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Sample records for natural gas steam-reforming

  1. Thermal analysis of cylindrical natural-gas steam reformer for 5 kW PEMFC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jo, Taehyun; Han, Junhee; Koo, Bonchan; Lee, Dohyung

    2016-01-01

    The thermal characteristics of a natural-gas based cylindrical steam reformer coupled with a combustor are investigated for the use with a 5 kW polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell. A reactor unit equipped with nickel-based catalysts was designed to activate the steam reforming reaction without the inclusion of high-temperature shift and low-temperature shift processes. Reactor temperature distribution and its overall thermal efficiency depend on various inlet conditions such as the equivalence ratio, the steam to carbon ratio (SCR), and the fuel distribution ratio (FDR) into the reactor and the combustor components. These experiments attempted to analyze the reformer's thermal and chemical properties through quantitative evaluation of product composition and heat exchange between the combustor and the reactor. FDR is critical factor in determining the overall performance as unbalanced fuel injection into the reactor and the combustor deteriorates overall thermal efficiency. Local temperature distribution also influences greatly on the fuel conversion rate and thermal efficiency. For the experiments, the operation conditions were set as SCR was in range of 2.5-4.0 and FDR was in 0.4-0.7 along with equivalence ratio of 0.9-1.1; optimum results were observed for FDR of 0.63 and SCR of 3.0 in the cylindrical steam reformer.

  2. Thermal analysis of cylindrical natural-gas steam reformer for 5 kW PEMFC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jo, Taehyun; Han, Junhee; Koo, Bonchan; Lee, Dohyung

    2016-11-01

    The thermal characteristics of a natural-gas based cylindrical steam reformer coupled with a combustor are investigated for the use with a 5 kW polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell. A reactor unit equipped with nickel-based catalysts was designed to activate the steam reforming reaction without the inclusion of high-temperature shift and low-temperature shift processes. Reactor temperature distribution and its overall thermal efficiency depend on various inlet conditions such as the equivalence ratio, the steam to carbon ratio (SCR), and the fuel distribution ratio (FDR) into the reactor and the combustor components. These experiments attempted to analyze the reformer's thermal and chemical properties through quantitative evaluation of product composition and heat exchange between the combustor and the reactor. FDR is critical factor in determining the overall performance as unbalanced fuel injection into the reactor and the combustor deteriorates overall thermal efficiency. Local temperature distribution also influences greatly on the fuel conversion rate and thermal efficiency. For the experiments, the operation conditions were set as SCR was in range of 2.5-4.0 and FDR was in 0.4-0.7 along with equivalence ratio of 0.9-1.1; optimum results were observed for FDR of 0.63 and SCR of 3.0 in the cylindrical steam reformer.

  3. Hydrogen production by steam reforming of liquefied natural gas over a nickel catalyst supported on mesoporous alumina xerogel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seo, Jeong Gil; Youn, Min Hye; Cho, Kyung Min; Park, Sunyoung; Song, In Kyu

    Mesoporous alumina xerogel (A-SG) is prepared by a sol-gel method for use as a support for a nickel catalyst. The Ni/A-SG catalyst is then prepared by an impregnation method, and is applied to hydrogen production by steam reforming of liquefied natural gas (LNG). The effect of the mesoporous alumina xerogel support on the catalytic performance of Ni/A-SG catalyst is investigated. For the purpose of comparison, a nickel catalyst supported on commercial alumina (A-C) is also prepared by an impregnation method (Ni/A-C). Both the hydroxyl-rich surface and the electron-deficient sites of the A-SG support enhance the dispersion of the nickel species on the support during the calcination step. The formation of the surface nickel aluminate phase in the Ni/A-SG catalyst remarkably increases the reducibility and stability of the catalyst. Furthermore, the high-surface area and the well-developed mesoporosity of the Ni/A-SG catalyst enhance the gasification of surface hydrocarbons that are adsorbed in the reaction. In the steam reforming of LNG, the Ni/A-SG catalyst exhibits a better catalytic performance than the Ni/A-C catalyst in terms of LNG conversion and hydrogen production. Moreover, the Ni/A-SG catalyst shows strong resistance toward catalyst deactivation.

  4. Hydrogen production by steam reforming of liquefied natural gas (LNG) over nickel catalysts supported on cationic surfactant-templated mesoporous aluminas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seo, Jeong Gil; Youn, Min Hye; Park, Sunyoung; Jung, Ji Chul; Kim, Pil; Chung, Jin Suk; Song, In Kyu

    Two types of mesoporous γ-aluminas (denoted as A-A and A-S) are prepared by a hydrothermal method under different basic conditions using cationic surfactant (cetyltrimethylammonium bromide, CTAB) as a templating agent. A-A and A-S are synthesized in a medium of ammonia solution and sodium hydroxide solution, respectively. Ni/γ-Al 2O 3 catalysts (Ni/A-A and Ni/A-S) are then prepared by an impregnation method, and are applied to hydrogen production by steam reforming of liquefied natural gas (LNG). The effect of a mesoporous γ-Al 2O 3 support on the catalytic performance of Ni/γ-Al 2O 3 is investigated. The identity of basic solution strongly affects the physical properties of the A-A and A-S supports. The high surface-area of the mesoporous γ-aluminas and the strong metal-support interaction of supported catalysts greatly enhance the dispersion of nickel species on the catalyst surface. The well-developed mesopores of the Ni/A-A and Ni/A-S catalysts prohibit the polymerization of carbon species on the catalyst surface during the reaction. In the steam reforming of LNG, both Ni/A-A and Ni/A-S catalysts give better catalytic performance than the nickel catalyst supported on commercial γ-Al 2O 3 (Ni/A-C). In addition, the Ni/A-A catalyst is superior to the Ni/A-S catalyst. The relatively strong metal-support interaction of Ni/A-A catalyst effectively suppresses the sintering of metallic nickel and the carbon deposition in the steam reforming of LNG. The large pores of the Ni/A-A catalyst also play an important role in enhancing internal mass transfer during the reaction.

  5. Studying the characteristics of a 5 kW power installation on solid-oxide fuel cells with steam reforming of natural gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Munts, V. A.; Volkova, Yu. V.; Plotnikov, N. S.; Dubinin, A. M.; Tuponogov, V. G.; Chernishev, V. A.

    2015-11-01

    The results from tests of a 5 kW power plant on solid-oxide fuel cells (SOFCs), in which natural gas is used as fuel, are presented. The installation's process circuit, the test procedure, and the analysis of the obtained results are described. The characteristics of the power plant developed by the Ural Industrial Company are investigated in four steady-state modes of its operation: with the SOFC nominal power capacity utilized by 40% (2 kW), 60% (3 kW), 90% (4.5 kW) and 110% (5.4 kW) (the peaking mode). The electrical and thermodynamic efficiencies are calculated for all operating modes, and the most efficient mode, in which the electrical efficiency reached almost 70%, is determined. The air excess coefficient and heat loss with flue gases q 2 are determined, and it is revealed that the heat loss q 5 decreases from 40 to 25% with increasing the load. Thermal balances are drawn up for the following components of the system the reformer, the SOFC battery, the catalytic burner for afterburning anode gases, the heat exchanger for heating the cathode air and the mixture of natural gas and steam, and the actual fuel utilization rates in the electrochemical generator are calculated. An equation for the resulting natural gas steam reforming reaction was obtained based on the results from calculating the equilibrium composition of reforming products for the achieved temperatures at the reformer outlet t 3.

  6. Hydrogen Production by Steam Reforming of Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) Over Nickel-Phosphorus-Alumina Xerogel Catalyst Prepared by a Carbon-Templating Epoxide-Driven Sol-Gel Method.

    PubMed

    Bang, Yongju; Park, Seungwon; Han, Seung Ju; Yoo, Jaekyeong; Choi, Jung Ho; Kang, Tae Hun; Lee, Jinwon; Song, In Kyu

    2016-05-01

    A nickel-phosphorus-alumina xerogel catalyst was prepared by a carbon-templating epoxide-driven sol-gel method (denoted as CNPA catalyst), and it was applied to the hydrogen production by steam reforming of liquefied natural gas (LNG). For comparison, a nickel-phosphorus-alumina xerogel catalyst was also prepared by a similar method in the absence of carbon template (denoted as NPA catalyst). The effect of carbon template addition on the physicochemical properties and catalytic activities of the catalysts in the steam reforming of LNG was investigated. Both CNPA and NPA catalysts showed excellent textural properties with well-developed mesoporous structure. However, CNPA catalyst retained a more reducible nickel aluminate phase than NPA catalyst. XRD analysis of the reduced CNPA and NPA catalysts revealed that nickel sintering on the CNPA catalyst was suppressed compared to that on the NPA catalyst. From H2-TPD and CH4-TPD measurements of the reduced CNPA and NPA catalysts, it was also revealed that CNPA catalyst with large amount of hydrogen uptake and strong hydrogen-binding sites showed larger amount of methane adsorption than NPA catalyst. In the hydrogen production by steam reforming of LNG, CNPA catalyst with large methane adsorption capacity showed a better catalytic activity than NPA catalyst. PMID:27483798

  7. Hydrogen Production by Steam Reforming of Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) Over Nickel-Phosphorus-Alumina Xerogel Catalyst Prepared by a Carbon-Templating Epoxide-Driven Sol-Gel Method.

    PubMed

    Bang, Yongju; Park, Seungwon; Han, Seung Ju; Yoo, Jaekyeong; Choi, Jung Ho; Kang, Tae Hun; Lee, Jinwon; Song, In Kyu

    2016-05-01

    A nickel-phosphorus-alumina xerogel catalyst was prepared by a carbon-templating epoxide-driven sol-gel method (denoted as CNPA catalyst), and it was applied to the hydrogen production by steam reforming of liquefied natural gas (LNG). For comparison, a nickel-phosphorus-alumina xerogel catalyst was also prepared by a similar method in the absence of carbon template (denoted as NPA catalyst). The effect of carbon template addition on the physicochemical properties and catalytic activities of the catalysts in the steam reforming of LNG was investigated. Both CNPA and NPA catalysts showed excellent textural properties with well-developed mesoporous structure. However, CNPA catalyst retained a more reducible nickel aluminate phase than NPA catalyst. XRD analysis of the reduced CNPA and NPA catalysts revealed that nickel sintering on the CNPA catalyst was suppressed compared to that on the NPA catalyst. From H2-TPD and CH4-TPD measurements of the reduced CNPA and NPA catalysts, it was also revealed that CNPA catalyst with large amount of hydrogen uptake and strong hydrogen-binding sites showed larger amount of methane adsorption than NPA catalyst. In the hydrogen production by steam reforming of LNG, CNPA catalyst with large methane adsorption capacity showed a better catalytic activity than NPA catalyst.

  8. Effect of SiO 2-ZrO 2 supports prepared by a grafting method on hydrogen production by steam reforming of liquefied natural gas over Ni/SiO 2-ZrO 2 catalysts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seo, Jeong Gil; Youn, Min Hye; Song, In Kyu

    SiO 2-ZrO 2 supports with various zirconium contents are prepared by grafting a zirconium precursor onto the surface of commercial Carbosil silica. Ni(20 wt.%)/SiO 2-ZrO 2 catalysts are then prepared by an impregnation method, and are applied to hydrogen production by steam reforming of liquefied natural gas (LNG). The effect of SiO 2-ZrO 2 supports on the performance of the Ni(20 wt.%)/SiO 2-ZrO 2 catalysts is investigated. SiO 2-ZrO 2 prepared by a grafting method serves as an efficient support for the nickel catalyst in the steam reforming of LNG. Zirconia enhances the resistance of silica to steam significantly and increases the interaction between nickel and the support, and furthermore, prevents the growth of nickel oxide species during the calcination process through the formation of a ZrO 2-SiO 2 composite structure. The crystalline structures and catalytic activities of the Ni(20 wt.%)/SiO 2-ZrO 2 catalysts are strongly influenced by the amount of zirconium grafted. The conversion of LNG and the yield of hydrogen show volcano-shaped curves with respect to zirconium content. Among the catalysts tested, the Ni(20 wt.%)/SiO 2-ZrO 2 (Zr/Si = 0.54) sample shows the best catalytic performance in terms of both LNG conversion and hydrogen yield. The well-developed and pure tetragonal phase of ZrO 2-SiO 2 (Zr/Si = 0.54) appears to play an important role in the adsorption of steam and subsequent spillover of steam from the support to the active nickel. The small particle size of the metallic nickel in the Ni(20 wt.%)/SiO 2-ZrO 2 (Zr/Si = 0.54) catalyst is also responsible for its high performance.

  9. Steam Reforming of Hydrocarbon Fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Ming, Qimin; Healey, T; Allen, Lloyd; Irving, Patricia M.

    2002-12-01

    has developed a proprietary catalyst formulation for the fuel processor that is being developed for use with polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells. The catalyst has been tested for the steam reforming of various hydrocarbons such as natural gas, iso-octane, retail gasoline, and hexadecane. A 300h continuous test has shown that the catalyst has very stable performance for steam reforming of iso-octane at 800?C with a steam/C ratio of 3.6. The same catalyst was also tested for steam reforming hexadecane (a surrogate of diesel) for 73h as well as natural gas for over 150h continuously, without deactivation or carbon deposition. Sulfur tolerance of the catalyst was tested using iso-octane containing various concentrations of sulfur. There was no catalyst deactivation after a 220h continuous test using iso-octane with 100ppm sulfur. For comparison, a nickel catalyst (12wt.% Ni/Al2O3) was also tested using different levels of sulfur in iso-octane. The results indicated that the InnovaTek catalyst has a substantially improved sulfur resistance compared to the nickel catalysts currently used for steam reforming. In addition, a variation of the catalyst was also used to reduce CO concentration to < 1% by water gas shift reaction.

  10. PdZnAl Catalysts for the Reactions of Water-Gas-Shift, Methanol Steam Reforming, and Reverse-Water-Gas-Shift

    SciTech Connect

    Dagle, Robert A.; Platon, Alexandru; Datye, Abhaya K.; Vohs, John M.; Wang, Yong; Palo, Daniel R.

    2008-03-07

    Pd/ZnO/Al2O3 catalysts were studied for water-gas-shift (WGS), methanol steam reforming, and reverse-water-gas-shift (RWGS) reactions. WGS activity was found to be dependent on the Pd:Zn ratio with a maximum activity obtained at approximately 0.50, which was comparable to that of a commercial Pt-based catalyst. The catalyst stability was demonstrated for 100 hours time-on-stream at a temperature of 3600C without evidence of metal sintering. WGS reaction rates were approximately 1st order with respect to CO concentration, and kinetic parameters were determined to be Ea = 58.3 kJ mol-1 and k0 = 6.1x107 min-1. During methanol steam reforming, the CO selectivities were observed to be lower than the calculated equilibrium values over a range of temperatures and steam/carbon ratios studied while the reaction rate constants were approximately of the same magnitude for both WGS and methanol steam reforming. These results indicate that although Pd/ZnO/Al2O3 are active WGS catalysts, WGS is not involved in methanol steam reforming. RWGS rate constants are on the order of about 20 times lower than that of methanol steam reforming, suggesting that RWGS reaction could be one of the sources for small amount of CO formation in methanol steam reforming.

  11. Towards H2-rich gas production from unmixed steam reforming of methane: Thermodynamic modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lima da Silva, Aline; Müller, Iduvirges Lourdes

    2011-10-01

    In this work, the Gibbs energy minimization method is applied to investigate the unmixed steam reforming (USR) of methane to generate hydrogen for fuel cell application. The USR process is an advanced reforming technology that relies on the use of separate air and fuel/steam feeds to create a cyclic process. Under air flow (first half of the cycle), a bed of Ni-based material is oxidized, providing the heat necessary for the steam reforming that occurs subsequently during fuel/steam feed stage (second half of the cycle). In the presence of CaO sorbent, high purity hydrogen can be produced in a single reactor. In the first part of this work, it is demonstrated that thermodynamic predictions are consistent with experimental results from USR isothermal tests under fuel/steam feed. From this, it is also verified that the reacted NiO to CH4 (NiOreacted/CH4) molar ratio is a very important parameter that affects the product gas composition and decreases with time. At the end of fuel/steam flow, the reforming reaction is the most important chemical mechanism, with H2 production reaching ∼75 mol%. On the other hand, at the beginning of fuel/steam feed stage, NiO reduction reactions dominate the equilibrium system, resulting in high CO2 selectivity, negative steam conversion and low concentrations of H2. In the second part of this paper, the effect of NiOreacted/CH4 molar ratio on the product gas composition and enthalpy change during fuel flow is investigated at different temperatures for inlet H2O/CH4 molar ratios in the range of 1.2-4, considering the USR process operated with and without CaO sorbent. During fuel/steam feed stage, the energy demand increases as time passes, because endothermic reforming reaction becomes increasingly important as this stage nears its end. Thus, the duration of the second half of the cycle is limited by the conditions under which auto-thermal operation can be achieved. In absence of CaO, H2 at concentrations of approximately 73 mol% can

  12. Plasma steam reforming of E85 for hydrogen rich gas production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Xinli; Hoang, Trung; Lobban, Lance L.; Mallinson, Richard G.

    2011-07-01

    E85 (85 vol% ethanol and 15 vol% gasoline) is a partly renewable fuel that is increasing in supply availability. Hydrogen production from E85 for fuel cell or internal combustion engine applications is a potential method for reducing CO2 emissions. Steam reforming of E85 using a nonthermal plasma (pulse corona discharge) reactor has been exploited at low temperature (200-300 °C) without external heating, diluent gas, oxidant or catalyst in this work. Several operational parameters, including the discharge current, E85 concentration and feed flow rate, have been investigated. The results show that hydrogen rich gases (63-67% H2 and 22-29% CO, with small amounts of CO2, C2 hydrocarbons and CH4) can be produced by this method. A comparison with ethanol reforming and gasoline reforming under identical conditions has also been made and the behaviour of E85 reforming is found to be close to that of ethanol reforming with slightly higher C2 hydrocarbons yields.

  13. Demonstration of a Highly Efficient Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Power System Using Adiabatic Steam Reforming and Anode Gas Recirculation

    SciTech Connect

    Powell, Michael R.; Meinhardt, Kerry D.; Sprenkle, Vincent L.; Chick, Lawrence A.; Mcvay, Gary L.

    2012-05-01

    Solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC) are currently being developed for a wide variety of applications because of their high efficiency at multiple power levels. Applications for SOFCs encompass a large range of power levels including 1-2 kW residential combined heat and power applications, 100-250 kW sized systems for distributed generation and grid extension, and MW-scale power plants utilizing coal. This paper reports on the development of a highly efficient, small-scale SOFC power system operating on methane. The system uses adiabatic steam reforming of methane and anode gas recirculation to achieve high net electrical efficiency. The anode exit gas is recirculated and all of the heat and water required for the endothermic reforming reaction are provided by the anode gas emerging from the SOFC stack. Although the single-pass fuel utilization is only about 55%, because of the anode gas recirculation the overall fuel utilization is up to 93%. The demonstrated system achieved gross power output of 1650 to 2150 watts with a maximum net LHV efficiency of 56.7% at 1720 watts. Overall system efficiency could be further improved to over 60% with use of properly sized blowers.

  14. Developing an energy efficient steam reforming process to produce hydrogen from sulfur-containing fuels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simson, Amanda

    Hydrogen powered fuel cells have the potential to produce electricity with higher efficiency and lower emissions than conventional combustion technology. In order to realize the benefits of a hydrogen fuel cell an efficient method to produce hydrogen is needed. Currently, over 90% of hydrogen is produced from the steam reforming of natural gas. However, for many applications including fuel cell vehicles, the use of a liquid fuel rather than natural gas is desirable. This work investigates the feasibility of producing hydrogen efficiently by steam reforming E85 (85% ethanol/15% gasoline), a commercially available sulfur-containing transportation fuel. A Rh-Pt/SiO2-ZrO2 catalyst has demonstrated good activity for the E85 steam reforming reaction. An industrial steam reforming process is often run less efficiently, with more water and at higher temperatures, in order to prevent catalyst deactivation. Therefore, it is desirable to develop a process that can operate without catalyst deactivation at more energy efficient conditions. In this study, the steam reforming of a sulfur-containing fuel (E85) was studied at near stoichiometric steam/carbon ratios and at 650C, conditions at which catalyst deactivation is normally measured. At these conditions the catalyst was found to be stable steam reforming a sulfur-free E85. However, the addition of low concentrations of sulfur significantly deactivated the catalyst. The presence of sulfur in the fuel caused catalyst deactivation by promoting ethylene which generates surface carbon species (coke) that mask catalytic sites. The amount of coke increased during time on stream and became increasingly graphitic. However, the deactivation due to both sulfur adsorption and coke formation was reversible with air treatment at 650°C. However, regenerations were found to reduce the catalyst life. Air regenerations produce exotherms on the catalyst surface that cause structural changes to the catalyst. During regenerations the

  15. Steam reformer with catalytic combustor

    DOEpatents

    Voecks, Gerald E.

    1990-03-20

    A steam reformer is disclosed having an annular steam reforming catalyst bed formed by concentric cylinders and having a catalytic combustor located at the center of the innermost cylinder. Fuel is fed into the interior of the catalytic combustor and air is directed at the top of the combustor, creating a catalytic reaction which provides sufficient heat so as to maintain the catalytic reaction in the steam reforming catalyst bed. Alternatively, air is fed into the interior of the catalytic combustor and a fuel mixture is directed at the top. The catalytic combustor provides enhanced radiant and convective heat transfer to the reformer catalyst bed.

  16. Steam reformer with catalytic combustor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Voecks, Gerald E. (Inventor)

    1990-01-01

    A steam reformer is disclosed having an annular steam reforming catalyst bed formed by concentric cylinders and having a catalytic combustor located at the center of the innermost cylinder. Fuel is fed into the interior of the catalytic combustor and air is directed at the top of the combustor, creating a catalytic reaction which provides sufficient heat so as to maintain the catalytic reaction in the steam reforming catalyst bed. Alternatively, air is fed into the interior of the catalytic combustor and a fuel mixture is directed at the top. The catalytic combustor provides enhanced radiant and convective heat transfer to the reformer catalyst bed.

  17. Integration of Methane Steam Reforming and Water Gas Shift Reaction in a Pd/Au/Pd-Based Catalytic Membrane Reactor for Process Intensification.

    PubMed

    Castro-Dominguez, Bernardo; Mardilovich, Ivan P; Ma, Liang-Chih; Ma, Rui; Dixon, Anthony G; Kazantzis, Nikolaos K; Ma, Yi Hua

    2016-09-19

    Palladium-based catalytic membrane reactors (CMRs) effectively remove H₂ to induce higher conversions in methane steam reforming (MSR) and water-gas-shift reactions (WGS). Within such a context, this work evaluates the technical performance of a novel CMR, which utilizes two catalysts in series, rather than one. In the process system under consideration, the first catalyst, confined within the shell side of the reactor, reforms methane with water yielding H₂, CO and CO₂. After reforming is completed, a second catalyst, positioned in series, reacts with CO and water through the WGS reaction yielding pure H₂O, CO₂ and H₂. A tubular composite asymmetric Pd/Au/Pd membrane is situated throughout the reactor to continuously remove the produced H₂ and induce higher methane and CO conversions while yielding ultrapure H₂ and compressed CO₂ ready for dehydration. Experimental results involving (i) a conventional packed bed reactor packed (PBR) for MSR, (ii) a PBR with five layers of two catalysts in series and (iii) a CMR with two layers of two catalysts in series are comparatively assessed and thoroughly characterized. Furthermore, a comprehensive 2D computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model was developed to explore further the features of the proposed configuration. The reaction was studied at different process intensification-relevant conditions, such as space velocities, temperatures, pressures and initial feed gas composition. Finally, it is demonstrated that the above CMR module, which was operated for 600 h, displays quite high H₂ permeance and purity, high CH₄ conversion levels and reduced CO yields.

  18. Integration of Methane Steam Reforming and Water Gas Shift Reaction in a Pd/Au/Pd-Based Catalytic Membrane Reactor for Process Intensification.

    PubMed

    Castro-Dominguez, Bernardo; Mardilovich, Ivan P; Ma, Liang-Chih; Ma, Rui; Dixon, Anthony G; Kazantzis, Nikolaos K; Ma, Yi Hua

    2016-01-01

    Palladium-based catalytic membrane reactors (CMRs) effectively remove H₂ to induce higher conversions in methane steam reforming (MSR) and water-gas-shift reactions (WGS). Within such a context, this work evaluates the technical performance of a novel CMR, which utilizes two catalysts in series, rather than one. In the process system under consideration, the first catalyst, confined within the shell side of the reactor, reforms methane with water yielding H₂, CO and CO₂. After reforming is completed, a second catalyst, positioned in series, reacts with CO and water through the WGS reaction yielding pure H₂O, CO₂ and H₂. A tubular composite asymmetric Pd/Au/Pd membrane is situated throughout the reactor to continuously remove the produced H₂ and induce higher methane and CO conversions while yielding ultrapure H₂ and compressed CO₂ ready for dehydration. Experimental results involving (i) a conventional packed bed reactor packed (PBR) for MSR, (ii) a PBR with five layers of two catalysts in series and (iii) a CMR with two layers of two catalysts in series are comparatively assessed and thoroughly characterized. Furthermore, a comprehensive 2D computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model was developed to explore further the features of the proposed configuration. The reaction was studied at different process intensification-relevant conditions, such as space velocities, temperatures, pressures and initial feed gas composition. Finally, it is demonstrated that the above CMR module, which was operated for 600 h, displays quite high H₂ permeance and purity, high CH₄ conversion levels and reduced CO yields. PMID:27657143

  19. Hydrogen-based power generation from bioethanol steam reforming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tasnadi-Asztalos, Zs.; Cormos, C. C.; Agachi, P. S.

    2015-12-01

    This paper is evaluating two power generation concepts based on hydrogen produced from bioethanol steam reforming at industrial scale without and with carbon capture. The power generation from bioethanol conversion is based on two important steps: hydrogen production from bioethanol catalytic steam reforming and electricity generation using a hydrogen-fuelled gas turbine. As carbon capture method to be assessed in hydrogen-based power generation from bioethanol steam reforming, the gas-liquid absorption using methyl-di-ethanol-amine (MDEA) was used. Bioethanol is a renewable energy carrier mainly produced from biomass fermentation. Steam reforming of bioethanol (SRE) provides a promising method for hydrogen and power production from renewable resources. SRE is performed at high temperatures (e.g. 800-900°C) to reduce the reforming by-products (e.g. ethane, ethene). The power generation from hydrogen was done with M701G2 gas turbine (334 MW net power output). Hydrogen was obtained through catalytic steam reforming of bioethanol without and with carbon capture. For the evaluated plant concepts the following key performance indicators were assessed: fuel consumption, gross and net power outputs, net electrical efficiency, ancillary consumptions, carbon capture rate, specific CO2 emission etc. As the results show, the power generation based on bioethanol conversion has high energy efficiency and low carbon footprint.

  20. Hydrogen-based power generation from bioethanol steam reforming

    SciTech Connect

    Tasnadi-Asztalos, Zs. Cormos, C. C. Agachi, P. S.

    2015-12-23

    This paper is evaluating two power generation concepts based on hydrogen produced from bioethanol steam reforming at industrial scale without and with carbon capture. The power generation from bioethanol conversion is based on two important steps: hydrogen production from bioethanol catalytic steam reforming and electricity generation using a hydrogen-fuelled gas turbine. As carbon capture method to be assessed in hydrogen-based power generation from bioethanol steam reforming, the gas-liquid absorption using methyl-di-ethanol-amine (MDEA) was used. Bioethanol is a renewable energy carrier mainly produced from biomass fermentation. Steam reforming of bioethanol (SRE) provides a promising method for hydrogen and power production from renewable resources. SRE is performed at high temperatures (e.g. 800-900°C) to reduce the reforming by-products (e.g. ethane, ethene). The power generation from hydrogen was done with M701G2 gas turbine (334 MW net power output). Hydrogen was obtained through catalytic steam reforming of bioethanol without and with carbon capture. For the evaluated plant concepts the following key performance indicators were assessed: fuel consumption, gross and net power outputs, net electrical efficiency, ancillary consumptions, carbon capture rate, specific CO{sub 2} emission etc. As the results show, the power generation based on bioethanol conversion has high energy efficiency and low carbon footprint.

  1. Integration of Methane Steam Reforming and Water Gas Shift Reaction in a Pd/Au/Pd-Based Catalytic Membrane Reactor for Process Intensification

    PubMed Central

    Castro-Dominguez, Bernardo; Mardilovich, Ivan P.; Ma, Liang-Chih; Ma, Rui; Dixon, Anthony G.; Kazantzis, Nikolaos K.; Ma, Yi Hua

    2016-01-01

    Palladium-based catalytic membrane reactors (CMRs) effectively remove H2 to induce higher conversions in methane steam reforming (MSR) and water-gas-shift reactions (WGS). Within such a context, this work evaluates the technical performance of a novel CMR, which utilizes two catalysts in series, rather than one. In the process system under consideration, the first catalyst, confined within the shell side of the reactor, reforms methane with water yielding H2, CO and CO2. After reforming is completed, a second catalyst, positioned in series, reacts with CO and water through the WGS reaction yielding pure H2O, CO2 and H2. A tubular composite asymmetric Pd/Au/Pd membrane is situated throughout the reactor to continuously remove the produced H2 and induce higher methane and CO conversions while yielding ultrapure H2 and compressed CO2 ready for dehydration. Experimental results involving (i) a conventional packed bed reactor packed (PBR) for MSR, (ii) a PBR with five layers of two catalysts in series and (iii) a CMR with two layers of two catalysts in series are comparatively assessed and thoroughly characterized. Furthermore, a comprehensive 2D computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model was developed to explore further the features of the proposed configuration. The reaction was studied at different process intensification-relevant conditions, such as space velocities, temperatures, pressures and initial feed gas composition. Finally, it is demonstrated that the above CMR module, which was operated for 600 h, displays quite high H2 permeance and purity, high CH4 conversion levels and reduced CO yields. PMID:27657143

  2. Hydrogen generation utilizing integrated CO2 removal with steam reforming

    DOEpatents

    Duraiswamy, Kandaswamy; Chellappa, Anand S

    2013-07-23

    A steam reformer may comprise fluid inlet and outlet connections and have a substantially cylindrical geometry divided into reforming segments and reforming compartments extending longitudinally within the reformer, each being in fluid communication. With the fluid inlets and outlets. Further, methods for generating hydrogen may comprise steam reformation and material adsorption in one operation followed by regeneration of adsorbers in another operation. Cathode off-gas from a fuel cell may be used to regenerate and sweep the adsorbers, and the operations may cycle among a plurality of adsorption enhanced reformers to provide a continuous flow of hydrogen.

  3. Catalytic glycerol steam reforming for hydrogen production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dan, Monica; Mihet, Maria; Lazar, Mihaela D.

    2015-12-01

    Hydrogen production from glycerol by steam reforming combine two major advantages: (i) using glycerol as raw material add value to this by product of bio-diesel production which is obtained in large quantities around the world and have a very limited utilization now, and (ii) by implication of water molecules in the reaction the efficiency of hydrogen generation is increased as each mol of glycerol produces 7 mol of H2. In this work we present the results obtained in the process of steam reforming of glycerol on Ni/Al2O3. The catalyst was prepared by wet impregnation method and characterized through different methods: N2 adsorption-desorption, XRD, TPR. The catalytic study was performed in a stainless steel tubular reactor at atmospheric pressure by varying the reaction conditions: steam/carbon ratio (1-9), gas flow (35 ml/min -133 ml/min), temperature (450-650°C). The gaseous fraction of the reaction products contain: H2, CH4, CO, CO2. The optimum reaction conditions as resulted from this study are: temperature 550°C, Gly:H2O ratio 9:1 and Ar flow 133 ml/min. In these conditions the glycerol conversion to gaseous products was 43% and the hydrogen yield was 30%.

  4. Catalytic glycerol steam reforming for hydrogen production

    SciTech Connect

    Dan, Monica Mihet, Maria Lazar, Mihaela D.

    2015-12-23

    Hydrogen production from glycerol by steam reforming combine two major advantages: (i) using glycerol as raw material add value to this by product of bio-diesel production which is obtained in large quantities around the world and have a very limited utilization now, and (ii) by implication of water molecules in the reaction the efficiency of hydrogen generation is increased as each mol of glycerol produces 7 mol of H{sub 2}. In this work we present the results obtained in the process of steam reforming of glycerol on Ni/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}. The catalyst was prepared by wet impregnation method and characterized through different methods: N{sub 2} adsorption-desorption, XRD, TPR. The catalytic study was performed in a stainless steel tubular reactor at atmospheric pressure by varying the reaction conditions: steam/carbon ratio (1-9), gas flow (35 ml/min -133 ml/min), temperature (450-650°C). The gaseous fraction of the reaction products contain: H{sub 2}, CH{sub 4}, CO, CO{sub 2}. The optimum reaction conditions as resulted from this study are: temperature 550°C, Gly:H{sub 2}O ratio 9:1 and Ar flow 133 ml/min. In these conditions the glycerol conversion to gaseous products was 43% and the hydrogen yield was 30%.

  5. Steam reforming catalyst

    DOEpatents

    Kramarz, Kurt W.; Bloom, Ira D.; Kumar, Romesh; Ahmed, Shabbir; Wilkenhoener, Rolf; Krumpelt, Michael

    2001-01-01

    A method of forming a hydrogen rich gas from a source of hydrocarbon fuel. A vapor of the hydrocarbon fuel and steam is brought in contact with a two-part catalyst having a dehydrogenation powder portion and an oxide-ion conducting powder portion at a temperature not less than about 770.degree.C. for a time sufficient to generate the hydrogen rich. The H.sub.2 content of the hydrogen gas is greater than about 70 percent by volume. The dehydrogenation portion of the catalyst includes a group VIII metal, and the oxide-ion conducting portion is selected from a ceramic oxide from the group crystallizing in the fluorite or perovskite structure and mixtures thereof. The oxide-ion conducting portion of the catalyst is a ceramic powder of one or more of ZrO.sub.2, CeO.sub.2, Bi.sub.2 O.sub.3, (BiVO).sub.4, and LaGaO.sub.3.

  6. Steam Reformer With Fibrous Catalytic Combustor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Voecks, Gerald E.

    1987-01-01

    Proposed steam-reforming reactor derives heat from internal combustion on fibrous catalyst. Supplies of fuel and air to combustor controlled to meet demand for heat for steam-reforming reaction. Enables use of less expensive reactor-tube material by limiting temperature to value safe for material yet not so low as to reduce reactor efficiency.

  7. Method of steam reforming methanol to hydrogen

    DOEpatents

    Beshty, Bahjat S.

    1990-01-01

    The production of hydrogen by the catalyzed steam reforming of methanol is accomplished using a reformer of greatly reduced size and cost wherein a mixture of water and methanol is superheated to the gaseous state at temperatures of about 800.degree. to about 1,100.degree. F. and then fed to a reformer in direct contact with the catalyst bed contained therein, whereby the heat for the endothermic steam reforming reaction is derived directly from the superheated steam/methanol mixture.

  8. Thermodynamic analysis of acetic acid steam reforming for hydrogen production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goicoechea, Saioa; Ehrich, Heike; Arias, Pedro L.; Kockmann, Norbert

    2015-04-01

    A thermodynamic analysis of hydrogen generation by acetic acid steam reforming has been carried out with respect to applications in solid oxide fuel cells. The effect of operating parameters on equilibrium composition has been examined focusing especially on hydrogen and carbon monoxide production, which are the fuels in this type of fuel cell. The temperature, steam to acetic acid ratio, and to a lesser extent pressure affect significantly the equilibrium product distribution due to their influence on steam reforming, thermal decomposition and water-gas shift reaction. The study shows that steam reforming of acetic acid with a steam to acetic acid ratio of 2 to 1 is thermodynamically feasible with hydrogen, carbon monoxide and water as the main products at the equilibrium at temperatures higher than 700 °C, and achieving CO/CO2 ratios higher than 1. Thus, it can be concluded that within the operation temperature range of solid oxide fuel cells - between 700 °C and 1000 °C - the production of a gas rich in hydrogen and carbon monoxide is promoted.

  9. TWR Bench-Scale Steam Reforming Demonstration

    SciTech Connect

    Marshall, D.W.; Soelberg, N.R.

    2003-05-21

    The Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC) was home to nuclear fuel reprocessing activities for decades at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory. As a result of the reprocessing activities, INTEC has accumulated approximately one million gallons of acidic, radioactive, sodium-bearing waste (SBW). The purpose of this demonstration was to investigate a reforming technology, offered by ThermoChem Waste Remediation, LLC, (TWR) for treatment of SBW into a ''road ready'' waste form that would meet the waste acceptance criteria for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). TWR is the licensee of Manufacturing Technology Conservation International (MTCI) steam-reforming technology in the field of radioactive waste treatment. A non-radioactive simulated SBW was used based on the known composition of waste tank WM-180 at INTEC. Rhenium was included as a non-radioactive surrogate for technetium. Data was collected to determine the nature and characteristics of the product, the operability of the technology, the composition of the off-gases, and the fate of key radionuclides (cesium and technetium) and volatile mercury compounds. The product contained a low fraction of elemental carbon residues in the cyclone and filter vessel catches. Mercury was quantitatively stripped from the product but cesium, rhenium (Tc surrogate), and the heavy metals were retained. Nitrate residues were about 400 ppm in the product and NOx destruction exceeded 86%. The demonstration was successful.

  10. TWR Bench-Scale Steam Reforming Demonstration

    SciTech Connect

    D. W. Marshall; N. R. Soelberg

    2003-05-01

    The Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC) was home to nuclear fuel reprocessing activities for decades at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory. As a result of the reprocessing activities, INTEC has accumulated approximately one million gallons of acidic, radioactive, sodium-bearing waste (SBW). The purpose of this demonstration was to investigate a reforming technology, offered by ThermoChem Waste Remediation, LLC, (TWR) for treatment of SBW into a "road ready" waste form that would meet the waste acceptance criteria for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). TWR is the licensee of Manufacturing Technology Conservation International (MTCI) steam-reforming technology in the field of radioactive waste treatment. A non-radioactive simulated SBW was used based on the known composition of waste tank WM-180 at INTEC. Rhenium was included as a non-radioactive surrogate for technetium. Data was collected to determine the nature and characteristics of the product, the operability of the technology, the composition of the off-gases, and the fate of key radionuclides (cesium and technetium) and volatile mercury compounds. The product contained a low fraction of elemental carbon residues in the cyclone and filter vessel catches. Mercury was quantitatively stripped from the product but cesium, rhenium (Tc surrogate), and the heavy metals were retained. Nitrate residues were about 400 ppm in the product and NOx destruction exceeded 86%. The demonstration was successful.

  11. Supported metal catalysts for alcohol/sugar alcohol steam reforming

    SciTech Connect

    Davidson, Stephen; Zhang, He; Sun, Junming; Wang, Yong

    2014-08-21

    Despite extensive studies on hydrogen production via steam reforming of alcohols and sugar alcohols, catalysts typically suffer a variety of issues from poor hydrogen selectivity to rapid deactivation. Here, we summarize recent advances in fundamental understanding of functionality and structure of catalysts for alcohol/sugar alcohol steam reforming, and provide perspectives on further development required to design highly efficient steam reforming catalysts.

  12. Fuel cell integrated with steam reformer

    DOEpatents

    Beshty, Bahjat S.; Whelan, James A.

    1987-01-01

    A H.sub.2 -air fuel cell integrated with a steam reformer is disclosed wherein a superheated water/methanol mixture is fed to a catalytic reformer to provide a continuous supply of hydrogen to the fuel cell, the gases exhausted from the anode of the fuel cell providing the thermal energy, via combustion, for superheating the water/methanol mixture.

  13. Methanol Steam Reforming for Hydrogen Production

    SciTech Connect

    Palo, Daniel R.; Dagle, Robert A.; Holladay, Jamie D.

    2007-09-11

    Review article covering developments in methanol steam reforming in the context of PEM fuel cell power systems. Subjects covered include methanol background, use, and production, comparison to other fuels, power system considerations, militrary requirements, competing technologies, catalyst development, and reactor and system development and demonstration.

  14. Modified Ni-Cu catalysts for ethanol steam reforming

    SciTech Connect

    Dan, M.; Mihet, M.; Almasan, V.; Borodi, G.; Katona, G.; Muresan, L.; Lazar, M. D.

    2013-11-13

    Three Ni-Cu catalysts, having different Cu content, supported on γ-alumina were synthesized by wet co-impregnation method, characterized and tested in the ethanol steam reforming (ESR) reaction. The catalysts were characterized for determination of: total surface area and porosity (N{sub 2} adsorption - desorption using BET and Dollimer Heal methods), Ni surface area (hydrogen chemisorption), crystallinity and Ni crystallites size (X-Ray Diffraction), type of catalytic active centers (Hydrogen Temperature Programmed Reduction). Total surface area and Ni crystallites size are not significantly influenced by the addition of Cu, while Ni surface area is drastically diminished by increasing of Cu concentration. Steam reforming experiments were performed at atmospheric pressure, temperature range 150-350°C, and ethanol - water molar ration of 1 at 30, using Ar as carrier gas. Ethanol conversion and hydrogen production increase by the addition of Cu. At 350°C there is a direct connection between hydrogen production and Cu concentration. Catalysts deactivation in 24h time on stream was studied by Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) and temperature-programmed reduction (TPR) on used catalysts. Coke deposition was observed at all studied temperatures; at 150°C amorphous carbon was evidenced, while at 350°C crystalline, filamentous carbon is formed.

  15. Modified Ni-Cu catalysts for ethanol steam reforming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dan, M.; Mihet, M.; Almasan, V.; Borodi, G.; Katona, G.; Muresan, L.; Lazar, M. D.

    2013-11-01

    Three Ni-Cu catalysts, having different Cu content, supported on γ-alumina were synthesized by wet co-impregnation method, characterized and tested in the ethanol steam reforming (ESR) reaction. The catalysts were characterized for determination of: total surface area and porosity (N2 adsorption - desorption using BET and Dollimer Heal methods), Ni surface area (hydrogen chemisorption), crystallinity and Ni crystallites size (X-Ray Diffraction), type of catalytic active centers (Hydrogen Temperature Programmed Reduction). Total surface area and Ni crystallites size are not significantly influenced by the addition of Cu, while Ni surface area is drastically diminished by increasing of Cu concentration. Steam reforming experiments were performed at atmospheric pressure, temperature range 150-350°C, and ethanol - water molar ration of 1 at 30, using Ar as carrier gas. Ethanol conversion and hydrogen production increase by the addition of Cu. At 350°C there is a direct connection between hydrogen production and Cu concentration. Catalysts deactivation in 24h time on stream was studied by Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) and temperature-programmed reduction (TPR) on used catalysts. Coke deposition was observed at all studied temperatures; at 150°C amorphous carbon was evidenced, while at 350°C crystalline, filamentous carbon is formed.

  16. Production of hydrogen from biomass by catalytic steam reforming of fast pyrolysis oil

    SciTech Connect

    Czernik, S.; Wang, D.; Chornet, E.

    1998-08-01

    Hydrogen is the prototype of the environmentally cleanest fuel of interest for power generation using fuel cells and for transportation. The thermochemical conversion of biomass to hydrogen can be carried out through two distinct strategies: (a) gasification followed by water-gas shift conversion, and (b) catalytic steam reforming of specific fractions derived from fast pyrolysis and aqueous/steam processes of biomass. This paper presents the latter route that begins with fast pyrolysis of biomass to produce bio-oil. This oil (as a whole or its selected fractions) can be converted to hydrogen via catalytic steam reforming followed by a water-gas shift conversion step. Such a process has been demonstrated at the bench scale using model compounds, poplar oil aqueous fraction, and the whole pyrolysis oil with commercial Ni-based steam reforming catalysts. Hydrogen yields as high as 85% have been obtained. Catalyst initial activity can be recovered through regeneration cycles by steam or CO{sub 2} gasification of carbonaceous deposits.

  17. FLUIDIZED BED STEAM REFORMER MONOLITH FORMATION

    SciTech Connect

    Jantzen, C

    2006-12-22

    Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming (FBSR) is being considered as an alternative technology for the immobilization of a wide variety of aqueous high sodium containing radioactive wastes at various DOE facilities in the United States. The addition of clay, charcoal, and a catalyst as co-reactants converts aqueous Low Activity Wastes (LAW) to a granular or ''mineralized'' waste form while converting organic components to CO{sub 2} and steam, and nitrate/nitrite components, if any, to N{sub 2}. The waste form produced is a multiphase mineral assemblage of Na-Al-Si (NAS) feldspathoid minerals with cage-like structures that atomically bond radionuclides like Tc-99 and anions such as SO{sub 4}, I, F, and Cl. The granular product has been shown to be as durable as LAW glass. Shallow land burial requires that the mineralized waste form be able to sustain the weight of soil overburden and potential intrusion by future generations. The strength requirement necessitates binding the granular product into a monolith. FBSR mineral products were formulated into a variety of monoliths including various cements, Ceramicrete, and hydroceramics. All but one of the nine monoliths tested met the <2g/m{sup 2} durability specification for Na and Re (simulant for Tc-99) when tested using the Product Consistency Test (PCT; ASTM C1285). Of the nine monoliths tested the cements produced with 80-87 wt% FBSR product, the Ceramicrete, and the hydroceramic produced with 83.3 wt% FBSR product, met the compressive strength and durability requirements for an LAW waste form.

  18. Fluidized Bed Steam Reformer (FBSR) monolith formation

    SciTech Connect

    Jantzen, C.M.

    2007-07-01

    Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming (FBSR) is being considered as an alternative technology for the immobilization of a wide variety of aqueous high sodium containing radioactive wastes at various DOE facilities in the United States. The addition of clay, charcoal, and a catalyst as co-reactants converts aqueous Low Activity Wastes (LAW) to a granular or 'mineralized' waste form while converting organic components to CO{sub 2} and steam, and nitrate/nitrite components, if any, to N{sub 2}. The waste form produced is a multiphase mineral assemblage of Na-Al-Si (NAS) feldspathoid minerals with cage-like structures that atomically bond radionuclides like Tc-99 and anions such as SO{sub 4}, I, F, and Cl. The granular product has been shown to be as durable as LAW glass. Shallow land burial requires that the mineralized waste form be able to sustain the weight of soil overburden and potential intrusion by future generations. The strength requirement necessitates binding the granular product into a monolith. FBSR mineral products were formulated into a variety of monoliths including various cements, Ceramicrete, and hydro-ceramics. All but one of the nine monoliths tested met the <2 g/m{sup 2} durability specification for Na and Re (simulant for Tc-99) when tested using the Product Consistency Test (PCT; ASTM C1285). Of the nine monoliths tested the cements produced with 80-87 wt% FBSR product, the Ceramicrete, and the hydro-ceramic produced with 83.3 wt% FBSR product, met the compressive strength and durability requirements for an LAW waste form. (authors)

  19. Steam-Reforming Characteristics of Heavy and Light Tars Derived from Cellulose

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watanabe, Hirotatsu; Morinaga, Yosuke; Okazaki, Ken

    In this study, tar formation and steam-reforming mechanisms are discussed by separating the tars into heavy, middle, and light tars. Cellulose was heated in a drop-tube furnace under an Ar or Ar/steam atmosphere. After the tars were passed through the furnace for thermal cracking and polymerization, they were trapped by filters set at different temperatures (573, 393, and 273 K), and were respectively defined as heavy, middle, and light tars. Incondensable volatiles and gaseous products were measured using gas chromatography with thermal conductivity (GC-TCD), and flame ionization (GC-FID) detectors. The middle and light tars obtained under an Ar atmosphere were first characterized using time-of-flight mass spectrometry (TOF-MS). The analysis showed that the middle tar did not contain any low-boiling-point light tar components, while the light tar did contain them. It was also found that complex species in the tars were separated to a certain degree by changing the trap temperature. Moreover, the formation of heavy tar was quite different from that of the light tar. With increasing temperature, the formation of heavy tar was inhibited, while that of the light tar was enhanced during pyrolysis. The steam-reforming characteristics of these tars were also different. The heavy tar was barely reformed at a low temperature of 873 K, even with a long residence time, while the middle tar was well reformed by steam. While it was difficult to describe the tar formation and steam-reforming characteristics when the tar was considered as a single condensable matter, the tar formation and steam-reforming characteristics were clarified by separating the tars. This study shows that, to prevent tar emissions, the formation of heavy tar, which barely reacts with steam, should be inhibited during pyrolysis by controlling the heating.

  20. Steam reforming of commercial ultra-low sulphur diesel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boon, Jurriaan; van Dijk, Eric; de Munck, Sander; van den Brink, Ruud

    Two main routes for small-scale diesel steam reforming exist: low-temperature pre-reforming followed by well-established methane steam reforming on the one hand and direct steam reforming on the other hand. Tests with commercial catalysts and commercially obtained diesel fuels are presented for both processes. The fuels contained up to 6.5 ppmw sulphur and up to 4.5 vol.% of biomass-derived fatty acid methyl ester (FAME). Pre-reforming sulphur-free diesel at around 475 °C has been tested with a commercial nickel catalyst for 118 h without observing catalyst deactivation, at steam-to-carbon ratios as low as 2.6. Direct steam reforming at temperatures up to 800 °C has been tested with a commercial precious metal catalyst for a total of 1190 h with two catalyst batches at steam-to-carbon ratios as low as 2.5. Deactivation was neither observed with lower steam-to-carbon ratios nor for increasing sulphur concentration. The importance of good fuel evaporation and mixing for correct testing of catalysts is illustrated. Diesel containing biodiesel components resulted in poor spray quality, hence poor mixing and evaporation upstream, eventually causing decreasing catalyst performance. The feasibility of direct high temperature steam reforming of commercial low-sulphur diesel has been demonstrated.

  1. FLUIDIZED BED STEAM REFORMING ENABLING ORGANIC HIGH LEVEL WASTE DISPOSAL

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, M

    2008-05-09

    Waste streams planned for generation by the Global Nuclear Energy Partnership (GNEP) and existing radioactive High Level Waste (HLW) streams containing organic compounds such as the Tank 48H waste stream at Savannah River Site have completed simulant and radioactive testing, respectfully, by Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL). GNEP waste streams will include up to 53 wt% organic compounds and nitrates up to 56 wt%. Decomposition of high nitrate streams requires reducing conditions, e.g. provided by organic additives such as sugar or coal, to reduce NOX in the off-gas to N2 to meet Clean Air Act (CAA) standards during processing. Thus, organics will be present during the waste form stabilization process regardless of the GNEP processes utilized and exists in some of the high level radioactive waste tanks at Savannah River Site and Hanford Tank Farms, e.g. organics in the feed or organics used for nitrate destruction. Waste streams containing high organic concentrations cannot be stabilized with the existing HLW Best Developed Available Technology (BDAT) which is HLW vitrification (HLVIT) unless the organics are removed by pretreatment. The alternative waste stabilization pretreatment process of Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming (FBSR) operates at moderate temperatures (650-750 C) compared to vitrification (1150-1300 C). The FBSR process has been demonstrated on GNEP simulated waste and radioactive waste containing high organics from Tank 48H to convert organics to CAA compliant gases, create no secondary liquid waste streams and create a stable mineral waste form.

  2. CATALYTIC STEAM REFORMING OF CHLOROCARBONS: METHLYCHLORIDE. (R822721C633)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The effective destruction of trichloroethane, trichloroethylene and perchloroethylene by steam reforming with a commercial nickel catalyst has been demonstrated. Conversion levels of up to 0.99999 were attained in both laboratory and semi-pilot experiments, with the products c...

  3. Steam Reforming of Low-Level Mixed Waste

    SciTech Connect

    1998-01-01

    Under DOE Contract No. DE-AR21-95MC32091, Steam Reforming of Low-Level Mixed Waste, ThermoChem has successfully designed, fabricated and operated a nominal 90 pound per hour Process Development Unit (PDU) on various low-level mixed waste surrogates. The design construction, and testing of the PDU as well as performance and economic projections for a 500- lb/hr demonstration and commercial system are described. The overall system offers an environmentally safe, non-incinerating, cost-effective, and publicly acceptable method of processing LLMW. The steam-reforming technology was ranked the No. 1 non-incineration technology for destruction of hazardous organic wastes in a study commissioned by the Mixed Waste Focus Area published April 1997.1 The ThermoChem steam-reforming system has been developed over the last 13 years culminating in this successful test campaign on LLMW surrogates. Six surrogates were successfidly tested including a 750-hour test on material simulating a PCB- and Uranium- contaminated solid waste found at the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant. The test results indicated essentially total (>99.9999oA) destruction of RCRA and TSCA hazardous halogenated organics, significant levels of volume reduction (> 400 to 1), and retention of radlonuclides in the volume-reduced solids. Cost studies have shown the steam-reforming system to be very cost competitive with more conventional and other emerging technologies.

  4. Biomass to hydrogen via fast pyrolysis and catalytic steam reforming

    SciTech Connect

    Chornet, E.; Wang, D.; Montane, D.

    1995-09-01

    Fast pyrolysis of biomass results in a pyrolytic oil which is a mixture of (a) carbohydrate-derived acids, aldehydes and polyols, (b) lignin-derived substituted phenolics, and (c) extractives-derived terpenoids and fatty acids. The conversion of this pyrolysis oil into H{sub 2} and CO{sub 2} is thermodynamically favored under appropriate steam reforming conditions. Our efforts have focused in understanding the catalysis of steam reforming which will lead to a successful process at reasonable steam/carbon ratios arid process severities. The experimental work, carried out at the laboratory and bench scale levels, has centered on the performance of Ni-based catalysts using model compounds as prototypes of the oxygenates present in the pyrolysis oil. Steam reforming of acetic acid, hydroxyacetaldehyde, furfural and syringol has been proven to proceed rapidly within a reasonable range of severities. Time-on-stream studies are now underway using a fixed bed barometric pressure reactor to ascertain the durability of the catalysts and thus substantiate the scientific and technical feasibility of the catalytic reforming option. Economic analyses are being carried out in parallel to determine the opportunity zones for the combined fast pyrolysis/steam reforming approach. A discussion on the current state of the project is presented.

  5. FLUIDIZED BED STEAM REFORMER (FBSR) PRODUCT: MONOLITH FORMATION AND CHARACTERIZATION

    SciTech Connect

    Jantzen, C

    2006-09-13

    The most important requirement for Hanford's low activity waste (LAW) form for shallow land disposal is the chemical durability of the product. A secondary, but still essential specification, is the compressive strength of the material with regards to the strength of the material under shallow land disposal conditions, e.g. the weight of soil overburden and potential intrusion by future generations, because the term ''near-surface disposal'' indicates disposal in the uppermost portion, or approximately the top 30 meters, of the earth's surface. The THOR{reg_sign} Treatment Technologies (TTT) mineral waste form for LAW is granular in nature because it is formed by Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming (FBSR). As a granular product it has been shown to be as durable as Hanford's LAW glass during testing with ASTM C-1285-02 known as the Product Consistency Test (PCT) and with the Single Pass Flow Through Test (SPFT). Hanford Envelope A and Envelope C simulants both performed well during PCT and SPFT testing and during subsequent performance assessment modeling. This is partially due to the high aluminosilicate content of the mineral product which provides a natural aluminosilicate buffering mechanism that inhibits leaching and is known to occur in naturally occurring aluminosilicate mineral analogs. In order for the TTT Na-Al-Si (NAS) granular mineral product to meet the compressive strength requirements (ASTM C39) for a Hanford waste form, the granular product needs to be made into a monolith or disposed of in High Integrity Containers (HIC's). Additionally, the Hanford intruder scenario for disposal in the Immobilized Low Activity Waste (ILAW) trench is mitigated as there is reduced intruder exposure when a waste form is in a monolithic form. During the preliminary testing of a monolith binder for TTT's FBSR mineral product, four parameters were monitored: (1) waste loading (not optimized for each waste form tested); (2) density; (3) compressive strength; and (4) durability

  6. INVESTIGATION OF FUEL CHEMISTRY AND BED PERFORMANCE IN A FLUIDIZED BED BLACK LIQUOR STEAM REFORMER

    SciTech Connect

    Kevin Whitty

    2003-12-01

    The University of Utah project ''Investigation of Fuel Chemistry and Bed Performance in a Fluidized Bed Black Liquor Steam Reformer'' (DOE award number DE-FC26-02NT41490) was developed in response to a solicitation for projects to provide technical support for black liquor and biomass gasification. The primary focus of the project is to provide support for a DOE-sponsored demonstration of MTCI's black liquor steam reforming technology at Georgia-Pacific's paper mill in Big Island, Virginia. A more overarching goal is to improve the understanding of phenomena that take place during low temperature black liquor gasification. This is achieved through five complementary technical tasks: (1) construction of a fluidized bed black liquor gasification test system, (2) investigation of bed performance, (3) evaluation of product gas quality, (4) black liquor conversion analysis and modeling and (5) computational modeling of the Big Island gasifier. Four experimental devices have been constructed under this project. The largest facility, which is the heart of the experimental effort, is a pressurized fluidized bed gasification test system. The system is designed to be able to reproduce conditions near the black liquor injectors in the Big Island steam reformer, so the behavior of black liquor pyrolysis and char gasification can be quantified in a representative environment. The gasification test system comprises five subsystems: steam generation and superheating, black liquor feed, fluidized bed reactor, afterburner for syngas combustion and a flue gas cooler/condenser. The three-story system is located at University of Utah's Industrial Combustion and Gasification Research Facility, and all resources there are available to support the research.

  7. Mechanistic aspects of the ethanol steam reforming reaction for hydrogen production on Pt, Ni, and PtNi catalysts supported on gamma-Al2O3.

    PubMed

    Sanchez-Sanchez, Maria Cruz; Navarro Yerga, Rufino M; Kondarides, Dimitris I; Verykios, Xenophon E; Fierro, Jose Luis G

    2010-03-25

    Mechanistic aspects of ethanol steam reforming on Pt, Ni, and PtNi catalysts supported on gamma-Al(2)O(3) are investigated from the analysis of adsorbed species and gas phase products formed on catalysts during temperature-programmed desorption of ethanol and during ethanol steam reforming reaction. DRIFTS-MS analyses of ethanol decomposition and ethanol steam reforming reactions show that PtNi and Ni catalysts are more stable than the Pt monometallic counterpart. Ethanol TPD results on Ni, Pt, and NiPt catalysts point to ethanol dehydrogenation and acetaldehyde decomposition as the first reaction pathways of ethanol steam reforming over the studied catalysts. The active sites responsible for the acetaldehyde decomposition are easily deactivated in the first minutes on-stream by carbon deposits. For Ni and PtNi catalysts, a second reaction pathway, consisting in the decomposition of acetate intermediates formed over the surface of alumina support, becomes the main reaction pathway operating in steam reforming of ethanol once the acetaldehyde decomposition pathway is deactivated. Taking into account the differences observed in the mechanism of ethanol decomposition, the better stability observed for PtNi catalyst is proposed to be related with a cooperative effect between Pt and Ni activities together with the enhanced ability of Ni to gasify the methyl groups formed by decomposition of acetate species. On the contrary, monometallic catalysts are believed to dehydrogenate these methyl groups forming coke that leads to deactivation of metal particles. PMID:19824680

  8. An attempt to minimize the temperature gradient along a plug-flow methane/steam reforming reactor by adopting locally controlled heating zones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mozdzierz, M.; Brus, G.; Sciazko, A.; Komatsu, Y.; Kimijima, S.; Szmyd, J. S.

    2014-08-01

    Plug flow reactors are very common in the chemical process industry, including methane/steam reforming applications. Their operation presents many challenges, such as a strong dependence of temperature and composition distribution on the inlet conditions. The strongly endothermic methane/steam reforming reaction might result in a temperature drop at the inlet of the reactor and consequently the occurrence of large temperature gradients. The strongly non-uniform temperature distribution due to endothermic chemical reaction can have tremendous consequences on the operation of the reactor, such as catalyst degradation, undesired side reactions and thermal stresses. To avoid such unfavorable conditions, thermal management of the reactor becomes an important issue. To carry out thermal management properly, detailed modeling and corresponding numerical analyses of the phenomena occurring inside the reforming system is required. This paper presents experimental and numerical studies on the methane/steam reforming process inside a plug-flow reactor. To optimize the reforming reactors, detailed data about the entire reforming process is required. In this study the kinetics of methane/steam reforming on the Ni/YSZ catalyst was experimentally investigated. Measurements including different thermal boundary conditions, the fuel flow rate and the steam- to-methane ratios were performed. The reforming rate equation derived from experimental data was used in the numerical model to predict gas composition and temperature distribution along the steam-reforming reactor. Finally, an attempt was made to control the temperature distribution by adopting locally controlled heating zones.

  9. Hydrogen production from glucose and sorbitol by sorption-enhanced steam reforming: challenges and promises.

    PubMed

    He, Li; Chen, De

    2012-03-12

    Concerning energy and environmental sustainability, it is appealing to produce hydrogen from sugars or sugar alcohols that are readily obtained from the hydrolysis of cellulosic biomass. Nevertheless, the conversion of such compounds for hydrogen production poses great technical challenges. In this paper, we report that hydrogen purity and yield can be significantly improved by integrating in situ CO(2) capture into the steam reforming reaction of the model compounds-glucose and sorbitol. The experimental assessment was conducted at a steam-to-carbon ratio of 1.8 for sorbitol and 6 for glucose from 450-625 °C. As predicted by thermodynamic analysis, combining CO(2) capture and reforming reactions at favorable operating conditions yielded very high purity hydrogen, for instance, 98.8 mol % from sorbitol and 99.9 mol % from glucose. However, there are trade-offs between hydrogen purity and yield in practice. The lower operating temperatures in the examined range helped to increase the hydrogen purity and reduce the CO content in the gas product, whereas a high hydrogen yield was more likely to be obtained at higher temperatures. Coupling CO(2) capture lowered the risk of coke formation during the steam reforming of glucose. Coke accumulated in the reactor for the sorption-enhanced steam reforming of glucose was mostly from the slow pyrolysis of glucose before it came into contact with the catalyst-acceptor bed. This problem may be solved by improving heat transfer or reconstructing the reactor, for instance, by using a fluidized-bed reactor.

  10. Evaluation of the feasibility of ethanol steam reforming in a molten carbonate fuel cell

    SciTech Connect

    Cavallaro, S.; Passalacqua, E.; Maggio, G.; Patti, A.; Freni, S.

    1996-12-31

    The molten carbonate fuel cells (MCFCs) utilizing traditional fuels represent a suitable technological progress in comparison with pure hydrogen-fed MCFCs. The more investigated fuel for such an application is the methane, which has the advantages of low cost and large availability; besides, several authors demonstrated the feasibility of a methane based MCFC. In particular, the methane steam-reforming allows the conversion of the fuel in hydrogen also inside the cell (internal reforming configuration), utilizing the excess heat to compensate the reaction endothermicity. In this case, however, both the catalyst and the cell materials are subjected to thermal stresses due to the cold spots arising near to the reaction sites MCFC. An alternative, in accordance with the recent proposals of other authors, may be to produce hydrogen from methane by the partial oxidation reaction, rather than by steam reforming. This reaction is exothermic ({Delta}H{degrees}=-19.1 kJ/mol H{sub 2}) and it needs to verify the possibility to obtain an acceptable distribution of the temperature inside the cell. The alcohols and, in particular, methanol shows the gas reformed compositions as a function of the steam/ethanol molar ratio, ranging from 1.0 to 3.5. The hydrogen production enhances with this ratio, but it presents a maximum at S/EtOH of about 2.0. Otherwise, the increase of S/EtOH depresses the production of CO and CH{sub 4}, and ethanol may be a further solution for the hydrogen production inside a MCFC. In this case, also, the reaction in cell is less endothermic compared with the methane steam reforming with the additional advantage of a liquid fuel more easily storable and transportable. Aim of the present work is to perform a comparative evaluation of the different solutions, with particular reference to the use of ethanol.

  11. BENCH-SCALE STEAM REFORMING OF ACTUAL TANK 48H WASTE

    SciTech Connect

    Burket, P; Gene Daniel, G; Charles Nash, C; Carol Jantzen, C; Michael Williams, M

    2008-09-25

    Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming (FBSR) has been demonstrated to be a viable technology to remove >99% of the organics from Tank 48H simulant, to remove >99% of the nitrate/nitrite from Tank 48H simulant, and to form a solid product that is primarily carbonate based. The technology was demonstrated in October of 2006 in the Engineering Scale Test Demonstration Fluidized Bed Steam Reformer1 (ESTD FBSR) at the Hazen Research Inc. (HRI) facility in Golden, CO. The purpose of the Bench-scale Steam Reformer (BSR) testing was to demonstrate that the same reactions occur and the same product is formed when steam reforming actual radioactive Tank 48H waste. The approach used in the current study was to test the BSR with the same Tank 48H simulant and same Erwin coal as was used at the ESTD FBSR under the same operating conditions. This comparison would allow verification that the same chemical reactions occur in both the BSR and ESTD FBSR. Then, actual radioactive Tank 48H material would be steam reformed in the BSR to verify that the actual tank 48H sample reacts the same way chemically as the simulant Tank 48H material. The conclusions from the BSR study and comparison to the ESTD FBSR are the following: (1) A Bench-scale Steam Reforming (BSR) unit was successfully designed and built that: (a) Emulated the chemistry of the ESTD FBSR Denitration Mineralization Reformer (DMR) and Carbon Reduction Reformer (CRR) known collectively as the dual reformer flowsheet. (b) Measured and controlled the off-gas stream. (c) Processed real (radioactive) Tank 48H waste. (d) Met the standards and specifications for radiological testing in the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) Shielded Cells Facility (SCF). (2) Three runs with radioactive Tank 48H material were performed. (3) The Tetraphenylborate (TPB) was destroyed to > 99% for all radioactive Bench-scale tests. (4) The feed nitrate/nitrite was destroyed to >99% for all radioactive BSR tests the same as the ESTD FBSR. (5) The

  12. Effect of Cobalt Particle Size on Acetone Steam Reforming

    SciTech Connect

    Sun, Junming; Zhang, He; Yu, Ning; Davidson, Stephen D.; Wang, Yong

    2015-06-11

    Carbon-supported cobalt nanoparticles with different particle sizes were synthesized and characterized by complementary characterization techniques such as X-ray diffraction, N-2 sorption, acetone temperature-programmed desorption, transmission electron microscopy, and CO chemisorption. Using acetone steam reforming reaction as a probe reaction, we revealed a volcano-shape curve of the intrinsic activity (turnover frequency of acetone) and the CO2 selectivity as a function of the cobalt particle size with the highest activity and selectivity observed at a particle size of approximately 12.8nm. Our results indicate that the overall performance of acetone steam reforming is related to a combination of particle-size-dependent acetone decomposition, water dissociation, and the oxidation state of the cobalt nanoparticles.

  13. STEAM REFORMING OF CHLOROCARBONS: CHLORINATED AROMATICS. (R826694C633)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Effective dechlorination of chloroaromatics, such as C6H5Cl, 1,2-C6H4Cl2, 1,3-C6H4Cl2 and 1,2,4-C6H3Cl3, using catalytic steam reforming has been confirmed ...

  14. Steam reforming of low-level mixed waste. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1998-06-01

    ThermoChem has successfully designed, fabricated and operated a nominal 90 pound per hour Process Development Unit (PDU) on various low-level mixed waste surrogates. The design, construction, and testing of the PDU as well as performance and economic projections for a 300-lb/hr demonstration and commercial system are described. The overall system offers an environmentally safe, non-incinerating, cost-effective, and publicly acceptable method of processing LLMW. The steam-reforming technology was ranked the No. 1 non-incineration technology for destruction of hazardous organic wastes in a study commissioned by the Mixed Waste Focus Area and published in April 1997. The ThermoChem steam-reforming system has been developed over the last 13 years culminating in this successful test campaign on LLMW surrogates. Six surrogates were successfully tested including a 750-hour test on material simulating a PCB- and Uranium-contaminated solid waste found at the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant. The test results indicated essentially total (> 99.9999%) destruction of RCRA and TSCA hazardous halogenated organics, significant levels of volume reduction (> 400 to 1), and retention of radionuclides in the volume-reduced solids. Economic evaluations have shown the steam-reforming system to be very cost competitive with more conventional and other emerging technologies.

  15. Sulfur-deactivated steam reforming of gasified biomass

    SciTech Connect

    Koningen, J.; Sjoestroem, K.

    1998-02-01

    The effect of hydrogen sulfide on the stream reforming of methane has been studied. Methane is the most difficult component to convert by steam reforming in the mixture of hydrocarbons, which is produced in biomass gasification. Two catalysts were subjected to hydrogen sulfide levels up to 300 ppm so as to study the effect of sulfur on their deactivation. These catalysts were the C11-9-061, from United Catalyst Inc., and the HTSR1, from Haldor Topsoee. The activation energy of the sulfur-deactivated steam-reforming reaction was calculated to be 280 and 260 kJ/mol, for each catalyst, respectively. The high values most probably originate from the fact that the degree of sulfur coverage of the nickel surface is close to 1 for these experiments. Even under these severe conditions, steam reforming of methane is possible without any carbon formation. The HTSR1 catalyst exhibits a very high sulfur-free activity, resulting in a performance in the presence of hydrogen sulfide higher than that for the C11-9-061 catalyst. By using the HTSR1 catalyst, the reactor temperature can be lowered by 60 C in order to reach comparable levels of conversion.

  16. Phase 2 THOR Steam Reforming Tests for Sodium Bearing Waste Treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Nicholas R. Soelberg

    2004-01-01

    About one million gallons of acidic, hazardous, and radioactive sodium-bearing waste is stored in stainless steel tanks at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC), which is a major operating facility of the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory. Steam reforming is a candidate technology being investigated for converting the waste into a road ready waste form that can be shipped to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant in New Mexico for interment. A steam reforming technology patented by Studsvik, Inc., and licensed to THOR Treatment Technologies has been tested in two phases using a Department of Energy-owned fluidized bed test system located at the Science Applications International Corporation (SAIC) Science and Technology Applications Research Center located in Idaho Falls, Idaho. The Phase 1 tests were reported earlier in 2003. The Phase 2 tests are reported here. For Phase 2, the process feed rate, stoichiometry, and chemistry were varied to identify and demonstrate process operation and product characteristics under different operating conditions. Two test series were performed. During the first series, the process chemistry was designed to produce a sodium carbonate product. The second series was designed to produce a more leach-resistant, mineralized sodium aluminosilicate product. The tests also demonstrated the performance of a MACT-compliant off-gas system.

  17. Non-syngas direct steam reforming of methanol to hydrogen and carbon dioxide at low temperature.

    PubMed

    Yu, Kai Man Kerry; Tong, Weiyi; West, Adam; Cheung, Kevin; Li, Tong; Smith, George; Guo, Yanglong; Tsang, Shik Chi Edman

    2012-01-01

    A non-syngas direct steam reforming route is investigated for the conversion of methanol to hydrogen and carbon dioxide over a CuZnGaO(x) catalyst at 150-200 °C. This route is in marked contrast with the conventional complex route involving steam reformation to syngas (CO/H2) at high temperature, followed by water gas shift and CO cleanup stages for hydrogen production. Here we report that high quality hydrogen and carbon dioxide can be produced in a single-step reaction over the catalyst, with no detectable CO (below detection limit of 1 ppm). This can be used to supply proton exchange membrane fuel cells for mobile applications without invoking any CO shift and cleanup stages. The working catalyst contains, on average, 3-4 nm copper particles, alongside extremely small size of copper clusters stabilized on a defective ZnGa2O4 spinel oxide surface, providing hydrogen productivity of 393.6 ml g(-1)-cat h(-1) at 150 °C. PMID:23187630

  18. Hydrogen production by ethanol steam reforming on Ni/oxide catalysts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lazar, Mihaela D.; Dan, Monica; Mihet, Maria; Borodi, George; Almasan, Valer

    2012-02-01

    Hydrogen production from bio-fuels such as bio-ethanol provides significant environmental benefits since the resulted CO2 is consumed again for biomass growth, offering a carbon dioxide neutral energy source. In the actual conditions of increasing energy demand and atmosphere pollution, clean produced hydrogen can be an alternative option for a clean energy vector. In this paper we present the results obtained in hydrogen production by steam reforming of ethanol using oxide supported nickel catalysts. Although Ni is not the most active catalyst for this process, economically is the most attractive one, due to the high price and low availability of noble metals. Ni was dispersed on several oxides: ZrO2, Al2O3, Cr2O3, SiO2 with a target metal concentration of 8 wt%. using impregnation method. The catalysts were characterized using several techniques: N2 adsorption desorption isotherms to determine total surface area and porosity, XRD to determine oxide crystallinity and Ni crystallite size. Each catalyst was tested in steam reforming of ethanol at temperatures ranging from 150 to 350°C, at atmospheric pressure and a ethanol: steam ratio of 1:9. The best ethanol conversion and catalyst stability was obtained for Ni/Al2O3. The catalyst selectivity for H2 production depends on the support nature. The best H2 selectivity was obtained for Ni/ZrO2 catalyst.

  19. Hydrogen Production from Ethanol Steam Reforming over Supported Cobalt Catalysts

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, Sean S.-Y.; Kim, Do Heui; Ha, Su Y.

    2008-05-01

    Hydrogen production was carried out via ethanol steam reforming over supported cobalt catalysts. Wet incipient impregnation method was used to support cobalt on ZrO2, CeO2 and CeZrO4 followed by pre-reduction with H2 up to 677 °C to attain supported cobalt catalysts. It was found that the non-noble metal based 10 wt % Co/CeZrO4 is an efficient catalyst to achieve ethanol conversion of 100% and hydrogen yield of 82% (4.9 mol H2/ mol ethanol) at 450 oC , which is superior to 0.5 wt % Rh/Al2O3. The pre-reduction process is required to activate supported cobalt catalysts for high H2 yield of ethanol steam reforming. In addition, support effect is found significant for cobalt during ethanol steam reforming. 10% Co/CeO2 gave high H2 selectivity while suffered low conversion due to the poor thermal stability. In contrast to CeO2, 10 wt % Co/ZrO2 achieved high conversion while suffered lower H2 yield due to the production of methane. The synergistic effect of ZrO2 and CeO2 to promote high ethanol conversion while suppress methanation was observed when CeZrO4 was used as a support for cobalt. This synergistic effect of CeZrO4 support leads to a high hydrogen yield at low temperature for 10 wt % Co/CeZrO4 catalyst. Under the high weight hourly space velocity (WHSV) of ethanol (2.5 h-1), the hydrogen yield over 10 wt % Co/CeZrO4 was found to gradually decrease to 70% of its initial value in 6 hours possibly due to the coke formation on the catalyst.

  20. THOR Bench-Scale Steam Reforming Demonstration

    SciTech Connect

    D. W. Marshall; N. R. Soelberg; K. M. Shaber

    2003-05-01

    The Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC) was home to nuclear fuel reprocessing activities for decades at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory. As a result of the reprocessing activities, INTEC has accumulated approximately one million gallons of acidic, radioactive, sodium-bearing waste (SBW). The purpose of this demonstration was to investigate a reforming technology, offered by THORsm Treatment Technologies, LLC, for treatment of SBW into a "road ready" waste form that would meet the waste acceptance criteria for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). A non-radioactive simulated SBW was used based on the known composition of waste tank WM-180 at INTEC. Rhenium was included as a non-radioactive surrogate for technetium. Data was collected to determine the nature and characteristics of the product, the operability of the technology, the composition of the off-gases, and the fate of key radionuclides (cesium and technetium) and volatile mercury compounds. The product contained a low fraction of elemental carbon residues in the cyclone and filter vessel catches. Mercury was quantitatively stripped from the product but cesium, rhenium (Tc surrogate), and the heavy metals were retained. Nitrates were not detected in the product and NOx destruction exceeded 98%. The demonstration was successful.

  1. THOR Bench-Scale Steam Reforming Demonstration

    SciTech Connect

    Marshall, D.W.; Soelberg, N.R.; Shaber, K.M.

    2003-05-21

    The Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC) was home to nuclear fuel reprocessing activities for decades at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory. As a result of the reprocessing activities, INTEC has accumulated approximately one million gallons of acidic, radioactive, sodium-bearing waste (SBW). The purpose of this demonstration was to investigate a reforming technology, offered by THORsm Treatment Technologies, LLC, for treatment of SBW into a ''road ready'' waste form that would meet the waste acceptance criteria for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). A non-radioactive simulated SBW was used based on the known composition of waste tank WM-180 at INTEC. Rhenium was included as a non-radioactive surrogate for technetium. Data was collected to determine the nature and characteristics of the product, the operability of the technology, the composition of the off-gases, and the fate of key radionuclides (cesium and technetium) and volatile mercury compounds. The product contained a low fraction of elemental carbon residues in the cyclone and filter vessel catches. Mercury was quantitatively stripped from the product but cesium, rhenium (Tc surrogate), and the heavy metals were retained. Nitrates were not detected in the product and NOx destruction exceeded 98%. The demonstration was successful.

  2. Thermodynamic evaluation of hydrogen production via bioethanol steam reforming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tasnadi-Asztalos, Zsolt; Cormos, Ana-Maria; Imre-Lucaci, Árpád; Cormos, Cǎlin C.

    2013-11-01

    In this article, a thermodynamic analysis for bioethanol steam reforming for hydrogen production is presented. Bioethanol is a newly proposed renewable energy carrier mainly produced from biomass fermentation. Reforming of bioethanol provides a promising method for hydrogen production from renewable resources. Steam reforming of ethanol (SRE) takes place under the action of a metal catalyst capable of breaking C-C bonds into smaller molecules. A large domain for the water/bioethanol molar ratio as well as the temperature and average pressure has been used in the present work. The interval of investigated temperature was 100-800°C, the pressure was in the range of 1-10 bar and the molar ratio was between 3-25. The variations of gaseous species concentration e.g. H2, CO, CO2, CH4 were analyzed. The concentrations of the main products (H2 and CO) at lower temperature are smaller than the ones at higher temperature due to by-products formation (methane, carbon dioxide, acetylene etc.). The concentration of H2 obtained in the process using high molar ratio (>20) is higher than the one at small molar ratio (near stoichiometric). When the pressure is increased the hydrogen concentration decreases. The results were compared with literature data for validation purposes.

  3. Syngas Generation from Organic Waste with Plasma Steam Reforming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diaz, G.; Leal-Quiros, E.; Smith, R. A.; Elliott, J.; Unruh, D.

    2014-05-01

    A plasma steam reforming system to process waste is in the process of being set up at the University of California, Merced. The proposed concept will use two different plasma regimes, i.e. glow discharge and arc torches to process a percentage of the total liquid waste stream generated at the campus together with shredded local organic solid waste. One of the main advantages of the plasma technology to be utilized is that it uses graphite electrodes that can be fed to the reactor to achieve continuous operation, thus, electrode or nozzle life is not a concern. The waste to energy conversion process consists of two stages, one where a mixture of steam and hydrogen is generated from the liquid in a glow-discharge cell, and a second stage where the mixture of exhaust gases coming out of the first device are mixed with solid waste in a reactor operating in steam reforming mode interacting with a plasma torch to generate high-quality syngas. In this paper, the results of a thermodynamic model developed for the two stages are shown. The syngas composition obtained indicates that the fraction of CO2 present decreases with increasing temperature and the molar fractions of hydrogen and carbon monoxide become dominant. The fraction of water vapour present in the product gases coming out of the second stage needs to be condensed before the syngas can be utilized in a prime mover.

  4. Thermodynamic evaluation of hydrogen production via bioethanol steam reforming

    SciTech Connect

    Tasnadi-Asztalos, Zsolt; Cormos, Ana-Maria; Imre-Lucaci, Árpád; Cormos, Călin C.

    2013-11-13

    In this article, a thermodynamic analysis for bioethanol steam reforming for hydrogen production is presented. Bioethanol is a newly proposed renewable energy carrier mainly produced from biomass fermentation. Reforming of bioethanol provides a promising method for hydrogen production from renewable resources. Steam reforming of ethanol (SRE) takes place under the action of a metal catalyst capable of breaking C-C bonds into smaller molecules. A large domain for the water/bioethanol molar ratio as well as the temperature and average pressure has been used in the present work. The interval of investigated temperature was 100-800°C, the pressure was in the range of 1-10 bar and the molar ratio was between 3-25. The variations of gaseous species concentration e.g. H{sub 2}, CO, CO{sub 2}, CH{sub 4} were analyzed. The concentrations of the main products (H{sub 2} and CO) at lower temperature are smaller than the ones at higher temperature due to by-products formation (methane, carbon dioxide, acetylene etc.). The concentration of H2 obtained in the process using high molar ratio (>20) is higher than the one at small molar ratio (near stoichiometric). When the pressure is increased the hydrogen concentration decreases. The results were compared with literature data for validation purposes.

  5. Raman study on methanol partial oxidation and oxidative steam reforming over copper

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kudelski, Andrzej; Pettinger, Bruno

    2004-09-01

    In situ Raman spectra of copper surfaces during the catalytic partial oxidation of methanol and methanol oxidative steam reforming have been measured and analysed. Raman measurements reveal that if methanol is present in the surrounding gas phase the ratio of quantities of CuO and Cu 2O at the surface of the catalysts decreases at lower temperature. From changes in relative intensity of the band at about 220 cm -1, which is symmetry forbidden and is interpreted as an indicator of poor crystallinity and non-stoichiometry of Cu 2O, we noticed that the defect density in crystal lattices of Cu 2O at the surfaces of catalysts is significantly different for various reaction conditions. Methoxy species were detected as intermediates via characteristic ν(C-O) Raman band at 1070 cm -1.

  6. Metal catalysts for steam reforming of tar derived from the gasification of lignocellulosic biomass.

    PubMed

    Li, Dalin; Tamura, Masazumi; Nakagawa, Yoshinao; Tomishige, Keiichi

    2015-02-01

    Biomass gasification is one of the most important technologies for the conversion of biomass to electricity, fuels, and chemicals. The main obstacle preventing the commercial application of this technology is the presence of tar in the product gas. Catalytic reforming of tar appears a promising approach to remove tar and supported metal catalysts are among the most effective catalysts. Nevertheless, improvement of catalytic performances including activity, stability, resistance to coke deposition and aggregation of metal particles, as well as catalyst regenerability is greatly needed. This review focuses on the design and catalysis of supported metal catalysts for the removal of tar in the gasification of biomass. The recent development of metal catalysts including Rh, Ni, Co, and their alloys for steam reforming of biomass tar and tar model compounds is introduced. The role of metal species, support materials, promoters, and their interfaces is described. PMID:25455089

  7. Steam Reforming of Ethylene Glycol over MgAl₂O₄ Supported Rh, Ni, and Co Catalysts

    SciTech Connect

    Mei, Donghai; Lebarbier, Vanessa M.; Xing, Rong; Albrecht, Karl O.; Dagle, Robert A.

    2015-11-25

    Steam reforming of ethylene glycol (EG) over MgAl₂O₄ supported metal (15 wt.% Ni, 5 wt.% Rh, and 15 wt.% Co) catalysts were investigated using combined experimental and theoretical methods. Compared to highly active Rh and Ni catalysts with 100% conversion, the steam reforming activity of EG over the Co catalyst is comparatively lower with only 42% conversion under the same reaction conditions (500°C, 1 atm, 119,000 h⁻¹, S/C=3.3 mol). However, CH₄ selectivity over the Co catalyst is remarkably lower. For example, by varying the gas hour space velocity (GHSV) such that complete conversion is achieved for all the catalysts, CH₄ selectivity for the Co catalyst is only 8%, which is much lower than the equilibrium CH₄ selectivity of ~ 24% obtained for both the Rh and Ni catalysts. Further studies show that varying H₂O concentration over the Co catalyst has a negligible effect on activity, thus indicating zero-order dependence on H₂O. These experimental results suggest that the supported Co catalyst is a promising EG steam reforming catalyst for high hydrogen production. To gain mechanistic insight for rationalizing the lower CH₃ selectivity observed for the Co catalyst, the initial decomposition reaction steps of ethylene glycol via C-O, O-H, C-H, and C-C bond scissions on the Rh(111), Ni(111) and Co(0001) surfaces were investigated using density functional theory (DFT) calculations. Despite the fact that the bond scission sequence in the EG decomposition on the three metal surfaces varies, which leads to different reaction intermediates, the lower CH₄ selectivity over the Co catalyst, as compared to the Rh and Ni catalysts, is primarily due to the higher barrier for CH₄ formation. The higher S/C ratio enhances the Co catalyst stability, which can be elucidated by the facile water dissociation and an alternative reaction path to remove the CH species as a coking precursor via the HCOH formation. This work was financially supported by the United

  8. Experimental Study on a Compact Methanol Steam Reformer with Pd/Ag Membrane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faizal, Hasan Mohd; Kuwabara, Masato; Kizu, Ryo; Yokomori, Takeshi; Ueda, Toshihisa

    The performance of high purity hydrogen production from methanol for a compact steam reformer with a hydrogen purification membrane was investigated experimentally. A 77 wt.% Pd/23 wt.% Ag membrane with 25µm thickness and CuO/ZnO/ Al2O3 catalyst were used. Heating was performed by a Bunsen type burner using City Gas 13A. The methanol reforming and purification of H2 were investigated at different reference catalyst zone temperatures (589-689K), pressures at the retentate side (0.2-0.5MPa), steam to methanol(S/C) ratios (0.8-1.6) and reactant flow rates (1.7 ×10-4 to 4.4×10-4 mol/s). The results show that at high reference temperature, high pressure and certain points of the reactant flow rate, the maximum hydrogen permeation rate is obtained when the S/C ratio is around 1. The modified Sieverts’ equation which considers the decrease in H2 concentration at the membrane surface, was proposed. The experimental result was lower than the permeation rate estimated by the modified Sieverts’ equation, which is probably caused by the adsorption of non-H2 species during permeation. It is further demonstrated that the modified Sieverts’ equation is able to estimate a more reasonable hydrogen permeation rate in comparison to the estimation by the ordinary Sieverts’ equation. In addition, it is shown that the compact methanol steam reformer with a Pd/Ag membrane is able to produce high purity hydrogen with very low CO concentration, which fulfills the Polymer Electrolyte Fuel Cell (PEFC) requirement (<10ppm).

  9. Catalytic deactivation on methane steam reforming catalysts. 2. Kinetic study

    SciTech Connect

    Agnelli, M.E.; Ponzi, E.N.; Yeramian, A.A.

    1987-08-01

    The kinetics of methane steam reforming reaction over an alumina-supported nickel catalyst was investigated at a temperature range of 640-740/sup 0/C in a flow reactor at atmospheric pressure. The experiments were performed varying the inlet concentration of methane, hydrogen, and water. A kinetic scheme of the Houghen-Watson type was satisfactorily proposed assuming the dissociative adsorption of CH/sub 4/ as the rate-limiting step, but this kinetic scheme can be easily replaced by a first-order kinetics (r/sub CH/4/sub / = kapparho/sub CH/4/sub /) for engineering purposes. Catalyst activation with H/sub 2/ and N/sub 2/ mixtures or with the reactant mixture results in the same extent of reaction.

  10. Novel zeolite-supported rhodium catalysts for ethanol steam reforming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campos-Skrobot, Fabiana C.; Rizzo-Domingues, Roberta C. P.; Fernandes-Machado, Nádia R. C.; Cantão, Mauricio P.

    Renewable bioethanol is an interesting hydrogen source for fuel cells through steam reforming, but its C-C bond promotes parallel reactions, mainly coke and by-products formation. In this way, good ethanol reforming catalysts are still needed, which explains current research and development efforts around the world. Most catalysts proposed for ethanol reforming are based on oxide-supported noble metals with surface area below 100 m 2 g -1 and reaction temperatures above 500 °C. Novel Rh and Rh-K catalysts supported on NaY zeolite with surface area above 440 m 2 g -1 are presented in this work. Reaction temperature was fixed at 300 °C and H 2O/EtOH molar ratio and reagent flow were varied. Ethanol conversion varied from 50 to 99%, with average increase of 50% due to K promoter, and hydrogen production yield achieved 68%.

  11. Fuel Chemistry and Bed Performance in a Black Liquor Steam Reformer

    SciTech Connect

    2006-04-01

    The objective of this research is to address critical issues that inhibit successful commercialization of low-temperature BLG systems, including the steam reforming technology developed by Manufacturing and Technology Conversion International, Inc.

  12. Steam Reforming on Transition-metal Carbides from Density-functional Theory

    SciTech Connect

    Vojvodic, Aleksandra

    2012-05-11

    A screening study of the steam reforming reaction on clean and oxygen covered early transition-metal carbides surfaces is performed by means of density-functional theory calculations. It is found that carbides provide a wide spectrum of reactivities, from too reactive via suitable to too inert. Several molybdenum-based systems are identified as possible steam reforming catalysts. The findings suggest that carbides provide a playground for reactivity tuning, comparable to the one for pure metals.

  13. Evaluation of dissociated and steam-reformed methanol as automotive engine fuels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lalk, T. R.; Mccall, D. M.; Mccanlies, J. M.

    1984-01-01

    Dissociated and steam reformed methanol were evaluated as automotive engine fuels. Advantages and disadvantages in using methanol in the reformed rather than liquid state were discussed. Engine dynamometer tests were conducted with a four cylinder, 2.3 liter, spark ignition automotive engine to determine performance and emission characteristics operating on simulated dissociated and steam reformed methanol (2H2 + CO and 3H2 + CO2 respectively), and liquid methanol. Results are presented for engine performance and emissions as functions of equivalence ratio, at various throttle settings and engine speeds. Operation on dissociated and steam reformed methanol was characterized by flashback (violent propagation of a flame into the intake manifold) which limited operation to lower power output than was obtainable using liquid methanol. It was concluded that: an automobile could not be operated solely on dissociated or steam reformed methanol over the entire required power range - a supplementary fuel system or power source would be necessary to attain higher powers; the use of reformed mechanol, compared to liquid methanol, may result in a small improvement in thermal efficiency in the low power range; dissociated methanol is a better fuel than steam reformed methanol for use in a spark ignition engine; and use of dissociated or steam reformed methanol may result in lower exhaust emissions compared to liquid methanol.

  14. Zircon Supported Copper Catalysts for the Steam Reforming of Methanol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Widiastri, M.; Fendy, Marsih, I. N.

    2008-03-01

    Steam reforming of methanol (SRM) is known as one of the most favorable catalytic processes for producing hydrogen. Current research on zirconia, ZrO2 supported copper catalyst revealed that CuO/ZrO2 as an active catalyst for the SRM. Zircon, ZrSiO4 is available from the by-product of tin mining. In the work presented here, the catalytic properties of CuO/ZrSiO4 with various copper oxide compositions ranging from 2.70% (catalyst I), 4.12% (catalyst II), and 7.12%-mass (catalyst III), synthesized by an incipient wetness impregnation technique, were investigated to methanol conversion, selectivity towards CO formation, and effect of ZnO addition (7.83%CuO/8.01%ZnO/ZrSiO4 = catalyst V). The catalytic activity was obtained using a fixed bed reactor and the zircon supported catalyst activity was compared to those of CuO/ZnO/Al2O3 catalyst (catalyst IV) and commercial Kujang LTSC catalyst. An X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) analysis was done to identify the abundant phases of the catalysts. The catalysts topography and particle diameter were measured with scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and composition of the catalysts was measured by SEM-EDX, scanning electron microscope-energy dispersive using X-ray analysis. The results of this research provide information on the possibility of using zircon (ZrSiO4) as solid support for SRM catalysts.

  15. DURABILITY TESTING OF FLUIDIZED BED STEAM REFORMER (FBSR) WASTE FORMS

    SciTech Connect

    Jantzen, C

    2006-01-06

    Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming (FBSR) is being considered as a potential technology for the immobilization of a wide variety of high sodium aqueous radioactive wastes. The addition of clay and a catalyst as co-reactants converts high sodium aqueous low activity wastes (LAW) such as those existing at the Hanford and Idaho DOE sites to a granular ''mineralized'' waste form that may be made into a monolith form if necessary. Simulant Hanford and Idaho high sodium wastes were processed in a pilot scale FBSR at Science Applications International Corporation (SAIC) Science and Technology Applications Research (STAR) facility in Idaho Falls, ID. Granular mineral waste forms were made from (1) a basic Hanford Envelope A low-activity waste (LAW) simulant and (2) an acidic INL simulant commonly referred to as sodium-bearing waste (SBW). The FBSR waste forms were characterized and the durability tested via ASTM C1285 (Product Consistency Test), the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Toxic Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP), and the Single Pass Flow Through (SPFT) test. The durability of the FBSR waste form products was tested in order to compare the measured durability to previous FBSR waste form testing on Hanford Envelope C waste forms that were made by THOR Treatment Technologies (TTT) and to compare the FBSR durability to vitreous LAW waste forms, specifically the Hanford low activity waste (LAW) glass known as the Low-activity Reference Material (LRM). The durability of the FBSR waste form is comparable to that of the LRM glass for the test responses studied.

  16. Steam Reforming Technology Demonstration Program for Treatment of DOE Sodium Bearing Tank Wastes at Idaho National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Ryan, K.; Mason, B.; Wolf, K.; Olson, A.

    2007-07-01

    The patented THOR{sup R} steam reforming waste treatment technology has been selected by the Department of Energy (DOE) for treatment of Sodium Bearing Waste (SBW) at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL). SBW is an acidic waste created primarily from cleanup of the fuel reprocessing equipment at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC) at the INL. The SBW contains high concentrations of nitric acid and alkali and aluminum nitrates, along with many other inorganic compounds, including substantial levels of radionuclides. As part of the implementation of the THOR{sup R} process at INTEC, an engineering-scale test demonstration (ESTD) was conducted using a specially designed pilot plant located at Hazen Research, Inc. in Golden Colorado. The purpose of the ESTD was to confirm and optimize operation of the THOR{sup R} dual fluidized bed steam reforming (FBSR) process for treating the SBW. The performance of the integrated FBSR thermal and off-gas systems was demonstrated while treating waste simulants representative of the actual SBW. Simulants were utilized that consisted of highly acidic nitrate solutions, with both dissolved and undissolved solids (UDS). The SBW simulant solutions were converted into a dry, granular solid, consisting of carbonate and aluminate product compounds. The successful performance of the integrated FBSR system was verified and demonstrated. (authors)

  17. Diesel steam reforming with a nickel-alumina spinel catalyst for solid oxide fuel cell application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fauteux-Lefebvre, Clémence; Abatzoglou, Nicolas; Braidy, Nadi; Achouri, Ines Esma

    Liquid hydrocarbons (LC) are considered as fuel cells feed and, more particularly, as solid oxide fuel cell feed. Cost-effective LC-reforming catalysts are critically needed for the successful commercialization of such technologies. An alternative to noble metal catalysts, proposed by the authors in a previous publication, has been proven efficient for diesel steam reforming (SR). Nickel, less expensive and more readily available than noble metals, was used in a form that prevents deactivation. The catalyst formulation is a Ni-alumina spinel (NiAl 2O 4) supported on alumina (Al 2O 3) and yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ). SR of commercial diesel was undertaken for more than 15 h at high gas hourly space velocities and steam-to-carbon ratios lower than 2. Constant diesel conversion and high hydrogen concentrations were obtained. Ni catalyst characterization revealed no detectable amounts of carbon on the spinel catalyst surface Ni. The effect of catalyst composition (Ni concentration and YSZ presence) was studied to understand and optimize the developed catalyst. Two phenomena were found to be influenced by relative catalyst composition: water-gas-shift vs reforming reaction extent, and concentration of light hydrocarbons in products.

  18. Kinetics, simulation and optimization of methanol steam reformer for fuel cell applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Yongtaek; Stenger, Harvey G.

    To evaluate reaction rates for making hydrogen from methanol, kinetic studies of methanol decomposition, methanol steam reforming, the water gas shift reaction, and CO selective oxidation have been performed. These reactions were studied in a microreactor testing unit using a commercial Cu-ZnO/Al 2O 3 catalyst for the first three reactions and Pt-Fe/γ-alumina catalyst for the last reaction. The activity tests were performed between 120 and 325 °C at atmospheric pressure with a range of feed rates and compositions. For methanol decomposition, a simplified reaction network of five elementary reactions was proposed and parameters for all five rate expressions were obtained using non-linear least squares optimization, numerical integration of a one-dimensional PFR model, and extensive experimental data. Similar numerical analysis was carried out to obtain the rate expressions for methanol steam reaction, the water gas shift reaction, and CO selective oxidation. Combining the three reactors with several heat exchange options, an integrated methanol reformer system was designed and simulated using MATLAB. Using this simulation, the product distribution, the effects of reactor volume and temperature, and the options of water and air injection rates were studied. Also, a series of optimization tests were conducted to give maximum hydrogen yield and/or maximum economic profit.

  19. Durability Testing of Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming Products

    SciTech Connect

    JANTZEN, CAROL M.; PAREIZS, JOHN M.; LORIER, TROY H.; MARRA, JAMES C.

    2005-07-01

    Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming (FBSR) is being considered as a potential technology for the immobilization of a wide variety of radioactive wastes but especially aqueous high sodium wastes at the Hanford site, at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL), and at the Savannah River Site (SRS). The FBSR technology converts organic compounds to CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2}O, converts nitrate/nitrite species to N{sub 2}, and produces a solid residue through reactions with superheated steam, the fluidizing media. If clay is added during processing a ''mineralized'' granular waste form can be produced. The mineral components of the waste form are primarily Na-Al-Si (NAS) feldspathoid minerals with cage-like and ring structures and iron bearing spinel minerals. The cage and ring structured minerals atomically bond radionuclides like Tc{sup 99} and Cs{sup 137} and anions such as SO{sub 4}, I, F, and Cl. The spinel minerals appear to stabilize Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) hazardous species such as Cr and Ni. Durability testing of the FBSR products was performed using ASTM C1285 (Product Consistency Test) and the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Toxic Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP). The FBSR mineral products (bed and fines) evaluated in this study were found to be two orders of magnitude more durable than the Hanford Low Activity Waste (LAW) glass requirement of 2 g/m{sup 2} release of Na{sup +}. The PCT responses for the FBSR samples tested were consistent with results from previous FBSR Hanford LAW product testing. Differences in the response can be explained by the minerals formed and their effects on PCT leachate chemistry.

  20. Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming of Hanford LAW Using THORsm Mineralizing Technology

    SciTech Connect

    Olson, Arlin L.; Nicholas R Soelberg; Douglas W. Marshall; Gary L. Anderson

    2004-11-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) documented, in 2002, a plan for accelerating cleanup of the Hanford Site, located in southeastern Washington State, by at least 35 years. A key element of the plan was acceleration of the tank waste program and completion of ''tank waste treatment by 2028 by increasing the capacity of the planned Waste Treatment Plant (WTP) and using supplemental technologies for waste treatment and immobilization.'' The plan identified steam reforming technology as a candidate for supplemental treatment of as much as 70% of the low-activity waste (LAW). Mineralizing steam reforming technology, offered by THOR Treatment Technologies, LLC would produce a denitrated, granular mineral waste form using a high-temperature fluidized bed process. A pilot scale demonstration of the technology was completed in a 15-cm-diameter reactor vessel. The pilot scale facility was equipped with a highly efficient cyclone separator and heated sintered metal filters for particulate removal, a thermal oxidizer for reduced gas species and NOx destruction, and a packed activated carbon bed for residual volatile species capture. The pilot scale equipment is owned by the DOE, but located at the Science and Technology Applications Research (STAR) Center in Idaho Falls, ID. Pilot scale testing was performed August 2–5, 2004. Flowsheet chemistry and operational parameters were defined through a collaborative effort involving Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory, Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL), and THOR Treatment Technologies personnel. Science Application International Corporation, owners of the STAR Center, personnel performed actual pilot scale operation. The pilot scale test achieved a total of 68.7 hrs of cumulative/continuous processing operation before termination in response to a bed de-fluidization condition. 178 kg of LAW surrogate were processed that resulted in 148 kg of solid product, a mass reduction of about 17%. The process

  1. New Insights into Reaction Mechanisms of Ethanol Steam Reforming on Co-ZrO2

    SciTech Connect

    Sun, Junming; Karim, Ayman M.; Mei, Donghai; Engelhard, Mark H.; Bao, Xinhe; Wang, Yong

    2015-01-01

    The reaction pathway of ethanol steam reforming on Co-ZrO2 has been identified and the active sites associated with each step are proposed. Ethanol is converted to acetaldehyde and then to acetone, followed by acetone steam reforming. More than 90% carbon was found to follow this reaction pathway. N2-Sorption, X-ray Diffraction (XRD), Temperature Programmed Reduction (TPR), in situ X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS), Transmission Electron Microscopy, as well as theoretical Density Functional Theory (DFT) calculations have been employed to identify the structure and functionality of the catalysts, which was further used to correlate their performance in ESR. It was found that metallic cobalt is mainly responsible for the acetone steam reforming reactions; while, CoO and basic sites on the support play a key role in converting ethanol to acetone via dehydrogenation and condensation/ketonization reaction pathways. The current work provides fundamental understanding of the ethanol steam reforming reaction mechanisms on Co-ZrO2 catalysts and sheds light on the rational design of selective and durable ethanol steam reforming catalysts.

  2. Steady-State Simulation of Steam Reforming of INEEL Tank Farm Waste

    SciTech Connect

    Nichols, T.T.; Taylor, D.D.; Wood, R.A.; Barnes, C.M.

    2002-08-15

    A steady-state model of the Sodium-Bearing Waste steam reforming process at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory has been performed using the commercial ASPEN Plus process simulator. The preliminary process configuration and its representation in ASPEN are described. As assessment of the capability of the model to mechanistically predict product stream compositions was made, and fidelity gaps and opportunities for model enhancement were identified, resulting in the following conclusions: (1) Appreciable benefit is derived from using an activity coefficient model for electrolyte solution thermodynamics rather than assuming ideality (unity assumed for all activity coefficients). The concentrations of fifteen percent of the species present in the primary output stream were changed by more than 50%, relative to Electrolyte NRTL, when ideality was assumed; (2) The current baseline model provides a good start for estimating mass balances and performing integrated process optimization because it contains several key species, uses a mechanistic electrolyte thermodynamic model, and is based on a reasonable process configuration; and (3) Appreciable improvement to model fidelity can be realized by expanding the species list and the list of chemical and phase transformations. A path forward is proposed focusing on the use of an improved electrolyte thermodynamic property method, addition of chemical and phase transformations for key species currently absent from the model, and the combination of RGibbs and Flash blocks to simulate simultaneous phase and chemical equilibria in the off-gas treatment train.

  3. Steady-State Simulation of Steam Reforming of INEEL Tank Farm Waste

    SciTech Connect

    Nichols, Todd Travis; Taylor, Dean Dalton; Wood, Richard Arthur; Barnes, Charles Marshall

    2002-08-01

    A steady-state model of the Sodium-Bearing Waste steam reforming process at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory has been performed using the commercial ASPEN Plus process simulator. The preliminary process configuration and its representation in ASPEN are described. As assessment of the capability of the model to mechanistically predict product stream compositions was made, and fidelity gaps and opportunities for model enhancement were identified, resulting in the following conclusions: 1) Appreciable benefit is derived from using an activity coefficient model for electrolyte solution thermodynamics rather than assuming ideality (unity assumed for all activity coefficients). The concentrations of fifteen percent of the species present in the primary output stream were changed by more than 50%, relative to Electrolyte NRTL, when ideality was assumed; 2) The current baseline model provides a good start for estimating mass balances and performing integrated process optimization because it contains several key species, uses a mechanistic electrolyte thermodynamic model, and is based on a reasonable process configuration; and 3) Appreciable improvement to model fidelity can be realized by expanding the species list and the list of chemical and phase transformations. A path forward is proposed focusing on the use of an improved electrolyte thermodynamic property method, addition of chemical and phase transformations for key species currently absent from the model, and the combination of RGibbs and Flash blocks to simulate simultaneous phase and chemical equilibria in the off-gas treatment train.

  4. Enhancement of Glycerol Steam Reforming Activity and Thermal Stability by Incorporating CeO2 and TiO2 in Ni- and Co-MCM-41 Catalysts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dade, William N.

    Hydrogen (H2) has many applications in industry with current focus shifted to production of hydrocarbon fuels and valuable oxygenates using the Fischer-Tropsch technology and direct use in proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC). Hydrogen is generally produced via steam reforming of natural gas or alcohols like methanol and ethanol. Glycerol, a by-product of biodiesel production process, is currently considered to be one of the most attractive sources of sustainable H2 due to its high H/C ratio and bio-based origin. Ni and Co based catalysts have been reported to be active in glycerol steam reforming (GSR); however, deactivation of the catalysts by carbon deposition and sintering under GSR operating conditions is a major challenge. In this study, a series of catalysts containing Ni and Co nanoparticles incorporated in CeO2 and TiO2 modified high surface area MCM-41 have been synthesized using one-pot method. The catalysts are tested for GSR (at H2O/Glycerol mole ratio of 12 and GHSV of 2200 h-1) to study the effect of support modification and reaction temperature (450 - 700 °C) on the product selectivity and long term stability. GSR results revealed that all the catalysts performed significantly well exhibiting over 85% glycerol conversion at 650 °C except Ni catalysts that showed better low temperature activities. Deactivation studies of the catalysts conducted at 650 °C indicated that the Ni-TiO2-MCM-41 and Ni-CeO 2-MCM-41 were resistant to deactivation with ˜100% glycerol conversion for 40 h. In contrast, Co-TiO2-MCM-41 perform poorly as the catalyst rapidly deactivated after 12 h to yield ˜20% glycerol conversion after 40 h. The WAXRD and TGA-DSC analyses of spent catalysts showed a significant amount of coke deposition that might explain catalysts deactivation. The flattening shape of the original BET type IV isotherm with drastic reduction of catalyst surface area can also be responsible for observed drop in catalysts activities.

  5. Methanol Steam Reforming Promoted by Molten Salt-Modified Platinum on Alumina Catalysts

    PubMed Central

    Kusche, Matthias; Agel, Friederike; Ní Bhriain, Nollaig; Kaftan, Andre; Laurin, Mathias; Libuda, Jörg; Wasserscheid, Peter

    2014-01-01

    We herein describe a straight forward procedure to increase the performance of platinum-on-alumina catalysts in methanol steam reforming by applying an alkali hydroxide coating according to the “solid catalyst with ionic liquid layer” (SCILL) approach. We demonstrate by diffuse reflectance infrared Fourier transform spectroscopy (DRIFTS) and temperature-programmed desorption (TPD) studies that potassium doping plays an important role in the catalyst activation. Moreover, the hygroscopic nature and the basicity of the salt modification contribute to the considerable enhancement in catalytic performance. During reaction, a partly liquid film of alkali hydroxides/carbonates forms on the catalyst/alumina surface, thus significantly enhancing the availability of water at the catalytically active sites. Too high catalyst pore fillings with salt introduce a considerable mass transfer barrier into the system as indicated by kinetic studies. Thus, the optimum interplay between beneficial catalyst modification and detrimental mass transfer effects had to be identified and was found on the applied platinum-on-alumina catalyst at KOH loadings around 7.5 mass %. PMID:25124120

  6. Methanol steam reforming promoted by molten salt-modified platinum on alumina catalysts.

    PubMed

    Kusche, Matthias; Agel, Friederike; Ní Bhriain, Nollaig; Kaftan, Andre; Laurin, Mathias; Libuda, Jörg; Wasserscheid, Peter

    2014-09-01

    We herein describe a straight forward procedure to increase the performance of platinum-on-alumina catalysts in methanol steam reforming by applying an alkali hydroxide coating according to the "solid catalyst with ionic liquid layer" (SCILL) approach. We demonstrate by diffuse reflectance infrared Fourier transform spectroscopy (DRIFTS) and temperature-programmed desorption (TPD) studies that potassium doping plays an important role in the catalyst activation. Moreover, the hygroscopic nature and the basicity of the salt modification contribute to the considerable enhancement in catalytic performance. During reaction, a partly liquid film of alkali hydroxides/carbonates forms on the catalyst/alumina surface, thus significantly enhancing the availability of water at the catalytically active sites. Too high catalyst pore fillings with salt introduce a considerable mass transfer barrier into the system as indicated by kinetic studies. Thus, the optimum interplay between beneficial catalyst modification and detrimental mass transfer effects had to be identified and was found on the applied platinum-on-alumina catalyst at KOH loadings around 7.5 mass%.

  7. DATA QUALITY OBJECTIVES FOR SELECTING WASTE SAMPLES FOR THE BENCH STEAM REFORMER TEST

    SciTech Connect

    BANNING DL

    2010-08-03

    This document describes the data quality objectives to select archived samples located at the 222-S Laboratory for Fluid Bed Steam Reformer testing. The type, quantity and quality of the data required to select the samples for Fluid Bed Steam Reformer testing are discussed. In order to maximize the efficiency and minimize the time to treat Hanford tank waste in the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant, additional treatment processes may be required. One of the potential treatment processes is the fluid bed steam reformer (FBSR). A determination of the adequacy of the FBSR process to treat Hanford tank waste is required. The initial step in determining the adequacy of the FBSR process is to select archived waste samples from the 222-S Laboratory that will be used to test the FBSR process. Analyses of the selected samples will be required to confirm the samples meet the testing criteria.

  8. Development of a Rapid-Start On-Board Automotive Steam Reformer

    SciTech Connect

    Whyatt, Greg A.; Fischer, Christopher M.; Davis, James M.

    2004-04-29

    The paper reports on the status of efforts to engineer a microchannel steam reforming system to enable a rapid cold start capability. The steam reformer is intended to be coupled with a WGS and PROX reactor to provide reformate to a PEM fuel cell for an automotive propulsion application. A compact and efficient microchannel steam reformer was previously developed that required ~15 minutes to accomplish a cold start. The objective of the current work was to reduce this start time to <30 seconds without sacrificing steady-state efficiency. The paper describes the changes made in the reforming system to enable cold start capability and presents data on reformate flow and temperature transients during cold start testing. The results demonstrate that the system is capable of producing reformate within 22 seconds after a cold start. A strategy for integrating the system with a WGS and PROX reactor to provide a rapid start fuel processing system is described.

  9. Steam reforming of tar model compound using Pd catalyst on alumina tube.

    PubMed

    Nisamaneenate, Jurarat; Atong, Duangduen; Sricharoenchaikul, Viboon

    2012-12-01

    Gasification processing of biomass as a renewable energy source generates tar in the product gas. Tar leads to foul-up of the process equipment by corrosion and deposit formation. Catalytic elimination of tars is a crucial step to improve fuel gas quality from the process. In this study, a palladium catalyst on alumina (Pd/Al2O3) was used in steam reforming of benzene as a biomass gasification tar model compound. The reaction was carried out in a laboratory-scale tube reactor made of stainless steel to study the effect of reaction temperature, catalyst loading, quantity of palladium catalyst tubes, steam to carbon ratio (S/C), and residence time on catalytic performance and stability. Pd/Al2O3 showed high efficiency ofbenzene decomposition and enhanced the formation of fuel gas. Hydrogen and carbon conversions increased with reaction temperature. Although the benzene concentration increased from 2000 to 5000 mg/l, the catalytic performance at 600 degrees C and 800 degrees C was similar. 1.0 wt% Pd/Al2O3 showed excellent catalytic activity with the highest hydrogen and carbon conversions of 83% and 81%, respectively at 800 degrees C. This result is attributed to the smooth surface of the palladium, as noted from scanning electron microscopy imaging. An S/C of 2 provided the highest conversion. The addition of catalyst from four and seven tubes did not result in any great difference in terms of benzene cracking efficiency. The fourth cyclic usage of 1.0 wt% Pd/Al2O3 exhibited a higher conversion than that of 0.5 wt%. PMID:23437646

  10. Natural gas monthly

    SciTech Connect

    1998-01-01

    The Natural Gas Monthly highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the Natural Gas Monthly features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information.

  11. Hierarchically structured catalysts for cascade and selective steam reforming/hydrodeoxygenation reactions

    SciTech Connect

    Sun, Junming; Karim, Ayman M.; Li, Xiaohong S.; Rainbolt, James E.; Kovarik, Libor; Shin, Yongsoon; Wang, Yong

    2015-09-29

    We report a hierarchically structured catalyst with steam reforming and hydrodeoxygenation functionalities being deposited in the micropores and macropores, respectively. The catalyst is highly efficient to upgrade the pyrolysis vapors of pine forest product residual, resulting in a dramatically decreased acid content and increased hydrocarbon yield without external H2 supply.

  12. FLUIDIZED BED STEAM REFORMING FOR TREATMENT AND IMMOBILIZATION OF LOW-ACTIVITY WASTE

    SciTech Connect

    HEWITT WM

    2011-04-08

    This report is one of four reports written to provide background information regarding immobilization technologies remaining under consideration for supplemental immobilization of Hanford's low-activity waste. This paper provides the reader a general understanding of fluidized bed steam reforming and its possible application to treat and immobilize Hanford low-activity waste.

  13. Enviro-Friendly Hydrogen Generation from Steel Mill-Scale via Metal-Steam Reforming

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Azad, Abdul-Majeed; Kesavan, Sathees

    2006-01-01

    An economically viable and environmental friendly method of generating hydrogen for fuel cells is by the reaction of certain metals with steam, called metal-steam reforming (MSR). This technique does not generate any toxic by-products nor contributes to the undesirable greenhouse effect. From the standpoint of favorable thermodynamics, total…

  14. CATALYTIC STEAM REFORMING OF CHLOROCARBONS: TRICHLOROETHANE, TRICHLOROETHYLENE AND PERCHLOROETHYLENE. (R826694C633)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The effective destruction of trichloroethane, trichloroethylene and perchloroethylene by steam reforming with a commercial nickel catalyst has been demonstrated. Conversion levels of up to 0.99999 were attained in both laboratory and semi-pilot experiments, with the products c...

  15. CATALYTIC STEAM REFORMING OF CHLOROCARBONS: CATALYST DEACTIVATION. (R826694C633)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Deactivation of 0.5 wt.% Pt/small gamma, Greek-Al2O3 catalysts during trichloroethylene (TCE)–steam reforming was studied with experiments at 700°C, H

  16. CATALYTIC STEAM REFORMING OF CHLOROCARBONS: POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYLS (PCBS). (R826694C633)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Experiments with commercial askarals (Aroclors 1221, 1248 and 1254) have confirmed the feasibility of catalytic steam reforming as a method for destroying polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). Rhodium, platinum and nickel supported on CATALYTIC STEAM REFORMING OF CHLOROCARBONS: CATALYST COMPARISONS. (R826694C633)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Catalyst candidates for steam reforming chlorocarbons have been screened for activity using methyl chloride as a model reactant. At 500°C, a H2O/C ratio of about 10 and a GHSV of 254 000 h-1, catalysts comprising 0.5% loading of the metals ...

  17. CATALYTIC STEAM REFORMING OF CHLOROCARBONS: CATALYST COMPARISONS. (R822721C633)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Catalyst candidates for steam reforming chlorocarbons have been screened for activity using methyl chloride as a model reactant. At 500°C, a H2O/C ratio of about 10 and a GHSV of 254 000 h-1, catalysts comprising 0.5% loading of the metals o...

  18. Steam reforming as a method to treat Hanford underground storage tank (UST) wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, J.E.; Kuehne, P.B.

    1995-07-01

    This report summarizes a Sandia program that included partnerships with Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory and Synthetica Technologies, Inc. to design and test a steam reforming system for treating Hanford underground storage tank (UST) wastes. The benefits of steam reforming the wastes include the resolution of tank safety issues and improved radionuclide separations. Steam reforming destroys organic materials by first gasifying, then reacting them with high temperature steam. Tests indicate that up to 99% of the organics could be removed from the UST wastes by steam exposure. In addition, it was shown that nitrates in the wastes could be destroyed by steam exposure if they were first distributed as a thin layer on a surface. High purity alumina and nickel alloys were shown to be good candidates for materials to be used in the severe environment associated with steam reforming the highly alkaline, high nitrate content wastes. Work was performed on designing, building, and demonstrating components of a 0.5 gallon per minute (gpm) system suitable for radioactive waste treatment. Scale-up of the unit to 20 gpm was also considered and is feasible. Finally, process demonstrations conducted on non-radioactive waste surrogates were carried out, including a successful demonstration of the technology at the 0.1 gpm scale.

  19. Progress on the Development of a Microchannel Steam Reformer for Automotive Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Whyatt, Greg A.; Fischer, Christopher M.; Davis, James M.

    2002-03-15

    A compact, energy efficient steam reforming system for automotive applications has been under development at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. At the IMRET 5 conference, results were presented describing the operation of a thermally integrated, energy efficient, compact, microchannel steam reforming system capable of converting a liquid hydrocarbon fuel (isooctane) into a reformate stream sufficient for a PEM fuel cell with >10 kWe capacity (Whyatt et al., 2001). Since this demonstration, the project has focused on performing testing in smaller scale steam reforming reactors to further reduce the reforming reactor volume, demonstrate fuel flexibility and address other issues. A test stand, nominally 1/20th the scale of the previous steam reforming demonstration, was constructed and smaller scale reactors have been used in testing. Significant gains have been made with respect to increasing the volumetric productivity of the reactor, suggesting that the 10 kWe reactor could now be made considerably smaller than the previous prototype. In addition the reformer has been demonstrated on a variety of fuels including methane, methanol, ethanol, propane, butane, isooctane, and a benchmark fuel mix intended to simulate a sulfur-free gasoline. The development effort is being funded by the U.S. Department of Energy's Office of Transportation Technology.

  1. In-Space Propulsion, Logistics Reduction, and Evaluation of Steam Reformer Kinetics: Problems and Prospects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jaworske, D. A.; Palaszewski, B. A.; Kulis, M. J.; Gokoglu, S. A.

    2015-01-01

    Human space missions generate waste materials. A 70-kg crewmember creates a waste stream of 1 kg per day, and a four-person crew on a deep space habitat for a 400+ day mission would create over 1600 kg of waste. Converted into methane, the carbon could be used as a fuel for propulsion or power. The NASA Advanced Exploration Systems (AES) Logistics Reduction and Repurposing (LRR) project is investing in space resource utilization with an emphasis on repurposing logistics materials for useful purposes and has selected steam reforming among many different competitive processes as the preferred method for repurposing organic waste into methane. Already demonstrated at the relevant processing rate of 5.4 kg of waste per day, high temperature oxygenated steam consumes waste and produces carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, and hydrogen which can then be converted into methane catalytically. However, the steam reforming process has not been studied in microgravity. Data are critically needed to understand the mechanisms that allow use of steam reforming in a reduced gravity environment. This paper reviews the relevant literature, identifies gravity-dependent mechanisms within the steam gasification process, and describes an innovative experiment to acquire the crucial kinetic information in a small-scale reactor specifically designed to operate within the requirements of a reduced gravity aircraft flight. The experiment will determine if the steam reformer process is mass-transport limited, and if so, what level of forced convection will be needed to obtain performance comparable to that in 1-g.

  2. Development of a Nuclear Hydrogen Production System by Dimethyl Ether (DME) Steam Reforming and Related Technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fukushima, Kimichika; Oota, Hiroyuki; Yamada, Kazuya; Makino, Shinichi; Yagyu, Motoshige; Ikeda, Tatsumi; Asayama, Masahiro; Ogawa, Takashi; Yoshino, Masato

    Targeting a hydrogen production system using heat produced by a nuclear reactor at about 300°C, we are developing a dimethyl ether (DME) steam reformer and hydrogen purification systems as well as catalysts for DME reforming. The use of heat from a nuclear reactor suppresses the CO2 concentration change in the atmosphere. In our developments, a catalyst, consisting of mixed oxides, produced hydrogen at a rate of about 1.9 Nm3/h per catalyst volume (m3) at about 300°C. Subsequently, the DME steam reformer achieved a hydrogen production rate of approximately, at least, 1.4 Nm3/h at about 300°C, by absorbing heat from the supplied steam. The aforementioned hydrogen production system via DME steam reforming is to be demonstrated using a thermal power plant. DME steam reforming by using waste heat and the utilization of the produced hydrogen within a combined cycle power plant can reduce fuel consumption, for instance, by about 17% compared to the case of direct DME combustion. The total system, with the use of DME, was compared with the methane case. If necessary, the byproduced CO2 may be injected into coal seams, increasing CH4 production via the substitution of CO2 for CH4 on coal, where CO2 adsorption is expected to be stronger than the CH4 adsorption.

  3. Pyrolysis/Steam Reforming Technology for Treatment of TRU Orphan Wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Mason, J. B.; McKibbin, J.; Schmoker, D.; Bacala, P.

    2003-02-27

    Certain transuranic (TRU) waste streams within the Department of Energy (DOE) complex cannot be disposed of at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) because they do not meet the shipping requirements of the TRUPACT-II or the disposal requirements of the Waste Analysis Plan (WAP) in the WIPP RCRA Part B Permit. These waste streams, referred to as orphan wastes, cannot be shipped or disposed of because they contain one or more prohibited items, such as liquids, volatile organic compounds (VOCs), hydrogen gas, corrosive acids or bases, reactive metals, or high concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB), etc. The patented, non-incineration, pyrolysis and steam reforming processes marketed by THOR Treatment Technologies LLC removes all of these prohibited items from drums of TRU waste and produces a dry, inert, inorganic waste material that meets the existing TRUPACT-II requirements for shipping, as well as the existing WAP requirements for disposal of TRU waste at WIPP. THOR Treatment Technologies is a joint venture formed in June 2002 by Studsvik, Inc. (Studsvik) and Westinghouse Government Environmental Services Company LLC (WGES) to further develop and deploy Studsvik's patented THORSM technology within the DOE and Department of Defense (DoD) markets. The THORSM treatment process is a commercially proven system that has treated over 100,000 cu. ft. of nuclear waste from commercial power plants since 1999. Some of this waste has had contact dose rates of up to 400 R/hr. A distinguishing characteristic of the THORSM process for TRU waste treatment is the ability to treat drums of waste without removing the waste contents from the drum. This feature greatly minimizes criticality and contamination issues for processing of plutonium-containing wastes. The novel features described herein are protected by issued and pending patents.

  4. Understanding of catalyst deactivation caused by sulfur poisoning and carbon deposition in steam reforming of liquid hydrocarbon fuels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Chao

    2011-12-01

    The present work was conducted to develop a better understanding on the catalyst deactivation in steam reforming of sulfur-containing liquid hydrocarbon fuels for hydrogen production. Steam reforming of Norpar13 (a liquid hydrocarbon fuel from Exxon Mobile) without and with sulfur was performed on various metal catalysts (Rh, Ru, Pt, Pd, and Ni) supported on different materials (Al2O3, CeO2, SiO2, MgO, and CeO2- Al2O3). A number of characterization techniques were applied to study the physicochemical properties of these catalysts before and after the reactions. Especially, X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) spectroscopy was intensively used to investigate the nature of sulfur and carbon species in the used catalysts to reveal the catalyst deactivation mechanism. Among the tested noble metal catalysts (Rh, Ru, Pt, and Pd), Rh catalyst is the most sulfur tolerant. Al2O3 and CeO2 are much better than SiO2 and MgO as the supports for the Rh catalyst to reform sulfur-containing hydrocarbons. The good sulfur tolerance of Rh/Al2O3 can be attributed to the acidic nature of the Al2O3 support and its small Rh crystallites (1-3 nm) as these characteristics facilitate the formation of electron-deficient Rh particles with high sulfur tolerance. The good catalytic performance of Rh/CeO2 in the presence of sulfur can be ascribed to the promotion effect of CeO2 on carbon gasification, which significantly reduced the carbon deposition on the Rh/CeO2catalyst. Steam reforming of Norpar13 in the absence and presence of sulfur was further carried out over CeO2-Al2O3 supported monometallic Ni and Rh and bimetallic Rh-Ni catalysts at 550 and 800 °C. Both monometallic catalysts rapidly deactivated at 550 °C, iv and showed poor sulfur tolerance. Although ineffective for the Ni catalyst, increasing the temperature to 800 °C dramatically improved the sulfur tolerance of the Rh catalyst. Sulfur K-edge XANES revealed that metal sulfide and organic sulfide are the dominant sulfur

  5. Steam reforming of n-hexane on pellet and monolithic catalyst beds. A comparative study on improvements due to heat transfer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    Monolithic catalysts with higher available active surface areas and better thermal conductivity than conventional pellets beds, making possible the steam reforming of fuels heavier than naphtha, were examined. Performance comparisons were made between conventional pellet beds and honeycomb monolith catalysts using n-hexane as the fuel. Metal-supported monoliths were examined. These offer higher structural stability and higher thermal conductivity than ceramic supports. Data from two metal monoliths of different nickel catalyst loadings were compared to pellets under the same operating conditions. Improved heat transfer and better conversion efficiencies were obtained with the monolith having higher catalyst loading. Surface-gas interaction was observed throughout the length of the monoliths.

  6. Production of hydrogen by thermocatalytic cracking of natural gas

    SciTech Connect

    Muradov, N.Z.

    1995-09-01

    It is universally accepted that in the next few decades hydrogen production will continue to rely on fossil fuels (primarily, natural gas). On the other hand, the conventional methods of hydrogen production from natural gas (for example, steam reforming) are complex multi-step processes. These processes also result in the emission of large quantities of CO{sub 2} into the atmosphere that produce adverse ecological effects. One alternative is the one-step thermocatalytic cracking (TCC) (or decomposition) of natural gas into hydrogen and carbon. Preliminary analysis indicates that the cost of hydrogen produced by thermal decomposition of natural gas is somewhat lower than the conventional processes after by-product carbon credit is taken. In the short term, this process can be used for on-site production of hydrogen-methane mixtures in gas-filling stations and for CO{sub x}-free production of hydrogen for fuel cell driven prime movers. The experimental data on the thermocatalytic cracking of methane over various catalysts and supports in a wide range of temperatures (500-900{degrees}C) are presented in this paper. Two types of reactors were designed and built at FSEC: continuous flow and pulse fix bed catalytic reactors. The temperature dependence of the hydrogen production yield using oxide type catalysts was studied. Alumina-supported Ni- and Fe-catalysts demonstrated relatively high efficiency in the methane cracking reaction at moderate temperatures (600-800{degrees}C). Kinetic curves of hydrogen production over metal and metal oxide catalysts at different temperatures are presented in the paper. Fe-catalyst demonstrated good stability (for several hours), whereas alumina-supported Pt-catalyst rapidly lost its catalytic activity.

  7. High-efficiency power production from natural gas with carbon capture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adams, Thomas A.; Barton, Paul I.

    A unique electricity generation process uses natural gas and solid oxide fuel cells at high electrical efficiency (74%HHV) and zero atmospheric emissions. The process contains a steam reformer heat-integrated with the fuel cells to provide the heat necessary for reforming. The fuel cells are powered with H 2 and avoid carbon deposition issues. 100% CO 2 capture is achieved downstream of the fuel cells with very little energy penalty using a multi-stage flash cascade process, where high-purity water is produced as a side product. Alternative reforming techniques such as CO 2 reforming, autothermal reforming, and partial oxidation are considered. The capital and energy costs of the proposed process are considered to determine the levelized cost of electricity, which is low when compared to other similar carbon capture-enabled processes.

  8. Natural gas annual 1996

    SciTech Connect

    1997-09-01

    This document provides information on the supply and disposition of natural gas to a wide audience. The 1996 data are presented in a sequence that follows natural gas from it`s production to it`s end use.

  9. Natural Gas Monthly

    EIA Publications

    2016-01-01

    Highlights activities, events, and analyses associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer related activities and underground storage data are also reported.

  10. Natural gas annual 1994

    SciTech Connect

    1995-11-17

    The Natural Gas Annual provides information on the supply and disposition of natural gas to a wide audience including industry, consumers, Federal and State agencies, and educational institutions. The 1994 data are presented in a sequence that follows natural gas (including supplemental supplies) from its production to its end use. This is followed by tables summarizing natural gas supply and disposition from 1990 to 1994 for each Census Division and each State. Annual historical data are shown at the national level.

  11. Natural gas annual 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1996-11-01

    The Natural Gas Annual provides information on the supply and disposition of natural gas to a wide audience including industry, consumers, Federal and State agencies, and educational institutions. The 1995 data are presented in a sequence that follows natural gas (including supplemental supplies) from its production to its end use. This is followed by tables summarizing natural gas supply and disposition from 1991 to 1995 for each Census Division and each State. Annual historical data are shown at the national level.

  12. Glycerol Steam Reforming Over Ni-Fe-Ce/Al2O3 Catalyst: Effect of Cerium.

    PubMed

    Go, Gwang-Sub; Go, Yoo-Jin; Lee, Hong-Joo; Moon, Dong-Ju; Park, Nam-Cook; Kim, Young-Chul

    2016-02-01

    In this work, hydrogen production from glycerol by steam reforming was studied using Ni-metal oxide catalysts. Ni-based catalyst becomes deactivated during steam reforming reactions because of coke deposits and sintering. Therefore, the aim of this study was to reduce carbon deposits and sintering on the catalyst surface by adding a promoter. Ni-metal oxide catalysts supported on Al2O3 were prepared via impregnation method, and the calcined catalyst was reduced under H2 flow for 2 h prior to the reaction. The characteristics of the catalysts were examined by XRD, TPR, TGA, and SEM. The Ni-Fe-Ce/Al2O3 catalyst, which contained less than 2 wt% Ce, showed the highest hydrogen selectivity and glycerol conversion. Further analysis of the catalysts revealed that the Ni-Fe-Ce/Al2O3 catalyst required a lower reduction temperature and produced minimum carbon deposit. PMID:27433687

  13. Glycerol Steam Reforming Over Ni-Fe-Ce/Al2O3 Catalyst: Effect of Cerium.

    PubMed

    Go, Gwang-Sub; Go, Yoo-Jin; Lee, Hong-Joo; Moon, Dong-Ju; Park, Nam-Cook; Kim, Young-Chul

    2016-02-01

    In this work, hydrogen production from glycerol by steam reforming was studied using Ni-metal oxide catalysts. Ni-based catalyst becomes deactivated during steam reforming reactions because of coke deposits and sintering. Therefore, the aim of this study was to reduce carbon deposits and sintering on the catalyst surface by adding a promoter. Ni-metal oxide catalysts supported on Al2O3 were prepared via impregnation method, and the calcined catalyst was reduced under H2 flow for 2 h prior to the reaction. The characteristics of the catalysts were examined by XRD, TPR, TGA, and SEM. The Ni-Fe-Ce/Al2O3 catalyst, which contained less than 2 wt% Ce, showed the highest hydrogen selectivity and glycerol conversion. Further analysis of the catalysts revealed that the Ni-Fe-Ce/Al2O3 catalyst required a lower reduction temperature and produced minimum carbon deposit.

  14. Development and life evaluation of a steam reforming process for PAFC

    SciTech Connect

    Nagase, S.; Takami, S.; Masuda, M.

    1996-12-31

    This paper reports a life evaluation method for a carbon monoxide (CO) shift process in the steam reforming process for PAFC. A CO shift reactor simulation was developed to evaluate the whole performance of the CO shift process. The calculation results of the simulation almost coincide with the experimental data obtained from a demonstration plant. By evaluating and grasping the sintering trend of the catalyst, and by simulation calculation of the reactor, it became possible to evaluate the performance at targeted operation hours.

  15. Geopolitics of natural gas

    SciTech Connect

    Russell, J.

    1983-01-01

    This examines the role of gas in the world energy supply/demand. Special attention is paid to Western Europe, the Soviet Union, and the natural gas exporting countries. Forecasts of global energy demand until 2000 and data on Western Europe's proven natural gas reserves as per January 1982 are provided.

  16. On-board reforming of biodiesel and bioethanol for high temperature PEM fuel cells: Comparison of autothermal reforming and steam reforming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, Stefan; Wörner, Antje

    2011-03-01

    In the 21st century biofuels will play an important role as alternative fuels in the transportation sector. In this paper different reforming options (steam reforming (SR) and autothermal reforming (ATR)) for the on-board conversion of bioethanol and biodiesel into a hydrogen-rich gas suitable for high temperature PEM (HTPEM) fuel cells are investigated using the simulation tool Aspen Plus. Special emphasis is placed on thermal heat integration. Methyl-oleate (C19H36O2) is chosen as reference substance for biodiesel. Bioethanol is represented by ethanol (C2H5OH). For the steam reforming concept with heat integration a maximum fuel processing efficiency of 75.6% (76.3%) is obtained for biodiesel (bioethanol) at S/C = 3. For the autothermal reforming concept with heat integration a maximum fuel processing efficiency of 74.1% (75.1%) is obtained for biodiesel (bioethanol) at S/C = 2 and λ = 0.36 (0.35). Taking into account the better dynamic behaviour and lower system complexity of the reforming concept based on ATR, autothermal reforming in combination with a water gas shift reactor is considered as the preferred option for on-board reforming of biodiesel and bioethanol. Based on the simulation results optimum operating conditions for a novel 5 kW biofuel processor are derived.

  17. Natural gas annual 1997

    SciTech Connect

    1998-10-01

    The Natural Gas Annual provides information on the supply and disposition of natural gas to a wide audience including industry, consumers, Federal and State agencies, and educational institutions. The 1997 data are presented in a sequence that follows natural gas (including supplemental supplies) from its production to its end use. This is followed by tables summarizing natural gas supply and disposition from 1993 to 1997 for each Census Division and each State. Annual historical data are shown at the national level. 27 figs., 109 tabs.

  18. Preparation and initial characterization of fluidized bed steam reforming pure-phase standards

    SciTech Connect

    Missimer, D. M.; Rutherford, R. L.

    2013-03-21

    Hanford is investigating the Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming (FBSR) process for their Low Activity Waste. The FBSR process offers a low-temperature continuous method by which liquid waste can be processed with the addition of clay into a sodium aluminosilicate (NAS) waste form. The NAS waste form is mainly comprised of nepheline (NaAlSiO{sub 4}), sodalite (Na{sub 8}[AlSiO{sub 4}]{sub 6}Cl{sub 2}), and nosean (Na{sub 8}[AlSiO{sub 4}]{sub 6}SO{sub 4}). Anions such as perrhenate (ReO{sub 4}{sup -}), pertechnetate (TcO{sub 4}{sup -}), and iodine (I{sup -}) are expected to replace sulfate in the nosean structure and/or chloride in the sodalite mineral structure (atomically bonded inside the aluminosilicate cages that these mineral structures possess). In the FBSR waste form, each of these phases can exist in a variety of solid solutions that differ from the idealized forms observed in single crystals in nature. The lack of understanding of the durability of these stoichiometric or idealized mineral phases complicates the ability to deconvolute the durability of the mixed phase FBSR product since it is a combination of different NAS phases. To better understand the behavior, fabrication and testing of the individual phases of the FBSR product is required. Analytical Development (AD) of the Science and Technology directorate of the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) was requested to prepare the series of phase-pure standards, consisting of nepheline, nosean, and Cl, Re, and I sodalite. Once prepared, X-ray Diffraction (XRD) analyses were used to confirm the products were phase pure. These standards are being used for subsequent characterization studies consisting of the following: single-pass flow-through (SPFT) testing, development of thermodynamic data, and x-ray diffraction (XRD) calibration curves. In addition to the above mentioned phase-pure standards, AD was tasked with fabricating a mixed Tc-Re sodalite.

  19. The Hy-C process (thermal decomposition of natural gas): Potentially the lowest cost source of hydrogen with the least CO{sub 2} emission

    SciTech Connect

    Steinberg, M.

    1994-12-01

    The abundance of natural gas as a natural resource and its high hydrogen content make it a prime candidate for a low cost supply of hydrogen. The thermal decomposition of natural gas by methane pyrolysis produces carbon and hydrogen. The process energy required to produce one mol of hydrogen is only 5.3% of the higher heating value of methane. The thermal efficiency for hydrogen production as a fuel without the use of carbon as a fuel, can be as high as 60%. Conventional steam reforming of methane requires 8.9% process energy per mole of hydrogen even though 4 moles of hydrogen can be produced per mole of methane, compared to 2 moles by methane pyrolysis. When considering greenhouse global gas warming, methane pyrolysis produces the least amount of CO{sub 2} emissions per unit of hydrogen and can be totally eliminated when the carbon produced is either sequestered or sold as a materials commodity, and hydrogen is used to fuel the process. Conventional steam reforming of natural gas and CO shifting produces large amounts of CO{sub 2} emissions. The energy requirement for non-fossil, solar, nuclear, and hydropower production of hydrogen, mainly through electrolysis, is much greater than that from natural gas. From the resource available energy and environmental points of view, production of hydrogen by methane pyrolysis is most attractive. The by-product carbon black, when credited as a saleable material, makes hydrogen by thermal decomposition of natural gas (the Hy-C process) potentially the lowest cost source of large amounts of hydrogen.

  20. Thermoacoustic natural gas liquefier

    SciTech Connect

    Swift, G.; Gardner, D.; Hayden, M.; Radebaugh, R.; Wollan, J.

    1996-07-01

    This is the final report of a two-year, Laboratory-Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). This project sought to develop a natural-gas-powered natural-gas liquefier that has absolutely no moving parts and requires no electrical power. It should have high efficiency, remarkable reliability, and low cost. The thermoacoustic natural-gas liquefier (TANGL) is based on our recent invention of the first no-moving-parts cryogenic refrigerator. In short, our invention uses acoustic phenomena to produce refrigeration from heat, with no moving parts. The required apparatus comprises nothing more than heat exchangers and pipes, made of common materials, without exacting tolerances. Its initial experimental success in a small size lead us to propose a more ambitious application: large-energy liquefaction of natural gas, using combustion of natural gas as the energy source. TANGL was designed to be maintenance-free, inexpensive, portable, and environmentally benign.

  1. CO(2)-selective methanol steam reforming on In-doped Pd studied by in situ X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Rameshan, Christoph; Lorenz, Harald; Mayr, Lukas; Penner, Simon; Zemlyanov, Dmitry; Arrigo, Rosa; Haevecker, Michael; Blume, Raoul; Knop-Gericke, Axel; Schlögl, Robert; Klötzer, Bernhard

    2012-11-01

    In situ X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (in situ XPS) was used to study the structural and catalytic properties of Pd-In near-surface intermetallic phases in correlation with previously studied PdZn and PdGa.Room temperature deposition of ∼4 monolayer equivalents (MLEs) of In metal on Pd foil and subsequent annealing to 453 K in vacuum yields a ∼1:1 Pd/In near-surface multilayer intermetallic phase. This Pd(1)In(1) phase exhibits a similar "Cu-like" electronic structure and indium depth distribution as its methanol steam reforming (MSR)-selective multilayer Pd(1)Zn(1) counterpart.Catalytic characterization of the multilayer Pd(1)In(1) phase in MSR yielded a CO(2)-selectivity of almost 100% between 493 and 550 K. In contrast to previously studied In(2)O(3)-supported PdIn nanoparticles and pure In(2)O(3), intermediate formaldehyde is only partially converted to CO(2) using this Pd(1)In(1) phase. Strongly correlated with PdZn, on an In-diluted PdIn intermetallic phase with "Pd-like" electronic structure, prepared by thermal annealing at 623 K, methanol steam reforming is suppressed and enhanced CO formation via full methanol dehydrogenation is observed.To achieve CO(2)-TOF values on the isolated Pd(1)In(1) intermetallic phase as high as on supported PdIn/In(2)O(3), at least 593 K reaction temperature is required. A bimetal-oxide synergism, with both bimetallic and oxide synergistically contributing to the observed catalytic activity and selectivity, manifests itself by accelerated formaldehyde-to-CO(2) conversion at markedly lowered temperatures as compared to separate oxide and bimetal. Combination of suppression of full methanol dehydrogenation to CO on Pd(1)In(1) inhibited inverse water-gas-shift reaction on In(2)O(3) and fast water activation/conversion of formaldehyde is the key to the low-temperature activity and high CO(2)-selectivity of the supported catalyst. PMID:23226689

  2. CO2-selective methanol steam reforming on In-doped Pd studied by in situ X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Rameshan, Christoph; Lorenz, Harald; Mayr, Lukas; Penner, Simon; Zemlyanov, Dmitry; Arrigo, Rosa; Haevecker, Michael; Blume, Raoul; Knop-Gericke, Axel; Schlögl, Robert; Klötzer, Bernhard

    2012-01-01

    In situ X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (in situ XPS) was used to study the structural and catalytic properties of Pd–In near-surface intermetallic phases in correlation with previously studied PdZn and PdGa. Room temperature deposition of ∼4 monolayer equivalents (MLEs) of In metal on Pd foil and subsequent annealing to 453 K in vacuum yields a ∼1:1 Pd/In near-surface multilayer intermetallic phase. This Pd1In1 phase exhibits a similar “Cu-like” electronic structure and indium depth distribution as its methanol steam reforming (MSR)-selective multilayer Pd1Zn1 counterpart. Catalytic characterization of the multilayer Pd1In1 phase in MSR yielded a CO2-selectivity of almost 100% between 493 and 550 K. In contrast to previously studied In2O3-supported PdIn nanoparticles and pure In2O3, intermediate formaldehyde is only partially converted to CO2 using this Pd1In1 phase. Strongly correlated with PdZn, on an In-diluted PdIn intermetallic phase with “Pd-like” electronic structure, prepared by thermal annealing at 623 K, methanol steam reforming is suppressed and enhanced CO formation via full methanol dehydrogenation is observed. To achieve CO2-TOF values on the isolated Pd1In1 intermetallic phase as high as on supported PdIn/In2O3, at least 593 K reaction temperature is required. A bimetal-oxide synergism, with both bimetallic and oxide synergistically contributing to the observed catalytic activity and selectivity, manifests itself by accelerated formaldehyde-to-CO2 conversion at markedly lowered temperatures as compared to separate oxide and bimetal. Combination of suppression of full methanol dehydrogenation to CO on Pd1In1 inhibited inverse water–gas-shift reaction on In2O3 and fast water activation/conversion of formaldehyde is the key to the low-temperature activity and high CO2-selectivity of the supported catalyst. PMID:23226689

  3. MINERALIZING, STEAM REFORMING TREATMENT OF HANFORD LOW-ACTIVITY WASTE (a.k.a. INEEL/EXT-05-02526)

    SciTech Connect

    A. L. Olson; N. R. Soelberg; D. W. Marshall; G. L. Anderson

    2005-02-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) documented, in 2002, a plan for accelerating cleanup of the Hanford Site, located in southeastern Washington State, by at least 35 years. A key element of the plan was acceleration of the tank waste program and completion of ''tank waste treatment by 2028 by increasing the capacity of the planned Waste Treatment Plant (WTP) and using supplemental technologies for waste treatment and immobilization.'' The plan identified steam reforming technology as a candidate for supplemental treatment of as much as 70% of the low-activity waste (LAW). Mineralizing steam reforming technology, offered by THOR Treatment Technologies, LLC would produce a denitrated, granular mineral waste form using a high-temperature fluidized bed process. A pilot scale demonstration of the technology was completed in a 15-cm-diameter reactor vessel. The pilot scale facility was equipped with a cyclone separator and heated sintered metal filters for particulate removal, a thermal oxidizer for reduced gas species and NOx destruction, and a packed activated carbon bed for residual volatile species capture. The pilot scale equipment is owned by the DOE, but located at the Science and Technology Applications Research (STAR) Center in Idaho Falls, ID. Pilot scale testing was performed August 2–5, 2004. Flowsheet chemistry and operational parameters were defined through a collaborative effort involving Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL), Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL), and THOR Treatment Technologies personnel. Science Application International Corporation, owners of the STAR Center, personnel performed actual pilot scale operation. The pilot scale test achieved a total of 68.4 hours of cumulative/continuous processing operation before termination in response to a bed de-fluidization condition. 178 kg of LAW surrogate were processed that resulted in 148 kg of solid product, a mass reduction of about 17%. The process achieved

  4. World Natural Gas Model

    1994-12-01

    RAMSGAS, the Research and Development Analysis Modeling System World Natural Gas Model, was developed to support planning of unconventional gaseoues fuels research and development. The model is a scenario analysis tool that can simulate the penetration of unconventional gas into world markets for oil and gas. Given a set of parameter values, the model estimates the natural gas supply and demand for the world for the period from 1980 to 2030. RAMSGAS is based onmore » a supply/demand framwork and also accounts for the non-renewable nature of gas resources. The model has three fundamental components: a demand module, a wellhead production cost module, and a supply/demand interface module. The demand for gas is a product of total demand for oil and gas in each of 9 demand regions and the gas share. Demand for oil and gas is forecast from the base year of 1980 through 2030 for each demand region, based on energy growth rates and price-induced conservation. For each of 11 conventional and 19 unconventional gas supply regions, wellhead production costs are calculated. To these are added transportation and distribution costs estimates associated with moving gas from the supply region to each of the demand regions and any economic rents. Based on a weighted average of these costs and the world price of oil, fuel shares for gas and oil are computed for each demand region. The gas demand is the gas fuel share multiplied by the total demand for oil plus gas. This demand is then met from the available supply regions in inverse proportion to the cost of gas from each region. The user has almost complete control over the cost estimates for each unconventional gas source in each year and thus can compare contributions from unconventional resources under different cost/price/demand scenarios.« less

  5. A passively-fed methanol steam reformer heated with two-stage bi-fueled catalytic combustor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lo, Kai-Fan; Wong, Shwin-Chung

    2012-09-01

    This paper presents further progress on our simple novel passively-fed methanol steam reformer. The present study focuses on the development of a catalytic combustor workable with both hydrogen and methanol fuels. The aim is to reutilize the exhaust hydrogen from a fuel cell under stable operation but burn methanol during the start-up. On a copper plate, the catalytic combustor in a u-turn channel is integrally machined under a two-turn serpentine-channel reformer. To resolve the highly different fuel reactivities, a suitably diluted catalyst formula demonstrates uniform temperature distributions burning with either liquid methanol or an H2/CO2 mixture simulating the exhaust gas from a fuel cell. In a two-stage process, it first takes 25 min to reach 270 °C by burning methanol. After the fuel is switched to the H2/CO2 mixture, another 20 min is needed to attain an optimal steady state which yields a high methanol conversion of 95% and acceptably low CO fraction of 1.04% at a reaction temperature of 278 °C. The H2 and CO2 concentrations are 75.1% and 23.6%.

  6. Investigation of Fuel Chemistry and Bed Performance in a Fluidized Bed Black Liquor Steam Reformer

    SciTech Connect

    Kevin Whitty

    2007-06-30

    University of Utah's project entitled 'Investigation of Fuel Chemistry and Bed Performance in a Fluidized Bed Black Liquor Steam Reformer' (DOE Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-02NT41490) was developed in response to a solicitation released by the U.S. Department of Energy in December 2001, requesting proposals for projects targeted towards black liquor/biomass gasification technology support research and development. Specifically, the solicitation was seeking projects that would provide technical support for Department of Energy supported black liquor and biomass gasification demonstration projects under development at the time.

  7. Natural gas monthly

    SciTech Connect

    1996-05-01

    This document highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Data presented include volume and price, production, consumption, underground storage, and interstate pipeline activities.

  8. Natural Gas Emergencies

    MedlinePlus

    ... by the Cass (ND) and Clay (MN) Emergency Planning Partnerships. Adapted with funding provided by Fargo Cass Public Health through the Cities Readiness Initiative (CRI) English – Natural Gas Emergencies - Last ...

  9. STEAM REFORMING TECHNOLOGY DEMONSTRATION FOR THE DESTRUCTION OF ORGANICS ON ACTUAL DOE SAVANNAH RIVER SITE TANK 48H WASTE 9138

    SciTech Connect

    Burket, P

    2009-02-24

    This paper describes the design of the Bench-scale Steam Reformer (BSR); a processing unit for demonstrating steam reforming technology on actual radioactive waste [1]. It describes the operating conditions of the unit used for processing a sample of Savannah River Site (SRS) Tank 48H waste. Finally, it compares the results from processing the actual waste in the BSR to processing simulant waste in the BSR to processing simulant waste in a large pilot scale unit, the Fluidized Bed Steam Reformer (FBSR), operated at Hazen Research Inc. in Golden, CO. The purpose of this work was to prove that the actual waste reacted in the same manner as the simulant waste in order to validate the work performed in the pilot scale unit which could only use simulant waste.

  10. Metallic phases of cobalt-based catalysts in ethanol steam reforming: The effect of cerium oxide

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, Sean S.-Y.; Kim, Do Heui; Ha, Su Y.

    2009-02-28

    The catalytic activity of cobalt in the production of hydrogen via ethanol steam reforming has been investigated in its relation to the crystalline structure of metallic cobalt. At a reaction temperature of 350 8C, the specific hydrogen production rates show that hexagonal close-packed (hcp) cobalt possesses higher activity than face-centered cubic (fcc) cobalt. However, at typical reaction temperatures (400– 500 8C) for ethanol steam reforming, hcp cobalt is transformed to less active fcc cobalt, as confirmed by in situ X-ray diffractometry (XRD). The addition of CeO2 promoter (10 wt.%) stabilizes the hcp cobalt structure at reforming temperatures up to 600 8C. Moreover, during the pre-reduction process, CeO2 promoter prevents sintering during the transformation of Co3O4 to hcp cobalt. Both reforming experiments and in situ diffuse-reflectance infrared Fourier transform spectroscopy (DRIFTS) showed that the surface reactions were modified by CeO2 promoter on 10% Ce–Co (hcp) to give a lower CO selectivity and a higher H2 yield as compared with the unpromoted hcp Co.

  11. Phase 2 TWR Steam Reforming Test for Sodium-Bearing Waste Treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Nicholas R. Soelberg; Doug Marshall; Dean Taylor; Steven Bates

    2004-01-01

    About one million gallons of acidic, hazardous, and radioactive sodium-bearing waste (SBW) is stored in stainless steel tanks a the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC), which is a major operating facility of the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). Steam reforming is a candidate technology being investigated for converting the SBW into a road ready waste form that can be shipped to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant in New Mexico for interment. Fluidized bed steam reforming technology, licensed to ThermoChem Waste Remediation, LLC (TWR) by Manufacturing Technology Conversion International, was tested in two phases using an INEEL (Department of Energy) fluidized bed test system located at the Science Applications International Corporation (SAIC) Science and Technology Applications Research Center in Idaho Falls, Idaho. The Phase 1 tests were reported earlier. The Phase 2 tests are reported here. For Phase 2, the process feed rate, reductant stoichiometry, and process temperature were varied to identify and demonstrate how the process might be optimized to improve operation and product characteristics. The first week of testing was devoted primarily to process chemistry and the second week was devoted more toward bed stability and particle size control.

  12. Bimetallic PtSn/C catalysts obtained via SOMC/M for glycerol steam reforming.

    PubMed

    Pastor-Pérez, Laura; Merlo, Andrea; Buitrago-Sierra, Robison; Casella, Mónica; Sepúlveda-Escribano, Antonio

    2015-12-01

    A detailed study on the preparation of bimetallic PtSn/C catalysts using surface-controlled synthesis methods, and on their catalytic performance in the glycerol steam reforming reaction has been carried out. In order to obtain these well-defined bimetallic phases, techniques derived from Surface Organometallic Chemistry on Metals (SOMC/M) were used. The preparation process involved the reaction between an organometallic compound ((C4H9)4Sn) and a supported transition metal (Pt) in a H2 atmosphere. Catalysts with Sn/Pt atomic ratios of 0.2, 0.3, 0.5, and 0.7 were obtained, and characterized using several techniques: ICP, H2 chemisorption, TEM and XPS. These systems were tested in the glycerol steam reforming varying the reaction conditions (glycerol concentration and reaction temperature). The best performance was observed for the catalysts with the lowest tin contents (PtSn0.2/C and PtSn0.3/C). It was observed that the presence of tin increased the catalysts' stability when working under more severe reaction conditions.

  13. Bimetallic PtSn/C catalysts obtained via SOMC/M for glycerol steam reforming.

    PubMed

    Pastor-Pérez, Laura; Merlo, Andrea; Buitrago-Sierra, Robison; Casella, Mónica; Sepúlveda-Escribano, Antonio

    2015-12-01

    A detailed study on the preparation of bimetallic PtSn/C catalysts using surface-controlled synthesis methods, and on their catalytic performance in the glycerol steam reforming reaction has been carried out. In order to obtain these well-defined bimetallic phases, techniques derived from Surface Organometallic Chemistry on Metals (SOMC/M) were used. The preparation process involved the reaction between an organometallic compound ((C4H9)4Sn) and a supported transition metal (Pt) in a H2 atmosphere. Catalysts with Sn/Pt atomic ratios of 0.2, 0.3, 0.5, and 0.7 were obtained, and characterized using several techniques: ICP, H2 chemisorption, TEM and XPS. These systems were tested in the glycerol steam reforming varying the reaction conditions (glycerol concentration and reaction temperature). The best performance was observed for the catalysts with the lowest tin contents (PtSn0.2/C and PtSn0.3/C). It was observed that the presence of tin increased the catalysts' stability when working under more severe reaction conditions. PMID:26283100

  14. Natural gas repowering experience

    SciTech Connect

    Bautista, P.J.; Fay, J.M.; Gerber, F.B.

    1995-12-31

    Gas Research Institute has led a variety of projects in the past two years with respect to repowering with natural gas. These activities, including workshops, technology evaluations, and market assessments, have indicated that a significant opportunity for repowering exists. It is obvious that the electric power industry`s restructuring and the actual implementation of environmental regulations from the Clean Air Act Amendments will have significant impact on repowering with respect to timing and ultimate size of the market. This paper summarizes the results and implications of these activities in repowering with natural gas. It first addresses the size of the potential market and discusses some of the significant issues with respect to this market potential. It then provides a perspective on technical options for repowering which are likely to be competitive in the current environment. Finally, it addresses possible actions by the gas industry and GRI to facilitate development of the repowering market.

  15. Safer Liquid Natural Gas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    After the disaster of Staten Island in 1973 where 40 people were killed repairing a liquid natural gas storage tank, the New York Fire Commissioner requested NASA's help in drawing up a comprehensive plan to cover the design, construction, and operation of liquid natural gas facilities. Two programs are underway. The first transfers comprehensive risk management techniques and procedures which take the form of an instruction document that includes determining liquid-gas risks through engineering analysis and tests, controlling these risks by setting up redundant fail safe techniques, and establishing criteria calling for decisions that eliminate or accept certain risks. The second program prepares a liquid gas safety manual (the first of its kind).

  16. Great natural gas swindle

    SciTech Connect

    Karkkainen, B.

    1981-07-01

    The Citizen/Labor Energy Coalition (C/LEC) is challenging natural gas deregulation bids by oil companies, which control 70% of domestic gas production, that will double or triple costs to consumers by 1985. Price increases will affect the cost of consumer goods, food, and several basic industries as well as residential heating bills. C/LEC disagrees with the Reagan administration that decontrol is needed to encourage production because this did not happen with the incentives provided by the Natural Gas Policy Act. Conservation will not be affected either because the capital needed for conservation investment will be used for higher gas bills. With higher employment another direct result, the only beneficiaries of decontrol appear to be the producers. (DCK)

  17. Future natural gas supplies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Despite recent optimism about the outlook for the future supply of domestic conventional natural gas, the Congressional Office of Technology Assessment (OTA) finds insufficient evidence to clearly justify either an optimistic or a pessimistic view. In a technical memorandum entitled “U.S. Natural Gas Availability: Conventional Gas Supply Through the Year 2000,” released recently by Rep. Philip R. Sharp (D-Ind,), chairman of the Subcommittee on Fossil and Synthetic Fuels of the Committee on Energy and Commerce, OTA concluded that substantial technical uncertainties prevented a reliable estimation of the likely natural gas production rates for later in this century. Even ignoring the potential for significant changes in gas prices and technology, OTA estimated that conventional gas production by the lower 48 states in the year 2000 could range from 9 to 19 trillion cubic feet (TCF) (0.25 to 0.53 trillion cubic meters), compared to 1982 production of 17.5 TCF. Similarly, production in the year 1990 could range from 13 to 20 TCF.

  18. Geopolitics of natural gas

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1983-11-09

    With almost as many vital economic interests as there were attendees, two natural gas international conferences were held in North America during September and October, to share experience and forecasts. On September 26, the Canadian Energy Research Institute (CERI) and the Calgary Chamber of Commerce sponsored the International Gas Markets Conference and drew 400 persons. And on October 5-6, at the University of Colorado at Boulder, USA, the International Research Center for Energy and Economic Development (ICEED) held its Tenth International Energy Conference on Economic and Political Issues of Natural Gas in International Trade, drawing some 200 experts. The latter seminar was preceded by a two-day seminar on Asian Energy Supplies and Requirements, which also featured natural gas in many of its presentations. To provide an overview of some of these pressing questions, Energy Detente reports on these two comprehensive seminars on natural gas. This issue also presents the fuel price/tax series and the principal industrial fuel prices for the Eastern Hemisphere for November 1983.

  19. Sustainable production of syngas from biomass-derived glycerol by steam reforming over highly stable Ni/SiC.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sung Min; Woo, Seong Ihl

    2012-08-01

    The production of syngas was investigated by steam reforming glycerol over Ni/Al(2)O(3), Ni/CeO(2), and Ni/SiC (which have acidic, basic, and neutral properties) at temperatures below 773 K. The complete and stable conversion of glycerol with a yield (higher than 90 %) of gaseous products (mainly syngas) was achieved over Ni/SiC during a 60 h reaction, whereas the conversion of glycerol continually decreases over Ni/Al(2)O(3) (by 49.8 %) and Ni/CeO(2) (by 77.1 %). The deactivation of Ni/Al(2)O(3) and Ni/CeO(2) is mainly caused by coke deposition because of the C-C cleavage of the byproducts produced by dehydration over acidic sites and condensation over basic sites. Gaseous products with a 1.0-1.9 syngas ratio (H(2)/CO) are produced over Ni/SiC. This ratio is required for the Fischer-Tropsch synthesis. However, a syngas ratio of more than 3.0 was observed over Ni/Al(2)O(3) and Ni/CeO(2) because of the high activity of the water-gas-shift reaction. Any dissociative or associative adsorption of water on Al(2)O(3) and CeO(2) promotes a water-gas-shift reaction and produces a higher syngas ratio. H(2) and CO were mainly produced by decomposition of glycerol through dehydrogenation and decarbonylation over Ni sites. Thus, SiC promotes an intrinsic contribution of nickel (dehydrogenation, and decarbonylation) without any byproducts from the dehydration and condensation. PMID:22753307

  20. Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming of INEEL SBW Using THORsm Mineralizing Technology

    SciTech Connect

    Arlin L. Olson; Nicholas R. Soelberg; Douglas W. Marshall; Gary L. Anderson

    2004-12-01

    Sodium bearing waste (SBW) disposition is one of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Idaho Operation Office’s (NE-ID) and State of Idaho’s top priorities at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). Many studies have resulted in the identification of five treatment alternatives that form a short list of perhaps the most appropriate technologies for the DOE to select from. The alternatives are (a) calcination with maximum achievable control technology (MACT) upgrade, (b) steam reforming, (c) cesium ion exchange (CsIX) with immobilization, (d) direct evaporation, and (e) vitrification. Each alternative has undergone some degree of applied technical development and preliminary process design over the past four years. DOE desired further experimental data, with regard to steam reforming technology, to make informed decisions concerning selection of treatment technology for SBW. Mineralizing steam reforming technology, offered by THOR Treatment Technologies, LLC would produce a denitrated, granular mineral waste form using a high-temperature fluidized bed process. A pilot scale demonstration of the technology was performed in a 15-cm-diameter reactor vessel September 27 through October 1, 2004. The pilot scale equipment is owned by the DOE, and located at the Science and Technology Applications Research (STAR) Center in Idaho Falls, ID. Flowsheet chemistry and operational parameters were defined through a collaborative effort involving Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory, Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL), and THOR Treatment Technologies personnel. Personnel from Science Applications International Corporation, owners of the STAR Center, operated the pilot plant. The pilot scale test was terminated as planned after achieving a total of 100 hrs of cumulative/continuous processing operation. About 230 kg of SBW surrogate were processed that resulted in about 88 kg of solid product, a mass reduction of about 62

  1. Preparation, structural characterization and catalytic properties of Co/CeO2 catalysts for the steam reforming of ethanol and hydrogen production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lovón, Adriana S. P.; Lovón-Quintana, Juan J.; Almerindo, Gizelle I.; Valença, Gustavo P.; Bernardi, Maria I. B.; Araújo, Vinícius D.; Rodrigues, Thenner S.; Robles-Dutenhefner, Patrícia A.; Fajardo, Humberto V.

    2012-10-01

    In this paper, Co/CeO2 catalysts, with different cobalt contents were prepared by the polymeric precursor method and were evaluated for the steam reforming of ethanol. The catalysts were characterized by N2 physisorption (BET method), X-ray diffraction (XRD), UV-visible diffuse reflectance, temperature programmed reduction analysis (TPR) and field emission scanning electron microscopy (FEG-SEM). It was observed that the catalytic behavior could be influenced by the experimental conditions and the nature of the catalyst employed. Physical-chemical characterizations revealed that the cobalt content of the catalyst influences the metal-support interaction which results in distinct catalyst performances. The catalyst with the highest cobalt content showed the best performance among the catalysts tested, exhibiting complete ethanol conversion, hydrogen selectivity close to 66% and good stability at a reaction temperature of 600 °C.

  2. A novel nano-Ni/SiO2 catalyst for hydrogen production from steam reforming of ethanol.

    PubMed

    Wu, Chunfei; Williams, Paul T

    2010-08-01

    Catalytic steam reforming of ethanol has been regarded as a promising way to produce hydrogen. However, catalytic deactivation is a key problem in the process. In this paper, a novel nano-Ni/SiO2 catalyst was prepared by a simple sol-gel method and compared to catalysts prepared by an impregnation method in relation to the steam reforming ethanol process. Good Ni dispersion and high BET surface areas (>700 m2 g(-1)) were obtained for sol-gel catalysts, whereas only 1 m2 g(-1) surface area was obtained for the Ni/SiO2 impregnation catalyst. The results of catalytic steam reforming of ethanol showed that about twice of the hydrogen production was produced with the Ni/SiO2 catalyst prepared by sol-gel (around 0.2 g h(-1)) compared with that prepared by impregnation (around 0.1 g h(-1)). The analysis of the used catalysts showed that 10Ni/SiO2-B and 20Ni/SiO2-B presented the highest stability, while other catalysts were fragmented into small pieces after the reforming process, especially the catalysts prepared by impregnation. A novel catalyst has been produced that has been shown to be effective in the production of hydrogen from the steam reforming of ethanol.

  3. Fluidized bed steam reformed mineral waste form performance testing to support Hanford Supplemental Low Activity Waste Immobilization Technology Selection

    SciTech Connect

    Jantzen, C. M.; Pierce, E. M.; Bannochie, C. J.; Burket, P. R.; Cozzi, A. D.; Crawford, C. L.; Daniel, W. E.; Fox, K. M.; Herman, C. C.; Miller, D. H.; Missimer, D. M.; Nash, C. A.; Williams, M. F.; Brown, C. F.; Qafoku, N. P.; Neeway, J. J.; Valenta, M. M.; Gill, G. A.; Swanberg, D. J.; Robbins, R. A.; Thompson, L. E.

    2015-10-01

    This report describes the benchscale testing with simulant and radioactive Hanford Tank Blends, mineral product characterization and testing, and monolith testing and characterization. These projects were funded by DOE EM-31 Technology Development & Deployment (TDD) Program Technical Task Plan WP-5.2.1-2010-001 and are entitled “Fluidized Bed Steam Reformer Low-Level Waste Form Qualification”, Inter-Entity Work Order (IEWO) M0SRV00054 with Washington River Protection Solutions (WRPS) entitled “Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming Treatability Studies Using Savannah River Site (SRS) Low Activity Waste and Hanford Low Activity Waste Tank Samples”, and IEWO M0SRV00080, “Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming Waste Form Qualification Testing Using SRS Low Activity Waste and Hanford Low Activity Waste Tank Samples”. This was a multi-organizational program that included Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL), THOR® Treatment Technologies (TTT), Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), Office of River Protection (ORP), and Washington River Protection Solutions (WRPS). The SRNL testing of the non-radioactive pilot-scale Fluidized Bed Steam Reformer (FBSR) products made by TTT, subsequent SRNL monolith formulation and testing and studies of these products, and SRNL Waste Treatment Plant Secondary Waste (WTP-SW) radioactive campaign were funded by DOE Advanced Remediation Technologies (ART) Phase 2 Project in connection with a Work-For-Others (WFO) between SRNL and TTT.

  4. Natural Gas Annual

    EIA Publications

    2015-01-01

    Provides information on the supply and disposition of natural gas in the United States. Production, transmission, storage, deliveries, and price data are published by state for the current year. Summary data are presented for each state for the previous 5 years.

  5. Natural Gas Annual

    EIA Publications

    2016-01-01

    Provides information on the supply and disposition of natural gas in the United States. Production, transmission, storage, deliveries, and price data are published by state for the current year. Summary data are presented for each state for the previous 5 years.

  6. US crude oil, natural gas, and natural gas liquids reserves

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-10-05

    This report presents estimates of proved reserves of crude oil, natural gas, and natural gas liquids as of December 31, 1989, and production volumes for the year 1989 for the total United States and for selected states and state sub-divisions. Estimates are presented for the following four categories of natural gas: total gas (wet after lease separation), its two major components (nonassociated and associated-dissolved gas), and total dry gas (wet gas adjusted for the removal of liquids at natural gas processing plants). In addition, two components of natural gas liquids, lease condensate and natural gas plant liquids, have their reserves and production reported separately. Also included is information on indicated additional crude oil reserves and crude oil, natural gas, and lease condensate reserves in nonproducing reservoirs. 28 refs., 9 figs., 15 tabs.

  7. Gasification Evaluation of Gas Turbine Combustion

    SciTech Connect

    Battelle

    2003-12-30

    This report provides a preliminary assessment of the potential for use in gas turbines and reciprocating gas engines of gases derived from biomass by pyrolysis or partial oxidation with air. Consideration was given to the use of mixtures of these gases with natural gas as a means of improving heating value and ensuring a steady gas supply. Gas from biomass, and mixtures with natural gas, were compared with natural gas reformates from low temperature partial oxidation or steam reforming. The properties of such reformates were based on computations of gas properties using the ChemCAD computational tools and energy inputs derived from known engine parameters. In general, the biomass derived fuels compare well with reformates, so far as can be judged without engine testing. Mild reforming has potential to produce a more uniform quality of fuel gas from very variable qualities of natural gas, and could possibly be applied to gas from biomass to eliminate organic gases and condensibles other than methane.

  8. Natural gas purchases

    SciTech Connect

    Grenier, E.J. Jr.

    1995-09-01

    In the 1970`s gas and boilers were like oil and water as far as policy makers were concerned, culminating in the Powerplant and Industrial Fuel Use Act (perhaps a more appropriate title would have been the Fuel Non-Use Act or the Gas Non-Use Act). But now, the last two Administrations have made gas the centerpiece of their energy and environmental strategies, including promotion of gas use for boilers and electric generation. The FERC`s Order 636 almost completes the Commission`s restructuring of the gas industry that began with Order 380 (eliminating commodity minimum bills) and progressed sharply with Orders 436 and 500. It is Order 636 that has transformed the interstate pipeline business into a transportation business, with the pipelines virtually out of the merchant business altogether because the Commission is not resting on its laurels after completing implementation of Order 636. Rather, it is exploring new ways to expand the growing competitive market for gas, including the possibility of using market-based rates for interstate pipeline transportation services. Methods for the procurement of natural gas supplies are discussed.

  9. Thermodynamic analysis of carbon formation boundary and reforming performance for steam reforming of dimethyl ether

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faungnawakij, Kajornsak; Kikuchi, Ryuji; Eguchi, Koichi

    Thermodynamic analysis of dimethyl ether steam reforming (DME SR) was investigated for carbon formation boundary, DME conversion, and hydrogen yield for fuel cell application. The equilibrium calculation employing Gibbs free minimization was performed to figure out the required steam-to-carbon ratio (S/C = 0-5) and reforming temperature (25-1000 °C) where coke formation was thermodynamically unfavorable. S/C, reforming temperature and product species strongly contributed to the coke formation and product composition. When chemical species DME, methanol, CO 2, CO, H 2, H 2O and coke were considered, complete conversion of DME and hydrogen yield above 78% without coke formation were achieved at the normal operating temperatures of molten carbonate fuel cell (600 °C) and solid oxide fuel cell (900 °C), when S/C was at or above 2.5. When CH 4 was favorable, production of coke and that of hydrogen were significantly suppressed.

  10. Sustainable hydrogen production by ethanol steam reforming using a partially reduced copper-nickel oxide catalyst.

    PubMed

    Chen, Li-Chung; Cheng, Hongkui; Chiang, Chih-Wei; Lin, Shawn D

    2015-05-22

    Hydrogen production through the use of renewable raw materials and renewable energy is crucial for advancing its applications as an energy carrier. In this study, we fabricated a solid oxide solution of Cu and Ni within a confined pore space, followed by a partial reduction, to produce a highly efficient catalyst for ethanol steam reforming (ESR). At 300 °C, EtOH is completely converted, a H2 yield of approximately 5 mol per mol is achieved, and CO2 is the main carbon-containing product. This demonstrates that H2 production from bioethanol is an efficient and sustainable approach. Such a highly efficient ESR catalyst is attributed to the ability of the metal-oxide interface to facilitate the transformation of CHx adspecies from acetaldehyde decomposition into methoxy-like adspecies, which are reformed readily to produce H2 and consequently reduce CH4 formation.

  11. Steam reforming of glycerol over Pt-MCM-41 synthesized in a one-step process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xiao-Hui; Yan, Feng-Wen; Guo, Cun-Yue; Yuan, Guo-Qing

    2012-12-01

    Pt-MCM-41 materials were synthesized by a simple method via simultaneous self-assembling and Pt incorporation using cetyltrimethylammonium chloride (CTAC) as a structure directing agent. Structural characterization of the sample was carried out by N2 sorption, XRD and TEM measurements. The highly ordered structure of MCM-41 was not appreciably affected by the formation of the Pt particles. Unlike related results, the Pt nanoparticles were incorporated into the mesopores and embedded into the pore walls as framework. The Pt-MCM-41 sample was tested as a catalyst in the steam reforming of glycerol in which it exhibited moderate activity, high selectivity to hydrogen, and very low selectivity to light alkanes.

  12. Steam reforming of glycerol for hydrogen production over supported nickel catalysts on alumina.

    PubMed

    Choi, Ga Young; Kim, Young Chul; Moon, Dong Ju; Seo, Gon; Park, Nam Cook

    2013-01-01

    The experiment was carried out to produce hydrogen through steam reforming of glycerol over nano-sized Ni catalysts supported on alumina (Al2O3). The catalysts were characterized by BET surface area, metal dispersion, XRD, TPR, NH3-TPD and SEM. 15 wt% Ni/Al2O3 catalysts presented carbon nano fiber after the catalyst was used. However, when the Ni loading was higher than that of 15 wt%, the catalytic activity reduced, and the increase of the Ni particle size and the formation of graphitic carbon occurred. The Ni/SiO2(70)-Al2O3 with the high surface area and the small Ni particle size promoted the catalytic activity and could easily reduce from NiO to Ni, inhibiting the formation of NiAl2O4. PMID:23646792

  13. Process and apparatus for the production of hydrogen by steam reforming of hydrocarbon

    DOEpatents

    Sircar, Shivaji; Hufton, Jeffrey Raymond; Nataraj, Shankar

    2000-01-01

    In the steam reforming of hydrocarbon, particularly methane, under elevated temperature and pressure to produce hydrogen, a feed of steam and hydrocarbon is fed into a first reaction volume containing essentially only reforming catalyst to partially reform the feed. The balance of the feed and the reaction products of carbon dioxide and hydrogen are then fed into a second reaction volume containing a mixture of catalyst and adsorbent which removes the carbon dioxide from the reaction zone as it is formed. The process is conducted in a cycle which includes these reactions followed by countercurrent depressurization and purge of the adsorbent to regenerate it and repressurization of the reaction volumes preparatory to repeating the reaction-sorption phase of the cycle.

  14. Cu-Al spinel oxide as an efficient catalyst for methanol steam reforming.

    PubMed

    Xi, Hongjuan; Hou, Xiaoning; Liu, Yajie; Qing, Shaojun; Gao, Zhixian

    2014-10-27

    Cu-Al spinel oxide, which contains a small portion of the CuO phase, has been successfully used in methanol steam reforming (MSR) without prereduction. The omission of prereduction not only avoids the copper sintering prior to the catalytic reaction, but also slows down the copper-sintering rate in MSR. During this process, the CuO phase can initiate MSR at a lower temperature, and CuAl2O4 releases active copper gradually. The catalyst CA2.5-900, calcined at 900 °C with n(Al)/n(Cu) = 2.5, has a higher CuAl2O4 content, higher BET surface area, and smaller CuAl2O4 crystal size. Its activity first increases and then decreases during MSR. Furthermore, both fresh and regenerated CA2.5-900 showed better catalytic performance than the commercial Cu-Zn-Al catalyst. PMID:25213737

  15. Radioactive Demonstrations Of Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming (FBSR) With Hanford Low Activity Wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Jantzen, C. M.; Crawford, C. L.; Burket, P. R.; Bannochie, C. J.; Daniel, W. G.; Nash, C. A.; Cozzi, A. D.; Herman, C. C.

    2012-10-22

    Several supplemental technologies for treating and immobilizing Hanford low activity waste (LAW) are being evaluated. One immobilization technology being considered is Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming (FBSR) which offers a low temperature (700-750?C) continuous method by which wastes high in organics, nitrates, sulfates/sulfides, or other aqueous components may be processed into a crystalline ceramic (mineral) waste form. The granular waste form produced by co-processing the waste with kaolin clay has been shown to be as durable as LAW glass. The FBSR granular product will be monolithed into a final waste form. The granular component is composed of insoluble sodium aluminosilicate (NAS) feldspathoid minerals such as sodalite. Production of the FBSR mineral product has been demonstrated both at the industrial, engineering, pilot, and laboratory scales on simulants. Radioactive testing at SRNL commenced in late 2010 to demonstrate the technology on radioactive LAW streams which is the focus of this study.

  16. Steam Reforming, 6-in. Bench-Scale Design and Testing Project -- Technical and Functional Requirements Description

    SciTech Connect

    Losinski, Sylvester John; Marshall, Douglas William

    2002-08-01

    Feasibility studies and technology development work are currently being performed on several processes to treat radioactive liquids and solids currently stored at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC), located within the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). These studies and development work will be used to select a treatment process for treatment of the radioactive liquids and solids to meet treatment milestones of the Settlement Agreement between the Department of Energy and the State of Idaho. One process under consideration for treating the radioactive liquids and solids, specifically Sodium-Bearing Waste (SBW) and tank heel solids, is fluid bed steam reforming (FBSR). To support both feasibility and development studies a bench-scale FBSR is being designed and constructed. This report presents the technical and functional requirements, experimental objectives, process flow sheets, and equipment specifications for the bench-scale FBSR.

  17. Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming (FBSR) Mineralization for High Organic and Nitrate Waste Streams for the Global Nuclear Energy Partnership (GNEP)

    SciTech Connect

    Jantzen, C.M.; Williams, M.R.

    2008-07-01

    Waste streams that may be generated by the Global Nuclear Energy Partnership (GNEP) Advanced Energy Initiative may contain significant quantities of organics (0-53 wt%) and/or nitrates (0-56 wt%). Decomposition of high nitrate streams requires reducing conditions, e.g. organic additives such as sugar or coal, to reduce the NOx in the off-gas to N{sub 2} to meet the Clean Air Act (CAA) standards during processing. Thus, organics will be present during waste form stabilization regardless of which GNEP processes are chosen, e.g. organics in the feed or organics for nitrate destruction. High organic containing wastes cannot be stabilized with the existing HLW Best Developed Available Technology (BDAT) which is HLW vitrification (HLVIT) unless the organics are removed by preprocessing. Alternative waste stabilization processes such as Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming (FBSR) operate at moderate temperatures (650-750 deg. C) compared to vitrification (1150-1300 deg. C). FBSR converts organics to CAA compliant gases, creates no secondary liquid waste streams, and creates a stable mineral waste form that is as durable as glass. For application to the high Cs-137 and Sr-90 containing GNEP waste streams a single phase mineralized Cs-mica phase was made by co-reacting illite clay and GNEP simulated waste. The Cs-mica accommodates up to 30% wt% Cs{sub 2}O and all the GNEP waste species, Ba, Sr, Rb including the Cs-137 transmutation to Ba-137. For reference, the cesium mineral pollucite (CsAlSi{sub 2}O{sub 6}), currently being studied for GNEP applications, can only be fabricated at {>=}1000 deg. C. Pollucite mineralization creates secondary aqueous waste streams and NOx. Pollucite is not tolerant of high concentrations of Ba, Sr or Rb and forces the divalent species into different mineral host phases. The pollucite can accommodate up to 33% wt% Cs{sub 2}O. (authors)

  18. FLUIDIZED BED STEAM REFORMING MINERALIZATION FOR HIGH ORGANIC AND NITRATE WASTE STREAMS FOR THE GLOBAL NUCLEAR ENERGY PARTNERSHIP

    SciTech Connect

    Jantzen, C; Michael Williams, M

    2008-01-11

    Waste streams that may be generated by the Global Nuclear Energy Partnership (GNEP) Advanced Energy Initiative may contain significant quantities of organics (0-53 wt%) and/or nitrates (0-56 wt%). Decomposition of high nitrate streams requires reducing conditions, e.g. organic additives such as sugar or coal, to reduce the NO{sub x} in the off-gas to N{sub 2} to meet the Clean Air Act (CAA) standards during processing. Thus, organics will be present during waste form stabilization regardless of which GNEP processes are chosen, e.g. organics in the feed or organics for nitrate destruction. High organic containing wastes cannot be stabilized with the existing HLW Best Developed Available Technology (BDAT) which is HLW vitrification (HLVIT) unless the organics are removed by preprocessing. Alternative waste stabilization processes such as Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming (FBSR) operate at moderate temperatures (650-750 C) compared to vitrification (1150-1300 C). FBSR converts organics to CAA compliant gases, creates no secondary liquid waste streams, and creates a stable mineral waste form that is as durable as glass. For application to the high Cs-137 and Sr-90 containing GNEP waste streams a single phase mineralized Cs-mica phase was made by co-reacting illite clay and GNEP simulated waste. The Cs-mica accommodates up to 30% wt% Cs{sub 2}O and all the GNEP waste species, Ba, Sr, Rb including the Cs-137 transmutation to Ba-137. For reference, the cesium mineral pollucite (CsAlSi{sub 2}O{sub 6}), currently being studied for GNEP applications, can only be fabricated at {ge} 1000 C. Pollucite mineralization creates secondary aqueous waste streams and NO{sub x}. Pollucite is not tolerant of high concentrations of Ba, Sr or Rb and forces the divalent species into different mineral host phases. The pollucite can accommodate up to 33% wt% Cs{sub 2}O.

  19. Thermodynamics of Hydrogen Production from Dimethyl Ether Steam Reforming and Hydrolysis

    SciTech Connect

    T.A. Semelsberger

    2004-10-01

    The thermodynamic analyses of producing a hydrogen-rich fuel-cell feed from the process of dimethyl ether (DME) steam reforming were investigated as a function of steam-to-carbon ratio (0-4), temperature (100 C-600 C), pressure (1-5 atm), and product species: acetylene, ethanol, methanol, ethylene, methyl-ethyl ether, formaldehyde, formic acid, acetone, n-propanol, ethane and isopropyl alcohol. Results of the thermodynamic processing of dimethyl ether with steam indicate the complete conversion of dimethyl ether to hydrogen, carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide for temperatures greater than 200 C and steam-to-carbon ratios greater than 1.25 at atmospheric pressure (P = 1 atm). Increasing the operating pressure was observed to shift the equilibrium toward the reactants; increasing the pressure from 1 atm to 5 atm decreased the conversion of dimethyl ether from 99.5% to 76.2%. The order of thermodynamically stable products in decreasing mole fraction was methane, ethane, isopropyl alcohol, acetone, n-propanol, ethylene, ethanol, methyl-ethyl ether and methanol--formaldehyde, formic acid, and acetylene were not observed. The optimal processing conditions for dimethyl ether steam reforming occurred at a steam-to-carbon ratio of 1.5, a pressure of 1 atm, and a temperature of 200 C. Modeling the thermodynamics of dimethyl ether hydrolysis (with methanol as the only product considered), the equilibrium conversion of dimethyl ether is limited. The equilibrium conversion was observed to increase with temperature and steam-to-carbon ratio, resulting in a maximum dimethyl ether conversion of approximately 68% at a steam-to-carbon ratio of 4.5 and a processing temperature of 600 C. Thermodynamically, dimethyl ether processed with steam can produce hydrogen-rich fuel-cell feeds--with hydrogen concentrations exceeding 70%. This substantiates dimethyl ether as a viable source of hydrogen for PEM fuel cells.

  20. Thermoacoustic natural gas liquefier

    SciTech Connect

    Swift, G.W.

    1997-05-01

    Cryenco and Los Alamos are collaborating to develop a natural-gas-powered natural-gas liquefier that will have no moving parts and require no electrical power. It will have useful efficiency, remarkable reliability, and low cost. The liquefaction of natural gas, which occurs at only 115 Kelvin at atmospheric pressure, has previously required rather sophisticated refrigeration machinery. The 1990 invention of the thermoacoustically driven orifice pulse-tube refrigerator (TA-DOPTR) provides cryogenic refrigeration with no moving parts for the first time. In short, this invention uses acoustic phenomena to produce refrigeration from heat. The required apparatus consists of nothing more than helium-filled heat exchangers and pipes, made of common materials, without exacting tolerances. In the Cryenco-Los Alamos collaboration, the authors are developing a version of this invention suitable for use in the natural-gas industry. The project is known as acoustic liquefier for short. The present program plans call for a two-phase development. Phase 1, with capacity of 500 gallon per day (i.e., approximately 40,000 scfd, requiring a refrigeration power of about 7 kW), is large enough to illuminate all the issues of large-scale acoustic liquefaction without undue cost, and to demonstrate the liquefaction of 60--70% of input gas, while burning 30--40%. Phase 2 will target versions of approximately 10{sup 6} scfd = 10,000 gallon per day capacity. In parallel with both, they continue fundamental research on the technology, directed toward increased efficiency, to build scientific foundations and a patent portfolio for future acoustic liquefiers.

  1. Radioactive Bench-scale Steam Reformer Demonstration of a Monolithic Steam Reformed Mineralized Waste Form for Hanford Waste Treatment Plant Secondary Waste - 12306

    SciTech Connect

    Evans, Brent; Olson, Arlin; Mason, J. Bradley; Ryan, Kevin; Jantzen, Carol; Crawford, Charles

    2012-07-01

    Hanford currently has 212,000 m{sup 3} (56 million gallons) of highly radioactive mixed waste stored in the Hanford tank farm. This waste will be processed to produce both high-level and low-level activity fractions, both of which are to be vitrified. Supplemental treatment options have been under evaluation for treating portions of the low-activity waste, as well as the liquid secondary waste from the low-activity waste vitrification process. One technology under consideration has been the THOR{sup R} fluidized bed steam reforming process offered by THOR Treatment Technologies, LLC (TTT). As a follow-on effort to TTT's 2008 pilot plant FBSR non-radioactive demonstration for treating low-activity waste and waste treatment plant secondary waste, TTT, in conjunction with Savannah River National Laboratory, has completed a bench scale evaluation of this same technology on a chemically adjusted radioactive surrogate of Hanford's waste treatment plant secondary waste stream. This test generated a granular product that was subsequently formed into monoliths, using a geo-polymer as the binding agent, that were subjected to compressibility testing, the Product Consistency Test and other leachability tests, and chemical composition analyses. This testing has demonstrated that the mineralized waste form, produced by co-processing waste with kaolin clay using the TTT process, is as durable as low-activity waste glass. Testing has shown the resulting monolith waste form is durable, leach resistant, and chemically stable, and has the added benefit of capturing and retaining the majority of Tc-99, I-129, and other target species at high levels. (authors)

  2. Production of hydrogen by thermocatalytic cracking of natural gas

    SciTech Connect

    Muradov, N.

    1996-10-01

    The conventional methods of hydrogen production from natural gas (for example, steam reforming and partial oxidation) are complex, multi-step processes that produce large quantities of CO{sub 2}. The main goal of this project is to develop a technologically simple process for hydrogen production from natural gas (NG) and other hydrocarbon fuels via single-step decomposition of hydrocarbons. This approach eliminates or significantly reduces CO{sub 2} emission. Carbon is a valuable by-product of this process, whereas conventional methods of hydrogen production from NG produce no useful by-products. This approach is based on the use of special catalysts that reduce the maximum temperature of the process from 1400-1500{degrees}C (thermal non-catalytic decomposition of methane) to 500-900{degrees}C. Transition metal based catalysts and various forms of carbon are among the candidate catalysts for the process. This approach can advantageously be used for the development of compact NG reformers for on-site production of hydrogen-methane blends at refueling stations and, also, for the production of hydrogen-rich gas for fuel cell applications. The author extended the search for active methane decomposition catalysts to various modifications of Ni-, Fe-, Mo- and Co-based catalysts. Variation in the operational parameters makes it possible to produce H{sub 2}-CH{sub 4} blends with a wide range of hydrogen concentrations that vary from 15 to 98% by volume. The author found that Ni-based catalysts are more effective at temperatures below 750{degrees}C, whereas Fe-based catalysts are effective at temperatures above 800{degrees}C for the production of hydrogen with purity of 95% v. or higher. The catalytic pyrolysis of liquid hydrocarbons (pentane, gasoline) over Fe-based catalyst was conducted. The author observed the production of a hydrogen-rich gas (hydrogen concentration up to 97% by volume) at a rate of approximately 1L/min.mL of hydrocarbon fuel.

  3. RADIOACTIVE DEMONSTRATIONS OF FLUIDIZED BED STEAM REFORMING AS A SUPPLEMENTARY TREATMENT FOR HANFORD'S LOW ACTIVITY WASTE AND SECONDARY WASTES

    SciTech Connect

    Jantzen, C.; Crawford, C.; Cozzi, A.; Bannochie, C.; Burket, P.; Daniel, G.

    2011-02-24

    The U.S. Department of Energy's Office of River Protection (ORP) is responsible for the retrieval, treatment, immobilization, and disposal of Hanford's tank waste. Currently there are approximately 56 million gallons of highly radioactive mixed wastes awaiting treatment. A key aspect of the River Protection Project (RPP) cleanup mission is to construct and operate the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP). The WTP will separate the tank waste into high-level and low-activity waste (LAW) fractions, both of which will subsequently be vitrified. The projected throughput capacity of the WTP LAW Vitrification Facility is insufficient to complete the RPP mission in the time frame required by the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order, also known as the Tri-Party Agreement (TPA), i.e. December 31, 2047. Therefore, Supplemental Treatment is required both to meet the TPA treatment requirements as well as to more cost effectively complete the tank waste treatment mission. The Supplemental Treatment chosen will immobilize that portion of the retrieved LAW that is not sent to the WTP's LAW Vitrification facility into a solidified waste form. The solidified waste will then be disposed on the Hanford site in the Integrated Disposal Facility (IDF). In addition, the WTP LAW vitrification facility off-gas condensate known as WTP Secondary Waste (WTP-SW) will be generated and enriched in volatile components such as Cs-137, I-129, Tc-99, Cl, F, and SO4 that volatilize at the vitrification temperature of 1150 C in the absence of a continuous cold cap. The current waste disposal path for the WTP-SW is to recycle it to the supplemental LAW treatment to avoid a large steady state accumulation in the pretreatment-vitrification loop. Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming (FBSR) offers a moderate temperature (700-750 C) continuous method by which LAW and/or WTP-SW wastes can be processed irrespective of whether they contain organics, nitrates, sulfates/sulfides, chlorides

  4. Engineering Study for a Full Scale Demonstration of Steam Reforming Black Liquor Gasification at Georgia-Pacific's Mill in Big Island, Virginia

    SciTech Connect

    Robert De Carrera; Mike Ohl

    2002-03-19

    Georgia-Pacific Corporation performed an engineering study to determine the feasibility of installing a full-scale demonstration project of steam reforming black liquor chemical recovery at Georgia-Pacific's mill in Big Island, Virginia. The technology considered was the Pulse Enhanced Steam Reforming technology that was developed and patented by Manufacturing and Technology Conversion, International (MTCI) and is currently licensed to StoneChem, Inc., for use in North America. Pilot studies of steam reforming have been carried out on a 25-ton per day reformer at Inland Container's Ontario, California mill and on a 50-ton per day unit at Weyerhaeuser's New Bern, North Carolina mill.

  5. Natural gas hydrates

    SciTech Connect

    Sloan, E.D. Jr. )

    1991-12-01

    This paper reports on gas clathrates (commonly called hydrates), which are crystalline compounds that occur when water form a cage-like structure around smaller guest molecules. Gas hydrates of interest to the natural gas hydrocarbon industry are composed of water and eight molecules: methane, ethane, propane, isobutane, normal butane, nitrogen, carbon dioxide, and hydrogen sulfide. Hydrate formation is possible in any place where water exists with such molecules - in natural or artificial environments and at temperatures above and below 32{degrees} F when the pressure is elevated. Hydrates are considered a nuisance because they block transmission lines, plug blowout preventers, jeopardize the foundations of deepwater platforms and pipelines, cause tubing and casing collapse, and foul process heat exchangers, valves, and expanders. Common examples of preventive measures are the regulation of pipeline water content, unusual drilling-mud compositions, and large quantities of methanol injection into pipelines. We encounter conditions that encourage hydrate formation as we explore more unusual environments for gas and oil, including deepwater frontiers and permafrost regions.

  6. Natural gas monthly, April 1999

    SciTech Connect

    1999-05-06

    The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information. There are two feature articles in this issue: Natural gas 1998: Issues and trends, Executive summary; and Special report: Natural gas 1998: A preliminary summary. 6 figs., 28 tabs.

  7. NOx abatement in the exhaust of lean-burn natural gas engines over Ag-supported γ-Al2O3 catalysts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azizi, Y.; Kambolis, A.; Boréave, A.; Giroir-Fendler, A.; Retailleau-Mevel, L.; Guiot, B.; Marchand, O.; Walter, M.; Desse, M.-L.; Marchin, L.; Vernoux, P.

    2016-04-01

    A series of Ag catalysts supported on γ-Al2O3, including two different γ-Al2O3 supports and various Ag loadings (2-8 wt.%), was prepared, characterized (SEM, TEM, BET, physisorption, TPR, NH3-TPD) and tested for the selective catalytic reduction of NOx by CH4 for lean-burn natural gas engines exhausts. The catalysts containing 2 wt.% Ag supported on γ-Al2O3 were found to be most efficient for the NOx reduction into N2 with a maximal conversion of 23% at 650 °C. This activity was clearly linked with the ability of the catalyst to concomitantly produce CO, via the methane steam reforming, and NO2. The presence of small AgOx nanoparticles seems to be crucial for the methane activation and NOx reduction.

  8. Natural gas monthly, August 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-08-25

    The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) is prepared in the Data Operations Branch of the Reserves and Natural Gas Division, Office of Oil and Gas, Energy Information Administration (EIA), US Department of Energy (DOE). The NGM highhghts activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information.

  9. Natural gas monthly, October 1996

    SciTech Connect

    1996-10-01

    The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) is prepared in the Data Operations Branch of the Reserves and Natural Gas Division, Office of Oil and Gas, Energy Information Administration (EIA), U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). The NGM highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information.

  10. Natural gas monthly, July 1997

    SciTech Connect

    1997-07-01

    The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information. The feature article this month is entitled ``Intricate puzzle of oil and gas reserves growth.`` A special report is included on revisions to monthly natural gas data. 6 figs., 24 tabs.

  11. Natural gas monthly, March 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-03-22

    The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) is prepared in the Data Operations Branch of the Reserves and Natural Gas Division, Office of Oil and Gas, Energy Information Administration (EIA), US Department of energy (DOE). The NGM highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information.

  12. Natural gas monthly, September 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-09-27

    The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) is prepared in the Data Operations Branch of the Reserves and Natural Gas Division, Office of Oil and Gas, Energy Information Administration (EIA), US Department of Energy (DOE). The NGM highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information.

  13. Natural gas monthly, December 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1995-12-01

    This report presents information of interest to organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Data are presented on natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also included.

  14. Natural Gas Exports from Iran

    EIA Publications

    2012-01-01

    This assessment of the natural gas sector in Iran, with a focus on Iran’s natural gas exports, was prepared pursuant to section 505 (a) of the Iran Threat Reduction and Syria Human Rights Act of 2012 (Public Law No: 112-158). As requested, it includes: (1) an assessment of exports of natural gas from Iran; (2) an identification of the countries that purchase the most natural gas from Iran; (3) an assessment of alternative supplies of natural gas available to those countries; (4) an assessment of the impact a reduction in exports of natural gas from Iran would have on global natural gas supplies and the price of natural gas, especially in countries identified under number (2); and (5) such other information as the Administrator considers appropriate.

  15. World Natural Gas, 1978

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-07-01

    World marketed production of natural gas in 1978 totaled 51.749 trillion CF (up from 50.1 TCF in 1977); this 3.3% increase, however, was slightly lower than 1977's 3.7% rise. US production, which fell 0.3% dropped to 38.6% of the world total, while the USSR share (13.137 TCF) accounted for 25.4% (for a growth rate of 7.5%). Of the world gross production of 62.032 TCF, 69.7% came from gas wells; the remainder was associated with oil. Thirty-one percent of the 10.282 TCF difference between gross and marketed gas production was used for oil reservoir repressuring, while the balance (7.094 TCF) was vented and flared. Internationally traded gas movements rose to 11.6% of production. The Netherlands, the USSR, and Canada accounted for 30.6%, 20.1% and 14.7%, respectively, of total 1978 exports. At 0.956 TCF, LNG shipments accounted for 15.9% of world trade, a 35.2% higher share than in 1977; most of this growth was due to increased Indonesia-to-Japan volumes.

  16. Natural Gas Monthly, March 1996

    SciTech Connect

    1996-03-25

    The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information.

  17. Natural gas monthly, October 1998

    SciTech Connect

    1998-10-01

    The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information. 6 figs., 27 tabs.

  18. Natural gas monthly, June 1998

    SciTech Connect

    1998-06-01

    The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information. 6 figs., 27 tabs.

  19. Natural gas monthly, July 1998

    SciTech Connect

    1998-07-01

    The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information. 6 figs., 25 tabs.

  20. Natural gas monthly, April 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1995-04-27

    The Natural Gas Monthly highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information. 6 figs., 31 tabs.

  1. Natural gas monthly, June 1997

    SciTech Connect

    1997-06-01

    The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information. 6 figs., 24 tabs.

  2. Natural gas monthly: December 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-12-01

    The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. Articles are included which are designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information.

  3. Natural gas monthly, May 1999

    SciTech Connect

    1999-05-01

    The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information. 6 figs., 27 tabs.

  4. Natural gas monthly, August 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-08-24

    The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information.

  5. Natural gas monthly, July 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-07-20

    The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information.

  6. Natural gas monthly, November 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-11-29

    The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground state data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information.

  7. Natural gas monthly, September 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1995-09-27

    The (NGM) Natural Gas Monthly highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information.

  8. Natural gas monthly, January 1999

    SciTech Connect

    1999-02-01

    The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. 6 figs., 28 tabs.

  9. Natural gas monthly, February 1999

    SciTech Connect

    1999-02-01

    The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. 6 figs., 28 tabs.

  10. Natural gas monthly, November 1998

    SciTech Connect

    1998-11-01

    The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. 6 figs., 27 tabs.

  11. Natural gas monthly, December 1998

    SciTech Connect

    1998-12-01

    The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. 6 figs., 28 tabs.

  12. Hydrogen Permeability of Palladium Membrane for Steam-Reforming of Bio-Ethanol Using the Membrane Reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kinouchi, Kouji; Katoh, Masahiro; Horikawa, Toshihide; Yoshikawa, Takushi; Wada, Mamoru

    A Palladium membrane was prepared by electro-less plating method on porous stainless steel. The catalytic hydrogen production by steam-reforming of biomass-derived ethanol (bio-ethanol) using a Pd membrane was analyzed by comparing it with those for the reaction using reagent ethanol (the reference sample). And the hydrogen permeability of the palladium membrane was investigated using the same palladium membrane (H2/He selectivity = 249, at ΔP = 0.10 MPa, 873 K). As a result, for bio-ethanol, deposited carbon had a negative influence on the hydrogen-permeability of the palladium membrane and hydrogen purity. The sulfur content in the bio-ethanol may have promoted carbon deposition. By using a palladium membrane, it was confirmed that H2 yield (%) was increased. It can be attributed that methane was converted from ethanol and produced more hydrogen by steam reforming, due to the in situ removal of hydrogen from the reaction location.

  13. Nickel-carbon nanocomposites prepared using castor oil as precursor: A novel catalyst for ethanol steam reforming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carreño, Neftalí L. V.; Garcia, Irene T. S.; Raubach, Cristiane W.; Krolow, Mateus; Santos, Cláudia C. G.; Probst, Luiz F. D.; Fajardo, Humberto V.

    A novel and simple method to prepare nickel-based catalysts for ethanol steam reforming is proposed. The present method was developed using castor oil as a precursor. The results clarify that the nickel-carbon (Ni/C) catalyst has a high activity for ethanol steam reforming. It was observed that the catalytic behavior could be modified according to the experimental conditions employed. Moreover, it is interesting to note that the increase in the catalytic activity of the Ni/C nanocomposite over time, at 500 and 600 °C of reaction temperature, may be associated with the formation of filamentous carbon. The preliminary results indicate that the novel methodology used, led to the obtainment of materials with important properties that can be extended to applications in different catalytic process.

  14. Stable Hydrogen Production from Ethanol through Steam Reforming Reaction over Nickel-Containing Smectite-Derived Catalyst

    PubMed Central

    Yoshida, Hiroshi; Yamaoka, Ryohei; Arai, Masahiko

    2014-01-01

    Hydrogen production through steam reforming of ethanol was investigated with conventional supported nickel catalysts and a Ni-containing smectite-derived catalyst. The former is initially active, but significant catalyst deactivation occurs during the reaction due to carbon deposition. Side reactions of the decomposition of CO and CH4 are the main reason for the catalyst deactivation, and these reactions can relatively be suppressed by the use of the Ni-containing smectite. The Ni-containing smectite-derived catalyst contains, after H2 reduction, stable and active Ni nanocrystallites, and as a result, it shows a stable and high catalytic performance for the steam reforming of ethanol, producing H2. PMID:25547495

  15. Natural gas monthly, November 1996

    SciTech Connect

    1996-11-01

    The report highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the Natural Gas Monthly features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information. The feature article this month is ``US natural gas imports and exports-1995``. 6 figs., 24 tabs.

  16. Natural gas monthly, October 1997

    SciTech Connect

    1997-10-01

    The Natural Gas Monthly highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information. The feature article in this issue is a special report, ``Comparison of Natural Gas Storage Estimates from the EIA and AGA.`` 6 figs., 26 tabs.

  17. Natural gas monthly, June 1996

    SciTech Connect

    1996-06-24

    The natural gas monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information. The feature article for this month is Natural Gas Industry Restructuring and EIA Data Collection.

  18. Natural gas monthly, April 1997

    SciTech Connect

    1997-04-01

    The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are present3ed each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information. The feature article is entitled ``Natural gas pipeline and system expansions.`` 6 figs., 27 tabs.

  19. Natural gas monthly, August 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1995-08-24

    The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information. This month`s feature article is on US Natural Gas Imports and Exports 1994.

  20. Natural gas monthly, December 1997

    SciTech Connect

    1997-12-01

    The Natural Gas Monthly highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information. The article this month is entitled ``Recent Trends in Natural Gas Spot Prices.`` 6 figs., 27 tabs.

  1. Natural gas monthly, May 1997

    SciTech Connect

    1997-05-01

    The Natural Gas Monthly highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information. The feature article this month is ``Restructuring energy industries: Lessons from natural gas.`` 6 figs., 26 tabs.

  2. Natural gas monthly, June 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-06-01

    The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information. The feature article this month is the executive summary from Natural Gas 1994: Issues and Trends. 6 figs., 31 tabs.

  3. Natural Gas Monthly, October 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-11-10

    The (NGM) Natural Gas Monthly highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information. This month`s feature articles are: US Production of Natural Gas from Tight Reservoirs: and Expanding Rule of Underground Storage.

  4. Natural gas monthly, May 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-05-25

    The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information. The featured articles for this month are: Opportunities with fuel cells, and revisions to monthly natural gas data.

  5. A highly active and coke-resistant steam reforming catalyst comprising uniform nickel-iron alloy nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Koike, Mitsuru; Li, Dalin; Nakagawa, Yoshinao; Tomishige, Keiichi

    2012-12-01

    Doing fine with Ni-Fe: The calcination and reduction of a hydrotalcite precursor containing Ni and Fe ions gives uniform Ni-Fe alloy nanoparticles mixed with Mg(Ni, Fe, Al)O particles. The uniformity of the Ni-Fe alloy nanoparticles is connected to the catalyst's high activity and resistance to coke formation in toluene and phenol steam reforming reactions.

  6. Thermoacoustic natural gas liquefier

    SciTech Connect

    Swift, G.W.

    1995-06-01

    In collaboration with Cryenco Inc. and NIST-Boulder, we intend to develop a natural gas-powered natural-gas liquefier which has absolutely no moving parts and requires no electrical power. It will have high efficiency, remarkable reliability, and low cost. Progress on the liquefier to be constructed at Cryenco continues satisfactorily. The thermoacoustic driver is still ahead of the pulse tube refrigerator, because of NIST`s schedule. We completed the thermoacoustics design in the fall of 1994, with Los Alamos providing physics input and checks of all aspects, and Cryenco providing engineering to ASME code, drafting, etc. Completion of this design represents a significant amount of work, especially in view of the many unexpected problems encountered. Meanwhile, Cryenco and NIST have almost completed the design of the pulse tube refrigerator. At Los Alamos, we have assembled a half-size scale model of the thermoacoustic portion of the 500 gal/day TANGL. This scale model will enable easy experimentation in harmonic suppression techniques, new stack geometries, new heat-exchanger geometries, resonator coiling, and other areas. As of March 1995, the scale model is complete and we are performing routine debugging tests and modifications.

  7. Natural gas monthly, April 1998

    SciTech Connect

    1998-04-01

    This issue of the Natural Gas Monthly presents the most recent estimates of natural gas data from the Energy Information Administration (EIA). Estimates extend through April 1998 for many data series. The report highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, feature articles are presented designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information. This issue contains the special report, ``Natural Gas 1997: A Preliminary Summary.`` This report provides information on natural gas supply and disposition for the year 1997, based on monthly data through December from EIA surveys. 6 figs., 28 tabs.

  8. Steam Reforming Application for Treatment of DOE Sodium Bearing Tank Wastes at Idaho National Laboratory for Idaho Cleanup Project

    SciTech Connect

    Landman, W.; Roesener, S.; Mason, B.; Wolf, K.; Amaria, N.

    2007-07-01

    The patented THOR{sup R} steam reforming waste treatment technology has been selected by the Department of Energy (DOE) as the technology of choice for treatment of about one million gallons of Sodium Bearing Waste (SBW) at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL). SBW is an acidic waste created primarily from cleanup of the fuel reprocessing equipment at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC) at the INL. SBW contains high concentrations of nitric acid and alkali and aluminum nitrates with minor amounts of many inorganic compounds including radionuclides, mainly cesium. The steam reforming process will convert the SBW into dry, solid, carbonate and aluminate minerals supporting a preferred path for disposal as remote handled transuranic (RH-TRU) waste at the Waste Isolation Pilot Project (WIPP). The Idaho Cleanup Project (ICP) will design, build, and operate an Integrated Waste Treatment Unit (IWTU) that will comprise an integrated THOR{sup R} process system that will utilize dual fluidized bed steam reformers (FBSR) for treatment of the SBW. Design of the IWTU is nearing completion. The IWTU will be constructed at INTEC, immediately east of the New Waste Calcine Facility (NWCF), with planned fabrication and construction to start in early 2007 upon receipt of needed permits and completion of design and engineering. This paper provides a project and process overview of the IWTU and discusses the design and construction status. IWTU equipment and facility designs and bases will be presented. (authors)

  9. Model biogas steam reforming in a thin Pd-supported membrane reactor to generate clean hydrogen for fuel cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iulianelli, A.; Liguori, S.; Huang, Y.; Basile, A.

    2015-01-01

    Steam reforming of a model biogas mixture is studied for generating clean hydrogen by using an inorganic membrane reactor, in which a composite Pd/Al2O3 membrane separates part of the produced hydrogen through its selective permeation. The characteristics of H2 perm-selectivity of the fresh membrane is expressed in terms of H2/N2 ideal selectivity, in this case equal to 4300. Concerning biogas steam reforming reaction, at 380 °C, 2.0 bar H2O:CH4 = 3:1, GHSV = 9000 h-1 the permeate purity of the recovered hydrogen is around 96%, although the conversion (15%) and hydrogen recovery (>20%) are relatively low; on the contrary, at 450 °C, 3.5 bar H2O:CH4 = 4:1, GHSV = 11000 h-1 the conversion is increased up to more than 30% and the recovery of hydrogen to about 70%. This novel work constitutes a reference study for new developments on biogas steam reforming reaction in membrane reactors.

  10. Natural gas monthly, September 1998

    SciTech Connect

    1998-09-01

    The National Gas Monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information. 6 figs., 27 tabs.

  11. Natural gas monthly, April 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-04-26

    The National Gas Monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information.

  12. Ethanol Steam Reforming on Co/CeO2: The Effect of ZnO Promoter

    SciTech Connect

    Davidson, Stephen; Sun, Junming; Wang, Yong

    2013-12-02

    A series of ZnO promoted Co/CeO2 catalysts were synthesized and characterized using XRD, TEM, H2-TPR, CO chemisorption, O2-TPO, IR-Py, and CO2-TPD. The effects of ZnO on the catalytic performances of Co/CeO2 were studied in ethanol steam reforming. It was found that the addition of ZnO facilitated the oxidation of Co0 via enhanced oxygen mobility of the CeO2 support which decreased the activity of Co/CeO2 in C–C bond cleavage of ethanol. 3 wt% ZnO promoted Co/CeO2 exhibited minimum CO and CH4 selectivity and maximum CO2 selectivity. This resulted from the combined effects of the following factors with increasing ZnO loading: (1) enhanced oxygen mobility of CeO2 facilitated the oxidation of CHx and CO to form CO2; (2) increased ZnO coverage on CeO2 surface reduced the interaction between CHx/CO and Co/CeO2; and (3) suppressed CO adsorption on Co0 reduced CO oxidation rate to form CO2. In addition, the addition of ZnO also modified the surface acidity and basicity of CeO2, which consequently affected the C2–C4 product distributions.

  13. Internal combustion engine with thermochemical recuperation fed by ethanol steam reforming products - feasibility study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cesana, O.; Gutman, M.; Shapiro, M.; Tartakovsky, L.

    2016-08-01

    This research analyses the performance of a spark ignition engine fueled by ethanol steam reforming products. The basic concept involves the use of the internal combustion engine's (ICE) waste heat to promote onboard reforming of ethanol. The reformer and the engine performance were simulated and analyzed using GT-Suite, Chem CAD and Matlab software. The engine performance with different compositions of ethanol reforming products was analyzed, in order to find the optimal working conditions of the ICE - reformer system. The analysis performed demonstrated the capability to sustain the endothermic reactions in the reformer and to reform the liquid ethanol to hydrogen-rich gaseous fuel using the heat of the exhaust gases. However, the required reformer's size is quite large: 39 x 89 x 73 cm, which makes a feasibility of its mounting on board a vehicle questionable. A comparison with ICE fed by gasoline or liquid ethanol doesn't show a potential of efficiency improvement, but can be considered as a tool of additional emissions reduction.

  14. Mechanistic Insights into Catalytic Ethanol Steam Reforming Using Isotope-Labeled Reactants.

    PubMed

    Crowley, Stephen; Castaldi, Marco J

    2016-08-26

    The low-temperature ethanol steam reforming (ESR) reaction mechanism over a supported Rh/Pt catalyst has been investigated using isotope-labeled EtOH and H2 O. Through strategic isotope labeling, all nonhydrogen atoms were distinct from one another, and allowed an unprecedented level of understanding of the dominant reaction pathways. All combinations of isotope- and non-isotope-labeled atoms were detected in the products, thus there are multiple pathways involved in H2 , CO, CO2 , CH4 , C2 H4 , and C2 H6 product formation. Both the recombination of C species on the surface of the catalyst and preservation of the C-C bond within ethanol are responsible for C2 product formation. Ethylene is not detected until conversion drops below 100 % at t=1.25 h. Also, quantitatively, 57 % of the observed ethylene is formed directly through ethanol dehydration. Finally there is clear evidence to show that oxygen in the SiO2 -ZrO2 support constitutes 10 % of the CO formed during the reaction. PMID:27487203

  15. Zirconia supported catalysts for bioethanol steam reforming: Effect of active phase and zirconia structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benito, M.; Padilla, R.; Rodríguez, L.; Sanz, J. L.; Daza, L.

    Three new catalysts have been prepared in order to study the active phase influence in ethanol steam reforming reaction. Nickel, cobalt and copper were the active phases selected and were supported on zirconia with monoclinic and tetragonal structure, respectively. To characterize the behaviour of the catalysts in reaction conditions a study of catalytic activity with temperature was performed. The highest activity values were obtained at 973 K where nickel and cobalt based catalysts achieved an ethanol conversion of 100% and a selectivity to hydrogen close to 70%. Nickel supported on tetragonal zirconia exhibited the highest hydrogen production efficiency, higher than 4.5 mol H 2/mol EtOH fed. The influence of steam/carbon (S/C) ratio on product distribution was another parameter studied between the range 3.2-6.5. Nickel supported on tetragonal zirconia at S/C = 3.2 operated at 973 K without by-product production such as ethylene or acetaldehyde. In order to consider a further application in an ethanol processor, a long-term reaction experiment was performed at 973 K, S/C = 3.2 and atmospheric pressure. After 60 h, nickel supported on tetragonal zirconia exhibited high stability and selectivity to hydrogen production.

  16. Steam Reforming of Glycerol Over Nano Size Ni-Ce/LaAlO3 Catalysts.

    PubMed

    Kim, Seong-Hak; Go, Yoo-Jin; Park, Nam-Cook; Kim, Jong-Ho; Kim, Young-Chul; Moon, Dong-Ju

    2015-01-01

    In this work, hydrogen production from glycerol by Steam Reforming (SR) was studied by Ni-Ce catalysts supported on LaAlO3 perovskite in order to effect of the cerium loading amount and the reaction conditions. Nano size Ni-Ce/LaAlO3 catalysts were prepared by precipitation method. The structure of the catalysts was characterized by XRD analysis. The morphology, dispersion and the reduction properties of catalysts was examined by SEM, TEM, H2-chemisorption and TPR, respectively. It was found that 15 wt% Ni-5 wt% Ce/LaAlO3 catalyst showed the highest glycerol conversion and hydrogen selectivity. In addition, the catalyst also showed the high carbon dioxide selectivity and the lowest methane selectivity. The results indicate that the catalyst promotes methane reforming reaction. The highest activity in the 15 wt% Ni-5 wt% Ce/LaAlO3 was attributed to the proper cerium loading amount. Moreover, the lowest metal crystal size and rise in active site were found to have an effect on catalytic activity and hydrogen selectivity. The 15 wt% Ni-5 wt% Ce/LaAlO3 catalyst exhibited excellent performance with respect to hydrogen production at reaction temperature of 450 degrees C, at atmospheric pressure, 20 wt% glycerol solution and GHSV = 6,000 mL/g-cat x hr. PMID:26328394

  17. Highly loaded Ni-based catalysts for low temperature ethanol steam reforming.

    PubMed

    Wang, Tuo; Ma, Hongyan; Zeng, Liang; Li, Di; Tian, Hao; Xiao, Shengning; Gong, Jinlong

    2016-05-21

    This paper describes the design of high-loading Ni/Al2O3 catalysts (78 wt% Ni) for low temperature ethanol steam reforming. The catalysts were synthesized via both co-precipitation (COP) and impregnation (IMP) methods. All the catalysts were measured by N2 adsorption-desorption, XRD, H2-TPR, and H2 pulse chemisorption. The characterization results demonstrated that the preparation method and the loading significantly affected the nickel particle size, active nickel surface area and catalytic performance. Over COP catalysts, large nickel particles were presented in nickel aluminum mixed oxides. In comparison, IMP catalysts gained more "free" NiO particles with weak interaction with the aluminum oxide. Consequently, COP catalysts yielded smaller nickel particles and larger active nickel surface areas than those of IMP catalysts. High loading is beneficial for obtaining sufficient active nickel sites when nickel particles are dispersed via COP, whereas excessive nickel content is not desired for catalysts prepared by IMP. Specifically, the 78 wt% nickel loaded catalyst synthesized by COP possessed small nickel particles (∼6.0 nm) and an abundant active nickel area (35.1 m(2) gcat(-1)). Consequently, COP-78 achieved superior stability with 92% ethanol conversion and ∼35% H2 selectivity at 673 K for 30 h despite the presence of a considerable amount of coke.

  18. Radionuclide and contaminant immobilization in the fluidized bed steam reforming waste products

    SciTech Connect

    Neeway, James J.; Qafoku, Nikolla; Westsik, Joseph H.; Brown, Christopher F.; Jantzen, Carol; Pierce, Eric M.

    2012-05-01

    The goal of this chapter is to introduce the reader to the Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming (FBSR) process and resulting waste form. The first section of the chapter gives an overview of the potential need for FBSR processing in nuclear waste remediation followed by an overview of the engineering involved in the process itself. This is followed by a description of waste form production at a chemical level followed by a section describing different process streams that have undergone the FBSR process. The third section describes the resulting mineral product in terms of phases that are present and the ability of the waste form to encapsulate hazardous and radioactive wastes from several sources. Following this description is a presentation of the physical properties of the granular and monolith waste form product including and contaminant release mechanisms. The last section gives a brief summary of this chapter and includes a section on the strengths associated with this waste form and the needs for additional data and remaining questions yet to be answered. The reader is directed elsewhere for more information on other waste forms such as Cast Stone (Lockrem, 2005), Ceramicrete (Singh et al., 1997, Wagh et al., 1999) and geopolymers (Kyritsis et al., 2009; Russell et al., 2006).

  19. Highly loaded Ni-based catalysts for low temperature ethanol steam reforming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Tuo; Ma, Hongyan; Zeng, Liang; Li, Di; Tian, Hao; Xiao, Shengning; Gong, Jinlong

    2016-05-01

    This paper describes the design of high-loading Ni/Al2O3 catalysts (78 wt% Ni) for low temperature ethanol steam reforming. The catalysts were synthesized via both co-precipitation (COP) and impregnation (IMP) methods. All the catalysts were measured by N2 adsorption-desorption, XRD, H2-TPR, and H2 pulse chemisorption. The characterization results demonstrated that the preparation method and the loading significantly affected the nickel particle size, active nickel surface area and catalytic performance. Over COP catalysts, large nickel particles were presented in nickel aluminum mixed oxides. In comparison, IMP catalysts gained more ``free'' NiO particles with weak interaction with the aluminum oxide. Consequently, COP catalysts yielded smaller nickel particles and larger active nickel surface areas than those of IMP catalysts. High loading is beneficial for obtaining sufficient active nickel sites when nickel particles are dispersed via COP, whereas excessive nickel content is not desired for catalysts prepared by IMP. Specifically, the 78 wt% nickel loaded catalyst synthesized by COP possessed small nickel particles (~6.0 nm) and an abundant active nickel area (35.1 m2 gcat-1). Consequently, COP-78 achieved superior stability with 92% ethanol conversion and ~35% H2 selectivity at 673 K for 30 h despite the presence of a considerable amount of coke.

  20. Promotion effect of cobalt-based catalyst with rare earth for the ethanol steam reforming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiou, Josh Y. Z.; Chen, Ya-Ping; Yu, Shen-Wei; Wang, Chen-Bin

    2013-12-01

    Catalytic performance of ethanol steam reforming (ESR) was investigated on praseodymium (Pr) modified ceria-supported cobalt oxide catalyst. The ceria-supported cobalt oxide (Ce-Co) catalyst was prepared by co-precipitation-oxidation (CPO) method, and the doped Pr (5 and 10 wt% loading) catalysts (Pr5-Ce-Co and Pr10-Ce-Co) were prepared by incipient wetness impregnation method. The reduction pretreatment under 250 and 400 °C (H250 and H400) was also studied. All samples were characterized by XRD, TPR and TEM. Catalytic performance of ESR was tested from 250 to 500 °C in a fixed-bed reactor. The doping of Pr into the ceria lattice has significantly promoted the activity and reduced the coke formation. The products distribution also can be influenced by the different reduction pretreatment. The Pr10-Ce-Co-H400 sample is a preferential ESR catalyst, where the hydrogen distribution approaches 73% at 475 °C with less amounts (< 2%) of CO and CH4.

  1. Performance of the Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming Product Under Hydraulically Unsaturated Conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Neeway, James J.; Qafoku, Nikolla; Williams, Benjamin D.; Rod, Kenton A.; Bowden, Mark E.; Brown, Christopher F.; Pierce, Eric M.

    2014-05-01

    Currently, several candidates for secondary waste immobilization at the Hanford site in the State of Washington, USA are being considered. To demonstrate the durability of the product in the unsaturated Integrated Disposal Facility (IDF) at the site, a series of tests have been performed one of the candidate materials using the Pressurized Unsaturated Flow (PUF) system. The material that was tested was the Fluidized Bed Steam Reformer (FBSR) granular product and the granular product encapsulated in a geopolymer matrix. The FBSR product is composed primarily of an insoluble sodium aluminosilicate matrix with the dominant phases being feldspathoid minerals mostly nepheline, sodalite, and nosean. The PUF test method allows for the accelerated weathering of materials, including radioactive waste forms, under hydraulically unsaturated conditions, thus mimicking the open-flow and transport properties that most likely will be present at the IDF. The experiments show a trend of decreasing tracer release as a function of time for several of the elements released from the material including Na, Si, Al, and Cs. However, some of the elements, notably I and Re, show a steady release throughout the yearlong test. This result suggests that the release of these minerals from the sodalite cage occurs at a different rate compared with the dissolution of the predominant nepheline phase.

  2. Highly loaded Ni-based catalysts for low temperature ethanol steam reforming.

    PubMed

    Wang, Tuo; Ma, Hongyan; Zeng, Liang; Li, Di; Tian, Hao; Xiao, Shengning; Gong, Jinlong

    2016-05-21

    This paper describes the design of high-loading Ni/Al2O3 catalysts (78 wt% Ni) for low temperature ethanol steam reforming. The catalysts were synthesized via both co-precipitation (COP) and impregnation (IMP) methods. All the catalysts were measured by N2 adsorption-desorption, XRD, H2-TPR, and H2 pulse chemisorption. The characterization results demonstrated that the preparation method and the loading significantly affected the nickel particle size, active nickel surface area and catalytic performance. Over COP catalysts, large nickel particles were presented in nickel aluminum mixed oxides. In comparison, IMP catalysts gained more "free" NiO particles with weak interaction with the aluminum oxide. Consequently, COP catalysts yielded smaller nickel particles and larger active nickel surface areas than those of IMP catalysts. High loading is beneficial for obtaining sufficient active nickel sites when nickel particles are dispersed via COP, whereas excessive nickel content is not desired for catalysts prepared by IMP. Specifically, the 78 wt% nickel loaded catalyst synthesized by COP possessed small nickel particles (∼6.0 nm) and an abundant active nickel area (35.1 m(2) gcat(-1)). Consequently, COP-78 achieved superior stability with 92% ethanol conversion and ∼35% H2 selectivity at 673 K for 30 h despite the presence of a considerable amount of coke. PMID:27122228

  3. The role of surface reactions on the active and selective catalyst design for bioethanol steam reforming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benito, M.; Padilla, R.; Serrano-Lotina, A.; Rodríguez, L.; Brey, J. J.; Daza, L.

    In order to study the role of surface reactions involved in bioethanol steam reforming mechanism, a very active and selective catalyst for hydrogen production was analysed. The highest activity was obtained at 700 °C, temperature at which the catalyst achieved an ethanol conversion of 100% and a selectivity to hydrogen close to 70%. It also exhibited a very high hydrogen production efficiency, higher than 4.5 mol H 2 per mol of EtOH fed. The catalyst was operated at a steam to carbon ratio (S/C) of 4.8, at 700 °C and atmospheric pressure. No by-products, such as ethylene or acetaldehyde were observed. In order to consider a further application in an ethanol processor, a long-term stability test was performed under the conditions previously reported. After 750 h, the catalyst still exhibited a high stability and selectivity to hydrogen production. Based on the intermediate products detected by temperature programmed desorption and reaction (TPD and TPR) experiments, a reaction pathway was proposed. Firstly, the adsorbed ethanol is dehydrogenated to acetaldehyde producing hydrogen. Secondly, the adsorbed acetaldehyde is transformed into acetone via acetic acid formation. Finally, acetone is reformed to produce hydrogen and carbon dioxide, which were the final reaction products. The promotion of such reaction sequence is the key to develop an active, selective and stable catalyst, which is the technical barrier for hydrogen production by ethanol reforming.

  4. Promotion effect of cobalt-based catalyst with rare earth for the ethanol steam reforming

    SciTech Connect

    Chiou, Josh Y. Z.; Chen, Ya-Ping; Yu, Shen-Wei; Wang, Chen-Bin

    2013-12-16

    Catalytic performance of ethanol steam reforming (ESR) was investigated on praseodymium (Pr) modified ceria-supported cobalt oxide catalyst. The ceria-supported cobalt oxide (Ce-Co) catalyst was prepared by co-precipitation-oxidation (CPO) method, and the doped Pr (5 and 10 wt% loading) catalysts (Pr{sub 5}−Ce−Co and Pr{sub 10}−Ce−Co) were prepared by incipient wetness impregnation method. The reduction pretreatment under 250 and 400 °C (H250 and H400) was also studied. All samples were characterized by XRD, TPR and TEM. Catalytic performance of ESR was tested from 250 to 500 °C in a fixed-bed reactor. The doping of Pr into the ceria lattice has significantly promoted the activity and reduced the coke formation. The products distribution also can be influenced by the different reduction pretreatment. The Pr{sub 10}−Ce−Co−H400 sample is a preferential ESR catalyst, where the hydrogen distribution approaches 73% at 475 °C with less amounts (< 2%) of CO and CH{sub 4}.

  5. Characterization and Leaching Tests of the Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming (FBSR) Waste Form for LAW Immobilization

    SciTech Connect

    Neeway, James J.; Qafoku, Nikolla; Brown, Christopher F.; Peterson, Reid A.

    2013-10-01

    Several supplemental technologies for treating and immobilizing Hanford low activity waste (LAW) have been evaluated. One such immobilization technology is the Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming (FBSR) granular product. The FBSR granular product is composed of insoluble sodium aluminosilicate (NAS) feldspathoid minerals. Production of the FBSR mineral product has been demonstrated both at the industrial and laboratory scale. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) was involved in an extensive characterization campaign. This goal of this campaign was study the durability of the FBSR mineral product and the mineral product encapsulated in a monolith to meet compressive strength requirements. This paper gives an overview of results obtained using the ASTM C 1285 Product Consistency Test (PCT), the EPA Test Method 1311 Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP), and the ASTMC 1662 Single-Pass Flow-Through (SPFT) test. Along with these durability tests an overview of the characteristics of the waste form has been collected using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), X-ray Diffraction (XRD), microwave digestions for chemical composition, and surface area from Brunauer, Emmett, and Teller (BET) theory.

  6. Steam reforming of methanol over copper loaded anodized aluminum oxide (AAO) prepared through electrodeposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Linga Reddy, E.; Karuppiah, J.; Lee, Hyun Chan; Kim, Dong Hyun

    2014-12-01

    In order to study the steam reforming of methanol (SRM) to produce hydrogen for fuel cells, porous γ-alumina support is developed on Al substrate using anodic oxidation process and copper catalyst particles are deposited homogeneously over anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) surface by electrodeposition method. We investigated the effect of electrodeposition time and hot water treatment (HWT) on the activity of catalysts for SRM reaction in the temperature range between 160 and 360 °C. The experimental results indicate that the SRM activity, CO2 and dimethyl ether (DME) selectivity's over Cu catalysts increased as the electrodeposition time increased from 30 to 120 s, further increment in deposition time of Cu have no significant effect on it. The rates of SRM conversion are found to be higher for the catalysts made from the supports obtained after HWT, which may be due to the enhancement in the surface area of AAO support. It is found that the SRM activity and CO2 selectivity strongly depended upon the free exposed copper sites available for methanol adsorption and reaction, and DME in products is mainly observed in the reaction temperature range between 300 and 350 °C and it is higher for the catalysts with low Cu content.

  7. Durable Cu composite catalyst for hydrogen production by high temperature methanol steam reforming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsumura, Yasuyuki

    2014-12-01

    Durable catalysts are necessitated for the high temperature methanol steam reforming in compact hydrogen processors. The high durability at 400 °C can be obtained with a composite Cu catalyst where a small amount of Cu-ZnO-ZrO2-Y2O3-In2O3 is coprecipitated on a zirconia support. The lifetime of the composite catalyst containing 3 wt.% Cu is estimated to be as long as 53 × 102 h at 400 °C to produce the full conversion at a contact time of 250 g h m-3. The deactivation rate empirically relates to the cube of the activity. The gradual deactivation is caused by the gradual reduction of the Cu surface amount and also by the reduction of the surface activity which is believed to decrease with an increase in the Cu particle size. The interaction between the thin layer of the coprecipitate and the support surface probably suppresses the aggregation of the coprecipitate leading to Cu sintering.

  8. Liquefied Natural Gas Transfer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    Chicago Bridge & Iron Company's tanks and associated piping are parts of system for transferring liquefied natural gas from ship to shore and storing it. LNG is a "cryogenic" fluid meaning that it must be contained and transferred at very low temperatures, about 260 degrees below Fahrenheit. Before the LNG can be pumped from the ship to the storage tanks, the two foot diameter transfer pipes must be cooled in order to avoid difficulties associated with sharp differences of temperature between the supercold fluid and relatively warm pipes. Cooldown is accomplished by sending small steady flow of the cryogenic substance through the pipeline; the rate of flow must be precisely controlled or the transfer line will be subjected to undesirable thermal stress.

  9. Natural gas monthly, May 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1995-05-24

    The NGM highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information.

  10. Natural gas monthly, October 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1995-10-23

    The Natural Gas Monthly highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. A glossary of the terms used in this report is provided to assist readers in understanding the data presented in this publication. 6 figs., 30 tabs.

  11. Natural gas monthly, February 1996

    SciTech Connect

    1996-03-01

    The NGM highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information.

  12. Natural gas monthly, March 1998

    SciTech Connect

    1998-03-01

    The March 1998 edition of the Natural Gas Monthly highlights activities, events, and analyses associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. This report also features an article on the correction of errors in the drilling activity estimates series, and in-depth drilling activity data. 6 figs., 28 tabs.

  13. Natural gas monthly, January 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-02-01

    The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information. The featured article for this month is on US coalbed methane production.

  14. Natural gas monthly, October 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-11-05

    The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) is prepared in the Data Operations Branch of the Reserves and Natural Gas Division, Office of Oil and Gas, Energy Information Administration (EIA), US Department of Energy (DOE). The NGM highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. The data in this publication are collected on surveys conducted by the EIA to fulfill its responsibilities for gathering and reporting energy data. Some of the data are collected under the authority of the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC), an independent commission within the DOE, which has jurisdiction primarily in the regulation of electric utilities and the interstate natural gas industry. Geographic coverage is the 50 States and the District of Columbia. 16 figs., 33 tabs.

  15. Natural gas conversion process

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-01-01

    The main objective is to design and operate a laboratory apparatus for the catalytic reforming of natural gas in order to provide data for a large-scale process. To accelerate the assembly and calibration of this equipment, a request has been made to the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory for assistance, under the DOE's Industrial Visitor Exchange Program. Pr. Heinz Heinemann (Catalysis), Dr. John Apps (Geochemistry) and Dr. Robert Fulton (Mechanical Engineering) have expressed interest in supporting our request. Pr. Heinemann's recent results on the conversion of Petroleum Coke residues into CO2 and H2 mixtures using highly basic metal oxides catalysts, similar to ours, are very encouraging regarding the possibility of converting the Coke residue on our catalyst into Syngas in the Regenerator/riser, as proposed. To minimize Coke formation in the vapor phase, by the Plasmapyrolytic Methane Conversion reactions, the experimental data of H. Drost et al. (Ref. 12) have been reviewed. Work is underway to design equipment for the safe and non-polluting disposal of the two gaseous product streams of the flow loop. 2 refs.

  16. FLUIDIZED BED STEAM REFORMED MINERAL WASTE FORMS: CHARACTERIZATION AND DURABILITY TESTING

    SciTech Connect

    Jantzen, C; Troy Lorier, T; John Pareizs, J; James Marra, J

    2006-12-06

    Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming (FBSR) is being considered as a potential technology for the immobilization of a wide variety of high sodium low activity wastes (LAW) such as those existing at the Hanford site, at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL), and the Savannah River Site (SRS). The addition of clay, charcoal, and a catalyst as co-reactants with the waste denitrates the aqueous wastes and forms a granular mineral waste form that can subsequently be made into a monolith for disposal if necessary. The waste form produced is a multiphase mineral assemblage of Na-Al-Si (NAS) feldspathoid minerals with cage and ring structures and iron bearing spinel minerals. The mineralization occurs at moderate temperatures between 650-750 C in the presence of superheated steam. The cage and ring structured feldspathoid minerals atomically bond radionuclides like Tc-99 and Cs-137 and anions such as SO{sub 4}, I, F, and Cl. The spinel minerals stabilize Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) hazardous species such as Cr and Ni. Granular mineral waste forms were made from (1) a basic Hanford Envelope A low activity waste (LAW) simulant and (2) an acidic INL simulant commonly referred to as sodium bearing waste (SBW) in pilot scale facilities at the Science Applications International Corporation (SAIC) Science and Technology Applications Research (STAR) facility in Idaho Falls, ID. The FBSR waste forms were characterized and the durability tested via ASTM C1285 (Product Consistency Test), the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Toxic Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP), and the Single Pass Flow Through (SPFT) test. The results of the SPFT testing and the activation energies for dissolution are discussed in this study.

  17. FLUIDIZED BED STEAM REFORMED MINERAL WASTE FORMS: CHARACTERIZATION AND DURABILITY TESTING

    SciTech Connect

    Jantzen, C; Troy Lorier, T; John Pareizs, J; James Marra, J

    2007-03-31

    Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming (FBSR) is being considered as a potential technology for the immobilization of a wide variety of high sodium low activity wastes (LAW) such as those existing at the Hanford site, at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL), and the Savannah River Site (SRS). The addition of clay, charcoal, and a catalyst as co-reactants with the waste denitrates the aqueous wastes and forms a granular mineral waste form that can subsequently be made into a monolith for disposal if necessary. The waste form produced is a multiphase mineral assemblage of Na-Al-Si (NAS) feldspathoid minerals with cage and ring structures and iron bearing spinel minerals. The mineralization occurs at moderate temperatures between 650-750 C in the presence of superheated steam. The cage and ring structured feldspathoid minerals atomically bond radionuclides like Tc-99 and Cs-137 and anions such as SO4, I, F, and Cl. The spinel minerals stabilize Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) hazardous species such as Cr and Ni. Granular mineral waste forms were made from (1) a basic Hanford Envelope A low-activity waste (LAW) simulant and (2) an acidic INL simulant commonly referred to as sodium bearing waste (SBW) in pilot scale facilities at the Science Applications International Corporation (SAIC) Science and Technology Applications Research (STAR) facility in Idaho Falls, ID. The FBSR waste forms were characterized and the durability tested via ASTM C1285 (Product Consistency Test), the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Toxic Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP), and the Single Pass Flow Through (SPFT) test. The results of the SPFT testing and the activation energies for dissolution are discussed in this study.

  18. Accelerated Weathering of Fluidized Bed Steam Reformation Material Under Hydraulically Unsaturated Conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Pierce, Eric M.

    2007-09-16

    To predict the long-term fate of low- and high-level waste forms in the subsurface over geologic time scales, it is important to understand the behavior of the corroding waste forms under conditions the mimic to the open flow and transport properties of a subsurface repository. Fluidized bed steam reformation (FBSR), a supplemental treatment technology option, is being considered as a waste form for the immobilization of low-activity tank waste. To obtain the fundamental information needed to evaluate the behavior of the FBSR waste form under repository relevant conditions and to monitor the long-term behavior of this material, an accelerated weathering experiment is being conducted with the pressurized unsaturated flow (PUF) apparatus. Unlike other accelerated weathering test methods (product consistency test, vapor hydration test, and drip test), PUF experiments are conducted under hydraulically unsaturated conditions. These experiments are unique because they mimic the vadose zone environment and allow the corroding waste form to achieve its final reaction state. Results from this on-going experiment suggest the volumetric water content varied as a function of time and reached steady state after 160 days of testing. Unlike the volumetric water content, periodic excursions in the solution pH and electrical conductivity have been occurring consistently during the test. Release of elements from the column illustrates a general trend of decreasing concentration with increasing reaction time. Normalized concentrations of K, Na, P, Re (a chemical analogue for 99Tc), and S are as much as 1 × 104 times greater than Al, Cr, Si, and Ti. After more than 600 days of testing, the solution chemistry data collected to-date illustrate the importance of understanding the long-term behavior of the FBSR product under conditions that mimic the open flow and transport properties of a subsurface repository.

  19. Hydrogen production from steam reforming of acetic acid over Cu-Zn supported calcium aluminate.

    PubMed

    Mohanty, Pravakar; Patel, Madhumita; Pant, Kamal K

    2012-11-01

    Hydrogen can be produced by catalytic steam reforming (CSR) of biomass-derived oil. Typically bio oil contains 12-14% acetic acid; therefore, this acid was chosen as model compound for reforming of biooil with the help of a Cu-Zn/Ca-Al catalyst for high yield of H(2) with low CH(4) and CO content. Calcium aluminate support was prepared by solid-solid reaction at 1350°C. X-ray diffraction indicates 12CaO·7Al(2)O(3) as major, CaA(l4)O(7) and Ca(5)A(l6)O(14) as minor phases. Cu and Zn were loaded onto the support by wet-impregnation at 10 and 1wt.%, respectively. The catalysts were characterized by Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Transmission Electron Microscopy TEM and the surface area for both support and Cu-Zn were 10.5 and 5.8m(2)/g, respectively. CSR was carried out in a tubular fixed bed reactor (I.D.=19mm) at temperatures between 600 and 800°C with 3-g loadings and (H(2)O/acetic acid) wt. ratio of 9:1. Significantly high (80%) yield of hydrogen was obtained over Cu-Zn/Ca-Al catalyst, as incorporation of Zn enhanced the H(2) yield by reducing deactivation of the catalyst. The coke formation on the support (Ca-12/Al-7) surface was negligible due to the presence of excess oxygen in the 12CaO·7Al(2)O(3) phase.

  20. FLUIDIZED BED STEAM REFORMING TECHNOLOGY FOR ORGANIC AND NITRATE SALT SUPERNATE

    SciTech Connect

    Jantzen, C; Michael02 Smith, M

    2007-03-30

    About two decades ago a process was developed at the Savannah River Site (SRS) to remove Cs137 from radioactive high level waste (HLW) supernates so the supernates could be land disposed as low activity waste (LAW). Sodium tetraphenylborate (NaTPB) was used to precipitate Cs{sup 137} as CsTPB. The flowsheet called for destruction of the organic TPB by acid hydrolysis so that the Cs{sup 137} enriched residue could be mixed with other HLW sludge, vitrified, and disposed of in a federal geologic repository. The precipitation process was demonstrated full scale with actual HLW waste and a 2.5 wt% Cs137 rich precipitate containing organic TPB was produced admixed with 240,000 gallons of salt supernate. Organic destruction by acid hydrolysis proved to be problematic and other disposal technologies were investigated. Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming (FBSR), which destroys organics by pyrolysis, is the current baseline technology for destroying the TPB and the waste nitrates prior to vitrification. Bench scale tests were designed and conducted at the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) to reproduce the pyrolysis reactions. The formation of alkali carbonate phases that are compatible with DWPF waste pre-processing and vitrification were demonstrated in the bench scale tests. Test parameters were optimized for a pilot scale FBSR demonstration that was performed at the SAIC Science & Technology Application Research (STAR) Center in Idaho Falls, ID by Idaho National Laboratory (INL) and SRNL in 2003. An engineering scale demonstration was completed by THOR{reg_sign} Treatment Technologies (TTT) and SRNL in 2006 at the Hazen Research, Inc. test facility in Golden, CO. The same mineral carbonate phases, the same organic destruction (>99.99%) and the same nitrate/nitrite destruction (>99.99%) were produced at the bench scale, pilot scale, and engineering scale although different sources of carbon were used during testing.

  1. Kinetics of methanol-steam reformation in an internal reforming fuel cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samms, S. R.; Savinell, R. F.

    A study of the kinetics of the methanol-steam reformation reaction within an idealized tube reactor and within a non-ideal internal reforming fuel cell (IRFC) was performed. Kinetic expressions were calculated from the reaction rate data obtained from the tube reactor by least squares fitting to general power law model, as well as to a mechanism-based model put forth by Peppley et al. [Appl. Catal. A 179 (1999) 21; Appl. Catal. A 179 (1999) 31] assuming isothermal plug flow behavior. Reaction rate data obtained from an IRFC with and without an H 3PO 4 containing membrane electrode assembly (MEA) was compared to the reaction rates predicted by the kinetic model. It was found that methanol conversion rates in the IRFC were significantly less than would be for an ideal plug flow reactor (PFR) with an equal amount of catalyst due to the non-ideal flow through the reactor bed. However, despite the non-ideal flow caused by the design compromises inherent in an IRFC and the resulting drop in effective catalyst activity, it was projected that for fuel cell systems with a current density greater than 400 mA cm -2, the IRFC would require less catalyst mass than a traditional system with external reformer. This is the result of an experimentally verified accelerated methanol conversion rate in the IRFC caused by the extraction of H 2 from the reforming reactor bed. Long-term stability of the IRFC due to acid leaching still needs to be addressed. Additionally, the extraction of H 2 from the reformer bed, which occurs in the IRFC, introduces concerns of failure due to coking.

  2. Hydrogen production from steam reforming of acetic acid over Cu-Zn supported calcium aluminate.

    PubMed

    Mohanty, Pravakar; Patel, Madhumita; Pant, Kamal K

    2012-11-01

    Hydrogen can be produced by catalytic steam reforming (CSR) of biomass-derived oil. Typically bio oil contains 12-14% acetic acid; therefore, this acid was chosen as model compound for reforming of biooil with the help of a Cu-Zn/Ca-Al catalyst for high yield of H(2) with low CH(4) and CO content. Calcium aluminate support was prepared by solid-solid reaction at 1350°C. X-ray diffraction indicates 12CaO·7Al(2)O(3) as major, CaA(l4)O(7) and Ca(5)A(l6)O(14) as minor phases. Cu and Zn were loaded onto the support by wet-impregnation at 10 and 1wt.%, respectively. The catalysts were characterized by Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Transmission Electron Microscopy TEM and the surface area for both support and Cu-Zn were 10.5 and 5.8m(2)/g, respectively. CSR was carried out in a tubular fixed bed reactor (I.D.=19mm) at temperatures between 600 and 800°C with 3-g loadings and (H(2)O/acetic acid) wt. ratio of 9:1. Significantly high (80%) yield of hydrogen was obtained over Cu-Zn/Ca-Al catalyst, as incorporation of Zn enhanced the H(2) yield by reducing deactivation of the catalyst. The coke formation on the support (Ca-12/Al-7) surface was negligible due to the presence of excess oxygen in the 12CaO·7Al(2)O(3) phase. PMID:22944490

  3. Natural gas pipeline technology overview.

    SciTech Connect

    Folga, S. M.; Decision and Information Sciences

    2007-11-01

    The United States relies on natural gas for one-quarter of its energy needs. In 2001 alone, the nation consumed 21.5 trillion cubic feet of natural gas. A large portion of natural gas pipeline capacity within the United States is directed from major production areas in Texas and Louisiana, Wyoming, and other states to markets in the western, eastern, and midwestern regions of the country. In the past 10 years, increasing levels of gas from Canada have also been brought into these markets (EIA 2007). The United States has several major natural gas production basins and an extensive natural gas pipeline network, with almost 95% of U.S. natural gas imports coming from Canada. At present, the gas pipeline infrastructure is more developed between Canada and the United States than between Mexico and the United States. Gas flows from Canada to the United States through several major pipelines feeding U.S. markets in the Midwest, Northeast, Pacific Northwest, and California. Some key examples are the Alliance Pipeline, the Northern Border Pipeline, the Maritimes & Northeast Pipeline, the TransCanada Pipeline System, and Westcoast Energy pipelines. Major connections join Texas and northeastern Mexico, with additional connections to Arizona and between California and Baja California, Mexico (INGAA 2007). Of the natural gas consumed in the United States, 85% is produced domestically. Figure 1.1-1 shows the complex North American natural gas network. The pipeline transmission system--the 'interstate highway' for natural gas--consists of 180,000 miles of high-strength steel pipe varying in diameter, normally between 30 and 36 inches in diameter. The primary function of the transmission pipeline company is to move huge amounts of natural gas thousands of miles from producing regions to local natural gas utility delivery points. These delivery points, called 'city gate stations', are usually owned by distribution companies, although some are owned by transmission companies

  4. Natural gas leak mapper

    DOEpatents

    Reichardt, Thomas A.; Luong, Amy Khai; Kulp, Thomas J.; Devdas, Sanjay

    2008-05-20

    A system is described that is suitable for use in determining the location of leaks of gases having a background concentration. The system is a point-wise backscatter absorption gas measurement system that measures absorption and distance to each point of an image. The absorption measurement provides an indication of the total amount of a gas of interest, and the distance provides an estimate of the background concentration of gas. The distance is measured from the time-of-flight of laser pulse that is generated along with the absorption measurement light. The measurements are formated into an image of the presence of gas in excess of the background. Alternatively, an image of the scene is superimosed on the image of the gas to aid in locating leaks. By further modeling excess gas as a plume having a known concentration profile, the present system provides an estimate of the maximum concentration of the gas of interest.

  5. Natural gas monthly, February 1998

    SciTech Connect

    1998-02-01

    This issue of the Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) presents the most recent estimates of natural gas data from the Energy Information Administration. Estimates extend through February 1998 for many data series, and through November 1997 for most natural gas prices. Highlights of the natural gas data contained in this issue are: Preliminary estimates for January and February 1998 show that dry natural gas production, net imports, and consumption are all within 1 percent of their levels in 1997. Warmer-than-normal weather in recent months has resulted in lower consumption of natural gas by the residential sector and lower net withdrawals of gas from under round storage facilities compared with a year ago. This has resulted in an estimate of the amount of working gas in storage at the end of February 1998 that is 18 percent higher than in February 1997. The national average natural gas wellhead price is estimated to be $3.05 per thousand cubic feet in November 1997, 7 percent higher than in October. The cumulative average wellhead price for January through November 1997 is estimated to be $2.42 per thousand cubic feet, 17 percent above that of the same period in 1996. This price increase is far less than 36-percent rise that occurred between 1995 and 1996. 6 figs., 26 tabs.

  6. Natural gas monthly, July 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-10-03

    This report highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. A glossary is included. 7 figs., 33 tabs.

  7. Natural gas monthly, August 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-11-05

    This report highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector oganizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. 33 tabs.

  8. Natural gas monthly, December 1996

    SciTech Connect

    1996-12-01

    This document highlights activities, events, and analysis of interest to the public and private sector associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also included.

  9. Natural Gas Industry and Markets

    EIA Publications

    2006-01-01

    This special report provides an overview of the supply and disposition of natural gas in 2004 and is intended as a supplement to the Energy Information Administration's (EIA) Natural Gas Annual 2004 (NGA). Unless otherwise stated, all data and figures in this report are based on summary statistics published in the NGA 2004.

  10. Natural Gas Energy Educational Kit.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Gas Association, Arlington, VA. Educational Services.

    Prepared by energy experts and educators to introduce middle school and high school students to natural gas and its role in our society, this kit is designed to be incorporated into existing science and social studies curricula. The materials and activities focus on the origin, discovery, production, delivery, and use of natural gas. The role of…

  11. Natural Gas Hydrates Update 1998-2000

    EIA Publications

    2001-01-01

    Significant events have transpired on the natural gas hydrate research and development front since "Future Supply Potential of Natural Gas Hydrates" appeared in Natural Gas 1998 Issues and Trends and in the Potential Gas Committee's 1998 biennial report.

  12. Natural gas production from Arctic gas hydrates

    SciTech Connect

    Collett, T.S. )

    1993-01-01

    The natural gas hydrates of the Messoyakha field in the West Siberian basin of Russia and those of the Prudhoe Bay-Kuparuk River area on the North Slope of Alaska occur within a similar series of interbedded Cretaceous and Tertiary sandstone and siltstone reservoirs. Geochemical analyses of gaseous well-cuttings and production gases suggest that these two hydrate accumulations contain a mixture of thermogenic methane migrated from a deep source and shallow, microbial methane that was either directly converted to gas hydrate or was first concentrated in existing traps and later converted to gas hydrate. Studies of well logs and seismic data have documented a large free-gas accumulation trapped stratigraphically downdip of the gas hydrates in the Prudhoe Bay-Kuparuk River area. The presence of a gas-hydrate/free-gas contact in the Prudhoe Bay-Kuparuk River area is analogous to that in the Messoyakha gas-hydrate/free-gas accumulation, from which approximately 5.17x10[sup 9] cubic meters (183 billion cubic feet) of gas have been produced from the hydrates alone. The apparent geologic similarities between these two accumulations suggest that the gas-hydrated-depressurization production method used in the Messoyakha field may have direct application in northern Alaska. 30 refs., 15 figs., 3 tabs.

  13. The influence of nano-architectured CeOx supports in RhPd/CeO₂ for the catalytic ethanol steam reforming reaction

    DOE PAGES

    Divins, N. J.; Senanayake, S. D.; Casanovas, A.; Xu, W.; Trovarelli, A.; Llorca, J.

    2015-01-19

    The ethanol steam reforming (ESR) reaction has been tested over RhPd supported on polycrystalline ceria in comparison to structured supports composed of nanoshaped CeO₂ cubes and CeO₂ rods tailored towards the production of hydrogen. At 650-700 K the hydrogen yield follows the trend RhPd/CeO₂-cubes > RhPd/CeO₂ -rods > RhPd/CeO₂- polycrystalline, whereas at temperatures higher than 800 K the catalytic performance of all samples is similar and close to the thermodynamic equilibrium. The improved performance of RhPd/CeO₂-cubes and RhPd/CeO₂ -rods for ESR at low temperature is mainly ascribed to higher water-gas shift activity and a strong interaction between the bimetallic -more » oxide support interaction. STEM analysis shows the existence of RhPd alloyed nanoparticles in all samples, with no apparent relationship between ESR performance and RhPd particle size. X-ray diffraction under operating conditions shows metal reorganization on {100} and {110} ceria crystallographic planes during catalyst activation and ESR, but not on {111} ceria crystallographic planes. The RhPd reconstructing and tuned activation over ceria nanocubes and nanorods is considered the main reason for better catalytic activity with respect to conventional catalysts based on polycrystalline ceria« less

  14. The influence of nano-architectured CeOx supports in RhPd/CeO₂ for the catalytic ethanol steam reforming reaction

    SciTech Connect

    Divins, N. J.; Senanayake, S. D.; Casanovas, A.; Xu, W.; Trovarelli, A.; Llorca, J.

    2015-01-19

    The ethanol steam reforming (ESR) reaction has been tested over RhPd supported on polycrystalline ceria in comparison to structured supports composed of nanoshaped CeO₂ cubes and CeO₂ rods tailored towards the production of hydrogen. At 650-700 K the hydrogen yield follows the trend RhPd/CeO₂-cubes > RhPd/CeO₂ -rods > RhPd/CeO₂- polycrystalline, whereas at temperatures higher than 800 K the catalytic performance of all samples is similar and close to the thermodynamic equilibrium. The improved performance of RhPd/CeO₂-cubes and RhPd/CeO₂ -rods for ESR at low temperature is mainly ascribed to higher water-gas shift activity and a strong interaction between the bimetallic - oxide support interaction. STEM analysis shows the existence of RhPd alloyed nanoparticles in all samples, with no apparent relationship between ESR performance and RhPd particle size. X-ray diffraction under operating conditions shows metal reorganization on {100} and {110} ceria crystallographic planes during catalyst activation and ESR, but not on {111} ceria crystallographic planes. The RhPd reconstructing and tuned activation over ceria nanocubes and nanorods is considered the main reason for better catalytic activity with respect to conventional catalysts based on polycrystalline ceria

  15. Steam Reforming Application for Treatment of DOE Sodium-Bearing Tank Wastes at Idaho National Laboratory for Idaho Cleanup Project

    SciTech Connect

    Landman, W.; Roesener, S.; Bradley Mason, J.; Bourgeois, T.; Amaria, N.

    2008-07-01

    The patented THOR{sup R} steam reforming waste treatment technology has been selected by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) as the technology of choice for treatment of about one million gallons of sodium-bearing waste (SBW) at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) Site 1. SBW is an acidic waste created primarily from cleanup of the fuel reprocessing equipment at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC) at the INL. SBW contains high concentrations of nitric acid and alkali and aluminum nitrates with minor amounts of many inorganic compounds including radionuclides, mainly cesium. The steam reforming process will convert the SBW into dry, solid, carbonate and aluminate minerals supporting a preferred path for disposal as remote handled transuranic (RH-TRU) waste at the Waste Isolation Pilot Project (WIPP). The Idaho Cleanup Project (ICP) will design, build, and operate an Integrated Waste Treatment Unit (IWTU) that will comprise an integrated THOR{sup R} process system that will utilize dual fluidized bed steam reformers (FBSR) for treatment of the SBW. The IWTU is being constructed at INTEC, immediately east of the New Waste Calcine Facility (NWCF). Detailed design of the IWTU has been completed and DOE has approved the CD-3 detailed design. The State of Idaho has approved the RCRA and construction air permits. Construction of the IWTU started in April 2007 with civil and foundation work. This paper provides a project and process overview of the IWTU and discusses the design and construction status. IWTU equipment and facility designs and bases will be presented. (authors)

  16. NiW and NiRu Bimetallic Catalysts for Ethylene Steam Reforming: Alternative Mechanisms for Sulfur Resistance

    SciTech Connect

    Rangan, M.; Yung, M. M.; Medlin, J. W.

    2012-06-01

    Previous investigations of Ni-based catalysts for the steam reforming of hydrocarbons have indicated that the addition of a second metal can reduce the effects of sulfur poisoning. Two systems that have previously shown promise for such applications, NiW and NiRu, are considered here for the steam reforming of ethylene, a key component of biomass derived tars. Monometallic and bimetallic Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}-supported Ni and W catalysts were employed for ethylene steam reforming in the presence and absence of sulfur. The NiW catalysts were less active than Ni in the absence of sulfur, but were more active in the presence of 50 ppm H{sub 2}S. The mechanism for the W-induced improvements in sulfur resistance appears to be different from that for Ru in NiRu. To probe reasons for the sulfur resistance of NiRu, the adsorption of S and C{sub 2}H{sub 4} on several bimetallic NiRu alloy surfaces ranging from 11 to 33 % Ru was studied using density functional theory (DFT). The DFT studies reveal that sulfur adsorption is generally favored on hollow sites containing Ru. Ethylene preferentially adsorbs atop the Ru atom in all the NiRu (111) alloys investigated. By comparing trends across the various bimetallic models considered, sulfur adsorption was observed to be correlated with the density of occupied states near the Fermi level while C{sub 2}H{sub 4} adsorption was correlated with the number of unoccupied states in the d-band. The diverging mechanisms for S and C{sub 2}H{sub 4} adsorption allow for bimetallic surfaces such as NiRu that enhance ethylene binding without accompanying increases in sulfur binding energy. In contrast, bimetallics such as NiSn and NiW appear to decrease the affinity of the surface for both the reagent and the poison.

  17. Twenty kW fuel cell units of compact design. Part 5: Hydrogen production by steam reforming of methanol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grave, B.

    1980-09-01

    To assess its potential use in alkaline fuel cells, The production of hydrogen by steam reforming of methanol was studied analytically and experimentally. The reformer, the converter, and the purification system of a prototype installation were designed and the optimal operation parameters derived and experimentally confirmed. For comparison, hydrogen production by ammonia cracking was also studied. An estimate of the manufacturing costs for a fuel cell aggregate of 20 kW indicates economical operation only to be possible at very high duty cycles. As a result the project was terminated.

  18. Natural gas monthly, August 1996

    SciTech Connect

    1996-08-01

    This analysis presents the most recent data on natural gas prices, supply, and consumption from the Energy Information Administration (EIA). The presentation of the latest monthly data is followed by an update on natural gas markets. The markets section examines the behavior of daily spot and futures prices based on information from trade press, as well as regional, weekly data on natural gas storage from the American Gas Association (AGA). This {open_quotes}Highlights{close_quotes} closes with a special section comparing and contrasting EIA and AGA storage data on a monthly and regional basis. The regions used are those defined by the AGA for their weekly data collection effort: the Producing Region, the Consuming Region East, and the Consuming Region West. While data on working gas levels have tracked fairly closely between the two data sources, differences have developed recently. The largest difference is in estimates of working gas levels in the East consuming region during the heating season.

  19. Natural gas: The next shortage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bell, Peter M.

    The eighth Annual Meeting of the Gas Research Institute that was held in Chicago in April 1984 focused on the potential of a crisis in the supply of natural gas. According to a report of discussions held at that meeting, “Natural gas, the country's largest petrochemical feedstock, may be in short supply in a couple of years if some present forecasts prove true. The next supply/demand crisis for natural gas is likely to come in early 1986” [Chemical and Engineering News, April 30, 1984]. There are a number of variables, geologic and socio-economic, that may affect this prediction. An important factor is that drilling exploration of natural gas has decreased sharply, due to the onset of sharp rates of surplus since 1981. Drilling is highly sensitive to depth and flow rate.

  20. 75 FR 13524 - Northern Natural Gas Company, Southern Natural Gas Company, Florida Gas Transmission Company, LLC...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-22

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Northern Natural Gas Company, Southern Natural Gas Company, Florida Gas Transmission Company, LLC, Transcontinental Gas Pipe Line Company, LLC, Enterprise Field Services, LLC; Notice of Application March 16, 2010. Take notice that on March 5, 2010, Northern Natural Gas...

  1. Alaska Natural Gas Transportation System

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, V.T.

    1984-04-27

    The proven reserves of natural gas in Prudhoe Bay remain the single largest block of reserves under US control. The sponsors of the Alaska Natural Gas Transportation System, including The Williams Companies, remain convinced that Alaskan gas will be increasingly important to meet future needs here in the lower 48 states. Both Canada and the US will increasingly have to turn to more costly supplies of gas as the closer, traditional areas of gas supply are exhausted. A principal motivation for Canada's participation in the ANGTS was the prospect of a jointly sponsored pipeline through Canada which would facilitate bringing frontier gas to market - through the so-called Dempster lateral. The high cost of transportation systems in the Artic necessitates pipelines with large capacities in order to minimize the cost of transportation per unit of gas delivered. It is clear that Canada still strongly supports the ANGTS project as a means of opening up the frontier resources of both Alaska and Canada.

  2. North American Natural Gas Markets

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-02-01

    This report summarizes die research by an Energy Modeling Forum working group on the evolution of the North American natural gas markets between now and 2010. The group's findings are based partly on the results of a set of economic models of the natural gas industry that were run for four scenarios representing significantly different conditions: two oil price scenarios (upper and lower), a smaller total US resource base (low US resource case), and increased potential gas demand for electric generation (high US demand case). Several issues, such as the direction of regulatory policy and the size of the gas resource base, were analyzed separately without the use of models.

  3. Performance of the Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming product under hydraulically unsaturated conditions.

    PubMed

    Neeway, James J; Qafoku, Nikolla P; Williams, Benjamin D; Rod, Kenton; Bowden, Mark E; Brown, Christopher F; Pierce, Eric M

    2014-05-01

    Several candidates for supplemental low-activity waste (LAW) immobilization at the Hanford site in Washington State, USA are being considered. One waste sequestering technology considered is Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming (FBSR). The granular product resulting from the FBSR process is composed primarily of an insoluble sodium aluminosilicate matrix with the dominant phases being feldspathoid minerals with a 1:1:1 molar ratio of Na, Al and Si. To demonstrate the durability of the product, which can be disposed of at the unsaturated Integrated Disposal Facility (IDF) at Hanford, a series of tests has been performed using the Pressurized Unsaturated Flow (PUF) system, which allows for the accelerated weathering of the solid materials. The system maintains hydraulically unsaturated conditions, thus mimicking the open-flow and transport properties that will be present at the IDF. Two materials were tested using the system: 1) the FBSR granular product and 2) the FBSR granular product encapsulated in a geopolymer to form a monolith. Results of the experiments show a trend of relatively constant effluent concentration of Na, Si, Al, and Cs as a function of time from both materials. The elements I and Re show a steady release throughout the yearlong test from the granular material but their concentrations seem to be increasing at one year from the monolith material. This result suggests that these two elements may be present in the sodalite cage structure rather than in the predominant nepheline phase because their release occurs at a different rate compared to nepheline phase. Also, these elements to not seem to reprecipitate when released from the starting material. Calculated one-year release rates for Si are on the order of 10(-6) g/(m(2) d) for the granular material and 10(-5) g/(m(2) d) for the monolith material while Re release is seen to be two orders of magnitude higher than Si release rates. SEM imaging and XRD analysis show how the alteration of the two

  4. Performance of the Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming product under hydraulically unsaturated conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Neeway, James J; Rod, Kenton A.; Bowden, Mark E; Pierce, Eric M; Qafoku, Nikolla; Williams, Benjamin D; Brown, Christopher F

    2014-01-01

    Several candidates for supplemental low-activity waste (LAW) immobilization at the Hanford site in Washington State, USA are being considered. One waste sequestering technology considered is Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming (FBSR). The granular product resulting from the FBSR process is composed primarily of an insoluble sodium aluminosilicate matrix with the dominant phases being feldspathoid minerals with a 1:1:1 molar ratio of Na, Al and Si. To demonstrate the durability of the product, which can be disposed of at the unsaturated Integrated Disposal Facility (IDF) at Hanford, a series of tests has been performed using the Pressurized Unsaturated Flow (PUF) system, which allows for the accelerated weathering of the solid materials. The system maintains hydraulically unsaturated conditions, thus mimicking the open-flow and transport properties that will be present at the IDF. Two materials were tested using the system: 1) the FBSR granular product and 2) the FBSR granular product encapsulated in a geopolymer to form a monolith. Results of the experiments show a trend of relatively constant effluent concentration of Na, Si, Al, and Cs as a function of time from both materials. The elements I and Re show a steady release throughout the yearlong test from the granular material but their concentrations seem to be increasing at one year from the monolith material. This result suggests that these two elements may be present in the sodalite cage structure rather than in the predominant nepheline phase because their release occurs at a different rate compared to nepheline phase. Also, these elements to not seem to reprecipitate when released from the starting material. Calculated one-year release rates for Si are on the order of 10 6 g/(m2 d) for the granular material and 10 5 g/(m2 d) for the monolith material while Re release is seen to be two orders of magnitude higher than Si release rates. SEM imaging and XRD analysis show how the alteration of the two materials is

  5. Gas Hydrate Storage of Natural Gas

    SciTech Connect

    Rudy Rogers; John Etheridge

    2006-03-31

    Environmental and economic benefits could accrue from a safe, above-ground, natural-gas storage process allowing electric power plants to utilize natural gas for peak load demands; numerous other applications of a gas storage process exist. A laboratory study conducted in 1999 to determine the feasibility of a gas-hydrates storage process looked promising. The subsequent scale-up of the process was designed to preserve important features of the laboratory apparatus: (1) symmetry of hydrate accumulation, (2) favorable surface area to volume ratio, (3) heat exchanger surfaces serving as hydrate adsorption surfaces, (4) refrigeration system to remove heat liberated from bulk hydrate formation, (5) rapid hydrate formation in a non-stirred system, (6) hydrate self-packing, and (7) heat-exchanger/adsorption plates serving dual purposes to add or extract energy for hydrate formation or decomposition. The hydrate formation/storage/decomposition Proof-of-Concept (POC) pressure vessel and supporting equipment were designed, constructed, and tested. This final report details the design of the scaled POC gas-hydrate storage process, some comments on its fabrication and installation, checkout of the equipment, procedures for conducting the experimental tests, and the test results. The design, construction, and installation of the equipment were on budget target, as was the tests that were subsequently conducted. The budget proposed was met. The primary goal of storing 5000-scf of natural gas in the gas hydrates was exceeded in the final test, as 5289-scf of gas storage was achieved in 54.33 hours. After this 54.33-hour period, as pressure in the formation vessel declined, additional gas went into the hydrates until equilibrium pressure/temperature was reached, so that ultimately more than the 5289-scf storage was achieved. The time required to store the 5000-scf (48.1 hours of operating time) was longer than designed. The lower gas hydrate formation rate is attributed to a

  6. Sulfur Poisoning Mechanism of Steam Reforming Catalysts: an X-ray Absorption Near Edge Structure (XANES) Spectroscopic Study

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Y.; Xie, C; Li, Y; Song, C; Bolin, T

    2010-01-01

    The present XANES study aims at elucidating the roles of carbon deposits and metal sulfides in the catalyst deactivation in steam reforming reactions with the presence of sulfur. CeO{sub 2}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}-supported Ni and Rh-based catalysts were tested in steam reforming of liquid hydrocarbon fuel containing 350 ppm sulfur for H{sub 2} production at 800 C. The Rhcatalyst demonstrated much better sulfur tolerance than the Nicatalyst. XANES revealed that there are various sulfur species (metal sulfide, sulfonate, sulfate and organic sulfide) on the used Ni and Rhcatalysts. Metal sulfide and organic sulfide are the dominant sulfur species on the Nicatalyst whereas sulfonate and sulfate predominate on the Rhcatalyst. Meanwhile organic sulfide and sulfate are also observed on the support alone. Furthermore, there are more carbon deposits formed in the presence of sulfur on both catalysts. More carboxylgroups occur on the carbon deposits formed on the same catalyst when there is no sulfur in the fuel. From correlation analysis of the amounts of nickel sulfide and carbon deposits along with the relative catalytic activity loss, we conclude that sulfur causes the initial deactivation of the Nicatalyst by metal sulfide formation in the first few hours while build-up of carbon deposits contributes mainly to the subsequent deactivation.

  7. Minimizing the formation of coke and methane on Co nanoparticles in steam reforming of biomass-derived oxygenates

    SciTech Connect

    Sun, Junming; Mei, Donghai; Karim, Ayman M.; Datye, Abhaya K.; Wang, Yong

    2013-06-01

    Fundamental understanding and control of chemical transformations are essential to the development of technically feasible and economically viable catalytic processes for efficient conversion of biomass to fuels and chemicals. Using an integrated experimental and theoretical approach, we report high hydrogen selectivity and catalyst durability of acetone steam reforming (ASR) on inert carbon supported Co nanoparticles. The observed catalytic performance is further elucidated on the basis of comprehensive first-principles calculations. Instead of being considered as an undesired intermediate prone for catalyst deactivation during bioethanol steam reforming (ESR), acetone is suggested as a key and desired intermediate in proposed two-stage ESR process that leads to high hydrogen selectivity and low methane formation on Co-based catalysts. The significance of the present work also sheds a light on controlling the chemical transformations of key intermediates in biomass conversion such as ketones. We gratefully acknowledge the financial support from U. S. Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Basic Energy Sciences, Division of Chemical Sciences, Geosciences, and Biosciences, and the Laboratory directed research and development (LDRD) project of Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). Computing time was granted by the William R. Wiley Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory (EMSL). The EMSL is a U.S. DOE national scientific user facility located at PNNL, and sponsored by the U.S. DOE’s Office of Biological and Environmental Research.

  8. Sulfur poisoning mechanism of steam reforming catalysts : an X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) spectroscopic study.

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Y.; Xie, C.; Li, Y.; Song, C.; Bolin, T.; X-Ray Science Division; Pennsylvania State Univ.

    2010-04-29

    The present XANES study aims at elucidating the roles of carbon deposits and metal sulfides in the catalyst deactivation in steam reforming reactions with the presence of sulfur. CeO{sub 2}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}-supported Ni and Rh-based catalysts were tested in steam reforming of liquid hydrocarbon fuel containing 350 ppm sulfur for H{sub 2} production at 800 C. The Rh catalyst demonstrated much better sulfur tolerance than the Ni catalyst. XANES revealed that there are various sulfur species (metal sulfide, sulfonate, sulfate and organic sulfide) on the used Ni and Rh catalysts. Metal sulfide and organic sulfide are the dominant sulfur species on the Ni catalyst whereas sulfonate and sulfate predominate on the Rh catalyst. Meanwhile organic sulfide and sulfate are also observed on the support alone. Furthermore, there are more carbon deposits formed in the presence of sulfur on both catalysts. More carboxyl groups occur on the carbon deposits formed on the same catalyst when there is no sulfur in the fuel. From correlation analysis of the amounts of nickel sulfide and carbon deposits along with the relative catalytic activity loss, we conclude that sulfur causes the initial deactivation of the Ni catalyst by metal sulfide formation in the first few hours while build-up of carbon deposits contributes mainly to the subsequent deactivation.

  9. Sulfur poisoning mechanism of steam reforming catalysts: an X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) spectroscopic study.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yongsheng; Xie, Chao; Li, Yan; Song, Chunshan; Bolin, Trudy B

    2010-06-01

    The present XANES study aims at elucidating the roles of carbon deposits and metal sulfides in the catalyst deactivation in steam reforming reactions with the presence of sulfur. CeO(2)-Al(2)O(3)-supported Ni and Rh-based catalysts were tested in steam reforming of liquid hydrocarbon fuel containing 350 ppm sulfur for H(2) production at 800 degrees C. The Rh catalyst demonstrated much better sulfur tolerance than the Ni catalyst. XANES revealed that there are various sulfur species (metal sulfide, sulfonate, sulfate and organic sulfide) on the used Ni and Rh catalysts. Metal sulfide and organic sulfide are the dominant sulfur species on the Ni catalyst whereas sulfonate and sulfate predominate on the Rh catalyst. Meanwhile organic sulfide and sulfate are also observed on the support alone. Furthermore, there are more carbon deposits formed in the presence of sulfur on both catalysts. More carboxyl groups occur on the carbon deposits formed on the same catalyst when there is no sulfur in the fuel. From correlation analysis of the amounts of nickel sulfide and carbon deposits along with the relative catalytic activity loss, we conclude that sulfur causes the initial deactivation of the Ni catalyst by metal sulfide formation in the first few hours while build-up of carbon deposits contributes mainly to the subsequent deactivation. PMID:20431820

  10. Pyrolysis of de-oiled seed cake of Jatropha Curcas and catalytic steam reforming of pyrolytic bio-oil to hydrogen.

    PubMed

    Renny, Andrew; Santhosh, Viswanathan; Somkuwar, Nitin; Gokak, D T; Sharma, Pankaj; Bhargava, Sanjay

    2016-11-01

    The aim of this work was to study the pyrolysis of de-oiled seed cake of Jatropha Curcas and catalytic steam reforming of pyrolytic bio-oil to hydrogen. As per literature, presence of heavy nitrogenous and oxygenated compounds leads to catalyst deactivation. Here, an attempt has been made to tune pyrolytic reactions to optimize the N and O content of the pyrolytic bio-oil. Bio-oil conversion and hydrogen yield decreased as reaction progressed, which attributes to temporary loss of catalytic activity by blockage of catalyst pores by carbon deposition. Further, retention of steam reforming activity after repetitive steam activation suggests long-term catalyst usage.

  11. Pyrolysis of de-oiled seed cake of Jatropha Curcas and catalytic steam reforming of pyrolytic bio-oil to hydrogen.

    PubMed

    Renny, Andrew; Santhosh, Viswanathan; Somkuwar, Nitin; Gokak, D T; Sharma, Pankaj; Bhargava, Sanjay

    2016-11-01

    The aim of this work was to study the pyrolysis of de-oiled seed cake of Jatropha Curcas and catalytic steam reforming of pyrolytic bio-oil to hydrogen. As per literature, presence of heavy nitrogenous and oxygenated compounds leads to catalyst deactivation. Here, an attempt has been made to tune pyrolytic reactions to optimize the N and O content of the pyrolytic bio-oil. Bio-oil conversion and hydrogen yield decreased as reaction progressed, which attributes to temporary loss of catalytic activity by blockage of catalyst pores by carbon deposition. Further, retention of steam reforming activity after repetitive steam activation suggests long-term catalyst usage. PMID:27566523

  12. Natural Gas Monthly August 1998

    SciTech Connect

    1998-08-01

    The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information. Explanatory notes supplement the information found in tables of the report. A description of the data collection surveys that support the NGM is provided. A glossary of the terms used in this report is also provided to assist readers in understanding the data presented in this publication.

  13. Natural gas monthly, November 1997

    SciTech Connect

    1997-11-01

    This issue of the Natural Gas Monthly presents the most recent estimates of natural gas data from the Energy Information Administration. Estimates extend through November for many data series, and through August for most natural gas prices. Highlights of the most recent data estimates are: (1) Preliminary estimates of dry natural gas production and total consumption available through November 1997 indicate that both series are on track to end the year at levels close to those of 1996. Cumulative dry production is one-half percent higher than in 1996 and consumption is one-half percent lower. (2) Natural gas production is estimated to be 52.6 billion cubic feet per day in November 1997, the highest rate since March 1997. (3) After falling 8 percent in July 1997, the national average wellhead price rose 10 percent in August 1997, reaching an estimated $2.21 per thousand cubic feet. (4) Milder weather in November 1997 compared to November 1996 has resulted in significantly lower levels of residential consumption of natural gas and net storage withdrawls than a year ago. The November 1997 estimates of residential consumption and net withdrawls are 9 and 20 percent lower, respectively, than in November 1996.

  14. Natural gas monthly, July 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1995-07-21

    The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information. The data in this publication are collected on surveys conducted by the EIA to fulfill its responsibilities for gathering and reporting energy data. Some of the data are collected under the authority of the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC), an independent commission within the DOE, which has jurisdiction primarily in the regulation of electric utilities and the interstate natural gas industry. Geographic coverage is the 50 States and the District of Columbia. Explanatory Notes supplement the information found in tables of the report. A description of the data collection surveys that support the NGM is provided in the Data Sources section. A glossary of the terms used in this report is also provided to assist readers in understanding the data presented in this publication. All natural gas volumes are reported at a pressure base of 14.73 pounds per square inch absolute (psia) and at 60 degrees Fahrenheit. Cubic feet are converted to cubic meters by applying a factor of 0.02831685.

  15. Comparative Investigation of Benzene Steam Reforming over Spinel Supported Rh and Ir Catalysts

    SciTech Connect

    Mei, Donghai; Lebarbier, Vanessa M.; Rousseau, Roger; Glezakou, Vassiliki-Alexandra; Albrecht, Karl O.; Kovarik, Libor; Flake, Matt; Dagle, Robert A.

    2013-06-07

    In a combined experimental and first-principles density functional theory (DFT) study, benzene steam reforming (BSR) over MgAl2O4 supported Rh and Ir catalysts was investigated. Experimentally, it has been found that both highly dispersed Rh and Ir clusters (1-2 nm) on the MgAl2O4 spinel support are stable during the BSR in the temperature range of 700-850°C. Compared to the Ir/MgAl2O4 catalyst, the Rh/MgAl2O4 catalyst is more active with higher benzene turnover frequency and conversion. At typical steam conditions with the steam-to-carbon ratio > 12, the benzene conversion is only a weak function of the H2O concentration in the feed. This suggests that the initial benzene decomposition step rather than the benzene adsorption is most likely the rate-determined step in BSR over supported Rh and Ir catalysts. In order to understand the differences between the two catalysts, we followed with a comparative DFT study of initial benzene decomposition pathways over two representative model systems for each supported metal (Rh and Ir) catalysts. A periodic terrace (111) surface and an amorphous 50-atom metal cluster with a diameter of 1.0 nm were used to represent the two supported model catalysts under low and high dispersion conditions. Our DFT results show that the decreasing catalyst particle size enhances the benzene decomposition on supported Rh catalysts by lowering both C-C and C-H bond scission. The activation barriers of the C-C and the C-H bond scission decrease from 1.60 and 1.61 eV on the Rh(111) surface to 1.34 and 1.26 eV on the Rh50 cluster. For supported Ir catalysts, the decreasing particle size only affects the C-C scission. The activation barrier of the C-C scission of benzene decreases from 1.60 eV on the Ir(111) surface to 1.35 eV on the Ir50 cluster while the barriers of the C-H scission are practically the same. The experimentally measured higher BSR

  16. Hynol: An economic process for methanol production from biomass and natural gas with reduced CO2 emission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steinberg, M.; Dong, Yuanji

    1993-10-01

    The Hynol process is proposed to meet the demand for an economical process for methanol production with reduced CO2 emission. This new process consists of three reaction steps: (1) hydrogasification of biomass, (2) steam reforming of the produced gas with additional natural gas feedstock, and (3) methanol synthesis of the hydrogen and carbon monoxide produced during the previous two steps. The H2-rich gas remaining after methanol synthesis is recycled to gasify the biomass in an energy neutral reactor so that there is no need for an expensive oxygen plant as required by commercial steam gasifiers. Recycling gas allows the methanol synthesis reactor to perform at a relatively lower pressure than conventional while the plant still maintains high methanol yield. Energy recovery designed into the process minimizes heat loss and increases the process thermal efficiency. If the Hynol methanol is used as an alternative and more efficient automotive fuel, an overall 41% reduction in CO2 emission can be achieved compared to the use of conventional gasoline fuel. A preliminary economic estimate shows that the total capital investment for a Hynol plant is 40% lower than that for a conventional biomass gasification plant. The methanol production cost is $0.43/gal for a 1085 million gal/yr Hynol plant which is competitive with current U.S. methanol and equivalent gasoline prices. Process flowsheet and simulation data using biomass and natural gas as cofeedstocks are presented. The Hynol process can convert any condensed carbonaceous material, especially municipal solid waste (MSW), to produce methanol.

  17. Natural gas monthly, March 1999

    SciTech Connect

    1999-03-01

    This issue of the Natural Gas Monthly contains estimates for March 1999 for many natural gas data series at the national level. Estimates of national natural gas prices are available through December 1998 for most series. Highlights of the data contained in this issue are listed below. Preliminary data indicate that the national average wellhead price for 1998 declined to 16% from the previous year ($1.96 compared to $2.32 per thousand cubic feet). At the end of March, the end of the 1998--1999 heating season, the level of working gas in underground natural gas storage facilities is estimated to be 1,354 billion cubic feet, 169 billion cubic feet higher than at the end of March 1998. Gas consumption during the first 3 months of 1999 is estimated to have been 179 billion cubic feet higher than in the same period in 1998. Most of this increase (133 billion cubic feet) occurred in the residential sector due to the cooler temperatures in January and February compared to the same months last year. According to the National Weather Service, heating degree days in January 1999 were 15% greater than the previous year while February recorded a 5% increase.

  18. Corn Ethanol: The Surprisingly Effective Route for Natural Gas Consumption in the Transportation Sector

    SciTech Connect

    Szybist, James P.; Curran, Scott

    2015-05-01

    the transportation sector. Examples include steam reforming of natural gas to provide hydrogen for hydrotreating unit operations within the refinery and production of urea for use as a reductant for diesel after treatment in selective catalytic reduction (SCR). This discussion focuses on the consumption of natural gas in the production pathway of conventional ethanol (non-cellulosic) from corn through fermentation. Though it is clear that NG would also play a significant role in the cellulosic production pathways, those cases are not considered in this analysis.

  19. Natural-gas price puzzle

    SciTech Connect

    Russell, M.

    1983-02-01

    Rectifying natural-gas underpricing and distortions in production has benefited the overall economy, but transition costs are large, and problems and strains continue. The natural-gas price story began with the 1954 price controls that developed into a wasteful, inefficient, and unfair system of too-low gas prices that resulted in the 1978 Natural Gas Policy Act (NGPA). While meeting a number of goals, NGPA has also led to current large increases in gas prices, ironically at a time when producers complain of more gas than they can sell. This glut, however, may be a surplus of short-run deliverability rather than an increase in supply. Prices have not fallen even temporarily because long-term contracts common between pipelines and producers typically prevent downward adjustment of prices to meet demand fluctuations, and the economy (hence the consumer) cannot escape the costof sustaining capacity through up-and-down demand. Transportation and delivery costs that, while getting smaller in relation to wellhead prices, are rising, and inflation, higher interest rates, and costs of uncollectables add to the price. In addition, while a straightforward supply, demand, and cost explanation of the price picture is accurate enough on a national basis, the average cost of gas as it enters a particular pipeline is affected by such complexities as historical accident, location, timing, bargaining power, and management decisions.

  20. Natural Gas Supply SBIR Program

    SciTech Connect

    Shoemaker, H.D.; Gwilliam, W.J.

    1995-07-01

    The Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) program was created in 1982 by Public Law 97-219 and reauthorized in 1992 until the year 2000 by Public Law 102-564. The purposes of the new law are to (1) expand and improve the SBIR program, 2) emphasize the program`s goal of increasing private sector commercialization of technology developed through Federal R&D, (3) increase small business participation in Federal R&D, and (4) improve the Federal Government`s dissemination of information concerning the SBIR program. DOE`s SBIR pro-ram has two features that are unique. In the 1995 DOE SBIR solicitation, the DOE Fossil Energy topics were: environmental technology for natural gas, oil, and coal; advanced recovery of oil; natural gas supply; natural gas utilization; advanced coal-based power systems; and advanced fossil fuels research. The subtopics for this solicitation`s Natural Gas Supply topic are (1) drilling, completion, and stimulation; (2) low-permeability Formations; (3) delivery and storage; and (4) natural gas upgrading.

  1. Performance and economic assessments of a solid oxide fuel cell system with a two-step ethanol-steam-reforming process using CaO sorbent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tippawan, Phanicha; Arpornwichanop, Amornchai

    2016-02-01

    The hydrogen production process is known to be important to a fuel cell system. In this study, a carbon-free hydrogen production process is proposed by using a two-step ethanol-steam-reforming procedure, which consists of ethanol dehydrogenation and steam reforming, as a fuel processor in the solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) system. An addition of CaO in the reformer for CO2 capture is also considered to enhance the hydrogen production. The performance of the SOFC system is analyzed under thermally self-sufficient conditions in terms of the technical and economic aspects. The simulation results show that the two-step reforming process can be run in the operating window without carbon formation. The addition of CaO in the steam reformer, which runs at a steam-to-ethanol ratio of 5, temperature of 900 K and atmospheric pressure, minimizes the presence of CO2; 93% CO2 is removed from the steam-reforming environment. This factor causes an increase in the SOFC power density of 6.62%. Although the economic analysis shows that the proposed fuel processor provides a higher capital cost, it offers a reducing active area of the SOFC stack and the most favorable process economics in term of net cost saving.

  2. Natural gas monthly, February 1997

    SciTech Connect

    1997-02-01

    This issue of the Natural Gas Monthly presents estimates of natural gas supply and consumption through February 1997. Estimates of natural gas prices are through November 1996 except electric utility prices that are through October 1996. Cumulatively for January through February 1997, the daily average rates for several data series remain close to those of 1996. (Comparing daily rates accounts for the fact that February 1996 had 29 days.) Daily total consumption for January through February is estimated to be 83 billion cubic feet per day, 1 percent higher than during the same period in 1996. Similarly, the estimate of average daily production of 53 billion cubic feet is 1.5 percent higher than in 1996, while daily net imports during the first 2 months of 1997 are virtually unchanged from 1996.

  3. Costs to transport natural gas

    SciTech Connect

    Leibson, I.; Davenport, S.T.; Muenzier, M.H.

    1987-04-01

    Relative Economics are discussed for transporting natural gas by four ways: converting to LNG and using LNG tankers, as a gas using on-land and subsea pipelines, converting to methanol and using conventional tankers, and compressing and using tankers with pressurized containers. Distances and routes are important factors when determining cost. Specific examples are given for transportation between : Arabian Gulf and Europe, Africa and Europe, and Islands separated by short distances.

  4. Enhanced methane steam reforming activity and electrochemical performance of Ni0.9Fe0.1-supported solid oxide fuel cells with infiltrated Ni-TiO2 particles

    PubMed Central

    Li, Kai; Jia, Lichao; Wang, Xin; Pu, Jian; Chi, Bo; Li, Jian

    2016-01-01

    Ni0.9Fe0.1 alloy-supported solid oxide fuel cells with NiTiO3 (NTO) infiltrated into the cell support from 0 to 4 wt.% are prepared and investigated for CH4 steam reforming activity and electrochemical performance. The infiltrated NiTiO3 is reduced to TiO2-supported Ni particles in H2 at 650 °C. The reforming activity of the Ni0.9Fe0.1-support is increased by the presence of the TiO2-supported Ni particles; 3 wt.% is the optimal value of the added NTO, corresponding to the highest reforming activity, resistance to carbon deposition and electrochemical performance of the cell. Fueled wet CH4 at 100 mL min−1, the cell with 3 wt.% of NTO demonstrates a peak power density of 1.20 W cm−2 and a high limiting current density of 2.83 A cm−2 at 650 °C. It performs steadily for 96 h at 0.4 A cm−2 without the presence of deposited carbon in the Ni0.9Fe0.1-support and functional anode. Five polarization processes are identified by deconvoluting and data-fitting the electrochemical impedance spectra of the cells under the testing conditions; and the addition of TiO2-supported Ni particles into the Ni0.9Fe0.1-support reduces the polarization resistance of the processes ascribed to CH4 steam reforming and gas diffusion in the Ni0.9Fe0.1-support and functional anode. PMID:27775092

  5. Single Pass Flow-Through (SPFT) Test Results of Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming (FBSR) Waste Forms used for LAW Immobilization

    SciTech Connect

    Neeway, James J.; Qafoku, Nikolla; Williams, Benjamin D.; Valenta, Michelle M.; Cordova, Elsa A.; Strandquist, Sara C.; Dage, DeNomy C.; Brown, Christopher F.

    2012-03-20

    Several supplemental technologies for treating and immobilizing Hanford low activity waste (LAW) are being evaluated. One such immobilization technology being considered is the Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming (FBSR) granular product. The FBSR granular product is composed of insoluble sodium aluminosilicate (NAS) feldspathoid minerals. Production of the FBSR mineral product has been demonstrated both at the industrial and laboratory scale. Single-Pass Flow-Through (SPFT) tests at various flow rates have been conducted with the granular products fabricated using these two methods. Results show that the materials exhibit a relatively low forward dissolution rate on the order of 10-3 g/(m2d) with the material made in the laboratory giving slightly higher values.

  6. Nitrogen removal from natural gas

    SciTech Connect

    1997-04-01

    According to a 1991 Energy Information Administration estimate, U.S. reserves of natural gas are about 165 trillion cubic feet (TCF). To meet the long-term demand for natural gas, new gas fields from these reserves will have to be developed. Gas Research Institute studies reveal that 14% (or about 19 TCF) of known reserves in the United States are subquality due to high nitrogen content. Nitrogen-contaminated natural gas has a low Btu value and must be upgraded by removing the nitrogen. In response to the problem, the Department of Energy is seeking innovative, efficient nitrogen-removal methods. Membrane processes have been considered for natural gas denitrogenation. The challenge, not yet overcome, is to develop membranes with the required nitrogen/methane separation characteristics. Our calculations show that a methane-permeable membrane with a methane/nitrogen selectivity of 4 to 6 would make denitrogenation by a membrane process viable. The objective of Phase I of this project was to show that membranes with this target selectivity can be developed, and that the economics of the process based on these membranes would be competitive. Gas permeation measurements with membranes prepared from two rubbery polymers and a superglassy polymer showed that two of these materials had the target selectivity of 4 to 6 when operated at temperatures below - 20{degrees}C. An economic analysis showed that a process based on these membranes is competitive with other technologies for small streams containing less than 10% nitrogen. Hybrid designs combining membranes with other technologies are suitable for high-flow, higher-nitrogen-content streams.

  7. Activity and stability enhancement of copper-alumina catalysts using cerium and zinc promoters for the selective production of hydrogen via steam reforming of methanol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patel, Sanjay; Pant, K. K.

    The catalytic activity and hydrogen selectivity of cerium and zinc promoted copper-alumina catalysts have been investigated for the selective production of hydrogen via steam reforming of methanol (SRM). The SRM was carried out in a fixed bed tubular reactor at atmospheric pressure over a temperature range 200-300 °C. The major reaction products were hydrogen and carbon dioxide with traces of carbon monoxide. Catalysts of varying compositions were prepared by the wet impregnation method and characterized by atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS), BET surface area, pore volume, pore size, X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and thermogravimetry analysis (TGA). Results revealed that the methanol conversion, hydrogen selectivity and carbon monoxide formation varied with the type of promoter and content of copper in the catalyst. Cerium promoted Cu-Zn-Ce-Al-oxide catalysts improved the activity and hydrogen selectivity greatly and also kept the CO formation very low. Using cerium the SRM could be carried out at lower temperature with high methanol conversion, results in suppression of methanol decomposition and reverse water gas shift reactions eventually end-up with the low carbon monoxide and hydrogen rich product stream. Cerium also stabilizes the copper-alumina catalysts effectively that was confirmed by deactivation studies in which cerium promoted Cu-Zn-Ce-Al-oxide catalysts gave the consistent performance for a long run-time compared to catalysts containing only zinc promoter. The optimum operating conditions for SRM have been investigated by detailed study of effects of reaction temperature, contact time and steam to methanol molar ratio on methanol conversion, hydrogen selectivity and CO formation. Reaction pathway has been proposed for the SRM based on results obtained.

  8. Ethanol steam reforming on Ni/Al2O3 catalysts: effect of the addition of Zn and Pt.

    PubMed

    Buitrago-Sierra, R; Ruiz-Martínez, J; Serrano-Ruiz, J C; Rodríguez-Reinoso, F; Sepúlveda-Escribano, A

    2012-10-01

    Ni-based catalysts supported on Zn-modified alumina were investigated in the ethanol steam reforming reaction. A commercial γ-alumina was impregnated with different amounts of zinc nitrate (0, 2, 5, 10, 15, 20 wt.% on Zn basis), calcined, and then impregnated with nickel nitrate aqueous solutions. The samples were characterized by a number of techniques: N(2) adsorption at 77 K, X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray fluorescence (XRF), and temperature-programmed reduction (TPR). Their catalytic behavior in the ethanol steam reforming reaction was studied at 873 K, with a H(2)O/ethanol ratio of 5:1. Two effects of the presence of Zn were detected. On the one hand, zinc modifies the surface structure and the surface chemistry of the catalysts by formation of zinc aluminates, and on the other hand, zinc oxide can be reduced to metallic zinc under reaction conditions, thus modifying the catalytic properties of the active phase. The presence of Zn increases the ethanol conversion to gaseous compounds as compared with the catalyst supported on the Zn-free commercial alumina. The addition of a small amount of Pt (1 wt.%) causes a beneficial effect in the reaction. When Ni catalysts were used without a previous reduction treatment, ethylene was formed in high amounts; however, the Pt-Ni catalysts need no reduction pre-treatment to achieve high H(2) yields (close to 70%) and showed a high stability versus time on stream because of the control of the production of ethylene, a coke precursor.

  9. Natural Gas Multi-Year Program Plan

    SciTech Connect

    1997-12-01

    This document comprises the Department of Energy (DOE) Natural Gas Multi-Year Program Plan, and is a follow-up to the `Natural Gas Strategic Plan and Program Crosscut Plans,` dated July 1995. DOE`s natural gas programs are aimed at simultaneously meeting our national energy needs, reducing oil imports, protecting our environment, and improving our economy. The Natural Gas Multi-Year Program Plan represents a Department-wide effort on expanded development and use of natural gas and defines Federal government and US industry roles in partnering to accomplish defined strategic goals. The four overarching goals of the Natural Gas Program are to: (1) foster development of advanced natural gas technologies, (2) encourage adoption of advanced natural gas technologies in new and existing markets, (3) support removal of policy impediments to natural gas use in new and existing markets, and (4) foster technologies and policies to maximize environmental benefits of natural gas use.

  10. EIA's Natural Gas Production Data

    EIA Publications

    2009-01-01

    This special report examines the stages of natural gas processing from the wellhead to the pipeline network through which the raw product becomes ready for transportation and eventual consumption, and how this sequence is reflected in the data published by the Energy Information Administration (EIA).

  11. Natural gas monthly, January 1997

    SciTech Connect

    1997-01-01

    This publication, the Natural Gas Monthly, presents the most recent data on natural gas supply, consumption, and prices from the Energy Information Administration (EIA). Of special interest in this issue are two articles summarizing reports recently published by EIA. The articles are {open_quotes}Natural Gas Productive Capacity{close_quotes} and {open_quotes}Outlook for Natural Gas Through 2015,{close_quotes} both of which precede the {open_quotes}Highlights{close_quotes} section. With this issue, January 1997, changes have been made to the format of the Highlights section and to several of the tabular and graphical presentations throughout the publication. The changes to the Highlights affect the discussion of developments in the industry and the presentation of weekly storage data. An overview of the developments in the industry is now presented in a brief summary followed by specific discussions of supply, end-use consumption, and prices. Spot and futures prices are discussed as appropriate in the Price section, together with wellhead and consumer prices.

  12. Staff Handbook on Natural Gas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gorges, H. A., Ed.; Raine, L. P., Ed.

    The Department of Commerce created a Natural Gas Action Group early in the fall of 1975 to assist industrial firms and the communities they serve to cope with the effects of potentially severe and crippling curtailment situations. This action group was trained to assess a specific local situation, review the potential for remedial action and…

  13. FLUIDIZED BED STEAM REFORMING (FBSR) OF HIGH LEVEL WASTE (HLW) ORGANIC AND NITRATE DESTRUCTION PRIOR TO VITRIFICATION: CRUCIBLE SCALE TO ENGINEERING SCALE DEMONSTRATIONS AND NON-RADIOACTIVE TO RADIOACTIVE DEMONSTRATIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Jantzen, C; Michael Williams, M; Gene Daniel, G; Paul Burket, P; Charles Crawford, C

    2009-02-07

    Over a decade ago, an in-tank precipitation process to remove Cs-137 from radioactive high level waste (HLW) supernates was demonstrated at the Savannah River Site (SRS). The full scale demonstration with actual HLW was performed in SRS Tank 48 (T48). Sodium tetraphenylborate (NaTPB) was added to enable Cs-137 extraction as CsTPB. The CsTPB, an organic, and its decomposition products proved to be problematic for subsequent processing of the Cs-137 precipitate in the SRS HLW vitrification facility for ultimate disposal in a HLW repository. Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming (FBSR) is being considered as a technology for destroying the organics and nitrates in the T48 waste to render it compatible with subsequent HLW vitrification. During FBSR processing the T48 waste is converted into organic-free and nitrate-free carbonate-based minerals which are water soluble. The soluble nature of the carbonate-based minerals allows them to be dissolved and pumped to the vitrification facility or returned to the tank farm for future vitrification. The initial use of the FBSR process for T48 waste was demonstrated with simulated waste in 2003 at the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) using a specially designed sealed crucible test that reproduces the FBSR pyrolysis reactions, i.e. carbonate formation, organic and nitrate destruction. This was followed by pilot scale testing of simulants at the Science Applications International Corporation (SAIC) Science & Technology Application Research (STAR) Center in Idaho Falls, ID by Idaho National Laboratory (INL) and SRNL in 2003-4 and then engineering scale demonstrations by THOR{reg_sign} Treatment Technologies (TTT) and SRS/SRNL at the Hazen Research, Inc. (HRI) test facility in Golden, CO in 2006 and 2008. Radioactive sealed crucible testing with real T48 waste was performed at SRNL in 2008, and radioactive Benchscale Steam Reformer (BSR) testing was performed in the SRNL Shielded Cell Facility (SCF) in 2008.

  14. Biomass-to-hydrogen via fast pyrolysis and catalytic steam reforming

    SciTech Connect

    Chornet, E.; Wang, D.; Czernik, S.

    1996-10-01

    Pyrolysis of lignocellulosic biomass and reforming the pyroligneous oils is being studied as a strategy for producing hydrogen. Novel technologies for the rapid pyrolysis of biomass have been developed in the past decade. They provide compact and efficient systems to transform biomass into vapors that are condensed to oils, with yields as high as 75-80 wt.% of the anhydrous biomass. This {open_quotes}bio-oil{close_quotes} is a mixture of aldehydes, alcohols, acids, oligomers from the constitutive carbohydrates and lignin, and some water derived from the dehydration reactions. Hydrogen can be produced by reforming the bio-oil or its fractions with steam. A process of this nature has the potential to be cost competitive with conventional means of producing hydrogen. The reforming facility can be designed to handle alternate feedstocks, such as natural gas and naphtha, if necessary. Thermodynamic modeling of the major constituents of the bio-oil has shown that reforming is possible within a wide range of temperatures and steam-to-carbon ratios. Existing catalytic data on the reforming of oxygenates have been studied to guide catalyst selection. Tests performed on a microreactor interfaced with a molecular beam mass spectrometer showed that, by proper selection of the process variables: temperature, steam-to-carbon ratio, gas hourly space velocity, and contact time, almost total conversion of carbon in the feed to CO and CO{sub 2} could be obtained. These tests also provided possible reaction mechanisms where thermal cracking competes with catalytic processes. Bench-scale, fixed bed reactor tests demonstrated high hydrogen yields from model compounds and carbohydrate-derived pyrolysis oil fractions. Reforming bio-oil or its fractions required proper dispersion of the liquid to avoid vapor-phase carbonization of the feed in the inlet to the reactor. A special spraying nozzle injector was designed and successfully tested with an aqueous fraction of bio-oil.

  15. RADIOACTIVE DEMONSTRATION OF FINAL MINERALIZED WASTE FORMS FOR HANFORD WASTE TREATMENT PLANT SECONDARY WASTE BY FLUIDIZED BED STEAM REFORMING USING THE BENCH SCALE REFORMER PLATFORM

    SciTech Connect

    Crawford, C.; Burket, P.; Cozzi, A.; Daniel, W.; Jantzen, C.; Missimer, D.

    2012-02-02

    The U.S. Department of Energy's Office of River Protection (ORP) is responsible for the retrieval, treatment, immobilization, and disposal of Hanford's tank waste. Currently there are approximately 56 million gallons of highly radioactive mixed wastes awaiting treatment. A key aspect of the River Protection Project (RPP) cleanup mission is to construct and operate the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP). The WTP will separate the tank waste into high-level and low-activity waste (LAW) fractions, both of which will subsequently be vitrified. The projected throughput capacity of the WTP LAW Vitrification Facility is insufficient to complete the RPP mission in the time frame required by the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order, also known as the Tri-Party Agreement (TPA), i.e. December 31, 2047. Therefore, Supplemental Treatment is required both to meet the TPA treatment requirements as well as to more cost effectively complete the tank waste treatment mission. In addition, the WTP LAW vitrification facility off-gas condensate known as WTP Secondary Waste (WTP-SW) will be generated and enriched in volatile components such as {sup 137}Cs, {sup 129}I, {sup 99}Tc, Cl, F, and SO{sub 4} that volatilize at the vitrification temperature of 1150 C in the absence of a continuous cold cap (that could minimize volatilization). The current waste disposal path for the WTP-SW is to process it through the Effluent Treatment Facility (ETF). Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming (FBSR) is being considered for immobilization of the ETF concentrate that would be generated by processing the WTP-SW. The focus of this current report is the WTP-SW. FBSR offers a moderate temperature (700-750 C) continuous method by which WTP-SW wastes can be processed irrespective of whether they contain organics, nitrates, sulfates/sulfides, chlorides, fluorides, volatile radionuclides or other aqueous components. The FBSR technology can process these wastes into a crystalline ceramic

  16. Methods of natural gas liquefaction and natural gas liquefaction plants utilizing multiple and varying gas streams

    SciTech Connect

    Wilding, Bruce M; Turner, Terry D

    2014-12-02

    A method of natural gas liquefaction may include cooling a gaseous NG process stream to form a liquid NG process stream. The method may further include directing the first tail gas stream out of a plant at a first pressure and directing a second tail gas stream out of the plant at a second pressure. An additional method of natural gas liquefaction may include separating CO.sub.2 from a liquid NG process stream and processing the CO.sub.2 to provide a CO.sub.2 product stream. Another method of natural gas liquefaction may include combining a marginal gaseous NG process stream with a secondary substantially pure NG stream to provide an improved gaseous NG process stream. Additionally, a NG liquefaction plant may include a first tail gas outlet, and at least a second tail gas outlet, the at least a second tail gas outlet separate from the first tail gas outlet.

  17. Apparatus for dispensing compressed natural gas and liquified natural gas to natural gas powered vehicles

    DOEpatents

    Bingham, Dennis A.; Clark, Michael L.; Wilding, Bruce M.; Palmer, Gary L.

    2007-05-29

    A fueling facility and method for dispensing liquid natural gas (LNG), compressed natural gas (CNG) or both on-demand. The fueling facility may include a source of LNG, such as cryogenic storage vessel. A low volume high pressure pump is coupled to the source of LNG to produce a stream of pressurized LNG. The stream of pressurized LNG may be selectively directed through an LNG flow path or to a CNG flow path which includes a vaporizer configured to produce CNG from the pressurized LNG. A portion of the CNG may be drawn from the CNG flow path and introduced into the CNG flow path to control the temperature of LNG flowing therethrough. Similarly, a portion of the LNG may be drawn from the LNG flow path and introduced into the CNG flow path to control the temperature of CNG flowing therethrough.

  18. Natural gas 1995: Issues and trends

    SciTech Connect

    1995-11-01

    Natural Gas 1995: Issues and Trends addresses current issues affecting the natural gas industry and markets. Highlights of recent trends include: Natural gas wellhead prices generally declined throughout 1994 and for 1995 averages 22% below the year-earlier level; Seasonal patterns of natural gas production and wellhead prices have been significantly reduced during the past three year; Natural gas production rose 15% from 1985 through 1994, reaching 18.8 trillion cubic feet; Increasing amounts of natural gas have been imported; Since 1985, lower costs of producing and transporting natural gas have benefitted consumers; Consumers may see additional benefits as States examine regulatory changes aimed at increasing efficiency; and, The electric industry is being restructured in a fashion similar to the recent restructuring of the natural gas industry.

  19. U.S. crude oil, natural gas, and natural gas liquids reserves 1997 annual report

    SciTech Connect

    Wood, John H.; Grape, Steven G.; Green, Rhonda S.

    1998-12-01

    This report presents estimates of proved reserves of crude oil, natural gas, and natural gas liquids as of December 31, 1997, as well as production volumes for the US and selected States and State subdivisions for the year 1997. Estimates are presented for the following four categories of natural gas: total gas (wet after lease separation), nonassociated gas and associated-dissolved gas (which are the two major types of wet natural gas), and total dry gas (wet gas adjusted for the removal of liquids at natural gas processing plants). In addition, reserve estimates for two types of natural gas liquids, lease condensate and natural gas plant liquids, are presented. Also included is information on indicated additional crude oil reserves and crude oil, natural gas, and lease condensate reserves in nonproducing reservoirs. A discussion of notable oil and gas exploration and development activities during 1997 is provided. 21 figs., 16 tabs.

  20. Gas supplies of interstate/natural gas pipeline companies 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-12-18

    This publication provides information on the interstate pipeline companies' supply of natural gas during calendar year 1989, for use by the FERC for regulatory purposes. It also provides information to other Government agencies, the natural gas industry, as well as policy makers, analysts, and consumers interested in current levels of interstate supplies of natural gas and trends over recent years. 5 figs., 18 tabs.

  1. Deactivation Studies of Rh/Ce0.8Zr0.2O2 Catalysts in Low Temperature Ethanol Steam Reforming

    SciTech Connect

    Platon, Alex; Roh, Hyun-Seog; King, David L.; Wang, Yong

    2007-10-30

    Rapid deactivation of Rh/Ce0.8Zr0.2O2 catalysts in low temperature ethanol steam reforming was studied. A significant build-up of carbonaceous intermediate, instead of carbon deposit, was observed at a lower reaction temperature which was attributed to the rapid catalyst deactivation. Co-feed experiments indicated that acetone and ethylene caused more severe catalyst deactivation than other oxygenates such as acidic acid and acetaldehyde.

  2. High Activity of Ce1-xNixO2-y for H2 Production through Ethanol Steam Reforming: Tuning Catalytic Performance through Metal↔Oxide Interactions

    SciTech Connect

    Rodriguez, J.A.; Zhou, G.; Barrio, L.; Agnoli, S.; Senanayake, S.D.; Evans, J.; Kubacka, A.; Estrella, M.; Hanson, J.C.; Martínez-Arias, A.; Fernández-García, M.

    2010-12-10

    Ce{sub 0.8}Ni{sub 0.2}O{sub 2-y} is an excellent catalyst for ethanol steam reforming. Metal-oxide interactions perturb the electronic properties of the small particles of metallic nickel present in the catalyst under the reaction conditions and thus suppress any methanation activity. The nickel embedded in ceria induces the formation of O vacancies, which facilitate cleavage of the O-H bonds in ethanol and water.

  3. Natural Gas Market Centers: A 2008 Update

    EIA Publications

    2009-01-01

    This special report looks at the current status of market centers in today's natural gas marketplace, examining their role and their importance to natural gas shippers, pipelines, and others involved in the transportation of natural gas over the North American pipeline network.

  4. 40 CFR 1065.715 - Natural gas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 34 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Natural gas. 1065.715 Section 1065.715... PROCEDURES Engine Fluids, Test Fuels, Analytical Gases and Other Calibration Standards § 1065.715 Natural gas. (a) Except as specified in paragraph (b) of this section, natural gas for testing must meet...

  5. 40 CFR 1065.715 - Natural gas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 34 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Natural gas. 1065.715 Section 1065.715... PROCEDURES Engine Fluids, Test Fuels, Analytical Gases and Other Calibration Standards § 1065.715 Natural gas. (a) Except as specified in paragraph (b) of this section, natural gas for testing must meet...

  6. 40 CFR 1065.715 - Natural gas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 33 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Natural gas. 1065.715 Section 1065.715... PROCEDURES Engine Fluids, Test Fuels, Analytical Gases and Other Calibration Standards § 1065.715 Natural gas. (a) Except as specified in paragraph (b) of this section, natural gas for testing must meet...

  7. 40 CFR 1065.715 - Natural gas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Natural gas. 1065.715 Section 1065.715... PROCEDURES Engine Fluids, Test Fuels, Analytical Gases and Other Calibration Standards § 1065.715 Natural gas. (a) Except as specified in paragraph (b) of this section, natural gas for testing must meet...

  8. 40 CFR 1065.715 - Natural gas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 33 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Natural gas. 1065.715 Section 1065.715... PROCEDURES Engine Fluids, Test Fuels, Analytical Gases and Other Calibration Standards § 1065.715 Natural gas. (a) Except as specified in paragraph (b) of this section, natural gas for testing must meet...

  9. Effects of preparation method on the performance of Ni/Al(2)O(3) catalysts for hydrogen production by bio-oil steam reforming.

    PubMed

    Li, Xinbao; Wang, Shurong; Cai, Qinjie; Zhu, Lingjun; Yin, Qianqian; Luo, Zhongyang

    2012-09-01

    Steam reforming of bio-oil derived from the fast pyrolysis of biomass is an economic and renewable process for hydrogen production. The main objective of the present work has been to investigate the effects of the preparation method of Ni/Al(2)O(3) catalysts on their performance in hydrogen production by bio-oil steam reforming. The Ni/Al(2)O(3) catalysts were prepared by impregnation, co-precipitation, and sol-gel methods. XRD, XPS, H(2)-TPR, SEM, TEM, TG, and N(2) physisorption measurements were performed to characterize the texture and structure of the catalysts obtained after calcination and after their subsequent use. Ethanol and bio-oil model compound were selected for steam reforming to evaluate the catalyst performance. The catalyst prepared by the co-precipitation method was found to display better performance than the other two. Under the optimized reaction conditions, an ethanol conversion of 99% and a H(2) yield of 88% were obtained. PMID:21562805

  10. Effects of preparation method on the performance of Ni/Al(2)O(3) catalysts for hydrogen production by bio-oil steam reforming.

    PubMed

    Li, Xinbao; Wang, Shurong; Cai, Qinjie; Zhu, Lingjun; Yin, Qianqian; Luo, Zhongyang

    2012-09-01

    Steam reforming of bio-oil derived from the fast pyrolysis of biomass is an economic and renewable process for hydrogen production. The main objective of the present work has been to investigate the effects of the preparation method of Ni/Al(2)O(3) catalysts on their performance in hydrogen production by bio-oil steam reforming. The Ni/Al(2)O(3) catalysts were prepared by impregnation, co-precipitation, and sol-gel methods. XRD, XPS, H(2)-TPR, SEM, TEM, TG, and N(2) physisorption measurements were performed to characterize the texture and structure of the catalysts obtained after calcination and after their subsequent use. Ethanol and bio-oil model compound were selected for steam reforming to evaluate the catalyst performance. The catalyst prepared by the co-precipitation method was found to display better performance than the other two. Under the optimized reaction conditions, an ethanol conversion of 99% and a H(2) yield of 88% were obtained.

  11. Carbon sequestration in natural gas reservoirs: Enhanced gas recovery and natural gas storage

    SciTech Connect

    Oldenburg, Curtis M.

    2003-04-08

    Natural gas reservoirs are obvious targets for carbon sequestration by direct carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) injection by virtue of their proven record of gas production and integrity against gas escape. Carbon sequestration in depleted natural gas reservoirs can be coupled with enhanced gas production by injecting CO{sub 2} into the reservoir as it is being produced, a process called Carbon Sequestration with Enhanced Gas Recovery (CSEGR). In this process, supercritical CO{sub 2} is injected deep in the reservoir while methane (CH{sub 4}) is produced at wells some distance away. The active injection of CO{sub 2} causes repressurization and CH{sub 4} displacement to allow the control and enhancement of gas recovery relative to water-drive or depletion-drive reservoir operations. Carbon dioxide undergoes a large change in density as CO{sub 2} gas passes through the critical pressure at temperatures near the critical temperature. This feature makes CO{sub 2} a potentially effective cushion gas for gas storage reservoirs. Thus at the end of the CSEGR process when the reservoir is filled with CO{sub 2}, additional benefit of the reservoir may be obtained through its operation as a natural gas storage reservoir. In this paper, we present discussion and simulation results from TOUGH2/EOS7C of gas mixture property prediction, gas injection, repressurization, migration, and mixing processes that occur in gas reservoirs under active CO{sub 2} injection.

  12. Effects of temperature and pressure on the performance of a solid oxide fuel cell running on steam reformate of kerosene

    SciTech Connect

    Chick, Lawrence A.; Marina, Olga A.; Coyle, Christopher A.; Thomsen, Edwin C.

    2013-08-15

    A button solid oxide fuel cell with a La0.6Sr0.4Co0.2Fe0.8O3 cathode and a nickel-YSZ anode was tested over a range of temperatures from 650 to 800°C and a range of pressures from 101 to 724 kPa. The fuel was simulated steam-reformed kerosene and the oxidant was air. The observed increases in open circuit voltages (OCV) were accurately predicted by the Nernst equation. Kinetics also increased, although the power boost due to kinetics was about two thirds as large as the boost due to OCV. The total power boost in going from 101 to 724 kPa at 750°C and 0.8 volts was 66%. Impedance spectroscopy demonstrated a significant decrease in electrodic losses at elevated pressures. Complex impedance spectra were dominated by a combination of low frequency processes that decreased markedly with increasing pressure. A composite of high-frequency processes also decreased with pressure, but to a lesser extent. An empirical algorithm that accurately predicts the increased fuel cell performance at elevated pressures was developed for our results and was also suitable for some, but not all, data reported in the literature.

  13. Hydrogen Production by Low-temperature Steam Reforming of Bio-oil over Ni/HZSM-5 Catalyst

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiu, Song-bai; Gong, Lu; Liu, Lu; Hong, Cheng-gui; Yuan, Li-xia; Li, Quan-xin

    2011-04-01

    We investigated high catalytic activity of Ni/HZSM-5 catalysts synthesized by the impregnation method, which was successfully applied for low-temperature steam reforming of bio-oil. The influences of the catalyst composition, reforming temperature and the molar ratio of steam to carbon fed on the stream reforming process of bio-oil over the Ni/HZSM-5 catalysts were investigated in the reforming reactor. The promoting effects of current passing through the catalyst on the bio-oil reforming were also studied using the electrochemical catalytic reforming approach. By comparing Ni/HZSM-5 with commonly used Ni/Al2O3 catalysts, the Ni20/ZSM catalyst with Ni-loading content of about 20% on the HZSM-5 support showed the highest catalytic activity. Even at 450 °C, the hydrogen yield of about 90% with a near complete conversion of bio-oil was obtained using the Ni20/ZSM catalyst. It was found that the performance of the bio-oil reforming was remarkably enhanced by the HZSM-5 supporter and the current through the catalyst. The features of the Ni/HZSM-5 catalysts were also investigated via X-ray diffraction, inductively coupled plasma and atomic emission spectroscopy, hydrogen temperature-programmed reduction, and Brunauer-Emmett-Teller methods.

  14. Characterization and Leaching Tests of the Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming (FBSR) Waste Form for LAW Immobilization - 13400

    SciTech Connect

    Neeway, James J.; Qafoku, Nikolla P.; Peterson, Reid A.; Brown, Christopher F.

    2013-07-01

    Several supplemental technologies for treating and immobilizing Hanford low activity waste (LAW) have been evaluated. One such immobilization technology is the Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming (FBSR) granular product. The FBSR granular product is composed of insoluble sodium aluminosilicate (NAS) feldspathoid minerals. Production of the FBSR mineral product has been demonstrated both at the industrial and laboratory scale. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) was involved in an extensive characterization campaign. The goal of this campaign was to study the durability of the FBSR mineral product and the encapsulated FBSR product in a geo-polymer monolith. This paper gives an overview of results obtained using the ASTM C 1285 Product Consistency Test (PCT), the EPA Test Method 1311 Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP), and the ASTMC 1662 Single-Pass Flow-Through (SPFT) test. Along with these durability tests an overview of the characteristics of the waste form has been collected using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), X-ray Diffraction (XRD), microwave digestions for chemical composition, and surface area from Brunauer, Emmett, and Teller (BET) theory. (authors)

  15. Structure and Activity of Pt-Ni Catalysts Supported on Modified Al2O3 for Ethanol Steam Reforming.

    PubMed

    Navarro, R M; Sanchez-Sanchez, M C; Fierro, J L G

    2015-09-01

    Modification of alumina with La-, Ce-, Zr- and Mg-oxides was studied with the aim to use them as supports of bimetallic Pt-Ni catalysts for the steam reforming of ethanol. Activity results showed that modifications of Al2O3 support with the incorporation of La, Ce, Zr or Mg oxides play an essential role in the catalytic behaviour of PtNi catalysts. Bimetallic PtNi catalyst supported on bare Al2O3 showed evolution of the reaction products with time on stream consisting in the increase of C2H4 production with concomitant decrease of CH4 and CO2 production. The addition of Mg or Zr to γ-A1203 did not inhibit the appearance of ethylene but delayed its production. In the case of Ce- or La-supported catalysts, the product selectivities were stable with time-on-stream, with no changes being observed in the product distribution for 24 h. Characterization results showed that La- and Ce-containing supports improves the Pt and Ni metal exposure values. The better stability achieved for Ce and La containing catalysts was inferred to be related with a participation/assistance of lanthanum and cerium entities in the gasification of coke deposits together with a modification of Pt and Ni dispersion which lower the probability of the nucleation of coke precursors on their surfaces. PMID:26716216

  16. Effectiveness of heat-integrated methanol steam reformer and polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell stack systems for portable applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lotrič, A.; Sekavčnik, M.; Hočevar, S.

    2014-12-01

    Efficiently combining proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) stack with methanol steam reformer (MSR) into a small portable system is still quite a topical issue. Using methanol as a fuel in PEMFC stack includes a series of chemical processes where each proceeds at a unique temperature. In a combined MSR-PEMFC-stack system with integrated auxiliary fuel processors (vaporizer, catalytic combustor, etc.) the processes are both endothermic and exothermic hence their proper thermal integration can help raising the system efficiency. A concept of such fully integrated and compact system is proposed in this study. Three separate systems are designed based on different PEMFC stacks and MSR. Low-temperature (LT) and conventional high-temperature (cHT) PEMFC stack characteristics are based on available data from suppliers. Also, a novel high-temperature (nHT) PEMFC stack is proposed because its operating temperature coincides with that of MSR. A comparative study of modelled systems is performed using a mass and energy balances zero-dimensional model, which is interdependently coupled to a physical model based on finite element method (FEM). The results indicate that a system with nHT PEMFC stack is feasible and has the potential to reach higher system efficiencies than systems with LT or cHT PEMFC stacks.

  17. Secondary Waste Form Screening Test Results—THOR® Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming Product in a Geopolymer Matrix

    SciTech Connect

    Pires, Richard P.; Westsik, Joseph H.; Serne, R. Jeffrey; Mattigod, Shas V.; Golovich, Elizabeth C.; Valenta, Michelle M.; Parker, Kent E.

    2011-07-14

    Screening tests are being conducted to evaluate waste forms for immobilizing secondary liquid wastes from the Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP). Plans are underway to add a stabilization treatment unit to the Effluent Treatment Facility to provide the needed capacity for treating these wastes from WTP. The current baseline is to use a Cast Stone cementitious waste form to solidify the wastes. Through a literature survey, DuraLith alkali-aluminosilicate geopolymer, fluidized-bed steam reformation (FBSR) granular product encapsulated in a geopolymer matrix, and a Ceramicrete phosphate-bonded ceramic were identified both as candidate waste forms and alternatives to the baseline. These waste forms have been shown to meet waste disposal acceptance criteria, including compressive strength and universal treatment standards for Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) metals (as measured by the toxicity characteristic leaching procedure [TCLP]). Thus, these non-cementitious waste forms should also be acceptable for land disposal. Information is needed on all four waste forms with respect to their capability to minimize the release of technetium. Technetium is a radionuclide predicted to be in the secondary liquid wastes in small quantities, but the Integrated Disposal Facility (IDF) risk assessment analyses show that technetium, even at low mass, produces the largest contribution to the estimated IDF disposal impacts to groundwater.

  18. Thermodynamic analysis of Glycerol Steam Reforming for hydrogen production with in situ hydrogen and carbon dioxide separation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silva, Joel M.; Soria, M. A.; Madeira, Luis M.

    2015-01-01

    A thermodynamic study of Glycerol Steam Reforming (GSR) for hydrogen production with in situ carbon dioxide and hydrogen (reaction products) simultaneous removal was performed. The sorption-enhanced membrane reactor (SEMR) was divided into multiple sub-Gibbs reactors and the Gibbs free energy minimization method was employed. The effects of temperature (600-800 K), molar water-to-glycerol feed ratio (WGFR) (3-9), pressure (1-5 atm) and fraction of hydrogen and carbon dioxide removal (f, 0-0.99) on the GSR process were target of investigation. A hydrogen yield (total moles of hydrogen produced/mole of reacted glycerol) very close to the stoichiometric value of 7 was obtained at 700 K, WGFR of 9, 1 atm and for fCO2 = 0.99 and fH2 = 0.80. This corresponds to an enhancement of 217%, 47% and 22% in terms of hydrogen yield comparatively to the traditional reactor (TR), sorption-enhanced reactor (SER) with carbon dioxide capture (fCO2 = 0.99) and membrane reactor (MR) with hydrogen separation (fH2 = 0.80) , respectively. In terms of coke, its formation was only observed under WGFRs below the stoichiometric value of 3.

  19. NITROGEN REMOVAL FROM NATURAL GAS

    SciTech Connect

    K.A. Lokhandwala; M.B. Ringer; T.T. Su; Z. He; I. Pinnau; J.G. Wijmans; A. Morisato; K. Amo; A. DaCosta; R.W. Baker; R. Olsen; H. Hassani; T. Rathkamp

    1999-12-31

    The objective of this project was to develop a membrane process for the denitrogenation of natural gas. Large proven reserves in the Lower-48 states cannot be produced because of the presence of nitrogen. To exploit these reserves, cost-effective, simple technology able to reduce the nitrogen content of the gas to 4-5% is required. Technology applicable to treatment of small gas streams (below 10 MMscfd) is particularly needed. In this project membranes that selectively permeate methane and reject nitrogen in the gas were developed. Preliminary calculations show that a membrane with a methane/nitrogen selectivity of 3 to 5 is required to make the process economically viable. A number of polymer materials likely to have the required selectivities were evaluated as composite membranes. Polyacetylenes such as poly(1-trimethylsilyl-1-propyne) [PTMSP] and poly(4-methyl-2-pentyne) [PMP] had high selectivities and fluxes, but membranes prepared from these polymers were not stable, showing decreasing flux and selectivity during tests lasting only a few hours. Parel, a poly(propylene oxide allyl glycidyl ether) had a selectivity of 3 at ambient temperatures and 4 or more at temperatures of {minus}20 C. However, Parel is no longer commercially available, and we were unable to find an equivalent material in the time available. Therefore, most of our experimental work focused on silicone rubber membranes, which have a selectivity of 2.5 at ambient temperatures, increasing to 3-4 at low temperatures. Silicone rubber composite membranes were evaluated in bench-scale module tests and with commercial-scale, 4-inch-diameter modules in a small pilot plant. Over six days of continuous operation at a feed gas temperature of {minus}5 to {minus}10 C, the membrane maintained a methane/nitrogen selectivity of about 3.3. Based on the pilot plant performance data, an analysis of the economic potential of the process was prepared. We conclude that a stand-alone membrane process is the lowest

  20. Process And Apparatus To Accomplish Autothermal Or Steam Reforming Via A Reciprocating Compression Device

    DOEpatents

    Lyons, K. David; James, Robert; Berry, David A.; Gardner, Todd

    2004-09-21

    The invention provides a method and apparatus for producing a synthesis gas from a variety of hydrocarbons. The apparatus (device) consists of a semi-batch, non-constant volume reactor to generate a synthesis gas. While the apparatus feeds mixtures of air, steam, and hydrocarbons into a cylinder where work is performed on the fluid by a piston to adiabatically raise its temperature without heat transfer from an external source.

  1. Process to Accomplish Autothermal or Steam Reforming Via a Reciprocating Compression Device

    SciTech Connect

    Lyons, David K.; James, Robert; Berry, David A.; Gardern, Todd

    2004-09-21

    The invention provides a method and apparatus for producing a synthesis gas from a variety of hydrocarbons. The apparatus (device) consists of a semi-batch, non-constant volume reactor to generate a synthesis gas. While the apparatus feeds mixtures of air, steam, and hydrocarbons into a cylinder where work is performed on the fluid by a piston to adiabatically raise its temperature without heat transfer from an external source.

  2. U.S. Natural Gas Markets: Mid-Term Prospects for Natural Gas Supply

    EIA Publications

    2001-01-01

    This service report describes the recent behavior of natural gas markets with respect to natural gas prices, their potential future behavior, the potential future supply contribution of liquefied natural gas and increased access to federally restricted resources, and the need for improved natural gas data.

  3. 75 FR 70350 - Liberty Natural Gas LLC, Liberty Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) Deepwater Port License Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-17

    ... Maritime Administration Liberty Natural Gas LLC, Liberty Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) Deepwater Port License.... Coast Guard received an application from Liberty Natural Gas LLC for all Federal authorizations required... the transportation, storage, and further handling of oil or natural gas for transportation to...

  4. CESIUM REMOVAL FROM TANKS 241-AN-103 & 241-SX-105 & 241-AZ-101/102 COMPOSITE FOR TESTING IN BENCH SCALE STEAM REFORMER

    SciTech Connect

    DUNCAN JB; HUBER HJ

    2011-06-08

    This report documents the preparation of three actual Hanford tank waste samples for shipment to the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL). Two of the samples were dissolved saltcakes from tank 241-AN-103 (hereafter AN-103) and tank 241-SX-105 (hereafter SX-105); one sample was a supernate composite from tanks 241-AZ-101 and 241-AZ-102 (hereafter AZ-101/102). The preparation of the samples was executed following the test plans LAB-PLAN-10-00006, Test Plan for the Preparation of Samples from Hanford Tanks 241-SX-105, 241-AN-103, 241-AN-107, and LAB-PLN-10-00014, Test Plan for the Preparation of a Composite Sample from Hanford Tanks 241-AZ-101 and 241-AZ-102 for Steam Reformer Testing at the Savannah River National Laboratory. All procedural steps were recorded in laboratory notebook HNF-N-274 3. Sample breakdown diagrams for AN-103 and SX-105 are presented in Appendix A. The tank samples were prepared in support of a series of treatability studies of the Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming (FBSR) process using a Bench-Scale Reformer (BSR) at SRNL. Tests with simulants have shown that the FBSR mineralized waste form is comparable to low-activity waste glass with respect to environmental durability (WSRC-STI-2008-00268, Mineralization of Radioactive Wastes by Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming (FBSR): Comparisons to Vitreous Waste Forms and Pertinent Durability Testing). However, a rigorous assessment requires long-term performance data from FB SR product formed from actual Hanford tank waste. Washington River Protection Solutions, LLC (WRPS) has initiated a Waste Form Qualification Program (WP-S.2.1-20 1 0-00 1, Fluidized Bed Steam Reformer Low-level Waste Form Qualification) to gather the data required to demonstrate that an adequate FBSR mineralized waste form can be produced. The documentation of the selection process of the three tank samples has been separately reported in RPP-48824, 'Sample Selection Process for Bench-Scale Steam Reforming Treatability Studies Using

  5. CESIUM REMOVAL FROM TANKS 241-AN-103 & 241-SX-105 & 241-AZ-101 & 241AZ-102 COMPOSITE FOR TESTING IN BENCH SCALE STEAM REFORMER

    SciTech Connect

    DUNCAN JB; HUBER HJ

    2011-04-21

    This report documents the preparation of three actual Hanford tank waste samples for shipment to the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL). Two of the samples were dissolved saltcakes from tank 241-AN-103 (hereafter AN-103) and tank 241-SX-105 (hereafter SX-105); one sample was a supernate composite from tanks 241-AZ-101 and 241-AZ-102 (hereafter AZ-101/102). The preparation of the samples was executed following the test plans LAB-PLAN-10-00006, Test Plan for the Preparation of Samples from Hanford Tanks 241-SX-105, 241-AN-103, 241-AN-107, and LAB-PLN-l0-00014, Test Plan for the Preparation of a Composite Sample from Hanford Tanks 241-AZ-101 and 241-AZ-102 for Steam Reformer Testing at the Savannah River National Laboratory. All procedural steps were recorded in laboratory notebook HNF-N-274 3. Sample breakdown diagrams for AN-103 and SX-105 are presented in Appendix A. The tank samples were prepared in support of a series of treatability studies of the Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming (FBSR) process using a Bench-Scale Reformer (BSR) at SRNL. Tests with simulants have shown that the FBSR mineralized waste form is comparable to low-activity waste glass with respect to environmental durability (WSRC-STI-2008-00268, Mineralization of Radioactive Wastes by Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming (FBSR): Comparisons to Vitreous Waste Forms and Pertinent Durability Testing). However, a rigorous assessment requires long-term performance data from FBSR product formed from actual Hanford tank waste. Washington River Protection Solutions, LLC (WRPS) has initiated a Waste Form Qualification Program (WP-5.2.1-2010-001, Fluidized Bed Steam Reformer Low-level Waste Form Qualification) to gather the data required to demonstrate that an adequate FBSR mineralized waste form can be produced. The documentation of the selection process of the three tank samples has been separately reported in RPP-48824, Sample Selection Process for Bench-Scale Steam Reforming Treatability Studies Using

  6. Steam Reforming Technology Demonstration for Conversion of DOE Sodium-Bearing Tank Wastes at Idaho National Laboratory into a Leach-Resistant Alkali Aluminosilicate Waste Form

    SciTech Connect

    Ryan, K.; Bradley Mason, J.; Evans, B.; Vora, V.; Olson, A.

    2008-07-01

    The patented THOR{sup R} fluidized-bed steam reforming (FBSR) technology was selected by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) for treatment of sodium-bearing waste (SBW) in the Integrated Waste Treatment Unit (IWTU), currently under construction at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) Site.1 SBW is an acidic waste created primarily from cleanup of the fuel reprocessing equipment at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC) at the INL. The SBW contains high concentrations of nitric acid, and alkali and aluminum nitrates, along with many other inorganic compounds, including substantial levels of radionuclides. As part of the implementation of the THOR{sup R} process at INTEC, an engineering-scale technology demonstration (ESTD) was conducted using a specially designed pilot plant located at Hazen Research, Inc. in Golden Colorado. This ESTD confirmed the efficacy of the THOR{sup R} FBSR process to convert the SBW into a granular carbonate-based waste form suitable for disposal at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). DOE authorized, as a risk reduction measure, the performance of an additional ESTD to demonstrate the production of an insoluble mineralized product, in the event that an alternate disposition path is required. The additional ESTD was conducted at the Hazen Research facility using the THOR{sup R} process and the same SBW simulant employed previously. An alkali aluminosilicate mineral product was produced that exhibited excellent leach resistance and chemical durability. The demonstration established general system operating parameters for a full-scale facility; provided process off-gas data that confirmed operation within regulatory limits; determined that the mineralized product exhibits superior leach resistance and durability, compared to Environmental Assessment (EA) and Low-activity Reference Material (LRM) glasses, as indicated by the Product Consistency Test (PCT); ascertained that Cs and Re (a surrogate for Tc) were non

  7. US crude oil, natural gas, and natural gas liquids reserves, 1992 annual report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-10-18

    This report presents estimates of proved reserves of crude oil, natural gas, and natural gas liquids as of December 31, 1992, as well as production volumes for the United States, and selected States and State subdivisions for the year 1992. Estimates are presented for the following four categories of natural gas: total gas (wet after lease separation), its two major components (nonassociated and associated-dissolved gas), and total dry gas (wet gas adjusted for the removal of liquids at natural gas processing plants). In addition, two components of natural gas liquids, lease condensate and natural gas plant liquids, have their reserves and production data presented. Also included is information on indicated additional crude oil reserves and crude oil, natural gas, and lease condensate reserves in nonproducing reservoirs. A discussion of notable oil and gas exploration and development activities during 1992 is provided.

  8. The domestic natural gas shortage in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Ting

    This thesis analyzes the domestic shortage in the Chinese natural gas market. Both the domestic supply and demand of natural gas are growing fast in China. However, the supply cannot catch up with the demand. Under the present pricing mechanism, the Chinese natural gas market cannot get the equilibrium by itself. Expensive imports are inadequate to fill the increasing gap between the domestic demand and supply. Therefore, the shortage problem occurs. Since the energy gap can result in the arrested development of economics, the shortage problem need to be solved. This thesis gives three suggestions to solve the problem: the use of Unconventional Gas, Natural Gas Storage and Pricing Reform.

  9. Analysis of Restricted Natural Gas Supply Cases

    EIA Publications

    2004-01-01

    The four cases examined in this study have progressively greater impacts on overall natural gas consumption, prices, and supply. Compared to the Annual Energy Outlook 2004 reference case, the no Alaska pipeline case has the least impact; the low liquefied natural gas case has more impact; the low unconventional gas recovery case has even more impact; and the combined case has the most impact.

  10. Natural gas applications in waste management

    SciTech Connect

    Tarman, P.B.

    1991-01-01

    The Institute of Gas Technology (IGT) is engaged in several projects related to the use of natural gas for waste management. These projects can be classified into four categories: cyclonic incineration of gaseous, liquid, and solid wastes; fluidized-bed reclamation of solid wastes; two-stage incineration of liquid and solid wastes; natural gas injection for emissions control. 5 refs., 8 figs.

  11. Life-cycle analysis of shale gas and natural gas.

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, C.E.; Han, J.; Burnham, A.; Dunn, J.B.; Wang, M.

    2012-01-27

    The technologies and practices that have enabled the recent boom in shale gas production have also brought attention to the environmental impacts of its use. Using the current state of knowledge of the recovery, processing, and distribution of shale gas and conventional natural gas, we have estimated up-to-date, life-cycle greenhouse gas emissions. In addition, we have developed distribution functions for key parameters in each pathway to examine uncertainty and identify data gaps - such as methane emissions from shale gas well completions and conventional natural gas liquid unloadings - that need to be addressed further. Our base case results show that shale gas life-cycle emissions are 6% lower than those of conventional natural gas. However, the range in values for shale and conventional gas overlap, so there is a statistical uncertainty regarding whether shale gas emissions are indeed lower than conventional gas emissions. This life-cycle analysis provides insight into the critical stages in the natural gas industry where emissions occur and where opportunities exist to reduce the greenhouse gas footprint of natural gas.

  12. Hierarchical copper-decorated nickel nanocatalysts supported on La2O3 for low-temperature steam reforming of ethanol.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jyong-Yue; Su, Wei-Nien; Rick, John; Yang, Sheng-Chiang; Cheng, Ju-Hsiang; Pan, Chun-Jern; Lee, Jyh-Fu; Hwang, Bing-Joe

    2014-02-01

    Copper/nickel nanocatalysts with a unique morphology were prepared by thermal reduction of a perovskite LaNix Cu1-x O3 precursor (x=1, 0.9, and 0.7). During thermal reduction, copper was first reduced and reacted with lanthanum to form metastable Cu5 La and Cu13 La. When the thermal reduction temperature was increased, the perovskite decomposed to Ni and La2 O3 , CuLa alloys disappeared, and Cu deposits on Ni nanoparticles were generated, thereby forming Cu/Ni nanocatalysts with hierarchical structures. Nanosized nickel, decorated with copper and supported on La2 O3 , could be produced at 520-550 °C. The steam reforming of ethanol was used as a model reaction to demonstrate the catalytic capability of the materials formed. The hierarchical structure of the Cu/Ni/La2 O3 catalysts confers synergetic effects that greatly favor the dehydrogenation of ethanol and which break the C-C bond to produce a higher yield of hydrogen at a low reaction temperature, whereas La2 O3 provides the required stability during the reaction. The reaction at 290 °C achieved almost 100 % conversion with a hydrogen yield reaching 2.21 molH2  mol(-1) EtOH thus indicating that this special structural feature can achieve high activity for the SRE at low temperatures. The proposed synthesis of nanocatalysts appears to be a good way to generate oxide-supported hierarchically structured nanoparticles that can also be applied to other reactions catalyzed by a heterogeneous metal oxide system. PMID:24307476

  13. RADIOACTIVE DEMONSTRATIONS OF FLUIDIZED BED STEAM REFORMING WITH ACUTAL HANFORD LOW ACTIVITY WASTES VERIFYING FBSR AS A SUPPLEMENTARY TREATMENT

    SciTech Connect

    Jantzen, C.; Crawford, C.; Burket, P.; Bannochie, C.; Daniel, G.; Nash, C.; Cozzi, A.; Herman, C.

    2012-01-12

    The U.S. Department of Energy's Office of River Protection is responsible for the retrieval, treatment, immobilization, and disposal of Hanford's tank waste. Currently there are approximately 56 million gallons of highly radioactive mixed wastes awaiting treatment. A key aspect of the River Protection Project cleanup mission is to construct and operate the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP). The WTP will separate the tank waste into high-level waste (HLW) and low-activity waste (LAW) fractions, both of which will subsequently be vitrified. The projected throughput capacity of the WTP LAW Vitrification Facility is insufficient to complete the cleanup mission in the time frame required by the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order, also known as the Tri-Party Agreement (TPA). Therefore, Supplemental Treatment is required both to meet the TPA treatment requirements as well as to more cost effectively complete the tank waste treatment mission. Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming (FBSR) is one of the supplementary treatments being considered. FBSR offers a moderate temperature (700-750 C) continuous method by which LAW and other secondary wastes can be processed irrespective of whether they contain organics, nitrates/nitrites, sulfates/sulfides, chlorides, fluorides, and/or radio-nuclides like I-129 and Tc-99. Radioactive testing of Savannah River LAW (Tank 50) shimmed to resemble Hanford LAW and actual Hanford LAW (SX-105 and AN-103) have produced a ceramic (mineral) waste form which is the same as the non-radioactive waste simulants tested at the engineering scale. The radioactive testing demonstrated that the FBSR process can retain the volatile radioactive components that cannot be contained at vitrification temperatures. The radioactive and nonradioactive mineral waste forms that were produced by co-processing waste with kaolin clay in an FBSR process are shown to be as durable as LAW glass.

  14. Natural gas hydrates; vast resource, uncertain future

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Collett, T.S.

    2001-01-01

    Gas hydrates are naturally occurring icelike solids in which water molecules trap gas molecules in a cagelike structure known as a clathrate. Although many gases form hydrates in nature, methane hydrate is by far the most common; methane is the most abundant natural gas. The volume of carbon contained in methane hydrates worldwide is estimated to be twice the amount contained in all fossil fuels on Earth, including coal.

  15. Development of a novel ceramic microchannel reactor for methane steam reforming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murphy, Danielle M.

    Microchannel heat exchanger and reactor technology has recently gained interest as an innovative way to improve heat-exchanger efficiency, reduce size and weight, and utilize thermal management capabilities to improve conversion, yield, selectivity, and catalyst life. Among many other possible applications, this technology is suitable for advanced recuperated engines, oxy-fired combustion processes for oxygen separation, gas-cooled nuclear reactors, recuperative heat exchanger and reformer units for solid oxide fuel cell systems, and chemical processing. This work presents the design, fabrication, and performance of novel ceramic microchannel reactors in heat-exchanger and fuel-reforming applications. Although most microchannel devices are made of metal materials, ceramics offer an alternative which enables significantly higher operating temperatures, improved tolerance to harsh chemical environments, and improved adherence of ceramic-based catalyst washcoats. Significant cost savings in materials and manufacturing methods for high-volume manufacturing can also be achieved. High-temperature performance of the ceramic microchannel reactor is measured through non-reactive heat-exchanger experiments within a dedicated test stand. Heat-exchanger effectiveness of up to 88% is experimentally established. After coating catalyst material over half of the reactor layers, use of the ceramic microchannel reactor in methane fuel-processing applications is demonstrated. As a fuel reformer, the ceramic microchannel reactor achieves process intensification by combining heat-exchanger and catalytic-reactor functions to produce syngas. Gas hourly space velocities (GHSV) up to 50,000 hr-1 with methane conversion higher than 85% are achieved. A complete computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model, as well as a geometrically simplified hybrid CFD/chemical kinetics model, is used in conjunction with experimentation to examine heat transfer, fluid flow, and chemical kinetics within the

  16. Natural gas technologies at Kennedy Space Center

    SciTech Connect

    Sirmons, R.L.

    1997-06-01

    In 1994 Kennedy Space Center`s local gas distribution company (LDC), City Gas Company of Florida, undertook the construction of over 25 miles of high pressure natural gas piping to provide natural gas service to Kennedy Space Center (KSC). The Space Center, originally constructed in the 1960`s had used various grades of fuel oil throughout its history. But in the 1990`s concern about sulfur oxide emissions from hot water boilers, fuel spills, fuel prices, energy security, and federal mandates to use alternative fuels prompted KSC to investigate using natural gas as its primary fuel. Since completion of the pipeline in mid 1994, almost 4.5 million therms of natural gas have been used, displacing 2.9 million gallons of No. 2 fuel oil, and avoiding over 140 tons of air pollution. Another indicator of KSC`s effective switch to natural gas is that in 1993, KSC was by far the largest single consumer of petroleum fuel in NASA consuming 341 billion BTU`s, over 37% of all the petroleum fuel used by all NASA sites combined. In 1995, KSC petroleum fuel use had dropped to only 29 billion BTU`s while natural gas consumption was 308 billion BTU`s. These successes have encouraged KSC to explore other options for the use of natural gas at the Space Center. Under study at the present is natural gas cooling, fuel cells, and off road equipment fueling.

  17. NGVs, natural gas vehicles -- Some technical considerations

    SciTech Connect

    1998-12-31

    This publication reviews some basic information about natural gas and natural gas vehicles (NGVs), including: Natural gas distribution and dispensing systems; fuel properties; NGV fuel systems and their components such as cylinders, regulators, and fuel lines; NGVs available as original equipment from the manufacturer; after-market installation of NGV fuel systems; NGV operation and maintenance; government regulations relating to NGVs; NGV safety and environmental benefits; and the economics of NGVs. The appendix includes a directory of information sources, a worksheet for calculating the payback on NGV investments, and examples of success stories relating the experiences of several fleet operators in the use of natural gas as a vehicle fuel.

  18. Natural gas 1998: Issues and trends

    SciTech Connect

    1999-06-01

    Natural Gas 1998: Issues and Trends provides a summary of the latest data and information relating to the US natural gas industry, including prices, production, transmission, consumption, and the financial and environmental aspects of the industry. The report consists of seven chapters and five appendices. Chapter 1 presents a summary of various data trends and key issues in today`s natural gas industry and examines some of the emerging trends. Chapters 2 through 7 focus on specific areas or segments of the industry, highlighting some of the issues associated with the impact of natural gas operations on the environment. 57 figs., 18 tabs.

  19. U.S. crude oil, natural gas, and natural gas liquids reserves 1995 annual report

    SciTech Connect

    1996-11-01

    The EIA annual reserves report series is the only source of comprehensive domestic proved reserves estimates. This publication is used by the Congress, Federal and State agencies, industry, and other interested parties to obtain accurate estimates of the Nation`s proved reserves of crude oil, natural gas, and natural gas liquids. These data are essential to the development, implementation, and evaluation of energy policy and legislation. This report presents estimates of proved reserves of crude oil, natural gas, and natural gas liquids as of December 31, 1995, as well as production volumes for the US and selected States and State subdivisions for the year 1995. Estimates are presented for the following four categories of natural gas: total gas (wet after lease separation), nonassociated gas and associated-dissolved gas (which are the two major types of wet natural gas), and total dry gas (wet gas adjusted for the removal of liquids at natural gas processing plants). In addition, reserve estimates for two types of natural gas liquids, lease condensate and natural gas plant liquids, are presented. Also included is information on indicated additional crude oil reserves and crude oil, natural gas, and lease condensate reserves in nonproducing reservoirs. A discussion of notable oil and gas exploration and development activities during 1995 is provided. 21 figs., 16 tabs.

  20. US crude oil, natural gas, and natural gas liquids reserves 1996 annual report

    SciTech Connect

    1997-12-01

    The EIA annual reserves report series is the only source of comprehensive domestic proved reserves estimates. This publication is used by the Congress, Federal and State agencies, industry, and other interested parties to obtain accurate estimates of the Nation`s proved reserves of crude oil, natural gas, and natural gas liquids. These data are essential to the development, implementation, and evaluation of energy policy and legislation. This report presents estimates of proved reserves of crude oil, natural gas, and natural gas liquids as of December 31, 1996, as well as production volumes for the US and selected States and State subdivisions for the year 1996. Estimates are presented for the following four categories of natural gas: total gas (wet after lease separation), nonassociated gas and associated-dissolved gas (which are the two major types of wet natural gas), and total dry gas (wet gas adjusted for the removal of liquids at natural gas processing plants). In addition, reserve estimates for two types of natural gas liquids, lease condensate and natural gas plant liquids, are presented. Also included is information on indicated additional crude oil reserves and crude oil, natural gas, and lease condensate reserves in nonproducing reservoirs. A discussion of notable oil and gas exploration and development activities during 1996 is provided. 21 figs., 16 tabs.

  1. Natural gas annual 1993 supplement: Company profiles

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1995-02-01

    The Natural Gas Annual provides information on the supply and disposition of natural gas to a wide audience including industry, consumers, Federal and State agencies, and educational institutions. This report, the Natural Gas Annual 1993 Supplement: Company Profiles, presents a detailed profile of 45 selected companies in the natural gas industry. The purpose of this report is to show the movement of natural gas through the various States served by the companies profiled. The companies in this report are interstate pipeline companies or local distribution companies (LDC`s). Interstate pipeline companies acquire gas supplies from company owned production, purchases from producers, and receipts for transportation for account of others. Pipeline systems, service area maps, company supply and disposition data are presented.

  2. Radioactive Demonstration Of Mineralized Waste Forms Made From Hanford Low Activity Waste (Tank Farm Blend) By Fluidized Bed Steam Reformation (FBSR)

    SciTech Connect

    Jantzen, C. M.; Crawford, C. L.; Bannochie, C. J.; Burket, P. R.; Cozzi, A. D.; Daniel, W. E.; Hall, H. K.; Miller, D. H.; Missimer, D. M.; Nash, C. A.; Williams, M. F.

    2013-08-01

    amorphous, macro-encapsulates the granules, and the monoliths pass ANSI/ANS 16.1 and ASTM C1308 durability testing with Re achieving a Leach Index (LI) of 9 (the Hanford Integrated Disposal Facility, IDF, criteria for Tc-99) after a few days and Na achieving an LI of >6 (the Hanford IDF criteria for Na) in the first few hours. The granular and monolithic waste forms also pass the EPA Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP) for all Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) components at the Universal Treatment Standards (UTS). Two identical Benchscale Steam Reformers (BSR) were designed and constructed at SRNL, one to treat non-radioactive simulants and the other to treat actual radioactive wastes. The results from the non-radioactive BSR were used to determine the parameters needed to operate the radioactive BSR in order to confirm the findings of non-radioactive FBSR pilot scale and engineering scale tests and to qualify an FBSR LAW waste form for applications at Hanford. Radioactive testing commenced using SRS LAW from Tank 50 chemically trimmed to look like Hanford’s blended LAW known as the Rassat simulant as this simulant composition had been tested in the non-radioactive BSR, the non-radioactive pilot scale FBSR at the Science Applications International Corporation-Science and Technology Applications Research (SAIC-STAR) facility in Idaho Falls, ID and in the TTT Engineering Scale Technology Demonstration (ESTD) at Hazen Research Inc. (HRI) in Denver, CO. This provided a “tie back” between radioactive BSR testing and non-radioactive BSR, pilot scale, and engineering scale testing. Approximately six hundred grams of non-radioactive and radioactive BSR product were made for extensive testing and comparison to the non-radioactive pilot scale tests performed in 2004 at SAIC-STAR and the engineering scale test performed in 2008 at HRI with the Rassat simulant. The same mineral phases and off-gas species were found in the radioactive and non

  3. Underground natural gas storage reservoir management

    SciTech Connect

    Ortiz, I.; Anthony, R.

    1995-06-01

    The objective of this study is to research technologies and methodologies that will reduce the costs associated with the operation and maintenance of underground natural gas storage. This effort will include a survey of public information to determine the amount of natural gas lost from underground storage fields, determine the causes of this lost gas, and develop strategies and remedial designs to reduce or stop the gas loss from selected fields. Phase I includes a detailed survey of US natural gas storage reservoirs to determine the actual amount of natural gas annually lost from underground storage fields. These reservoirs will be ranked, the resultant will include the amount of gas and revenue annually lost. The results will be analyzed in conjunction with the type (geologic) of storage reservoirs to determine the significance and impact of the gas loss. A report of the work accomplished will be prepared. The report will include: (1) a summary list by geologic type of US gas storage reservoirs and their annual underground gas storage losses in ft{sup 3}; (2) a rank by geologic classifications as to the amount of gas lost and the resultant lost revenue; and (3) show the level of significance and impact of the losses by geologic type. Concurrently, the amount of storage activity has increased in conjunction with the net increase of natural gas imports as shown on Figure No. 3. Storage is playing an ever increasing importance in supplying the domestic energy requirements.

  4. Catalysts prepared from copper-nickel ferrites for the steam reforming of methanol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Yung-Han; Wang, Sea-Fue; Tsai, An-Pang; Kameoka, Satoshi

    2015-05-01

    In this study, Fe3O4-supported Cu and Ni catalysts are prepared through reduction of Cu-Ni (Ni1-xCuxFe2O4) ferrites. The Cu-Ni ferrites, synthesized using a solid-state reaction method, are reduced at temperatures from 240 °C to 500 °C in a H2 atmosphere. All ferrites are characterized with granular morphology and a smooth particle surface before reduction. For the CuFe2O4, Ni0.5Cu0.5Fe2O4 and NiFe2O4 ferrites reduced at 240, 300, and 400 °C, respectively, nanosized Cu and/or Ni particles (5-32 nm) and mesopores (5-30 nm) are distributed and adhered on the surfaces of Fe3O4 supports. After increasing the reduction temperature of NiFe2O4 ferrite to 500 °C, the Ni particles and mesopores disappear from the Fe3O4 surfaces, which is due to the formation of a Fe-Ni alloy covering on the Fe3O4 surfaces. The CuFe2O4 ferrite after H2 reduction at 240 °C exhibits the highest H2 production rate of 149 ml STP/min g-cat at 360 °C. The existence of Ni content in the Cu-Ni ferrites enhances the reverse water gas shift reaction, and raises the CO selectivity while reducing the CO2 selectivity. Formation of a Fe-Ni alloy exaggerates the trend and poisons the H2 production rate.

  5. Catalyst Deactivation and Regeneration in Low Temperature Ethanol Steam Reforming with Rh/CeO2-ZrO2 Catalysts

    SciTech Connect

    Roh, Hyun-Seog; Platon, Alex; Wang, Yong; King, David L.

    2006-08-01

    Rh/CeO2-ZrO2 catalysts with various CeO2/ZrO2 ratios have been applied to H2 production from ethanol steam reforming at low temperatures. The catalysts all deactivated with time on stream (TOS) at 350 C. The addition of 0.5% K has a beneficial effect on catalyst stability, while 5% K has a negative effect on catalytic activity. The catalyst could be regenerated considerably even at ambient temperature and could recover its initial activity after regeneration above 200 C with 1% O2. The results are most consistent with catalyst deactivation due to carbonaceous deposition on the catalyst.

  6. Catalytic decomposition of petroleum into natural gas

    SciTech Connect

    Mango, F.D.; Hightower, J.

    1997-12-01

    Petroleum is believed to be unstable in the earth, decomposing to lighter hydrocarbons at temperatures > 150{degrees}C. Oil and gas deposits support this view: gas/oil ratios and methane concentrations tend to increase with depth above 150{degrees}C. Although oil cracking is suggested and receives wide support, laboratory pyrolysis does not give products resembling natural gas. Moreover, it is doubtful that the light hydrocarbons in wet gas (C{sub 2}-C{sub 4}) could decompose over geologic time to dry gas (>95% methane) without catalytic assistance. We now report the catalytic decomposition of crude oil to a gas indistinguishable from natural gas. Like natural gas in deep basins, it becomes progressively enriched in methane: initially 90% (wet gas) to a final composition of 100% methane (dry gas). To our knowledge, the reaction is unprecedented and unexpectedly robust (conversion of oil to gas is 100% in days, 175{degrees}C) with significant implications regarding the stability of petroleum in sedimentary basins. The existence or nonexistence of oil in the deep subsurface may not depend on the thermal stability of hydrocarbons as currently thought. The critical factor could be the presence of transition metal catalysts which destabilize hydrocarbons and promote their decomposition to natural gas.

  7. Natural gas monthly, October 1990. [Contains glossary

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-12-28

    This report highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. 7 figs., 34 tabs.

  8. Natural gas monthly, September 1990. [Contains Glossary

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-11-30

    This report highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. 7 figs., 33 tabs.

  9. Arctic Oil and Natural Gas Potential

    EIA Publications

    2009-01-01

    This paper examines the discovered and undiscovered Arctic oil and natural gas resource base with respect to their location and concentration. The paper also discusses the cost and impediments to developing Arctic oil and natural gas resources, including those issues associated with environmental habitats and political boundaries.

  10. Natural gas annual 1994: Volume 2

    SciTech Connect

    1995-11-01

    The Natural Gas Annual provides information on the supply and disposition of natural gas to a wide audience including industry, consumers, Federal and State agencies, and educational institutions. This report, Volume 2, presents historical data fro the Nation from 1930 to 1994, and by State from 1967 to 1994.

  11. Majors' Shift to Natural Gas, The

    EIA Publications

    2001-01-01

    The Majors' Shift to Natural Gas investigates the factors that have guided the United States' major energy producers' growth in U.S. natural gas production relative to oil production. The analysis draws heavily on financial and operating data from the Energy Information Administration's Financial Reporting System (FRS)

  12. How EIA Estimates Natural Gas Production

    EIA Publications

    2004-01-01

    The Energy Information Administration (EIA) publishes estimates monthly and annually of the production of natural gas in the United States. The estimates are based on data EIA collects from gas producing states and data collected by the U. S. Minerals Management Service (MMS) in the Department of Interior. The states and MMS collect this information from producers of natural gas for various reasons, most often for revenue purposes. Because the information is not sufficiently complete or timely for inclusion in EIA's Natural Gas Monthly (NGM), EIA has developed estimation methodologies to generate monthly production estimates that are described in this document.

  13. Laser probes of natural gas ignition chemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crosley, David R.; Golden, David M.; Smith, Gregory

    1992-03-01

    The research, funded by the Physical Sciences Department of the Gas Research Institute, is aimed at developing and using laser-induced fluorescence of various hydrocarbon species as a probe in natural gas combustion research and at developing an understanding of the chemical mechanisms of ignition and burning of natural gas. Studies were made of infrared degenerate four-wave mixing, flow patterns in a low-pressure burner, and the OH + CO and OH + CH3 reactions. Thermodynamic data and the pressure dependence of rate constants important in the PSST natural gas mechanism collaboration were evaluated.

  14. Natural gas 1994: Issues and trends

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-07-01

    This report provides an overview of the natural gas industry in 1993 and early 1994 (Chapter 1), focusing on the overall ability to deliver gas under the new regulatory mandates of Order 636. In addition, the report highlights a range of issues affecting the industry, including: restructuring under Order 636 (Chapter 2); adjustments in natural gas contracting (Chapter 3); increased use of underground storage (Chapter 4); effects of the new market on the financial performance of the industry (Chapter 5); continued impacts of major regulatory and legislative changes on the natural gas market (Appendix A).

  15. SEAPORT LIQUID NATURAL GAS STUDY

    SciTech Connect

    COOK,Z.

    1999-02-01

    The Seaport Liquid Natural Gas Study has attempted to evaluate the potential for using LNG in a variety of heavy-duty vehicle and equipment applications at the Ports of Los Angeles and Oakland. Specifically, this analysis has focused on the handling and transport of containerized cargo to, from and within these two facilities. In terms of containerized cargo throughput, Los Angeles and Oakland are the second and sixth busiest ports in the US, respectively, and together handle nearly 4.5 million TEUs per year. At present, the landside handling and transportation of containerized cargo is heavily dependent on diesel-powered, heavy-duty vehicles and equipment, the utilization of which contributes significantly to the overall emissions impact of port-related activities. Emissions from diesel units have been the subject of increasing scrutiny and regulatory action, particularly in California. In the past two years alone, particulate matter from diesel exhaust has been listed as a toxic air contaminant by CAM, and major lawsuits have been filed against several of California's largest supermarket chains, alleging violation of Proposition 65 statutes in connection with diesel emissions from their distribution facilities. CARE3 has also indicated that it may take further regulatory action relating to the TAC listing. In spite of these developments and the very large diesel emissions associated with port operations, there has been little AFV penetration in these applications. Nearly all port operators interviewed by CALSTART expressed an awareness of the issues surrounding diesel use; however, none appeared to be taking proactive steps to address them. Furthermore, while a less controversial issue than emissions, the dominance of diesel fuel use in heavy-duty vehicles contributes to a continued reliance on imported fuels. The increasing concern regarding diesel use, and the concurrent lack of alternative fuel use and vigorous emissions reduction activity at the Ports provide

  16. 78 FR 38309 - Northern Natural Gas Company; Southern Natural Gas Company, L.L.C.; Florida Gas Transmission...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-26

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Northern Natural Gas Company; Southern Natural Gas Company, L.L.C.; Florida Gas Transmission Company, LLC; Notice of Application Take notice that on June 4, 2013, Northern Natural Gas Company (Northern), 1111 South 103rd Street, Omaha, Nebraska 68124; on behalf of...

  17. Natural gas monthly, September 1991. [Contains glossary

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-10-18

    The Natural Gas Monthly highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production distribution consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information. The data in this publication are collected on surveys conducted by the EIA to fulfill its responsibilities for gathering and reporting energy data. Some of the data are collected under the authority of the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC), an independent commission within the DOE, which has jurisdiction primarily in the regulation of electric utilities and the interstate natural gas industry. Geographic coverage is the 50 States and the District of Columbia.

  18. IGNITION IMPROVEMENT OF LEAN NATURAL GAS MIXTURES

    SciTech Connect

    Jason M. Keith

    2005-02-01

    This report describes work performed during a thirty month project which involves the production of dimethyl ether (DME) on-site for use as an ignition-improving additive in a compression-ignition natural gas engine. A single cylinder spark ignition engine was converted to compression ignition operation. The engine was then fully instrumented with a cylinder pressure transducer, crank shaft position sensor, airflow meter, natural gas mass flow sensor, and an exhaust temperature sensor. Finally, the engine was interfaced with a control system for pilot injection of DME. The engine testing is currently in progress. In addition, a one-pass process to form DME from natural gas was simulated with chemical processing software. Natural gas is reformed to synthesis gas (a mixture of hydrogen and carbon monoxide), converted into methanol, and finally to DME in three steps. Of additional benefit to the internal combustion engine, the offgas from the pilot process can be mixed with the main natural gas charge and is expected to improve engine performance. Furthermore, a one-pass pilot facility was constructed to produce 3.7 liters/hour (0.98 gallons/hour) DME from methanol in order to characterize the effluent DME solution and determine suitability for engine use. Successful production of DME led to an economic estimate of completing a full natural gas-to-DME pilot process. Additional experimental work in constructing a synthesis gas to methanol reactor is in progress. The overall recommendation from this work is that natural gas to DME is not a suitable pathway to improved natural gas engine performance. The major reasons are difficulties in handling DME for pilot injection and the large capital costs associated with DME production from natural gas.

  19. MINERALIZATION OF RADIOACTIVE WASTES BY FLUIDIZED BED STEAM REFORMING (FBSR): COMPARISONS TO VITREOUS WASTE FORMS, AND PERTINENT DURABILITY TESTING

    SciTech Connect

    Jantzen, C

    2008-12-26

    The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) was requested to generate a document for the Washington State Department of Ecology and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency that would cover the following topics: (1) A description of the mineral structures produced by Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming (FBSR) of Hanford type Low Activity Waste (LAW including LAWR which is LAW melter recycle waste) waste, especially the cage structured minerals and how they are formed. (2) How the cage structured minerals contain some contaminants, while others become part of the mineral structure (Note that all contaminants become part of the mineral structure and this will be described in the subsequent sections of this report). (3) Possible contaminant release mechanisms from the mineral structures. (4) Appropriate analyses to evaluate these release mechanisms. (5) Why the appropriate analyses are comparable to the existing Hanford glass dataset. In order to discuss the mineral structures and how they bond contaminants a brief description of the structures of both mineral (ceramic) and vitreous waste forms will be given to show their similarities. By demonstrating the similarities of mineral and vitreous waste forms on atomic level, the contaminant release mechanisms of the crystalline (mineral) and amorphous (glass) waste forms can be compared. This will then logically lead to the discussion of why many of the analyses used to evaluate vitreous waste forms and glass-ceramics (also known as glass composite materials) are appropriate for determining the release mechanisms of LAW/LAWR mineral waste forms and how the durability data on LAW/LAWR mineral waste forms relate to the durability data for LAW/LAWR glasses. The text will discuss the LAW mineral waste form made by FBSR. The nanoscale mechanism by which the minerals form will be also be described in the text. The appropriate analyses to evaluate contaminant release mechanisms will be discussed, as will the FBSR test results to

  20. Liquefied Natural Gas for Trucks and Buses

    SciTech Connect

    James Wegrzyn; Michael Gurevich

    2000-06-19

    Liquefied natural gas (LNG) is being developed as a heavy vehicle fuel. The reason for developing LNG is to reduce our dependency on imported oil by eliminating technical and costs barriers associated with its usage. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has a program, currently in its third year, to develop and advance cost-effective technologies for operating and refueling natural gas-fueled heavy vehicles (Class 7-8 trucks). The objectives of the DOE Natural Gas Vehicle Systems Program are to achieve market penetration by reducing vehicle conversion and fuel costs, to increase consumer acceptance by improving the reliability and efficiency, and to improve air quality by reducing tailpipe emissions. One way to reduce fuel costs is to develop new supplies of cheap natural gas. Significant progress is being made towards developing more energy-efficient, low-cost, small-scale natural gas liquefiers for exploiting alternative sources of natural gas such as from landfill and remote gas sites. In particular, the DOE program provides funds for research and development in the areas of; natural gas clean up, LNG production, advanced vehicle onboard storage tanks, improved fuel delivery systems and LNG market strategies. In general, the program seeks to integrate the individual components being developed into complete systems, and then demonstrate the technology to establish technical and economic feasibility. The paper also reviews the importance of cryogenics in designing LNG fuel delivery systems.

  1. Natural gas vehicles : Status, barriers, and opportunities.

    SciTech Connect

    Rood Werpy, M.; Santini, D.; Burnham, A.; Mintz, M.; Energy Systems

    2010-11-29

    In the United States, recent shale gas discoveries have generated renewed interest in using natural gas as a vehicular fuel, primarily in fleet applications, while outside the United States, natural gas vehicle use has expanded significantly in the past decade. In this report for the U.S. Department of Energy's Clean Cities Program - a public-private partnership that advances the energy, economic, and environmental security of the U.S. by supporting local decisions that reduce petroleum use in the transportation sector - we have examined the state of natural gas vehicle technology, current market status, energy and environmental benefits, implications regarding advancements in European natural gas vehicle technologies, research and development efforts, and current market barriers and opportunities for greater market penetration. The authors contend that commercial intracity trucks are a prime area for advancement of this fuel. Therefore, we examined an aggressive future market penetration of natural gas heavy-duty vehicles that could be seen as a long-term goal. Under this scenario using Energy Information Administration projections and GREET life-cycle modeling of U.S. on-road heavy-duty use, natural gas vehicles would reduce petroleum consumption by approximately 1.2 million barrels of oil per day, while another 400,000 barrels of oil per day reduction could be achieved with significant use of natural gas off-road vehicles. This scenario would reduce daily oil consumption in the United States by about 8%.

  2. Gas supplies of interstate natural gas pipeline companies 1985

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-11-14

    This publication provides information on the total reserves, production, and deliverability capabilities of the 91 interstate pipeline companies. The gas supplies of interstate pipeline companies consist of the certificated, dedicated, recoverable, salable natural gas available from domestic in-the-ground reserves; gas purchased under contracts with other interstate pipeline companies; domestically produced coal gas, liquefied natural gas (LNG), and synthetic natural gas (SNG); and imported natural gas and LNG. The domestic in-the-ground reserves consist of company owned reserves including natural gas in underground storage, reserves dedicated to or warranted under contracts with independent producers, and supplemental or short-term supplies purchased from independent producers and intrastate pipeline companies. To avoid duplicate reporting of domestic in-the-ground reserves, the volumes of gas under contract agreement between jurisdictional pipelines have been excluded in summarizing state and national reserves. Volumes contracted under agreements with foreign suppliers include pipeline imports from Canada and Mexico and LNG from Algeria. 7 figs., 18 tabs.

  3. Gas supplies of interstate natural gas pipeline companies, 1984

    SciTech Connect

    Price, R.

    1985-12-04

    This publication provides information on the total reserves, production, and deliverability capabilities of 89 interstate pipeline companies. The gas supplies of interstate pipeline companies consist of the certificated, dedicated, recoverable, salable natural gas available from domestic in-the-ground reserves; gas purchased under contracts with other interstate pipeline companies; domestically produced coal gas, liquefied natural gas (LNG), and synthetic natural gas (SNG); and imported natural gas and LNG. The domestic in-the-ground reserves consist of company-owned reserves including natural gas in underground storage, reserves dedicated to or warranted under contracts with independent producers, and supplemental or short-term supplies purchased from independent producers and intrastate pipeline companies. To avoid duplicate reporting of domestic in-the-ground reserves, the volumes of gas under contract agreement between jurisdictional pipelines have been excluded in summarizing state and national reserves. Volumes contracted under agreements with foreign suppliers include pipeline imports from Canada and Mexico and LNG from Algeria. 8 figs., 18 tabs.

  4. Energy resource potential of natural gas hydrates

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Collett, T.S.

    2002-01-01

    The discovery of large gas hydrate accumulations in terrestrial permafrost regions of the Arctic and beneath the sea along the outer continental margins of the world's oceans has heightened interest in gas hydrates as a possible energy resource. However, significant to potentially insurmountable technical issues must be resolved before gas hydrates can be considered a viable option for affordable supplies of natural gas. The combined information from Arctic gas hydrate studies shows that, in permafrost regions, gas hydrates may exist at subsurface depths ranging from about 130 to 2000 m. The presence of gas hydrates in offshore continental margins has been inferred mainly from anomalous seismic reflectors, known as bottom-simulating reflectors, that have been mapped at depths below the sea floor ranging from about 100 to 1100 m. Current estimates of the amount of gas in the world's marine and permafrost gas hydrate accumulations are in rough accord at about 20,000 trillion m3. Disagreements over fundamental issues such as the volume of gas stored within delineated gas hydrate accumulations and the concentration of gas hydrates within hydrate-bearing strata have demonstrated that we know little about gas hydrates. Recently, however, several countries, including Japan, India, and the United States, have launched ambitious national projects to further examine the resource potential of gas hydrates. These projects may help answer key questions dealing with the properties of gas hydrate reservoirs, the design of production systems, and, most important, the costs and economics of gas hydrate production.

  5. Well log characterization of natural gas hydrates

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Collett, Timothy S.; Lee, Myung W.

    2011-01-01

    In the last 25 years we have seen significant advancements in the use of downhole well logging tools to acquire detailed information on the occurrence of gas hydrate in nature: From an early start of using wireline electrical resistivity and acoustic logs to identify gas hydrate occurrences in wells drilled in Arctic permafrost environments to today where wireline and advanced logging-while-drilling tools are routinely used to examine the petrophysical nature of gas hydrate reservoirs and the distribution and concentration of gas hydrates within various complex reservoir systems. The most established and well known use of downhole log data in gas hydrate research is the use of electrical resistivity and acoustic velocity data (both compressional- and shear-wave data) to make estimates of gas hydrate content (i.e., reservoir saturations) in various sediment types and geologic settings. New downhole logging tools designed to make directionally oriented acoustic and propagation resistivity log measurements have provided the data needed to analyze the acoustic and electrical anisotropic properties of both highly inter-bedded and fracture dominated gas hydrate reservoirs. Advancements in nuclear-magnetic-resonance (NMR) logging and wireline formation testing have also allowed for the characterization of gas hydrate at the pore scale. Integrated NMR and formation testing studies from northern Canada and Alaska have yielded valuable insight into how gas hydrates are physically distributed in sediments and the occurrence and nature of pore fluids (i.e., free-water along with clay and capillary bound water) in gas-hydrate-bearing reservoirs. Information on the distribution of gas hydrate at the pore scale has provided invaluable insight on the mechanisms controlling the formation and occurrence of gas hydrate in nature along with data on gas hydrate reservoir properties (i.e., permeabilities) needed to accurately predict gas production rates for various gas hydrate

  6. Superior performance of Ni–W–Ce mixed-metal oxide catalysts for ethanol steam reforming: Synergistic effects of W- and Ni-dopants

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Zongyuan; Xu, Wenqian; Yao, Siyu; Johnson-Peck, Aaron C.; Zhao, Fuzhen; Michorczyk, Piotr; Kubacka, Anna; Stach, Eric A.; Fernández-García, Marcos; Senanayake, Sanjaya D.; Rodriguez, José A.

    2014-11-26

    In this study, the ethanol steam reforming (ESR) reaction was examined over a series of Ni-W-Ce oxide catalysts. The structures of the catalysts were characterized using in-situ techniques including X-ray diffraction, Pair Distribution Function, X-ray absorption fine structure and transmission electron microscopy; while possible surface intermediates for the ESR reaction were investigated by Diffuse Reflectance Infrared Fourier Transform Spectroscopy. In these materials, all the W and part of the Ni were incorporated into the CeO₂ lattice, with the remaining Ni forming highly dispersed nano NiO (< 2 nm) outside the Ni-W-Ce oxide structure. The nano NiO was reduced to Ni under ESR conditions. The Ni-W-Ce systeme exhibited a much larger lattice strain than those seen for Ni-Ce and W-Ce. Synergistic effects between Ni and W inside ceria produced a substantial amount of defects and O vacancies that led to high catalytic activity, selectivity and stability (i.e. resistance to coke formation) during ethanol steam reforming.

  7. Superior performance of Ni–W–Ce mixed-metal oxide catalysts for ethanol steam reforming: Synergistic effects of W- and Ni-dopants

    DOE PAGES

    Liu, Zongyuan; Xu, Wenqian; Yao, Siyu; Johnson-Peck, Aaron C.; Zhao, Fuzhen; Michorczyk, Piotr; Kubacka, Anna; Stach, Eric A.; Fernández-García, Marcos; Senanayake, Sanjaya D.; et al

    2014-11-26

    In this study, the ethanol steam reforming (ESR) reaction was examined over a series of Ni-W-Ce oxide catalysts. The structures of the catalysts were characterized using in-situ techniques including X-ray diffraction, Pair Distribution Function, X-ray absorption fine structure and transmission electron microscopy; while possible surface intermediates for the ESR reaction were investigated by Diffuse Reflectance Infrared Fourier Transform Spectroscopy. In these materials, all the W and part of the Ni were incorporated into the CeO₂ lattice, with the remaining Ni forming highly dispersed nano NiO (< 2 nm) outside the Ni-W-Ce oxide structure. The nano NiO was reduced to Nimore » under ESR conditions. The Ni-W-Ce systeme exhibited a much larger lattice strain than those seen for Ni-Ce and W-Ce. Synergistic effects between Ni and W inside ceria produced a substantial amount of defects and O vacancies that led to high catalytic activity, selectivity and stability (i.e. resistance to coke formation) during ethanol steam reforming.« less

  8. Coordinated scheduling of electricity and natural gas infrastructures with a transient model for natural gas flow.

    PubMed

    Liu, Cong; Shahidehpour, Mohammad; Wang, Jianhui

    2011-06-01

    This paper focuses on transient characteristics of natural gas flow in the coordinated scheduling of security-constrained electricity and natural gas infrastructures. The paper takes into account the slow transient process in the natural gas transmission systems. Considering their transient characteristics, natural gas transmission systems are modeled as a set of partial differential equations (PDEs) and algebraic equations. An implicit finite difference method is applied to approximate PDEs by difference equations. The coordinated scheduling of electricity and natural gas systems is described as a bi-level programming formulation from the independent system operator's viewpoint. The objective of the upper-level problem is to minimize the operating cost of electric power systems while the natural gas scheduling optimization problem is nested within the lower-level problem. Numerical examples are presented to verify the effectiveness of the proposed solution and to compare the solutions for steady-state and transient models of natural gas transmission systems.

  9. North American Natural Gas Markets. Volume 2

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-02-01

    This report summarizes die research by an Energy Modeling Forum working group on the evolution of the North American natural gas markets between now and 2010. The group`s findings are based partly on the results of a set of economic models of the natural gas industry that were run for four scenarios representing significantly different conditions: two oil price scenarios (upper and lower), a smaller total US resource base (low US resource case), and increased potential gas demand for electric generation (high US demand case). Several issues, such as the direction of regulatory policy and the size of the gas resource base, were analyzed separately without the use of models.

  10. The Canoe Ridge Natural Gas Storage Project

    SciTech Connect

    Reidel, Steve P.; Spane, Frank A.; Johnson, Vernon G.

    2003-06-18

    In 1999 the Pacific Gas and Electric Gas Transmission Northwest (GTN) drilled a borehole to investigate the feasibility of developing a natural gas-storage facility in a structural dome formed in Columbia River basalts in the Columbia Basin of south-central Washington State. The proposed aquifer storage facility will be an unconventional one where natural gas will be initially injected (and later retrieved) in one or multiple previous horizons (interflow zones) that are confined between deep (>700 meters) basalt flows of the Columbia River Basalt Group. This report summarizes the results of joint investigations on that feasibility study by GTN and the US Department of Energy.

  11. 2009 PILOT SCALE FLUIDIZED BED STEAM REFORMING TESTING USING THE THOR (THERMAL ORGANIC REDUCTION) PROCESS: ANALYTICAL RESULTS FOR TANK 48H ORGANIC DESTRUCTION - 10408

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, M.; Jantzen, C.; Burket, P.; Crawford, C.; Daniel, G.; Aponte, C.; Johnson, C.

    2009-12-28

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) must empty the contents of Tank 48H, a 1.3 million gallon Type IIIA HLW storage tank, to return this tank to service. The tank contains organic compounds, mainly potassium tetraphenylborate that cannot be processed downstream until the organic components are destroyed. The THOR{reg_sign} Treatment Technologies (TTT) Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming (FBSR) technology, herein after referred to as steam reforming, has been demonstrated to be a viable process to remove greater than 99.9% of the organics from Tank 48H during various bench scale and pilot scale tests. These demonstrations were supported by Savannah River Remediation (SRR) and the Department of Energy (DOE) has concurred with the SRR recommendation to proceed with the deployment of the FBSR technology to treat the contents of Tank 48H. The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) developed and proved the concept with non-radioactive simulants for SRR beginning in 2003. By 2008, several pilot scale campaigns had been completed and extensive crucible testing and bench scale testing were performed in the SRNL Shielded Cells using Tank 48H radioactive sample. SRNL developed a Tank 48H non-radioactive simulant complete with organic compounds, salt, and metals characteristic of those measured in a sample of the radioactive contents of Tank 48H. FBSR Pilot Scaled Testing with the Tank 48H simulant has demonstrated the ability to remove greater than 98% of the nitrites and greater than 99.5% of the nitrates from the Tank 48H simulant, and to form a solid product that is primarily alkali carbonate. The alkali carbonate is soluble and, thus, amenable to pumping as a liquid to downstream facilities for processing. The FBSR technology was demonstrated in October of 2006 in the Engineering Scale Test Demonstration (ESTD) pilot scale steam reformer at the Hazen Research Inc. (HRI) facility in Golden, CO. Additional ESTD tests were completed in 2008 and in 2009 that further demonstrated the

  12. Well log evaluation of natural gas hydrates

    SciTech Connect

    Collett, T.S.

    1992-10-01

    Gas hydrates are crystalline substances composed of water and gas, in which a solid-water-lattice accommodates gas molecules in a cage-like structure. Gas hydrates are globally widespread in permafrost regions and beneath the sea in sediment of outer continental margins. While methane, propane, and other gases can be included in the clathrate structure, methane hydrates appear to be the most common in nature. The amount of methane sequestered in gas hydrates is probably enormous, but estimates are speculative and range over three orders of magnitude from about 100,000 to 270,000,000 trillion cubic feet. The amount of gas in the hydrate reservoirs of the world greedy exceeds the volume of known conventional gas reserves. Gas hydrates also represent a significant drilling and production hazard. A fundamental question linking gas hydrate resource and hazard issues is: What is the volume of gas hydrates and included gas within a given gas hydrate occurrence? Most published gas hydrate resource estimates have, of necessity, been made by broad extrapolation of only general knowledge of local geologic conditions. Gas volumes that may be attributed to gas hydrates are dependent on a number of reservoir parameters, including the areal extent ofthe gas-hydrate occurrence, reservoir thickness, hydrate number, reservoir porosity, and the degree of gas-hydrate saturation. Two of the most difficult reservoir parameters to determine are porosity and degreeof gas hydrate saturation. Well logs often serve as a source of porosity and hydrocarbon saturation data; however, well-log calculations within gas-hydrate-bearing intervals are subject to error. The primary reason for this difficulty is the lack of quantitative laboratory and field studies. The primary purpose of this paper is to review the response of well logs to the presence of gas hydrates.

  13. Well log evaluation of natural gas hydrates

    SciTech Connect

    Collett, T.S.

    1992-10-01

    Gas hydrates are crystalline substances composed of water and gas, in which a solid-water-lattice accommodates gas molecules in a cage-like structure. Gas hydrates are globally widespread in permafrost regions and beneath the sea in sediment of outer continental margins. While methane, propane, and other gases can be included in the clathrate structure, methane hydrates appear to be the most common in nature. The amount of methane sequestered in gas hydrates is probably enormous, but estimates are speculative and range over three orders of magnitude from about 100,000 to 270,000,000 trillion cubic feet. The amount of gas in the hydrate reservoirs of the world greedy exceeds the volume of known conventional gas reserves. Gas hydrates also represent a significant drilling and production hazard. A fundamental question linking gas hydrate resource and hazard issues is: What is the volume of gas hydrates and included gas within a given gas hydrate occurrence Most published gas hydrate resource estimates have, of necessity, been made by broad extrapolation of only general knowledge of local geologic conditions. Gas volumes that may be attributed to gas hydrates are dependent on a number of reservoir parameters, including the areal extent ofthe gas-hydrate occurrence, reservoir thickness, hydrate number, reservoir porosity, and the degree of gas-hydrate saturation. Two of the most difficult reservoir parameters to determine are porosity and degreeof gas hydrate saturation. Well logs often serve as a source of porosity and hydrocarbon saturation data; however, well-log calculations within gas-hydrate-bearing intervals are subject to error. The primary reason for this difficulty is the lack of quantitative laboratory and field studies. The primary purpose of this paper is to review the response of well logs to the presence of gas hydrates.

  14. Natural gas annual 1992: Volume 1

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-11-22

    This document provides information on the supply and disposition of natural gas to a wide audience including industry, consumers, Federal and State agencies, and education institutions. The 1992 data are presented in a sequence that follows natural gas (including supplemental supplies) from its production top its end use. Tables summarizing natural gas supply and disposition from 1988 to 1992 are given for each Census Division and each State. Annual historical data are shown at the national level. Volume 2 of this report presents State-level historical data.

  15. Natural Gas Engine Development Gaps (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Zigler, B.T.

    2014-03-01

    A review of current natural gas vehicle offerings is presented for both light-duty and medium- and heavy-duty applications. Recent gaps in the marketplace are discussed, along with how they have been or may be addressed. The stakeholder input process for guiding research and development needs via the Natural Gas Vehicle Technology Forum (NGVTF) to the U.S. Department of Energy and the California Energy Commission is reviewed. Current high-level natural gas engine development gap areas are highlighted, including efficiency, emissions, and the certification process.

  16. Natural gas-assisted steam electrolyzer

    DOEpatents

    Pham, Ai-Quoc; Wallman, P. Henrik; Glass, Robert S.

    2000-01-01

    An efficient method of producing hydrogen by high temperature steam electrolysis that will lower the electricity consumption to an estimated 65 percent lower than has been achievable with previous steam electrolyzer systems. This is accomplished with a natural gas-assisted steam electrolyzer, which significantly reduces the electricity consumption. Since this natural gas-assisted steam electrolyzer replaces one unit of electrical energy by one unit of energy content in natural gas at one-quarter the cost, the hydrogen production cost will be significantly reduced. Also, it is possible to vary the ratio between the electricity and the natural gas supplied to the system in response to fluctuations in relative prices for these two energy sources. In one approach an appropriate catalyst on the anode side of the electrolyzer will promote the partial oxidation of natural gas to CO and hydrogen, called Syn-Gas, and the CO can also be shifted to CO.sub.2 to give additional hydrogen. In another approach the natural gas is used in the anode side of the electrolyzer to burn out the oxygen resulting from electrolysis, thus reducing or eliminating the potential difference across the electrolyzer membrane.

  17. Tapping methane hydrates for unconventional natural gas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ruppel, Carolyn

    2007-01-01

    Methane hydrate is an icelike form of concentrated methane and water found in the sediments of permafrost regions and marine continental margins at depths far shallower than conventional oil and gas. Despite their relative accessibility and widespread occurrence, methane hydrates have never been tapped to meet increasing global energy demands. With rising natural gas prices, production from these unconventional gas deposits is becoming economically viable, particularly in permafrost areas already being exploited for conventional oil and gas. This article provides an overview of gas hydrate occurrence, resource assessment, exploration, production technologies, renewability, and future challenges.

  18. CHLORIDE POISONING OF WATER GAS SHIFT ACTIVITY ON NICKEL CATALYSTS DURING STEAM REFORMING. (R826694C633)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The perspectives, information and conclusions conveyed in research project abstracts, progress reports, final reports, journal abstracts and journal publications convey the viewpoints of the principal investigator and may not represent the views and policies of ORD and EPA. Concl...

  19. CHLORIDE POISONING OF WATER GAS SHIFT ACTIVITY ON NICKEL CATALYSTS DURING STEAM REFORMING. (R822721C633)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The perspectives, information and conclusions conveyed in research project abstracts, progress reports, final reports, journal abstracts and journal publications convey the viewpoints of the principal investigator and may not represent the views and policies of ORD and EPA. Concl...

  20. Combustion gas properties. 2: Natural gas fuel and dry air

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wear, J. D.; Jones, R. E.; Trout, A. M.; Mcbride, B. J.

    1985-01-01

    A series of computations has been made to produce the equilibrium temperature and gas composition for natural gas fuel and dry air. The computed tables and figures provide combustion gas property data for pressures from 0.5 to 50 atmospheres and equivalence ratios from 0 to 2.0. Only samples tables and figures are provided in this report. The complete set of tables and figures is provided on four microfiche films supplied with this report.

  1. Analysis of Adsorbed Natural Gas Tank Technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knight, Ernest; Schultz, Conrad; Rash, Tyler; Dohnke, Elmar; Stalla, David; Gillespie, Andrew; Sweany, Mark; Seydel, Florian; Pfeifer, Peter

    With gasoline being an ever decreasing finite resource and with the desire to reduce humanity's carbon footprint, there has been an increasing focus on innovation of alternative fuel sources. Natural gas burns cleaner, is more abundant, and conforms to modern engines. However, storing compressed natural gas (CNG) requires large, heavy gas cylinders, which limits space and fuel efficiency. Adsorbed natural gas (ANG) technology allows for much greater fuel storage capacity and the ability to store the gas at a much lower pressure. Thus, ANG tanks are much more flexible in terms of their size, shape, and weight. Our ANG tank employs monolithic nanoporous activated carbon as its adsorbent material. Several different configurations of this Flat Panel Tank Assembly (FPTA) along with a Fuel Extraction System (FES) were examined to compare with the mass flow rate demands of an engine.

  2. Nitrogen Removal From Low Quality Natural Gas

    SciTech Connect

    Alvarado, D.B.; Asaro, M.F.; Bomben, J.L.; Damle, A.S.; Bhown, A.S.

    1997-10-01

    Natural gas provides more than one-fifth of all the primary energy used in the United States. It is especially important in the residential sector, where it supplies nearly half of all the energy consumed in U.S. homes. However, significant quantities of natural gas cannot be produced economically because its quality is too low to enter the pipeline transportation system without some type of processing, other than dehydration, to remove the undesired gas fraction. Such low-quality natural gas (LQNG) contains significant concentration or quantities of gas other than methane. These non- hydrocarbons are predominantly nitrogen, carbon dioxide, and hydrogen sulfide, but may also include other gaseous components. The nitrogen concentrations usually exceeds 4%. Nitrogen rejection is presently an expensive operation which can present uneconomic scenarios in the potential development of natural gas fields containing high nitrogen concentrations. The most reliable and widely used process for nitrogen rejection from natural gas consists of liquefying the feed stream using temperatures in the order of - 300{degrees}F and separating the nitrogen via fractionation. In order to reduce the gas temperature to this level, the gas is compressed, cooled by mullet-stream heat exchangers, and expanded to low pressure. Significant energy for compression and expensive materials of construction are required. Water and carbon dioxide concentrations must be reduced to levels required to prevent freezing. SRI`s proposed research involves screening new nitrogen selective absorbents and developing a more cost effective nitrogen removal process from natural gas using those compounds. The long-term objective of this project is to determine the technical and economical feasibility of a N{sub 2}2 removal concept based on complexation of molecular N{sub 2} with novel complexing agents. Successful development of a selective, reversible, and stable reagent with an appropriate combination of capacity

  3. A historical analysis of natural gas demand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dalbec, Nathan Richard

    This thesis analyzes demand in the US energy market for natural gas, oil, and coal over the period of 1918-2013 and examines their price relationship over the period of 2007-2013. Diagnostic tests for time series were used; Augmented Dickey-Fuller, Kwiatkowski-Phillips-Schmidt-Shin, Johansen cointegration, Granger Causality and weak exogeneity tests. Directed acyclic graphs were used as a complimentary test for endogeneity. Due to the varied results in determining endogeneity, a seemingly unrelated regression model was used which assumes all right hand side variables in the three demand equations were exogenous. A number of factors were significant in determining demand for natural gas including its own price, lagged demand, a number of structural break dummies, and trend, while oil indicate some substitutability with natural gas. An error correction model was used to examine the price relationships. Natural gas price was found not to have a significant cointegrating vector.

  4. Natural gas flow through critical nozzles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, R. C.

    1969-01-01

    Empirical method for calculating both the mass flow rate and upstream volume flow rate through critical flow nozzles is determined. Method requires knowledge of the composition of natural gas, and of the upstream pressure and temperature.

  5. Natural gas 1996 - issues and trends

    SciTech Connect

    1996-12-01

    This publication presents a summary of the latest data and information relating to the U.S. natural gas industry, including prices, production, transmission, consumption, and financial aspects of the industry.

  6. Natural gas annual 1992: Supplement: Company profiles

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-01-01

    The data for the Natural Gas Annual 1991 Supplement : Company Profiles are taken from Form EIA-176, (open quotes) Annual Report of Natural and Supplemental Gas Supply and Disposition (close quotes). Other sources include industry literature and corporate annual reports to shareholders. The companies appearing in this report are major interstate natural gas pipeline companies, large distribution companies, or combination companies with both pipeline and distribution operations. The report contains profiles of 45 corporate families. The profiles describe briefly each company, where it operates, and any important issues that the company faces. The purpose of this report is to show the movement of natural gas through the various States served by the 45 large companies profiled.

  7. Convert natural gas into clean transportation fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Agee, M.A.

    1997-03-01

    A new process economically converts natural gas into synthetic transportation fuels that are free of sulfur, metals, aromatics and are clear in appearance. The process, developed by Syntroleum Corp., is energy self-sufficient and can be implemented in sizes small enough to fit a large number of the world`s gas fields. The process is described.

  8. DURABILITY TESTING OF FLUIDIZED BED STEAM REFORMER WASTE FORMS FOR SODIUM BEARING WASTE AT IDAHO NATIONAL LABORATORY

    SciTech Connect

    Crawford, C; Carol Jantzen, C

    2007-08-27

    Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming (FBSR) processing of Sodium Bearing Waste simulants was performed in December 2006 by THOR{sup sm} Treatment Technologies LLC (TTT) The testing was performed at the Hazen Research Inc. (HRI) pilot plant facilities in Golden, CO. FBSR products from these pilot tests on simulated waste representative of the SBW at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC) were subsequently transferred to the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) for characterization and leach testing. Four as-received Denitration and Mineralization Reformer (DMR) granular/powder samples and four High Temperature Filter (HTF) powder samples were received by SRNL. FBSR DMR samples had been taken from the ''active'' bed, while the HTF samples were the fines collected as carryover from the DMR. The process operated at high fluidizing velocities during the mineralization test such that nearly all of the product collected was from the HTF. Active bed samples were collected from the DMR to monitor bed particle size distribution. Characterization of these crystalline powder samples shows that they are primarily Al, Na and Si, with > 1 wt% Ca, Fe and K. The DMR samples contained less than 1 wt% carbon and the HTF samples ranged from 13 to 26 wt% carbon. X-ray diffraction analyses show that the DMR samples contained significant quantities of the Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} startup bed. The DMR samples became progressively lower in starting bed alumina with major Na/Al/Si crystalline phases (nepheline and sodium aluminosilicate) present as cumulative bed turnover occurred but 100% bed turnover was not achieved. The HTF samples also contained these major crystalline phases. Durability testing of the DMR and HTF samples using the ASTM C1285 Product Consistency Test (PCT) 7-day leach test at 90 C was performed along with several reference glass samples. Comparison of the normalized leach rates for the various DMR and HTF components was made with the reference glasses and

  9. Microbial desulfurization of natural gas

    SciTech Connect

    Sublette, K.L.; Sylvester, N.D.

    1987-01-01

    It has been demonstrated that the H/sub 2/S content of a gas can be reduced to very low levels by contact with an aerobic or anaerobic culture of Thiobacillus denitrificans if the reactor is operated under sulfide-limiting conditions. Hydrogen sulfide was observed to be an inhibitory substrate; however, upset conditions produced by excess H/sub 2/S feed were readily detected and reversed. Biomass yield is lower under aerobic conditions than anaerobic conditions presumably because of inhibition of growth by oxygen. However, under aerobic conditions the maximum loading of the biomass is 2-3 times higher than that observed for anaerobic conditions. Heterotrophic contamination was shown to have a negligible effect on reactor performance. The use of mixed cultures (T. denitrification and heterotrophs) could simplify a microbial gas desulfurization process by removing the requirement for aseptic operation of the reactor.

  10. 77 FR 19277 - Orders Granting Authority To Import and Export Natural Gas and Liquefied Natural Gas During...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-30

    ... Granting Authority To Import and Export Natural Gas and Liquefied Natural Gas During February 2012 FE..., ULC 12-13-NG ENCANA NATURAL GAS INC 11-163-NG ALCOA INC 12-11-NG JPMORGAN LNG CO 12-15-LNG CNE GAS... 2012, it issued Orders granting authority to import and export natural gas and liquefied natural...

  11. Will Abundant Natural Gas Solve Climate Change?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McJeon, H. C.; Edmonds, J.; Bauer, N.; Leon, C.; Fisher, B.; Flannery, B.; Hilaire, J.; Krey, V.; Marangoni, G.; Mi, R.; Riahi, K.; Rogner, H.; Tavoni, M.

    2015-12-01

    The rapid deployment of hydraulic fracturing and horizontal drilling technologies enabled the production of previously uneconomic shale gas resources in North America. Global deployment of these advanced gas production technologies could bring large influx of economically competitive unconventional gas resources to the energy system. It has been hoped that abundant natural gas substituting for coal could reduce carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions, which in turn could reduce climate forcing. Other researchers countered that the non-CO2 greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions associated with shale gas production make its lifecycle emissions higher than those of coal. In this study, we employ five state-of-the-art integrated assessment models (IAMs) of energy-economy-climate systems to assess the full impact of abundant gas on climate change. The models show large additional natural gas consumption up to +170% by 2050. The impact on CO2 emissions, however, is found to be much smaller (from -2% to +11%), and a majority of the models reported a small increase in climate forcing (from -0.3% to +7%) associated with the increased use of abundant gas. Our results show that while globally abundant gas may substantially change the future energy market equilibrium, it will not significantly mitigate climate change on its own in the absence of climate policies.

  12. NATURAL GAS RESOURCES IN DEEP SEDIMENTARY BASINS

    SciTech Connect

    Thaddeus S. Dyman; Troy Cook; Robert A. Crovelli; Allison A. Henry; Timothy C. Hester; Ronald C. Johnson; Michael D. Lewan; Vito F. Nuccio; James W. Schmoker; Dennis B. Riggin; Christopher J. Schenk

    2002-02-05

    From a geological perspective, deep natural gas resources are generally defined as resources occurring in reservoirs at or below 15,000 feet, whereas ultra-deep gas occurs below 25,000 feet. From an operational point of view, ''deep'' is often thought of in a relative sense based on the geologic and engineering knowledge of gas (and oil) resources in a particular area. Deep gas can be found in either conventionally-trapped or unconventional basin-center accumulations that are essentially large single fields having spatial dimensions often exceeding those of conventional fields. Exploration for deep conventional and unconventional basin-center natural gas resources deserves special attention because these resources are widespread and occur in diverse geologic environments. In 1995, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated that 939 TCF of technically recoverable natural gas remained to be discovered or was part of reserve appreciation from known fields in the onshore areas and State waters of the United. Of this USGS resource, nearly 114 trillion cubic feet (Tcf) of technically-recoverable gas remains to be discovered from deep sedimentary basins. Worldwide estimates of deep gas are also high. The U.S. Geological Survey World Petroleum Assessment 2000 Project recently estimated a world mean undiscovered conventional gas resource outside the U.S. of 844 Tcf below 4.5 km (about 15,000 feet). Less is known about the origins of deep gas than about the origins of gas at shallower depths because fewer wells have been drilled into the deeper portions of many basins. Some of the many factors contributing to the origin of deep gas include the thermal stability of methane, the role of water and non-hydrocarbon gases in natural gas generation, porosity loss with increasing thermal maturity, the kinetics of deep gas generation, thermal cracking of oil to gas, and source rock potential based on thermal maturity and kerogen type. Recent experimental simulations using laboratory

  13. Natural Gas Pipeline and System Expansions

    EIA Publications

    1997-01-01

    This special report examines recent expansions to the North American natural gas pipeline network and the nature and type of proposed pipeline projects announced or approved for construction during the next several years in the United States. It includes those projects in Canada and Mexico that tie in with U.S. markets or projects.

  14. Natural gas hydrates: myths, facts and issues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beauchamp, Benoı̂t

    2004-07-01

    Gas hydrates are solid-like substances naturally occurring beneath the oceans and in polar regions. They contain vast, and potentially unstable, reserves of methane and other natural gases. Many believe that, if released in the environment, the methane from hydrates would be a considerable hazard to marine ecosystems, coastal populations and infrastructures, or worse, that it would dangerously contribute to global warming. On the other hand, hydrates may contain enough natural gas to provide an energy supply assurance for the 21st century. This paper attempts to separate the myths, the facts and the issues that relate to natural gas hydrates beyond the doomsday environmental scenarios and overly optimistic estimates. To cite this article: B. Beauchamp, C. R. Geoscience 336 (2004).

  15. Geologic studies of deep natural gas resources

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dyman, T. S., (Edited By); Kuuskraa, V.A.

    2001-01-01

    In 1995, the USGS estimated a mean resource of 114 trillion cubic feet of undiscovered technically recoverable natural gas in plays deeper than 15,000 feet/4,572 meters in onshore regions of the United States. This volume summarizes major conclusions of ongoing work. Chapters A and B address the areal extent of drilling and distribution of deep basins in the U.S. Chapter C summarizes distribution of deep sedimentary basins and potential for deep gas in the former Soviet Union. Chapters D and E are geochemical papers addressing source-rock issues and deep gas generation. Chapter F develops a probabilistic method for subdividing gas resources into depth slices, and chapter G analyzes the relative uncertainty of estimates of deep gas in plays in the Gulf Coast Region. Chapter H evaluates the mechanism of hydrogenation of deep, high-rank spent kerogen by water, with subsequent generation of methane-rich HC gas.

  16. Alleviating coking in ethanol steam reforming by co-loading binary oxides Ni-M (M=Ag, Cu, Mn) on peony-like ceria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xian, C. N.; Li, J. G.; Li, H.; Chen, L. Q.; Sun, J.; Lee, J. S.

    2011-06-01

    Previously, hydrothermally prepared mesoporous peony-like ceria (PCO) material was shown to exhibit superior catalytic properties for CO oxidation and ethanol reforming. Ni supported PCO had been shown to have high activity for ethanol steam reforming at low temperature. In this work, Ag, Cu and Mn is co-loaded with Ni on PCO catalysts by impregnation method. The catalysts were studied by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and a combined thermogravimetry, differential scanning calorimetry, and mass spectrometry (TG-DSC-MS). It was found that all the catalysts gave 100% ethanol conversion above ca. 300°C and exhibited similar H2 yield. It is found that the severe coking problem for the Ni-loaded PCO catalyst was alleviated significantly if Ag, Cu or Mn is co-loaded. Among them, the addition of Mn is the most effective in reducing carbon formation.

  17. Steam reforming of fast pyrolysis-derived aqueous phase oxygenates over Co, Ni, and Rh metals supported on MgAl2O4

    DOE PAGES

    Xing, Rong; Dagle, Vanessa Lebarbier; Flake, Matthew; Kovarik, Libor; Albrecht, Karl O.; Deshmane, Chinmay; Dagle, Robert A.

    2016-02-03

    In this paper we examine the feasibility of steam reforming the mixed oxygenate aqueous fraction derived from fast pyrolysis bio-oils. Catalysts selective towards hydrogen formation and resistant to carbon formation utilizing feeds with relatively low steam-to-carbon (S/C) ratios are desired. Rh (5 wt%), Pt (5 wt%), Ru (5 wt%), Ir (5 wt%), Ni (15 wt%), and Co (15 wt%) metals supported on MgAl2O4 were evaluated for catalytic performance at 500 °C and 1 atm using a complex feed mixture comprising acids, polyols, cycloalkanes, and phenolic compounds. The Rh catalyst was found to be the most active and resistant to carbonmore » formation. The Ni and Co catalysts were found to be more active than the other noble metal catalysts investigated (Pt, Ru, and Ir).« less

  18. Stabilization of Hydrogen Production via Methanol Steam Reforming in Microreactor by Al2O3 Nano-Film Enhanced Catalyst Adhesion.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Heondo; Na, Jeong-Geol; Jang, Min Su; Ko, Chang Hyun

    2016-05-01

    In hydrogen production by methanol steam reforming reaction with microchannel reactor, Al2O3 thin film formed by atomic layer deposition (ALD) was introduced on the surface of microchannel reactor prior to the coating of catalyst particles. Methanol conversion rate and hydrogen production rate, increased in the presence of Al2O3 thin film. Over-view and cross-sectional scanning electron microscopy study showed that the adhesion between catalyst particles and the surface of microchannel reactor enhanced due to the presence of Al2O3 thin film. The improvement of hydrogen production rate inside the channels of microreactor mainly came from the stable fixation of catalyst particles on the surface of microchannels. PMID:27483762

  19. Stabilization of Hydrogen Production via Methanol Steam Reforming in Microreactor by Al2O3 Nano-Film Enhanced Catalyst Adhesion.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Heondo; Na, Jeong-Geol; Jang, Min Su; Ko, Chang Hyun

    2016-05-01

    In hydrogen production by methanol steam reforming reaction with microchannel reactor, Al2O3 thin film formed by atomic layer deposition (ALD) was introduced on the surface of microchannel reactor prior to the coating of catalyst particles. Methanol conversion rate and hydrogen production rate, increased in the presence of Al2O3 thin film. Over-view and cross-sectional scanning electron microscopy study showed that the adhesion between catalyst particles and the surface of microchannel reactor enhanced due to the presence of Al2O3 thin film. The improvement of hydrogen production rate inside the channels of microreactor mainly came from the stable fixation of catalyst particles on the surface of microchannels.

  20. Natural gas production and consumption 1979

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-01-01

    Total marketed production of natural gas in the United States during 1979 was 20,471 billion cubic feet, an increase of approximately 497 billion cubic feet, or 2.5 percent over 1978. Texas and Louisiana, the two leading producing states, accounted for 70.5 percent of total 1979 marketed production. In 1979, deliveries of natural gas to residential, commercial, industrial, electric utilities, and other consumers totaled 18,141 billion cubic feet. Total consumption, which includes lease, plant, and pipeline fuel in addition to deliveries to consumers, was 20,241 billion cubic feet in 1979 compared to 19,627 billion cubic feet in 1978, an increase of 3.1 percent. Movements of natural gas into and out of each state are presented. Louisiana accounted for the largest quantity of net deliveries, 5,107 billion cubic feet, followed by Texas and Oklahoma with net deliveries of 2,772 billion cubic feet and 914 billion cubic feet, respectively. Imports of natural gas by pipeline from Canada and as liquefied natural gas (LNG) from Algeria totaled 1,253 billion cubic feet in 1979. Total imports increased 288 billion cubic feet, or 29.8 percent, from 1978 levels. Exports of LNG to Japan and pipeline shipments to Canada and Mexico increased 6.0 percent from 52.5 billion cubic feet in 1978 to 55.7 billion cubic feet in 1979. LNG shipments to Japan accounted for 92.1 percent of total exports in 1979.

  1. Radioactive demonstration of final mineralized waste forms for Hanford waste treatment plant secondary waste (WTP-SW) by fluidized bed steam reforming (FBSR) using the bench scale reformer platform

    SciTech Connect

    Crawford, C.; Burket, P.; Cozzi, A.; Daniel, G.; Jantzen, C.; Missimer, D.

    2014-08-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s Office of River Protection (ORP) is responsible for the retrieval, treatment, immobilization, and disposal of Hanford’s tank waste. Currently there are approximately 56 million gallons of highly radioactive mixed wastes awaiting treatment. A key aspect of the River Protection Project (RPP) cleanup mission is to construct and operate the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP). The WTP will separate the tank waste into high-level and low-activity waste (LAW) fractions, both of which will subsequently be vitrified. The projected throughput capacity of the WTP LAW Vitrification Facility is insufficient to complete the RPP mission in the time frame required by the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order, also known as the Tri-Party Agreement (TPA), i.e. December 31, 2047. Therefore, Supplemental Treatment is required both to meet the TPA treatment requirements as well as to more cost effectively complete the tank waste treatment mission. In addition, the WTP LAW vitrification facility off-gas condensate known as WTP Secondary Waste (WTP-SW) will be generated and enriched in volatile components such as 137Cs, 129I, 99Tc, Cl, F, and SO4 that volatilize at the vitrification temperature of 1150°C in the absence of a continuous cold cap (that could minimize volatilization). The current waste disposal path for the WTP-SW is to process it through the Effluent Treatment Facility (ETF). Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming (FBSR) is being considered for immobilization of the ETF concentrate that would be generated by processing the WTP-SW. The focus of this current report is the WTP-SW.

  2. Life-cycle greenhouse gas emissions of shale gas, natural gas, coal, and petroleum.

    PubMed

    Burnham, Andrew; Han, Jeongwoo; Clark, Corrie E; Wang, Michael; Dunn, Jennifer B; Palou-Rivera, Ignasi

    2012-01-17

    The technologies and practices that have enabled the recent boom in shale gas production have also brought attention to the environmental impacts of its use. It has been debated whether the fugitive methane emissions during natural gas production and transmission outweigh the lower carbon dioxide emissions during combustion when compared to coal and petroleum. Using the current state of knowledge of methane emissions from shale gas, conventional natural gas, coal, and petroleum, we estimated up-to-date life-cycle greenhouse gas emissions. In addition, we developed distribution functions for key parameters in each pathway to examine uncertainty and identify data gaps such as methane emissions from shale gas well completions and conventional natural gas liquid unloadings that need to be further addressed. Our base case results show that shale gas life-cycle emissions are 6% lower than conventional natural gas, 23% lower than gasoline, and 33% lower than coal. However, the range in values for shale and conventional gas overlap, so there is a statistical uncertainty whether shale gas emissions are indeed lower than conventional gas. Moreover, this life-cycle analysis, among other work in this area, provides insight on critical stages that the natural gas industry and government agencies can work together on to reduce the greenhouse gas footprint of natural gas.

  3. UPGRADING NATURAL GAS VIA MEMBRANE SEPARATION PROCESSES

    SciTech Connect

    S.A.Stern; P.A. Rice; J. Hao

    2000-03-01

    The objective of the present study is to assess the potential usefulness of membrane separation processes for removing CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2}S from low-quality natural gas containing substantial amounts of both these ''acid'' gases, e.g., up to 40 mole-% CO{sub 2} and 10 mole-% H{sub 2}S. The membrane processes must be capable of upgrading the crude natural gas to pipeline specifications ({le} 2 mole-% CO{sub 2}, {le} 4 ppm H{sub 2}S). Moreover, these processes must also be economically competitive with the conventional separation techniques, such as gas absorption, utilized for this purpose by the gas industry.

  4. Natural gas hydrate occurrence and issues

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kvenvolden, K.A.

    1994-01-01

    Naturally occurring gas hydrate is found in sediment of two regions: (1) continental, including continental shelves, at high latitudes where surface temperatures are very cold, and (2) submarine outer continental margins where pressures are very high and bottom-water temperatures are near 0??C. Continental gas hydrate is found in association with onshore and offshore permafrost. Submarine gas hydrate is found in sediment of continental slopes and rises. The amount of methane present in gas hydrate is thought to be very large, but the estimates that have been made are more speculative than real. Nevertheless, at the present time there has been a convergence of ideas regarding the amount of methane in gas hydrate deposits worldwide at about 2 x 1016 m3 or 7 x 1017 ft3 = 7 x 105 Tcf [Tcf = trillion (1012) ft3]. The potentially large amount of methane in gas hydrate and the shallow depth of gas hydrate deposits are two of the principal factors driving research concerning this substance. Such a large amount of methane, if it could be commercially produced, provides a potential energy resource for the future. Because gas hydrate is metastable, changes of surface pressure and temperature affect its stability. Destabilized gas hydrate beneath the sea floor leads to geologic hazards such as submarine mass movements. Examples of submarine slope failures attributed to gas hydrate are found worldwide. The metastability of gas hydrate may also have an effect on climate. The release of methane, a 'greenhouse' gas, from destabilized gas hydrate may contribute to global warming and be a factor in global climate change.

  5. 76 FR 4417 - Liberty Natural Gas LLC, Liberty Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) Deepwater Port License Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-25

    ... appeared in the Federal Register on April 11, 2000 (65 FR 19477), see PRIVACY ACT. You may view docket... Port appears in the November 17, 2010 Federal Register (75 FR 70350.) The ``Summary of the Application... Maritime Administration Liberty Natural Gas LLC, Liberty Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) Deepwater Port...

  6. Venezuela natural gas for vehicles project

    SciTech Connect

    Marsicobetre, D.; Molero, T.

    1998-12-31

    The Natural Gas for Vehicles (NGV) Project in Venezuela describes the development and growth of the NGV project in the country. Venezuela is a prolific oil producer with advanced exploration, production, refining and solid marketing infrastructure. Gas production is 5.2 Bscfd. The Venezuelan Government and the oil state owned company Petroleos de Venezuela (PDVSA), pursued the opportunity of using natural gas for vehicles based on the huge amounts of gas reserves present and produced every day associated with the oil production. A nationwide gas pipeline network crosses the country from south to west reaching the most important cities and serving domestic and industrial purposes but there are no facilities to process or export liquefied natural gas. NGV has been introduced gradually in Venezuela over the last eight years by PDVSA. One hundred forty-five NGV stations have been installed and another 25 are under construction. Work done comprises displacement or relocation of existing gasoline equipment, civil work, installation and commissioning of equipment. The acceptance and usage of the NGV system is reflected in the more than 17,000 vehicles that have been converted to date using the equivalent of 2,000 bbl oil/day.

  7. Implications of Disruption to Natural Gas Deliverability

    SciTech Connect

    Science Applications International

    2008-09-30

    This project was sponsored by Department of Energy/Office of Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability and managed by the National Energy Technology Laboratory. The primary purpose of the project was to analyze the capability of the natural gas production, transmission and supply systems to continue to provide service in the event of a major disruption in capacity of one or more natural gas transmission pipelines. The project was specifically designed to detail the ability of natural gas market to absorb facility losses and efficiently reallocate gas supplies during a significant pipeline capacity disruption in terms that allowed federal and state agencies and interests to develop effective policies and action plans to prioritize natural gas deliveries from a regional and national perspective. The analyses for each regional study were based on four primary considerations: (1) operating conditions (pipeline capacity, storage capacity, local production, power dispatch decision making and end user options); (2) weather; (3) magnitude and location of the disruption; and, (4) normal versus emergency situation. The detailed information contained in the region reports as generated from this project are Unclassified Controlled Information; and as such are subject to disclosure in accordance with the Freedom of Information Act. Therefore, this report defines the regions that were analyzed and the basic methodologies and assumptions used to completing the analysis.

  8. Adsorbed natural gas storage with activated carbon

    SciTech Connect

    Sun, Jian; Brady, T.A.; Rood, M.J.

    1996-12-31

    Despite technical advances to reduce air pollution emissions, motor vehicles still account for 30 to 70% emissions of all urban air pollutants. The Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 require 100 cities in the United States to reduce the amount of their smog within 5 to 15 years. Hence, auto emissions, the major cause of smog, must be reduced 30 to 60% by 1998. Natural gas con be combusted with less pollutant emissions. Adsorbed natural gas (ANG) uses adsorbents and operates with a low storage pressure which results in lower capital costs and maintenance. This paper describes the production of an activated carbon adsorbent produced from an Illinois coal for ANG.

  9. GAS/LIQUID MEMBRANES FOR NATURAL GAS UPGRADING

    SciTech Connect

    Howard S. Meyer

    2003-07-01

    Gas Technology Institute (GTI) is conducting this research program whose objective is to develop gas/liquid membranes for natural gas upgrading to assist DOE in achieving their goal of developing novel methods of upgrading low quality natural gas to meet pipeline specifications. Kvaerner Process Systems (KPS) and W. L. Gore & Associates (GORE) gas/liquid membrane contactors are based on expanded polytetrafluoroethylene (ePTFE) membranes acting as the contacting barrier between the contaminated gas stream and the absorbing liquid. These resilient membranes provide much greater surface area for transfer than other tower internals, with packing densities five to ten times greater, resulting in equipment 50-70% smaller and lower weight for the same treating service. The scope of the research program is to (1) build and install a laboratory- and a field-scale gas/liquid membrane absorber; (2) operate the units with a low quality natural gas feed stream for sufficient time to verify the simulation model of the contactors and to project membrane life in this severe service; and (3) conducted an economic evaluation, based on the data, to quantify the impact of the technology. Chevron, one of the major producers of natural gas, has offered to host the test at a gas treating plant. KPS will use their position as a recognized leader in the construction of commercial amine plants for building the unit along with GORE providing the membranes. GTI will provide operator and data collection support during lab- and field-testing to assure proper analytical procedures are used. Kvaerner and GTI will perform the final economic evaluation. GTI will provide project management and be responsible for reporting and interactions with DOE on this project. Efforts this quarter have concentrated on field site selection. ChevronTexaco has nominated their Headlee Gas Plant in Odessa, TX for a commercial-scale dehydration test. Design and cost estimation for this new site are underway. Potting

  10. GAS/LIQUID MEMBRANES FOR NATURAL GAS UPGRADING

    SciTech Connect

    Howard S. Meyer

    2003-10-01

    Gas Technology Institute (GTI) is conducting this research program whose objective is to develop gas/liquid membranes for natural gas upgrading to assist DOE in achieving their goal of developing novel methods of upgrading low quality natural gas to meet pipeline specifications. Kvaerner Process Systems (KPS) and W. L. Gore & Associates (GORE) gas/liquid membrane contactors are based on expanded polytetrafluoroethylene (ePTFE) membranes acting as the contacting barrier between the contaminated gas stream and the absorbing liquid. These resilient membranes provide much greater surface area for transfer than other tower internals, with packing densities five to ten times greater, resulting in equipment 50-70% smaller and lower weight for the same treating service. The scope of the research program is to (1) build and install a laboratory- and a field-scale gas/liquid membrane absorber; (2) operate the units with a low quality natural gas feed stream for sufficient time to verify the simulation model of the contactors and to project membrane life in this severe service; and (3) conducted an economic evaluation, based on the data, to quantify the impact of the technology. Chevron, one of the major producers of natural gas, has offered to host the test at a gas treating plant. KPS will use their position as a recognized leader in the construction of commercial amine plants for building the unit along with GORE providing the membranes. GTI will provide operator and data collection support during lab- and field-testing to assure proper analytical procedures are used. Kvaerner and GTI will perform the final economic evaluation. GTI will provide project management and be responsible for reporting and interactions with DOE on this project. Efforts this quarter have concentrated on field site selection. ChevronTexaco has nominated their Headlee Gas Plant in Odessa, TX for a commercial-scale dehydration test. Design and cost estimation for this new site are underway. A Haz

  11. Natural gas pipeline leaks across Washington, DC.

    PubMed

    Jackson, Robert B; Down, Adrian; Phillips, Nathan G; Ackley, Robert C; Cook, Charles W; Plata, Desiree L; Zhao, Kaiguang

    2014-01-01

    Pipeline safety in the United States has increased in recent decades, but incidents involving natural gas pipelines still cause an average of 17 fatalities and $133 M in property damage annually. Natural gas leaks are also the largest anthropogenic source of the greenhouse gas methane (CH4) in the U.S. To reduce pipeline leakage and increase consumer safety, we deployed a Picarro G2301 Cavity Ring-Down Spectrometer in a car, mapping 5893 natural gas leaks (2.5 to 88.6 ppm CH4) across 1500 road miles of Washington, DC. The δ(13)C-isotopic signatures of the methane (-38.2‰ ± 3.9‰ s.d.) and ethane (-36.5 ± 1.1 s.d.) and the CH4:C2H6 ratios (25.5 ± 8.9 s.d.) closely matched the pipeline gas (-39.0‰ and -36.2‰ for methane and ethane; 19.0 for CH4/C2H6). Emissions from four street leaks ranged from 9200 to 38,200 L CH4 day(-1) each, comparable to natural gas used by 1.7 to 7.0 homes, respectively. At 19 tested locations, 12 potentially explosive (Grade 1) methane concentrations of 50,000 to 500,000 ppm were detected in manholes. Financial incentives and targeted programs among companies, public utility commissions, and scientists to reduce leaks and replace old cast-iron pipes will improve consumer safety and air quality, save money, and lower greenhouse gas emissions.

  12. 7 CFR 2900.4 - Natural gas requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Natural gas requirements. 2900.4 Section 2900.4..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ESSENTIAL AGRICULTURAL USES AND VOLUMETRIC REQUIREMENTS-NATURAL GAS POLICY ACT § 2900.4 Natural gas requirements. For purposes of Section 401(c), NGPA, the natural gas requirements...

  13. 7 CFR 2900.4 - Natural gas requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Natural gas requirements. 2900.4 Section 2900.4..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ESSENTIAL AGRICULTURAL USES AND VOLUMETRIC REQUIREMENTS-NATURAL GAS POLICY ACT § 2900.4 Natural gas requirements. For purposes of Section 401(c), NGPA, the natural gas requirements...

  14. 7 CFR 2900.4 - Natural gas requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Natural gas requirements. 2900.4 Section 2900.4..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ESSENTIAL AGRICULTURAL USES AND VOLUMETRIC REQUIREMENTS-NATURAL GAS POLICY ACT § 2900.4 Natural gas requirements. For purposes of Section 401(c), NGPA, the natural gas requirements...

  15. Natural gas strategic plan and program crosscut plans

    SciTech Connect

    1995-06-01

    The natural gas strategic plan recognizes the challenges and opportunities facing increased U.S. natural gas use. Focus areas of research include natural gas supply, delivery, and storage, power generation, industrial, residential and commercial, natural gas vehicles, and the environment. Historical aspects, mission, situation analysis, technology trends, strategic issues, performance indicators, technology program overviews, and forecasting in the above areas are described.

  16. 7 CFR 2900.4 - Natural gas requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Natural gas requirements. 2900.4 Section 2900.4..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ESSENTIAL AGRICULTURAL USES AND VOLUMETRIC REQUIREMENTS-NATURAL GAS POLICY ACT § 2900.4 Natural gas requirements. For purposes of Section 401(c), NGPA, the natural gas requirements...

  17. 7 CFR 2900.4 - Natural gas requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Natural gas requirements. 2900.4 Section 2900.4..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ESSENTIAL AGRICULTURAL USES AND VOLUMETRIC REQUIREMENTS-NATURAL GAS POLICY ACT § 2900.4 Natural gas requirements. For purposes of Section 401(c), NGPA, the natural gas requirements...

  18. New Methodology for Natural Gas Production Estimates

    EIA Publications

    2010-01-01

    A new methodology is implemented with the monthly natural gas production estimates from the EIA-914 survey this month. The estimates, to be released April 29, 2010, include revisions for all of 2009. The fundamental changes in the new process include the timeliness of the historical data used for estimation and the frequency of sample updates, both of which are improved.

  19. Mexican demand for US natural gas

    SciTech Connect

    Kanter, M.A.; Kier, P.H.

    1993-09-01

    This study describes the Mexican natural gas industry as it exists today and the factors that have shaped the evolution of the industry in the past or that are expected to influence its progress; it also projects production and use of natural gas and estimates the market for exports of natural gas from the United States to Mexico. The study looks ahead to two periods, a near term (1993--1995) and an intermediate term (1996--2000). The bases for estimates under two scenarios are described. Under the conservative scenario, exports of natural gas from the United States would decrease from the 1992 level of 250 million cubic feet per day (MMCF/d), would return to that level by 1995, and would reach about 980 MMCF/D by 2000. Under the more optimistic scenario, exports would decrease in 1993 and would recover and rise to about 360 MMCF/D in 1995 and to 1,920 MMCF/D in 2000.

  20. Teaching about Natural Gas and the Environment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shewell, John

    1994-01-01

    This article contains a foldout entitled Natural Gas and the Environment for use in helping students become more aware of the relationships that exist between humans and the environment. Suggestions for classroom integration of this subject into your curriculum are also provided. (ZWH)

  1. Bibliography on Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) safety

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ordin, P. M.

    1976-01-01

    Approximately 600 citations concerning safety of liquefied natural gas and liquid methane are presented. Each entry includes the title, author, abstract, source, description of figures, key references, and major descriptors for retrieving the document. An author index is provided as well as an index of descriptors.

  2. Naturally fractured tight gas reservoir detection optimization

    SciTech Connect

    1999-06-01

    Building upon the partitioning of the Greater Green River Basin (GGRB) that was conducted last quarter, the goal of the work this quarter has been to conclude evaluation of the Stratos well and the prototypical Green River Deep partition, and perform the fill resource evaluation of the Upper Cretaceous tight gas play, with the goal of defining target areas of enhanced natural fracturing. The work plan for the quarter of November 1-December 31, 1998 comprised four tasks: (1) Evaluation of the Green River Deep partition and the Stratos well and examination of potential opportunity for expanding the use of E and P technology to low permeability, naturally fractured gas reservoirs, (2) Gas field studies, and (3) Resource analysis of the balance of the partitions.

  3. Method and apparatus for dispensing compressed natural gas and liquified natural gas to natural gas powered vehicles

    DOEpatents

    Bingham, Dennis A.; Clark, Michael L.; Wilding, Bruce M.; Palmer, Gary L.

    2005-05-31

    A fueling facility and method for dispensing liquid natural gas (LNG), compressed natural gas (CNG) or both on-demand. The fueling facility may include a source of LNG, such as cryogenic storage vessel. A low volume high pressure pump is coupled to the source of LNG to produce a stream of pressurized LNG. The stream of pressurized LNG may be selectively directed through an LNG flow path or to a CNG flow path which includes a vaporizer configured to produce CNG from the pressurized LNG. A portion of the CNG may be drawn from the CNG flow path and introduced into the CNG flow path to control the temperature of LNG flowing therethrough. Similarly, a portion of the LNG may be drawn from the LNG flow path and introduced into the CNG flow path to control the temperature of CNG flowing therethrough.

  4. Natural gas legislation: a consumer's perspective

    SciTech Connect

    Lemon, J.R.

    1983-08-01

    This report evaluates three major legislative proposals: accelerated decontrol of both old and new wellhead prices as proposed by the Reagan administration (S.615, H.R. 1760); imposition of new natural gas price controls at lower levels as proposed by Congressman Gephardt (H.R. 2154); and conversion of interstate gas pipelines to common carriage as proposed by Senators Dixon and Percy and by Congressman Corcoran (S. 1119, H.R. 2565). The reference or base case scenario used in the evaluation is a continuation of the Natural Gas Policy Act of 1978 (NGPA) with no legislative modifications. First, projections of wellhead and burner-tip natural gas prices are presented for the period 1983-1990, and then consumer benefits under the different scenarios are estimated. All projections presented assume that legislation takes effect as of January 1, 1983 and that normal weather patterns are experienced. All prices identified in the report are given in 1982 dollars unless otherwise indicated. 5 figs., 1 tab.

  5. Conversion of a Waste Gas to Liquid Natural Gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gongaware, D. F.; Barclay, M. A.; Barclay, J. A.; Skrzypkowski, M. P.

    2004-06-01

    The choice of liquefied natural gas (LNG) as a heavy-duty vehicular fuel is growing rapidly due to improved LNG economics, diesel price uncertainties caused by the dependence on imported crude oil, liabilities associated with environmental and health concerns, and governmental programs related to concerns over greenhouse gas emissions. However, vehicle owners who wish to use LNG are impeded by a lack of refueling infrastructure and reliable supply of inexpensive fuel. These barriers are being overcome by the development of innovative purifier/liquefier systems that economically convert a wide array of distributed, low cost methane gas sources into high quality LNG. This paper describes the engineering design, manufacture, installation, and initial operations of two such systems. One unit was a pilot-scale system using an innovative cryogenic freezing process to remove bulk concentrations of carbon dioxide from the landfill gas (LFG). The second unit converts stranded well gas containing ˜ 18% nitrogen gas into LNG. The paper closes with a summary of lessons learned from these two installations and directions for future improvements.

  6. Development of a thermoacoustic natural gas liquefier.

    SciTech Connect

    Wollan, J. J.; Swift, G. W.; Backhaus, S. N.; Gardner, D. L.

    2002-01-01

    Praxair, in conjunction with the Los Alamos National Laboratory, is developing a new technology, thermoacoustic heat engines and refrigerators, for liquefaction of natural gas. This is the only technology capable of producing refrigeration power at cryogenic temperatures with no moving parts. A prototype, with a projected natural gas liquefaction capacity of 500 gallons/day, has been built and tested. The power source is a natural gas burner. Systems will be developed with liquefaction capacities up to 10,000 to 20,000 gallons per day. The technology, the development project, accomplishments and applications are discussed. In February 2001 Praxair, Inc. purchased the acoustic heat engine and refrigeration development program from Chart Industries. Chart (formerly Cryenco, which Chart purchased in 1997) and Los Alamos had been working on the technology development program since 1994. The purchase included assets and intellectual property rights for thermoacoustically driven orifice pulse tube refrigerators (TADOPTR), a new and revolutionary Thermoacoustic Stirling Heat Engine (TASHE) technology, aspects of Orifice Pulse Tube Refrigeration (OPTR) and linear motor compressors as OPTR drivers. Praxair, in cooperation with Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), the licensor of the TADOPTR and TASHE patents, is continuing the development of TASHE-OPTR natural gas powered, natural gas liquefiers. The liquefaction of natural gas, which occurs at -161 C (-259 F) at atmospheric pressure, has previously required rather sophisticated refrigeration machinery. The 1990 TADOPTR invention by Drs. Greg Swift (LANL) and Ray Radebaugh (NIST) demonstrated the first technology to produce cryogenic refrigeration with no moving parts. Thermoacoustic engines and refrigerators use acoustic phenomena to produce refrigeration from heat. The basic driver and refrigerator consist of nothing more than helium-filled heat exchangers and pipes, made of common materials, without exacting tolerances

  7. Naturally fractured tight gas reservoir detection optimization

    SciTech Connect

    1999-04-30

    In March, work continued on characterizing probabilities for determining natural fracturing associated with the GGRB for the Upper Cretaceous tight gas plays. Structural complexity, based on potential field data and remote sensing data was completed. A resource estimate for the Frontier and Mesa Verde play was also completed. Further, work was also conducted to determine threshold economics for the play based on limited current production in the plays in the Wamsutter Ridge area. These analyses culminated in a presentation at FETC on 24 March 1999 where quantified natural fracture domains, mapped on a partition basis, which establish ''sweet spot'' probability for natural fracturing, were reviewed. That presentation is reproduced here as Appendix 1. The work plan for the quarter of January 1, 1999--March 31, 1999 comprised five tasks: (1) Evaluation of the GGRB partitions for structural complexity that can be associated with natural fractures, (2) Continued resource analysis of the balance of the partitions to determine areas with higher relative gas richness, (3) Gas field studies, (4) Threshold resource economics to determine which partitions would be the most prospective, and (5) Examination of the area around the Table Rock 4H well.

  8. Gas supplies of interstate natural gas pipeline companies, 1983

    SciTech Connect

    Pridgen, V.

    1984-11-01

    This report provides information on the total reserves, production, and deliverability capabilities of the 86 interstate pipeline companies required to file the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) Form 15, Interstate Pipeline's Annual Report of Gas Supply. Total dedicated domestic gas reserves, owned by or under contract to the interstate pipeline companies, decreased in 1983 by 4.2 trillion cubic feet (Tcf), or 4.3%, from 98.7 Tcf at the beginning of the year to 94.5 Tcf at the end of the year. A 5-year tabulation shows that dedicated domestic gas reserves increased slightly from 94.0 Tcf at the beginning of 1979 to 94.5 Tcf at the end of 1983, an increase of 0.5 Tcf, or 0.5%. Total gas purchased and produced from the dedicated domestic gas reserves in 1983 was 9.5 Tcf, down 13.1% from the 10.9 Tcf reported in the preceding year. The 1983 ratio of total dedicated domestic reserves to production was 10.0, significantly above the 9.0 ratio reported for 1982. Net revisions to dedicated domestic gas reserves during 1983 are calculated at -0.5 Tcf, as compared to 1.4 Tcf in 1982. Total interstate reserve additions during 1983 are reported to be 5.8 Tcf, compared to additions of 9.9 Tcf in 1982. Total natural gas imported by interstate pipeline companies from two foreign sources, Canada and Mexico, was 0.8 Tcf, 7.4% of the total gas produced and purchased in 1983. Imports of LNG from Algeria totaled only 0.09 Tcf. Total deliveries are projected to decline from 12.9 Tcf in 1984 to 7.1 Tcf by 1988. This decline is driven by the projected decline in domestic reserve deliverability. Deliveries from foreign and other sources are expected to remain relatively constant over the 5-year period. 8 figures, 18 tables.

  9. High rate of methane leakage from natural gas production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balcerak, Ernie

    2013-10-01

    Natural gas production is growing as the United States seeks domestic sources of relatively clean energy. Natural gas combustion produces less carbon dioxide emissions than coal or oil for the amount of energy produced. However, one source of concern is that some natural gas leaks to the atmosphere from the extraction point, releasing methane, a potent greenhouse gas.

  10. Incremental natural gas resources through infield reserve growth/secondary natural gas recovery

    SciTech Connect

    Finley, R.J.; Levey, R.A.; Hardage, B.A.

    1993-12-31

    The primary objective of the Infield Reserve Growth/Secondary Natural Gas Recovery (SGR) project is to develop, test, and verify technologies and methodologies with near- to midterm potential for maximizing the recovery of natural gasfrom conventional reservoirs in known fields. Additional technical and technology transfer objectives of the SGR project include: To establish how depositional and diagenetic heterogeneities in reservoirs of conventional permeability cause reservoir compartmentalization and, hence, incomplete recovery of natural gas. To document examples of reserve growth occurrence and potential from fluvial and deltaic sandstones of the Texas gulf coast basin as a natural laboratory for developing concepts and testing applications to find secondary gas. To demonstrate how the integration of geology, reservoir engineering, geophysics, and well log analysis/petrophysics leads to strategic recompletion and well placement opportunities for reserve growth in mature fields. To transfer project results to a wide array of natural gas producers, not just as field case studies, but as conceptual models of how heterogeneities determine natural gas flow units and how to recognize the geologic and engineering clues that operators can use in a cost-effective manner to identify incremental, or secondary, gas.

  11. Naturally fractured tight gas reservoir detection optimization

    SciTech Connect

    1998-11-30

    The goal of the work this quarter has been to partition and high-grade the Greater Green River basin for exploration efforts in the Upper Cretaceous tight gas play and to initiate resource assessment of the basin. The work plan for the quarter of July 1-September 30, 1998 comprised three tasks: (1) Refining the exploration process for deep, naturally fractured gas reservoirs; (2) Partitioning of the basin based on structure and areas of overpressure; (3) Examination of the Kinney and Canyon Creek fields with respect to the Cretaceous tight gas play and initiation of the resource assessment of the Vermilion sub-basin partition (which contains these two fields); and (4) Initiation analysis of the Deep Green River Partition with respect to the Stratos well and assessment of the resource in the partition.

  12. Consortium for Petroleum & Natural Gas Stripper Wells

    SciTech Connect

    Joel L. Morrison; Sharon L. Elder

    2007-03-31

    The Pennsylvania State University, under contract to the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL), established a national industry-driven Stripper Well Consortium (SWC) that is focused on improving the production performance of domestic petroleum and/or natural gas stripper wells. The SWC represents a partnership between U.S. petroleum and natural gas producers, trade associations, state funding agencies, academia, and the NETL. This document serves as the twelfth quarterly technical progress report for the SWC. Key activities for this reporting period included: (1) Drafting and releasing the 2007 Request for Proposals; (2) Securing a meeting facility, scheduling and drafting plans for the 2007 Spring Proposal Meeting; (3) Conducting elections and announcing representatives for the four 2007-2008 Executive Council seats; (4) 2005 Final Project Reports; (5) Personal Digital Assistant Workshops scheduled; and (6) Communications and outreach.

  13. Comparative Study on the Sulfur Tolerance and Carbon Resistance of Supported Noble Metal Catalysts in Steam Reforming of Liquid Hydrocarbon Fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Xie, Chao; Chen, Yongsheng; Engelhard, Mark H.; Song, Chunshan

    2012-04-18

    This work was conducted to clarify the influence of the type of metal and support on the sulfur tolerance and carbon resistance of supported noble metal catalysts in steam reforming of liquid hydrocarbons. Al2O3-supported noble metal catalysts (Rh, Ru, Pt, and Pd), Rh catalysts on different supports (Al2O3, CeO2, SiO2, and MgO), and Pt catalyst supported on CeO2 and Al2O3, were examined for steam reforming of a liquid hydrocarbon fuel (Norpar13 from Exxon Mobil) at 800 C for 55 h. The results indicate that (1) Rh/Al2O3 shows higher sulfur tolerance than the Ru, Pt, and Pd catalysts on the same support; (2) both Al2O3 and CeO2 are promising supports for Rh catalyst to process sulfur-containing hydrocarbons; and (3) Pt/CeO2 exhibits better catalytic performance than Pt/Al2O3 in the reaction with sulfur. TEM results demonstrate that the metal particles in Rh/Al2O3 were better dispersed (mostly in 1-3 nm) compared with the other catalysts after reforming the sulfur-containing feed. As revealed by XPS, the binding energy of Rh 3d for Rh/Al2O3 is notably higher than that for Rh/CeO2, implying the formation of electron-deficient Rh particles in the former. The strong sulfur tolerance of Rh/Al2O3 may be related to the formation of well-dispersed electron-deficient Rh particles on the Al2O3 support. Sulfur K-edge XANES illustrates the preferential formation of sulfonate and sulfate on Rh/Al2O3, which is believed to be beneficial for improving its sulfur tolerance as their oxygen-shielded sulfur structure may hinder direct Rh-S interaction. Due to its strong sulfur tolerance, the carbon deposition on Rh/Al2O3 was significantly lower than that on the Al2O3-supported Ru, Pt, and Pd catalysts after the reaction with sulfur. The superior catalytic performance of CeO2-supported Rh and Pt catalysts in the presence of sulfur can be ascribed mainly to the promotion effect of CeO2 on carbon gasification, leading to much lower carbon deposition compared with the Rh/Al2O3, Rh/MgO, Rh

  14. LIQUID NATURAL GAS (LNG): AN ALTERNATIVE FUEL FROM LANDFILL GAS (LFG) AND WASTEWATER DIGESTER GAS

    SciTech Connect

    VANDOR,D.

    1999-03-01

    This Research and Development Subcontract sought to find economic, technical and policy links between methane recovery at landfill and wastewater treatment sites in New York and Maryland, and ways to use that methane as an alternative fuel--compressed natural gas (CNG) or liquid natural gas (LNG) -- in centrally fueled Alternative Fueled Vehicles (AFVs).

  15. California Natural Gas Pipelines: A Brief Guide

    SciTech Connect

    Neuscamman, Stephanie; Price, Don; Pezzola, Genny; Glascoe, Lee

    2013-01-22

    The purpose of this document is to familiarize the reader with the general configuration and operation of the natural gas pipelines in California and to discuss potential LLNL contributions that would support the Partnership for the 21st Century collaboration. First, pipeline infrastructure will be reviewed. Then, recent pipeline events will be examined. Selected current pipeline industry research will be summarized. Finally, industry acronyms are listed for reference.

  16. Natural Gas Pipeline Network: Changing and Growing

    EIA Publications

    1996-01-01

    This chapter focuses upon the capabilities of the national natural gas pipeline network, examining how it has expanded during this decade and how it may expand further over the coming years. It also looks at some of the costs of this expansion, including the environmental costs which may be extensive. Changes in the network as a result of recent regional market shifts are also discussed.

  17. Consortium for Petroleum & Natural Gas Stripper Wells

    SciTech Connect

    Joel L. Morrison; Sharon L. Elder

    2006-09-30

    The Pennsylvania State University, under contract to the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) established a national industry-driven Stripper Well Consortium (SWC) that is focused on improving the production performance of domestic petroleum and/or natural gas stripper wells. The consortium creates a partnership with the U.S. petroleum and natural gas producers, trade associations, state funding agencies, academia, and the National Energy Technology Laboratory. This report serves as the tenth quarterly technical progress report for the SWC. Key activities for this reporting period include: {lg_bullet} 2004 SWC Final Project Reports distribution; {lg_bullet} Exhibit and present at the Midcontinent Oil and Gas Prospect Fair, Great Bend, KS, September 12, 2006; {lg_bullet} Participate and showcase current and past projects at the 2006 Oklahoma Oil and Gas Trade Expo, Oklahoma City, OK, October 26, 2006; {lg_bullet} Finalize agenda and identify exhibitors for the northeastern US, Fall SWC Technical Transfer Workshop, Pittsburghhh, PA, November 9, 2006; {lg_bullet} Continue distribution of the public broadcast documentary, ''Independent Oil: Rediscovering American's Forgotten Wells''; {lg_bullet} Communications/outreach; and {lg_bullet} New members update.

  18. Hydrogen-Enhanced Natural Gas Vehicle Program

    SciTech Connect

    Hyde, Dan; Collier, Kirk

    2009-01-22

    The project objective is to demonstrate the viability of HCNG fuel (30 to 50% hydrogen by volume and the remainder natural gas) to reduce emissions from light-duty on-road vehicles with no loss in performance or efficiency. The City of Las Vegas has an interest in alternative fuels and already has an existing hydrogen refueling station. Collier Technologies Inc (CT) supplied the latest design retrofit kits capable of converting nine compressed natural gas (CNG) fueled, light-duty vehicles powered by the Ford 5.4L Triton engine. CT installed the kits on the first two vehicles in Las Vegas, trained personnel at the City of Las Vegas (the City) to perform the additional seven retrofits, and developed materials for allowing other entities to perform these retrofits as well. These vehicles were used in normal service by the City while driver impressions, reliability, fuel efficiency and emissions were documented for a minimum of one year after conversion. This project has shown the efficacy of operating vehicles originally designed to operate on compressed natural gas with HCNG fuel incorporating large quantities of exhaust gas recirculation (EGR). There were no safety issues experienced with these vehicles. The only maintenance issue in the project was some rough idling due to problems with the EGR valve and piping parts. Once the rough idling was corrected no further maintenance issues with these vehicles were experienced. Fuel economy data showed no significant changes after conversion even with the added power provided by the superchargers that were part of the conversions. Driver feedback for the conversions was very favorable. The additional power provided by the HCNG vehicles was greatly appreciated, especially in traffic. The drivability of the HCNG vehicles was considered to be superior by the drivers. Most of the converted vehicles showed zero oxides of nitrogen throughout the life of the project using the State of Nevada emissions station.

  19. Simple cerium-triethanolamine complex: Synthesis, characterization, thermal decomposition and its application to prepare ceria support for platinum catalysts used in methane steam reforming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wattanathana, Worawat; Nootsuwan, Nollapan; Veranitisagul, Chatchai; Koonsaeng, Nattamon; Laosiripojana, Navadol; Laobuthee, Apirat

    2015-06-01

    Cerium-triethanolamine complex was synthesized by simple complexation method in 1-propanol solvent using cerium(III) chloride as a metal source and triethanolamine as a ligand. The structures of the prepared complex were proposed based on FT-IR, FT-Raman and ESI-MS results as equimolar of triethanolamine and cerium chelated complex having monomeric tricyclic structure with and without chloride anion as another coordinating group known as ceratrane. The complex was used as a precursor for ceria material done by thermal decomposition. XRD result revealed that when calcined at 600 °C for 2 h, the cerium complex was totally turned into pure ceria with cubic fluorite structure. The obtained ceria was then employed to synthesize platinum doped ceria catalysts for methane steam reforming. Various amounts of platinum i.e. 1, 3, 5 and 10 mol percents were introduced on the ceria support by microwave-assisted wetness impregnation using ammonium tetrachloroplatinate(II). The platinum-impregnated ceria powders were subjected to calcination in 10% hydrogen/helium atmosphere at 500 °C for 3 h to reduce platinum(II) to platinum(0). XRD patterns of the catalysts confirmed that the platinum particles doped on the ceria support were in the form of platinum(0). Catalytic activity test showed that the catalytic activities got higher as the amounts of platinum doped increased. Besides, the portions of coke formation on the surface of catalysts were reduced as the amounts of platinum doped increased.

  20. Mechanistic Insights of Ethanol Steam Reforming over Ni–CeO x (111): The Importance of Hydroxyl Groups for Suppressing Coke Formation

    DOE PAGES

    Liu, Zongyuan; Duchoň, Tomáš; Wang, Huanru; Peterson, Erik W.; Zhou, Yinghui; Luo, Si; Zhou, Jing; Matolín, Vladimir; Stacchiola, Dario J.; Rodriguez, José A.; et al

    2015-07-30

    We have studied the reaction of ethanol and water over Ni–CeO2-x(111) model surfaces to elucidate the mechanistic steps associated with the ethanol steam reforming (ESR) reaction. Our results provide insights about the importance of hydroxyl groups to the ESR reaction over Ni-based catalysts. Systematically, we have investigated the reaction of ethanol on Ni–CeO2-x(111) at varying Ce³⁺ concentrations (CeO1.8–2.0) with absence/presence of water using a combination of soft X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (sXPS) and temperature-programmed desorption (TPD). Consistent with previous reports, upon annealing, metallic Ni formed on reduced ceria while NiO was the main component on fully oxidized ceria. Ni⁰ is themore » active phase leading to both the C–C and C–H cleavage of ethanol but is also responsible for carbon accumulation or coking. We have identified a Ni₃C phase that formed prior to the formation of coke. At temperatures above 600K, the lattice oxygen from ceria and the hydroxyl groups from water interact cooperatively in the removal of coke, likely through a strong metal–support interaction between nickel and ceria that facilitates oxygen transfer.« less

  1. Mechanistic Insights of Ethanol Steam Reforming over Ni–CeO x (111): The Importance of Hydroxyl Groups for Suppressing Coke Formation

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Zongyuan; Duchoň, Tomáš; Wang, Huanru; Peterson, Erik W.; Zhou, Yinghui; Luo, Si; Zhou, Jing; Matolín, Vladimir; Stacchiola, Dario J.; Rodriguez, José A.; Senanayake, Sanjaya D.

    2015-07-30

    We have studied the reaction of ethanol and water over Ni–CeO2-x(111) model surfaces to elucidate the mechanistic steps associated with the ethanol steam reforming (ESR) reaction. Our results provide insights about the importance of hydroxyl groups to the ESR reaction over Ni-based catalysts. Systematically, we have investigated the reaction of ethanol on Ni–CeO2-x(111) at varying Ce³⁺ concentrations (CeO1.8–2.0) with absence/presence of water using a combination of soft X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (sXPS) and temperature-programmed desorption (TPD). Consistent with previous reports, upon annealing, metallic Ni formed on reduced ceria while NiO was the main component on fully oxidized ceria. Ni⁰ is the active phase leading to both the C–C and C–H cleavage of ethanol but is also responsible for carbon accumulation or coking. We have identified a Ni₃C phase that formed prior to the formation of coke. At temperatures above 600K, the lattice oxygen from ceria and the hydroxyl groups from water interact cooperatively in the removal of coke, likely through a strong metal–support interaction between nickel and ceria that facilitates oxygen transfer.

  2. Effect of Gold Particle Size on Steam Reforming of Methanol Over Au/CeO2-ZrO2 Catalysts.

    PubMed

    Lakshmanan, Pandian; Kim, Dong Ha; Park, Eun Duck

    2016-05-01

    We examined the effect of the particle size of gold on steam reforming of methanol over Au/CeO2-ZrO2 catalysts. Gold was loaded onto CeO2-ZrO2 through deposition-precipitation. The average particle size (2-12 nm) of the gold was controlled by thermal reduction under H2 at various temperatures and by chemical reduction with various reducing agents. The catalytic activity decreased significantly with increasing particle size of the gold. The turnover frequency at the interface between gold and a support appeared to be independent of particle size in the range 2-5 nm, which implies that the perimeter of the particle may be the active site for this reaction. Methanol adsorption and conversion over these catalysts were also investigated with in-situ diffuse reflectance infrared Fourier transform spectroscopy. Analytical results for various adsorbed intermediate species during methanol conversion suggests that transformation of methoxy species is facilitated by use of smaller gold particles. PMID:27483761

  3. Radioactive Demonstration Of Mineralized Waste Forms Made From Hanford Low Activity Waste (Tank SX-105 And AN-103) By Fluidized Bed Steam Reformation

    SciTech Connect

    Jantzen, Carol; Herman, Connie; Crawford, Charles; Bannochie, Christopher; Burket, Paul; Daniel, Gene; Cozzi, Alex; Nash, Charles; Miller, Donald; Missimer, David

    2014-01-10

    One of the immobilization technologies under consideration as a Supplemental Treatment for Hanford’s Low Activity Waste (LAW) is Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming (FBSR). The FBSR technology forms a mineral waste form at moderate processing temperatures thus retaining and atomically bonding the halides, sulfates, and technetium in the mineral phases (nepheline, sodalite, nosean, carnegieite). Additions of kaolin clay are used instead of glass formers and the minerals formed by the FBSR technology offers (1) atomic bonding of the radionuclides and constituents of concern (COC) comparable to glass, (2) short and long term durability comparable to glass, (3) disposal volumes comparable to glass, and (4) higher Na2O and SO{sub 4} waste loadings than glass. The higher FBSR Na{sub 2}O and SO{sub 4} waste loadings contribute to the low disposal volumes but also provide for more rapid processing of the LAW. Recent FBSR processing and testing of Hanford radioactive LAW (Tank SX-105 and AN-103) waste is reported and compared to previous radioactive and non-radioactive LAW processing and testing.

  4. Where does methanol lose hydrogen to trigger steam reforming? A revisit of methanol dehydrogenation on the PdZn alloy model obtained from kinetic Monte Carlo simulations.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Feng; Chen, Zhao-Xu

    2016-02-01

    Pd/ZnO is a promising catalyst studied for methanol steam reforming (MSR) and the 1 : 1 PdZn alloy is demonstrated to be the active component. It is believed that MSR starts from methanol dehydrogenation to methoxy. Previous studies of methanol dehydrogenation on the ideal PdZn(111) surface show that methanol adsorbs weakly on the PdZn(111) surface and it is hard for methanol to transform into methoxy because of the high dehydrogenation barrier, indicating that the catalyst model is not appropriate for investigating the first step of MSR. Using the model derived from our recent kinetic Monte Carlo simulations, we examined the process CH3OH → CH3O → CH2O → CHO → CO. Compared with the ideal model, methanol adsorbs much more strongly and the barrier from CH3OH → CH3O is much lower on the kMC model. On the other hand, the C-H bond breaking of CH3O, CH2O and CHO becomes harder. We show that co-adsorbed water is important for refreshing the active sites. The present study shows that the first MSR step most likely takes place on three-fold hollow sites formed by Zn atoms, and the inhomogeneity of the PdZn alloy may exert significant influences on reactions. PMID:26771029

  5. Where does methanol lose hydrogen to trigger steam reforming? A revisit of methanol dehydrogenation on the PdZn alloy model obtained from kinetic Monte Carlo simulations.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Feng; Chen, Zhao-Xu

    2016-02-01

    Pd/ZnO is a promising catalyst studied for methanol steam reforming (MSR) and the 1 : 1 PdZn alloy is demonstrated to be the active component. It is believed that MSR starts from methanol dehydrogenation to methoxy. Previous studies of methanol dehydrogenation on the ideal PdZn(111) surface show that methanol adsorbs weakly on the PdZn(111) surface and it is hard for methanol to transform into methoxy because of the high dehydrogenation barrier, indicating that the catalyst model is not appropriate for investigating the first step of MSR. Using the model derived from our recent kinetic Monte Carlo simulations, we examined the process CH3OH → CH3O → CH2O → CHO → CO. Compared with the ideal model, methanol adsorbs much more strongly and the barrier from CH3OH → CH3O is much lower on the kMC model. On the other hand, the C-H bond breaking of CH3O, CH2O and CHO becomes harder. We show that co-adsorbed water is important for refreshing the active sites. The present study shows that the first MSR step most likely takes place on three-fold hollow sites formed by Zn atoms, and the inhomogeneity of the PdZn alloy may exert significant influences on reactions.

  6. Effect of Gold Particle Size on Steam Reforming of Methanol Over Au/CeO2-ZrO2 Catalysts.

    PubMed

    Lakshmanan, Pandian; Kim, Dong Ha; Park, Eun Duck

    2016-05-01

    We examined the effect of the particle size of gold on steam reforming of methanol over Au/CeO2-ZrO2 catalysts. Gold was loaded onto CeO2-ZrO2 through deposition-precipitation. The average particle size (2-12 nm) of the gold was controlled by thermal reduction under H2 at various temperatures and by chemical reduction with various reducing agents. The catalytic activity decreased significantly with increasing particle size of the gold. The turnover frequency at the interface between gold and a support appeared to be independent of particle size in the range 2-5 nm, which implies that the perimeter of the particle may be the active site for this reaction. Methanol adsorption and conversion over these catalysts were also investigated with in-situ diffuse reflectance infrared Fourier transform spectroscopy. Analytical results for various adsorbed intermediate species during methanol conversion suggests that transformation of methoxy species is facilitated by use of smaller gold particles.

  7. Global Liquefied Natural Gas Market: Status and Outlook, The

    EIA Publications

    2003-01-01

    The Global Liquefied Natural Gas Market: Status & Outlook was undertaken to characterize the global liquefied natural gas (LNG) market and to examine recent trends and future prospects in the LNG market.

  8. Consortium for Petroleum & Natural Gas Stripper Wells

    SciTech Connect

    Joel L. Morrison; Sharon L. Elder

    2006-12-31

    The Pennsylvania State University, under contract to the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL), established a national industry-driven Stripper Well Consortium (SWC) that is focused on improving the production performance of domestic petroleum and/or natural gas stripper wells. The SWC represents a partnership between U.S. petroleum and natural gas producers, trade associations, state funding agencies, academia, and the NETL. This document serves as the eleventh quarterly technical progress report for the SWC. Key activities for this reporting period included: (1) Organizing and hosting the Fall SWC Technology Transfer Workshop for the northeastern U.S., in Pittsburgh, PA, on November 9, 2006, and organizing and identifying projects to exhibit during the SWC/Gas Storage Technology Consortium (GSTC) joint reception on November 8, 2006; (2) Distributing a paper copy of the Texas Tech 2004 Final Report and a revised, complete compact disc of all 2004 final reports; (3) Invoicing current and potential members for FY2007; (4) Soliciting nominations for the 2007-2008 Executive Council seats; and (5) Communications and outreach.

  9. Natural gas storage - end user interaction. Task 2. Topical report

    SciTech Connect

    1996-01-01

    New opportunities have been created for underground gas storage as a result of recent regulatory developments in the energy industry. The Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) Order 636 directly changed the economics of gas storage nationwide. This paper discusses the storage of natural gas, storage facilities, and factors affecting the current, and future situation for natural gas storage.

  10. LED-based NDIR natural gas analyzer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fanchenko, Sergey; Baranov, Alexander; Savkin, Alexey; Sleptsov, Vladimir

    2016-03-01

    A new generation of the light-emitting diodes (LEDs) and photodiodes (PDs) was used recently to develop an open path non-dispersive infrared (NDIR) methane analyzer. The first open path detector prototype was constructed using LEDs for measurement and reference channels, accordingly, and first measurements for methane gas have been performed using optical paths of the order of several meters [3]. The natural gas consists of several first alkanes, mainly methane, and it is important to have a possibility of measuring all of them. In the present work we report the results of NDIR measurements for propane-butane mixture and new measurements of methane using LEDs for measurement and reference channels at 2300 and 1700 nm wavelengths, accordingly. The necessity of the double beam scheme is demonstrated and obtained results for methane and propane-butane mixture are compared.

  11. Refocused energy policy: a natural gas perspective

    SciTech Connect

    Mares, J.W.

    1981-09-01

    The present adminstration's policy on energy development is briefly summarized. While the Department of Energy will be dismantled, several important functions will be preserved and will continue elsewhere in government. The administration's aim is not to present an energy blueprint to predetermine energy solutions, rather, policy is based on the belief that the marketplace must be allowed to determine the most economic and durable energy sources. Revision of the federal leasing policy is discussed. Free market pricing of oil and gas is another key aspect of the new energy policy. The development of advanced technology in the areas of natural gas recovery, methane from coalbed, development of tight sands deposits, geopressured aquifers, and coal gasification is also discussed.

  12. CO Methanation for Synthetic Natural Gas Production.

    PubMed

    Kambolis, Anastasios; Schildhauer, Tilman J; Kröcher, Oliver

    2015-01-01

    Energy from woody biomass could supplement renewable energy production towards the replacement of fossil fuels. A multi-stage process involving gasification of wood and then catalytic transformation of the producer gas to synthetic natural gas (SNG) represents progress in this direction. SNG can be transported and distributed through the existing pipeline grid, which is advantageous from an economical point of view. Therefore, CO methanation is attracting a great deal of attention and much research effort is focusing on the understanding of the process steps and its further development. This short review summarizes recent efforts at Paul Scherrer Institute on the understanding of the reaction mechanism, the catalyst deactivation, and the development of catalytic materials with benign properties for CO methanation. PMID:26598405

  13. Environmental data energy technology characterizations: natural gas

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-04-01

    Environmental Data Energy Technology Characterizations are publications which are intended to provide policy analysts and technical analysts with basic environmental data associated with key energy technologies. This publication provides backup documentation on natural gas. The transformation of the energy in gas into a more useful form is described in this document in terms of major activity areas in the gas cycle; that is, in terms of activities which produce either an energy product or a fuel leading to the production of an energy product in a different form. The activities discussed in this document are exploration, extraction, purification, power-plants, storage and transportation of natural gas. These activities represent both well-documented and non-documented activity areas. The former activities are characterized in terms of actual operating data with allowance for future modification where appropriate. Emissions are assumed to conform to environmental standards. The other activity areas examined are those like exploration and extraction, where reliance on engineering studies provided the data. The organization of the chapters in this volume is designed to support the tabular presentation in the summary. Each chapter begins with a brief description of the activity under consideration. The standard characteristics, size, availability, mode of functioning, and place in the fuel cycle are presented. Next, major legislative and/or technological factors influencing the commercial operation of the activity are offered. Discussions of resources consumed, residuals produced, and economics follow. To aid in comparing and linking the different activity areas, data for each area are normalized to 10/sup 12/ Btu of energy output from the activity.

  14. Natural Gas Market Centers and Hubs: A 2003 Update

    EIA Publications

    2003-01-01

    This special report looks at the current status of market centers/hubs in today's natural gas marketplace, examining their role and their importance to natural gas shippers, marketers, pipelines, and others involved in the transportation of natural gas over the North American pipeline network.

  15. Expansion of the U.S. Natural Gas Pipeline Network

    EIA Publications

    2009-01-01

    Additions in 2008 and Projects through 2011. This report examines new natural gas pipeline capacity added to the U.S. natural gas pipeline system during 2008. In addition, it discusses and analyzes proposed natural gas pipeline projects that may be developed between 2009 and 2011, and the market factors supporting these initiatives.

  16. 75 FR 67352 - Liberty Natural Gas, LLC; Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-02

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Liberty Natural Gas, LLC; Notice of Application October 26, 2010. On October 14, 2010, Liberty Natural Gas, LLC (Liberty) filed with the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (Commission) an application under section 7 of the Natural Gas Act and section 157 of the...

  17. 76 FR 18213 - Corning Natural Gas Corporation; Notice of Filing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-01

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Corning Natural Gas Corporation; Notice of Filing Take notice that on March 23, 2011, Corning Natural Gas Corporation submitted a revised baseline filing of their Statement of Operating Conditions for services provided under section 311 of the Natural Gas Policy Act of 1978...

  18. 18 CFR 157.210 - Mainline natural gas facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Mainline natural gas... COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REGULATIONS UNDER NATURAL GAS ACT APPLICATIONS FOR CERTIFICATES OF PUBLIC... GAS ACT Interstate Pipeline Blanket Certificates and Authorization Under Section 7 of the Natural...

  19. 18 CFR 157.210 - Mainline natural gas facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Mainline natural gas... COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REGULATIONS UNDER NATURAL GAS ACT APPLICATIONS FOR CERTIFICATES OF PUBLIC... GAS ACT Interstate Pipeline Blanket Certificates and Authorization Under Section 7 of the Natural...

  20. 26 CFR 48.4041-21 - Compressed natural gas (CNG).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 16 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Compressed natural gas (CNG). 48.4041-21 Section... natural gas (CNG). (a) Delivery of CNG into the fuel supply tank of a motor vehicle or motorboat—(1) Imposition of tax. Tax is imposed on the delivery of compressed natural gas (CNG) into the fuel supply...

  1. 77 FR 35958 - Northern Natural Gas Company; Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-15

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Northern Natural Gas Company; Notice of Application Take notice that on May 30, 2012, Northern Natural Gas Company (Northern), 1111 South 103rd Street, Omaha, Nebraska 68124... regulations and section 7(b) of the Natural Gas Act, to abandon by sale to DKM Enterprises, LLC (DKM)...

  2. 78 FR 51716 - Northern Natural Gas Company; Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-21

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Northern Natural Gas Company; Notice of Application Take notice that on August 1, 2013, Northern Natural Gas Company (Northern), 1111 South 103rd Street, Omaha, Nebraska 68124, filed an application pursuant to section 7(c) of the Natural Gas Act and part 157 of the...

  3. 75 FR 35779 - Northern Natural Gas Company; Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-23

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Northern Natural Gas Company; Notice of Application June 16, 2010. Take notice that on June 2, 2010, Northern Natural Gas Company (Northern), 1111 South 103rd Street, Omaha... Natural Gas Act, for a certificate of public convenience and necessity authorizing the increase...

  4. 75 FR 2130 - Southern Natural Gas Company; Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-14

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Southern Natural Gas Company; Notice of Application January 6, 2010. Take notice that on December 29, 2009, Southern Natural Gas Company (Southern), 569 Brookwood Village, Suite... section 7(b) of the Natural Gas Act (NGA) and Part 157 of the Commission's regulations, for an...

  5. 18 CFR 157.210 - Mainline natural gas facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Mainline natural gas... COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REGULATIONS UNDER NATURAL GAS ACT APPLICATIONS FOR CERTIFICATES OF PUBLIC... GAS ACT Interstate Pipeline Blanket Certificates and Authorization Under Section 7 of the Natural...

  6. 18 CFR 157.210 - Mainline natural gas facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Mainline natural gas... COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REGULATIONS UNDER NATURAL GAS ACT APPLICATIONS FOR CERTIFICATES OF PUBLIC... GAS ACT Interstate Pipeline Blanket Certificates and Authorization Under Section 7 of the Natural...

  7. 49 CFR 393.68 - Compressed natural gas fuel containers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Compressed natural gas fuel containers. 393.68... AND ACCESSORIES NECESSARY FOR SAFE OPERATION Fuel Systems § 393.68 Compressed natural gas fuel containers. (a) Applicability. The rules in this section apply to compressed natural gas (CNG)...

  8. 26 CFR 48.4041-21 - Compressed natural gas (CNG).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 16 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Compressed natural gas (CNG). 48.4041-21... natural gas (CNG). (a) Delivery of CNG into the fuel supply tank of a motor vehicle or motorboat—(1) Imposition of tax. Tax is imposed on the delivery of compressed natural gas (CNG) into the fuel supply...

  9. 26 CFR 48.4041-21 - Compressed natural gas (CNG).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 16 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Compressed natural gas (CNG). 48.4041-21... natural gas (CNG). (a) Delivery of CNG into the fuel supply tank of a motor vehicle or motorboat—(1) Imposition of tax. Tax is imposed on the delivery of compressed natural gas (CNG) into the fuel supply...

  10. 78 FR 8501 - Northern Natural Gas Company; Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-06

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Northern Natural Gas Company; Notice of Application Take notice that on January 18, 2013, Northern Natural Gas Company (Northern), 1111 South 103rd Street, Omaha, Nebraska 68124, filed in Docket No. CP13-53-000, an application pursuant to section 7(c) of the Natural Gas Act...

  11. 26 CFR 48.4041-21 - Compressed natural gas (CNG).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 16 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Compressed natural gas (CNG). 48.4041-21... natural gas (CNG). (a) Delivery of CNG into the fuel supply tank of a motor vehicle or motorboat—(1) Imposition of tax. Tax is imposed on the delivery of compressed natural gas (CNG) into the fuel supply...

  12. 75 FR 48321 - Corning Natural Gas Corporation; Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-10

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Corning Natural Gas Corporation; Notice of Application August 4, 2010. Take notice that on July 26, 2010, Corning Natural Gas Corporation (Corning), 330 W. William Street, Corning... Natural Gas Act (NGA) requesting the determination of a service area with which Corning may,...

  13. 75 FR 66046 - Capacity Transfers on Intrastate Natural Gas Pipelines

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-27

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission 18 CFR Part 284 Capacity Transfers on Intrastate Natural Gas Pipelines... capacity on intrastate natural gas pipelines providing interstate transportation and storage services under section 311 of the Natural Gas Policy Act of 1978 and Hinshaw pipelines providing such services...

  14. 49 CFR 393.68 - Compressed natural gas fuel containers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Compressed natural gas fuel containers. 393.68... AND ACCESSORIES NECESSARY FOR SAFE OPERATION Fuel Systems § 393.68 Compressed natural gas fuel containers. (a) Applicability. The rules in this section apply to compressed natural gas (CNG)...

  15. 49 CFR 393.68 - Compressed natural gas fuel containers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Compressed natural gas fuel containers. 393.68... AND ACCESSORIES NECESSARY FOR SAFE OPERATION Fuel Systems § 393.68 Compressed natural gas fuel containers. (a) Applicability. The rules in this section apply to compressed natural gas (CNG)...

  16. 49 CFR 393.68 - Compressed natural gas fuel containers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Compressed natural gas fuel containers. 393.68... AND ACCESSORIES NECESSARY FOR SAFE OPERATION Fuel Systems § 393.68 Compressed natural gas fuel containers. (a) Applicability. The rules in this section apply to compressed natural gas (CNG)...

  17. 18 CFR 157.210 - Mainline natural gas facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Mainline natural gas... COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REGULATIONS UNDER NATURAL GAS ACT APPLICATIONS FOR CERTIFICATES OF PUBLIC... GAS ACT Interstate Pipeline Blanket Certificates and Authorization Under Section 7 of the Natural...

  18. 76 FR 12721 - Northern Natural Gas Company; Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-08

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Northern Natural Gas Company; Notice of Application Take notice that on February 18, 2011, Northern Natural Gas Company (Northern), 1111 South 103 Street, Omaha, Nebraska 68124-1000, filed in Docket No. CP11-98-000, an application pursuant to section 7(b) of the Natural Gas...

  19. 49 CFR 393.68 - Compressed natural gas fuel containers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Compressed natural gas fuel containers. 393.68... AND ACCESSORIES NECESSARY FOR SAFE OPERATION Fuel Systems § 393.68 Compressed natural gas fuel containers. (a) Applicability. The rules in this section apply to compressed natural gas (CNG)...

  20. The 1991 natural gas vehicle challenge: Developing dedicated natural gas vehicle technology

    SciTech Connect

    Larsen, R.; Rimkus, W.; Davies, J.; Zammit, M.; Patterson, P.

    1992-02-01

    An engineering research and design competition to develop and demonstrate dedicated natural gas-powered light-duty trucks, the Natural Gas Vehicle (NGV) Challenge, was held June 6--11, 1191, in Oklahoma. Sponsored by the US Department of Energy (DOE), Energy, Mines, and Resources -- Canada (EMR), the Society of Automative Engineers (SAE), and General Motors Corporation (GM), the competition consisted of rigorous vehicle testing of exhaust emissions, fuel economy, performance parameters, and vehicle design. Using Sierra 2500 pickup trucks donated by GM, 24 teams of college and university engineers from the US and Canada participated in the event. A gasoline-powered control testing as a reference vehicle. This paper discusses the results of the event, summarizes the technologies employed, and makes observations on the state of natural gas vehicle technology.

  1. The 1991 natural gas vehicle challenge: Developing dedicated natural gas vehicle technology

    SciTech Connect

    Larsen, R.; Rimkus, W. ); Davies, J. ); Zammit, M. ); Patterson, P. )

    1992-01-01

    An engineering research and design competition to develop and demonstrate dedicated natural gas-powered light-duty trucks, the Natural Gas Vehicle (NGV) Challenge, was held June 6--11, 1191, in Oklahoma. Sponsored by the US Department of Energy (DOE), Energy, Mines, and Resources -- Canada (EMR), the Society of Automative Engineers (SAE), and General Motors Corporation (GM), the competition consisted of rigorous vehicle testing of exhaust emissions, fuel economy, performance parameters, and vehicle design. Using Sierra 2500 pickup trucks donated by GM, 24 teams of college and university engineers from the US and Canada participated in the event. A gasoline-powered control testing as a reference vehicle. This paper discusses the results of the event, summarizes the technologies employed, and makes observations on the state of natural gas vehicle technology.

  2. Regasification of liquefied natural gas and hydrogen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tonkonog, V. G.; Tukmakov, A. L.; Muchitova, K. M.; Agalakov, U. A.; Serazetdinov, F. Sh; Gromov, B. C.

    2016-06-01

    Liquefied natural gas and hydrogen gasification process is suggested, in which vapor phase is generated by the decrease of internal energy of the liquid. Methane and hydrogen gasification processes have been numerically modeled. Flow rates of the methane and hydrogen through choke channel were defined. A satisfactory match between the modeled and experimental data for liquid nitrogen has been acquired. Technical suitability of the suggested process is proved. Based on the initial parameters of the cryogenic fluid, the amount of vapor phase is 5-20% of the flow rate.

  3. Fuel tank for liquefied natural gas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DeLay, Thomas K. (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    A storage tank is provided for storing liquefied natural gas on, for example, a motor vehicle such as a bus or truck. The storage tank includes a metal liner vessel encapsulated by a resin-fiber composite layer. A foam insulating layer, including an outer protective layer of epoxy or of a truck liner material, covers the composite layer. A non-conducting protective coating may be painted on the vessel between the composite layer and the vessel so as to inhibit galvanic corrosion.

  4. Lightweight Tanks for Storing Liquefied Natural Gas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DeLay, Tom

    2008-01-01

    Single-walled, jacketed aluminum tanks have been conceived for storing liquefied natural gas (LNG) in LNG-fueled motor vehicles. Heretofore, doublewall steel tanks with vacuum between the inner and outer walls have been used for storing LNG. In comparison with the vacuum- insulated steel tanks, the jacketed aluminum tanks weigh less and can be manufactured at lower cost. Costs of using the jacketed aluminum tanks are further reduced in that there is no need for the vacuum pumps heretofore needed to maintain vacuum in the vacuum-insulated tanks.

  5. Risk management of liquefied natural gas installations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fedor, O. H.; Parsons, W. N.; Coutinho, J. De C.

    1976-01-01

    In connection with the construction of four major liquefied natural gas (LNG) facilities in New York City, the New York City Fire Commissioner has asked NASA for assistance. It was decided that the Kennedy Space Center should develop a risk management system (RMS) for the use of the New York Fire Department (NYFD). The RMS provides for a published set of safety regulations by the NYFD. A description of the RMS is presented as an example of an application of aerospace technology to a civilian sector, namely LNG facilities.

  6. Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) dispenser verification device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiong, Maotao; Yang, Jie-bin; Zhao, Pu-jun; Yu, Bo; Deng, Wan-quan

    2013-01-01

    The composition of working principle and calibration status of LNG (Liquefied Natural Gas) dispenser in China are introduced. According to the defect of weighing method in the calibration of LNG dispenser, LNG dispenser verification device has been researched. The verification device bases on the master meter method to verify LNG dispenser in the field. The experimental results of the device indicate it has steady performance, high accuracy level and flexible construction, and it reaches the international advanced level. Then LNG dispenser verification device will promote the development of LNG dispenser industry in China and to improve the technical level of LNG dispenser manufacture.

  7. Natural gas and oil technology partnership support

    SciTech Connect

    Schmidt, T.W.

    1996-06-01

    The Natural Gas and Oil Technology Partnership expedites development and transfer of advanced technologies through technical interactions and collaborations between the national laboratories and the petroleum industry - majors, independents, service companies, and universities. The Partnership combines the expertise, equipment, facilities, and technologies of the Department of Energy`s national laboratories with those of the US petroleum industry. The laboratories utilize unique capabilities developed through energy and defense R&D including electronics, instrumentation, materials, computer hardware and software, engineering, systems analysis, physics, and expert systems. Industry contributes specialized knowledge and resources and prioritizes Partnership activities.

  8. Environmental effects of submarine seeping natural gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dando, P. R.; Hovland, M.

    1992-10-01

    It is suspected that most shallow reservoirs of natural gas vent to the surface to some degree. This seeping may be through diffusion of dissolved gas or by a flow of gas bubbles which entrain interstitial water during the rise through the sediments to the surface. Methane bubbles dissolved other gases, notably hydrogen sulphide and carbon dioxide, during their ascent. Under suitable temperature-pressure conditions gas hydrates may be formed close to or at the seabed Black suphide-rich sediments and mats of sulphur oxidizing bacteria are frequently observed close to the sediments surface at seep sites, including a sharp oxic/anoxic boundary. Animal species associated with these gas seeps include both species which obtain nutrition from symbiotic methane-oxidizing bacteria and species with symbolic sulphur-oxidizing bacteria. It is suspected that at some microseepage an enhanced biomass of meiofauna and macrofauna is supported by a food chain based on free-living and symbiotic sulphur-oxidizing and methane-oxidizing bacteria. The most common seep-related features of sea floor topography are local depressions including pockmark craters. Winnowing of the sediment during their creation leads to an accumulation of larger detritis in the depressions. Where the deprssions overlies salt diapirs they may be filled with hypersaline solutions. In some areas dome-shaped features are associated with seepage and these may be colonized by coral reefs. Other reefs, "hard-grounds", columnar and disc-shaped protrusions, all formed of carbonate-cemented sediments, are common on the sea floor in seep areas. Much of the carbonate appears to be derived from carbon dioxide formed as a result of methane oxidation. The resulting hard-bottoms on the sea floor are often colonized by species not found on the neighboring soft-bottoms. As a result seep areas may be characterized by the presence of a rich epifauna.

  9. Drawing the line on natural gas regulation: The Harvard study on the future of natural gas

    SciTech Connect

    Kalt, J.P.; Schuller, F.C.

    1987-01-01

    The Harvard Study on the Future of Natural Gas Policy reflects the ideas, discussions, and debates of nine authors and more than seventy experts from business, government, and academia. These study participants constituted the Executive Working Group, which met in three sessions during 1984-1985. The executive sessions provided forums for the authors to present versions of their chapters at progressive stages of development. The results were invaluable insights and perspectives from parties directly involved in the ongoing debates over the reform of natural gas policy. In addition, a number of participants have contributed written comments on the various chapters of this book.

  10. Natural gas gathering and transportation issues, 1998 Texas perspective

    SciTech Connect

    Kitchens, R.L.

    1998-12-31

    In 1996 and 1997, the natural gas industry was intensely focused on the debate surrounding proposed new rules governing the gathering and transportation of natural gas in Texas by the Railroad Commission. This paper reviews that debate and several other regulatory issues that could impact the natural gas and gas processing industries over the next few years. In addition to the review of the Code of Conduct, this paper focuses on results of the informal complaint process, implementation of new legislation requiring the approval of construction of sour gas pipelines and several other natural gas related issues.

  11. Mathematical simulation of the process of condensing natural gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tastandieva, G. M.

    2015-01-01

    Presents a two-dimensional unsteady model of heat transfer in terms of condensation of natural gas at low temperatures. Performed calculations of the process heat and mass transfer of liquefied natural gas (LNG) storage tanks of cylindrical shape. The influence of model parameters on the nature of heat transfer. Defined temperature regimes eliminate evaporation by cooling liquefied natural gas. The obtained dependence of the mass flow rate of vapor condensation gas temperature. Identified the possibility of regulating the process of "cooling down" liquefied natural gas in terms of its partial evaporation with low cost energy.

  12. Gasoline from natural gas by sulfur processing

    SciTech Connect

    Erekson, E.J.; Miao, F.Q.

    1995-12-31

    The overall objective of this research project is to develop a catalytic process to convert natural gas to liquid transportation fuels. The process, called the HSM (Hydrogen Sulfide-Methane) Process, consists of two steps that each utilize a catalyst and sulfur-containing intermediates: (1) converting natural gas to CS{sub 2} and (2) converting CS{sub 2} to gasoline range liquids. Catalysts have been found that convert methane to carbon disulfide in yields up to 98%. This exceeds the target of 40% yields for the first step. The best rate for CS{sub 2} formation was 132 g CS{sub 2}/kg-cat-h. The best rate for hydrogen production is 220 L H{sub 2} /kg-cat-h. A preliminary economic study shows that in a refinery application hydrogen made by the HSM technology would cost $0.25-R1.00/1000 SCF. Experimental data will be generated to facilitate evaluation of the overall commercial viability of the process.

  13. Natural and artificial nobel gas hydrologic tracers

    SciTech Connect

    Hudson, G.B.

    1994-06-01

    Noble gas isotopes provide opportunities for ground water tracing. Both naturally occurring tracers and artificially injected tracers can be used. The equilibration of water with the earth`s atmosphere records the temperature and atmospheric pressure during ground water recharge. This temperature/pressure record can be used to distinguish cold recharge from warmer recharge with a resolution of 1-2 C temperature and 500m in altitude. The radioactive decay of U and Th produce large concentrations of 4He in old ground water and this 4He signature can be useful in tracing the small addition of old water (>10,000 yr.) to young water (<100 yr.). The decay of 3H present either form nuclear testing or cosmic ray interactions leads to detectable amounts of 3He in young ground water (<50 yr.). By measuring both 3H and 3He, the mean age of the 3H in the water can be calculated. In addition to these natural tracers, isotopically enriched noble gas isotopes are readily available at low cost and can be used an non-hazardous water tracers. This inert, persistent, and harmless tracing technique can used in many situations at a cost of about one dollar per million gallons of water traced.

  14. Competitive position of natural gas: Industrial baking

    SciTech Connect

    Minsker, B.S.; Salama, S.Y.

    1988-01-01

    Industrial baking is one of the largest natural gas consumers in the food industry. In 1985, bread, rolls, cookies, and crackers accounted for over 82 percent of all baked goods production. Bread accounting for 46 percent of all production. The baking industry consumed approximately 16 trillion Btu in 1985. About 93 percent was natural gas, while distillate fuel oil accounted for seven percent, and electricity accounted for much less than one percent. The three main types of baking ovens are the single lap, tunnel, and Lanham ovens. In the single lap oven, trays carry the product back and forth through the baking chamber once. The single lap oven is the most common type of oven and is popular due to its long horizontal runs, extensive steam zone, and simple construction. The tunnel oven is slightly more efficient and more expensive that the single lap oven. IN the tunnel oven, the hearth is a motorized conveyor which passes in a straight line through a series of heating zones, with loading and unloading occurring at opposite ends of the oven. The advantages of the tunnel oven include flexibility with respect to pan size and simple, accurate top and bottom heat control. The tunnel oven is used exclusively in the cookie and cracker baking, with the product being deposited directly on the oven band. The most recently developed type of oven is the Lanham oven. The Lanham oven is the most efficient type of oven, with a per pound energy consumption approaching the practical minimum for baking bread. Between one--half and two--thirds of all new industrial baking ovens are Lanham ovens. In the Lanham oven, the product enters the oven near the top of the chamber, spirals down through a series of heating zones, and exits near the bottom of the oven. The oven is gas--fired directly by ribbon burners. 31 refs.

  15. Current issues in natural gas lubrication

    SciTech Connect

    Reber, J.

    1997-10-01

    Because of the ability of natural gas to burn completely relatively easily, supplying excess oxygen to promote complete reactions is a viable alternative to catalysts. Hence, lean burn technology has a natural fit for this industry. Lube oil is not adversely affected by lean burn operation. There is a slight tendency to cause more oil nitration than oxidation, but the real difference is not significant. Operators may notice somewhat more varnish (caramel color) and less sludge (black) as a result. Because the fuel is burned more completely, there is less problem with fuel-derived oil contamination. Also because of the excess air in the combustion chamber, overall cylinder temperature is lower, causing less stress on the oil. Oil life is generally lengthened. One common misconception that lean burn engines require different lubricants may stem from a change at Waukesha Engine Division--Dresser Industries. Waukesha has changed its lube oil requirements for VHP 3521, 5115, 7042, 9390 GL turbocharged and lean burn model engines. The lube oil specification for these engines is 1% to 1.7% ash with the same 0.10% zinc maximum. This change is not because of the lean burn nature of these engines, rather it is because of drastically decreased lube oil consumption. With less oil consumption, less ash is carried to the critical exhaust valve seat area to prevent valve recession.

  16. Naturally fractured tight gas reservoir detection optimization

    SciTech Connect

    1998-11-30

    The work plan for October 1, 1997 to September 30, 1998 consisted of investigation of a number of topical areas. These topical areas were reported in four quarterly status reports, which were submitted to DOE earlier. These topical areas are reviewed in this volume. The topical areas covered during the year were: (1) Development of preliminary tests of a production method for determining areas of natural fracturing. Advanced Resources has demonstrated that such a relationship exists in the southern Piceance basin tight gas play. Natural fracture clusters are genetically related to stress concentrations (also called stress perturbations) associated with local deformation such a faulting. The mechanical explanation of this phenomenon is that deformation generally initiates at regions where the local stress field is elevated beyond the regional. (2) Regional structural and geologic analysis of the Greater Green River Basin (GGRB). Application of techniques developed and demonstrated during earlier phases of the project for sweet-spot delineation were demonstrated in a relatively new and underexplored play: tight gas from continuous-typeUpper Cretaceous reservoirs of the Greater Green River Basin (GGRB). The effort included data acquisition/processing, base map generation, geophysical and remote sensing analysis and the integration of these data and analyses. (3) Examination of the Table Rock field area in the northern Washakie Basin of the Greater Green River Basin. This effort was performed in support of Union Pacific Resources- and DOE-planned horizontal drilling efforts. The effort comprised acquisition of necessary seismic data and depth-conversion, mapping of major fault geometry, and analysis of displacement vectors, and the development of the natural fracture prediction. (4) Greater Green River Basin Partitioning. Building on fundamental fracture characterization work and prior work performed under this contract, namely structural analysis using satellite and

  17. Conversion of mill-scale waste to nanoscale zero valent iron (nZVI) for 'green' hydrogen generation via metal-steam reforming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kesavan, Sathees Kumar

    The Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cells (PEMFCs) are the most preferred and efficient energy conversion devices for automotive applications but demand high purity hydrogen which comes at a premium price. The currently pursued hydrogen generation methods suffer from issues such as, low efficiency, high cost, environmental non-benignity, and, in some cases, commercial non-viability. Many of these drawbacks including the CO contamination and, storage and delivery can be overcome by resorting to metal-steam reforming (MSR) using iron from steel industry's mill-scale waste. A novel solution-based room temperature technique using sodium borohydride (NaBH4) as the reducing agent has been developed that produces highly active nanoscale (30-40 nm) iron particles. A slightly modified version of this technique using a surfactant and water oil microemulsion resulted in the formation of 5 nm Fe particles. By using hydrazine (N2H4) as an inexpensive and more stable (compared to NaBH4) reductant, body centered cubic iron particles with edge dimensions ˜5 nm were obtained under mild solvothermal conditions in ethanol. The nanoscale zero valent iron (nZVI) powder showed improved kinetics and greater propensity for hydrogen generation than the coarser microscale iron obtained through traditional reduction techniques. To initiate and sustain the somewhat endothermic MSR process, a solar concentrator consisting of a convex polyacrylic sheet with aluminum reflective coating was fabricated. This unique combination of mill-scale waste as iron source, hydrazine as the reductant, mild process conditions for nZVI generation and solar energy as the impetus for actuating MSR, obviates several drawbacks plaguing the grand scheme of producing, storing and delivering pure and humidified H2 to a PEMFC stack.

  18. Influence of Sulfur on the Carbon Deposition in Liquid Hydrocarbon Steam Reforming over CeO2-Al2O3 supported Ni and Rh Catalysts

    SciTech Connect

    C Xie; Y Chen; Y Li; X Wang; C Song

    2011-12-31

    This study was performed to elucidate the influence of sulfur on the carbon deposition in steam reforming of liquid hydrocarbons over CeO{sub 2}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} supported Ni and Rh catalysts at 800 C. The characteristics of the carbon deposits on the used catalysts after the reactions without and with sulfur were investigated by temperature-programmed oxidation (TPO), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scanning transmission X-ray microscopy (STXM), temperature-programmed hydrogenation (TPH), X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Though abundant carbon deposits can accumulate on the pure CeO{sub 2}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} support due to fuel thermal cracking, the addition of Ni or Rh metal greatly reduced the carbon deposition in the sulfur-free reaction. The presence of sulfur increased the carbon deposition on both catalysts, which has a much more significant impact for the Ni catalyst. Carbon XANES study on the used catalysts revealed that graphitic carbon was dominant in the presence of sulfur, while oxidized carbon species (quinone-like carbon, carboxyl and carbonate) prevailed without sulfur. Meanwhile, the formation of carboxyl and carbonate more dramatically dropped on the Ni catalyst than that on the Rh catalyst. Our results strongly suggest that (I) the presence of sulfur can suppress carbon gasification and promote the formation of graphitic carbon on reforming catalysts due mainly to its poisoning effect on metals, and (II) Rh catalyst possesses stronger capability to maintain carbon gasification activity than Ni catalyst in the presence of sulfur.

  19. A series of copper-free ternary oxide catalysts ZnAlCex used for hydrogen production via dimethyl ether steam reforming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Lijie; Meng, Ming; Wang, Xiaojing; Zhou, Shuang; Yang, Lijuan; Zhang, Tianyong; Zheng, Lirong; Zhang, Jing; Hu, Tiandou

    2014-12-01

    Ce-substituted ternary oxide catalysts ZnAlCex were prepared and employed in dimethyl ether steam reforming (DME SR) to produce hydrogen. XRD, XAFS (XANES & EXAFS), H2O-TPD, CH3OH-TPD and TPSR techniques were used for catalyst characterization. It is found that the catalytic performance of these catalysts is dependent on Ce content. The catalyst containing 20 wt% CeO2 exhibits the best catalytic performance. Its calculated TOF (0.034 s-1) is nearly three times to that of ZnAlO. The kinetic results reveal that the addition of 20 wt% CeO2 to ZnAlCex greatly decreases the apparent activation energy (Ea) of DME SR, due to the formation of new reaction sites such as Ce4+-O-Zn2+ linkages. XRD and EXAFS analyses indicate that Ce addition can not only decrease the crystallite size of ZnO and ZnAl2O4, but also tune the relative contents of them. The results of H2O-TPD and CH3OH-TPD show that Ce addition can lower H2 desorption temperature, which accounts well for the better catalytic performance of ZnAlCex. It is worth noting that the Zn-based catalysts display much lower CO selectivity than the Cu-based one, especially the Ce-substituted ZnAlCex. Start-off durability tests demonstrate that this series of catalysts also possess high catalytic stability.

  20. 75 FR 53371 - Liquefied Natural Gas Facilities: Obtaining Approval of Alternative Vapor-Gas Dispersion Models

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-31

    ... Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration Liquefied Natural Gas Facilities: Obtaining Approval of Alternative Vapor-Gas Dispersion Models AGENCY: Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety... provides guidance on the requirements for obtaining approval of alternative vapor-gas dispersion...