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Sample records for natural language operated

  1. Extracting important information from Chinese Operation Notes with natural language processing methods.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hui; Zhang, Weide; Zeng, Qiang; Li, Zuofeng; Feng, Kaiyan; Liu, Lei

    2014-04-01

    Extracting information from unstructured clinical narratives is valuable for many clinical applications. Although natural Language Processing (NLP) methods have been profoundly studied in electronic medical records (EMR), few studies have explored NLP in extracting information from Chinese clinical narratives. In this study, we report the development and evaluation of extracting tumor-related information from operation notes of hepatic carcinomas which were written in Chinese. Using 86 operation notes manually annotated by physicians as the training set, we explored both rule-based and supervised machine-learning approaches. Evaluating on unseen 29 operation notes, our best approach yielded 69.6% in precision, 58.3% in recall and 63.5% F-score.

  2. Natural Language Processing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chowdhury, Gobinda G.

    2003-01-01

    Discusses issues related to natural language processing, including theoretical developments; natural language understanding; tools and techniques; natural language text processing systems; abstracting; information extraction; information retrieval; interfaces; software; Internet, Web, and digital library applications; machine translation for…

  3. Natural language generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maybury, Mark T.

    The goal of natural language generation is to replicate human writers or speakers: to generate fluent, grammatical, and coherent text or speech. Produced language, using both explicit and implicit means, must clearly and effectively express some intended message. This demands the use of a lexicon and a grammar together with mechanisms which exploit semantic, discourse and pragmatic knowledge to constrain production. Furthermore, special processors may be required to guide focus, extract presuppositions, and maintain coherency. As with interpretation, generation may require knowledge of the world, including information about the discourse participants as well as knowledge of the specific domain of discourse. All of these processes and knowledge sources must cooperate to produce well-written, unambiguous language. Natural language generation has received less attention than language interpretation due to the nature of language: it is important to interpret all the ways of expressing a message but we need to generate only one. Furthermore, the generative task can often be accomplished by canned text (e.g., error messages or user instructions). The advent of more sophisticated computer systems, however, has intensified the need to express multisentential English.

  4. Natural language modeling

    SciTech Connect

    Sharp, J.K.

    1997-11-01

    This seminar describes a process and methodology that uses structured natural language to enable the construction of precise information requirements directly from users, experts, and managers. The main focus of this natural language approach is to create the precise information requirements and to do it in such a way that the business and technical experts are fully accountable for the results. These requirements can then be implemented using appropriate tools and technology. This requirement set is also a universal learning tool because it has all of the knowledge that is needed to understand a particular process (e.g., expense vouchers, project management, budget reviews, tax, laws, machine function).

  5. Ground Operations Aerospace Language (GOAL)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    GOAL, is a test engineer oriented language designed to be used to standardize procedure terminology and as the test programming language to be used for ground checkout operations in a space vehicle launch environment. The material presented concerning GOAL includes: (1) a historical review, (2) development objectives and requirements, (3) language scope and format, and (4) language capabilities.

  6. Programming Languages, Natural Languages, and Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naur, Peter

    1975-01-01

    Analogies are drawn between the social aspects of programming and similar aspects of mathematics and natural languages. By analogy with the history of auxiliary languages it is suggested that Fortran and Cobol will remain dominant. (Available from the Association of Computing Machinery, 1133 Avenue of the Americas, New York, NY 10036.) (Author/TL)

  7. Readings in natural language processing

    SciTech Connect

    Grosz, B.J.; Jones, K.S.; Webber, B.L.

    1986-01-01

    The book presents papers on natural language processing, focusing on the central issues of representation, reasoning, and recognition. The introduction discusses theoretical issues, historical developments, and current problems and approaches. The book presents work in syntactic models (parsing and grammars), semantic interpretation, discourse interpretation, language action and intentions, language generation, and systems.

  8. Thought beyond language: neural dissociation of algebra and natural language.

    PubMed

    Monti, Martin M; Parsons, Lawrence M; Osherson, Daniel N

    2012-08-01

    A central question in cognitive science is whether natural language provides combinatorial operations that are essential to diverse domains of thought. In the study reported here, we addressed this issue by examining the role of linguistic mechanisms in forging the hierarchical structures of algebra. In a 3-T functional MRI experiment, we showed that processing of the syntax-like operations of algebra does not rely on the neural mechanisms of natural language. Our findings indicate that processing the syntax of language elicits the known substrate of linguistic competence, whereas algebraic operations recruit bilateral parietal brain regions previously implicated in the representation of magnitude. This double dissociation argues against the view that language provides the structure of thought across all cognitive domains.

  9. A Natural Language Graphics System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, David, C.; Kwasny, Stan C.

    This report describes an experimental system for drawing simple pictures on a computer graphics terminal using natural language input. The system is capable of drawing lines, points, and circles on command from the user, as well as answering questions about system capabilities and objects on the screen. Erasures are permitted and language input…

  10. Advances in natural language processing.

    PubMed

    Hirschberg, Julia; Manning, Christopher D

    2015-07-17

    Natural language processing employs computational techniques for the purpose of learning, understanding, and producing human language content. Early computational approaches to language research focused on automating the analysis of the linguistic structure of language and developing basic technologies such as machine translation, speech recognition, and speech synthesis. Today's researchers refine and make use of such tools in real-world applications, creating spoken dialogue systems and speech-to-speech translation engines, mining social media for information about health or finance, and identifying sentiment and emotion toward products and services. We describe successes and challenges in this rapidly advancing area.

  11. Readings in natural language processing

    SciTech Connect

    Grosz, B.J.; Jones, K.S.; Webber, B.L.

    1986-01-01

    The papers assembled fall naturally into six groups dealing respectively with parsing and grammars, semantic interpretation, discourse interpretation (covering, for example, anaphor resolution), language actions and the intentions underlying them, language generation, and systems (notably interface systems). The chapter headings are treated broadly and are taken to imply either that the authors are adopting a particular position about the way processing, and particularly input processing, should be done, or that problems and solutions assigned to one category have no relevance elsewhere. Many individual papers, placed in their most appropriate categories, also contribute to other areas.

  12. Brain readiness and the nature of language.

    PubMed

    Bouchard, Denis

    2015-01-01

    To identify the neural components that make a brain ready for language, it is important to have well defined linguistic phenotypes, to know precisely what language is. There are two central features to language: the capacity to form signs (words), and the capacity to combine them into complex structures. We must determine how the human brain enables these capacities. A sign is a link between a perceptual form and a conceptual meaning. Acoustic elements and content elements, are already brain-internal in non-human animals, but as categorical systems linked with brain-external elements. Being indexically tied to objects of the world, they cannot freely link to form signs. A crucial property of a language-ready brain is the capacity to process perceptual forms and contents offline, detached from any brain-external phenomena, so their "representations" may be linked into signs. These brain systems appear to have pleiotropic effects on a variety of phenotypic traits and not to be specifically designed for language. Syntax combines signs, so the combination of two signs operates simultaneously on their meaning and form. The operation combining the meanings long antedates its function in language: the primitive mode of predication operative in representing some information about an object. The combination of the forms is enabled by the capacity of the brain to segment vocal and visual information into discrete elements. Discrete temporal units have order and juxtaposition, and vocal units have intonation, length, and stress. These are primitive combinatorial processes. So the prior properties of the physical and conceptual elements of the sign introduce combinatoriality into the linguistic system, and from these primitive combinatorial systems derive concatenation in phonology and combination in morphosyntax. Given the nature of language, a key feature to our understanding of the language-ready brain is to be found in the mechanisms in human brains that enable the unique

  13. Brain readiness and the nature of language

    PubMed Central

    Bouchard, Denis

    2015-01-01

    To identify the neural components that make a brain ready for language, it is important to have well defined linguistic phenotypes, to know precisely what language is. There are two central features to language: the capacity to form signs (words), and the capacity to combine them into complex structures. We must determine how the human brain enables these capacities. A sign is a link between a perceptual form and a conceptual meaning. Acoustic elements and content elements, are already brain-internal in non-human animals, but as categorical systems linked with brain-external elements. Being indexically tied to objects of the world, they cannot freely link to form signs. A crucial property of a language-ready brain is the capacity to process perceptual forms and contents offline, detached from any brain-external phenomena, so their “representations” may be linked into signs. These brain systems appear to have pleiotropic effects on a variety of phenotypic traits and not to be specifically designed for language. Syntax combines signs, so the combination of two signs operates simultaneously on their meaning and form. The operation combining the meanings long antedates its function in language: the primitive mode of predication operative in representing some information about an object. The combination of the forms is enabled by the capacity of the brain to segment vocal and visual information into discrete elements. Discrete temporal units have order and juxtaposition, and vocal units have intonation, length, and stress. These are primitive combinatorial processes. So the prior properties of the physical and conceptual elements of the sign introduce combinatoriality into the linguistic system, and from these primitive combinatorial systems derive concatenation in phonology and combination in morphosyntax. Given the nature of language, a key feature to our understanding of the language-ready brain is to be found in the mechanisms in human brains that enable the

  14. Brain readiness and the nature of language.

    PubMed

    Bouchard, Denis

    2015-01-01

    To identify the neural components that make a brain ready for language, it is important to have well defined linguistic phenotypes, to know precisely what language is. There are two central features to language: the capacity to form signs (words), and the capacity to combine them into complex structures. We must determine how the human brain enables these capacities. A sign is a link between a perceptual form and a conceptual meaning. Acoustic elements and content elements, are already brain-internal in non-human animals, but as categorical systems linked with brain-external elements. Being indexically tied to objects of the world, they cannot freely link to form signs. A crucial property of a language-ready brain is the capacity to process perceptual forms and contents offline, detached from any brain-external phenomena, so their "representations" may be linked into signs. These brain systems appear to have pleiotropic effects on a variety of phenotypic traits and not to be specifically designed for language. Syntax combines signs, so the combination of two signs operates simultaneously on their meaning and form. The operation combining the meanings long antedates its function in language: the primitive mode of predication operative in representing some information about an object. The combination of the forms is enabled by the capacity of the brain to segment vocal and visual information into discrete elements. Discrete temporal units have order and juxtaposition, and vocal units have intonation, length, and stress. These are primitive combinatorial processes. So the prior properties of the physical and conceptual elements of the sign introduce combinatoriality into the linguistic system, and from these primitive combinatorial systems derive concatenation in phonology and combination in morphosyntax. Given the nature of language, a key feature to our understanding of the language-ready brain is to be found in the mechanisms in human brains that enable the unique

  15. Models of natural language understanding.

    PubMed Central

    Bates, M

    1995-01-01

    This paper surveys some of the fundamental problems in natural language (NL) understanding (syntax, semantics, pragmatics, and discourse) and the current approaches to solving them. Some recent developments in NL processing include increased emphasis on corpus-based rather than example- or intuition-based work, attempts to measure the coverage and effectiveness of NL systems, dealing with discourse and dialogue phenomena, and attempts to use both analytic and stochastic knowledge. Critical areas for the future include grammars that are appropriate to processing large amounts of real language; automatic (or at least semi-automatic) methods for deriving models of syntax, semantics, and pragmatics; self-adapting systems; and integration with speech processing. Of particular importance are techniques that can be tuned to such requirements as full versus partial understanding and spoken language versus text. Portability (the ease with which one can configure an NL system for a particular application) is one of the largest barriers to application of this technology. PMID:7479812

  16. Unsupervised learning of natural languages

    PubMed Central

    Solan, Zach; Horn, David; Ruppin, Eytan; Edelman, Shimon

    2005-01-01

    We address the problem, fundamental to linguistics, bioinformatics, and certain other disciplines, of using corpora of raw symbolic sequential data to infer underlying rules that govern their production. Given a corpus of strings (such as text, transcribed speech, chromosome or protein sequence data, sheet music, etc.), our unsupervised algorithm recursively distills from it hierarchically structured patterns. The adios (automatic distillation of structure) algorithm relies on a statistical method for pattern extraction and on structured generalization, two processes that have been implicated in language acquisition. It has been evaluated on artificial context-free grammars with thousands of rules, on natural languages as diverse as English and Chinese, and on protein data correlating sequence with function. This unsupervised algorithm is capable of learning complex syntax, generating grammatical novel sentences, and proving useful in other fields that call for structure discovery from raw data, such as bioinformatics. PMID:16087885

  17. Unsupervised learning of natural languages.

    PubMed

    Solan, Zach; Horn, David; Ruppin, Eytan; Edelman, Shimon

    2005-08-16

    We address the problem, fundamental to linguistics, bioinformatics, and certain other disciplines, of using corpora of raw symbolic sequential data to infer underlying rules that govern their production. Given a corpus of strings (such as text, transcribed speech, chromosome or protein sequence data, sheet music, etc.), our unsupervised algorithm recursively distills from it hierarchically structured patterns. The adios (automatic distillation of structure) algorithm relies on a statistical method for pattern extraction and on structured generalization, two processes that have been implicated in language acquisition. It has been evaluated on artificial context-free grammars with thousands of rules, on natural languages as diverse as English and Chinese, and on protein data correlating sequence with function. This unsupervised algorithm is capable of learning complex syntax, generating grammatical novel sentences, and proving useful in other fields that call for structure discovery from raw data, such as bioinformatics. PMID:16087885

  18. Computational models of natural language processing

    SciTech Connect

    Bara, B.G.; Guida, G.

    1984-01-01

    The main concern in this work is the illustration of models for natural language processing, and the discussion of their role in the development of computational studies of language. Topics covered include the following: competence and performance in the design of natural language systems; planning and understanding speech acts by interpersonal games; a framework for integrating syntax and semantics; knowledge representation and natural language: extending the expressive power of proposition nodes; viewing parsing as word sense discrimination: a connectionist approach; a propositional language for text representation; from topic and focus of a sentence to linking in a text; language generation by computer; understanding the Chinese language; semantic primitives or meaning postulates: mental models of propositional representations; narrative complexity based on summarization algorithms; using focus to constrain language generation; and towards an integral model of language competence.

  19. Comparing Natural Language Retrieval: WIN and FREESTYLE.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pritchard-Schoch, Teresa

    1995-01-01

    Compares two natural language processing search engines, WIN (WESTLAW Is Natural) and FREESTYLE, developed by LEXIS. Legal issues in natural language queries were presented to identical libraries in both systems. Results showed that the editorials enhanced relevance; a search would be more thorough using both databases; and if only one system were…

  20. Natural language processing: an introduction

    PubMed Central

    Ohno-Machado, Lucila; Chapman, Wendy W

    2011-01-01

    Objectives To provide an overview and tutorial of natural language processing (NLP) and modern NLP-system design. Target audience This tutorial targets the medical informatics generalist who has limited acquaintance with the principles behind NLP and/or limited knowledge of the current state of the art. Scope We describe the historical evolution of NLP, and summarize common NLP sub-problems in this extensive field. We then provide a synopsis of selected highlights of medical NLP efforts. After providing a brief description of common machine-learning approaches that are being used for diverse NLP sub-problems, we discuss how modern NLP architectures are designed, with a summary of the Apache Foundation's Unstructured Information Management Architecture. We finally consider possible future directions for NLP, and reflect on the possible impact of IBM Watson on the medical field. PMID:21846786

  1. Knowledge representation and natural language processing

    SciTech Connect

    Weischedel, R.M.

    1986-07-01

    In principle, natural language and knowledge representation are closely related. This paper investigates this by demonstrating how several natural language phenomena, such as definite reference, ambiguity, ellipsis, ill-formed input, figures of speech, and vagueness, require diverse knowledge sources and reasoning. The breadth of kinds of knowledge needed to represent morphology, syntax, semantics, and pragmatics is surveyed. Furthermore, several current issues in knowledge representation, such as logic versus semantic nets, general-purpose versus special-purpose reasoners, adequacy of first-order logic, wait-and-see strategies, and default reasoning, are illustrated in terms of their relation to natural language processing and how natural language impact the issues.

  2. Multilingual environment and natural acquisition of language

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takano, Shunichi; Nakamura, Shigeru

    2000-06-01

    Language and human are not anything in the outside of nature. Not only babies, even adults can acquire new language naturally, if they have a natural multilingual environment around them. The reason it is possible would be that any human has an ability to grasp the whole of language, and at the same time, language has an order which is the easiest to acquire for humans. The process of this natural acquisition and a result of investigating the order of Japanese vowels are introduced. .

  3. Natural Artificial Languages: Low-Level Processes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perlman, Gary

    This paper explores languages for communicating precise ideas within limited domains, which include mathematical notation and general purpose and high level computer programming languages. Low-level properties of such natural artificial languages are discussed, with emphasis on those in which names are chosen for concepts and symbols are chosen…

  4. The Natural Method of Language Learning: Systematized.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hobson, Arline B.

    In this monograph, the language and pedagogical concepts embodied in the Tucson Early Education Model are used to develop a systematized method of natural language learning. It is hypothesized that young children in school continually resystematize their language, and that conscious and systematic modeling by the teacher should accelerate this…

  5. KSC Space Station Operations Language (SSOL)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    The Space Station Operations Language (SSOL) will serve a large community of diverse users dealing with the integration and checkout of Space Station modules. Kennedy Space Center's plan to achieve Level A specification of the SSOL system, encompassing both its language and its automated support environment, is presented in the format of a briefing. The SSOL concept is a collection of fundamental elements that span languages, operating systems, software development, software tools and several user classes. The approach outlines a thorough process that combines the benefits of rapid prototyping with a coordinated requirements gathering effort, yielding a Level A specification of the SSOL requirements.

  6. Neural Network Computing and Natural Language Processing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borchardt, Frank

    1988-01-01

    Considers the application of neural network concepts to traditional natural language processing and demonstrates that neural network computing architecture can: (1) learn from actual spoken language; (2) observe rules of pronunciation; and (3) reproduce sounds from the patterns derived by its own processes. (Author/CB)

  7. A Natural Language Interface to Databases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ford, D. R.

    1990-01-01

    The development of a Natural Language Interface (NLI) is presented which is semantic-based and uses Conceptual Dependency representation. The system was developed using Lisp and currently runs on a Symbolics Lisp machine.

  8. Evolution, brain, and the nature of language.

    PubMed

    Berwick, Robert C; Friederici, Angela D; Chomsky, Noam; Bolhuis, Johan J

    2013-02-01

    Language serves as a cornerstone for human cognition, yet much about its evolution remains puzzling. Recent research on this question parallels Darwin's attempt to explain both the unity of all species and their diversity. What has emerged from this research is that the unified nature of human language arises from a shared, species-specific computational ability. This ability has identifiable correlates in the brain and has remained fixed since the origin of language approximately 100 thousand years ago. Although songbirds share with humans a vocal imitation learning ability, with a similar underlying neural organization, language is uniquely human.

  9. Natural Language Description of Emotion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kazemzadeh, Abe

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation studies how people describe emotions with language and how computers can simulate this descriptive behavior. Although many non-human animals can express their current emotions as social signals, only humans can communicate about emotions symbolically. This symbolic communication of emotion allows us to talk about emotions that we…

  10. Incremental Bayesian Category Learning from Natural Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frermann, Lea; Lapata, Mirella

    2016-01-01

    Models of category learning have been extensively studied in cognitive science and primarily tested on perceptual abstractions or artificial stimuli. In this paper, we focus on categories acquired from natural language stimuli, that is, words (e.g., "chair" is a member of the furniture category). We present a Bayesian model that, unlike…

  11. Enhanced Text Retrieval Using Natural Language Processing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liddy, Elizabeth D.

    1998-01-01

    Defines natural language processing (NLP); describes the use of NLP in information retrieval (IR); provides seven levels of linguistic analysis: phonological, morphological, lexical, syntactic, semantic, discourse, and pragmatic. Discusses the commercial use of NLP in IR with the example of DR-LINK (Document Retrieval using LINguistic Knowledge)…

  12. A natural language interface to databases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ford, D. R.

    1988-01-01

    The development of a Natural Language Interface which is semantic-based and uses Conceptual Dependency representation is presented. The system was developed using Lisp and currently runs on a Symbolics Lisp machine. A key point is that the parser handles morphological analysis, which expands its capabilities of understanding more words.

  13. Natural Language Information Retrieval: Progress Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perez-Carballo, Jose; Strzalkowski, Tomek

    2000-01-01

    Reports on the progress of the natural language information retrieval project, a joint effort led by GE (General Electric) Research, and its evaluation at the sixth TREC (Text Retrieval Conference). Discusses stream-based information retrieval, which uses alternative methods of document indexing; advanced linguistic streams; weighting; and query…

  14. Natural Language interactions with artificial experts

    SciTech Connect

    Finin, T.W.; Joshi, A.K.; Webber, B.F.

    1986-07-01

    The aim of this paper is to justify why Natural Language (NL) interaction, of a very rich functionality, is critical to the effective use of Expert Systems and to describe what is needed and what has been done to support such interaction. Interactive functions discussed here include defining terms, paraphrasing, correcting misconceptions, avoiding misconceptons, and modifying questions.

  15. Two Interpretive Systems for Natural Language?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frazier, Lyn

    2015-01-01

    It is proposed that humans have available to them two systems for interpreting natural language. One system is familiar from formal semantics. It is a type based system that pairs a syntactic form with its interpretation using grammatical rules of composition. This system delivers both plausible and implausible meanings. The other proposed system…

  16. Policy-Based Management Natural Language Parser

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    James, Mark

    2009-01-01

    The Policy-Based Management Natural Language Parser (PBEM) is a rules-based approach to enterprise management that can be used to automate certain management tasks. This parser simplifies the management of a given endeavor by establishing policies to deal with situations that are likely to occur. Policies are operating rules that can be referred to as a means of maintaining order, security, consistency, or other ways of successfully furthering a goal or mission. PBEM provides a way of managing configuration of network elements, applications, and processes via a set of high-level rules or business policies rather than managing individual elements, thus switching the control to a higher level. This software allows unique management rules (or commands) to be specified and applied to a cross-section of the Global Information Grid (GIG). This software embodies a parser that is capable of recognizing and understanding conversational English. Because all possible dialect variants cannot be anticipated, a unique capability was developed that parses passed on conversation intent rather than the exact way the words are used. This software can increase productivity by enabling a user to converse with the system in conversational English to define network policies. PBEM can be used in both manned and unmanned science-gathering programs. Because policy statements can be domain-independent, this software can be applied equally to a wide variety of applications.

  17. Natural language processing, pragmatics, and verbal behavior

    PubMed Central

    Cherpas, Chris

    1992-01-01

    Natural Language Processing (NLP) is that part of Artificial Intelligence (AI) concerned with endowing computers with verbal and listener repertoires, so that people can interact with them more easily. Most attention has been given to accurately parsing and generating syntactic structures, although NLP researchers are finding ways of handling the semantic content of language as well. It is increasingly apparent that understanding the pragmatic (contextual and consequential) dimension of natural language is critical for producing effective NLP systems. While there are some techniques for applying pragmatics in computer systems, they are piecemeal, crude, and lack an integrated theoretical foundation. Unfortunately, there is little awareness that Skinner's (1957) Verbal Behavior provides an extensive, principled pragmatic analysis of language. The implications of Skinner's functional analysis for NLP and for verbal aspects of epistemology lead to a proposal for a “user expert”—a computer system whose area of expertise is the long-term computer user. The evolutionary nature of behavior suggests an AI technology known as genetic algorithms/programming for implementing such a system. ImagesFig. 1 PMID:22477052

  18. Natural language processing, pragmatics, and verbal behavior.

    PubMed

    Cherpas, C

    1992-01-01

    Natural Language Processing (NLP) is that part of Artificial Intelligence (AI) concerned with endowing computers with verbal and listener repertoires, so that people can interact with them more easily. Most attention has been given to accurately parsing and generating syntactic structures, although NLP researchers are finding ways of handling the semantic content of language as well. It is increasingly apparent that understanding the pragmatic (contextual and consequential) dimension of natural language is critical for producing effective NLP systems. While there are some techniques for applying pragmatics in computer systems, they are piecemeal, crude, and lack an integrated theoretical foundation. Unfortunately, there is little awareness that Skinner's (1957) Verbal Behavior provides an extensive, principled pragmatic analysis of language. The implications of Skinner's functional analysis for NLP and for verbal aspects of epistemology lead to a proposal for a "user expert"-a computer system whose area of expertise is the long-term computer user. The evolutionary nature of behavior suggests an AI technology known as genetic algorithms/programming for implementing such a system.

  19. Linear separability in superordinate natural language concepts.

    PubMed

    Ruts, Wim; Storms, Gert; Hampton, James

    2004-01-01

    Two experiments are reported in which linear separability was investigated in superordinate natural language concept pairs (e.g., toiletry-sewing gear). Representations of the exemplars of semantically related concept pairs were derived in two to five dimensions using multidimensional scaling (MDS) of similarities based on possession of the concept features. Next, category membership, obtained from an exemplar generation study (in Experiment 1) and from a forced-choice classification task (in Experiment 2) was predicted from the coordinates of the MDS representation using log linear analysis. The results showed that all natural kind concept pairs were perfectly linearly separable, whereas artifact concept pairs showed several violations. Clear linear separability of natural language concept pairs is in line with independent cue models. The violations in the artifact pairs, however, yield clear evidence against the independent cue models.

  20. Natural language understanding and logic programming

    SciTech Connect

    Dahl, V.; Saint-Dizier, P.

    1985-01-01

    Logic programming has been used in many natural language understanding applications, mainly in the areas of analysis, metagrammatical formalisms, logical treatment of linguistic problems, and meaning representations for naturla language. The particular methods and formal systems developed in this context usually exhibit attractive features of logic while remaining in the more pragmatic area of programming: conciseness, modularity, a declarative meaning that is independent from machine behaviour, and logical inference. All of these features, common to logic programming and to logic metagrammars, have been made possible through a chaining of various fundamental ideas. Outstanding among these are the resolution principle. Prolog itself; and interpretation of logic as a programming language. The machines of a relatively near future are likely to incorporate many related capabilities while increasing their speed manyfold. The Japanese Fifth Generation Computer project has triggered efforts towards future generations of computer systems based on these concepts. The potential in understanding natural language through logic programming is growing rapidly, and it might be wise to integrate the various theoretical and practical aspects involved, rather than yielding to the temptation of using all the extra power for programming ad-hoc systems. This conference is an effort toward such an integration.

  1. Learning procedures from interactive natural language instructions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huffman, Scott B.; Laird, John E.

    1994-01-01

    Despite its ubiquity in human learning, very little work has been done in artificial intelligence on agents that learn from interactive natural language instructions. In this paper, the problem of learning procedures from interactive, situated instruction is examined in which the student is attempting to perform tasks within the instructional domain, and asks for instruction when it is needed. Presented is Instructo-Soar, a system that behaves and learns in response to interactive natural language instructions. Instructo-Soar learns completely new procedures from sequences of instruction, and also learns how to extend its knowledge of previously known procedures to new situations. These learning tasks require both inductive and analytic learning. Instructo-Soar exhibits a multiple execution learning process in which initial learning has a rote, episodic flavor, and later executions allow the initially learned knowledge to be generalized properly.

  2. Automated database design from natural language input

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gomez, Fernando; Segami, Carlos; Delaune, Carl

    1995-01-01

    Users and programmers of small systems typically do not have the skills needed to design a database schema from an English description of a problem. This paper describes a system that automatically designs databases for such small applications from English descriptions provided by end-users. Although the system has been motivated by the space applications at Kennedy Space Center, and portions of it have been designed with that idea in mind, it can be applied to different situations. The system consists of two major components: a natural language understander and a problem-solver. The paper describes briefly the knowledge representation structures constructed by the natural language understander, and, then, explains the problem-solver in detail.

  3. An expert system for natural language processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hennessy, John F.

    1988-01-01

    A solution to the natural language processing problem that uses a rule based system, written in OPS5, to replace the traditional parsing method is proposed. The advantage to using a rule based system are explored. Specifically, the extensibility of a rule based solution is discussed as well as the value of maintaining rules that function independently. Finally, the power of using semantics to supplement the syntactic analysis of a sentence is considered.

  4. Solving problems on base of concepts formalization of language image and figurative meaning of the natural-language constructs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bisikalo, Oleg V.; Cieszczyk, Sławomir; Yussupova, Gulbahar

    2015-12-01

    Building of "clever" thesaurus by algebraic means on base of concepts formalization of language image and figurative meaning of the natural-language constructs in the article are proposed. A formal theory based on a binary operator of directional associative relation is constructed and an understanding of an associative normal form of image constructions is introduced. A model of a commutative semigroup, which provides a presentation of a sentence as three components of an interrogative language image construction, is considered.

  5. Natural Language Processing: Toward Large-Scale, Robust Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haas, Stephanie W.

    1996-01-01

    Natural language processing (NLP) is concerned with getting computers to do useful things with natural language. Major applications include machine translation, text generation, information retrieval, and natural language interfaces. Reviews important developments since 1987 that have led to advances in NLP; current NLP applications; and problems…

  6. Ground Operations Aerospace Language (GOAL) textbook

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dickison, L. R.

    1973-01-01

    The textbook provides a semantical explanation accompanying a complete set of GOAL syntax diagrams, system concepts, language component interaction, and general language concepts necessary for efficient language implementation/execution.

  7. Operating Systems Support for Advanced Programming Languages

    SciTech Connect

    Kubiatowicz, John

    2012-10-29

    As machines grow in scale and complexity, techniques to make the most effective use of network, memory, and processor resources will also become increasingly important. Programming models that rely on one-sided communication or global address space support have demonstrated advantages for productivity and performance, but they are most effective when used with proper OS support. We propose to develop OS and runtime support for programming models like UPC, GA, Charm++, and HPCS languages, which rely on one-sided communication. Rather than a full OS model, we envision applications bundled with only the necessary OS functions linked in to the application in user space -- relying on the hypervisor for protaction, resource sharing, and mangagement of Quality of Service guarantees. Our services will include support for remote reads and writes to memory, along with remote active message handlers, which are essential for support of fast noncontiguous memory operations, atomic operations, and event-driven applications.

  8. A Fuzzy Set Approach to Modifiers and Vagueness in Natural Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hersh, Harry M.; Caramazza, Alfonso

    1976-01-01

    The proposition that natural language concepts are represented as fuzzy sets, a generalization of the traditional theory of sets, of meaning components and that language operators--adverbs, negative markers, and adjectives--can be considered as operators on fuzzy sets was assessed empirically. (Editor/RK)

  9. LCS: a natural language comprehension system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trigano, Philippe; Talon, Benedicte; Baltazart, Didier; Demko, Christophe; Newstead, Emma

    1991-03-01

    LCS (Language Comprehension System) is a software package designed to improve man-machine communication with computer programs. Different simple structures and functions are available to build man-machine interfaces in natural language. A user may write a sentence in good English or in telegraphical style. The system used pattern matching techniques to detect misspelled words (or badly typed words) and to correct them. Several methods of analysis are available at any level (lexical, syntactic, semantic...). A special knowledge acquisition system is used to introduce new works by giving a description in natural language. A semantic network is extended to a representation close to a connexionist graph, for a better understanding of polysemic words and ambiguities. An application is currently used for a man-machine interface of an expert system in computer-aided education, for a better dialogue with the user during the explanation of reasoning phase. The object of this paper is to present the LCS system, especially at the lexical level, the knowledge representation and acquisition level, and the semantic level (for pronoun references and ambiguity).

  10. Two interpretive systems for natural language?

    PubMed

    Frazier, Lyn

    2015-02-01

    It is proposed that humans have available to them two systems for interpreting natural language. One system is familiar from formal semantics. It is a type based system that pairs a syntactic form with its interpretation using grammatical rules of composition. This system delivers both plausible and implausible meanings. The other proposed system is one that uses the grammar together with knowledge of how the human production system works. It is token based and only delivers plausible meanings, including meanings based on a repaired input when the input might have been produced as a speech error.

  11. Conclusiveness of natural languages and recognition of images

    SciTech Connect

    Wojcik, Z.M.

    1983-01-01

    The conclusiveness is investigated using recognition processes and one-one correspondence between expressions of a natural language and graphs representing events. The graphs, as conceived in psycholinguistics, are obtained as a result of perception processes. It is possible to generate and process the graphs automatically, using computers and then to convert the resulting graphs into expressions of a natural language. Correctness and conclusiveness of the graphs and sentences are investigated using the fundamental condition for events representation processes. Some consequences of the conclusiveness are discussed, e.g. undecidability of arithmetic, human brain assymetry, correctness of statistical calculations and operations research. It is suggested that the group theory should be imposed on mathematical models of any real system. Proof of the fundamental condition is also presented. 14 references.

  12. Intelligent CAI: An Author Aid for a Natural Language Interface.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burton, Richard R.; Brown, John Seely

    This report addresses the problems of using natural language (English) as the communication language for advanced computer-based instructional systems. The instructional environment places requirements on a natural language understanding system that exceed the capabilities of all existing systems, including: (1) efficiency, (2) habitability, (3)…

  13. An Overview of Computer-Based Natural Language Processing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gevarter, William B.

    Computer-based Natural Language Processing (NLP) is the key to enabling humans and their computer-based creations to interact with machines using natural languages (English, Japanese, German, etc.) rather than formal computer languages. NLP is a major research area in the fields of artificial intelligence and computational linguistics. Commercial…

  14. Natural language processing and advanced information management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoard, James E.

    1989-01-01

    Integrating diverse information sources and application software in a principled and general manner will require a very capable advanced information management (AIM) system. In particular, such a system will need a comprehensive addressing scheme to locate the material in its docuverse. It will also need a natural language processing (NLP) system of great sophistication. It seems that the NLP system must serve three functions. First, it provides an natural language interface (NLI) for the users. Second, it serves as the core component that understands and makes use of the real-world interpretations (RWIs) contained in the docuverse. Third, it enables the reasoning specialists (RSs) to arrive at conclusions that can be transformed into procedures that will satisfy the users' requests. The best candidate for an intelligent agent that can satisfactorily make use of RSs and transform documents (TDs) appears to be an object oriented data base (OODB). OODBs have, apparently, an inherent capacity to use the large numbers of RSs and TDs that will be required by an AIM system and an inherent capacity to use them in an effective way.

  15. Written Language Is as Natural as Spoken Language: A Biolinguistic Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aaron, P. G.; Joshi, R. Malatesha

    2006-01-01

    A commonly held belief is that language is an aspect of the biological system since the capacity to acquire language is innate and evolved along Darwinian lines. Written language, on the other hand, is thought to be an artifact and a surrogate of speech; it is, therefore, neither natural nor biological. This disparaging view of written language,…

  16. An Evolutionary History of the Natural Language English and the Artificial Language FORTRAN.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koman, Joseph J., III

    1988-01-01

    Notes similarities between certain aspects of the development of the natural language English and the artificial language FORTRAN. Discusses evolutionary history, grammar, style, syntax, varieties, and attempts at standardization. Emphasizes modifications which natural and artificial languages have undergone. Suggests that some modifications were…

  17. Linguistic Analysis of Natural Language Communication with Computers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Bozena Henisz

    Interaction with computers in natural language requires a language that is flexible and suited to the task. This study of natural dialogue was undertaken to reveal those characteristics which can make computer English more natural. Experiments were made in three modes of communication: face-to-face, terminal-to-terminal, and human-to-computer,…

  18. Understanding and representing natural language meaning

    SciTech Connect

    Waltz, D.L.; Maran, L.R.; Dorfman, M.H.; Dinitz, R.; Farwell, D.

    1982-12-01

    During this contract period the authors have: (a) continued investigation of events and actions by means of representation schemes called 'event shape diagrams'; (b) written a parsing program which selects appropriate word and sentence meanings by a parallel process known as activation and inhibition; (c) begun investigation of the point of a story or event by modeling the motivations and emotional behaviors of story characters; (d) started work on combining and translating two machine-readable dictionaries into a lexicon and knowledge base which will form an integral part of our natural language understanding programs; (e) made substantial progress toward a general model for the representation of cognitive relations by comparing English scene and event descriptions with similar descriptions in other languages; (f) constructed a general model for the representation of tense and aspect of verbs; (g) made progress toward the design of an integrated robotics system which accepts English requests, and uses visual and tactile inputs in making decisions and learning new tasks.

  19. Understanding and representing natural language meaning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waltz, D. L.; Maran, L. R.; Dorfman, M. H.; Dinitz, R.; Farwell, D.

    1982-12-01

    During this contract period the authors have: (1) continued investigation of events and actions by means of representation schemes called 'event shape diagrams'; (2) written a parsing program which selects appropriate word and sentence meanings by a parallel process know as activation and inhibition; (3) begun investigation of the point of a story or event by modeling the motivations and emotional behaviors of story characters; (4) started work on combining and translating two machine-readable dictionaries into a lexicon and knowledge base which will form an integral part of our natural language understanding programs; (5) made substantial progress toward a general model for the representation of cognitive relations by comparing English scene and event descriptions with similar descriptions in other languages; (6) constructed a general model for the representation of tense and aspect of verbs; (7) made progress toward the design of an integrated robotics system which accepts English requests, and uses visual and tactile inputs in making decisions and learning new tasks.

  20. Understanding natural language for spacecraft sequencing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Katz, Boris; Brooks, Robert N., Jr.

    1987-01-01

    The paper describes a natural language understanding system, START, that translates English text into a knowledge base. The understanding and the generating modules of START share a Grammar which is built upon reversible transformations. Users can retrieve information by querying the knowledge base in English; the system then produces an English response. START can be easily adapted to many different domains. One such domain is spacecraft sequencing. A high-level overview of sequencing as it is practiced at JPL is presented in the paper, and three areas within this activity are identified for potential application of the START system. Examples are given of an actual dialog with START based on simulated data for the Mars Observer mission.

  1. NEWCAT: Parsing natural language using left-associative grammar

    SciTech Connect

    Hausser, R.

    1986-01-01

    This book shows that constituent structure analysis induces an irregular order of linear composition which is the direct cause of extreme computational inefficiency. It proposes an alternative left-associative grammar which operates with a regular order of linear compositions. Left-associative grammar is based on building up and cancelling valencies. Left-associative parsers differ from all other systems in that the history of the parse doubles as the linguistic analysis. Left-associative grammar is illustrated with two left-associative natural language parsers: one for German and one for English.

  2. Co-Operative Language Learning: What's News?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodgers, Ted

    This discussion of cooperative second language learning describes the approach in terms of response to three questions: WHO? WHAT? and WHY? The first section "WHO: Major Directors and Actors," chronicles the evolution of cooperative learning in general and cooperative language learning in particular, citing some specific methods and the…

  3. GSFC Systems Test and Operation Language (STOL) functional requirements and language description

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Desjardins, R.; Hall, G.; Mcguire, J.; Merwarth, P.; Mocarsky, W.; Truszkowski, W.; Villasenor, A.; Brosi, F.; Burch, P.; Carey, D.

    1978-01-01

    The Systems Tests and Operation Language (STOL) provides the means for user communication with payloads, applications programs, and other ground system elements. It is a systems operation language that enables an operator or user to communicate a command to a computer system. The system interprets each high level language directive from the user and performs the indicated action, such as executing a program, printing out a snapshot, or sending a payload command. This document presents the following: (1) required language features and implementation considerations; (2) basic capabilities; (3) telemetry, command, and input/output directives; (4) procedure definition and control; (5) listing, extension, and STOL nucleus capabilities.

  4. Inferring heuristic classification hierarchies from natural language input

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hull, Richard; Gomez, Fernando

    1993-01-01

    A methodology for inferring hierarchies representing heuristic knowledge about the check out, control, and monitoring sub-system (CCMS) of the space shuttle launch processing system from natural language input is explained. Our method identifies failures explicitly and implicitly described in natural language by domain experts and uses those descriptions to recommend classifications for inclusion in the experts' heuristic hierarchies.

  5. Natural Language Processing in Game Studies Research: An Overview

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zagal, Jose P.; Tomuro, Noriko; Shepitsen, Andriy

    2012-01-01

    Natural language processing (NLP) is a field of computer science and linguistics devoted to creating computer systems that use human (natural) language as input and/or output. The authors propose that NLP can also be used for game studies research. In this article, the authors provide an overview of NLP and describe some research possibilities…

  6. Tutorial on techniques and applications for natural language processing

    SciTech Connect

    Hayes, P.J.; Carbonell, J.G.

    1983-10-17

    Natural language communication with computers has long been a major goal of Artificial Intelligence both for what it can tell us about intelligence in general and for its practical utility - data bases, software packages, and Al-based expert systems all require flexible interfaces to a growing community of users who are not able or do not wish to communicate with computers in formal, artificial command languages. Whereas many of the fundamental problems of general natural language processing (NLP) by machine remain to be solved, the area has matured in recent years to the point where practical natural language interfaces to software systems can be constructed in many restricted, but nevertheless useful, circumstances. This tutorial is intended to survey the current state of applied natural language processing by presenting computationally effective NLP techniques, by discussing the range of capabilities these techniques provide for NLP systems, an by discussing their current limitations. Following the introduction, this document is divided into two major sections: the first on language recognition strategies at the single sentence level, and the second on language processing issues that arise during interactive dialogues. In both cases, we concentrate on those aspects of the problem appropriate for interactive natural language interfaces, but relate the techniques and systems discussed to more general work on natural language, independent of application domain.

  7. A Hybrid Architecture For Natural Language Understanding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loatman, R. Bruce

    1987-05-01

    The PRC Adaptive Knowledge-based Text Understanding System (PAKTUS) is an environment for developing natural language understanding (NLU) systems. It uses a knowledge-based approach in an integrated hybrid architecture based on a factoring of the NLU problem into its lexi-cal, syntactic, conceptual, domain-specific, and pragmatic components. The goal is a robust system that benefits from the strengths of several NLU methodologies, each applied where most appropriate. PAKTUS employs a frame-based knowledge representation and associative networks throughout. The lexical component uses morphological knowledge and word experts. Syntactic knowledge is represented in an Augmented Transition Network (ATN) grammar that incorporates rule-based programming. Case grammar is used for canonical conceptual representation with constraints. Domain-specific templates represent knowledge about specific applications as patterns of the form used in logic programming. Pragmatic knowledge may augment any of the other types and is added wherever needed for a particular domain. The system has been constructed in an interactive graphic programming environment. It has been used successfully to build a prototype front end for an expert system. This integration of existing technologies makes limited but practical NLU feasible now for narrow, well-defined domains.

  8. Natural language metaphors covertly influence reasoning.

    PubMed

    Thibodeau, Paul H; Boroditsky, Lera

    2013-01-01

    Metaphors pervade discussions of social issues like climate change, the economy, and crime. We ask how natural language metaphors shape the way people reason about such social issues. In previous work, we showed that describing crime metaphorically as a beast or a virus, led people to generate different solutions to a city's crime problem. In the current series of studies, instead of asking people to generate a solution on their own, we provided them with a selection of possible solutions and asked them to choose the best ones. We found that metaphors influenced people's reasoning even when they had a set of options available to compare and select among. These findings suggest that metaphors can influence not just what solution comes to mind first, but also which solution people think is best, even when given the opportunity to explicitly compare alternatives. Further, we tested whether participants were aware of the metaphor. We found that very few participants thought the metaphor played an important part in their decision. Further, participants who had no explicit memory of the metaphor were just as much affected by the metaphor as participants who were able to remember the metaphorical frame. These findings suggest that metaphors can act covertly in reasoning. Finally, we examined the role of political affiliation on reasoning about crime. The results confirm our previous findings that Republicans are more likely to generate enforcement and punishment solutions for dealing with crime, and are less swayed by metaphor than are Democrats or Independents.

  9. Natural language metaphors covertly influence reasoning.

    PubMed

    Thibodeau, Paul H; Boroditsky, Lera

    2013-01-01

    Metaphors pervade discussions of social issues like climate change, the economy, and crime. We ask how natural language metaphors shape the way people reason about such social issues. In previous work, we showed that describing crime metaphorically as a beast or a virus, led people to generate different solutions to a city's crime problem. In the current series of studies, instead of asking people to generate a solution on their own, we provided them with a selection of possible solutions and asked them to choose the best ones. We found that metaphors influenced people's reasoning even when they had a set of options available to compare and select among. These findings suggest that metaphors can influence not just what solution comes to mind first, but also which solution people think is best, even when given the opportunity to explicitly compare alternatives. Further, we tested whether participants were aware of the metaphor. We found that very few participants thought the metaphor played an important part in their decision. Further, participants who had no explicit memory of the metaphor were just as much affected by the metaphor as participants who were able to remember the metaphorical frame. These findings suggest that metaphors can act covertly in reasoning. Finally, we examined the role of political affiliation on reasoning about crime. The results confirm our previous findings that Republicans are more likely to generate enforcement and punishment solutions for dealing with crime, and are less swayed by metaphor than are Democrats or Independents. PMID:23301009

  10. Nature and operation of attitudes.

    PubMed

    Ajzen, I

    2001-01-01

    This survey of attitude theory and research published between 1996 and 1999 covers the conceptualization of attitude, attitude formation and activation, attitude structure and function, and the attitude-behavior relation. Research regarding the expectancy-value model of attitude is considered, as are the roles of accessible beliefs and affective versus cognitive processes in the formation of attitudes. The survey reviews research on attitude strength and its antecedents and consequences, and covers progress made on the assessment of attitudinal ambivalence and its effects. Also considered is research on automatic attitude activation, attitude functions, and the relation of attitudes to broader values. A large number of studies dealt with the relation between attitudes and behavior. Research revealing additional moderators of this relation is reviewed, as are theory and research on the link between intentions and actions. Most work in this context was devoted to issues raised by the theories of reasoned action and planned behavior. The present review highlights the nature of perceived behavioral control, the relative importance of attitudes and subjective norms, the utility of adding more predictors, and the roles of prior behavior and habit. PMID:11148298

  11. Intelligent agents as a basis for natural language interfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Chin, D.N.

    1987-01-01

    Typical natural-language interfaces respond passively to the users's commands and queries. They cannot volunteer information, correction user misconceptions, or reject unethical requests. In order to do these things, a system must be an intelligent agent. UC (UNIX Consultant), a natural language system that helps the user solve problems in using the UNIX operating system, is such an intelligent agent. The agent component of UC in UCEgo. UCEgo provides UC with its own goals and plans. By adopting different goals in different situations, UCEgo creates and executes different plans, enabling it to interact appropriately with the user. UCEgo adopts goals from its themes, adopts subgoals during planning, and adopts metagoals for dealing with goal interactions. It also adopts goals when it notices that the user either lacks necessary knowledge, or has incorrect beliefs. In these cases, UCEgo plans to volunteer information or correct the user's misconception as appropriate. The user's knowledge and beliefs are modeled by the KNOME (KNOwledge Model of Expertise) component of UC. KNOME is a double-stereotype system which categorizes users by expertise and categorizes UNIX facts by difficulty.

  12. Concepts and implementations of natural language query systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dominick, Wayne D. (Editor); Liu, I-Hsiung

    1984-01-01

    The currently developed user language interfaces of information systems are generally intended for serious users. These interfaces commonly ignore potentially the largest user group, i.e., casual users. This project discusses the concepts and implementations of a natural query language system which satisfy the nature and information needs of casual users by allowing them to communicate with the system in the form of their native (natural) language. In addition, a framework for the development of such an interface is also introduced for the MADAM (Multics Approach to Data Access and Management) system at the University of Southwestern Louisiana.

  13. Semantics of Context-Free Fragments of Natural Languages.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suppes, Patrick

    The objective of this paper is to combine the viewpoint of model-theoretic semantics and generative grammar, to define semantics for context-free languages, and to apply the results to some fragments of natural language. Following the introduction in the first section, Section 2 describes a simple artificial example to illustrate how a semantic…

  14. NLP Meets the Jabberwocky: Natural Language Processing in Information Retrieval.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feldman, Susan

    1999-01-01

    Focuses on natural language processing (NLP) in information retrieval. Defines the seven levels at which people extract meaning from text/spoken language. Discusses the stages of information processing; how an information retrieval system works; advantages to adding full NLP to information retrieval systems; and common problems with information…

  15. Natural Chunks of Language: Teaching Speech Through Speech.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henry, Alex

    1996-01-01

    Outlines a teaching approach for oral English for special purposes that inputs chunks of natural language orally. These "chunks" can be segmented by the learner into fixed and variable units, while simultaneously making the learner aware of the paradigmatic, syntagmatic, and phonological aspects of the language being taught. This approach uses…

  16. Survey of Natural Language Processing Techniques in Bioinformatics.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Zhiqiang; Shi, Hua; Wu, Yun; Hong, Zhiling

    2015-01-01

    Informatics methods, such as text mining and natural language processing, are always involved in bioinformatics research. In this study, we discuss text mining and natural language processing methods in bioinformatics from two perspectives. First, we aim to search for knowledge on biology, retrieve references using text mining methods, and reconstruct databases. For example, protein-protein interactions and gene-disease relationship can be mined from PubMed. Then, we analyze the applications of text mining and natural language processing techniques in bioinformatics, including predicting protein structure and function, detecting noncoding RNA. Finally, numerous methods and applications, as well as their contributions to bioinformatics, are discussed for future use by text mining and natural language processing researchers.

  17. Survey of Natural Language Processing Techniques in Bioinformatics

    PubMed Central

    Zeng, Zhiqiang; Shi, Hua; Wu, Yun; Hong, Zhiling

    2015-01-01

    Informatics methods, such as text mining and natural language processing, are always involved in bioinformatics research. In this study, we discuss text mining and natural language processing methods in bioinformatics from two perspectives. First, we aim to search for knowledge on biology, retrieve references using text mining methods, and reconstruct databases. For example, protein-protein interactions and gene-disease relationship can be mined from PubMed. Then, we analyze the applications of text mining and natural language processing techniques in bioinformatics, including predicting protein structure and function, detecting noncoding RNA. Finally, numerous methods and applications, as well as their contributions to bioinformatics, are discussed for future use by text mining and natural language processing researchers. PMID:26525745

  18. Natural Language Processing Neural Network Considering Deep Cases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sagara, Tsukasa; Hagiwara, Masafumi

    In this paper, we propose a novel neural network considering deep cases. It can learn knowledge from natural language documents and can perform recall and inference. Various techniques of natural language processing using Neural Network have been proposed. However, natural language sentences used in these techniques consist of about a few words, and they cannot handle complicated sentences. In order to solve these problems, the proposed network divides natural language sentences into a sentence layer, a knowledge layer, ten kinds of deep case layers and a dictionary layer. It can learn the relations among sentences and among words by dividing sentences. The advantages of the method are as follows: (1) ability to handle complicated sentences; (2) ability to restructure sentences; (3) usage of the conceptual dictionary, Goi-Taikei, as the long term memory in a brain. Two kinds of experiments were carried out by using goo dictionary and Wikipedia as knowledge sources. Superior performance of the proposed neural network has been confirmed.

  19. Requirement for a standard language for test and ground operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Medlock, J. R.

    1971-01-01

    The basic requirements for a standard test and checkout language applicable to all phases of the space shuttle test and ground operations are determined. The general characteristics outlined here represent the integration of selected ideas and concepts from operational elements within Kennedy Space Center (KSC) that represent diverse disciplines associated with space vehicle testing and launching operations. Special reference is made to two studies conducted in this area for KSC as authorized by the Advanced Development Element of the Office of Manned Space Flight (MSF). Information contained in reports from these studies have contributed significantly to the final selection of language features depicted in this technical report.

  20. A Natural Language Interface Concordant with a Knowledge Base.

    PubMed

    Han, Yong-Jin; Park, Seong-Bae; Park, Se-Young

    2016-01-01

    The discordance between expressions interpretable by a natural language interface (NLI) system and those answerable by a knowledge base is a critical problem in the field of NLIs. In order to solve this discordance problem, this paper proposes a method to translate natural language questions into formal queries that can be generated from a graph-based knowledge base. The proposed method considers a subgraph of a knowledge base as a formal query. Thus, all formal queries corresponding to a concept or a predicate in the knowledge base can be generated prior to query time and all possible natural language expressions corresponding to each formal query can also be collected in advance. A natural language expression has a one-to-one mapping with a formal query. Hence, a natural language question is translated into a formal query by matching the question with the most appropriate natural language expression. If the confidence of this matching is not sufficiently high the proposed method rejects the question and does not answer it. Multipredicate queries are processed by regarding them as a set of collected expressions. The experimental results show that the proposed method thoroughly handles answerable questions from the knowledge base and rejects unanswerable ones effectively. PMID:26904105

  1. A Natural Language Interface Concordant with a Knowledge Base

    PubMed Central

    Han, Yong-Jin; Park, Seong-Bae; Park, Se-Young

    2016-01-01

    The discordance between expressions interpretable by a natural language interface (NLI) system and those answerable by a knowledge base is a critical problem in the field of NLIs. In order to solve this discordance problem, this paper proposes a method to translate natural language questions into formal queries that can be generated from a graph-based knowledge base. The proposed method considers a subgraph of a knowledge base as a formal query. Thus, all formal queries corresponding to a concept or a predicate in the knowledge base can be generated prior to query time and all possible natural language expressions corresponding to each formal query can also be collected in advance. A natural language expression has a one-to-one mapping with a formal query. Hence, a natural language question is translated into a formal query by matching the question with the most appropriate natural language expression. If the confidence of this matching is not sufficiently high the proposed method rejects the question and does not answer it. Multipredicate queries are processed by regarding them as a set of collected expressions. The experimental results show that the proposed method thoroughly handles answerable questions from the knowledge base and rejects unanswerable ones effectively. PMID:26904105

  2. A Natural Language Interface Concordant with a Knowledge Base.

    PubMed

    Han, Yong-Jin; Park, Seong-Bae; Park, Se-Young

    2016-01-01

    The discordance between expressions interpretable by a natural language interface (NLI) system and those answerable by a knowledge base is a critical problem in the field of NLIs. In order to solve this discordance problem, this paper proposes a method to translate natural language questions into formal queries that can be generated from a graph-based knowledge base. The proposed method considers a subgraph of a knowledge base as a formal query. Thus, all formal queries corresponding to a concept or a predicate in the knowledge base can be generated prior to query time and all possible natural language expressions corresponding to each formal query can also be collected in advance. A natural language expression has a one-to-one mapping with a formal query. Hence, a natural language question is translated into a formal query by matching the question with the most appropriate natural language expression. If the confidence of this matching is not sufficiently high the proposed method rejects the question and does not answer it. Multipredicate queries are processed by regarding them as a set of collected expressions. The experimental results show that the proposed method thoroughly handles answerable questions from the knowledge base and rejects unanswerable ones effectively.

  3. Ground Operations Aerospace Language (GOAL). Volume 3: Data bank

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    The GOAL (Ground Operations Aerospace Language) test programming language was developed for use in ground checkout operations in a space vehicle launch environment. To insure compatibility with a maximum number of applications, a systematic and error-free method of referencing command/response (analog and digital) hardware measurements is a principle feature of the language. Central to the concept of requiring the test language to be independent of launch complex equipment and terminology is that of addressing measurements via symbolic names that have meaning directly in the hardware units being tested. To form the link from test program through test system interfaces to the units being tested the concept of a data bank has been introduced. The data bank is actually a large cross-reference table that provides pertinent hardware data such as interface unit addresses, data bus routings, or any other system values required to locate and access measurements.

  4. Two Types of Definites in Natural Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwarz, Florian

    2009-01-01

    This thesis is concerned with the description and analysis of two semantically different types of definite articles in German. While the existence of distinct article paradigms in various Germanic dialects and other languages has been acknowledged in the descriptive literature for quite some time, the theoretical implications of their existence…

  5. Ground Operations Aerospace Language (GOAL). Volume 1: Study overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    A series of NASA and Contractor studies sponsored by NASA/KSC resulted in a specification for the Ground Operations Aerospace Language (GOAL). The Cape Kennedy Facility of the IBM Corporation was given the responsibility, under existing contracts, to perform an analysis of the Language Specification, to design and develop a GOAL Compiler, to provide a specification for a data bank, to design and develop an interpretive code translator, and to perform associated application studies.

  6. Parent-Implemented Natural Language Paradigm to Increase Language and Play in Children with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gillett, Jill N.; LeBlanc, Linda A.

    2007-01-01

    Three parents of children with autism were taught to implement the Natural Language Paradigm (NLP). Data were collected on parent implementation, multiple measures of child language, and play. The parents were able to learn to implement the NLP procedures quickly and accurately with beneficial results for their children. Increases in the overall…

  7. Natural Language Processing Techniques in Computer-Assisted Language Learning: Status and Instructional Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holland, V. Melissa; Kaplan, Jonathan D.

    1995-01-01

    Describes the role of natural language processing (NLP) techniques, such as parsing and semantic analysis, within current language tutoring systems. Examines trends, design issues and tradeoffs, and potential contributions of NLP techniques with respect to instructional theory and educational practice. Addresses limitations and problems in using…

  8. Overview of Computer-based Natural Language Processing

    SciTech Connect

    Gevarter, W.B.

    1983-04-01

    Computer-based Natural Language Processing (NLP) is the key to enabling humans and their computer-based creations to interact with machines in natural language (like English, Japanese, German, etc., in contrast to formal computer languages). The doors that such an achievement can open have made this a major research area in Artificial Intelligence and Computational Linguistics. Commercial natural language interfaces to computers have recently entered the market and future looks bright for other applications as well. This report reviews the basic approaches to such systems, the techniques utilized, applications, the state of the art of the technology, issues and research requirements, the major participants and finally, future trends and expectations. It is anticipated that this report will prove useful to engineering and research managers, potential users, and others who will be affected by this field as it unfolds.

  9. Overview of computer-based natural language processing

    SciTech Connect

    Gevarter, W.B.

    1983-04-01

    Computer-based Natural Language-Processing (NLP) is the key to enabling humans and their computer-based creations to interact with machines in natural language (like English, Japanese, German, etc. in contrast to formal computer languages). The doors that such an achievement can open have made this a major research area in Artificial Intelligence and Computational Linguistics. Commercial natural language interfaces to computers have recently entered the market and the future looks bright for other applications as well. This report reviews the basic approaches to such systems, the techniques utilized, applications, the state-of-the-art of the technology, issues and research requirements, the major participants, and finally, future trends and expectations. It is anticipated that this report will prove useful to engineering and research managers, potential users, and other who will be affected by this field as it unfolds.

  10. An overview of computer-based natural language processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gevarter, W. B.

    1983-01-01

    Computer based Natural Language Processing (NLP) is the key to enabling humans and their computer based creations to interact with machines in natural language (like English, Japanese, German, etc., in contrast to formal computer languages). The doors that such an achievement can open have made this a major research area in Artificial Intelligence and Computational Linguistics. Commercial natural language interfaces to computers have recently entered the market and future looks bright for other applications as well. This report reviews the basic approaches to such systems, the techniques utilized, applications, the state of the art of the technology, issues and research requirements, the major participants and finally, future trends and expectations. It is anticipated that this report will prove useful to engineering and research managers, potential users, and others who will be affected by this field as it unfolds.

  11. The redundancy of recursion and infinity for natural language.

    PubMed

    Luuk, Erkki; Luuk, Hendrik

    2011-02-01

    An influential line of thought claims that natural language and arithmetic processing require recursion, a putative hallmark of human cognitive processing (Chomsky in Evolution of human language: biolinguistic perspectives. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp 45-61, 2010; Fitch et al. in Cognition 97(2):179-210, 2005; Hauser et al. in Science 298(5598):1569-1579, 2002). First, we question the need for recursion in human cognitive processing by arguing that a generally simpler and less resource demanding process--iteration--is sufficient to account for human natural language and arithmetic performance. We argue that the only motivation for recursion, the infinity in natural language and arithmetic competence, is equally approachable by iteration and recursion. Second, we submit that the infinity in natural language and arithmetic competence reduces to imagining infinite embedding or concatenation, which is completely independent from the ability to implement infinite processing, and thus, independent from both recursion and iteration. Furthermore, we claim that a property of natural language is physically uncountable finity and not discrete infinity. PMID:20652723

  12. The redundancy of recursion and infinity for natural language.

    PubMed

    Luuk, Erkki; Luuk, Hendrik

    2011-02-01

    An influential line of thought claims that natural language and arithmetic processing require recursion, a putative hallmark of human cognitive processing (Chomsky in Evolution of human language: biolinguistic perspectives. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp 45-61, 2010; Fitch et al. in Cognition 97(2):179-210, 2005; Hauser et al. in Science 298(5598):1569-1579, 2002). First, we question the need for recursion in human cognitive processing by arguing that a generally simpler and less resource demanding process--iteration--is sufficient to account for human natural language and arithmetic performance. We argue that the only motivation for recursion, the infinity in natural language and arithmetic competence, is equally approachable by iteration and recursion. Second, we submit that the infinity in natural language and arithmetic competence reduces to imagining infinite embedding or concatenation, which is completely independent from the ability to implement infinite processing, and thus, independent from both recursion and iteration. Furthermore, we claim that a property of natural language is physically uncountable finity and not discrete infinity.

  13. Computational Nonlinear Morphology with Emphasis on Semitic Languages. Studies in Natural Language Processing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kiraz, George Anton

    This book presents a tractable computational model that can cope with complex morphological operations, especially in Semitic languages, and less complex morphological systems present in Western languages. It outlines a new generalized regular rewrite rule system that uses multiple finite-state automata to cater to root-and-pattern morphology,…

  14. The integration hypothesis of human language evolution and the nature of contemporary languages

    PubMed Central

    Miyagawa, Shigeru; Ojima, Shiro; Berwick, Robert C.; Okanoya, Kazuo

    2014-01-01

    How human language arose is a mystery in the evolution of Homo sapiens. Miyagawa et al. (2013) put forward a proposal, which we will call the Integration Hypothesis of human language evolution, that holds that human language is composed of two components, E for expressive, and L for lexical. Each component has an antecedent in nature: E as found, for example, in birdsong, and L in, for example, the alarm calls of monkeys. E and L integrated uniquely in humans to give rise to language. A challenge to the Integration Hypothesis is that while these non-human systems are finite-state in nature, human language is known to require characterization by a non-finite state grammar. Our claim is that E and L, taken separately, are in fact finite-state; when a grammatical process crosses the boundary between E and L, it gives rise to the non-finite state character of human language. We provide empirical evidence for the Integration Hypothesis by showing that certain processes found in contemporary languages that have been characterized as non-finite state in nature can in fact be shown to be finite-state. We also speculate on how human language actually arose in evolution through the lens of the Integration Hypothesis. PMID:24936195

  15. The integration hypothesis of human language evolution and the nature of contemporary languages.

    PubMed

    Miyagawa, Shigeru; Ojima, Shiro; Berwick, Robert C; Okanoya, Kazuo

    2014-01-01

    How human language arose is a mystery in the evolution of Homo sapiens. Miyagawa et al. (2013) put forward a proposal, which we will call the Integration Hypothesis of human language evolution, that holds that human language is composed of two components, E for expressive, and L for lexical. Each component has an antecedent in nature: E as found, for example, in birdsong, and L in, for example, the alarm calls of monkeys. E and L integrated uniquely in humans to give rise to language. A challenge to the Integration Hypothesis is that while these non-human systems are finite-state in nature, human language is known to require characterization by a non-finite state grammar. Our claim is that E and L, taken separately, are in fact finite-state; when a grammatical process crosses the boundary between E and L, it gives rise to the non-finite state character of human language. We provide empirical evidence for the Integration Hypothesis by showing that certain processes found in contemporary languages that have been characterized as non-finite state in nature can in fact be shown to be finite-state. We also speculate on how human language actually arose in evolution through the lens of the Integration Hypothesis.

  16. Analyzing Learner Language: Towards a Flexible Natural Language Processing Architecture for Intelligent Language Tutors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amaral, Luiz; Meurers, Detmar; Ziai, Ramon

    2011-01-01

    Intelligent language tutoring systems (ILTS) typically analyze learner input to diagnose learner language properties and provide individualized feedback. Despite a long history of ILTS research, such systems are virtually absent from real-life foreign language teaching (FLT). Taking a step toward more closely linking ILTS research to real-life…

  17. Natural language processing and the Now-or-Never bottleneck.

    PubMed

    Gómez-Rodríguez, Carlos

    2016-01-01

    Researchers, motivated by the need to improve the efficiency of natural language processing tools to handle web-scale data, have recently arrived at models that remarkably match the expected features of human language processing under the Now-or-Never bottleneck framework. This provides additional support for said framework and highlights the research potential in the interaction between applied computational linguistics and cognitive science. PMID:27561430

  18. Artificial intelligence, expert systems, computer vision, and natural language processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gevarter, W. B.

    1984-01-01

    An overview of artificial intelligence (AI), its core ingredients, and its applications is presented. The knowledge representation, logic, problem solving approaches, languages, and computers pertaining to AI are examined, and the state of the art in AI is reviewed. The use of AI in expert systems, computer vision, natural language processing, speech recognition and understanding, speech synthesis, problem solving, and planning is examined. Basic AI topics, including automation, search-oriented problem solving, knowledge representation, and computational logic, are discussed.

  19. OPERANT PROCEDURES IN REMEDIAL SPEECH AND LANGUAGE TRAINING.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MACAULAY, BARBARA D., ED.; SLOANE, HOWARD N., JR., ED.

    INTENDED FOR SPEECH THERAPISTS, THEACHERS OF THE MENTALLY RETARDED, AND OTHERS IN SPECIAL EDUCATION, THE COLLECTION CONTAINS REPORTS BY VARIOUS AUTHORS ON SPEECH AND LANGUAGE MODIFICATION ATTEMPTS THAT HAVE UTILIZED OPERANT CONDITIONING PROCEDURES, AS WELL AS SEVERAL PAPERS ON BACKGROUND TOPICS. BACKGROUND PAPERS ON TEACHING TREAT ENVIRONMENTAL…

  20. Quicky location determination based on geographic keywords of natural language

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Danhuai; Cui, Weihong

    2007-06-01

    In location determination based on natural language, it is common to find the location by describing relationship between the undetermined position and one or several determined position. That indicates that the uncertainty of location determination processing is derived from the one of natural language procedure, the one of spatial position description and the one of spatial relationship description. Most of current researches and regular GIS software take certainty as prerequisite and try to avoid uncertainty and its influence. The research reported in this paper is an attempt to create a new combing method of Artificial Intelligence (AI), Fuzzy set theory and spatial information science named Quickly Location Determination based on Geographic Keywords (QLDGK) to rise to the challenge of location searching technique based on natural language. QLDGK have two technical gists. The first one is geographic-keywords-library and special natural-language-separation-model-library that increases the language processing efficiency. The second one is fuzzy theory based definition of spatial relationship, spatial metric and spatial orientation that extends the searching scope and defines variant confidences on variant searching outcome. QLDGK takes consideration on both higher query efficiency and the lower omission rate. The above method has been proved workable and efficient by QLDGK prototype system which was tested by about 12000 emergency call reports from K-city, Southwest of China, and achieved the test result with 78% accuracy in highest confidence and 8% omitting ration.

  1. Using Natural Language to Enhance Mission Effectiveness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trujillo, Anna C.; Meszaros, Erica

    2016-01-01

    The availability of highly capable, yet relatively cheap, unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) is opening up new areas of use for hobbyists and for professional-related activities. The driving function of this research is allowing a non-UAV pilot, an operator, to define and manage a mission. This paper describes the preliminary usability measures of an interface that allows an operator to define the mission using speech to make inputs. An experiment was conducted to begin to enumerate the efficacy and user acceptance of using voice commands to define a multi-UAV mission and to provide high-level vehicle control commands such as "takeoff." The primary independent variable was input type - voice or mouse. The primary dependent variables consisted of the correctness of the mission parameter inputs and the time needed to make all inputs. Other dependent variables included NASA-TLX workload ratings and subjective ratings on a final questionnaire. The experiment required each subject to fill in an online form that contained comparable required information that would be needed for a package dispatcher to deliver packages. For each run, subjects typed in a simple numeric code for the package code. They then defined the initial starting position, the delivery location, and the return location using either pull-down menus or voice input. Voice input was accomplished using CMU Sphinx4-5prealpha for speech recognition. They then inputted the length of the package. These were the option fields. The subject had the system "Calculate Trajectory" and then "Takeoff" once the trajectory was calculated. Later, the subject used "Land" to finish the run. After the voice and mouse input blocked runs, subjects completed a NASA-TLX. At the conclusion of all runs, subjects completed a questionnaire asking them about their experience in inputting the mission parameters, and starting and stopping the mission using mouse and voice input. In general, the usability of voice commands is acceptable

  2. Toward a theory of distributed word expert natural language parsing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rieger, C.; Small, S.

    1981-01-01

    An approach to natural language meaning-based parsing in which the unit of linguistic knowledge is the word rather than the rewrite rule is described. In the word expert parser, knowledge about language is distributed across a population of procedural experts, each representing a word of the language, and each an expert at diagnosing that word's intended usage in context. The parser is structured around a coroutine control environment in which the generator-like word experts ask questions and exchange information in coming to collective agreement on sentence meaning. The word expert theory is advanced as a better cognitive model of human language expertise than the traditional rule-based approach. The technical discussion is organized around examples taken from the prototype LISP system which implements parts of the theory.

  3. Laboratory process control using natural language commands from a personal computer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Will, Herbert A.; Mackin, Michael A.

    1989-01-01

    PC software is described which provides flexible natural language process control capability with an IBM PC or compatible machine. Hardware requirements include the PC, and suitable hardware interfaces to all controlled devices. Software required includes the Microsoft Disk Operating System (MS-DOS) operating system, a PC-based FORTRAN-77 compiler, and user-written device drivers. Instructions for use of the software are given as well as a description of an application of the system.

  4. Ground Operations Aerospace Language (GOAL). Volume 5: Application Studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    The Ground Operations Aerospace Language (GOAL) was designed to be used by test oriented personnel to write procedures which would be executed in a test environment. A series of discussions between NASA LV-CAP personnel and IBM resulted in some peripheral tasks which would aid in evaluating the applicability of the language in this environment, and provide enhancement for future applications. The results of these tasks are contained within this volume. The GOAL vocabulary provides a high degree of readability and retainability. To achieve these benefits, however, the procedure writer utilizes words and phrases of considerable length. Brief form study was undertaken to determine a means of relieving this burden. The study resulted in a version of GOAL which enables the writer to develop a dialect suitable to his needs and satisfy the syntax equations. The output of the compiler would continue to provide readability by printing out the standard GOAL language. This task is described.

  5. SCOSII OL: A dedicated language for mission operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baldi, Andrea; Elgaard, Dennis; Lynenskjold, Steen; Pecchioli, Mauro

    1994-01-01

    The Spacecraft Control and Operations System 2 (SCOSII) is the new generation of Mission Control Systems (MCS) to be used at ESOC. The system is generic because it offers a collection of standard functions configured through a database upon which a dedicated MCS is established for a given mission. An integral component of SCOSII is the support of a dedicated Operations Language (OL). The spacecraft operation engineers edit, test, validate, and install OL scripts as part of the configuration of the system with, e.g., expressions for computing derived parameters and procedures for performing flight operations, all without involvement of software support engineers. A layered approach has been adopted for the implementation centered around the explicit representation of a data model. The data model is object-oriented defining the structure of the objects in terms of attributes (data) and services (functions) which can be accessed by the OL. SCOSII supports the creation of a mission model. System elements as, e.g., a gyro are explicit, as are the attributes which described them and the services they provide. The data model driven approach makes it possible to take immediate advantage of this higher-level of abstraction, without requiring expansion of the language. This article describes the background and context leading to the OL, concepts, language facilities, implementation, status and conclusions found so far.

  6. Dealing with Quantifier Scope Ambiguity in Natural Language Understanding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hafezi Manshadi, Mohammad

    2014-01-01

    Quantifier scope disambiguation (QSD) is one of the most challenging problems in deep natural language understanding (NLU) systems. The most popular approach for dealing with QSD is to simply leave the semantic representation (scope-) underspecified and to incrementally add constraints to filter out unwanted readings. Scope underspecification has…

  7. The Nature of Object Marking in American Sign Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gokgoz, Kadir

    2013-01-01

    In this dissertation, I examine the nature of object marking in American Sign Language (ASL). I investigate object marking by means of directionality (the movement of the verb towards a certain location in signing space) and by means of handling classifiers (certain handshapes accompanying the verb). I propose that object marking in ASL is…

  8. Orwell's 1984: Natural Language Searching and the Contemporary Metaphor.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dadlez, Eva M.

    1984-01-01

    Describes a natural language searching strategy for retrieving current material which has bearing on George Orwell's "1984," and identifies four main themes (technology, authoritarianism, press and psychological/linguistic implications of surveillance, political oppression) which have emerged from cross-database searches of the "Big Brother"…

  9. Principles of Organization in Young Children's Natural Language Hierarchies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Callanan, Maureen A.; Markman, Ellen M.

    1982-01-01

    When preschool children think of objects as organized into collections (e.g., forest, army) they solve certain problems better than when they think of the same objects as organized into classes (e.g., trees, soldiers). Present studies indicate preschool children occasionally distort natural language inclusion hierarchies (e.g., oak, tree) into the…

  10. Proof-Theoretic Semantics for a Natural Language Fragment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Francez, Nissim; Dyckhoff, Roy

    We propose a Proof - Theoretic Semantics (PTS) for a (positive) fragment E+0 of Natural Language (NL) (English in this case). The semantics is intended [7] to be incorporated into actual grammars, within the framework of Type - Logical Grammar (TLG) [12]. Thereby, this semantics constitutes an alternative to the traditional model - theoretic semantics (MTS), originating in Montague's seminal work [11], used in TLG.

  11. Recurrent Artificial Neural Networks and Finite State Natural Language Processing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moisl, Hermann

    It is argued that pessimistic assessments of the adequacy of artificial neural networks (ANNs) for natural language processing (NLP) on the grounds that they have a finite state architecture are unjustified, and that their adequacy in this regard is an empirical issue. First, arguments that counter standard objections to finite state NLP on the…

  12. Design of Lexicons in Some Natural Language Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cercone, Nick; Mercer, Robert

    1980-01-01

    Discusses an investigation of certain problems concerning the structural design of lexicons used in computational approaches to natural language understanding. Emphasizes three aspects of design: retrieval of relevant portions of lexicals items, storage requirements, and representation of meaning in the lexicon. (Available from ALLC, Dr. Rex Last,…

  13. Learning from a Computer Tutor with Natural Language Capabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michael, Joel; Rovick, Allen; Glass, Michael; Zhou, Yujian; Evens, Martha

    2003-01-01

    CIRCSIM-Tutor is a computer tutor designed to carry out a natural language dialogue with a medical student. Its domain is the baroreceptor reflex, the part of the cardiovascular system that is responsible for maintaining a constant blood pressure. CIRCSIM-Tutor's interaction with students is modeled after the tutoring behavior of two experienced…

  14. Analyzing Discourse Processing Using a Simple Natural Language Processing Tool

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crossley, Scott A.; Allen, Laura K.; Kyle, Kristopher; McNamara, Danielle S.

    2014-01-01

    Natural language processing (NLP) provides a powerful approach for discourse processing researchers. However, there remains a notable degree of hesitation by some researchers to consider using NLP, at least on their own. The purpose of this article is to introduce and make available a "simple" NLP (SiNLP) tool. The overarching goal of…

  15. Research at Yale in Natural Language Processing. Research Report #84.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schank, Roger C.

    This report summarizes the capabilities of five computer programs at Yale that do automatic natural language processing as of the end of 1976. For each program an introduction to its overall intent is given, followed by the input/output, a short discussion of the research underlying the program, and a prognosis for future development. The programs…

  16. Learning by Communicating in Natural Language with Conversational Agents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graesser, Arthur; Li, Haiying; Forsyth, Carol

    2014-01-01

    Learning is facilitated by conversational interactions both with human tutors and with computer agents that simulate human tutoring and ideal pedagogical strategies. In this article, we describe some intelligent tutoring systems (e.g., AutoTutor) in which agents interact with students in natural language while being sensitive to their cognitive…

  17. Spinoza II: Conceptual Case-Based Natural Language Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schank, Roger C.; And Others

    This paper presents the theoretical changes that have developed in Conceptual Dependency Theory and their ramifications in computer analysis of natural language. The major items of concern are: the elimination of reliance on "grammar rules" for parsing with the emphasis given to conceptual rule based parsing; the development of a conceptual case…

  18. CITE NLM: Natural-Language Searching in an Online Catalog.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doszkocs, Tamas E.

    1983-01-01

    The National Library of Medicine's Current Information Transfer in English public access online catalog offers unique subject search capabilities--natural-language query input, automatic medical subject headings display, closest match search strategy, ranked document output, dynamic end user feedback for search refinement. References, description…

  19. What Is the Nature of Poststroke Language Recovery and Reorganization?

    PubMed Central

    Kiran, Swathi

    2012-01-01

    This review focuses on three main topics related to the nature of poststroke language recovery and reorganization. The first topic pertains to the nature of anatomical and physiological substrates in the infarcted hemisphere in poststroke aphasia, including the nature of the hemodynamic response in patients with poststroke aphasia, the nature of the peri-infarct tissue, and the neuronal plasticity potential in the infarcted hemisphere. The second section of the paper reviews the current neuroimaging evidence for language recovery in the acute, subacute, and chronic stages of recovery. The third and final section examines changes in connectivity as a function of recovery in poststroke aphasia, specifically in terms of changes in white matter connectivity, changes in functional effective connectivity, and changes in resting state connectivity after stroke. While much progress has been made in our understanding of language recovery, more work needs to be done. Future studies will need to examine whether reorganization of language in poststroke aphasia corresponds to a tighter, more coherent, and efficient network of residual and new regions in the brain. Answering these questions will go a long way towards being able to predict which patients are likely to recover and may benefit from future rehabilitation. PMID:23320190

  20. Natural language understanding and speech recognition for industrial vision systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Batchelor, Bruce G.

    1992-11-01

    The accepted method of programming machine vision systems for a new application is to incorporate sub-routines from a standard library into code, written specially for the given task. Typical programming languages that might be used here are Pascal, C, and assembly code, although other `conventional' (i.e., imperative) languages are often used instead. The representation of an algorithm to recognize a certain object, in the form of, say, a C language program is clumsy and unnatural, compared to the alternative process of describing the object itself and leaving the software to search for it. The latter method, known as declarative programming, is used extensively both when programming in Prolog and when people talk to one another in English, or other natural languages. Programs to understand a limited sub-set of a natural language can also be written conveniently in Prolog. The article considers the prospects for talking to an image processing system, using only slightly constrained English. Moderately priced speech recognition devices, which interface to a standard desk-top computer and provide a limited repertoire (200 words) as well as the ability to identify isolated words, are already available commercially. At the moment, the goal of talking in English to a computer is incompletely fulfilled. Yet, sufficient progress has been made to encourage greater effort in this direction.

  1. Ground Operations Aerospace Language (GOAL). Volume 2: Compiler

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    The principal elements and functions of the Ground Operations Aerospace Language (GOAL) compiler are presented. The technique used to transcribe the syntax diagrams into machine processable format for use by the parsing routines is described. An explanation of the parsing technique used to process GOAL source statements is included. The compiler diagnostics and the output reports generated during a GOAL compilation are explained. A description of the GOAL program package is provided.

  2. Developing Formal Correctness Properties from Natural Language Requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nikora, Allen P.

    2006-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews the rationale of the program to transform natural language specifications into formal notation.Specifically, automate generation of Linear Temporal Logic (LTL)correctness properties from natural language temporal specifications. There are several reasons for this approach (1) Model-based techniques becoming more widely accepted, (2) Analytical verification techniques (e.g., model checking, theorem proving) significantly more effective at detecting types of specification design errors (e.g., race conditions, deadlock) than manual inspection, (3) Many requirements still written in natural language, which results in a high learning curve for specification languages, associated tools and increased schedule and budget pressure on projects reduce training opportunities for engineers, and (4) Formulation of correctness properties for system models can be a difficult problem. This has relevance to NASA in that it would simplify development of formal correctness properties, lead to more widespread use of model-based specification, design techniques, assist in earlier identification of defects and reduce residual defect content for space mission software systems. The presentation also discusses: potential applications, accomplishments and/or technological transfer potential and the next steps.

  3. Natural Language Control of Resources for Experimental Data Acquisition Systems

    PubMed Central

    Harbort, Robert A.; Franklin, David; Spencer, James H.

    1980-01-01

    This presentation outlines the results of research into providing a “friendly interface” between a medical scientist and a medical data acquisition system for doing clinical research. The intended user of the system is presumed to have no knowledge of programming languages. The research has emphasized outlining the needs of such a user in terms of hardware configuration, developing specifications for meeting these needs dynamically, and creating a natural language control structure for setting up experiments without the help of a programmer or electronics technician.

  4. Blurring the Inputs: A Natural Language Approach to Sensitivity Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kleb, William L.; Thompson, Richard A.; Johnston, Christopher O.

    2007-01-01

    To document model parameter uncertainties and to automate sensitivity analyses for numerical simulation codes, a natural-language-based method to specify tolerances has been developed. With this new method, uncertainties are expressed in a natural manner, i.e., as one would on an engineering drawing, namely, 5.25 +/- 0.01. This approach is robust and readily adapted to various application domains because it does not rely on parsing the particular structure of input file formats. Instead, tolerances of a standard format are added to existing fields within an input file. As a demonstration of the power of this simple, natural language approach, a Monte Carlo sensitivity analysis is performed for three disparate simulation codes: fluid dynamics (LAURA), radiation (HARA), and ablation (FIAT). Effort required to harness each code for sensitivity analysis was recorded to demonstrate the generality and flexibility of this new approach.

  5. Strategies, Language Transfer and the Simulation of the Second Language Learner's Mental Operations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Mike Sharwood

    1979-01-01

    An attempt is made to describe second language behavior and language transfer in cybernetic terms. This should make it possible to translate language into machine language and to clarify psycholinguistic explanations of second language performance. (PMJ)

  6. Combining Natural Language Processing and Statistical Text Mining: A Study of Specialized versus Common Languages

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jarman, Jay

    2011-01-01

    This dissertation focuses on developing and evaluating hybrid approaches for analyzing free-form text in the medical domain. This research draws on natural language processing (NLP) techniques that are used to parse and extract concepts based on a controlled vocabulary. Once important concepts are extracted, additional machine learning algorithms,…

  7. Using natural language processing techniques to inform research on nanotechnology

    PubMed Central

    Lewinski, Nastassja A

    2015-01-01

    Summary Literature in the field of nanotechnology is exponentially increasing with more and more engineered nanomaterials being created, characterized, and tested for performance and safety. With the deluge of published data, there is a need for natural language processing approaches to semi-automate the cataloguing of engineered nanomaterials and their associated physico-chemical properties, performance, exposure scenarios, and biological effects. In this paper, we review the different informatics methods that have been applied to patent mining, nanomaterial/device characterization, nanomedicine, and environmental risk assessment. Nine natural language processing (NLP)-based tools were identified: NanoPort, NanoMapper, TechPerceptor, a Text Mining Framework, a Nanodevice Analyzer, a Clinical Trial Document Classifier, Nanotoxicity Searcher, NanoSifter, and NEIMiner. We conclude with recommendations for sharing NLP-related tools through online repositories to broaden participation in nanoinformatics. PMID:26199848

  8. Elicitation of natural language representations of uncertainty using computer technology

    SciTech Connect

    Tonn, B.; Goeltz, R.; Travis, C.; Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN )

    1989-01-01

    Knowledge elicitation is an important aspect of risk analysis. Knowledge about risks must be accurately elicited from experts for use in risk assessments. Knowledge and perceptions of risks must also be accurately elicited from the public in order to intelligently perform policy analysis and develop and implement programs. Oak Ridge National Laboratory is developing computer technology to effectively and efficiently elicit knowledge from experts and the public. This paper discusses software developed to elicit natural language representations of uncertainty. The software is written in Common Lisp and resides on VAX Computers System and Symbolics Lisp machines. The software has three goals, to determine preferences for using natural language terms for representing uncertainty; likelihood rankings of the terms; and how likelihood estimates are combined to form new terms. The first two goals relate to providing useful results for those interested in risk communication. The third relates to providing cognitive data to further our understanding of people's decision making under uncertainty. The software is used to elicit natural language terms used to express the likelihood of various agents causing cancer in humans and cancer resulting in various maladies, and the likelihood of everyday events. 6 refs., 4 figs., 4 tabs.

  9. A Codasyl-Type Schema for Natural Language Medical Records

    PubMed Central

    Sager, N.; Tick, L.; Story, G.; Hirschman, L.

    1980-01-01

    This paper describes a CODASYL (network) database schema for information derived from narrative clinical reports. The goal of this work is to create an automated process that accepts natural language documents as input and maps this information into a database of a type managed by existing database management systems. The schema described here represents the medical events and facts identified through the natural language processing. This processing decomposes each narrative into a set of elementary assertions, represented as MEDFACT records in the database. Each assertion in turn consists of a subject and a predicate classed according to a limited number of medical event types, e.g., signs/symptoms, laboratory tests, etc. The subject and predicate are represented by EVENT records which are owned by the MEDFACT record associated with the assertion. The CODASYL-type network structure was found to be suitable for expressing most of the relations needed to represent the natural language information. However, special mechanisms were developed for storing the time relations between EVENT records and for recording connections (such as causality) between certain MEDFACT records. This schema has been implemented using the UNIVAC DMS-1100 DBMS.

  10. Two languages, two minds: flexible cognitive processing driven by language of operation.

    PubMed

    Athanasopoulos, Panos; Bylund, Emanuel; Montero-Melis, Guillermo; Damjanovic, Ljubica; Schartner, Alina; Kibbe, Alexandra; Riches, Nick; Thierry, Guillaume

    2015-04-01

    People make sense of objects and events around them by classifying them into identifiable categories. The extent to which language affects this process has been the focus of a long-standing debate: Do different languages cause their speakers to behave differently? Here, we show that fluent German-English bilinguals categorize motion events according to the grammatical constraints of the language in which they operate. First, as predicted from cross-linguistic differences in motion encoding, bilingual participants functioning in a German testing context prefer to match events on the basis of motion completion to a greater extent than do bilingual participants in an English context. Second, when bilingual participants experience verbal interference in English, their categorization behavior is congruent with that predicted for German; when bilingual participants experience verbal interference in German, their categorization becomes congruent with that predicted for English. These findings show that language effects on cognition are context-bound and transient, revealing unprecedented levels of malleability in human cognition.

  11. Two languages, two minds: flexible cognitive processing driven by language of operation.

    PubMed

    Athanasopoulos, Panos; Bylund, Emanuel; Montero-Melis, Guillermo; Damjanovic, Ljubica; Schartner, Alina; Kibbe, Alexandra; Riches, Nick; Thierry, Guillaume

    2015-04-01

    People make sense of objects and events around them by classifying them into identifiable categories. The extent to which language affects this process has been the focus of a long-standing debate: Do different languages cause their speakers to behave differently? Here, we show that fluent German-English bilinguals categorize motion events according to the grammatical constraints of the language in which they operate. First, as predicted from cross-linguistic differences in motion encoding, bilingual participants functioning in a German testing context prefer to match events on the basis of motion completion to a greater extent than do bilingual participants in an English context. Second, when bilingual participants experience verbal interference in English, their categorization behavior is congruent with that predicted for German; when bilingual participants experience verbal interference in German, their categorization becomes congruent with that predicted for English. These findings show that language effects on cognition are context-bound and transient, revealing unprecedented levels of malleability in human cognition. PMID:25749698

  12. Natural Language Processing Technologies in Radiology Research and Clinical Applications.

    PubMed

    Cai, Tianrun; Giannopoulos, Andreas A; Yu, Sheng; Kelil, Tatiana; Ripley, Beth; Kumamaru, Kanako K; Rybicki, Frank J; Mitsouras, Dimitrios

    2016-01-01

    The migration of imaging reports to electronic medical record systems holds great potential in terms of advancing radiology research and practice by leveraging the large volume of data continuously being updated, integrated, and shared. However, there are significant challenges as well, largely due to the heterogeneity of how these data are formatted. Indeed, although there is movement toward structured reporting in radiology (ie, hierarchically itemized reporting with use of standardized terminology), the majority of radiology reports remain unstructured and use free-form language. To effectively "mine" these large datasets for hypothesis testing, a robust strategy for extracting the necessary information is needed. Manual extraction of information is a time-consuming and often unmanageable task. "Intelligent" search engines that instead rely on natural language processing (NLP), a computer-based approach to analyzing free-form text or speech, can be used to automate this data mining task. The overall goal of NLP is to translate natural human language into a structured format (ie, a fixed collection of elements), each with a standardized set of choices for its value, that is easily manipulated by computer programs to (among other things) order into subcategories or query for the presence or absence of a finding. The authors review the fundamentals of NLP and describe various techniques that constitute NLP in radiology, along with some key applications. PMID:26761536

  13. Applications of Natural Language Processing in Biodiversity Science

    PubMed Central

    Thessen, Anne E.; Cui, Hong; Mozzherin, Dmitry

    2012-01-01

    Centuries of biological knowledge are contained in the massive body of scientific literature, written for human-readability but too big for any one person to consume. Large-scale mining of information from the literature is necessary if biology is to transform into a data-driven science. A computer can handle the volume but cannot make sense of the language. This paper reviews and discusses the use of natural language processing (NLP) and machine-learning algorithms to extract information from systematic literature. NLP algorithms have been used for decades, but require special development for application in the biological realm due to the special nature of the language. Many tools exist for biological information extraction (cellular processes, taxonomic names, and morphological characters), but none have been applied life wide and most still require testing and development. Progress has been made in developing algorithms for automated annotation of taxonomic text, identification of taxonomic names in text, and extraction of morphological character information from taxonomic descriptions. This manuscript will briefly discuss the key steps in applying information extraction tools to enhance biodiversity science. PMID:22685456

  14. Human task animation from performance models and natural language input

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Esakov, Jeffrey; Badler, Norman I.; Jung, Moon

    1989-01-01

    Graphical manipulation of human figures is essential for certain types of human factors analyses such as reach, clearance, fit, and view. In many situations, however, the animation of simulated people performing various tasks may be based on more complicated functions involving multiple simultaneous reaches, critical timing, resource availability, and human performance capabilities. One rather effective means for creating such a simulation is through a natural language description of the tasks to be carried out. Given an anthropometrically-sized figure and a geometric workplace environment, various simple actions such as reach, turn, and view can be effectively controlled from language commands or standard NASA checklist procedures. The commands may also be generated by external simulation tools. Task timing is determined from actual performance models, if available, such as strength models or Fitts' Law. The resulting action specification are animated on a Silicon Graphics Iris workstation in real-time.

  15. A study of the very high order natural user language (with AI capabilities) for the NASA space station common module

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gill, E. N.

    1986-01-01

    The requirements are identified for a very high order natural language to be used by crew members on board the Space Station. The hardware facilities, databases, realtime processes, and software support are discussed. The operations and capabilities that will be required in both normal (routine) and abnormal (nonroutine) situations are evaluated. A structure and syntax for an interface (front-end) language to satisfy the above requirements are recommended.

  16. Description directed control: its implications for natural language generation

    SciTech Connect

    Mcdonald, D.D.

    1983-01-01

    This paper proposes a very specifically constrained virtual machine design for goal-directed natural language generation based on a refinement of the technique of data-directed control that the author has termed description-directed control. Important psycholinguistic properties of generation follow inescapably from the use of this control technique, including: efficient runtimes, bounded lookahead, indelible decisions, incremental production of the text, and inescapable adherence to gramaticality. The technique also provides a possible explanation for some well-known universal constraints, though this cannot be confirmed without further empirical investigation. 29 references.

  17. Natural Language Processing as a Discipline at LLNL

    SciTech Connect

    Firpo, M A

    2005-02-04

    The field of Natural Language Processing (NLP) is described as it applies to the needs of LLNL in handling free-text. The state of the practice is outlined with the emphasis placed on two specific aspects of NLP: Information Extraction and Discourse Integration. A brief description is included of the NLP applications currently being used at LLNL. A gap analysis provides a look at where the technology needs work in order to meet the needs of LLNL. Finally, recommendations are made to meet these needs.

  18. Programming Languages.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tesler, Lawrence G.

    1984-01-01

    Discusses the nature of programing languages, considering the features of BASIC, LOGO, PASCAL, COBOL, FORTH, APL, and LISP. Also discusses machine/assembly codes, the operation of a compiler, and trends in the evolution of programing languages (including interest in notational systems called object-oriented languages). (JN)

  19. Natural Language Processing in Radiology: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Pons, Ewoud; Braun, Loes M M; Hunink, M G Myriam; Kors, Jan A

    2016-05-01

    Radiological reporting has generated large quantities of digital content within the electronic health record, which is potentially a valuable source of information for improving clinical care and supporting research. Although radiology reports are stored for communication and documentation of diagnostic imaging, harnessing their potential requires efficient and automated information extraction: they exist mainly as free-text clinical narrative, from which it is a major challenge to obtain structured data. Natural language processing (NLP) provides techniques that aid the conversion of text into a structured representation, and thus enables computers to derive meaning from human (ie, natural language) input. Used on radiology reports, NLP techniques enable automatic identification and extraction of information. By exploring the various purposes for their use, this review examines how radiology benefits from NLP. A systematic literature search identified 67 relevant publications describing NLP methods that support practical applications in radiology. This review takes a close look at the individual studies in terms of tasks (ie, the extracted information), the NLP methodology and tools used, and their application purpose and performance results. Additionally, limitations, future challenges, and requirements for advancing NLP in radiology will be discussed. PMID:27089187

  20. A general natural-language text processor for clinical radiology.

    PubMed Central

    Friedman, C; Alderson, P O; Austin, J H; Cimino, J J; Johnson, S B

    1994-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Development of a general natural-language processor that identifies clinical information in narrative reports and maps that information into a structured representation containing clinical terms. DESIGN: The natural-language processor provides three phases of processing, all of which are driven by different knowledge sources. The first phase performs the parsing. It identifies the structure of the text through use of a grammar that defines semantic patterns and a target form. The second phase, regularization, standardizes the terms in the initial target structure via a compositional mapping of multi-word phrases. The third phase, encoding, maps the terms to a controlled vocabulary. Radiology is the test domain for the processor and the target structure is a formal model for representing clinical information in that domain. MEASUREMENTS: The impression sections of 230 radiology reports were encoded by the processor. Results of an automated query of the resultant database for the occurrences of four diseases were compared with the analysis of a panel of three physicians to determine recall and precision. RESULTS: Without training specific to the four diseases, recall and precision of the system (combined effect of the processor and query generator) were 70% and 87%. Training of the query component increased recall to 85% without changing precision. PMID:7719797

  1. Suicide Note Classification Using Natural Language Processing: A Content Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Pestian, John; Nasrallah, Henry; Matykiewicz, Pawel; Bennett, Aurora; Leenaars, Antoon

    2010-01-01

    Suicide is the second leading cause of death among 25–34 year olds and the third leading cause of death among 15–25 year olds in the United States. In the Emergency Department, where suicidal patients often present, estimating the risk of repeated attempts is generally left to clinical judgment. This paper presents our second attempt to determine the role of computational algorithms in understanding a suicidal patient’s thoughts, as represented by suicide notes. We focus on developing methods of natural language processing that distinguish between genuine and elicited suicide notes. We hypothesize that machine learning algorithms can categorize suicide notes as well as mental health professionals and psychiatric physician trainees do. The data used are comprised of suicide notes from 33 suicide completers and matched to 33 elicited notes from healthy control group members. Eleven mental health professionals and 31 psychiatric trainees were asked to decide if a note was genuine or elicited. Their decisions were compared to nine different machine-learning algorithms. The results indicate that trainees accurately classified notes 49% of the time, mental health professionals accurately classified notes 63% of the time, and the best machine learning algorithm accurately classified the notes 78% of the time. This is an important step in developing an evidence-based predictor of repeated suicide attempts because it shows that natural language processing can aid in distinguishing between classes of suicidal notes. PMID:21643548

  2. Event construal and temporal distance in natural language.

    PubMed

    Bhatia, Sudeep; Walasek, Lukasz

    2016-07-01

    Construal level theory proposes that events that are temporally proximate are represented more concretely than events that are temporally distant. We tested this prediction using two large natural language text corpora. In study 1 we examined posts on Twitter that referenced the future, and found that tweets mentioning temporally proximate dates used more concrete words than those mentioning distant dates. In study 2 we obtained all New York Times articles that referenced U.S. presidential elections between 1987 and 2007. We found that the concreteness of the words in these articles increased with the temporal proximity to their corresponding election. Additionally the reduction in concreteness after the election was much greater than the increase in concreteness leading up to the election, though both changes in concreteness were well described by an exponential function. We replicated this finding with New York Times articles referencing US public holidays. Overall, our results provide strong support for the predictions of construal level theory, and additionally illustrate how large natural language datasets can be used to inform psychological theory.

  3. Neurolinguistics and psycholinguistics as a basis for computer acquisition of natural language

    SciTech Connect

    Powers, D.M.W.

    1983-04-01

    Research into natural language understanding systems for computers has concentrated on implementing particular grammars and grammatical models of the language concerned. This paper presents a rationale for research into natural language understanding systems based on neurological and psychological principles. Important features of the approach are that it seeks to place the onus of learning the language on the computer, and that it seeks to make use of the vast wealth of relevant psycholinguistic and neurolinguistic theory. 22 references.

  4. Nature of Soviet operational art. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Glantz, D.M.

    1985-01-01

    Soviet operational art today provides a framework for, studying, understanding, preparing for, and conducting war. Together with strategy and tactics, it makes the study of war an academic discipline requiring intense research and scholarship on the part of those who write about and who would have to conduct war. As such, operational art performs distinct tasks associated with the conduct of war.

  5. Emerging Approach of Natural Language Processing in Opinion Mining: A Review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Tai-Hoon

    Natural language processing (NLP) is a subfield of artificial intelligence and computational linguistics. It studies the problems of automated generation and understanding of natural human languages. This paper outlines a framework to use computer and natural language techniques for various levels of learners to learn foreign languages in Computer-based Learning environment. We propose some ideas for using the computer as a practical tool for learning foreign language where the most of courseware is generated automatically. We then describe how to build Computer Based Learning tools, discuss its effectiveness, and conclude with some possibilities using on-line resources.

  6. Second-language instinct and instruction effects: nature and nurture in second-language acquisition.

    PubMed

    Yusa, Noriaki; Koizumi, Masatoshi; Kim, Jungho; Kimura, Naoki; Uchida, Shinya; Yokoyama, Satoru; Miura, Naoki; Kawashima, Ryuta; Hagiwara, Hiroko

    2011-10-01

    Adults seem to have greater difficulties than children in acquiring a second language (L2) because of the alleged "window of opportunity" around puberty. Postpuberty Japanese participants learned a new English rule with simplex sentences during one month of instruction, and then they were tested on "uninstructed complex sentences" as well as "instructed simplex sentences." The behavioral data show that they can acquire more knowledge than is instructed, suggesting the interweaving of nature (universal principles of grammar, UG) and nurture (instruction) in L2 acquisition. The comparison in the "uninstructed complex sentences" between post-instruction and pre-instruction using functional magnetic resonance imaging reveals a significant activation in Broca's area. Thus, this study provides new insight into Broca's area, where nature and nurture cooperate to produce L2 learners' rich linguistic knowledge. It also shows neural plasticity of adult L2 acquisition, arguing against a critical period hypothesis, at least in the domain of UG.

  7. An intelligent simulation generator with a natural language interface

    SciTech Connect

    Ford, D.R.

    1988-01-01

    What the decision maker needs is the ability to construct computer, simulation models in less time and with fewer resources. In order to accomplish this more intelligence needs to be added to programs that construct simulation programs. This is where knowledge-based systems techniques can contribute greatly. In this research, a knowledge-based systems approach to generating simulation code is suggested. Also, a prototype system is built which is called the Intelligent Simulation Generator (ISG). This system uses knowledge of how simulation models are formulated and knowledge about the SIMAN simulation language in producing computer, simulation models from a constrained, natural language description. The methodology is detailed and two test scenarios are given to substantiate the ability of the ISG. While this approach has proven fruitful, there are some severe limitations that must be overcome in order to advance the capabilities of the system. In essence, a better understanding of model formulation is necessary and then this knowledge must be captured and incorporated into the ISG.

  8. Connectionist natural language parsing with BrainC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mueller, Adrian; Zell, Andreas

    1991-08-01

    A close examination of pure neural parsers shows that they either could not guarantee the correctness of their derivations or had to hard-code seriality into the structure of the net. The authors therefore decided to use a hybrid architecture, consisting of a serial parsing algorithm and a trainable net. The system fulfills the following design goals: (1) parsing of sentences without length restriction, (2) soundness and completeness for any context-free language, and (3) learning the applicability of parsing rules with a neural network to increase the efficiency of the whole system. BrainC (backtracktacking and backpropagation in C) combines the well- known shift-reduce parsing technique with backtracking with a backpropagation network to learn and represent typical structures of the trained natural language grammars. The system has been implemented as a subsystem of the Rochester Connectionist Simulator (RCS) on SUN workstations and was tested with several grammars for English and German. The design of the system and then the results are discussed.

  9. Left-corner unification-based natural language processing

    SciTech Connect

    Lytinen, S.L.; Tomuro, N.

    1996-12-31

    In this paper, we present an efficient algorithm for parsing natural language using unification grammars. The algorithm is an extension of left-corner parsing, a bottom-up algorithm which utilizes top-down expectations. The extension exploits unification grammar`s uniform representation of syntactic, semantic, and domain knowledge, by incorporating all types of grammatical knowledge into parser expectations. In particular, we extend the notion of the reachability table, which provides information as to whether or not a top-down expectation can be realized by a potential subconstituent, by including all types of grammatical information in table entries, rather than just phrase structure information. While our algorithm`s worst-case computational complexity is no better than that of many other algorithms, we present empirical testing in which average-case linear time performance is achieved. Our testing indicates this to be much improved average-case performance over previous leftcomer techniques.

  10. What can Natural Language Processing do for Clinical Decision Support?

    PubMed Central

    Demner-Fushman, Dina; Chapman, Wendy W.; McDonald, Clement J.

    2009-01-01

    Computerized Clinical Decision Support (CDS) aims to aid decision making of health care providers and the public by providing easily accessible health-related information at the point and time it is needed. Natural Language Processing (NLP) is instrumental in using free-text information to drive CDS, representing clinical knowledge and CDS interventions in standardized formats, and leveraging clinical narrative. The early innovative NLP research of clinical narrative was followed by a period of stable research conducted at the major clinical centers and a shift of mainstream interest to biomedical NLP. This review primarily focuses on the recently renewed interest in development of fundamental NLP methods and advances in the NLP systems for CDS. The current solutions to challenges posed by distinct sublanguages, intended user groups, and support goals are discussed. PMID:19683066

  11. Natural Language Processing Methods and Systems for Biomedical Ontology Learning

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Kaihong; Hogan, William R.; Crowley, Rebecca S.

    2010-01-01

    While the biomedical informatics community widely acknowledges the utility of domain ontologies, there remain many barriers to their effective use. One important requirement of domain ontologies is that they must achieve a high degree of coverage of the domain concepts and concept relationships. However, the development of these ontologies is typically a manual, time-consuming, and often error-prone process. Limited resources result in missing concepts and relationships as well as difficulty in updating the ontology as knowledge changes. Methodologies developed in the fields of natural language processing, information extraction, information retrieval and machine learning provide techniques for automating the enrichment of an ontology from free-text documents. In this article, we review existing methodologies and developed systems, and discuss how existing methods can benefit the development of biomedical ontologies. PMID:20647054

  12. Detection of Blood Culture Bacterial Contamination using Natural Language Processing

    PubMed Central

    Matheny, Michael E.; FitzHenry, Fern; Speroff, Theodore; Hathaway, Jacob; Murff, Harvey J.; Brown, Steven H.; Fielstein, Elliot M.; Dittus, Robert S.; Elkin, Peter L.

    2009-01-01

    Microbiology results are reported in semi-structured formats and have a high content of useful patient information. We developed and validated a hybrid regular expression and natural language processing solution for processing blood culture microbiology reports. Multi-center Veterans Affairs training and testing data sets were randomly extracted and manually reviewed to determine the culture and sensitivity as well as contamination results. The tool was iteratively developed for both outcomes using a training dataset, and then evaluated on the test dataset to determine antibiotic susceptibility data extraction and contamination detection performance. Our algorithm had a sensitivity of 84.8% and a positive predictive value of 96.0% for mapping the antibiotics and bacteria with appropriate sensitivity findings in the test data. The bacterial contamination detection algorithm had a sensitivity of 83.3% and a positive predictive value of 81.8%. PMID:20351890

  13. Detection of blood culture bacterial contamination using natural language processing.

    PubMed

    Matheny, Michael E; Fitzhenry, Fern; Speroff, Theodore; Hathaway, Jacob; Murff, Harvey J; Brown, Steven H; Fielstein, Elliot M; Dittus, Robert S; Elkin, Peter L

    2009-11-14

    Microbiology results are reported in semi-structured formats and have a high content of useful patient information. We developed and validated a hybrid regular expression and natural language processing solution for processing blood culture microbiology reports. Multi-center Veterans Affairs training and testing data sets were randomly extracted and manually reviewed to determine the culture and sensitivity as well as contamination results. The tool was iteratively developed for both outcomes using a training dataset, and then evaluated on the test dataset to determine antibiotic susceptibility data extraction and contamination detection performance. Our algorithm had a sensitivity of 84.8% and a positive predictive value of 96.0% for mapping the antibiotics and bacteria with appropriate sensitivity findings in the test data. The bacterial contamination detection algorithm had a sensitivity of 83.3% and a positive predictive value of 81.8%.

  14. Natural language acquisition in large scale neural semantic networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ealey, Douglas

    This thesis puts forward the view that a purely signal- based approach to natural language processing is both plausible and desirable. By questioning the veracity of symbolic representations of meaning, it argues for a unified, non-symbolic model of knowledge representation that is both biologically plausible and, potentially, highly efficient. Processes to generate a grounded, neural form of this model-dubbed the semantic filter-are discussed. The combined effects of local neural organisation, coincident with perceptual maturation, are used to hypothesise its nature. This theoretical model is then validated in light of a number of fundamental neurological constraints and milestones. The mechanisms of semantic and episodic development that the model predicts are then used to explain linguistic properties, such as propositions and verbs, syntax and scripting. To mimic the growth of locally densely connected structures upon an unbounded neural substrate, a system is developed that can grow arbitrarily large, data- dependant structures composed of individual self- organising neural networks. The maturational nature of the data used results in a structure in which the perception of concepts is refined by the networks, but demarcated by subsequent structure. As a consequence, the overall structure shows significant memory and computational benefits, as predicted by the cognitive and neural models. Furthermore, the localised nature of the neural architecture also avoids the increasing error sensitivity and redundancy of traditional systems as the training domain grows. The semantic and episodic filters have been demonstrated to perform as well, or better, than more specialist networks, whilst using significantly larger vocabularies, more complex sentence forms and more natural corpora.

  15. 25 CFR 39.137 - May schools operate a language development program without a specific appropriation from Congress?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false May schools operate a language development program... Formula Language Development Programs § 39.137 May schools operate a language development program without a specific appropriation from Congress? Yes, a school may operate a language development...

  16. 25 CFR 39.137 - May schools operate a language development program without a specific appropriation from Congress?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false May schools operate a language development program... Formula Language Development Programs § 39.137 May schools operate a language development program without a specific appropriation from Congress? Yes, a school may operate a language development...

  17. Interdisciplinary Co-operation (Part II of "Language Learning: Individual Needs, Interdisciplinary Co-operation, Bi- and Multilingualism").

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1978

    The following papers on interdisciplinary cooperation in second language instruction are included: (1) "Language Teaching: Possibilities for Interdisciplinary Co-operation," by James E. Alatis; (2) "L'insegnamento della letteratura italiana (The Teaching of Italian Literature)," by Ezio Raimondi; (3) "Objective Evaluation and Transparency," by…

  18. Human-Level Natural Language Understanding: False Progress and Real Challenges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bignoli, Perrin G.

    2013-01-01

    The field of Natural Language Processing (NLP) focuses on the study of how utterances composed of human-level languages can be understood and generated. Typically, there are considered to be three intertwined levels of structure that interact to create meaning in language: syntax, semantics, and pragmatics. Not only is a large amount of…

  19. Natural and Artificial Intelligence, Language, Consciousness, Emotion, and Anticipation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dubois, Daniel M.

    2010-11-01

    The classical paradigm of the neural brain as the seat of human natural intelligence is too restrictive. This paper defends the idea that the neural ectoderm is the actual brain, based on the development of the human embryo. Indeed, the neural ectoderm includes the neural crest, given by pigment cells in the skin and ganglia of the autonomic nervous system, and the neural tube, given by the brain, the spinal cord, and motor neurons. So the brain is completely integrated in the ectoderm, and cannot work alone. The paper presents fundamental properties of the brain as follows. Firstly, Paul D. MacLean proposed the triune human brain, which consists to three brains in one, following the species evolution, given by the reptilian complex, the limbic system, and the neo-cortex. Secondly, the consciousness and conscious awareness are analysed. Thirdly, the anticipatory unconscious free will and conscious free veto are described in agreement with the experiments of Benjamin Libet. Fourthly, the main section explains the development of the human embryo and shows that the neural ectoderm is the whole neural brain. Fifthly, a conjecture is proposed that the neural brain is completely programmed with scripts written in biological low-level and high-level languages, in a manner similar to the programmed cells by the genetic code. Finally, it is concluded that the proposition of the neural ectoderm as the whole neural brain is a breakthrough in the understanding of the natural intelligence, and also in the future design of robots with artificial intelligence.

  20. LABORATORY PROCESS CONTROLLER USING NATURAL LANGUAGE COMMANDS FROM A PERSONAL COMPUTER

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Will, H.

    1994-01-01

    The complex environment of the typical research laboratory requires flexible process control. This program provides natural language process control from an IBM PC or compatible machine. Sometimes process control schedules require changes frequently, even several times per day. These changes may include adding, deleting, and rearranging steps in a process. This program sets up a process control system that can either run without an operator, or be run by workers with limited programming skills. The software system includes three programs. Two of the programs, written in FORTRAN77, record data and control research processes. The third program, written in Pascal, generates the FORTRAN subroutines used by the other two programs to identify the user commands with the user-written device drivers. The software system also includes an input data set which allows the user to define the user commands which are to be executed by the computer. To set the system up the operator writes device driver routines for all of the controlled devices. Once set up, this system requires only an input file containing natural language command lines which tell the system what to do and when to do it. The operator can make up custom commands for operating and taking data from external research equipment at any time of the day or night without the operator in attendance. This process control system requires a personal computer operating under MS-DOS with suitable hardware interfaces to all controlled devices. The program requires a FORTRAN77 compiler and user-written device drivers. This program was developed in 1989 and has a memory requirement of about 62 Kbytes.

  1. The Nature of Spanish versus English Language Use at Home

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Branum-Martin, Lee; Mehta, Paras D.; Carlson, Coleen D.; Francis, David J.; Goldenberg, Claude

    2014-01-01

    Home language experiences are important for children's development of language and literacy. However, the home language context is complex, especially for Spanish-speaking children in the United States. A child's use of Spanish or English likely ranges along a continuum, influenced by preferences of particular people involved, such as parents,…

  2. ONE GRAMMAR OR TWO? Sign Languages and the Nature of Human Language.

    PubMed

    Lillo-Martin, Diane C; Gajewski, Jon

    2014-01-01

    Linguistic research has identified abstract properties that seem to be shared by all languages - such properties may be considered defining characteristics. In recent decades, the recognition that human language is found not only in the spoken modality, but also in the form of sign languages, has led to a reconsideration of some of these potential linguistic universals. In large part, the linguistic analysis of sign languages has led to the conclusion that universal characteristics of language can be stated at an abstract enough level to include languages in both spoken and signed modalities. For example, languages in both modalities display hierarchical structure at sub-lexical and phrasal level, and recursive rule application. However, this does not mean that modality-based differences between signed and spoken languages are trivial. In this article, we consider several candidate domains for modality effects, in light of the overarching question: are signed and spoken languages subject to the same abstract grammatical constraints, or is a substantially different conception of grammar needed for the sign language case? We look at differences between language types based on the use of space, iconicity, and the possibility for simultaneity in linguistic expression. The inclusion of sign languages does support some broadening of the conception of human language - in ways that are applicable for spoken languages as well. Still, the overall conclusion is that one grammar applies for human language, no matter the modality of expression. PMID:25013534

  3. ONE GRAMMAR OR TWO? Sign Languages and the Nature of Human Language.

    PubMed

    Lillo-Martin, Diane C; Gajewski, Jon

    2014-01-01

    Linguistic research has identified abstract properties that seem to be shared by all languages - such properties may be considered defining characteristics. In recent decades, the recognition that human language is found not only in the spoken modality, but also in the form of sign languages, has led to a reconsideration of some of these potential linguistic universals. In large part, the linguistic analysis of sign languages has led to the conclusion that universal characteristics of language can be stated at an abstract enough level to include languages in both spoken and signed modalities. For example, languages in both modalities display hierarchical structure at sub-lexical and phrasal level, and recursive rule application. However, this does not mean that modality-based differences between signed and spoken languages are trivial. In this article, we consider several candidate domains for modality effects, in light of the overarching question: are signed and spoken languages subject to the same abstract grammatical constraints, or is a substantially different conception of grammar needed for the sign language case? We look at differences between language types based on the use of space, iconicity, and the possibility for simultaneity in linguistic expression. The inclusion of sign languages does support some broadening of the conception of human language - in ways that are applicable for spoken languages as well. Still, the overall conclusion is that one grammar applies for human language, no matter the modality of expression.

  4. Success story in software engineering using NIAM (Natural language Information Analysis Methodology)

    SciTech Connect

    Eaton, S.M.; Eaton, D.S.

    1995-10-01

    To create an information system, we employ NIAM (Natural language Information Analysis Methodology). NIAM supports the goals of both the customer and the analyst completely understanding the information. We use the customer`s own unique vocabulary, collect real examples, and validate the information in natural language sentences. Examples are discussed from a successfully implemented information system.

  5. Testing of a Natural Language Retrieval System for a Full Text Knowledge Base.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bernstein, Lionel M.; Williamson, Robert E.

    1984-01-01

    The Hepatitis Knowledge Base (text of prototype information system) was used for modifying and testing "A Navigator of Natural Language Organized (Textual) Data" (ANNOD), a retrieval system which combines probabilistic, linguistic, and empirical means to rank individual paragraphs of full text for similarity to natural language queries proposed by…

  6. One grammar or two? Sign Languages and the Nature of Human Language

    PubMed Central

    Lillo-Martin, Diane C; Gajewski, Jon

    2014-01-01

    Linguistic research has identified abstract properties that seem to be shared by all languages—such properties may be considered defining characteristics. In recent decades, the recognition that human language is found not only in the spoken modality but also in the form of sign languages has led to a reconsideration of some of these potential linguistic universals. In large part, the linguistic analysis of sign languages has led to the conclusion that universal characteristics of language can be stated at an abstract enough level to include languages in both spoken and signed modalities. For example, languages in both modalities display hierarchical structure at sub-lexical and phrasal level, and recursive rule application. However, this does not mean that modality-based differences between signed and spoken languages are trivial. In this article, we consider several candidate domains for modality effects, in light of the overarching question: are signed and spoken languages subject to the same abstract grammatical constraints, or is a substantially different conception of grammar needed for the sign language case? We look at differences between language types based on the use of space, iconicity, and the possibility for simultaneity in linguistic expression. The inclusion of sign languages does support some broadening of the conception of human language—in ways that are applicable for spoken languages as well. Still, the overall conclusion is that one grammar applies for human language, no matter the modality of expression. PMID:25013534

  7. Crowdsourcing and curation: perspectives from biology and natural language processing

    PubMed Central

    Hirschman, Lynette; Fort, Karën; Boué, Stéphanie; Kyrpides, Nikos; Islamaj Doğan, Rezarta; Cohen, Kevin Bretonnel

    2016-01-01

    Crowdsourcing is increasingly utilized for performing tasks in both natural language processing and biocuration. Although there have been many applications of crowdsourcing in these fields, there have been fewer high-level discussions of the methodology and its applicability to biocuration. This paper explores crowdsourcing for biocuration through several case studies that highlight different ways of leveraging ‘the crowd’; these raise issues about the kind(s) of expertise needed, the motivations of participants, and questions related to feasibility, cost and quality. The paper is an outgrowth of a panel session held at BioCreative V (Seville, September 9–11, 2015). The session consisted of four short talks, followed by a discussion. In their talks, the panelists explored the role of expertise and the potential to improve crowd performance by training; the challenge of decomposing tasks to make them amenable to crowdsourcing; and the capture of biological data and metadata through community editing. Database URL: http://www.mitre.org/publications/technical-papers/crowdsourcing-and-curation-perspectives PMID:27504010

  8. Facilitating cancer research using natural language processing of pathology reports.

    PubMed

    Xu, Hua; Anderson, Kristin; Grann, Victor R; Friedman, Carol

    2004-01-01

    Many ongoing clinical research projects, such as projects involving studies associated with cancer, involve manual capture of information in surgical pathology reports so that the information can be used to determine the eligibility of recruited patients for the study and to provide other information, such as cancer prognosis. Natural language processing (NLP) systems offer an alternative to automated coding, but pathology reports have certain features that are difficult for NLP systems. This paper describes how a preprocessor was integrated with an existing NLP system (MedLEE) in order to reduce modification to the NLP system and to improve performance. The work was done in conjunction with an ongoing clinical research project that assesses disparities and risks of developing breast cancer for minority women. An evaluation of the system was performed using manually coded data from the research project's database as a gold standard. The evaluation outcome showed that the extended NLP system had a sensitivity of 90.6% and a precision of 91.6%. Results indicated that this system performed satisfactorily for capturing information for the cancer research project.

  9. Crowdsourcing and curation: perspectives from biology and natural language processing.

    PubMed

    Hirschman, Lynette; Fort, Karën; Boué, Stéphanie; Kyrpides, Nikos; Islamaj Doğan, Rezarta; Cohen, Kevin Bretonnel

    2016-01-01

    Crowdsourcing is increasingly utilized for performing tasks in both natural language processing and biocuration. Although there have been many applications of crowdsourcing in these fields, there have been fewer high-level discussions of the methodology and its applicability to biocuration. This paper explores crowdsourcing for biocuration through several case studies that highlight different ways of leveraging 'the crowd'; these raise issues about the kind(s) of expertise needed, the motivations of participants, and questions related to feasibility, cost and quality. The paper is an outgrowth of a panel session held at BioCreative V (Seville, September 9-11, 2015). The session consisted of four short talks, followed by a discussion. In their talks, the panelists explored the role of expertise and the potential to improve crowd performance by training; the challenge of decomposing tasks to make them amenable to crowdsourcing; and the capture of biological data and metadata through community editing.Database URL: http://www.mitre.org/publications/technical-papers/crowdsourcing-and-curation-perspectives. PMID:27504010

  10. Natural language parsing in a hybrid connectionist-symbolic architecture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mueller, Adrian; Zell, Andreas

    1991-03-01

    Most connectionist parsers either cannot guarantee the correctness of their derivations or have to simulate a serial flow of control. In the first case, users have to restrict the tasks (e.g. parse less complex or shorter sentences) of the parser or they need to believe in the soundness of the result. In the second case, the resulting network has lost most of its attractivity because seriality needs to be hard-coded into the structure of the net. We here present a hybrid symbolic connectionist parser, which was designed to fulfill the following goals: (1) parsing of sentences without length restriction, (2) soundness and completeness for any context-free grammar, and (3) learning the applicability of parsing rules with a neural network. Our hybrid architecture consists of a serial parsing algorithm and a trainable net. BrainC (Backtracking and Backpropagation in C) combines the well known shift-reduce parsing technique with backtracking with a backpropagation network to learn and represent the typical properties of the trained natural language grammars. The system has been implemented as a subsystem of the Rochester Connectionist Simulator (RCS) on SUN- Workstations and was tested with several grammars for English and German. We discuss how BrainC reached its design goals and what results we observed.

  11. Automatic retrieval of bone fracture knowledge using natural language processing.

    PubMed

    Do, Bao H; Wu, Andrew S; Maley, Joan; Biswal, Sandip

    2013-08-01

    Natural language processing (NLP) techniques to extract data from unstructured text into formal computer representations are valuable for creating robust, scalable methods to mine data in medical documents and radiology reports. As voice recognition (VR) becomes more prevalent in radiology practice, there is opportunity for implementing NLP in real time for decision-support applications such as context-aware information retrieval. For example, as the radiologist dictates a report, an NLP algorithm can extract concepts from the text and retrieve relevant classification or diagnosis criteria or calculate disease probability. NLP can work in parallel with VR to potentially facilitate evidence-based reporting (for example, automatically retrieving the Bosniak classification when the radiologist describes a kidney cyst). For these reasons, we developed and validated an NLP system which extracts fracture and anatomy concepts from unstructured text and retrieves relevant bone fracture knowledge. We implement our NLP in an HTML5 web application to demonstrate a proof-of-concept feedback NLP system which retrieves bone fracture knowledge in real time. PMID:23053906

  12. Crowdsourcing and curation: perspectives from biology and natural language processing.

    PubMed

    Hirschman, Lynette; Fort, Karën; Boué, Stéphanie; Kyrpides, Nikos; Islamaj Doğan, Rezarta; Cohen, Kevin Bretonnel

    2016-01-01

    Crowdsourcing is increasingly utilized for performing tasks in both natural language processing and biocuration. Although there have been many applications of crowdsourcing in these fields, there have been fewer high-level discussions of the methodology and its applicability to biocuration. This paper explores crowdsourcing for biocuration through several case studies that highlight different ways of leveraging 'the crowd'; these raise issues about the kind(s) of expertise needed, the motivations of participants, and questions related to feasibility, cost and quality. The paper is an outgrowth of a panel session held at BioCreative V (Seville, September 9-11, 2015). The session consisted of four short talks, followed by a discussion. In their talks, the panelists explored the role of expertise and the potential to improve crowd performance by training; the challenge of decomposing tasks to make them amenable to crowdsourcing; and the capture of biological data and metadata through community editing.Database URL: http://www.mitre.org/publications/technical-papers/crowdsourcing-and-curation-perspectives.

  13. A common type system for clinical natural language processing

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background One challenge in reusing clinical data stored in electronic medical records is that these data are heterogenous. Clinical Natural Language Processing (NLP) plays an important role in transforming information in clinical text to a standard representation that is comparable and interoperable. Information may be processed and shared when a type system specifies the allowable data structures. Therefore, we aim to define a common type system for clinical NLP that enables interoperability between structured and unstructured data generated in different clinical settings. Results We describe a common type system for clinical NLP that has an end target of deep semantics based on Clinical Element Models (CEMs), thus interoperating with structured data and accommodating diverse NLP approaches. The type system has been implemented in UIMA (Unstructured Information Management Architecture) and is fully functional in a popular open-source clinical NLP system, cTAKES (clinical Text Analysis and Knowledge Extraction System) versions 2.0 and later. Conclusions We have created a type system that targets deep semantics, thereby allowing for NLP systems to encapsulate knowledge from text and share it alongside heterogenous clinical data sources. Rather than surface semantics that are typically the end product of NLP algorithms, CEM-based semantics explicitly build in deep clinical semantics as the point of interoperability with more structured data types. PMID:23286462

  14. A grammar-based semantic similarity algorithm for natural language sentences.

    PubMed

    Lee, Ming Che; Chang, Jia Wei; Hsieh, Tung Cheng

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a grammar and semantic corpus based similarity algorithm for natural language sentences. Natural language, in opposition to "artificial language", such as computer programming languages, is the language used by the general public for daily communication. Traditional information retrieval approaches, such as vector models, LSA, HAL, or even the ontology-based approaches that extend to include concept similarity comparison instead of cooccurrence terms/words, may not always determine the perfect matching while there is no obvious relation or concept overlap between two natural language sentences. This paper proposes a sentence similarity algorithm that takes advantage of corpus-based ontology and grammatical rules to overcome the addressed problems. Experiments on two famous benchmarks demonstrate that the proposed algorithm has a significant performance improvement in sentences/short-texts with arbitrary syntax and structure.

  15. Natural environment support guidelines for Space Shuttle tests and operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carter, E. A.; Brown, S. C.

    1974-01-01

    The present work outlines the general concept as to how natural environment guidelines will be developed for Space Shuttle activities. The following six categories that might need natural environment support are single out: development tests; preliminary operations and prelaunch; launch to orbit; orbital mission and operations; deorbit, entry, and landing; ferry flights. An example of detailed event requirements for decisions to launch is given. Some artist's conceptions of proposed launch complexes at Kennedy Space Center and Vandenberg AFB are shown.

  16. Nature and Nurture in School-Based Second Language Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dale, Philip S.; Harlaar, Nicole; Plomin, Robert

    2012-01-01

    Variability in achievement across learners is a hallmark of second language (L2) learning, especially in academic-based learning. The Twins Early Development Study (TEDS), based on a large, population-representative sample in the United Kingdom, provides the first opportunity to examine individual differences in second language achievement in a…

  17. Notes on the Nature of Bilingual Specific Language Impairment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Jong, Jan

    2010-01-01

    Johanne Paradis' Keynote Article can be read as a concise critical review of the research that focuses on the sometimes strained relationship between bilingualism and specific language impairment (SLI). In my comments I will add some thoughts based on our own research on the learning of Dutch as a second language (L2) by children with SLI.

  18. Three-dimensional grammar in the brain: Dissociating the neural correlates of natural sign language and manually coded spoken language.

    PubMed

    Jednoróg, Katarzyna; Bola, Łukasz; Mostowski, Piotr; Szwed, Marcin; Boguszewski, Paweł M; Marchewka, Artur; Rutkowski, Paweł

    2015-05-01

    In several countries natural sign languages were considered inadequate for education. Instead, new sign-supported systems were created, based on the belief that spoken/written language is grammatically superior. One such system called SJM (system językowo-migowy) preserves the grammatical and lexical structure of spoken Polish and since 1960s has been extensively employed in schools and on TV. Nevertheless, the Deaf community avoids using SJM for everyday communication, its preferred language being PJM (polski język migowy), a natural sign language, structurally and grammatically independent of spoken Polish and featuring classifier constructions (CCs). Here, for the first time, we compare, with fMRI method, the neural bases of natural vs. devised communication systems. Deaf signers were presented with three types of signed sentences (SJM and PJM with/without CCs). Consistent with previous findings, PJM with CCs compared to either SJM or PJM without CCs recruited the parietal lobes. The reverse comparison revealed activation in the anterior temporal lobes, suggesting increased semantic combinatory processes in lexical sign comprehension. Finally, PJM compared with SJM engaged left posterior superior temporal gyrus and anterior temporal lobe, areas crucial for sentence-level speech comprehension. We suggest that activity in these two areas reflects greater processing efficiency for naturally evolved sign language. PMID:25858311

  19. Three-dimensional grammar in the brain: Dissociating the neural correlates of natural sign language and manually coded spoken language.

    PubMed

    Jednoróg, Katarzyna; Bola, Łukasz; Mostowski, Piotr; Szwed, Marcin; Boguszewski, Paweł M; Marchewka, Artur; Rutkowski, Paweł

    2015-05-01

    In several countries natural sign languages were considered inadequate for education. Instead, new sign-supported systems were created, based on the belief that spoken/written language is grammatically superior. One such system called SJM (system językowo-migowy) preserves the grammatical and lexical structure of spoken Polish and since 1960s has been extensively employed in schools and on TV. Nevertheless, the Deaf community avoids using SJM for everyday communication, its preferred language being PJM (polski język migowy), a natural sign language, structurally and grammatically independent of spoken Polish and featuring classifier constructions (CCs). Here, for the first time, we compare, with fMRI method, the neural bases of natural vs. devised communication systems. Deaf signers were presented with three types of signed sentences (SJM and PJM with/without CCs). Consistent with previous findings, PJM with CCs compared to either SJM or PJM without CCs recruited the parietal lobes. The reverse comparison revealed activation in the anterior temporal lobes, suggesting increased semantic combinatory processes in lexical sign comprehension. Finally, PJM compared with SJM engaged left posterior superior temporal gyrus and anterior temporal lobe, areas crucial for sentence-level speech comprehension. We suggest that activity in these two areas reflects greater processing efficiency for naturally evolved sign language.

  20. Topics in Cognitive Development: Language and Operational Thought. Volume 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Presseisen, Barbara Z.; And Others

    This is the second volume in a series that records the official Symposium Proceedings of the Jean Piaget Society and examines the theoretical, empirical, and applied aspects of Jean Piaget's seminal epistemology. The 12 papers are divided into four areas: language development, formal reasoning, social cognition, and applied research. The topics of…

  1. Natural language processing in an intelligent writing strategy tutoring system.

    PubMed

    McNamara, Danielle S; Crossley, Scott A; Roscoe, Rod

    2013-06-01

    The Writing Pal is an intelligent tutoring system that provides writing strategy training. A large part of its artificial intelligence resides in the natural language processing algorithms to assess essay quality and guide feedback to students. Because writing is often highly nuanced and subjective, the development of these algorithms must consider a broad array of linguistic, rhetorical, and contextual features. This study assesses the potential for computational indices to predict human ratings of essay quality. Past studies have demonstrated that linguistic indices related to lexical diversity, word frequency, and syntactic complexity are significant predictors of human judgments of essay quality but that indices of cohesion are not. The present study extends prior work by including a larger data sample and an expanded set of indices to assess new lexical, syntactic, cohesion, rhetorical, and reading ease indices. Three models were assessed. The model reported by McNamara, Crossley, and McCarthy (Written Communication 27:57-86, 2010) including three indices of lexical diversity, word frequency, and syntactic complexity accounted for only 6% of the variance in the larger data set. A regression model including the full set of indices examined in prior studies of writing predicted 38% of the variance in human scores of essay quality with 91% adjacent accuracy (i.e., within 1 point). A regression model that also included new indices related to rhetoric and cohesion predicted 44% of the variance with 94% adjacent accuracy. The new indices increased accuracy but, more importantly, afford the means to provide more meaningful feedback in the context of a writing tutoring system.

  2. Automation of a problem list using natural language processing

    PubMed Central

    Meystre, Stephane; Haug, Peter J

    2005-01-01

    Background The medical problem list is an important part of the electronic medical record in development in our institution. To serve the functions it is designed for, the problem list has to be as accurate and timely as possible. However, the current problem list is usually incomplete and inaccurate, and is often totally unused. To alleviate this issue, we are building an environment where the problem list can be easily and effectively maintained. Methods For this project, 80 medical problems were selected for their frequency of use in our future clinical field of evaluation (cardiovascular). We have developed an Automated Problem List system composed of two main components: a background and a foreground application. The background application uses Natural Language Processing (NLP) to harvest potential problem list entries from the list of 80 targeted problems detected in the multiple free-text electronic documents available in our electronic medical record. These proposed medical problems drive the foreground application designed for management of the problem list. Within this application, the extracted problems are proposed to the physicians for addition to the official problem list. Results The set of 80 targeted medical problems selected for this project covered about 5% of all possible diagnoses coded in ICD-9-CM in our study population (cardiovascular adult inpatients), but about 64% of all instances of these coded diagnoses. The system contains algorithms to detect first document sections, then sentences within these sections, and finally potential problems within the sentences. The initial evaluation of the section and sentence detection algorithms demonstrated a sensitivity and positive predictive value of 100% when detecting sections, and a sensitivity of 89% and a positive predictive value of 94% when detecting sentences. Conclusion The global aim of our project is to automate the process of creating and maintaining a problem list for hospitalized

  3. Evaluation of PHI Hunter in Natural Language Processing Research

    PubMed Central

    Redd, Andrew; Pickard, Steve; Meystre, Stephane; Scehnet, Jeffrey; Bolton, Dan; Heavirland, Julia; Weaver, Allison Lynn; Hope, Carol; Garvin, Jennifer Hornung

    2015-01-01

    Objectives We introduce and evaluate a new, easily accessible tool using a common statistical analysis and business analytics software suite, SAS, which can be programmed to remove specific protected health information (PHI) from a text document. Removal of PHI is important because the quantity of text documents used for research with natural language processing (NLP) is increasing. When using existing data for research, an investigator must remove all PHI not needed for the research to comply with human subjects’ right to privacy. This process is similar, but not identical, to de-identification of a given set of documents. Materials and methods PHI Hunter removes PHI from free-form text. It is a set of rules to identify and remove patterns in text. PHI Hunter was applied to 473 Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) text documents randomly drawn from a research corpus stored as unstructured text in VA files. Results PHI Hunter performed well with PHI in the form of identification numbers such as Social Security numbers, phone numbers, and medical record numbers. The most commonly missed PHI items were names and locations. Incorrect removal of information occurred with text that looked like identification numbers. Discussion PHI Hunter fills a niche role that is related to but not equal to the role of de-identification tools. It gives research staff a tool to reasonably increase patient privacy. It performs well for highly sensitive PHI categories that are rarely used in research, but still shows possible areas for improvement. More development for patterns of text and linked demographic tables from electronic health records (EHRs) would improve the program so that more precise identifiable information can be removed. Conclusions PHI Hunter is an accessible tool that can flexibly remove PHI not needed for research. If it can be tailored to the specific data set via linked demographic tables, its performance will improve in each new document set. PMID:26807078

  4. Of substance: the nature of language effects on entity construal.

    PubMed

    Li, Peggy; Dunham, Yarrow; Carey, Susan

    2009-06-01

    Shown an entity (e.g., a plastic whisk) labeled by a novel noun in neutral syntax, speakers of Japanese, a classifier language, are more likely to assume the noun refers to the substance (plastic) than are speakers of English, a count/mass language, who are instead more likely to assume it refers to the object kind [whisk; Imai, M., & Gentner, D. (1997). A cross-linguistic study of early word meaning: Universal ontology and linguistic influence. Cognition, 62, 169-200]. Five experiments replicated this language type effect on entity construal, extended it to quite different stimuli from those studied before, and extended it to a comparison between Mandarin speakers and English speakers. A sixth experiment, which did not involve interpreting the meaning of a noun or a pronoun that stands for a noun, failed to find any effect of language type on entity construal. Thus, the overall pattern of findings supports a non-Whorfian, language on language account, according to which sensitivity to lexical statistics in a count/mass language leads adults to assign a novel noun in neutral syntax the status of a count noun, influencing construal of ambiguous entities. The experiments also document and explore cross-linguistically universal factors that influence entity construal, and favor Prasada's [Prasada, S. (1999). Names for things and stuff: An Aristotelian perspective. In R. Jackendoff, P. Bloom, & K. Wynn (Eds.), Language, logic, and concepts (pp. 119-146). Cambridge, MA: MIT Press] hypothesis that features indicating non-accidentalness of an entity's form lead participants to a construal of object kind rather than substance kind. Finally, the experiments document the age at which the language type effect emerges in lexical projection. The details of the developmental pattern are consistent with the lexical statistics hypothesis, along with a universal increase in sensitivity to material kind.

  5. On the neurolinguistic nature of language abnormalities in Huntington's disease.

    PubMed Central

    Wallesch, C W; Fehrenbach, R A

    1988-01-01

    Spontaneous language of 18 patients suffering from Huntington's disease and 15 dysarthric controls suffering from Friedreich's ataxia were investigated. In addition, language functions in various modalities were assessed with the Aachen Aphasia Test (AAT). The Huntington patients exhibited deficits in the syntactical complexity of spontaneous speech and in the Token Test, confrontation naming, and language comprehension subtests of the AAT, which are interpreted as resulting from their dementia. Errors affecting word access mechanisms and production of syntactical structures as such were not encountered. PMID:2452241

  6. Statistical learning in a natural language by 8-month-old infants.

    PubMed

    Pelucchi, Bruna; Hay, Jessica F; Saffran, Jenny R

    2009-01-01

    Numerous studies over the past decade support the claim that infants are equipped with powerful statistical language learning mechanisms. The primary evidence for statistical language learning in word segmentation comes from studies using artificial languages, continuous streams of synthesized syllables that are highly simplified relative to real speech. To what extent can these conclusions be scaled up to natural language learning? In the current experiments, English-learning 8-month-old infants' ability to track transitional probabilities in fluent infant-directed Italian speech was tested (N = 72). The results suggest that infants are sensitive to transitional probability cues in unfamiliar natural language stimuli, and support the claim that statistical learning is sufficiently robust to support aspects of real-world language acquisition. PMID:19489896

  7. Statistical Learning in a Natural Language by 8-Month-Old Infants

    PubMed Central

    Pelucchi, Bruna; Hay, Jessica F.; Saffran, Jenny R.

    2013-01-01

    Numerous studies over the past decade support the claim that infants are equipped with powerful statistical language learning mechanisms. The primary evidence for statistical language learning in word segmentation comes from studies using artificial languages, continuous streams of synthesized syllables that are highly simplified relative to real speech. To what extent can these conclusions be scaled up to natural language learning? In the current experiments, English-learning 8-month-old infants’ ability to track transitional probabilities in fluent infant-directed Italian speech was tested (N = 72). The results suggest that infants are sensitive to transitional probability cues in unfamiliar natural language stimuli, and support the claim that statistical learning is sufficiently robust to support aspects of real-world language acquisition. PMID:19489896

  8. Natural Language Query System Design for Interactive Information Storage and Retrieval Systems. M.S. Thesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dominick, Wayne D. (Editor); Liu, I-Hsiung

    1985-01-01

    The currently developed multi-level language interfaces of information systems are generally designed for experienced users. These interfaces commonly ignore the nature and needs of the largest user group, i.e., casual users. This research identifies the importance of natural language query system research within information storage and retrieval system development; addresses the topics of developing such a query system; and finally, proposes a framework for the development of natural language query systems in order to facilitate the communication between casual users and information storage and retrieval systems.

  9. Distributed problem solving and natural language understanding models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rieger, C.

    1980-01-01

    A theory of organization and control for a meaning-based language understanding system is mapped out. In this theory, words, rather than rules, are the units of knowledge, and assume the form of procedural entities which execute as generator-like coroutines. Parsing a sentence in context demands a control environment in wich experts can ask questions of each other, forward hints and suggestions to each other, and suspend. The theory is a cognitive theory of both language representation and parser control.

  10. Of Substance: The Nature of Language Effects on Entity Construal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Peggy; Dunham, Yarrow; Carey, Susan

    2009-01-01

    Shown an entity (e.g., a plastic whisk) labeled by a novel noun in neutral syntax, speakers of Japanese, a classifier language, are more likely to assume the noun refers to the substance (plastic) than are speakers of English, a count/mass language, who are instead more likely to assume it refers to the object kind [whisk; Imai, M., & Gentner, D.…

  11. Learning and comprehension of BASIC and natural language computer programming by novices

    SciTech Connect

    Dyck, J.L.

    1987-01-01

    This study examined the effectiveness of teaching novices to program in Natural Language as a prerequisite for learning BASIC, and the learning and comprehension processes for Natural Language and BASIC computer-programming languages. Three groups of computer-naive subjects participated in five self-paced learning sessions; in each sessions, subjects solved a series of programming problems with immediate feedback. Twenty-four subjects learned to solve BASIC programming problems (BASIC group) for all five sessions, 23 subjects learned to solve corresponding Natural Language programming problems for all five sessions (Natural Language group), and 23 subjects learned to solve Natural Language programming problems for three sessions and then transferred to BASIC for the two sessions (Transfer group). At the end of the fifth session, all subjects completed a post-test which required the subjects to use their programming knowledge in a new way. Results indicated that the Natural Language trained subjects had complete transfer to BASIC, as indicated by no overall difference in comprehension time or accuracy for final BASIC sessions (i.e., sessions four and five) for the Transfer and BASIC groups. In addition, there was an interaction between group and session on accuracy, in which the Transfer group increased its accuracy at a faster rate than the BASIC group.

  12. A Grammar-Based Semantic Similarity Algorithm for Natural Language Sentences

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Jia Wei; Hsieh, Tung Cheng

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a grammar and semantic corpus based similarity algorithm for natural language sentences. Natural language, in opposition to “artificial language”, such as computer programming languages, is the language used by the general public for daily communication. Traditional information retrieval approaches, such as vector models, LSA, HAL, or even the ontology-based approaches that extend to include concept similarity comparison instead of cooccurrence terms/words, may not always determine the perfect matching while there is no obvious relation or concept overlap between two natural language sentences. This paper proposes a sentence similarity algorithm that takes advantage of corpus-based ontology and grammatical rules to overcome the addressed problems. Experiments on two famous benchmarks demonstrate that the proposed algorithm has a significant performance improvement in sentences/short-texts with arbitrary syntax and structure. PMID:24982952

  13. The language-specific nature of grammatical development: evidence from bilingual language learners.

    PubMed

    Marchman, Virginia A; Martínez-Sussmann, Carmen; Dale, Philip S

    2004-04-01

    The fact that early lexical and grammatical acquisition are strongly correlated has been cited as evidence against the view that the language faculty is composed of dissociable and autonomous modules (Bates & Goodman, 1997). However, previous studies have not yet eliminated the possibility that lexical-grammar associations may be attributable to language-general individual differences (e.g. children who are good at learning words are good at learning grammar). Parent report assessments of toddlers who are simultaneously learning English and Spanish (n = 113) allow an examination of the specificity of lexical-grammar relationships while holding child factors constant. Within-language vocabulary-grammar associations were stronger than cross-language relationships, even after controlling for age, proportion of language exposure, general language skill and reporter bias. Similar patterns were found based on naturalistic language samples (n = 22), ruling out a methodological artifact. These results are consistent with the view that grammar learning is specifically tied to lexical progress in a given language and provide further support for strong lexical-grammatical continuity early in acquisition.

  14. The Nature of Chinese Language Classroom Learning Environments in Singapore Secondary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chua, Siew Lian; Wong, Angela F. L.; Chen, Der-Thanq V.

    2011-01-01

    This article reports findings from a classroom environment study which was designed to investigate the nature of Chinese Language classroom environments in Singapore secondary schools. We used a perceptual instrument, the Chinese Language Classroom Environment Inventory, to investigate teachers' and students' perceptions towards their Chinese…

  15. Structured Natural-Language Descriptions for Semantic Content Retrieval of Visual Materials.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tam, A. M.; Leung, C. H. C.

    2001-01-01

    Proposes a structure for natural language descriptions of the semantic content of visual materials that requires descriptions to be (modified) keywords, phrases, or simple sentences, with components that are grammatical relations common to many languages. This structure makes it easy to implement a collection's descriptions as a relational…

  16. Using the Natural Language Paradigm (NLP) to Increase Vocalizations of Older Adults with Cognitive Impairments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LeBlanc, Linda A.; Geiger, Kaneen B.; Sautter, Rachael A.; Sidener, Tina M.

    2007-01-01

    The Natural Language Paradigm (NLP) has proven effective in increasing spontaneous verbalizations for children with autism. This study investigated the use of NLP with older adults with cognitive impairments served at a leisure-based adult day program for seniors. Three individuals with limited spontaneous use of functional language participated…

  17. Paradigms of Evaluation in Natural Language Processing: Field Linguistics for Glass Box Testing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Kevin Bretonnel

    2010-01-01

    Although software testing has been well-studied in computer science, it has received little attention in natural language processing. Nonetheless, a fully developed methodology for glass box evaluation and testing of language processing applications already exists in the field methods of descriptive linguistics. This work lays out a number of…

  18. Digging in the Dictionary: Building a Relational Lexicon To Support Natural Language Processing Applications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evens, Martha; And Others

    Advanced learners of second languages and natural language processing systems both demand much more detailed lexical information than conventional dictionaries provide. Text composition, whether by humans or machines, requires a thorough understanding of relationships between words, such as selectional restrictions, case patterns, factives, and…

  19. Transfer of a Natural Language System for Problem-Solving in Physics to Other Domains.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oberem, Graham E.

    The limited language capability of CAI systems has made it difficult to personalize problem-solving instruction. The intelligent tutoring system, ALBERT, is a problem-solving monitor and coach that has been used with high school and college level physics students for several years; it uses a natural language system to understand kinematics…

  20. Nine-Month-Olds Extract Structural Principles Required for Natural Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gerken, LouAnn

    2004-01-01

    Infants' ability to rapidly extract properties of language-like systems during brief laboratory exposures has been taken as evidence about the innate linguistic state of humans. However, previous studies have focused on structural properties that are not central to descriptions of natural language. In the current study, infants were exposed to 3-…

  1. Semantic Grammar: An Engineering Technique for Constructing Natural Language Understanding Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burton, Richard R.

    In an attempt to overcome the lack of natural means of communication between student and computer, this thesis addresses the problem of developing a system which can understand natural language within an educational problem-solving environment. The nature of the environment imposes efficiency, habitability, self-teachability, and awareness of…

  2. Approach to the organization of knowledge and its use in natural language recall tasks

    SciTech Connect

    Mccalla, G.I.

    1983-01-01

    The viewpoint espoused in this paper is that natural language understanding and production is the action of a number of highly integrated domain-specific specialists. Described first is an object oriented representation scheme which allows these specialists to be built. Discussed next is the organization of these specialists into a four-level goal hierarchy that enables the modelling of natural language conversation. It is shown how the representation and natural language structures can be used to facilitate the recall of earlier natural language conversations. Six specific kinds of recall tasks are outlined in terms of these structures and their occurrence in several legal dialogues is examined. Finally, the need for intelligent garbage collection of old episodic information is pointed out. 38 references.

  3. On application of image analysis and natural language processing for music search

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gwardys, Grzegorz

    2013-10-01

    In this paper, I investigate a problem of finding most similar music tracks using, popular in Natural Language Processing, techniques like: TF-IDF and LDA. I de ned document as music track. Each music track is transformed to spectrogram, thanks that, I can use well known techniques to get words from images. I used SURF operation to detect characteristic points and novel approach for their description. The standard kmeans was used for clusterization. Clusterization is here identical with dictionary making, so after that I can transform spectrograms to text documents and perform TF-IDF and LDA. At the final, I can make a query in an obtained vector space. The research was done on 16 music tracks for training and 336 for testing, that are splitted in four categories: Hiphop, Jazz, Metal and Pop. Although used technique is completely unsupervised, results are satisfactory and encouraging to further research.

  4. Interset: A natural language interface for teleoperated robotic assembly of the EASE space structure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boorsma, Daniel K.

    1989-01-01

    A teleoperated robot was used to assemble the Experimental Assembly of Structures in Extra-vehicular activity (EASE) space structure under neutral buoyancy conditions, simulating a telerobot performing structural assembly in the zero gravity of space. This previous work used a manually controlled teleoperator as a test bed for system performance evaluations. From these results several Artificial Intelligence options were proposed. One of these was further developed into a real time assembly planner. The interface for this system is effective in assembling EASE structures using windowed graphics and a set of networked menus. As the problem space becomes more complex and hence the set of control options increases, a natural language interface may prove to be beneficial to supplement the menu based control strategy. This strategy can be beneficial in situations such as: describing the local environment, maintaining a data base of task event histories, modifying a plan or a heuristic dynamically, summarizing a task in English, or operating in a novel situation.

  5. FFTF operating experience with sodium natural circulation: slides included

    SciTech Connect

    Burke, T.M.; Additon, S.L.; Beaver, T.R.; Midgett, J.C.

    1981-01-01

    The Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF) has been designed for passive, back-up, safety grade decay heat removal utilizing natural circulation of the sodium coolant. This paper discusses the process by which operator preparation for this emergency operating mode has been assured, in paralled with the design verification during the FFTF startup and acceptance testing program. Over the course of the test program, additional insights were gained through the testing program, through on-going plant analyses and through general safety evaluations performed throughout the nuclear industry. These insights led to development of improved operator training material for control of decay heat removal during both forced and natural circulation as well as improvements in the related plant operating procedures.

  6. The natural order of events: How speakers of different languages represent events nonverbally

    PubMed Central

    Goldin-Meadow, Susan; So, Wing Chee; Özyürek, Aslı; Mylander, Carolyn

    2008-01-01

    To test whether the language we speak influences our behavior even when we are not speaking, we asked speakers of four languages differing in their predominant word orders (English, Turkish, Spanish, and Chinese) to perform two nonverbal tasks: a communicative task (describing an event by using gesture without speech) and a noncommunicative task (reconstructing an event with pictures). We found that the word orders speakers used in their everyday speech did not influence their nonverbal behavior. Surprisingly, speakers of all four languages used the same order and on both nonverbal tasks. This order, actor–patient–act, is analogous to the subject–object–verb pattern found in many languages of the world and, importantly, in newly developing gestural languages. The findings provide evidence for a natural order that we impose on events when describing and reconstructing them nonverbally and exploit when constructing language anew. PMID:18599445

  7. GE FRST Evaluation Report: How Well Does a Statistically-Based Natural Language Processing System Score Natural Language Constructed-Responses?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burstein, Jill C.; Kaplan, Randy M.

    There is a considerable interest at Educational Testing Service (ETS) to include performance-based, natural language constructed-response items on standardized tests. Such items can be developed, but the projected time and costs required to have these items scored by human graders would be prohibitive. In order for ETS to include these types of…

  8. Integrating Corpus-Based Resources and Natural Language Processing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cantos, Pascual

    2002-01-01

    Surveys computational linguistic tools presently available, but whose potential has neither been fully considered nor exploited to its full in modern computer assisted language learning (CALL). Discusses the rationale of DDL to engage learning, presenting typical data-driven learning (DDL)-activities, DDL-software, and potential extensions of…

  9. Natural language modeling for phoneme-to-text transcription

    SciTech Connect

    Derouault, A.M.; Merialdo, B.

    1986-11-01

    This paper relates different kinds of language modeling methods that can be applied to the linguistic decoding part of a speech recognition system with a very large vocabulary. These models are studied experimentally on a pseudophonetic input arising from French stenotypy. The authors propose a model which combines the advantages of a statistical modeling with information theoretic tools, and those of a grammatical approach.

  10. Evolutionary Developmental Linguistics: Naturalization of the Faculty of Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Locke, John L.

    2009-01-01

    Since language is a biological trait, it is necessary to investigate its evolution, development, and functions, along with the mechanisms that have been set aside, and are now recruited, for its acquisition and use. It is argued here that progress toward each of these goals can be facilitated by new programs of research, carried out within a new…

  11. Unit 1001: The Nature of Meaning in Language.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minnesota Univ., Minneapolis. Center for Curriculum Development in English.

    This 10th-grade unit in Minnesota's "language-centered" curriculum introduces the complexity of linguistic meaning by demonstrating the relationships among linguistic symbols, their referents, their interpreters, and the social milieu. The unit begins with a discussion of Ray Bradbury's "The Kilimanjaro Machine," which illustrates how an otherwise…

  12. Neural correlates for the acquisition of natural language syntax.

    PubMed

    Tettamanti, Marco; Alkadhi, Hatem; Moro, Andrea; Perani, Daniela; Kollias, Spyros; Weniger, Dorothea

    2002-10-01

    Some types of simple and logically possible syntactic rule never occur in human language grammars, leading to a distinction between grammatical and nongrammatical syntactic rules. Comparison of the neuroanatomical correlates underlying the acquisition of grammatical and nongrammatical rules can provide relevant evidence on the neural processes dedicated to language acquisition in a given developmental stage. Until present no direct evidence on the neural mechanisms subserving language acquisition at any developmental stage has been supplied. We used fMRI in investigating the acquisition of grammatical and nongrammatical rules in the specified sense in 14 healthy adults. Grammatical rules compared with nongrammatical rules specifically activated a left hemispheric network including Broca's area, as shown by direct comparisons between the two rule types. The selective role of Broca's area was further confirmed by time x condition interactions and by proficiency effects, in that higher proficiency in grammatical rule usage, but not in usage of nongrammatical rules, led to higher levels of activation in this area. These findings provide evidence for the neural mechanisms underlying language acquisition in adults. PMID:12377145

  13. Inferring Speaker Affect in Spoken Natural Language Communication

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pon-Barry, Heather Roberta

    2013-01-01

    The field of spoken language processing is concerned with creating computer programs that can understand human speech and produce human-like speech. Regarding the problem of understanding human speech, there is currently growing interest in moving beyond speech recognition (the task of transcribing the words in an audio stream) and towards…

  14. Natural Number Bias in Operations with Missing Numbers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christou, Konstantinos P.

    2015-01-01

    This study investigates the hypothesis that there is a natural number bias that influences how students understand the effects of arithmetical operations involving both Arabic numerals and numbers that are represented by symbols for missing numbers. It also investigates whether this bias correlates with other aspects of students' understanding of…

  15. The Oscillopathic Nature of Language Deficits in Autism: From Genes to Language Evolution

    PubMed Central

    Benítez-Burraco, Antonio; Murphy, Elliot

    2016-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are pervasive neurodevelopmental disorders involving a number of deficits to linguistic cognition. The gap between genetics and the pathophysiology of ASD remains open, in particular regarding its distinctive linguistic profile. The goal of this article is to attempt to bridge this gap, focusing on how the autistic brain processes language, particularly through the perspective of brain rhythms. Due to the phenomenon of pleiotropy, which may take some decades to overcome, we believe that studies of brain rhythms, which are not faced with problems of this scale, may constitute a more tractable route to interpreting language deficits in ASD and eventually other neurocognitive disorders. Building on recent attempts to link neural oscillations to certain computational primitives of language, we show that interpreting language deficits in ASD as oscillopathic traits is a potentially fruitful way to construct successful endophenotypes of this condition. Additionally, we will show that candidate genes for ASD are overrepresented among the genes that played a role in the evolution of language. These genes include (and are related to) genes involved in brain rhythmicity. We hope that the type of steps taken here will additionally lead to a better understanding of the comorbidity, heterogeneity, and variability of ASD, and may help achieve a better treatment of the affected populations. PMID:27047363

  16. The language faculty that wasn't: a usage-based account of natural language recursion

    PubMed Central

    Christiansen, Morten H.; Chater, Nick

    2015-01-01

    In the generative tradition, the language faculty has been shrinking—perhaps to include only the mechanism of recursion. This paper argues that even this view of the language faculty is too expansive. We first argue that a language faculty is difficult to reconcile with evolutionary considerations. We then focus on recursion as a detailed case study, arguing that our ability to process recursive structure does not rely on recursion as a property of the grammar, but instead emerges gradually by piggybacking on domain-general sequence learning abilities. Evidence from genetics, comparative work on non-human primates, and cognitive neuroscience suggests that humans have evolved complex sequence learning skills, which were subsequently pressed into service to accommodate language. Constraints on sequence learning therefore have played an important role in shaping the cultural evolution of linguistic structure, including our limited abilities for processing recursive structure. Finally, we re-evaluate some of the key considerations that have often been taken to require the postulation of a language faculty. PMID:26379567

  17. The Oscillopathic Nature of Language Deficits in Autism: From Genes to Language Evolution.

    PubMed

    Benítez-Burraco, Antonio; Murphy, Elliot

    2016-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are pervasive neurodevelopmental disorders involving a number of deficits to linguistic cognition. The gap between genetics and the pathophysiology of ASD remains open, in particular regarding its distinctive linguistic profile. The goal of this article is to attempt to bridge this gap, focusing on how the autistic brain processes language, particularly through the perspective of brain rhythms. Due to the phenomenon of pleiotropy, which may take some decades to overcome, we believe that studies of brain rhythms, which are not faced with problems of this scale, may constitute a more tractable route to interpreting language deficits in ASD and eventually other neurocognitive disorders. Building on recent attempts to link neural oscillations to certain computational primitives of language, we show that interpreting language deficits in ASD as oscillopathic traits is a potentially fruitful way to construct successful endophenotypes of this condition. Additionally, we will show that candidate genes for ASD are overrepresented among the genes that played a role in the evolution of language. These genes include (and are related to) genes involved in brain rhythmicity. We hope that the type of steps taken here will additionally lead to a better understanding of the comorbidity, heterogeneity, and variability of ASD, and may help achieve a better treatment of the affected populations. PMID:27047363

  18. Concreteness and Psychological Distance in Natural Language Use

    PubMed Central

    Snefjella, Bryor; Kuperman, Victor

    2015-01-01

    Existing evidence shows that more abstract mental representations are formed, and more abstract language is used, to characterize phenomena which are more distant from self. Yet the precise form of the functional relationship between distance and linguistic abstractness has been unknown. In four studies, we test whether more abstract language is used in textual references to more geographically distant cities (Study 1), times further into the past or future (Study 2), references to more socially distant people (Study 3), and references to a specific topic (Study 4). Using millions of linguistic productions from thousands of social media users, we determine that linguistic concreteness is a curvilinear function of the logarithm of distance and discuss psychological underpinnings of the mathematical properties of the relationship. We also demonstrate that gradient curvilinear effects of geographic and temporal distance on concreteness are near-identical, suggesting uniformity in representation of abstractness along multiple dimensions. PMID:26239108

  19. Concreteness and Psychological Distance in Natural Language Use.

    PubMed

    Snefjella, Bryor; Kuperman, Victor

    2015-09-01

    Existing evidence shows that more abstract mental representations are formed and more abstract language is used to characterize phenomena that are more distant from the self. Yet the precise form of the functional relationship between distance and linguistic abstractness is unknown. In four studies, we tested whether more abstract language is used in textual references to more geographically distant cities (Study 1), time points further into the past or future (Study 2), references to more socially distant people (Study 3), and references to a specific topic (Study 4). Using millions of linguistic productions from thousands of social-media users, we determined that linguistic concreteness is a curvilinear function of the logarithm of distance, and we discuss psychological underpinnings of the mathematical properties of this relationship. We also demonstrated that gradient curvilinear effects of geographic and temporal distance on concreteness are nearly identical, which suggests uniformity in representation of abstractness along multiple dimensions.

  20. Using Edit Distance to Analyse Errors in a Natural Language to Logic Translation Corpus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barker-Plummer, Dave; Dale, Robert; Cox, Richard; Romanczuk, Alex

    2012-01-01

    We have assembled a large corpus of student submissions to an automatic grading system, where the subject matter involves the translation of natural language sentences into propositional logic. Of the 2.3 million translation instances in the corpus, 286,000 (approximately 12%) are categorized as being in error. We want to understand the nature of…

  1. For the People...Citizenship Education and Naturalization Information. An English as a Second Language Text.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Short, Deborah J.; And Others

    A textbook for English-as-a-Second-Language (ESL) students presents lessons on U.S. citizenship education and naturalization information. The nine lessons cover the following topics: the U.S. system of government; the Bill of Rights; responsibilities and rights of citizens; voting; requirements for naturalization; the application process; the…

  2. The Right Tool for the Job: Techniques for Analysis of Natural Language Use.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Georgia M.

    A variety of techniques for collecting and analyzing information about the natural use of natural languages is surveyed, emphasizing the importance of recognizing the properties of a research task that make a given technique more or less suitable to it rather than comparing techniques globally and ranking them absolutely. An initial goal is to…

  3. Rimac: A Natural-Language Dialogue System that Engages Students in Deep Reasoning Dialogues about Physics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Katz, Sandra; Jordan, Pamela; Litman, Diane

    2011-01-01

    The natural-language tutorial dialogue system that the authors are developing will allow them to focus on the nature of interactivity during tutoring as a malleable factor. Specifically, it will serve as a research platform for studies that manipulate the frequency and types of verbal alignment processes that take place during tutoring, such as…

  4. Investigating the Nature of and Methods for Managing Metroplex Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Atkins, Stephen; Capozzi, Brian; Hinkey, Jim; Idris, Husni; Kaiser, Kent

    2011-01-01

    A combination of traffic demand growth, Next Generation Air Transportation System (NextGen) technologies and operational concepts, and increased utilization of regional airports is expected to increase the occurrence and severity of coupling between operations at proximate airports. These metroplex phenomena constrain the efficiency and/or capacity of airport operations and, in NextGen, have the potential to reduce safety and prevent environmental benefits. Without understanding the nature of metroplexes and developing solutions that provide efficient coordination of operations between closely-spaced airports, the use of NextGen technologies and distribution of demand to regional airports may provide little increase in the overall metroplex capacity. However, the characteristics and control of metroplex operations have not received significant study. This project advanced the state of knowledge about metroplexes by completing three objectives: 1. developed a foundational understand of the nature of metroplexes; 2. provided a framework for discussing metroplexes; 3. suggested and studied an approach for optimally managing metroplexes that is consistent with other NextGen concepts

  5. Medical computing in the 1980s. Operating system and programming language issues.

    PubMed

    Greenes, R A

    1983-06-01

    Operating systems and programming languages differ widely in their suitability for particular applications. The diversity of medical computing needs demands a diversity of solutions. Compounding this diversity if the decentralization caused by evolution of local computing systems for local needs. Relevant current trends in computing include increased emphasis on decentralization, growing capabilities for interconnection of diverse systems, and development of common data base and file server capabilities. In addition, standardization and hardware in dependence of operating systems, as well as programming languages and development of programmerless systems, continue to widen application opportunities.

  6. Operation and planning of coordinated natural gas and electricity infrastructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xiaping

    Natural gas is becoming rapidly the optimal choice for fueling new generating units in electric power system driven by abundant natural gas supplies and environmental regulations that are expected to cause coal-fired generation retirements. The growing reliance on natural gas as a dominant fuel for electricity generation throughout North America has brought the interaction between the natural gas and power grids into sharp focus. The primary concern and motivation of this research is to address the emerging interdependency issues faced by the electric power and natural gas industry. This thesis provides a comprehensive analysis of the interactions between the two systems regarding the short-term operation and long-term infrastructure planning. Natural gas and renewable energy appear complementary in many respects regarding fuel price and availability, environmental impact, resource distribution and dispatchability. In addition, demand response has also held the promise of making a significant contribution to enhance system operations by providing incentives to customers for a more flat load profile. We investigated the coordination between natural gas-fired generation and prevailing nontraditional resources including renewable energy, demand response so as to provide economical options for optimizing the short-term scheduling with the intense natural gas delivery constraints. As the amount and dispatch of gas-fired generation increases, the long-term interdependency issue is whether there is adequate pipeline capacity to provide sufficient gas to natural gas-fired generation during the entire planning horizon while it is widely used outside the power sector. This thesis developed a co-optimization planning model by incorporating the natural gas transportation system into the multi-year resource and transmission system planning problem. This consideration would provide a more comprehensive decision for the investment and accurate assessment for system adequacy and

  7. Deciphering the language of nature: cryptography, secrecy, and alterity in Francis Bacon.

    PubMed

    Clody, Michael C

    2011-01-01

    The essay argues that Francis Bacon's considerations of parables and cryptography reflect larger interpretative concerns of his natural philosophic project. Bacon describes nature as having a language distinct from those of God and man, and, in so doing, establishes a central problem of his natural philosophy—namely, how can the language of nature be accessed through scientific representation? Ultimately, Bacon's solution relies on a theory of differential and duplicitous signs that conceal within them the hidden voice of nature, which is best recognized in the natural forms of efficient causality. The "alphabet of nature"—those tables of natural occurrences—consequently plays a central role in his program, as it renders nature's language susceptible to a process and decryption that mirrors the model of the bilateral cipher. It is argued that while the writing of Bacon's natural philosophy strives for literality, its investigative process preserves a space for alterity within scientific representation, that is made accessible to those with the interpretative key. PMID:22371983

  8. Deciphering the language of nature: cryptography, secrecy, and alterity in Francis Bacon.

    PubMed

    Clody, Michael C

    2011-01-01

    The essay argues that Francis Bacon's considerations of parables and cryptography reflect larger interpretative concerns of his natural philosophic project. Bacon describes nature as having a language distinct from those of God and man, and, in so doing, establishes a central problem of his natural philosophy—namely, how can the language of nature be accessed through scientific representation? Ultimately, Bacon's solution relies on a theory of differential and duplicitous signs that conceal within them the hidden voice of nature, which is best recognized in the natural forms of efficient causality. The "alphabet of nature"—those tables of natural occurrences—consequently plays a central role in his program, as it renders nature's language susceptible to a process and decryption that mirrors the model of the bilateral cipher. It is argued that while the writing of Bacon's natural philosophy strives for literality, its investigative process preserves a space for alterity within scientific representation, that is made accessible to those with the interpretative key.

  9. A framework for the natural-language-perception-based creative control of unmanned ground vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghaffari, Masoud; Liao, Xiaoqun; Hall, Ernest L.

    2004-09-01

    Mobile robots must often operate in an unstructured environment cluttered with obstacles and with many possible action paths. That is why mobile robotics problems are complex with many unanswered questions. To reach a high degree of autonomous operation, a new level of learning is required. On the one hand, promising learning theories such as the adaptive critic and creative control have been proposed, while on other hand the human brain"s processing ability has amazed and inspired researchers in the area of Unmanned Ground Vehicles but has been difficult to emulate in practice. A new direction in the fuzzy theory tries to develop a theory to deal with the perceptions conveyed by the natural language. This paper tries to combine these two fields and present a framework for autonomous robot navigation. The proposed creative controller like the adaptive critic controller has information stored in a dynamic database (DB), plus a dynamic task control center (TCC) that functions as a command center to decompose tasks into sub-tasks with different dynamic models and multi-criteria functions. The TCC module utilizes computational theory of perceptions to deal with the high levels of task planning. The authors are currently trying to implement the model on a real mobile robot and the preliminary results have been described in this paper.

  10. Continued advancement of the programming language HAL to an operational status

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1971-01-01

    The continued advancement of the programming language HAL to operational status is reported. It is demonstrated that the compiler itself can be written in HAL. A HAL-in-HAL experiment proves conclusively that HAL can be used successfully as a compiler implementation tool.

  11. Eliciting Covert Mental Operations, Concepts and Oral Language Skills in Young Bilingual Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hollomon, John W.; And Others

    The purpose of this investigation was to design and test an information-eliciting question instrument in order to determine whether the structures in the verbal responses of young Mexican-American, bilingual children entering school would reveal the covert mental operations, concepts and oral language skills elicited. The basic objective was to…

  12. QATT: a Natural Language Interface for QPE. M.S. Thesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    White, Douglas Robert-Graham

    1989-01-01

    QATT, a natural language interface developed for the Qualitative Process Engine (QPE) system is presented. The major goal was to evaluate the use of a preexisting natural language understanding system designed to be tailored for query processing in multiple domains of application. The other goal of QATT is to provide a comfortable environment in which to query envisionments in order to gain insight into the qualitative behavior of physical systems. It is shown that the use of the preexisting system made possible the development of a reasonably useful interface in a few months.

  13. SWAN: An expert system with natural language interface for tactical air capability assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simmons, Robert M.

    1987-01-01

    SWAN is an expert system and natural language interface for assessing the war fighting capability of Air Force units in Europe. The expert system is an object oriented knowledge based simulation with an alternate worlds facility for performing what-if excursions. Responses from the system take the form of generated text, tables, or graphs. The natural language interface is an expert system in its own right, with a knowledge base and rules which understand how to access external databases, models, or expert systems. The distinguishing feature of the Air Force expert system is its use of meta-knowledge to generate explanations in the frame and procedure based environment.

  14. Spatial and Numerical Abilities without a Complete Natural Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hyde, Daniel C.; Winkler-Rhoades, Nathan; Lee, Sang-Ah; Izard, Veronique; Shapiro, Kevin A.; Spelke, Elizabeth S.

    2011-01-01

    We studied the cognitive abilities of a 13-year-old deaf child, deprived of most linguistic input from late infancy, in a battery of tests designed to reveal the nature of numerical and geometrical abilities in the absence of a full linguistic system. Tests revealed widespread proficiency in basic symbolic and non-symbolic numerical computations…

  15. A Goal-Oriented Model of Natural Language Interaction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, James A.; And Others

    This report summarizes a research program in modeling human communication ability. The methodology involved selecting a single, naturally occurring dialogue, instructing a human observer to extract certain aspects relative to its comprehension, and then using these aspects to guide the construction and verification of the model. The model assumes…

  16. Stochastic Model for the Vocabulary Growth in Natural Languages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerlach, Martin; Altmann, Eduardo G.

    2013-04-01

    We propose a stochastic model for the number of different words in a given database which incorporates the dependence on the database size and historical changes. The main feature of our model is the existence of two different classes of words: (i) a finite number of core words, which have higher frequency and do not affect the probability of a new word to be used, and (ii) the remaining virtually infinite number of noncore words, which have lower frequency and, once used, reduce the probability of a new word to be used in the future. Our model relies on a careful analysis of the Google Ngram database of books published in the last centuries, and its main consequence is the generalization of Zipf’s and Heaps’ law to two-scaling regimes. We confirm that these generalizations yield the best simple description of the data among generic descriptive models and that the two free parameters depend only on the language but not on the database. From the point of view of our model, the main change on historical time scales is the composition of the specific words included in the finite list of core words, which we observe to decay exponentially in time with a rate of approximately 30 words per year for English.

  17. Social interaction, languaging and the operational conditions for the emergence of observing

    PubMed Central

    Raimondi, Vincenzo

    2014-01-01

    In order to adequately understand the foundations of human social interaction, we need to provide an explanation of our specific mode of living based on linguistic activity and the cultural practices with which it is interwoven. To this end, we need to make explicit the constitutive conditions for the emergence of the phenomena which relate to language and joint activity starting from their operational-relational matrix. The approach presented here challenges the inadequacy of mentalist models to explain the relation between language and interaction. Recent empirical studies concerning joint attention and language acquisition have led scholars such as Tomasello et al. (2005) to postulate the existence of a universal human “sociocognitive infrastructure” that drives joint social activities and is biologically inherited. This infrastructure would include the skill of precocious intention-reading, and is meant to explain human linguistic development and cultural learning. However, the cognitivist and functionalist assumptions on which this model relies have resulted in controversial hypotheses (i.e., intention-reading as the ontogenetic precursor of language) which take a contentious conception of mind and language for granted. By challenging this model, I will show that we should instead turn ourselves towards a constitutive explanation of language within a “bio-logical” understanding of interactivity. This is possible only by abandoning the cognitivist conception of organism and traditional views of language. An epistemological shift must therefore be proposed, based on embodied, enactive and distributed approaches, and on Maturana’s work in particular. The notions of languaging and observing that will be discussed in this article will allow for a bio-logically grounded, theoretically parsimonious alternative to mentalist and spectatorial approaches, and will guide us towards a wider understanding of our sociocultural mode of living. PMID:25177308

  18. Lightning: Nature's Probe of Severe Weather for Research and Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blakeslee, R.J.

    2007-01-01

    Lightning, the energetic and broadband electrical discharge produced by thunderstorms, provides a natural remote sensing signal for the study of severe storms and related phenomena on global, regional and local scales. Using this strong signal- one of nature's own probes of severe weather -lightning measurements prove to be straightforward and take advantage of a variety of measurement techniques that have advanced considerably in recent years. We briefly review some of the leading lightning detection systems including satellite-based optical detectors such as the Lightning Imaging Sensor, and ground-based radio frequency systems such as Vaisala's National Lightning Detection Network (NLDN), long range lightning detection systems, and the Lightning Mapping Array (LMA) networks. In addition, we examine some of the exciting new research results and operational capabilities (e.g., shortened tornado warning lead times) derived from these observations. Finally we look forward to the next measurement advance - lightning observations from geostationary orbit.

  19. Natural language processing with dynamic classification improves P300 speller accuracy and bit rate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Speier, William; Arnold, Corey; Lu, Jessica; Taira, Ricky K.; Pouratian, Nader

    2012-02-01

    The P300 speller is an example of a brain-computer interface that can restore functionality to victims of neuromuscular disorders. Although the most common application of this system has been communicating language, the properties and constraints of the linguistic domain have not to date been exploited when decoding brain signals that pertain to language. We hypothesized that combining the standard stepwise linear discriminant analysis with a Naive Bayes classifier and a trigram language model would increase the speed and accuracy of typing with the P300 speller. With integration of natural language processing, we observed significant improvements in accuracy and 40-60% increases in bit rate for all six subjects in a pilot study. This study suggests that integrating information about the linguistic domain can significantly improve signal classification.

  20. The nature and origins of ambient language influence on infant vocal production and early words.

    PubMed

    Vihman, M M; de Boysson-Bardies, B

    1994-01-01

    Phonological structure may be seen as emerging in ontogeny from the combined effects of performance constraints rooted in the neuromotor and perceptual systems, individual lexical development and the influence of the particular ambient language. We review here the nature and origins of the earliest ambient language influences. Global effects within the first year of life include both (1) loss of early appearing phonetic gestures not supported by the ambient language and (2) positive effects, reflecting infant attention to prosody and to cues available in the visual as well as the auditory modality. In the course of early lexical development more specific effects become manifest as individual children pursue less common phonetic paths to which the ambient language provides 'sufficient exposure'.

  1. Natural gas operations: considerations on process transients, design, and control.

    PubMed

    Manenti, Flavio

    2012-03-01

    This manuscript highlights tangible benefits deriving from the dynamic simulation and control of operational transients of natural gas processing plants. Relevant improvements in safety, controllability, operability, and flexibility are obtained not only within the traditional applications, i.e. plant start-up and shutdown, but also in certain fields apparently time-independent such as the feasibility studies of gas processing plant layout and the process design of processes. Specifically, this paper enhances the myopic steady-state approach and its main shortcomings with respect to the more detailed studies that take into consideration the non-steady state behaviors. A portion of a gas processing facility is considered as case study. Process transients, design, and control solutions apparently more appealing from a steady-state approach are compared to the corresponding dynamic simulation solutions.

  2. On the possible operation of natural laws in ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Woodley, Michael A

    2007-01-01

    In this manuscript, after a brief review of the history of typological thinking in the biological sciences from Transcendentalism to Structuralism, it is argued that natural Platonic laws may operate in ecosystems. This claim is based on two observations of law-like behaviour. Firstly, that adaptation towards specialization can be considered as a form of typological lineage degeneration, where specialized species are more vulnerable to environmental perturbation. And secondly, that the convergent recurrence of biological forms indicates that there exists a finite number of niches which in the abstract could be considered as ecological analogies to Denton's molecular Platonic moulds, operating as attractors and restricting the range of possible organismal body plans based on the physical and chemical gradients that partly define their hyper-structure. PMID:18278743

  3. Resolutions of the Coulomb operator: VIII. Parallel implementation using the modern programming language X10.

    PubMed

    Limpanuparb, Taweetham; Milthorpe, Josh; Rendell, Alistair P

    2014-10-30

    Use of the modern parallel programming language X10 for computing long-range Coulomb and exchange interactions is presented. By using X10, a partitioned global address space language with support for task parallelism and the explicit representation of data locality, the resolution of the Ewald operator can be parallelized in a straightforward manner including use of both intranode and internode parallelism. We evaluate four different schemes for dynamic load balancing of integral calculation using X10's work stealing runtime, and report performance results for long-range HF energy calculation of large molecule/high quality basis running on up to 1024 cores of a high performance cluster machine.

  4. Language and Operations in Children's Class Inclusion Reasoning: The Operational Semantic Theory of Reasoning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carpendale, Jeremy I.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Argues that reasoning is not governed by mental logic or models. Proposes new operational semantic theory, in which reasoning is based on children's operational understanding of key terms in a given problem. Reports results of a study of class inclusion in which dramatic differences in performance were found as the result of linguistic context.…

  5. Dimensions of Difficulty in Translating Natural Language into First Order Logic

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barker-Plummer, Dave; Cox, Richard; Dale, Robert

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we present a study of a large corpus of student logic exercises in which we explore the relationship between two distinct measures of difficulty: the proportion of students whose initial attempt at a given natural language to first-order logic translation is incorrect, and the average number of attempts that are required in order to…

  6. An Evaluation of Help Mechanisms in Natural Language Information Retrieval Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kreymer, Oleg

    2002-01-01

    Evaluates the current state of natural language processing information retrieval systems from the user's point of view, focusing on the structure and components of the systems' help mechanisms. Topics include user/system interaction; semantic parsing; syntactic parsing; semantic mapping; and concept matching. (Author/LRW)

  7. The International English Language Testing System (IELTS): Its Nature and Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ingram, D. E.

    The nature and development of the recently released International English Language Testing System (IELTS) instrument are described. The test is the result of a joint Australian-British project to develop a new test for use with foreign students planning to study in English-speaking countries. It is expected that the modular instrument will become…

  8. You Are Your Words: Modeling Students' Vocabulary Knowledge with Natural Language Processing Tools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Laura K.; McNamara, Danielle S.

    2015-01-01

    The current study investigates the degree to which the lexical properties of students' essays can inform stealth assessments of their vocabulary knowledge. In particular, we used indices calculated with the natural language processing tool, TAALES, to predict students' performance on a measure of vocabulary knowledge. To this end, two corpora were…

  9. Speech perception and reading: two parallel modes of understanding language and implications for acquiring literacy naturally.

    PubMed

    Massaro, Dominic W

    2012-01-01

    I review 2 seminal research reports published in this journal during its second decade more than a century ago. Given psychology's subdisciplines, they would not normally be reviewed together because one involves reading and the other speech perception. The small amount of interaction between these domains might have limited research and theoretical progress. In fact, the 2 early research reports revealed common processes involved in these 2 forms of language processing. Their illustration of the role of Wundt's apperceptive process in reading and speech perception anticipated descriptions of contemporary theories of pattern recognition, such as the fuzzy logical model of perception. Based on the commonalities between reading and listening, one can question why they have been viewed so differently. It is commonly believed that learning to read requires formal instruction and schooling, whereas spoken language is acquired from birth onward through natural interactions with people who talk. Most researchers and educators believe that spoken language is acquired naturally from birth onward and even prenatally. Learning to read, on the other hand, is not possible until the child has acquired spoken language, reaches school age, and receives formal instruction. If an appropriate form of written text is made available early in a child's life, however, the current hypothesis is that reading will also be learned inductively and emerge naturally, with no significant negative consequences. If this proposal is true, it should soon be possible to create an interactive system, Technology Assisted Reading Acquisition, to allow children to acquire literacy naturally. PMID:22953690

  10. Drawing Dynamic Geometry Figures Online with Natural Language for Junior High School Geometry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wong, Wing-Kwong; Yin, Sheng-Kai; Yang, Chang-Zhe

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a tool for drawing dynamic geometric figures by understanding the texts of geometry problems. With the tool, teachers and students can construct dynamic geometric figures on a web page by inputting a geometry problem in natural language. First we need to build the knowledge base for understanding geometry problems. With the…

  11. A Qualitative Analysis Framework Using Natural Language Processing and Graph Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tierney, Patrick J.

    2012-01-01

    This paper introduces a method of extending natural language-based processing of qualitative data analysis with the use of a very quantitative tool--graph theory. It is not an attempt to convert qualitative research to a positivist approach with a mathematical black box, nor is it a "graphical solution". Rather, it is a method to help qualitative…

  12. An Analysis of Methods for Preparing a Large Natural Language Data Base.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Porch, Ann

    Relative cost and effectiveness of techniques for preparing a computer compatible data base consisting of approximately one million words of natural language are outlined. Considered are dollar cost, ease of editing, and time consumption. Facility for insertion of identifying information within the text, and updating of a text by merging with…

  13. Verification Processes in Recognition Memory: The Role of Natural Language Mediators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marshall, Philip H.; Smith, Randolph A. S.

    1977-01-01

    The existence of verification processes in recognition memory was confirmed in the context of Adams' (Adams & Bray, 1970) closed-loop theory. Subjects' recognition was tested following a learning session. The expectation was that data would reveal consistent internal relationships supporting the position that natural language mediation plays an…

  14. Real English: A Translator to Enable Natural Language Man-Machine Conversation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gautin, Harvey

    This dissertation presents a pragmatic interpreter/translator called Real English to serve as a natural language man-machine communication interface in a multi-mode on-line information retrieval system. This multi-mode feature affords the user a library-like searching tool by giving him access to a dictionary, lexicon, thesaurus, synonym table,…

  15. NLPIR: A Theoretical Framework for Applying Natural Language Processing to Information Retrieval.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhou, Lina; Zhang, Dongsong

    2003-01-01

    Proposes a theoretical framework called NLPIR that integrates natural language processing (NLP) into information retrieval (IR) based on the assumption that there exists representation distance between queries and documents. Discusses problems in traditional keyword-based IR, including relevance, and describes some existing NLP techniques.…

  16. Construct Validity in TOEFL iBT Speaking Tasks: Insights from Natural Language Processing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kyle, Kristopher; Crossley, Scott A.; McNamara, Danielle S.

    2016-01-01

    This study explores the construct validity of speaking tasks included in the TOEFL iBT (e.g., integrated and independent speaking tasks). Specifically, advanced natural language processing (NLP) tools, MANOVA difference statistics, and discriminant function analyses (DFA) are used to assess the degree to which and in what ways responses to these…

  17. The Application of Natural Language Processing to Augmentative and Alternative Communication

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Higginbotham, D. Jeffery; Lesher, Gregory W.; Moulton, Bryan J.; Roark, Brian

    2012-01-01

    Significant progress has been made in the application of natural language processing (NLP) to augmentative and alternative communication (AAC), particularly in the areas of interface design and word prediction. This article will survey the current state-of-the-science of NLP in AAC and discuss its future applications for the development of next…

  18. The Development of Language and Abstract Concepts: The Case of Natural Number

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Condry, Kirsten F.; Spelke, Elizabeth S.

    2008-01-01

    What are the origins of abstract concepts such as "seven," and what role does language play in their development? These experiments probed the natural number words and concepts of 3-year-old children who can recite number words to ten but who can comprehend only one or two. Children correctly judged that a set labeled eight retains this label if…

  19. Art Related Experiences for Social Science, Natural Science, and Language Arts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mack, Edward B.

    This booklet is intended to serve as an introduction to art experiences that relate to studies in social science, natural science, and language arts. It is designed to develop a better understanding of the dynamics of interaction of the abiotic, biotic, and cultural factors of the total environment as manifest in art forms. Each section, presented…

  20. AutoTutor and Family: A Review of 17 Years of Natural Language Tutoring

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nye, Benjamin D.; Graesser, Arthur C.; Hu, Xiangen

    2014-01-01

    AutoTutor is a natural language tutoring system that has produced learning gains across multiple domains (e.g., computer literacy, physics, critical thinking). In this paper, we review the development, key research findings, and systems that have evolved from AutoTutor. First, the rationale for developing AutoTutor is outlined and the advantages…

  1. BIT BY BIT: A Game Simulating Natural Language Processing in Computers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kato, Taichi; Arakawa, Chuichi

    2008-01-01

    BIT BY BIT is an encryption game that is designed to improve students' understanding of natural language processing in computers. Participants encode clear words into binary code using an encryption key and exchange them in the game. BIT BY BIT enables participants who do not understand the concept of binary numbers to perform the process of…

  2. Introduction to Special Issue: Understanding the Nature-Nurture Interactions in Language and Learning Differences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berninger, Virginia Wise

    2001-01-01

    The introduction to this special issue on nature-nurture interactions notes that the following articles represent five biologically oriented research approaches which each provide a tutorial on the investigator's major research tool, a summary of current research understandings regarding language and learning differences, and a discussion of…

  3. The Use of Natural Language Entry and Laser Videodisk Technology in CAI.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abdulla, Abdulla M.; And Others

    1984-01-01

    The use of an authoring system is described that incorporates student interaction with the computer by natural language entry at the keyboard and the use of the microcomputer to direct a random-access laser video-disk player. (Author/MLW)

  4. The Contemporary Thesaurus of Social Science Terms and Synonyms: A Guide for Natural Language Computer Searching.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knapp, Sara D., Comp.

    This book is designed primarily to help users find meaningful words for natural language, or free-text, computer searching of bibliographic and textual databases in the social and behavioral sciences. Additionally, it covers many socially relevant and technical topics not covered by the usual literary thesaurus, therefore it may also be useful for…

  5. Speech perception and reading: two parallel modes of understanding language and implications for acquiring literacy naturally.

    PubMed

    Massaro, Dominic W

    2012-01-01

    I review 2 seminal research reports published in this journal during its second decade more than a century ago. Given psychology's subdisciplines, they would not normally be reviewed together because one involves reading and the other speech perception. The small amount of interaction between these domains might have limited research and theoretical progress. In fact, the 2 early research reports revealed common processes involved in these 2 forms of language processing. Their illustration of the role of Wundt's apperceptive process in reading and speech perception anticipated descriptions of contemporary theories of pattern recognition, such as the fuzzy logical model of perception. Based on the commonalities between reading and listening, one can question why they have been viewed so differently. It is commonly believed that learning to read requires formal instruction and schooling, whereas spoken language is acquired from birth onward through natural interactions with people who talk. Most researchers and educators believe that spoken language is acquired naturally from birth onward and even prenatally. Learning to read, on the other hand, is not possible until the child has acquired spoken language, reaches school age, and receives formal instruction. If an appropriate form of written text is made available early in a child's life, however, the current hypothesis is that reading will also be learned inductively and emerge naturally, with no significant negative consequences. If this proposal is true, it should soon be possible to create an interactive system, Technology Assisted Reading Acquisition, to allow children to acquire literacy naturally.

  6. The Exploring Nature of Definitions and Classifications of Language Learning Strategies (LLSs) in the Current Studies of Second/Foreign Language Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fazeli, Seyed Hossein

    2011-01-01

    This study aims to explore the nature of definitions and classifications of Language Learning Strategies (LLSs) in the current studies of second/foreign language learning in order to show the current problems regarding such definitions and classifications. The present study shows that there is not a universal agreeable definition and…

  7. Reconceptualizing the Nature of Goals and Outcomes in Language/s Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leung, Constant; Scarino, Angela

    2016-01-01

    Transformations associated with the increasing speed, scale, and complexity of mobilities, together with the information technology revolution, have changed the demography of most countries of the world and brought about accompanying social, cultural, and economic shifts (Heugh, 2013). This complex diversity has changed the very nature of…

  8. Model operating permits for natural gas processing plants

    SciTech Connect

    Arend, C.

    1995-12-31

    Major sources as defined in Title V of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 that are required to submit an operating permit application will need to: Evaluate their compliance status; Determine a strategic method of presenting the general and specific conditions of their Model Operating Permit (MOP); Maintain compliance with air quality regulations. A MOP is prepared to assist permitting agencies and affected facilities in the development of operating permits for a specific source category. This paper includes a brief discussion of example permit conditions that may be applicable to various types of Title V sources. A MOP for a generic natural gas processing plant is provided as an example. The MOP should include a general description of the production process and identify emission sources. The two primary elements that comprise a MOP are: Provisions of all existing state and/or local air permits; Identification of general and specific conditions for the Title V permit. The general provisions will include overall compliance with all Clean Air Act Titles. The specific provisions include monitoring, record keeping, and reporting. Although Title V MOPs are prepared on a case-by-case basis, this paper will provide a general guideline of the requirements for preparation of a MOP. Regulatory agencies have indicated that a MOP included in the Title V application will assist in preparation of the final permit provisions, minimize delays in securing a permit, and provide support during the public notification process.

  9. Language Revitalization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hinton, Leanne

    2003-01-01

    Surveys developments in language revitalization and language death. Focusing on indigenous languages, discusses the role and nature of appropriate linguistic documentation, possibilities for bilingual education, and methods of promoting oral fluency and intergenerational transmission in affected languages. (Author/VWL)

  10. A Natural Language for AdS/CFT Correlators

    SciTech Connect

    Fitzpatrick, A.Liam; Kaplan, Jared; Penedones, Joao; Raju, Suvrat; van Rees, Balt C.; /YITP, Stony Brook

    2012-02-14

    We provide dramatic evidence that 'Mellin space' is the natural home for correlation functions in CFTs with weakly coupled bulk duals. In Mellin space, CFT correlators have poles corresponding to an OPE decomposition into 'left' and 'right' sub-correlators, in direct analogy with the factorization channels of scattering amplitudes. In the regime where these correlators can be computed by tree level Witten diagrams in AdS, we derive an explicit formula for the residues of Mellin amplitudes at the corresponding factorization poles, and we use the conformal Casimir to show that these amplitudes obey algebraic finite difference equations. By analyzing the recursive structure of our factorization formula we obtain simple diagrammatic rules for the construction of Mellin amplitudes corresponding to tree-level Witten diagrams in any bulk scalar theory. We prove the diagrammatic rules using our finite difference equations. Finally, we show that our factorization formula and our diagrammatic rules morph into the flat space S-Matrix of the bulk theory, reproducing the usual Feynman rules, when we take the flat space limit of AdS/CFT. Throughout we emphasize a deep analogy with the properties of flat space scattering amplitudes in momentum space, which suggests that the Mellin amplitude may provide a holographic definition of the flat space S-Matrix.

  11. Knowledge acquisition and representation for the Systems Test and Operations Language (STOL) Intelligent Tutoring System (ITS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seamster, Thomas L.; Eike, David R.; Ames, Troy J.

    1990-01-01

    This presentation concentrates on knowledge acquisition and its application to the development of an expert module and a user interface for an Intelligent Tutoring System (ITS). The Systems Test and Operations Language (STOL) ITS is being developed to assist NASA control center personnel in learning a command and control language as it is used in mission operations rooms. The objective of the tutor is to impart knowledge and skills that will permit the trainee to solve command and control problems in the same way that the STOL expert solves those problems. The STOL ITS will achieve this object by representing the solution space in such a way that the trainee can visualize the intermediate steps, and by having the expert module production rules parallel the STOL expert's knowledge structures.

  12. Using the Natural Language Paradigm (NLP) to increase vocalizations of older adults with cognitive impairments.

    PubMed

    Leblanc, Linda A; Geiger, Kaneen B; Sautter, Rachael A; Sidener, Tina M

    2007-01-01

    The Natural Language Paradigm (NLP) has proven effective in increasing spontaneous verbalizations for children with autism. This study investigated the use of NLP with older adults with cognitive impairments served at a leisure-based adult day program for seniors. Three individuals with limited spontaneous use of functional language participated in a multiple baseline design across participants. Data were collected on appropriate and inappropriate vocalizations with appropriate vocalizations coded as prompted or unprompted during baseline and treatment sessions. All participants experienced increases in appropriate speech during NLP with variable response patterns. Additionally, the two participants with substantial inappropriate vocalizations showed decreases in inappropriate speech. Implications for intervention in day programs are discussed.

  13. Natural environment support guidelines for space shuttle tests and operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carter, E. A.; Brown, S. C.

    1974-01-01

    All space shuttle events from launch through solid rocket booster recovery and orbiter landing are considered in terms of constraints placed on those operations by the natural environment. Thunderstorm activity is discussed as an example of a possible hazard. The activities most likely to require advanced detection and monitoring techniques are identified as those from deorbit decision to Orbiter landing. The inflexible flight plan will require the transmission of real time wind profile information below 24 km and warnings of thunderstorms or turbulence in the Orbiter flight path. Extensive aerial reconnaissance and communication facilities and procedures to permit immediate transmission of aircraft reports to the mission control authority and to the Orbiter will also be required.

  14. The Nature of the Language Faculty and Its Implications for Evolution of Language (Reply to Fitch, Hauser, and Chomsky)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackendoff, Ray; Pinker, Steven

    2005-01-01

    In a continuation of the conversation with Fitch, Chomsky, and Hauser on the evolution of language, we examine their defense of the claim that the uniquely human, language-specific part of the language faculty (the ''narrow language faculty'') consists only of recursion, and that this part cannot be considered an adaptation to communication. We…

  15. Naturalism and Ideological Work: How Is Family Language Policy Renegotiated as Both Parents and Children Learn a Threatened Minority Language?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Armstrong, Timothy Currie

    2014-01-01

    Parents who enroll their children to be educated through a threatened minority language frequently do not speak that language themselves and classes in the language are sometimes offered to parents in the expectation that this will help them to support their children's education and to use the minority language in the home. Providing…

  16. A Cognitive Neural Architecture Able to Learn and Communicate through Natural Language

    PubMed Central

    Golosio, Bruno; Cangelosi, Angelo; Gamotina, Olesya; Masala, Giovanni Luca

    2015-01-01

    Communicative interactions involve a kind of procedural knowledge that is used by the human brain for processing verbal and nonverbal inputs and for language production. Although considerable work has been done on modeling human language abilities, it has been difficult to bring them together to a comprehensive tabula rasa system compatible with current knowledge of how verbal information is processed in the brain. This work presents a cognitive system, entirely based on a large-scale neural architecture, which was developed to shed light on the procedural knowledge involved in language elaboration. The main component of this system is the central executive, which is a supervising system that coordinates the other components of the working memory. In our model, the central executive is a neural network that takes as input the neural activation states of the short-term memory and yields as output mental actions, which control the flow of information among the working memory components through neural gating mechanisms. The proposed system is capable of learning to communicate through natural language starting from tabula rasa, without any a priori knowledge of the structure of phrases, meaning of words, role of the different classes of words, only by interacting with a human through a text-based interface, using an open-ended incremental learning process. It is able to learn nouns, verbs, adjectives, pronouns and other word classes, and to use them in expressive language. The model was validated on a corpus of 1587 input sentences, based on literature on early language assessment, at the level of about 4-years old child, and produced 521 output sentences, expressing a broad range of language processing functionalities. PMID:26560154

  17. Adapting existing natural language processing resources for cardiovascular risk factors identification in clinical notes.

    PubMed

    Khalifa, Abdulrahman; Meystre, Stéphane

    2015-12-01

    The 2014 i2b2 natural language processing shared task focused on identifying cardiovascular risk factors such as high blood pressure, high cholesterol levels, obesity and smoking status among other factors found in health records of diabetic patients. In addition, the task involved detecting medications, and time information associated with the extracted data. This paper presents the development and evaluation of a natural language processing (NLP) application conceived for this i2b2 shared task. For increased efficiency, the application main components were adapted from two existing NLP tools implemented in the Apache UIMA framework: Textractor (for dictionary-based lookup) and cTAKES (for preprocessing and smoking status detection). The application achieved a final (micro-averaged) F1-measure of 87.5% on the final evaluation test set. Our attempt was mostly based on existing tools adapted with minimal changes and allowed for satisfying performance with limited development efforts.

  18. Using Open Geographic Data to Generate Natural Language Descriptions for Hydrological Sensor Networks

    PubMed Central

    Molina, Martin; Sanchez-Soriano, Javier; Corcho, Oscar

    2015-01-01

    Providing descriptions of isolated sensors and sensor networks in natural language, understandable by the general public, is useful to help users find relevant sensors and analyze sensor data. In this paper, we discuss the feasibility of using geographic knowledge from public databases available on the Web (such as OpenStreetMap, Geonames, or DBpedia) to automatically construct such descriptions. We present a general method that uses such information to generate sensor descriptions in natural language. The results of the evaluation of our method in a hydrologic national sensor network showed that this approach is feasible and capable of generating adequate sensor descriptions with a lower development effort compared to other approaches. In the paper we also analyze certain problems that we found in public databases (e.g., heterogeneity, non-standard use of labels, or rigid search methods) and their impact in the generation of sensor descriptions. PMID:26151211

  19. New Trends in Computing Anticipatory Systems : Emergence of Artificial Conscious Intelligence with Machine Learning Natural Language

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dubois, Daniel M.

    2008-10-01

    This paper deals with the challenge to create an Artificial Intelligence System with an Artificial Consciousness. For that, an introduction to computing anticipatory systems is presented, with the definitions of strong and weak anticipation. The quasi-anticipatory systems of Robert Rosen are linked to open-loop controllers. Then, some properties of the natural brain are presented in relation to the triune brain theory of Paul D. MacLean, and the mind time of Benjamin Libet, with his veto of the free will. The theory of the hyperincursive discrete anticipatory systems is recalled in view to introduce the concept of hyperincursive free will, which gives a similar veto mechanism: free will as unpredictable hyperincursive anticipation The concepts of endo-anticipation and exo-anticipation are then defined. Finally, some ideas about artificial conscious intelligence with natural language are presented, in relation to the Turing Machine, Formal Language, Intelligent Agents and Mutli-Agent System.

  20. Natural language processing-based COTS software and related technologies survey.

    SciTech Connect

    Stickland, Michael G.; Conrad, Gregory N.; Eaton, Shelley M.

    2003-09-01

    Natural language processing-based knowledge management software, traditionally developed for security organizations, is now becoming commercially available. An informal survey was conducted to discover and examine current NLP and related technologies and potential applications for information retrieval, information extraction, summarization, categorization, terminology management, link analysis, and visualization for possible implementation at Sandia National Laboratories. This report documents our current understanding of the technologies, lists software vendors and their products, and identifies potential applications of these technologies.

  1. The effect of teachers' language on students' conceptions of the nature of science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeidler, Dana L.; Lederman, Norman G.

    Conveying an adequate conception of the nature of science to students is implicit in the border context of what has come to be known as scientific literacy. However, it has previously been demonstrated that possession of valid conceptions of the nature of science does not necessarily result in the performance of those teaching behaviors that are related to improved student conceptions. The present study examines the possibility that the language teachers use to communicate science content may provide the context (Realist or Instrumentalist orientations) in which students come to formulate a world view of science. Eighteen high school biology teachers and one randomly selected class from each of their sections (n = 409 students) were administered pre- and posttests at the beginning and end of the fall term using the Nature of Scientific Knowledge Scale (NSKS). Composite scores of the student changes on the Testable, Developmental, and Creative subscales were used to compare those six classes that exhibited the greatest change with those six classes that had the least change on the NSKS. Intensive qualitative observations of each teacher were also conducted over the fall semester, resulting in complete transcripts of teacher-student interactions. Qualitative comparisons of classes with respect to six variables related to Realist and Instrumentalist conceptions of the nature of science were conducted. TEACHERS' ordinary language in the presentation of subject matter was found to have significant impact on students' conceptions of the nature of science. These variables represented different contexts (Realist-Instrumental) teachers used to express themselves, scientific information, and concepts. Determining the extent to which TEACHERS' language has an impact on changes in students' conception of the nature of science has direct bearing on all preservice and inservice science teacher education programs.

  2. Modeling virtual organizations with Latent Dirichlet Allocation: a case for natural language processing.

    PubMed

    Gross, Alexander; Murthy, Dhiraj

    2014-10-01

    This paper explores a variety of methods for applying the Latent Dirichlet Allocation (LDA) automated topic modeling algorithm to the modeling of the structure and behavior of virtual organizations found within modern social media and social networking environments. As the field of Big Data reveals, an increase in the scale of social data available presents new challenges which are not tackled by merely scaling up hardware and software. Rather, they necessitate new methods and, indeed, new areas of expertise. Natural language processing provides one such method. This paper applies LDA to the study of scientific virtual organizations whose members employ social technologies. Because of the vast data footprint in these virtual platforms, we found that natural language processing was needed to 'unlock' and render visible latent, previously unseen conversational connections across large textual corpora (spanning profiles, discussion threads, forums, and other social media incarnations). We introduce variants of LDA and ultimately make the argument that natural language processing is a critical interdisciplinary methodology to make better sense of social 'Big Data' and we were able to successfully model nested discussion topics from forums and blog posts using LDA. Importantly, we found that LDA can move us beyond the state-of-the-art in conventional Social Network Analysis techniques. PMID:24930023

  3. Modeling virtual organizations with Latent Dirichlet Allocation: a case for natural language processing.

    PubMed

    Gross, Alexander; Murthy, Dhiraj

    2014-10-01

    This paper explores a variety of methods for applying the Latent Dirichlet Allocation (LDA) automated topic modeling algorithm to the modeling of the structure and behavior of virtual organizations found within modern social media and social networking environments. As the field of Big Data reveals, an increase in the scale of social data available presents new challenges which are not tackled by merely scaling up hardware and software. Rather, they necessitate new methods and, indeed, new areas of expertise. Natural language processing provides one such method. This paper applies LDA to the study of scientific virtual organizations whose members employ social technologies. Because of the vast data footprint in these virtual platforms, we found that natural language processing was needed to 'unlock' and render visible latent, previously unseen conversational connections across large textual corpora (spanning profiles, discussion threads, forums, and other social media incarnations). We introduce variants of LDA and ultimately make the argument that natural language processing is a critical interdisciplinary methodology to make better sense of social 'Big Data' and we were able to successfully model nested discussion topics from forums and blog posts using LDA. Importantly, we found that LDA can move us beyond the state-of-the-art in conventional Social Network Analysis techniques.

  4. Language.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gadlin, Barry; Nemanich, Donald

    1974-01-01

    An article and a bibliography constitute this issue of the "Illinois English Bulletin." In "Keep the Natives from Getting Restless," Barry Gadlin examines native language learning by children from infancy through high school and discusses the theories of several authors concerning the teaching of the native language. The "Bibliography of…

  5. Exploring culture, language and the perception of the nature of science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sutherland, Dawn

    2002-01-01

    One dimension of early Canadian education is the attempt of the government to use the education system as an assimilative tool to integrate the First Nations and Me´tis people into Euro-Canadian society. Despite these attempts, many First Nations and Me´tis people retained their culture and their indigenous language. Few science educators have examined First Nations and Western scientific worldviews and the impact they may have on science learning. This study explored the views some First Nations (Cree) and Euro-Canadian Grade-7-level students in Manitoba had about the nature of science. Both qualitative (open-ended questions and interviews) and quantitative (a Likert-scale questionnaire) instruments were used to explore student views. A central hypothesis to this research programme is the possibility that the different world-views of two student populations, Cree and Euro-Canadian, are likely to influence their perceptions of science. This preliminary study explored a range of methodologies to probe the perceptions of the nature of science in these two student populations. It was found that the two cultural groups differed significantly between some of the tenets in a Nature of Scientific Knowledge Scale (NSKS). Cree students significantly differed from Euro-Canadian students on the developmental, testable and unified tenets of the nature of scientific knowledge scale. No significant differences were found in NSKS scores between language groups (Cree students who speak English in the home and those who speak English and Cree or Cree only). The differences found between language groups were primarily in the open-ended questions where preformulated responses were absent. Interviews about critical incidents provided more detailed accounts of the Cree students' perception of the nature of science. The implications of the findings of this study are discussed in relation to the challenges related to research methodology, further areas for investigation, science

  6. Global Environmental Micro Sensors Test Operations in the Natural Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adams, Mark L.; Buza, Matthew; Manobianco, John; Merceret, Francis J.

    2007-01-01

    ENSCO, Inc. is developing an innovative atmospheric observing system known as Global Environmental Micro Sensors (GEMS). The GEMS concept features an integrated system of miniaturized in situ, airborne probes measuring temperature, relative humidity, pressure, and vector wind velocity. In order for the probes to remain airborne for long periods of time, their design is based on a helium-filled super-pressure balloon. The GEMS probes are neutrally buoyant and carried passively by the wind at predetermined levels. Each probe contains onboard satellite communication, power generation, processing, and geolocation capabilities. ENSCO has partnered with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's Kennedy Space Center (KSC) for a project called GEMS Test Operations in the Natural Environment (GEMSTONE) that will culminate with limited prototype flights of the system in spring 2007. By leveraging current advances in micro and nanotechnology, the probe mass, size, cost, and complexity can be reduced substantially so that large numbers of probes could be deployed routinely to support ground, launch, and landing operations at KSC and other locations. A full-scale system will improve the data density for the local initialization of high-resolution numerical weather prediction systems by at least an order of magnitude and provide a significantly expanded in situ data base to evaluate launch commit criteria and flight rules. When applied to launch or landing sites, this capability will reduce both weather hazards and weather-related scrubs, thus enhancing both safety and cost-avoidance for vehicles processed by the Shuttle, Launch Services Program, and Constellation Directorates. The GEMSTONE project will conclude with a field experiment in which 10 to 15 probes are released over KSC in east central Florida. The probes will be neutrally buoyant at different altitudes from 500 to 3000 meters and will report their position, speed, heading, temperature, humidity, and

  7. Classification of CT pulmonary angiography reports by presence, chronicity, and location of pulmonary embolism with natural language processing.

    PubMed

    Yu, Sheng; Kumamaru, Kanako K; George, Elizabeth; Dunne, Ruth M; Bedayat, Arash; Neykov, Matey; Hunsaker, Andetta R; Dill, Karin E; Cai, Tianxi; Rybicki, Frank J

    2014-12-01

    In this paper we describe an efficient tool based on natural language processing for classifying the detail state of pulmonary embolism (PE) recorded in CT pulmonary angiography reports. The classification tasks include: PE present vs. absent, acute PE vs. others, central PE vs. others, and subsegmental PE vs. others. Statistical learning algorithms were trained with features extracted using the NLP tool and gold standard labels obtained via chart review from two radiologists. The areas under the receiver operating characteristic curves (AUC) for the four tasks were 0.998, 0.945, 0.987, and 0.986, respectively. We compared our classifiers with bag-of-words Naive Bayes classifiers, a standard text mining technology, which gave AUC 0.942, 0.765, 0.766, and 0.712, respectively. PMID:25117751

  8. Computerized measurement of the content analysis of natural language for use in biomedical and neuropsychiatric research.

    PubMed

    Gottschalk, L A; Bechtel, R

    1995-07-01

    Over several decades, the senior author, with various colleagues, has developed an objective method of measuring the magnitude of commonly useful and pertinent neuropsychiatric and neuropsychological dimensions from the content and form analysis of verbal behavior and natural language. Extensive reliability and validation studies using this method have been published involving English, German, Spanish and many other languages, and which confirm that these Content Analysis Scales can be reliably scored cross-culturally and have construct validity. The validated measures include the Anxiety Scale (and six subscales), the Hostility Outward Scale (and two subscales), the Hostility In Scale, the Ambivalent Hostility Scale, the Social Alienation-Personal Disorganization Scale, the Cognitive Impairment Scale, the Depression Scale (and seven subscales), and the Hope Scale. Here, the authors report the development of artificial intelligence (LISP based) software that can reliably score these Content Analysis Scales, whose achievement facilitates the application of these measures to biomedical and neuropsychiatric research. PMID:7587159

  9. Hermeneutic operative calculus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramakrishnan, Sivakumar; Isawasan, Pradeep; Mohanan, Vasuky

    2014-07-01

    The predicate calculus used currently by mathematical logic in computer science, philosophy and linguistic was found to be too restrictive and inadequate for describing the grammar of natural and artificial language. Therefore many higher order logics have been developed to overcome the limitation of predicate calculus. In this paper a new representation of logic using mathematical principles has been developed for the natural language called Hermeneutic Operative Calculus. This Hermeneutic Operative Calculus is a new language interpretive calculus developed to account for the syntactic, semantic and pragmatic features of natural language and allows removing the restrictions of any particular natural language in the semantic field its map out. The logic of Hermeneutic Operative Calculus capable of represent the syntactic and semantic of factual information of a natural language precisely in any language. The logic of this Hermeneutic Operative Calculus has two different forms of operations called object and meta-operations. The object operation allow for listing the various objects, picturing the various propositions and so forth. The meta-operation would specify what cannot be specified by the object operation like semantical stances of a proposition. The basic operative processes of linguistics and cognitive logic will be mathematically conceptualized and elaborated in this paper.

  10. Language evolution and human-computer interaction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grudin, Jonathan; Norman, Donald A.

    1991-01-01

    Many of the issues that confront designers of interactive computer systems also appear in natural language evolution. Natural languages and human-computer interfaces share as their primary mission the support of extended 'dialogues' between responsive entities. Because in each case one participant is a human being, some of the pressures operating on natural languages, causing them to evolve in order to better support such dialogue, also operate on human-computer 'languages' or interfaces. This does not necessarily push interfaces in the direction of natural language - since one entity in this dialogue is not a human, this is not to be expected. Nonetheless, by discerning where the pressures that guide natural language evolution also appear in human-computer interaction, we can contribute to the design of computer systems and obtain a new perspective on natural languages.

  11. 29 CFR 784.119 - Effect of natural factors on named operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Effect of natural factors on named operations. 784.119...) Exemption § 784.119 Effect of natural factors on named operations. The various activities enumerated in... controlled and affected by the natural elements. Similarly, the activities of “first processing, canning,...

  12. 78 FR 70163 - Communication of Operational Information between Natural Gas Pipelines and Electric Transmission...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-22

    ... Operational Information Between Natural Gas Pipelines and Electric Transmission Operators, 78 FR 44900 (July.../fdsys/pkg/FR-2012-07-12/pdf/2012-16997.pdf ); Coordination between Natural Gas and Electricity Markets...) ( http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2012-12-13/pdf/2012-30063.pdf ); Coordination between Natural Gas...

  13. Natural Gas Transportation - Infrastructure Issues and Operational Trends

    EIA Publications

    2001-01-01

    This report examines how well the current national natural gas pipeline network has been able to handle today's market demand for natural gas. In addition, it identifies those areas of the country where pipeline utilization is continuing to grow rapidly and where new pipeline capacity is needed or is planned over the next several years.

  14. Influence of Natural Environments in Spacecraft Design, Development, and Operation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edwards, David L.

    2012-01-01

    The natural environment has a great influence on the ability of spacecraft to perform according to mission design specification. Compatibility with the natural environment is a primary factor in determining the functional lifetime of the spacecraft. The spacecraft being designed and developed today are growing in complexity. In many instances, the increased complexity also increases its sensitivity to environmental effects. Sensitivities to the natural environment can be tempered through appropriate design measures, mitigation strategies, and/or the acceptance of known risk. The design engineer must understand the effects of the natural environment on the spacecraft and its components; while having an in-depth knowledge of mitigation strategies. Too much protection incurs unnecessary expense, and often times excessive mass; while too little protection can easily lead to premature mission loss. This presentation will provide a brief overview of both the natural environment and its effects and provide some insight into mitigation strategies.

  15. SIMD-parallel understanding of natural language with application to magnitude-only optical parsing of text

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmalz, Mark S.

    1992-08-01

    A novel parallel model of natural language (NL) understanding is presented which can realize high levels of semantic abstraction, and is designed for implementation on synchronous SIMD architectures and optical processors. Theory is expressed in terms of the Image Algebra (IA), a rigorous, concise, inherently parallel notation which unifies the design, analysis, and implementation of image processing algorithms. The IA has been implemented on numerous parallel architectures, and IA preprocessors and interpreters are available for the FORTRAN and Ada languages. In a previous study, we demonstrated the utility of IA for mapping MEA- conformable (Multiple Execution Array) algorithms to optical architectures. In this study, we extend our previous theory to map serial parsing algorithms to the synchronous SIMD paradigm. We initially derive a two-dimensional image that is based upon the adjacency matrix of a semantic graph. Via IA template mappings, the operations of bottom-up parsing, semantic disambiguation, and referential resolution are implemented as image-processing operations upon the adjacency matrix. Pixel-level operations are constrained to Hadamard addition and multiplication, thresholding, and row/column summation, which are available in magnitude-only optics. Assuming high parallelism in the parse rule base, the parsing of n input symbols with a grammar consisting of M rules of arity H, on an N-processor architecture, could exhibit time complexity of T(n)

  16. Ulisse Aldrovandi's Color Sensibility: Natural History, Language and the Lay Color Practices of Renaissance Virtuosi.

    PubMed

    Pugliano, Valentina

    2015-01-01

    Famed for his collection of drawings of naturalia and his thoughts on the relationship between painting and natural knowledge, it now appears that the Bolognese naturalist Ulisse Aldrovandi (1522-1605) also pondered specifically color and pigments, compiling not only lists and diagrams of color terms but also a full-length unpublished manuscript entitled De coloribus or Trattato dei colori. Introducing these writings for the first time, this article portrays a scholar not so much interested in the materiality of pigment production, as in the cultural history of hues. It argues that these writings constituted an effort to build a language of color, in the sense both of a standard nomenclature of hues and of a lexicon, a dictionary of their denotations and connotations as documented in the literature of ancients and moderns. This language would serve the naturalist in his artistic patronage and his natural historical studies, where color was considered one of the most reliable signs for the correct identification of specimens, and a guarantee of accuracy in their illustration. Far from being an exception, Aldrovandi's 'color sensibility'spoke of that of his university-educated nature-loving peers.

  17. A Comparison of Natural Language Processing Methods for Automated Coding of Motivational Interviewing.

    PubMed

    Tanana, Michael; Hallgren, Kevin A; Imel, Zac E; Atkins, David C; Srikumar, Vivek

    2016-06-01

    Motivational interviewing (MI) is an efficacious treatment for substance use disorders and other problem behaviors. Studies on MI fidelity and mechanisms of change typically use human raters to code therapy sessions, which requires considerable time, training, and financial costs. Natural language processing techniques have recently been utilized for coding MI sessions using machine learning techniques, rather than human coders, and preliminary results have suggested these methods hold promise. The current study extends this previous work by introducing two natural language processing models for automatically coding MI sessions via computer. The two models differ in the way they semantically represent session content, utilizing either 1) simple discrete sentence features (DSF model) and 2) more complex recursive neural networks (RNN model). Utterance- and session-level predictions from these models were compared to ratings provided by human coders using a large sample of MI sessions (N=341 sessions; 78,977 clinician and client talk turns) from 6 MI studies. Results show that the DSF model generally had slightly better performance compared to the RNN model. The DSF model had "good" or higher utterance-level agreement with human coders (Cohen's kappa>0.60) for open and closed questions, affirm, giving information, and follow/neutral (all therapist codes); considerably higher agreement was obtained for session-level indices, and many estimates were competitive with human-to-human agreement. However, there was poor agreement for client change talk, client sustain talk, and therapist MI-inconsistent behaviors. Natural language processing methods provide accurate representations of human derived behavioral codes and could offer substantial improvements to the efficiency and scale in which MI mechanisms of change research and fidelity monitoring are conducted.

  18. Interactive Cohort Identification of Sleep Disorder Patients Using Natural Language Processing and i2b2

    PubMed Central

    Chen, W.; Kowatch, R.; Lin, S.; Splaingard, M.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Nationwide Children’s Hospital established an i2b2 (Informatics for Integrating Biology & the Bedside) application for sleep disorder cohort identification. Discrete data were gleaned from semistructured sleep study reports. The system showed to work more efficiently than the traditional manual chart review method, and it also enabled searching capabilities that were previously not possible. Objective We report on the development and implementation of the sleep disorder i2b2 cohort identification system using natural language processing of semi-structured documents. Methods We developed a natural language processing approach to automatically parse concepts and their values from semi-structured sleep study documents. Two parsers were developed: a regular expression parser for extracting numeric concepts and a NLP based tree parser for extracting textual concepts. Concepts were further organized into i2b2 ontologies based on document structures and in-domain knowledge. Results 26,550 concepts were extracted with 99% being textual concepts. 1.01 million facts were extracted from sleep study documents such as demographic information, sleep study lab results, medications, procedures, diagnoses, among others. The average accuracy of terminology parsing was over 83% when comparing against those by experts. The system is capable of capturing both standard and non-standard terminologies. The time for cohort identification has been reduced significantly from a few weeks to a few seconds. Conclusion Natural language processing was shown to be powerful for quickly converting large amount of semi-structured or unstructured clinical data into discrete concepts, which in combination of intuitive domain specific ontologies, allows fast and effective interactive cohort identification through the i2b2 platform for research and clinical use. PMID:26171080

  19. Discovering novel causal patterns from biomedical natural-language texts using Bayesian nets.

    PubMed

    Atkinson, John; Rivas, Alejandro

    2008-11-01

    Most of the biomedicine text mining approaches do not deal with specific cause--effect patterns that may explain the discoveries. In order to fill this gap, this paper proposes an effective new model for text mining from biomedicine literature that helps to discover cause--effect hypotheses related to diseases, drugs, etc. The supervised approach combines Bayesian inference methods with natural-language processing techniques in order to generate simple and interesting patterns. The results of applying the model to biomedicine text databases and its comparison with other state-of-the-art methods are also discussed.

  20. Knowledge acquisition from natural language for expert systems based on classification problem-solving methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gomez, Fernando

    1989-01-01

    It is shown how certain kinds of domain independent expert systems based on classification problem-solving methods can be constructed directly from natural language descriptions by a human expert. The expert knowledge is not translated into production rules. Rather, it is mapped into conceptual structures which are integrated into long-term memory (LTM). The resulting system is one in which problem-solving, retrieval and memory organization are integrated processes. In other words, the same algorithm and knowledge representation structures are shared by these processes. As a result of this, the system can answer questions, solve problems or reorganize LTM.

  1. Evaluation of unsupervised semantic mapping of natural language with Leximancer concept mapping.

    PubMed

    Smith, Andrew E; Humphreys, Michael S

    2006-05-01

    The Leximancer system is a relatively new method for transforming lexical co-occurrence information from natural language into semantic patterns in a nunsupervised manner. It employs two stages of co-occurrence information extraction-semantic and relational-using a different algorithm for each stage. The algorithms used are statistical, but they employ nonlinear dynamics and machine learning. This article is an attempt to validate the output of Leximancer, using a set of evaluation criteria taken from content analysis that are appropriate for knowledge discovery tasks. PMID:16956103

  2. A natural language interface for real-time dialogue in the flight domain

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ali, M.; Ai, C.-S.; Ferber, H. J.

    1986-01-01

    A flight expert system (FLES) is being developed to assist pilots in monitoring, diagnosisng and recovering from in-flight faults. To provide a communications interface between the flight crew and FLES, a natural language interface, has been implemented. Input to NALI is processed by three processors: (1) the semantic parser, (2) the knowledge retriever, and (3) the response generator. The architecture of NALI has been designed to process both temporal and nontemporal queries. Provisions have also been made to reduce the number of system modifications required for adapting NALI to other domains. This paper describes the architecture and implementation of NALI.

  3. Practical systems use natural languages and store human expertise (artificial intelligence)

    SciTech Connect

    Evanczuk, S.; Manuel, T.

    1983-12-01

    For earlier articles see T. Manuel et al., ibid., vol.56, no.22, p.127-37. This second part of a special report on commercial applications of artificial intelligence examines the milestones which mark this major new path for the software industry. It covers state-space search, the problem of ambiguity, augmented transition networks, early commercial products, current and expected personal computer software, natural-language interfaces, research projects, knowledge engineering, the workings of artificial-intelligence-based applications programs, LISP, attributes and object orientation.

  4. Role of PROLOG (Programming and Logic) in natural-language processing. Report for September-December 1987

    SciTech Connect

    McHale, M.L.

    1988-03-01

    The field of artificial Intelligence strives to produce computer programs that exhibit intelligent behavior. One of the areas of interest is the processing of natural language. This report discusses the role of the computer language PROLOG in Natural Language Processing (NLP) both from theoretic and pragmatic viewpoints. The reasons for using PROLOG for NLP are numerous. First, linguists can write natural-language grammars almost directly as PROLOG programs; this allows fast-prototyping of NLP systems and facilitates analysis of NLP theories. Second, semantic representations of natural-language texts that use logic formalisms are readily produced in PROLOG because of PROLOG's logical foundations. Third, PROLOG's built-in inferencing mechanisms are often sufficient for inferences on the logical forms produced by NLPs. Fourth, the logical, declarative nature of PROLOG may make it the language of choice for parallel computing systems. Finally, the fact that PROLOG has a de facto standard (Edinburgh) makes the porting of code from one computer system to another virtually trouble free. Perhaps the strongest tie one could make between NLP and PROLOG was stated by John Stuart Mill in his inaugural Address at St. Andrews: The structure of every sentence is a lesson in logic.

  5. Validation of the "Chinese Language Classroom Learning Environment Inventory" for Investigating the Nature of Chinese Language Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lian, Chua Siew; Wong, Angela F. L.; Der-Thanq, Victor Chen

    2006-01-01

    The Chinese Language Classroom Environment Inventory (CLCEI) is a bilingual instrument developed for use in measuring students' and teachers' perceptions toward their Chinese Language classroom learning environments in Singapore secondary schools. The English version of the CLCEI was customised from the English version of the "What is happening in…

  6. Neural Network Processing of Natural Language: I. Sensitivity to Serial, Temporal, and Abstract Structure of Language in the Infant.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dominey, Peter Ford; Ramus, Franck

    2000-01-01

    Demonstrates how innate representational capabilities for serial and temporal structure of language could arise from a common neural architecture, distinct from that required for the representation of abstract structure, and provides a predictive testable model of the initial computational state of the language learner. (Author/VWL)

  7. A Principled Framework for Constructing Natural Language Interfaces To Temporal Databases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Androutsopoulos, Ion

    1996-09-01

    Most existing natural language interfaces to databases (NLIDBs) were designed to be used with ``snapshot'' database systems, that provide very limited facilities for manipulating time-dependent data. Consequently, most NLIDBs also provide very limited support for the notion of time. The database community is becoming increasingly interested in _temporal_ database systems. These are intended to store and manipulate in a principled manner information not only about the present, but also about the past and future. This thesis develops a principled framework for constructing English NLIDBs for _temporal_ databases (NLITDBs), drawing on research in tense and aspect theories, temporal logics, and temporal databases. I first explore temporal linguistic phenomena that are likely to appear in English questions to NLITDBs. Drawing on existing linguistic theories of time, I formulate an account for a large number of these phenomena that is simple enough to be embodied in practical NLITDBs. Exploiting ideas from temporal logics, I then define a temporal meaning representation language, TOP, and I show how the HPSG grammar theory can be modified to incorporate the tense and aspect account of this thesis, and to map a wide range of English questions involving time to appropriate TOP expressions. Finally, I present and prove the correctness of a method to translate from TOP to TSQL2, TSQL2 being a temporal extension of the SQL-92 database language. This way, I establish a sound route from English questions involving time to a general-purpose temporal database language, that can act as a principled framework for building NLITDBs. To demonstrate that this framework is workable, I employ it to develop a prototype NLITDB, implemented using ALE and Prolog.

  8. 78 FR 44900 - Communication of Operational Information Between Natural Gas Pipelines and Electric Transmission...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-25

    ... Natural Gas Pipelines and Electric Transmission Operators AGENCY: Federal Energy Regulatory Commission... transmission of electric energy in interstate commerce to share non- public, operational information with... facilities used for the transmission of electric energy in interstate commerce to share non-...

  9. Language of the Earth: Exploring Natural Hazards through a Literary Anthology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malamud, B. D.; Rhodes, F. H. T.

    2009-04-01

    This paper explores natural hazards teaching and communications through the use of a literary anthology of writings about the earth aimed at non-experts. Teaching natural hazards in high-school and university introductory Earth Science and Geography courses revolves mostly around lectures, examinations, and laboratory demonstrations/activities. Often the results of such a course are that a student 'memorizes' the answers, and is penalized when they miss a given fact [e.g., "You lost one point because you were off by 50 km/hr on the wind speed of an F5 tornado."] Although facts and general methodologies are certainly important when teaching natural hazards, it is a strong motivation to a student's assimilation of, and enthusiasm for, this knowledge, if supplemented by writings about the Earth. In this paper, we discuss a literary anthology which we developed [Language of the Earth, Rhodes, Stone, Malamud, Wiley-Blackwell, 2008] which includes many descriptions about natural hazards. Using first- and second-hand accounts of landslides, earthquakes, tsunamis, floods and volcanic eruptions, through the writings of McPhee, Gaskill, Voltaire, Austin, Cloos, and many others, hazards become 'alive', and more than 'just' a compilation of facts and processes. Using short excerpts such as these, or other similar anthologies, of remarkably written accounts and discussions about natural hazards results in 'dry' facts becoming more than just facts. These often highly personal viewpoints of our catostrophic world, provide a useful supplement to a student's understanding of the turbulent world in which we live.

  10. Comparative study on the customization of natural language interfaces to databases.

    PubMed

    Pazos R, Rodolfo A; Aguirre L, Marco A; González B, Juan J; Martínez F, José A; Pérez O, Joaquín; Verástegui O, Andrés A

    2016-01-01

    In the last decades the popularity of natural language interfaces to databases (NLIDBs) has increased, because in many cases information obtained from them is used for making important business decisions. Unfortunately, the complexity of their customization by database administrators make them difficult to use. In order for a NLIDB to obtain a high percentage of correctly translated queries, it is necessary that it is correctly customized for the database to be queried. In most cases the performance reported in NLIDB literature is the highest possible; i.e., the performance obtained when the interfaces were customized by the implementers. However, for end users it is more important the performance that the interface can yield when the NLIDB is customized by someone different from the implementers. Unfortunately, there exist very few articles that report NLIDB performance when the NLIDBs are not customized by the implementers. This article presents a semantically-enriched data dictionary (which permits solving many of the problems that occur when translating from natural language to SQL) and an experiment in which two groups of undergraduate students customized our NLIDB and English language frontend (ELF), considered one of the best available commercial NLIDBs. The experimental results show that, when customized by the first group, our NLIDB obtained a 44.69 % of correctly answered queries and ELF 11.83 % for the ATIS database, and when customized by the second group, our NLIDB attained 77.05 % and ELF 13.48 %. The performance attained by our NLIDB, when customized by ourselves was 90 %. PMID:27190752

  11. Formal ontology for natural language processing and the integration of biomedical databases.

    PubMed

    Simon, Jonathan; Dos Santos, Mariana; Fielding, James; Smith, Barry

    2006-01-01

    The central hypothesis underlying this communication is that the methodology and conceptual rigor of a philosophically inspired formal ontology can bring significant benefits in the development and maintenance of application ontologies [A. Flett, M. Dos Santos, W. Ceusters, Some Ontology Engineering Procedures and their Supporting Technologies, EKAW2002, 2003]. This hypothesis has been tested in the collaboration between Language and Computing (L&C), a company specializing in software for supporting natural language processing especially in the medical field, and the Institute for Formal Ontology and Medical Information Science (IFOMIS), an academic research institution concerned with the theoretical foundations of ontology. In the course of this collaboration L&C's ontology, LinKBase, which is designed to integrate and support reasoning across a plurality of external databases, has been subjected to a thorough auditing on the basis of the principles underlying IFOMIS's Basic Formal Ontology (BFO) [B. Smith, Basic Formal Ontology, 2002. http://ontology.buffalo.edu/bfo]. The goal is to transform a large terminology-based ontology into one with the ability to support reasoning applications. Our general procedure has been the implementation of a meta-ontological definition space in which the definitions of all the concepts and relations in LinKBase are standardized in the framework of first-order logic. In this paper we describe how this principles-based standardization has led to a greater degree of internal coherence of the LinKBase structure, and how it has facilitated the construction of mappings between external databases using LinKBase as translation hub. We argue that the collaboration here described represents a new phase in the quest to solve the so-called "Tower of Babel" problem of ontology integration [F. Montayne, J. Flanagan, Formal Ontology: The Foundation for Natural Language Processing, 2003. http://www.landcglobal.com/].

  12. Knowledge-based machine indexing from natural language text: Knowledge base design, development, and maintenance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Genuardi, Michael T.

    1993-01-01

    One strategy for machine-aided indexing (MAI) is to provide a concept-level analysis of the textual elements of documents or document abstracts. In such systems, natural-language phrases are analyzed in order to identify and classify concepts related to a particular subject domain. The overall performance of these MAI systems is largely dependent on the quality and comprehensiveness of their knowledge bases. These knowledge bases function to (1) define the relations between a controlled indexing vocabulary and natural language expressions; (2) provide a simple mechanism for disambiguation and the determination of relevancy; and (3) allow the extension of concept-hierarchical structure to all elements of the knowledge file. After a brief description of the NASA Machine-Aided Indexing system, concerns related to the development and maintenance of MAI knowledge bases are discussed. Particular emphasis is given to statistically-based text analysis tools designed to aid the knowledge base developer. One such tool, the Knowledge Base Building (KBB) program, presents the domain expert with a well-filtered list of synonyms and conceptually-related phrases for each thesaurus concept. Another tool, the Knowledge Base Maintenance (KBM) program, functions to identify areas of the knowledge base affected by changes in the conceptual domain (for example, the addition of a new thesaurus term). An alternate use of the KBM as an aid in thesaurus construction is also discussed.

  13. Efficient Queries of Stand-off Annotations for Natural Language Processing on Electronic Medical Records.

    PubMed

    Luo, Yuan; Szolovits, Peter

    2016-01-01

    In natural language processing, stand-off annotation uses the starting and ending positions of an annotation to anchor it to the text and stores the annotation content separately from the text. We address the fundamental problem of efficiently storing stand-off annotations when applying natural language processing on narrative clinical notes in electronic medical records (EMRs) and efficiently retrieving such annotations that satisfy position constraints. Efficient storage and retrieval of stand-off annotations can facilitate tasks such as mapping unstructured text to electronic medical record ontologies. We first formulate this problem into the interval query problem, for which optimal query/update time is in general logarithm. We next perform a tight time complexity analysis on the basic interval tree query algorithm and show its nonoptimality when being applied to a collection of 13 query types from Allen's interval algebra. We then study two closely related state-of-the-art interval query algorithms, proposed query reformulations, and augmentations to the second algorithm. Our proposed algorithm achieves logarithmic time stabbing-max query time complexity and solves the stabbing-interval query tasks on all of Allen's relations in logarithmic time, attaining the theoretic lower bound. Updating time is kept logarithmic and the space requirement is kept linear at the same time. We also discuss interval management in external memory models and higher dimensions. PMID:27478379

  14. Linking sounds to meanings: Infant statistical learning in a natural language

    PubMed Central

    Hay, Jessica F.; Pelucchi, Bruna; Estes, Katharine Graf; Saffran, Jenny R.

    2011-01-01

    The processes of infant word segmentation and infant word learning have largely been studied separately. However, the ease with which potential word forms are segmented from fluent speech seems likely to influence subsequent mappings between words and their referents. To explore this process, we tested the link between the statistical coherence of sequences presented in fluent speech and infants’ subsequent use of those sequences as labels for novel objects. Notably, the materials were drawn from a natural language unfamiliar to the infants (Italian). The results of three experiments suggest that there is a close relationship between the statistics of the speech stream and subsequent mapping of labels to referents. Mapping was facilitated when the labels contained high transitional probabilities in the forward and/or backward direction (Experiment 1). When no transitional probability information was available (Experiment 2), or when the internal transitional probabilities of the labels were low in both directions (Experiment 3), infants failed to link the labels to their referents. Word learning appears to be strongly influenced by infants’ prior experience with the distribution of sounds that make up words in natural languages. PMID:21762650

  15. Efficient Queries of Stand-off Annotations for Natural Language Processing on Electronic Medical Records

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Yuan; Szolovits, Peter

    2016-01-01

    In natural language processing, stand-off annotation uses the starting and ending positions of an annotation to anchor it to the text and stores the annotation content separately from the text. We address the fundamental problem of efficiently storing stand-off annotations when applying natural language processing on narrative clinical notes in electronic medical records (EMRs) and efficiently retrieving such annotations that satisfy position constraints. Efficient storage and retrieval of stand-off annotations can facilitate tasks such as mapping unstructured text to electronic medical record ontologies. We first formulate this problem into the interval query problem, for which optimal query/update time is in general logarithm. We next perform a tight time complexity analysis on the basic interval tree query algorithm and show its nonoptimality when being applied to a collection of 13 query types from Allen’s interval algebra. We then study two closely related state-of-the-art interval query algorithms, proposed query reformulations, and augmentations to the second algorithm. Our proposed algorithm achieves logarithmic time stabbing-max query time complexity and solves the stabbing-interval query tasks on all of Allen’s relations in logarithmic time, attaining the theoretic lower bound. Updating time is kept logarithmic and the space requirement is kept linear at the same time. We also discuss interval management in external memory models and higher dimensions. PMID:27478379

  16. Natural and Man-Made Objects, Level K. Teacher's Guide. Operation Waste Watch.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Virginia State Dept. of Waste Management, Richmond. Div. of Litter & Recycling.

    Operation Waste Watch is a series of seven sequential learning units which addresses the subject of litter control and solid waste management. Each unit may be used in a variety of ways, depending on the needs and schedules of individual schools, and may be incorporated into various social studies, science, language arts, health, mathematics, and…

  17. Natural disasters: how to resume operations and prioritize your infrastructure.

    PubMed

    Pope, T

    1994-05-01

    Earthquakes! Floods! Hurricanes! How is a managed care organization to cope with both delivering health care to its members and maintaining the integrity of its organization? This first article of a two-part series, prompted by the recent spate of natural disasters, discusses how a managed care organization can recompose itself so that it may optimally deliver care to the many people in need after such a catastrophe.

  18. Language.

    PubMed

    Cattaneo, Luigi

    2013-01-01

    Noninvasive focal brain stimulation by means of transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) has been used extensively in the past 20 years to investigate normal language functions. The picture emerging from this collection of empirical works is that of several independent modular functions mapped on left-lateralized temporofrontal circuits originating dorsally or ventrally to the auditory cortex. The identification of sounds as language (i.e., phonological transformations) is modulated by TMS applied over the posterior-superior temporal cortex and over the caudal inferior frontal gyrus/ventral premotor cortex complex. Conversely, attribution of semantics to words is modulated successfully by applying TMS to the rostral part of the inferior frontal gyrus. Speech production is typically interfered with by TMS applied to the left inferior frontal gyrus, onto the same cortical areas that also contain phonological representations. The cortical mapping of grammatical functions has been investigated with TMS mainly regarding the category of verbs, which seem to be represented in the left middle frontal gyrus. Most TMS studies have investigated the cortical processing of single words or sublexical elements. Conversely, complex elements of language such as syntax have not been investigated extensively, although a few studies have indicated a left temporal, frontal, and parietal system also involving the neocerebellar cortex. Finally, both the perception and production of nonlinguistic communicative properties of speech, such as prosody, have been mapped by TMS in the peri-Silvian region of the right hemisphere. PMID:24112933

  19. Operator space theory: a natural framework for bell inequalities.

    PubMed

    Junge, M; Palazuelos, C; Pérez-García, D; Villanueva, I; Wolf, M M

    2010-04-30

    In this Letter we show that the field of operator space theory provides a general and powerful mathematical framework for arbitrary Bell inequalities, in particular, regarding the scaling of their violation within quantum mechanics. We illustrate the power of this connection by showing that bipartite quantum states with local, Hilbert space dimension n can violate a Bell inequality by a factor of order sqrt[n]/(log{2}n) when observables with n possible outcomes are used. Applications to resistance to noise, Hilbert space dimension estimates, and communication complexity are given.

  20. 76 FR 37309 - Parts and Accessories Necessary for Safe Operation; Application for Exemption From the Natural...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-27

    ...)(6) as currently written could impede the interstate transport of natural gas transit buses and place... Operation; Application for Exemption From the Natural Gas Vehicles for America AGENCY: Federal Motor Carrier... natural gas vehicles that do not restrict the location of such fuel systems. NGVAmerica plans to file...

  1. Neural substrates of figurative language during natural speech perception: an fMRI study

    PubMed Central

    Nagels, Arne; Kauschke, Christina; Schrauf, Judith; Whitney, Carin; Straube, Benjamin; Kircher, Tilo

    2013-01-01

    Many figurative expressions are fully conventionalized in everyday speech. Regarding the neural basis of figurative language processing, research has predominantly focused on metaphoric expressions in minimal semantic context. It remains unclear in how far metaphoric expressions during continuous text comprehension activate similar neural networks as isolated metaphors. We therefore investigated the processing of similes (figurative language, e.g., “He smokes like a chimney!”) occurring in a short story. Sixteen healthy, male, native German speakers listened to similes that came about naturally in a short story, while blood-oxygenation-level-dependent (BOLD) responses were measured with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). For the event-related analysis, similes were contrasted with non-figurative control sentences (CS). The stimuli differed with respect to figurativeness, while they were matched for frequency of words, number of syllables, plausibility, and comprehensibility. Similes contrasted with CS resulted in enhanced BOLD responses in the left inferior (IFG) and adjacent middle frontal gyrus. Concrete CS as compared to similes activated the bilateral middle temporal gyri as well as the right precuneus and the left middle frontal gyrus (LMFG). Activation of the left IFG for similes in a short story is consistent with results on single sentence metaphor processing. The findings strengthen the importance of the left inferior frontal region in the processing of abstract figurative speech during continuous, ecologically-valid speech comprehension; the processing of concrete semantic contents goes along with a down-regulation of bilateral temporal regions. PMID:24065897

  2. HUNTER-GATHERER: Three search techniques integrated for natural language semantics

    SciTech Connect

    Beale, S.; Nirenburg, S.; Mahesh, K.

    1996-12-31

    This work integrates three related Al search techniques - constraint satisfaction, branch-and-bound and solution synthesis - and applies the result to semantic processing in natural language (NL). We summarize the approach as {open_quote}Hunter-Gatherer:{close_quotes} (1) branch-and-bound and constraint satisfaction allow us to {open_quote}hunt down{close_quotes} non-optimal and impossible solutions and prune them from the search space. (2) solution synthesis methods then {open_quote}gather{close_quotes} all optimal solutions avoiding exponential complexity. Each of the three techniques is briefly described, as well as their extensions and combinations used in our system. We focus on the combination of solution synthesis and branch-and-bound methods which has enabled near-linear-time processing in our applications. Finally, we illustrate how the use of our technique in a large-scale MT project allowed a drastic reduction in search space.

  3. Towards symbiosis in knowledge representation and natural language processing for structuring clinical practice guidelines.

    PubMed

    Weng, Chunhua; Payne, Philip R O; Velez, Mark; Johnson, Stephen B; Bakken, Suzanne

    2014-01-01

    The successful adoption by clinicians of evidence-based clinical practice guidelines (CPGs) contained in clinical information systems requires efficient translation of free-text guidelines into computable formats. Natural language processing (NLP) has the potential to improve the efficiency of such translation. However, it is laborious to develop NLP to structure free-text CPGs using existing formal knowledge representations (KR). In response to this challenge, this vision paper discusses the value and feasibility of supporting symbiosis in text-based knowledge acquisition (KA) and KR. We compare two ontologies: (1) an ontology manually created by domain experts for CPG eligibility criteria and (2) an upper-level ontology derived from a semantic pattern-based approach for automatic KA from CPG eligibility criteria text. Then we discuss the strengths and limitations of interweaving KA and NLP for KR purposes and important considerations for achieving the symbiosis of KR and NLP for structuring CPGs to achieve evidence-based clinical practice.

  4. Workshop on using natural language processing applications for enhancing clinical decision making: an executive summary

    PubMed Central

    Pai, Vinay M; Rodgers, Mary; Conroy, Richard; Luo, James; Zhou, Ruixia; Seto, Belinda

    2014-01-01

    In April 2012, the National Institutes of Health organized a two-day workshop entitled ‘Natural Language Processing: State of the Art, Future Directions and Applications for Enhancing Clinical Decision-Making’ (NLP-CDS). This report is a summary of the discussions during the second day of the workshop. Collectively, the workshop presenters and participants emphasized the need for unstructured clinical notes to be included in the decision making workflow and the need for individualized longitudinal data tracking. The workshop also discussed the need to: (1) combine evidence-based literature and patient records with machine-learning and prediction models; (2) provide trusted and reproducible clinical advice; (3) prioritize evidence and test results; and (4) engage healthcare professionals, caregivers, and patients. The overall consensus of the NLP-CDS workshop was that there are promising opportunities for NLP and CDS to deliver cognitive support for healthcare professionals, caregivers, and patients. PMID:23921193

  5. Knowledge Extraction from MEDLINE by Combining Clustering with Natural Language Processing

    PubMed Central

    Miñarro-Giménez, Jose A.; Kreuzthaler, Markus; Schulz, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    The identification of relevant predicates between co-occurring concepts in scientific literature databases like MEDLINE is crucial for using these sources for knowledge extraction, in order to obtain meaningful biomedical predications as subject-predicate-object triples. We consider the manually assigned MeSH indexing terms (main headings and subheadings) in MEDLINE records as a rich resource for extracting a broad range of domain knowledge. In this paper, we explore the combination of a clustering method for co-occurring concepts based on their related MeSH subheadings in MEDLINE with the use of SemRep, a natural language processing engine, which extracts predications from free text documents. As a result, we generated sets of clusters of co-occurring concepts and identified the most significant predicates for each cluster. The association of such predicates with the co-occurrences of the resulting clusters produces the list of predications, which were checked for relevance. PMID:26958228

  6. HF-Explain: a natural language generation system for explaining a medical expert system.

    PubMed Central

    Lewin, H. C.

    1991-01-01

    Causal models have been used, with considerable success, to reason in the medical domain. While these systems typically have a robust reasoning mechanism and knowledge base about their specific area of expertise, their ability to satisfactorily explain their results in a meaningful, coherent and concise manner has been less impressive then their diagnostic capabilities. This paper describes a program, HF-Explain, that generates natural language explanations of one such system--the Heart Failure Program. HF-Explain, is loosely based on work done by McKeown in the Text system, using augmented transition networks (ATN) as a formalism to guide the explanation process. The result is a coherent, concise, accurate and rich explanation of Heart Failure Programs' diagnostic hypotheses. PMID:1807682

  7. The Archaeotools project: faceted classification and natural language processing in an archaeological context.

    PubMed

    Jeffrey, S; Richards, J; Ciravegna, F; Waller, S; Chapman, S; Zhang, Z

    2009-06-28

    This paper describes 'Archaeotools', a major e-Science project in archaeology. The aim of the project is to use faceted classification and natural language processing to create an advanced infrastructure for archaeological research. The project aims to integrate over 1 x 10(6) structured database records referring to archaeological sites and monuments in the UK, with information extracted from semi-structured grey literature reports, and unstructured antiquarian journal accounts, in a single faceted browser interface. The project has illuminated the variable level of vocabulary control and standardization that currently exists within national and local monument inventories. Nonetheless, it has demonstrated that the relatively well-defined ontologies and thesauri that exist in archaeology mean that a high level of success can be achieved using information extraction techniques. This has great potential for unlocking and making accessible the information held in grey literature and antiquarian accounts, and has lessons for allied disciplines.

  8. Wikipedia and Medicine: Quantifying Readership, Editors, and the Significance of Natural Language

    PubMed Central

    West, Andrew G

    2015-01-01

    Background Wikipedia is a collaboratively edited encyclopedia. One of the most popular websites on the Internet, it is known to be a frequently used source of health care information by both professionals and the lay public. Objective This paper quantifies the production and consumption of Wikipedia’s medical content along 4 dimensions. First, we measured the amount of medical content in both articles and bytes and, second, the citations that supported that content. Third, we analyzed the medical readership against that of other health care websites between Wikipedia’s natural language editions and its relationship with disease prevalence. Fourth, we surveyed the quantity/characteristics of Wikipedia’s medical contributors, including year-over-year participation trends and editor demographics. Methods Using a well-defined categorization infrastructure, we identified medically pertinent English-language Wikipedia articles and links to their foreign language equivalents. With these, Wikipedia can be queried to produce metadata and full texts for entire article histories. Wikipedia also makes available hourly reports that aggregate reader traffic at per-article granularity. An online survey was used to determine the background of contributors. Standard mining and visualization techniques (eg, aggregation queries, cumulative distribution functions, and/or correlation metrics) were applied to each of these datasets. Analysis focused on year-end 2013, but historical data permitted some longitudinal analysis. Results Wikipedia’s medical content (at the end of 2013) was made up of more than 155,000 articles and 1 billion bytes of text across more than 255 languages. This content was supported by more than 950,000 references. Content was viewed more than 4.88 billion times in 2013. This makes it one of if not the most viewed medical resource(s) globally. The core editor community numbered less than 300 and declined over the past 5 years. The members of this

  9. Integrating natural language processing and web GIS for interactive knowledge domain visualization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du, Fangming

    Recent years have seen a powerful shift towards data-rich environments throughout society. This has extended to a change in how the artifacts and products of scientific knowledge production can be analyzed and understood. Bottom-up approaches are on the rise that combine access to huge amounts of academic publications with advanced computer graphics and data processing tools, including natural language processing. Knowledge domain visualization is one of those multi-technology approaches, with its aim of turning domain-specific human knowledge into highly visual representations in order to better understand the structure and evolution of domain knowledge. For example, network visualizations built from co-author relations contained in academic publications can provide insight on how scholars collaborate with each other in one or multiple domains, and visualizations built from the text content of articles can help us understand the topical structure of knowledge domains. These knowledge domain visualizations need to support interactive viewing and exploration by users. Such spatialization efforts are increasingly looking to geography and GIS as a source of metaphors and practical technology solutions, even when non-georeferenced information is managed, analyzed, and visualized. When it comes to deploying spatialized representations online, web mapping and web GIS can provide practical technology solutions for interactive viewing of knowledge domain visualizations, from panning and zooming to the overlay of additional information. This thesis presents a novel combination of advanced natural language processing - in the form of topic modeling - with dimensionality reduction through self-organizing maps and the deployment of web mapping/GIS technology towards intuitive, GIS-like, exploration of a knowledge domain visualization. A complete workflow is proposed and implemented that processes any corpus of input text documents into a map form and leverages a web

  10. Automated access to a large medical dictionary: online assistance for research and application in natural language processing.

    PubMed

    McCray, A T; Srinivasan, S

    1990-04-01

    Online dictionaries can be important tools for research and application in natural language processing. This paper describes work with a machine-readable version of "Dorland's Illustrated Medical Dictionary". First the characteristics of the dictionary are briefly described, and then the complex process of converting the tape to an online interactive dictionary is discussed. The results of several experiments in automatically deriving information from the online dictionary are presented, and the paper ends with a discussion of the use of the online dictionary as a tool in the development of a natural language processing system designed for the biomedical domain.

  11. Curriculum Guide for "ESL/Farm Equipment Operator." A Vocational Approach for Teaching "English-as-a-Second Language".

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cully, Bud; And Others

    This curriculum guide contains materials necessary to implement the vocational English as a Second Language (ESL) program for Farm Equipment Operators developed by the Ceres Unified School District. The flrst two sections provide the plans and accompanying forms for needs assessment and recruitment/intake/enrollment. In the third section a…

  12. Internal combustion engine for natural gas compressor operation

    DOEpatents

    Hagen, Christopher L.; Babbitt, Guy; Turner, Christopher; Echter, Nick; Weyer-Geigel, Kristina

    2016-04-19

    This application concerns systems and methods for compressing natural gas with an internal combustion engine. In a representative embodiment, a system for compressing a gas comprises a reciprocating internal combustion engine including at least one piston-cylinder assembly comprising a piston configured to travel in a cylinder and to compress gas in the cylinder in multiple compression stages. The system can further comprise a first pressure tank in fluid communication with the piston-cylinder assembly to receive compressed gas from the piston-cylinder assembly until the first pressure tank reaches a predetermined pressure, and a second pressure tank in fluid communication with the piston-cylinder assembly and the first pressure tank. The second pressure tank can be configured to receive compressed gas from the piston-cylinder assembly until the second pressure tank reaches a predetermined pressure. When the first and second pressure tanks have reached the predetermined pressures, the first pressure tank can be configured to supply gas to the piston-cylinder assembly, and the piston can be configured to compress the gas supplied by the first pressure tank such that the compressed gas flows into the second pressure tank.

  13. Perinatal Outcomes and Unconventional Natural Gas Operations in Southwest Pennsylvania

    PubMed Central

    Stacy, Shaina L.; Brink, LuAnn L.; Larkin, Jacob C.; Sadovsky, Yoel; Goldstein, Bernard D.; Pitt, Bruce R.; Talbott, Evelyn O.

    2015-01-01

    Unconventional gas drilling (UGD) has enabled extraordinarily rapid growth in the extraction of natural gas. Despite frequently expressed public concern, human health studies have not kept pace. We investigated the association of proximity to UGD in the Marcellus Shale formation and perinatal outcomes in a retrospective cohort study of 15,451 live births in Southwest Pennsylvania from 2007–2010. Mothers were categorized into exposure quartiles based on inverse distance weighted (IDW) well count; least exposed mothers (first quartile) had an IDW well count less than 0.87 wells per mile, while the most exposed (fourth quartile) had 6.00 wells or greater per mile. Multivariate linear (birth weight) or logistical (small for gestational age (SGA) and prematurity) regression analyses, accounting for differences in maternal and child risk factors, were performed. There was no significant association of proximity and density of UGD with prematurity. Comparison of the most to least exposed, however, revealed lower birth weight (3323 ± 558 vs 3344 ± 544 g) and a higher incidence of SGA (6.5 vs 4.8%, respectively; odds ratio: 1.34; 95% confidence interval: 1.10–1.63). While the clinical significance of the differences in birth weight among the exposure groups is unclear, the present findings further emphasize the need for larger studies, in regio-specific fashion, with more precise characterization of exposure over an extended period of time to evaluate the potential public health significance of UGD. PMID:26039051

  14. Perinatal outcomes and unconventional natural gas operations in Southwest Pennsylvania.

    PubMed

    Stacy, Shaina L; Brink, LuAnn L; Larkin, Jacob C; Sadovsky, Yoel; Goldstein, Bernard D; Pitt, Bruce R; Talbott, Evelyn O

    2015-01-01

    Unconventional gas drilling (UGD) has enabled extraordinarily rapid growth in the extraction of natural gas. Despite frequently expressed public concern, human health studies have not kept pace. We investigated the association of proximity to UGD in the Marcellus Shale formation and perinatal outcomes in a retrospective cohort study of 15,451 live births in Southwest Pennsylvania from 2007-2010. Mothers were categorized into exposure quartiles based on inverse distance weighted (IDW) well count; least exposed mothers (first quartile) had an IDW well count less than 0.87 wells per mile, while the most exposed (fourth quartile) had 6.00 wells or greater per mile. Multivariate linear (birth weight) or logistical (small for gestational age (SGA) and prematurity) regression analyses, accounting for differences in maternal and child risk factors, were performed. There was no significant association of proximity and density of UGD with prematurity. Comparison of the most to least exposed, however, revealed lower birth weight (3323 ± 558 vs 3344 ± 544 g) and a higher incidence of SGA (6.5 vs 4.8%, respectively; odds ratio: 1.34; 95% confidence interval: 1.10-1.63). While the clinical significance of the differences in birth weight among the exposure groups is unclear, the present findings further emphasize the need for larger studies, in regio-specific fashion, with more precise characterization of exposure over an extended period of time to evaluate the potential public health significance of UGD. PMID:26039051

  15. Perinatal outcomes and unconventional natural gas operations in Southwest Pennsylvania.

    PubMed

    Stacy, Shaina L; Brink, LuAnn L; Larkin, Jacob C; Sadovsky, Yoel; Goldstein, Bernard D; Pitt, Bruce R; Talbott, Evelyn O

    2015-01-01

    Unconventional gas drilling (UGD) has enabled extraordinarily rapid growth in the extraction of natural gas. Despite frequently expressed public concern, human health studies have not kept pace. We investigated the association of proximity to UGD in the Marcellus Shale formation and perinatal outcomes in a retrospective cohort study of 15,451 live births in Southwest Pennsylvania from 2007-2010. Mothers were categorized into exposure quartiles based on inverse distance weighted (IDW) well count; least exposed mothers (first quartile) had an IDW well count less than 0.87 wells per mile, while the most exposed (fourth quartile) had 6.00 wells or greater per mile. Multivariate linear (birth weight) or logistical (small for gestational age (SGA) and prematurity) regression analyses, accounting for differences in maternal and child risk factors, were performed. There was no significant association of proximity and density of UGD with prematurity. Comparison of the most to least exposed, however, revealed lower birth weight (3323 ± 558 vs 3344 ± 544 g) and a higher incidence of SGA (6.5 vs 4.8%, respectively; odds ratio: 1.34; 95% confidence interval: 1.10-1.63). While the clinical significance of the differences in birth weight among the exposure groups is unclear, the present findings further emphasize the need for larger studies, in regio-specific fashion, with more precise characterization of exposure over an extended period of time to evaluate the potential public health significance of UGD.

  16. ON THE NATURE OF FORCES OPERATING IN BLOOD CLOTTING

    PubMed Central

    Mommaerts, W. F. H. M.

    1945-01-01

    The results of the study of the inhibiting effect of neutral salts upon the clotting tendency of fibrinogen by thrombin may be summarised as follows: Salts like NaCl and KCl inhibit only weakly. Salts of the same cation (K•) with monovalent anions of different ionic radius are the more active the larger the anion (Cl',Br',I'). Salts of the same cation with anions of different valency are the more active the higher the charge of the anion (1–1 <1–2 <1–3 <1–4). Salts with the same anion with cations of different valency show stronger inhibition in the case of cations of higher charge (K•,Na• < Mg••, Ca••, Sr••, Ba••). Salts with the same anion and cations of the same charge, but of different radius, are the more active the larger the cation (but with an inversion between Mg•• and Ca•• in the series of the alkali earths, which is not infrequent in biocolloids). These results show that the clotting of fibrinogen with thrombin is, at least partly, caused by a coacervation process, due to electrostatic attraction between positive and negative groups. Its nature and localisation will be dealt with in the next paper of this series. PMID:19873443

  17. Combination of artificial intelligence and procedural language programs in a computer application system supporting nuclear reactor operations

    SciTech Connect

    Town, G.G.; Stratton, R.C.

    1985-01-01

    A computer application system is described which provides nuclear reactor power plant operators with an improved decision support system. This system combines traditional computer applications such as graphics display with artificial intelligence methodologies such as reasoning and diagnosis so as to improve plant operability. This paper discusses the issues, and a solution, involved with the system integration of applications developed using traditional and artificial intelligence languages.

  18. The Usual and the Unusual: Solving Remote Associates Test Tasks Using Simple Statistical Natural Language Processing Based on Language Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klein, Ariel; Badia, Toni

    2015-01-01

    In this study we show how complex creative relations can arise from fairly frequent semantic relations observed in everyday language. By doing this, we reflect on some key cognitive aspects of linguistic and general creativity. In our experimentation, we automated the process of solving a battery of Remote Associates Test tasks. By applying…

  19. Deficits in language-mediated mental operations in patients with schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Wexler, Bruce E; Donegan, Nelson; Stevens, Alexander A; Jacob, Sharif A

    2002-01-15

    We found previously that a subgroup of schizophrenic patients who passed screening tests of attentional competence showed memory deficits on word memory tasks, but were comparable with controls on tone memory tasks. To better understand the nature of language-specific memory deficits in this subgroup of patients, the present experiment was designed to bypass early perceptual processing of verbal material and determine if patients continue to show impaired performance on verbal memory tasks. Patients who passed the screening tests ('discriminator' patients; DSz) received four serial position tasks. In two, familiar sounds or line drawings were presented and subjects were required to remember the word associated with each stimulus item. In the other two, subjects received hard-to-label auditory and visual stimuli (birdsongs or snowflakes).DSz patients showed large memory deficits compared with controls when required to remember words associated with the familiar sounds or drawings, providing clear evidence of deficits in verbal memory processes independent of sensory processing of verbal stimuli. The interaction between diagnosis and labeling was highly significant, confirming that these patients have particular difficulty with verbal as opposed to non-verbal memory. This was particularly striking on the auditory tests where two patients out-performed all controls on the birdsong test, but were below all controls on the easy-to-label sounds test. The verbal memory tests were easier than the non-verbal memory tests for controls, thus deconfounding task difficulty and deficit specificity.

  20. Deficits in language-mediated mental operations in patients with schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Wexler, Bruce E; Donegan, Nelson; Stevens, Alexander A; Jacob, Sharif A

    2002-01-15

    We found previously that a subgroup of schizophrenic patients who passed screening tests of attentional competence showed memory deficits on word memory tasks, but were comparable with controls on tone memory tasks. To better understand the nature of language-specific memory deficits in this subgroup of patients, the present experiment was designed to bypass early perceptual processing of verbal material and determine if patients continue to show impaired performance on verbal memory tasks. Patients who passed the screening tests ('discriminator' patients; DSz) received four serial position tasks. In two, familiar sounds or line drawings were presented and subjects were required to remember the word associated with each stimulus item. In the other two, subjects received hard-to-label auditory and visual stimuli (birdsongs or snowflakes).DSz patients showed large memory deficits compared with controls when required to remember words associated with the familiar sounds or drawings, providing clear evidence of deficits in verbal memory processes independent of sensory processing of verbal stimuli. The interaction between diagnosis and labeling was highly significant, confirming that these patients have particular difficulty with verbal as opposed to non-verbal memory. This was particularly striking on the auditory tests where two patients out-performed all controls on the birdsong test, but were below all controls on the easy-to-label sounds test. The verbal memory tests were easier than the non-verbal memory tests for controls, thus deconfounding task difficulty and deficit specificity. PMID:11738530

  1. A Scheme For Assessing The Nature Of A Young Child's Language Competence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McFetridge, Patricia A.

    1974-01-01

    Article considered recent research in language conducted by a teacher educator from St. Lucia, West Indies. Her specific focus was on the methods devised for collection and analysis of language samples. (Author/RK)

  2. Genes, language, and the nature of scientific explanations: the case of Williams syndrome.

    PubMed

    Musolino, Julien; Landau, Barbara

    2012-01-01

    In this article, we discuss two experiments of nature and their implications for the sciences of the mind. The first, Williams syndrome, bears on one of cognitive science's holy grails: the possibility of unravelling the causal chain between genes and cognition. We sketch the outline of a general framework to study the relationship between genes and cognition, focusing as our case study on the development of language in individuals with Williams syndrome. Our approach emphasizes the role of three key ingredients: the need to specify a clear level of analysis, the need to provide a theoretical account of the relevant cognitive structure at that level, and the importance of the (typical) developmental process itself. The promise offered by the case of Williams syndrome has also given rise to two strongly conflicting theoretical approaches-modularity and neuroconstructivism-themselves offshoots of a perennial debate between nativism and empiricism. We apply our framework to explore the tension created by these two conflicting perspectives. To this end, we discuss a second experiment of nature, which allows us to compare the two competing perspectives in what comes close to a controlled experimental setting. From this comparison, we conclude that the "meaningful debate assumption", a widespread assumption suggesting that neuroconstructivism and modularity address the same questions and represent genuine theoretical alternatives, rests on a fallacy.

  3. Natural language processing pipelines to annotate BioC collections with an application to the NCBI disease corpus.

    PubMed

    Comeau, Donald C; Liu, Haibin; Islamaj Doğan, Rezarta; Wilbur, W John

    2014-01-01

    BioC is a new format and associated code libraries for sharing text and annotations. We have implemented BioC natural language preprocessing pipelines in two popular programming languages: C++ and Java. The current implementations interface with the well-known MedPost and Stanford natural language processing tool sets. The pipeline functionality includes sentence segmentation, tokenization, part-of-speech tagging, lemmatization and sentence parsing. These pipelines can be easily integrated along with other BioC programs into any BioC compliant text mining systems. As an application, we converted the NCBI disease corpus to BioC format, and the pipelines have successfully run on this corpus to demonstrate their functionality. Code and data can be downloaded from http://bioc.sourceforge.net. Database URL: http://bioc.sourceforge.net. PMID:24935050

  4. Communicating for Climate Change Adaptation: Lessons from a Case Study with Nature-Based Tour Operators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Timm, K.; Sparrow, E. B.; Pettit, E. C.; Trainor, S. F.; Taylor, K.

    2014-12-01

    Increasing temperatures are projected to have a positive effect on the length of Alaska's tourism season, but the natural attractions that tourism relies on, such as glaciers, wildlife, fish, or other natural resources, may change. In order to continue to derive benefits from these resources, nature-based tour operators may have to adapt to these changes, and communication is an essential, but poorly understood, component of the climate change adaptation process. The goal of this study was to determine how to provide useful climate change information to nature-based tour operators by answering the following questions: 1. What environmental changes do nature-based tour operators perceive? 2. How are nature-based tour operators responding to climate and environmental change? 3. What climate change information do nature-based tour operators need? To answer these questions, twenty-four nature-based tour operators representing 20 different small and medium sized businesses in Juneau, Alaska were interviewed. The results show that many of Juneau's nature-based tour operators are observing, responding to, and in some cases, actively planning for further changes in the environment. The types of responses tended to vary depending on the participants' certainty in climate change and the perceived risks to their organization. Using these two factors, this study proposes a framework to classify climate change responses for the purpose of generating meaningful information and communication processes that promote adaptation and build adaptive capacity. During the course of the study, several other valuable lessons were learned about communicating about adaptation. The results of this study demonstrate that science communication research has an important place in the practice of promoting and fostering climate change adaptation. While the focus of this study was tour operators, the lessons learned may be valuable to other organizations striving to engage unique groups in climate

  5. Statistical Learning in a Natural Language by 8-Month-Old Infants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pelucchi, Bruna; Hay, Jessica F.; Saffran, Jenny R.

    2009-01-01

    Numerous studies over the past decade support the claim that infants are equipped with powerful statistical language learning mechanisms. The primary evidence for statistical language learning in word segmentation comes from studies using artificial languages, continuous streams of synthesized syllables that are highly simplified relative to real…

  6. A Feasibility Study of the Case Hierarchy Model for the Construction and Porting of Natural Language Interfaces.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haas, Stephanie W.

    1990-01-01

    Describes the Case Hierarchy, a model of the case system of unconstrained natural language, and ways in which the case system is specialized in a restricted domain. Results of a feasibility study which examined the utility of the Case Hierarchy and the Case Hierarchy Tool (an intelligent editor supporting the domain analysis process) are…

  7. An Examination of Natural Language as a Query Formation Tool for Retrieving Information on E-Health from Pub Med.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Gabriel M.; Su, Kuichun; Ries, James E.; Sievert, Mary Ellen C.

    2002-01-01

    Discussion of Internet use for information searches on health-related topics focuses on a study that examined complexity and variability of natural language in using search terms that express the concept of electronic health (e-health). Highlights include precision of retrieved information; shift in terminology; and queries using the Pub Med…

  8. Does It Really Matter whether Students' Contributions Are Spoken versus Typed in an Intelligent Tutoring System with Natural Language?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    D'Mello, Sidney K.; Dowell, Nia; Graesser, Arthur

    2011-01-01

    There is the question of whether learning differs when students speak versus type their responses when interacting with intelligent tutoring systems with natural language dialogues. Theoretical bases exist for three contrasting hypotheses. The "speech facilitation" hypothesis predicts that spoken input will "increase" learning, whereas the "text…

  9. Evaluation of Automated Natural Language Processing in the Further Development of Science Information Retrieval. String Program Reports No. 10.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sager, Naomi

    This investigation matches the emerging techniques in computerized natural language processing against emerging needs for such techniques in the information field to evaluate and extend such techniques for future applications and to establish a basis and direction for further research toward these goals. An overview describes developments in the…

  10. Recent Advances in Clinical Natural Language Processing in Support of Semantic Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Mowery, D.; South, B. R.; Kvist, M.; Dalianis, H.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Objectives We present a review of recent advances in clinical Natural Language Processing (NLP), with a focus on semantic analysis and key subtasks that support such analysis. Methods We conducted a literature review of clinical NLP research from 2008 to 2014, emphasizing recent publications (2012-2014), based on PubMed and ACL proceedings as well as relevant referenced publications from the included papers. Results Significant articles published within this time-span were included and are discussed from the perspective of semantic analysis. Three key clinical NLP subtasks that enable such analysis were identified: 1) developing more efficient methods for corpus creation (annotation and de-identification), 2) generating building blocks for extracting meaning (morphological, syntactic, and semantic subtasks), and 3) leveraging NLP for clinical utility (NLP applications and infrastructure for clinical use cases). Finally, we provide a reflection upon most recent developments and potential areas of future NLP development and applications. Conclusions There has been an increase of advances within key NLP subtasks that support semantic analysis. Performance of NLP semantic analysis is, in many cases, close to that of agreement between humans. The creation and release of corpora annotated with complex semantic information models has greatly supported the development of new tools and approaches. Research on non-English languages is continuously growing. NLP methods have sometimes been successfully employed in real-world clinical tasks. However, there is still a gap between the development of advanced resources and their utilization in clinical settings. A plethora of new clinical use cases are emerging due to established health care initiatives and additional patient-generated sources through the extensive use of social media and other devices. PMID:26293867

  11. How could language have evolved?

    PubMed

    Bolhuis, Johan J; Tattersall, Ian; Chomsky, Noam; Berwick, Robert C

    2014-08-01

    The evolution of the faculty of language largely remains an enigma. In this essay, we ask why. Language's evolutionary analysis is complicated because it has no equivalent in any nonhuman species. There is also no consensus regarding the essential nature of the language "phenotype." According to the "Strong Minimalist Thesis," the key distinguishing feature of language (and what evolutionary theory must explain) is hierarchical syntactic structure. The faculty of language is likely to have emerged quite recently in evolutionary terms, some 70,000-100,000 years ago, and does not seem to have undergone modification since then, though individual languages do of course change over time, operating within this basic framework. The recent emergence of language and its stability are both consistent with the Strong Minimalist Thesis, which has at its core a single repeatable operation that takes exactly two syntactic elements a and b and assembles them to form the set {a, b}.

  12. Individual Needs (Part I of "Language Learning: Individual Needs, Interdisciplinary Co-operation, Bi- and Multilingualism").

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1978

    The following papers on meeting individual needs in second language instruction are included: (1) "Sprachenlernen: Beduerfnisse des Individuums in verschiedenen Leben- und Lernsituationen (Language Learning: Individual Needs in Various Life and Learning Situations)," by Eugen Egger; (2) "Peut-on accorder les besoins de l'etudiant et ceux de son…

  13. Surmounting the Tower of Babel: Monolingual and bilingual 2-year-olds' understanding of the nature of foreign language words.

    PubMed

    Byers-Heinlein, Krista; Chen, Ke Heng; Xu, Fei

    2014-03-01

    Languages function as independent and distinct conventional systems, and so each language uses different words to label the same objects. This study investigated whether 2-year-old children recognize that speakers of their native language and speakers of a foreign language do not share the same knowledge. Two groups of children unfamiliar with Mandarin were tested: monolingual English-learning children (n=24) and bilingual children learning English and another language (n=24). An English speaker taught children the novel label fep. On English mutual exclusivity trials, the speaker asked for the referent of a novel label (wug) in the presence of the fep and a novel object. Both monolingual and bilingual children disambiguated the reference of the novel word using a mutual exclusivity strategy, choosing the novel object rather than the fep. On similar trials with a Mandarin speaker, children were asked to find the referent of a novel Mandarin label kuò. Monolinguals again chose the novel object rather than the object with the English label fep, even though the Mandarin speaker had no access to conventional English words. Bilinguals did not respond systematically to the Mandarin speaker, suggesting that they had enhanced understanding of the Mandarin speaker's ignorance of English words. The results indicate that monolingual children initially expect words to be conventionally shared across all speakers-native and foreign. Early bilingual experience facilitates children's discovery of the nature of foreign language words.

  14. Voice-enabled Knowledge Engine using Flood Ontology and Natural Language Processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sermet, M. Y.; Demir, I.; Krajewski, W. F.

    2015-12-01

    The Iowa Flood Information System (IFIS) is a web-based platform developed by the Iowa Flood Center (IFC) to provide access to flood inundation maps, real-time flood conditions, flood forecasts, flood-related data, information and interactive visualizations for communities in Iowa. The IFIS is designed for use by general public, often people with no domain knowledge and limited general science background. To improve effective communication with such audience, we have introduced a voice-enabled knowledge engine on flood related issues in IFIS. Instead of navigating within many features and interfaces of the information system and web-based sources, the system provides dynamic computations based on a collection of built-in data, analysis, and methods. The IFIS Knowledge Engine connects to real-time stream gauges, in-house data sources, analysis and visualization tools to answer natural language questions. Our goal is the systematization of data and modeling results on flood related issues in Iowa, and to provide an interface for definitive answers to factual queries. The goal of the knowledge engine is to make all flood related knowledge in Iowa easily accessible to everyone, and support voice-enabled natural language input. We aim to integrate and curate all flood related data, implement analytical and visualization tools, and make it possible to compute answers from questions. The IFIS explicitly implements analytical methods and models, as algorithms, and curates all flood related data and resources so that all these resources are computable. The IFIS Knowledge Engine computes the answer by deriving it from its computational knowledge base. The knowledge engine processes the statement, access data warehouse, run complex database queries on the server-side and return outputs in various formats. This presentation provides an overview of IFIS Knowledge Engine, its unique information interface and functionality as an educational tool, and discusses the future plans

  15. Toward a Theory-Based Natural Language Capability in Robots and Other Embodied Agents: Evaluating Hausser's SLIM Theory and Database Semantics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burk, Robin K.

    2010-01-01

    Computational natural language understanding and generation have been a goal of artificial intelligence since McCarthy, Minsky, Rochester and Shannon first proposed to spend the summer of 1956 studying this and related problems. Although statistical approaches dominate current natural language applications, two current research trends bring…

  16. Improving performance of natural language processing part-of-speech tagging on clinical narratives through domain adaptation

    PubMed Central

    Ferraro, Jeffrey P; Daumé, Hal; DuVall, Scott L; Chapman, Wendy W; Harkema, Henk; Haug, Peter J

    2013-01-01

    Objective Natural language processing (NLP) tasks are commonly decomposed into subtasks, chained together to form processing pipelines. The residual error produced in these subtasks propagates, adversely affecting the end objectives. Limited availability of annotated clinical data remains a barrier to reaching state-of-the-art operating characteristics using statistically based NLP tools in the clinical domain. Here we explore the unique linguistic constructions of clinical texts and demonstrate the loss in operating characteristics when out-of-the-box part-of-speech (POS) tagging tools are applied to the clinical domain. We test a domain adaptation approach integrating a novel lexical-generation probability rule used in a transformation-based learner to boost POS performance on clinical narratives. Methods Two target corpora from independent healthcare institutions were constructed from high frequency clinical narratives. Four leading POS taggers with their out-of-the-box models trained from general English and biomedical abstracts were evaluated against these clinical corpora. A high performing domain adaptation method, Easy Adapt, was compared to our newly proposed method ClinAdapt. Results The evaluated POS taggers drop in accuracy by 8.5–15% when tested on clinical narratives. The highest performing tagger reports an accuracy of 88.6%. Domain adaptation with Easy Adapt reports accuracies of 88.3–91.0% on clinical texts. ClinAdapt reports 93.2–93.9%. Conclusions ClinAdapt successfully boosts POS tagging performance through domain adaptation requiring a modest amount of annotated clinical data. Improving the performance of critical NLP subtasks is expected to reduce pipeline error propagation leading to better overall results on complex processing tasks. PMID:23486109

  17. TECHNOLOGIES TO ENHANCE OPERATION OF THE EXISTING NATURAL GAS COMPRESSION INFRASTRUCTURE

    SciTech Connect

    Anthony J. Smalley; Ralph E. Harris; Gary D. Bourn

    2003-10-01

    This report documents work performed in the fourth quarter of the project entitled: ''Technologies to Enhance Operation of the Existing Natural Gas Compression Infrastructure''. The project objective is to develop and substantiate methods for operating integral engine/compressors in gas pipeline service, which reduce fuel consumption, increase capacity, and enhance mechanical integrity. The report describes the following work: second field test; test data analysis for the first field test; operational optimization plans.

  18. Operating experience with the natural bridges national monument photovoltaic power system

    SciTech Connect

    Solman, F. J.; Grossman, B. L.

    1981-01-01

    The 100-kW photovoltaic power system at Natural Bridges National Monument in southwestern Utah has been in operation since May 1980. A comparison of system simulation with actual operation has been performed, good agreement has been found, and results are presented. In addition, conservation measures and their benefits are described. Operating experience with the system is presented, including measured component performance of the arrays, batteries, inverters, and system overhead loads.

  19. TECHNOLOGIES TO ENHANCE OPERATION OF THE EXISTING NATURAL GAS COMPRESSION INFRASTRUCTURE

    SciTech Connect

    Anthony J. Smalley; Ralph E. Harris; Gary D. Bourn

    2004-03-01

    This report documents work performed in Phase I of the project entitled: ''Technologies to Enhance Operation of the Existing Natural Gas Compression Infrastructure''. The project objective is to develop and substantiate methods for operating integral engine/compressors in gas pipeline service, which reduce fuel consumption, increase capacity, and enhance mechanical integrity. The report describes a number of potential enhancements to the existing natural gas compression infrastructure that have been identified and qualitatively demonstrated in tests on three different integral engine/compressors in natural gas transmission service.

  20. TECHNOLOGIES TO ENHANCE OPERATION OF THE EXISTING NATURAL GAS COMPRESSION INFRASTRUCTURE

    SciTech Connect

    Anthony J. Smalley; Ralph E. Harris; Gary D. Bourn

    2004-08-01

    This report documents work performed in Phase I of the project entitled: ''Technologies to Enhance Operation of the Existing Natural Gas Compression Infracture''. The project objective is to develop and substantiate methods for operating integral engine/compressors in gas pipeline service, which reduce fuel consumption, increase capacity, and enhance mechanical integrity. The report describes a number of potential enhancements to the existing natural gas compression infrastructure that have been identified and tested on four different integral engine/compressors in natural gas transmission service.

  1. Searching for Cancer Information on the Internet: Analyzing Natural Language Search Queries

    PubMed Central

    Theofanos, Mary Frances

    2003-01-01

    .7%), Skin (11.3%), and Genitourinary (10.5%). Additional subcategories of queries about specific cancer types varied, depending on user input. Queries that were not specific to a cancer type were also tracked and categorized. Conclusions Natural-language searching affords users the opportunity to fully express their information needs and can aid users naïve to the content and vocabulary. The specific queries analyzed for this study reflect news and research studies reported during the study dates and would surely change with different study dates. Analyzing queries from search engines represents one way of knowing what kinds of content to provide to users of a given Web site. Users ask questions using whole sentences and keywords, often misspelling words. Providing the option for natural-language searching does not obviate the need for good information architecture, usability engineering, and user testing in order to optimize user experience. PMID:14713659

  2. Adapting Semantic Natural Language Processing Technology to Address Information Overload in Influenza Epidemic Management

    PubMed Central

    Keselman, Alla; Rosemblat, Graciela; Kilicoglu, Halil; Fiszman, Marcelo; Jin, Honglan; Shin, Dongwook; Rindflesch, Thomas C.

    2013-01-01

    Explosion of disaster health information results in information overload among response professionals. The objective of this project was to determine the feasibility of applying semantic natural language processing (NLP) technology to addressing this overload. The project characterizes concepts and relationships commonly used in disaster health-related documents on influenza pandemics, as the basis for adapting an existing semantic summarizer to the domain. Methods include human review and semantic NLP analysis of a set of relevant documents. This is followed by a pilot-test in which two information specialists use the adapted application for a realistic information seeking task. According to the results, the ontology of influenza epidemics management can be described via a manageable number of semantic relationships that involve concepts from a limited number of semantic types. Test users demonstrate several ways to engage with the application to obtain useful information. This suggests that existing semantic NLP algorithms can be adapted to support information summarization and visualization in influenza epidemics and other disaster health areas. However, additional research is needed in the areas of terminology development (as many relevant relationships and terms are not part of existing standardized vocabularies), NLP, and user interface design. PMID:24311971

  3. Natural Language Processing As an Alternative to Manual Reporting of Colonoscopy Quality Metrics

    PubMed Central

    RAJU, GOTTUMUKKALA S.; LUM, PHILLIP J.; SLACK, REBECCA; THIRUMURTHI, SELVI; LYNCH, PATRICK M.; MILLER, ETHAN; WESTON, BRIAN R.; DAVILA, MARTA L.; BHUTANI, MANOOP S.; SHAFI, MEHNAZ A.; BRESALIER, ROBERT S.; DEKOVICH, ALEXANDER A.; LEE, JEFFREY H.; GUHA, SUSHOVAN; PANDE, MALA; BLECHACZ, BORIS; RASHID, ASIF; ROUTBORT, MARK; SHUTTLESWORTH, GLADIS; MISHRA, LOPA; STROEHLEIN, JOHN R.; ROSS, WILLIAM A.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND & AIMS The adenoma detection rate (ADR) is a quality metric tied to interval colon cancer occurrence. However, manual extraction of data to calculate and track the ADR in clinical practice is labor-intensive. To overcome this difficulty, we developed a natural language processing (NLP) method to identify patients, who underwent their first screening colonoscopy, identify adenomas and sessile serrated adenomas (SSA). We compared the NLP generated results with that of manual data extraction to test the accuracy of NLP, and report on colonoscopy quality metrics using NLP. METHODS Identification of screening colonoscopies using NLP was compared with that using the manual method for 12,748 patients who underwent colonoscopies from July 2010 to February 2013. Also, identification of adenomas and SSAs using NLP was compared with that using the manual method with 2259 matched patient records. Colonoscopy ADRs using these methods were generated for each physician. RESULTS NLP correctly identified 91.3% of the screening examinations, whereas the manual method identified 87.8% of them. Both the manual method and NLP correctly identified examinations of patients with adenomas and SSAs in the matched records almost perfectly. Both NLP and manual method produce comparable values for ADR for each endoscopist as well as the group as a whole. CONCLUSIONS NLP can correctly identify screening colonoscopies, accurately identify adenomas and SSAs in a pathology database, and provide real-time quality metrics for colonoscopy. PMID:25910665

  4. Semi-supervised learning of statistical models for natural language understanding.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Deyu; He, Yulan

    2014-01-01

    Natural language understanding is to specify a computational model that maps sentences to their semantic mean representation. In this paper, we propose a novel framework to train the statistical models without using expensive fully annotated data. In particular, the input of our framework is a set of sentences labeled with abstract semantic annotations. These annotations encode the underlying embedded semantic structural relations without explicit word/semantic tag alignment. The proposed framework can automatically induce derivation rules that map sentences to their semantic meaning representations. The learning framework is applied on two statistical models, the conditional random fields (CRFs) and the hidden Markov support vector machines (HM-SVMs). Our experimental results on the DARPA communicator data show that both CRFs and HM-SVMs outperform the baseline approach, previously proposed hidden vector state (HVS) model which is also trained on abstract semantic annotations. In addition, the proposed framework shows superior performance than two other baseline approaches, a hybrid framework combining HVS and HM-SVMs and discriminative training of HVS, with a relative error reduction rate of about 25% and 15% being achieved in F-measure.

  5. Identifying Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm Cases and Controls using Natural Language Processing of Radiology Reports.

    PubMed

    Sohn, Sunghwan; Ye, Zi; Liu, Hongfang; Chute, Christopher G; Kullo, Iftikhar J

    2013-01-01

    Prevalence of abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) is increasing due to longer life expectancy and implementation of screening programs. Patient-specific longitudinal measurements of AAA are important to understand pathophysiology of disease development and modifiers of abdominal aortic size. In this paper, we applied natural language processing (NLP) techniques to process radiology reports and developed a rule-based algorithm to identify AAA patients and also extract the corresponding aneurysm size with the examination date. AAA patient cohorts were determined by a hierarchical approach that: 1) selected potential AAA reports using keywords; 2) classified reports into AAA-case vs. non-case using rules; and 3) determined the AAA patient cohort based on a report-level classification. Our system was built in an Unstructured Information Management Architecture framework that allows efficient use of existing NLP components. Our system produced an F-score of 0.961 for AAA-case report classification with an accuracy of 0.984 for aneurysm size extraction. PMID:24303276

  6. Automated extraction of BI-RADS final assessment categories from radiology reports with natural language processing.

    PubMed

    Sippo, Dorothy A; Warden, Graham I; Andriole, Katherine P; Lacson, Ronilda; Ikuta, Ichiro; Birdwell, Robyn L; Khorasani, Ramin

    2013-10-01

    The objective of this study is to evaluate a natural language processing (NLP) algorithm that determines American College of Radiology Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System (BI-RADS) final assessment categories from radiology reports. This HIPAA-compliant study was granted institutional review board approval with waiver of informed consent. This cross-sectional study involved 1,165 breast imaging reports in the electronic medical record (EMR) from a tertiary care academic breast imaging center from 2009. Reports included screening mammography, diagnostic mammography, breast ultrasound, combined diagnostic mammography and breast ultrasound, and breast magnetic resonance imaging studies. Over 220 reports were included from each study type. The recall (sensitivity) and precision (positive predictive value) of a NLP algorithm to collect BI-RADS final assessment categories stated in the report final text was evaluated against a manual human review standard reference. For all breast imaging reports, the NLP algorithm demonstrated a recall of 100.0 % (95 % confidence interval (CI), 99.7, 100.0 %) and a precision of 96.6 % (95 % CI, 95.4, 97.5 %) for correct identification of BI-RADS final assessment categories. The NLP algorithm demonstrated high recall and precision for extraction of BI-RADS final assessment categories from the free text of breast imaging reports. NLP may provide an accurate, scalable data extraction mechanism from reports within EMRs to create databases to track breast imaging performance measures and facilitate optimal breast cancer population management strategies. PMID:23868515

  7. Methodological Issues in Predicting Pediatric Epilepsy Surgery Candidates Through Natural Language Processing and Machine Learning

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Kevin Bretonnel; Glass, Benjamin; Greiner, Hansel M.; Holland-Bouley, Katherine; Standridge, Shannon; Arya, Ravindra; Faist, Robert; Morita, Diego; Mangano, Francesco; Connolly, Brian; Glauser, Tracy; Pestian, John

    2016-01-01

    Objective: We describe the development and evaluation of a system that uses machine learning and natural language processing techniques to identify potential candidates for surgical intervention for drug-resistant pediatric epilepsy. The data are comprised of free-text clinical notes extracted from the electronic health record (EHR). Both known clinical outcomes from the EHR and manual chart annotations provide gold standards for the patient’s status. The following hypotheses are then tested: 1) machine learning methods can identify epilepsy surgery candidates as well as physicians do and 2) machine learning methods can identify candidates earlier than physicians do. These hypotheses are tested by systematically evaluating the effects of the data source, amount of training data, class balance, classification algorithm, and feature set on classifier performance. The results support both hypotheses, with F-measures ranging from 0.71 to 0.82. The feature set, classification algorithm, amount of training data, class balance, and gold standard all significantly affected classification performance. It was further observed that classification performance was better than the highest agreement between two annotators, even at one year before documented surgery referral. The results demonstrate that such machine learning methods can contribute to predicting pediatric epilepsy surgery candidates and reducing lag time to surgery referral. PMID:27257386

  8. Bringing Chatbots into education: Towards Natural Language Negotiation of Open Learner Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kerlyl, Alice; Hall, Phil; Bull, Susan

    There is an extensive body of work on Intelligent Tutoring Systems: computer environments for education, teaching and training that adapt to the needs of the individual learner. Work on personalisation and adaptivity has included research into allowing the student user to enhance the system's adaptivity by improving the accuracy of the underlying learner model. Open Learner Modelling, where the system's model of the user's knowledge is revealed to the user, has been proposed to support student reflection on their learning. Increased accuracy of the learner model can be obtained by the student and system jointly negotiating the learner model. We present the initial investigations into a system to allow people to negotiate the model of their understanding of a topic in natural language. This paper discusses the development and capabilities of both conversational agents (or chatbots) and Intelligent Tutoring Systems, in particular Open Learner Modelling. We describe a Wizard-of-Oz experiment to investigate the feasibility of using a chatbot to support negotiation, and conclude that a fusion of the two fields can lead to developing negotiation techniques for chatbots and the enhancement of the Open Learner Model. This technology, if successful, could have widespread application in schools, universities and other training scenarios.

  9. Extraction of CYP chemical interactions from biomedical literature using natural language processing methods.

    PubMed

    Jiao, Dazhi; Wild, David J

    2009-02-01

    This paper proposes a system that automatically extracts CYP protein and chemical interactions from journal article abstracts, using natural language processing (NLP) and text mining methods. In our system, we employ a maximum entropy based learning method, using results from syntactic, semantic, and lexical analysis of texts. We first present our system architecture and then discuss the data set for training our machine learning based models and the methods in building components in our system, such as part of speech (POS) tagging, Named Entity Recognition (NER), dependency parsing, and relation extraction. An evaluation of the system is conducted at the end, yielding very promising results: The POS, dependency parsing, and NER components in our system have achieved a very high level of accuracy as measured by precision, ranging from 85.9% to 98.5%, and the precision and the recall of the interaction extraction component are 76.0% and 82.6%, and for the overall system are 68.4% and 72.2%, respectively.

  10. Model-Based Systems Engineering With the Architecture Analysis and Design Language (AADL) Applied to NASA Mission Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Munoz Fernandez, Michela Miche

    2014-01-01

    The potential of Model Model Systems Engineering (MBSE) using the Architecture Analysis and Design Language (AADL) applied to space systems will be described. AADL modeling is applicable to real-time embedded systems- the types of systems NASA builds. A case study with the Juno mission to Jupiter showcases how this work would enable future missions to benefit from using these models throughout their life cycle from design to flight operations.

  11. Natural Language as a Tool for Analyzing the Proving Process: The Case of Plane Geometry Proof

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robotti, Elisabetta

    2012-01-01

    In the field of human cognition, language plays a special role that is connected directly to thinking and mental development (e.g., Vygotsky, "1938"). Thanks to "verbal thought", language allows humans to go beyond the limits of immediately perceived information, to form concepts and solve complex problems (Luria, "1975"). So, it appears language…

  12. Application of a rules-based natural language parser to critical value reporting in anatomic pathology.

    PubMed

    Owens, Scott R; Balis, Ulysses G J; Lucas, David R; Myers, Jeffrey L

    2012-03-01

    Critical values in anatomic pathology are rare occurrences and difficult to define with precision. Nevertheless, accrediting institutions require effective and timely communication of all critical values generated by clinical and anatomic laboratories. Provisional gating criteria for potentially critical anatomic diagnoses have been proposed, with some success in their implementation reported in the literature. Ensuring effective communication is challenging, however, making the case for programmatic implementation of a turnkey-style integrated information technology solution. To address this need, we developed a generically deployable laboratory information system-based tool, using a tiered natural language processing predicate calculus inference engine to identify qualifying cases that meet criteria for critical diagnoses but lack an indication in the electronic medical record for an appropriate clinical discussion with the ordering physician of record. Using this tool, we identified an initial cohort of 13,790 cases over a 49-month period, which were further explored by reviewing the available electronic medical record for each patient. Of these cases, 35 (0.3%) were judged to require intervention in the form of direct communication between the attending pathologist and the clinical physician of record. In 8 of the 35 cases, this intervention resulted in the conveyance of new information to the requesting physician and/or a change in the patient's clinical plan. The very low percentage of such cases (0.058%) illustrates their rarity in daily practice, making it unlikely that manual identification/notification approaches alone can reliably manage them. The automated turnkey system was useful in avoiding missed handoffs of significant, clinically actionable diagnoses.

  13. A Natural Language Processing Tool for Large-Scale Data Extraction from Echocardiography Reports

    PubMed Central

    Jonnalagadda, Siddhartha R.

    2016-01-01

    Large volumes of data are continuously generated from clinical notes and diagnostic studies catalogued in electronic health records (EHRs). Echocardiography is one of the most commonly ordered diagnostic tests in cardiology. This study sought to explore the feasibility and reliability of using natural language processing (NLP) for large-scale and targeted extraction of multiple data elements from echocardiography reports. An NLP tool, EchoInfer, was developed to automatically extract data pertaining to cardiovascular structure and function from heterogeneously formatted echocardiographic data sources. EchoInfer was applied to echocardiography reports (2004 to 2013) available from 3 different on-going clinical research projects. EchoInfer analyzed 15,116 echocardiography reports from 1684 patients, and extracted 59 quantitative and 21 qualitative data elements per report. EchoInfer achieved a precision of 94.06%, a recall of 92.21%, and an F1-score of 93.12% across all 80 data elements in 50 reports. Physician review of 400 reports demonstrated that EchoInfer achieved a recall of 92–99.9% and a precision of >97% in four data elements, including three quantitative and one qualitative data element. Failure of EchoInfer to correctly identify or reject reported parameters was primarily related to non-standardized reporting of echocardiography data. EchoInfer provides a powerful and reliable NLP-based approach for the large-scale, targeted extraction of information from heterogeneous data sources. The use of EchoInfer may have implications for the clinical management and research analysis of patients undergoing echocardiographic evaluation. PMID:27124000

  14. Measuring information acquisition from sensory input using automated scoring of natural-language descriptions.

    PubMed

    Saunders, Daniel R; Bex, Peter J; Rose, Dylan J; Woods, Russell L

    2014-01-01

    Information acquisition, the gathering and interpretation of sensory information, is a basic function of mobile organisms. We describe a new method for measuring this ability in humans, using free-recall responses to sensory stimuli which are scored objectively using a "wisdom of crowds" approach. As an example, we demonstrate this metric using perception of video stimuli. Immediately after viewing a 30 s video clip, subjects responded to a prompt to give a short description of the clip in natural language. These responses were scored automatically by comparison to a dataset of responses to the same clip by normally-sighted viewers (the crowd). In this case, the normative dataset consisted of responses to 200 clips by 60 subjects who were stratified by age (range 22 to 85 y) and viewed the clips in the lab, for 2,400 responses, and by 99 crowdsourced participants (age range 20 to 66 y) who viewed clips in their Web browser, for 4,000 responses. We compared different algorithms for computing these similarities and found that a simple count of the words in common had the best performance. It correctly matched 75% of the lab-sourced and 95% of crowdsourced responses to their corresponding clips. We validated the measure by showing that when the amount of information in the clip was degraded using defocus lenses, the shared word score decreased across the five predetermined visual-acuity levels, demonstrating a dose-response effect (N = 15). This approach, of scoring open-ended immediate free recall of the stimulus, is applicable not only to video, but also to other situations where a measure of the information that is successfully acquired is desirable. Information acquired will be affected by stimulus quality, sensory ability, and cognitive processes, so our metric can be used to assess each of these components when the others are controlled.

  15. A Natural Language Processing Tool for Large-Scale Data Extraction from Echocardiography Reports.

    PubMed

    Nath, Chinmoy; Albaghdadi, Mazen S; Jonnalagadda, Siddhartha R

    2016-01-01

    Large volumes of data are continuously generated from clinical notes and diagnostic studies catalogued in electronic health records (EHRs). Echocardiography is one of the most commonly ordered diagnostic tests in cardiology. This study sought to explore the feasibility and reliability of using natural language processing (NLP) for large-scale and targeted extraction of multiple data elements from echocardiography reports. An NLP tool, EchoInfer, was developed to automatically extract data pertaining to cardiovascular structure and function from heterogeneously formatted echocardiographic data sources. EchoInfer was applied to echocardiography reports (2004 to 2013) available from 3 different on-going clinical research projects. EchoInfer analyzed 15,116 echocardiography reports from 1684 patients, and extracted 59 quantitative and 21 qualitative data elements per report. EchoInfer achieved a precision of 94.06%, a recall of 92.21%, and an F1-score of 93.12% across all 80 data elements in 50 reports. Physician review of 400 reports demonstrated that EchoInfer achieved a recall of 92-99.9% and a precision of >97% in four data elements, including three quantitative and one qualitative data element. Failure of EchoInfer to correctly identify or reject reported parameters was primarily related to non-standardized reporting of echocardiography data. EchoInfer provides a powerful and reliable NLP-based approach for the large-scale, targeted extraction of information from heterogeneous data sources. The use of EchoInfer may have implications for the clinical management and research analysis of patients undergoing echocardiographic evaluation. PMID:27124000

  16. Identifying Repetitive Institutional Review Board Stipulations by Natural Language Processing and Network Analysis.

    PubMed

    Kury, Fabrício S P; Cimino, James J

    2015-01-01

    The corrections ("stipulations") to a proposed research study protocol produced by an institutional review board (IRB) can often be repetitive across many studies; however, there is no standard set of stipulations that could be used, for example, by researchers wishing to anticipate and correct problems in their research proposals prior to submitting to an IRB. The objective of the research was to computationally identify the most repetitive types of stipulations generated in the course of IRB deliberations. The text of each stipulation was normalized using the natural language processing techniques. An undirected weighted network was constructed in which each stipulation was represented by a node, and each link, if present, had weight corresponding to the TF-IDF Cosine Similarity of the stipulations. Network analysis software was then used to identify clusters in the network representing similar stipulations. The final results were correlated with additional data to produce further insights about the IRB workflow. From a corpus of 18,582 stipulations we identified 31 types of repetitive stipulations. Those types accounted for 3,870 stipulations (20.8% of the corpus) produced for 697 (88.7%) of all protocols in 392 (also 88.7%) of all the CNS IRB meetings with stipulations entered in our data source. A notable peroportion of the corrections produced by the IRB can be considered highly repetitive. Our shareable method relied on a minimal manual analysis and provides an intuitive exploration with theoretically unbounded granularity. Finer granularity allowed for the insight that is anticipated to prevent the need for identifying the IRB panel expertise or any human supervision.

  17. Acquisition and use of mental operators: the influence of natural order of events.

    PubMed

    Müller, Burkhard; Gehrke, Jürgen

    2004-01-01

    The present article reports two experiments investigating the influence of natural order of events on the acquisition and use of knowledge about operations, in short mental operators. The principle of use specificity states that task performance depends directly on the similarity between acquisition context and the present situation. In contrast, the principle of natural order proposes that knowledge about operations can always be applied easier (faster) if reasoning follows the natural order of events. In Experiment 1, participants had to apply alphabet-arithmetic operators and LISP functions in a prognosis task (A + 2 = ?) or a retrognosis task (? - 2 = A). In alphabet-arithmetic, an advantage for the first kind of task at the beginning of training decreased with increasing practice. In LISP, however, a preference for this task (corresponding with a prospective knowledge use) emerged with increasing practice. In Experiment 2, arithmetic relations between digit pairs had to be induced. In a causal context condition, relations were described as input and output of electric circuits, in a neutral context the relations were described as arithmetic dependencies. A preference for the prognosis task was found for the causal context condition (corresponding with a prospective knowledge use) but not for the neutral one. The findings suggest that the natural order of events moderates the acquisition and use of mental operators. Further research is required to clarify the bases for this moderation. PMID:14959504

  18. CHARGE Image Generator: Theory of Operation and Author Language Support. Technical Report 75-3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gunwaldsen, Roger L.

    The image generator function and author language software support for the CHARGE (Color Halftone Area Graphics Environment) Interactive Graphics System are described. Designed initially for use in computer-assisted instruction (CAI) systems, the CHARGE Interactive Graphics System can provide graphic displays for various applications including…

  19. "Operating on a Basis of Student Consent": Peter Medway's Work in "Finding a Language"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burgess, Tony

    2015-01-01

    Written nearly 40 years ago, Peter Medway's "Finding a Language" continues to be an arresting read, which offers a powerful vision of what might be possible in education. In this brief introduction, I set the work in context, referring to ideas that Pete engaged with and recalling a little of the times.

  20. The Complex Nature of Bilinguals' Language Usage Modulates Task-Switching Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Hwajin; Hartanto, Andree; Yang, Sujin

    2016-01-01

    In view of inconsistent findings regarding bilingual advantages in executive functions (EF), we reviewed the literature to determine whether bilinguals' different language usage causes measureable changes in the shifting aspects of EF. By drawing on the theoretical framework of the adaptive control hypothesis—which postulates a critical link between bilinguals' varying demands on language control and adaptive cognitive control (Green and Abutalebi, 2013), we examined three factors that characterize bilinguals' language-switching experience: (a) the interactional context of conversational exchanges, (b) frequency of language switching, and (c) typology of code-switching. We also examined whether methodological variations in previous task-switching studies modulate task-specific demands on control processing and lead to inconsistencies in the literature. Our review demonstrates that not only methodological rigor but also a more finely grained, theory-based approach will be required to understand the cognitive consequences of bilinguals' varied linguistic practices in shifting EF. PMID:27199800

  1. The Complex Nature of Bilinguals' Language Usage Modulates Task-Switching Outcomes.

    PubMed

    Yang, Hwajin; Hartanto, Andree; Yang, Sujin

    2016-01-01

    In view of inconsistent findings regarding bilingual advantages in executive functions (EF), we reviewed the literature to determine whether bilinguals' different language usage causes measureable changes in the shifting aspects of EF. By drawing on the theoretical framework of the adaptive control hypothesis-which postulates a critical link between bilinguals' varying demands on language control and adaptive cognitive control (Green and Abutalebi, 2013), we examined three factors that characterize bilinguals' language-switching experience: (a) the interactional context of conversational exchanges, (b) frequency of language switching, and (c) typology of code-switching. We also examined whether methodological variations in previous task-switching studies modulate task-specific demands on control processing and lead to inconsistencies in the literature. Our review demonstrates that not only methodological rigor but also a more finely grained, theory-based approach will be required to understand the cognitive consequences of bilinguals' varied linguistic practices in shifting EF. PMID:27199800

  2. The Languages of Communication. A Logical and Psychological Examination.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gordon, George N.

    Two methods of analysis, logical and psychological (or, loosely, aesthetic and functional) are used to investigate the many kinds of languages man uses to communicate, the ways in which these languages operate, and the reasons for communication failures. Based on a discussion of the nature of symbols, since most languages of communication draw…

  3. Investigating the Nature of "Interest" Reported by a Group of Postgraduate Students in an MA in English Language Teacher Education Programme

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tin, Tan Bee

    2006-01-01

    "Interest" is a widely used term not only in language education but also in our everyday life. However, very little attempt has been made to investigate the nature of "interest" in language teaching and learning. This paper, using a definition of interest proposed in the field of educational psychology, reports on the findings of a study conducted…

  4. The complex of neural networks and probabilistic methods for mathematical modeling of the syntactic structure of a sentence of natural language

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sboev, A.; Rybka, R.; Moloshnikov, I.; Gudovskikh, D.

    2016-02-01

    The formalized model to construct the syntactic structure of sentences of a natural language is presented. On base of this model the complex algorithm with use of neural networks founded on data of Russian National language Corpus and set of parameters extracted from this data was developed. The resulted accuracy along with possible accuracy which theoretically could be received with these parameters is presented.

  5. Computing Accurate Grammatical Feedback in a Virtual Writing Conference for German-Speaking Elementary-School Children: An Approach Based on Natural Language Generation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harbusch, Karin; Itsova, Gergana; Koch, Ulrich; Kuhner, Christine

    2009-01-01

    We built a natural language processing (NLP) system implementing a "virtual writing conference" for elementary-school children, with German as the target language. Currently, state-of-the-art computer support for writing tasks is restricted to multiple-choice questions or quizzes because automatic parsing of the often ambiguous and fragmentary…

  6. 29 CFR 784.119 - Effect of natural factors on named operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... of animal or vegetable life as well as “the going to and returning from work” are materially... packing of such marine products at sea as an incident to, or in conjunction with, such fishing operations... products when performed at sea are also subject to the natural forces....

  7. 75 FR 27340 - Energy Efficiency of Natural Gas Infrastructure and Operations Conference; Supplemental Notice of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-14

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Energy Efficiency of Natural Gas Infrastructure and Operations Conference; Supplemental Notice of Public Conference May 3, 2010. As announced in the ``Notice of Public Conference'' issued on March 31, 2010, a...

  8. Some insights in novel risk modeling of liquefied natural gas carrier maintenance operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nwaoha, T. C.; John, Andrew

    2016-06-01

    This study discusses the analysis of various modeling approaches and maintenance techniques applicable to the Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) carrier operations in the maritime environment. Various novel modeling techniques are discussed; including genetic algorithms, fuzzy logic and evidential reasoning. We also identify the usefulness of these algorithms in the LNG carrier industry in the areas of risk assessment and maintenance modeling.

  9. PHENOGO: ASSIGNING PHENOTYPIC CONTEXT TO GENE ONTOLOGY ANNOTATIONS WITH NATURAL LANGUAGE PROCESSING

    PubMed Central

    LUSSIER, YVES; BORLAWSKY, TARA; RAPPAPORT, DANIEL; LIU, YANG; FRIEDMAN, CAROL

    2010-01-01

    Natural language processing (NLP) is a high throughput technology because it can process vast quantities of text within a reasonable time period. It has the potential to substantially facilitate biomedical research by extracting, linking, and organizing massive amounts of information that occur in biomedical journal articles as well as in textual fields of biological databases. Until recently, much of the work in biological NLP and text mining has revolved around recognizing the occurrence of biomolecular entities in articles, and in extracting particular relationships among the entities. Now, researchers have recognized a need to link the extracted information to ontologies or knowledge bases, which is a more difficult task. One such knowledge base is Gene Ontology annotations (GOA), which significantly increases semantic computations over the function, cellular components and processes of genes. For multicellular organisms, these annotations can be refined with phenotypic context, such as the cell type, tissue, and organ because establishing phenotypic contexts in which a gene is expressed is a crucial step for understanding the development and the molecular underpinning of the pathophysiology of diseases. In this paper, we propose a system, PhenoGO, which automatically augments annotations in GOA with additional context. PhenoGO utilizes an existing NLP system, called BioMedLEE, an existing knowledge-based phenotype organizer system (PhenOS) in conjunction with MeSH indexing and established biomedical ontologies. More specifically, PhenoGO adds phenotypic contextual information to existing associations between gene products and GO terms as specified in GOA. The system also maps the context to identifiers that are associated with different biomedical ontologies, including the UMLS, Cell Ontology, Mouse Anatomy, NCBI taxonomy, GO, and Mammalian Phenotype Ontology. In addition, PhenoGO was evaluated for coding of anatomical and cellular information and assigning

  10. Highly active cobalt phosphate and borate based oxygen evolving catalysts operating in neutral and natural waters

    SciTech Connect

    Esswein, AJ; Surendranath, Y; Reece, SY; Nocera, DG

    2011-02-01

    A high surface area electrode is functionalized with cobalt-based oxygen evolving catalysts (Co-OEC = electrodeposited from pH 7 phosphate, Pi, pH 8.5 methylphosphonate, MePi, and pH 9.2 borate electrolyte, Bi). Co-OEC prepared from MePi and operated in Pi and Bi achieves a current density of 100 mA cm(-2) for water oxidation at 442 and 363 mV overpotential, respectively. The catalyst retains activity in near-neutral pH buffered electrolyte in natural waters such as those from the Charles River (Cambridge, MA) and seawater (Woods Hole, MA). The efficacy and ease of operation of anodes functionalized with Co-OEC at appreciable current density together with its ability to operate in near neutral pH buffered natural water sources bodes well for the translation of this catalyst to a viable renewable energy storage technology.

  11. Natural Language Search Interfaces: Health Data Needs Single-Field Variable Search

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Sam; Sufi, Shoaib; Goble, Carole; Buchan, Iain

    2016-01-01

    significantly faster using the Web search interface (F 1,19=18.0, P<.001). There was also a main effect of task (F 2,38=4.1, P=.025, Greenhouse-Geisser correction applied). Overall, participants were asked to rate learnability, ease of use, and satisfaction. Paired mean comparisons showed that the Web search interface received significantly higher ratings than the traditional search interface for learnability (P=.002, 95% CI [0.6-2.4]), ease of use (P<.001, 95% CI [1.2-3.2]), and satisfaction (P<.001, 95% CI [1.8-3.5]). The results show superior cross-domain usability of Web search, which is consistent with its general familiarity and with enabling queries to be refined as the search proceeds, which treats serendipity as part of the refinement. Conclusions The results provide clear evidence that data science should adopt single-field natural language search interfaces for variable search supporting in particular: query reformulation; data browsing; faceted search; surrogates; relevance feedback; summarization, analytics, and visual presentation. PMID:26769334

  12. Zipf's word frequency law in natural language: a critical review and future directions.

    PubMed

    Piantadosi, Steven T

    2014-10-01

    The frequency distribution of words has been a key object of study in statistical linguistics for the past 70 years. This distribution approximately follows a simple mathematical form known as Zipf's law. This article first shows that human language has a highly complex, reliable structure in the frequency distribution over and above this classic law, although prior data visualization methods have obscured this fact. A number of empirical phenomena related to word frequencies are then reviewed. These facts are chosen to be informative about the mechanisms giving rise to Zipf's law and are then used to evaluate many of the theoretical explanations of Zipf's law in language. No prior account straightforwardly explains all the basic facts or is supported with independent evaluation of its underlying assumptions. To make progress at understanding why language obeys Zipf's law, studies must seek evidence beyond the law itself, testing assumptions and evaluating novel predictions with new, independent data.

  13. In silico Evolutionary Developmental Neurobiology and the Origin of Natural Language

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szathmáry, Eörs; Szathmáry, Zoltán; Ittzés, Péter; Orbaán, Geroő; Zachár, István; Huszár, Ferenc; Fedor, Anna; Varga, Máté; Számadó, Szabolcs

    It is justified to assume that part of our genetic endowment contributes to our language skills, yet it is impossible to tell at this moment exactly how genes affect the language faculty. We complement experimental biological studies by an in silico approach in that we simulate the evolution of neuronal networks under selection for language-related skills. At the heart of this project is the Evolutionary Neurogenetic Algorithm (ENGA) that is deliberately biomimetic. The design of the system was inspired by important biological phenomena such as brain ontogenesis, neuron morphologies, and indirect genetic encoding. Neuronal networks were selected and were allowed to reproduce as a function of their performance in the given task. The selected neuronal networks in all scenarios were able to solve the communication problem they had to face. The most striking feature of the model is that it works with highly indirect genetic encoding--just as brains do.

  14. Enhanced safety by means of clear information on hazards and operational disturbances by a plain language communication device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muench, W.; Gebhardt, H. E.

    1984-03-01

    A plain language communication device is presented. It offers a means of automatic paging of events reported electrically by any number of monitoring stations by providing comprehensive and clear information on events to persons directly concerned with operation procedures. It consists of a sound-tape cassette with the spoken message to be put through. Duration and content of the message are freely selectable. The spoken text can be selected via a logic allocation system, called off and then be paged over any distance at any number of outstations (e.g., loudspeaker or telephone). In case of power breakdowns the device is capable of bridging critical situations by spoken information using a buffer storage battery. Test results in underground operations are successful.

  15. Identifying emerging smart grid impacts to upstream and midstream natural gas operations.

    SciTech Connect

    McIntyre, Annie

    2010-09-01

    The Smart Grid has come to describe a next-generation electrical power system that is typified by the increased use of communications and information technology in the generation, delivery and consumption of electrical energy. Much of the present Smart Grid analysis focuses on utility and consumer interaction. i.e. smart appliances, home automation systems, rate structures, consumer demand response, etc. An identified need is to assess the upstream and midstream operations of natural gas as a result of the smart grid. The nature of Smart Grid, including the demand response and role of information, may require changes in upstream and midstream natural gas operations to ensure availability and efficiency. Utility reliance on natural gas will continue and likely increase, given the backup requirements for intermittent renewable energy sources. Efficient generation and delivery of electricity on Smart Grid could affect how natural gas is utilized. Things that we already know about Smart Grid are: (1) The role of information and data integrity is increasingly important. (2) Smart Grid includes a fully distributed system with two-way communication. (3) Smart Grid, a complex network, may change the way energy is supplied, stored, and in demand. (4) Smart Grid has evolved through consumer driven decisions. (5) Smart Grid and the US critical infrastructure will include many intermittent renewables.

  16. Medieval and Modern Views of Universal Grammar and the Nature of Second Language Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Margaret

    1995-01-01

    Examines the relationship between ideas of universal grammar (UG) and second language (L2) teaching and learning in medieval Europe in the context of the 20th-century debate about the role of UG in L2 acquisition. The roles of generative linguistics on UG and L2 instruction and learning in the 20th century are discussed. (65 references) (MDM)

  17. Nature, Nurture, and Age in Language Acquisition: The Case of Speech Perception.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wode, Henning

    1994-01-01

    This paper reviews the research on speech perception and reassesses the contribution of innate capacities versus external stimulation in conjunction with age in first- and second-language acquisition. A developmental model of speech perception is then discussed in relation to neonatal auditory perception. (Contains 86 references.) (MDM)

  18. The Sentence Fairy: A Natural-Language Generation System to Support Children's Essay Writing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harbusch, Karin; Itsova, Gergana; Koch, Ulrich; Kuhner, Christine

    2008-01-01

    We built an NLP system implementing a "virtual writing conference" for elementary-school children, with German as the target language. Currently, state-of-the-art computer support for writing tasks is restricted to multiple-choice questions or quizzes because automatic parsing of the often ambiguous and fragmentary texts produced by pupils…

  19. School Meaning Systems: The Symbiotic Nature of Culture and "Language-In-Use"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abawi, Lindy

    2013-01-01

    Recent research has produced evidence to suggest a strong reciprocal link between school context-specific language constructions that reflect a school's vision and schoolwide pedagogy, and the way that meaning making occurs, and a school's culture is characterized. This research was conducted within three diverse settings: one school in…

  20. The Effectiveness of Stemming for Natural-Language Access to Slovene Textual Data.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Popovic, Mirko; Willett, Peter

    1992-01-01

    Reports on the use of stemming for Slovene language documents and queries in free-text retrieval systems and demonstrates that an appropriate stemming algorithm results in an increase in retrieval effectiveness when compared with nonstemming processing. A comparison is made with stemming of English versions of the same documents and queries. (24…

  1. The Ability of Children with Language Impairment to Dissemble Emotions in Hypothetical Scenarios and Natural Situations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brinton, Bonnie; Fujiki, Martin; Hurst, Noel Quist; Jones, Emily Rowberry; Spackman, Matthew P.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: This study examined the ability of children with language impairment (LI) to dissemble (hide) emotional reactions when socially appropriate to do so. Method: Twenty-two children with LI and their typically developing peers (7;1-10;11 [years;months]) participated in two tasks. First, participants were presented with hypothetical scenarios…

  2. TECHNOLOGIES TO ENHANCE OPERATION OF THE EXISTING NATURAL GAS COMPRESSION INFRASTRUCTURE

    SciTech Connect

    Anthony J. Smalley; Ralph E. Harris; Gary D. Bourn

    2004-07-01

    This quarterly report documents work performed in Phase I of the project entitled: ''Technologies to Enhance Operation of the Existing Natural Gas Compression Infrastructure''. The project objective is to develop and substantiate methods for operating integral engine/compressors in gas pipeline service, which reduce fuel consumption, increase capacity, and enhance mechanical integrity. The report documents the second series of tests performed on a turbocharged HBA-6T engine/compressor. It also presents baseline testing for air balance investigations and initial simulation modeling of the air manifold for a Cooper GMVH6.

  3. TECHNOLOGIES TO ENHANCE OPERATION OF THE EXISTING NATURAL GAS COMPRESSION INFRASTRUCTURE

    SciTech Connect

    Anthony J. Smalley

    2003-04-01

    This report documents work performed in the second quarter of the project entitled: ''Technologies to Enhance Operation of the Existing Natural Gas Compression Infrastructure''. The project objective is to develop and substantiate methods for operating integral engine/compressors in gas pipeline service, which reduce fuel consumption, increase capacity, and enhance mechanical integrity. The report describes the following work: preparation and submission of the Technology Status Assessment; formation of the Industry Advisory Committee (IAC) for the project; attendance at the first IAC meeting; preparation of the Test Plan; completion of the data acquisition system (DAS); plans for the first field test.

  4. TECHNOLOGIES TO ENHANCE OPERATION OF THE EXISTING NATURAL GAS COMPRESSION INFRASTRUCTURE

    SciTech Connect

    Anthony J. Smalley; Ralph E. Harris

    2003-01-01

    This report documents work performed in the first quarter of the project entitled: ''Technologies to Enhance Operation of the Existing Natural Gas Compression Infrastructure''. The project objective is to develop and substantiate methods for operating integral engine/compressors in gas pipeline service, which reduce fuel consumption, increase capacity, and enhance mechanical integrity. The report describes the following work: preparation and submission of the Research Management Plan; preparation and submission of the Technology Status Assessment; attendance at the Project Kick-Off meeting at DOE-NETL; formation of the Industry Advisory Committee (IAC) for the project; preparation of the Test Plan; acquisition and assembly of the data acquisition system (DAS).

  5. TECHNOLOGIES TO ENHANCE OPERATION OF THE EXISTING NATURAL GAS COMPRESSION INFRASTRUCTURE

    SciTech Connect

    Anthony J. Smalley; Ralph E. Harris; Gary D. Bourn

    2004-10-01

    This quarterly report documents work performed under Tasks 10 through 14 of the project entitled: Technologies to Enhance Operation of the Existing Natural Gas Compression Infrastructure. The project objective is to develop and substantiate methods for operating integral engine/compressors in gas pipeline service, which reduce fuel consumption, increase capacity, and enhance mechanical integrity. The report documents the second series of tests performed on a GMW10 engine/compressor after modifications to add high pressure Fuel and a Turbocharger. It also presents baseline testing for air balance investigations and initial simulation modeling of the air manifold for a Cooper GMVH6.

  6. Automatically Detecting Failures in Natural Language Processing Tools for Online Community Text

    PubMed Central

    Hartzler, Andrea L; Huh, Jina; McDonald, David W; Pratt, Wanda

    2015-01-01

    Background The prevalence and value of patient-generated health text are increasing, but processing such text remains problematic. Although existing biomedical natural language processing (NLP) tools are appealing, most were developed to process clinician- or researcher-generated text, such as clinical notes or journal articles. In addition to being constructed for different types of text, other challenges of using existing NLP include constantly changing technologies, source vocabularies, and characteristics of text. These continuously evolving challenges warrant the need for applying low-cost systematic assessment. However, the primarily accepted evaluation method in NLP, manual annotation, requires tremendous effort and time. Objective The primary objective of this study is to explore an alternative approach—using low-cost, automated methods to detect failures (eg, incorrect boundaries, missed terms, mismapped concepts) when processing patient-generated text with existing biomedical NLP tools. We first characterize common failures that NLP tools can make in processing online community text. We then demonstrate the feasibility of our automated approach in detecting these common failures using one of the most popular biomedical NLP tools, MetaMap. Methods Using 9657 posts from an online cancer community, we explored our automated failure detection approach in two steps: (1) to characterize the failure types, we first manually reviewed MetaMap’s commonly occurring failures, grouped the inaccurate mappings into failure types, and then identified causes of the failures through iterative rounds of manual review using open coding, and (2) to automatically detect these failure types, we then explored combinations of existing NLP techniques and dictionary-based matching for each failure cause. Finally, we manually evaluated the automatically detected failures. Results From our manual review, we characterized three types of failure: (1) boundary failures, (2) missed

  7. Crowdsourcing a Normative Natural Language Dataset: A Comparison of Amazon Mechanical Turk and In-Lab Data Collection

    PubMed Central

    Bex, Peter J; Woods, Russell L

    2013-01-01

    Background Crowdsourcing has become a valuable method for collecting medical research data. This approach, recruiting through open calls on the Web, is particularly useful for assembling large normative datasets. However, it is not known how natural language datasets collected over the Web differ from those collected under controlled laboratory conditions. Objective To compare the natural language responses obtained from a crowdsourced sample of participants with responses collected in a conventional laboratory setting from participants recruited according to specific age and gender criteria. Methods We collected natural language descriptions of 200 half-minute movie clips, from Amazon Mechanical Turk workers (crowdsourced) and 60 participants recruited from the community (lab-sourced). Crowdsourced participants responded to as many clips as they wanted and typed their responses, whereas lab-sourced participants gave spoken responses to 40 clips, and their responses were transcribed. The content of the responses was evaluated using a take-one-out procedure, which compared responses to other responses to the same clip and to other clips, with a comparison of the average number of shared words. Results In contrast to the 13 months of recruiting that was required to collect normative data from 60 lab-sourced participants (with specific demographic characteristics), only 34 days were needed to collect normative data from 99 crowdsourced participants (contributing a median of 22 responses). The majority of crowdsourced workers were female, and the median age was 35 years, lower than the lab-sourced median of 62 years but similar to the median age of the US population. The responses contributed by the crowdsourced participants were longer on average, that is, 33 words compared to 28 words (P<.001), and they used a less varied vocabulary. However, there was strong similarity in the words used to describe a particular clip between the two datasets, as a cross-dataset count

  8. Natural star-products on symplectic manifolds and related quantum mechanical operators

    SciTech Connect

    Błaszak, Maciej Domański, Ziemowit

    2014-05-15

    In this paper is considered a problem of defining natural star-products on symplectic manifolds, admissible for quantization of classical Hamiltonian systems. First, a construction of a star-product on a cotangent bundle to an Euclidean configuration space is given with the use of a sequence of pair-wise commuting vector fields. The connection with a covariant representation of such a star-product is also presented. Then, an extension of the construction to symplectic manifolds over flat and non-flat pseudo-Riemannian configuration spaces is discussed. Finally, a coordinate free construction of related quantum mechanical operators from Hilbert space over respective configuration space is presented. -- Highlights: •Invariant representations of natural star-products on symplectic manifolds are considered. •Star-products induced by flat and non-flat connections are investigated. •Operator representations in Hilbert space of considered star-algebras are constructed.

  9. Defining a role for the subthalamic nucleus within operative theoretical models of subcortical participation in language

    PubMed Central

    Whelan, B; Murdoch, B; Theodoros, D; Hall, B; Silburn, P

    2003-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the effects of bilateral, surgically induced functional inhibition of the subthalamic nucleus (STN) on general language, high level linguistic abilities, and semantic processing skills in a group of patients with Parkinson's disease. Methods:Comprehensive linguistic profiles were obtained up to one month before and three months after bilateral implantation of electrodes in the STN during active deep brain stimulation (DBS) in five subjects with Parkinson's disease (mean age, 63.2 years). Equivalent linguistic profiles were generated over a three month period for a non-surgical control cohort of 16 subjects with Parkinson's disease (NSPD) (mean age, 64.4 years). Education and disease duration were similar in the two groups. Initial assessment and three month follow up performance profiles were compared within subjects by paired t tests. Reliability change indices (RCI), representing clinically significant alterations in performance over time, were calculated for each of the assessment scores achieved by the five STN-DBS cases and the 16 NSPD controls, relative to performance variability within a group of 16 non-neurologically impaired adults (mean age, 61.9 years). Proportions of reliable change were then compared between the STN-DBS and NSPD groups. Results:Paired comparisons within the STN-DBS group showed prolonged postoperative semantic processing reaction times for a range of word types coded for meanings and meaning relatedness. Case by case analyses of reliable change across language assessments and groups revealed differences in proportions of change over time within the STN-DBS and NSPD groups in the domains of high level linguistics and semantic processing. Specifically, when compared with the NSPD group, the STN-DBS group showed a proportionally significant (p<0.05) reliable improvement in postoperative scores achieved on the word test-revised (TWT-R), as well as a reliable decline (p<0.01) in the accuracy of lexical decisions

  10. A natural language query system for Hubble Space Telescope proposal selection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hornick, Thomas; Cohen, William; Miller, Glenn

    1987-01-01

    The proposal selection process for the Hubble Space Telescope is assisted by a robust and easy to use query program (TACOS). The system parses an English subset language sentence regardless of the order of the keyword phases, allowing the user a greater flexibility than a standard command query language. Capabilities for macro and procedure definition are also integrated. The system was designed for flexibility in both use and maintenance. In addition, TACOS can be applied to any knowledge domain that can be expressed in terms of a single reaction. The system was implemented mostly in Common LISP. The TACOS design is described in detail, with particular attention given to the implementation methods of sentence processing.

  11. FMS: A Format Manipulation System for Automatic Production of Natural Language Documents, Second Edition. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silver, Steven S.

    FMS/3 is a system for producing hard copy documentation at high speed from free format text and command input. The system was originally written in assembler language for a 12K IBM 360 model 20 using a high speed 1403 printer with the UCS-TN chain option (upper and lower case). Input was from an IBM 2560 Multi-function Card Machine. The model 20…

  12. Emissions from a vehicle fitted to operate on either petrol or compressed natural gas.

    PubMed

    Ristovski, Z; Morawska, L; Ayoko, G A; Johnson, G; Gilbert, D; Greenaway, C

    2004-05-01

    The purpose of this work was to evaluate the physical and chemical properties of emission products from a six-cylinder sedan car under a variety of operating conditions, before and after it has been converted to compressed natural gas (CNG) fuel. The specific focus of the measurements was on emission levels and characteristics of ultra fine particles and the emission levels together with the emissions of gaseous pollutants for a range of operating conditions before and up to 3 months after the vehicle was converted are presented and discussed in the paper. The investigations showed that converting a petrol operating vehicle to CNG has the potential of reducing some of the emissions and thus risks, while it does not appear to have an impact on others. In particular there was no statistically significant change in the emission of particles for the vehicle operating on petrol, before the conversion, compared to the emissions for the vehicle operating on CNG, after the conversion. There was a significant lowering of emissions of total polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and formaldehyde when the vehicle was operated on CNG, and a reduction of global warming potential was also observed when the vehicle was run on CNG, but the later gain is only at high vehicle speeds/loads, and would thus have to be considered in view of traffic and transport models for the region (in these models vehicle speed is an important parameter).

  13. Zipf’s word frequency law in natural language: A critical review and future directions

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    The frequency distribution of words has been a key object of study in statistical linguistics for the past 70 years. This distribution approximately follows a simple mathematical form known as Zipf ’ s law. This article first shows that human language has a highly complex, reliable structure in the frequency distribution over and above this classic law, although prior data visualization methods have obscured this fact. A number of empirical phenomena related to word frequencies are then reviewed. These facts are chosen to be informative about the mechanisms giving rise to Zipf’s law and are then used to evaluate many of the theoretical explanations of Zipf’s law in language. No prior account straightforwardly explains all the basic facts or is supported with independent evaluation of its underlying assumptions. To make progress at understanding why language obeys Zipf’s law, studies must seek evidence beyond the law itself, testing assumptions and evaluating novel predictions with new, independent data. PMID:24664880

  14. Extraction of modal parameters from an operating HAWT using the Natural Excitation Technique (NExT)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    James, G. H.

    The Natural Excitation Technique (NExT) is used to extract modal parameters (natural frequencies, modal damping, and mode shapes) from an operating Horizontal Axis Wind Turbine (HAWT). NExT uses the measured response from the turbine excited by the assumed broad-band, random wind input even though the excitation cannot be directly measured. The damping, measured using NExT, generally increased in the system as the wind speed increased. Such information can be used to aid in the verification and upgrade of codes which predict structural response of operating HAWT's and aid our understanding of the dynamics of wind turbines. The Northern Power Systems 100-kW machine is addressed. Strain data is available from this machine while operating at 72 rpm in 10, 15, 20, 25, and 30 mph winds. The operational modal frequencies and mode shapes were measured for this machine. Reconstructions of the auto and cross spectra are used to verify the validity of the extracted parameters. The modal damping for two modes are presented for this range of wind speeds.

  15. An evaluation of compressed natural gas buses in small transit operations

    SciTech Connect

    Wool, W.; Jackson, M.D.; Bassett, T.

    1996-09-01

    The importance of reducing NO{sub x} emissions in many urban areas has led to the development of compressed natural gas (CNG) engines for transit bus applications. These lower emission vehicles have led potential operators to question the applicability of this new technology in service. To address the concerns of transit operators, especially those with small systems, Yolo County Transit Authority (YCTA) put into service four CNG-powered BIA-Orion V buses with Cummins L10G engines. Performance data were collected for these four vehicles and four control diesel buses over an 18-month period. The results demonstrated that CNG vehicles can be successfully incorporated into small operator fleets and can perform as well as or better than their diesel counterparts.

  16. What Is a Programming Language?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wold, Allen L.

    1983-01-01

    The nature of programing languages is discussed, focusing on machine/assembly language and high-level languages. The latter includes systems (such as "Basic") in which an entire set of low-level instructions (in assembly/machine language) are combined. Also discusses the nature of other languages such as "Lisp" and list-processing languages. (JN)

  17. Research in knowledge representation for natural language communication and planning assistance. Final report, 18 March 1985-30 September 1988

    SciTech Connect

    Goodman, B.A.; Grosz, B.; Haas, A.; Litman, D.; Reinhardt, T.

    1988-11-01

    BBN's DARPA project in Knowledge Representation for Natural Language Communication and Planning Assistance has two primary objectives: 1) To perform research on aspects of the interaction between users who are making complex decisions and systems that are assisting them with their task. In particular, this research is focused on communication and the reasoning required for performing its underlying task of discourse processing, planning, and plan recognition and communication repair. 2) Based on the research objectives to build tools for communication, plan recognition, and planning assistance and for the representation of knowledge and reasoning that underlie all of these processes. This final report summarizes BBN's research activities performed under this contract in the areas of knowledge representation and speech and natural language. In particular, the report discusses the work in the areas of knowledge representation, planning, and discourse modeling. We describe a parallel truth maintenance system. We provide an extension to the sentential theory of propositional attitudes by adding a sentential semantics. The report also contains a description of our research in discourse modelling in the areas of planning and plan recognition.

  18. Identification of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus within the Nation’s Veterans Affairs Medical Centers using natural language processing

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Accurate information is needed to direct healthcare systems’ efforts to control methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). Assembling complete and correct microbiology data is vital to understanding and addressing the multiple drug-resistant organisms in our hospitals. Methods Herein, we describe a system that securely gathers microbiology data from the Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) network of databases. Using natural language processing methods, we applied an information extraction process to extract organisms and susceptibilities from the free-text data. We then validated the extraction against independently derived electronic data and expert annotation. Results We estimate that the collected microbiology data are 98.5% complete and that methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus was extracted accurately 99.7% of the time. Conclusions Applying natural language processing methods to microbiology records appears to be a promising way to extract accurate and useful nosocomial pathogen surveillance data. Both scientific inquiry and the data’s reliability will be dependent on the surveillance system’s capability to compare from multiple sources and circumvent systematic error. The dataset constructed and methods used for this investigation could contribute to a comprehensive infectious disease surveillance system or other pressing needs. PMID:22533507

  19. A Proposal of 3-dimensional Self-organizing Memory and Its Application to Knowledge Extraction from Natural Language

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakakibara, Kai; Hagiwara, Masafumi

    In this paper, we propose a 3-dimensional self-organizing memory and describe its application to knowledge extraction from natural language. First, the proposed system extracts a relation between words by JUMAN (morpheme analysis system) and KNP (syntax analysis system), and stores it in short-term memory. In the short-term memory, the relations are attenuated with the passage of processing. However, the relations with high frequency of appearance are stored in the long-term memory without attenuation. The relations in the long-term memory are placed to the proposed 3-dimensional self-organizing memory. We used a new learning algorithm called ``Potential Firing'' in the learning phase. In the recall phase, the proposed system recalls relational knowledge from the learned knowledge based on the input sentence. We used a new recall algorithm called ``Waterfall Recall'' in the recall phase. We added a function to respond to questions in natural language with ``yes/no'' in order to confirm the validity of proposed system by evaluating the quantity of correct answers.

  20. A Requirements-Based Exploration of Open-Source Software Development Projects--Towards a Natural Language Processing Software Analysis Framework

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vlas, Radu Eduard

    2012-01-01

    Open source projects do have requirements; they are, however, mostly informal, text descriptions found in requests, forums, and other correspondence. Understanding such requirements provides insight into the nature of open source projects. Unfortunately, manual analysis of natural language requirements is time-consuming, and for large projects,…

  1. English as a Second Language for Automotive Component Parts Line Operators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewandowski, Carol

    This document is one of a series of student workbooks developed for workplace skill development courses or workshops by Mercer County Community College (New Jersey) and its partners. Designed to improve the English speaking and reading skills of non-English-speaking automotive component parts line operators, the course covers oral, written,…

  2. Using Natural Language to Enable Mission Managers to Control Multiple Heterogeneous UAVs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trujillo, Anna C.; Puig-Navarro, Javier; Mehdi, S. Bilal; Mcquarry, A. Kyle

    2016-01-01

    The availability of highly capable, yet relatively cheap, unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) is opening up new areas of use for hobbyists and for commercial activities. This research is developing methods beyond classical control-stick pilot inputs, to allow operators to manage complex missions without in-depth vehicle expertise. These missions may entail several heterogeneous UAVs flying coordinated patterns or flying multiple trajectories deconflicted in time or space to predefined locations. This paper describes the functionality and preliminary usability measures of an interface that allows an operator to define a mission using speech inputs. With a defined and simple vocabulary, operators can input the vast majority of mission parameters using simple, intuitive voice commands. Although the operator interface is simple, it is based upon autonomous algorithms that allow the mission to proceed with minimal input from the operator. This paper also describes these underlying algorithms that allow an operator to manage several UAVs.

  3. Language as grist to the mill of cognition.

    PubMed

    Tillas, Alexandros

    2015-08-01

    There is a growing consensus that natural language plays a significant role in our cognitive lives. However, this role of language is not adequately characterised. In this paper, I investigate the relationship between natural language and thinking and argue that thinking operates largely according to associationistic rules. Furthermore, I show that language is neither restricted to interfacing between a 'Language of Thought' and the conscious level, nor is it constitutively involved in thinking. Unlike available alternatives, the suggested view predicts and accommodates a large battery of empirical evidence. Furthermore, it avoids problems that associationistic views traditionally faced, e.g. problems of propositional thinking and compositionality of thought.

  4. On the nature and evolution of the neural bases of human language

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lieberman, Philip

    2002-01-01

    The traditional theory equating the brain bases of language with Broca's and Wernicke's neocortical areas is wrong. Neural circuits linking activity in anatomically segregated populations of neurons in subcortical structures and the neocortex throughout the human brain regulate complex behaviors such as walking, talking, and comprehending the meaning of sentences. When we hear or read a word, neural structures involved in the perception or real-world associations of the word are activated as well as posterior cortical regions adjacent to Wernicke's area. Many areas of the neocortex and subcortical structures support the cortical-striatal-cortical circuits that confer complex syntactic ability, speech production, and a large vocabulary. However, many of these structures also form part of the neural circuits regulating other aspects of behavior. For example, the basal ganglia, which regulate motor control, are also crucial elements in the circuits that confer human linguistic ability and abstract reasoning. The cerebellum, traditionally associated with motor control, is active in motor learning. The basal ganglia are also key elements in reward-based learning. Data from studies of Broca's aphasia, Parkinson's disease, hypoxia, focal brain damage, and a genetically transmitted brain anomaly (the putative "language gene," family KE), and from comparative studies of the brains and behavior of other species, demonstrate that the basal ganglia sequence the discrete elements that constitute a complete motor act, syntactic process, or thought process. Imaging studies of intact human subjects and electrophysiologic and tracer studies of the brains and behavior of other species confirm these findings. As Dobzansky put it, "Nothing in biology makes sense except in the light of evolution" (cited in Mayr, 1982). That applies with as much force to the human brain and the neural bases of language as it does to the human foot or jaw. The converse follows: the mark of evolution on

  5. On the nature and evolution of the neural bases of human language.

    PubMed

    Lieberman, Philip

    2002-01-01

    The traditional theory equating the brain bases of language with Broca's and Wernicke's neocortical areas is wrong. Neural circuits linking activity in anatomically segregated populations of neurons in subcortical structures and the neocortex throughout the human brain regulate complex behaviors such as walking, talking, and comprehending the meaning of sentences. When we hear or read a word, neural structures involved in the perception or real-world associations of the word are activated as well as posterior cortical regions adjacent to Wernicke's area. Many areas of the neocortex and subcortical structures support the cortical-striatal-cortical circuits that confer complex syntactic ability, speech production, and a large vocabulary. However, many of these structures also form part of the neural circuits regulating other aspects of behavior. For example, the basal ganglia, which regulate motor control, are also crucial elements in the circuits that confer human linguistic ability and abstract reasoning. The cerebellum, traditionally associated with motor control, is active in motor learning. The basal ganglia are also key elements in reward-based learning. Data from studies of Broca's aphasia, Parkinson's disease, hypoxia, focal brain damage, and a genetically transmitted brain anomaly (the putative "language gene," family KE), and from comparative studies of the brains and behavior of other species, demonstrate that the basal ganglia sequence the discrete elements that constitute a complete motor act, syntactic process, or thought process. Imaging studies of intact human subjects and electrophysiologic and tracer studies of the brains and behavior of other species confirm these findings. As Dobzansky put it, "Nothing in biology makes sense except in the light of evolution" (cited in Mayr, 1982). That applies with as much force to the human brain and the neural bases of language as it does to the human foot or jaw. The converse follows: the mark of evolution on

  6. On the nature and evolution of the neural bases of human language.

    PubMed

    Lieberman, Philip

    2002-01-01

    The traditional theory equating the brain bases of language with Broca's and Wernicke's neocortical areas is wrong. Neural circuits linking activity in anatomically segregated populations of neurons in subcortical structures and the neocortex throughout the human brain regulate complex behaviors such as walking, talking, and comprehending the meaning of sentences. When we hear or read a word, neural structures involved in the perception or real-world associations of the word are activated as well as posterior cortical regions adjacent to Wernicke's area. Many areas of the neocortex and subcortical structures support the cortical-striatal-cortical circuits that confer complex syntactic ability, speech production, and a large vocabulary. However, many of these structures also form part of the neural circuits regulating other aspects of behavior. For example, the basal ganglia, which regulate motor control, are also crucial elements in the circuits that confer human linguistic ability and abstract reasoning. The cerebellum, traditionally associated with motor control, is active in motor learning. The basal ganglia are also key elements in reward-based learning. Data from studies of Broca's aphasia, Parkinson's disease, hypoxia, focal brain damage, and a genetically transmitted brain anomaly (the putative "language gene," family KE), and from comparative studies of the brains and behavior of other species, demonstrate that the basal ganglia sequence the discrete elements that constitute a complete motor act, syntactic process, or thought process. Imaging studies of intact human subjects and electrophysiologic and tracer studies of the brains and behavior of other species confirm these findings. As Dobzansky put it, "Nothing in biology makes sense except in the light of evolution" (cited in Mayr, 1982). That applies with as much force to the human brain and the neural bases of language as it does to the human foot or jaw. The converse follows: the mark of evolution on

  7. The Two Cultures of Science: On Language-Culture Incommensurability Concerning "Nature" and "Observation"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loo, Seng Piew

    2007-01-01

    Culture without nature is empty, nature without culture is deaf Intercultural dialogue in higher education around the globe is needed to improve the theory, policy and practice of science and science education. The culture, cosmology and philosophy of "global" science as practiced today in all societies around the world are seemingly anchored in…

  8. Natural Language Processing Based Instrument for Classification of Free Text Medical Records

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    According to the Ministry of Labor, Health and Social Affairs of Georgia a new health management system has to be introduced in the nearest future. In this context arises the problem of structuring and classifying documents containing all the history of medical services provided. The present work introduces the instrument for classification of medical records based on the Georgian language. It is the first attempt of such classification of the Georgian language based medical records. On the whole 24.855 examination records have been studied. The documents were classified into three main groups (ultrasonography, endoscopy, and X-ray) and 13 subgroups using two well-known methods: Support Vector Machine (SVM) and K-Nearest Neighbor (KNN). The results obtained demonstrated that both machine learning methods performed successfully, with a little supremacy of SVM. In the process of classification a “shrink” method, based on features selection, was introduced and applied. At the first stage of classification the results of the “shrink” case were better; however, on the second stage of classification into subclasses 23% of all documents could not be linked to only one definite individual subclass (liver or binary system) due to common features characterizing these subclasses. The overall results of the study were successful. PMID:27668260

  9. Natural Language Processing Based Instrument for Classification of Free Text Medical Records

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    According to the Ministry of Labor, Health and Social Affairs of Georgia a new health management system has to be introduced in the nearest future. In this context arises the problem of structuring and classifying documents containing all the history of medical services provided. The present work introduces the instrument for classification of medical records based on the Georgian language. It is the first attempt of such classification of the Georgian language based medical records. On the whole 24.855 examination records have been studied. The documents were classified into three main groups (ultrasonography, endoscopy, and X-ray) and 13 subgroups using two well-known methods: Support Vector Machine (SVM) and K-Nearest Neighbor (KNN). The results obtained demonstrated that both machine learning methods performed successfully, with a little supremacy of SVM. In the process of classification a “shrink” method, based on features selection, was introduced and applied. At the first stage of classification the results of the “shrink” case were better; however, on the second stage of classification into subclasses 23% of all documents could not be linked to only one definite individual subclass (liver or binary system) due to common features characterizing these subclasses. The overall results of the study were successful.

  10. 33 CFR 165.110 - Safety and Security Zone; Liquefied Natural Gas Carrier Transits and Anchorage Operations, Boston...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...; Liquefied Natural Gas Carrier Transits and Anchorage Operations, Boston, Massachusetts. 165.110 Section 165... Limited Access Areas First Coast Guard District § 165.110 Safety and Security Zone; Liquefied Natural Gas... ahead and one mile astern, and 500 yards on each side of any liquefied natural gas carrier (LNGC)...

  11. 33 CFR 165.110 - Safety and Security Zone; Liquefied Natural Gas Carrier Transits and Anchorage Operations, Boston...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...; Liquefied Natural Gas Carrier Transits and Anchorage Operations, Boston, Massachusetts. 165.110 Section 165... Limited Access Areas First Coast Guard District § 165.110 Safety and Security Zone; Liquefied Natural Gas... ahead and one mile astern, and 500 yards on each side of any liquefied natural gas carrier (LNGC)...

  12. 33 CFR 165.110 - Safety and Security Zone; Liquefied Natural Gas Carrier Transits and Anchorage Operations, Boston...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...; Liquefied Natural Gas Carrier Transits and Anchorage Operations, Boston, Massachusetts. 165.110 Section 165... Limited Access Areas First Coast Guard District § 165.110 Safety and Security Zone; Liquefied Natural Gas... ahead and one mile astern, and 500 yards on each side of any liquefied natural gas carrier (LNGC)...

  13. 33 CFR 165.110 - Safety and Security Zone; Liquefied Natural Gas Carrier Transits and Anchorage Operations, Boston...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...; Liquefied Natural Gas Carrier Transits and Anchorage Operations, Boston, Massachusetts. 165.110 Section 165... Limited Access Areas First Coast Guard District § 165.110 Safety and Security Zone; Liquefied Natural Gas... ahead and one mile astern, and 500 yards on each side of any liquefied natural gas carrier (LNGC)...

  14. 78 FR 53190 - Pipeline Safety: Notice to Operators of Hazardous Liquid and Natural Gas Pipelines of a Recall on...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-28

    ... Liquid and Natural Gas Pipelines of a Recall on Leak Repair Clamps Due to Defective Seal AGENCY: Pipeline... seal. Hazardous liquid and natural gas pipeline operators should ] verify if they have any TDW LRCs... and Flanged Fittings. These LRCs were manufactured for use on hazardous liquid and natural...

  15. Linguistics in Language Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kumar, Rajesh; Yunus, Reva

    2014-01-01

    This article looks at the contribution of insights from theoretical linguistics to an understanding of language acquisition and the nature of language in terms of their potential benefit to language education. We examine the ideas of innateness and universal language faculty, as well as multilingualism and the language-society relationship. Modern…

  16. TECHNOLOGIES TO ENHANCE THE OPERATION OF EXISTING NATURAL GAS COMPRESSION INFRASTRUCTURE

    SciTech Connect

    Anthony J. Smalley; Ralph E. Harris; Gary D. Bourn; Danny M. Deffenbaugh

    2005-07-27

    This quarterly report documents work performed under Tasks 15, 16, and 18 through 23 of the project entitled: ''Technologies to Enhance the Operation of Existing Natural Gas Compression Infrastructure''. The project objective is to develop and substantiate methods for operating integral engine/compressors in gas pipeline service, which reduce fuel consumption, increase capacity, and enhance mechanical integrity. The report first documents a survey site test performed on a TCVC10 engine/compressor installed at Dominion's Groveport Compressor Station. This test completes planned screening efforts designed to guide selection of one or more units for design analysis and testing with emphasis on identification and reduction of compressor losses. The report further presents the validation of the simulation model for the Air Balance tasks and outline of conceptual manifold designs.

  17. TECHNOLOGIES TO ENHANCE THE OPERATION OF EXISTING NATURAL GAS COMPESSION INFRASTRUCTURE

    SciTech Connect

    Anthony J. Smalley; Ralph E. Harris; Gary D. Bourn; Danny M. Deffenbaugh

    2006-01-24

    This quarterly report documents work performed under Tasks 15, 16, and 18 through 23 of the project entitled: ''Technologies to Enhance the Operation of Existing Natural Gas Compression Infrastructure''. The project objective is to develop and substantiate methods for operating integral engine/compressors in gas pipeline service, which reduce fuel consumption, increase capacity, and enhance mechanical integrity. The report presents results of design analysis performed on the TCVC10 engine/compressor installed at Dominion's Groveport Compressor Station to develop options and guide decisions for reducing pulsations and enhancing compressor system efficiency and capacity. The report further presents progress on modifying and testing the laboratory GMVH6 at SwRI for correcting air imbalance.

  18. TECHNOLOGIES TO ENHANCE THE OPERATION OF EXISTING NATURAL GAS COMPRESSION INFRASTRUCTURE

    SciTech Connect

    Anthony J. Smalley; Ralph E. Harris; Gary D. Bourn; Danny M. Deffenbaugh

    2005-10-27

    This quarterly report documents work performed under Tasks 15, 16, and 18 through 23 of the project entitled: ''Technologies to Enhance the Operation of Existing Natural Gas Compression Infrastructure''. The project objective is to develop and substantiate methods for operating integral engine/compressors in gas pipeline service, which reduce fuel consumption, increase capacity, and enhance mechanical integrity. The report first summarizes key results from survey site tests performed on an HBA-6 installed at Duke Energy's Bedford compressor station, and on a TCVC10 engine/compressor installed at Dominion's Groveport Compressor Station. The report then presents results of design analysis performed on the Bedford HBA-6 to develop options and guide decisions for reducing pulsations and enhancing compressor system efficiency and capacity. The report further presents progress on modifying and testing the laboratory GMVH6 at SwRI for correcting air imbalance.

  19. Hydrogen and Hydrogen/Natural Gas Station and Vehicle Operations - 2006 Summary Report

    SciTech Connect

    Francfort; Donald Karner; Roberta Brayer

    2006-09-01

    This report is a summary of the operations and testing of internal combustion engine vehicles that were fueled with 100% hydrogen and various blends of hydrogen and compressed natural gas (HCNG). It summarizes the operations of the Arizona Public Service Alternative Fuel Pilot Plant, which produces, compresses, and dispenses hydrogen fuel. Other testing activities, such as the destructive testing of a CNG storage cylinder that was used for HCNG storage, are also discussed. This report highlights some of the latest technology developments in the use of 100% hydrogen fuels in internal combustion engine vehicles. Reports are referenced and WWW locations noted as a guide for the reader that desires more detailed information. These activities are conducted by Arizona Public Service, Electric Transportation Applications, the Idaho National Laboratory, and the U.S. Department of Energy’s Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity.

  20. TECHNOLOGIES TO ENHANCE THE OPERATION OF EXISTNG NATURAL GAS COMPRESSION INFRASTRUCTURE

    SciTech Connect

    Anthony J. Smalley; Ralph E. Harris; Gary D. Bourn; Danny M. Deffenbaugh

    2005-01-28

    This quarterly report documents work performed under Tasks 15, 16, and 18 through 23 of the project entitled: ''Technologies to Enhance the Operation of the Existing Natural Gas Compression Infrastructure''. The project objective is to develop and substantiate methods for operating integral engine/compressors in gas pipeline service, which reduce fuel consumption, increase capacity, and enhance mechanical integrity. The report first documents a survey test performed on an HBA-6 engine/compressor installed at Duke Energy's Bedford Compressor Station. This is one of several tests planned, which will emphasize identification and reduction of compressor losses. Additionally, this report presents a methodology for distinguishing losses in compressor attributable to valves, irreversibility in the compression process, and the attached piping (installation losses); it illustrates the methodology with data from the survey test. The report further presents the validation of the simulation model for the Air Balance tasks and outline of conceptual manifold designs.

  1. The development of a natural language interface to a geographical information system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Toledo, Sue Walker; Davis, Bruce

    1993-01-01

    This paper will discuss a two and a half year long project undertaken to develop an English-language interface for the geographical information system GRASS. The work was carried out for NASA by a small business, Netrologic, based in San Diego, California, under Phase 1 and 2 Small Business Innovative Research contracts. We consider here the potential value of this system whose current functionality addresses numerical, categorical and boolean raster layers and includes the display of point sets defined by constraints on one or more layers, answers yes/no and numerical questions, and creates statistical reports. It also handles complex queries and lexical ambiguities, and allows temporarily switching to UNIX or GRASS.

  2. Writing in science: Exploring teachers' and students' views of the nature of science in language enriched environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Decoito, Isha

    Writing in science can be used to address some of the issues relevant to contemporary scientific literacy, such as the nature of science, which describes the scientific enterprise for science education. This has implications for the kinds of writing tasks students should attempt in the classroom, and for how students should understand the rationale and claims of these tasks. While scientific writing may train the mind to think scientifically in a disciplined and structured way thus encouraging students to gain access to the public domain of scientific knowledge, the counter-argument is that students need to be able to express their thoughts freely in their own language. Writing activities must aim to promote philosophical and epistemological views of science that accurately portray contemporary science. This mixed-methods case study explored language-enriched environments, in this case, secondary science classrooms with a focus on teacher-developed activities, involving diversified writing styles, that were directly linked to the science curriculum. The research foci included: teachers' implementation of these activities in their classrooms; how the activities reflected the teachers' nature of science views; common attributes between students' views of science and how they represented science in their writings; and if, and how the activities influenced students' nature of science views. Teachers' and students' views of writing and the nature of science are illustrated through pre-and post-questionnaire responses; interviews; student work; and classroom observations. Results indicated that diversified writing activities have the potential to accurately portray science to students, personalize learning in science, improve students' overall attitude towards science, and enhance scientific literacy through learning science, learning about science, and doing science. Further research is necessary to develop an understanding of whether the choice of genre has an

  3. Building a Natural Language Interface for the ATNF Pulsar Database for Speeding up Execution of Complex Queries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Rupert; Jenet, F.; Rangel, S.; Dartez, L.

    2010-01-01

    Until now, there has been no available natural language interfaces (NLI's) for querying a database of pulsars (rotating neutron stars emitting radiation at regular intervals). Currently, pulsar records are retrieved through an HTML form accessible via the Australia Telescope National Facility (ATNF) website where one needs to be familiar with pulsar attributes used by the interface (e.g. BLC). Using a NLI relinquishes the need for learning form-specific formalism and allows execution of more powerful queries than those supported by the HTML form. Furthermore, on database access that requires comparison of attributes for all the pulsar records (e.g. what is the fastest pulsar?), using a NLI for retrieving answers to such complex questions is definitely much more efficient and less error-prone. This poster presents the first NLI ever created for the ATNF pulsar database (ATNF-Query) to facilitate database access using complex queries. ATNF-Query is built using a machine learning approach that induces a semantic parser from a question corpus; the innovative application is intended to provide pulsar researchers or laymen with an intelligent language understanding database system for friendly information access.

  4. On the Dual Nature of the Functional Discourse Grammar Model: Context, the Language System/Language Use Distinction, and Indexical Reference in Discourse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cornish, Francis

    2013-01-01

    The Functional Discourse Grammar model has a twofold objective: on the one hand, to provide a descriptively, psychologically and pragmatically adequate account of the forms made available by a typologically diverse range of languages; and on the other, to provide a model of language which is set up to reflect, at one remove, certain of the stages…

  5. Why is combinatorial communication rare in the natural world, and why is language an exception to this trend?

    PubMed Central

    Scott-Phillips, Thomas C.; Blythe, Richard A.

    2013-01-01

    In a combinatorial communication system, some signals consist of the combinations of other signals. Such systems are more efficient than equivalent, non-combinatorial systems, yet despite this they are rare in nature. Why? Previous explanations have focused on the adaptive limits of combinatorial communication, or on its purported cognitive difficulties, but neither of these explains the full distribution of combinatorial communication in the natural world. Here, we present a nonlinear dynamical model of the emergence of combinatorial communication that, unlike previous models, considers how initially non-communicative behaviour evolves to take on a communicative function. We derive three basic principles about the emergence of combinatorial communication. We hence show that the interdependence of signals and responses places significant constraints on the historical pathways by which combinatorial signals might emerge, to the extent that anything other than the most simple form of combinatorial communication is extremely unlikely. We also argue that these constraints can be bypassed if individuals have the socio-cognitive capacity to engage in ostensive communication. Humans, but probably no other species, have this ability. This may explain why language, which is massively combinatorial, is such an extreme exception to nature's general trend for non-combinatorial communication. PMID:24047871

  6. Why is combinatorial communication rare in the natural world, and why is language an exception to this trend?

    PubMed

    Scott-Phillips, Thomas C; Blythe, Richard A

    2013-11-01

    In a combinatorial communication system, some signals consist of the combinations of other signals. Such systems are more efficient than equivalent, non-combinatorial systems, yet despite this they are rare in nature. Why? Previous explanations have focused on the adaptive limits of combinatorial communication, or on its purported cognitive difficulties, but neither of these explains the full distribution of combinatorial communication in the natural world. Here, we present a nonlinear dynamical model of the emergence of combinatorial communication that, unlike previous models, considers how initially non-communicative behaviour evolves to take on a communicative function. We derive three basic principles about the emergence of combinatorial communication. We hence show that the interdependence of signals and responses places significant constraints on the historical pathways by which combinatorial signals might emerge, to the extent that anything other than the most simple form of combinatorial communication is extremely unlikely. We also argue that these constraints can be bypassed if individuals have the socio-cognitive capacity to engage in ostensive communication. Humans, but probably no other species, have this ability. This may explain why language, which is massively combinatorial, is such an extreme exception to nature's general trend for non-combinatorial communication.

  7. Computer-Aided TRIZ Ideality and Level of Invention Estimation Using Natural Language Processing and Machine Learning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adams, Christopher; Tate, Derrick

    Patent textual descriptions provide a wealth of information that can be used to understand the underlying design approaches that result in the generation of novel and innovative technology. This article will discuss a new approach for estimating Degree of Ideality and Level of Invention metrics from the theory of inventive problem solving (TRIZ) using patent textual information. Patent text includes information that can be used to model both the functions performed by a design and the associated costs and problems that affect a design’s value. The motivation of this research is to use patent data with calculation of TRIZ metrics to help designers understand which combinations of system components and functions result in creative and innovative design solutions. This article will discuss in detail methods to estimate these TRIZ metrics using natural language processing and machine learning with the use of neural networks.

  8. An Evaluation of a Natural Language Processing Tool for Identifying and Encoding Allergy Information in Emergency Department Clinical Notes

    PubMed Central

    Goss, Foster R.; Plasek, Joseph M.; Lau, Jason J.; Seger, Diane L.; Chang, Frank Y.; Zhou, Li

    2014-01-01

    Emergency department (ED) visits due to allergic reactions are common. Allergy information is often recorded in free-text provider notes; however, this domain has not yet been widely studied by the natural language processing (NLP) community. We developed an allergy module built on the MTERMS NLP system to identify and encode food, drug, and environmental allergies and allergic reactions. The module included updates to our lexicon using standard terminologies, and novel disambiguation algorithms. We developed an annotation schema and annotated 400 ED notes that served as a gold standard for comparison to MTERMS output. MTERMS achieved an F-measure of 87.6% for the detection of allergen names and no known allergies, 90% for identifying true reactions in each allergy statement where true allergens were also identified, and 69% for linking reactions to their allergen. These preliminary results demonstrate the feasibility using NLP to extract and encode allergy information from clinical notes. PMID:25954363

  9. The Study of Natural Sign Language in Eighteenth-Century France.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fischer, Renate

    2002-01-01

    Examines how Pierre Desloges--a deaf person who was interested in the aptness of "natural signs" to express complex concepts and who highlighted the community aspect of communication--described and categorized signs used by the Deaf community in Paris in 1779. Presents additional sources of information on communication of deaf people. (Author/VWL)

  10. Naturalization Language Testing and Its Basis in Ideologies of National Identity and Citizenship.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piller, Ingrid

    2001-01-01

    Examines the relationship of ideologies of national and linguistic identity and the ways in which they impact upon ideologies of citizenship. Describes current naturalization legislation in a number of countries and the ways in which it is based on these ideologies. Particular focus is on Germany. (Author/VWL)

  11. Psychological linguistics: A natural science approach to the study of language interactions

    PubMed Central

    Bijou, Sidney W.; Umbreit, John; Ghezzi, Patrick M.; Chao, Chia-Chen

    1986-01-01

    Kantor's theoretical analysis of “psychological linguistics” offers a natural science approach to the study of linguistic behavior and interactions. This paper includes brief descriptions of (a) some of the basic assumptions of the approach, (b) Kantor's conception of linguistic behavior and interactions, (c) a compatible research method and sample research data, and (d) some areas of research and application. PMID:22477507

  12. Memory operations that support language comprehension: evidence from verb-phrase ellipsis.

    PubMed

    Martin, Andrea E; McElree, Brian

    2009-09-01

    Comprehension of verb-phrase ellipsis (VPE) requires reevaluation of recently processed constituents, which often necessitates retrieval of information about the elided constituent from memory. A. E. Martin and B. McElree (2008) argued that representations formed during comprehension are content addressable and that VPE antecedents are retrieved from memory via a cue-dependent direct-access pointer rather than via a search process. This hypothesis was further tested by manipulating the location of interfering material-either before the onset of the antecedent (proactive interference; PI) or intervening between antecedent and ellipsis site (retroactive interference; RI). The speed-accuracy tradeoff procedure was used to measure the time course of VPE processing. The location of the interfering material affected VPE comprehension accuracy: RI conditions engendered lower accuracy than PI conditions. Crucially, location did not affect the speed of processing VPE, which is inconsistent with both forward and backward search mechanisms. The observed time-course profiles are consistent with the hypothesis that VPE antecedents are retrieved via a cue-dependent direct-access operation.

  13. Neurolinguistic approach to natural language processing with applications to medical text analysis.

    PubMed

    Duch, Włodzisław; Matykiewicz, Paweł; Pestian, John

    2008-12-01

    Understanding written or spoken language presumably involves spreading neural activation in the brain. This process may be approximated by spreading activation in semantic networks, providing enhanced representations that involve concepts not found directly in the text. The approximation of this process is of great practical and theoretical interest. Although activations of neural circuits involved in representation of words rapidly change in time snapshots of these activations spreading through associative networks may be captured in a vector model. Concepts of similar type activate larger clusters of neurons, priming areas in the left and right hemisphere. Analysis of recent brain imaging experiments shows the importance of the right hemisphere non-verbal clusterization. Medical ontologies enable development of a large-scale practical algorithm to re-create pathways of spreading neural activations. First concepts of specific semantic type are identified in the text, and then all related concepts of the same type are added to the text, providing expanded representations. To avoid rapid growth of the extended feature space after each step only the most useful features that increase document clusterization are retained. Short hospital discharge summaries are used to illustrate how this process works on a real, very noisy data. Expanded texts show significantly improved clustering and may be classified with much higher accuracy. Although better approximations to the spreading of neural activations may be devised a practical approach presented in this paper helps to discover pathways used by the brain to process specific concepts, and may be used in large-scale applications. PMID:18614334

  14. Object-oriented knowledge representation in a natural language understanding system of economic surveys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Planes, Jean-Christophe; Trigano, Philippe

    1992-03-01

    The HIRONDELLE research project of the Banque de France intends to summarize economic surveys giving statements about a specific economic domain. The principal goal is the detection of causal relations between economic events appearing in the texts. We will focus on knowledge representation, based on three distinct hierarchical structures. The first one concerns the lexical items and allows inheritance of syntactic properties. Descriptions of the applications domains are achieved by a taxonomy based on attribute-value models and case relations, adapted to the economic sectors. The summarization goal of this system defines a set of primitives representing statements and causality meta-language. The semantic analysis of the texts is based on two phases. The first one leads to a propositional representation of the sentences through conceptual graphs formalization, taking into account the syntactic transformations of sentences. The second one is dedicated to the summarizing role of the system, detecting paraphrastic sentences by processing syntactic and semantic transformations like negation or metonymious constructions.

  15. Arbitrary symbolism in natural language revisited: when word forms carry meaning.

    PubMed

    Reilly, Jamie; Westbury, Chris; Kean, Jacob; Peelle, Jonathan E

    2012-01-01

    Cognitive science has a rich history of interest in the ways that languages represent abstract and concrete concepts (e.g., idea vs. dog). Until recently, this focus has centered largely on aspects of word meaning and semantic representation. However, recent corpora analyses have demonstrated that abstract and concrete words are also marked by phonological, orthographic, and morphological differences. These regularities in sound-meaning correspondence potentially allow listeners to infer certain aspects of semantics directly from word form. We investigated this relationship between form and meaning in a series of four experiments. In Experiments 1-2 we examined the role of metalinguistic knowledge in semantic decision by asking participants to make semantic judgments for aurally presented nonwords selectively varied by specific acoustic and phonetic parameters. Participants consistently associated increased word length and diminished wordlikeness with abstract concepts. In Experiment 3, participants completed a semantic decision task (i.e., abstract or concrete) for real words varied by length and concreteness. Participants were more likely to misclassify longer, inflected words (e.g., "apartment") as abstract and shorter uninflected abstract words (e.g., "fate") as concrete. In Experiment 4, we used a multiple regression to predict trial level naming data from a large corpus of nouns which revealed significant interaction effects between concreteness and word form. Together these results provide converging evidence for the hypothesis that listeners map sound to meaning through a non-arbitrary process using prior knowledge about statistical regularities in the surface forms of words.

  16. Language Processing in Information Retrieval.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doszkocs, Tamase

    1986-01-01

    Examines role and contributions of natural-language processing in information retrieval and artificial intelligence research in context of large operational information retrieval systems and services. State-of-the-art information retrieval systems combining the functional capabilities of conventional inverted file term adjacency approach with…

  17. Language learners restructure their input to facilitate efficient communication.

    PubMed

    Fedzechkina, Maryia; Jaeger, T Florian; Newport, Elissa L

    2012-10-30

    Languages of the world display many structural similarities. We test the hypothesis that some of these structural properties may arise from biases operating during language acquisition that shape languages over time. Specifically, we investigate whether language learners are biased toward linguistic systems that strike an efficient balance between robust information transfer, on the one hand, and effort or resource demands, on the other hand, thereby increasing the communicative utility of the acquired language. In two experiments, we expose learners to miniature artificial languages designed in such a way that they do not use their formal devices (case marking) efficiently to facilitate robust information transfer. We find that learners restructure such languages in ways that facilitate efficient information transfer compared with the input language. These systematic changes introduced by the learners follow typologically frequent patterns, supporting the hypothesis that some of the structural similarities found in natural languages are shaped by biases toward communicatively efficient linguistic systems.

  18. Application of Hydrogen Assisted Lean Operation to Natural Gas-Fueled Reciprocating Engines (HALO)

    SciTech Connect

    Chad Smutzer

    2006-01-01

    Two key challenges facing Natural Gas Engines used for cogeneration purposes are spark plug life and high NOx emissions. Using Hydrogen Assisted Lean Operation (HALO), these two keys issues are simultaneously addressed. HALO operation, as demonstrated in this project, allows stable engine operation to be achieved at ultra-lean (relative air/fuel ratios of 2) conditions, which virtually eliminates NOx production. NOx values of 10 ppm (0.07 g/bhp-hr NO) for 8% (LHV H2/LHV CH4) supplementation at an exhaust O2 level of 10% were demonstrated, which is a 98% NOx emissions reduction compared to the leanest unsupplemented operating condition. Spark ignition energy reduction (which will increase ignition system life) was carried out at an oxygen level of 9%, leading to a NOx emission level of 28 ppm (0.13 g/bhp-hr NO). The spark ignition energy reduction testing found that spark energy could be reduced 22% (from 151 mJ supplied to the coil) with 13% (LHV H2/LHV CH4) hydrogen supplementation, and even further reduced 27% with 17% hydrogen supplementation, with no reportable effect on NOx emissions for these conditions and with stable engine torque output. Another important result is that the combustion duration was shown to be only a function of hydrogen supplementation, not a function of ignition energy (until the ignitability limit was reached). The next logical step leading from these promising results is to see how much the spark energy reduction translates into increase in spark plug life, which may be accomplished by durability testing.

  19. Neurolinguistic Approach to Natural Language Processing with Applications to Medical Text Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Matykiewicz, Paweł; Pestian, John

    2008-01-01

    Understanding written or spoken language presumably involves spreading neural activation in the brain. This process may be approximated by spreading activation in semantic networks, providing enhanced representations that involve concepts that are not found directly in the text. Approximation of this process is of great practical and theoretical interest. Although activations of neural circuits involved in representation of words rapidly change in time snapshots of these activations spreading through associative networks may be captured in a vector model. Concepts of similar type activate larger clusters of neurons, priming areas in the left and right hemisphere. Analysis of recent brain imaging experiments shows the importance of the right hemisphere non-verbal clusterization. Medical ontologies enable development of a large-scale practical algorithm to re-create pathways of spreading neural activations. First concepts of specific semantic type are identified in the text, and then all related concepts of the same type are added to the text, providing expanded representations. To avoid rapid growth of the extended feature space after each step only the most useful features that increase document clusterization are retained. Short hospital discharge summaries are used to illustrate how this process works on a real, very noisy data. Expanded texts show significantly improved clustering and may be classified with much higher accuracy. Although better approximations to the spreading of neural activations may be devised a practical approach presented in this paper helps to discover pathways used by the brain to process specific concepts, and may be used in large-scale applications. PMID:18614334

  20. Arbitrary Symbolism in Natural Language Revisited: When Word Forms Carry Meaning

    PubMed Central

    Reilly, Jamie; Westbury, Chris; Kean, Jacob; Peelle, Jonathan E.

    2012-01-01

    Cognitive science has a rich history of interest in the ways that languages represent abstract and concrete concepts (e.g., idea vs. dog). Until recently, this focus has centered largely on aspects of word meaning and semantic representation. However, recent corpora analyses have demonstrated that abstract and concrete words are also marked by phonological, orthographic, and morphological differences. These regularities in sound-meaning correspondence potentially allow listeners to infer certain aspects of semantics directly from word form. We investigated this relationship between form and meaning in a series of four experiments. In Experiments 1–2 we examined the role of metalinguistic knowledge in semantic decision by asking participants to make semantic judgments for aurally presented nonwords selectively varied by specific acoustic and phonetic parameters. Participants consistently associated increased word length and diminished wordlikeness with abstract concepts. In Experiment 3, participants completed a semantic decision task (i.e., abstract or concrete) for real words varied by length and concreteness. Participants were more likely to misclassify longer, inflected words (e.g., “apartment”) as abstract and shorter uninflected abstract words (e.g., “fate”) as concrete. In Experiment 4, we used a multiple regression to predict trial level naming data from a large corpus of nouns which revealed significant interaction effects between concreteness and word form. Together these results provide converging evidence for the hypothesis that listeners map sound to meaning through a non-arbitrary process using prior knowledge about statistical regularities in the surface forms of words. PMID:22879931

  1. The nature of facilitation and interference in the multilingual language system: insights from treatment in a case of trilingual aphasia.

    PubMed

    Keane, Caitlin; Kiran, Swathi

    2015-01-01

    The rehabilitation study described here sets out to test the premise of Abutalebi and Green's neurocognitive model--specifically, that language selection and control are components of overall cognitive control. We follow a trilingual woman (first language, L1: Amharic; second language, L2: English; third language, L3: French) with damage to the left frontal lobe and left basal ganglia who presented with cognitive control and naming deficits, through two periods of semantic treatment (French, followed by English) to alleviate naming deficits. The results showed that while the participant improved on trained items, she did not show within- or cross-language generalization. In addition, error patterns revealed a substantial increase of interference of the currently trained language into the nontrained language during each of the two treatment phases. These results are consistent with Abutalebi and Green's neurocognitive model and support the claim that language selection and control are components of overall cognitive control.

  2. The nature of facilitation and interference in the multilingual language system: insights from treatment in a case of trilingual aphasia.

    PubMed

    Keane, Caitlin; Kiran, Swathi

    2015-01-01

    The rehabilitation study described here sets out to test the premise of Abutalebi and Green's neurocognitive model--specifically, that language selection and control are components of overall cognitive control. We follow a trilingual woman (first language, L1: Amharic; second language, L2: English; third language, L3: French) with damage to the left frontal lobe and left basal ganglia who presented with cognitive control and naming deficits, through two periods of semantic treatment (French, followed by English) to alleviate naming deficits. The results showed that while the participant improved on trained items, she did not show within- or cross-language generalization. In addition, error patterns revealed a substantial increase of interference of the currently trained language into the nontrained language during each of the two treatment phases. These results are consistent with Abutalebi and Green's neurocognitive model and support the claim that language selection and control are components of overall cognitive control. PMID:26377506

  3. Arthroscopy language.

    PubMed

    Zahiri, H; Brazina, G; Zahiri, C A

    1994-09-01

    The authors have devised an "arthroscopy language" to make orthopaedic surgeons' intraoperative communication clear, comprehensive, and concise. This language specifically eliminates surgeons' "freestyle" conversation at the most crucial moments of their procedure, when concentration and the coordinated work of two surgeons are essential. The language uses current arthroscopic terminology and new words that have been adapted by the authors to describe all the basic maneuvers that are used during any arthroscopic procedure. The authors believe the language brings the necessary scientific sophistication into arthroscopic surgeons' speech in the operating theater. PMID:7800401

  4. The Natural Excitation Technique (NExT) for modal parameter extraction from operating wind turbines

    SciTech Connect

    James, G.H. III; Carne, T.G.; Lauffer, J.P.

    1993-02-01

    The Natural Excitation Technique (NExT) is a method of modal testing that allows structures to be tested in their ambient environments. This report is a compilation of developments and results since 1990, and contains a new theoretical derivation of NExT, as well as a verification using analytically generated data. In addition, we compare results from NExT with conventional modal testing for a parked, vertical-axis wind turbine, and, for a rotating turbine, NExT is used to calculate the model parameters as functions of the rotation speed, since substantial damping is derived from the aeroelastic interactions during operation. Finally, we compare experimental results calculated using NExT with analytical predictions of damping using aeroelastic theory.

  5. 33 CFR 165.110 - Safety and Security Zone; Liquefied Natural Gas Carrier Transits and Anchorage Operations, Boston...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...; Liquefied Natural Gas Carrier Transits and Anchorage Operations, Boston, Massachusetts. 165.110 Section 165... Limited Access Areas First Coast Guard District § 165.110 Safety and Security Zone; Liquefied Natural Gas... local law enforcement officer designated by or assisting the Captain of the Port (COTP)...

  6. Flared natural gas-based onsite atmospheric water harvesting (AWH) for oilfield operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wikramanayake, Enakshi D.; Bahadur, Vaibhav

    2016-03-01

    Natural gas worth tens of billions of dollars is flared annually, which leads to resource waste and environmental issues. This work introduces and analyzes a novel concept for flared gas utilization, wherein the gas that would have been flared is instead used to condense atmospheric moisture. Natural gas, which is currently being flared, can alternatively power refrigeration systems to generate the cooling capacity for large scale atmospheric water harvesting (AWH). This approach solves two pressing issues faced by the oil-gas industry, namely gas flaring, and sourcing water for oilfield operations like hydraulic fracturing, drilling and water flooding. Multiple technical pathways to harvest atmospheric moisture by using the energy of natural gas are analyzed. A modeling framework is developed to quantify the dependence of water harvest rates on flared gas volumes and ambient weather. Flaring patterns in the Eagle Ford Shale in Texas and the Bakken Shale in North Dakota are analyzed to quantify the benefits of AWH. Overall, the gas currently flared annually in Texas and North Dakota can harvest enough water to meet 11% and 65% of the water consumption in the Eagle Ford and the Bakken, respectively. Daily harvests of upto 30 000 and 18 000 gallons water can be achieved using the gas currently flared per well in Texas and North Dakota, respectively. In fifty Bakken sites, the water required for fracturing or drilling a new well can be met via onsite flared gas-based AWH in only 3 weeks, and 3 days, respectively. The benefits of this concept are quantified for the Eagle Ford and Bakken Shales. Assessments of the global potential of this concept are presented using data from countries with high flaring activity. It is seen that this waste-to-value conversion concept offers significant economic benefits while addressing critical environmental issues pertaining to oil-gas production.

  7. TECHNOLOGIES TO ENHANCE OPERATION OF THE EXISTING NATURAL GAS COMPRESSION INFRASTRUCTURE

    SciTech Connect

    Anthony J. Smalley; Ralph E. Harris; Gary D. Bourn; Danny M. Deffenbaugh

    2005-01-01

    This quarterly report documents work performed under Tasks 10 through 14 of the project entitled: ''Technologies to Enhance Operation of the Existing Natural Gas Compression Infrastructure''. The project objective is to develop and substantiate methods for operating integral engine/compressors in gas pipeline service, which reduce fuel consumption, increase capacity, and enhance mechanical integrity. The report first documents tests performed on a KVG103 engine/compressor installed at Duke's Thomaston Compressor Station. This is the first series of tests performed on a four-stroke engine under this program. Additionally, this report presents results, which complete a comparison of performance before and after modification to install High Pressure Fuel Injection and a Turbocharger on a GMW10 at Williams Station 60. Quarterly Reports 7 and 8 already presented detailed data from tests before and after this modification, but the final quantitative comparison required some further analysis, which is presented in Section 5 of this report. The report further presents results of detailed geometrical measurements and flow bench testing performed on the cylinders and manifolds of the Laboratory Cooper GMVH6 engine being employed for two-stroke engine air balance investigations. These measurements are required to enhance the detailed accuracy in modeling the dynamic interaction of air manifold, exhaust manifold, and in-cylinder fuel-air balance.

  8. Natural language query system design for interactive information storage and retrieval systems. Presentation visuals. M.S. Thesis Final Report, 1 Jul. 1985 - 31 Dec. 1987

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dominick, Wayne D. (Editor); Liu, I-Hsiung

    1985-01-01

    This Working Paper Series entry represents a collection of presentation visuals associated with the companion report entitled Natural Language Query System Design for Interactive Information Storage and Retrieval Systems, USL/DBMS NASA/RECON Working Paper Series report number DBMS.NASA/RECON-17.

  9. 33 CFR 165.1709 - Security Zones: Liquefied Natural Gas Tanker Transits and Operations at Phillips Petroleum LNG...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...) Special Regulations. (1) For the purpose of this section, the general regulations contained in 33 CFR 165... Gas Tanker Transits and Operations at Phillips Petroleum LNG Pier, Cook Inlet, AK. 165.1709 Section...: Liquefied Natural Gas Tanker Transits and Operations at Phillips Petroleum LNG Pier, Cook Inlet, AK....

  10. 33 CFR 165.1709 - Security Zones: Liquefied Natural Gas Tanker Transits and Operations at Phillips Petroleum LNG...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...) Special Regulations. (1) For the purpose of this section, the general regulations contained in 33 CFR 165... Gas Tanker Transits and Operations at Phillips Petroleum LNG Pier, Cook Inlet, AK. 165.1709 Section...: Liquefied Natural Gas Tanker Transits and Operations at Phillips Petroleum LNG Pier, Cook Inlet, AK....

  11. 33 CFR 165.1709 - Security Zones: Liquefied Natural Gas Tanker Transits and Operations at Phillips Petroleum LNG...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...) Special Regulations. (1) For the purpose of this section, the general regulations contained in 33 CFR 165... Gas Tanker Transits and Operations at Phillips Petroleum LNG Pier, Cook Inlet, AK. 165.1709 Section...: Liquefied Natural Gas Tanker Transits and Operations at Phillips Petroleum LNG Pier, Cook Inlet, AK....

  12. 33 CFR 165.1709 - Security Zones: Liquefied Natural Gas Tanker Transits and Operations at Phillips Petroleum LNG...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...) Special Regulations. (1) For the purpose of this section, the general regulations contained in 33 CFR 165... Gas Tanker Transits and Operations at Phillips Petroleum LNG Pier, Cook Inlet, AK. 165.1709 Section...: Liquefied Natural Gas Tanker Transits and Operations at Phillips Petroleum LNG Pier, Cook Inlet, AK....

  13. 33 CFR 165.1709 - Security Zones: Liquefied Natural Gas Tanker Transits and Operations at Phillips Petroleum LNG...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...) Special Regulations. (1) For the purpose of this section, the general regulations contained in 33 CFR 165... Gas Tanker Transits and Operations at Phillips Petroleum LNG Pier, Cook Inlet, AK. 165.1709 Section...: Liquefied Natural Gas Tanker Transits and Operations at Phillips Petroleum LNG Pier, Cook Inlet, AK....

  14. Facilitating Surveillance of Pulmonary Invasive Mold Diseases in Patients with Haematological Malignancies by Screening Computed Tomography Reports Using Natural Language Processing

    PubMed Central

    Ananda-Rajah, Michelle R.; Martinez, David; Slavin, Monica A.; Cavedon, Lawrence; Dooley, Michael; Cheng, Allen; Thursky, Karin A.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Prospective surveillance of invasive mold diseases (IMDs) in haematology patients should be standard of care but is hampered by the absence of a reliable laboratory prompt and the difficulty of manual surveillance. We used a high throughput technology, natural language processing (NLP), to develop a classifier based on machine learning techniques to screen computed tomography (CT) reports supportive for IMDs. Patients and Methods We conducted a retrospective case-control study of CT reports from the clinical encounter and up to 12-weeks after, from a random subset of 79 of 270 case patients with 33 probable/proven IMDs by international definitions, and 68 of 257 uninfected-control patients identified from 3 tertiary haematology centres. The classifier was trained and tested on a reference standard of 449 physician annotated reports including a development subset (n = 366), from a total of 1880 reports, using 10-fold cross validation, comparing binary and probabilistic predictions to the reference standard to generate sensitivity, specificity and area under the receiver-operating-curve (ROC). Results For the development subset, sensitivity/specificity was 91% (95%CI 86% to 94%)/79% (95%CI 71% to 84%) and ROC area was 0.92 (95%CI 89% to 94%). Of 25 (5.6%) missed notifications, only 4 (0.9%) reports were regarded as clinically significant. Conclusion CT reports are a readily available and timely resource that may be exploited by NLP to facilitate continuous prospective IMD surveillance with translational benefits beyond surveillance alone. PMID:25250675

  15. Language and human nature: Kurt Goldstein's neurolinguistic foundation of a holistic philosophy.

    PubMed

    Ludwig, David

    2012-01-01

    Holism in interwar Germany provides an excellent example for social and political influences on scientific developments. Deeply impressed by the ubiquitous invocation of a cultural crisis, biologists, physicians, and psychologists presented holistic accounts as an alternative to the "mechanistic worldview" of the nineteenth century. Although the ideological background of these accounts is often blatantly obvious, many holistic scientists did not content themselves with a general opposition to a mechanistic worldview but aimed at a rational foundation of their holistic projects. This article will discuss the work of Kurt Goldstein, who is known for both his groundbreaking contributions to neuropsychology and his holistic philosophy of human nature. By focusing on Goldstein's neurolinguistic research, I want to reconstruct the empirical foundations of his holistic program without ignoring its cultural background. In this sense, Goldstein's work provides a case study for the formation of a scientific theory through the complex interplay between specific empirical evidences and the general cultural developments of the Weimar Republic. PMID:25363384

  16. Language and human nature: Kurt Goldstein's neurolinguistic foundation of a holistic philosophy.

    PubMed

    Ludwig, David

    2012-01-01

    Holism in interwar Germany provides an excellent example for social and political influences on scientific developments. Deeply impressed by the ubiquitous invocation of a cultural crisis, biologists, physicians, and psychologists presented holistic accounts as an alternative to the "mechanistic worldview" of the nineteenth century. Although the ideological background of these accounts is often blatantly obvious, many holistic scientists did not content themselves with a general opposition to a mechanistic worldview but aimed at a rational foundation of their holistic projects. This article will discuss the work of Kurt Goldstein, who is known for both his groundbreaking contributions to neuropsychology and his holistic philosophy of human nature. By focusing on Goldstein's neurolinguistic research, I want to reconstruct the empirical foundations of his holistic program without ignoring its cultural background. In this sense, Goldstein's work provides a case study for the formation of a scientific theory through the complex interplay between specific empirical evidences and the general cultural developments of the Weimar Republic.

  17. A perspective on the advancement of natural language processing tasks via topological analysis of complex networks. Comment on "Approaching human language with complex networks" by Cong and Liu

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amancio, Diego Raphael

    2014-12-01

    Concepts and methods of complex networks have been applied to probe the properties of a myriad of real systems [1]. The finding that written texts modeled as graphs share several properties of other completely different real systems has inspired the study of language as a complex system [2]. Actually, language can be represented as a complex network in its several levels of complexity. As a consequence, morphological, syntactical and semantical properties have been employed in the construction of linguistic networks [3]. Even the character level has been useful to unfold particular patterns [4,5]. In the review by Cong and Liu [6], the authors emphasize the need to use the topological information of complex networks modeling the various spheres of the language to better understand its origins, evolution and organization. In addition, the authors cite the use of networks in applications aiming at holistic typology and stylistic variations. In this context, I will discuss some possible directions that could be followed in future research directed towards the understanding of language via topological characterization of complex linguistic networks. In addition, I will comment the use of network models for language processing applications. Additional prospects for future practical research lines will also be discussed in this comment.

  18. How Could Language Have Evolved?

    PubMed Central

    Bolhuis, Johan J.; Tattersall, Ian; Chomsky, Noam; Berwick, Robert C.

    2014-01-01

    The evolution of the faculty of language largely remains an enigma. In this essay, we ask why. Language's evolutionary analysis is complicated because it has no equivalent in any nonhuman species. There is also no consensus regarding the essential nature of the language “phenotype.” According to the “Strong Minimalist Thesis,” the key distinguishing feature of language (and what evolutionary theory must explain) is hierarchical syntactic structure. The faculty of language is likely to have emerged quite recently in evolutionary terms, some 70,000–100,000 years ago, and does not seem to have undergone modification since then, though individual languages do of course change over time, operating within this basic framework. The recent emergence of language and its stability are both consistent with the Strong Minimalist Thesis, which has at its core a single repeatable operation that takes exactly two syntactic elements a and b and assembles them to form the set {a, b}. PMID:25157536

  19. Neutrality in Language Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wee, Lionel

    2010-01-01

    The unavoidability of language makes it critical that language policies appeal to some notion of language neutrality as part of their rationale, in order to assuage concerns that the policies might otherwise be unduly discriminatory. However, the idea of language neutrality is deeply ideological in nature, since it is not only an attempt to treat…

  20. User's Guide to "MULE"; McGill University Language for Education. A Computer-Assisted Instruction Author Language.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roid, Gale H.

    A computer-assisted instruction (CAI) author language and operating system is available for use by McGill instructors on the university's IBM 360/65 RAX Time-Sharing System. Instructors can use this system to prepare lessons which allow the computer and a student to "converse" in natural language. The instructor prepares a lesson by coding text…

  1. Natural activation of caspase-3 is required for the development of operant behavior in postnatal ontogenesis.

    PubMed

    Kudryashova, I V; Stepanichev, M Yu; Gulyaeva, N V

    2009-01-01

    We have previously demonstrated transient increases in caspase-3 activity in the hippocampus of rat pups from age 17 days. We report here our studies on the effects of inhibition of caspase-3 during this period on the acquisition of a two-way avoidance reaction. Rat pups received intracerebroventricular doses of the caspase-3 inhibitor Z-DEVD-FMK On postnatal day 18. Control animals of the same age received the inactive peptide Z-FA-FMK or isotonic saline solution. Inhibition of caspase-3 during the period of its natural activation in the hippocampus during early ontogenesis was found to impair the development of operant behavior in rats. This was apparent as a reduction in the efficiency of learning during acquisition of active avoidance reactions and decreases in the numbers of intersignal reactions. Administration of the inhibitor had no specific action on the types of conditioned reflex activity less associated with operant learning. Thus, there were no differences between the experimental and control groups in the numbers of emotional reactions to the conditioned stimulus. The number of orientational-investigative conditioned reactions also showed no change after administration of Z-DEVD-FMK. On the background of the reduction in the efficiency of the acquisition of the conditioned active avoidance reflex, the number of incomplete acts, in contrast to other types of conditioned reactions, increased significantly after administration of Z-DEVD-FMK, which is evidence for the persistence of the ability to form associative connections between activation of the conditioned signal and the need to move to the other sector. The difficulty in these animals arose at the decision-taking stage on choosing the appropriate form of behavior. Changes in orientational-investigative behavior were not associated with inhibition of caspase-3 during the critical period of development, as the effects of Z-DEVD-FMK and Z-FA-FMK were similar.

  2. The Worker Component At The World Trade Center Cleanup: Addressing Cultural And Language Differences In Emergency Operations

    SciTech Connect

    McCabe, B.; Carpenter, C.; Blair. D.

    2003-02-24

    On September 11, 2001, the terrorist attacks on the World Trade Center (WTC) caused astronomical loss of life and property. Systems in place to manage disaster response were strained to the limit because key first responders were among the casualties when the twin towers collapsed. In addition, the evolution of events required immediate response in a rapidly changing and extremely hazardous situation. Rescue, recovery, and clean up became an overpowering and sustained effort that would utilize the resources of federal, state and local governments and agencies. One issue during the response to the WTC disaster site that did not receive much attention was that of the limited and non-English speaking worker. The Operating Engineers National HAZMAT Program (OENHP), with its history of a Hispanic Outreach Program, was acutely aware of this issue with the Hispanic worker. The Hispanic population comprises approximately 27% of the population of New York City (1). The extremely unfortunate and tragic events of that day provided an opportunity to not only provide assistance for the Hispanic workers, but also to apply lessons learned and conduct studies on worker training with language barriers in a real life environment. However, due to the circumstances surrounding this tragedy, the study of these issues was conducted primarily by observation. Through partnerships with other organizations such as the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA), the New York Health Department, the New York Department of Design and Construction (DDC), the New York Committee for Occupational Safety and Health (NYCOSH), and private companies such as 3M and MSA, OENHP was able to provide translated information on hazards, protective measures, fit testing of respirators, and site specific safety and health training. The OENHP translated materials on hazards and how to protect workers into Spanish to assist in getting the information to the limited and non- English speaking workers.

  3. Informatics in radiology: RADTF: a semantic search-enabled, natural language processor-generated radiology teaching file.

    PubMed

    Do, Bao H; Wu, Andrew; Biswal, Sandip; Kamaya, Aya; Rubin, Daniel L

    2010-11-01

    Storing and retrieving radiology cases is an important activity for education and clinical research, but this process can be time-consuming. In the process of structuring reports and images into organized teaching files, incidental pathologic conditions not pertinent to the primary teaching point can be omitted, as when a user saves images of an aortic dissection case but disregards the incidental osteoid osteoma. An alternate strategy for identifying teaching cases is text search of reports in radiology information systems (RIS), but retrieved reports are unstructured, teaching-related content is not highlighted, and patient identifying information is not removed. Furthermore, searching unstructured reports requires sophisticated retrieval methods to achieve useful results. An open-source, RadLex(®)-compatible teaching file solution called RADTF, which uses natural language processing (NLP) methods to process radiology reports, was developed to create a searchable teaching resource from the RIS and the picture archiving and communication system (PACS). The NLP system extracts and de-identifies teaching-relevant statements from full reports to generate a stand-alone database, thus converting existing RIS archives into an on-demand source of teaching material. Using RADTF, the authors generated a semantic search-enabled, Web-based radiology archive containing over 700,000 cases with millions of images. RADTF combines a compact representation of the teaching-relevant content in radiology reports and a versatile search engine with the scale of the entire RIS-PACS collection of case material.

  4. Using natural language processing to improve efficiency of manual chart abstraction in research: the case of breast cancer recurrence.

    PubMed

    Carrell, David S; Halgrim, Scott; Tran, Diem-Thy; Buist, Diana S M; Chubak, Jessica; Chapman, Wendy W; Savova, Guergana

    2014-03-15

    The increasing availability of electronic health records (EHRs) creates opportunities for automated extraction of information from clinical text. We hypothesized that natural language processing (NLP) could substantially reduce the burden of manual abstraction in studies examining outcomes, like cancer recurrence, that are documented in unstructured clinical text, such as progress notes, radiology reports, and pathology reports. We developed an NLP-based system using open-source software to process electronic clinical notes from 1995 to 2012 for women with early-stage incident breast cancers to identify whether and when recurrences were diagnosed. We developed and evaluated the system using clinical notes from 1,472 patients receiving EHR-documented care in an integrated health care system in the Pacific Northwest. A separate study provided the patient-level reference standard for recurrence status and date. The NLP-based system correctly identified 92% of recurrences and estimated diagnosis dates within 30 days for 88% of these. Specificity was 96%. The NLP-based system overlooked 5 of 65 recurrences, 4 because electronic documents were unavailable. The NLP-based system identified 5 other recurrences incorrectly classified as nonrecurrent in the reference standard. If used in similar cohorts, NLP could reduce by 90% the number of EHR charts abstracted to identify confirmed breast cancer recurrence cases at a rate comparable to traditional abstraction.

  5. Tracking irregular morphophonological dependencies in natural language: evidence from the acquisition of subject-verb agreement in French.

    PubMed

    Nazzi, Thierry; Barrière, Isabelle; Goyet, Louise; Kresh, Sarah; Legendre, Géraldine

    2011-07-01

    This study examines French-learning infants' sensitivity to grammatical non-adjacent dependencies involving subject-verb agreement (e.g., le/les garçons lit/lisent 'the boy(s) read(s)') where number is audible on both the determiner of the subject DP and the agreeing verb, and the dependency is spanning across two syntactic phrases. A further particularity of this subsystem of French subject-verb agreement is that number marking on the verb is phonologically highly irregular. Despite the challenge, the HPP results for 24- and 18-month-olds demonstrate knowledge of both number dependencies: between the singular determiner le and the non-adjacent singular verbal forms and between the plural determiner les and the non-adjacent plural verbal forms. A control experiment suggests that the infants are responding to known verb forms, not phonological regularities. Given the paucity of such forms in the adult input documented through a corpus study, these results are interpreted as evidence that 18-month-olds have the ability to extract complex patterns across a range of morphophonologically inconsistent and infrequent items in natural language.

  6. Using natural language processing to improve efficiency of manual chart abstraction in research: the case of breast cancer recurrence.

    PubMed

    Carrell, David S; Halgrim, Scott; Tran, Diem-Thy; Buist, Diana S M; Chubak, Jessica; Chapman, Wendy W; Savova, Guergana

    2014-03-15

    The increasing availability of electronic health records (EHRs) creates opportunities for automated extraction of information from clinical text. We hypothesized that natural language processing (NLP) could substantially reduce the burden of manual abstraction in studies examining outcomes, like cancer recurrence, that are documented in unstructured clinical text, such as progress notes, radiology reports, and pathology reports. We developed an NLP-based system using open-source software to process electronic clinical notes from 1995 to 2012 for women with early-stage incident breast cancers to identify whether and when recurrences were diagnosed. We developed and evaluated the system using clinical notes from 1,472 patients receiving EHR-documented care in an integrated health care system in the Pacific Northwest. A separate study provided the patient-level reference standard for recurrence status and date. The NLP-based system correctly identified 92% of recurrences and estimated diagnosis dates within 30 days for 88% of these. Specificity was 96%. The NLP-based system overlooked 5 of 65 recurrences, 4 because electronic documents were unavailable. The NLP-based system identified 5 other recurrences incorrectly classified as nonrecurrent in the reference standard. If used in similar cohorts, NLP could reduce by 90% the number of EHR charts abstracted to identify confirmed breast cancer recurrence cases at a rate comparable to traditional abstraction. PMID:24488511

  7. Combining natural language processing and network analysis to examine how advocacy organizations stimulate conversation on social media

    PubMed Central

    Bail, Christopher Andrew

    2016-01-01

    Social media sites are rapidly becoming one of the most important forums for public deliberation about advocacy issues. However, social scientists have not explained why some advocacy organizations produce social media messages that inspire far-ranging conversation among social media users, whereas the vast majority of them receive little or no attention. I argue that advocacy organizations are more likely to inspire comments from new social media audiences if they create “cultural bridges,” or produce messages that combine conversational themes within an advocacy field that are seldom discussed together. I use natural language processing, network analysis, and a social media application to analyze how cultural bridges shaped public discourse about autism spectrum disorders on Facebook over the course of 1.5 years, controlling for various characteristics of advocacy organizations, their social media audiences, and the broader social context in which they interact. I show that organizations that create substantial cultural bridges provoke 2.52 times more comments about their messages from new social media users than those that do not, controlling for these factors. This study thus offers a theory of cultural messaging and public deliberation and computational techniques for text analysis and application-based survey research. PMID:27694580

  8. Using Natural Language Processing to Improve Efficiency of Manual Chart Abstraction in Research: The Case of Breast Cancer Recurrence

    PubMed Central

    Carrell, David S.; Halgrim, Scott; Tran, Diem-Thy; Buist, Diana S. M.; Chubak, Jessica; Chapman, Wendy W.; Savova, Guergana

    2014-01-01

    The increasing availability of electronic health records (EHRs) creates opportunities for automated extraction of information from clinical text. We hypothesized that natural language processing (NLP) could substantially reduce the burden of manual abstraction in studies examining outcomes, like cancer recurrence, that are documented in unstructured clinical text, such as progress notes, radiology reports, and pathology reports. We developed an NLP-based system using open-source software to process electronic clinical notes from 1995 to 2012 for women with early-stage incident breast cancers to identify whether and when recurrences were diagnosed. We developed and evaluated the system using clinical notes from 1,472 patients receiving EHR-documented care in an integrated health care system in the Pacific Northwest. A separate study provided the patient-level reference standard for recurrence status and date. The NLP-based system correctly identified 92% of recurrences and estimated diagnosis dates within 30 days for 88% of these. Specificity was 96%. The NLP-based system overlooked 5 of 65 recurrences, 4 because electronic documents were unavailable. The NLP-based system identified 5 other recurrences incorrectly classified as nonrecurrent in the reference standard. If used in similar cohorts, NLP could reduce by 90% the number of EHR charts abstracted to identify confirmed breast cancer recurrence cases at a rate comparable to traditional abstraction. PMID:24488511

  9. Pythagoras's theorem on a two-dimensional lattice from a `natural' Dirac operator and Connes's distance formula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dai, Jian; Song, Xing-Chang

    2001-07-01

    One of the key ingredients of Connes's noncommutative geometry is a generalized Dirac operator which induces a metric (Connes's distance) on the pure state space. We generalize such a Dirac operator devised by Dimakis et al, whose Connes distance recovers the linear distance on an one-dimensional lattice, to the two-dimensional case. This Dirac operator has the local eigenvalue property and induces a Euclidean distance on this two-dimensional lattice, which is referred to as `natural'. This kind of Dirac operator can be easily generalized into any higher-dimensional lattices.

  10. Wintertime Air Quality Impacts from Oil and Natural Gas Drilling Operations in the Bakken Formation Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evanoski-Cole, Ashley; Sive, Barkley; Zhou, Yong; Prenni, Anthony; Schurman, Misha; Day, Derek; Sullivan, Amy; Li, Yi; Hand, Jenny; Gebhart, Kristi; Schichtel, Bret; Collett, Jeffrey

    2016-04-01

    Oil and natural gas extraction has dramatically increased in the last decade in the United States due to the increased use of unconventional drilling techniques which include horizontal drilling and hydraulic fracturing. The impact of these drilling activities on local and regional air quality in oil and gas basins across the country are still relatively unknown, especially in recently developed basins such as the Bakken shale formation. This study is the first to conduct a comprehensive characterization of the regional air quality in the Bakken region. The Bakken shale formation, part of the Williston basin, is located in North Dakota and Montana in the United States and Saskatchewan and Manitoba in Canada. Oil and gas drilling operations can impact air quality in a variety of ways, including the generation of atmospheric particulate matter (PM), hazardous air pollutants, ozone, and greenhouse gas emissions. During the winter especially, PM formation can be enhanced and meteorological conditions can favor increased concentrations of PM and other pollutants. In this study, ground-based measurements throughout the Bakken region in North Dakota and Montana were collected over two consecutive winters to gain regional trends of air quality impacts from the oil and gas drilling activities. Additionally, one field site had a comprehensive suite of instrumentation operating at high time resolution to gain detailed characterization of the atmospheric composition. Measurements included organic carbon and black carbon concentrations in PM, the characterization of inorganic PM, inorganic gases, volatile organic compounds (VOCs), precipitation and meteorology. These elevated PM episodes were further investigated using the local meteorological conditions and regional transport patterns. Episodes of elevated concentrations of nitrogen oxides and sulfur dioxide were also detected. The VOC concentrations were analyzed and specific VOCs that are known oil and gas tracers were used

  11. Combining Speech Recognition/Natural Language Processing with 3D Online Learning Environments to Create Distributed Authentic and Situated Spoken Language Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Greg; Squires, Todd; Hicks, Jeramie

    2008-01-01

    This article will describe research done at the National Institute of Multimedia in Education, Japan and the University of North Texas on the creation of a distributed Internet-based spoken language learning system that would provide more interactive and motivating learning than current multimedia and audiotape-based systems. The project combined…

  12. Second-language experience modulates first- and second-language word frequency effects: evidence from eye movement measures of natural paragraph reading.

    PubMed

    Whitford, Veronica; Titone, Debra

    2012-02-01

    We used eye movement measures of first-language (L1) and second-language (L2) paragraph reading to investigate whether the degree of current L2 exposure modulates the relative size of L1 and L2 frequency effects (FEs). The results showed that bilinguals displayed larger L2 than L1 FEs during both early- and late-stage eye movement measures, which are taken to reflect initial lexical access and postlexical access, respectively. Moreover, the magnitude of L2 FEs was inversely related to current L2 exposure, such that lower levels of L2 exposure led to larger L2 FEs. In contrast, during early-stage reading measures, bilinguals with higher levels of current L2 exposure showed larger L1 FEs than did bilinguals with lower levels of L2 exposure, suggesting that increased L2 experience modifies the earliest stages of L1 lexical access. Taken together, the findings are consistent with implicit learning accounts (e.g., Monsell, 1991), the weaker links hypothesis (Gollan, Montoya, Cera, Sandoval, Journal of Memory and Language, 58:787-814, 2008), and current bilingual visual word recognition models (e.g., the bilingual interactive activation model plus [BIA+]; Dijkstra & van Heuven, Bilingualism: Language and Cognition, 5:175-197, 2002). Thus, amount of current L2 exposure is a key determinant of FEs and, thus, lexical activation, in both the L1 and L2.

  13. Technical, economic, and environmental impact study of converting Uzbekistan transportation fleets to natural gas operation. Export trade information

    SciTech Connect

    1997-04-30

    This study, conducted by Radian International, was funded by the U.S. Trade and Development Agency. The report assesses the feasibility (technical, economic and environmental) of converting the Uzbek transportation fleets to natural gas operation. The study focuses on the conversion of high fuel use vehicles and locomotives to liquefied natural gas (LNG) and the conversion of moderate fuel use veicles to compressed natural gas (CNG). The report is divided into the following sections: Executive Summary; (1.0) Introduction; (2.0) Country Background; (3.0) Characterization of Uzbek Transportation Fuels; (4.0) Uzbek Vehicle and Locomotive Fleet Characterization; (5.0) Uzbek Natural Gas Vehicle Conversion Shops; (6.0) Uzbek Natural Gas Infrastructure; (7.0) Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) for Vehicular Fuel in Uzbekistan; (8.0) Economic Feasibility Study; (9.0) Environmental Impact Analysis; References; Appendices A - S.

  14. Longitudinal analysis of pain in patients with metastatic prostate cancer using natural language processing of medical record text

    PubMed Central

    Heintzelman, Norris H; Taylor, Robert J; Simonsen, Lone; Lustig, Roger; Anderko, Doug; Haythornthwaite, Jennifer A; Childs, Lois C; Bova, George Steven

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To test the feasibility of using text mining to depict meaningfully the experience of pain in patients with metastatic prostate cancer, to identify novel pain phenotypes, and to propose methods for longitudinal visualization of pain status. Materials and methods Text from 4409 clinical encounters for 33 men enrolled in a 15-year longitudinal clinical/molecular autopsy study of metastatic prostate cancer (Project to ELIminate lethal CANcer) was subjected to natural language processing (NLP) using Unified Medical Language System-based terms. A four-tiered pain scale was developed, and logistic regression analysis identified factors that correlated with experience of severe pain during each month. Results NLP identified 6387 pain and 13 827 drug mentions in the text. Graphical displays revealed the pain ‘landscape’ described in the textual records and confirmed dramatically increasing levels of pain in the last years of life in all but two patients, all of whom died from metastatic cancer. Severe pain was associated with receipt of opioids (OR=6.6, p<0.0001) and palliative radiation (OR=3.4, p=0.0002). Surprisingly, no severe or controlled pain was detected in two of 33 subjects’ clinical records. Additionally, the NLP algorithm proved generalizable in an evaluation using a separate data source (889 Informatics for Integrating Biology and the Bedside (i2b2) discharge summaries). Discussion Patterns in the pain experience, undetectable without the use of NLP to mine the longitudinal clinical record, were consistent with clinical expectations, suggesting that meaningful NLP-based pain status monitoring is feasible. Findings in this initial cohort suggest that ‘outlier’ pain phenotypes useful for probing the molecular basis of cancer pain may exist. Limitations The results are limited by a small cohort size and use of proprietary NLP software. Conclusions We have established the feasibility of tracking longitudinal patterns of pain by text mining

  15. Development of the Tensoral Computer Language

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferziger, Joel; Dresselhaus, Eliot

    1996-01-01

    The research scientist or engineer wishing to perform large scale simulations or to extract useful information from existing databases is required to have expertise in the details of the particular database, the numerical methods and the computer architecture to be used. This poses a significant practical barrier to the use of simulation data. The goal of this research was to develop a high-level computer language called Tensoral, designed to remove this barrier. The Tensoral language provides a framework in which efficient generic data manipulations can be easily coded and implemented. First of all, Tensoral is general. The fundamental objects in Tensoral represent tensor fields and the operators that act on them. The numerical implementation of these tensors and operators is completely and flexibly programmable. New mathematical constructs and operators can be easily added to the Tensoral system. Tensoral is compatible with existing languages. Tensoral tensor operations co-exist in a natural way with a host language, which may be any sufficiently powerful computer language such as Fortran, C, or Vectoral. Tensoral is very-high-level. Tensor operations in Tensoral typically act on entire databases (i.e., arrays) at one time and may, therefore, correspond to many lines of code in a conventional language. Tensoral is efficient. Tensoral is a compiled language. Database manipulations are simplified optimized and scheduled by the compiler eventually resulting in efficient machine code to implement them.

  16. The Acquisition of Written Language: Response and Revision. Writing Research: Multidisciplinary Inquiries into the Nature of Writing Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freedman, Sarah Warshauer, Ed.

    Viewing writing as both a form of language learning and an intellectual skill, this book presents essays on how writers acquire trusted inner voices and the roles schools and teachers can play in helping student writers in the learning process. The essays in the book focus on one of three topics: the language of instruction and how response and…

  17. Integrating Learner Corpora and Natural Language Processing: A Crucial Step towards Reconciling Technological Sophistication and Pedagogical Effectiveness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Granger, Sylviane; Kraif, Olivier; Ponton, Claude; Antoniadis, Georges; Zampa, Virginie

    2007-01-01

    Learner corpora, electronic collections of spoken or written data from foreign language learners, offer unparalleled access to many hitherto uncovered aspects of learner language, particularly in their error-tagged format. This article aims to demonstrate the role that the learner corpus can play in CALL, particularly when used in conjunction with…

  18. The Importance of Natural Change in Planning School-Based Intervention for Children with Developmental Language Impairment (DLI)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Botting, Nicola; Gaynor, Marguerite; Tucker, Katie; Orchard-Lisle, Ginnie

    2016-01-01

    Some reports suggest that there is an increase in the number of children identified as having developmental language impairment (Bercow, 2008). yet resource issues have meant that many speech and language therapy services have compromised provision in some way. Thus, efficient ways of identifying need and prioritizing intervention are required.…

  19. Urban Wild: A Manual for the Development, Implementation, and Operation of Nature Centers on School Campuses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ortiz, James L.

    The purpose of this guide is to stimulate the development of nature centers. The guide offers possible solutions for common problems which many schools face when considering an on-campus nature center, for example, lack of readily available open space, minimum knowledge of how to develop and maintain an on-campus nature center, and lack of…

  20. Integrated treatment process using a natural Wyoming clinoptilolite for remediating produced waters from coalbed natural gas operations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zhao, H.; Vance, G.F.; Urynowicz, M.A.; Gregory, R.W.

    2009-01-01

    Coalbed natural gas (CBNG) development in western U.S. states has resulted in an increase in an essential energy resource, but has also resulted in environmental impacts and additional regulatory needs. A concern associated with CBNG development relates to the production of the copious quantities of potentially saline-sodic groundwater required to recover the natural gas, hereafter referred to as CBNG water. Management of CBNG water is a major environmental challenge because of its quantity and quality. In this study, a locally available Na-rich natural zeolite (clinoptilolite) from Wyoming (WY) was examined for its potential to treat CBNG water to remove Na+ and lower the sodium adsorption ratio (SAR, mmol1/2 L- 1/2). The zeolite material was Ca-modified before being used in column experiments. Column breakthrough studies indicated that a metric tonne (1000??kg) of Ca-WY-zeolite could be used to treat 60,000??L of CBNG water in order to lower SAR of the CBNG water from 30 to an acceptable level of 10??mmol1/2 L- 1/2. An integrated treatment process using Na-WY-zeolite for alternately treating hard water and CBNG water was also examined for its potential to treat problematic waters in the region. Based on the results of this study, use of WY-zeolite appears to be a cost-effective water treatment technology for maximizing the beneficial use of poor-quality CBNG water. Ongoing studies are evaluating water treatment techniques involving infiltration ponds lined with zeolite. ?? 2008 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.