling infrastructure projects.

  11. Cement Kiln Flue Gas Recovery Scrubber Project

    SciTech Connect

    National Energy Technology Laboratory

    2001-11-30

    The Cement Kiln Flue Gas Recovery Scrubber Project was a technical success and demonstrated the following: CKD can be used successfully as the sole reagent for removing SO2 from cement kiln flue gas, with removal efficiencies of 90 percent or greater; Removal efficiencies for HCl and VOCs were approximately 98 percent and 70 percent, respectively; Particulate emissions were low, in the range of 0.005 to 0.007 grains/standard cubic foot; The treated CKD sorbent can be recycled to the kiln after its potassium content has been reduced in the scrubber, thereby avoiding the need for landfilling; The process can yield fertilizer-grade K2SO4, a saleable by-product; and Waste heat in the flue gas can provide the energy required for evaporation and crystallization in the by-product recovery operation. The demonstration program established the feasibility of using the Recovery Scrubber{trademark} for desulfurization of flue gas from cement kilns, with generally favorable economics, assuming tipping fees are available for disposal of ash from biomass combustion. The process appears to be suitable for commercial use on any type of cement kiln. EPA has ruled that CKD is a nonhazardous waste, provided the facility meets Performance Standards for the Management of CKD (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency 1999d). Therefore, regulatory drivers for the technology focus more on reduction of air pollutants and pollution prevention, rather than on treating CKD as a hazardous waste. Application of the Recovery Scrubbe{trademark} concept to other waste-disposal operations, where pollution and waste reductions are needed, appears promising.

  12. Model documentation: Natural gas transmission and distribution model of the National Energy Modeling System. Volume 1

    SciTech Connect

    1995-02-17

    The Natural Gas Transmission and Distribution Model (NGTDM) is the component of the National Energy Modeling System (NEMS) that is used to represent the domestic natural gas transmission and distribution system. NEMS was developed in the Office of integrated Analysis and Forecasting of the Energy information Administration (EIA). NEMS is the third in a series of computer-based, midterm energy modeling systems used since 1974 by the EIA and its predecessor, the Federal Energy Administration, to analyze domestic energy-economy markets and develop projections. The NGTDM is the model within the NEMS that represents the transmission, distribution, and pricing of natural gas. The model also includes representations of the end-use demand for natural gas, the production of domestic natural gas, and the availability of natural gas traded on the international market based on information received from other NEMS models. The NGTDM determines the flow of natural gas in an aggregate, domestic pipeline network, connecting domestic and foreign supply regions with 12 demand regions. The methodology employed allows the analysis of impacts of regional capacity constraints in the interstate natural gas pipeline network and the identification of pipeline capacity expansion requirements. There is an explicit representation of core and noncore markets for natural gas transmission and distribution services, and the key components of pipeline tariffs are represented in a pricing algorithm. Natural gas pricing and flow patterns are derived by obtaining a market equilibrium across the three main elements of the natural gas market: the supply element, the demand element, and the transmission and distribution network that links them. The NGTDM consists of four modules: the Annual Flow Module, the Capacity F-expansion Module, the Pipeline Tariff Module, and the Distributor Tariff Module. A model abstract is provided in Appendix A.

  13. Stability of natural gas in the deep subsurface

    SciTech Connect

    Barker, C.

    1996-07-01

    Natural gas is becoming increasingly important as a fuel because of its widespread occurrence and because it has a less significant environmental impact than oil. Many of the known gas accumulations were discovered by accident during exploration for oil, but with increasing demand for gas, successful exploration will require a clearer understanding of the factors that control gas distribution and gas composition. Natural gas is generated by three main processes. In oxygen-deficient, sulfate-free, shallow (few thousand feet) environments bacteria generate biogenic gas that is essentially pure methane with no higher hydrocarbons ({open_quotes}dry gas{close_quotes}). Gas is also formed from organic matter ({open_quotes}kerogen{close_quotes}), either as the initial product from the thermal breakdown of Type III, woody kerogens, or as the final hydrocarbon product from all kerogen types. In addition, gas can be formed by the thermal cracking of crude oil in the deep subsurface. The generation of gas from kerogen requires higher temperatures than the generation of oil. Also, the cracking of oil to gas requires high temperatures, so that there is a general trend from oil to gas with increasing depth. This produces a well-defined {open_quotes}floor for oil{close_quotes}, below which crude oil is not thermally stable. The possibility of a {open_quotes}floor for gas{close_quotes} is less well documented and understanding the limits on natural gas occurrence was one of the main objectives of this research.

  14. Virtual Pipeline System Testbed to Optimize the U.S. Natural Gas Transmission Pipeline System

    SciTech Connect

    Kirby S. Chapman; Prakash Krishniswami; Virg Wallentine; Mohammed Abbaspour; Revathi Ranganathan; Ravi Addanki; Jeet Sengupta; Liubo Chen

    2005-06-01

    The goal of this project is to develop a Virtual Pipeline System Testbed (VPST) for natural gas transmission. This study uses a fully implicit finite difference method to analyze transient, nonisothermal compressible gas flow through a gas pipeline system. The inertia term of the momentum equation is included in the analysis. The testbed simulate compressor stations, the pipe that connects these compressor stations, the supply sources, and the end-user demand markets. The compressor station is described by identifying the make, model, and number of engines, gas turbines, and compressors. System operators and engineers can analyze the impact of system changes on the dynamic deliverability of gas and on the environment.

  15. Natural gas transport by plastic pipes. (Latest citations from the Compendex database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-07-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the use of plastic piping to transport natural gas or liquid propane gas. The interaction between gas odorants and plastic pipe, the effects of aging on plastic pipe used to transport gas, and pipe failure analyses are examined. Bending, joining, and repair methods are discussed. Composite reinforced plastic pipes and plastic coated pipes are considered. Polyethylene and epoxy composites are among the materials discussed. Gas main upgrading projects that replaced old pipes with plastic ones are briefly cited. (Contains a minimum of 88 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  16. Naturally fractured tight gas: Gas reservoir detection optimization. Quarterly report, January 1--March 31, 1997

    SciTech Connect

    1997-12-31

    Economically viable natural gas production from the low permeability Mesaverde Formation in the Piceance Basin, Colorado requires the presence of an intense set of open natural fractures. Establishing the regional presence and specific location of such natural fractures is the highest priority exploration goal in the Piceance and other western US tight, gas-centered basins. Recently, Advanced Resources International, Inc. (ARI) completed a field program at Rulison Field, Piceance Basin, to test and demonstrate the use of advanced seismic methods to locate and characterize natural fractures. This project began with a comprehensive review of the tectonic history, state of stress and fracture genesis of the basin. A high resolution aeromagnetic survey, interpreted satellite and SLAR imagery, and 400 line miles of 2-D seismic provided the foundation for the structural interpretation. The central feature of the program was the 4.5 square mile multi-azimuth 3-D seismic P-wave survey to locate natural fracture anomalies. The interpreted seismic attributes are being tested against a control data set of 27 wells. Additional wells are currently being drilled at Rulison, on close 40 acre spacings, to establish the productivity from the seismically observed fracture anomalies. A similar regional prospecting and seismic program is being considered for another part of the basin. The preliminary results indicate that detailed mapping of fault geometries and use of azimuthally defined seismic attributes exhibit close correlation with high productivity gas wells. The performance of the ten new wells, being drilled in the seismic grid in late 1996 and early 1997, will help demonstrate the reliability of this natural fracture detection and mapping technology.

  17. Roadmap for Development of Natural Gas Vehicle Fueling Infrastructructure and Analysis of Vehicular Natural Gas Consumption by Niche Sector

    SciTech Connect

    Stephen C. Yborra

    2007-04-30

    Vehicular natural gas consumption is on the rise, totaling nearly 200 million GGEs in 2005, despite declines in total NGV inventory in recent years. This may be attributed to greater deployment of higher fuel use medium- and heavy-duty NGVs as compared to the low fuel use of the natural gas-powered LDVs that exited the market through attrition, many of which were bi-fuel. Natural gas station counts are down to about 1100 from their peak of about 1300. Many of the stations that closed were under-utilized or not used at all while most new stations were developed with greater attention to critical business fundamentals such as site selection, projected customer counts, peak and off-peak fueling capacity needs and total station throughput. Essentially, the nation's NGV fueling infrastructure has been--and will continue--going through a 'market correction'. While current economic fundamentals have shortened payback and improved life-cycle savings for investment in NGVs and fueling infrastructure, a combination of grants and other financial incentives will still be needed to overcome general fleet market inertia to maintain status quo. Also imperative to the market's adoption of NGVs and other alternative fueled vehicle and fueling technologies is a clear statement of long-term federal government commitment to diversifying our nation's transportation fuel use portfolio and, more specifically, the role of natural gas in that policy. Based on the current NGV market there, and the continued promulgation of clean air and transportation policies, the Western Region is--and will continue to be--the dominant region for vehicular natural gas use and growth. In other regions, especially the Northeast, Mid-Atlantic states and Texas, increased awareness and attention to air quality and energy security concerns by the public and - more important, elected officials--are spurring policies and programs that facilitate deployment of NGVs and fueling infrastructure. Because of their high

  18. Method for mapping a natural gas leak

    DOEpatents

    Reichardt, Thomas A [Livermore, CA; Luong, Amy Khai [Dublin, CA; Kulp, Thomas J [Livermore, CA; Devdas, Sanjay [Albany, CA

    2009-02-03

    A system is described that is suitable for use in determining the location of leaks of gases having a background concentration. The system is a point-wise backscatter absorption gas measurement system that measures absorption and distance to each point of an image. The absorption measurement provides an indication of the total amount of a gas of interest, and the distance provides an estimate of the background concentration of gas. The distance is measured from the time-of-flight of laser pulse that is generated along with the absorption measurement light. The measurements are formatted into an image of the presence of gas in excess of the background. Alternatively, an image of the scene is superimposed on the image of the gas to aid in locating leaks. By further modeling excess gas as a plume having a known concentration profile, the present system provides an estimate of the maximum concentration of the gas of interest.

  19. Methane hydrates and the future of natural gas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ruppel, Carolyn

    2011-01-01

    For decades, gas hydrates have been discussed as a potential resource, particularly for countries with limited access to conventional hydrocarbons or a strategic interest in establishing alternative, unconventional gas reserves. Methane has never been produced from gas hydrates at a commercial scale and, barring major changes in the economics of natural gas supply and demand, commercial production at a large scale is considered unlikely to commence within the next 15 years. Given the overall uncertainty still associated with gas hydrates as a potential resource, they have not been included in the EPPA model in MITEI’s Future of Natural Gas report. Still, gas hydrates remain a potentially large methane resource and must necessarily be included in any consideration of the natural gas supply beyond two decades from now.

  20. 18 CFR 382.202 - Annual charges under the Natural Gas Act and Natural Gas Policy Act of 1978 and related statutes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... the Natural Gas Act and Natural Gas Policy Act of 1978 and related statutes. 382.202 Section 382.202... GENERAL RULES ANNUAL CHARGES Annual Charges § 382.202 Annual charges under the Natural Gas Act and Natural Gas Policy Act of 1978 and related statutes. The adjusted costs of administration of the natural gas...

  1. 18 CFR 382.202 - Annual charges under the Natural Gas Act and Natural Gas Policy Act of 1978 and related statutes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... the Natural Gas Act and Natural Gas Policy Act of 1978 and related statutes. 382.202 Section 382.202... GENERAL RULES ANNUAL CHARGES Annual Charges § 382.202 Annual charges under the Natural Gas Act and Natural Gas Policy Act of 1978 and related statutes. The adjusted costs of administration of the natural gas...

  2. 18 CFR 382.202 - Annual charges under the Natural Gas Act and Natural Gas Policy Act of 1978 and related statutes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... the Natural Gas Act and Natural Gas Policy Act of 1978 and related statutes. 382.202 Section 382.202... GENERAL RULES ANNUAL CHARGES Annual Charges § 382.202 Annual charges under the Natural Gas Act and Natural Gas Policy Act of 1978 and related statutes. The adjusted costs of administration of the natural gas...

  3. 18 CFR 382.202 - Annual charges under the Natural Gas Act and Natural Gas Policy Act of 1978 and related statutes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... the Natural Gas Act and Natural Gas Policy Act of 1978 and related statutes. 382.202 Section 382.202... GENERAL RULES ANNUAL CHARGES Annual Charges § 382.202 Annual charges under the Natural Gas Act and Natural Gas Policy Act of 1978 and related statutes. The adjusted costs of administration of the natural gas...

  4. 18 CFR 382.202 - Annual charges under the Natural Gas Act and Natural Gas Policy Act of 1978 and related statutes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... the Natural Gas Act and Natural Gas Policy Act of 1978 and related statutes. 382.202 Section 382.202... GENERAL RULES ANNUAL CHARGES Annual Charges § 382.202 Annual charges under the Natural Gas Act and Natural Gas Policy Act of 1978 and related statutes. The adjusted costs of administration of the natural gas...

  5. Method and apparatus for producing natural gas from tight formations

    SciTech Connect

    Bresie, D. A.; Burns, J. M.; Fowler, D. W.

    1984-10-30

    Natural gas wells in a tight formation area are drilled and completed with piping, the piping being capped with a Christmas tree. The piping is then utilized as a reservoir to collect natural gas from the tight formation over a prolonged time period. Mobile pressure vessel units are employed periodically to recover the collected natural gas, on a schedule designed for maximum economic efficiency. In the preferred embodiment, the reservoir is formed between the inner production tubing and the outer casing tubing, and conduits are connected to direct the natural gas from the production tubing into the reservoir. Liquid/gas separators and dehydrator units are employed on wells as necessary, so that the natural gas stored in the reservoir is ready for transport.

  6. Natural gas from seaweed: is near-term R and D funding by the US gas industry warranted

    SciTech Connect

    Gopalakrishnan, C.

    1985-10-01

    This paper is the result of a study of critical factors the Gas Research Institute needed to consider in deciding whether to continue R and D funding of a Marine Biomass Project (MBP). The mission of this project is to determine the commercial feasibility of large marine biomass farms for methane conversion and to develop such farms if they prove viable. The paper develops a macroanalytic framework for R and D decision making in an innovative but high-cost and high-risk method of natural gas production. It identifies and analyzes principal factors having significant bearing on the US natural gas industry and against this background examines implications for R and D funding of the MBP. The study is based on an extensive review of secondary data sources on the economics and technology of natural gas production supplemented by personal discussions with a number of experts. This paper suggests that decisions on near-term R and D funding of the MBP should be based on careful study of the current, continuing, and projected developments in the US natural gas industry as a whole rather than on narrow and short-term considerations. 16 references, 6 tables.

  7. Reuse of spent natural gas liquid sweetening solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Hahn, W.J.; McKim, M.N.; Smith, L.S.

    1995-12-01

    Partially spent caustic solutions from natural gas liquids (NGL) sweetening processes can be used as reagent for sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) scrubbing facilities, reducing the costs for purchasing scrubber reagent and eliminating the costs and liabilities associated with waste disposal. This paper discusses: (1) the characteristics of typical spent NGL sweetening solutions, (2) State and Federal regulations governing the disposal of these solutions as wastes, (3) the operational variables affecting reuse of these solutions in SO{sub 2} scrubbers, (4) field and laboratory analytical data from a pilot project conducted to evaluate the reuse of a partially spent NGL sweetening solution as SO{sub 2} scrubber reagent, and (5) economic data from the pilot project. For the pilot project, a partially spent caustic NGL sweetening solution was used in place of soda ash solution as reagent in a SO{sub 2} scrubber serving two steam generators burning sour gas. Emissions testing of the scrubber demonstrated that the solution provided effective removal of oxides of sulfur (SO{sub x}) in both gaseous and particulate phases to meet permitted limits. Data from the pilot project is used in the paper to: (1) quantify SO{sub 2} scrubber performance with partially spent caustic solutions in terms of SO{sub x} removal efficiency, (2) identify the necessary modifications in scrubber operation (reagent feed rate, scrubber liquor pH and specific gravity, blowdown rate) to achieve acceptable performance using partially spent caustic solutions, and (3) describe the effect that the use of partially spent caustic solutions has on physical and chemical properties of scrubber liquor.

  8. NOVEL COMPOSITE MEMBRANES AND PROCESS FOR NATURAL GAS UPGRADING

    SciTech Connect

    Johann LeRoux

    2002-02-01

    The first phase of this project involved the development of a high performance composite membranes for the treatment of natural gas. The objective of the second phase is to demonstrate the commercial potential of a full-size membrane module in a pilot scale field test. This phase is undertaken jointly with our commercial partner, UOP LLC. At the conclusion of Phase I, two composite membrane products had been developed for the enrichment (sweetening) of natural gas. The one was a low pressure membrane with a high CO{sub 2}/CH{sub 4} separation factor that falls within the target range of 25-30 (at 50 C) set for the program. This is a significant improvement over current commercial membranes that have separation factors of around 18-19. The second membrane had excellent high pressure capability and good contamination resistance, with a separation factor of 20-22. Based on the performance and the economic evaluation of the newly developed membranes, and with the input of UOP and DOE, it was decided to devote the demonstration phase of the program to the field testing and commercial evaluation of natural gas dehydration membranes. Due to the events of September 11, the program was also extended by 6 months until June 30, 2002. In Phase II, UOP has essentially completed preparation of the field test site. Site preparation included the re-design of the test system, purchase and installation of analytical equipment, and making the necessary piping and other hardware changes. IMS has produced two commercial sized dehydration membrane modules for the field tests. These have been successfully tested up to pressures expected in the field tests, and the modules have been shipped to the test site. The remainder of the program will comprise performance testing of the membrane modules, evaluation of the results and submission of the final report with recommendations.

  9. Evaluation of Ultra Clean Fuels from Natural Gas

    SciTech Connect

    Robert Abbott; Edward Casey; Etop Esen; Douglas Smith; Bruce Burke; Binh Nguyen; Samuel Tam; Paul Worhach; Mahabubul Alam; Juhun Song; James Szybist; Ragini Acharya; Vince Zello; David Morris; Patrick Flynn; Stephen Kirby; Krishan Bhatia; Jeff Gonder; Yun Wang; Wenpeng Liu; Hua Meng; Subramani Velu; Jian-Ping Shen, Weidong Gu; Elise Bickford; Chunshan Song; Chao-Yang Wang; Andre' Boehman

    2006-02-28

    ConocoPhillips, in conjunction with Nexant Inc., Penn State University, and Cummins Engine Co., joined with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) in a cooperative agreement to perform a comprehensive study of new ultra clean fuels (UCFs) produced from remote sources of natural gas. The project study consists of three primary tasks: an environmental Life Cycle Assessment (LCA), a Market Study, and a series of Engine Tests to evaluate the potential markets for Ultra Clean Fuels. The overall objective of DOE's Ultra Clean Transportation Fuels Initiative is to develop and deploy technologies that will produce ultra-clean burning transportation fuels for the 21st century from both petroleum and non-petroleum resources. These fuels will: (1) Enable vehicles to comply with future emission requirements; (2) Be compatible with the existing liquid fuels infrastructure; (3) Enable vehicle efficiencies to be significantly increased, with concomitantly reduced CO{sub 2} emissions; (4) Be obtainable from a fossil resource, alone or in combination with other hydrocarbon materials such as refinery wastes, municipal wastes, biomass, and coal; and (5) Be competitive with current petroleum fuels. The objectives of the ConocoPhillips Ultra Clean Fuels Project are to perform a comprehensive life cycle analysis and to conduct a market study on ultra clean fuels of commercial interest produced from natural gas, and, in addition, perform engine tests for Fisher-Tropsch diesel and methanol in neat, blended or special formulations to obtain data on emissions. This resulting data will be used to optimize fuel compositions and engine operation in order to minimize the release of atmospheric pollutants resulting from the fuel combustion. Development and testing of both direct and indirect methanol fuel cells was to be conducted and the optimum properties of a suitable fuel-grade methanol was to be defined. The results of the study are also applicable

  10. HYBRID SULFUR RECOVERY PROCESS FOR NATURAL GAS UPGRADING

    SciTech Connect

    Dennis Dalrymple

    2004-06-01

    This final report describes the objectives, technical approach, results and conclusions for a project funded by the U.S. Department of Energy to test a hybrid sulfur recovery process for natural gas upgrading. The process concept is a configuration of CrystaTech, Inc.'s CrystaSulf{reg_sign} process which utilizes a direct oxidation catalyst upstream of the absorber tower to oxidize a portion of the inlet hydrogen sulfide (H{sub 2}S) to sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) and elemental sulfur. This hybrid configuration of CrystaSulf has been named CrystaSulf-DO and represents a low-cost option for direct treatment of natural gas streams to remove H{sub 2}S in quantities equivalent to 0.2-25 metric tons (LT) of sulfur per day and more. This hybrid process is projected to have lower capital and operating costs than the competing technologies, amine/aqueous iron liquid redox and amine/Claus/tail gas treating, and have a smaller plant footprint, making it well suited to both onshore and offshore applications. CrystaSulf is a nonaqueous sulfur recovery process that removes H{sub 2}S from gas streams and converts it to elemental sulfur. In CrystaSulf, H{sub 2}S in the inlet gas is reacted with SO{sub 2} to make elemental sulfur according to the liquid phase Claus reaction: 2H{sub 2}S + SO{sub 2} {yields} 2H{sub 2}O + 3S. The SO{sub 2} for the reaction can be supplied from external sources by purchasing liquid SO{sub 2} and injecting it into the CrystaSulf solution, or produced internally by converting a portion of the inlet gas H{sub 2}S to SO{sub 2} or by burning a portion of the sulfur produced to make SO{sub 2}. CrystaSulf features high sulfur recovery similar to aqueous-iron liquid redox sulfur recovery processes, but differs from the aqueous processes in that CrystaSulf controls the location where elemental sulfur particles are formed. In the hybrid process, the needed SO{sub 2} is produced by placing a bed of direct oxidation catalyst in the inlet gas stream to oxidize a

  11. US crude oil, natural gas, and natural gas liquids reserves, 1977-1993 (for microcomputers). Data file

    SciTech Connect

    1994-12-31

    The diskette contains all data published in the reserves and production tables of each annual report of U.S. Crude Oil, Natural Gas and Natural Gas Liquids Reserves from 1977 through 1991 listed in 15 separate ASCII files, one per report year. Within each annual file, the records are separated by hydrocarbon type into the following: Crude Oil, Associated Dissolved Natural Gas, Nonassociated Natural Gas, Total Natural Gas, Lease Condensate, Natural Gas Plant Liquids, and Natural Gas Liquids. During the 15 years collated here, the data items gathered and published have changed, with dry versus wet natural gas being the primary difference and the consequent separation of natural gas liquids. The records are also separated by State or State subregions and a few tabulated combinations of States and State subregions. The EIA requirement to hold confidential the data gathered during the annual surveys has driven changes in the States, subregions and combinations published and therefore included in the diskette over the years. Data given on the records are the following: Proved reserves, beginning-of-year; Net Adjustments; Revision increases; Revision decreases; Extensions; New field Discoveries; New reservoirs in old fields; Production; and Reserves, end-of-year.

  12. Simulation of natural gas production from submarine gas hydrate deposits combined with carbon dioxide storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janicki, Georg; Schlüter, Stefan; Hennig, Torsten; Deerberg, Görge

    2013-04-01

    The recovery of methane from gas hydrate layers that have been detected in several submarine sediments and permafrost regions around the world so far is considered to be a promising measure to overcome future shortages in natural gas as fuel or raw material for chemical syntheses. Being aware that natural gas resources that can be exploited with conventional technologies are limited, research is going on to open up new sources and develop technologies to produce methane and other energy carriers. Thus various research programs have started since the early 1990s in Japan, USA, Canada, South Korea, India, China and Germany to investigate hydrate deposits and develop technologies to destabilize the hydrates and obtain the pure gas. In recent years, intensive research has focussed on the capture and storage of carbon dioxide from combustion processes to reduce climate change. While different natural or manmade reservoirs like deep aquifers, exhausted oil and gas deposits or other geological formations are considered to store gaseous or liquid carbon dioxide, the storage of carbon dioxide as hydrate in former methane hydrate fields is another promising alternative. Due to beneficial stability conditions, methane recovery may be well combined with CO2 storage in form of hydrates. This has been shown in several laboratory tests and simulations - technical field tests are still in preparation. Within the scope of the German research project »SUGAR«, different technological approaches are evaluated and compared by means of dynamic system simulations and analysis. Detailed mathematical models for the most relevant chemical and physical effects are developed. The basic mechanisms of gas hydrate formation/dissociation and heat and mass transport in porous media are considered and implemented into simulation programs like CMG STARS and COMSOL Multiphysics. New simulations based on field data have been carried out. The studies focus on the evaluation of the gas production

  13. Advanced Liquid Natural Gas Onboard Storage System

    SciTech Connect

    Greg Harper; Charles Powars

    2003-10-31

    Cummins Westport Incorporated (CWI) has designed and developed a liquefied natural gas (LNG) vehicle fuel system that includes a reciprocating pump with the cold end submerged in LNG contained in a vacuum-jacketed tank. This system was tested and analyzed under the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Advanced LNG Onboard Storage System (ALOSS) program. The pumped LNG fuel system developed by CWI and tested under the ALOSS program is a high-pressure system designed for application on Class 8 trucks powered by CWI's ISX G engine, which employs high-pressure direct injection (HPDI) technology. A general ALOSS program objective was to demonstrate the feasibility and advantages of a pumped LNG fuel system relative to on-vehicle fuel systems that require the LNG to be ''conditioned'' to saturation pressures that exceeds the engine fuel pressure requirements. These advantages include the capability to store more fuel mass in given-size vehicle and station tanks, and simpler lower-cost LNG refueling stations that do not require conditioning equipment. Pumped LNG vehicle fuel systems are an alternative to conditioned LNG systems for spark-ignition natural gas and port-injection dual-fuel engines (which typically require about 100 psi), and they are required for HPDI engines (which require over 3,000 psi). The ALOSS program demonstrated the feasibility of a pumped LNG vehicle fuel system and the advantages of this design relative to systems that require conditioning the LNG to a saturation pressure exceeding the engine fuel pressure requirement. LNG tanks mounted on test carts and the CWI engineering truck were repeatedly filled with LNG saturated at 20 to 30 psig. More fuel mass was stored in the vehicle tanks as well as the station tank, and no conditioning equipment was required at the fueling station. The ALOSS program also demonstrated the general viability and specific performance of the CWI pumped LNG fuel system design. The system tested as part of this program is

  14. DEVELOPMENT OF A LOW-COST INFERENTIAL NATURAL GAS ENERGY FLOW RATE PROTOTYPE RETROFIT MODULE

    SciTech Connect

    E. Kelner; T.E. Owen; D.L. George; A. Minachi; M.G. Nored; C.J. Schwartz

    2004-03-01

    In 1998, Southwest Research Institute{reg_sign} began a multi-year project co-funded by the Gas Research Institute (GRI) and the U.S. Department of Energy. The project goal is to develop a working prototype instrument module for natural gas energy measurement. The module will be used to retrofit a natural gas custody transfer flow meter for energy measurement, at a cost an order of magnitude lower than a gas chromatograph. Development and evaluation of the prototype retrofit natural gas energy flow meter in 2000-2001 included: (1) evaluation of the inferential gas energy analysis algorithm using supplemental gas databases and anticipated worst-case gas mixtures; (2) identification and feasibility review of potential sensing technologies for nitrogen diluent content; (3) experimental performance evaluation of infrared absorption sensors for carbon dioxide diluent content; and (4) procurement of a custom ultrasonic transducer and redesign of the ultrasonic pulse reflection correlation sensor for precision speed-of-sound measurements. A prototype energy meter module containing improved carbon dioxide and speed-of-sound sensors was constructed and tested in the GRI Metering Research Facility at SwRI. Performance of this module using transmission-quality natural gas and gas containing supplemental carbon dioxide up to 9 mol% resulted in gas energy determinations well within the inferential algorithm worst-case tolerance of {+-}2.4 Btu/scf (nitrogen diluent gas measured by gas chromatograph). A two-week field test was performed at a gas-fired power plant to evaluate the inferential algorithm and the data acquisition requirements needed to adapt the prototype energy meter module to practical field site conditions.

  15. Lifecycle greenhouse gas emissions of coal, conventional and unconventional natural gas for electricity generation

    EPA Science Inventory

    An analysis of the lifecycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions associated with natural gas use recently published by Howarth et al. (2011) stated that use of natural gas produced from shale formations via hydraulic fracturing would generate greater lifecycle GHG emissions than petro...

  16. Lifecycle greenhouse gas emissions of coal, conventional and unconventional natural gas for electricity generation

    EPA Science Inventory

    An analysis of the lifecycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions associated with natural gas use recently published by Howarth et al. (2011) stated that use of natural gas produced from shale formations via hydraulic fracturing would generate greater lifecycle GHG emissions than petro...

  17. New roles for natural gas in the 1990s

    SciTech Connect

    Soeder, D.J. )

    1990-05-01

    A probable increase in the use of natural gas is predicted to occur over the next decade because heightened concerns by the public over air quality are likely to place severe constraints on increased use of coal and petroleum as primary fuels. Congress and the states appear to be preparing to legislate new clean air standards that will be difficult to achieve under present economic conditions using the current mix of hydrocarbon fuels. Natural gas is a favorable fuel for several reasons. Because it has a high hydrogen-to-carbon ratio, it produces the least amount of carbon dioxide per calorie of any of the hydrocarbon fuels. Combustion of gas in modern burners does not produce significant CO, NO{sub x}, SO{sub 2}, or any of the complex photochemicals responsible for smog and ozone pollution. Supplies of gas are plentiful, with a total domestic recoverable resource base of over 980 tcf estimated by the Potential Gas Agency. Additional gas, not counted in reserve estimates, is present in abandoned fields, where secondary recovery techniques may produce significant quantities. A promising area for increased natural gas usage in the next decade is electrical power generation, either by substituting gas for oil and coal as a boiler fuel or by generating electricity directly using chemical fuel cells powered by natural gas and air. Natural gas-fueled vehicles are another favored technology, due to very low emission levels and because natural gas can be run in a standard automotive engine with only minor mechanical modifications. Vehicles must carry compressed natural gas in high-pressure cylinders, but adsorptive materials are being developed to transport significant quantities at reduced pressure. Current technology can pack a 2,400-psi volume-equivalent of natural gas onto adsorptive material in the same space at only 500 psi.

  18. Pipeline under the arctic ice: the Polar Gas Project

    SciTech Connect

    Kaustinen, O.M.

    1982-06-01

    The Polar Gas Project was established in 1972 to determine the best means of moving frontier natural gas from Canada's high arctic to southern markets. Pipeline was found to be most feasible. Several pipeline routings from two major supply areas--the MacKenzie Delta/Beaufort Sea region, and the Sverdrup Basin of the Arctic Islands--have been considered. Field programs to determine the type and ice content of soils along the route have been undertaken. The most challenging engineering aspect will be two marine crossings in arctic waters at either end of Victoria Island, at Dolphin and Union Strait, and at McClure's strait. The ''Ice Hole Bottom Pull'' technique has been recommended, and is illustrated in detail. The planned pipeline demonstration would significantly enhance the current state-of-the-art for deepwater pipelining worldwide.

  19. Advanced Gas Turbine (AGT) Technology Development Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1987-01-01

    This report is the eleventh in the series of Technical Summary reports for the Advanced Gas Turbine (AGT) Technology Development Project, authorized under NASA Contract DEN3-167, and sponsored by the Department of Energy (DOE). This report was prepared by Garrett Turbine Engine Company, A Division of the Garrett Corporation, and includes information provided by Ford Motor Company, the Standard Oil Company, and AiResearch Casting Company. This report covers plans and progress for the period July 1, 1985 through June 30, 1986. Technical progress during the reported period was highlighted by the 85-hour endurance run of an all-ceramic engine operating in the 2000 to 2250 F temperature regime. Component development continued in the areas of the combustion/fuel injection system, regenerator and seals system, and ceramic turbine rotor attachment design. Component rig testing saw further refinements. Ceramic materials showed continued improvements in required properties for gas turbine applications; however, continued development is needed before performance and reliability goals can be set.

  20. Procedure for preparation for shipment of natural gas storage vessel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Amawd, A. M.

    1974-01-01

    A method for preparing a natural gas storage vessel for shipment is presented. The gas is stored at 3,000 pounds per square inch. The safety precautions to be observed are emphasized. The equipment and process for purging the tank and sampling the exit gas flow are described. A diagram of the pressure vessel and the equipment is provided.

  1. The catalytic decomposition of petroleum into natural gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mango, Frank D.; Hightower, Joe

    1997-12-01

    Petroleum is believed to be unstable in the earth, decomposing to lighter hydrocarbons at temperatures > 150°C. Oil and gas deposits support this view: gas/oil ratios and methane concentrations tend to increase with depth above 150°C. Although oil cracking is suggested and receives wide support, laboratory pyrolysis does not give products resembling natural gas. Moreover, it is doubtful that the light hydrocarbons in wet gas (C 2C 4) could decompose over geologic time to dry gas (> 95% methane) without catalytic assistance. We now report the catalytic decomposition of crude oil to a gas indistinguishable from natural gas. Like natural gas in deep basins, it becomes progressively enriched in methane: initially 80% (wet gas) to a final composition of 100% methane (dry gas). To our knowledge, the reaction is unprecedented and unexpectedly robust (conversion of oil to gas is 100% in days, 175°C) with significant implications regarding the stability of petroleum in sedimentary basins. The existence or nonexistence of oil in the deep subsurface may not depend on the thermal stability of hydrocarbons as currently thought. The critical factor could be the presence of transition metal catalysts which destabilize hydrocarbons and promote their decomposition to natural gas.

  2. Assessing climate benefits of natural gas and coal electricity generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xiaochun; Myhrvold, Nathan; Caldeira, Ken

    2015-04-01

    A transition from a system of coal electricity generation to near-zero emission electricity generation will be central to any effort to mitigate climate change. Natural gas is increasingly seen as a 'bridge fuel' for transitions form coal to near-zero emission energy sources. However, various studies use different metrics to estimate the climate impact of natural gas utilization, and led to differing conclusions. Thus, there is a need to identify the key factors affecting the climate effects of natural gas and coal electricity production, and to present these climate effects in as clear and transparent a way as possible. Here, we identify power plant efficiency and methane leakage rate as the key factors that explain most of the variance in greenhouse gas emissions by natural gas and coal power plants. We then develop a power plant GHG emission model, apply available life-cycle parameters to calculate associated CO2 and CH4 emissions and assess climate effects. Simple underlying physical changes can be obscured by abstract evaluation metrics, thus we base our discussion on temperature changes over time. We find that, during the period of plant operation, if there is substantial natural gas leakage, natural gas plants can produce greater near-term warming than a coal plant with the same power output. If leakage rates can be made to be low and efficiency high, natural gas plants can produce some reduction in near-term warming. However, without carbon capture and storage natural gas power plants cannot achieve the deep reductions that would be required to avoid substantial contribution to additional global warming. Achieving climate benefits from the use of natural gas depends on building high-efficiency natural gas plants, controlling methane leakage, and on developing a policy environment that assures a transition to future lower-emission technologies. For more information please see http://iopscience.iop.org/1748-9326/9/11/114022/article .

  3. Natural gas imports and exports, fourth quarter report 1999

    SciTech Connect

    2000-03-01

    The Office of Natural Gas and Petroleum Import and Export Activities prepares quarterly reports showing natural gas import and export activity. Companies are required to file quarterly reports. Attachments show the percentage of takes to maximum firm contract levels and the weighted average per unit price for each of the long-term importers during the five most recent quarters, volumes and prices of gas purchased by long-term importers and exporters during the past 12 months, volume and price data for gas imported on a short-term or spot market basis, and the gas exported on a short-term or spot market basis to Canada and Mexico.

  4. Natural gas imports and exports, first quarter report 2000

    SciTech Connect

    2000-06-01

    The Office of Natural Gas and Petroleum Import and Export Activities prepares quarterly reports showing natural gas import and export activity. Companies are required to file quarterly reports. Attachments show the percentage of takes to maximum firm contract levels and the weighted average per unit price for each of the long-term importers during the 5 most recent reporting quarters, volumes and prices of gas purchased by long-term importers and exporters during the past 12 months, volume and price data for gas imported on a short-term or spot market basis, and the gas exported on a short-term or spot market basis to Canada and Mexico.

  5. Natural gas imports and exports, third quarter report 2000

    SciTech Connect

    2000-12-01

    The Office of Natural Gas and Petroleum Import and Export Activities prepares quarterly reports showing natural gas import and export activity. Companies are required to file quarterly reports. Attachments show the percentage of takes to maximum firm contract levels and the weighted average per unit price for each of the long-term importers during the 5 most recent quarters, volumes and prices of gas purchased by long-term importers and exporters during the past 12 months, volume and price data for gas imported on a short-term or spot market basis, and the gas exported on a short-term or spot market basis to Canada and Mexico.

  6. An econometric analysis of the market for natural gas futures

    SciTech Connect

    Walls, W.D.

    1995-12-31

    This research tests a form of the efficient markets hypothesis in the market for natural gas futures. Unlike other studies of future markets, the test for market efficiency is conducted at numerous locations which comprise the natural gas spot market in addition to the delivery location specified in the futures contract. Natural gas spot and futures prices are found to be nonstationary and accordingly are modeled using recently developed maximum likelihood cointegrated with nearly all of the spot market prices across the national network of gas pipelines. The hypothesis of market efficiency can be rejected in 3 of the 13 spot markets. 29 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

  7. An ionic liquid process for mercury removal from natural gas.

    PubMed

    Abai, Mahpuzah; Atkins, Martin P; Hassan, Amiruddin; Holbrey, John D; Kuah, Yongcheun; Nockemann, Peter; Oliferenko, Alexander A; Plechkova, Natalia V; Rafeen, Syamzari; Rahman, Adam A; Ramli, Rafin; Shariff, Shahidah M; Seddon, Kenneth R; Srinivasan, Geetha; Zou, Yiran

    2015-05-14

    Efficient scrubbing of mercury vapour from natural gas streams has been demonstrated both in the laboratory and on an industrial scale, using chlorocuprate(II) ionic liquids impregnated on high surface area porous solid supports, resulting in the effective removal of mercury vapour from natural gas streams. This material has been commercialised for use within the petroleum gas production industry, and has currently been running continuously for three years on a natural gas plant in Malaysia. Here we report on the chemistry underlying this process, and demonstrate the transfer of this technology from gram to ton scale.

  8. Natural gas and the environment: new issues, new opportunities

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-01-01

    Because gas is a clean-burning fuel, natural gas technologies now under development can play a major role in improving the quality of the environment. Alone or in combination with other fuels, natural gas can be used to reduce emissions in a wide range of industrial, power plant, and vehicular applications. Its chemical composition makes natural gas suitable as a nutrient that stimulates certain bacteria to break down environmental pollutants in ground water. GRI's efforts in these fields are briefly discussed, along with the environmental issues addressed by such research efforts.

  9. Alternative transport fuels from natural gas. Technical paper

    SciTech Connect

    Moreno, R.; Bailey, D.G.F.

    1989-01-01

    This report examines the economics of using natural gas as an alternative fuel in transport vehicles including passenger cars, taxis, buses, and trucks. It compares the cost of using conventional fuels (gasoline and diesel) in these vehicles with that of retrofitting the vehicles and using natural gas-based fuels. These fuels include compressed natural gas (CNG), liquefied petroleum gas (LPG), methanol, and synthetic gasoline and diesel. The analysis includes various scenarios to establish break-even points between these competing fuels under different assumptions.

  10. Natural gas hydrates and the mystery of the Bermuda Triangle

    SciTech Connect

    Gruy, H.J.

    1998-03-01

    Natural gas hydrates occur on the ocean floor in such great volumes that they contain twice as much carbon as all known coal, oil and conventional natural gas deposits. Releases of this gas caused by sediment slides and other natural causes have resulted in huge slugs of gas saturated water with density too low to float a ship, and enough localized atmospheric contamination to choke air aspirated aircraft engines. The unexplained disappearances of ships and aircraft along with their crews and passengers in the Bermuda Triangle may be tied to the natural venting of gas hydrates. The paper describes what gas hydrates are, their formation and release, and their possible link to the mystery of the Bermuda Triangle.

  11. Natural Gas Storage Research at Savannah River National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Anton, Don; Sulic, Martin; Tamburello, David A.

    2015-05-04

    As an alternative to imported oil, scientists at the Department of Energy’s Savannah River National Laboratory are looking at abundant, domestically sourced natural gas, as an alternative transportation fuel. SRNL is investigating light, inexpensive, adsorbed natural gas storage systems that may fuel the next generation of automobiles.

  12. Theories and Conflict: The Origins of Natural Gas. Instructional Materials.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Susan

    This unit explores a recent and controversial theory of the origin of much of the Earth's natural gas and oil. The materials provided will give students the opportunity to: (1) gain an understanding of science and what is involved in the acceptance or rejection of theories; (2) learn about fossil fuels, especially natural gas; (3) learn the…

  13. 75 FR 80486 - Corning Natural Gas Corporation; Notice of Filing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-22

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Corning Natural Gas Corporation; Notice of Filing December 15, 2010. Take notice that on December 13, 2010, Corning Natural Gas Corporation resubmitted marked and clean versions...

  14. 77 FR 51795 - Coordination Between Natural Gas and Electricity Markets

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-27

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Coordination Between Natural Gas and Electricity Markets Supplemental Notice... Natural Gas and Electricity Markets, Docket No. AD12-12-000 (July 5, 2012) (Notice Of Technical... and Electricity Markets, Docket No. AD12-12-000 (July 17, 2012) (Supplemental Notice Of Technical...

  15. Natural Gas Storage Research at Savannah River National Laboratory

    ScienceCinema

    Anton, Don; Sulic, Martin; Tamburello, David A.

    2016-07-12

    As an alternative to imported oil, scientists at the Department of Energy’s Savannah River National Laboratory are looking at abundant, domestically sourced natural gas, as an alternative transportation fuel. SRNL is investigating light, inexpensive, adsorbed natural gas storage systems that may fuel the next generation of automobiles.

  16. Natural gas imports and exports. Second quarter report

    SciTech Connect

    1997-12-31

    The Office of Natural Gas and Petroleum Import and Export Activities prepares quarterly reports summarizing the data provided by companies authorized to import or export natural gas. Companies are required, as a condition of their authorizations, to file quarterly reports. This report is for the second quarter of 1997 (April through June).

  17. Effects of natural gas development on forest ecosystems

    Treesearch

    Mary Beth Adams; W. Mark Ford; Thomas M. Schuler; Melissa. Thomas-Van Gundy

    2011-01-01

    In 2004, an energy company leased the privately owned minerals that underlie the Fernow Experimental Forest in West Virginia. The Fernow, established in 1934, is dedicated to long-term research. In 2008, a natural gas well was drilled on the Fernow and a pipeline and supporting infrastructure constructed. We describe the impacts of natural gas development on the...

  18. Natural Gas Transportation - Infrastructure Issues and Operational Trends

    EIA Publications

    2001-01-01

    This report examines how well the current national natural gas pipeline network has been able to handle today's market demand for natural gas. In addition, it identifies those areas of the country where pipeline utilization is continuing to grow rapidly and where new pipeline capacity is needed or is planned over the next several years.

  19. Theories and Conflict: The Origins of Natural Gas. Instructional Materials.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Susan

    This unit explores a recent and controversial theory of the origin of much of the Earth's natural gas and oil. The materials provided will give students the opportunity to: (1) gain an understanding of science and what is involved in the acceptance or rejection of theories; (2) learn about fossil fuels, especially natural gas; (3) learn the…

  20. Natural neural projection dynamics underlying social behavior.

    PubMed

    Gunaydin, Lisa A; Grosenick, Logan; Finkelstein, Joel C; Kauvar, Isaac V; Fenno, Lief E; Adhikari, Avishek; Lammel, Stephan; Mirzabekov, Julie J; Airan, Raag D; Zalocusky, Kelly A; Tye, Kay M; Anikeeva, Polina; Malenka, Robert C; Deisseroth, Karl

    2014-06-19

    Social interaction is a complex behavior essential for many species and is impaired in major neuropsychiatric disorders. Pharmacological studies have implicated certain neurotransmitter systems in social behavior, but circuit-level understanding of endogenous neural activity during social interaction is lacking. We therefore developed and applied a new methodology, termed fiber photometry, to optically record natural neural activity in genetically and connectivity-defined projections to elucidate the real-time role of specified pathways in mammalian behavior. Fiber photometry revealed that activity dynamics of a ventral tegmental area (VTA)-to-nucleus accumbens (NAc) projection could encode and predict key features of social, but not novel object, interaction. Consistent with this observation, optogenetic control of cells specifically contributing to this projection was sufficient to modulate social behavior, which was mediated by type 1 dopamine receptor signaling downstream in the NAc. Direct observation of deep projection-specific activity in this way captures a fundamental and previously inaccessible dimension of mammalian circuit dynamics. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.